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State Labor Laws, 2004

State labor legislation
enacted in 2004
Laws concerning worker privacy, workplace violence
and security, prevailing wages, drug and alcohol testing,
employee discharge, child labor, hours worked,
wage payments, and plant closings were among major
pieces of legislation enacted or revised during the year

John J. Fitzpatrick, Jr.

John J. Fitzpatrick, Jr.,
is a State Standards
Advisor in the Division
of External Affairs,
Wage and Hour
Division, Employment
Standards
Administration, U.S.
Department of Labor.
E-mail:
Fitzpatrickjr.john@dol.gov

S

tates enacted a lesser volume of labor
legislation1 in 2004 than in recent years,
due, in part, to an increased focus on
budget issues. Forty-four States and the
District of Columbia met in regular session,
while the remaining States (Arkansas,
Montana, North Dakota, Nevada, Oregon, and
Texas) were not scheduled to meet in regular
session this year. However, some of the latter
did meet in special sessions dedicated to
various issues. California, Connecticut, Illinois,
Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Oklahoma, Rhode
Island, Tennessee, and Virginia enacted a
significant number of laws having to do with
labor issues.2
Volume aside, the legislation that was
enacted by the States addressed a significant
number of employment standards areas and
included many important measures. Worker
privacy was the “hot-button” issue of the year,
with more than 30 pieces of legislation enacted,
while issues such as workplace violence and
security, a variety of prevailing-wage issues,
drug and alcohol testing in the workplace, the
discharge of employees, child labor issues
regarding hours of work permitted, payment of
wages to employees, and plant closings were
all included in new or amended legislation
enacted in 2004. The legislation covers 23

separate labor-related areas of interest.
As of January 1, 2005, minimum-wage rates
were higher than the Federal standard in Alaska,
California, Connecticut, Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island,
Vermont, and Washington. Of the 43 States with
minimum-wage laws, only 2 (Kansas and Ohio)
have rates lower than the Federal rate of $5.15
per hour. 3
This section briefly summarizes, by category,
a number of the legislative activities that
resulted in laws enacted or amended by the
various State legislatures during the past year.
Following the summary are more comprehensive
descriptions of each State’s legislative activities
over the year.
Minimum wage. States with previously
scheduled increases in the minimum wage for
January 1, 2005, were Illinois, with a new rate of
$6.50 per hour; Oregon, $7.25 per hour; Vermont,
$7.00 per hour; and Washington State, $7.35 per
hour. Subsequently, the District of Columbia
($6.60 per hour) and New York State ($6.00 per
hour) passed legislation that also made the new
rates effective on January 1, 2005. Earlier in 2004,
Maine raised its minimum wage to $6.35 per
hour. Florida voters approved a ballot measure
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January 2005 3

State Labor Laws, 2004

creating a minimum wage applying to all employees in the
State covered by the Federal minimum wage. The State
minimum wage will start at $6.15 per hour, with an effective
date that is yet to be determined. Nevada voters also
approved a minimum-wage ballot measure, requiring
employers to pay employees $5.15 per hour worked if the
employer provides health benefits or $6.15 per hour worked if
the employer does not provide health benefits. Because the
ballot issue in Nevada was a constitutional amendment,
voters will have to approve the measure again in 2006 in
order for it to take effect. The Common Council of Madison,
Wisconsin, enacted a local ordinance raising the minimum
wage to $5.70 per hour effective January 1, 2005, with
additional raises scheduled for several years thereafter.
The stipulated salary for those individuals classified as
bona fide executive, administrative, or professional employees in Alaska is now required to be 2 times the State
minimum wage for the first 40 hours of employment each
week.
Connecticut amended the percentages of the minimum wage
that could be recognized as gratuities for tipped employees in
the hotel/restaurant and other industries, while Massachusetts
placed restrictions on employers’ handling and distribution of
tips or service charges provided directly to employees or via
credit card payment of the customer’s bill.
Georgia preempted all locally established wage rates or
employment benefits requiring employers to pay employees
or provide benefits not otherwise required under Federal or
State law.
Overtime wages. The State overtime law of Kentucky was
amended to exclude workers employed by third-party
employers or agencies other than the families or households
using those workers’ services when such workers provide
in-home companionship services for sick, elderly, or
convalescing persons. These workers are among persons
considered exempt from entitlement to overtime compensation.
Hospitals in West Virginia may not require a nurse, either
directly or through coercion, to accept any assignment of
overtime, except in emergent, unforeseen situations. In
addition, hospitals in the State may not take action against a
nurse for refusing to accept an overtime assignment at the
facility if the nurse declines to work the additional hours
because doing so may, in the nurse’s judgment, jeopardize
patient or employee safety. Connecticut hospitals also are
now prohibited from requiring nurses, nurse’s aides, or
physician’s assistants to work additional hours beyond a
predetermined schedule set up at least 48 hours prior to the
start of the shift in question, except in certain circumstances.
Prevailing wage.

Prevailing-wage laws pertaining to public

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January 2005

works construction projects currently exist in 32 States and
the Federal Government.4
California law now stipulates that employees of nonprofit
organizations who are employed with specially issued
licenses or certificates are entitled to holiday pay when they
perform work for contractors providing personal services on
any State holiday that the State facility in which the services
are being provided is closed. California law also was amended
so that, effective January 1, 2007, instead of a hearing officer
being appointed to review penalty assessments for violations of public work contracts, the State director of industrial
relations is required to appoint an administrative law judge
for the conduct of those hearings.
In Connecticut, persons or firms appearing on the Federal
Contract Debarment list shall be liable for a civil penalty for
each day or part of a day in which such persons or firms
perform any work on any contract with the State or any of its
agents. Delaware no longer requires contractors to submit
copies of weekly sworn payroll records to the Department of
Labor, but rather to maintain such records and produce a
certified copy to the department upon its request. In order to
be considered a responsible bidder, any Illinois contractor
must comply with various Federal and State statutes, have a
valid identification number, and participate in an applicable,
approved, and registered apprenticeship or training program.
Employers who violate the New Jersey prevailing-wage
law may now be referred by the commissioner of labor to the
State attorney general, or a designee, for investigation and
prosecution. Custom fabrication in New Jersey is now
included within the definition of “public work” and is subject
to the State Prevailing Wage Act, regardless of whether the
fabrication is or is not done on the site of the public work.
New Mexico now prohibits unregistered contractors from
bidding on public works projects subject to the Public Works
Minimum Wage Act. In Rhode Island, employees or former
employees, under a private right of action, may bring a civil
suit for appropriate injunctive relief or actual damages,
including reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs of the action,
within 3 years after the occurrence of the alleged wage or
benefit violation.
The Tennessee Prevailing Wage Commission has been
urged to continue its efforts to develop an Internet
application for the submission of survey forms by
contractors.
Agriculture. Florida raised the farm labor contractor
certificate-of-registration fee and also raised the amount of civil
penalties that may be charged for minor and major registration
violations. New York law now requires that any employer
engaged in agriculture notify its employees in writing of the
conditions of employment utilized by that employer.
The Washington State Department of Labor and In-

dustries is now responsible for collecting and analyzing data
from those agricultural employers required to implement a
monitoring system for employees who handle certain types
of pesticides.
Child labor. The daily and weekly hours of work permitted
for minors working during nonschool periods in agricultural
packing sheds located in a specific county of California were
amended.
Illinois minors under 16 years may not sell tobacco in any
of its forms at any retail establishment selling tobacco
products, unless the establishment is a family-owned business and the salesclerk is the son or daughter of the owner.
Also in Illinois, designated adults, as well as parents or
guardians, are now permitted to accompany their 12- or 13year-old minor who is officiating youth sports activities for a
not-for-profit youth club or a municipal parks and recreation
department.
Louisiana modified the hours of work permitted for
nongraduate minors under 16 years, those 16 years of age,
and those 17 years of age.
Michigan no longer prohibits minors from engaging in
any construction work or operations they perform as an
unpaid volunteer, so long as such activity is performed under
adult supervision for a charitable housing organization. The
Department of Labor in New York is now responsible for
issuing child labor employment permits affecting child
performers.
S tate departments of labor. The Connecticut labor
commissioner is now empowered to subpoena people and
records deemed necessary to investigate complaints related
to employee personnel, along with medical records kept by
private-sector employers, but records obtained by such a
subpoena are exempt from disclosure.
The Department of Labor and the Department of Commerce
in the State of Idaho have been combined into a new agency
entitled the Department of Commerce and Labor. In Kansas,
the Department of Human Resources has had its name
changed to the Department of Labor. The Maryland secretary
of labor, licensing, and regulation has been added to the
Advisory Council on Offender Employment Coordination.
Discharge of employees. In California, employers are
required to submit written reports within 30 days to the local
Emergency Medical Service agency director when an
emergency medical technician-paramedic is terminated or
suspended for disciplinary cause or reason or when the
emergency medical technician-paramedic resigns following
notice of an impending investigation.
Illinois now requires police officers to be decertified or
have their waiver (of completion of training requirements

pending certification) revoked if, while under oath, the officer
knowingly and willingly made false statements as to a material
fact pertaining to an element of the offense of murder. New
Hampshire employers may prorate, on a daily basis, the
salaries of employees who, hired after the start of the regular
pay period, terminate their employment of their own accord
before the end of a pay period or are terminated for cause by
the employer.
Members of the Oklahoma State Police Pension and
Retirement System who terminate their employment for the
purpose of serving as a police officer with the Department of
Defense in a war zone may purchase service credit, not to
exceed 1 year, for time served with the military or the
Department of Defense in a war zone. Tribal police officers
commissioned by a State of Oklahoma law enforcement
agency pursuant to a cross-deputization agreement with the
State or a political subdivision thereof must comply with the
specified training requirements as certified by the Council on
Law Enforcement and Training.
Tennessee amended its code regarding the discharge of
higher education employees in order to provide a consistent
and equitable method of reducing the workforce when
necessary. Employers in the State of Washington may not
discharge or discipline reserve officers because of leave taken
related to an alarm, a fire, or an emergency call.
Finally, the Department of Workforce Development in
Wisconsin is now required to promulgate rules specifying a
grievance procedure for resolving complaints of alleged
violations of the Wisconsin Works (W -2) Program, which
prohibits employers from discharging a regular employee in
order to create a W -2 position.
Drug and alcohol testing. Nurse staffing agencies in the
District of Columbia are now required to be licensed by the
Department of Health before providing or referring support
to a health care facility. Also, any such agency must
document the fact that those individuals referred or provided
by the agency have satisfactorily completed all drug screening and background checks required by law or requested by
the client.
In order to be eligible for the award of a State contract for
the construction or improvement of a publicly owned
property, contractors and subcontractors in Idaho must
provide a drug-free workplace program that complies with
the provisions of the law and must maintain the program
throughout the duration of the contract. In Illinois, charter
bus services used to regularly transport students must demonstrate the physical fitness of their drivers by having them
submit the results of a medical examination, including tests
for drug use. Indiana now requires childcare providers to
maintain and make available, at the facility and to their
employees or volunteer caregivers, copies of drug-testing
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State Labor Laws, 2004

results conducted for the provider. Iowa amended the law
regarding private-sector drug testing to include the definition
of a “controlled positive test result,” excluding alcohol
testing, as the result of a blood, urine, or oral fluid test
wherein the level of controlled substances in the specimen
meets or exceeds nationally accepted standards for determining detectable levels of controlled substances.
Louisiana amended its law to make clear that samples other
than urine, including blood, saliva, and hair, may be used for
workplace drug testing, as long as the testing is done in
specific certified laboratories. Maine employers with more
than 50 employees may request, require, or suggest that
employees submit to a substance abuse test on a random or
arbitrary basis if the employees are not covered by a collective
bargaining agreement and the employer has developed a
written policy prior to establishing any substance abuse
testing program.
In Mississippi, an employee may be required by his or her
employer to submit to a drug test, as long as, prior to the
implementation of a drug-testing program, the employer has
provided the employee with at least 30 days’ notice in the
form of a written policy statement containing information
about grounds on which the employer could require the
employee to submit to the drug test. In Tennessee, neither a
newly hired employee nor a currently working employee may
serve as a driver for a childcare center until the employee has
undergone a drug test and received a negative report, which
is then provided to the center.
Equal employment opportunity. Arkansas adopted a
resolution condemning all public and private wage discrimination practices while reaffirming the State’s commitment to
equal pay for equal work. California amended the various
State employment discrimination provisions to conform to
those outlined in the Fair Employment and Housing Act,
which also includes prohibitions against discrimination
based upon race, color, sex, religion, marital status, national
origin, ancestry, physical or mental disability, medical condition, age, or sexual orientation.
Delaware eliminated the Equal Employment Review Board
and replaced it with a State Right to Sue in Superior Court
after administrative remedies for combating discrimination
by employers, employment agencies, or labor organizations
have been exhausted. Louisiana created the State Commission on Employment of Mental Health Consumers to
develop a plan to address barriers that prevent persons with
mental illness from seeking, obtaining, and maintaining
employment. In addition, Louisiana created the Equal Pay
Commission for the purpose of studying and reporting on
the factors affecting wage disparities, in both the public and
private sectors, between men and women, and between minorities and nonminorities.
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January 2005

Maine instituted an Employee Suggestion System for State
employees and now protects employees from discrimination by
supervisors or other persons in authority because the employee,
acting in good faith, has suggested savings or efficiencies.
Massachusetts made it unlawful for employers to discriminate
against any person in employment, reemployment, retention,
promotion, or benefits on the grounds that that person has an
obligation to join a uniformed military service of the United
States, including the National Guard.
The duties of the New Hampshire Legislative Ethics
Committee have been expanded to include the investigation
of allegations of improper conduct against members and of
retaliation against employees who make good-faith allegations of sexual harassment. Tennessee amended the
State’s equal-pay law by instituting compensatory and
punitive damages against employers who knowingly violate
the law.
Employee leasing. Rhode Island law was amended to
require the registration of professional employer organizations, staff leasing companies, registered staff leasing
companies, employee leasing companies, and other organizations with the Division of Taxation. The law also requires the
division to regulate these entities and stipulates a fee that
should be charged for their initial and subsequent annual
registration.
Family issues. State employees in Connecticut are now
entitled to a maximum of 24 weeks of medical leave in any 2year period to serve as an organ or bone marrow donor.
Private employees in the State are entitled to a maximum of 16
weeks of medical leave in any 24-month period to serve as an
organ or bone marrow donor.
The Hawaii House of Representatives adopted a resolution to require the Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations to enforce the State Family Medical Leave Law in
accordance with the intent of the legislature and to provide a
status report to the legislature.
Garment industry. The commissioner of labor is now
required to publish quarterly reports that list the names of all
registered apparel industry manufacturers and contractors in
New York and all such entities that were found to be in
violation of registering.
Genetic testing. Neither the State of Washington, nor its
political subdivisions, nor persons, firms, or corporations
may require any employee or prospective employee to submit
genetic information or to submit to screening for genetic
information as a condition of employment or continued
employment.

Hours worked. Several States dealt with laws regarding the
restoration and maintenance of various utilities during
periods of emergency. Indiana now exempts public utility
employees and employees of contractors or subcontractors
of the utility from the maximum hours of service permitted
under Federal regulations when they are engaged in intrastate
maintenance during a service interruption emergency relief
effort. New Jersey also amended its hours-of-service provisions for drivers of commercial motor vehicles, while New
York now exempts telephone utility truckdrivers involved in
the emergency restoration of telephone service from the law’s
limitations on hours of labor or service. Finally, Oklahoma
exempted its utility service vehicles engaged in intrastate
commerce on an emergency basis from the hours-of-service
regulations established by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
When specific criteria are met, Minnesota now exempts
drivers transporting agricultural commodities from Federal
regulations on truckdrivers’ hours of service.
Inmate labor. The amended California Penal Code now
permits persons assigned work in furlough programs to work
in situations that allow them to retain or view a driver’s license
or credit card for no longer than the time needed to complete
the transaction. Georgia increased the maximum allowed
amount of earned time that can be awarded to an inmate who
works on an authorized work detail. Louisiana permits
inmates to perform manual labor, of their own free will, on
buildings, improvements, or properties of certain tax-exempt
organizations.
Offsite work. Virginia now requires the head of each agency
to implement a comprehensive statewide alternative work
schedule policy under which eligible employees of State
agencies may participate in alternative work schedules. The
agencies are required to have a goal of achieving not less
than 25 percent of their eligible workforce participating in
alternative work schedules by July 1, 2009.
Plant closing. A joint resolution was issued by the
California legislature requesting that the President and
Congress add a number of criteria to the list of essential
criteria of military values that are used as the primary set of
standards for nominating bases for closure or realignment.
Also in California, State, Federal, and local government
permanent career firefighters who have become unemployed
within the last 48 months due to the closure of military bases
may now be placed on a hiring list that authorizes them to be
preferentially hired under the current law. The Maryland
secretary of the Department of Business and Economic
Development is responsible for designating a single point of
contact within the department for issues relating to the

realignment and closure of military installations in the State.
The owners of municipal airports in Minnesota are required
to notify the commissioner of transportation of their intent to
close an airport before or immediately upon the cessation of
airport operations.
Illinois employers with 75 or more employees must provide
written notice of a mass layoff, relocation, or downsizing of
workers, 60 days before the order takes effect, to affected
employees, representatives of such employees, and the
Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity. Failure
to do so could result in the assessment of monetary damages.
Employers, persons, corporations, or institutions in Tennessee that file for bankruptcy or cease to operate as a
business shall provide notice of the bankruptcy to the clerk
or the department responsible for tracking child support
payments for employees of those filing for bankruptcy or
ceasing to operate at least 10 days prior to the entity’s
cessation of operations as a business. Failure to comply may
result in civil penalties being assessed for each employee
affected.
Private employment agencies. In California, advanced-fee
talent services are required to provide written disclosures to
artists for specified services, to file a bond with the labor
commissioner, and to maintain specified records. Maryland
nursing referral service agencies engaged in the business of
screening and referring home health aide services or other
home health care services are permitted to receive a fee or
other compensation for providing the service. In North
Carolina, persons providing professional employer services
to individuals other than temporary employees must be
licensed whenever employment responsibilities are shared
or allocated between a client company and a professional
employer organization.
Rhode Island now considers as employers, and not
independent contractors, all persons, firms, partnerships,
corporations, limited-liability companies, or other legal
entities that supply registered or licensed practical nurses to
facilities requiring the services of such nurses. This employer
entity is subject to all Federal and State laws that govern
employee-employer relations. In addition, Rhode Island now
prohibits employers and temporary staffing agencies from
requiring their employees, as a condition of employment, (1)
to provide transportation to other employees, (2) to charge
an employee for transport services provided to that
employee, and (3) to charge or collect fees from their
employees for transportation services provided by other
employees.
Time off from work The District of Columbia now requires
each of its agencies, as well as independent agencies, to
establish a voluntary leave transfer program under which
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State Labor Laws, 2004

annual or universal leave accrued or accumulated by an
employee may be transferred on an hour-for-hour basis
within the agency to the annual or universal leave account of
any other eligible employee.
Illinois volunteer firefighters who do not receive monetary
compensation for their services to a fire department or
protection district and who do not work for any other fire
department for monetary compensation may not be terminated by an employer because they are absent from or late to
their employment as a result of having responded to an
emergency prior to the time they were to report to work. Maine
State National Guard members who are on duty for more than
5 consecutive days may elect to be members of the State
retirement system.
The Nebraska law requiring owners or operators of
assembling plants, workshops, or mechanical establishments
employing one or more persons to allow their employees not
less than 30 consecutive minutes for lunch does not apply to
employment covered by a valid collective bargaining agreement or any other written agreement between an employer
and an employee. Employees in Oklahoma who are summoned to serve as jurors and who notify their employers of
the summons in a timely manner, after having received the
summons and prior to their appearance for jury duty, may not
be terminated, removed, or otherwise subjected to any adverse employment action.
If a Virginia employer fails to comply with State requirements entitling employees to a leave of absence without
penalty to participate in State-mandated military duty or
service, the State attorney general may represent the employee regarding any employment benefits denied while the
employee is fulfilling his or her military duty. In addition,
persons in Virginia who serve on a jury shall not be required
by any employer to work on the day of service.
Unfair labor practices. Maine enacted a law establishing a
forestry rate proceedings panel consisting of forestry
harvesters and haulers, forest landowners, and persons
working in the public interest of the State in order to ensure a
reasonable rate of compensation for the harvesting and
hauling services of loggers and wood haulers by setting such
a rate that, upon petition, is to be paid by a forest landowner
for harvesting or hauling forest products in a specified area
of the State.
Rhode Island enacted legislation making it an unfair labor
practice for any employer in the State with 50 or more
employees to deny leave to an eligible employee who is a
victim of a crime or to discharge, threaten to discharge,
intimidate, or coerce the employee because the employee
takes leave to attend a criminal proceeding.
Wages paid. The Alaska Wage and Hour Law was amended
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January 2005

to provide an exemption for persons who permit students
from the University of Alaska to gain practical work
experience as employees of those persons while participating
in a practicum. The amendment exempts any persons
providing such experience from vicarious liability as an
employer and exempts the student involved in the practicum
from the State’s Wage and Hour Act.
As of January 1, 2008, California will require employers to
furnish each employee with an accurate itemized earnings
statement. Employers in Delaware are now permitted to
furnish pay statements electronically to employees, as long
as the statements provide the same information currently
required by State law and as long as they are in a form capable
of being retained by the employee.
Louisiana employers who fail to pay their employees in a
timely manner may be fined for a first violation, while a second
such violation may result in the assessment of a fine and
imprisonment. Rhode Island amended its law concerning
back wage payment requirements to state that whenever an
employee separates or is separated from an employer’s
payroll, the unpaid wages or compensation of the employee
shall be due on the next regular payday at the usual place of
payment.
Virginia now permits employers to pay wages by crediting
prepaid debit cards or card accounts from which the employee is able to withdraw or transfer funds, as long as the
employer has made full disclosure of any fees and as long as
the employee has consented to such method of payment.
Worker privacy. California now requires that, when a
subpoena is sent to a labor union for records related to a
current or former member’s employment, a notice be sent to
the union member not less than 10 days prior to the date
specified in the subpoena for the production of records, plus
additional time if the service is by mail. School districts in
Colorado are now required to submit, to the State Department
of Education, certain identifying data for each unlicensed
person they employ and to notify the department when the
unlicensed employee is no longer employed by them.
The Delaware Code was amended to limit the dissemination of police, probation, and parole officer identifying
information to criminal justice agencies for law enforcement
purposes. The amendment also makes clear that such
information is not available to the general public under the
Freedom of Information Act. Florida’s Public Records Law
was amended to create an exemption for identifying and
locating information on current and former Federal officials,
their spouses, and children. Such information will no longer
be publicly available. In addition, Florida now excludes from
disclosure under the Open Government Sunset Review Act
the personnel records of those employed in licensed facilities
that provide direct patient care or security services for a wide

spectrum of individuals. In Idaho, when a health care provider
has been terminated, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for
adulteration or misappropriation of controlled substances,
the employer must notify the provider’s State professional
licensing board within 30 days.
The Kentucky Revised Statutes were amended to provide
that employers who furnish information about the job
performance, professional conduct, or evaluation of a former
or current employee to a prospective employer of that employee, at the request of the prospective employer, shall be
immune from civil liability arising out of the disclosure, unless
certain conditions obtain. The Maryland Public Ethics Law
was amended so that financial disclosure statements may
not include a listing of the employment or business entities
of which a minor is the sole or a partial owner. In Minnesota,
information about employees of secure treatment facilities,
employees of correction facilities, or those involved in
community supervision of offenders shall not be disclosed
to patients, inmates, or others if facility or program administrators reasonably believe that the information will be used
to harass, intimidate, or assault the employees.
Ohio now permits the Division of Liquor Control to provide
information on individual Social Security numbers to various
State and local law enforcement offices for specific reasons
listed in the law. Oklahoma imposed new restrictions on the
release of Social Security information. Utah now allows
background checks of all applicants, not just peace officers,
for employment with a law enforcement agency.
The Virginia tax commissioner is now permitted to provide to
the commissioner of labor and industry, upon entering into a
written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to
facilitate the collection of unpaid wages. West Virginia amended
the State code regarding the privacy of records management
and preservation by allowing the release of certain personal
information to nongovernmental entities only for purposes
authorized by Federal law or regulation.

Alaska
Minimum wage. The State regulations
were amended so that, where the definition
of an individual employed in a bona fide
executive, administrative, or professional
capacity for purposes of State law requires
that the individual receive a minimum
salary, the required minimum salary must
be 2 times the State minimum wage for the
first 40 hours of employment each week.
Wages paid. The State Wage and Hour
Law was amended to provide an exemption
for a person who permits a student of the
University of Alaska to gain practical work

Workplace violence and security. In the continually
expanding area of legislation addressing issues of workplace
violence and security, the California State Vehicle Code was
amended to require the Department of Motor Vehicles to
complete a background check of an applicant’s driving record
prior to the applicant’s submitting an application for an
original commercial driver’s license, or a renewal thereof, with
hazardous-materials endorsement to the U.S. Transportation
Security Administration. The background check is for the
purpose of carrying out a security threat assessment. Idaho
and Maryland also now utilize security check requirements
for the drivers of motor vehicles transporting hazardous
materials under the auspices of the Transportation Security
Administration.
The Department of Motor Vehicles in California is permitted
to require that fingerprint images and associated information
from an employee or a prospective employee include access to
confidential or sensitive information. The department also is
granted decisionmaking authority regarding the issuance or
denial of certain types of documents.
Kansas amended the State Public Information Act so that
open meetings may now recess in order to discuss security
measures that protect systems and facilities used in the
transmission of energy; water or communication services;
transportation systems; information systems of public bodies
or agencies; certain other systems; and private property or
persons. Employers in North Carolina are now permitted to
file a petition for a no-contact order, without paying any filing
fee, on behalf of employees who are victims of attempted
injury, nonsexual contact, stalking, or threats. Tennessee no
longer requires that persons being investigated pay the cost
of background checks when applying for positions of trust
as a State employee.
The discussion that follows, separated by State, presents
detailed descriptions of the bills enacted or amended by State
legislative bodies during the past year.

experience with the person while participating in a practicum. The person will be
exempt from vicarious liability as an
employer, and the student involved in the
practicum will be exempt from the State’s
Wage and Hour Act. The exemptions are
contingent on the supposition that the
practicum is part of the student’s curriculum and that the student receives no
compensation. Occupations that are
exempt from this ruling are agriculture; the
catching of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic
forms of animal or vegetable life; domestic
service occupations, including babysitters;
Federal and State government employees,
including prisoners neither on furlough,

detained, nor confined in prison facilities;
nonprofit occupations of a religious,
charitable, cemetery, civic, or educational
organization; taxicab drivers; and registered
guides.
Arizona
Worker privacy. The statutes relating to
homeowner associations were amended to
provide exceptions to the State requirement
that association meetings be open and
records be public when the meetings and
records deal with the activities undertaken
by those associations. When meetings are

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 9

State Labor Laws, 2004

being held to discuss the personal, health,
or financial information about a member of
the association, an employee of the
association, or an employee of a contractor
of the association, the open-meeting
requirement does not apply. In addition,
the requirement does not apply when the
meeting concerns matters relating to the job
performance of, the compensation of, the
health records of, or specific complaints
against an employee of the association or
an employee of a contractor of the association who works under the direction of
the association. An exemption from
disclosure also applies for financial and
other records that relate to the aforementioned topics and categories of individuals.
Arkansas
Equal employment opportunity. A resolution was adopted by the House of Representatives that condemned all public and
private wage discrimination practices and
reaffirmed the State’s commitment to equal
pay for equal work. The resolution stated
that all State agencies, boards, commissions,
and institutions of higher learning should
continue to follow the State Uniform
Classification and Compensation Act.
California
Prevailing wages. The State Government
Code relating to public contracts was
amended to preserve the eligibility to bid
on State contracts for contractors employing persons with developmental
disabilities. Employees of nonprofit
organizations who are employed in
accordance with (1) a specially issued
license under the State Labor Code, (2) a
specially issued certificate under Section
214, Title 29, of the United States Code, or
(3) a community rehabilitation plan as
described in the State Welfare and Institutions Code are entitled to holiday pay
if they perform work for contractors
providing personal services on any State
holiday that the State facility in which the
services being provided is closed. Among
these employees are janitors, housekeepers, custodians, food service or laundry
workers, window cleaners, and security
guards.
The law authorizing the imposition of
civil wage and penalty assessments against
contractors and subcontractors that fail to
pay their workers the prevailing rate of per
diem wages on a public works project was
amended. The new language now requires
10 Monthly Labor Review

the director of industrial relations, for an
extended period of time through January 1,
2007, to appoint a hearing officer to review
the penalty assessment. However, effective
January 1, 2007, the director is required to
appoint an administrative law judge for
these hearings. Beginning 60 days after
being served with a civil wage and penalty
assessment and continuing thereafter, the
contractor shall be liable for liquidated
damages in an amount equal to the wages,
or portion thereof, that remain unpaid. If
the assessment or notice subsequently is
overturned or modified after administrative
or judicial review, liquidated damages shall
be payable only on the wages found to be
due and unpaid. Also effective on January
1, 2007, the labor commissioner shall,
within 30 days after a contractor or subcontractor is served with a civil wage and
penalty assessment, afford the contractor
or subcontractor the opportunity to meet
with the labor commissioner or a designee
thereof to attempt to settle any dispute
regarding the assessment without the need
for a formal proceeding.
Wages paid. Effective January 1, 2008,
employers are required to furnish each
employee with an accurate, comprehensive
itemized earnings statement. Employees
shall be afforded the right to inspect or
copy the records pertaining to their employment upon reasonable request to the
employer. If a written or an oral request for
information relative to a current or former
employee is received, the employer must
reply within 21 calendar days from the date
of the request. Employee records shall be
kept on file by the employer for at least 3
years at the place of employment or at a
central location within the State. The
failure by an employer to permit a current
or former employee to inspect or copy
records within the allotted time entitles that
employee or the labor commissioner to
recover a $750 penalty from the employer.
An employee may also bring an action for
injunctive relief to ensure compliance and
is entitled to an award of costs and reasonable attorney’s fees.
Hours worked. The Business and
Professional Code relating to cytotechnologists was amended so that these
specialists are not required to examine more
than 80 gynecologic slides in a 24-hour
period when performing a manual review
of slides. Laboratories reviewing slides
while using automated or semiautomated
screening devices approved by the Food
and Drug Administration are to follow the

January 2005

workload requirements established by the
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments. It is also now required that slides
reviewed with the use of automated or
semiautomated screening devices approved
by the Food and Drug Administration and
requiring full manual review be counted
against the applicable 80-slide, 24-hour
limit. Finally, it is required that, when such
specialists are represented by a labor
organization, the maximum workload
limitations be negotiated between the
employer and the labor organization.
Child labor. The provision in the child
labor law authorizing the commissioner to
permit the employment of minors 16 and
17 years of age to work up to 10 hours per
day and more than 48, but not more than
60, hours in a week during peak season has
been extended until 2008. The exemption is
applicable only during nonschool periods
in agricultural packing sheds located in Lake
County.
Discharge. Under the revised Health and
Safety Code, employers are now required
to report in writing to the medical director
and authority of the local emergency medical services agency and provide all supporting documentation within 30 days
when (1) an emergency medical technicianparamedic is terminated or suspended for
disciplinary cause or reason, (2) an emergency medical technician-paramedic resigns
following notice of an impending investigation based upon evidence indicating a
disciplinary cause or reason, or (3) an
emergency medical technician-paramedic is
removed from paramedic duties for
disciplinary cause or reason following the
completion of an internal investigation. In
addition, fines of up to $2,500 per violation
may be assessed any emergency medical
technician-paramedic found to have
committed certain actions that did not result
in actual harm to a patient. However, fines
may not be imposed if the technicianparamedic has previously been disciplined
by the authority for any other act committed within the immediately preceding 5year period.
Equal employment opportunity. Legislation
was enacted that changed employment
discrimination provisions in various State
codes to conform with those codes prohibiting discrimination as outlined in the
Fair Employment and Housing Act. Whereas the various codes had prohibited discrimination in employment on different bases,
such as race, color, sex, religion, and marital

status, the Act prohibits discrimination on
the basis of race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical disability,
mental disability, medical condition, marital
status, sex, age, or sexual orientation. The
Federal nondiscrimination policy now
applies to the protected classes enumerated
in the Act in relation to service in the State
Military Reserve in positions that do not
require Federal recognition.
Worker privacy. When a subpoena for
documents is sent to a labor union for
records related to a current or former
member’s employment, a notice must be
sent to the union member not less than 10
days prior to the date specified in the
subpoena for the production of the records,
plus additional time if the employee has
been subpoenaed by mail. This requirement
is the same as that pertaining to when a
subpoena for documents is sent to an
employer for records related to a current or
former employee’s employment. In that
case, too, a notice must be sent to the
employee. Such notice provides the worker
the opportunity to oppose and prevent the
disclosure of personal information.
The State Business and Profession Code
relating to horseracing was amended and
now provides that every employer of
backstretch workers shall, upon request,
submit, in writing or electronically, to the
administrator of the welfare program for
backstretch workers, any employment
records necessary for the prompt payment
of benefits and proper administration of the
program.
The State bar, which provides for the
licensing and regulation of attorneys and is
a public corporation, shall conspicuously
publicize to its members in the annual dues
statement and other appropriate communications, including its Web site and electronic
communications, that its members have the
right to limit the sale or disclosure of information about them that is not reasonably
related to regulatory purposes. In those
communications, the State bar shall note
the location of the bar’s privacy policy and
shall outline the simple procedure by which
a member may exercise his or her right to
prohibit or restrict the sale or disclosure of
the aforementioned information. On or
before May 1, 2005, the bar shall report to
the applicable committees on judiciary regarding the procedures that it has in place
to ensure that members can appropriately
limit the use of the said information.
Inmate labor. The amended State Penal
Code now permits persons assigned to

furlough programs to work in situations that
allow them to retain or look at a driver’s
license or credit card for no longer than the
time needed to complete an immediate
transaction, but not in any position that
may require the deposit of a credit card or
driver’s license as insurance or surety. Any
person confined who has access to any
personal information shall disclose the fact
that he or she is confined before taking any
personal information from anyone.
Employment agency. Persons who are
seeking to become actors or actresses or
who are performing as such and rendering
services on the legitimate stage or in the
production of motion pictures, radio or
musical artists, directors, writers, composers, and extras may engage advancedfee talent agencies. Such agencies, which
charge or receive an advance fee from an
artist for specified services, are required to
provide a written disclosure to the artist,
file a bond with the labor commissioner,
and maintain certain specified records. They
may not charge an artist for photographs or
lessons. Among the services provided by
these agencies is procuring, offering, promising, or attempting to procure auditions,
employment, or engagements for the artist.
The payee has no direct or indirect financial
interest in the third party and does not accept any referral fee or other consideration
for referring the artist. The payee also may
receive advanced fees for managing or directing the development or advancement of
the artist’s career and for providing career
counseling, career consulting vocational
guidance, aptitude testing, evaluation, or
planning in preparing the individual for
employment as an artist.
Right to work. The amended law enacted
by the State now requires the State’s Fiscal
Crisis Management Assistance Team to
review (1) district teacher hiring practices,
(2) teacher retention rates, (3) the percentage of provision of highly qualified teachers,
and (4) the extent of teacher misassignment.
The team also is to provide recommendations on how to improve in each of these
areas. In addition, the law requires the Commission on Teacher Credentialing to report,
by April 15 of each year, to the legislature
and the Governor, the number of classroom
teachers who received credentials, internships, and emergency permits in the
previous fiscal year. The county superintendent of schools must annually monitor
and review school-district-certified employee assignment practices. This law also
rescinds the basic skills proficiency test

requirement for those out-of-Stateprepared teachers who have had comparable, certifiable training.
Plant closing. A joint resolution was
issued by the State legislature requesting
that the President and the Congress add the
two criteria of “intellectual capital” and
“total mission support” to the list of
essential criteria of military values that the
federally enacted Base Closure and
Realignment Commission will use as its
primary set of standards for nominating
bases for closure or realignment.
Federal, State, and local government
permanent civilian career firefighters who
lost their employment within the past 48
months due to the closure of military bases
may now be placed on a hiring list that
authorizes preferential hiring provisions
under current law. Also, those laid-off
workers have had their names added to the
State Firefighter Joint Apprenticeship
Program’s eligibility list for a period of 48
months.
Workplace violence and security. The
State Vehicle Code was amended to require
the Department of Motor Vehicles to
complete a background check of each
applicant’s driving record prior to the
applicant’s submitting an application for
an original commercial driver’s license with
hazardous-materials endorsement, or a
renewal thereof, to the U.S. Transportation
Security Administration for a security
threat assessment. In addition, the department is required to issue or restore a
hazardous-materials endorsement to an
applicant who has had an endorsement
denied, suspended, revoked, or cancelled
upon receiving confirmation from the
Transportation Security Administration
that the applicant does not pose a security
threat.
The State Department of Motor
Vehicles may now require fingerprint
images and associated information from an
employee or a prospective employee
whose duties include or would include any
of the following: (1) access to confidential
information in the department’s database,
(2) access to confidential or sensitive
information provided by a member of the
public, including, but not limited to, a credit
card number or a Social Security account
number, (3) access to cash, checks, or other
accountable items, (4) responsibility for the
development or maintenance of a critical
automated system, and (5) making decisions
regarding the issuance or denial of a license,
endorsement, certificate, or indicia.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 11

State Labor Laws, 2004

Other laws. The Labor Code Private
Attorneys General Act of 2004 was amended by enacting specified procedural and
administrative requirements that must be
met prior to bringing a private action to
recover civil penalties for violations of the
State Labor Code. Now, aggrieved employees must provide written notice of
violations to the Labor and Workforce
Development Agency and to their employer. Such violations include, but are not
limited to, violations of wage and hour
overtime laws; child labor laws; agricultural,
entertainment, and garment industry labor
laws; and public works laws. If the agency
fails to act within certain specified timeframes, and if the employer has not abated
each violation alleged, the aggrieved employee may pursue a civil action.

Colorado
Child labor. The State child labor law was
amended to so that individuals under 18
years are now permitted to serve as directors of nonprofit corporations.
Worker privacy. Each school district is
now required to submit the name, date of
birth, and Social Security number of each
nonlicensed person employed by the
district to the Department of Education,
which will create and maintain a database
of the information. The school district shall
notify the department when a nonlicensed
employee is no longer employed by the
school district, and the department shall
purge the employee’s information from the
database at least annually. Beginning in
2005, on or before August 30 of each year,
the department shall submit, to the State
Bureau of Investigation, a list of all persons
employed by each school district in the
State for the preceding year.
All information maintained by the State
Deferred Compensation Committee that is
contained in the State deferred compensation plan records of participants,
former participants, inactive participants,
recipients of benefits, and their dependents
that specifically identify any financial
information of such persons shall be kept
confidential by the committee. Confidentiality does not apply when the monies in
such a deferred compensation plan are
subject to due legal process.

Connecticut
Minimum wage. The hotel and restaurant
12 Monthly Labor Review

industry in the State is now required to
recognize, as part of the minimum fair wage,
gratuities in an amount that is (1) equal to
29.33 percent of the minimum fair wage
per hour for persons, other than bartenders,
who are employed in the hotel and restaurant industry, including a hotel restaurant,
who customarily and regularly receive gratuities, (2) equal to 8.2 percent of the minimum fair wage per hour for persons
employed as bartenders who customarily
and regularly receive gratuities, and (3) not
to exceed 35 cents per hour in any other
industry.
Overtime health care. Hospitals are now
prohibited from requiring nurses, nurse’s
aides, or physician’s assistants to work
additional hours beyond a predetermined
work schedule that is set up at least 48
hours prior to the start of the work shift,
except under certain conditions. The prohibition does not apply to (1) a nurse participating in surgery, until the surgery is
completed, (2) a nurse working in a critical
care unit, until another employee beginning
a scheduled work shift relieves the nurse,
(3) a public health emergency, (4) an institutional emergency such as adverse weather,
catastrophe, or widespread illness, or (5) a
nurse covered by a collective bargaining
agreement containing provisions addressing
the issue of mandatory overtime. An individual can volunteer to work additional
hours, but refusal to do so cannot be
grounds for dismissal, discrimination,
discharge, or any other penalty or adverse
employment decision.
Prevailing wage. No general contractor
entering into a contract with the State or
any of its agents will award construction,
remodeling, refinishing, refurbishing,
alterations, or repair contracts for any State
highway project to the persons or firms
appearing on the Federal Contract Debarment list for a period of up to 3 years from
the time their names initially appeared on
the list. Further, prior to performing any of
the previously listed types of work, under a
contract, persons, firms, corporations,
partnerships, and associations must submit a
sworn affidavit to the general contractor
attesting to the fact that the persons or
organizations listed hold less than a 10percent interest in a firm appearing on the
list. Any person or firm that appears on the
list shall be liable to the State Department of
Labor for a civil penalty of $1,000 for each
day or part of a day in which such person or
firm performs any work under any contract
with the State or any of its agents.

January 2005

Family issues. The State Family Medical
Leave Act was amended so that State
employees shall be entitled to a maximum
of 24 weeks of medical leave of absence
within any 2-year period in order for such
employees to serve as organ donors or
bone marrow donors. Prior to beginning the
leave, any permanent employee requesting
such leave shall be required to provide
sufficient certification from his or her
physician of the proposed organ or bone
marrow donation and of the probable
duration of the employee’s recovery period.
Private employees shall be entitled to a total
of 16 weeks of leave during any 24-month
period in order to serve as an organ donor
or a bone marrow donor.
Worker privacy. The disclosure of voice
mails under the Freedom of Information
Act requires each public agency to open its
records concerning the administration of
such agency to public inspection, including
records containing information in its
personnel files, birth records, or confidential tax records, to the individual who is the
subject of such information. Nothing in the
Act shall require any public agency to
transcribe the content of any voice-mail
message and retain such record for any
period of time. The name and address of,
and any related identifying information
concerning, a sexual harassment complainant in any internal sexual harassment
investigation conducted by an affirmative
action officer or other designated person on
behalf of a State agency shall be confidential
and shall be disclosed only upon order of
the Superior Court. The exception to this
requirement pertains to the disclosure of
the name of the sexual harassment complainant to the accused during the State
agency’s sexual harassment investigation,
wherein the agency may disclose the name
of the complainant to other persons participating in the investigation.
Plant closing. The general statutes
regarding the Department of Public Utility
Control were amended so that the costs for
protecting displaced workers now include
those reasonable costs incurred, prior to
January 1, 2008, by an electric distribution
company or an exempt wholesale generator
of electricity and arising from the retraining
of a former employee of an unaffiliated
exempt wholesale generator when the
employee was involuntary dislocated on or
after January 1, 2004, from the wholesale
generator, except for cause.
Department of Labor.

The labor com-

missioner is now empowered to subpoena
people and records deemed necessary to
investigate complaints related to employee
personnel and to medical records kept by
private-sector employers. In cases of refusal to obey such subpoenas, upon the
commissioner’s request, the superior court
is empowered to issue an order enforcing
the subpoena. Documents obtained by such
a subpoena are exempt from disclosure
under the Freedom of Information Act.
Delaware
Prevailing wage. The State code relating
to prevailing-wage requirements in public
construction contracts was amended so
that, instead of requiring contractors to
automatically submit copies of weekly
sworn payrolls to the Department of Labor,
the contractors and subcontractors are now
required to maintain payroll records and
produce a certified copy of the information,
upon request, to the Department of Labor.
The records are to be maintained for a
period of 2 years from the last day of the
workweek covered by the payroll.
Wages paid. Employers may now furnish
pay statements electronically to employees, so long as the electronic statement
provides the same information currently
required by the Wage Payment and
Collection Act and is in a form capable of
being retained by the employee. Because
many employees may not have access to a
computer, employers furnishing statements
electronically must also provide employees
with the option of receiving the statement
in written form.
Equal employment opportunity. The Equal
Employment Review Board has been
eliminated and replaced by a corresponding
“State Right to Sue” in superior court. The
alleged injured party may invoke “State
Right to Sue” after he or she has exhausted
administrative remedies for combating
discrimination by employers, employment
agencies, or labor organizations. A charge of
discrimination shall be filed within 120 days
of the occurrence or discovery of the alleged
unlawful incident. Joint labor-management
committees controlling apprenticeship or
other training or retraining programs, including on-the-job training programs, shall
be in violation of the law if they utilize any
factor such as race, marital status, genetic
information, color, age, religion, or national
origin to discriminate against potential
employees or take adverse actions if the
employee has testified, assisted, or partici-

pated in any manner in an investigation,
proceeding, or hearing to assist in the
enforcement of the provisions of the law. It
shall not be an unlawful practice for employers to classify employees by religion,
genetic information, age, sex, or national
origin in those instances in which these
factors are a bona fide occupational qualification that is reasonably necessary to the
normal operation of that particular business
or enterprise. At the end of the administrative process put in place by the “State
Right to Sue,” when the charge has been
dismissed, or a no-cause determination has
been issued, or conciliation efforts have
failed, a “State Right to Sue” notice shall be
issued. In these cases, the State superior
court has jurisdiction and authority to
provide relief.
Worker privacy. The State code was
amended by the addition of an act limiting
the dissemination of the names and
identification numbers of police, probation,
and parole officers to designated criminal
justice agencies for law enforcement purposes. The amendment clarifies the fact that
such information is not available to the
public pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act. Information from criminal history
records shall include a random identification
number that is unique and permanent to
each arresting officer as a surrogate for the
officer’s agency or department-issued identification number.
Workplace violence and security. A resolution was passed urging Congress to amend
the Maritime Transportation Security Act
of 2002 so that it will be applicable only to
workers who have been convicted of felonies that can be demonstrated to constitute
clear threats to the facilities at which the
workers are employed or seek employment.
Current provisions of the Act stipulate that
persons convicted of a felony within the
last 7 years are precluded from working at
America’s ports.
District Of Columbia
Minimum wage. The District increased its
required minimum wage to $6.60 per hour.
Time off. The District of Columbia’s
Comprehensive Merit Personnel Act of
1978 was amended and now requires each
agency, independent or otherwise, to
establish a voluntary leave transfer program
under which annual or universal leave
accrued or accumulated by an employee

may be transferred on an hour-for-hour
basis within the agency to the annual or
universal leave account of any other eligible
employee. Recipient employees may use
contributed annual or universal leave in the
same manner as if the leave had accrued to
them, provided that any annual, universal,
sick, or advanced leave shall be exhausted
before any transferred leave may be used
by the affected employee. Each agency,
independent or otherwise, shall maintain an
accounting of the voluntary leave transfer
program and the leave records of both the
recipient employee and the leave contributor.
Drug and alcohol testing. Nurse staffing
agencies, which are now required to be
licensed by the Department of Health
before providing or referring support to a
health care facility, must verify and document the fact that nursing personnel, home
health aides, and personal care aides provided or referred by the agency have satisfactorily completed all drug screening and
all background checks required by law or
requested by the client, before the aforementioned personnel are referred to a health
care facility or agency or to an individual.
Florida
Agriculture. Under an old act newly named
and relating to agricultural and migrant labor,
the farm labor contractor certificate-ofregistration fee has been raised from $75 to
$125. Civil penalties for minor violations
now range from warnings for first violations
to a range of fines increasing from $250 to
$2,500. Penalties for major violations range
from $750 to $2,500 or revocation of the
certificate for multiple violations within a
2-year period. The Department of Business
and Professional Regulation may now
refuse to issue certificates of registration
where (1) payment of the applicant’s fine
assessed by the department is overdue or
(2) the contractor has had a Federal certificate of registration denied, suspended, or
revoked. The department may permanently
revoke or refuse to issue or renew a certificate of registration if, within the last 5
years, the applicant or certificate holder has
been convicted of a crime under specific
State or Federal laws. Contractors also are
required to designate an agent who must be
available during regular business hours,
Monday through Friday, to accept service
of process and other official or legal
documents on behalf of the contractor. The
receipt and acceptance of a certificate of
registration as a farm labor contractor

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 13

State Labor Laws, 2004

constitutes unconditional permission for,
and acquiescence by, the contractor to
inspection by department personnel of
books, ledgers, and all other documents
related to the performance of the contractor’s farm labor activities. The department
shall develop and implement, for a farm
labor contractor, a best-practices incentive
program that establishes certain requirements for the contractor to meet in order to
qualify for the incentives bestowed as a
result of the designation.
Worker privacy. The State’s Public Records Law was amended to create an exemption from the public records requirements for
identificatory and locational information on
current and former Federal officials, their
spouses, and their children. Thus, information
regarding U.S. attorneys, assistant U.S.
attorneys, judges of the U.S. court of appeals,
judges of the U.S. district courts, and Federal
magistrates is exempt from disclosure. Such
information, including home addresses, telephone numbers, Social Security numbers,
photographs of the officials or their spouses
or children, addresses of the places of employment of the officials’ spouses, and the names
and locations of schools and daycare facilities
attended by the officials’ children, is prohibited from being released as a part of the public
record. In addition, the Social Security numbers of agency employees are exempt from
disclosure by the employing agency, except
that nonemploying custodial agencies shall
maintain the exempt status of Social Security
numbers only if the employee or employing
agency of the employee submits a written
request for confidentiality to the custodial
agency.
The personnel records of those employed in licensed facilities that provide
direct patient care or security services for a
wide spectrum of individuals, including,
among others, prisoners, criminal suspects
brought for treatment by local law enforcement officers prior to incarceration, p atients
under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and
patients who have been admitted for treatment
for mental illness (including involuntary
admissions), are exempt from disclosure under
the Open Government Sunset Review Act.
Should any of these individuals gain access to
personal information of such employees, the
information could be used to threaten,
intimidate, harass, or cause physical harm or
other injury to the employees who provide
direct patient care or security services or to
their families. This amended law maintains
that the home addresses, telephone numbers,
and photographs (but not the Social Security
numbers) of employees, along with similar

14 Monthly Labor Review

information (but, again, not their Social
Security numbers) on their spouses and
children, as well as information on the places
of employment of spouses and the names and
locations of schools and daycare facilities
attended by the children of such persons, are
confidential.
Georgia
Minimum wage. All mandates that require
an employer to pay any or all of its employees a wage rate or provide employment
benefits not otherwise required under State
or Federal law, but that have been adopted
by any local government entity, are preempted. No local government entity may
adopt, maintain, or enforce, by charter,
ordinance, purchase agreement, contract,
rule, regulation, or resolution, either directly
or indirectly, a wage rate or employment
benefit mandate. However, any local government entity may offer its own employees employment benefits.
Worker privacy. Public disclosure shall not
be required for records that would reveal the
home addresses or telephone numbers, Social
Security numbers, or insurance or medical
information of employees of the State Department of Revenue.
Inmate labor. An amendment to the State
code was enacted in order to change
provisions relating to the earned-time
allowances of inmates in county correctional facilities and to increase the
maximum amount of earned time that may
be awarded when an inmate does work on
an authorized work detail. The sheriff or
custodian may authorize the award of not
more than 4 days’ credit for each day’s work
on an authorized work detail. Such increased credit for performance on a work
detail shall not apply to inmates incarcerated for a second or subsequent offense
of driving under the influence, for a misdemeanor of a high and aggravated nature,
or for a crime committed against a family
member.
Hawaii
Prevailing wage. A resolution was adopted urging the State congressional delegation
to ensure that, when privatization construction contracts are let under the Residential
Communities Initiative at military bases
located in the State, (1) at least 80 percent
of Federal expenditures for the contracts
stay in Hawaii through the hiring of local

January 2005

construction firms and local laborers; (2) inquiries are made and, if necessary, cause investigations to be initiated so that the piecework
systems and rate fixing do not act to circumvent the Davis-Bacon Act; and (3) steps are
taken to ensure that local contractors are not
underbid by mainland firms for the contracts
falling under the initiative.
Family issues.
The State House of
Representatives adopted a resolution
requiring the Department of Labor and
Industrial Relations to enforce the State
Family Medical Leave Law in accordance
with the intent of the legislature. The
department is to provide the legislature
with a status report on (1) the adoption of
rules that are consistent with the legislative
intent, (2) the number of employers that
are self-insured for temporary disability
insurance and that have denied employees
the use of sick leave for family leave
purposes, and (3) the number of employees
who are covered by an employer’s selfinsured temporary disability insurance plan
and who have been denied the use of sick
leave for family leave purposes.
Other laws. Counties within the State
may enter into a formal agreement with the
State government to extend its deferred
compensation retirement plan and the
plan’s provisions to part-time, temporary,
and seasonal or casual employees of the
county. Such an agreement may be entered
into, provided that the agreement designates one of the county agencies to coordinate the plan locally and provided that the
agreement acknowledges that fees may be
levied on the county to cover costs incurred
by the State for county plans.
Idaho
Wages paid. The State tax law was
amended so that employers who are
required to withhold, collect, and pay
income taxes on the wages or salaries of
their employees, but who fail to make a
timely payment of the income taxes as
required, may be subject to the State Tax
Commission’s treating the failure as a
failure to file a return, and the commission
may take authorized administrative and
judicial actions for such failure.
Drug and alcohol testing. In order for
contractors to be eligible for the award of
any State contract for the construction or
improvement of any public property or
publicly owned building within the State,

(1) they must provide a drug-free workplace program that complies with the
provisions of the law and is otherwise
constitutionally permitted for employees,
including temporary employees, and
maintain the program throughout the
duration of the contract; and (2) they may
subcontract work under State construction
contracts only to those subcontractors
meeting requirement (1). Contractors that
submit a bid for a State construction
contract and that are required to comply
with the provisions of the Employer
Alcohol and Drug-Free Workplace Act shall
submit an affidavit, along with the bid,
verifying the contractor’s compliance with
the provisions of this section of the act.
Worker privacy. When a health care
provider has been terminated, either
voluntarily or involuntarily, for adulteration
or misappropriation of controlled substances, the employer shall furnish written
notice of the termination to the health care
provider’s State professional licensing
board within 30 days of the event. Employers who provide such information in
good faith shall not be held civilly liable for
the disclosure or the consequences of providing the information. Professional licensing boards shall maintain such notices of
termination for 15 years from the date of
receipt by the board. Before hiring such
workers, prospective employers of health
care providers shall request, in writing, that
the professional licensing board furnish the
prospective employers any notice of
termination maintained by the board with
respect to the health care provider.
Workplace security. The State transportation law concerning motor vehicle
drivers of hazardous materials was amended
and now requires licensees applying for a
hazardous-material endorsement of a
driver’s license to have a security background records check and to receive clearance from the Federal Transportation
Security Administration before the endorsement can be issued, renewed, or transferred.
Applicants for endorsement shall provide
either proof of U.S. citizenship or proof of
a lawful, permanent U.S. residence, as well
as a valid alien registration number from the
Federal Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.
Department of Labor.
The State’s
Departments of Labor and Commerce have
been joined in a new agency entitled the
Department of Commerce and Labor. The
director of the new department shall have

all the powers and duties as may have been
or could have been exercised by his or her
predecessors in law and shall be the successor in law to all contractual obligations
entered into by his or her predecessors in
law.
Other laws. The tax credit for employers
who hire new employees was increased to
$1,000 per employee. The credit shall
apply to employees who, in the calendar
year ending in the taxable year for which
the credit is claimed, receive annual earnings
at an average rate of $12.50 or more per
hour worked and who, during such calendar
year, were eligible to receive employerprovided coverage under an accident or a
health plan.
Illinois
Minimum wage. The State’s minimum
wage rose to $6.50 per hour as scheduled.
Overtime. Employees of a governmental
body who are excluded from the definition
of “employee” under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 are not subject to receiving
compensation at a rate of not less than 1½
times their regular rate of pay. Other
employees who are exempt from receiving
this overtime rate of pay are those employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity, including
any radio or television announcer, news
editor, or chief engineer, as defined by or
covered by the Act and the rules adopted
under it, as both existed on March 30, 2003,
but who are compensated at the salary
specified in Title 29 of the Code of Federal
Regulations, as proposed in the Federal
Register on March 31, 2003, or with a greater amount of salary as may be adopted by
the U.S. Department of Labor. A governmental body in the State is not in violation
of the Act if the body provides compensatory time pursuant to Section 7 of the Act,
as now or hereafter amended, or is engaged
in fire protection or law enforcement activities and meets the requirements of Sections
7 and 13 of the Act, as now or hereafter
amended.
Prevailing wage. The law concerning
bidding requirements for contractors on
construction contracts was amended. In
order for a contractor to be considered a
responsible bidder for a construction
contract, (1) the contractor must comply
with all laws concerning the bidder’s
entitlement to conduct business in the
State; (2) the contractor must comply with

all applicable provisions of the Prevailing
Wage Act; (3) the contractor must comply
with the applicable chapters of the U.S.
Code dealing with equal employment
opportunities; (4) the contractor must have
a valid Federal employer identification
number or a valid Social Security number;
and (5) the contractor and its subcontractors must participate in applicable
apprenticeship and training programs
approved and registered by the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. The provisions of
these amendments shall not apply to any
federally funded construction project if
such application would jeopardize the
receipt or use of Federal funds in support
of such a project.
Child labor. No minor under 16 years
may sell tobacco in any of its forms at a
retail establishment selling tobacco products. This restriction does not apply to a
sales clerk in a family-owned business,
upon proof that the sales clerk is a son or
daughter of the owner. Tobacco products
sold in single packs must be sold from
behind the counter, in an age-restricted area
or a sealed display case. These restrictions
do not apply if tobacco-related products
are sold in an establishment that (1) derives
at least 90 percent of its revenue from
tobacco and tobacco-related products, (2)
does not permit persons under 18 years to
enter the premises unless accompanied by
a parent or legal guardian, and (3) posts a
sign on the main entrance prohibiting the
admission of such persons. A violation of
this act is a petty offense for which the
court shall impose a fine of not less than
$100 or more than $1,000.
The requirement in the child labor
provisions that a parent or guardian accompany a 12- or 13-year-old minor who is
officiating youth sports activities for a notfor-profit youth club, park district, or
municipal parks and recreation department
has been amended so that it is also satisfied
if an adult designated by the parent or
guardian accompanies the minor.
Time off. The State Service Men’s Employment Tenure Act was amended to be titled
“The Service Member’s Employment Tenure
Act.” The act affects the reemployment rights
of employees who leave a public utility to
enter the military service of the United States.
It was established that, when an employer
knowingly violates the provisions of this act,
a business offense has been committed that is
punishable by a fine of not less than $5,000
and not more than $10,000.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 15

State Labor Laws, 2004

Volunteer firefighters who do not receive
monetary compensation for their services
to a fire department or fire protection
district and who do not work for any other
fire department for monetary compensation
may not be terminated by their employers
because they are absent from or late to their
employment in order to respond to an
emergency prior to the time they are to
report to work. However, employers may
charge, against their employees’ regular pay,
any time that their employees lose as a
result of responding to an emergency.
Employers may require their employees to
provide them with a written statement from
the supervisor or acting supervisor of the
volunteer fire department stating the time
and date of the emergency. Employees are
expected to make a reasonable effort to
notify their employers of such an emergency. Any employer who violates this act
is liable to civil action brought by the
affected employee for reinstatement to his
or her former position, payment of back
wages, and reinstatement of fringe benefits
and seniority. Civil action must be commenced within 1 year after the date of the
employer’s violation.
Discharge. The State Police Training Act
was amended. A police officer shall now be
decertified or have his or her waiver (of
completion of training requirements
pending certification) revoked if, while
under oath, the officer knowingly and
willfully made false statements as to a
material fact pertaining to an element of the
offense of murder. If an appeal is filed, the
determination of decertification or revocation of waiver shall be stayed. In the case of
an acquittal on a charge of murder, a verified
complaint may be filed, within two 2 years,
by the defendant or by a police officer with
personal knowledge of perjured testimony.
Within 30 days, a determination will be
made on whether the complaint is without
merit or whether further investigation is
warranted. The accused officer shall not be
placed on unpaid status because of the filing
or processing of the verified complaint,
until there is a nonappealable order sustaining his or her guilt and certification is revoked. Nothing restricts the public employer from pursuing disciplinary action
against the officer in the normal course of
events and under procedures then in place.
Drug and alcohol testing. The State
School Code was amended by adding a
section which specifies that, when charter
bus services are provided solely for the
purpose of regularly transporting students,

16 Monthly Labor Review

the drivers must demonstrate physical
fitness to operate the school buses by
submitting the results of a medical examination, including tests for drug use, to a State
regulatory agency.

of days that the employee was employed
by the employer, whichever period is
smaller. Employers also may be subject to
a $500 civil penalty for each day the
violation continues.

Worker privacy. The Department of
Public Health shall establish and administer
a nursing workforce database. The objective
of maintaining such a database shall be to
track the State’s nursing workforce, and the
database shall contain information that may
be released under the Freedom of Information Act. Among the information to be
collected are (1) current and projected population demographics and available health
indicators to project the demand for nursing
services; (2) data that will be used to create
a dynamic system for projecting nurse
workforce supply and demand; (3) information on workforce issues such as the diversity, educational mix, and geographic distribution of the nursing workforce, as well as
information on the number of nurses
needed; (4) current and projected numbers
of nursing faculty required to educate the
nurses who will be needed; (5) data on
nursing education programs, applications,
enrollments, and graduation rates; (6) data
needed to develop collaborative models
between nursing education and practice in
order to identify nursing competencies,
educational strategies, and models of
professional practice; and (7) data on nurse
practice settings, practice locations, and
specialties. The department may not disclose any of its data in a manner that would
allow the identification of a particular
health care professional or facility. A report
to the Governor regarding the development
and effectiveness of the use of the database
shall be made no later than January 15,
2006.

Indiana

Plant closing. Legislation was enacted
that requires employers with 75 or more
employees to provide written notice of a
mass layoff, relocation, or employment
loss, 60 days before the order takes effect,
to affected employees, representatives of
affected employees, and the Department
of Commerce and Economic Opportunity,
along with the chief elected official of each
municipal and county government within
which said employment action occurs.
Failure to provide such notice makes the
employer liable for backpay at the
employee’s average regular rate of pay,
along with the value of the cost of any
benefits to which the employee would have
been entitled. Liability is calculated up to a
maximum of 60 days or one-half the number

January 2005

Hours worked. The State Utilities and
Transportation Code was amended and
now exempts employees of a public utility
or of a subcontractor or contractor thereof
from the maximum hours of service they
are permitted to work under Federal regulations. This exemption applies when the
individual (1) holds a commercial driver’s
license and (2) operates a commercial motor
vehicle as a utility service vehicle while
engaged in intrastate maintenance or repair
work during an emergency involving an
interruption of the utility’s service.
Drug and alcohol testing. The State
Human Services Code was amended to
require childcare providers to offer, maintain, and make available to the State, at no
expense thereto, copies of drug-testing
results for employees or volunteer caregivers at the facility where the provider
operates the childcare service.
Worker privacy. Individual records and
information on membership in the Public
Employees Retirement Fund are now
confidential, except for the name and the
number of years of service of a participant
in the fund.
Iowa
Drug and alcohol testing. The law
regarding private-sector employee drug
testing was amended to include the
definition of “controlled positive test
result” to mean, with the exception of
alcohol testing, the result of a blood, urine,
or oral fluid test in which the level of
controlled substances or metabolites in the
specimen analyzed meets or exceeds
nationally accepted standards for
determining detectable levels of controlled
substances. If nationally accepted standards for oral fluid tests have not been
adopted by the Federal Substance Abuse
and Health Services Administration, the
standards for identifying detectable levels
of controlled substances for purposes of
determining a confirmed positive test result
shall be the standard that has been established by the Federal Food and Drug
Administration for the measuring instru-

ment used to perform the oral fluid test.
Under the revised law, “samples” shall
include only urine, saliva, breath exhalations, and blood.
Kansas
Worker privacy. Any person applying
for employment as a law enforcement
officer is required to disclose any arrests,
convictions, or diversions5 and shall allow
the State Law Enforcement Training Commission to obtain expunged records in order
to determine the applicant’s eligibility.
Furthermore, when any law enforcement
officer leaves his or her position, the responsible agency would make a report
explaining the circumstances surrounding
the termination or resignation. The report
shall be available to the terminated officer
upon written request and also shall be
available to any law enforcement agency to
which the terminated officer later applies
for a position as a police or law enforcement
officer. This legislation, which is intended
to prevent the hiring of police officers who
were terminated for cause in other jurisdictions, mandates the establishment, by the
director of the State Law Enforcement
Training Commission, of a registry to be a
resource for all agencies that appoint or
elect police or law enforcement officers to
use in reviewing employment applications.
The registry shall be made available only to
those agencies which appoint or elect police
or law enforcement officers.
Workplace security. The State Public
Information Act was amended. Upon a
formal motion to do so, open meetings may
now recess, but not adjourn, in order to
discuss security measures that protect
(1) systems, facilities, or equipment used
in the production, distribution, or transmission of energy, water, or communication
services; (2) transportation and sewer or
wastewater treatment systems, facilities, or
equipment; (3) a public body or agency, a
public building or facility, or the information
system of a public body or agency; or
(4) private property or persons. The purpose of the amendment is to protect against
criminal acts intended to intimidate or
coerce civilians, influence government policy, or affect the operation of government
through mass destruction, assassination,
kidnapping, or the disruption of public
services.
Department of Labor. The Department of
Human Resources has had its name changed
to the Department of Labor. The duties of

the Employment and Training Administration under the Department of
Human Resources have been transferred to
the Division of Workforce Development in
the Department of Commerce. The remaining duties of the Department of Human
Resources stay with the newly named
Department of Labor.
Kentucky
Overtime. The State overtime law was
amended in order to exclude individuals
who are employed by a third-party employer or agency, other than the associated
family or household, to provide in-home
companionship services for a sick, elderly,
or convalescing person. Now, those individuals are considered exempt from entitlement
to overtime compensation. The services in
question may include household work
related to the care of the aged or infirm
person, along with general household work,
as long as the household work is incidental
and the time spent doing it does not exceed
20 percent of the total weekly hours
worked. The services do not include those
related to the care and protection of the
aged or infirm which require and are
performed by trained personnel, such as a
registered or practical nurse.
Worker privacy.
T h e State Revised
Statutes were amended to provide that
employers who furnish information about
the job performance, professional conduct,
or evaluation of a former or current employee to a prospective employer of that
employee, at the request of the employee
or prospective employer, shall be immune
from civil liability arising out of the disclosure. This immunity is in place unless
the plaintiff in a civil action proves that
(1) the employer disclosed the information
knowing that it was false, with reckless
disregard of whether it was true or false or
with the intent to mislead the prospective
employer, or (2) the disclosure of the
information by the employer constitutes
an unlawful discriminatory practice. This
amended code does not create a new cause
of action or substantive legal rights against
an employer, nor does it limit an employer’s immunity from civil liability or
defenses established in another section of
the State Revised Statutes or available under
common law.
Louisiana
Wages paid. The State wage payment law
was amended and now excludes those

persons considered exempt pursuant to the
Federal Fair Labor Standards Act from being
included in the definition of the term
“employee.” In addition, those employers
who fail to pay their employees in the
timely manner required may be fined not
less than $25 or more than $250 for each
day they remain in violation of the law. A
second such violation may, in addition to
incurring the same fines, subject a person
to imprisonment of not less than 10 days.
Child labor. The section of the State
child labor law concerning permissible
hours of work was amended. Minors 16
years of age who have not graduated from
high school are now prohibited from being
employed or from being permitted or
suffered to work between the hours of
11:00 P .M. and 5:00 A.M. prior to the start of
any schoolday. Minors under 16 years who
have not graduated from high school shall
not be employed or suffered or permitted
to work between the hours of 7:00 P .M. and
7:00 A.M. prior to the start of any schoolday
or between the hours of 9:00 P .M. and 7:00
A.M. on any day. Minors employed in the
dairy industry are exempt from this
restriction. No minor 17 years of age who
has not graduated from high school shall be
employed or permitted or suffered to work
between the hours of 12:00 A.M. and 5:00
A.M. prior to the start of any schoolday.
Minors who have taken and passed a
General Education Development (GED) test
and who have been awarded a high school
equivalency diploma from the State
Department of Education will be considered
to have graduated from high school.
Equal employment opportunity.
A
resolution was adopted that created the
State Commission on Employment of
Mental Health Consumers, to study and
develop a plan to address barriers that
prevent persons with mental illness from
seeking, obtaining, and maintaining
employment. The plan shall be submitted
to all appropriate parties prior to the
convening of the 2005 regular legislative
session.
The State has created the Equal Pay
Commission for the purpose of making a
full and complete study of the factors
affecting wage disparities, in both the public
and private sector, between men and
women, as well as between minorities and
nonminorities. The Commission will
investigate such factors as the segregation
of men and women and of minorities and
nonminorities, lower wages of occupations

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 17

State Labor Laws, 2004

traditionally dominated by women and
minorities, child-rearing responsibilities,
and the consequences of such disparities
on the economy and affected families. The
commission also will propose actions and
legislation that are likely to lead to the
elimination and prevention of such disparities. The commission shall report its findings and recommendations. Sunset for the
commission is July 1, 2006.
Drug and alcohol testing. The law
pertaining to drug and alcohol testing was
amended to specify that samples other than
urine, including blood, saliva, and hair, may
be used for workplace drug testing. All drug
testing of samples collected in the State,
including its territorial waters and any other
location to which the laws are applicable,
shall be performed in specific certified
laboratories if both of the following conditions apply: (1) as a result of such testing,
mandatory or discretionary negative
employment consequences will be rendered
to the individual and (2) drug testing will be
performed for any or all classes of marijuana, opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, and
phencyclidine.
Inmate labor. Inmates may now perform
manual labor, of their own free will, on
buildings, improvements, or properties
of tax-exempt organizations, including
(1) posts and organizations of past or
present U.S. Armed Forces members,
auxiliary units or societies, and trusts and
foundations if such posts or organizations
are organized in the United States or its
possessions (membership must comprise
specific categories of persons, and no part
of net earnings must inure to the benefit of
a private shareholder); and (2) any association organized before 1880 in which more
than 75 percent of its members are past or
present members of the Armed Forces and
a principal purpose of which is to provide
insurance and other benefits to veterans or
their dependents.
Other laws. When individuals lose health
insurance coverage as a result of their
employer’s going out of business and
terminating a health benefits plan, and those
individuals are eligible for the Health
Coverage Tax Credit under Federal law, the
Department of Insurance shall administer
the Federal Health Coverage Tax Credit
Program to ensure that the individuals in
question have access to affordable health
insurance. The department shall establish a
pilot program to increase access to
affordable health insurance and shall
18 Monthly Labor Review

coordinate with health insurance issuers,
health maintenance organizations, employers, or other entities to facilitate coverage for those who are eligible.
Maine
Minimum wage. The scheduled increase in
the minimum wage was implemented, and
the State minimum wage is now $6.35 per
hour.
Prevailing wage. Permits and contracts
issued for the harvesting of timber from
reserved and nonreserved public lands shall
now include a provision requiring that
persons engaged in timber harvesting on
such lands be compensated at rates not less
than the most recently issued prevailingwage and piece rates and equipment allowances established for the pulpwood and
logging industry, as determined by the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards. If the department does not determine
a prevailing-wage or piece rate for a timberharvesting occupation, the director of the
department may establish those rates,
applicable only to permits and contracts
on public reserved and nonreserved lands
governed by the law, by referring to
prevailing rates and allowances in the
industry for that occupation or type of
equipment.
Time off. State National Guard members
who are on duty for more than 5 consecutive days may elect to be members of
the State Retirement System. In addition, if
one of the parents of a minor is a member of
the National Guard or the U.S. Armed
Forces Reserves on orders to report to
active duty for a period of more than 30
days, a temporary guardianship that would
otherwise expire is automatically extended
until 30 days after the parent is no longer
under active-duty orders or until an order
of the court so provides. The extension of
the guardianship is in effect as long as the
parent’s service is in support of an operational mission for which members of the
affected components of the Reserve have
been ordered to active duty without their
consent or if the forces are activated during
a period of war declared by Congress or a
period of national emergency declared by
the President or Congress.
Equal employment opportunity. The State
established the Employees Suggestion
System, whereby State employees in classified service are eligible for cash or honorary

January 2005

awards for submitting suggestions that
would result in substantial savings, improvements, or efficiencies in State operations. State supervisors or other persons in
authority may not discriminate against an
employee regarding the employee’s terms,
conditions, location, or privilege of employment because the employee, acting in good
faith, has suggested savings or efficiencies.
Drug and alcohol testing. Employers who
employ 50 or more employees not covered
by a collective bargaining agreement and
who have instituted or appointed an employee committee responsible for developing a written policy prior to establishing
any substance abuse testing program that
applies to all employees may request,
require, or suggest that employees submit
to a substance abuse test on a random or
arbitrary basis. Union employees working
for such an employer are covered only in
conjunction with a collective bargaining
agreement. The committee testing policy
must be approved by the Department of
Labor. Committee membership must
include a medical review officer and must
be appointed from a cross section of those
eligible to be tested. Only entities not
subject to the employer’s influence, such
as the medical review officer, may select
employees for testing. Employers may not
discharge, suspend, demote, discipline, or
otherwise discriminate (for example, with
regard to compensation or working conditions) against an employee for participating
or refusing to participate in such an employee committee. Employees who show
initial confirmed positive results shall be
provided with an opportunity to participate in an employee assistance program if
the employer has such a program.
Worker privacy.
Records in the
possession of the State Retirement System
and containing home contact information
pertaining to its members, recipients of
benefits, trustees, nontrustee members of
board committees, and staff are confidential
and not subject to public disclosure. This
exclusion from disclosure does not apply
to the home contact information about a
retirement system member or recipient of
benefits if that person has signed a waiver
of confidentiality regarding such information.
Unfair labor practice. The State enacted
a law establishing a forestry rate proceedings panel with members representing the
forest products harvesters and haulers, the
forest landowners, and the public interests

of the State. Upon petition, the panel will
set a reasonable rate of compensation for
harvesting and hauling services of loggers
and wood haulers, to be paid by a forest
landowner in a specified area of the State.
Individual forest product haulers and
harvesters may join together to bargain with
forest landowners over prices and terms of
contracts. Petitions may be filed with the
panel by a forest landowner or a person
representing at least three harvesters or
haulers in order to initiate proceedings to
determine reasonable rates of compensation. While one or more harvesters or haulers may negotiate a rate with a forest landowner for an area defined by the State, any
agreement reached is contingent upon
review and approval by the panel. Where
panel rates are not applicable, forest
landowners and haulers or harvesters may
determine their own compensation rate
agreement.
Maryland
Child labor .
Employers in Garrett
County who possess licenses to sell alcoholic beverages are no longer restricted from
hiring individuals who are under 18 years,
as long as those individuals do not handle
the alcoholic beverages during the course of
their duties.
Whistleblower.
A law was enacted
providing employees of contractors hired
by the State with whistleblower protections. Specified employers that enter
into State procurement contracts are
required to provide written notice of
particular protections and remedies to
employees. These employers may not take
or refuse to take any personnel action as a
reprisal against an employee because the
employee (1) discloses information that he
or she reasonably believes affords evidence
of an abuse of authority, gross mismanagement, or a gross waste of money, (2) objects
to or refuses to participate in any activity,
policy, or practice in violation of the law, or
(3) seeks a remedy under this law following
a disclosure under item (1). The employee
may bring a civil action in the county where
(1) the alleged violation occurred, (2) the
employee resides, or (3) the employer
maintains its principal office in the State.
Such action shall be brought within 1 year
of the time the alleged violation occurred or
within 1 year of the time the employee first
became aware of the alleged violation.
Worker privacy.

Applicants for positions

with, or employees of, the State’s Internal
Investigative Unit of the Department of
Public Safety and Correctional Services are
not exempt from being subject to the use of
a lie detector or a similar test for employment purposes.
The State Public Ethics Law was
amended so that financial disclosure
statements may not include a listing of a
minor child’s employment or business
entities of which the child is the sole or
partial owner. This amendment is effective
unless the place of employment or the
business entity is subject to the regulation
or authority of the agency that employs
the individual or unless the place of
employment or the business entity has
contracts in excess of $10,000 with the
agency that employs the individual.
Employment agency. A nursing referral
service agency (now licensed by the
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
instead of the Department of Labor
Licensing and Regulation) consisting of one
or more individuals engaged in the business
of screening and referring, directly or in
accordance with contractual arrangements
for the purpose of providing nursing services, home health aide services, or other
home health care services at the request of
the client, is permitted to receive a fee or
other compensation for providing the
service.
Plant closing. The Secretary of Business
and Economic Development shall designate
a division, an agency, an office, or some
other entity within the Department of
Labor to be the single point of contact for
issues relating to the realignment and
closure of military installations in the State.
Workplace violence and security. Licensed
operators of commercial vehicles must
obtain a State-issued endorsement to
operate a commercial motor vehicle that is
required to be placarded for hazardous
materials. Applicants must apply to the
Criminal Justice Information System
Central Repository for a national and State
criminal history records check, and the
Transportation Security Administration of
the Department of Homeland Security must
approve the issuance of the endorsement.
If a record of criminal history is reported to
the central repository after the date of the
records check, the repository shall provide
information on the operator’s criminal
history to the Transportation Security
Administration, and the operator shall be
provided with a revised printed statement

of the same information. The operator may
contest the contents of the printed statement.
Department of Labor. The Secretary of
Labor, Licensing, and Regulation has been
added to the Advisory Council on Offender
Employment Coordination. The council
provides guidance on (1) developing transitional supports and expanding employment
opportunities for offenders in institutional
and community settings; (2) transferring
successful institutional programs and services
that prepare offenders for employment in
community settings; (3) increasing job placement and retention rates for all offenders
under correctional control; (4) improving
the coordination of employment services;
(5) developing and implementing a business
mentoring program; and (6) conducting
mock job fairs in institutions and the community. The council shall exist until the end
of August 31, 2007.
Massachusetts
Minimum wage. No employer or other
person shall demand, request, or accept,
from any wait staff, service employee, or
bartender, any payment or deduction from
a tip or service charge given to such employee by a patron. The employer may not
retain or distribute, in any manner inconsistent with the law, any tip or service charge
given directly to the employee. The employer may not require the employee to
participate in a tip pool through which the
employee remits any wage, tip, or service
charge for distribution to any person who
is neither on the wait staff nor a service
employee or bartender. An employer may
administer a valid tip pool and may keep a
record of the amounts received for bookkeeping or tax-reporting purposes. If an
employer or other person submits a bill or
charge to a patron that imposes a service
charge or tip, the total proceeds of that
service charge or tip shall be remitted only
to the wait staff employees in proportion
to the service provided by those employees.
Any service charge or tip remitted by a
patron or person to an employer shall be
paid to the appropriate employees by the
end of the same business day and in no case
later than the time set for the timely payment of wages. Any violation shall result in
restitution for any tips accepted, distributed, or retained, with interest at the rate of
12 percent per year. The employer shall
have violated the law and shall be punished
or subject to a civil citation if (1) the employer is maintaining records for a tip pool

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 19

State Labor Laws, 2004

and the employee is not allowed to inspect
those records pertaining to him- or herself
or (2) the employer discharges or in any
manner penalizes or discriminates against
an employee because the employee has
made a complaint to the attorney general or
to any other person conducting an investigation and is seeking rights under this law.
Equal employment opportunity. The
General Law of the State was amended by
making it an unlawful practice for an
employer, an employment agency, the
commonwealth, or any of its subdivisions,
by itself or its agents, to deny initial employment, reemployment, retention in employment, promotion, or any benefit of
employment to a person who is a member
of a uniformed military service of the
United States (including the National
Guard) or who applies to perform, or has
an obligation to perform, service in a
uniformed military service of the United
States (again, including the National Guard)
on the basis of that membership, application, or obligation. In addition, the State
has established a commission on veterans’
employment rights that shall be responsible
for investigating whether veterans are
subjected to employment discrimination on
the basis of their status as veterans. The
commission shall report its finding annually on March 1 to the Secretary of Veterans
Affairs.
Michigan
Child labor. The State Youth Employment
Standards Act was amended so that it no
longer prohibits a minor from engaging in
any construction work or operations
performed as an unpaid volunteer if such
construction work or operations are
performed under adult supervision for a
charitable housing organization.
Minnesota
Wages paid. Any city in the State may
now use an electronic time-recording
system if the governing body of the city
adopts policies to ensure that the timekeeping and payroll methods are accurate
and reliable.
Hours worked. The State Motor Carrier
Act was amended to exclude Federal, State,
and local governments from the definition
of a “person” as a “motor carrier” as defined
by the act. The amendment also corrected
20 Monthly Labor Review

references in the State law that incorporates
Federal regulations on truckdrivers’ hours
of service. As amended, the law now stipulates that its hours criteria do not apply to
drivers transporting agricultural commodities or farm supplies for agricultural purposes, as long as the transportation is
limited to an area within 100 miles of the
source of the commodities or the distribution point for the farm and is conducted
during the planting and harvesting seasons
within the State, as determined by the State.
Equal employment opportunity. The State
affirmative action provisions were amended.
The commissioner shall establish a statewide
affirmative action goal for each of the Federal
Equal Employment Opportunity occupational categories applicable to State employment. For the purposes of affirmative
action, a “Goal Unit” is the group of jobs in
an agency or agency subdivision assigned to
one of the Federal Equal Employment
Opportunity occupation categories applicable to State employment. The amendment
also struck a number of factors from being
considered in setting affirmative action goals.
The remaining factors to be considered are (1)
the percentage of members of each protected
class in the recruiting area who have the
necessary skills and (2) the availability for
promotion or transfer of members of protected classes in the recruiting area population.
Worker privacy. Information about
employees of secure treatment facilities or
corrections facilities, or information about
those involved in the community supervision of offenders, shall not be disclosed
to patients, inmates, or others if administrators reasonably believe that the information
will be used to harass, intimidate, or assault
the employees. Such information includes
home addresses or telephone numbers, the
locations of employees during nonwork
hours, the locations of employees’ immediate family, the education and training of the
employee, the employee’s prior employment, and payroll timesheets that may
disclose future work assignments scheduled
for the employee.
Plant closing. The owner of a municipal
airport is required to notify the commissioner of transportation of the owner’s
intent to close the airport before or immediately upon cessation of operations at the
airport. The owner shall schedule a public
hearing to take place within 90 days following the giving of notice to the commissioner
and shall also provide public notice of the

January 2005

hearing a minimum of 30 days before it is to
take place.
Mississippi
Drug and alcohol testing. Any employee
who may be required by an employer to
submit to a drug test shall be provided, at
least 30 days prior to the implementation
of a drug-testing program, a written policy
statement from the employer that contains
information about the grounds on which an
employee may be required to submit to a
drug test and about any actions the employer may take against an employee on
the basis of a confirmed positive test. The
written policy must contain information on
(1) confidentiality, (2) procedures for
employees to confidentially report the use
of prescription or nonprescription medications prior to being tested, (3) the positions
within the company that are subject to
testing, (4) the consequences of refusing to
submit to a drug test, (5) opportunities for
assessment and rehabilitation if an employee has a confirmed positive test result,
and (6) how the employee can contest the
accuracy of the results, as well as a list of
all drugs for which the employer might test.
Employees may be requested by the
employer to sign a statement that the drug
policy has been read and understood.
Missouri
Worker privacy. The State’s sunshine law
was amended to exclude from disclosure the
names of private sources donating or
contributing money to the salary of a
chancellor or president at all public colleges
and universities in the State, as well as the
amount of money contributed by the
source. This exclusion is not in effect where
the disclosure is otherwise required by law.
Nebraska
Time off. The law requiring all persons,
firms, or corporations owning or operating
an assembling plant, workshop, or mechanical establishment employing one or more
workers to allow all of their employees not
less than 30 consecutive minutes for lunch
in each 8-hour shift does not apply to
employment that is covered by a valid
collective bargaining agreement or another
written agreement between an employer and
employee.
Worker privacy.

Employers who hire or

rehire any employee are now required to
submit additional information to the State
Department of Labor concerning the employee. A copy of the employee’s Federal
W -4 or any form previously approved by
the department shall be submitted, with the
date of hire or rehire inscribed upon it. This
additional information shall be submitted
within 20 days of the date of hire or rehire
or, if the reports are transmitted electronically, by 2 monthly transmissions, if necessary, that are not less than 12 days or
more than 16 days apart.
New Hampshire
Discharge. An employer may prorate, on
a daily basis, the salary of an employee
who, hired after the beginning of a pay
period, terminates employment of his or
her own accord before the end of a pay
period or is terminated for cause by the
employer. No employer may withhold or
divert any portion of an employee’s wages,
unless the employer is required or
empowered to do so by State or Federal
law or the employer has a written authorization by the employee for deductions
for a lawful purpose, which now includes
(1) voluntary contributions to cafeteria
plans or flexible benefit plans, (2) childcare
fees by a licensed childcare provider, (3)
parking fees, and (4) amounts paid for
pharmaceutical items or gift shop and
cafeteria items purchased on the site of a
hospital by hospital employees.
Equal employment opportunity. The
duties of the State Legislative Ethics
Committee have been expanded to include
the investigation of allegations of improper
conduct, including sexual harassment
against members or retaliation against
employees who make good-faith allegations
of sexual harassment, that may reflect upon
the legislature, relating to the conduct of
individuals in the performance of their
duties as members, officers, or employees
of the legislature.
Worker privacy. Payroll accounts and the
information contained therein are now
exempt from the trustee process.
New Jersey
Overtime. The State Senate adopted a
resolution urging the U.S. Department of
Labor to repeal the rule changes that could
allow employers to reclassify workers,
without just cause, as being exempt from
earning overtime pay.

Prevailing wage. The State prevailingwage law was amended. When the commissioner of labor finds that an employer
has violated provisions of the act, the matter
may be referred to the attorney general or
his or her designee for investigation and
prosecution. An employer commits a crime
if the employer knowingly pays one or
more employees employed in public work
subject to the provisions of the act at a rate
less than the rate required pursuant to the
act. A violation wherein the contract amount
is $75,000 or above constitutes a crime of
the second degree, while a violation in which
the contract amount exceeds $2,500, but is
less than $75,000, is a crime of the third
degree, and a violation wherein the contract
amount is $2,500 or less is a crime of the
fourth degree. In addition, the employer
shall be deemed to have caused loss to the
employees in the amount by which the
employees were underpaid and shall be
subject to the provisions regarding fines and
restitution to victims, as well as to other
pertinent provisions.
The prevailing-wage law concerning
custom fabrication in public work was
amended. Custom fabrication is now
encompassed within the definition of
“public work” and includes mechanical
insulation and plumbing, heating, cooling,
ventilation, and exhaust duct systems used
in public work. Also, according to the
newly amended law, custom fabrication is
subject to the State Prevailing Wage Act,
regardless of whether the fabrication is or is
not done on the site of the public work.
Contractors or subcontractors engaged in
custom fabrication are not regarded as
suppliers of materials and therefore are not
granted the latter’s exemption from the
provisions of the act.
Each worker employed in the construction or rehabilitation of facilities under
the administration of the Casino Reinvestment Development Authority, the State
Educational Facilities Authority, or the
State Health Care Facilities Financing
Authority shall be paid not less than the
prevailing-wage rate for the work’s craft or
trade, as determined by the commissioner
of labor.
Hours worked. The provisions of the
Surface Transportation Assistance Act
pertaining to hours of service are applicable
to commercial motor vehicles weighing
26,000 pounds or less and operating in
intrastate commerce. Therefore, when an
operator has been on duty continuously for
12 hours or longer or has been on duty for
12 hours in the aggregate during any 16

consecutive hours, that person shall have
at least 10 consecutive hours off. Those
same provisions do not apply to a vehicle
designed to transport 16 or more passengers, driver included, to a vehicle used in
the transportation of hazardous materials
and required to be placarded, or to a vehicle
that displays a hazardous-materials placard.
New Mexico
Prevailing wages. Unregistered contractors are now prohibited from bidding
on public works projects that are subject to
the Public Works Minimum Wage Act. In
addition, registered contractors may not list
unregistered subcontractors in bid proposals for a public works project subject to
the Act. Neither the State nor any political
subdivision thereof may accept bids from
unregistered contractors. Parties required to
be registered pursuant to the Act may have
their registration cancelled, revoked, or
suspended with conditions for failure to
comply with the registration provisions or
for good cause. Injunctive relief may be
sought in district court for failure to comply
with provisions of the Act.
New York
Minimum wage. The State minimum wage
was increased to $6.00 per hour.
Hours worked. The State’s transportation
law was amended to exempt telephone
utility truckdrivers engaged in the restoration of telephone service from the portion
of the law relating to limitations on hours
of labor or service. This exemption applies
to those persons whose primary employment is not as a driver of a motortruck, but
who drive only as an incidental part of their
employment and who are engaged in the
emergency restoration of telephone service.
Child labor. Besides recently assuming
the responsibility of being the issuing
agency for all employment permits affecting
child performers, the State Department of
Labor will now oversee the requirements
for such permits. All child performers shall
have such a permit listing the true and stage
names and the age of the child, along with
the name, address, and written consent of
the parent or guardian. No permit shall
allow a child to participate in an exhibition,
rehearsal, or performance that is harmful to
the welfare, development, or proper education of the child. A permit may be revoked

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 21

State Labor Laws, 2004

by the department for good cause.
Agriculture. Farmworkers in the State
must be notified in writing of the conditions
of employment every employer shall
utilize. The employer shall be subject either
to the farm work agreement established by
the commissioner, which includes job
service recruitment or placement orders and
a farm labor contract or migrant labor registration, or to an agricultural employment
contract executed by the employer or its
representative with the representative of a
foreign government.
Garment industry. The commissioner of
labor is now required to publish quarterly
reports setting forth the names of all
registered manufacturers and contractors in
the apparel industry, as well as all such
manufacturers and contractors who were
found to be in violation of registration
requirements.
Worker privacy. Whenever an application
is submitted for licensure endorsement or a
limited permit in any profession regulated
by the State Board of Regents and there is a
determination that the applicant has been
subject to disciplinary action by another
jurisdiction, the Regents shall evaluate the
conduct of the applicant and may deny him
or her endorsement or the issuance of a
limited permit. This determination shall be
made on the basis of an evaluation of the
infraction within the State. Conduct covered
includes practicing the profession beyond
its authorized scope with gross incompetence or negligence and the relinquishment
(voluntarily or otherwise) of the applicant’s
professional license in another jurisdiction
after a disciplinary action.
North Carolina
Prevailing wage.
Under the State’s
industrial revenue bond program, resident
manufacturers enter into financing agreements with a local financing authority that
issues tax-free revenue bonds, with the
proceeds used by the company to finance
land, buildings, and equipment. The
amounts paid by the company must be
sufficient to pay the debt service on the
bonds. As a result of newly enacted State
legislation, in order to qualify for the
financing, manufacturers are no longer
required to pay an average weekly manufacturing wage that either is above the average
weekly manufacturing wage in the county
or is at least 10 percent above the average
weekly manufacturing wage in the State.
22 Monthly Labor Review

Worker privacy. Evidence of statements
made and conduct occurring in the
mediation of a personnel matter involving
the University of North Carolina or a
constituent institution shall not be subject
to discovery and shall be inadmissible in
any administrative or judicial proceeding of
any action, except a proceeding to enforce a
signed settlement. No mediator or person
in training to become a mediator, nor any
participant in a mediation of a personnel
matter, shall be compelled to testify or
produce evidence with respect to mediation
in a civil proceeding.
Employment agencies. A person providing
professional employer services to individuals other than temporary employees and
where employment responsibilities are
shared or allocated must be licensed. Two
or more entities under the control of a
parent organization may combine to seek
the issuance of a single license. An applicant
for licensure shall file, with the commissioner, a surety bond in the amount of
$100,000 in favor of the State. In lieu of a
surety bond, an applicant may submit an
irrevocable letter of credit. Before the issuance of the initial license, each applicant for
a limited or professional organization license shall pay a nonrefundable application fee of $1,000 to the commissioner. Each
applicant shall pay the commissioner a fee
of $500 for a renewal of the license. The
commissioner may also issue a limited
license to a person who seeks to offer limited professional employer services. The
licensee reserves the right to hire, fire, and
discipline the assigned employees, in addition to maintaining an employee benefits
plan. The commissioner may conduct an
examination of a licensee as often as the
commissioner considers it appropriate and
may take disciplinary action against a
licensee for such violations of the law as
committing crimes that involve dishonesty
or breach of trust, engaging in professional
employer services without a license, failing
to provide notice in writing of the discontinuance and replacement of insurance coverage, bribing an agent of the State, and
committing fraud or intentional misrepresentation. The commissioner may issue a
cease and desist order to a person or group
that violates any provision of the law.
Workplace violence and security.
Legislation was enacted that allows
employers, on behalf of employees who are
victims of attempted injury, nonconsensual
sexual contact, stalking, or threats, to file a
petition for a no-contact order without

January 2005

paying any filing fee. To determine safety
concerns, the employee must be consulted
prior to the seeking of the order. On the
basis of their level of participation or cooperation, employees who are targets of unlawful conduct and who are unwilling to
participate in the process shall not face
disciplinary action. The orders are effective
for not more than 10 days, as the court
fixes, unless, within the time so fixed, the
temporary civil no-contact order, for good
cause shown, is extended for a like or longer
period if the respondent consents. Violations of the no-contact order may result in
a fine or imprisonment.
Ohio
Worker privacy. The State Revised Code
was amended to allow the Division of
Liquor Control to provide the Social
Security number that the division possesses
of an individual to the Department of
Public Safety, the Department of Taxation,
the Office of the Attorney General, or any
other State or local law enforcement agency
if such department, office, or agency requests the number from the division to
conduct an investigation, implement an
enforcement action, or collect taxes.
Oklahoma
Hours worked. The State Motor Carrier
Safety and Hazardous Materials Transportation Act now exempts, on an emergency basis, utility service vehicles that are
owned or operated by utilities regulated by
the Corporation Commission or electric
cooperatives and that are engaged solely in
intrastate commerce within the State from
the hours-of-service regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, effective June 26, 2003, until
June 27, 2006. The hours-of-service regulations that were applicable in the State
immediately prior to June 26, 2003, shall
remain applicable to utility vehicles engaged
solely in intrastate commerce in the State
until June 26, 2006. If Federal laws or
regulations are amended at any time to
exempt utility service vehicles from the
hours-of-service requirements, any exemption shall be effective in the State for the
duration of the exemption. The Department
of Public Safety may enter into agreements
with State and local emergency management
agencies and with private parties establishing procedures for complying with
Federal codes and regulations that provide
an exemption from the hours-of-service

regulations during certain emergencies.
Time off. Employees summoned to serve
as jurors and who notify their employer of
the summons in a timely manner after its
receipt and prior to their appearance for
jury duty may not be terminated, removed,
or otherwise subject to any adverse employment action as a result of such service.
The employees may not be required or
requested to use annual, vacation, or sick
leave for time spent responding to a summons for jury duty, participating in the jury
selection process, or actually serving on a
jury. The court shall automatically postpone and reschedule the service of a
summoned juror who is employed by an
employer with five or fewer full-time
employees, or their equivalent, if another
employee of that employer has been
summoned to appear during the same
period.
Discharge. Tribal police officers commissioned by a State law enforcement
agency pursuant to a cross-deputization
agreement with the State or any political
subdivision thereof shall comply with the
training requirements as certified by the
Council on Law Enforcement Education and
Training. Any cross-deputized tribal officer
certified by the council who fails to meet
the annual training requirements shall be
subject to having his or her certification
suspended after the peace officer and
employer have been provided with written
notice and a reasonable time to comply with
the requirements. Suspension of peace
officer certification shall be reported to the
district attorney for the jurisdiction in
which the officer is employed.
Members of the State’s Police Pension
and Retirement System who terminate their
employment for the purposes of performing service as a police officer on a
contract basis for the U.S. Department of
Defense or Department of State in a war
zone may purchase service credit, not to
exceed 1 year, for the period during which
the member performed services for either
of such entities or a branch of the United
States military. Within 1 year of becoming
reemployed by a participating employer in
the system, the member must make payment for all required employer and employee contributions for the period of
service during which the member was
privately employed. Such purchased service credit shall be counted for purposes of
vesting, calculating the normal retirement
date, computing the retirement benefit of
the member, and determining the member’s

eligibility to participate in the Deferred
Option Retirement Plan or its alternative.
Worker privacy. With the exception of the
State or any political subdivision thereof,
employing entities shall not (1) publicly
post or display the Social Security number
of an employee, (2) print an employee’s
Social Security number on any card required
for the employee to access information,
products, or services provided by the
employing entity, (3) require the employee
to transmit his or her Social Security
number over the Internet, unless the
connection is secure or the number is
encrypted, (4) require the employee to use
his or her Social Security number to access
an Internet Web site, unless a password or
unique identifier is also required to access
the site, or (5) print the employee’s Social
Security number on any materials mailed to
the employee, unless the number is required
to be on the document by State or Federal
law. Employees may provide the employing entity with written permission to use
their Social Security numbers for any of the
aforementioned purposes.
The results of reviews or investigations
initiated by the State Board of Veterinary
Medical Examiners on account of citizen
complaints or allegations of violations of the
State Veterinary Practice Act shall be kept
confidential by the board, its employees,
independent contractors, appointed committee members, and other agents. Information
obtained as a result of such a review or
investigation shall not be deemed to be a record
as defined in the State’s Open Records Act.
Such information shall be considered competent evidence in a court of competent
jurisdiction only in matters directly relating
to actions of the board and the affected
individual or entity as a result of the board’s
obtaining the information. Such information
shall not be admissible as evidence in any
other type of civil or criminal action.
Oregon
The State implemented a scheduled
minimum-wage increase to $7.25 per hour.

provided at any law officer’s termination
proceeding, the introduction of the document
shall, in and of itself, be sufficient evidence to
justify the termination of the officer.
Other laws. The Sign Language Interpreter
and Transliterator State Registration Act was
enacted. The act requires individuals providing sign language interpreting and
transliterating services to persons who are
deaf or hard of hearing to register with, and
pay a registration fee to, the State. The act
also imposes duties on the Office for the Deaf
and Hard of Hearing in the Department of
Labor and Industry. Conviction of failure to
register could result in a fine not to exceed
$300 or in imprisonment for not more than 90
days, or both, for a first violation. Convictions for a second violation shall result in a
fine of not less than $300, but not more than
$1,000, or imprisonment for not more than
90 days, or both.
Rhode Island
Prevailing wage. Employees or former
employees, under a private right of action,
may bring a civil action for appropriate
injunctive relief or actual damages, including
reasonable attorney’s fees and costs of the
action, within 3 years after the occurrence
of the alleged wage or benefit violation. The
employer shall be liable for the amount of
unpaid wages or benefits, plus interest. The
court shall award affected employees
liquidated damages in an amount equal to 2
times the amount of unpaid wages or
benefits owed. The affected employers
may still bid on other contracts and may be
terminated for failure to pay agreed-upon
wages. Any person, firm, or corporation
found to have willfully made a false or
fraudulent representation relative to wage
obligations owed shall be required to pay
civil penalties ranging from $1,000 to
$3,000 per representation. Employers may
not discharge or otherwise discriminate
against an employee for making a complaint
or participating in an investigation, and if
they do, the employee can be compensated
up to 2 times the amount of backpay and
reasonable attorneys’ fees.

Pennsylvania
Discharge. The State enacted the Confidence in Law Enforcement Act, which
established procedures for the termination of
law enforcement officers convicted of an
offense graded as a felony or serious misdemeanor committed either within or outside
the jurisdiction of the officer’s home State.
When a certified copy of a conviction is

Wages paid. Employers of 50 or more
persons and with establishments located
within ¼ mile of a State public transit service
that provides a parking subsidy to employees
shall offer a parking cash-out program that
provides their employees with the option of
receiving subsidized parking or a monthly
transit pass. Employers may require em-

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 23

State Labor Laws, 2004

ployees participating in the program to certify
that they will comply with guidelines established by the employer to avoid neighborhood
parking problems. Employees who do not
comply with the guidelines will no longer be
eligible for the program.
The State law concerning the requirements for the payment of back wages was
amended to stipulate that, whenever an
employee separates or is separated from an
employer’s payroll, the unpaid wages or
compensation of the employee shall be due
on the next regular payday at the usual place
of payment. In addition, for employees
who separate from an employer’s payroll
after completing at least 1 year of service,
any vacation accrued or awarded shall
become wages payable in full or on a
prorated basis with all other due wages on
the next regular payday for the employee.
Finally, employers who fail to comply with
the legal requirements concerning the
payment of back wages shall be punished
by a fine of not less than $400. If the
director of labor and training requires the
employer to place the amounts due employees in a special account in trust for the
employees and paid on order of the director, the employer shall also pay the director
an administrative fee of 25 percent of the
amount due the employees. Subsequent
violations shall result in an administrative
fee of 50 percent.
Time off. Every employer in the State
with 50 or more employees shall allow an
employee who is a victim of a crime to leave
work to attend court proceedings related to
the crime, provided that the employee has
given the employer a copy of notification
of the proceedings. An employer may not
dismiss an employee who is a victim of a
crime because the employee exercises his
or her right to leave work; however, the employer is not required to compensate said
employee. The employee may elect, or the
employer may require the employee, to use
the employee’s accrued paid vacation,
personal, or sick leave. The employee shall
not lose seniority or precedent while absent
from employment; however, the employer
may limit the leave if it creates an undue
hardship to the employer’s business.
Equal employment opportunity. Applications for all initial licenses and renewals of
licenses shall include a section requesting
optional data on the race and ethnic background of the applicant. Individual data
shall be held confidential. Only aggregate
data on race and ethnic background may be
disseminated by the Department of Health.
24 Monthly Labor Review

Employee leasing. The State law entitled
“Businesses and Professions” was amended
to require the regulation and registration,
with the division of taxation, of professional
employer organizations, staff leasing companies, registered staff leasing companies,
employee leasing companies, and others.
The term “professional employer service”
is defined as the service of entering into
coemployment relationships in which all
or a majority of the employees provide
services to a client or to a division or work
unit of a client. All professional employer
service employees are covered under the
Businesses and Professions law. A fee of
$500 shall be charged for initial registrations
and $250 for subsequent registrations. All
registrations shall be completed every
August 1. The aforesaid organizations shall
also post a bond or securities with a minimum market value of $50,000.
Employment agencies. Applications
provided to applicants for nursing licenses
or license renewals shall include an optional
section requesting data on the race and
ethnic background of the applicant,
provided, however, that the applicant shall
in no way be required to furnish the information. If provided, the data shall remain
confidential and shall be released only in
the aggregate.
Legislation was enacted that prohibits
an employer or agency hiring the services
of a temporary placement staffing agency
from (1) requiring the employer’s or agency’s employees to provide transportation
to other employees as a condition of employment, (2) charging an employee for
transport services provided to that employee, or (3) charging or collecting fees
from employees for transportation services
provided by other employees, the employer, or a subcontracted transportation
company. However, an employer may purchase public transportation bus passes and
deduct not more than 50 percent of the
actual cost of a bus pass from the employee’s total daily wages, provided that
the employee voluntarily participates and
the employer has written authorization, in
the employee’s primary language, to deduct
the cost. In addition, an employer may offer
transportation services and charge a fee,
payable to the employer only (and not to
exceed the actual cost of transportation or
$3 per day, whichever is smaller), provided
again that the participation is voluntary and
that written authorization in the employee’s primary language has been given.
Upon determining that a violation has
occurred, a written notice initially shall be

January 2005

sent. If a subsequent violation occurs
within 3 years of the first violation, said
employer shall be subject to a $1,500 fine.
For a third violation within 3 years, the fine
may not exceed $2,000. Any violation
occurring more than 3 years from the date
of a previous violation shall be considered a
first violation.
Any person, firm, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, or
other legal entity that supplies registered
or licensed practical nurses to facilities
requiring the services of such persons
(nursing pools) shall be considered an employer and not an independent contractor
and shall be subject to all State and Federal
laws that govern employer-employee relations. All nursing pools must be registered
with the Department of Health, must pay
the appropriate $500 yearly fee, and are
exempt from paying any additional
registration fee. The department shall set
standards for employee bonding, appropriate staff professional certification and
licensure, and liability insurance. Unregistered nursing pools shall be subject to a
penalty of $100 for each day of operation
for the first offense, and any subsequent
violations shall result in a daily fine of $150.
Unfair labor practice. Legislation was
enacted that makes it an unfair labor
practice for any State employer with 50 or
more employees to deny leave to an eligible
employee who is a victim of a crime or to
discharge, threaten to discharge, intimidate,
or coerce the employee because the employee takes leave to attend a criminal
proceeding. The employer is not required
to compensate an employee who is a victim
of a crime when the employee leaves work
to attend court proceedings related to the
crime. If an employee leaves work to attend
such proceedings, the employee may elect,
or the employer may require the employee,
to use the employee’s paid vacation,
personal leave, or sick leave. Employers
may limit the leave provided if the employee’s leave creates an undue hardship to
the employer’s business. The employee
shall provide the employer with a copy of
the notification of court proceedings prior
to leaving work, and employees may not
lose seniority or precedence while absent
from employment.
South Carolina
Inmate labor. Trial judges may now waive
their right to receive notification about the
release of prisoners on work release
programs if the judges place their waiver in

writing and forward it to the correct
departmental authority.
Other laws. The Department of Health
and Environmental Control may take
enforcement action against the holder of an
emergency medical technician certification
anytime it is determined that the holder
(1) no longer meets the qualifications set
by the department, (2) has failed to provide
to patients emergency medical treatment of
a quality deemed acceptable by the department, or (3) is guilty of misconduct as outlined by the department’s rules and regulations. Further, the department is authorized
to suspend a certificate pending the investigation of any complaint or allegation regarding the commission of an offense that
would be considered misconduct.
Tennessee
Prevailing wage. The State Prevailing
Wage Commission has been urged to
continue its efforts to develop an Internet
application for the electronic submission
of survey forms by contractors and to
periodically update the General Assembly
on the progress of such development.
Plant closing. Any employer, person,
corporation, or institution that files for
bankruptcy or ceases to operate as a
business shall provide notice to the clerk or
the department responsible for tracking
child support payments for employees of
those filing for bankruptcy or ceasing to
operate at least 10 days prior to the entity’s
cessation of operations as a business. The
entity shall provide notice regarding the
termination of employment to the clerk, the
department, or the office in the State or in any
other State to which the withheld income was
to be sent. Any such notice shall include the
names of any affected employees subject to
an income assignment, the last known address
of each of those employees, and the names
and addresses of any new employer or source
of income of those employees. Failure to
comply subjects the entity to payment of
any amounts due, up to the accumulated
amount of the monetary assignment, as well
as a civil penalty of $100 per employee for
the first failure to comply, $200 per employee
for the second failure to comply, and $500
per employee for each occurrence thereafter.
Hours worked. The State Emergency
Management Agency is now authorized to
declare a state of emergency, or to declare a
state of emergency prospectively in
anticipation of an emergency, in order that

certain commercial vehicles engaged in the
distribution of electric power, the supply
of fuel, or the provision of telecommunications services to residences and
businesses may carry out their services.
The declaration of the state of emergency is
for the purpose of triggering the emergencyrelief-effort portion of the hours-of-service
regulations promulgated by the Federal
Motor Carrier Safety Administration.
Time off. Jurors may now request, prior
to each day’s service, that the person
responsible provide each juror’s employer
with a statement which shows the number
of hours the juror spent serving if service
has been less than 3 hours.
Discharge. The State code concerning the
discharge of those employed in higher
education was amended. Policies governing
reductions in force at institutions of higher
education shall be adopted by the Board of
Regents of the University of Tennessee and
the State Board of Regents. The policies
shall provide a consistent and equitable
method of reducing the workforce when
necessary. At a minimum, the policies shall
(1) apply to regular, nonfaculty employees,
(2) provide a written rationale for any
reduction in the workforce, (3) identify the
functional areas affected, review the budget
implications involved, and develop specific
written criteria to be used in identifying
duties that will be reassigned or eliminated,
(4) provide for such factors as institutional
and positional length of service, unit needs
in selecting affected employees, and
qualifications necessary to perform the
remaining duties of the affected unit, (5) require written notice to affected employees
as far in advance as possible, and (6) afford
an opportunity for affected employees to
receive notification when vacancies for
similar positions at their former campuses
occur.
Equal employment opportunity. The State
equal-pay law was amended to institute
compensatory and punitive damages for
employers who knowingly violate the law.
A first violation knowingly committed by
an employer shall result in the employer’s
reimbursing the affected employee the
unpaid wages and up to an equal amount of
liquidated damages. A second such violation
shall result in the employer’s reimbursing
the employee the unpaid wages and up to
double the amount of unpaid wages as
liquidated damages. A third such violation
shall result in the employer’s being liable to
the employee the unpaid wages and up to

three times the amount of unpaid wages as
liquidated damages.
The State Occupational Safety and
Health Administration may now initiate
investigations and enforcement actions
relating to allegations of discrimination
under the law regarding local governments’
duties to employees.
Drug and alcohol testing. Neither newly
hired employees nor current employees may
serve as a driver for a childcare center until
they have undergone a drug test and received
a negative result for illegal drug use.
Workplace violence and security. There is
no longer a requirement that persons being
investigated pay the cost of background
checks when applying for positions of trust
as a State employee.
Utah
Drug and alcohol testing. State labor code
provisions related to drug testing were
amended by defining “test-related
information” as information received by the
employer through the employer’s drug- or
alcohol-testing program. Information
covered under the definition includes
interviews, reports, statements, memoranda, and test results. Such information
shall be disclosed to the Division of
Occupational and Professional Licensing
and may be used only in a proceeding
related to an action taken by the division in
whole or in part on the basis of test-related
information. The employer may be examined as a witness in regard to test-related
information when the division is taking such
action.
Worker privacy. Each school district and
school shall maintain a list at each school
identifying and distinguishing between
teachers and associate teachers and shall
make the list available for review by any
person upon request.
The State Public Safety Code was
amended to allow background checks on all
applicants, not just peace officers, for employment with a law enforcement agency.
In addition, the code now (1) requires that
training academies provide background
information on applicants to law enforcement agencies and (2) protects the academies from civil liability for disclosing
information to law enforcement agencies
evaluating the applicants with the aim of
hiring them. Such background information
includes (1) the record of any final action

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 25

State Labor Laws, 2004

based on an investigation concerning the
applicant’s qualification for certification as
a peace officer and (2) notice of any pending
or ongoing investigation regarding the
applicant’s certification as a peace officer.
Virginia
Wages paid. The State code concerning the
time and method of payment of wages to
employees was amended. Employers may
now pay wages by credit to prepaid debit
cards or card accounts from which the
employee is able to withdraw or transfer
funds, as long as the employer has made
full disclosure of any applicable fees and
provided that the employee has consented
to such method of payment. This amendment eliminated the requirement that
payments of wages by prepaid debit cards
be deposited into a trust account.
Time off. When employers fail or refuse
to comply with State requirements entitling
employees to leaves of absence from their
respective nongovernmental duties without
loss of seniority, accrued leave, or efficiency
rating in order to participate in Staterequired military duty or service, the State
attorney general, upon a request from the
affected employee, may represent the employee personally or through an assistant.
Employee eligibility for participation in
the State Sickness and Disability Program
shall be suspended when the employee is
placed in a nonpay status if such status is
due to a suspension pending investigation
or the outcome of employment-related court
action.
The State code now stipulates that no
person who is summoned to serve on a jury
shall be required to work on the day of his
or her jury duty.
The employee day-of-rest exemption
that was inadvertently permitted earlier
in the regularly scheduled legislative
session does not apply to persons engaged in
(1) transportation, (2) public services and
utilities, manufacturing, processing, or
plant operations of all types, (3) publishing, including the sale and distribution
of the products, (4) servicing, fueling,
selling of parts and supplies, or repair of
motor vehicles, boats, or aircraft, (5) the
operation of motion picture theaters or the
production of radio and television programs, (6) medical services or other services
provided on an emergency basis, (7) sports,
athletic events, and the operation of historic, entertainment, or recreational facilities, including the sale or rental of boats and
swimming, fishing, or boating equipment,
26 Monthly Labor Review

(8) agriculture, including the operation of
nurseries or florist establishments, (9) the
preparation and sale of prescription and
nonprescription drugs or the sale of medical,
hygienic, and baby supplies, (10) wholesale food warehouses or ship chandleries,
(11) restaurants or delicatessens, (12) janitorial, custodial, or like services, (13) the
operation of hotels, motels, funeral homes, or
cemeteries, (14) mining and supporting
facilities, (15) the sale of tobacco and related
products, (16) a drugstore in which the
majority of the sales receipts consist of
prescription and nonprescription drugs and
health and beauty aids, (17) the sale of
novelties, cameras, photo supplies, antiques, pictures, paintings, art supplies,
souvenirs, animals as pets, or pet supplies,
and (18) the sale or leasing of noncommercial
real property or mobile homes and the sale
of modular, panelized, or other prefabricated houses.
Worker privacy. Upon entering into a
written agreement, the tax commissioner is
now permitted to provide, to the commissioner of labor and industry, such tax
information as may be necessary to
facilitate the collection of unpaid wages.
Department of Labor. The definition of
“commissioner” within the State code was
amended to mean the commissioner of labor
and industry. Except where the context clearly
indicates the contrary, any reference to the
commissioner shall be construed to include
his or her authorized representatives.
The Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers
Board and the Interagency Migrant Worker
Policy Committee were transferred from
the Department of Labor and Industry to
the Commonwealth Employment Commission. The committee shall coordinate its
activities with the board. All agencies of the
Commonwealth Employment Commission
shall be required to cooperate with the
committee upon request.
Offsite work. The head of each State
agency is now required to implement a
comprehensive statewide policy under
which eligible employees of State agencies
may participate in alternative work
schedules. The policy shall include model
guidelines, rules, and procedures for
participation in alternative work schedules
and may include an incentive program to
encourage State employees to participate
in such schedules. The policy shall allow
employees to participate without diminished employee performance or delivery of
service. Each agency head shall set annual

January 2005

percentage targets for the number of positions eligible for alternative work schedules.
All agencies shall have a goal of not less
than 25 percent of its eligible workforce
participating in alternative work schedules
by July 1, 2009.
Washington
Minimum wage. The State’s minimum
wage, as scheduled, rose to $7.35 per hour.
Agriculture. The State Department of
Labor and Industries must collect and
analyze data from agricultural employers
that are required to implement a monitoring
program for employees who handle category I or category II organophosphate or
N-methyl-carbamate pesticides. The data
collection and analysis will enable the department to determine whether mandatory
testing is warranted and, if so, what thresholds or exposure to pesticides should trigger
mandatory testing. The department shall
report its findings on January 1 of 2005,
2006, and 2007.
Discharge. Employers may not discipline
or discharge reserve officers from employment because of leave taken that is related
to a fire alarm or an emergency call. Any
reserve officer who believes that he or she
was discharged or disciplined in violation
of this law may file a complaint alleging the
violation with the director within 90 days
of the alleged violation.
Genetic testing. A law was enacted that
prohibits any person, firm, or corporation,
as well as the State or any of its political
subdivisions or municipal corporations
from requiring, directly or indirectly, that
any employee or prospective employee
submit genetic information or submit to
screening for genetic information as a
condition of employment or continued
employment. This information does not
include that obtained from (1) routine
physical measurements, including chemical,
blood, and urine analysis, unless conducted
purposefully to diagnose genetic or inherited characteristics; and (2) results from
tests for abuse of alcohol or drugs or for the
presence of HIV.
Worker privacy. Certificated and classified
school district employees who apply to
another school district must sign a release
authorizing the disclosure of any information on sexual misconduct, including any
related documents in their personnel file.

Employees who refuse to sign the release
shall not be hired by any school district
within the State. Hiring school districts
must request any information about that
employee’s sexual misconduct, including
related documents, from all of the applicant’s previous school district employers.
The information must be provided within
20 days of receipt of the request. The
school districts that provide such information are granted immunity when the
information is provided in good faith.
Wrongful disclosure of such information is
a misdemeanor. Applicants may be
employed on a conditional basis, pending a
review of any information on sexual misconduct. School districts are not permitted
to enter into employment contracts or
severance agreements that call for sealing
records of verbal or physical abuse or sexual
misconduct. This prohibition does not
apply to existing contracts or agreements.
West Virginia
Overtime health care. Hospitals are now
prohibited from mandating a nurse, directly
or through coercion, to accept an assignment
of overtime, and hospitals are also prohibited
from taking action against a nurse solely on
the grounds that the nurse refuses to accept
an overtime assignment at the facility if the
nurse declines to work additional hours
because doing so may, in the nurse’s judgment,
jeopardize the safety of patients or employees. Nurses may be mandated (1) to
continue on duty in overtime status due to an
unforeseen emergent situation that jeopardizes the safety of patients or (2) to complete
a single patient-care procedure already in
progress. Employers, however, may not
construe this amendment as permitting the
employer to use a staffing pattern as a means
to require a nurse to complete a procedure or
to use on-call time as a substitute for
mandatory overtime.

Equal employment opportunity. The State
code concerning equal employment opportunity was amended to require that the State
police superintendent file an annual report
with the legislature on or before the first
day of January of each year. The report
shall include a summary of the efforts, and
the effectiveness of those efforts, intended
to recruit women, African-Americans, and
other minorities into the ranks of the State
police.
Worker privacy. The State code regarding
the privacy of the management and preservation of public records was amended.
Personal information about State employees, such as their home addresses,
Social Security numbers, credit and debit
card numbers, driver’s license numbers, and
marital status or maiden name, is considered
confidential and should be released to
nongovernmental entities only for purposes
authorized by Federal law or regulation. In
addition, personal information maintained
by State entities on non-State employees,
such as their Social Security numbers and
credit or debit card numbers, can be released
only for such purposes as are authorized
by Federal law or regulation.
Other laws. In addition to State residents,
employees of licensed State bingo organizations who are residents of a bordering
State and whose county of residence is
contiguous to the county in which the bingo
operation is conducted, or who are residents
of a bordering State and who reside within
35 miles of the county in which the bingo
operation is conducted, may participate in
any manner in the conduct of any bingo
game or operate any concession in conjunction with the occasion of a bingo game.
Wisconsin
Minimum wage. The Madison Common
Council adopted a Minimum Wage Ordi-

nance raising the minimum wage for workers in the community to $5.70 on January
1, 2005, and then to $6.50 in 2006, $7.25 in
2007, and $7.75 plus indexing in 2008. It is
expected that the raise will benefit up to
17,000 low-wage workers in the community.
Prevailing wage. On January 1, 2004, the
prevailing-wage threshold amount for
coverage under the State prevailing-wage
laws for State and municipal contracts was
changed administratively from $180,000 to
$186,000 for contracts in which more than
one trade is involved and from $37,000 to
$38,000 for contracts in which a single trade
is involved. On January 1, 2005, these
amounts were changed administratively to
$200,000 for contracts in which more than
one trade is involved and $41,000 for
contracts in which a singe trade is involved.
Discharge. The Department of Workforce
Development is required to promulgate
rules specifying a grievance procedure for
resolving complaints of alleged violations
of the Wisconsin Works (W -2) Program,
which prohibits an employer participating
in the program from creating a W -2 employment position by terminating the employment of a regular employee or by filling a
position that is vacant because a non-W -2
employee is on strike, on layoff, or engaged
in a labor dispute.
Wyoming
Other laws. A law was enacted extending
active-duty military rights and protections
to members of the State National Guard
ordered to active duty or training by the
State or Federal government for a period of
more than 30 consecutive days. Those
persons who knowingly violate these
protections shall be guilty of a misdemeanor
punishable by a fine not to exceed $1,000.

Notes
1
Not included in the volume of labor
legislation tracked in this article are laws
dealing with most occupational safety and
health issues, employment and training, labor
relations, employee criminal background
checks (except for those dealing with security
issues), living wages, and economic development.
2
Alabama, South Dakota, and Vermont
did not enact significant labor legislation in
2004. Information about Guam, Puerto Rico,
and the Virgin Islands was not received in

time to be included in the article, which is
based upon information received by November 12, 2004.
3
Several tables displaying State labor law
information, including a table on State
minimum-wage rates and a table on State
prevailing-wage laws, along with a number of
tables concerning child labor issues, are available
on the Internet at the U.S. Department of
Labor, Employment Standards Administration,
website; visit http://www.dol.gov/esa/
programs/whd/state/state.htm.

4

Ibid.

5

Diversions are those occurrences wherein
a defendant fulfills certain obligations, such as
payment of restitution, court costs, costs associated with the diversion itself, the cost of
residence in a specified facility, maintenance
of gainful employment, and participation in
educational, social, vocational, or psychological programs or other rehabilitative services.
The prosecutor shall act to have any criminal
charges against the defendant that are associated
with diversions dismissed with prejudice.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 27

Workers' Compensation, 2004

Workers’ Compensation Laws, 2004

Changes in workers' compensation
laws in 2004
California passed a major reform package;
24 other States changed their workers’ compensation
coverage and services by approving
a variety of new and revised legislation
Glenn Whittington

I

n 2004, a major legislative reform package was passed in
California. The total cost of administering the Workers’
Compensation Program will now be borne by the employer
community through surcharges levied by the Director of Industrial Relations. Temporary disability benefits are now limited to 104 weeks within a period of 2 years from the date of
commencement of temporary disability payments, but may
be extended to 240 weeks for certain injuries. Beginning in
2005, employers may establish medical provider networks in
an attempt to improve medical care for injured employees by
providing them with a choice of physicians. The apportionment of permanent disability is now based on causation, and
an employer is only liable for the portion of disability directly caused by the injury.
In Georgia, the Subsequent Injury Trust Fund will cease to
reimburse self-insured employers and insurers for a claim
made on a subsequent injury occurring after June 30, 2008.

In Louisiana, for injuries occurring between July 1, 2004,
and July 1, 2007, an employer who retains in his employment an employee with a permanent partial disability shall
be reimbursed from the Second Injury Fund for all weekly
compensation payments payable after the first 130 weeks
of payment. In New Jersey, the method for computing death
benefits was changed from a sliding scale to just one benefit rate of 70 percent of wages for one or more dependents.
In Washington, a licensed advanced registered nurse practitioner is now authorized to examine, diagnose, and treat injured workers covered by industrial insurance. In Wisconsin, physician assistants and advanced practice nurse prescribers have been added to the list of medical professionals authorized to conduct workers’ compensation examinations of employees.
The following is a State-by-State summary of changes in
workers’ compensation laws.

Alaska

Arizona

If an employer is a contractor and fails to
secure the payment of compensation to its
employees or the employees of a subcontractor, the project owner is liable for
and shall secure the payment of compensation to employees of the contractor
and subcontractor.

The Industrial Commission’s schedule of
fees has been expanded to include prescription medicines for treatment of an injured employee. If the Commission adopts
a fee schedule regarding generic drugs, the
provisions need to comply with current law.

Glenn Whittington is Chief, Branch of Planning,
Policy, and Review, Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.
E-mail: whittington.glenn@dol.gov

28

Monthly Labor Review

California
The Workers’ Compensation Administration Revolving Fund is a special account in
the State Treasury, and moneys in the fund

January 2005

may be expended by the Department of Industrial Relations, upon appropriation by
the Legislature, for the administration of the
Workers’ Compensation Program. Previously, the law required that 80 percent of
the costs of the program be borne by the
General Fund and 20 percent of the costs of
the program be borne by the employers
through assessments levied by the Director
of Industrial Relations. These employer
assessments have been changed to surcharges and must now account for the total
costs of the program.
The Return To Work Program has also
been added to the operations funded by the

Workers’ Compensation Administration
Revolving Fund. To the extent funds are
available, the program will reimburse up to
$1,250 of expenses to accommodate a temporarily disabled worker or $2,500 to accommodate a permanently disabled worker.
Only private employers with 50 or fewer
full-time employees are eligible for reimbursements from the program.
Parties in collectively bargained alternative dispute resolution programs can now
negotiate occupational and nonoccupational healthcare integration projects involving delivery of medical benefits and delivery of disability benefits.
The rebuttable presumption of correctness for a comprehensive medical evaluation by a predesignated personal physician
was eliminated.
Disability payments are increased by 15
percent if within 60 days of a disability becoming permanent and stationary, an employer does not offer an injured employee
regular, modified, or alternative work for a
period of at least 12 months. If such an offer is made, payments are reduced by 15
percent. This requirement applies to workers of employers employing 50 or more
employees.
Temporary disability benefits are limited to 104 weeks within a period of 2
years from the date of commencement of
temporary disability payments. These benefits may be extended to 240 weeks aggregate within the first 5 years after the date
of injury for the following injuries: acute
and chronic hepatitis B, acute and chronic
hepatitis C, amputations, severe burns, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highvelocity eye injuries, chemical burns to the
eyes, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic lung
disease.
The vocational rehabilitation program
for injuries occurring on or before December 31, 2003, was re-instituted, subject to
sunset in 2009.
Beginning in 2005, employers may establish medical provider networks in an attempt to improve medical care for injured
employees by providing them with a choice
of physicians. The networks need to provide adequate numbers and types of physicians and sufficient access to provide treatment in accordance with utilization controls
established by the Division of Workers’
Compensation. In developing a medical
provider network, an employer or insurer
has the exclusive right to determine the
members of the network. An independent
medical review can be requested by an injured worker who has had three physician
opinions in the medical provider network
that dispute the worker’s request for medi-

cal service.
The apportionment of permanent disability is now based on causation. Each
physician preparing a report on the issue of
permanent disability must now address the
issue of causation and determine the approximate percentage of the permanent disability that was caused by the present workrelated injury, and what portion was caused
by other factors, including prior industrial
injuries. An employer is only liable for the
portion of disability directly caused by the
injury. When the last payment of temporary disability has been made, and regardless of whether the extent of permanent disability can be determined at that time, the
employer is to begin payment of reasonable
estimates of permanent disability.
In permanent disability claims, the number of weeks of indemnity for each percentage point of rating is increased for each percentage point of 70 percent or more, and
the number of weeks of indemnity for each
percentage point of rating is reduced for
each percentage point under 15 percent.
With the exception of allowed contracts,
the amounts paid for medical services are
limited to the reasonable maximum
amounts in the official medical fee schedule in effect on the date of service.
The penalty for unreasonable delay or
denial of benefits is now established at 25
percent of amount of payment delayed or
denied or $10,000, whichever is less. If the
employer discovers the delay prior to an
employee claim of such unreasonable behavior, the employer can pay a self-imposed
10 percent penalty on the delayed payment,
and avoid the larger penalty. An employer
who knowingly violates this section with a
frequency indicating general business practices is liable for administrative penalties
of up to $400,000.
The Administrative Director, after consultation with the Insurance Commissioner,
is required to contract with a qualified organization to study the workers’ compensation insurance market and the effect of the
2003 and 2004 reform legislation on workers’ compensation insurance premium rates.
All workers’ compensation findings of
fact are required to be interpreted in an impartial and balanced manner in order that
all parties are considered equal before the
law.
The definition of an employee now excludes a person defined as an owner-builder
who is participating in a mutual self-help
housing program sponsored by a nonprofit
corporation.
City attorneys, whose duties include
criminal prosecutions and any law enforcement agency investigating workers’ com-

pensation fraud, have been added to the
definition of authorized governmental
agencies to which an insurer must release
information in fraud cases.
The provision for allowing nurse practitioners and physician assistants to provide
medical treatment for work-related injuries,
previously set to expire on January 1, 2006,
was extended indefinitely.
Effective January 1, 2005, an insurer or
self-insurer is required to provide a specified notice regarding workers’ compensation fraud with the temporary disability benefit check.
The fine for failure to provide workers’
compensation was increased to double the
amount of premium that would otherwise
have been due to secure the payment of
compensation during the time compensation was not secured, but not less that
$10,000. A second such violation is punishable by: imprisonment for a period not
to exceed 1 year; or a fine of triple the
amount of premium that would otherwise
have been due to secure the payment of
compensation during the time payment was
not secured, but not less than $50,000; or
by both imprisonment and a fine.

Colorado
The requirement to file notice of intent to
pursue a workers’ compensation claim for
damages arising out of actions of a negligent stranger was expanded to all parties to
the claim and allows the party pursuing subrogation to recover attorney fees and costs.
If the insurer paying workers’ compensation benefits brings a subrogation action
and fails to provide notice to the injured employee, the insurer’s rights to seek economic damages paid as workers’ compensation benefits are limited.
In response to a Court of Appeals decision, the definition of independent contractor was changed to include a natural
person.

Connecticut
Payments agreed to under a voluntary
agreement or due under an award shall now
commence within 20 days from the date of
the agreement or award; previously, payment was to be made within 10 days.
Certain employer mutual associations
are now allowed to make payments owed to
the Second Injury Fund for 5 years without
any penalties or interest. Starting January
1, 2005, the manner in which these associations are assessed the amount they owe
to the fund has been changed.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

29

Workers’ Compensation Laws, 2004

Florida
The Workers’ Compensation Administration Trust Fund, which was set to be terminated on November 4, 2004, was re-created,
all current balances of the trust fund were
carried forward, and all current sources and
uses of the trust fund are to be continued.

Georgia
The Subsequent Injury Trust Fund will
cease to reimburse self-insured employers
and insurers for a claim made on a subsequent injury occurring after June 30, 2008.
It will continue, however, to reimburse selfinsured employers and insurers for qualifying claims for injuries on and prior to June
30, 2008.
Upon or in contemplation of the final
payment of all claims for subsequent injuries for which claims are filed for injuries
occurring on and prior to June 30, 2008,
the Board of Trustees will begin the final
dissolution of the Subsequent Injury Trust
Fund. Such dissolution will become effective when all claims made for injuries occurring on and prior to June 30, 2008, have
been fully paid or otherwise resolved.
A guardian for a minor or incompetent
claimant entitled to workers’ compensation
benefits may be appointed by a court other
than the probate court.

Illinois
The Illinois Industrial Commission was renamed the Illinois Workers’ Compensation
Commission. The Industrial Commission
Operations Fund was also renamed the
Workers’ Compensation Commission Operations Fund.

Iowa
An employer is liable for the cost of medical care it chooses for an injured employee,
except in the case of sudden emergencies if
it is determined that the employee’s condition for which care was arranged is not related to the employment.
An employer is no longer liable for compensating disability from injuries with prior
employers or for causes unrelated to employment. For subsequent injuries occurring with the same employer, the employer
is liable for compensating the combined
disability of all injuries caused, but receives
credit for the percentage of disability for
which the employee was previously compensated by the employer.

30

Monthly Labor Review

The vocational rehabilitation benefit
was increased from $20 to $100 per week.
The $100 penalty for failing to file a
First Report of Injury was increased to
$1,000.

Louisiana
The requirement as to when notices must
be filed with the Second Injury Board was
clarified to reflect that an employer or insurer must file notice within 1 year after the
first payment of either compensation or
medical benefits, whichever occurs first.
Whenever multiple disputes exist between a single healthcare provider and a
single payor, either party has the right to
have all such disputes consolidated and
tried together in the proper venue.
For injuries occurring between July 1,
2004, and July 1, 2007, an employer who
retains in his employment an employee with
a permanent partial disability shall be reimbursed from the Second Injury Fund. Reimbursement covers all weekly compensation payments payable after the first 130
weeks of payment, provided they are submitted to the board within 180 days of approval for reimbursement or within 1 year
of the payment of such weekly compensation payments, whichever occurs later.
For injuries occurring between July 1,
2004, and July 1, 2007, an employer, when
retaining an employee with a permanent
partial disability who then incurs a subsequent injury, shall be reimbursed from the
Second Injury Fund for 100 percent of
medical expenses actually paid and payable
which exceed $25,000.
Any employer who collects moneys
from an employee’s wages for payment of
the employer’s workers’ compensation premium can be assessed civil penalties of not
less than $500 and not more than $5,000,
payable to the employee and reasonable attorney fees. Restitution shall also be provided up to the amount collected from the
employee’s wages.
Guidelines and procedures for the collection of data for the Medical Reimbursement Schedule were established. The information collected will be confidential and
privileged and not a public record or subject to subpoena.
Any health insurer that contracts for
healthcare benefits for an employee or dependents is responsible for the payment of
all medical expenses incurred in the event
the workers’ compensation payor denies the
employee’s injury is compensable under the
workers’ compensation law.
The provision calling for a reduction or

January 2005

offset of workers’ compensation benefits
payable to professional athletes was repealed.
If a law enforcement officer is killed in
the line of duty, and has no surviving
spouse, the sum of $50,000 is to be paid to
the surviving parent or divided equally between the surviving parents, if both survive.
The provision calling for the $25,000 to be
provided to each surviving dependent child
was retained.

Mississippi
For workers’ compensation purposes, a selfinsured group shall be comprised of employer members of the same bona fide trade
association or trade group. Such trade association or trade group shall be domiciled
in the State, shall have been in existence for
5 or more consecutive years as of the date
of application for an approved group, and
shall not be comprised solely of employer
members who are affiliates of a person possessing controlling interest in such affiliates.
The Mississippi Workers’ Compensation
Individual Self-Insurer Guaranty Association and the Workers’ Compensation Group
Self-Insurer Guaranty Association were created as two separate nonprofit unincorporated legal entities. All funds previously in
the Workers’ Compensation Self-Insurer
Guaranty Association became and remain
assets of the Workers’ Compensation Individual Self-Insurer Guaranty Association.
The 2-percent assessment on each individual self-insurer and on each group selfinsurer is to be collected until the sum of $2
million is accumulated by the individual association and the sum of $1 million is accumulated by the group association, at which
time assessments will be suspended.

New Hampshire
Any provision in any agreement that requires employers or the employer’s insurance carrier to waive its subrogation rights
is prohibited.

New Jersey
The method for computing death benefits
was changed from a sliding scale (50 percent -70 percent of wages depending on the
number of surviving dependents) to just one
benefit rate (70 percent of wages for one or
more dependents).
If an employer cannot be identified or
located in an occupational disease claim resulting in injury or death from an exposure
to asbestos, an application can be made to,

and an award paid by, the uninsured
employer’s fund. “Occupational disease
resulting in injury or death from an exposure to asbestos” means asbestosis or any
asbestos-induced cancer, including mesothelioma. The uninsured employer’s fund
will have a lien against any award received
by the claimant from a third party resulting
from the exposure to asbestos. Compensation will be based on the last date of exposure, if known, or if the last date of exposure cannot be determined, the judge will
establish an appropriate date.
A horse racing industry employee now
includes an exercise rider of a thoroughbred
horse for the period of time during which
he or she is employed as an exercise rider
of a thoroughbred horse at a horse racetrack
in the State. The rider must be licensed by
the commission and have deductions and
withholdings, as required or authorized by
State or Federal law, taken from his/her
wages.

New Mexico
The assessment on employers who are required, or elect to be covered, by the Workers’ Compensation Act was increased from
$2 to $2.30 per quarter times the number of
employees that the employer has on the last
working day of each quarter. Thirty cents
($0.30) per employee of the fee assessed is
to be distributed to the Uninsured Employers’ Fund.

New York
The funeral expenses for a police officer
who dies in the line of duty will not be subject to the schedule of maximum charges
allowed under the Workers’ Compensation
Act.

Ohio
In response to an Ohio Supreme Court decision, the conditions were revised under
which chemical testing of an employee may
establish a rebuttable presumption that the
employee’s injury was proximately caused
by the use of alcohol or an unprescribed
controlled substance, thus affecting the
employee’s eligibility to qualify for workers’ compensation benefits. Whereas prior
law expressly required that an employee be
given written notice, present law requires
only that the employer post a written notice
to employees that the results of, or the
employee’s refusal to submit to, any chemical test described in the act may affect the

employee’s ability to receive workers’ compensation benefits.
An individual who is incorporated as a
corporation is exempt from required workers’ compensation coverage.
All professional employer organizations
(employers that specialize in “leasing” employees to other employers) operating in
Ohio are required to register with the Administrator of Workers’ Compensation and
comply with the workers’ compensation
law.

Rhode Island
Any partner, general or limited, or any partner in a registered limited liability partnership, or any nonmanager of a limited liability company are excluded from the definition of employee.
The maximum amount an attorney can
collect in a workers’ compensation claim
was increased from 15 percent to 20 percent of the structured-type periodic payment
reduced to present-day value.

Tennessee
The Commissioner of Labor, in consultation with the medical care and cost containment committee and the advisory council on
workers’ compensation, is to develop a
comprehensive medical fee schedule to address fees of physicians and surgeons, hospitals, prescription drugs, and ancillary services provided by other healthcare facilities
and providers.
If a workers’ compensation claim is
settled by the parties, the parties shall not
agree to compromise and settle the issue of
future medical benefits for a period of 3
years from the date on which the settlement
is approved. After 3 years, if the parties mutually agree to a compromise and settlement
on the issue of future medical benefits, the
parties are not required to request a benefit
review conference. Also, an employee who
is determined to be permanently totally disabled is not allowed to compromise and settle
his/her rights to future medical benefits.
In a dispute as to whether or not a claim
is compensable, the parties may settle such
matter; however, such settlement shall not
exceed 50 times the minimum weekly benefit rate as of the date of the claimed injury
and is not to include future medical benefits.
If an employer or insurer fails to pay
temporary disability benefits within 20 days
(previously, 15 days) of receipt of notice, a
workers’ compensation specialist can assess
penalties of 25 percent (previously, 6 per-

cent) of the delinquent benefits.
The cap on Permanent Partial Disability
awards where there is a meaningful return
to work was reduced from two and one-half
times the impairment rating to one and onehalf times the impairment rating.
For injuries occurring on or after July 1,
2004, through June 30, 2005, the maximum
weekly benefit for temporary disability benefits is 66-2/3 percent of the employee’s
average weekly wage up to 105 percent
(previously, 100 percent) of the State’s average weekly wage.
For injuries occurring on or after July 1,
2005, the maximum weekly benefit for temporary disability benefits will be 66-2/3 percent of the employee’s average weekly wage
up to 110 percent of the State’s average
weekly wage.
The Commissioner of Labor and Workforce Development is to develop and maintain an Independent Medical Examiners
(IME) registry. If the parties cannot agree
on an IME physician from the registry, the
employer is required to request an IME panel
containing the names of three physicians
selected at random. The employer can
strike one name from the list, and the employee is required to choose from the remaining names. All costs and fees for an
independent medical examination are to be
paid by the employer.
The exception to the 12-visit limit
placed on chiropractic visits was extended
to self-insurer pools.

Utah
An injured employee and a physician are
required to comply with Labor Commission
rules regarding disclosure of medical
records relevant to the employee’s industrial accident or occupational disease claim.
A workers’ compensation claim is subject to a lien for recovery of medical assistance benefits paid by the Department of
Health.

Vermont
The “weekly net income” calculation was
eliminated. Workers’ compensation benefits cannot exceed 90 percent of the
claimant’s average weekly wage, including
payments for a dependent child. If compensation benefits are not paid within 21
days of becoming due and payable, 10 percent of the overdue amount shall be added
and paid to the employee.
The statute of limitations for filing an
initial claim for workers’ compensation

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January 2005

31

Workers’ Compensation Laws, 2004

benefits was reduced from 6 years to 3
years.
The Department of Labor and Industry
is to adopt rules to ensure that an injured
worker who requests vocational rehabilitation services or has received more than 90
continuous days of temporary total benefits
is screened for benefits. If found eligible, a
worker shall have an initial vocational assessment and be offered services. The rule
requiring employers to refer an injured
worker to vocational rehabilitation when
they had received temporary total disability
for 90 days was repealed.
The statutory language that created a
presumption that an on-premise recreational
activity is compensable was repealed.
Workers’ compensation insurers are now
required to file an annual report regarding
cases in which temporary total benefits have
been paid continuously for 2 or more years.
Medical benefits include prescription
drugs and durable medical equipment. Employers are required to provide assistive
devices (for example, wheelchair) and
modifications to vehicles and residences to
those who are or expected to be permanently disabled.
An individual in agriculture or farming
does not need to purchase a workers’ compensation insurance policy unless their aggregate payroll is $10,000 or more (previously, the threshold was $2,000 or more).

Virginia
In all matters within the jurisdiction of the
Workers’ Compensation Commission, it
shall have the power of a court of record to
administer oath, to compel the attendance
of witnesses and the production of documents, to punish for contempt, to appoint
guardians, and to enforce compliance of its
lawful order and awards.
The Workers’ Compensation Commission is now authorized to accept certificates
of deposit, U.S. government bonds, letters
of credit, and cash as instruments that will
secure the payment of workers’ compensation liabilities of self-insured employers.
Previously, such employers were required
to deposit an acceptable security, indemnity,

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Monthly Labor Review

or bond.
Vocational rehabilitation services may
now be provided by a person certified by
the Workers’ Compensation Commission on
Rehabilitation Counselor Certification as a
certified rehabilitation counselor or a person certified by the Commission on Certification of Work Adjustment and Vocational
Evaluation Specialists as a Certified Vocational Evaluation Specialist.
Members of AmeriCorps and food stamp
recipients participating in the work experience component of the Food Stamp Employment and Training Program shall be
deemed to be employees of the Commonwealth for purposes of the Workers’ Compensation Act. Such persons shall be eligible for reimbursement for medical costs
from covered injuries, but shall not be eligible to receive weekly workers’ compensation benefits.
An employer’s payment of workers’
compensation benefits creates not only a
subrogation interest, but an actual lien
against any proceeds obtained by verdict or
settlement from a third party or recovered
pursuant to the uninsured or underinsured
motorists’ provisions of a motor vehicle insurance policy carried by the employer.

Washington
A licensed advanced registered nurse practitioner is now authorized to examine, diagnose, and treat injured workers’ covered by
industrial insurance.
A physician assistant practicing with
physician supervision may assist workers
who suffer simple industrial injuries in
making application for compensation.
Physician assistants may not, however, rate
a worker’s permanent partial disability or
determine a worker’s entitlement to benefits.

Wisconsin
Physician assistants and advanced practice
nurse prescribers have been added to the list
of medical professionals authorized to conduct workers’ compensation examinations

January 2005

of employees.
A $25 threshold was established for using the “reasonableness of fee” and “necessity of treatment” dispute resolution
processes.
The standard deviation used in fee disputes for determining whether a charge for
medical care is reasonable was reduced
from 1.5 to 1.4.
Workers’ compensation insurance carriers are allowed to give notice of the cancellation or termination of a policy to the Department of Workforce Development ( DWD )
or the Wisconsin Compensation Rating Bureau by certified mail, fax transmission, email, or any other medium approved by
D W D.
The maximum supplemental benefit rate
paid for injuries occurring before May 13,
1980, was increased from $202 per week to
$233 per week.
The assessment on employers and workers’ compensation insurance companies, to
be paid into the Work Injuries Supplemental Benefit Fund, was increased from
$5,000 to $10,000 for injuries resulting in
death and from $7,000 to $10,000 for injuries resulting in dismemberment.
The DWD is authorized to claim reimbursement from uninsured employers for
expenses paid by DWD in administering an
employee’s claim.

Wyoming
In cases involving a worker’s permanent total disability or death, benefits for dependent children now terminate at age 18 (previously, age of majority) or for children enrolled in an educational institution, including a post-secondary education institution,
at age 21. Benefits for temporary total disability are now paid semi-monthly rather
than monthly.
Temporary light-duty benefits are to be
paid monthly at the rate of 80 percent of the
difference between the employee’s lightduty wage and the employee’s actual
monthly earnings at the time of injury. Temporary light duty may not exceed 1 year, and
such benefits are not to be charged to the
employer’s claims experience rating.

Unemployment Insurance Laws, 2004

Changes in Federal and State
unemployment insurance legislation in 2004
State enactments include provisions relating to SUTA dumping,
professional employer organizations, and staff leasing companies;
voluntary quits; disqualification from benefits; noncharging benefits;
pension offset; and financing; one Federal bill that was enacted
made several changes, affecting the unemployment compensation program
Loryn Lancaster

D

uring 2004, there was one Federal legislative enactment that affected the Federal-State unemployment
insurance program. The SUTA (State unemployment
tax acts) Dumping Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108–295) was
signed on August 9, 2004, and requires States to enact laws
prohibiting SUTA dumping. SUTA dumping is an abusive practice used by some employers to manipulate experience-rating
provisions of State law that apply when businesses are bought
and sold. Briefly, the law establishes a nationwide minimum
standard for curbing SUTA dumping. Under the law, States will
be required to (a) prohibit practices that allow employers to
pay lower State unemployment compensation taxes than their
unemployment experience would otherwise allow; (b) have
procedures to detect such practices; and (c) impose penalties
on employers and financial advisors for knowingly violating

Alabama
Financing. Up to 15 percent of Reed Act
monies were appropriated to administer the
unemployment compensation law and public employment offices.
The 0.06 percent rate reduction applicable to certain employers has been extended
from March 31, 2004, to March 31, 2006.

Loryn Lancaster
is an unemployment insurance program
specialist in the Division of Legislation,
Office of Workforce Security,
Employment and Training Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor.
E-mail: Lancaster.Loryn@dol.gov

(or attempting to violate) provisions of State law. States must
enact these provisions as a condition of receiving administrative grants for operation of the unemployment compensation
program. Thus, all States will need to amend their laws.
This act also authorizes States to access the Department
of Health and Human Services’ National Directory of New
Hires (NDNH) for administration of the Federal or State unemployment compensation program. States’ access to this directory allows for the quick detection of individuals who continue to collect unemployment compensation benefits after
returning to work. This approach is a means of combating
unemployment insurance fraud and preventing overpayments.
The following is a summary of some significant changes
in State unemployment insurance legislation enacted in
2004.

Monetary entitlement. The weekly maximum
benefit amount increased from $210 to $220,
for benefit years beginning on or after July 4,
2004.

Alaska
Administration. Upon the written request
by a State district attorney, a municipal
agency/attorney, a U.S. attorney, or the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development may release to the requestor certain
information for the investigation or prosecution of a crime or to enforce an order of a
court in a criminal matter, including enforcing probation or parole conditions.

Appeals. Each member, manager, or employee of a limited liability company, including a limited partnership and a limited liability partnership, who is required to pay the
contributions and interest owed by the limited liability company, including the limited
partnership and the limited liability partnership, is permitted to appeal individually their
duty to pay.
Coverage. For purposes of collecting delinquent contributions, the term “employer”
also includes a member, manager, or employee of a limited liability company, including a limited partnership and a limited liability partnership, who, as manager, is under a
duty to pay the required contributions.

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Unemployment Insurance Laws, 2004

Financing. The term “wages” excludes the
amount of payment made, or benefit furnished, by the employer under a plan to provide educational assistance to or for the benefit of an employee if, at the time of the
payment or the furnishing, it is reasonable
to believe that the employee will be able to
exclude the payment or benefit from income.

ance pay. The period of time for
which wages in lieu of notice, dismissal pay, or severance pay are allocable will be determined by either of
the following:
o

Arizona
Appeals. With respect to a reconsideration
of determination of liability, the requirement
for an employing unit to file contribution
and wage reports within 30 days of the reconsidered determination in order to be afforded a hearing has been deleted and, instead, the employing unit is required to submit all required contribution and wage reports to the Arizona Department of Economic Security within 45 days after the decision by the appeals board.
Financing. Benefits against an employer’s
account are noncharged for separations from
work due to domestic violence.
The contribution rate decreased from 2.7
percent to 2.0 percent for employers whose
accounts have not been charged with benefits for the 12-month period ending June
30 of the preceding calendar year, effective
from and after December 31, 2004.
The minimum contribution rate decreased from 0.05 percent to 0.02 percent
for positive reserve ratio employers.
The employer adjusted rate reduced from
0.05 percent to 0.0025 percent.
From and after December 31, 2004, the
payment of contributions or job training
employer taxes is not required if the quarterly amount of the contributions and taxes
is less than $10.
Monetary entitlement. The quarterly wages
needed in the base period to monetarily
qualify for unemployment benefits increased from $1,000 to $1,500.
The maximum weekly benefit amount
increased from $205 to $240, effective from
and after June 30, 2004.
Nonmonetary eligibility. Effective from and
after December 31, 2004, an individual will
not be deemed unemployed if:
• with respect to any week of less than
full-time work if the loss of full-time
work is directly attributable to the
fault of the individual;
• the individual is receiving wages in
lieu of notice, dismissal pay or sever-

34

Monthly Labor Review

o

if there was a written contract
between the employer and the
claimant in effect at the time
of separation, allocate to the
appropriate period in accordance with the contract, continuing for the number of work
days that the pay would cover
at the regular wage rate;
if no written contract was in
effect at the time of separation,
allocate to the appropriate period following the last day of
performance of services, continuing for the number of work
days that the pay would cover
at the regular wage rate.

When an employer continues to give the
part-time worker employment opportunities to the same extent while he or she is
receiving benefits as during the base period,
places the burden of proof to establish that
the employer failed to give employment
opportunities to the individual to the same
extent as during the base period on the Arizona Employment Security Commission.
An individual who is a victim of domestic violence and leaves employment due to a
documented case of a domestic violence offence will not be disqualified from receiving
unemployment benefits.
An individual is disqualified for benefits
for any week in which the individual is incarcerated.
Benefits will not be reduced by the receipt of Social Security retirement in order
to take into account contributions made by
the individual for the pension.

California
Administration. The director must furnish
quarterly, instead of annually, to each employer an itemized statement of the charges
to the reserve account, and a statement of
the reserve account activities.
A penalty is assessed against employers
if found that any employer or employee,
officer, or agent of any employer, in submitting a written statement concerning the reasonable assurance of a claimant’s reemployment, willfully makes a false statement or
representation or willfully fails to report a
material fact concerning the reasonable assurance of that reemployment in an amount

January 2005

not less than 2 nor more than 10 times the
weekly benefit amount of that claimant; provides for the collection of the penalty and
requires the deposit of the penalties in the
contingent fund.
The California Employment Development Department is required to:
• develop small business educational
events and materials that explain the
process of the department’s determination of whether an individual is an
employee or independent contractor
as specified;
• collect certain data related to employee/independent contractor determinations; and
• report its findings and any recommendations to the State Legislature by
July 1, 2006.
Coverage. Payments to an individual by an
employer for failure to provide the advance
notice of a facility closure required by the
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act are not wages or compensation
for personal services for purposes of unemployment insurance.
Extensions and special programs. The expiration date for the California Benefits
Training program is extended from January
1, 2005, to January 1, 2010.
Financing. The State law is amended to include SUTA dumping prevention provisions
which:
• mandate transfer of experience from
one employer to another when there
is substantially common ownership,
management, or control; apply to
both total and partial transfers;
• prohibit transfer of experience if a
person becomes an employer by acquiring an existing business and if the
purpose of the acquisition is to obtain a lower contribution rate; apply
to persons, who prior to the acquisition of the business, (a) had no employees and (b) had some employees
but not enough to be an employer for
State law purposes;
• provide meaningful civil and criminal
penalties for knowingly violating or
attempting to violate the law’s requirements, and for knowingly advising to violate the law; and
• establish procedures to identify the
transfer or acquisition of a business
for purposes of the law.

Nonmonetary eligibility. The denial or reduction of unemployment insurance for receipt
of payments due to an employer failing to
provide the advance notice of a facility closure required by the Worker Adjustment and
Retraining Notification Act is prohibited.

Colorado
Financing. The definition of wages excludes payments by employers into a
supplemental unemployment benefit fund
for employees; this exclusion does not apply if the employee has the option to receive a lump-sum payment instead of periodically distributed supplemental unemployment benefits.

Connecticut
Administration. A late filing fee of $25 is
imposed for any employer who fails to submit timely quarterly wage information.
Financing. The collected fees must be deposited into the Employment Security Administration Fund.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The time period
during which acts of willful misconduct are
considered changed from 18 months to 12
months; except with respect to tardiness,
each instant in which an employee is absent for 1 day or 2 consecutive days without either good cause for the absence or
notice to the employer that could have reasonably been provided constitutes a separate instance.
Overpayments. A 1-percent-per-month interest rate is charged on any overpayment
made on or after July 1, 2005.
Monetary entitlement. The weekly benefit
amount will not be reduced by prorated
weekly Social Security payments.

Florida
Financing. Any funds collected for enhanced, specialized, or value-added labor
market information services must be deposited in the Employment Security Administration Trust Fund.
Nonmonetary eligibility. Effective July 1,
2004, an individual will not be disqualified
for benefits for voluntarily leaving work to
relocate as a result of his/her military-connected spouse’s permanent change of station, activation, or unit deployment orders.

Georgia
Financing. The suspension of the overall rate
increase (which is dependent on the statewide reserve ratio) was extended from December 31, 2004, through December 31, 2005.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The alternative base
period set to expire June 30, 2004, is now
permanent.

Idaho
Financing. The time period for employers
to request a discretionary transfer of an experience rating account increased from 90 to
180 days.
Whenever an individual or organization
succeeds to or acquires all, substantially all,
or part of the business of a covered employer, the transfer of the predecessor’s experience rating account to the successor
employer must be mandatory if the management, ownership, or control is substantially
the same for the successor as for the predecessor and there is a continuity of business
activity by the successor.
For purposes of a successorship, an
employer’s experience rating account must
consist of the actual contribution, benefit,
and taxable payroll experience of the employer and any amounts due from the employer as required by State law.

Kansas
Coverage. If a successor employer is determined to be qualified to receive the experience
rating factors of the predecessor employer,
the rate assigned to the successor employer
for the remainder of the contributions year
will be determined by the following:
• if the acquiring employing unit was
an employer prior to the date of the
transfer, the rate of contribution will
be the same as the contribution rate
of the acquiring employer on the date
of the transfer; and
• if the acquiring employing unit was
not an employer prior to the date of
the transfer, the successor employer
will have a newly computed rate for
the remainder of the contribution
year that will be based on the transferred experience rating factors as they
existed on the most recent computation date immediately preceding the
date of acquisition. These experience
rating factors consist of all contributions paid, benefit experience, and
annual payrolls.

The exclusion from employment for service
performed by an inmate of a custodial or
correctional institution applies to service
performed for a private, for-profit employer.
Nonmonetary eligibility. An individual is
considered to have voluntarily resigned
for failure to return to work after expiration of approved personal or medical
leave, or both, and such individual is disqualified from benefits for voluntarily
leaving work without good cause attributable to the work or employer.
The definition of “misconduct” includes:
• the failure of the employee to notify
the employer of an absence; and
• under certain conditions, repeated absences, including incarceration, resulting in absence from work of 3 days or
longer, excluding Saturdays, Sundays,
and legal holidays.
If the employee alleges his/her repeated absences were the result of health-related issues, such employee must present evidence
that includes documentation from a licensed
and practicing healthcare provider.
An individual disqualifies for benefits if
discharged for failing a pre-employment drug
screen required by the employer and if such
discharge occurs not later than 7 days after
the employer is notified of the results of
such drug screen; the disqualification will
begin the day following the separation and
continue until after reemployment and earnings in insured work of at least three times
the weekly benefit amount.

Louisiana
Administration. The per diem pay for Board
of Review members increased from $60 to
$90 per day of active service.
Extensions and special programs. Effective
January 1, 2005, a self-employment assistant (SEA) program is established.
Financing. Benefits paid under the SEA program must not be charged and recouped as a
social charge to all employers.

Maine
Nonmonetary eligibility. An emergency rule
relating to part-time work provides that a
claimant who is not able and available for
full-time work will not be disqualified from
receiving benefits if:

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January 2005

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Unemployment Insurance Laws, 2004

• more than 50 percent of the weeks
worked during the claimant’s base
period were less than full time, and
the claimant is able to work and available for and actively seeking work for
a number of hours comparable to the
number of hours worked during those
weeks; or
• the majority of the weeks worked
during the claimant’s base period were
full time but the claimant is only able
and available for less than full-time
work due to the illness or disability
of the claimant’s immediate family
member, or when necessary for the
safety or protection of the claimant
or the claimant’s immediate family
member, including protection from
domestic abuse; and
• the claimant is not able to work full
time due to a covered disability under
the Americans with Disabilities Act
but is able and available to work less
than full time. Once a claimant has
returned to work and is working the
full number of hours for which the
claimant is able or available to work
considering his or her disability, that
claimant is not considered “partially
unemployed.”

Michigan
Coverage. Service performed in an
Americorps program is excluded from coverage if the individual:
• performed the service under a contract or agreement providing for a
guaranteed stipend opportunity; and
• received the full amount of the stipend before the ending date of the
contract or agreement.

Missouri
Administration. A Missouri State Unemployment Council is created consisting of
nine appointed voting and two appointed
nonvoting members that will meet at least
four times yearly; the Council will advise
the Missouri Division of Employment Security in carrying out the Missouri Employment Security Law and submit annually recommendations to the Governor and general
assembly regarding amendments, status of
unemployment insurance, solvency maintenance, and the adequacy of unemployment
compensation; the Council is authorized,
unless prohibited, to commission an out-

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Monthly Labor Review

side study of the solvency, adequacy, and
staffing and operational efficiency of the
Missouri unemployment system every 5
years beginning in fiscal year 2005.
The Division must cross-check Missouri
unemployment compensation recipients and
applicants against the Federal new hire database, Social Security Administration data,
drivers license databases (effective January
1, 2007), and other federally maintained databases containing wage information.
The Board of Unemployment Fund Financing is created and authorized to issue,
sell, and deliver interest-bearing credit instruments (bonds) to provide funds for unemployment benefits or maintain an adequate fund balance in the unemployment
compensation fund.
The Division may contract with consumer reporting agencies to provide secure
electronic access to information in the quarterly wage report; requires the Division to
establish standards to safeguard the confidentiality of the information; requires the
agency to require any user of such information to obtain written consent from the individual to whom the information pertains;
requires the agency to require that
the released information be used only to
verify wage or employment information accuracy provided by the individual for a specific transaction.
The Missouri State Unemployment
Council is created to advise the Division and
submit recommendations concerning the unemployment compensation program.

• for 2008, the taxable wage base is
limited to $7,000–$12,000;
• for 2009, the taxable wage base is
$12,500; and
• for 2010 and thereafter, the taxable
wage base is limited to $7,000–
$13,000.

• the taxable wage base increases by
$1,000 (instead of $500) if the
unemployment compensation trust
fund balance is less than or equal to
$350 million on September 30;

The fund-balance amounts decrease, which
trigger 10 percent, 20 percent, and 30 percent rate increases, effectively increasing
employer tax rates.
The rate increase for employers at the
maximum rate is raised from 30 percent to
40 percent for 2005 through 2007.
The fund balance amounts increase,
which trigger 7-percent and 12-percent rate
decreases, effectively increasing employer
tax rates.
A credit instrument (bond) and financing
agreement repayment surcharge are assessed
on each employer if the fund is using moneys from credit instrument proceeds or from
the moneys advanced financial agreements
or from a combination of both; provides a
formula for calculating the surcharge and for
calculating each employer’s proportionate
share.
A surcharge of 0.25 percent will be added
to employers’ contribution rates if they have
been taxed at the maximum rate for 2 consecutive years or more; an additional annual
surcharge of 0.25 percent will be added if
employers remain at the maximum rate for 3
or more years with total surcharges not to
exceed 1.0 percent; a 0.5-percent surcharge
will be added if employers are still at the
maximum rate; the maximum surcharge is
limited to 1.5 percent in a year.
Employers are charged a temporary debt
indebtedness assessment beginning in 2005
and expiring the last day of the 4th quarter
of 2007.
A surcharge is assessed when the State
has outstanding Federal loans or credit instruments (bonds).
The Board of Unemployment Fund Financing is authorized to sell interest-bearing
bonds in an amount not to exceed $450 million less the principal and that mature no
later than 3 years after issuance; all bonds
must be paid off by January 15, 2008; the
proceeds must be deposited in the State unemployment compensation fund.

• the taxable wage decreases by $500
the subsequent year if the unemployment compensation trust fund balance
equals or exceeds $650 million (instead of $450 million) on September
30;

Monetary entitlement. The wages needed to
qualify increase from $1,000 in a quarter to
$1,200 in 2005; $1,300 in 2006; $1,400 in
2007; and $1,500 thereafter; base period
wages must equal 1.5 times high quarter
wages, or wages in two quarters and base

Coverage. “Temporary help firm” is defined as a firm that hires its own employees
and assigns them to clients to support or
supplement the clients’ workforce and
“temporary employee” as an employee assigned to work for the clients of a temporary help firm.
Financing. The State taxable wage base increases from $8,000 in 2004 to $11,000 in
2005, 2006, and 2007; to $12,000 in 2008
and thereafter subject to the following:

January 2005

period wages equaling 1.5 times the maximum taxable wage base.
Effective 2007, “partially unemployed”
is defined as any week of less than full-time
work if wages payable are less than the greater
of the individual’s weekly benefit amount
plus $20 or the weekly benefit amount plus
20 percent of the weekly benefit amount.
Effective 2007, modifies the earnings disregard from $20 to the greater of $20 or 20
percent of the weekly benefit amount.
The computation of, and the maximum,
weekly benefit are modified as follows:
• 3 ¾ percent of high quarter wages up
to $270 in 2006 and $280 in 2007;
• 4 percent of average two highest quarters up to $300 in 2008, $310 in 2009,
and $320 in 2010 and thereafter.
Beginning in 2008, the 1-week waiting period will become compensable once remaining balance on the claim is less than or equal
to the compensable amount for the waiting
week, rather than after 9 weeks.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The terms “temporary help firm” and “temporary employee”
are defined and a temporary employee of a
temporary help firm will be deemed to have
voluntarily quit for failure to contact the firm
for reassignment prior to filing for unemployment benefits; failure to contact the firm will
not be deemed a voluntary quit unless the
claimant was advised of the obligation to contact the firm upon completion of assignments
and that unemployment benefits may be denied for failure to do so.
“Misconduct” is defined as:
• an act of wanton or willful disregard
of the employer’s interest;
• a deliberate violation of the employer’s
rules;
• a disregard of standards of behavior
that the employer has the right to expect of his or her employee; and
• negligence in such a degree or recurrence as to manifest culpability,
wrongful intent or evil design, or show
an intentional and substantial disregard
of the employer’s interest or of the
employee’s duties and obligations to
the employer.
The 8-week extension for definite recall dates
is limited to a total of 16 weeks.

Suspensions from work for 4 weeks or
more will be treated as discharges.
Misconduct is committed if a claimant
is at work with a detectible amount of alcohol or controlled substance in the
claimant’s system, in violation of
employer’s policy, and certain conditions
are met; claimant’s wage credits are subject to cancellation if found to be in violation of such policy.
A temporary employee is deemed to have
voluntarily quit employment for failing to
contact the temporary help firm for reassignment before filing for benefits unless the employee was not informed of the obligation to
contact the firm upon completion of the assignment; employee will be disqualified for
benefits if found to have voluntarily quit until wages are earned in insured work equal to
10 times the claimant’s weekly benefit
amount.
An employer’s written notification of an
offer of work sent via certified mail to
claimant’s last known address constitutes an
offer of work, and failure to accept the offer
of work will disqualify the claimant for benefits until wages are earned in insured work
equal to 10 times the claimant’s weekly benefit amount.
The disqualification for misconduct is
modified from 4-16 weeks and wages equal
to 8 times the weekly benefit amount to
wages equal to 6 times the weekly benefit
amount.
Absenteeism or tardiness is considered
misconduct if it violates an employer’s attendance policy and the claimant knew about
the policy in advance.
Overpayments. Any employer or individual
who receives or denies unemployment benefits by intentionally misstating, misrepresenting, or failing to disclose material facts
has committed fraud; improperly paid benefits must be repaid; penalties are assessed;
if the employer or individual fails to repay
the benefits, the division may offset from
any future unemployment benefits or take
other steps necessary to recover the overpayment; future benefits may not be used to
offset penalties.
Any person or entity perpetrating a
fraud or misrepresentation for which a penalty has not been provided is guilty of a
class A misdemeanor and will be liable for a
civil penalty not to exceed the value of the
fraud, and any person or entity who previously pled or was found guilty of perpetrating a fraud or misrepresentation and subsequently violates such provision is guilty of
a class D felony.

Nebraska
Administrative. Employers, when reporting
new hire information, must report the
employee’s date of hire or rehire to the
Nebraska Department of Labor and transmit
a copy of the employee’s Federal W-4 with
the date of hire or rehire inscribed on it,
beginning January 1, 2005.

New Jersey
Financing. The fund reserve ratio of the
tax table effectively reducing individual
employer tax rates for tax years beginning
on or after July 1, 2004, has been modified; the rates in each schedule remain the
same.
The factor on which the overall 10-percent rate increase is based, if applicable, has
been reduced from a fund reserve ratio of 1.0
percent to 0.5 percent for rate years beginning after July 1, 2004.
The overall rate reduction decreased from
15 percent to 7 percent from July 1, 2004,
until June 30, 2005, except that if an employer has a deficit reserve ratio of negative
35 percent or under, the employer’s rate of
contribution will not be reduced to less than
5.4 percent.
The requirement that each employer contributes to the healthcare subsidy fund an
amount equal to the amount that the
employer’s contribution to the unemployment compensation fund is decreased is extended until June 30, 2005.
For fiscal year 2005, all contributions to
the healthcare subsidy fund exceeding $100
million for this fiscal year must be deposited in the unemployment compensation
fund.
Extensions and special programs. The
conditions under which new claims for additional benefits are taken in a year has
been modified: new claims cease for the
year when total benefits paid under the
program are greater than 2.0 percent of
the sum of December 31st fund balances
since the program was enacted; formerly
new claims ceased when benefits paid in a
single year were greater than 1.5 percent
of the December 31st fund balance for the
preceding year.

New York
Nonmonetary eligibility. The pension offset
provision provides that unemployment benefits will not be reduced by rollover distribution payments.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

37

Unemployment Insurance Laws, 2004

North Carolina

Rhode Island

Coverage. In general statutes, sets forth the
requirements and responsibilities of professional employer organizations (PEOs); those
applicable to the unemployment insurance
program include:

Coverage. A person engaged in the business
of providing professional employer services
must be registered; registration requirements
are established.
The client company must be considered
an employer of its covered employees under
any agreement with a professional employer
organization (PEO) for purposes of unemployment compensation and temporary disability insurance; a client will have the sole
right to direct and control the professional or
licensed activities of covered employees of a
client’s business, unless otherwise expressly
agreed to by the client in the professional
employer agreement.

• provides that a licensed PEO is the
employer of an assigned employee for
unemployment insurance purposes,
and that the levy and collection of
unemployment insurance contributions, or the assignment of discrete
employer numbers and the definition
of the terms employing unit, employer, or employment have the effect as provided under the State unemployment insurance law; and
• requires a licensed PEO to establish
the terms of a PEO agreement by a
written contract between the PEO and
the client company, and that such contract specify that the PEO assumes
responsibility for the payment of
wages to and for the payment and
collection of payroll taxes on assigned
employees.

Oklahoma
Appeals. Telephone appeals to the Appeal
Tribunal through the Oklahoma Employment Security Commission’s interactive
voice response system or by speaking with
one of the Commission’s claim representatives are permitted.
The provision providing that if a party is
represented by an attorney, the hearing officer may approve a fee for legal services on
a quantum merit basis, provided the fee is
commensurate with the fee set by the board
of review has been revoked.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The severance pay
provision provides for the deduction of severance pay in the week severance pay is
received.
Separation from employment to escape
domestic violence or abuse is considered good
cause and benefits are allowed, provided that
a victim’s protection order was on file with
the appropriate authorities and the order was
effective on the date the claimant separated
from employment.
The employer must produce certain specific documentation to establish that the drug
or alcohol test of a claimant was conducted
in accordance with the Standards for Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Act.

38

Monthly Labor Review

Financing. The PEO must report and pay
all required unemployment contributions
using the client company’s State employer
account number at the client company’s experience rate or at the new employer rate if
the client company does not qualify for an
experience rate; the PEO is responsible for
paying wages to covered employees, to
withhold, collect, report, and remit payrollrelated and unemployment taxes; the client
company and PEO must be jointly and severally liable for all contributions, fines, interest, penalties, and withholdings due.

South Carolina
Coverage. With respect to Indian tribes,
clarifies that failure to make timely payments
by any tribal unit results in the entire tribe
being denied the reimbursement option.
Financing. An employing unit must be assigned all or a portion of the employment
benefit record of an existing employing unit
when there is an acquisition or change in the
form or organization of an existing business
enterprise, or severable portion thereof, and
there is a continuity of control of the business enterprise; the employing unit must be
assigned the same rate as the predecessor, or
the predecessor who has the highest base
rate if there is more than one predecessor
employing unit with different base rates.
Assigning an employing unit any portion
of the employment benefit record of an existing employing unit upon the acquisition
of that established business or of an identifiable and segregable part thereof is prohibited
if the:
• acquiring person was not otherwise
an employer at the time of the
acquisition;

January 2005

• person has no substantial commonality of interest, including ownership
or management, in the business acquired; and
• South Carolina Employment Security
Commission finds that the person acquired the business or an identifiable
and segregable part thereof solely or
primarily for the purpose of obtaining a lower rate of contributions.
If the experience rating account of the predecessor employer contains a debit balance,
defined as an excess of total benefits charged
over total contributions paid, the experience
rating account of the predecessor employer
in any event must be transferred to the successor employer.
A penalty is assessed equal to the greater
of $1,000 or 10 percent of the tax determined
by the commission to be due for each report
submitted in violation of an employing unit
that willfully attempts to violate these provisions; provides that this penalty may be
recovered in the same manner as for the collection of other penalties; provides that officers and directors of the enterprise comprising the employing unit are individually
liable for the penalties assessed.
A contribution tax return preparer who
violates these provisions or provides advice
to an employing unit that results in a wilful
violation of these provisions is liable to a
penalty of not less than $1,000 nor more
than $10,000 for each report submitted in
violation; this penalty may be recovered by
the commission in an appropriate civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction.

Tennessee
Appeals. Appeals to the court for review of
tax liability must be filed in the chancery
court of Davidson County.
An appeal must be filed within 20 calendar days after the date the written notification of the redetermination is given or mailed
to the last known address of the interested
party or the redetermination becomes final
and not subject to further review.
Coverage. If:
• a person, corporation, or business entity maintains a personnel registry or
referral service for companion-sitters
seeking employment opportunities;
• the sitters do not provide services for
hire to nonprofit organizations, Indian
tribes, or State or local governments;
and

• pursuant to applicable Federal legislation, the Internal Revenue Service
(IRS) determines that a companion-sitter is not an employee of the person,
corporation or business entity under
the typical registry/referral arrangements of such person, corporation, or
business entity;
then companion-sitters who receive referral
under the registry/referral arrangements substantially similar to those in the IRS determination will not be classified as employees of
such person, corporation, or business entity
pursuant to the Tennessee unemployment
law.
Financing. The provision containing procedures for making payments under protest
for employers challenging a determination of
liability for premiums required to be paid
has been deleted.
The Tennessee Department of Labor and
Workforce Development Commissioner is
permitted to extend, under certain conditions,
the notification period for the transferring/
successor employer to provide notification of
acquisition of a business transfer and written
consent to the Department; any modification
of premium rates resulting from any such extension will take effect on, and apply prospectively from, the date on which such transfer is accepted by the department; there is no
forgiveness or refund of any premiums, fees,
or other related costs duly imposed prior to
the effective date of July 1, 2004.
The calculation of the industry reserve
ratio for new employer rate determination
has been modified.
New employer rates will be assigned from
the table in effect when the employer’s industry reserve ratio is 0.0 percent or less
(formerly minus 4.0 percent or less); depending on the table in effect, rates range from 5.0
percent to 10.0 percent (formerly 6.0 percent to 10.0 percent).
A staff leasing company will not be considered a successor employer to any client
and will not acquire the experience rating of
any client with whom the staff leasing company has contracted; the client, upon terminating its relationship with the staff leasing
company, will not be considered a successor
employer to the staff leasing company and
will not acquire any portion of the experience history of the aggregate reserve account
of the staff leasing company.
A client of a staff leasing company will
be jointly and severally liable with the staff

leasing company for State unemployment
premiums unless such client is relieved of
such joint and several liability under the Tennessee Employee Leasing Act.

Utah
Coverage. The provision allowing termination of coverage by the employer when there
was no calendar quarter in the preceding calendar year during which an employing unit
paid wages of $140 or more has been deleted; the requirement of $140 or more in a
quarter with respect to the Division of
Workforce Information and Payment Services’ authority to terminate coverage of an
employing unit has been eliminated.
Financing. The $50 late payment penalty is
applicable if the filing of quarterly wage information and requested reports of base period earnings is not more than 15 days late;
there is a penalty of $50 for each 15 days or
a fraction of the 15 days that the filing is late,
but not to exceed $250 per filing, if the filing
is more than 15 days late.
Employers liable for payments in lieu of
contributions must file quarterly Reimbursable Employment and Wage Reports on the
last day of the month that follows the end of
each calendar quarter, and the same late payment penalty applies to contributing employers for untimely filing quarterly Reimbursable Employment and Wage Reports.
The social contribution rate is .003 for
the rate year beginning January 1, 2004.
On or after January 1, 2005, the social
contribution rate will be calculated by dividing all social costs applicable to the preceding 4 fiscal years by the total taxable wages
of all employers subject to contributions for
the same period.
The social contribution rate for only the
rate year beginning January 1, 2005, may
not exceed 0.004.
Reed Act moneys made available to the
State that are received on or after January 1,
2004, may not be considered in establishing
the reserve factor for the rate year 2005 or
any subsequent rate year.
The maximum employer contribution
rate increased from 8.0 percent plus the social contribution rate to 9.0 percent plus the
social contribution rate, effective January 1,
2004.
The maximum weekly benefit amount
reduced from 65 percent to 62 percent of the
insured average fiscal year weekly wage during the preceding fiscal year for claims filed
on or after July 4, 2004.

Monetary entitlement. A levy on unemployment benefits is prohibited by creditors enforcing a claim for alimony, support, maintenance, certain unpaid earnings, or State or
local taxes.
Deductions of child-support obligations or an uncollected over-issuance of
food-stamp benefits are the only deductions that can be withheld from unemployment benefits.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The offset for receipt of Social Security benefits against unemployment compensation is reduced from
100 percent to 50 percent for 3 years for
benefit years beginning after July 1, 2004
and ending on or before July 1, 2007.
Overpayments. With respect to benefit
fraud, overpayment is the amount of benefits the claimant received by direct reason
of fraud.
If the fraud determination is based solely
on unreported or underreported work or
earnings, or both, and the claimant would
have been eligible for benefits if the work or
earnings, or both, had been correctly reported, the individual does not lose eligibility because of the misreporting but is liable
for the overpayment and penalties.

Vermont
Financing. The new employer rate changed
from a rate not less than the average tax rate
for the industry to which the employer is
assigned to 1.0 percent, except that certain
foreign corporations will be assigned a rate
equal to the average rate as of the most recent computation date paid by all employers so classified.

Virginia
Coverage. The definition of “employment”
excludes services performed by an inmate
for a penal or custodial institution or while
participating in the Diversion Center Incarceration Program.
Financing. The penalty increased from $30
to $75 for any employer who had wages
payable for a calendar quarter and fails without good cause to file any required report
with respect to wages or taxes; increases the
penalty from $30 to $75 for a newly covered
employer who fails to file a timely quarterly
report without good cause. Penalties will be
paid into the special Unemployment Compensation Administration Fund.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

39

Unemployment Insurance Laws, 2004

An employer’s account is not charged for
benefits paid to an individual who was unable to work at his regular employment due
to a disaster for which the Governor, by executive order, has declared a state of emergency, if such disaster forced the closure of
the employer’s business, and if the individual
returned to his regular full-time employment
once the business reopened. The noncharging
is limited to 4 weeks.
Nonmonetary eligibility. The definition of the
term “misconduct” includes a willful and
deliberate violation of a standard or regulation of the Commonwealth by an employee
of an employer licensed or certified by the
Commonwealth, which violation would
cause the employer to be sanctioned or have
its license or certification suspended by the
Commonwealth. The Virginia Employment
Commission is allowed to consider evidence
of mitigating circumstances in determining
whether misconduct occurred.
An individual is disqualified from benefits upon separation from the last employ-

40

Monthly Labor Review

ing unit from whom he or she has worked 30
days or 240 hours or from any subsequent
employing unit if such separation arose as a
condition of the individual’s parole or release
from a custodial or penal institution and such
individual was participating in the Diversion
Center Incarceration Program.

Washington
Administration. Information and records
may be released by the employment security department to a county clerk for purposes of verifying employment or income,
seeking assignment of wages, or performing
other duties necessary to the collection of
an offender’s legal financial obligations.
Financing. The penalty provision related
to evading the successorship provisions has
been amended by:
• adding to the penalty assessment the
solvency surcharge (if any) and 2 percent; and

January 2005

• changing the effective period for the
penalty assessment from five quarters to 1 year.

Wyoming
Coverage. Childcare workers contracted to
provide daycare services by the Wyoming
Department of Employment are self-employed for profit entities and are not employees of the Department and not eligible
for employee benefits (including unemployment insurance) as a result of receiving contract payments from the State. The Department is authorized to appeal any decision of
any State administrative body inconsistent
with this determination.
Financing. Employers’ accounts are not
charged for benefits paid for unemployment resulting directly from the reinstatement of another employee upon that
employee’s completion of service in the
uniformed services.

Précis

Trends in youth
employment rates
Many are the stories of the millionaires
and captains of industry who got their
start in the world of work as youths. It
is in their teenage years that most
people get their first “real” jobs. While
these jobs may require minimal skills and
be low-paying, they teach valuable
lessons that last a lifetime.
“What Is Happening to Youth
Employment Rates?” (Congressional
Budget Office, November 2004)
examines various facets of youth
employment between 1979 and 2003.
Over this period, trends in young
people’s employment rates varied
depending on their age and sex. For
example, for youths ages 20 to 24, the
employment rate dropped for males
while it rose slightly for females. For
youths ages 16 to 19, employment rates
trended down for males and females, and
were always below the rates for their
older counterparts.
What caused these changes in youth
employment rates? One factor was
increasing school enrollment. Young
people who were in school were much less
likely to have jobs than those who are not.
Over the past 25 years, school enrollment
rates for young people, measured in
October of each year, have slowly and
steadily increased. More striking than the
increase in the October school enrollment
rate was an even greater increase in the
July school enrollment rate. The “summer
school” enrollment rate more than tripled
from 1985 to 2003. Young people, often
faulted for short-sightedness, may have
been rationally obtaining more education
so as to maximize their lifetime earnings.
The gap in earnings between the lesseducated and the more-educated has
increased in recent decades.
However, between 1979 and 2000
there was also a decline in the employment rate for male teenagers and

young adults who were not in school.
Over the same period, the rate for female
teenagers and young adults not enrolled
in school was unchanged or increased
slightly. Underlying the decrease in
these employment rates for males were
decreased job opportunities for
inexperienced workers. A real (inflationadjusted) decrease in the minimum wage,
which made what jobs there were less
appealing to young would-be workers,
was also a factor. Additionally,
employment in sectors of the economy
that provide opportunities for females
has increased while employment in
those sectors that have traditionally
provided opportunities to males has
declined. Work at gasoline stations,
which once provided employment for
many young men, is an example of a
traditionally male-dominated occupation
that has shrunk in recent decades.
Another factor that may contribute to
the declining employment rate of male
youths is immigration, which has
brought many unskilled, mostly male,
workers to this country in recent years.

Sports arenas and
economic development
Over the past decade or so, local
governments have paid something over
$6 billion in subsidies for the construction of professional sports
facilities, according to research cited by
Michael T. Friedman and Daniel S.
Mason in the August 2004 Economic
Development Quarterly. While such
projects are generally justified on the
basis of their impact on local job
creation and other positive economic
impacts, Friedman and Mason contend
that a large body of “empirical research
has questioned the efficacy of sports
facilities as engines for economic
development.” Thus, the research issue

is a better understanding of how
development projects are chosen and
which specific groups influence these
choices in what way.
Friedman and Mason use the
organization studies concept of
stakeholder analysis to address this
issue. Stakeholders are defined in this
context as persons or groups that are
affected by a particular project or that
can affect the success of that project.
In stakeholder theory, each stakeholder
has at least one to three characteristics—
power, legitimacy, and urgency—and
that the relative importance of
stakeholders is determined by their
specific mixes of these attributes.
Stakeholders with all three are called
definitive stakeholders. Expectant
stakeholders, those holding two of the
characteristics, are divided into
dominant (power and legitimacy),
dangerous (power and urgency), and
dependent (urgency and legitimacy)
subgroups. Three classes of latent
stakeholders possess one characteristic each: dormant (power), discretionary (legitimacy), and demanding
(urgency).
In their analysis of sports
construction projects, Friedman and
Mason find that proponents of the
projects need only monitor the latent
stakeholders, a group that typically
includes the general public and low
income residents in particular. At the
other end of the stakeholding spectrum,
the definitive stakeholders normally
include a strong coalition of local
elites—the business community, the
team owners, the media, and local
politicians—that have generally been
proponents of subsidizing sports
facilities. “This”, say the authors,
“would explain why sports facilities
continue to be subsidized despite a lack
of evidence of economic benefits and,
at times, strong opposition from other
stakeholder groups.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005 41

Book Reviews

Book Reviews

Working in the digital age
The New Ruthless Economy: Work and
Power in the Digital Age. By Simon
Head.New York, Oxford University
Press, 2003, 240 pp., $28/hardback.
The author’s essential argument is that
the computer and its applications in the
workplace renew and refine the industrial culture that had formed the mass
production and much of routine whitecollar work throughout the 20th century
(and had been introduced during the
second half of the 19th century). The
culture has consisted in the standardization of production and products; the
simplification of the work process by
transferring, or seeking to transfer, the
worker’s skill and know-how to the engineer and machine; the measurement of
the minimum time needed to perform
given tasks; and close monitoring of the
process and its operators. Powerfully
influencing this culture was the notion
of “scientific management,” originally
defined by Frederick W. Taylor in determining “the one best way” of optimizing
efficiency. Time and motion studies of
task performance were to bring this about
while also eliminating stopgaps (or “soldiering”) during work hours.
Henry Ford and his engineers at times
denied that they were indebted to
Taylor’s notions, yet they adopted the
idea that management (including the
engineers)—not the line workers—be
fully responsible for ensuring efficiency
of operations. An example was the design and configuration of machinery that
reduced the operator’s role to a minimum, no particular skill or care being
required of him or her. Every machining
operation was precisely timed so that
the worker had to achieve a standard
output each day. Each machined work
piece was moved to the next machine
by a gravitational slide for the next operation. Thus, the part did not need to
be hand-carried, social intercourse between workers was curtailed, and monitoring by the foreman was facilitated.
42

Monthly Labor Review

The concept of the assembly line,
while not original with Ford, was applied
to a variety of cognate parts and components (of which there were 5,000 in
the Model T), the worker being subjected
to detailed time and motion norms, and
the moving line in effect imposing its
own control and discipline. Enormous
increases in productivity resulted—as
well as unceasing complaints about
speedup. “A history of the near 70-year
relationship between the United Auto
Workers and the Detroit Big Three could
be written largely as a prolonged dispute about speedup,” writes Head.
Head titles his introductory chapter,
“A New Economy?”—the question mark
indicating his doubts about the “newness” of what others have held to be a
fundamental change in the technology
of the workplace. In fact, his entire book
questions this assumption. And his thesis and research confirm what Shoshana
Zuboff wrote in her authoritative work,
In the Age of the Smart Machine: The
Future of Work and Power: “…[T]he
logic that motivated the early purveyors
and adapters of scientific management
has continued to dominate the course
of automation in the 20th century workplace.”
In the forefront of Head’s concern is
the spread and refinement of information technology (IT ) into white-collar
work, whether done by clerical or professional personnel; and the role of
reengineering in reorganizing and formatting such work in adapting it to the
computer. Such adaptation, however, is
not merely technological but is based
on, or is derived from, the principles of
“scientific management” as outlined
earlier. Those principles were restructured to fit white-collar work by William
H. Leffingwell, an admirer of Taylor, who
published a path-breaking book on efficient office management in 1925. His
studies centered on the mail order business whose core concern was order fulfillment. He devised, for example, the
most efficient way of opening mail, reducing the necessary motions of the

January 2005

task from 13 to 6, and doubling the output so defined to 200 items per hour.
Insofar as orders or remittances could
not be handled routinely, experts would
deal with “exceptional” cases. “For
Leffingwell, as for Taylor, the cause of
efficiency was best served when the
scope for independent decision-making
by employees was reduced to a minimum,” writes Head.
Unlike the workflow characteristics of
the factory, white-collar tasks, except for
the more routine clerical work, could not
be readily standardized. There was no
moving line as in the emblematic factory
that inherently regulated the time spent
on each task. Analysis of length of telephone calls was cumbersome, as was
time spent and monitored in filing a given
volume of documents.
These and related problems, according to Head, were solved with the introduction of networked computers and its
workflow software. “…Leffington’s vision of a white-collar work assembly line
subject to the rigorous control of the
factory floor was now within reach.” Although that vision was rooted in the idea
of scientific management, the term was
eschewed by business and its consultants; “reengineering” was substituted
for it, the practice and culture of
Taylorism being continued if transformed by new instrumentalities of measurement, control, and deskilling of the
operator.
The 1990s were the decade of
reengineering. Some of the most influential works on the topic were published
then. Investment in computers soared
at an average annual rate of 43 percent
between 1994 and 2000, and in software,
18 percent—driving forces in the investment boom of the time.
The computer, to be sure, had been
introduced into the white-collar (as well
as the blue-collar) work process long
before reengineering became technologically feasible. It was designed (or
formatted) not only to simplify office
procedures but also, as far as feasible,
to eliminate “elements of interpersonal

coordination.” Shoshana Zuboff, in presenting a number of case studies in the
work quoted earlier, writes, “In each
case, cost reduction and increased productivity were preeminent goals, which
required systems that would simplify
transaction processing while substantially increasing the volume of work that
could be completed by one clerk. In the
case of Consolidated Underwriter
Insurance’s dental claims operation, this
meant reducing the knowledge demands
of the task in order to increase the speed
with which claims could be processed.”
She quotes a manager, saying inter alia,
“A lot of quality issues are now built
into the machine. It requires less
thought, judgment, and manual interventions. It’s designed to let you pump
claims out the door.”
The effort embodied by reengineering
is a major theme of Head’s book. He
notes, for example, that so-called expert
systems have been created at such companies as IBM and American Express,
which—according to Reengineering the
Corporation by Michael Hammer and
James Champy, whom he cites—allow
“relatively unskilled people to operate
at nearly the level of highly trained experts.” Numerous tasks, hitherto performed by numerous workers, are now
compressed; specialists are readily replaced. Software facilitates monitoring
by managers.
Management’s drive to incorporate
employees’ skill or know-how or the
knowledge distilled from experience in
the computer seems relentless but also
stymied by the idiosyncrasies of the relationships the computer, when used in
certain work processes, is meant to convey. Head’s discussion of the call center industry, which basically serves business in its customer relations activities,
suggests the tension between that drive
and some of the factors hobbling it.
The knowledge required to respond
to customer queries is, in theory at least,
incorporated in the computer. The call
center agent need merely follow a script
that he or she must follow; he or she is

in effect reduced to a conduit of information, not its originator. A host of software systems monitors strict abidance
by the rules. It measures time spent on
each call, as well as the number of calls
within a given time span and the agent’s
bathroom breaks. Head titles the pertinent chapters as “The Customer Relations Factory” and “The Digital Assembly Line.” These workplaces, he writes,
“are ruled by the grim values of
Taylorism.”
He also notes distinct weaknesses
that inhere in the system and that evidently cannot be resolved by computerization. For example, customers will often raise questions or explain their problem to which a response has not been
“scripted,” or to which the agent feels
an unscripted response is necessary.
Clearly, call center agents should be thoroughly trained and be knowledgeable
about a company’s products and services; and where this has been the case,
Head reports, employee turnover has
been low and their companies’ success
rate high. But if heavy pressure is exerted on employees to abide by the rules,
working conditions remain unsatisfactory. Turnover consequently is exceptionally high. Head concludes that, “The
call center workforce is one of the first
proletariats of the digital age, with the
empowered computer and its software
imposing the discipline and control that,
in the mass production plant, has always
been the task of the assembly line and
the automatic machine.”
Reengineering as idea as well as practice has likewise been introduced into
medical care. The introduction has been
associated with the emergence of managed care organizations (MCOs) or, perhaps more accurately, with the transformation of medical care into a service organized on business principles. Efficiency in service delivery thus became a
primary goal, pursued by managers who
did not necessarily have any medical
training but entertained operating philosophies similar to those of other business enterprises. “The language of

reengineering … pervades the manuals
of managed care,” Head writes. Service
delivery to the patient is simplified and
speeded. Patients’ complaints may be
diagnosed over the telephone. The call
taker, after guiding the patient through
questions pertinent to the complaint,
may cull the corresponding symptoms
from software. One large MCO in California has given bonuses to its phone
clerks if they could limit patients’ appointments to less than 35 percent or
limit average phone time to 3 minutes
and 45 seconds.
Speedup, moreover, has greatly reduced MCO physicians’ time spent with
patients. Examining 30 patients per day
became the norm during the 1990s, far
higher than in earlier years.
The core of the effort to impose “scientific management” upon the physician’s
work, Head believes, has lain in the formulation of treatment protocols derived
from data banks which in turn are compiled from detailed clinical, treatment, and
outcome records. The patient ceases to
be “unique,” his or her care is no longer
individualized, the encounter between
physicians and patient goes the way of
the house call, replaced by digital technology. The judgment of the physician is
minimized: the MCO’s medical director, responding to the physician’s telephoned
narration of symptoms, allocates these to
a subgroup, and tells the physician “what
can and cannot be done.”
Yet, these tendencies are being resisted by patient dissatisfaction surfacing in some State legislation that limits
certain controls that MCOs exercise. Setting limits even more starkly “is a basic
truth of medicine: The discipline does
not yield a body of unequivocal rules
and guidelines that can then be used to
surround the physician with the regulation and control of managerial medicine.”
The profession strongly resists such
regulation and control, impeding the
advance of “scientific management.”
Head is not quite clear on this matter;
elsewhere he states that industrialization
of medicine has failed. It may well be,

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

43

Book Reviews

however, that the lower income population will be subject to the “scientific management” tendency of medical care, while
better-off patients will benefit from the
more usual, individualized diagnosis and
treatment.
In concluding his book, Head emphasizes the need to resist speedup, particularly in service industries, such
as call centers and healthcare, and he
advocates the formation of trade unions.
He lauds the United Autoworkers as
having prevented or mitigated “management by stress,” as has been the case,
he writes, in Japanese automobile factories (to which he devotes a substantial
section). He recognizes, however, the
weakness of the American labor move-

44

Monthly Labor Review

ment and of its political stature in its relation to employers. He notes that some
service industries, such as wholesaling,
are susceptible to “Taylorist” controls,
and that truckers and deliverymen/
women of express delivery services can
be monitored by satellites and sensors.
The power and originality of Head’s
argument lies in his ability to link
reengineering and computerization of
service industries to an industrial culture that—as David Hounshell has
shown in his classical work, From the
American System to Mass Production,
1800–1932—characterized the development of manufacturing during the 19th
century. Its tendency to deskill the
worker and to diminish the mental and

January 2005

intellectual acuity he or she would bring
to the job was rationalized by Frederick
Taylor and, in reference to the white-collar employee, by William Leffingwell,
Taylor’s disciple. That culture evolved
into the emblem of the 20th century with
Henry Ford and his engineers. Head’s
treatise expresses resistance to the mindless pursuit of routine and speedup to
which large numbers of workers are subjected. It greatly contributes to an understanding of today’s reengineered
workplace.

—Horst Brand
formerly with the
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Current Labor Statistics
Monthly Labor Review
January 2005

NOTE: Many of the statistics in the
following pages were subsequently
revised. These pages have not been
updated to reflect the revisions.
To obtain BLS data that reflect all revisions, see
http://www.bls.gov/data/home.htm
For the latest set of "Current Labor Statistics,"
see http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/curlabst.htm

Current
CurrentLabor
Labor Statistics
Statistics

Notes on labor statistics
Comparative indicators

.............................. 46

1. Labor market indicators .................................................... 59
2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in
compensation, prices, and productivity ....................... 60
3. Alternative measures of wages and
compensation changes ................................................... 60

Labor force data
4. Employment status of the population,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
5. Selected employment indicators,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
6. Selected unemployment indicators,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
7. Duration of unemployment,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
9. Unemployment rates by sex and age,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
10. Unemployment rates by States,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
11. Employment of workers by States,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
12. Employment of workers by industry,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
13. Average weekly hours by industry,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
14. Average hourly earnings by industry,
seasonally adjusted ........................................................
15. Average hourly earnings by industry ................................
16. Average weekly earnings by industry ...............................
17. Diffusion indexes of employment change,
seasonally adjusted .......................................................
18. Job openings levels and rates, by industry and regions,
seasonally adjusted.........................................................
19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
20. Separations levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region,
seasonally adjusted..........................................................
22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
10 largest counties .........................................................
23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by State
24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages, by ownership .............................................
25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages,
establishment size and employment, by supersector ...
26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area .........................................
27. Annual data: Employment status of the population ........
28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry ..................
29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings level,
by industry.....................................................................

61
62
63
63
64
64
65
65
66
69
70
71
72
73

74
74

Labor compensation and collective
bargaining data
30.
31.
32.
33.

Employment Cost Index, compensation.............................
Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries ....................
Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry ........
Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers,
by bargaining status, region, and area size ....................
34. Participants in benefit plans, medium and large firms ......
35. Participants in benefits plans, small firms
and government .............................................................
36. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more ...........

88
90
92
93
94
95
96

Price data
37. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average, by expenditure
category and commodity and service groups ................
38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and
local data, all items ........................................................
39. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, all items
and major groups ...........................................................
40. Producer Price Indexes by stage of processing .................
41. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major
industry groups .............................................................
42. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes
by stage of processing ...................................................
43. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification ......................................................
44. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International
Trade Classification ......................................................
45. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category .................
46. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category ................
47. U.S. international price indexes for selected
categories of services .....................................................

97
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
107
107

Productivity data
48. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
and unit costs, data seasonally adjusted .......................
49. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity ......................
50. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation,
unit costs, and prices ....................................................
51. Annual indexes of output per hour for select
industries .......................................................................

108
109
110
111

75
75
76
78
79
80

International comparisons data
52. Unemployment rates in nine countries,
seasonally adjusted....................................................... 114
53. Annual data: Employment status of the civilian
working-age population, 10 countries............................ 115
54. Annual indexes of productivity and related measures,
15 economies.................................................................. 116

Injury and Illness data

81
86
86

55. Annual data: Occupational injury and illness
incidence rates................................................................. 118

87

56. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure............. 120
Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

45

Current Labor
Statistics
Notes
on
Current Labor Statistics

This section of the Review presents the principal statistical series collected and calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer,
producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury
and illness statistics. In the notes that follow, the data in each group of tables are
briefly described; key definitions are given;
notes on the data are set forth; and sources
of additional information are cited.

General notes
The following notes apply to several tables
in this section:
Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly
and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate
the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production
schedules, opening and closing of schools,
holiday buying periods, and vacation practices, which might prevent short-term evaluation of the statistical series. Tables containing data that have been adjusted are identified as “seasonally adjusted.” (All other
data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal
effects are estimated on the basis of current
and past experiences. When new seasonal
factors are computed each year, revisions
may affect seasonally adjusted data for several preceding years.
Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables
1–14, 17–21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted labor force data in tables 1 and 4–9
were revised in the February 2004 issue of
the Review. Seasonally adjusted establishment survey data shown in tables 1, 12–14,
and 17 were revised in the March 2004 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal
adjustment methodology appears in “Notes
on the data.”
Revisions in the productivity data in
table 54 are usually introduced in the September issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes
and percent changes from month-to-month
and quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes are not published for the U.S. average All-Items CPI. Only seasonally adjusted
percent changes are available for this series.
Adjustments for price changes. Some
data—such as the “real” earnings shown in
table 14—are adjusted to eliminate the effect of changes in price. These adjustments
are made by dividing current-dollar values
by the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate component of the index, then multiplying by 100. For example, given a current
hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price
46

Monthly Labor Review

index number of 150, where 1982 = 100,
the hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is
$2 ($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other
resulting values) are described as “real,”
“constant,” or “1982” dollars.

Sources of information
Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety of sources. Definitions of each series and
notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of
data. For detailed descriptions of each data
series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2490. Users also may wish to consult
Major Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report 919. News releases provide
the latest statistical information published
by the Bureau; the major recurring releases
are published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.
More information about labor force, employment, and unemployment data and the
household and establishment surveys underlying the data are available in the Bureau’s
monthly publication, Employment and
Earnings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the household survey are available on the Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/cps/
Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment
survey also are available on the Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/ces/
Additional information on labor force data
for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic
Profile of Employment and Unemployment.
For a comprehensive discussion of the
Employment Cost Index, see Employment
Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the
Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins:
Employee Benefits in Medium and Large
Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private
Establishments; and Employee Benefits in
State and Local Governments.
More detailed data on consumer and producer prices are published in the monthly
periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and
Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of
the 1998 revision of the CPI, see the December 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices
appear in monthly news releases.
Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found
on the Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/lpc/
For additional information on interna-

January 2005

tional comparisons data, see International
Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin
1979.
Detailed data on the occupational injury
and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United
States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.
Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries analytical articles on annual and longer
term developments in labor force, employment, and unemployment; employee compensation and collective bargaining; prices;
productivity; international comparisons;
and injury and illness data.

Symbols
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.
p = preliminary. To increase the timeliness of some series, preliminary
figures are issued based on representative but incomplete returns.
r = revised. Generally, this revision
reflects the availability of later
data, but also may reflect other
adjustments.

Comparative Indicators
(Tables 1–3)
Comparative indicators tables provide an
overview and comparison of major BLS statistical series. Consequently, although many
of the included series are available monthly,
all measures in these comparative tables are
presented quarterly and annually.
Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys
and information on rates of change in compensation provided by the Employment
Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force
participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major demographic groups based on the Current Population (“household”) Survey are
presented, while measures of employment
and average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll
data. The Employment Cost Index (compensation), by major sector and by bargaining
status, is chosen from a variety of B L S
compensation and wage measures because
it provides a comprehensive measure of
employer costs for hiring labor, not just
outlays for wages, and it is not affected
by employment shifts among occupations
and industries.
Data on changes in compensation,
prices, and productivity are presented in

table 2. Measures of rates of change of compensation and wages from the Employment
Cost Index program are provided for all civilian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal
and household workers) and for all private
nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in
consumer prices for all urban consumers;
producer prices by stage of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price indexes are
given. Measures of productivity (output per
hour of all persons) are provided for major
sectors.
Alternative measures of wage and
compensation rates of change , which reflect the overall trend in labor costs, are summarized in table 3. Differences in concepts
and scope, related to the specific purposes
of the series, contribute to the variation in
changes among the individual measures.
Notes on the data
Definitions of each series and notes on the
data are contained in later sections of these
notes describing each set of data.

Employment and
Unemployment Data
(Tables 1; 4–29)

Household survey data
Description of the series
Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey,
a program of personal interviews conducted
monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample consists of about 60,000 households selected to
represent the U.S. population 16 years of
age and older. Households are interviewed
on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of
the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive months.

Definitions
Employed persons include (1) all those
who worked for pay any time during the
week which includes the 12th day of the
month or who worked unpaid for 15 hours
or more in a family-operated enterprise and
(2) those who were temporarily absent from
their regular jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial dispute, or similar reasons.
A person working at more than one job is
counted only in the job at which he or she
worked the greatest number of hours.
Unemployed persons are those who did

not work during the survey week, but were
available for work except for temporary illness and had looked for jobs within the preceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look
for work because they were on layoff are also
counted among the unemployed. Theunemployment rate represents the number unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.
The civilian labor force consists of all
employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons
not in the labor force are those not classified as employed or unemployed. This group
includes discouraged workers, defined as
persons who want and are available for a
job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end
of their last job if they held one within the
past 12 months), but are not currently looking, because they believe there are no jobs
available or there are none for which they
would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises all persons 16
years of age and older who are not inmates
of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums,
or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The
civilian labor force participation rate is
the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population that is in the labor
force. The employment-population ratiois
employment as a percent of the civilian
noninstitutional population.

Notes on the data
From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the
Current Population Survey figures to correct for estimating errors during the
intercensal years. These adjustments affect
the comparability of historical data. A description of these adjustments and their effect on the various data series appears in the
Explanatory Notes of Employment and
Earnings. For a discussion of changes introduced in January 2003, see “Revisions
to the Current Population Survey Effective
in January 2003” in the February 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings (available
on the BLS Web site at: http://www.bls.gov/
cps/rvcps03.pdf).
Effective in January 2003, BLS began using the X-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment program to seasonally adjust national labor force
data. This program replaced the X-11 ARIMA
program which had been used since January
1980. See “Revision of Seasonally Adjusted
Labor Force Series in 2003,” in the February 2003 issue of Employment and
Earnings (available on the B L S Web site
at http:www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs.pdf) for a
discussion of the introduction of the use of

for seasonal adjustment of the
labor force data and the effects that it had
on the data.
At the beginning of each calendar year,
historical seasonally adjusted data usually
are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during
the January–June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for
only the most recent 5 years. In July, new
seasonal adjustment factors, which incorporate the experience through June, are produced for the July–December period, but no
revisions are made in the historical data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMA TION on national household survey data, contact the
Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202)
691–6378.
X-12 ARIMA

Establishment survey data
Description of the series
Employment, hours, and earnings data in
this section are compiled from payroll
records reported monthly on a voluntary basis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its
cooperating State agencies by about
160,000 businesses and government agencies, which represent approximately
400,000 individual worksites and represent
all industries except agriculture. The active
CES sample covers approximately one-third
of all nonfarm payroll workers. Industries
are classified in accordance with the 2002
North American Industry Classification System. In most industries, the sampling probabilities are based on the size of the establishment; most large establishments are
therefore in the sample. (An establishment
is not necessarily a firm; it may be a branch
plant, for example, or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and others not on a regular
civilian payroll are outside the scope of the
survey because they are excluded from establishment records. This largely accounts for
the difference in employment figures between
the household and establishment surveys.

Definitions
An establishment is an economic unit
which produces goods or services (such as
a factory or store) at a single location and is
engaged in one type of economic activity.
Employed persons are all persons who
received pay (including holiday and sick
pay) for any part of the payroll period including the 12th day of the month. Persons
holding more than one job (about 5 percent
of all persons in the labor force) are counted

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

47

Current Labor Statistics

in each establishment which reports them.
Production workers in the goods-producing industries cover employees, up
through the level of working supervisors,
who engage directly in the manufacture or
construction of the establishment’s product.
In private service-providing industries, data
are collected for nonsupervisory workers,
which include most employees except those
in executive, managerial, and supervisory
positions. Those workers mentioned in
tables 11–16 include production workers in
manufacturing and natural resources and
mining; construction workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing industries. Production and nonsupervisory workers account
for about four-fifths of the total employment
on private nonagricultural payrolls.
Earnings are the payments production
or nonsupervisory workers receive during
the survey period, including premium pay
for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special
payments. Real earnings are earnings adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in
consumer prices. The deflator for this series is derived from the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W).
Hours represent the average weekly
hours of production or nonsupervisory
workers for which pay was received, and are
different from standard or scheduled hours.
Overtime hours represent the portion of average weekly hours which was in excess of
regular hours and for which overtime premiums were paid.
The Diffusion Index represents the percent of industries in which employment was
rising over the indicated period, plus onehalf of the industries with unchanged employment; 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and
decreasing employment. In line with Bureau
practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month
spans are seasonally adjusted, while those
for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Table
17 provides an index on private nonfarm
employment based on 278 industries, and a
manufacturing index based on 84 industries.
These indexes are useful for measuring the
dispersion of economic gains or losses and
are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data
Establishment survey data are annually adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called “benchmarks”). The March
2003 benchmark was introduced in February 2004 with the release of data for January 2004, published in the March 2004 is48

Monthly Labor Review

sue of the Review. With the release in June
2003, CES completed a conversion from the
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and completed the
transition from its original quota sample design to a probability-based sample design.
The industry-coding update included reconstruction of historical estimates in order to
preserve time series for data users. Normally 5 years of seasonally adjusted data are
revised with each benchmark revision.
However, with this release, the entire new
time series history for all CES data series
were re-seasonally adjusted due to the NAICS
conversion, which resulted in the revision
of all CES time series.
Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for
the national establishment data. Under this
methodology, the first preliminary estimates
for the current reference month and the revised estimates for the 2 prior months will
be updated with concurrent factors with
each new release of data. Concurrent seasonal adjustment incorporates all available
data, including first preliminary estimates
for the most current month, in the adjustment
process. For additional information on all of
the changes introduced in June 2003, see the
June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings
and “Recent changes in the national Current
Employment Statistics survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3–13.
Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003
data. For information on the revisions for
the State data, see the March and May 2003
issues of Employment and Earnings, and
“Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan Area CES survey,” Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 14–19.
Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses the
X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This procedure, developed by the Bureau of the Census, controls for the effect of varying survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus
5-week effect), thereby providing improved
measurement of over-the-month changes
and underlying economic trends. Revisions
of data, usually for the most recent 5-year
period, are made once a year coincident with
the benchmark revisions.
In the establishment survey, estimates for
the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12–17 in the Review).
When all returns have been received, the estimates are revised and published as “final”
(prior to any benchmark revisions) in the

January 2005

third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in
January and February and as final in March.
For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the
first 2 months of publication and final in the
third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on establishment survey data, contact the Division
of Current Employment Statistics: (202)
691–6555.

Unemployment data by
State
Description of the series
Data presented in this section are obtained
from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in
cooperation with State employment security
agencies.
Monthly estimates of the labor force,
employment, and unemployment for States
and sub-State areas are a key indicator of
local economic conditions, and form the basis for determining the eligibility of an area
for benefits under Federal economic assistance programs such as the Job Training
Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates are presented in table 10.
Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying these data are those
used in the national estimates obtained
from the C P S.

Notes on the data
Data refer to State of residence. Monthly
data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures established by BLS. Once a year,
estimates are revised to new population controls, usually with publication of January
estimates, and benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data in
this series, call (202) 691–6392 (table 10)
or (202) 691–6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages
Description of the series
Employment, wage, and establishment data
in this section are derived from the quarterly tax reports submitted to State employment security agencies by private and
State and local government employers sub-

ject to State unemployment insurance (UI )
laws and from Federal, agencies subject
to the Unemployment Compensation for
Federal Employees (UCFE) program. Each
quarter, State agencies edit and process the
data and send the information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES202 data, are the most complete enumeration
of employment and wage information by industry at the national, State, metropolitan
area, and county levels. They have broad economic significance in evaluating labor market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions
In general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data
represent the number of covered workers
who worked during, or received pay for, the
pay period that included the 12th day of the
month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials, executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece
workers, and part-time workers. It excludes
proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain
farm and domestic workers. Certain types
of nonprofit employers, such as religious organizations, are given a choice of coverage
or exclusion in a number of States. Workers
in these organizations are, therefore, reported to a limited degree.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday,
paid vacation, and the like, are included. Persons on the payroll of more than one firm
during the period are counted by each UIsubject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period because of work stoppages, temporary
layoffs, illness, or unpaid vacations.
Federal employment data are based on
reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State
agencies for all Federal installations with
employees covered by the Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees ( UCFE )
program, except for certain national security agencies, which are omitted for security
reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies for any given month is based on the
number of persons who worked during or
received pay for the pay period that included
the 12th of the month.
An establishment is an economic unit,
such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that
produces goods or provides services. It is

typically at a single physical location and
engaged in one, or predominantly one, type
of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses two or more distinct and significant
activities. Each activity should be reported
as a separate establishment if separate
records are kept and the various activities are classified under different NAICS
industries.
Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the predominant reporting unit or statistical entity for
reporting employment and wages data. Most
employers, including State and local governments who operate more than one establishment in a State, file a Multiple Worksite Report each quarter, in addition to their quarterly UI report. The Multiple Worksite Report is used to collect separate employment
and wage data for each of the employer’s
establishments, which are not detailed on the
UI report. Some very small multi-establishment employers do not file a Multiple
Worksite Report. When the total employment in an employer’s secondary establishments (all establishments other than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer generally
will file a consolidated report for all establishments. Also, some employers either cannot or will not report at the establishment
level and thus aggregate establishments into
one consolidated unit, or possibly several
units, though not at the establishment level.
For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location at which a department, agency, or other
government body has civilian employees.
Federal agencies follow slightly different criteria than do private employers when breaking down their reports by installation. They
are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1) all installations with 10 or fewer
workers, and 2) all installations that have a
combined total in the State of fewer than 50
workers. Also, when there are fewer than 25
workers in all secondary installations in a
State, the secondary installations may be
combined and reported with the major installation. Last, if a Federal agency has fewer
than five employees in a State, the agency
headquarters office (regional office, district
office) serving each State may consolidate
the employment and wages data for that State
with the data reported to the State in which
the headquarters is located. As a result of
these reporting rules, the number of reporting units is always larger than the number
of employers (or government agencies) but
smaller than the number of actual establishments (or installations).

Data reported for the first quarter are
tabulated into size categories ranging from
worksites of very small size to those with
1,000 employees or more. The size category
is determined by the establishment’s March
employment level. It is important to note that
each establishment of a multi-establishment
firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment
level of the reporting multi-establishment
firm is not used in the size tabulation.
Covered employers in most States report
total wages paid during the calendar quarter, regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify
that wages be reported for, or based on the
period during which services are performed
rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or
regulations, wages include bonuses, stock
options, the cash value of meals and lodging, tips and other gratuities, and, in some
States, employer contributions to certain deferred compensation plans such as 401(k)
plans.
Covered employer contributions for oldage, survivors, and disability insurance
(OASDI), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation, and private
pension and welfare funds are not reported
as wages. Employee contributions for the
same purposes, however, as well as money
withheld for income taxes, union dues, and
so forth, are reported even though they are
deducted from the worker’s gross pay.
Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for
all pay periods ending within the quarter.
This includes cash allowances, the cash
equivalent of any type of remuneration, severance pay, withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of
services as for workers in private industry.
Average annual wage per employee for
any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average employment. A further division by 52 yields
average weekly wages per employee. Annual
pay data only approximate annual earnings
because an individual may not be employed
by the same employer all year or may work
for more than one employer at a time.
Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time
workers as well as the number of individuals in high-paying and low-paying occupations. When average pay levels between
States and industries are compared, these
factors should be taken into consideration.
For example, industries characterized by
high proportions of part-time workers will

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

49

Current Labor Statistics

show average wage levels appreciably less
than the weekly pay levels of regular fulltime employees in these industries. The opposite effect characterizes industries with
low proportions of part-time workers, or industries that typically schedule heavy weekend and overtime work. Average wage data
also may be influenced by work stoppages,
labor turnover rates, retroactive payments,
seasonal factors, bonus payments, and so on.

Notes on the data
Beginning with the release of data for 2001,
publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have
switched to the 2002 version of the North
American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and
tabulation of economic data by industry.
NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort
on the part of the statistical agencies of the
United States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to
difference in NAICS and Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) structures, industry data
for 2001 is not comparable to the SIC-based
data for earlier years.
Effective January 2001, the program began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments to local government
ownership. This BLS action was in response
to a change in Federal law dealing with the
way Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. This law requires federally recognized Indian Tribes to
be treated similarly to State and local governments. In the past, the Covered Employment and Wage (CEW) program coded Indian
Tribal Councils and related establishments
in the private sector. As a result of the new
law, CEW data reflects significant shifts in
employment and wages between the private
sector and local government from 2000 to
2001. Data also reflect industry changes.
Those accounts previously assigned to civic
and social organizations were assigned to
tribal governments. There were no required
industry changes for related establishments
owned by these Tribal Councils. These tribal
business establishments continued to be
coded according to the economic activity of
that entity.
To insure the highest possible quality
of data, State employment security agencies verify with employers and update, if
necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments
on a 3-year cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the
verification process are introduced with the
data reported for the first quarter of the year.

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Monthly Labor Review

Changes resulting from improved employer
reporting also are introduced in the first
quarter. For these reasons, some data, especially at more detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly comparable with
earlier years.
County definitions are assigned according to Federal Information Processing Standards Publications as issued by the National
Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas shown as counties include those designated as independent cities in some jurisdictions and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the Census Bureau where counties
have not been created. County data also are
presented for the New England States for
comparative purposes, even though townships are the more common designation used
in New England (and New Jersey).
The Office of Management and Budget
(OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use in
Federal statistical activities and updates
these definitions as needed. Data in this table
use metropolitan area criteria established by
OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999
(OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions
reflect information obtained from the 1990
Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census Bureau population estimate. A complete
list of metropolitan area definitions is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205
Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161,
telephone 1-800-553-6847.
OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms
of entire counties, except in the six New
England States where they are defined in
terms of cities and towns. New England data
in this table, however, are based on a county
concept defined by OMB as New England
County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA ) because county-level data are the most detailed
available from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The NECMA is a countybased alternative to the city- and town-based
metropolitan areas in New England. The
NECMA for a Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA ) include: (1) the county containing the
first-named city in that MSA title (this county
may include the first-named cities of other
MSA , and (2) each additional county having
at least half its population in the MSA in
which first-named cities are in the county
identified in step 1. The NECMA is officially
defined areas that are meant to be used by
statistical programs that cannot use the regular metropolitan area definitions in New
England.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
covered employment and wage data, contact
the Division of Administrative Statistics and
Labor Turnover at (202) 691–6567.

January 2005

Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey
Description of the series
Data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and compiled from a sample of 16,000 business establishments. Each month, data are collected
for total employment, job openings, hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. The JOLTS program covers all private
nonfarm establishments such as factories,
offices, and stores, as well as Federal, State,
and local government entities in the 50 States
and the District of Columbia. The JOLTS
sample design is a random sample drawn from
a universe of more than eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations
of the Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, or QCEW , program. This program includes all employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and Federal
agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE ).
The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class.
Large firms fall into the sample with virtual
certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates are
controlled to the employment estimates of the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to
adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements. Rates then are computed from the adjusted levels.
The monthly JOLTS data series begin with
December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted data
on job openings, hires, total separations, quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations
levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry divisions and
2 government divisions based on the North
American Industry Classification System
(NAICS), and four geographic regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job openings, hires, total
separations, and quits levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and four geographic regions.

Definitions
Establishments submit job openings information for the last business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that (1)
a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position; and (2) work
could start within 30 days regardless of
whether a suitable candidate is found; and
(3) the employer is actively recruiting from
outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,

short-term, and seasonal openings. Active
recruiting means that the establishment is
taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting
help-wanted signs, accepting applications,
or using other similar methods.
Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers,
promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with
start dates more than 30 days in the future,
jobs for which employees have been hired
but have not yet reported for work, and jobs
to be filled by employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job
openings rate is computed by dividing the
number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.
Hires are the total number of additions to
the payroll occurring at any time during the
reference month, including both new and rehired employees and full-time and part-time,
permanent, short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, oncall or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees
returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The hires rate is computed by dividing the
number of hires by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
Separations are the total number of terminations of employment occurring at any time
during the reference month, and are reported
by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are voluntary separations by employees (except for
retirements, which are reported as other separations). Layoffs and discharges are involuntary
separations initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal
layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days, discharges resulting from mergers,
downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges for cause, terminations of permanent
or short-term employees, and terminations of
seasonal employees. Other separations include
retirements, transfers to other locations, deaths,
and separations due to disability. Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on strike.
The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations rates are computed similarly,

dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data
The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires,
and separations are relatively new. The full
sample is divided into panels, with one panel
enrolled each month. A full complement of
panels for the original data series based on
the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system was not completely enrolled in
the survey until January 2002. The supplemental panels of establishments needed to
create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003. The data collected
up until those points are from less than a
full sample. Therefore, estimates from earlier months should be used with caution, as
fewer sampled units were reporting data at
that time.
In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data were revised
to address possible underreporting. As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for
months prior to March 2002 may not be comparable with estimates for March 2002 and
later.
The Federal Government reorganization
that involved transferring approximately
180,000 employees to the new Department
of Homeland Security is not reflected in the
JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the
Federal Government. The Office of Personnel Management’s record shows these transfers were completed in March 2003. The
inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions
of hires and separations is intended to cover
ongoing movements of workers between establishments. The Department of Homeland
Security reorganization was a massive onetime event, and the inclusion of these intergovernmental transfers would distort the
Federal Government time series.
Data users should note that seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted with
fewer data observations than is customary.
The historical data, therefore, may be subject to larger than normal revisions. Because
the seasonal patterns in economic data series
typically emerge over time, the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters to capture these effects requires longer series than
are currently available. As a result, the stable
seasonal filter option is used in the seasonal
adjustment of the JOLTS data. When calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes an average for each calendar month after detrending
the series. The stable seasonal filter assumes
that the seasonal factors are fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient data are avail-

able. When the stable seasonal filter is no
longer needed, other program features also
may be introduced, such as outlier adjustment
and extended diagnostic testing. Additionally,
it is expected that more series, such as layoffs and discharges and additional industries,
may be seasonally adjusted when more data
are available.
JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net changes in
payroll employment. Some reasons why it is
problematic to compare changes in payroll
employment withJOLTS hires and separations,
especially on a monthly basis, are: (1) the
reference period for payroll employment is
the pay period including the 12th of the
month, while the reference period for hires
and separations is the calendar month; and
(2) payroll employment can vary from month
to month simply because part-time and oncall workers may not always work during the
pay period that includes the 12th of the
month. Additionally, research has found that
some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their
payroll systems and practices. The shortfall
appears to be about 2 percent or less over a
12-month period.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Job
Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics
and Labor Turnover at (202) 961-5870.

Compensation and
Wage Data
(Tables 1–3; 30–36)
Compensation and waged data are gathered
by the Bureau from business establishments,
State and local governments, labor unions,
collective bargaining agreements on file
with the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index
Description of the series
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a
quarterly measure of the rate of change in
compensation per hour worked and includes
wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It uses a fixed market
basket of labor—similar in concept to the
Consumer Price Index’s fixed market basket of goods and services—to measure
change over time in employer costs of employing labor.
Statistical series on total compensation

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

51

Current Labor Statistics

costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit costs are available for private nonfarm
workers excluding proprietors, the self-employed, and household workers. The total
compensation costs and wages and salaries
series are also available for State and local
government workers and for the civilian
nonfarm economy, which consists of private industry and State and local government workers combined. Federal workers
are excluded.
The Employment Cost Index probability
sample consists of about 4,400 private nonfarm establishments providing about 23,000
occupational observations and 1,000 State
and local government establishments providing 6,000 occupational observations selected to represent total employment in each
sector. On average, each reporting unit provides wage and compensation information
on five well-specified occupations. Data are
collected each quarter for the pay period including the 12th day of March, June, September, and December.
Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed
employment weights from the 1980 Census
of Population are used each quarter to
calculate the civilian and private indexes
and the index for State and local governments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment
weights are from the 1970 Census of Population.) These fixed weights, also used to
derive all of the industry and occupation
series indexes, ensure that changes in these
indexes reflect only changes in compensation, not employment shifts among industries or occupations with different levels of
wages and compensation. For the bargaining status, region, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area series, however, employment data by industry and occupation are
not available from the census. Instead, the
1980 employment weights are reallocated
within these series each quarter based on the
current sample. Therefore, these indexes are
not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions
Total compensation costs include wages,
salaries, and the employer’s costs for employee benefits.
Wages and salaries consist of earnings
before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.
Benefits include the cost to employers
for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retirement and savings plans, and legally required

52

Monthly Labor Review

benefits (such as Social Security, workers’
compensation, and unemployment insurance).
Excluded from wages and salaries and
employee benefits are such items as payment-in-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data
The Employment Cost Index for changes in
wages and salaries in the private nonfarm
economy was published beginning in 1975.
Changes in total compensation cost—wages
and salaries and benefits combined—were
published beginning in 1980. The series of
changes in wages and salaries and for total
compensation in the State and local government sector and in the civilian nonfarm
economy (excluding Federal employees)
were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (June 1981=100) are available
on the Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/ect/
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Employment Cost Index, contact the Office
of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202)
691–6199.

Employee Benefits Survey
Description of the series
Employee benefits data are obtained from
the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual
survey of the incidence and provisions of
selected benefits provided by employers.
The survey collects data from a sample of
approximately 9,000 private sector and State
and local government establishments. The
data are presented as a percentage of employees who participate in a certain benefit,
or as an average benefit provision (for example, the average number of paid holidays
provided to employees per year). Selected
data from the survey are presented in table
34 for medium and large private establishments and in table 35 for small private establishments and State and local government.
The survey covers paid leave benefits
such as holidays and vacations, and personal,
funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick
leave; short-term disability, long-term disability, and life insurance; medical, dental,
and vision care plans; defined benefit and
defined contribution plans; flexible benefits
plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid
family leave.
Also, data are tabulated on the incidence of several other benefits, such as
severance pay, child-care assistance, wellness programs, and employee assistance
programs.

January 2005

Definitions
Employer-provided benefits are benefits
that are financed either wholly or partly by
the employer. They may be sponsored by a
union or other third party, as long as there is
some employer financing. However, some
benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, longterm care insurance and postretirement life
insurance paid entirely by the employee are
included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium rates
are considered a benefit.
Participants are workers who are covered by a benefit, whether or not they use
that benefit. If the benefit plan is financed
wholly by employers and requires employees to complete a minimum length of service for eligibility, the workers are considered participants whether or not they have
met the requirement. If workers are required to contribute towards the cost of a
plan, they are considered participants only
if they elect the plan and agree to make the
required contributions.
Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to provide those benefits. Benefits
are generally based on salary, years of service, or both.
Defined contribution plans generally
specify the level of employer and employee
contributions to a plan, but not the formula
for determining eventual benefits. Instead,
individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts
credited to these accounts.
Tax-deferred savings plans are a type
of defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer income taxes until withdrawal.
Flexible benefit plans allow employees
to choose among several benefits, such as
life insurance, medical care, and vacation
days, and among several levels of coverage
within a given benefit.

Notes on the data
Surveys of employees in medium and large
establishments conducted over the 1979–
86 period included establishments that employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers,
depending on the industry (most service
industries were excluded). The survey conducted in 1987 covered only State and local governments with 50 or more employ-

ees. The surveys conducted in 1988 and
1989 included medium and large establishments with 100 workers or more in private
industries. All surveys conducted over the
1979–89 period excluded establishments
in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time
employees.
Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and
local governments and small private establishments were conducted in even-numbered years, and surveys of medium and
large establishments were conducted in oddnumbered years. The small establishment
survey includes all private nonfarm establishments with fewer than 100 workers,
while the State and local government survey includes all governments, regardless of
the number of workers. All three surveys include full- and part-time workers, and
workers in all 50 States and the District of
Columbia.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends on
the Internet:
http://www.bls.gov/ebs/

Notes on the data

Work stoppages

Description of the series

Description of the series
Data on work stoppages measure the number and duration of major strikes or lockouts (involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring during the month (or year), the number of workers involved, and the amount of
work time lost because of stoppage. These
data are presented in table 36.
Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments directly involved in a stoppage. They
do not measure the indirect or secondary
effect of stoppages on other establishments
whose employees are idle owing to material
shortages or lack of service.

Definitions
Number of stoppages: The number of
strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.
Workers involved: The number of
workers directly involved in the stoppage.
Number of days idle: The aggregate
number of workdays lost by workers involved in the stoppages.
Days of idleness as a percent of estimated
working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a
percent of the aggregate number of standard
workdays in the period multiplied by total employment in the period.

This series is not comparable with the one
terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on work
stoppages data, contact the Office of Compensation and Working Conditions: (202)
691–6282, or the Internet:
http:/www.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data
(Tables 2; 37–47)
Price data are gathered by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price indexes are given in relation to a base period—
December 2003 = 100 for many Producer
Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), 1982–
84 = 100 for many Consumer Price Indexes
(unless otherwise noted), and 1990 = 100 for
International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in the prices paid
by urban consumers for a fixed market basket of goods and services. The CPI is calculated monthly for two population groups,
one consisting only of urban households
whose primary source of income is derived
from the employment of wage earners and
clerical workers, and the other consisting of
all urban households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is a continuation of the historic
index that was introduced well over a halfcentury ago for use in wage negotiations.
As new uses were developed for the CPI in
recent years, the need for a broader and more
representative index became apparent. The
all-urban consumer index (CPI-U), introduced
in 1978, is representative of the 1993–95
buying habits of about 87 percent of the noninstitutional population of the United States
at that time, compared with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W . In addition to wage
earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and technical
workers, the self-employed, short-term
workers, the unemployed, retirees, and others not in the labor force.
The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares,
doctors’ and dentists’ fees, and other goods
and services that people buy for day-to-day
living. The quantity and quality of these
items are kept essentially unchanged be-

tween major revisions so that only price
changes will be measured. All taxes directly
associated with the purchase and use of
items are included in the index.
Data collected from more than 23,000 retail establishments and 5,800 housing units
in 87 urban areas across the country are used
to develop the “U.S. city average.” Separate
estimates for 14 major urban centers are presented in table 38. The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area
indexes measure only the average change in
prices for each area since the base period,
and do not indicate differences in the level
of prices among cities.

Notes on the data
In January 1983, the Bureau changed the
way in which homeownership costs are
meaured for the CPI-U . A rental equivalence
method replaced the asset-price approach to
homeownership costs for that series. In
January 1985, the same change was made in
the CPI-W . The central purpose of the change
was to separate shelter costs from the investment component of homeownership so that
the index would reflect only the cost of shelter services provided by owner-occupied
homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W were
introduced with release of the January 1987
and January 1998 data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact
the Division of Prices and Price Indexes:
(202) 691–7000.

Producer Price Indexes
Description of the series
Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic producers of commodities in all stages
of processing. The sample used for calculating these indexes currently contains about
3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quotations per month, selected to represent the
movement of prices of all commodities produced in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity and public utilities sectors. The stageof-processing structure of P P I organizes
products by class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is, finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude materials). The traditional commodity structure of P P I organizes products by similarity of end use or
material composition. The industry and
product structure of P P I organizes data in
accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System and product
codes developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

53

Current Labor Statistics

To the extent possible, prices used in calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to the
first significant commercial transaction in
the United States from the production or
central marketing point. Price data are generally collected monthly, primarily by mail
questionnaire. Most prices are obtained directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week
containing the 13th day of the month.
Since January 1992, price changes for
the various commodities have been averaged
together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net
selling value of all commodities as of 1987.
The detailed data are aggregated to obtain
indexes for stage-of-processing groupings,
commodity groupings, durability-of-product groupings, and a number of special composite groups. All Producer Price Index data
are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact
the Division of Industrial Prices and Price
Indexes: (202) 691–7705.

International Price Indexes
Description of the series
The International Price Program produces
monthly and quarterly export and import
price indexes for nonmilitary goods and services traded between the United States and
the rest of the world. The export price index provides a measure of price change
for all products sold by U.S. residents to
foreign buyers. (“Residents” is defined as
in the national income accounts; it includes corporations, businesses, and individuals, but does not require the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import
price index provides a measure of price
change for goods purchased from other
countries by U.S. residents.
The product universe for both the import
and export indexes includes raw materials,
agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price
data for these items are collected primarily
by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases,
the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases,
prices are obtained from other sources.
To the extent possible, the data gathered
refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports
and at either the foreign border or the U.S.
border for imports. For nearly all products, the prices refer to transactions com54

Monthly Labor Review

pleted during the first week of the month.
Survey respondents are asked to indicate
all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported prices, so that the
price used in the calculation of the indexes
is the actual price for which the product
was bought or sold.
In addition to general indexes of prices for
U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also
published for detailed product categories of
exports and imports. These categories are defined according to the five-digit level of detail
for the Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use
Classification, the three-digit level for the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC),
and the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by
country or region of origin are also available.
BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services,
calculated on an international basis and on
a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data
The export and import price indexes are
weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The
trade weights currently used to compute
both indexes relate to 2000.
Because a price index depends on the
same items being priced from period to period, it is necessary to recognize when a
product’s specifications or terms of transaction have been modified. For this reason, the
Bureau’s questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the physical and functional
characteristics of the products being priced,
as well as information on the number of units
bought or sold, discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer or seller, and so forth.
When there are changes in either the specifications or terms of transaction of a product,
the dollar value of each change is deleted from
the total price change to obtain the “pure”
change. Once this value is determined, a linking procedure is employed which allows for
the continued repricing of the item.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact
the Division of International Prices: (202)
691–7155.

Productivity Data
(Tables 2; 48–51)

Business and major sectors
Description of the series
The productivity measures relate real out-

January 2005

put to real input. As such, they encompass a
family of measures which include singlefactor input measures, such as output per
hour, output per unit of labor input, or output per unit of capital input, as well as measures of multifactor productivity (output per
unit of combined labor and capital inputs).
The Bureau indexes show the change in output relative to changes in the various inputs.
The measures cover the business, nonfarm
business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial
corporate sectors.
Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor
payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions
Output per hour of all persons (labor productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per hour of labor input. Output per unit of capital services (capital productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per unit of capital services
input. Multifactor productivity is the quantity of goods and services produced per combined inputs. For private business and private nonfarm business, inputs include labor
and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs
include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy materials, and purchased business services.
Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total compensation equals the wages and salaries of
employees plus employers’ contributions for
social insurance and private benefit plans,
plus an estimate of these payments for the
self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations in which there are no self-employed). Real compensation per hour is
compensation per hour deflated by the
change in the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers.
Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production
of a unit of output and are derived by dividing compensation by output. Unit nonlabor
payments include profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output. They are computed by subtracting
compensation of all persons from currentdollar value of output and dividing by output.
Unit nonlabor costs contain all the
components of unit nonlabor payments except unit profits.
Unit profits include corporate profits
with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.
Hours of all persons are the total hours
at work of payroll workers, self-employed
persons, and unpaid family workers.

Labor inputs are hours of all persons adjusted for the effects of changes in the education and experience of the labor force.
Capital services are the flow of services
from the capital stock used in production. It
is developed from measures of the net stock
of physical assets—equipment, structures,
land, and inventories—weighted by rental
prices for each type of asset.
Combined units of labor and capital
inputs are derived by combining changes in
labor and capital input with weights which
represent each component’s share of total
cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy,
materials, and purchased business services are
similarly derived by combining changes in
each input with weights that represent each
input’s share of total costs. The indexes for
each input and for combined units are based
on changing weights which are averages of the
shares in the current and preceding year (the
Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data
Business sector output is an annuallyweighted index constructed by excluding
from real gross domestic product (GDP) the
following outputs: general government, nonprofit institutions, paid employees of private
households, and the rental value of owneroccupied dwellings. Nonfarm business also
excludes farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government enterprises. The measures are supplied by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s
Bureau of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral output are
produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Quarterly manufacturing output indexes
from the Federal Reserve Board are adjusted
to these annual output measures by the BLS.
Compensation data are developed from data
of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are
developed from data of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
The productivity and associated cost
measures in tables 48–51 describe the relationship between output in real terms and
the labor and capital inputs involved in its
production. They show the changes from period to period in the amount of goods and
services produced per unit of input.
Although these measures relate output to
hours and capital services, they do not measure the contributions of labor, capital, or
any other specific factor of production.
Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many
influences, including changes in technology; shifts in the composition of the labor

force; capital investment; level of output;
changes in the utilization of capacity, energy, material, and research and development; the organization of production; managerial skill; and characteristics and efforts
of the work force.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
productivity series, contact the Division of
Productivity Research: (202) 691–5606.

Industry productivity
measures

ducing that output. Combined inputs include capital, labor, and intermediate purchases. The measure of capital input represents the flow of services from the capital
stock used in production. It is developed
from measures of the net stock of physical
assets—equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The measure of intermediate
purchases is a combination of purchased
materials, services, fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data

Description of the series
The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and
inputs for selected industries and industry
groups, and thus reflect trends in industry
efficiency over time. Industry measures include labor productivity, multifactor productivity, compensation, and unit labor
costs.
The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity measures for the major sectors because the industry measures are developed
independently of the National Income and
Product Accounts framework used for the
major sector measures.

Definitions
Output per hour is derived by dividing an
index of industry output by an index of labor input. For most industries, output indexes are derived from data on the value of
industry output adjusted for price change.
For the remaining industries, output indexes
are derived from data on the physical quantity of production.
The labor input series is based on the
hours of all workers or, in the case of some
transportation industries, on the number of
employees. For most industries, the series
consists of the hours of all employees. For
some trade and services industries, the series also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.
Unit labor costs represent the labor
compensation costs per unit of output produced, and are derived by dividing an index
of labor compensation by an index of output. Labor compensation includes payroll
as well as supplemental payments, including both legally required expenditures and
payments for voluntary programs.
Multifactor productivity is derived by
dividing an index of industry output by an
index of combined inputs consumed in pro-

The industry measures are compiled from
data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional data supplied by other government
agencies, trade associations, and other
sources.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691–5618.

International Comparisons
(Tables 52–54)

Labor force and
unemployment
Description of the series
Tables 52 and 53 present comparative measures of the labor force, employment, and
unemployment approximating U.S. concepts for the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and six European countries. The
labor force statistics published by other industrial countries are not, in most cases, comparable to U.S. concepts. Therefore, the Bureau
adjusts the figures for selected countries, for
all known major definitional differences, to the
extent that data to prepare adjustments are
available. Although precise comparability may
not be achieved, these adjusted figures provide a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published by
each country. For further information on adjustments and comparability issues, see
Constance Sorrentino, “International unemployment rates: how comparable are they?”
Monthly Labor Review, June 2000, pp. 3–20
(available on the B L S Web site at http://
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/06/
art1full.pdf).

Definitions
For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor force, employment, and unemployment,
see the Notes section on Employment and

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

55

Current Labor Statistics

Unemployment Data: Household survey
data.

Notes on the data
The foreign country data are adjusted as
closely as possible to U.S. concepts, with the
exception of lower age limits and the treatment
of layoffs. These adjustments include, but are
not limited to: including older persons in the
labor force by imposing no upper age limit,
adding unemployed students to the
unemployed, excluding the military and family
workers working fewer than 15 hours from the
employed, and excluding persons engaged in
passive job search from the unemployed.
Data for the United States relate to the
population 16 years of age and older. The U.S.
concept of the working age population has
no upper age limit. The adjusted to U.S.
concepts statistics have been adapted, insofar
as possible, to the age at which compulsory
schooling ends in each country, and the
Swedish statistics have been adjusted to
include persons older than the Swedish upper
age limit of 64 years. The adjusted statistics
presented here relate to the population 16
years of age and older in France, Sweden,
and the United Kingdom; 15 years of age and
older in Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy, and
the Netherlands. An exception to this rule is
that the Canadian statistics are adjusted to
cover the population 16 years of age and
older, whereas the age at which compulsory
schooling ends remains at 15 years. In the labor
force participation rates and employmentpopulation ratios, the denominator is the
civilian noninstitutionalized working age
population, except that the institutionalized
working age population is included in Japan
and Germany.
In the United States, the unemployed
include persons who are not employed and
who were actively seeking work during the
reference period, as well as persons on layoff.
Persons waiting to start a new job who were
actively seeking work during the reference
period are counted as unemployed under U.S.
concepts; if they were not actively seeking
work, they are not counted in the labor force.
In some countries, persons on layoff are
classified as employed due to their strong job
attachment. No adjustment is made for the
countries that classify those on layoff as
employed. In the United States, as in Australia
and Japan, passive job seekers are not in the
labor force; job search must be active, such
as placing or answering advertisements,
contacting employers directly,or registering
with an employment agency (simply reading
ads is not enough t o qualify as active search).
Canada and the European countries classify
56

Monthly Labor Review

passive jobseekers as unemployed. An
adjustment is made to exclude them in Canada,
but not in the European countries where the
phenomenon is less prevalent. Persons waiting
to start a new job are counted among the
unemployed for all other countries, whether
or not they were actively seeking work.
The figures for one or more recent years
for France, Germany, and the Netherlands are
calculated using adjustment factors based on
labor force surveys for earlier years and are
considered preliminary. The recent year
measures for these countries are therefore
subject to revision whenever more current
labor force surveys become available.
There are breaks in series for the United
States (1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003),
Australia (2001), and Germany (1999).
For the United States, beginning in 1994,
data are not strictly comparable for prior years
because of the introduction of a major
redesign of the labor force survey questionnaire and collection methodology. The
redesign effect has been estimated to increase
the overall unemployment rate by 0.1
percentage point. Other breaks noted relate
to changes in population controls that had
virtually no effect on unemployment rates.
For a description of all the changes in the
U.S. labor force survey over time and their
impact, see Historical Comparability in the
“Household Data” section of the BLS publication Employment and Earnings (available
on the BLS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/
cps/eetech_methods.pdf).
For Australia, the 2001 break reflects the
introduction in April 2001 of a redesigned
labor force survey that allowed for a closer
application of International Labor Office
guidelines for the definitions of labor force
statistics. The Australian Bureau of Statistics
revised their data so there is no break in the
employment series. However, the reclassification of persons who had not actively
looked for work because they were waiting to
begin a new job from “not in the labor force”
to “unemployed” could only be incorporated
for April 2001 forward. This reclassification
diverges from the U.S. definition where
persons waiting to start a new job but not
actively seeking work are not counted in the
labor force. The impact of the reclassification
was an increase in the unemployment rate by
0.1 percentage point in 2001.
For Germany, the 1999 break reflects the
incorporation of an improved method of data
calculation and a change in coverage to
persons living in private households only.
For further qualifications and historical
data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force
Statistics, Ten Countries, on the BLS Web site
at http://www.bls.gov/fls/flslforc.pdf

January 2005

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this
series, contact the Division of Foreign
Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654 or
flshelp@bls.gov

Manufacturing productivity
and labor costs
Description of the series
Table 54 presents comparative indexes of
manufacturing labor productivity (output per
hour), output, total hours, compensation per
hour, and unit labor costs for the United States,
Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and
nine European countries. These measures are
trend comparisons—that is, series that measure changes over time—rather than level comparisons. There are greater technical problems
in comparing the levels of manufacturing output among economies.
BLS constructs the comparative indexes
from three basic aggregate measures—output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures
refer to all employed persons (wage and salary earners plus self-employed persons and
unpaid family workers) with the exception
of Belguim and Taiwan, where only employees (wage and salary earners) are counted.

Definitions
Output, in general, refers to value added in
manufacturing from the national accounts
of each country. However, the output series for Japan prior to 1970 is an index of
industrial production, and the national accounts measures for the United Kingdom
are essentially identical to their indexes of
industrial production.
The output data for the United States are
the gross product originating (value added)
measures prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of
Commerce. Comparable manufacturing output data currently are not available prior to
1977.
U.S. data from 1998 forward are based
on the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS ). Output is in real
value-added terms using a chain-type annual-weighted method for price deflation.
(For more information on the U.S. measure,
see “Improved Estimates of Gross Product
by Industry for 1947–98,” Survey of Current Business, June 2000, and “Improved
Annual Industry Accounts for 1998–2003,”
Survey of Current Business, June 2004).
Most of the other economies now also use
annual moving price weights, but earlier

years were estimated using fixed price
weights, with the weights typically updated
every
or 10 years.
To5preserve
the comparability of the U.S.
measures with those for other economies,
BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States for these comparative measures. The gross product originating series differs from the manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its
news releases on quarterly measures of U.S.
productivity and costs (and that underlies the
measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in
this section). The quarterly measures are on
a “sectoral output” basis, rather than a valueadded basis. Sectoral output is gross output
less intrasector transactions.
Total labor hours refers to hours worked
in all economies. The measures are developed
from statistics of manufacturing employment
and average hours. The series used for Australia, Canada, Demark, France (from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden are official series
published with the national accounts. For Germany, B L S uses estimates of average hours
worked developed by a research institute connected to the Ministry of Labor for use with
the national accounts employment figures. For
the United Kingdom from 1992, an official
annual index of total manufacturing hours is
used. Where official total hours series are not
available, the measures are developed by BLS
using employment figures published with the
national accounts, or other comprehensive employment series, and estimates of annual hours
worked.
Total compensation (labor cost) includes all payments in cash or in-kind made
directly to employees plus employer expenditures for legally-required insurance programs and contractual and private benefit
plans. The measures are from the national
accounts of each economy, except those for
Belgium, which are developed by BLS using
statistics on employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation. For Australia,
Canada, France, and Sweden, compensation is increased to account for other significant taxes on payroll or employment. For
the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced between 1967 and 1991 to account
for employment-related subsidies. Self-employed workers are included in the all-employed-persons measures by assuming that
their compensation is equal to the average
for wage and salary employees.

mining as well.
The measures for recent years may be
based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production indexes), employment, average hours, and
hourly compensation until national accounts
and other statistics used for the long-term
measures become available.
Official published data for Australia are
in fiscal years that begin on July 1. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has finished calendar-year data for recent years for output
and hours. For earlier years and for compensation, data are BLS estimates using 2year moving averages of fiscal year data.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor
Statistics: (202) 691–5654.

Notes on the data

Under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses that
involve one or more of the following: loss
of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical

In general, the measures relate to total manufacturing as defined by the International
Standard Industrial Classification. However,
the measures for France include parts of

Occupational Injury
and Illness Data
(Tables 55–56)

Survey of Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses
Description of the series
The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses collects data from employers about
their workers’ job-related nonfatal injuries and
illnesses. The information that employers provide is based on records that they maintain under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with
fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated
by other Federal safety and health laws, and
Federal, State, and local government agencies
are excluded from the survey.
The survey is a Federal-State cooperative program with an independent sample
selected for each participating State. A stratified random sample with a Neyman allocation is selected to represent all private industries in the State. The survey is stratified
by Standard Industrial Classification and
size of employment.

Definitions

treatment other than first aid.
Occupational injury is any injury such
as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that
results from a work-related event or a single,
instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
Occupational illness is an abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting
from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses
or disease which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.
Lost workday injuries and illnesses are
cases that involve days away from work, or
days of restricted work activity, or both.
Lost workdays include the number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the
employee was either away from work or at
work in some restricted capacity, or both, because of an occupational injury or illness. BLS
measures of the number and incidence rate
of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number of
days away from work or days of restricted
work activity does not include the day of injury or onset of illness or any days on which
the employee would not have worked, such
as a Federal holiday, even though able to
work.
Incidence rates are computed as the
number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost
work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data
The definitions of occupational injuries and
illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics, September 1986).
Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable
cases, lost workday cases, days away from
work cases, and nonfatal cases without lost
workdays. These data also are shown separately for injuries. Illness data are available for
seven categories: occupational skin diseases
or disorders, dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physical agents (other than toxic
materials), disorders associated with repeated
trauma, and all other occupational illnesses.
The survey continues to measure the number of new work-related illness cases which
are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for example,
long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure
to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to
the workplace and are not adequately recog-

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

57

Current Labor Statistics

nized and reported. These long-term latent illnesses are believed to be understated in the
survey’s illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming majority of the reported new illnesses are those which are easier to directly
relate to workplace activity (for example, contact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).
Most of the estimates are in the form of
incidence rates, defined as the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent fulltime workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee hours represent 100 employee years
(2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on
the available measures is presented in the annual bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.
Comparable data for more than 40 States
and territories are available from the BLS Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data on
State and local government employees in addition to private industry data.
Mining and railroad data are furnished to
BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are included in both the national and State data published annually.
With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents resulting in days away from work. Included are
some major characteristics of the injured and
ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender,
race, and length of service, as well as the circumstances of their injuries and illnesses (nature of the disabling condition, part of body
affected, event and exposure, and the source
directly producing the condition). In general,

58

Monthly Labor Review

these data are available nationwide for detailed
industries and for individual States at more
aggregated industry levels.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the Office of Occupational Safety, Health and
Working Conditions at (202) 691–6180, or
access the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/

Census of Fatal
Occupational Injuries
The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about
the fatally injured workers and the fatal
events. The program collects and cross
checks fatality information from multiple
sources, including death certificates, State
and Federal workers’ compensation reports,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Mine Safety and Health Administration records, medical examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor
vehicle fatality records, and follow-up questionnaires to employers.
In addition to private wage and salary
workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program. To be included in the fatality census, the decedent must have been employed (that is working for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time of the event,
engaged in a legal work activity, or
present at the site of the incident as a requirement of his or her job.

January 2005

Definition
A fatal work injury is any intentional or unintentional wound or damage to the body resulting in death from acute exposure to energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic
energy from a crash, or from the absence of
such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by
a specific event or incident or series of events
within a single workday or shift. Fatalities
that occur during a person’s commute to
or from work are excluded from the census, as well as work-related illnesses,which
can be difficult to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data
Twenty-eight data elements are collected,
coded, and tabulated in the fatality program,
including information about the fatally injured worker, the fatal incident, and the machinery or equipment involved. Summary
worker demographic data and event characteristics are included in a national news release that is available about 8 months after
the end of the reference year. The Census of
Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in
1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most
States issue summary information at the
time of the national news release.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health, and
Working Conditions at (202) 691–6175, or
the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/

1. Labor market indicators
Selected indicators

2002

2002

2003
III

2003
IV

I

II

2004
III

IV

I

II

III

Employment data
Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
1

population (household survey):
Labor force participation rate........................................................
Employment-population ratio........................................................
Unemployment rate………………………………………………….…
Men………………………………………………..…….….…………
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................
Women……………………………………………….….……………
16 to 24 years...........................................................................
25 years and older....................................................................

66.6
62.7
5.8
5.9
12.8
4.7
5.6
11.1
4.6

66.2
62.3
6.0
6.3
13.4
5.0
5.7
11.4
4.6

66.6
62.8
5.7
5.9
12.9
4.7
5.5
10.8
4.5

66.4
62.5
5.9
6.1
12.5
4.9
5.6
11.4
4.5

66.3
62.4
5.8
6.1
12.8
5.0
5.5
11.2
4.5

66.4
62.3
6.1
6.5
13.9
5.2
5.7
11.8
4.6

66.2
62.1
6.1
6.4
13.7
5.1
5.8
11.5
4.7

66.1
62.2
5.9
6.1
13.0
4.9
5.6
10.9
4.6

66.0
62.2
5.6
5.7
12.6
4.5
5.6
11.1
4.5

66.0
62.3
5.6
5.7
12.9
4.5
5.4
10.9
4.4

66.0
62.4
5.5
5.6
12.5
4.4
5.3
10.9
4.3

1

Employment, nonfarm (payroll data), in thousands:
Total nonfarm……………………....................................................
Total private.......................................................................
Goods-producing……………………………………………….…………..
Manufacturing………….………………..…………………………
Service-providing……………………………………………….…………..

130,341
108,828

129,931
108,356

108,736
108,736

108,664
108,654

130,047
108,428

129,878
108,309

129,820
108,260

130,002
108,453

130,367
108,827

131,125
109,577

131,515
109,897

22,557
15,259

21,817
14,525

22,466
15,197

22,252
14,979

22,025
14,775

21,848
14,570

21,718
14,410

21,676
14,340

21,719
14,326

21,869
14,385

21,934
14,406

107,789

108,114

107,821

107,995

108,022

108,030

108,102

108,326

108,648

109,256

109,580

Average hours:
Total private........................................…………..........................
Manufacturing………...……………………………………………
Overtime……..………….………………...………………………

33.9
40.5
4.2

33.7
40.4
4.2

33.9
40.4
4.3

33.8
40.4
4.2

33.8
40.4
4.2

33.7
40.2
4.1

33.6
40.2
4.1

33.7
40.6
4.4

33.8
41.0
4.6

33.7
40.9
4.6

33.8
40.8
4.6

3.4
3.2

3.8
4.0

.9
.6

.6
.4

1.4
1.7

.8
.8

1.1
1.0

.5
.4

1.4
1.5

.9
.9

1.0
.8

3.7

4.0

.6

.9

1.8

.9

.7

.5

2.3

.9

.9

3.1
4.1

4.0
3.3

.6
2.2

.2
.9

1.5
.7

.8
.4

1.1
1.7

.5
.5

1.1
.7

1.0
.4

.8
1.7

4.2
3.2

4.6
3.9

1.2
.5

.9
.4

1.6
1.6

1.2
.8

1.0
1.0

.7
.4

2.8
1.3

1.5
.8

.8
.9

Employment Cost Index2
Percent change in the ECI, compensation:
All workers (excluding farm, household and Federal workers)......
Private industry workers.............………......................................
3

Goods-producing ……………………………………………….…………
3

Service-providing ……………………………………………….…………
State and local government workers
Workers by bargaining status (private industry):
Union……………………………………………………………………
Nonunion…………………………………………………………………
1
2

Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect revised population

Annual changes are December-to-December changes. Quarterly changes are calculated

controls. Nonfarm data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

using the last month of each quarter.

Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

3

system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. Service-

providing industries include all other private sector industries.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

59

Current Labor Statistics:

Comparative Indicators

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation, prices, and productivity
Selected measures

2002

2003

2002

III
Compensation data

2003
IV

I

II

2004
III

IV

I

II

III

1,2

Employment Cost Index—compensation (wages,
salaries, benefits):
Civilian nonfarm..................................................................
Private nonfarm..............................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
Civilian nonfarm……………………………………………….
Private nonfarm..............................................................
Price data

3.4
3.2

3.8
4.0

0.9
.6

0.6
.4

1.4
1.7

0.8
.8

1.1
1.0

0.5
.4

1.4
1.5

0.9
.9

1.0
.8

2.9
2.7

2.9
3.0

.7
.4

.4
.3

1.0
1.1

.6
.7

.9
.8

.3
.4

.6
.7

.6
.7

.9
.9

2.3

2.3

.6

-.1

1.8

–.3

–.2

–.2

1.2

1.2

.2

3.2
4.2
.4
4.6
25.2

3.2
4.2
.4
4.6
25.2

.2
.0
–.7
1.1
1.9

-.1
-.3
.6
.1
6.5

3.7
2.4
.6
6.5
28.0

–.8
1.8
–.6
–2.1
–10.6

.3
.3
–.1
–.1
3.4

.0
.0
.0
.0
14.4

1.2
1.5
.6
2.5
6.0

1.2
1.4
.5
3.0
7.6

.0
–1.7
.4
1.9
–5.1

4.3
4.4
4.4

4.5
4.4
5.4

4.8
4.5
4.1

1.2
1.6
3.4

3.9
3.7
3.2

7.6
6.7
9.1

8.5
9.0
9.4

2.4
3.1
5.0

3.9
3.7
.1

1.5
3.9
2.7

2.3
1.9
–

1

Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers): All Items......
Producer Price Index:
Finished goods....................................................................
Finished consumer goods.................................................
Capital equipment……………………………………………
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components…………
Crude materials....................................................................
Productivity data

3

Output per hour of all persons:
Business sector....................................................................
Nonfarm business sector......................................................
4

Nonfinancial corporations ……………….…………...………………
1

Annual changes are December-to-December changes.

3

Quarterly changes are

Annual rates of change are computed by comparing annual averages.

calculated using the last month of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not

Quarterly percent changes reflect annual rates of change in quarterly indexes.

seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

The data are seasonally adjusted.

2

4

Excludes Federal and private household workers.

Output per hour of all employees.

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

3. Alternative measures of wage and compensation changes
Quarterly change
Components

2003
III

Four quarters ending—

2004
IV

I

II

2003
III

III

2004
IV

I

II

III

1

Average hourly compensation:
All persons, business sector.........................................................
All persons, nonfarm business sector...........................................

5.6
6.1

4.0
4.4

2.8
2.0

4.3
4.9

3.8
3.6

4.6
4.6

5.3
5.4

4.6
4.5

4.2
4.4

3.7
3.7

1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.7

.5
.4
.7
.4
.5

1.4
1.5
2.8
1.3
.7

.9
.9
1.5
.8
.4

1.0
.8
.8
.9
1.7

3.9
4.0
4.8
3.8
3.6

3.8
4.0
4.6
3.9
3.3

3.8
3.9
5.7
3.6
3.3

3.9
4.0
6.0
3.5
3.4

3.8
3.7
5.8
3.4
3.4

.9
.8
.6
.9
1.0

.3
.4
.6
.2
.4

.6
.7
.6
.7
.4

.6
.7
1.0
.6
.2

.9
.9
.8
.8
1.0

2.9
3.0
2.6
3.1
2.3

2.9
3.0
2.4
3.1
2.1

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.1

2.5
2.6
2.9
2.5
1.9

2.4
2.6
3.0
2.5
2.0

Employment Cost Index—compensation:
2

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local governments…...................................................
Employment Cost Index—wages and salaries:
2

Civilian nonfarm ……….………………………………………….…………..…
Private nonfarm….......................................................................
Union…………..........................................................................
Nonunion…………....................................................................
State and local governments…...................................................
1

Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.

2

Excludes Federal and household workers.

60

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status

Annual average

2003

2004

2002

2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

217,570
144,863
66.6
136,485

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736

222,279
147,109
66.2
138,457

222,509
146,808
66.0
138,409

222,161
146,785
66.1
138,481

222,357
146,529
65.9
138,334

222,550
146,737
65.9
138,408

222,757
146,788
65.9
138,645

222,967
147,018
65.9
138,846

223,196
147,386
66.0
139,158

223,422
147,823
66.2
139,639

223,677
147,676
66.0
139,658

223,941
147,531
65.9
139,527

224,192
147,893
66.0
139,827

224,422
148,313
66.1
140,293

62.7
8,378
5.8
72,707

62.3
8,774
6.0
74,658

62.3
8,651
5.9
75,171

62.2
8,399
5.7
75,701

62.4
8,303
5.6
75,377

62.2
8,195
5.6
75,828

62.1
8,330
5.7
75,812

62.2
8,143
5.6
75,969

62.2
8,172
5.6
75,950

62.3
8,228
5.6
75,809

62.5
8,184
5.5
75,599

62.4
8,018
5.4
76,001

62.3
8,005
5.5
76,410

62.4
8,066
5.4
76,299

62.5
8,020
5.5
76,109

96,439
73,630
76.3
69,734

98,272
74,623
75.9
70,415

98,814
75,169
76.1
70,939

98,927
75,103
75.9
71,135

98,866
75,139
76.0
71,283

98,966
74,854
75.6
71,014

99,065
75,035
75.7
71,158

99,170
74,908
75.5
71,158

99,279
75,095
75.6
71,226

99,396
75,631
75.8
71,575

99,512
75,567
75.9
71,830

99,642
75,615
75.9
71,847

99,776
75,462
75.6
71,701

99,904
75,632
75.7
71,895

100,017
75,866
75.9
71,134

72.3
3,896
5.3
22,809

71.7
4,209
5.6
23,649

71.8
4,230
5.6
23,646

71.9
3,968
5.3
13,842

72.1
3,856
5.1
23,726

71.8
6,840
5.1
24,112

71.8
3,877
5.2
24,029

71.8
3,751
5.0
24,261

71.7
3,869
5.2
24,184

72.0
3,786
5.0
24,035

72.2
3,737
4.9
23,945

72.1
3,768
5.0
24,026

71.9
3,761
5.0
24,314

72.0
3,736
4.9
24,272

72.1
3,733
4.9
24,151

population …………………….. 105,136
Civilian labor force.............. 63,648
Participation rate..........
60.5
Employed........................ 60,420
Employment-pop2
57.5
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
3,228
5.1
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force……… 41,488

106,800
64,716
60.6
61,402

107,303
64,835
60.4
61,597

107,404
64,743
60.3
61,523

107,131
64,475
60.2
61,437

107,216
64,636
60.3
61,456

107,299
64,723
60.3
61,424

107,389
64,776
60.3
61,591

107,483
64,803
60.3
61,723

107,586
64,989
60.4
61,731

107,687
65,085
60.4
61,902

107,801
64,909
60.2
61,877

107,920
65,008
60.2
61,939

108,032
65,126
60.3
62,024

108,129
65,244
60.3
62,145

57.5
3,314
5.1
42,083

57.4
3,320
5.1
42,469

57.3
3,302
5.1
42,661

57.2
3,306
5.0
42,657

57.3
3,179
4.9
42,580

57.2
3,299
5.1
42,576

57.4
3,185
409.0
42,613

57.4
3,080
4.8
42,680

57.4
3,259
5.0
42,597

57.5
3,183
4.9
42,603

57.4
3,032
4.7
42,892

57.4
3,069
4.7
42,912

57.4
3,102
4.8
42,906

57.5
3,099
4.7
42,885

16,096
7,170
44.5
5,919

16,162
7,105
44.0
5,987

16,178
6,961
43.0
5,836

16,164
7,171
44.4
5,962

16,175
7,039
43.5
5,864

16,186
6,979
43.1
5,825

16,198
7,104
43.9
5,897

16,205
7,120
43.9
5,896

16,214
7,036
43.4
5,853

16,222
7,172
44.2
5,907

16,234
7,152
44.1
5,934

16,246
7,062
43.5
5,887

16,257
7,165
43.9
5,908

16,293
7,202
44.2
6,014

36.8
1,251
17.5
8,926

37.0
1,119
15.7
9,057

36.1
1,125
16.2
9,216

36.9
1,209
16.9
8,993

36.3
1,175
16.7
9,196

36.0
1,154
16.5
9,207

36.4
1,207
17.0
9,094

36.4
1,223
17.2
9,086

36.1
1,184
16.8
9,178

36.4
1,265
17.6
9,051

36.6
1,217
17.0
9,082

36.2
1,175
16.6
9,184

36.3
1,227
17.2
9,122

36.9
1,188
16.5
9,074

181,292
120,546
66.5
114,235

182,032
120,964
66.5
114,699

182,185
120,703
66.3
114,626

181,879
120,743
66.4
114,771

182,001
120,590
66.3
114,615

182,121
120,598
66.2
114,500

182,252
120,713
66.2
114,779

182,384
120,997
66.3
115,006

182,531
121,212
66.4
115,199

182,676
121,383
66.4
115,610

182,846
121,278
66.3
115,526

183,022
120,995
66.1
115,318

183,188
121,273
66.2
115,618

183,340
121,606
66.3
115,966

63.0
6,311
5.2
60,746

63.0
6,265
5.2
61,069

62.9
6,077
5.0
61,482

63.1
5,972
4.9
61,136

63.0
5,975
5.0
61,411

62.9
6,098
5.1
61,522

63.0
5,934
4.9
61,539

63.1
5,991
5.0
61,387

63.1
6,013
5.0
61,319

63.3
5,773
4.8
61,293

63.2
5,752
4.7
61,568

63.0
5,677
4.7
62,027

63.1
5,655
4.7
61,915

63.3
5,640
4.6
61,735

25,686
16,526
64.3
14,739

25,860
16,509
63.8
14,818

25,894
16,362
63.2
14,697

25,867
16,603
64.2
14,875

25,900
16,427
63.4
14,825

25,932
16,603
64.0
14,917

25,967
16,505
63.6
14,893

26,002
16,480
63.4
14,837

26,040
16,521
63.4
14,825

26,078
16,775
64.3
14,937

26,120
16,721
64.0
14,972

26,163
16,711
63.9
14,981

26,204
16,820
62.4
15,012

26,239
16,728
63.8
14,913

57.4
1,787
10.8
9,161

57.3
1,692
10.2
9,512

56.8
1,665
10.2
9,559

57.5
1,728
10.4
9,264

57.3
1,598
9.7
9,473

57.5
1,685
10.2
9,330

57.4
1,612
9.8
9,462

57.1
1,642
10.0
9,523

56.9
1,696
10.3
9,520

57.3
1,838
11.0
9,303

57.3
1,749
10.5
9,399

57.3
1,730
10.4
9,452

57.3
1,808
10.7
9,384

56.8
1,814
10.8
9,512

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………..
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate..........
Employed........................
Employment-pop2
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force........
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population ……………………..
Civilian labor force..............
Participation rate..........
Employed........................
Employment-pop2
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force………
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional
1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional
1
population …………………….. 15,994
Civilian labor force..............
7,585
Participation rate..........
47.4
6,332
Employed........................
Employment-pop2
39.6
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
1,253
16.5
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force……… 8,409

White3
Civilian noninstitutional
1

population …………………….. 179,783
Civilian labor force.............. 120,150
Participation rate..........
66.8
Employed........................ 114,013
Employment-pop2
63.4
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
6,137
5.1
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force……… 59,633
Black or African American3
Civilian noninstitutional
1
population …………………….. 25,578
Civilian labor force.............. 16,565
Participation rate..........
64.8
Employed........................ 14,872
Employment-pop2
58.1
ulation ratio ……………
Unemployed...................
1,693
10.2
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force……… 9,013

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

61

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

4. Continued–Employment status of the population, by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Annual average

Employment status

2002

2004

2003

2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

27,551
18,813
68.3
17,372

28,016
19,081
68.9
17,660

28,116
19,051
68.7
17,794

27,619
18,849
68.2
17,476

27,705
18,702
67.5
17,315

27,791
19,036
68.5
17,633

27,879
19,081
68.4
17,724

27,968
19,297
69.0
17,959

28,059
19,302
68.8
18,013

28,150
19,432
69.0
18,102

28,243
19,463
68.9
18,128

28,338
19,444
68.6
18,079

28,431
19,524
68.7
18,213

28,520
19,552
68.6
18,238

63.1
1,441
7.7
8,738

63.0
1,421
7.4
8,935

63.3
1,257
6.6
9,065

63.3
1,373
7.3
8,770

62.5
1,387
7.4
9,003

63.5
1,403
7.4
8,755

63.6
1,358
7.1
8,797

64.2
1,338
6.9
8,671

64.2
1,289
6.7
8,756

64.3
1,330
6.8
8,717

64.2
1,335
6.9
8,780

63.8
1,366
7.0
8,894

64.1
1,311
6.7
8,907

63.9
1,313
6.7
8,968

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity
Civilian noninstitutional
1
population …………………….. 25,963
Civilian labor force.............. 17,943
69.1
Participation rate..........
Employed........................ 16,590
Employment-pop63.9
ulation ratio2……………
1,353
Unemployed...................
7.5
Unemployment rate....
Not in the labor force………… 8,020
1

The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

2

Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

3
Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who selected
more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more
than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and black or African American) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as
well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the
household survey.

5. Selected employment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Selected categories

2002

Characteristic
Employed, 16 years and over... 136,485
Men......................................
72,903
Women............................…… 63,582

2004

2003

Annual average
2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

137,736
73,332
64,404

138,457
73,869
64,588

138,409
74,122
64,286

168,481
74,284
64,197

138,334
73,937
64,397

138,408
74,062
64,345

138,645
74,104
64,541

138,846
74,118
64,728

139,158
74,501
64,658

139,639
74,811
64,828

139,658
74,824
64,834

139,527
74,629
64,898

139,827
74,852
64,975

140,293
75,188
65,104

Married men, spouse
present...............................

44,116

44,653

45,043

45,383

45,443

45,044

45,000

44,759

44,763

44,958

44,948

45,099

45,093

45,127

45,462

Married women, spouse
present...............................

34,153

34,695

34,916

34,897

34,546

34,481

34,283

34,375

34,536

34,487

34,607

34,494

34,708

34,808

34,961

4,701

4,843

4,782

4,703

4,445

4,708

4,557

4,634

4,504

4,488

4,509

4,476

4,762

4,533

3,118

3,198

3,197

2,972

2,841

2,984

2,813

2,845

2,801

2,642

2,816

2,805

3,052

2,761

1,279

1,370

1,305

1,400

1,363

1,430

1,431

1,449

1,400

1,472

1,403

1,312

1,385

1,420

19,014

19,171

18,656

18,986

19,020

19,091

19,130

19,570

19,564

19,737

19,657

19,410

19,704

19,499

4,596

4,752

4,704

4,604

4,335

4,595

4,451

4,567

4,423

4,390

4,408

4,400

4,656

4,404

3,052

3,131

3,149

2,894

2,768

2,899

2,747

2,801

2,753

2,580

2,722

2,750

2,971

2,685

1,264

1,366

1,272

1,405

1,350

1,415

1,425

1,458

1,382

1,484

1,388

1,320

1,363

1,396

18,658

18,796

18,416

18,711

18,775

18,791

18,844

19,145

19,123

19,327

19,204

19,061

19,288

19,141

1

Persons at work part time

All industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….… 4,213
Slack work or business
conditions………….........
2,788
Could only find part-time
work………………………
1,124
Part time for noneconomic
noneconomic reasons…… 18,843
Nonagricultural industries:
Part time for economic
reasons…………………….… 4,119
Slack work or business
conditions.......................
2,726
Could only find part-time
work………………………
1,114
Part time for noneconomic
reasons.................………… 18,487
1

Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

62

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Unemployment rates]
Annual average
Selected categories

2002

2003

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Characteristic
Total, 16 years and older...........................
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years.....................
Men, 20 years and older........................
Women, 20 years and older...................

5.8
16.5
5.3
5.1

6.0
17.5
5.6
5.1

5.9
15.7
5.6
5.1

5.7
16.2
5.3
5.1

5.7
16.9
5.1
5.0

5.6
16.7
5.1
4.9

5.7
16.5
5.2
5.1

5.5
17.0
5.0
4.9

5.6
17.2
5.2
4.8

5.6
16.8
5.0
5.0

5.5
17.6
4.9
4.9

5.4
17.0
5.0
4.7

5.4
16.6
5.0
4.7

5.5
17.2
4.9
4.8

5.4
16.5
4.9
4.7

White, total1………………………………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years.......................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older...................
Women, 20 years and older..............

5.1
14.5
15.9
13.1
4.7
4.4

5.2
15.2
17.1
13.3
5.0
4.4

5.2
14.3
15.8
11.4
5.0
4.3

5.0
14.7
17.0
13.3
4.7
4.3

4.9
14.1
14.0
14.2
4.5
4.4

5.0
15.3
15.6
15.1
4.6
4.2

5.1
14.8
16.3
13.3
4.7
4.4

4.9
15.7
17.8
13.3
4.5
4.2

5.0
15.6
18.5
12.7
4.7
4.1

5.0
14.8
16.2
13.3
4.5
4.4

4.8
14.9
15.5
14.2
4.3
4.2

4.7
15.4
15.8
15.0
4.4
4.0

4.7
14.7
15.9
13.5
4.3
4.0

4.7
15.1
17.4
12.6
4.2
4.0

4.6
14.4
15.5
13.2
4.2
4.1

Black or African American, total1………
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years................
Men, 16 to 19 years.......................
Women, 16 to 19 years..................
Men, 20 years and older...................
Women, 20 years and older..............

10.2
29.8
31.3
28.3
9.5
8.8

10.8
33.0
36.0
30.3
10.3
9.2

10.2
28.9
33.1
25.5
9.9
9.0

10.2
27.6
28.2
27.1
9.3
9.5

10.4
33.1
42.2
25.9
9.5
9.0

9.7
25.2
29.1
22.4
9.3
8.8

10.2
30.1
37.0
23.5
9.2
9.3

9.8
28.4
30.7
26.4
9.3
8.6

10.0
32.3
30.4
33.9
9.4
8.4

10.3
32.7
34.4
31.2
9.5
9.0

11.0
37.2
37.9
36.6
10.3
9.1

10.5
29.4
34.9
24.2
10.4
8.7

10.4
28.6
35.9
21.1
10.2
8.9

10.7
34.7
37.1
32.4
10.2
8.9

10.8
32.7
38.1
27.0
10.5
9.0

7.5
3.6
3.7
5.9
5.2

7.7
3.8
3.7
6.1
5.5

7.4
3.7
3.8
6.0
5.1

6.6
3.4
3.8
5.8
5.3

7.3
3.3
3.7
5.7
5.4

7.4
3.4
3.6
5.7
5.2

7.4
3.2
3.7
5.8
5.4

7.1
3.1
3.7
5.6
5.3

6.9
3.1
3.3
5.7
5.2

6.7
3.2
3.7
5.6
5.5

6.8
3.2
3.5
5.6
5.2

6.9
3.1
3.5
5.5
5.2

7.0
3.0
3.1
5.5
5.0

6.7
3.0
3.1
5.4
5.5

6.7
3.1
3.4
5.4
5.4

Educational attainment2
Less than a high school diploma................

8.4

8.8

8.7

8.1

8.8

8.6

8.8

8.7

8.7

8.7

8.3

8.2

8.9

8.2

8.0

High school graduates, no college3……….
Some college or associate degree………..

5.3
4.5

5.5
4.8

5.3
4.7

5.5
4.4

4.9
4.5

5.0
4.3

5.3
4.7

5.2
4.1

5.0
4.0

5.1
4.2

5.0
4.2

4.9
4.1

4.8
4.0

4.9
4.2

4.9
4.3

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity………………
Married men, spouse present...............
Married women, spouse present...........
Full-time workers...................................
Part-time workers..................................

4

Bachelor's degree and higher …………….
1

Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only; persons who
selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, persons who
reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the
main race.
2

3

Includes high school diploma or equivalent.

4

Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the

Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

household survey.

7. Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Weeks of
unemployment

Annual average
2002

2003

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Less than 5 weeks...........................
5 to 14 weeks..................................
15 weeks and over..........................
15 to 26 weeks.............................
27 weeks and over.......................

2,893
2,580
2,904
1,369
1,535

2,785
2,612
3,378
1,442
1,936

2,638
2,525
3,451
1,448
2,004

2,595
2,453
3,389
1,496
1,893

2,623
2,402
3,339
1,447
1,892

2,449
2,418
3,252
1,382
1,870

2,623
2,417
3,321
1,330
1,991

2,772
2,370
2,956
1,165
1,791

2,731
2,376
3,059
1,277
1,783

2,715
2,397
3,051
1,294
1,757

2,803
2,458
2,885
1,198
1,686

2,605
2,521
2,924
1,243
1,681

2,796
2,251
2,971
1,227
1,744

2,753
2,290
3,032
1,261
1,771

2,611
2,361
3,012
1,294
1,718

Mean duration, in weeks.................
Median duration, in weeks...............

16.6
9.1

19.2
10.1

19.9
10.4

19.8
10.4

19.8
10.6

20.3
10.2

19.9
10.2

19.7
9.4

19.8
9.9

19.8
10.8

18.5
8.9

19.2
9.5

19.6
9.5

19.7
9.5

19.8
9.8

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

63

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason for
unemployment
1

Job losers …………………….………
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff................
Job leavers......................................
Reentrants.......................................
New entrants............................……

Annual average
2002

2003

4,607
1,124
3,483
866
2,368
536

4,838
1,121
3,717
818
2,477
641

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

4,696
1,063
3,516
928
2,445
609

4,569
1,054
3,144
759
2,387
696

4,380
1,030
3,350
807
2,514
677

4,284
1,060
3,224
835
2,421
671

4,475
1,035
3,440
845
2,419
629

4,322
993
3,329
835
2,310
650

4,190
920
3,270
855
2,437
723

4,117
1,009
3,108
909
2,426
642

4,228
1,068
3,160
896
2,333
686

3,978
971
3,007
885
2,440
699

4,014
919
3,094
830
2,417
697

4,074
947
3,127
829
2,411
747

4,066
941
3,124
880
2,388
723

Percent of unemployed
1

Job losers …………………….………
On temporary layoff......................
Not on temporary layoff................
Job leavers......................................
Reentrants.......................................
New entrants............................……

55.0
13.4
41.6
10.3
28.3
6.4

55.1
12.8
42.4
9.3
28.2
7.3

54.1
12.2
41.9
10.7
28.2
7.0

54.3
12.5
41.8
9.0
28.4
8.3

52.3
12.3
40.0
9.6
30.9
8.1

52.2
12.9
39.3
10.2
28.4
8.2

53.5
12.4
41.1
10.1
28.4
7.5

53.2
12.2
41.0
10.3
28.5
8.0

51.1
11.2
39.3
10.4
29.7
8.8

50.9
12.5
38.4
11.2
30.0
7.9

51.9
13.1
38.8
11.0
28.6
8.4

49.7
12.1
37.6
11.1
30.5
8.7

50.4
11.6
38.9
10.4
30.4
8.8

50.5
11.8
38.8
10.3
29.9
9.3

5.1
11.7
38.8
10.9
29.6
9.0

3.2
.6
1.6
.4

3.3
.6
1.7
.4

3.2
.5
1.7
.4

3.1
.6
1.6
.5

3.0
.6
1.7
.5

2.9
.6
1.7
.5

3.0
.6
1.6
.4

2.9
.6
1.6
.4

2.8
.6
1.7
.5

2.8
.6
1.6
.4

2.9
.6
1.6
.5

2.7
.6
1.7
.5

2.7
.6
1.6
.5

2.8
.6
1.6
.5

2.7
.6
1.6
.5

Percent of civilian
labor force
1

Job losers …………………….………
Job leavers......................................
Reentrants.......................................
New entrants............................……
1

Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

9. Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Civilian workers]
Annual average

Sex and age

2002

2003

Aug.

Sept.

5.8
12.0
16.5
18.8
15.1
9.7
4.6
4.8
3.8

6.0
12.4
17.5
19.1
16.4
10.0
4.8
5.0
4.1

5.9
12.1
15.7
17.5
14.8
10.3
4.8
5.0
3.9

5.7
11.7
16.2
18.5
14.5
9.6
4.6
4.8
3.9

5.7
12.1
16.9
18.5
15.9
9.8
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.6
11.8
16.7
18.1
15.6
9.5
4.5
4.6
3.8

5.7
11.8
16.5
19.7
14.4
9.6
4.6
4.8
3.8

5.5
11.7
17.0
20.5
14.7
9.2
4.5
4.6
3.8

5.6
12.1
17.2
21.5
14.7
9.7
4.4
4.5
3.9

5.6
12.0
16.8
20.5
14.4
9.7
4.5
4.5
3.9

5.5
11.9
17.6
20.3
16.1
9.2
4.4
4.6
3.7

5.4
11.6
17.0
20.7
14.9
9.0
4.3
4.4
3.7

5.4
11.8
16.6
19.6
14.9
9.5
4.3
4.4
3.7

5.5
12.2
17.2
20.6
15.2
9.8
4.3
4.4
3.8

5.4
11.5
16.5
21.2
13.5
9.2
4.3
4.4
3.7

Men, 16 years and older.................
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years.......................
18 to 19 years.......................
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................
55 years and older................

5.9
12.8
18.1
21.1
16.4
10.2
4.7
4.8
4.1

6.3
13.4
19.3
20.7
18.4
10.6
5.0
5.2
4.4

6.2
13.3
18.4
18.3
18.2
11.0
5.0
5.2
4.1

5.8
12.5
17.2
18.3
16.4
10.4
4.6
4.9
3.9

5.7
12.7
17.5
19.9
16.1
10.6
4.5
4.6
3.7

5.7
12.3
17.3
20.1
15.7
10.1
4.5
4.7
3.7

5.8
12.6
18.3
22.4
15.8
10.1
4.6
4.8
3.9

5.7
12.9
19.2
23.3
16.6
10.0
4.4
4.5
3.9

5.8
13.0
19.0
23.2
16.6
10.3
4.6
4.7
4.1

5.6
12.7
18.0
22.3
15.9
10.4
4.4
4.4
4.3

5.5
12.2
17.8
21.2
15.9
9.7
4.4
4.5
3.8

5.6
12.5
18.1
21.9
16.1
10.0
4.4
4.5
4.0

5.6
12.9
18.2
20.6
16.8
10.5
4.3
4.4
3.9

5.6
13.0
19.2
22.1
17.7
10.2
4.3
4.4
4.1

5.5
12.4
18.2
23.0
14.8
9.8
4.3
4.4
3.7

Women, 16 years and older...........
16 to 24 years.............................
16 to 19 years..........................
16 to 17 years…………………
18 t0 19 years…………………
20 to 24 years..........................
25 years and older......................
25 to 54 years.......................

5.6
11.1
14.9
16.6
13.8
9.1
4.6
4.8

5.7
11.4
15.6
17.5
14.2
9.3
4.6
4.8

5.5
10.7
13.0
16.2
11.3
9.6
4.6
4.8

5.6
10.8
15.1
18.6
12.4
8.7
4.6
4.9

5.6
11.3
16.2
17.1
15.6
8.9
4.6
4.8

5.5
11.3
16.0
16.2
15.5
8.9
4.5
4.6

5.6
10.8
14.7
17.3
12.8
8.9
4.6
4.9

5.4
10.4
14.7
17.9
12.5
8.3
4.5
4.7

5.3
11.1
15.4
20.1
12.7
9.0
4.2
4.4

5.6
11.2
15.6
18.9
12.7
9.0
4.5
4.7

5.5
11.6
17.5
19.5
16.4
8.7
4.4
4.7

5.2
10.6
15.9
19.7
13.5
7.9
4.3
4.4

5.2
10.6
15.0
18.6
12.8
8.4
4.3
4.4

5.3
11.3
15.1
19.0
12.5
9.4
4.2
4.4

5.2
10.5
14.6
19.3
12.1
8.5
4.3
4.4

3.6

3.7

3.5

3.7

4.1

3.9

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.8

3.8

3.9

3.5

3.3

3.6

1

55 years and older …………

Nov.

2004

Total, 16 years and older..................
16 to 24 years...............................
16 to 19 years............................
16 to 17 years.........................
18 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years............................
25 years and older........................
25 to 54 years.........................
55 years and older..................

1

2003

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population controls used in the household survey.

64

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

Apr.

May

June

July

Oct.

Nov.

10. Unemployment rates by S tate, s eas onally adjus ted
State

Oct.

Sept.

Oct.

2003

2004

p

2004

State

p

Oct.

Sept.

Oct.

2003

2004

p

2004

p

Alabama............................…………………
Alaska.......................................................
Arizona............................……………………
Arkansas...................................................
California............................…………………

5.8
8.1
5.2
6.7
6.7

5.7
7.6
4.8
5.5
6.0

5.5
7.2
4.8
5.5
5.8

Missouri………………………………………
Montana....................................................
Nebraska............................…………………
Nevada......................................................
New Hampshire............................…………

5.5
4.7
4.0
5.1
4.2

5.7
5.1
3.7
3.9
3.5

5.6
4.8
3.5
3.6
3.4

Colorado....................................................
Connecticut............................………………
Delaware...................................................
District of Columbia............................……
Florida.......................................................

5.9
5.5
4.4
7.1
4.9

4.9
4.7
3.9
8.0
4.7

5.0
4.6
4.0
8.5
4.6

New Jersey...............................................
New Mexico............................………………
New York...................................................
North Carolina............................……………
North Dakota.............................................

5.6
6.5
6.4
6.4
3.9

4.8
5.4
5.5
4.8
3.6

4.7
5.2
5.2
4.8
3.7

Georgia............................…………………
Hawaii.......................................................
Idaho............................………………………
Illinois........................................................
Indiana............................……………………

4.4
4.5
5.2
6.8
5.1

4.1
3.1
5.0
6.0
5.2

4.2
3.3
5.2
6.1
5.4

Ohio............................………………………
Oklahoma..................................................
Oregon............................……………………
Pennsylvania.............................................
Rhode Island............................……………

6.0
5.7
7.9
5.4
5.0

6.0
4.4
7.3
5.4
5.0

6.4
4.5
7.2
5.5
4.5

Iowa............................………………………
Kansas......................................................
Kentucky............................…………………
Louisiana...................................................
Maine............................……………………

4.6
5.3
6.0
6.2
5.2

4.7
4.7
4.7
5.3
4.7

4.8
4.8
4.8
5.6
4.6

South Carolina............................…………
South Dakota............................................
Tennessee............................………………
Texas........................................................
Utah............................………………………

7.1
3.6
6.1
6.7
5.4

6.8
3.5
5.1
5.5
4.6

6.4
3.3
5.1
5.5
4.7

Maryland............................…………………
Massachusetts..........................................
Michigan............................…………………
Minnesota..................................................
Mississippi............................………………

4.5
5.8
7.6
5.1
6.0

4.1
4.6
6.8
4.6
6.1

3.9
4.7
6.6
4.3
6.3

Vermont............................…………………
Virginia......................................................
Washington............................………………
West Virginia.............................................
Wisconsin............................………………
Wyoming...................................................

4.7
3.9
7.5
5.9
5.5
4.3

3.3
3.3
5.6
5.1
5.0
3.9

3.1
3.3
5.6
5.1
5.0
3.8

p

= preliminary

11. E mployment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by S tate, s eas onally adjus ted
State

Oct.

Sept.

Oct.

2003

2004

p

2004

p

Oct.

Sept.

Oct.

2003

2004

p

2004

Missouri……………………………… 3,043,437
Montana.........................................
476,946
Nebraska............................…………
981,215
Nevada........................................... 1,147,709
New Hampshire............................…
724,974

3,037,041
485,431
991,699
1,184,713
731,022

3,039,012
487,422
992,059
1,184,969
730,638

State

p

Alabama............................………… 2,165,436
Alaska............................................
334,602
Arizona............................…………
2,695,697
Arkansas........................................
1,265,205
California............................………… 17,505,091

2,163,070
347,400
2,770,870
1,326,929
17,707,574

2,162,788
347,143
2,794,442
1,331,533
17,750,890

Colorado........................................
2,487,545
Connecticut............................……… 1,799,276
Delaware........................................
419,854
District of Columbia........................
302,418
Florida............................................
8,194,656

2,531,875
1,791,043
427,481
304,960
8,408,213

2,542,868
1,788,408
428,931
306,411
8,457,181

New Jersey....................................
New Mexico............................……
New York.......................................
North Carolina............................…
North Dakota..................................

4,383,706
902,705
9,300,266
4,262,778
347,121

4,408,760
910,575
9,326,317
4,159,369
351,305

4,414,138
912,006
9,312,761
4,175,865
354,440

Georgia............................………… 4,445,774
Hawaii............................................
625,266
Idaho............................……………
694,626
Illinois.............................................
6,353,558
Indiana............................…………… 3,191,428

4,421,104
630,469
708,691
6,427,008
3,152,667

4,430,274
632,110
710,594
6,443,178
3,169,584

Ohio............................………………
Oklahoma.......................................
Oregon............................……………
Pennsylvania..................................
Rhode Island............................……

5,920,554
1,696,401
1,854,681
6,141,350
574,162

5,866,455
1,705,444
1,831,898
6,294,971
567,170

5,888,552
1,711,742
1,849,709
6,299,287
565,452

Iowa............................………………
Kansas...........................................
Kentucky............................…………
Louisiana........................................
Maine............................……………

1,608,437
1,437,234
1,960,917
2,044,013
696,046

1,630,044
1,473,854
1,979,298
2,060,571
698,151

1,635,603
1,478,259
1,980,574
2,062,831
701,233

South Carolina............................…
South Dakota.................................
Tennessee............................………
Texas.............................................
Utah............................………………

2,019,922
425,649
2,910,755
10,958,310
1,191,220

2,082,082
425,301
2,942,919
10,978,816
1,212,684

2,080,923
425,076
2,945,699
11,008,283
1,218,682

Maryland............................…………
Massachusetts...............................
Michigan............................…………
Minnesota......................................
Mississippi............................………

2,908,712
3,399,581
5,076,340
2,928,312
1,315,549

2,957,486
3,389,399
5,063,903
2,962,011
1,327,562

2,956,279
3,396,232
5,085,966
2,962,303
1,326,002

Vermont............................…………
351,006
Virginia...........................................
3,783,315
Washington............................……… 3,151,042
West Virginia..................................
782,764
Wisconsin............................………
3,088,677
Wyoming........................................
281,127

352,624
3,833,314
3,211,091
803,227
3,118,730
280,270

351,563
3,861,265
3,203,962
803,905
3,121,422
280,256

p

= preliminary.

NOTE: some data in this table may differ from data published elsewhere because of the continual updating of the data base.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

65

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average
2002

TOTAL NONFARM................ 130,341
TOTAL PRIVATE...................... 108,828
GOODS-PRODUCING……………… 22,557
Natural resources and
583
mining…………..……….......……
Logging..................................
70.4
Mining........................................
512.2
Oil and gas extraction…………
121.9
Mining, except oil and gas1……
Coal mining……………………
Support activities for mining……

210.6
74.4
179.8

2003

2004

2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov.p

129,931

130,027

130,035

130,194

130,277

130,630

130,954

131,162

131,258

131,343

131,541

131,660

131,972

132,109

108,356
21,817

108,483
21,686

108,491
21,668

108,667
21,696

108,738
21,684

109,077
21,778

109,382
21,822

109,618
21,894

109,730
21,891

109,771
21,906

109,912
21,939

110,008
21,958

110,297
22,016

110,422
11,017

571
68.5
502.3
122.9

571
67.6
503.4
123.9

570
65.9
504.3
124.6

570
65.1
505.1
126.9

572
64.2
508.1
128.9

581
65.9
514.9
130.0

585
66.7
518.5
131.0

589
65.6
523.2
132.3

587
64.5
522.7
132.0

592
64.5
527.5
132.2

591
64.6
526.6
132.7

593
64.9
527.7
132.9

592
64.2
527.5
132.7

595
63.6
531.0
133.5

202.7
70.4
176.8

202.4
69.5
177.1

202.0
69.8
177.7

200.0
69.6
178.2

200.6
70.2
178.6

202.8
70.6
182.1

205.2
71.8
182.3

207.8
72.9
183.1

207.9
73.5
182.8

211.2
75.0
184.1

209.2
74.6
184.7

209.4
74.8
185.4

209.0
74.4
185.8

210.7
75.0
186.8

6,716

6,722

6,771

6,774

6,812

6,791

6,853

6,872

6,909

6,911

6,916

6,930

6,958

7,018

7,025

Construction of buildings.......... 1,574.8
Heavy and civil engineering……
930.6
Speciality trade contractors...... 4,210.4
15,259
Manufacturing............................

1,575.9
910.7
4,235.5
14,525

1,583.9
918.8
4,268.6
14,344

1,585.1
920.7
4,268.4
14,324

1,593.3
928.0
4,290.2
14,314

1,590.9
924.0
4,276.5
14,321

1,607.6
926.8
4,318.9
14,344

1,609.8
924.7
4,337.3
14,365

1,622.9
924.3
4,362.2
14,396

1,625.9
920.9
4,364.6
14,393

1,629.7
920.2
4,365.6
14,398

1,635.5
921.9
4,378.9
14,412

1,648.8
922.5
4,386.8
14,407

1,661.6
928.4
4,427.5
14,406

1,665.1
930.9
4,428.8
14,397

10,766
9,483

10,200
8,970

10,048
8,874

10,044
8,868

10,035
8,869

10,038
8,882

10,058
8,889

10,085
8,924

10,123
8,946

10,128
8,955

10,141
8,955

10,162
8,986

10,150
8,979

10,150
8,985

10,141
8,979

6,529
554.9
516.0
509.4
1,548.5
1,229.5

6,157
536.1
492.6
476.7
1,478.4
1,153.5

6,089
536.3
489.7
464.1
1,468.1
1,142.5

6,079
536.6
487.5
464.6
1,471.2
1,140.4

6,081
536.3
492.7
432.2
1,471.8
1,138.7

6,088
538.4
490.5
462.2
1,476.6
1,141.2

6,101
539.7
493.2
462.0
1,478.5
1,145.1

6,126
540.0
497.8
462.5
1,486.7
1,152.0

6,152
543.0
501.4
464.0
1,494.5
1,153.3

6,164
543.8
501.7
465.4
1,497.6
1,156.7

6,167
544.1
502.6
467.0
1,501.3
1,160.4

6,195
545.9
501.6
465.4
1,504.7
1,163.3

6,184
544.8
503.2
464.1
1,505.8
1,161.7

6,188
549.7
503.0
464.5
1,508.5
1,161.4

6,180
548.5
502.9
464.6
1,507.5
1,162.0

1,507.2

1,360.9

1,334.4

1,332.2

1,333.2

1,333.9

1,338.0

1,339.7

1,345.8

1,346.2

1,351.9

1,353.0

1,350.7

1,348.6

1,344.6

250.0
185.8

225.7
157.0

219.1
154.4

217.8
153.0

219.4
154.8

219.0
154.8

218.6
155.0

218.1
155.1

218.8
155.9

217.7
157.1

217.2
158.2

217.9
158.5

217.1
158.1

215.6
158.0

214.4
158.6

524.5
450.0

461.8
429.3

451.2
425.2

451.3
425.3

450.2
423.7

451.4
423.3

452.1
426.8

453.4
427.5

455.8
430.1

458.0
429.8

460.7
432.4

460.2
433.0

459.4
433.1

457.2
435.4

455.2
434.1

496.5
1,828.9

459.9
1,775.4

450.9
1,766.5

451.2
1,762.7

449.8
1,760.6

448.6
1,766.5

446.8
1,769.1

446.5
1,768.8

447.3
1,764.4

448.6
1,765.1

449.2
1,745.9

449.6
1,774.4

449.1
1,771.7

447.3
1,774.3

447.8
1,772.3

604.1
688.3

573.5
662.8

568.9
652.7

569.3
651.9

571.3
652.0

571.2
653.0

573.4
653.0

576.5
653.0

577.6
654.4

575.0
654.6

576.7
655.5

574.6
653.6

573.8
653.7

573.7
654.0

574.1
654.6

5,775
4,239

5,555
4,043

5,470
3,959

5,456
3,965

5,445
3,954

5,439
3,950

5,445
3,957

5,441
3,959

5,450
3,971

5,438
3,964

5,443
3,974

5,426
3,967

5,428
3,966

5,421
3,962

5,418
3,961

Food manufacturing................. 1,525.7
Beverages and tobacco
products………………………… 207.4
Textile mills………………………
290.9
Textile product mills.................
194.6
Apparel………………………….
359.7
Leather and allied products.....
50.2
Paper and paper products.......
546.6
Printing and related support
activities………………………… 706.6
Petroleum and coal products...
118.1
Chemicals................................
927.5

1,518.7

1,508.3

1,506.3

1,500.7

1,502.4

1,504.5

1,502.7

1,507.0

1,502.8

1,508.0

1,499.6

1,502.5

1,504.5

1,506.5

200.6
260.3
179.8
312.7
45.2
519.0

198.3
245.1
175.2
297.7
44.1
511.7

198.3
241.0
174.3
297.7
44.3
510.3

197.7
239.2
176.9
296.1
44.6
509.8

195.9
237.3
176.6
297.1
44.8
508.0

197.2
237.1
179.7
294.3
44.8
508.8

197.8
235.8
180.1
292.7
44.6
507.0

197.5
236.1
181.4
290.8
45.1
508.1

197.6
235.0
179.7
286.8
44.7
506.7

198.4
235.6
179.3
284.8
45.3
509.0

197.2
234.4
179.4
284.2
44.8
509.8

198.5
233.8
179.6
282.7
45.4
508.6

197.0
233.0
180.1
277.4
45.3
508.0

199.8
231.2
180.0
273.5
45.8
505.7

680.0
114.6
7.9

673.1
112.0
897.6

670.1
112.4
895.9

667.6
114.3
893.7

665.0
112.9
894.7

664.4
113.1
894.9

663.6
112.6
896.4

665.9
113.1
895.0

667.0
113.8
895.2

663.8
113.6
894.2

662.2
114.1
891.9

660.3
114.3
892.7

660.6
114.2
891.3

660.3
114.2
890.3

Construction..............................

Production workers..............
Durable goods..........................
Production workers..............
Wood products.........................
Nonmetallic mineral products
Primary metals.........................
Fabricated metal products.......
Machinery……….....................
Computer and electronic
products1………………………
Computer and peripheral
equipment............................
Communications equipment…
Semiconductors and
electronic components.........
Electronic instruments……….
Electrical equipment and
appliances..............................
Transportation equipment........
Furniture and related
products.....……………………
Miscellaneous manufacturing
Nondurable goods...................
Production workers..............

Plastics and rubber products..

848.0

815.9

806.5

805.8

804.8

803.9

806.3

807.5

810.2

808.6

811.2

808.8

809.5

809.2

811.1

107,784

108,114

108,341

108,367

108,498

108,593

108,852

109,132

109,268

109,367

109,437

109,602

109,702

109,956

110,092

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING……………………… 86,271

86,538

86,797

86,823

86,971

87,054

87,299

87,560

87,724

87,839

87,865

87,973

88,050

88,281

88,405

25,275
5,605.0
2,949.2
2,002.1

25,261
5,592.7
2,943.9
1,989.2

25,211
5,598.4
2,945.8
1,991.8

25,312
5,611.4
2,954.9
1,993.7

25,331
5,612.2
2,953.8
1,994.5

25,415
5,623.5
2,963.4
1,995.3

25,448
5,632.5
2,967.5
1,996.3

25,477
5,636.7
2,969.7
1,997.2

25,497
5,639.5
2,975.6
1,994.3

25,499
5,649.6
2,986.0
1,994.3

25,516
5,652.8
2,989.6
1,992.5

25,522
5,662.8
2,992.3
1,996.6

25,562
5,670.4
2,995.6
2,000.2

25,580
5,678.4
2,996.2
2,002.5

654.3

659.6

660.8

662.8

663.9

664.8

668.7

669.8

669.6

671.5

670.7

673.9

674.6

679.7

SERVICE-PROVIDING..................

Trade, transportation,
and utilities............................... 25,497
Wholesale trade....................... 5,652.3
Durable goods………………… 3,007.9
Nondurable goods……………
2,015.0
Electronic markets and
agents and brokers……………
629.4

Retail trade............................... 15,025.1 14,911.5 14,921.7 14,876.0 14,944.8 14,963.0 15,013.0 15,037.1 15,047.6 15,054.9 15,038.1 15,048.8 15,030.5 15,055.6 15,064.5
Motor vehicles and parts
dealers1………………………
Automobile dealers................
Furniture and home
furnishings stores...................
Electronics and appliance
stores.....................................

1,879.4
1,252.8

1,883.5
1,255.1

1,892.9
1,258.9

1,893.7
1,259.5

1,895.4
1,261.3

1,900.9
1,262.9

1,906.9
1,263.9

1,910.9
1,264.7

1,911.4
1,263.6

1,908.5
1,262.3

1,908.1
1,259.2

1,904.9
1,256.8

1,904.8
1,253.7

1,903.4
1,251.6

1,907.3
1,254.7

538.7

542.9

544.8

547.2

546.4

544.5

544.8

544.5

545.7

546.3

546.4

548.7

548.7

880.0

550.8

525.3

511.9

512.8

511.9

509.3

508.2

511.7

514.1

512.6

511.5

510.7

511.6

512.6

517.8

519.8

See notes at end of table.

66

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

12. Continued–Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Annual average

Industry

Building material and garden
supply stores..........................
Food and beverage stores.......
Health and personal care
stores……………………………
Gasoline stations………………
Clothing and clothing
accessories stores ……………
Sporting goods, hobby,
book, and music stores………
General merchandise stores1…
Department stores……………
Miscellaneous store retailers…
Nonstore retailers………………

2003

2004
p

p

2002

2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

1,176.5
2,881.6

1,191.1
2,840.9

1,210.0
2,821.4

1,209.5
2,813.9

1,221.4
2,826.3

1,231.4
2,831.3

1,243.5
2,838.9

1,247.3
2,839.9

1,248.7
2,845.3

1,245.8
2,839.7

1,246.9
2,834.5

1,251.7
2,832.9

1,256.5
2,832.2

1,258.7
2,832.3

1,262.4
2,827.9

938.8
895.9

943.1
879.9

951.6
875.2

952.6
871.1

954.1
875..1

954.9
871.8

958.2
873.0

957.9
872.4

957.1
871.6

957.2
870.3

956.7
869.9

956.4
870.3

956.4
871.8

956.3
869.6

957.5
867.1

1,312.5

1,296.7

1,297.1

1,301.0

1,304.3

1,311.3

1,321.8

1,328.0

1,335.5

1,346.5

1,349.0

1,355.2

1,349.9

1,353.0

1,354.8

661.3
2,812.0
1,684.0
959.5
443.7

645.0
2,815.2
1,618.8
934.1
427.5

641.6
2,826.4
1,612.6
930.9
417.3

633.2
2,793.4
1,601.3
924.4
424.1

635.9
2,822.7
1,603.4
929.6
424.3

636.8
2,822.5
1,602.7
924.6
424.8

636.5
2,824.4
1,604.9
926.9
427.4

635.8
2,831.0
16.7
927.9
429.8

636.1
2,830.5
1,610.9
925.7
427.4

635.7
2837.4
1,614.9
928.4
427.6

635.5
2825.3
1,609.9
926.2
428.9

638.4
2823.8
1,607.9
927.1
427.8

635.0
2810.9
1,599.4
924.7
427.0

636.5
2822.8
1,609.3
927.7
427.5

636.3
2828.2
1,615.3
924.0
428.4

4,176.7
527.3
215.4
52.5
1,328.0

4,168.0
511.5
215.5
50.9
1,335.7

4,157.0
512.9
215.5
50.0
1,338.7

4,175.9
510.2
215.4
50.6
1,343.6

4,175.8
511.6
215.7
48.8
1,344.1

4,197.0
512.9
216.0
49.2
1,346.4

4,196.5
513.3
216.3
50.6
1,352.2

4,209.9
514.7
216.4
51.1
1,353.9

4220.9
513.8
217.3
51.7
1,353.9

4228.3
512.4
217.8
51.7
1,361.9

4232.5
511.8
217.4
50.3
1,363.7

4246.0
510.0
217.9
50.1
1,363.8

4254.4
511.5
217.8
50.7
1,367.4

4256.0
510.0
217.1
50.2
1,366.7

380.3
40.0

385.7
38.7

385.0
38.8

382.3
38.3

380.1
38.2

380.5
38.1

372.3
38.1

381.5
38.3

374.6
38.4

374.2
38.5

374.5
38.5

380.2
38.6

362.7
38.4

383.6
38.3

Transportation and
warehousing........................... 4,223.6
Air transportation………………
563.5
Rail transportation………………
217.8
Water transportation……………
52.6
Truck transportation…………… 1,339.3
Transit and ground passenger
transportation…………………
380.8
Pipeline transportation…………
41.7
Scenic and sightseeing
transportation…………………
25.6
Support activities for
transportation…………………
524.7
Couriers and messengers……
560.9
Warehousing and storage
516.7
Utilities………………………….………
596.2
3,395
Information…………………...….
Publishing industries, except
Internet…………………………
964.1
Motion picture and sound
recording industries…………… 387.9
Broadcasting, except Internet..
334.1
Internet publishing and
broadcasting……………………
33.7
Telecommunications…………… 1,186.5
ISPs, search portals, and
data processing………………
441.0
Other information services……
47.3
7,847
Financial activities………...…....
Finance and insurance………… 5,817.3
Monetary authorities—
central bank……………………
23.4

28.0

28.7

29.4

28.7

29.7

31.4

31.1

30.6

32.6

32.6

32.7

32.7

31.6

31.8

516.3
566.6
522.3
580.8
3,198

512.4
564.7
524.2
578.9
3,172

511.6
559.0
516.1
579.3
3,175

514.1
566.9
525.8
580.2
3,163

515.5
567.7
524.4
580.0
3,169

518.5
572.1
531.9
581.2
3,169

519.1
570.9
532.6
582.1
3,173

519.5
572.8
531.1
582.3
3,177

520.8
578.2
534.0
581.7
3,182

523.7
579.2
536.3
582.6
3,173

525.1
580.4
538.1
582.0
3,166

525.9
581.1
541.4
582.4
3,159

528.3
580.0
546.0
581.5
3,163

531.4
581.3
545.6
580.8
3,164

926.4

918.4

917.4

914.0

915.1

915.3

916.3

916.2

916.6

914.7

914.3

913.8

913.2

914.0

376.1
327.0

382.7
327.0

385.2
329.5

379.7
329.7

382.7
331.8

381.2
333.0

385.7
333.3

390.8
335.4

394.9
335.5

391.0
336.4

388.7
336.6

389.4
337.3

395.0
338.4

388.7
338.9

30.0
1,082.6

30.4
1,062.2

30.4
1,061.2

30.8
1,061.3

31.9
1,058.2

31.9
1,055.0

32.5
1,051.9

32.5
1,047.3

33.6
1,044.8

33.6
1,042.3

34.2
1,037.5

34.5
1,030.0

35.7
1,026.4

36.4
1,032.3

407.5
48.1
7,974
5,920.5

402.6
48.2
7,985
5,922.7

402.6
48.2
7,981
5,916.5

400.1
47.8
7,981
5,917.1

401.1
48.0
7,989
5,924.7

403.7
48.6
8,003
5,933.0

404.0
49.6
8,015
5,947.7

405.1
49.6
8,029
5,946.0

406.5
50.0
8,049
5,960.4

404.9
49.8
8,044
5,951.9

404.3
50.0
8,053
5,962.4

404.7
49.6
8,078
8,976.2

404.9
49.0
8,092
5,990.7

404.6
48.7
8,107
6,002.9

22.7

22.5

22.5

22.4

22.4

22.3

22.3

21.8

21.9

21.8

21.8

21.7

21.5

21.3

2,686.0

2,785.6

2,790.3

2,783.3

2,785.3

2,787.2

2,793.8

2,802.1

2,800.8

2,809.9

2,804.1

2,807.3

2,818.3

2,824.6

2,838.0

1,733.0
1,278.1

1,752.1
1,281.1

1,758.1
1,280.5

1,757.1
1,278.9

1,758.7
1,280.4

1,762.6
1,283.5

1,762.8
1,284.1

1,765.0
1,285.0

1,765.2
1,284.2

1,768.8
1,285.9

1,766.9
1,284.0

1,768.3
1,283.0

1,772.7
1,287.5

1,776.3
1,290.1

1,781.5
1,295.0

789.4

764.4

769.1

771.9

773.8

778.2

780.8

781.0

782.8

787.2

787.8

791.6

793.6

800.6

800.2

2,233.2

2,266.1

2,261.2

2,258.1

2,255.8

2,257.4

2,257.1

2,259.5

2,262.7

2,263.8

2,260.2

2,263.9

2,265.1

2,266.7

2,266.6

85.4

81.7

79.6

80.7

79.8

79.5

79.0

78.8

77.9

77.6

78.0

77.8

77.5

77.3

76.8

2,029.8
1,352.9
649.1

2,053.6
1,384.4
640.8

2,062.7
1,394.5
639.0

2,064.0
1,395.7
638.3

2,063.6
1,397.7
636.0

2,064.5
1,400.2
634.2

2,069.5
1,405.8
634.1

2,071.6
1,409.2
633.2

2,083.1
1,418.7
635.4

2,088.1
1,418.8
640.5

2,092.0
1,422.1
641.4

2,090.6
1,424.1
638.0

2,101.8
1,431.6
641.9

2,101.6
1,433.4
639.9

2,103.8
1,437.7
637.6

27.6

28.4

29.2

30.0

29.9

30.1

29.6

29.2

29.0

28.8

28.5

28.5

28.3

28.3

28.5

Professional and business
services…………………………… 15,976

15,999

16,114

16,159

16,172

16,196

16,237

16,363

16,432

16,457

16,490

16,518

16,548

16,643

16,664

6,623.5
1,136.8

6,647.9
1,142.9

6,669.3
1,140.5

6,657.9
1,138.7

6,658.1
1,139.2

6,679.8
1,138.4

6,701.4
1,141.9

6,708.1
1,143.3

6,732.6
1,146.3

6,739.9
1,148.2

6,762.0
1,146.2

6,783.3
1,148.4

6,817.4
1,148.5

6,835.7
1,147.1

815.6

810.6

826.6

815.2

813.3

812.8

818.5

806.3

811.6

811.9

815.3

815.7

826.3

830.3

1,228.0

1,233.9

1,235.2

1,230.9

1,240.0

1,246.4

1,254.1

1,258.3

1,261.9

1,264.4

1,269.3

1,275.1

1,284.3

1,291.3

Credit intermediation and
1

related activities ……………
Depository credit
1
intermediation ………………
Commercial banking..……...
Securities, commodity
contracts, investments………
Insurance carriers and
related activities………………
Funds, trusts, and other
financial vehicles………………
Real estate and rental
and leasing………………………
Real estate………………………
Rental and leasing services……
Lessors of nonfinancial
intangible assets………………

Professional and technical
1
services ………………………… 6,675.6
Legal services………………… 1,115.3
Accounting and bookkeeping
services………………...……
837.3
Architectural and engineering
services……………………… 1,246.1

.

See notes at end of table

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

67

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

12. Continued–Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
Industry

Annual average
2002

2003

2004
p

p

2003

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept

Oct.

Nov.

1,108.3

1,105.7

1,105.7

1,104.6

1,099.8

1,103.5

1,103.5

1,110.1

1,117.7

1,120.5

1,129.7

1,136.5

1,142.9

1,153.3

747.3

760.6

764.0

765.4

767.9

774.0

780.9

785.9

791.4

792.2

794.3

793.9

796.7

795.4

1,675.5

1,671.6

1,670.2

1,675.1

1,675.6

1,676.6

1,679.7

1,683.3

1,684.5

1,685.9

1,682.5

1,679.1

1,678.2

1,679.3

7,698.3

7,794.5

7,819.2

7,838.5

7,862.4

7,880.1

7,982.3

8,040.1

8,040.0

8,064.3

8,073.0

8,085.4

8,147.2

8,148.7

Administrative and support
1
services ……………………… 7,276.8 73,764.0
1
Employment services ……… 3,246.5 3,336.2

7,473.7

7,496.3

7,517.5

7,539.6

7,556.8

7,657.0

7,715.6

7,713.0

7,738.1

7,746.6

7,759.5

7,821.5

7,822.1

3,427.6

3,461.3

3,473.8

3,493.8

3,492.3

3,553.7

3,591.5

3,573.4

3,606.8

3,607.8

3,633.6

3,692.9

3,696.5

2,243.2
747.4

2,319.4
746.7

2,355.3
745.1

2,344.3
739.0

2,370.4
739.8

2,380.3
746.0

2,423.8
748.6

2,451.7
751.2

2,449.4
754.0

2,460.2
749.9

2,474.7
751.5

2,501.4
744.3

2,554.2
747.8

2,551.7
748.8

1,631.7

1,639.4

1,635.9

1,637.1

1,639.5

1,646.2

1,674.5

1,686.0

1,694.1

1,691.5

1,691.6

1,691.7

1,688.3

1,686.2

321.9

320.8

322.9

321

322.8

323.3

325.3

324.5

327

326.2

326.4

325.9

325.7

326.6

17,049
2,773.0

17,086
2,775.9

14275.6

14309.8

Computer systems design
and related services………… 1,152.8
Management and technical
consulting services…………
734.4
Management of companies
and enterprises……..……….... 1,705.4
Administrative and waste
services………………………… 7,595.2

Temporary help services…… 2,193.7
Business support services…… 756.6
Services to buildings
and dwellings………………… 1,606.1
Waste management and
remediation services…………
318.3

Educational and health
services………………...……….
16,199
16,577
16,705
16,731
16,746
16,764
16,813
16,854
16,871
16,897
16,901
16,965
16,980
Educational services…….……… 2,642.8 2,688.5 2,723.1 2,728.0 2,729.3 2,727.4 2,736.0 2,740.8 2,731.1 2,727.4 2,731.2 2,746.4 2,749.6
Health care and social
assistance……….……………… 13,555.7 13,888.0 13,981.5 14,003.2 14,017.1 14,036.8 14,077.1 14,113.1 14,140.1 14,169.8 14,169.3 14,218.3 14,230.0

Ambulatory health care
1
services ……………………… 4,633.2 4,776.0 4,818.7 4,831.0 4,840.3 4,855.3 4,868.0 4,883.6 4,896.8 4,909.6 4,920.8 4,935.1 4,938.4 4,964.6 4,978.1
Offices of physicians………… 1,967.8 2,003.8 2,023.3 2,030.0 2,032.3 2,034.4 2,043.5 2,046.1 2,049.6 2,053.9 2,057.5 2,062.1 2,068.1 2,078.6 2,083.6
Outpatient care centers………
413.0
423.1
426.4
425.0
427.8
431.1
430.3
432.2
435.1
436.0
437.6
438.0
436.9
437.7
438.3
Home health care services…… 679.8
727.1
735.7
739.9
740.2
741.5
743.8
748.4
751.7
754.2
756.8
760.1
761.5
766.2
773.5
Hospitals………………………… 4,159.6 4,252.5 4,278.1 4,283.9 4,287.8 4,284.1 4,298.0 4,305.1 4,315.4 4,318.3 4,322.0 4,330.5 4,332.1 4,337.5 4,346.7
Nursing and residential
1
2,743.3 2,784.3 2,792.8 2,793.0 2,792.1 2,791.1 2,798.4 2,802.8 2,806.3 2,809.0 2,812.0 2,814.0 2,820.3 2,820.5 2,826.3
care facilities
Nursing care facilities………… 1,573.2 1,582.8 1,584.1 1,581.7 1,580.3 1,578.7 1,582.1 1,584.0 1,585.3 1,586.5 1,586.7 1,586.3 1,587.1 1,587.1 1,591.4
1
Social assistance ……………… 2,019.7 2,075.2 2,091.9 2,095.3 2,096.9 2,106.3 2,112.7 2,121.6 2,121.6 2,132.9 2,114.5 2,138.7 2,139.2 2,153.0 2,158.7
Child day care services………
744.1
760.5
777.6
777.1
786
752.1
792.7
783.3
789.9
792.4
766.3
770
766.3
772.2
773.7
Leisure and hospitality………..
11,986
12,128
12,178
12,192
12,218
12,229
12,271
12,303
12,331
12,339
12,344
12,341
12,353
12,362
12,387
Arts, entertainment,
and recreation……….…….…… 1,782.6 1,801.0 1,799.4 1,795.2 1,801.4 1,796.7 1,798.7 1,791.1 1,793.1 1,792.0 1,791.9 1,785.6 1,793.8 1,787.6 1,783.4
Performing arts and
spectator sports………………
363.7
370.2
371.7
368.8
369.4
366.5
364.6
361.4
358.8
359.3
357.1
356.0
360.3
361.0
359.8
Museums, historical sites,
zoos, and parks………………
114.0
114.1
113.3
113.1
113.4
113.7
114.2
114.6
115.6
116.1
116.6
116.7
116.2
115.7
115.6
Amusements, gambling, and
recreation……………………… 1,305.0 1,316.6 1,314.4 1,313.3 1,318.6 1,316.5 1,319.9 1,315.1 1,318.7 1,316.6 1,318.2 1,312.9 1,317.3 1,310.9 1,308.0
Accommodations and
food services…………………… 10,203.2 10,324.4 10,378.9 10,396.3 10,416.5 10,432.3 10,742.0 10,511.8 105,837.9 10,546.7 10,551.7 10,555.6 10,559.3 10,574.0 10,603.9
Accommodations……………… 1,778.6 1,765.2 1,751.7 1,763.0 1,752.1 1,754.4 1,753.4 1,758.5 1,758.5 1,764.7 1,764.4 1,767.9 1,771.4 1,769.2 1,786.7
Food services and drinking
places…………………………… 8,424.6 8,559.2 8,627.2 8,633.3 8,664.4 8,677.9 8,718.6 8,753.3 8,779.4 8,782.0 8,787.7 8,787.7 8,787.9 8,804.8 8,817.2
Other services……………………
5,372
5,393
5,382
5,374
5,379
5,376
5,391
5,404
5,407
5,418
5,414
5,414
5,410
5,410
5,417
Repair and maintenance……… 1,246.9 1,236.2 1,234.4 1,228.5 1,233.5 1,230.5 1,239.4 1,238.2 1,237.7 1,235.1 1,236.3 1,235.2 1,235.2 1,226.6 1,236.4
Personal and laundry services 1,257.2 1,258.2 1,254.1 1,250.2 1,251.2 1,247.6 1,255.9 1,260.5 1,265.5 1,268.4 1,262.1 1,259.9 1,255.7 1,252.9 1,255.6
Membership associations and
organizations………………… 2,867.8 2,898.0 2,893.9 2,895.7 2,894.5 2,898.3 2,895.2 2,904.8 2,903.7 2,914.9 2,915.9 2,919.1 2,918.8 2,920.3 2,924.5
Government.................................
Federal.......................................
Federal, except U.S. Postal
Service...................................
U.S. Postal Service………………
State.........................................
Education...............................
Other State government........
Local.........................................
Education...............................
Other local government.........
1

68

21,513
2,767

21,575
2,756

21,544
2,723

21,544
2,720

21,527
2,715

21,539
2,716

21,553
2,710

21,572
2,727

21,544
2,712

21,528
2,716

21,572
2,710

21,629
2,712

21,652
2,713

21,675
2,706

21,687
2,713

1,923.8
842.4
5,029
2,242.8
2,786.3
13,718
7,654.4
6,063.2

1,947.0
809.1
5,017
2,266.4
2,750.7
13,802
7,699.1
6,104.0

1,924.9
798.1
5,023
2,282.5
2,740.0
13,798
7,684.5
6,113.1

1,928.9
791.4
5,027
2,285.7
2,740.9
13,797
7,687.1
6,109.7

1,921.5
793.1
5,007
2,268.0
2,738.9
13,805
7,692.2
6,112.7

1,923.8
791.7
5,018
2,279.6
2,738.4
13,805
7,694.3
6,110.8

1,921.1
789.1
5,023
2,283.2
2,739.7
13,820
7,704.7
6,114.8

1,939.5
787.3
5,019
2,278.3
2,740.6
13,826
7,710.9
6,115.4

1,925.7
786.5
5,004
2,261.4
2,742.8
13,828
7,710.2
6,117.9

1,930.5
785.4
5,004
2,257.8
2,746.1
13,808
7,695.1
6,113.3

1,922.5
787.2
5,019
2,271.1
2,747.8
13,843
7,715.7
6,116.8

1,926.3
785.3
5,035
2,285.2
2,749.4
13,882
7,758.4
6,123.2

1,927.6
784.9
5,047
2,299.7
2,747.5
13,892
7,760.4
6,131.6

1,923.6
781.9
5,058
2,307.0
2,751.1
13,911
7,774.9
6,136.3

1,930.4
782.3
5,066
2,311.4
2,754.5
13,908
7,779.9
6,128.1

Includes other industries not shown separately.

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.

p = preliminary.

NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American industry

data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

13. Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
Industry

Annual average
2002

2003

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

p

Oct.

p

Nov.

TOTAL PRIVATE…………………………

33.9

33.7

33.8

33.6

33.8

33.8

33.8

33.7

33.8

33.6

33.8

33.7

33.8

33.8

33.7

GOODS-PRODUCING………………………

39.9

39.8

40.1

39.9

40.2

40.3

40.2

40.0

40.3

40.0

40.1

40.1

40.1

40.0

39.9

Natural resources and mining……………

43.2

43.6

43.9

43.6

44.5

44.1

44.2

44.3

44.2

43.9

44.1

44.4

44.6

44.8

44.9

Construction…………………………………

38.4

38.4

38.5

38.1

38.5

38.5

38.6

38.2

38.3

38.1

38.4

38.1

38.4

38.3

38.4

Manufacturing…………………….............
Overtime hours.................................

40.5
4.2

40.4
4.2

40.8
4.5

40.6
4.5

41.0
4.5

41.0
4.6

40.9
4.6

40.7
4.5

41.1
4.6

40.8
4.6

40.9
4.6

40.9
4.6

40.8
4.6

40.6
4.5

40.5
4.5

Durable goods..…………………............
Overtime hours.................................
Wood products....................................
Nonmetallic mineral products..............
Primary metals....................................
Fabricated metal products..................
Machinery…………………………………
Computer and electronic products……
Electrical equipment and appliances…
Transportation equipment...................
Furniture and related products……….
Miscellaneous manufacturing..............

40.8
4.2
39.9
42.0
42.4
40.6
40.5
39.7
40.1
42.5
39.2
38.6

40.8
4.3
40.4
42.2
42.3
40.7
40.8
40.4
40.6
41.9
38.9
38.4

41.3
4.7
41.2
42.4
42.7
40.9
41.1
40.7
40.8
42.7
39.9
38.9

41.2
4.7
41.0
42.3
42.7
40.8
41.1
40.4
40.7
42.7
39.7
38.5

41.5
4.7
40.9
42.5
43.1
41.2
41.8
40.8
41.1
42.8
39.7
39.0

41.5
4.8
41.1
42.5
43.0
41.2
41.8
41.2
40.7
42.9
39.4
38.7

41.4
4.8
41.0
42.9
43.2
41.1
41.7
40.7
40.8
42.8
39.6
38.7

41.2
4.7
41.0
42.3
43.1
41.0
41.6
40.5
40.8
42.4
39.5
38.3

41.6
4.8
41.4
42.0
43.4
41.3
42.3
40.8
41.6
42.8
40.0
38.9

41.2
4.7
40.5
41.8
43.5
41.0
42.0
40.5
40.8
42.3
39.7
38.4

41.3
4.7
40.7
42.1
43.3
41.2
42.0
40.9
40.8
42.4
39.4
38.5

41.3
4.7
40.9
42.3
43.3
41.2
42.1
40.5
41.0
42.5
39.5
38.5

41.2
4.7
40.3
42.4
43.1
41.2
42.3
40.3
40.5
42.4
39.3
38.3

41.1
4.7
40.2
42.4
43.1
41.0
42.2
40.2
40.4
42.4
39.1
38.3

41.0
4.6
40.0
42.4
43.1
40.8
42.2
39.9
40.1
42.2
39.4
38.2

Nondurable goods.................................
Overtime hours.................................
Food manufacturing............................
Beverage and tobacco products.........
Textile mills………………………………
Textile product mills……………………
Apparel................................................
Leather and allied products.................
Paper and paper products………………
Printing and related support
activities............................................
Petroleum and coal products…………
Chemicals………………………………
Plastics and rubber products…………

40.1
4.2
39.6
39.4
40.6
39.2
36.7
37.5
41.8

39.8
4.1
39.3
39.1
39.1
39.6
35.6
39.3
42.1

40.1
4.3
39.2
39.9
40.0
40.0
36.2
39.3
41..9

39.9
4.2
39.1
39.1
39.7
39.8
35.8
40.3
41.8

40.2
4.3
39.5
39.6
40.0
39.4
35.7
39.8
41.9

40.3
4.3
39.4
40.3
40.0
39.9
36.2
39.5
42.0

40.1
4.3
39.3
39.4
40.2
38.8
36.3
39.4
41.8

40.0
4.3
39.1
39.6
39.5
38.3
35.9
39.1
41.9

40.3
4.4
39.6
39.2
40.3
38.8
36.1
38.4
42.6

40.1
4.4
39.4
38.7
40.3
38.9
35.9
38.0
42.0

40.1
4.4
39.3
39.2
40.5
38.5
36.1
37.2
42.4

40.2
4.4
39.3
39.5
40.5
38.7
36.1
37.8
42.5

40.1
4.4
39.4
39.1
40.1
39.0
36.2
38.1
42.1

39.8
4.3
38.9
38.5
40.1
39.0
36.0
38.3
42.2

39.7
4.3
38.9
38.5
40.0
38.8
35.9
38.1
42.0

38.4
43.0
42.3
40.6

38.2
44.5
42.4
40.4

38.4
45.6
42.7
40.7

38.2
44.2
42.5
40.4

38.6
43.8
42.9
40.8

38.6
44.1
43.2
40.9

38.4
43.7
43.0
40.9

38.4
43.9
43.0
40.7

38.6
45.0
42.9
40.9

38.5
45.0
42.6
40.8

38.6
45.0
42.8
40.5

38.5
46.3
42.8
40.5

38.3
45.8
42.8
40.2

38.2
44.9
42.6
40.0

38.3
45.4
42.3
39.6

32.5

32.4

32.4

32.2

32.4

32.4

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.3

32.4

32.4

32.5

32.5

32.4

33.6
38.0
30.9
36.8
40.9
36.5
35.6

33.5
37.8
30.9
36.9
41.1
36.2
35.5

33.6
38.0
30.9
37.0
41.4
36.3
35.5

33.5
37.8
30.8
36.7
40.8
36.2
35.3

33.6
37.9
31.0
36.9
40.8
36.2
35.7

33.7
38.0
30.9
37.2
41.0
36.3
35.5

33.6
38.0
30.8
36.9
41.2
36.3
35.5

33.5
38.0
30.7
36.9
41.2
36.3
35.6

33.5
37.8
30.7
37.3
41.3
36.4
35.8

33.3
37.6
30.5
36.9
41.1
36.5
35.5

33.4
37.8
30.6
37.1
41.0
36.4
35.6

33.5
37.6
30.7
37.2
40.9
36.4
35.5

33.6
37.8
30.8
37.4
41.4
36.4
35.5

33.6
37.7
30.8
37.4
40.7
36.4
35.7

33.5
37.6
30.7
37.3
40.5
36.4
35.6

34.2
32.4
25.8
32.0

34.1
32.3
25.6
31.4

34.1
32.4
25.7
31.2

33.8
32.4
25.6
31.0

34.1
32.4
25.7
31.1

34.2
32.4
25.8
31.1

34.1
32.4
25.7
31.2

34.1
32.4
25.7
31.1

34.2
32.5
25.7
31.2

33.9
32.5
25.7
31.0

34.2
32.6
25.6
31.1

34.2
32.5
25.6
31.1

34.5
32.6
25.6
31.1

34.3
32.6
25.7
31.0

34.2
32.5
25.7
31.0

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING…………………………….
Trade, transportation, and
utilities.......………………......................
Wholesale trade........……………….......
Retail trade…………………………………
Transportation and warehousing………
Utilities……………………………………
Information…………………………………
Financial activities…………………………
Professional and business
services……………………………………
Education and health services…………
Leisure and hospitality……………………
Other services…………….......................
1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manu-

facturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the
service-providing industries.

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American
Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard industrial Classification
(SIC) system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
p = preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

69

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

14. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Industry

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.p

Nov.p

$15.35
8.27

$15.46
8.23

$15.45
8.30

$15.49
8.27

$15.52
8.27

$15.55
8.24

$15.59
8.25

$15.63
8.21

$15.66
8.20

$15.71
8.23

$15.76
8.26

$15.78
8.25

$15.82
8.22

$15.84
8.22

16.33

16.80

16.94

16.97

17.00

17.06

17.08

17.13

17.13

17.16

17.19

17.24

17.30

17.33

17.35

17.19
18.52
15.29
14.54
16.02
14.15

17.58
18.95
15.74
14.96
16.46
14.63

17.79
19.06
15.89
15.06
16.58
14.79

17.91
19.04
15.93
15.09
16.64
14.81

17.95
19.11
15.94
15.11
16.63
14.85

18.01
19.18
15.99
15.14
16.68
14.89

18.10
19.17
16.01
15.16
16.69
14.93

18.08
19.20
16.08
15.24
16.75
15.00

18.10
19.20
16.08
15.23
16.75
15.02

18.24
19.19
16.13
15.27
16.78
15.08

18.15
19.22
16.16
15.30
16.81
15.12

18.12
19.25
16.23
15.37
16.90
15.15

18.11
19.27
16.29
15.42
16.98
15.19

18.19
19.33
16.29
15.43
16.99
15.16

18.32
19.34
16.30
15.44
17.00
15.18

14.56

14.96

15.06

15.05

15.08

15.10

15.13

15.17

15.23

15.26

15.31

15.36

15.38

15.41

15.43

14.02
16.98
11.67
15.76
23.96
20.20
16.17

14.34
17.36
11.90
16.25
24.76
21.01
17.13

14.44
17.47
11.97
16.35
25.36
21.10
17.30

14.41
17.46
11.95
16.33
25.13
20.99
17.30

14.45
17.53
11.95
16.46
25.32
21.15
17.35

14.49
17.54
11.98
16.52
25.35
21.24
17.32

14.50
17.54
11.99
16.53
25.38
21.25
17.41

14.57
17.60
12.01
16.71
25.67
21.29
17.46

14.61
17.63
12.06
16.75
25.46
21.42
17.49

14.65
17.67
12.10
16.82
25.44
21.30
17.50

14.70
17.71
12.12
16.89
25.57
21.45
17.55

14.73
17.70
12.16
16.99
25.54
21.53
17.58

14.74
17.74
12.17
16.91
25.73
21.61
17.61

14.77
17.80
12.17
16.97
25.95
21.60
17.68

14.79
17.81
12.22
16.97
25.85
21.58
17.65

16.81

17.20

17.29

17.25

17.24

17.25

17.27

17.29

17.36

17.42

17.44

17.56

17.52

17.59

17.62

15.21
8.58
13.72

15.64
8.76
13.84

15.77
8.82
13.81

15.81
8.84
13.80

15.87
8.85
13.84

15.90
8.86
13.84

15.96
8.87
13.87

15.99
8.86
13.84

16.06
8.86
13.85

16.12
8.85
13.88

16.18
8.87
13.90

16.19
8.91
13.92

16.23
8.95
13.95

16.24
8.99
13.99

16.27
9.02
14.02

TOTAL PRIVATE
Current dollars……………………… $14.95
Constant (1982) dollars……………
8.24
GOODS-PRODUCING..............................
Natural resources and mining..............
Construction..........................................
Manufacturing.......................................
Excluding overtime..........................
Durable goods……………………………
Nondurable goods………………………
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING..........……………….............
Trade,transportation, and
utilities………………………………….
Wholesale trade..................................
Retail trade..........................................
Transportation and warehousing………
Utilities……………………………………
Information............................................
Financial activities................................
Professional and business
services................................................
Education and health
services................................................
Leisure and hospitality.........................
Other services.......................................
1

70

2004

2003

2003

2002

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufac-

NOTE:

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American industry

turing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS

service-providing industries.

based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the data" for a

p = preliminary.

description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

15. Average hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Annual average
Industry

2002

TOTAL PRIVATE………………………… $14.95
Seasonally adjusted………………… 15.18

2003
$15.35
15.47

2003

2004
p

p

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

$15.52
15.43

$15.48
15.45

$15.56
15.49

$15.60
15.52

$15.55
15.55

$15.59
15.59

$15.63
15.63

$15.57
15.66

$15.59
15.71

$15.67
15.76

$15.80
15.78

$15.83
15.82

$15.86
15.84

GOODS-PRODUCING..............................

16.33

16.8

16.98

17.03

16.94

16.95

17.00

17.09

17.10

17.14

17.18

17.28

17.41

17.39

17.38

Natural resources and mining…………

17.19

17.58

17.15

17.97

18.00

18.05

18.17

18.14

18.06

18.18

18.07

18.01

18.04

18.14

18.32

Construction.…………...........................

18.52

18.95

19.08

19.19

19.01

19.07

19.07

19.15

19.15

19.12

19.25

19.33

19.42

19.47

19.37

Manufacturing……………………………

15.29

15.74

15.92

16.05

15.98

15.99

16.01

16.07

16.05

16.09

16.04

16.17

16.36

16.27

16.33

Durable goods..…………………..........
Wood products .................................
Nonmetallic mineral products ………
Primary metals .................................
Fabricated metal products …............
Machinery …………..…………………
Computer and electronic products ...
Electrical equipment and appliances
Transportation equipment ................
Furniture and related products .........
Miscellaneous manufacturing ...........

16.02
12.33
15.40
17.68
14.68
15.92
16.20
13.98
20.64
12.61
12.91

16.46
12.71
15.77
18.13
15.01
16.30
16.68
14.35
21.25
12.98
13.30

16.64
12.95
15.99
18.32
15.06
16.49
16.78
14.54
21.48
13.08
13.53

16.78
12.93
15.98
18.39
15.23
16.62
16.85
14.68
21.74
13.08
13.60

16.66
12.90
16.03
18.39
15.20
16.53
16.81
14.50
21.38
12.95
13.68

16.68
12.91
16.00
18.36
15.18
16.50
16.92
14.58
21.37
12.92
13.75

16.69
12.93
16.02
18.33
15.25
16.49
16.93
14.68
21.34
12.96
13.78

16.72
13.00
16.19
18.52
15.21
16.53
17.01
14.80
21.36
13.09
13.70

16.71
13.03
16.18
18.48
15.20
16.53
17.11
14.83
21.29
13.04
13.76

16.75
12.98
16.24
18.51
15.23
16.56
17.21
14.88
21.36
13.10
13.81

16.61
13.03
16.38
18.66
15.26
16.68
17.29
14.88
20.77
13.11
13.89

16.85
13.01
16.29
18.58
15.27
16.72
17.37
14.98
21.54
13.27
13.87

17.08
13.13
16.52
18.89
15.42
16.85
17.47
15.03
21.96
13.39
13.96

16.99
13.02
16.38
18.74
15.37
16.83
17.51
15.00
21.84
13.26
13.91

17.05
13.09
16.50
18.69
15.44
16.80
17.60
15.02
21.95
13.29
13.97

Nondurable goods………………………
Food manufacturing .........................
Beverages and tobacco products .....

14.15
12.55
17.73

14.63
12.80
17.96

14.80
12.91
18.64

14.88
12.95
18.58

14.89
12.91
18.88

14.88
12.87
18.76

14.90
12.89
19.13

15.01
12.96
19.60

14.98
12.94
19.55

15.03
13.00
19.39

15.14
13.05
19.29

15.09
12.99
19.10

15.24
13.08
19.20

15.12
12.93
19.20

15.17
12.97
18.84

11.73
10.96
9.10
11.00
16.85
14.93
23.04
17.97
13.55

12.00
11.24
9.56
11.67
17.32
15.37
23.64
18.52
14.18

12.08
11.35
9.71
11.87
17.58
15.48
24.00
18.77
14.27

12.21
11.44
9.80
11.90
17.60
15.56
24.06
18.79
14.47

12.11
11.45
9.74
11.94
17.63
15.53
24.13
18.83
14.43

12.13
11.40
9.58
11.76
17.55
15.57
24.32
18.85
14.45

12.09
11.37
9.60
11.64
17.59
15.61
24.82
18.87
14.45

12.23
11.33
9.71
11.65
17.84
15.54
24.48
19.02
14.58

12.08
11.30
9.55
11.49
17.88
15.51
24.41
19.05
14.55

12.15
11.29
9.60
11.59
17.86
15.54
24.24
19.20
14.59

12.07
11.48
9.74
11.68
17.91
15.71
24.35
19.36
14.69

12.08
11.46
9.73
11.68
17.84
15.86
24.07
19.29
14.66

12.26
11.51
9.93
11.56
18.16
15.94
24.47
19.49
14.75

12.12
11.44
9.97
11.57
17.87
15.94
24.35
19.47
14.55

12.12
11.44
10.02
11.53
18.10
15.90
24.78
19.47
14.60

Textile mills ......................................
Textile product mills .........................
Apparel .............................................
Leather and allied products …………
Paper and paper products ……………
Printing and related support activities
Petroleum and coal products …………
Chemicals ………………………………
Plastics and rubber products ............
PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING ………………………………

14.56

14.96

15.13

15.07

15.19

15.24

15.16

15.20

15.24

15.14

15.17

15.24

15.37

15.41

15.46

Trade, transportation, and
utilities…….……..................................
Wholesale trade …………………………
Retail trade ………………………………
Transportation and warehousing ……
Utilities ………..…..….………..…………

14.02
16.98
11.67
15.76
23.96

14.34
17.36
11.90
16.25
24.76

14.44
17.56
11.92
16.40
25.50

14.31
17.46
11.87
16.33
25.26

14.50
17.56
11.98
16.46
25.38

14.58
17.60
12.04
16.58
25.29

14.53
17.47
12.03
16.51
25.36

14.64
17.60
12.08
16.73
25.69

14.64
17.67
12.08
16.72
25.53

14.61
17.58
12.09
16.80
25.33

14.62
17.66
12.07
16.86
25.43

14.66
17.69
12.09
16.98
25.33

14.78
17.72
12.23
16.91
25.87

14.78
17.77
12.18
16.98
26.00

14.77
17.81
12.18
17.00
25.99

20.20

21.01

21.28

21.10

21.21

21.28

21.17

21.24

21.41

21.18

21.30

21.44

21.73

21.69

21.71

Financial activities……..………............

16.17

17.13

17.42

17.26

17.35

17.47

17.37

17.45

17.62

17.38

17.44

17.58

17.60

17.67

17.62

16.81

17.20

17.41

17.29

17.38

17.47

17.28

17.26

17.45

17.28

17.31

17.46

17.43

17.50

17.59
16.28

Professional and business
services……………………………………
Education and health
services…………………………………

15.21

15.64

15.79

15.86

15.94

15.95

15.94

15.99

16.00

16.06

16.18

16.16

16.25

16.25

Leisure and hospitality …………………

8.58

8.76

8.83

8.94

8.89

8.92

8.89

8.84

8.85

8.78

8.78

8.80

8.94

9.01

9.06

Other services…………………..............

13.72

13.84

13.85

13.88

13.89

13.90

13.85

13.87

13.90

13.82

13.78

13.84

13.97

13.97

14.04

1

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry

manufacturing, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in

Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

the service-providing industries.

system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See
"Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

71

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

16. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers1 on private nonfarm payrolls, by industry
Industry

Annual average
2002

2004
p

p

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

TOTAL PRIVATE………………… $506.07
Seasonally adjusted..........
–

$517.36
–

$527.68
522.55

$520.13
519.12

$518.15
523.56

$527.28
524.58

$520.93
525.59

$522.27
525.38

$531.42
528.29

$524.71
526.18

$528.50
531.00

$535.91
531.11

$530.88
533.36

$535.05
534.72

$534.48
533.81

GOODS-PRODUCING……………… 651.61

669.23

684.29

682.90

674.21

674.61

681.70

678.47

690.84

689.03

687.20

698.11

691.18

699.08

696.94

Natural resources
and mining……………………….. 741.97
Construction……………………… 711.82

766.83
727.11

784.55
730.76

781.70
714.34

784.80
712.88

786.98
711.31

797.66
732.29

794.53
721.96

798.25
741.11

809.01
738.03

802.31
754.60

806.85
755.80

797.37
730.19

821.74
755.44

831.73
739.93

Manufacturing……………………… 618.75

636.07

655.90

662.87

650.39

652.39

653.21

652.44

659.66

659.69

646.41

661.35

664.22

662.19

666.26

Durable goods…………………… 652.97

671.53

692.22

703.08

688.06

688.88

690.97

687.19

695.14

695.13

674.37

695.91

698.57

699.99

702.46

Wood products ......................... 492.00
Nonmetallic mineral products.... 646.91
Primary metals…………………… 749.32
Fabricated metal products......... 596.38
Machinery………………………… 645.55
Computer and electronic
products.................................. 642.87
Electrical equipment and
appliances............................... 560.24
Transportation equipment……… 877.87
Furniture and related
products………………………… 494.01
Miscellaneous
manufacturing......................... 499.13

513.92
665.11
767.63
610.33
664.79

537.43
681.17
785.93
621.98
682.69

531.42
669.56
799.97
635.09
696.38

517.29
663.64
796.29
626.24
689.30

521.56
664.00
787.64
623.90
691.35

524.96
680.85
790.02
625.25
690.93

530.40
684.84
800.06
620.27
987.65

544.65
684.41
803.88
627.76
700.87

533.48
690.20
808.89
627.48
698.83

531.62
694.51
791.18
621.08
692.22

538.61
700.47
798.94
627.60
697.22

521.26
710.36
808.49
627.59
699.28

526.01
701.06
803.95
633.24
706.86

526.22
702.90
809.28
634.58
710.64

674.68

693.01

695.91

680.81

695.41

690.74

683.80

694.67

698.73

696.79

700.01

700.55

705.65

709.28

582.68
890.32

601.96
925.79

616.56
950.04

594.50
915.06

591.95
916.77

596.01
917.62

599.40
905.66

613.96
915.47

611.57
912.07

599.66
841.19

611.18
911.14

601.20
928.91

612.00
928.20

609.81
930.68
524.96

505.23

523.20

528.43

510.23

505.17

510.62

517.06

517.69

521.38

515.22

529.47

519.53

515.81

510.69

530.38

533.12

532.15

533.50

534.66

524.71

535.26

530.30

527.82

534.00

529.08

534.14

536.45

Nondurable goods....................... 566.84

582.65

600.88

602.64

594.11

595.20

596.00

595.90

602.20

604.21

602.57

606.62

611.12

604.80

608.32

Food manufacturing.................. 496.91
Beverages and tobacco
products.................................. 698.39
Textile mills……………………… 476.52
Textile product mills……………… 429.01
Apparel…………………………… 333.66
Leather and allied products....... 412.99
Paper and paper products……. 705.62

502.61

515.11

514.12

504.78

499.36

498.84

497.66

511.13

512.20

512.87

514.40

521.89

508.15

513.61

702.75
469.47
445.08
340.22
458.26
719.21

751.19
485.62
456.27
356.36
465.30
743.63

722.76
490.84
464.46
352.80
485.52
751.52

728.77
485.61
447.70
343.82
471.63
738.70

737.27
486.41
450.30
345.84
464.52
731.84

744.16
490.85
441.16
350.40
464.44
731.74

780.08
484.31
435.07
347.76
460.18
745.71

774.18
486.82
436.18
346.67
441.22
756.32

760.09
490.86
444.83
348.48
442.74
748.33

760.03
481.59
435.09
348.69
422.82
750.43

762.09
489.24
443.50
353.20
441.50
754.63

764.16
489.17
445.44
352.52
430.03
771.80

735.36
482.38
448.45
357.92
445.45
755.90

727.22
486.01
446.16
361.72
440.45
767.44

587.42

603.72

602.17

593.25

597.89

600.99

593.63

594.03

593.63

600.12

610.61

612.10

613.69

616.92

Printing and related
support activities………………
Petroleum and coal
products…………………………
Chemicals…………………………
Plastics and rubber
products…………………………

573.05
990.88
759.53

1,052.97 1,099.20 1,061.05 1,068.96 1,074.94 1,079.67 1,062.43 1,091.13 1,095.65 1,120.10 1,097.59 1,120.73 1,098.19 1,132.45
784.56
808.99
806.09
804.04
816.21
811.41
814.06
815.34
819.84
816.99
823.68
832.22
827.48
829.42

549.85

572.23

586.50

596.16

585.86

588.12

589.56

594.86

595.10

599.65

583.19

589.33

590.00

583.46

582.54

PRIVATE SERVICEPROVIDING………….................... 472.88

484.00

493.24

485.25

484.56

496.82

486.64

487.92

496.82

489.02

493.03

501.40

496.45

499.28

499.36

Trade, transportation,
and utilities……………………… 471.27
Wholesale trade......…………...... 644.38
Retail trade………………………… 360.81
Transportation and
warehousing……………………… 579.75
Utilities……………………………… 979.09

1

72

2003

2003

481.10

486.63

480.82

477.05

488.43

482.40

486.05

493..37

489.44

494.46

498.44

496.61

495.13

491.84

657.12
367.28

676.06
365.94

659.99
367.97

656.74
361.80

670.56
368.42

658.62
365.71

665.28
367.23

674.99
372.06

661.01
372.37

665.78
376.58

672.22
378.42

666.27
377.91

668.15
373.93

669.66
370.27

597.79
615.00
602.58
597.50
613.46
604.27
610.65
627.00
621.60
627.19
641.84
630.74
635.05
637.50
1,016.94 1,068.45 1,028.08 1,032.97 1,039.42 1,039.76 1,053.29 1,054.39 1,046.13 1,032.46 1,030.93 1,073.61 1,066.00 1,060.39

Information………………………… 738.17

761.13

783.10

761.71

763.56

776.72

760.00

764.64

777.18

775.19

773.19

788.99

788.80

789.52

792.42

Financial activities………………… 575.51

608.87

628.86

607.55

612.10

630.67

611.42

615.99

637.84

613.51

617.38

634.64

619.52

627.29

625.51

Professional and
business services……………… 574.66

586.68

597.16

582.67

583.97

602.72

587.52

588.57

603.77

587.52

590.27

604.12

592.62

598.50

599.82

Education and
health services…………………… 492.74

505.76

516.33

512.28

514.86

519.97

513.27

516.48

521.60

520.34

527.47

530.05

528.13

528.13

529.10

Leisure and hospitality…………… 221.26

224.35

226.05

225.29

221.36

230.14

225.80

224.81

229.22

227.40

230.91

234.08

226.18

230.66

230.12

Other services……………………… 439.76

434.49

434.89

430.28

429.20

433.68

428.73

428.58

435.07

428.42

429.94

434.58

431.67

433.07

433.84

Data relate to production workers in natural resources and mining and manufacturing,

Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classifification (SIC)

construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory workers in the service-

system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on

providing industries.

the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

NOTE:

Dash indicates data not available. p = preliminary.

Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

17. Diffusion indexes of employment change, seasonally adjusted
[In percent]
Timespan and year

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug. Sept. Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Private nonfarm payrolls, 278 industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................
Over 3-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

61.9
52.2
40.1
41.2
52.3

62.9
47.8
35.1
35.1
56.1

63.3
50.4
41.0
38.1
68.7

59.5
34.4
41.5
41.4
67.6

46.9
41.4
41.7
42.8
63.8

61.7
39.2
47.8

63.1
37.1
44.1

52.5
38.8
44.1

40.1
60.6

40.5
55.2

39.7
56.3

69.2
52.7
34.0

66.2
50.4
37.4

67.8
50.4
35.1

68.3
43.5
36.2

60.1
38.8
36.7

58.1
34.9

61.5
37.9
40.8

36.5
54.0

32.6
55.2

36.3
62.8

35.1
70.0

40.5
74.5

39.4
42.6
68.7

56.3
36.2
39.9
37.4
64.6

35.4
57.2

Over 6-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

67.3
51.8
29.5

69.1
50.0
30.0

75.2
51.8
31.1

72.5
47.3
31.1

67.4
43.5
31.7

67.8
41.5
37.1

66.7
38.1
37.2

60.8
35.4
39.0

33.6
48.9

31.1
54.1

31.7
59.6

31.7
64.7

33.5
67.8

37.8
71.2

36.2
68.3

36.5
71.6

Over 12-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

70.9
59.5
33.6
34.5
37.8

69.2
59.5
31.7
31.5
43.2

73.2
53.4
30.2
32.9
47.3

71.0
49.3
30.4
33.5
50.7

69.8
48.6
30.2
36.2
54.9

71.0
45.0
29.1

70.0
43.3
32.0

70.3
43.9
31.3

34.4
60.3

34.7
64.0

33.1
63.8

51.5
38.3
42.8
49.3
56.8

53.4
32.4
39.0
46.0
58.8

56.8
36.7
38.7
51.1
51.8

53.8
34.9
34.5
49.1

56.5
34.7
38.7
40.1
60.6

53.2
35.3
37.1
45.5
59.7

52.9
30.8
34.4
50.5
58.5

56.8
32.0
34.7
51.1

59.0
32.2
34.7
40.5
67.1

55.0
33.1
36.5
39.4
63.5

59.7
31.5
35.3
42.6
60.6

54.0
31.1
33.3
41.7

70.3
39.9
30.0
37.6
65.3

65.6
37.8
29.5
37.4
66.4

63.8
37.1
32.9
33.1
68.5

62.1
34.9
34.7
35.4

Manufacturing payrolls, 84 industries
Over 1-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

48.2
22.6

58.3
22.0

50.0
21.4

50.0
16.1

41.1
15.5

57.1
23.2

60.7
13.7

28.6
14.3

25.0
19.0

35.1
17.9

39.9
14.9

41.1
10.1

21.4
26.2
42.9

18.5
15.5
55.4

23.8
22.6
60.1

35.1
13.7
66.1

29.8
26.2
64.9

32.7
25.0
54.2

40.5
28.0
57.1

28.0
26.2
48.2

31.0
27.4
44.0

11.9
28.6
44.6

15.5
51.2
47.6

17.9
45.8

Over 3-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

53.6
35.7
9.5
13.7
48.8

53.6
21.4
10.1
13.1
51.8

56.0
16.1
11.3
16.7
59.5

54.8
14.3
17.9
10.1
66.1

44.0
13.1
17.3
13.1
71.4

44.0
13.7

51.2
11.9

47.6
8.9

19.0
14.9
65.5

28.0
16.1
65.5

22.0
16.1
51.8

32.7
8.3
23.8
16.1
53.0

25.0
13.1
15.5
24.4
45.2

23.2
8.9
6.5
27.4
47.6

38.7
10.1
4.8
41.7

Over 6-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

44.0
22.0
6.5
11.3
28.6

52.4
23.8
8.9
9.5
36.9

55.4
22.0
7.7
6.0
46.4

57.7
20.8
8.3
7.1
56.5

47.6
14.3
7.7
8.9
61.3

51.8
13.7
14.3

56.0
14.3
14.9

45.2
10.1
10.7

13.1
64.9

8.9
66.7

13.1
66.1

39.3
10.7
12.5
13.1
58.3

34.5
5.4
10.1
16.7
54.8

32.1
7.1
8.9
19.0
48.8

27.4
4.8
8.9
19.6

Over 12-month span:
2000..............................................
2001..............................................
2002..............................................
2003..............................................
2004..............................................

41.7
29.8
7.1
10.7
9.5

39.3
32.1
6.0
6.0
19.0

47.0
20.8
6.0
6.5
16.7

50.0
19.0
6.5
5.4
26.2

46.4
13.1
7.1
8.3
29.8

52.4
12.5
3.6

51.8
10.7
4.8

49.4
11.9
6.0

9.5
40.5

9.5
50.0

9.5
50.6

46.4
11.9
4.8
10.7
52.4

40.5
10.1
7.1
11.9
55.4

35.1
8.3
4.8
9.5
57.1

33.3
6.0
8.3
11.3

NOTE: Figures are the percent of industries with employment
increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged
employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing
employment.

See the "Definitions" in this section. See "Notes on the data"
for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.
Data for the two most recent months are preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

73

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

18. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1
Levels (in thousands)

Industry and region

Rates
2004

2004
May

2

Total ………………………………………………

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.p

May

June

2.3

July

2.3

Aug.

2.4

Sept.

2.4

Oct.

2.4

Nov.p

3,105

3,022

3,237

3,195

3,294

3,420

3,204

2.5

2.4

Total private2…………………………………

2,746

2,640

2,894

2,859

2,934

3,042

2,867

2.4

2.3

2.6

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.5

Construction………………………………

108

94

88

121

113

114

108

1.5

1.3

1.3

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.5

Manufacturing……………………………

244

247

240

234

251

263

236

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

521

503

567

551

591

630

551

2.0

1.9

2.2

2.1

2.3

2.4

2.1

Professional and business services……

530

494

583

594

564

614

595

3.1

2.9

3.4

3.5

3.3

3.6

3.4

Education and health services…………

542

496

537

536

543

550

540

3.1

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

Leisure and hospitality……………………

391

421

435

410

425

405

385

3.1

3.3

3.4

3.2

3.3

3.2

3.0

360

380

343

337

350

403

335

1.6

1..7

1.6

1.5

1.6

1.8

1.5

2.0

Industry

Government…………………………………
Region3

1

Northeast…………………………………

526

546

545

540

562

606

523

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

South………………………………………

1,164

1,164

1,280

1,259

1,245

1,385

1,214

2.5

2.4

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.5

Midwest……………………………………

688

631

635

613

699

711

713

2.2

2.0

2.0

1.9

2.2

2.2

2.2

West………………………………………

765

677

738

771

790

756

750

2.6

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.6

2.5

West Virginia;

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal

Midwest:

Illinois,

Indiana,

Iowa,

Kansas,

Michigan, Minnesota,

adjustment of the various series.

Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,

2

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

services, not shown separately.

Washington, Wyoming.

3

NOTE: The job openings level is the number of job openings on the last business day of

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,

the month; the job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of

New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas,

the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.

Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,

P

Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,

= preliminary.

19. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

Rates
2004

2004
May

2

Total ……………………………………………… 4,206

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

p

Nov.

4,433

4,229

4,375

4,253

4,469

4,821

May
3.2

June
3.4

July
3.2

Aug
3.3

Sept.
3.3

Oct.

p

Nov.

3.4

3.6

Industry
Total private2…………………………………

3,938

4,110

3,930

4,058

3,906

4,149

4,521

3.6

3.7

3.6

3.7

3.6

3.8

4.1

Construction………………………………

406

436

368

401

388

361

388

5.9

6.3

5.3

5.8

5.5

5.1

5.5

Manufacturing……………………………

336

370

352

356

379

333

389

2.3

2.6

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.3

2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities………

938

945

957

984

864

976

1,088

3.7

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.4

3.8

4.3

Professional and business services……

631

692

621

690

689

783

843

3.8

4.2

3.8

4.2

4.2

4.7

5.1

Education and health services…………

451

428

418

470

401

411

453

2.7

2.5

2.5

2.8

2.4

2.4

2.7

Leisure and hospitality……………………

739

749

760

760

782

769

805

6.0

6.1

6.2

6.1

6.3

6.2

6.5

272

328

310

322

337

321

310

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.4

Government…………………………………
Region

1

3

Northeast…………………………………

708

703

720

763

745

755

812

2.8

2.8

2.9

3.0

2.9

3.0

3.2

South………………………………………

1,606

1,709

1,640

1,643

1,635

1,694

1,805

3.5

3.7

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.9

Midwest……………………………………

956

1,009

935

945

942

1,054

1,149

3.1

3.2

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.4

3.7

West………………………………………

951

1,023

685

1,018

942

928

994

3.3

3.6

3.0

3.5

3.3

3.2

3.5

Midwest:

Illinois,

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal

Iowa,

Kansas,

Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,

Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,

2

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

NOTE: The hires level is the number of hires during the entire month; the hires rate

District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,

is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

74

Indiana,

adjustment of the various series.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

p

= preliminary.

20. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

Rates
2004

2004
May

June

July

Aug.

2

Total ………………………………………………………………………..
4,040
4,069
4,074

Sept.

Oct

Nov.

p

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

p

4,134

4,158

4,129

4,098

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.1

3.1

Industry
Total private 2……………………………………………………
3,761
3,789

3,793

3,894

3,856

3,877

3,843

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

Construction……………………………………………..
367
382

364

391

350

423

358

5.3

5.5

5.3

5.6

5.0

6.0

5.1

Manufacturing…………………………………………..
377

343

367

379

381

338

307

2.6

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.6

2.3

2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities………….. 917

927

972

951

909

922

930

3.6

3.6

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.6

3.6

Professional and business services……….. 556

607

613

575

590

580

721

3.4

3.7

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

4.3

Education and health services……………… 379

362

363

380

384

373

403

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.2

2.4

Leisure and hospitality……………………………..
696

734

694

760

756

747

732

5.6

5.9

5.6

6.2

6.1

6.0

5.9

Government……………………………………………………..
268
270

273

246

306

260

255

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.4

1.2

1.2

3

Region

1

Northeast…………………………………………………..
648
704

674

717

730

670

716

2.6

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.6

2.8

South…………………………………………………………..
1,504
1,533

1,545

1,527

1,506

1,568

1,549

3.2

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.4

3.3

Midwest………………………………………………………
833
853

935

831

931

948

1,028

2.7

2.7

3.0

2.7

3.0

3.0

3.3

West…………………………………………………………….
1,008
979

945

1,087

978

914

800

3.5

3.4

3.3

3.8

3.5

3.2

2.8

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,

of the various series.

North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California,

2

Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

NOTE: The total separations level is the number of total separations during the entire

District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,

month; the total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

month as a percent of total employment.
p

= preliminary.

21. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted
1

Rates

Levels (in thousands)
Industry and region

2004
May

June

July

Total2………………………………………………………………………..
2,173
2,284
2,265

Aug.

2004
Sept.

Oct.

p

May

Nov.

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

p

Oct

Nov.

2,252

2,248

2,283

2,363

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.7

Industry
2

Total private ……………………………………………………
2,026
2,162

2,141

2,140

2,118

2,147

2,269

1.9

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.9

2.1

1.9

Construction……………………………………………..
144
156

101

147

138

161

152

2.1

2.3

1.5

2.1

2.3

2.2

2.8

Manufacturing…………………………………………..
171

171

174

165

183

172

176

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities………….. 525

536

559

552

536

515

559

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.0

2.2

2.0

Professional and business services……….. 259

322

322

308

325

296

374

1.6

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.8

2.2

1.7

Education and health services……………… 223

225

271

239

240

242

250

1.3

1.3

1.6

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.4

Leisure and hospitality……………………………..
455

480

442

476

439

476

488

3.7

3.9

3.6

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.7

Government……………………………………………………..
129
123

126

116

130

122

106

.6

.6

.6

.5

.6

.5

.6

Northeast…………………………………………………..
318
334

338

339

325

316

353

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

1.4

1.3

South…………………………………………………………..
857
910

901

897

903

910

955

1.8

2.0

1.9

1.9

2.0

2.0

1.9

Midwest………………………………………………………
479
485

505

447

472

510

558

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.4

1.6

1.8

1.5

West…………………………………………………………….
521
573

519

566

546

539

483

1.8

2.0

1.8

2.0

1.9

1.7

1.9

Region

1

3

Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment

Midwest:

Illinois, Indiana,

Iowa,

Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,

of the various series.

Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona,

2

California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,

Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other

Washington, Wyoming.

services, not shown separately.
3

Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New

York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont;
District of Columbia, Florida,

South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,

Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,

NOTE: The quits level is the number of quits during the entire month; the quits rate
is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
p

North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia;

= preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

75

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

22. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, fourth quarter 2003.

County by NAICS supersector

Average weekly wage1

Employment
December
2003
(thousands)

Percent change,
December
2002-032

Fourth
quarter
2003

Percent change,
fourth quarter
2002-032

United States3 ..............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

8,314.1
8,048.7
123.7
804.9
376.8
1,853.6
145.2
767.0
1,329.4
732.2
669.9
1,080.6
265.3

129,341.5
108,215.1
1,557.8
6,689.5
14,307.8
25,957.3
3,165.9
7,874.7
16,113.2
15,974.0
12,042.8
4,274.1
21,126.3

0.0
.0
.1
1.2
-4.2
-.3
-4.0
1.2
.6
2.1
1.7
-.1
-.2

$767
769
703
837
943
665
1,139
1,138
945
731
335
494
757

3.6
3.9
4.9
2.3
6.7
3.4
3.9
5.9
3.8
3.8
3.4
3.1
2.4

Los Angeles, CA ..........................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

356.0
352.2
.6
12.9
17.8
53.9
9.2
23.0
40.1
26.6
25.6
142.1
3.8

4,075.3
3,486.3
11.0
133.9
485.2
794.6
194.9
237.9
575.0
456.5
375.9
220.7
589.0

-.5
-.2
.7
-1.1
-7.1
-1.2
-2.0
.9
1.6
1.9
5.6
3.5
-2.3

903
898
955
883
900
735
1,627
1,258
1,043
820
766
422
930

4.2
4.2
16.9
1.7
6.5
2.7
5.2
7.0
3.7
3.9
6.5
5.0
3.3

Cook, IL ........................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

126.7
125.5
.1
10.5
7.9
26.7
2.5
13.8
26.1
12.3
10.5
12.6
1.2

2,539.8
2,221.9
1.3
96.7
265.7
499.4
66.1
219.4
405.5
350.8
217.7
95.1
317.9

-1.2
-.9
-3.6
.0
-5.1
-.8
-4.1
-.8
-1.3
1.0
2.8
-2.0
-3.1

922
929
1,037
1,169
975
753
1,164
1,471
1,206
791
375
655
871

3.0
3.2
3.2
-.8
6.3
.4
.1
8.1
4.1
3.7
-.3
3.0
.9

New York, NY ...............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

111.9
111.7
.0
2.2
3.5
22.1
4.3
16.7
22.6
7.8
10.1
16.0
.2

2,253.6
1,800.4
.1
30.0
46.6
247.6
130.6
352.0
439.7
273.8
188.2
82.9
453.2

-1.0
-.6
.0
-4.5
-4.9
-1.2
-5.1
-2.0
.5
2.4
.4
-1.1
-2.2

1,480
1,623
1,197
1,567
1,290
1,164
1,751
3,034
1,702
918
787
871
912

7.2
8.1
-6.5
3.4
6.4
5.5
7.9
16.1
2.6
7.6
6.1
6.1
.1

Harris, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

89.4
89.0
1.2
6.3
4.7
21.1
1.4
9.7
17.0
8.8
6.5
10.3
.4

1,841.5
1,595.2
62.5
135.5
164.0
403.2
33.8
113.1
279.0
188.3
155.2
56.3
246.3

-.9
-1.2
8.7
-5.0
-4.9
-2.1
-3.9
1.7
-1.7
1.5
.7
-3.1
1.1

906
929
2,185
919
1,106
821
1,098
1,181
1,073
812
335
539
759

2.1
2.1
-.9
2.6
2.3
1.0
.4
4.9
3.2
1.8
-.9
.4
3.1

Maricopa, AZ ................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

80.9
80.5
.5
8.4
3.3
18.6
1.6
9.5
18.1
7.6
5.6
5.7
.5

1,621.2
1,401.8
9.8
131.7
128.0
336.4
36.6
133.3
261.5
160.5
155.8
44.7
219.4

(4)
2.2
-2.6
5.9
-2.5
1.5
-4.1
1.5
4.2
5.6
.8
-2.6
1.6

757
755
545
779
1,050
712
872
933
776
842
364
500
766

4.0
3.9
4.4
2.1
8.2
3.2
.5
3.7
3.5
5.0
2.8
2.2
3.7

See footnotes at end of table.

76

Establishments,
fourth quarter
2003
(thousands)

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

22. Continued—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: 10 largest counties, fourth quarter 2003.

County by NAICS supersector

Establishments,
fourth quarter
2003
(thousands)

Average weekly wage1

Employment
December
2003
(thousands)

Percent change,
December
2002-032

Fourth
quarter
2003

Percent change,
fourth quarter
2002-032

Dallas, TX .....................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

68.6
68.2
.5
4.5
3.5
15.8
1.9
8.6
14.0
6.3
5.2
6.7
.4

1,450.8
1,294.6
6.8
73.0
144.9
326.1
64.0
140.0
237.7
131.4
127.5
40.5
156.2

-1.4
-1.4
-20.5
-2.2
-3.1
-3.3
-5.1
1.2
.0
2.4
.0
-3.4
-1.8

$952
970
2,680
909
1,075
898
1,272
1,215
1,152
887
432
587
800

4.3
4.8
22.7
5.5
6.8
5.2
8.7
2.9
4.2
2.7
4.3
2.8
-.1

Orange, CA ..................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

88.8
87.4
.3
6.4
6.1
17.3
1.5
9.7
17.4
9.1
6.6
12.9
1.4

1,436.6
1,305.5
6.1
85.5
179.9
278.8
33.8
127.8
261.0
126.6
159.9
46.0
131.1

1.3
2.1
8.3
4.4
-3.0
.6
-4.4
9.9
1.0
6.1
2.5
6.3
-5.7

874
875
579
969
1,036
802
1,152
1,354
942
849
358
518
859

5.3
5.2
.2
5.9
11.4
2.7
5.3
6.2
2.8
3.7
3.8
3.0
6.0

San Diego, CA .............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

85.3
83.9
.9
6.4
3.6
14.2
1.4
8.8
14.9
7.6
6.5
19.5
1.3

1,278.2
1,060.2
11.0
81.1
105.4
220.4
36.7
81.6
208.1
122.6
141.5
51.6
218.0

1.3
1.5
-5.4
4.7
-4.2
2.2
-4.5
4.8
1.5
1.6
3.5
1.8
.1

815
809
491
869
1,129
655
1,582
1,058
989
778
346
449
843

2.6
2.5
1.0
.7
11.5
.9
-2.0
.4
2.8
5.7
2.4
2.7
2.9

King, WA ......................................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

81.6
81.0
.4
6.2
2.7
14.8
1.5
6.1
11.7
5.9
5.4
26.4
.6

1,100.6
945.5
2.8
53.4
101.9
225.5
69.2
77.5
158.3
108.3
100.5
48.1
155.1

.2
.1
-11.3
-.4
-8.2
1.1
.8
2.4
.7
1.5
2.9
1.2
1.0

935
944
1,109
921
1,176
804
1,829
1,114
1,160
746
390
463
882

.2
-.3
.8
1.4
-2.1
2.6
-15.7
3.5
8.4
4.8
3.7
.4
3.6

Miami-Dade, FL ............................................................................
Private industry ........................................................................
Natural resources and mining ..............................................
Construction .........................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................
Trade, transportation, and utilities ........................................
Information ...........................................................................
Financial activities ................................................................
Professional and business services .....................................
Education and health services .............................................
Leisure and hospitality .........................................................
Other services ......................................................................
Government .............................................................................

80.2
79.9
.5
4.9
2.8
23.2
1.7
8.2
15.9
7.8
5.3
7.5
.3

980.8
827.5
9.9
40.7
49.4
247.2
28.5
65.5
132.0
123.4
92.8
34.5
153.3

-.5
-.7
-1.8
.3
-9.8
-1.7
-3.2
.7
-.2
1.4
2.1
-1.8
.5

765
742
421
788
695
689
990
1,062
948
748
432
450
886

3.5
3.6
4.0
2.7
5.8
4.2
1.7
-1.1
5.2
2.3
9.9
3.0
2.8

1

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

2

Percent changes were computed from quarterly employment and pay data
adjusted for noneconomic county reclassifications. See Notes on Current Labor
Statistics.
3

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the

Virgin Islands.
4

Data do not meet BLS or State agency disclosure standards.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI) and
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs. Data are
preliminary.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

77

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

23. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages: by State, fourth quarter 2003.
Establishments,
fourth quarter
2003
(thousands)

State

December
2003
(thousands)

Percent change,
December
2002-03

Fourth
quarter
2003

Percent change,
fourth quarter
2002-03

United States2 ...................................

8,314.1

129,341.5

0.0

$767

3.6

Alabama ............................................
Alaska ...............................................
Arizona ..............................................
Arkansas ...........................................
California ...........................................
Colorado ...........................................
Connecticut .......................................
Delaware ...........................................
District of Columbia ...........................
Florida ...............................................

111.8
20.0
126.9
75.2
1,190.8
160.0
109.1
27.1
30.0
504.1

1,838.1
282.7
2,352.1
1,133.6
14,922.3
2,134.6
1,648.9
408.4
654.8
7,424.5

-.1
1.1
2.2
.5
.0
-1.1
-.7
.5
-.4
.8

657
746
710
587
869
784
992
825
1,238
685

4.0
1.1
3.8
4.1
3.8
2.0
3.8
5.0
3.9
3.8

Georgia .............................................
Hawaii ...............................................
Idaho .................................................
Illinois ................................................
Indiana ..............................................
Iowa ..................................................
Kansas ..............................................
Kentucky ...........................................
Louisiana ...........................................
Maine ................................................

245.6
37.4
48.5
325.7
152.1
90.6
82.2
105.7
114.0
47.4

3,845.6
583.0
577.5
5,738.7
2,852.2
1,418.5
1,298.3
1,740.6
1,870.9
595.8

.2
1.3
.6
-1.2
-.3
.0
-.9
.3
.5
.7

734
678
579
827
675
626
631
645
628
631

2.8
3.7
1.8
3.2
3.5
4.7
2.8
3.5
2.4
4.6

Maryland ...........................................
Massachusetts ..................................
Michigan ............................................
Minnesota .........................................
Mississippi .........................................
Missouri .............................................
Montana ............................................
Nebraska ...........................................
Nevada ..............................................
New Hampshire ................................

150.4
206.6
251.3
159.0
65.6
165.4
42.0
55.3
60.3
47.0

2,466.4
3,154.6
4,365.8
2,591.9
1,108.1
2,633.6
396.6
884.4
1,111.2
614.9

.7
-1.9
-1.1
-.5
.4
-.7
1.1
.6
4.4
.6

831
954
806
777
559
676
549
613
721
788

3.6
5.2
3.9
3.2
3.7
2.4
4.0
3.2
5.1
4.0

New Jersey .......................................
New Mexico ......................................
New York ..........................................
North Carolina ...................................
North Dakota .....................................
Ohio ..................................................
Oklahoma ..........................................
Oregon ..............................................
Pennsylvania .....................................
Rhode Island .....................................

268.1
50.4
550.3
227.8
24.0
294.2
91.6
118.8
326.9
34.7

3,912.8
757.1
8,379.2
3,759.6
317.6
5,322.4
1,423.4
1,579.8
5,524.5
480.5

.1
1.4
-.4
-.1
.9
-.7
-1.3
.2
-.2
1.2

945
612
959
679
563
713
597
694
750
738

3.4
4.1
5.2
4.5
4.3
3.8
4.2
3.3
4.7
5.1

South Carolina ..................................
South Dakota ....................................
Tennessee ........................................
Texas ................................................
Utah ..................................................
Vermont ............................................
Virginia ..............................................
Washington .......................................
West Virginia .....................................
Wisconsin ..........................................

108.4
28.1
128.4
505.3
73.9
24.1
202.6
222.7
47.2
157.6

1,781.0
365.4
2,648.0
9,300.1
1,066.2
300.7
3,477.5
2,654.7
685.2
2,715.4

.3
.3
.4
-.3
1.2
.3
1.2
1.0
.1
.0

623
559
689
754
630
661
786
759
587
683

3.1
4.1
4.2
3.1
2.3
5.1
5.2
1.3
2.1
4.1

Wyoming ...........................................

22.0

241.6

1.7

616

4.1

Puerto Rico .......................................
Virgin Islands ....................................

50.2
3.2

1,074.1
42.5

3.5
-.2

450
629

4.7
2.4

1

Average weekly wages were calculated using unrounded data.

2

Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico
or the Virgin Islands.

78

Average weekly wage1

Employment

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI)
and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
programs. Data are preliminary.

24. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by ownership
Year

Average
establishments

Average
annual
employment

Total annual wages
(in thousands)

Average annual wage
per employee

Average
weekly
wage

Total covered (UI and UCFE)
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

6,679,934
6,826,677
7,040,677
7,189,168
7,369,473
7,634,018
7,820,860
7,879,116
7,984,529
8,101,872

109,422,571
112,611,287
115,487,841
117,963,132
121,044,432
124,183,549
127,042,282
129,877,063
129,635,800
128,233,919

$2,884,472,282
3,033,676,678
3,215,921,236
3,414,514,808
3,674,031,718
3,967,072,423
4,235,579,204
4,587,708,584
4,695,225,123
4,714,374,741

$26,361
26,939
27,846
28,946
30,353
31,945
33,340
35,323
36,219
36,764

$507
518
536
557
584
614
641
679
697
707

$26,055
26,633
27,567
28,658
30,058
31,676
33,094
35,077
35,943
36,428

$501
512
530
551
578
609
636
675
691
701

$25,934
26,496
27,441
28,582
30,064
31,762
33,244
35,337
36,157
36,539

$499
510
528
550
578
611
639
680
695
703

$28,643
29,518
30,497
31,397
32,521
33,605
34,681
36,296
37,814
39,212

$551
568
586
604
625
646
667
698
727
754

$26,095
26,717
27,552
28,320
29,134
30,251
31,234
32,387
33,521
34,605

$502
514
530
545
560
582
601
623
645
665

$36,940
38,038
38,523
40,414
42,732
43,688
44,287
46,228
48,940
52,050

$710
731
741
777
822
840
852
889
941
1,001

UI covered
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

6,632,221
6,778,300
6,990,594
7,137,644
7,317,363
7,586,767
7,771,198
7,828,861
7,933,536
8,051,117

106,351,431
109,588,189
112,539,795
115,081,246
118,233,942
121,400,660
124,255,714
127,005,574
126,883,182
125,475,293

$2,771,023,411
2,918,684,128
3,102,353,355
3,298,045,286
3,553,933,885
3,845,494,089
4,112,169,533
4,454,966,824
4,560,511,280
4,570,787,218

Private industry covered
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

6,454,381
6,596,158
6,803,454
6,946,858
7,121,182
7,381,518
7,560,567
7,622,274
7,724,965
7,839,903

91,202,971
94,146,344
96,894,844
99,268,446
102,175,161
105,082,368
107,619,457
110,015,333
109,304,802
107,577,281

$2,365,301,493
2,494,458,555
2,658,927,216
2,837,334,217
3,071,807,287
3,337,621,699
3,577,738,557
3,887,626,769
3,952,152,155
3,930,767,025

State government covered
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

59,185
60,686
60,763
62,146
65,352
67,347
70,538
65,096
64,583
64,447

4,088,075
4,162,944
4,201,836
4,191,726
4,214,451
4,240,779
4,296,673
4,370,160
4,452,237
4,485,071

$117,095,062
122,879,977
128,143,491
131,605,800
137,057,432
142,512,445
149,011,194
158,618,365
168,358,331
175,866,492

Local government covered
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

118,626
121,425
126,342
128,640
130,829
137,902
140,093
141,491
143,989
146,767

11,059,500
11,278,080
11,442,238
11,621,074
11,844,330
12,077,513
12,339,584
12,620,081
13,126,143
13,412,941

$288,594,697
301,315,857
315,252,346
329,105,269
345,069,166
365,359,945
385,419,781
408,721,690
440,000,795
464,153,701

Federal Government covered (UCFE)
1993 ..................................................
1994 ..................................................
1995 ..................................................
1996 ..................................................
1997 ..................................................
1998 ..................................................
1999 ..................................................
2000 ..................................................
2001 ..................................................
2002 ..................................................

47,714
48,377
50,083
51,524
52,110
47,252
49,661
50,256
50,993
50,755

3,071,140
3,023,098
2,948,046
2,881,887
2,810,489
2,782,888
2,786,567
2,871,489
2,752,619
2,758,627

$113,448,871
114,992,550
113,567,881
116,469,523
120,097,833
121,578,334
123,409,672
132,741,760
134,713,843
143,587,523

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Data reflect the movement of Indian Tribal Council establishments from private industry to
the public sector. See Notes on Current Labor Statistics.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

79

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

25. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, establishment size and employment, private ownership, by
supersector, first quarter 2003
Size of establishments
Industry, establishments, and
employment

80

Total

Fewer than
5 workers1

5 to 9
workers

10 to 19
workers

20 to 49
workers

50 to 99
workers

100 to 249
workers

250 to 499
workers

500 to 999
workers

1,000 or
more
workers

Total all industries2
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

7,933,974
105,583,548

4,768,812
7,095,128

Natural resources and mining
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

124,527
1,526,176

72,088
110,155

23,248
153,629

14,773
198,895

9,226
275,811

2,893
198,122

1,593
241,559

501
171,063

161
108,563

44
68,379

Construction
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

795,029
6,285,841

523,747
746,296

129,201
846,521

76,215
1,021,722

46,096
1,371,071

12,837
872,274

5,604
823,846

1,006
338,107

262
172,944

61
93,060

Manufacturing
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

381,159
14,606,928

148,469
252,443

65,027
436,028

57,354
788,581

54,261
1,685,563

25,927
1,815,385

19,813
3,043,444

6,506
2,245,183

2,565
1,732,368

1,237
2,607,933

Trade, transportation, and utilities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,851,662
24,683,356

992,180
1,646,304

378,157
2,514,548

239,637
3,204,840

149,960
4,527,709

51,507
3,564,316

31,351
4,661,898

6,681
2,277,121

1,619
1,070,141

570
1,216,479

Information
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

147,062
3,208,667

84,906
112,409

20,744
138,076

16,130
220,618

13,539
416,670

5,920
410,513

3,773
576,674

1,223
418,113

575
399,366

252
516,228

Financial activities
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

753,064
7,753,717

480,485
788,607

135,759
892,451

76,733
1,017,662

39,003
1,162,498

11,743
801,140

6,195
934,618

1,794
620,183

883
601,549

469
935,009

Professional and business services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,307,697
15,648,435

887,875
1,230,208

180,458
1,184,745

111,532
1,501,470

73,599
2,232,506

28,471
1,969,466

17,856
2,707,203

5,153
1,762,251

1,919
1,307,870

834
1,752,716

Education and health services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

720,207
15,680,834

338,139
629,968

164,622
1,092,329

103,683
1,392,099

65,173
1,955,861

24,086
1,679,708

17,122
2,558,300

3,929
1,337,188

1,761
1,220,921

1,692
3,814,460

Leisure and hospitality
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

657,359
11,731,379

260,149
411,192

110,499
744,144

118,140
1,653,470

122,168
3,683,448

34,166
2,285,550

9,718
1,372,780

1,609
545,304

599
404,831

311
630,660

Other services
Establishments, first quarter ..................
Employment, March ...............................

1,057,236
4,243,633

851,231
1,037,360

116,940
761,518

56,238
740,752

24,235
703,957

5,451
371,774

2,561
376,832

454
150,421

109
71,453

17
29,566

1

Includes establishments that reported no workers in March 2003.

2

Includes data for unclassified establishments, not shown separately.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

1,331,834
872,241
597,662
203,030
115,598
8,810,097 11,763,253 18,025,655 13,970,194 17,299,058

28,856
9,864,934

10,454
5,487
7,090,739 11,664,490

NOTE: Details may not add to totals due to rounding. Data are only produced for
first quarter. Data are preliminary.

26. Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, by
metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
2001

2002

Percent
change,
2001-02

Metropolitan areas3 ..............................................................

$37,908

$38,423

1.4

Abilene, TX .............................................................................
Akron, OH ...............................................................................
Albany, GA .............................................................................
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY ...............................................
Albuquerque, NM ....................................................................
Alexandria, LA ........................................................................
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA ..........................................
Altoona, PA .............................................................................
Amarillo, TX ............................................................................
Anchorage, AK .......................................................................

25,141
32,930
28,877
35,355
31,667
26,296
33,569
26,869
27,422
37,998

25,517
34,037
29,913
35,994
32,475
27,300
34,789
27,360
28,274
39,112

1.5
3.4
3.6
1.8
2.6
3.8
3.6
1.8
3.1
2.9

Ann Arbor, MI .........................................................................
Anniston, AL ...........................................................................
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI ..............................................
Asheville, NC ..........................................................................
Athens, GA .............................................................................
Atlanta, GA .............................................................................
Atlantic-Cape May, NJ ............................................................
Auburn-Opelika, AL ................................................................
Augusta-Aiken, GA-SC ...........................................................
Austin-San Marcos, TX ...........................................................

37,582
26,486
32,652
28,511
28,966
40,559
31,268
25,753
30,626
40,831

39,220
27,547
33,020
28,771
29,942
41,123
32,201
26,405
31,743
39,540

4.4
4.0
1.1
.9
3.4
1.4
3.0
2.5
3.6
-3.2

Bakersfield, CA .......................................................................
Baltimore, MD .........................................................................
Bangor, ME .............................................................................
Barnstable-Yarmouth, MA ......................................................
Baton Rouge, LA ....................................................................
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX ......................................................
Bellingham, WA ......................................................................
Benton Harbor, MI ..................................................................
Bergen-Passaic, NJ ................................................................
Billings, MT .............................................................................

30,106
37,495
27,850
31,025
30,321
31,798
27,724
31,140
44,701
27,889

31,192
38,718
28,446
32,028
31,366
32,577
28,284
32,627
45,185
28,553

3.6
3.3
2.1
3.2
3.4
2.4
2.0
4.8
1.1
2.4

Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS ..............................................
Binghamton, NY .....................................................................
Birmingham, AL ......................................................................
Bismarck, ND ..........................................................................
Bloomington, IN ......................................................................
Bloomington-Normal, IL ..........................................................
Boise City, ID ..........................................................................
Boston-Worcester-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA-NH .........
Boulder-Longmont, CO ...........................................................
Brazoria, TX ............................................................................

28,351
31,187
34,519
27,116
28,013
35,111
31,624
45,766
44,310
35,655

28,515
31,832
35,940
27,993
28,855
36,133
31,955
45,685
44,037
36,253

.6
2.1
4.1
3.2
3.0
2.9
1.0
-.2
-.6
1.7

Bremerton, WA .......................................................................
Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito, TX ...................................
Bryan-College Station, TX ......................................................
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY .......................................................
Burlington, VT .........................................................................
Canton-Massillon, OH ............................................................
Casper, WY ............................................................................
Cedar Rapids, IA ....................................................................
Champaign-Urbana, IL ...........................................................
Charleston-North Charleston, SC ...........................................

31,525
22,142
25,755
32,054
34,363
29,020
28,264
34,649
30,488
28,887

33,775
22,892
26,051
32,777
35,169
29,689
28,886
34,730
31,995
29,993

7.1
3.4
1.1
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2
.2
4.9
3.8

Charleston, WV ......................................................................
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC .....................................
Charlottesville, VA ..................................................................
Chattanooga, TN-GA ..............................................................
Cheyenne, WY .......................................................................
Chicago, IL .............................................................................
Chico-Paradise, CA ................................................................
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN ..............................................................
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY ..............................................
Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH ...................................................

31,530
37,267
32,427
29,981
27,579
42,685
26,499
36,050
25,567
35,514

32,136
38,413
33,328
30,631
28,827
43,239
27,190
37,168
26,940
36,102

1.9
3.1
2.8
2.2
4.5
1.3
2.6
3.1
5.4
1.7

Colorado Springs, CO ............................................................
Columbia, MO .........................................................................
Columbia, SC .........................................................................
Columbus, GA-AL ...................................................................
Columbus, OH ........................................................................
Corpus Christi, TX ..................................................................
Corvallis, OR ..........................................................................
Cumberland, MD-WV .............................................................
Dallas, TX ...............................................................................
Danville, VA ............................................................................

34,391
28,490
29,904
28,412
35,028
29,361
35,525
25,504
42,706
25,465

34,681
29,135
30,721
29,207
36,144
30,168
36,766
26,704
43,000
26,116

.8
2.3
2.7
2.8
3.2
2.7
3.5
4.7
.7
2.6

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

81

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
2001

2002

Percent
change,
2001-02

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL ......................................
Dayton-Springfield, OH ...........................................................
Daytona Beach, FL .................................................................
Decatur, AL .............................................................................
Decatur, IL ..............................................................................
Denver, CO .............................................................................
Des Moines, IA .......................................................................
Detroit, MI ...............................................................................
Dothan, AL ..............................................................................
Dover, DE ...............................................................................

$31,275
33,619
25,953
30,891
33,354
42,351
34,303
42,704
28,026
27,754

$32,118
34,327
26,898
30,370
33,215
42,133
35,641
43,224
29,270
29,818

2.7
2.1
3.6
-1.7
-.4
-.5
3.9
1.2
4.4
7.4

Dubuque, IA ............................................................................
Duluth-Superior, MN-WI .........................................................
Dutchess County, NY .............................................................
Eau Claire, WI ........................................................................
El Paso, TX .............................................................................
Elkhart-Goshen, IN .................................................................
Elmira, NY ..............................................................................
Enid, OK .................................................................................
Erie, PA ..................................................................................
Eugene-Springfield, OR ..........................................................

28,402
29,415
38,748
27,680
25,847
30,797
28,669
24,836
29,293
28,983

29,208
30,581
38,221
28,760
26,604
32,427
29,151
25,507
29,780
29,427

2.8
4.0
-1.4
3.9
2.9
5.3
1.7
2.7
1.7
1.5

Evansville-Henderson, IN-KY .................................................
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN .......................................................
Fayetteville, NC ......................................................................
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR .......................................
Flagstaff, AZ-UT .....................................................................
Flint, MI ...................................................................................
Florence, AL ...........................................................................
Florence, SC ...........................................................................
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO ......................................................
Fort Lauderdale, FL ................................................................

31,042
27,899
26,981
29,940
25,890
35,995
25,639
28,800
33,248
33,966

31,977
29,053
28,298
31,090
26,846
36,507
26,591
29,563
34,215
34,475

3.0
4.1
4.9
3.8
3.7
1.4
3.7
2.6
2.9
1.5

Fort Myers-Cape Coral, FL .....................................................
Fort Pierce-Port St. Lucie, FL .................................................
Fort Smith, AR-OK ..................................................................
Fort Walton Beach, FL ............................................................
Fort Wayne, IN .......................................................................
Fort Worth-Arlington, TX .........................................................
Fresno, CA .............................................................................
Gadsden, AL ...........................................................................
Gainesville, FL ........................................................................
Galveston-Texas City, TX .......................................................

29,432
27,742
26,755
26,151
31,400
36,379
27,647
25,760
26,917
31,067

30,324
29,152
27,075
27,242
32,053
37,195
28,814
26,214
27,648
31,920

3.0
5.1
1.2
4.2
2.1
2.2
4.2
1.8
2.7
2.7

Gary, IN ..................................................................................
Glens Falls, NY .......................................................................
Goldsboro, NC ........................................................................
Grand Forks, ND-MN ..............................................................
Grand Junction, CO ................................................................
Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI ....................................
Great Falls, MT .......................................................................
Greeley, CO ............................................................................
Green Bay, WI ........................................................................
Greensboro--Winston-Salem--High Point, NC ........................

31,948
27,885
25,398
24,959
27,426
33,431
24,211
30,066
32,631
31,730

32,432
28,931
25,821
25,710
28,331
34,214
25,035
31,104
33,698
32,369

1.5
3.8
1.7
3.0
3.3
2.3
3.4
3.5
3.3
2.0

Greenville, NC ........................................................................
Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC ...................................
Hagerstown, MD .....................................................................
Hamilton-Middletown, OH .......................................................
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA ............................................
Hartford, CT ............................................................................
Hattiesburg, MS ......................................................................
Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, NC ...............................................
Honolulu, HI ............................................................................
Houma, LA ..............................................................................

28,289
30,940
29,020
32,325
33,408
43,880
25,145
27,305
32,531
30,343

29,055
31,726
30,034
32,985
34,497
44,387
26,051
27,996
33,978
30,758

2.7
2.5
3.5
2.0
3.3
1.2
3.6
2.5
4.4
1.4

Houston, TX ............................................................................
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH ............................................
Huntsville, AL ..........................................................................
Indianapolis, IN .......................................................................
Iowa City, IA ...........................................................................
Jackson, MI ............................................................................
Jackson, MS ...........................................................................
Jackson, TN ............................................................................
Jacksonville, FL ......................................................................
Jacksonville, NC .....................................................................

42,784
27,478
36,727
35,989
31,663
32,454
29,813
29,414
32,367
21,395

42,712
28,321
38,571
36,608
32,567
33,251
30,537
30,443
33,722
22,269

-.2
3.1
5.0
1.7
2.9
2.5
2.4
3.5
4.2
4.1

See footnotes at end of table.

82

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
2001

2002

Percent
change,
2001-02

Jamestown, NY ......................................................................
Janesville-Beloit, WI ...............................................................
Jersey City, NJ .......................................................................
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA ..................................
Johnstown, PA ........................................................................
Jonesboro, AR ........................................................................
Joplin, MO ..............................................................................
Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, MI ...................................................
Kankakee, IL ...........................................................................
Kansas City, MO-KS ...............................................................

$25,913
31,482
47,638
28,543
25,569
25,337
26,011
32,905
29,104
35,794

$26,430
32,837
49,562
29,076
26,161
26,165
26,594
34,237
30,015
36,731

2.0
4.3
4.0
1.9
2.3
3.3
2.2
4.0
3.1
2.6

Kenosha, WI ...........................................................................
Killeen-Temple, TX .................................................................
Knoxville, TN ..........................................................................
Kokomo, IN .............................................................................
La Crosse, WI-MN ..................................................................
Lafayette, LA ..........................................................................
Lafayette, IN ...........................................................................
Lake Charles, LA ....................................................................
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL ....................................................
Lancaster, PA .........................................................................

31,562
26,193
30,422
39,599
27,774
29,693
31,484
29,782
28,890
31,493

32,473
27,299
31,338
40,778
28,719
30,104
31,700
30,346
29,505
32,197

2.9
4.2
3.0
3.0
3.4
1.4
.7
1.9
2.1
2.2

Lansing-East Lansing, MI .......................................................
Laredo, TX ..............................................................................
Las Cruces, NM ......................................................................
Las Vegas, NV-AZ ..................................................................
Lawrence, KS .........................................................................
Lawton, OK .............................................................................
Lewiston-Auburn, ME .............................................................
Lexington, KY .........................................................................
Lima, OH ................................................................................
Lincoln, NE .............................................................................

34,724
24,128
24,310
32,239
25,923
24,812
27,092
31,593
29,644
29,352

35,785
24,739
25,256
33,280
26,621
25,392
28,435
32,776
30,379
30,614

3.1
2.5
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.3
5.0
3.7
2.5
4.3

Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR ............................................
Longview-Marshall, TX ...........................................................
Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA ................................................
Louisville, KY-IN .....................................................................
Lubbock, TX ...........................................................................
Lynchburg, VA ........................................................................
Macon, GA ..............................................................................
Madison, WI ............................................................................
Mansfield, OH .........................................................................
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX ...............................................

30,858
28,029
40,891
33,058
26,577
28,859
30,595
34,097
28,808
22,313

31,634
28,172
41,709
33,901
27,625
29,444
31,884
35,410
30,104
23,179

2.5
.5
2.0
2.6
3.9
2.0
4.2
3.9
4.5
3.9

Medford-Ashland, OR .............................................................
Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, FL .........................................
Memphis, TN-AR-MS .............................................................
Merced, CA .............................................................................
Miami, FL ................................................................................
Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ ......................................
Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI ......................................................
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI .................................................
Missoula, MT ..........................................................................
Mobile, AL ...............................................................................

27,224
32,798
34,603
25,479
34,524
49,950
35,617
40,868
26,181
28,129

28,098
33,913
35,922
26,771
35,694
50,457
36,523
41,722
27,249
28,742

3.2
3.4
3.8
5.1
3.4
1.0
2.5
2.1
4.1
2.2

Modesto, CA ...........................................................................
Monmouth-Ocean, NJ ............................................................
Monroe, LA .............................................................................
Montgomery, AL .....................................................................
Muncie, IN ..............................................................................
Myrtle Beach, SC ....................................................................
Naples, FL ..............................................................................
Nashville, TN ..........................................................................
Nassau-Suffolk, NY ................................................................
New Haven-Bridgeport-Stamford-Waterbury-Danbury, CT ....

29,591
37,056
26,578
29,150
28,374
24,029
30,839
33,989
39,662
52,198

30,769
37,710
27,614
30,525
29,017
24,672
31,507
35,036
40,396
51,170

4.0
1.8
3.9
4.7
2.3
2.7
2.2
3.1
1.9
-2.0

New London-Norwich, CT ......................................................
New Orleans, LA ....................................................................
New York, NY .........................................................................
Newark, NJ .............................................................................
Newburgh, NY-PA ..................................................................
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC ......................
Oakland, CA ...........................................................................
Ocala, FL ................................................................................
Odessa-Midland, TX ...............................................................
Oklahoma City, OK .................................................................

38,505
31,089
59,097
47,715
29,827
29,875
45,920
26,012
31,278
28,915

38,650
32,407
57,708
48,781
30,920
30,823
46,877
26,628
31,295
29,850

.4
4.2
-2.4
2.2
3.7
3.2
2.1
2.4
.1
3.2

See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

83

Current Labor Statistics:

Labor Force Data

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
2001

2002

Percent
change,
2001-02

Olympia, WA ...........................................................................
Omaha, NE-IA ........................................................................
Orange County, CA ................................................................
Orlando, FL .............................................................................
Owensboro, KY ......................................................................
Panama City, FL .....................................................................
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH ...............................................
Pensacola, FL .........................................................................
Peoria-Pekin, IL ......................................................................
Philadelphia, PA-NJ ................................................................

$32,772
31,856
40,252
31,276
27,306
26,433
27,920
28,059
33,293
40,231

$33,765
33,107
41,219
32,461
28,196
27,448
29,529
28,189
34,261
41,121

3.0
3.9
2.4
3.8
3.3
3.8
5.8
.5
2.9
2.2

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ ..................................................................
Pine Bluff, AR .........................................................................
Pittsburgh, PA .........................................................................
Pittsfield, MA ...........................................................................
Pocatello, ID ...........................................................................
Portland, ME ...........................................................................
Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA .................................................
Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, RI .......................................
Provo-Orem, UT .....................................................................
Pueblo, CO .............................................................................

35,514
27,561
35,024
31,561
24,621
32,327
37,285
33,403
28,266
27,097

36,045
28,698
35,625
32,707
25,219
33,309
37,650
34,610
28,416
27,763

1.5
4.1
1.7
3.6
2.4
3.0
1.0
3.6
.5
2.5

Punta Gorda, FL .....................................................................
Racine, WI ..............................................................................
Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC ............................................
Rapid City, SD ........................................................................
Reading, PA ...........................................................................
Redding, CA ...........................................................................
Reno, NV ................................................................................
Richland-Kennewick-Pasco, WA ............................................
Richmond-Petersburg, VA ......................................................
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA ...............................................

25,404
33,319
38,691
25,508
32,807
28,129
34,231
33,370
35,879
30,510

26,119
34,368
39,056
26,434
33,912
28,961
34,744
35,174
36,751
31,591

2.8
3.1
.9
3.6
3.4
3.0
1.5
5.4
2.4
3.5

Roanoke, VA ..........................................................................
Rochester, MN ........................................................................
Rochester, NY ........................................................................
Rockford, IL ............................................................................
Rocky Mount, NC ...................................................................
Sacramento, CA .....................................................................
Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, MI ...............................................
St. Cloud, MN .........................................................................
St. Joseph, MO .......................................................................
St. Louis, MO-IL ......................................................................

30,330
37,753
34,327
32,104
28,770
38,016
35,429
28,263
27,734
35,928

31,775
39,036
34,827
32,827
28,893
39,354
35,444
29,535
28,507
36,712

4.8
3.4
1.5
2.3
.4
3.5
.0
4.5
2.8
2.2

Salem, OR ..............................................................................
Salinas, CA .............................................................................
Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT .......................................................
San Angelo, TX ......................................................................
San Antonio, TX .....................................................................
San Diego, CA ........................................................................
San Francisco, CA ..................................................................
San Jose, CA ..........................................................................
San Luis Obispo-Atascadero-Paso Robles, CA .....................
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc, CA ...............................

28,336
31,735
31,965
26,147
30,650
38,418
59,654
65,931
29,092
33,626

29,210
32,463
32,600
26,321
31,336
39,305
56,602
63,056
29,981
34,382

3.1
2.3
2.0
.7
2.2
2.3
-5.1
-4.4
3.1
2.2

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA ...................................................
Santa Fe, NM .........................................................................
Santa Rosa, CA ......................................................................
Sarasota-Bradenton, FL .........................................................
Savannah, GA ........................................................................
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton, PA ...................................
Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA .................................................
Sharon, PA .............................................................................
Sheboygan, WI .......................................................................
Sherman-Denison, TX ............................................................

35,022
30,671
36,145
27,958
30,176
28,642
45,299
26,707
30,840
30,397

35,721
32,269
36,494
28,950
30,796
29,336
46,093
27,872
32,148
30,085

2.0
5.2
1.0
3.5
2.1
2.4
1.8
4.4
4.2
-1.0

Shreveport-Bossier City, LA ...................................................
Sioux City, IA-NE ....................................................................
Sioux Falls, SD .......................................................................
South Bend, IN .......................................................................
Spokane, WA ..........................................................................
Springfield, IL ..........................................................................
Springfield, MO .......................................................................
Springfield, MA .......................................................................
State College, PA ...................................................................
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV ................................................

27,856
26,755
28,962
30,769
29,310
36,061
27,338
32,801
29,939
28,483

28,769
27,543
29,975
31,821
30,037
37,336
27,987
33,972
30,910
29,129

3.3
2.9
3.5
3.4
2.5
3.5
2.4
3.6
3.2
2.3

See footnotes at end of table.

84

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

26. Continued—Annual data: Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages, by metropolitan area, 2001-02
Average annual wage2
Metropolitan area1
2001

2002

Percent
change,
2001-02

Stockton-Lodi, CA ...................................................................
Sumter, SC .............................................................................
Syracuse, NY ..........................................................................
Tacoma, WA ...........................................................................
Tallahassee, FL ......................................................................
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL ...................................
Terre Haute, IN .......................................................................
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR ...............................................
Toledo, OH .............................................................................
Topeka, KS .............................................................................

$30,818
24,450
32,254
31,261
29,708
31,678
27,334
26,492
32,299
30,513

$31,958
24,982
33,752
32,507
30,895
32,458
28,415
27,717
33,513
31,707

3.7
2.2
4.6
4.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
4.6
3.8
3.9

Trenton, NJ .............................................................................
Tucson, AZ .............................................................................
Tulsa, OK ................................................................................
Tuscaloosa, AL .......................................................................
Tyler, TX .................................................................................
Utica-Rome, NY ......................................................................
Vallejo-Fairfield-Napa, CA ......................................................
Ventura, CA ............................................................................
Victoria, TX .............................................................................
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ ..............................................

46,831
30,690
31,904
29,972
30,551
27,777
33,903
37,783
29,068
32,571

47,969
31,673
32,241
30,745
31,050
28,500
34,543
38,195
29,168
33,625

2.4
3.2
1.1
2.6
1.6
2.6
1.9
1.1
.3
3.2

Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, CA .................................................
Waco, TX ................................................................................
Washington, DC-MD-VA-WV ..................................................
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA ........................................................
Wausau, WI ............................................................................
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL .........................................
Wheeling, WV-OH ..................................................................
Wichita, KS .............................................................................
Wichita Falls, TX .....................................................................
Williamsport, PA .....................................................................

24,732
28,245
47,589
29,119
29,402
35,957
26,282
32,983
25,557
27,801

25,650
28,885
48,430
29,916
30,292
36,550
26,693
33,429
26,387
27,988

3.7
2.3
1.8
2.7
3.0
1.6
1.6
1.4
3.2
.7

Wilmington-Newark, DE-MD ...................................................
Wilmington, NC .......................................................................
Yakima, WA ............................................................................
Yolo, CA .................................................................................
York, PA .................................................................................
Youngstown-Warren, OH .......................................................
Yuba City, CA .........................................................................
Yuma, AZ ................................................................................

42,177
29,287
24,204
35,352
31,936
28,789
27,781
22,415

43,401
29,157
24,934
35,591
32,609
29,799
28,967
23,429

2.9
-.4
3.0
.7
2.1
3.5
4.3
4.5

Aguadilla, PR ..........................................................................
Arecibo, PR ............................................................................
Caguas, PR ............................................................................
Mayaguez, PR ........................................................................
Ponce, PR ..............................................................................
San Juan-Bayamon, PR .........................................................

18,061
16,600
18,655
17,101
17,397
20,948

19,283
18,063
19,706
17,500
18,187
21,930

6.8
8.8
5.6
2.3
4.5
4.7

1 Includes data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(PMSA) as defined by OMB Bulletin No. 99-04. In the New England areas, the New England County
Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions were used.
2 Each year's total is based on the MSA definition for the specific year. Annual changes include
differences resulting from changes in MSA definitions.
3

Totals do not include the six MSAs within Puerto Rico.

NOTE: Includes workers covered by Unemployment Insurance (UI) and Unemployment Compensation
for Federal Employees (UCFE) programs.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

85

Current Labor Statistics: Labor Force Data

27. Annual data: Employment status of the population
[Numbers in thousands]
1993

Employment status

19941

1995

1996

Civilian noninstitutional population............................…………………………….…………….
194,838
196,814
198,584
200,591
Civilian labor force............................…………………………….…………….
129,200
131,056
132,304
133,943
Labor force participation rate................................................................................
66.3
66.6
66.6
66.8
Employed............................…………………………….…………….
120,259
123,060
124,900
126,708
Employment-population ratio............................…………………………….…………….
61.7
62.5
62.9
63.2
Unemployed............................…………………………….…………….
8,940
7,996
7,404
7,236
Unemployment rate...........................................
6.9
6.1
5.6
5.4
Not in the labor force............................…………………………….…………….
65,638
65,758
66,280
66,647
1

19971

19981

19991

2000 1

2001

2002

2003

203,133
136,297
67.1
129,558
63.8
6,739
4.9
66,836

205,220
137,673
67.1
131,463
64.1
6,210
4.5
67,547

207,753
139,368
67.1
133,488
64.3
5,880
4.2
68,385

212,577
142,583
67.1
136,891
64.4
5,692
4.0
69,994

215,092
143,734
66.8
136,933
63.7
6,801
4.7
71,359

217,570
144,863
66.6
136,485
62.7
8,378
5.8
72,707

221,168
146,510
66.2
137,736
62.3
8,774
6.0
74,658

Not strictly comparable with prior years.

28. Annual data: Employment levels by industry
[In thousands]
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Total private employment............................…………………………….…………….
91,855
95,016
97,866

100,169

103,113

106,021

108,686

110,996

110,707

108,828

108,356

Total nonfarm employment……………………… 110,844
114,291
117,298
Goods-producing............................…………………………….…………….
22,219
22,774
23,156
Natural resources and mining...............................................................................
666
659
641
Construction............................…………………………….…………….
4,779
5,095
5,274
Manufacturing............................…………………………….…………….
16,744
17,021
17,241

119,708
23,410
637
5,536
17,237

122,770
23,886
654
5,813
17,419

125,930
24,354
645
6,149
17,560

128,993
24,465
598
6,545
17,322

131,785
24,649
599
6,787
17,263

131,826
23,873
606
6,826
16,441

130,341
22,557
583
6,716
15,259

129,931
21,817
571
6,722
14,525

79,227
24,700
5,663.9
14,388.9
4,026.5
620.9
3,084

81,667
25,186
5,795.2
14,609.3
4,168.0
613.4
3,218

84,221
25,771
5,892.5
14,970.1
4,300.3
608.5
3,419

86,346
26,225
5,933.2
15,279.8
4,410.3
601.3
3,631

86,834
25,983
5,772.7
15,238.6
4,372.0
599.4
3,629

86,271
25,497
5,652.3
15,025.1
4,223.6
596.2
3,395

86,538
25,275
5,605.6
14,911.5
4,176.7
580.8
3,198

7,178
14,335
14,087
11,018
4,825

7,462
15,147
14,446
11,232
4,976

7,648
15,957
14,798
11,543
5,087

7,687
16,666
15,109
11,862
5,168

7,807
16,476
15,645
12,036
5,258

7,847
15,976
16,199
11,986
5,372

7,974
15,997
16,577
12,125
5,393

19,664

19,909

20,307

20,790

21,118

21,513

21,575

Industry

1993

1994

1995

Private service-providing............................…………………………….…………….
69,636
72,242
74,710
76,759
Trade, transportation, and utilities............................…………………………….…………….
22,378
23,128
23,834
24,239
Wholesale trade............................…………………………….…………….
5,093.2
5,247.3
5,433.1
5,522.0
Retail trade............................…………………………….…………….
13,020.5
13,490.8
13,896.7
14,142.5
Transportation and warehousing............................…………………………….…………….
3,553.8
3,701.0
3,837.8
3,935.3
Utilities............................…………………………….…………….
710.7
689.3
666.2
639.6
Information............................…………………………….…………….
2,668
2,738
2,843
2,940
Financial activities............................…………………………….…………….
6,709
6,867
6,827
6,969
Professional and business services…………. 11,495
12,174
12,844
13,462
Education and health services………………. 12,303
12,807
13,289
13,683
Leisure and hospitality……………………..
9,732
10,100
10,501
10,777
Other services…………………………………………...
4,350
4,428
4,572
4,690
Government……………………………………………..
18,989

19,275

19,432

19,539

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrrial Classification (SIC)
system. NAICS -based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data. See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent benchmark revision.

86

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

29. Annual data: Average hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on nonfarm
payrolls, by industry
Industry

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Private sector:
Average weekly hours.......……................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).........................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)........................

34.3
11.03
378.40

34.5
11.32
390.73

34.3
11.64
399.53

34.3
12.03
412.74

34.5
12.49
431.25

34.5
13.00
448.04

34.3
13.47
462.49

34.3
14.00
480.41

34.0
14.53
493.20

33.9
14.95
506.07

33.7
15.35
517.36

Goods-producing:
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................

40.6
12.28
498.82

41.1
12.63
519.58

40.8
12.96
528.62

40.8
13.38
546.48

41.1
13.82
568.43

40.8
14.23
580.99

40.8
14.71
599.99

40.7
15.27
621.86

39.9
15.78
630.04

39.9
16.33
651.61

39.8
16.80
669.23

44.9
14.12
634.77

45.3
14.41
653.14

45.3
14.78
670.32

46.0
15.10
695.07

46.2
15.57
720.11

44.9
16.20
727.28

44.2
16.33
721.74

44.4
16.55
734.92

44.6
17.00
757.92

43.2
17.19
741.97

43.6
17.58
766.83

38.4
14.04
539.81

38.8
14.38
558.53

38.8
14.73
571.57

38.9
15.11
588.48

38.9
15.67
609.48

38.8
16.23
629.75

39.0
16.80
655.11

39.2
17.48
685.78

38.7
18.00
695.89

38.4
18.52
711.82

38.4
18.95
727.11

41.1
11.70
480.80

41.7
12.04
502.12

41.3
12.34
509.26

41.3
12.75
526.55

41.7
13.14
548.22

41.4
13.45
557.12

41.4
13.85
573.17

41.3
14.32
590.65

40.3
14.76
595.19

40.5
15.29
618.75

40.4
15.74
636.07

32.5
10.60
345.03

32.7
10.87
354.97

32.6
11.19
364.14

32.6
11.57
376.72

32.8
12.05
394.77

32.8
12.59
412.78

32.7
13.07
427.30

32.7
13.60
445.00

32.5
14.16
460.32

32.5
14.56
472.88

32.4
14.96
484.00

34.1
10.55
359.33

34.3
10.80
370.38

34.1
11.10
378.79

34.1
11.46
390.64

34.3
11.90
407.57

34.2
12.39
423.30

33.9
12.82
434.31

33.8
13.31
449.88

33.5
13.70
459.53

33.6
14.02
471.27

33.6
14.34
481.10

38.5
12.57
484.46

38.8
12.93
501.17

38.6
13.34
515.14

38.6
13.80
533.29

38.8
14.41
559.39

38.6
15.07
582.21

38.6
15.62
602.77

38.8
16.28
631.40

38.4
16.77
643.45

38.0
16.98
644.38

37.8
17.36
657.12

30.7
8.36
484.46

30.9
8.61
501.17

30.8
8.85
515.14

30.7
9.21
533.29

30.9
9.59
559.39

30.9
10.05
582.21

30.8
10.45
602.77

30.7
10.86
631.40

30.7
11.29
643.45

30.9
11.67
644.38

30.9
11.90
657.12

38.9
12.71
494.36

39.5
12.84
507.27

38.9
13.18
513.37

39.1
13.45
525.60

39.4
13.78
542.55

38.7
14.12
546.86

37.6
14.55
547.97

37.4
15.05
562.31

36.7
15.33
562.70

36.8
15.76
579.75

36.8
16.25
597.79

42.1
17.95
756.35

42.3
18.66
789.98

42.3
19.19
811.52

42.0
19.78
830.74

42.0
20.59
865.26

42.0
21.48
902.94

42.0
22.03
924.59

42.0
22.75
955.66

41.4
23.58
977.18

40.9
41.1
23.96
24.76
979.09 1,016.94

36.0
14.86
535.25

36.0
15.32
551.28

36.0
15.68
564.98

36.4
16.30
592.68

36.3
17.14
622.40

36.6
17.67
646.52

36.7
18.40
675.32

36.8
19.07
700.89

36.9
19.80
731.11

36.5
20.20
738.17

36.2
21.01
761.13

35.5
11.36
403.02

35.5
11.82
419.20

35.5
12.28
436.12

35.5
12.71
451.49

35.7
13.22
472.37

36.0
13.93
500.95

35.8
14.47
517.57

35.9
14.98
537.37

35.8
15.59
558.02

35.6
16.17
575.51

35.5
17.13
608.87

34.0
11.96
406.20

34.1
12.15
414.16

34.0
12.53
426.44

34.1
13.00
442.81

34.3
13.57
465.51

34.3
14.27
490.00

34.4
14.85
510.99

34.5
15.52
535.07

34.2
16.33
557.84

34.2
16.81
574.66

34.1
17.20
586.68

32.0
11.21
359.08

32.0
11.50
368.14

32.0
11.80
377.73

31.9
12.17
388.27

32.2
12.56
404.65

32.2
13.00
418.82

32.1
13.44
431.35

32.2
13.95
449.29

32.3
14.64
473.39

32.4
15.21
492.74

32.3
15.64
505.76

25.9
6.32
163.45

26.0
6.46
168.00

25.9
6.62
171.43

25.9
6.82
176.48

26.0
7.13
185.81

26.2
7.48
195.82

26.1
7.76
202.87

26.1
8.11
211.79

25.8
8.35
215.19

25.8
8.58
221.26

25.6
8.76
224.25

32.6
9.90
322.69

32.7
10.18
332.44

32.6
10.51
342.36

32.5
10.85
352.62

32.7
11.29
368.63

32.6
11.79
384.25

32.5
12.26
398.77

32.5
12.73
413.41

32.3
13.27
428.64

32.0
13.72
439.76

31.4
13.84
434.49

Natural resources and mining
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Construction:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Manufacturing:
Average weekly hours...........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars).....................
Private service-providing:
Average weekly hours..………................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Trade, transportation, and utilities:
Average weekly hours............................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars).......................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)......................
Wholesale trade:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Retail trade:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Transportation and warehousing:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Utilities:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Information:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Financial activities:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Professional and business services:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Education and health services:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Leisure and hospitality:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................
Other services:
Average weekly hours........................................
Average hourly earnings (in dollars)...................
Average weekly earnings (in dollars)..................

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) system. NAICS-based data by industry are not comparable with SIC-based data.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

87

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

30. Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2002
Series

Sept.

2003

Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept. 2004
2

Civilian workers ……….…….........…………………………………….…

161.3

162.2

164.5

165.8

167.6

168.4

170.7

172.2

173.9

1.0

3.8

163.5
161.4
166.3
164.9
156.4
161.3

164.3
162.4
166.7
166.1
157.5
162.2

166.7
164.1
171.1
168.3
159.8
164.1

167.9
165.0
172.0
170.0
161.4
165.0

169.9
167.0
174.0
171.7
162.9
166.8

170.7
168.0
174.9
172.5
163.7
167.9

172.7
170.2
175.8
175.3
166.9
169.7

174.0
171.2
177.1
177.2
168.8
170.9

175.8
173.6
178.2
178.7
170.1
172.7

1.0
1.4
.6
.8
.8
1.1

3.5
4.0
2.4
4.1
4.4
3.5

158.7
159.1
162.2
163.2
163.1
165.7
161.6
160.2
161.7

169.2
160.5
162.8
163.9
164.5
167.6
162.8
161.7
162.4

163.1
164.0
165.0
165.3
166.4
169.9
163.6
163.4
164.5

164.6
165.4
166.2
166.3
167.6
170.8
164.2
164.3
165.8

165.8
166.5
168.2
168.5
169.3
173.1
166.9
167.3
167.8

166.8
167.1
169.1
169.5
170.7
174.8
167.6
168.1
168.6

170.4
171.7
170.8
171.2
173.0
176.8
168.5
170.1
170.4

171.9
173.2
172.3
172.3
174.4
178.2
168.9
171.4
171.8

173.4
174.9
174.0
174.5
176.7
180.5
171.8
174.1
173.5

.9
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.7
1.6
1.0

4.6
5.0
3.4
3.6
4.4
4.3
2.9
4.1
3.4

Private industry workers……….…….........…………………
Excluding sales occupations….......................................

161.6
161.6

162.3
162.4

165.0
165.1

166.4
166.6

168.1
168.1

168.8
169.0

171.4
171.6

173.0
173.2

174.4
174.6

.8
.9

3.7
3.9

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations….....................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations….......
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations…
Sales occupations…………............................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical…
Blue-collar workers…........................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations........
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

164.6
165.3
163.6
167.0
161.6
165.6
156.3
156.9
155.4
151.0
161.4

165.2
165.9
164.4
167.2
161.9
166.7
157.3
157.8
156.7
151.8
162.9

168.1
169.1
166.5
172.1
163.5
169.0
159.7
160.0
159.9
153.2
164.9

169.4
170.4
167.7
173.1
165.1
170.9
161.4
162.0
161.1
155.1
166.8

171.2
172.1
169.4
175.0
167.2
172.3
162.8
163.1
162.6
156.7
168.6

172.0
173.0
170.5
175.9
167.1
173.2
163.6
164.2
163.2
156.9
169.5

174.2
175.3
173.4
176.8
169.2
176.1
166.9
167.1
168.7
158.5
171.7

175.7
176.7
174.7
178.1
171.2
178.1
168.8
169.1
170.5
160.6
173.2

177.3
178.3
176.8
179.2
173.1
179.4
170.1
170.2
172.2
161.8
174.3

.8
.9
.9
1.2
.6
1.1
.7
.8
.7
1.0
.7

3.6
3.6
4.4
2.4
3.5
4.1
4.5
4.4
5.9
3.3
3.4

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical….............................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial…………...........
Administrative support, including clerical…………............
Blue-collar workers…..........................................................
Service occupations............................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................................
Manufacturing…...............................................................
Service-producing...............................................................
Services..............…..........................................................
Health services...............................................................
Hospitals..............….....................................................
Educational services.......................................................
3

Public administration ……….…………………………………………
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

Service occupations…………...........................................

159.0

159.8

161.7

162.6

163.8

164.3

166.9

168.2

168.9

.6

3.1

Production and nonsupervisory occupations ……….………

159.7

160.5

162.6

164.1

165.7

166.6

169.3

171.0

172.4

.4

4.0

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Construction…................................................................
Manufacturing….............................................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Durables…......................................................................
Nondurables…................................................................

158.6
157.9
162.9
161.1
155.9
156.3
159.1
162.2
159.6
156.7
158.9
159.2

160.1
159.2
164.3
162.3
157.3
157.9
160.5
163.3
160.7
158.3
160.6
160.3

163.0
162.4
167.8
166.3
159.9
159.1
164.0
167.1
165.1
161.6
164.4
163.1

164.5
163.8
169.2
167.5
161.5
161.1
165.4
168.7
166.4
162.8
165.5
164.9

165.7
165.0
170.1
168.5
162.9
162.3
166.5
169.5
167.4
164.1
166.6
166.0

166.5
165.9
170.5
169.2
163.9
163.3
167.1
169.6
167.8
165.1
167.3
166.6

170.3
169.8
173.5
172.2
168.1
164.6
171.7
173.2
171.3
170.4
172.4
170.4

171.8
171.2
174.7
173.3
169.8
165.9
173.2
174.6
172.6
172.0
174.0
171.7

173.3
172.5
176.4
174.5
171.3
167.0
174.9
176.4
174.1
173.7
175.8
173.1

.8
.9
.8
1.0
.7
.9
.7
1.0
.9
1.0
1.0
.8

4.6
4.5
3.3
3.6
5.2
2.9
5.0
4.1
4.0
5.9
5.5
4.3

Service-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Service occupations......................................................
Transportation and public utilities…................................
Transportation…...........................................................
Public utilities................................................................
Communications........................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services............................
Wholesale and retail trade…..........................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Wholesale trade…........................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Retail trade…................................................................
General merchandise stores…...................................
Food stores….............................................................

162.7
163.5
164.7
166.5
156.6
158.5
160.8
155.4
168.2
169.0
167.2
159.6
160.3
165.9
166.1
156.0
156.1
156.3

163.1
164.0
165.1
167.0
156.9
159.3
161.7
156.1
169.2
170.1
168.1
159.7
160.4
166.7
167.2
155.8
155.1
156.3

165.6
166.6
167.9
169.9
158.7
161.1
163.2
157.8
170.5
171.3
169.5
161.3
161.8
169.5
168.4
156.6
156.4
157.5

167.0
168.0
169.2
171.3
160.8
162.0
165.4
158.9
174.2
175.5
172.6
162.5
162.7
171.3
169.9
157.4
159.2
158.6

168.8
169.7
171.2
173.1
162.2
163.2
166.5
159.4
176.4
178.4
173.8
164.3
165.0
172.0
171.2
159.9
161.2
159.3

169.7
170.6
172.0
174.2
162.6
164.3
167.0
159.6
177.0
179.0
174.6
165.0
165.9
172.0
171.3
161.0
165.6
160.3

171.6
172.5
174.1
176.2
164.1
166.1
169.8
162.0
180.4
182.2
178.2
166.3
167.4
173.8
173.7
162.1
165.8
162.1

173.3
174.2
175.7
177.8
166.4
167.4
172.5
164.7
183.1
183.6
182.4
168.1
168.6
175.9
174.0
163.7
166.2
163.5

174.7
175.6
177.3
179.4
167.4
168.1
173.6
166.2
183.6
183.6
183.3
169.1
169.6
177.8
175.3
164.2
168.8
163.5

.8
.8
.9
.9
.6
.4
.6
.9
.3
.1
.5
.6
.6
1.1
.7
.3
1.6
.0

3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.2
3.0
4.3
4.3
4.1
3.0
5.5
2.9
2.8
3.4
2.4
2.7
4.7
2.6

4

See footnotes at end of table.

88

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

30. Continued–Employment Cost Index, compensation,1 by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2002
Series

Sept.

2003

Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Percent change
Sept.

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate…............................

168.0

168.5

176.7

178.3

180.2

180.9

182.5

183.6

184.8

0.7

2.6

Excluding sales occupations…..................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies..
Insurance......................................................................
Services..........................................................................
Business services…......................................................
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals….................................................................
Educational services.....................................................
Colleges and universities…........................................

172.1
184.6
167.1
164.9
167.2
163.2
166.2
173.5
172.0

173.1
185.3
167.9
165.4
167.5
164.4
168.1
175.2
173.7

182.0
204.3
172.1
167.1
168.5
166.5
170.8
176.3
174.5

184.0 1,853.0
206.3
207.6
173.9
175.1
168.4
170.4
169.2
171.9
167.9
169.4
171.9
173.9
177.1
180.2
175.4
178.4

186.1
209.0
176.2
171.4
172.6
170.8
175.9
181.3
179.4

186.6
207.2
177.8
173.5
174.8
173.3
178.1
183.1
181.2

188.7
208.9
180.5
175.1
176.9
174.8
179.7
184.2
182.5

190.9
210.5
182.1
176.9
178.5
177.0
181.8
187.0
185.2

.7
.8
.9
1.0
.9
1.3
1.2
1.5
1.5

2.5
1.4
4.0
3.8
3.8
4.5
4.5
3.8
3.8

Nonmanufacturing..........................................................

162.0

162.5

164.9

166.4

168.1

169.0

170.9

172.5

173.9

.8

3.5

White-collar workers.....................................................
Excluding sales occupations….................................
Blue-collar occupations….............................................
Service occupations………….......................................

164.8
166.6
155.4
158.4

165.3
167.1
155.9
159.2

168.0
170.0
157.5
161.1

169.3
171.4
159.7
162.0

171.2
173.2
161.1
163.2

172.1
174.2
161.7
162.4

174.1
176.2
163.4
166.0

175.7
177.7
165.5
167.3

177.2
179.3
166.4
168.0

.9
.9
.5
.4

3.5
3.5
3.3
2.9

State and local government workers...................................

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

168.7

171.5

1.7

3.4

159.3
158.1
162.3
161.0
158.4

160.7
159.4
163.8
162.4
159.8

161.7
160.2
165.3
163.8
161.3

162.2
160.8
165.7
164.4
161.7

164.9
163.4
168.0
167.9
163.6

165.7
164.1
169.1
168.5
165.2

166.8
165.1
170.1
170.4
166.7

167.5
165.6
171.0
171.8
167.5

170.0
168.4
172.1
174.3
169.9

1.5
1.7
.6
1.5
1.4

3.1
3.1
2.4
3.8
3.9

159.7
161.0
163.5
164.1
159.2
159.6
157.7
164.7
160.2

160.9
162.8
165.5
166.2
160.3
160.7
158.8
165.8
161.7

161.8
164.0
166.4
167.0
161.1
161.4
159.4
167.0
163.4

162.3
164.2
166.7
167.3
161.7
162.0
160.0
167.5
164.3

164.9
166.8
169.5
170.3
164.3
164.7
163.0
169.2
167.3

165.7
168.2
171.0
171.4
165.0
165.3
163.7
170.0
168.1

166.5
169.4
172.2
172.4
165.7
166.0
164.4
170.7
170.1

166.8
170.1
172.9
173.2
165.9
166.3
164.6
171.0
171.4

169.7
173.0
175.7
176.3
168.8
169.2
168.0
172.4
174.1

1.7
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.7
1.7
2.1
.8
1.6

2.9
3.7
3.7
3.5
2.7
2.7
3.1
1.9
4.1

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical….............................
Executive, administrative, and managerial………….........
Administrative support, including clerical…………............
Blue-collar workers…..........................................................
Workers, by industry division:
Services............................................................................
5

Services excluding schools ……….………………………………
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals....................................................................
Educational services.....................................................
Schools......................................................................
Elementary and secondary…..................................
Colleges and universities….....................................
3

Public administration ……….…………………………………………
1

Cost (cents per hour worked) measured in the Employment Cost Index consists of
wages, salaries, and employer cost of employee benefits.
2

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.

3

Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

4

This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
5

Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

89

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

31. Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2003

2004

Percent change

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept. 2004
1

Civilian workers ……….…….........…………………………………….…

157.2

157.8

159.3

160.3

161.8

162.3

163.3

164.3

165.7

0.9

2.4

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical….............................
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial…………...........
Administrative support, including clerical…………............
Blue-collar workers…..........................................................
Service occupations............................................................

159.6
158.0
163.5
159.6
151.9
`56.2

160.1
158.6
163.8
160.6
152.6
156.9

161.9
159.3
167.9
161.8
153.8
158.0

162.9
160.1
169.0
163.1
154.8
158.7

164.5
161.8
170.5
164.3
155.8
159.8

165.1
162.5
171.2
164.9
156.3
160.6

166.1
163.8
171.4
166.3
157.3
161.2

167.1
164.4
172.4
167.5
158.4
161.9

168.7
166.5
173.4
168.8
159.7
162.8

1.0
1.3
.6
.8
.8
.6

2.6
2.9
1.7
2.7
2.5
1.9

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................................
Manufacturing…...............................................................
Service-producing...............................................................
Services..............…..........................................................
Health services...............................................................
Hospitals..............….....................................................
Educational services.......................................................

153.9
155.4
156.4
160.7
159.6
160.3
159.3

155.1
156.5
158.8
161.1
160.9
162.2
160.1

156.3
158.0
160.5
161.9
162.0
163.5
160.4

157.5
159.0
161.4
162.8
163.2
164.4
160.7

158.3
159.7
163.0
164.7
164.7
166.3
162.7

160.6
160.1
163.6
165.4
165.9
167.7
163.2

159.9
161.3
164.6
166.5
167.7
169.0
163.6

161.0
162.4
165.5
167.4
168.6
169.9
163.8

162.3
163.8
167.0
167.3
170.8
171.8
166.0

.8
.9
.9
1.1
1.3
1.1
1.3

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.8
3.7
3.3
2.0

154.8
157.5

155.8
158.0

157.2
159.6

158.0
160.5

159.4
162.1

160.0
162.7

161.1
163.7

161.4
164.6

162.6
166.0

.7
.9

2.0
2.4

Private industry workers……….…….........…………………
Excluding sales occupations….......................................

157.0
157.0

157.5
157.9

159.3
159.4

160.4
160.5

161.7
161.7

162.3
162.4

163.4
163.5

164.5
164.5

165.9
165.8

.9
.8

2.6
2.5

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers.........................................................
Excluding sales occupations….....................................
Professional specialty and technical occupations….......
Executive, adminitrative, and managerial occupations…
Sales occupations…………............................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical…
Blue-collar workers…........................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations........
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............
Transportation and material moving occupations...........
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....

160.0
169.8
158.2
164.3
156.9
160.3
151.7
151.8
152.0
146.3
156.0

160.4
160.8
158.5
164.5
156.8
161.3
152.4
152.3
153.2
146.9
157.2

162.6
163.6
159.5
169.1
158.1
162.6
153.6
153.4
154.7
147.8
158.4

163.8
164.8
160.5
170.3
159.3
164.0
154.6
154.7
155.3
149.0
159.0

165.3
166.2
162.1
171.8
161.6
165.1
155.6
155.5
156.8
149.8
159.9

165.9
167.0
163.0
172.5
161.1
165.7
156.1
156.2
156.9
149.8
160.6

167.1
168.1
164.7
172.7
162.6
167.2
157.2
157.1
158.6
150.4
161.8

168.2
169.2
165.5
173.9
163.9
168.6
158.3
158.3
159.8
151.8
162.7

169.7
170.6
167.6
174.9
165.9
169.7
159.5
159.3
161.6
152.9
163.6

.9
.8
1.3
.6
1.2
.7
.8
.6
1.1
.7
.6

2.7
2.6
3.4
1.8
2.7
2.8
2.5
2.4
3.1
2.1
2.3

2

Public administration ……….…………………………………………
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................

Service occupations…………...........................................

153.9

154.4

155.5

156.1

157.1

157.8

158.4

159.3

159.8

.3

1.7

Production and nonsupervisory occupations ……….………

154.7

155.2

156.4

157.4

158.8

159.4

160.7

161.7

163.1

.9

2.7

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Construction…................................................................
Manufacturing….............................................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Durables…......................................................................
Nondurables…................................................................

153.9
153.0
157.9
155.4
151.5
149.0
155.4
157.7
155.0
153.5
156.0
154.4

155.0
154.0
158.6
156.3
152.6
150.2
156.5
158.6
155.9
154.7
157.3
155.2

156.3
155.4
160.0
158.0
153.8
150.6
158.0
160.1
157.7
156.3
158.8
156.6

157.4
156.5
161.4
159.2
154.8
152.4
159.0
161.6
158.9
156.9
159.7
157.8

158.3
157.4
161.9
159.9
155.9
153.6
159.7
162.0
159.5
157.9
160.6
158.3

158.7
158.0
162.1
160.4
156.4
154.0
160.1
162.1
160.0
158.5
160.9
158.7

159.9
159.2
163.2
161.5
157.7
155.1
161.3
163.3
161.2
159.8
161.9
160.4

160.9
160.2
164.5
162.7
158.6
155.9
162.4
164.7
162.5
160.6
162.9
161.6

162.3
161.2
166.0
163.6
159.8
157.1
163.8
166.1
163.5
162.1
164.5
162.8

.9
.6
.9
.6
.8
.8
.9
.9
.6
.9
1.0
.7

2.5
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.4
2.8

158.4
159.3
160.5
162.5
151.8
153.5
153.4
149.6
158.2
159.6
156.5
155.5
160.4
162.6
152.9
150.1
150.1

158.6
159.6
160.7
162.8
152.0
154.1
154.1
150.1
159.3
160.7
157.4
155.5
161.0
163.7
152.7
149.2
150.3

160.6
161.7
163.0
165.3
153.2
155.1
154.8
150.5
160.4
161.9
158.6
156.7
163.4
163.9
153.1
149.8
151.0

161.7
162.8
164.1
166.5
154.3
155.6
155.6
150.6
162.1
163.4
160.4
157.5
164.7
165.2
153.8
152.0
151.6

163.3
164.2
166.0
168.2
155.1
156.6
156.0
150.4
163.4
165.4
161.0
159.2
164.8
165.7
156.3
153.1
152.2

163.9
165.0
166.6
169.0
155.4
157.4
156.5
150.8
164.1
165.9
161.8
159.5
165.3
166.3
156.5
153.6
152.8

165.0
166.0
167.8
170.2
156.2
158.0
157.6
151.7
165.3
167.0
163.3
160.3
166.2
167.8
157.3
154.1
153.8

166.1
167.1
168.9
171.2
157.8
158.8
159.1
153.4
166.4
167.5
165.1
161.6
167.8
167.6
158.4
154.9
154.3

167.5
168.5
170.4
172.8
158.9
159.4
160.4
155.0
167.5
168.8
165.9
162.5
169.7
168.6
158.7
157.5
154.5

.8
.8
.9
.9
.7
.4
.8
1.0
.7
.8
.5
.6
1.1
.6
.2
1.7
.1

2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.5
1.8
2.8
3.1
2.5
2.1
3.0
2.1
3.0
1.8
1.5
2.9
1.5

3

Service-producing..............................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
White-collar occupations...............................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Blue-collar occupations.................................................
Service occupations......................................................
Transportation and public utilities…................................
Transportation…...........................................................
Public utilities................................................................
Communications........................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services............................
Wholesale and retail trade…..........................................
Wholesale trade…........................................................
Excluding sales occupations......................................
Retail trade…................................................................
General merchandise stores…...................................
Food stores….............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

90

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

31. Continued–Employment Cost Index, wages and salaries, by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2003

2004

Percent change

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept.

Sept. 2004
Finance, insurance, and real estate…............................
Excluding sales occupations…..................................
Banking, savings and loan, and other credit agencies..
Insurance......................................................................
Services..........................................................................
Business services…......................................................
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals….................................................................
Educational services.....................................................
Colleges and universities…........................................

162.4
166.1
182.7
159.6
161.5
164.6
159.9
160.2
165.2
163.1

162.6
167.3
183.9
159.1
161.7
164.8
160.7
162.1
166.5
164.3

171.1
176.7
206.4
161.6
162.8
165.6
161.9
163.6
167.1
164.4

172.4
178.5
208.7
163.0
164.0
166.4
163.2
164.6
167.5
165.1

174.1
179.2
209.1
163.9
165.9
169.1
164.6
166.5
170.3
167.6

174.5
210.2
164.5
164.5
166.7
169.8
135.8
167.9
171.0
168.4

175.2
179.2
206.7
165.1
168.1
171.0
167.8
169.4
171.9
169.5

175.3
180.5
207.6
167.2
169.3
172.7
168.8
170.5
172.6
170.0

176.5
181.8
209.5
168.9
171.1
174.3
170.9
172.4
175.5
172.9

0.7
.7
.9
1.0
1.1
.9
1.2
1.1
1.7
1.7

1.4
1.5
.2
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.8
3.5
3.1
3.2

Nonmanufacturing..........................................................
White-collar workers.....................................................
Excluding sales occupations….................................
Blue-collar occupations….............................................
Service occupations………….......................................

157.2
160.2
162.1
149.8
153.4

157.5
160.5
162.5
150.2
154.0

159.4
162.8
164.9
151.1
155.0

160.5
163.9
166.1
152.4
155.5

162.1
165.7
167.7
153.4
156.5

162.6
166.3
168.5
153.8
157.3

163.7
167.5
169.7
154.7
157.9

164.8
168.6
170.7
156.1
158.7

166.2
170.1
172.3
157.1
159.2

.8
.9
.9
.6
.3

2.5
2.7
2.7
2.4
1.7

State and local government workers............…………………

160.1

161.5

162.6

163.2

165.9

166.8

168.0

168.7

171.5

1.0

2.0

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Professional specialty and technical….............................
Executive, administrative, and managerial………….........
Administrative support, including clerical…………............
Blue-collar workers…..........................................................

157.4
157.5
159.0
155.1
154.5

158.4
158.4
160.1
156.0
155.1

158.9
158.8
160.9
156.9
156.2

159.2
159.1
161.0
157.2
156.5

161.0
161.0
162.5
159.1
157.6

161.5
161.4
163.3
159.5
158.3

162.1
162.1
163.5
160.4
158.9

162.4
162.3
163.8
160.8
159.2

164.1
164.4
164.3
162.6
160.7

1.0
1.3
.3
1.1
.9

1.9
2.1
1.1
2.2
2.0

Workers, by industry division:
Services............................................................................
4

Services excluding schools ……….………………………………
Health services.............................................................
Hospitals....................................................................
Educational services.....................................................
Schools......................................................................
Elementary and secondary…..................................
Colleges and universities….....................................
2

Public administration ……….…………………………………………

158.4

159.2

159.5

159.8

161.6

162.1

162.6

162.7

164.8

1.3

2.0

159.1
160.5
160.6
158.1
158.3
157.4
160.7

160.3
162.2
162.5
158.9
159.0
158.1
161.6

161.4
162.9
163.1
159.1
159.2
158.2
162.1

161.8
163.5
163.8
159.3
159.5
158.5
162.1

163.2
165.1
165.5
161.2
161.4
160.6
163.5

164.5
166.7
166.7
161.6
161.8
160.9
164.0

165.1
167.4
167.4
162.0
162.1
161.3
164.3

165.6
167.8
167.9
162.1
162.3
161.5
164.4

167.5
169.6
169.9
164.2
164.3
163.8
165.4

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.4
.6

2.6
2.7
2.7
1.9
1.8
2.0
1.2

154.8

155.8

157.2

158.0

159.4

160.0

161.1

161.4

162.6

.7

2.0

1

Consists of private industry workers (excluding farm and household workers) and
State and local government (excluding Federal Government) workers.
2

Consists of legislative, judicial, administrative, and regulatory activities.

3

This series has the same industry and occupational coverage as the Hourly
Earnings index, which was discontinued in January 1989.
4

Includes, for example, library, social, and health services.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

91

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

32. Employment Cost Index, benefits, private industry workers by occupation and industry group
[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2003

2004

Percent change

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept .2004
173.1

174.6

179.6

182.0

184.3

185.8

192.2

195.3

196.9

0.8

6.8

Workers, by occupational group:
White-collar workers...........................................................
Blue-collar workers…..........................................................

177.2
166.2

178.5
167.8

183.6
172.7

185.5
176.1

187.7
178.4

189.2
179.9

194.4
188.3

197.4
191.8

199.1
193.3

.9
.8

6.1
8.4

Workers, by industry division:
Goods-producing................................................................
Service-producing…...........................................................
Manufacturing.....................................................................
Nonmanufacturing…...........................................................

168.8
174.9
166.8
175.2

171.0
175.9
168.9
176.3

178.0
179.9
176.9
180.3

180.2
182.3
179.0
182.8

182.3
184.7
181.1
185.1

183.8
186.2
182.3
186.7

193.7
190.6
194.4
190.9

196.2
194.1
196.9
194.3

198.1
195.5
199.2
195.7

1.0
.7
1.2
.7

8.7
5.8
10.0
5.7

Private industry workers......................................................

92

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

33. Employment Cost Index, private nonfarm workers by bargaining status, region, and area size
[June 1989 = 100]
2002

2003

Percent change

2004

Series
Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

3 months

12 months

ended

ended

Sept. 2004
COMPENSATION
Workers, by bargaining status1
Union.......................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing…............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing…............................................................

158.1
156.2
159.9
155.9
158.8

159.5
157.8
161.1
157.9
159.9

162.1
161.4
162.6
162.3
161.4

164.1
163.4
164.6
163.8
163.7

165.7
164.7
166.5
165.0
165.5

166.8
165.9
167.5
166.3
166.5

171.4
172.3
170.2
175.0
168.8

173.9
174.6
172.9
177.0
171.6

175.3
176.0
174.4
178.4
173.0

0.8
.8
.9
.8
.8

5.8
6.9
4.7
8.1
4.5

Nonunion.................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing…............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing…............................................................

162.5
159.5
162.9
160.1
162.4

162.8
160.8
163.3
161.3
162.9

165.4
163.6
165.9
164.5
165.4

166.8
164.9
167.2
165.8
166.7

168.4
166.1
169.0
166.9
168.5

169.1
166.7
169.8
167.3
139.3

171.3
169.7
171.6
170.6
171.1

172.7
170.9
173.2
172.0
172.6

174.2
172.4
174.6
173.8
174.0

.9
.9
.8
1.0
.8

3.4
3.8
3.3
4.1
3.3

160.5
158.9
163.5
163.8

161.3
159.0
164.6
165.0

163.8
160.6
169.0
167.3

165.2
161.6
170.4
169.5

166.9
163.2
171.7
171.4

167.9
163.9
172.5
172.2

170.2
166.4
174.7
175.3

172.3
167.9
176.2
176.8

173.7
169.5
177.6
178.1

.8
1.0
.8
.7

4.1
3.9
3.4
3.9

161.8
160.0

162.5
169.8

165.2
163.5

166.6
165.0

168.3
166.1

169.1
166.9

171.5
170.2

173.1
172.1

174.6
173.3

.9
.7

3.7
4.3

Union.......................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing…............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing…............................................................

151.3
150.0
152.9
151.6
151.1

152.5
151.2
154.1
153.1
152.1

153.3
152.4
154.6
154.6
152.5

154.3
153.9
155.1
155.9
153.5

155.3
154.8
156.3
156.7
154.6

156.2
155.4
157.3
157.1
155.6

157.2
156.3
158.5
158.1
156.6

158.7
157.5
160.3
159.2
158.4

160.0
158.7
161.7
160.5
159.6

.8
.8
.9
.8
.8

3.0
2.5
3.5
2.4
3.2

Nonunion.................................................................................
Goods-producing.................................................................
Service-producing…............................................................
Manufacturing......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing…............................................................

158.1
155.5
158.9
156.8
158.1

158.5
156.6
159.0
157.8
158.3

160.4
157.8
161.2
159.3
160.4

161.5
158.9
162.3
160.2
161.5

163.0
159.7
164.0
160.9
163.1

163.4
160.1
164.5
161.3
163.7

164.6
161.4
165.6
162.6
164.7

165.6
162.4
166.6
163.7
165.7

167.0
163.8
168.0
165.2
167.1

.8
.9
.8
.9
.8

2.5
2.6
2.4
2.7
2.5

155.1
154.7
159.2
159.3

155.7
154.6
160.2
160.1

157.3
155.3
164.1
161.3

158.4
156.1
165.0
163.1

160.0
157.4
166.1
164.7

160.9
157.9
166.5
165.2

162.0
159.1
166.9
166.8

163.6
160.1
167.7
167.9

164.9
161.6
169.2
169.1

.8
.9
.9
.7

3.1
2.7
1.9
2.7

157.4
153.8

157.9
154.8

159.6
156.8

160.7
158.0

162.2
158.9

162.7
159.5

163.8
160.8

164.9
162.1

163.3
162.1

.8
.7

2.5
2.8

Workers, by region1
Northeast................................................................................
South......................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)............................................
West........................................................................................
Workers, by area size1
Metropolitan areas..................................................................
Other areas.............................................................................
WAGES AND SALARIES
Workers, by bargaining status1

Workers, by region1
Northeast................................................................................
South......................................................................................
Midwest (formerly North Central)............................................
West........................................................................................
Workers, by area size1
Metropolitan areas..................................................................
Other areas.............................................................................

1
The indexes are calculated differently from those for the occupation and industry groups. For a detailed description of the index calculation, see the Monthly Labor Review
Technical Note, "Estimation procedures for the Employment Cost Index," May 1982.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

93

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

34. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features within plans,
medium and large private establishments, selected years, 1980—97
Item

1980

Scope of survey (in 000's)…………………………….…
Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care……...…………………………….…
With life insurance…………………………………..…
With defined benefit plan………………………………

1982

1984

1986

1988

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

21,352

21,043

21,013

21,303

31,059

32,428

31,163

28,728

33,374

38,409

20,711
20,498
17,936

20,412
20,201
17,676

20,383
20,172
17,231

20,238
20,451
16,190

27,953
28,574
19,567

29,834
30,482
20,430

25,865
29,293
18,386

23,519
26,175
16,015

25,546
29,078
17,417

29,340
33,495
19,202

10
–
75
–
–
–
99
10.1
20
–
100

9
25
76
25
–
–
99
10.0
24
3.8
99

9
26
73
26
–
–
99
9.8
23
3.6
99

10
27
72
26
88
3.2
99
10.0
25
3.7
100

11
29
72
26
85
3.2
96
9.4
24
3.3
98

10
26
71
26
84
3.3
97
9.2
22
3.1
97

8
30
67
28
80
3.3
92
10.2
21
3.3
96

9
29
68
26
83
3.0
91
9.4
21
3.1
97

_
_
_
_
80
3.3
89
9.1
22
3.3
96

_
_
_
_
81
3.7
89
9.3
20
3.5
95

62
–
–
_

67
–
–
_

67
–
–
_

70
–
–
_

69
33
16
_

68
37
18
_

67
37
26
_

65
60
53
_

58
_
_
84

56
_
_
93

97

97

97

95

90

92

83

82

77

76

–
58
–

–
62
–

46
62
8

66
70
18

76
79
28

75
80
28

81
80
30

86
82
42

78
73
56

85
78
63

26
–
46
–

27
–
51
–

36
$11.93
58
$35.93

43
$12.80
63
$41.40

44
$19.29
64
$60.07

47
$25.31
66
$72.10

51
$26.60
69
$96.97

61
$31.55
76
$107.42

67
$33.92
78
$118.33

69
$39.14
80
$130.07

Participants in life insurance plans………………………
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance……………..........................………………
Survivor income benefits………………………………
Retiree protection available……………………………
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans………….............……………………
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans…………....................…………………

96

96

96

96

92

94

94

91

87

87

69
–
–

72
–
64

74
–
64

72
10
59

78
8
49

71
7
42

71
6
44

76
5
41

77
7
37

74
6
33

40

43

47

48

42

45

40

41

42

43

54

51

51

49

46

43

45

44

_

_

Participants in short-term disability plans 1……………

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

53

55

Participants in defined benefit pension plans…………
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65……...................
Early retirement available……………………………
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years………..….
Terminal earnings formula……………………………
Benefit coordinated with Social Security……………

84

84

82

76

63

63

59

56

52

50

55
98
–
53
45

58
97
–
52
45

63
97
47
54
56

64
98
35
57
62

59
98
26
55
62

62
97
22
64
63

55
98
7
56
54

52
95
6
61
48

52
96
4
58
51

52
95
10
56
49

Participants in defined contribution plans………………
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements………..............………….................…

–

–

–

60

45

48

48

49

55

57

–

–

–

33

36

41

44

43

54

55

2
5
5
12
_
_
fits at less than full pay.

9
23
_

10
36
_

12
52
_

12
38
5

13
32
7

Time-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch time…………………………………………
Average minutes per day……………………………
Paid rest time……………………………………….….
Average minutes per day……………………………
Paid funeral leave…………………….…………………
Average days per occurrence………………………
Paid holidays…………………………………..…………
Average days per year…………………………………
Paid personal leave……………………………………
Average days per year…………………………………
Paid vacations……………………………………………
Paid sick leave 1…………………………………………
Unpaid maternity leave…………………………………
Unpaid paternity leave…………………………………
Unpaid family leave ……………………………………
Insurance plans
Participants in medical care plans………………………
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care……..................……………………
Extended care facilities………………………………
Physical exam…………….……………………………
Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage……….................................…………
Average monthly contribution………………………
Family coverage………………………………………
Average monthly contribution………………………

Retirement plans

Other benefits
Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans…………..…..........……………

–
–
–
–
–
–
Reimbursement accounts 2……………………………
_
_
_
Premium conversion plans……………………………
1
The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously sickness and
accident insurance) were changed for the 1995 survey. Paid sick leave now includes only

2

plans that specify either a maximum number of days per year or unlimited days. Short-

specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan premiums with pretax

terms disability now includes all insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans available

dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of flexible benefit plans were

on a per-disability basis, as well as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as

tabulated separately.

Prior to 1995, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans, which

sick leave. Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey, included
only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-disability bene-

94

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

35. Percent of full-time employees participating in employer-provided benefit plans, and in selected features
within plans, small private establishments and State and local governments, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Small private establishments

Item
1990

1992

1994

State and local governments
1996

1987

1990

1992

1994

Scope of survey (in 000's)…………………………….…

32,466

34,360

35,910

39,816

10,321

12,972

12,466

12,907

Number of employees (in 000's):
With medical care……...…………………………….…
With life insurance…………………………………..…
With defined benefit plan………………………………

22,402
20,778
6,493

24,396
21,990
7,559

23,536
21,955
5,480

25,599
24,635
5,883

9,599
8,773
9,599

12,064
11,415
11,675

11,219
11,095
10,845

11,192
11,194
11,708

Time-off plans
Participants with:
Paid lunch time…………………………………………
Average minutes per day……………………………
Paid rest time……………………………………….….
Average minutes per day……………………………
Paid funeral leave…………………….…………………
Average days per occurrence………………………
Paid holidays…………………………………..…………

8
37
48
27
47
2.9
84

9
37
49
26
50
3.0
82

–
–
–
–
50
3.1
82

–
–
–
–
51
3.0
80

17
34
58
29
56
3.7
81

11
36
56
29
63
3.7
74

10
34
53
29
65
3.7
75

–
–
–
–
62
3.7
73

Average days per year1………………………………
Paid personal leave……………………………………
Average days per year…………………………………
Paid vacations……………………………………………

9.5
11
2.8
88

9.2
12
2.6
88

7.5
13
2.6
88

7.6
14
3.0
86

10.9
38
2.7
72

13.6
39
2.9
67

14.2
38
2.9
67

11.5
38
3.0
66

Paid sick leave …………………………………………

47

53

50

50

97

95

95

94

Unpaid leave………………………….…………………
Unpaid paternity leave…………………………………
Unpaid family leave……………………………………

17
8
–

18
7
–

–
–
47

–
–
48

57
30
–

51
33
–

59
44
–

–
–
93

69

71

66

64

93

93

90

87

79
83
26

80
84
28

–
–
–

–
–
–

76
78
36

82
79
36

87
84
47

84
81
55

Percent of participants with employee
contribution required for:
Self coverage……….................................…………
Average monthly contribution………………………
Family coverage………………………………………

42
$25.13
67

47
$36.51
73

52
$40.97
76

52
$42.63
75

35
$15.74
71

38
$25.53
65

43
$28.97
72

47
$30.20
71

Average monthly contribution………………………

$109.34

$150.54

$159.63

$181.53

$71.89

$117.59

$139.23

$149.70

64

64

61

62

85

88

89

87

78
1
19

76
1
25

79
2
20

77
1
13

67
1
55

67
1
45

74
1
46

64
2
46

19

23

20

22

31

27

28

30

6

26

26

_

14

21

22

21

_

_

_

29

_

_

_

_

20

22

15

15

93

90

87

91

54
95
7
58
49

50
95
4
54
46

–
–
–
–
–

47
92
–
53
44

92
90
33
100
18

89
88
16
100
8

92
89
10
100
10

92
87
13
99
49

31

33

34

38

9

9

9

9

17

24

23

28

28

45

45

24

2

Insurance plans
Participants in medical care plans………………………
Percent of participants with coverage for:
Home health care……..................……………………
Extended care facilities………………………………
Physical exam…………….……………………………

Participants in life insurance plans………………………
Percent of participants with:
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance……………..........................………………
Survivor income benefits………………………………
Retiree protection available……………………………
Participants in long-term disability
insurance plans………….............……………………
Participants in sickness and accident
insurance plans…………....................…………………
Participants in short-term disability plans 2……………
Retirement plans
Participants in defined benefit pension plans…………
Percent of participants with:
Normal retirement prior to age 65……...................
Early retirement available……………………………
Ad hoc pension increase in last 5 years………..….
Terminal earnings formula……………………………
Benefit coordinated with Social Security……………
Participants in defined contribution plans………………
Participants in plans with tax-deferred savings
arrangements………..............………….................…
Other benefits
Employees eligible for:
Flexible benefits plans…………..…..........……………
Reimbursement accounts 3……………………………
Premium conversion plans ….…………………………
1

1

2

3

4

5

5

5

5

8

14

19

12

5

31

50

64

_

_

_

7

_

_

_

_

Methods used to calculate the average number of paid holidays were revised

Sickness and accident insurance, reported in years prior to this survey,

in 1994 to count partial days more precisely. Average holidays for 1994 are

included only insured, self-insured, and State-mandated plans providing per-

not comparable with those reported in 1990 and 1992.

disability benefits at less than full pay.

2

3

The definitions for paid sick leave and short-term disability (previously

Prior to 1996, reimbursement accounts included premium conversion plans,

sickness and accident insurance) were changed for the 1996 survey. Paid sick

which specifically allow medical plan participants to pay required plan

leave now includes only plans that specify either a maximum number of days

premiums with pretax dollars. Also, reimbursement accounts that were part of

per year or unlimited days. Short-term disability now includes all insured, self-

flexible benefit plans were tabulated separately.

insured, and State-mandated plans available on a per-disability basis, as well
as the unfunded per-disability plans previously reported as sick leave.

N OTE : Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

95

Current Labor Statistics:

Compensation & Industrial Relations

36. Work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more
Annual totals
Measure

2002

2003

p

2003
Nov.

2004

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Number of stoppages:
Beginning in period.............................
In effect during period…......................

19
20

14
15

0
3

0
2

0
1

1
2

1
1

0
1

2
2

3
4

0
1

2
2

2
3

–
–

1
3

Workers involved:
Beginning in period (in thousands)…..
In effect during period (in thousands)…

46
47

129.2
130.5

8.0
76.7

.0
70.5

.0
61.3

6.5
66.5

2.2
2.2

.0
2.2

103.0
103.0

27.6
28.6

.0
1.6

3.7
3.7

4.5
6.5

10.0
16.1

2.0
16.1

4,091.2 1,219.0 1,473.4 1,203.9 1,146.5

44.0

26.4

204.0

94.0

3.2

52.5

57.0

300.0

107.7

(2)

(2)

.01

(2)

(2)

.00

(2)

.01

(2)

Days idle:
Number (in thousands)…....................
1

Percent of estimated working time ……
1

6,596
(2)

.01

.05

.05

.05

Agricultural and government employees are included in the total employed and total

working time; private household, forestry, and fishery employees are excluded. An

.05

Monthly Labor Review , October 1968, pp.54–56.
2

Less than 0.005.

explanation of the measurement of idleness as a percentage of the total time worked
is found in "Total economy measures of strike idleness,"

96

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available. P = preliminary.

37. Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city average,
by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
Series

2002

2003

2003
Nov.

2004

Dec.

Jan

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
FOR ALL URBAN CONSUMERS
All items.......................................................................
All items (1967 = 100).................................................

179.9
538.8

184.0
551.1

184.5
552.7

184.3
552.1

185.2
554.9

186.2
557.9

187.4
561.5

188.0
563.2

189.1
566.4

189.7
568.2

189.4
567.5

189.5
567.6

189.9
568.7

190.9
571.9

191.0
572.2

Food and beverages..................................................

176.8
176.2
175.6
198.0
162.1

180.5
180.0
179.4
202.8
169.3

182.9
182.4
182.4
202.5
179.3

184.7
180.0
184.1
202.9
181.1

184.3
183.8
184.0
203.9
179.9

184.5
184.1
184.0
204.4
179.7

184.9
184.4
184.3
204.8
179.5

185.0
184.5
184.1
205.5
179.2

186.5
186.1
186.6
206.1
181.1

186.8
186.3
186.8
206.8
182.3

187.2
186.8
187.1
207.2
183.7

187.3
186.8
186.7
207.2
183.7

187.2
186.7
186.1
206.4
183.4

188.4
187.9
187.9
207.0
182.9

188.6
188.2
188.1
206.8
182.4

168.1
220.9

167.9
225.9

171.2
227.5

173.0
232.4

172.4
232.4

172.1
229.7

171.9
230.1

174.0
228.3

185.9
231.7

188.8
226.7

187.7
224.5

184.9
224.0

181.6
226.0

182.1
240.0

180.9
248.3

139.2
160.8
159.0
155.4
177.1

139.8
162.6
162.0
157.4
178.8

137.9
162.0
161.7
157.3
177.9

139.3
163.0
161.0
157.7
179.6

140.7
162.8
163.0
160.7
178.0

141.4
163.7
163.9
162.3
178.9

140.8
165.1
163.3
166.2
180.4

139.7
165.0
162.6
166.2
180.4

169.9
165.4
163.5
169.4
180.1

139.8
165.8
162.8
171.3
180.5

140.5
166.0
163.8
171.9
180.3

140.3
166.2
164.4
169.7
180.9

140.3
165.2
163.5
170.4
179.4

140.6
165.4
162.6
170.2
180.1

139.6
164.4
163.1
167.8
178.9

109.2

110.3

109.0

109.8

109.1

109.5

111.7

110.5

110.8

110.9

109.4

111.5

110.5

109.9

110.5

178.3
117.7
183.6

182.1
121.3
187.2

183.8

184.3

184.9

185.5

185.8

186.2

186.7

187.0

187.8

188.4

188.9

189.4

189.6

122.7
188.6

122.9
188.7

123.9
189.4

124.0
189.9

124.1
190.8

124.7
191.8

124.8
191.7

124.8
192.4

125.1
192.2

125.4
192.5

125.9
193.4

126.8
193.6

126.7
194.0

180.3
208.1

184.8
213.1

185.1
214.2

185.1
213.1

186.3
215.2

187.0
216.0

187.9
217.8

188.4
218.4

188.9
218.7

190.3
219.2

190.9
220.0

191.2
220.3

191.0
220.2

191.0
220.6

190.8
219.9

199.7
118.3

205.5
119.3

214.7

219.9

207.5
115.0
221.9

205.5
119.3
219.9

208.3
117.2
222.6

208.8
120.0
222.9

209.2
128.1
223.3

209.7
129.1
223.9

210.2
128.2
224.3

210.7
129.1
224.7

211.2
132.2
225.1

211.9
130.6
225.7

212.4
127.2
226.1

212.8
128.0
226.5

213.2
121.9
226.8

108.7
143.6
127.2
115.5
134.4
128.3

114.8
154.5
138.2
139.5
145.0
126.1

114.3
152.9
135.7
134.8
142.6
124.9

114.8
154.5
138.7
139.1
145.0
124.7

114.8
156.3
139.2
149.9
145.5
125.3

115.0
156.9
139.5
155.1
145.5
125.7

115.1
155.2
137.6
152.5
143.5
125.7

115.7
155.6
138.0
149.6
144.2
125.6

116.1
158.1
140.4
150.4
146.8
125.4

116.2
165.5
148.5
150.7
155.8
125.6

116.1
166.6
149.5
151.1
156.9
125.2

116.3
167.7
150.5
157.4
157.6
124.8

116.6
166.7
149.3
161.6
156.0
125.0

116.3
162.8
144.9
177.3
150.0
126.1

117.7
165.6
147.8
186.6
152.7
125.8

124.0
121.7
115.8

120.9
118.0
113.1

123.1
121.4
115.7

119.0
118.0
110.9

115.8
115.5
105.7

118.6
117.1
110.3

123.5
119.8
117.6

124.3
120.3
118.7

123.4
120.3
116.9

120.1
117.7
112.3

115.9
115.2
106.1

116.5
113.8
107.5

121.2
116.2
114.4

124.1
118.3
119.2

123.0
118.9
116.8

Food..................….....................................................
Food at home….......................................................
Cereals and bakery products….............................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs…............................
1

Dairy and related products ……….………………………
Fruits and vegetables….........................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials….........................................................
Other foods at home…..........................................
Sugar and sweets…............................................
Fats and oils….....................................................
Other foods…......................................................
Other miscellaneous foods

1,2

……….………………

1

Food away from home ……….………………………………
1,2

Other food away from home ……….…………………
Alcoholic beverages…..............................................
Housing......................................................................
Shelter...............…...................................................
Rent of primary residence…..................................
Lodging away from home……………………………
3

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence ……
1,2

Tenants' and household insurance ……….…………
Fuels and utilities…..............................................
Fuels...............….................................................
Fuel oil and other fuels…...................................
Gas (piped) and electricity….............................
Household furnishings and operations…...............
Apparel ......................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel…....................................
Women's and girls' apparel…................................
1

126.4

122.1

123.0

119.2

117.7

119.3

121.9

120.5

118.1

116.2

114.5

115.0

119.5

120.6

120.3

121.4
152.9
148.8

119.6
157.6
153.6

121.0
155.7
151.7

118.5
154.7
150.8

115.9
157.0
153.2

117.0
158.8
154.9

120.1
160.5
156.6

121.0
161.8
157.9

120.3
165.2
161.5

118.4
165.7
161.9

115.1
164.0
160.0

117.3
162.9
159.1

121.7
162.9
159.4

122.1
166.4
162.9

121.8
167.2
163.6

99.2
140.0

96.5
137.9

94.6
137.5

94.4
138.0

94.3
138.0

94.4
138.3

94.2
137.9

94.1
137.6

94.0
137.4

93.6
137.2

93.5
135.9

93.4
134.9

93.9
134.9

94.3
135.9

95.2
137.9

1

152.0
116.6
116.0
106.9
190.2
207.4

142.9
135.8
135.1
107.8
195.6
209.3

132.0
131.2
130.6
107.9
197.2
207.9

131.0
127.8
127.2
107.8
198.0
205.6

130.8
136.7
136.1
108.0
198.2
206.3

131.0
143.1
142.5
108.0
198.2
208.1

131.2
150.5
149.8
107.8
198.5
209.9

131.3
155.9
155.3
107.9
198.6
211.5

131.8
170.5
169.8
107.9
199.0
210.7

130.6
173.3
172.7
108.2
199.7
212.3

132.1
165.2
164.5
108.8
200.3
214.4

133.8
162.0
161.2
109.0
200.8
209.7

136.5
161.2
160.5
109.3
200.7
205.3

136.8
173.1
172.2
109.5
201.7
206.5

136.7
171.9
171.0
109.9
202.9
208.6

Medical care...............................................................
Medical care commodities...............…....................
Medical care services...............…...........................
Professional services….........................................
Hospital and related services….............................

285.6
256.4
292.9
253.9
367.8

297.1
262.8
306.0
261.2
394.8

300.8
264.0
310.6
263.0
405.6

302.1
265.0
311.9
261.2
407.0

303.6
265.5
313.8
262.5
409.7

306.0
266.7
316.6
268.0
412.5

307.5
267.3
318.4
269.7
413.8

308.3
268.5
319.2
270.6
413.6

309.0
269.1
319.8
270.9
414.6

310.0
269.6
321.0
271.6
416.9

311.0
269.9
322.3
272.3
419.1

311.6
270.0
323.1
273.3
418.8

312.3
270.9
323.7
273.3
420.3

313.3
271.7
324.8
273.7
422.5

314.1
271.2
326.0
274.2
425.0

106.2

107.5

107.8

107.7

107.9

108.4

108.8

109.0

108.8

108.9

108.7

108.5

108.6

108.7

108.7

102.6

103.6

103.8

103.3

103.6

104.1

104.3

104.7

104.6

104.4

104.4

104.1

104.0

104.2

104.0

107.9

109.8

110.8

110.9

111.1

111.2

111.1

110.9

110.6

110.8

110.9

111.7

112.9

112.5

112.7

126.0
317.6

134.4
335.4

139.0
336.0

139.4
342.8

140.1
345.4

140.4
348.6

140.6
348.9

140.7
349.5

140.9
349.6

141.6
350.6

142.1
349.5

145.1
353.3

147.9
352.8

148.3
353.8

148.4
354.4

362.1
92.3

362.1
89.7

401.2
88.2

401.7
88.2

403.6
88.1

404.2
88.1

404.7
87.7

404.9
87.4

405.6
86.9

407.6
86.8

409.4
86.5

418.3
86.1

427.4
86.2

428.2
85.5

428.7
85.6

90.8

87.8

86.2

86.2

86.1

86.1

85.7

85.4

84.8

84.7

84.5

84.0

84.1

83.4

83.5

99.7

98.3

97.2

97.2

97.0

97.1

96.7

96.5

95.9

95.8

95.6

95.0

95.3

94.6

94.5

18.3

16.1

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.2

15.2

15.0

14.9

14.9

14.8

14.7

14.7

14.5

14.3

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….…………………
Footwear…............................................................
Transportation............................................................
Private transportation...............…............................
2

New and used motor vehicles ……….…………………
New vehicles…....................................................
Used cars and trucks ……….……………………………
Motor fuel…...........................................................
Gasoline (all types)…..........................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…....................
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair…...............
Public transportation...............….............................

2

Recreation ……….………………………………………….……
Video and audio

1,2

……….……………………………………
2

Education and communication ……….……………………
2
Education ……….………………………………………….…
Educational books and supplies…......................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care…........
1,2

Communication ……….……………………………………
1,2
Information and information processing ……….
1,2

Telephone services ……….…………………………
Information and information processing
1,4

other than telephone services ……….…………
Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

22.2

17.6

16.3

16.2

16.2

16.0

15.8

15.9

15.7

15.5

15.3

15.1

15.0

14.6

14.2

293.2
461.5

298.7
469.0

300.0
469.1

300.2
470.4

301.4
473.0

302.3
472.6

303.1
473.6

303.6
473.3

303.8
473.5

304.1
476.0

305.1
480.5

305.5
481.6

306.3
482.9

306.8
482.3

307.0
481.7

Personal care ……….…………………………………………

174.7

178.0

179.0

179.0

179.7

180.4

180.9

181.3

181.4

181.4

181.7

181.9

182.3

182.8

83.0

1

154.7

153.5

153.2

153.4

153.8

154.5

154.5

154.5

154.6

153.8

153.4

152.8

153.5

154.0

153.8

1

188.4

193.2

194.2

194.3

194.6

195.2

195.8

196.1

196.6

196.9

197.5

198.9

199.1

199.4

200.0

equipment ……….………………………………
Other goods and services...........................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............…............
1

Personal care products ……….…………………………
Personal care services ……….…………………………
See footnotes at end of table.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

97

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

37. Continued–Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
Series

2002

2003

2003
Nov.

2004

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Miscellaneous personal services...............…..

274.4

283.5

287.0

287.1

288.8

290.4

291.6

292.7

293.1

293.6

294.4

295.2

295.9

296.3

296.9

Commodity and service group:
Commodities...........…..........................................
Food and beverages….......................................
Commodities less food and beverages…...........
Nondurables less food and beverages….........
Apparel …......................................................

149.7
176.8
134.2
145.1
124.0

151.2
180.5
134.5
149.7
120.9

150.9
182.9
132.9
149.0
123.1

150.4
184.1
131.7
146.7
119.0

151.1
184.3
132.6
148.4
115.8

152.3
184.5
134.2
151.4
118.6

153.7
184.9
136.0
155.3
123.5

154.3
185.0
136.9
157.2
124.3

156.0
186.5
138.6
160.9
123.4

155.8
186.8
138.2
160.5
120.1

154.5
187.2
136.1
156.7
115.9

154.2
187.3
135.6
156.1
116.5

154.9
187.2
136.7
157.8
121.2

157.1
188.4
139.4
162.6
124.1

157.2
188.6
139.4
162.0
123.0

Nondurables less food, beverages,
and apparel…...............................................
Durables….......................................................

162.2
121.4

171.5
117.5

169.1
115.1

167.7
115.0

172.3
115.1

175.6
115.3

179.1
115.1

181.7
115.0

188.2
114.8

189.5
114.5

185.8
114.1

184.4
113.7

184.4
114.1

190.6
114.7

190.2
115.3

Services…............................................................

209.8

216.5

217.9

217.9

219.1

219.9

221.0

221.5

221.9

223.3

224.1

224.5

224.5

224.5

224.6

216.7
209.1
246.4

221.9
216.3
254.4

223.0
218.6
257.3

222.9
217.7
257.4

224.1
218.7
258.4

224.9
219.3
259.2

226.8
219.7
259.5

227.4
220.0
259.7

227.7
220.0
259.6

228.3
220.5
260.2

229.2
221.6
260.5

229.4
220.8
261.9

229.3
220.1
263.8

229.8
221.4
263.7

229.0
222.8
264.2

180.5
170.8
174.3
136.0
147.4
163.3
161.1

184.7
174.6
178.1
136.5
151.9
172.1
165.3

184.9
174.9
178.5
135.0
151.3
170.0
166.1

184.4
174.7
178.2
133.8
149.2
168.8
165.4

185.5
175.6
179.1
134.7
150.8
173.0
166.4

186.6
176.7
180.1
136.3
153.7
176.1
168.1

188.0
177.6
181.3
138.0
157.5
179.4
170.3

188.6
178.2
181.8
138.9
159.3
181.7
171.4

189.6
179.6
182.9
140.6
162.8
187.7
174.1

190.3
180.2
183.5
140.3
162.4
189.0
174.0

189.9
179.6
183.2
138.2
158.8
185.6
172.2

189.9
179.5
183.2
137.7
158.2
184.3
171.9

190.4
180.1
183.6
138.8
159.9
184.4
172.8

191.4
181.4
184.6
141.1
164.2
190.0
175.8

191.5
181.9
184.7
141.4
163.9
189.7
175.6

217.5
202.5
121.7
187.7
190.5
143.7
117.1
217.5

226.4
208.7
136.5
190.6
193.2
140.9
136.7
223.8

228.2
209.9
133.1
191.6
193.9
139.9
132.1
225.6

228.4
209.9
131.8
191.5
193.6
139.0
129.0
225.5

229.7
211.0
137.4
191.9
194.0
138.5
138.2
226.6

230.6
211.7
140.6
192.7
194.9
139.3
144.6
227.5

230.7
212.7
143.1
193.7
196.1
140.3
151.3
228.9

231.1
213.2
145.9
194.1
196.5
140.5
156.3
229.4

231.7
213.6
154.1
194.3
196.5
140.2
170.1
229.6

234.2
215.0
159.7
194.4
196.6
139.4
172.8
230.2

235.0
215.8
156.3
194.5
196.6
138.2
165.1
231.0

235.6
216.2
155.3
194.7
196.8
138.1
162.5
231.4

235.9
216.1
154.3
195.2
197.4
139.4
162.0
231.6

235.1
216.0
157.7
196.0
198.2
140.5
174.2
232.1

236.4
216.1
158.6
1196.0
198.1
140.6
173.6
231.9

All items..................................................................
All items (1967 = 100)............................................

175.9
523.9

179.8
535.6

180.2
536.7

179.9
536.0

180.9
538.7

181.9
541.7

182.9
544.8

183.5
546.5

184.7
550.2

185.3
551.9

184.9
550.8

185.0
551.0

185.4
552.4

186.5
555.7

186.8
556.3

Food and beverages.............................................

176.1
176.5
175.1
198.0
162.0

179.9
179.4
178.5
202.8
169.2

182.4
181.9
181.6
202.4
179.2

183.6
183.1
183.3
202.4
181.0

183.8
183.3
183.2
203.8
179.9

184.0
183.5
183.2
204.4
179.7

184.4
183.8
183.5
204.9
179.6

184.5
183.9
183.3
205.5
179.1

186.0
185.6
185.8
206.0
181.1

186.4
185.9
186.1
206.7
182.4

186.8
186.3
186.3
207.2
183.7

186.9
186.4
186.1
207.0
183.7

186.8
186.2
185.5
206.3
183.4

187.9
187.4
187.1
206.9
183.0

188.1
187.6
187.3
206.8
182.4

167.2
222.9

167.6
224.3

171.0
225.3

172.7
229.7

172.2
229.7

171.7
227.5

171.3
227.8

173.6
225.5

186.1
228.9

189.0
224.3

187.8
222.3

184.9
222.2

181.4
223.9

181.8
238.0

180.8
246.4

138.6
160.4
158.8
155.3
177.6

139.1
162.2
161.6
157.4
179.2

137.3
161.6
161.4
157.3
178.3

138.6
162.5
160.5
157.7
180.0

140.0
162.3
162.4
160.7
178.4

140.8
163.3
163.2
162.2
179.4

140.1
164.7
162.6
166.0
180.8

139.1
164.6
161.9
166.1
180.8

139.3
165.1
162.9
169.4
180.5

139.3
165.5
162.2
171.4
180.8

139.8
165.6
162.9
172.0
180.7

139.6
165.8
163.8
169.9
181.4

139.7
164.8
163.1
170.3
179.7

140.0
165.0
162.2
170.0
180.5

138.9
163.8
162.1
167.7
179.2

109.7

110.8

109.5

110.3

109.6

110.1

112.2

111.0

111.2

111.4

109.7

112.0

111.0

110.3

111.1

178.2
118.1
183.3

182.0
121.5
187.1

183.7
122.9
188.8

184.2
123.1
188.9

184.8
123.6
189.5

185.3
123.8
190.0

185.6
123.8
191.2

186.1
124.3
192.1

186.6
124.6
192.0

186.8
124.7
192.7

187.6
124.9
192.2

188.2
125.2
192.8

188.8
125.8
194.0

189.3
126.8
193.9

189.5
126.8
194.2

175.7
201.9

180.4
206.9

180.9
208.2

181.0
208.2

182.1
209.2

182.6
209.8

183.2
211.0

183.6
211.5

184.1
211.8

185.6
212.2

186.2
213.0

186.6
213.4

186.5
213.4

186.2
213.8

186.4
213.4

Lodging away from home ……….…………………

199.0
118.4

204.7
119.8

3

195.1

199.7

206.6
116.2
201.4

207.0
113.4
201.7

207.4
118.5
202.1

208.0
121.1
202.3

208.4
128.8
202.7

208.9
129.8
203.1

209.4
128.2
203.6

209.9
128.8
203.9

210.3
133.0
204.2

211.0
131.6
204.7

211.6
127.7
205.1

212.0
128.3
205.5

212.4
121.8
205.8

108.7
142.9
126.1
115.0
133.4
124.4
123.1
121.7
114.6

114.7
153.9
137.0
138.7
144.1
121.9
120.0
117.5
112.1

114.4
152.3
134.7
134.4
141.9
120.7
122.6
121.1
115.3

114.4
153.0
135.4
136.2
142.5
120.4
118.7
117.8
110.5

114.9
155.6
138.0
149.6
144.7
121.0
115.7
115.6
105.5

115.1
156.2
138.3
154.5
144.7
121.4
118.3
117.4
109.8

115.2
154.7
136.6
152.0
142.9
121.4
122.9
120.0
117.4

116.0
155.1
137.0
148.9
143.5
121.3
123.8
120.6
118.4

116.4
157.4
139.3
149.6
146.1
121.1
122.8
120.3
116.7

116.5
165.0
147.4
149.8
155.1
121.3
119.6
117.8
112.2

116.3
166.1
148.4
150.2
156.2
120.7
115.6
115.2
106.0

116.5
167.2
149.3
156.8
156.8
120.4
115.9
113.3
106.9

116.8
166.2
148.2
161.1
155.3
120.6
120.6
115.6
114.0

116.5
161.9
143.5
177.2
149.1
121.7
123.5
117.8
119.3

118.1
164.5
146.2
186.5
151.7
121.5
122.6
118.6
116.9

128.6
121.2
151.8
149.0

124.1
119.1
156.3
153.5

125.0
120.4
153.6
150.8

121.4
117.8
152.5
149.7

120.1
115.6
154.9
152.2

122.2
116.4
156.8
154.0

125.2
118.6
158.5
155.7

123.4
119.6
159.9
157.1

120.9
119.0
163.6
160.9

118.8
117.0
164.0
161.3

117.0
114.4
162.2
159.3

117.6
116.3
161.4
158.6

122.3
120.4
161.6
159.1

123.3
120.6
165.3
162.7

123.1
120.6
165.8
163.2

99.4

96.0

93.1

92.8

92.7

92.8

92.6

92.6

92.5

92.1

92.1

92.2

92.3

93.3

94.0

3

Rent of shelter ……….……………………………………
Transporatation services…...............................
Other services…................................................
Special indexes:
All items less food…..........................................
All items less shelter…......................................
All items less medical care…............................
Commodities less food…..................................
Nondurables less food…...................................
Nondurables less food and apparel…...............
Nondurables…..................................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….…………………
Services less medical care services…..............
Energy…...........................................................
All items less energy…......................................
All items less food and energy….....................
Commodities less food and energy…...........
Energy commodities....................................
Services less energy…..................................
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FOR URBAN
WAGE EARNERS AND CLERICAL WORKERS

Food..................…...............................................
Food at home….................................................
Cereals and bakery products…........................
Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs….......................
1

Dairy and related products ……….…………………
Fruits and vegetables…...................................
Nonalcoholic beverages and beverage
materials…....................................................
Other foods at home….....................................
Sugar and sweets….......................................
Fats and oils…...............................................
Other foods….................................................
Other miscellaneous foods

1,2

……….…………

1

Food away from home ……….…………………………
1,2

Other food away from home ……….……………
Alcoholic beverages….........................................
Housing.................................................................
Shelter...............….............................................
Rent of primary residence….............................
2

Owners' equivalent rent of primary residence …
1,2

Tenants' and household insurance ……….……
Fuels and utilities….........................................
Fuels...............…............................................
Fuel oil and other fuels….............................
Gas (piped) and electricity…........................
Household furnishings and operations….........
Apparel .................................................................
Men's and boys' apparel…...............................
Women's and girls' apparel…...........................
1

Infants' and toddlers' apparel ……….………………
Footwear….......................................................
Transportation.......................................................
Private transportation...............….......................
2

New and used motor vehicles ……….……………
See footnotes at end of table.

98

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

37. Continued–Consumer Price Indexes for All Urban Consumers and for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers: U.S. city
average, by expenditure category and commodity or service group
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Annual average
Series

2002

New vehicles…...............................................
1

2003

2003
Nov.

2004

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

141.1

139.0

138.7

139.2

139.2

139.5

139.0

138.7

138.5

138.2

137.0

136.0

136.0

136.9

138.9

Used cars and trucks ……….………………………
Motor fuel…......................................................
Gasoline (all types)….....................................
Motor vehicle parts and equipment…...............
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair…..........
Public transportation...............…........................

152.8

143.7

132.8

131.7

131.6

131.7

132.0

132.1

132.6

131.4

133.0

134.6

137.3

137.6

137.5

117.0
116.4
106.1
191.7
202.6

136.1
135.5
107.3
197.3
206.0

131.5
130.9
107.5
198.9
205.8

128.1
127.6
107.3
199.8
203.6

137.1
136.6
107.6
199.9
204.6

143.6
143.0
107.6
200.1
206.2

150.9
150.3
107.4
200.3
208.0

156.5
155.8
107.5
200.4
209.4

171.1
170.4
107.5
200.8
208.8

173.8
173.2
107.8
201.5
210.0

165.6
165.0
108.2
202.1
212.1

162.4
161.7
108.4
202.7
208.0

161.7
161.0
108.7
202.7
203.1

173.6
172.9
108.9
203.8
204.2

172.3
171.6
109.4
204.9
207.1

Medical care..........................................................
Medical care commodities...............…...............
Medical care services...............…......................
Professional services…....................................
Hospital and related services…........................

284.6
251.1
292.5
256.0
363.2

296.3
257.4
305.9
263.4
391.2

300.1
258.5
310.6
265.2
402.4

301.4
259.4
311.9
266.5
403.4

302.8
259.8
313.8
267.8
405.9

305.4
260.9
316.8
270.6
408.7

306.9
261.5
318.6
272.3
409.9

307.7
262.5
319.4
273.2
409.8

308.4
263.3
320.0
273.5
410.7

309.4
263.8
321.2
274.1
413.0

310.4
263.7
322.4
274.8
415.2

311.0
263.8
323.2
275.8
414.9

311.7
264.8
323.9
275.9
416.4

312.7
265.4
325.0
276.3
418.5

313.6
264.9
326.3
276.9
421.0

104.6

105.5

105.6

105.5

105.6

106.2

106.5

106.7

106.6

106.7

106.3

106.1

106.2

106.2

106.3

102.0

102.9

103.0

102.5

102.7

103.2

103.5

103.9

103.9

103.7

103.7

103.4

103.3

103.5

103.3

107.6

109.0

109.6

109.7

109.8

110.0

109.8

109.6

109.2

109.4

109.4

109.9

110.8

110.5

110.6

125.9
318.5

133.8
336.5

138.0
337.5

138.0
343.8

139.1
346.1

139.4
349.5

139.6
349.9

139.7
350.4

139.9
350.4

140.6
351.5

141.0
350.4

143.6
354.7

146.3
354.8

146.7
355.6

146.8
356.1

354.8
93.7

377.3
91.2

390.2
89.8

390.7
89.7

392.8
89.6

393.3
89.6

393.8
89.3

394.1
89.0

394.6
88..4

396.7
88.4

398.1
88.1

405.8
87.6

414.0
87.8

415.2
87.1

415.6
87.2

92.7

89.9

88.4

88.3

88.2

88.2

87.9

87.5

87.0

86.9

86.7

86.2

86.3

85.6

85.7

99.9

98.5

97.4

97.4

97.2

97.3

96.9

96.7

96.1

96.1

95.8

95.2

95.5

94.8

95.1

19.0

16.7

15.9

15.8

15.8

15.8

15.7

15.5

15.4

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.2

15.0

14.9

2

Recreation ……….………………………………………….
1,2

Video and audio

……….………………………………
2

Education and communication ……….………………
2
Education ……….…………………………………………
Educational books and supplies….................
Tuition, other school fees, and child care…...
1,2

Communication ……….………………………………
1,2
Information and information processing ……
1,2

Telephone services ……….……………………
Information and information processing
1,4

other than telephone services ……….……
Personal computers and peripheral
1,2

21.8

17.3

16.0

15.9

15.8

15.7

15.5

15.6

15.4

15.2

15.0

14.9

14.8

14.3

13.9

302.0
463.2

307.0
470.5

307.7

308.1

309.3

310.0

310.8

311.3

311.5

311.8

313.2

313.5

314.4

314.7

314.9

470.2

471.5

473.8

473.2

474.2

474.1

474.4

476.9

481.6

482.6

483.9

483.0

482.5

174.1

177.0

177.7

177.8

177.4

179.1

179.7

180.1

180.2

180.0

180.3

180.5

180.9

181.4

181.7

Personal care products ……….……………………

1

155.5

154.2

Personal care services ……….………………………
Miscellaneous personal services...............…..
Commodity and service group:

1

189.1
274.0

193.9
283.3

153.8
194.8
286.7

154. 2
194.9
286.6

154.3
195.1
288.4

155.0
195.7
290.2

155.0
196.3
291.6

155.1
196.6
292.9

155.1
197.1
293.1

154.3
197.5
293.5

153.9
198.1
294.7

153.1
199.5
295.4

154.0
199.7
296.2

154.3
199.9
296.6

154.3
200.6
297.5

Commodities...........…..........................................
Food and beverages….......................................
Commodities less food and beverages…...........
Nondurables less food and beverages….........
Apparel …......................................................
Nondurables less food, beverages,

150.4
176.1
135.5
147.0
123.1

151.8
179.9
135.8
152.1
120.0

151.3
182.4
133.8
151.4
122.6

150.7
183.6
132.5
149.0
118.7

151.5
183.8
133.5
151.0
115.7

152.7
184.0
135.2
154.3
118.3

154.1
184.4
137.0
158.4
122.9

154.8
184.5
138.0
160.5
123.8

156.7
186.0
140.0
164.7
122.8

156.6
186.4
139.6
164.4
119.6

155.2
186.8
137.5
160.4
115.6

154.9
186.9
137.1
159.5
115.9

155.7
186.8
138.2
161.2
120.6

158.0
187.9
141.0
166.5
123.5

158.1
188.1
141.0
165.9
122.6

and apparel…...............................................
Durables….......................................................

165.3
121.8

175.6
117.4

172.9
114.2

171.6
114.0

176.5
114.0

180.2
1142.0

184.1
114.0

187.0
113.9

194.5
113.9

196.0
113.5

191.8
113.2

190.2
113.1

190.1
113.7

196.9
114.3

196.5
114.8

Services…............................................................

205.9

212.6

214.1

214.2

215.3

216.0

216.7

217.1

217.6

219.0

219.7

220.2

220.3

220.0

220.4

194.5
207.7
241.6

199.2
216.2
248.5

200.5
218.8
250.7

200.6
218.0
250.9

201.4
219.1
251.8

202.0
219.7
252.6

203.2
220.0
252.9

203.7
220.2
253.0

203.9
220.3
252.7

204.4
220.7
253.3

205.1
221.6
253.5

205.5
221.0
254.4

205.5
220.5
256.0

205.9
222.0
255.9

205.5
223.4
256.3

175.8
168.3
171.1
137.3
149.2
166.1
161.4

179.7
171.9
174.8
137.7
154.2
175.9
166.4

179.7
171.9
175.0
135.8
153.7
173.6
167.3

179.2
171.6
174.7
134.5
151.4
172.1
166.6

180.2
172.5
175.6
135.5
153.3
176.9
167.8

181.4
173.7
176.6
137.1
156.4
180.2
169.5

182.6
174.7
177.6
138.9
160.4
184.0
171.8

183.2
175.3
178.2
139.9
162.4
186.6
173.0

184.4
176.8
179.4
141.8
166.4
193.5
175.9

185.0
177.5
180.0
141.5
166.2
194.8
175.9

184.5
176.7
179.6
139.4
162.3
191.0
174.0

184.5
176.6
179.6
139.0
161.5
189.6
173.6

185.1
177.3
180.0
140.2
163.2
189.7
174.5

186.2
178.6
181.1
142.2
168.2
195.6
177.7

186.4
179.1
181.3
142.9
167.6
195.4
177.5

193.1
198.9
120.9
183.6
185.6
144.4
17.3
213.9

201.3
205.2
135.9
186.1
187.9
141.1
136.8
220.2

202.7
206.5
132.4
187.0
188.4
139.7
132.1
222.1

202.9
206.6
131.1
186.9
188.0
141.1
136.8
222.1

204.1
207.6
136.9
187.2
188.3
138.2
138.3
223.1

204.9
208.2
140.2
187.9
189.1
139.0
144.7
223.9

204.9
208.8
143.0
188.7
190.1
140.0
151.5
224.9

205.2
209.2
146.0
189.0
190.4
140.1
156.7
225.3

205.8
209.7
154.5
189.3
190.4
139.9
170.7
225.5

208.2
211.1
159.9
189.3
190.3
139.0
173.3
226.0

208.9
211.8
156.2
189.3
190.3
138.0
165.5
226.7

209.3
212.2
155.1
189.5
190.5
138.0
162.8
227.1

209.5
212.3
154.2
190.2
191.4
139.5
162.3
227.4

208.6
212.0
157.8
191.0
192.1
140.5
174.5
227.9

209.8
212.3
158.5
191.1
192.2
140.6
173.7
228.0

equipment ……….……………………………
Other goods and services.....................................
Tobacco and smoking products...............….......
1

Personal care ……….……………………………………

3

Rent of shelter ……….……………………………………
Transporatation services…...............................
Other services…................................................
Special indexes:
All items less food…..........................................
All items less shelter…......................................
All items less medical care…............................
Commodities less food…..................................
Nondurables less food…...................................
Nondurables less food and apparel…...............
Nondurables…..................................................
3

Services less rent of shelter ……….…………………
Services less medical care services…..............
Energy…...........................................................
All items less energy…......................................
All items less food and energy….....................
Commodities less food and energy…...........
Energy commodities....................................
Services less energy…..................................
1

Not seasonally adjusted.

2

Indexes on a December 1997 = 100 base.

3

Indexes on a December 1982 = 100 base.

4
Indexes on a December 1988 = 100 base.
Dash indicates data not available.
NOTE: Index applied to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

99

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

38. Consumer Price Index: U.S. city average and available local area data: all items
[1982–84 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
Pricing

All Urban Consumers

Urban Wage Earners

sched-

2004

2004

1

ule
U.S. city average……………………………………………

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct

Nov.

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

M

189.7

189.4

189.5

189.9

190.9

191.0

185.3

184.9

185.0

185.4

186.5

186.8

Northeast urban……….………………………………………….………

M

201.1

201.0

201.0

201.2

202.5

202.6

197.5

197.3

197.2

197.7

199.0

200.2

Size A—More than 1,500,000..........................................

M

203.3

203.0

203.1

203.2

204.5

204.6

198.3

198.0

198.1

198.4

199.7

120.2

M

118.7

119.2

118.9

119.2

120.1

120.1

118.8

119.1

118.7

119.2

120.1

179.8

M

183.3

183.2

183.3

183.6

184.5

184.8

178.2

178

178.2

178.6

179.5

181.2

M

185.3

185.4

185.6

189.5

186.8

186.9

179.4

179.5

179.8

180.2

181.1

116.9

M

116.8

116.3

116.5

116.8

117.4

117.7

116.0

115.5

115.7

115.9

116.6

175.2

Region and area size

2

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
4

Midwest urban ……….………………………………………….…………
Size A—More than 1,500,000..........................................
3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

176.9

177.1

176.3

176.4

177.1

177.7

174.1

173.7

173.4

173.7

174.4

180.7

South urban…….….............................................................

M

182.9

182.6

182.6

182.8

183.7

183.7

179.7

179.3

179.4

179.7

180.6

182.5

Size A—More than 1,500,000..........................................

M

184.3

183.7

183.7

184.0

185.0

185.0

181.9

181.2

181.2

181.4

182.5

182.5

M

117.0

116.9

116.9

116.9

117.4

117.4

115.3

115.2

115.3

115.4

115.9

116.0

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size D—Nonmetropolitan (less than 50,000)………….....

M

180.5

180.1

180.0

181.2

182.8

182.5

180

179.4

179.5

180.7

182.3

182.2

West urban…….…..............................................................

M

193.3

192.9

193.0

193.8

195.0

195.1

188.6

188.0

188.0

188.8

190.0

190.2

Size A—More than 1,500,000..........................................

M

195.9

195.4

195.5

196.4

197.5

197.6

189.7

188.9

188.9

189.9

191.0

191.2

M

117.9

117.9

118.1

118.4

119.2

119.3

117.6

117.4

117.6

117.8

118.7

118.9

M
M
M

173.4
117.3
181.8

173.1
117.3
181.3

173.2
117.3
181.0

173.6
117.4
181.8

174.6
118.1
182.9

174.6
118.2
183.0

171.7
116.4
179.7

171.3
116.2
179.0

171.4
116.2
178.8

171.8
116.5
179.7

172.8
117.2
180.8

173.0
117.3
181.1

Chicago–Gary–Kenosha, IL–IN–WI…………………………..
Los Angeles–Riverside–Orange County, CA……….…………

M
M

189.1
193.7

189.2
193.4

190.2
193.1

190.0
194.5

190.8
196.3

190.7
196.9

182.5
187.4

182.4
186.8

183.2
186.5

183.1
187.8

184.0
189.8

184.2
190.3

New York, NY–Northern NJ–Long Island, NY–NJ–CT–PA…

M

206.0

205.5

205.7

205.9

207.3

207.2

200.4

200.1

200.3

200.6

201.9

202.2

Boston–Brockton–Nashua, MA–NH–ME–CT……….…………

1

–

208.9

–

209.8

–

211.7

–

207.9

–

208.8

–

211

Cleveland–Akron, OH……………………………………………

1

–

181.7

–

183.8

–

185.2

–

172.8

–

174.8

–

173.9

Dallas–Ft Worth, TX…….………………………………………

3

Size B/C—50,000 to 1,500,000 ……….…………………………
Size classes:
5

A ……….………………………………………….…………..……………
3
B/C ……………………….….………………………………………….…
D…………….…………......................................................
Selected local areas

6

1

–

179.1

–

179.7

–

179.9

–

179.4

–

180.0

–

180.5

Washington–Baltimore, DC–MD–VA–WV ……….………………

1

–

120.2

–

120.8

–

120.9

–

119.7

–

120.4

–

120.4

Atlanta, GA……………………..…………………………………

2

185.7

–

184.1

–

183.9

–

184.0

–

182.5

–

181.7

–

Detroit–Ann Arbor–Flint, MI……………………………………

2

185.8

–

186.8

–

187.6

–

180.4

–

181.5

–

183.0

–

Houston–Galveston–Brazoria, TX………………………………

2

169.3

–

169.1

–

171.8

–

167.6

–

167.4

–

169.5

–

Miami–Ft. Lauderdale, FL……………...………………………

2

185.6

–

185.1

–

187.0

–

183.4

–

182.9

–

185.1

–

Philadelphia–Wilmington–Atlantic City, PA–NJ–DE–MD……

2

198.0

–

199.1

–

200.2

–

197.3

–

198.0

–

199.8

–

San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose, CA…….…………………

2

199.0

–

198.7

–

200.3

–

195.4

–

195.0

–

196.4

–

Seattle–Tacoma–Bremerton, WA………………...……………

2

195.3

–

194.6

–

196.5

–

190.4

–

189.6

–

191.6

–

7

1

Foods, fuels, and several other items priced every month in all areas; most other

goods and services priced as indicated:

Report: Anchorage, AK; Cincinnatti, OH–KY–IN; Kansas City, MO–KS; Milwaukee–Racine,
WI; Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN–WI; Pittsburgh, PA; Port-land–Salem, OR–WA; St Louis,

M—Every month.

MO–IL; San Diego, CA; Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL.

1—January, March, May, July, September, and November.

7

Indexes on a November 1996 = 100 base.

2—February, April, June, August, October, and December.
2

Regions defined as the four Census regions.

NOTE: Local area CPI indexes are byproducts of the national CPI program. Each local

3

Indexes on a December 1996 = 100 base.

index has a smaller sample size and is, therefore, subject to substantially more sampling

The "North Central" region has been renamed the "Midwest" region by the

and other measurement error. As a result, local area indexes show greater volatility than

4

Census Bureau. It is composed of the same geographic entities.

the national index, although their long-term trends are similar. Therefore, the Bureau of

5

Labor Statistics strongly urges users to consider adopting the national average CPI for use

6

Indexes on a December 1986 = 100 base.
In addition, the following metropolitan areas are published semiannually and

in their escalator clauses. Index applies to a month as a whole, not to any specific date.

appear in tables 34 and 39 of the January and July issues of the CPI Detailed
Dash indicates data not available.

100

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

39. Annual data: Consumer Price Index, U.S. city average, all items and major groups
[1982–84 = 100]
Series
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers:
All items:
Index..................……...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Food and beverages:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Housing:
Index....………………...............................................
Percent change............................……………………
Apparel:
Index........................…….........................................
Percent change............................……………………
Transportation:
Index........................……….....................................
Percent change............................……………………
Medical care:
Index................…….................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Other goods and services:
Index............…….....................................................
Percent change............................……………………
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers:
All items:
Index....................……………..................................
Percent change............................……………………

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

144.5
3.0

148.2
2.6

152.4
2.8

156.9
3.0

160.5
2.3

163.0
1.6

166.6
2.2

172.2
3.4

177.1
2.8

179.9
1.6

184.0
2.3

141.6
2.1

144.9
2.3

148.9
2.8

153.7
3.2

157.7
2.6

161.1
2.2

164.6
2.2

168.4
2.3

173.6
3.1

176.8
1.8

180.5
2.1

141.2
2.7

144.8
2.5

148.5
2.6

152.8
2.9

156.8
2.6

160.4
2.3

163.9
2.2

169.6
3.5

176.4
4.0

180.3
2.2

184.8
2.5

133.7
1.4

133.4
–.2

132.0
–1.0

131.7
–.2

132.9
.9

133.0
.1

131.3
–1.3

129.6
–1.3

127.3
–1.8

124.0
–2.6

120.9
–2.5

130.4
3.1

134.3
3.0

139.1
3.6

143.0
2.8

144.3
0.9

141.6
–1.9

144.4
2.0

153.3
6.2

154.3
0.7

152.9
–.9

157.6
3.1

201.4
5.9

211.0
4.8

220.5
4.5

228.2
3.5

234.6
2.8

242.1
3.2

250.6
3.5

260.8
4.1

272.8
4.6

285.6
4.7

297.1
4.0

192.9
5.2

198.5
2.9

206.9
4.2

215.4
4.1

224.8
4.4

237.7
5.7

258.3
8.7

271.1
5.0

282.6
4.2

293.2
3.8

298.7
1.9

142.1
2.8

145.6
2.5

149.8
2.9

154.1
2.9

157.6
2.3

159.7
1.3

163.2
2.2

168.9
3.5

173.5
2.7

175.9
1.4

179.8
2.2

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

101

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

40. Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Annual average
Grouping

2002

2003

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.1 Sept.p

Oct.p

Nov.p

Finished goods....……………………………
Finished consumer goods........................
Finished consumer foods.......................

138.9
139.4
140.1

143.3
145.3
145.9

144.5
146.5
150.1

144.5
146.7
150.3

145.4
147.8
148.1

145.3
147.8
148.4

146.3
149.0
150.7

147.3
150.4
152.7

148.9
152.5
155.5

148.7
152.0
155.0

148.5
151.9
152.3

148.6
151.9
152.2

148.7
152.0
152.2

151.9
155.5
154.7

151.7
155.3
154.5

Finshed consumer goods
excluding foods.....................................
Nondurable goods less food.................
Durable goods......................................
Capital equipment...................................

138.8
139.8
133.0
139.1

144.7
148.4
133.1
139.5

144.8
147.6
135.0
140.5

145.0
148.2
134.3
140.2

147.4
151.7
134.3
140.5

147.3
151.6
134.2
140.2

148.0
152.4
134.7
140.5

149.1
154.3
134.4
140.6

150.9
156.7
134.8
140.8

150.5
156.0
134.9
141.1

151.4
158.0
133.6
140.7

151.4
158.0
133.7
141.1

151.5
158.1
133.8
141.3

155.5
162.0
137.7
143.5

155.2
161.8
137.5
143.4

Intermediate materials,
supplies, and components........…………

127.8

133.7

134.1

134.5

136.2

137.3

138.3

140.2

142.0

142.8

143.5

144.9

145.3

146.2

147.2

Materials and components
for manufacturing.....................................
Materials for food manufacturing..............
Materials for nondurable manufacturing...
Materials for durable manufacturing.........
Components for manufacturing................

126.1
123.2
129.2
124.7
126.1

129.7
134.4
137.2
127.9
125.9

130.7
141.6
137.2
130.5
125.8

130.9
140.7
137.9
131.2
125.8

131.9
138.4
140.2
132.9
125.9

133.2
139.3
141.0
137.3
126.2

134.3
141.7
141.4
140.7
126.5

136.2
146.6
143.5
144.3
127.1

137.4
152.2
144.5
146.9
127.3

137.7
152.0
145.9
145.8
127.6

138.1
147.3
147.3
147.2
127.4

139.6
145.4
149.5
151.0
128.1

140.8
144.2
152.1
153.3
128.0

141.2
144.2
153.5
152.8
128.2

141.8
144.0
154.9
153.3
128.4

Materials and components
for construction.........................................
Processed fuels and lubricants...................
Containers..................................................
Supplies......................................................

151.3
96.3
152.1
138.9

153.6
112.6
153.7
141.5

155.6
110.3
153.4
142.6

155.6
111.7
153.5
142.8

156.2
116.8
153.9
143.2

159.0
116.8
153.7
143.8

161.9
116.5
154.1
144.8

164.7
118.4
154.9
146.4

166.9
122.3
156.7
147.2

166.9
124.9
158.9
147.3

167.5
126.4
159.7
148.0

170.0
128.5
161.4
147.5

171.1
127.1
162.5
147.7

170.7
130.4
164.1
147.8

170.6
133.8
164.3
147.9

Crude materials for further
processing.......................…………………
Foodstuffs and feedstuffs...........................
Crude nonfood materials............................

108.1
99.5
111.4

135.3
113.5
148.2

137.0
125.7
141.4

141.1
124.7
149.5

147.8
117.1
167.3

150.1
122.2
167.3

152.9
131.7
164.8

155.7
135.4
166.6

161.8
141.1
172.9

163.0
137.4
178.0

162.5
130.9
182.2

160.7
124.7
183.9

153.8
121.7
174.1

159.7
119.9
186.1

171.9
119.3
208.1

Special groupings:
Finished goods, excluding foods................
Finished energy goods...............................
Finished goods less energy........................
Finished consumer goods less energy.......
Finished goods less food and energy.........

138.3
88.8
147.3
150.8
150.2

142.4
102.0
149.0
153.1
150.5

142.8
100.4
151.0
155.5
151.7

142.8
101.0
150.9
155.5
151.4

144.5
106.0
150.6
154.9
151.8

144.3
105.7
150.5
155.0
151.7

144.9
107.0
151.3
156.1
152.0

145.7
109.5
151.9
156.9
152.1

147.0
113.6
152.7
158.0
152.2

146.8
112.5
152.7
157.9
152.3

147.2
115.4
151.7
156.5
151.9

147.4
115.1
151.9
156.6
152.2

147.5
114.9
152.1
156.8
152.5

150.9
120.9
154.4
159.1
154.7

150.7
120.3
154.3
159.1
154.6

Finished consumer goods less food
and energy...............................................

157.6

157.9

159.2

159.0

159.4

159.4

159.7

159.8

159.9

160.0

159.4

159.7

160.0

162.2

162.2

Consumer nondurable goods less food
and energy.............................................

177.5

177.9

178.5

178.9

179.7

179.8

179.8

180.5

180.2

180.2

180.3

180.8

181.3

181.6

182.0

Intermediate materials less foods
and feeds..................................................
Intermediate foods and feeds.....................
Intermediate energy goods.........................
Intermediate goods less energy.................

128.5
115.5
95.9
134.5

134.2
125.9
111.9
137.7

134.2
134.8
109.5
138.8

134.7
134.1
110.9
139.0

136.5
132.2
115.8
139.8

137.6
133.7
115.8
141.1

138.4
137.0
115.6
142.4

140.2
143.2
117.3
144.4

141.9
147.7
121.1
145.7

142.8
144.9
123.7
146.0

143.7
142.3
125.1
146.4

145.4
136.0
127.1
147.7

146.0
133.8
126.0
148.5

147.0
131.2
129.5
148.7

148.1
130.6
132.6
149.2

Intermediate materials less foods
and energy...............................................

135.8

138.5

139.2

139.5

140.4

141.7

142.9

144.6

145.7

146.2

146.8

148.5

149.5

149.9

150.4

Crude energy materials..............................
Crude materials less energy.......................
Crude nonfood materials less energy.........

102.0
108.7
135.7

147.2
123.4
152.5

132.5
135.5
164.8

141.8
136.2
170.1

163.5
133.2
179.3

158.9
139.8
189.9

153.0
148.0
195.2

158.8
148.7
187.6

172.1
150.1
177.9

180.0
147.0
176.3

177.9
147.5
195.4

178.1
144.5
200.9

166.3
140.9
195.4

179.5
142.0
204.6

210.1
142.3
207.0

102

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

41. Producer Price Indexes for the net output of major industry groups
[December 2003 = 100, unless otherwise indicated]
NAICS

2004
Industry

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.p

Sept.p

Oct.p

Nov.p

–
211
212
213

Total mining industries (December 1984=100)......................................

140.3

136.6

140.9

149.5

155.5

155.6

157.2

148.8

158.9

180.5

Oil and gas extraction(December 1985=100) ........................................
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………………………………
Mining support activities………………………………………………………

172.5
105.2
100.8

165.4
105.9
100.8

171.7
108.5
101.0

188.1
107.3
101.3

198.0
108.1
102.2

196.6
110.2
103.7

198.7
110.2
105.5

182.8
111.6
107.5

199.9
112.3
110.1

237.5
112.7
112.7

–
311
312
313
315
316
321
322
323
324
325
326
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
339

Total manufacturing industries (December 1984=100).........................
Food manufacturing (December 1984=100)………………………………
Beverage and tobacco manufacturing....................................................
Textile mills.............................................................................................
Apparel manufacturing………………………………...………………………
Leather and allied product manufacturing (December 1984=100).........
Wood products manufacturing………………………………………………
Paper manufacturing..............................................................................
Printing and related support activities.....................................................

139.3
140.4
101.2
100.3
99.7

140.3
142.4
100.7
100.2
99.8

141.8
146.1
101.5
100.7
99.9

143.3
149.1
100.2
101.1
100.0

142.9
148.6
101.2
101.3
99.8

143.2
146.5
100.6
101.5
99.7

143.7
144.4
101.4
101.6
99.6

144.1
143.3
101.0
101.2
99.9

146.5
142.9
101.6
101.7
100.1

146.0
142.9
101.6
102.0
100.1

143.6
102.7
99.4
100.2

143.8
105.9
99.5
100.4

143.5
108.1
100.1
100.8

143.4
110.2
101.1
100.8

143.5
108.3
102.3
101.0

143.7
106.8
103.2
101.3

143.7
109.9
104.2
101.5

143.5
110.8
104.9
102.0

143.7
107.4
105.7
101.9

143.9
105.0
105.7
102.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing (December 1984=100)……
Chemical manufacturing (December 1984=100)…………………………
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing (December 1984=100)……
Primary metal manufacturing (December 1984=100)……………………
Fabricated metal product manufacturing (December 1984=100)………
Machinery manufacturing………………………..……………………………
Computer and electronic products manufacturing…………………...……
Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing………
Transportation equipment manufacturing…………………………………
Furniture and related product manufacturing(December 1984=100)……
Miscellaneous manufacturing…………………………………………………

130.7
167.9
129.4
128.5
135.7
100.6
99.5
100.7
100.1
148.7
100.9

134.3
168.8
129.6
132.3
137.5
100.9
99.3
101.8
100.4
149.0
100.8

141.9
169.7
130.0
138.4
139.4
101.3
99.5
102.7
100.2
149.7
101.0

152.0
170.3
130.4
142.2
140.8
101.6
99.3
103.3
100.4
151.4
100.9

144.1
171.6
130.8
142.3
141.9
101.8
99.1
103.5
100.6
151.7
101.2

152.3
172.2
131.2
144.7
142.5
102.1
98.9
103.6
99.7
152.0
101.2

155.6
173.2
131.8
149.1
143.7
102.2
98.9
103.8
99.9
152.7
101.0

158.9
175.6
132.5
150.9
144.2
102.5
98.9
104.1
99.9
152.7
101.6

176.7
177.1
134.3
152.0
144.7
103.1
98.9
104.4
103.2
153.5
101.6

170.6
178.3
134.7
154.1
145.2
103.2
98.6
104.4
102.7
154.6
101.6

441
442
443
446
447
454

Retail trade
Motor vehicle and parts dealers……………………………………………… 101.7
Furniture and home furnishings stores……………………………………… 100.8
99.7
Electronics and appliance stores……………………………………………
99.9
Health and personal care stores……………………………………………
46.6
Gasoline stations (June 2001=100)…………………………………………
Nonstore retailers……………………………………………………………… 105.4

103.2
101.8
99.9
96.9
55.4
113.2

103.8
102.0
101.2
97.4
56.6
108.6

103.7
101.4
101.2
97.5
53.2
107.0

103.7
102.8
98.8
98.7
59.3
108.7

103.3
102.6
98.6
101.3
48.3
103.6

103.4
103.0
98.8
101.5
47.0
103.6

103.5
103.6
101.6
107.3
45.8
107.5

104.2
104.0
100.6
106.8
42.0
103.1

104.0
105.1
97.9
104.6
52.0
111.7

481
483
491

Transportation and warehousing
Air transportation (December 1992=100)…………………………………… 163.6
98.9
Water transportation……………………………………………………………
155.0
Postal service (June 1989=100)……………………………………………

162.0
99.4
155.0

162.3
100.1
155.0

162.2
100.3
155.0

162.8
100.3
155.0

163.9
101.5
155.0

165.1
100.5
155.0

160.6
103.0
155.0

161.6
103.6
155.0

160.4
103.4
155.0

221

Utilities
Utilities…………………………………………………………………………

102.5

101.2

101.8

103.1

106.9

107.1

107.5

105.1

104.0

108.5

6211
6215
6216
622
6231
62321

Health care and social assistance
Office of physicians (December 1996=100)………………………………
Medical and diagnostic laboratories…………………………………………
Home health care services (December 1996=100)………………………
Hospitals (December 1992=100)……………………………………………
Nursing care facilities…………………………………………………………
Residential mental retardation facilities……………………………………

114.3
99.8
119.6
140.1
101.4
99.9

114.3
99.8
119.6
140.3
101.6
99.9

114.4
99.8
119.7
140.7
101.9
99.9

114.4
100.0
119.7
140.8
102.0
100.5

114.3
100.0
119.7
140.9
102.0
100.5

114.3
100.0
119.7
141.6
102.9
102.1

114.5
100.0
119.8
142.1
102.9
100.6

114.5
100.0
119.7
142.4
103.1
100.6

114.4
100.1
119.9
142.9
103.5
100.9

114.4
100.1
120.0
143.3
103.6
102.0

101.3
99.1
100.0
98.9
102.0

101.3
100.3
100.2
98.4
101.7

101.4
101.6
100.1
98.5
102.3

101.3
103.1
99.9
98.9
102.4

101.4
102.7
99.9
99.0
102.7

101.5
99.6
99.8
99.0
103.2

101.2
100.1
100.0
99.0
102.3

101.0
101.9
99.5
98.8
103.2

101.5
103.6
99.2
98.9
104.0

102.0
105.5
99.0
98.5
105.3

99.4
100.2
100.6
109.8
131.7
100.7

99.6
100.7
101.1
107.4
131.7
100.8

101.0
100.8
101.3
106.0
131.8
101.1

102.6
100.8
101.9
104.5
131.8
101.2

102.1
101.0
98.5
105.6
131.8
101.1

103.5
101.0
101.4
110.0
131.6
101.3

105.2
101.1
102.7
111.0
131.9
101.6

104.7
101.0
100.7
108.2
132.3
101.8

104.1
99.5
98.5
108.0
132.5
102.0

104.2
99.6
100.1
107.9
132.1
102.3

125.9
99.6
112.5
98.7
100.3
101.3
123.6

126.5
99.8
113.2
98.7
100.4
100.8
124.9

126.6
99.9
113.1
98.7
100.5
101.3
124.8

126.5
99.9
113.4
98.7
100.6
101.5
124.4

126.6
99.9
113.8
97.4
101.0
101.5
125.6

127.0
100.0
114.6
95.1
101.0
101.4
126.6

126.9
100.7
114.8
95.4
101.6
101.3
128.6

127.2
100.4
114.6
94.8
100.9
101.3
125.4

127.4
100.4
115.3
96.9
101.5
101.4
125.4

127.3
100.7
115.2
96.4
101.3
101.4
124.7

511
515
517
5182
523
53112
5312
5313
5321
5411
541211
5413
54181
5613
56151
56172
5621
721

Other services industries
Publishing industries, except Internet ……………………………………
Broadcasting, except Internet………………………………………………
Telecommunications…………………………………………………………
Data processing and related services………………………………………
Security, commodity contracts, and like activity……………………………
Lessors or nonresidental buildings (except miniwarehouse)……………
Offices of real estate agents and brokers…………………………………
Real estate support activities…………………………………………………
Automotive equipment rental and leasing (June 2001=100)……………
Legal services (December 1996=100)………………………………………
Offices of certified public accountants………………………………………
Architectural, engineering, and related services
(December 1996=100)……………………………………………………
Advertising agencies…………………………………………………………
Employment services (December 1996=100)………………………………
Travel agencies………………………………………………………………
Janitorial services………………………………………………………………
Waste collection………………………………………………………………
Accommodation (December 1996=100)……………………………………

NOTE: Data reflect the conversion to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

103

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

42. Annual data: Producer Price Indexes, by stage of processing
[1982 = 100]
Index

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Finished goods
Total...............................................................................
Foods............................…………………………….……
Energy............……………………………………….….…
Other…...............................………………………….……

124.7
125.7
78.0
135.8

125.5
126.8
77.0
137.1

127.9
129.0
78.1
140.0

131.3
133.6
83.2
142.0

131.8
134.5
83.4
142.4

130.7
134.3
75.1
143.7

133.0
135.1
78.8
146.1

138.0
137.2
94.1
148.0

140.7
141.3
96.8
150.0

138.9
140.1
88.8
150.2

143.3
146.0
102.0
150.5

Intermediate materials, supplies, and
components
Total...............................................................................
Foods............……………………………………….….…
Energy…...............................………………………….…
Other.................…………...………..........………….……

116.2
115.6
84.6
123.8

118.5
118.5
83.0
127.1

124.9
119.5
84.1
135.2

125.7
125.3
89.8
134.0

125.6
123.2
89.0
134.2

123.0
123.2
80.8
133.5

123.2
120.8
84.3
133.1

129.2
119.2
101.7
136.6

129.7
124.3
104.1
136.4

127.8
123.3
95.9
135.8

133.7
134.4
111.9
138.5

Crude materials for further processing
Total...............................................................................
Foods............................…………………………….……
Energy............……………………………………….….…
Other…...............................………………………….……

102.4
108.4
76.7
94.1

101.8
106.5
72.1
97.0

102.7
105.8
69.4
105.8

113.8
121.5
85.0
105.7

111.1
112.2
87.3
103.5

96.8
103.9
68.6
84.5

98.2
98.7
78.5
91.1

120.6
100.2
122.1
118.0

121.3
106.2
122.8
101.8

108.1
99.5
102.0
101.0

135.3
113.5
147.5
116.8

104

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

43. U.S. export price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000 = 100]
SITC
Rev. 3

Industry

2003

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

0 Food and live animals…………………………………………
01
Meat and meat preparations...........................................
04
Cereals and cereal preparations.....................................
05
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........

115.2
125.6
125.6
102.8

116.5
123.0
130.8
103.2

117.0
122.8
131.6
103.1

119.9
125.0
135.2
108.4

122.7
127.1
139.6
110.1

126.1
127.6
147.7
109.5

126.7
127.7
146.0
113.3

123.9
127.3
141.2
111.1

119.8
123.0
128.0
110.0

116.4
126.1
120.6
113.2

117.6
124.6
122.0
119.8

118.2
126.0
115.5
130.6

118.0
123.8
112.7
135.1

2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels...........................
22
Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits........................................
24
Cork and wood................................................................
25
Pulp and waste paper......................................................
26
Textile fibers and their waste...........................................
28
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................

116.3
150.9
92.5
91.9
128.5
129.6

116.9
152.5
93.7
91.7
121.2
136.6

120.2
157.2
94.5
91.7
123.7
148.9

122.3
160.9
95.6
92.5
122.2
156.8

129.0
181.6
96.5
94.2
121.9
171.4

132.8
197.1
97.6
98.8
115.9
176.2

132.5
199.0
98.2
100.4
114.9
170.6

125.7
168.5
98.3
100.8
108.7
167.5

132.1
184.5
98.9
100.1
102.9
190.2

118.0
117.4
98.8
99.5
101.1
183.6

119.4
125.1
99.1
98.7
102.1
178.5

118.1
109.1
98.6
98.1
100.2
190.4

119.9
110.3
96.9
98.7
97.2
200.4

3 Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products..............
32
Coal, coke, and briquettes...............................................
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials....

106.3
111.6
101.2

110.7
112.9
106.2

120.5
–
116.8

119.3
–
114.7

123.0
–
120.1

123.2
–
119.8

135.1
–
135.0

131.8
–
129.7

137.5
–
134.5

139.6
–
136.2

141.2
–
138.0

155.8
–
156.4

153.7
–
153.9

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s. ..........................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products..........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
57
Plastics in primary forms ................................................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms...........................................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s. ........................

100.9
106.5
99.4
95.8
97.1
102.5

101.4
105.8
100.1
96.5
97.2
102.6

102.9
105.4
104.3
98.3
96.8
105.0

104.0
105.3
104.2
100.9
97.2
105.2

104.9
105.5
104.3
102.1
97.4
104.8

105.5
105.7
104.1
102.2
96.9
104.8

105.6
105.7
104.4
102.9
96.7
104.8

105.8
105.8
104.3
103.2
96.5
104.9

107.0
107.9
104.1
104.8
97.2
104.6

108.6
108.1
105.1
107.3
97.1
106.2

109.6
108.0
105.6
109.9
97.4
105.4

111.4
107.1
106.1
113.2
97.9
105.0

112.3
107.3
106.4
115.7
98.8
104.9

6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials.....

100.7

100.8

101.7

103.0

104.1

105.6

106.6

107.0

108.5

109.6

110.5

111.3

112.1

109.5

109.9

110.4

110.9

110.4

110.9

110.8

111.2

111.8

112.0

111.3

111.5

112.4

97.9
99.7
83.4

97.6
99.8
84.5

97.9
99.7
85.9

97.8
99.6
90.9

97.9
99.7
94.1

98.7
99.7
98.1

99.0
99.5
97.6

99.2
99.9
95.4

101.2
99.9
95.4

101.9
100.2
96.5

102.7
100.5
99.0

103.8
101.4
98.1

103.2
101.5
99.9

62
64
66
68

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s. ..........................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard……………………………...………........
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s. ......................
Nonferrous metals...........................................................

7 Machinery and transport equipment...............................
71
72
74
75
76
77
78

Power generating machinery and equipment..................
Machinery specialized for particular industries................
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts.........................................................
Computer equipment and office machines......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................
Electrical machinery and equipment................................
Road vehicles..................................................................

87 Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments and apparatus……………………………..…

97.7

97.8

97.9

98.1

98.2

98.4

98.4

98.2

98.2

98.2

98.3

98.6

98.7

108.5
103.3

108.7
103.4

109.3
103.9

109.4
104.0

109.4
104.2

108.7
105.1

108.7
105.4

108.7
105.4

108.9
105.7

109.0
105.9

109.0
106.1

109.4
107.2

110.2
107.6

102.8
88.0

102.8
88.6

103.3
87.7

103.5
88.2

104.0
88.4

104.5
88.8

104.8
88.6

104.9
87.2

105.2
86.6

105.3
86.4

105.3
86.3

106.1
85.9

106.3
85.5

92.2
88.2
101.6

92.0
88.1
101.5

92.6
88.0
101.7

92.5
88.3
101.9

92.4
88.6
101.9

92.2
88.5
102.3

92.0
88.6
102.3

91.8
88.2
102.4

91.5
88.3
102.5

90.7
88.2
102.5

90.7
88.1
102.4

90.4
88.6
102.8

90.8
88.4
102.8

102.3

102.3

102.2

102.3

102.3

102.2

102.1

102.0

101.7

101.9

101.8

102.2

102.3

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

105

Current Labor Statistics:

Price Data

44. U.S. import price indexes by Standard International Trade Classification
[2000 = 100]
SITC
Rev. 3

2003

Industry

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

0 Food and live animals………………………………………… 100.0
01
03
05
07

Meat and meat preparations...........................................
Fish and crustaceans, mollusks, and other
aquatic invertebrates………………………….................
Vegetables, fruit, and nuts, prepared fresh or dry...........
Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and manufactures
thereof……………………..………………………….........

101.0

102.2

104.7

105.4

106.4

106.1

106.9

107.4

107.4

109.2

111.1

111.6

117.2

120.4

117.7

118.0

120.4

121.7

124.4

128.9

133.7

134.2

135.1

133.9

131.8

79.3
108.9

79.2
109.4

78.2
112.3

80.0
115.7

83.3
111.3

85.1
109.5

84.1
106.1

84.1
105.9

86.1
102.1

86.9
100.6

86.0
109.2

85.5
114.4

84.3
119.9

93.1

96.0

100.1

101.9

101.7

103.6

102.4

107.0

102.7

103.4

105.6

104.5

106.8

1 Beverages and tobacco……………………………………… 104.4

104.4

104.7

105.0

105.3

105.3

105.4

105.3

105.9

106.1

106.2

106.5

106.6

104.3

104.9

105.2

105.5

105.5

105.7

105.6

106.4

106.6

106.7

106.9

107.0

11

Beverages…………….....................................................

104.2

2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels...........................

104.5

107.9

109.5

114.1

120.0

122.9

127.3

125.8

125.7

134.0

135.1

125.1

121.5

Cork and wood................................................................
Pulp and waste paper......................................................
Metalliferous ores and metal scrap..................................
Crude animal and vegetable materials, n.e.s. ................

103.2
91.9
108.7
94.8

108.0
92.8
115.3
99.6

108.9
93.3
124.2
98.9

115.7
91.9
134.6
99.5

123.3
95.4
148.0
99.7

127.8
100.8
148.2
99.3

139.0
103.4
143.5
102.1

136.1
106.5
140.4
98.0

132.1
108.0
145.3
101.2

148.9
107.7
160.8
97.6

151.1
105.5
162.6
98.7

126.2
99.8
166.4
96.3

117.0
98.0
166.5
96.5

3 Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related products..............
33
Petroleum, petroleum products, and related materials....
34
Gas, natural and manufactured.......................................

103.3
102.3
106.6

108.2
106.9
113.9

117.3
114.0
138.0

117.7
114.5
137.1

120.8
120.0
122.9

121.1
120.3
123.3

131.6
131.5
129.5

131.5
130.0
140.0

133.9
133.0
134.8

144.2
144.8
136.3

146.8
149.2
123.7

161.9
166.3
125.3

162.1
161.9
159.6

5 Chemicals and related products, n.e.s. ..........................
52
Inorganic chemicals….....................................................
53
Dying, tanning, and coloring materials............................
54
Medicinal and pharmaceutical products..........................
55
Essential oils; polishing and cleaning preparations.........
57
Plastics in primary forms.................................................
58
Plastics in nonprimary forms...........................................
59
Chemical materials and products, n.e.s. ........................

100.8
111.9
99.0
103.4
91.6
105.6
101.7
93.1

101.1
114.0
99.6
103.4
91.6
105.5
101.8
93.3

103.0
119.3
99.9
107.2
92.7
104.4
102.1
94.3

103.4
120.6
99.7
107.7
93.3
105.2
102.4
94.9

103.8
120.5
99.5
108.1
93.7
106.9
102.9
95.8

103.5
115.9
100.6
107.7
93.5
105.5
102.9
95.4

103.5
117.5
100.8
107.3
93.4
105.8
102.9
95.1

103.8
119.8
100.3
107.1
93.5
104.6
102.3
95.2

104.6
122.2
98.3
107.3
93.5
107.8
103.0
94.7

105.1
123.8
98.4
107.3
93.4
108.4
103.2
94.1

105.8
124.1
98.4
106.6
93.4
109.6
103.5
94.5

106.2
125.0
98.5
106.0
93.3
110.4
103.8
94.9

106.5
125.1
98.7
106.6
93.2
113.8
104.2
95.5

6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materials.....

97.4

97.8

98.9

101.4

103.6

105.6

106.9

106.1

106.1

107.7

108.9

109.0

109.3

98.6

98.8

99.0

99.2

99.7

99.9

100.0

100.5

100.5

100.8

100.8

100.9

101.1

94.2
98.1
85.1
99.1

93.7
98.1
87.7
99.5

94.1
98.5
92.3
99.7

94.5
98.9
97.0
100.3

95.0
99.0
102.6
101.1

94.8
99.3
105.8
102.3

95.5
99.4
106.1
102.4

95.5
99.4
101.6
102.4

96.4
99.3
102.3
102.7

96.9
100.2
105.6
103.3

97.9
100.4
106.3
103.9

99.2
100.6
106.8
104.1

99.3
100.7
108.6
104.9

24
25
28
29

62
64
66
68
69

Rubber manufactures, n.e.s. ..........................................
Paper, paperboard, and articles of paper, pulp,
and paperboard…………………….……………..............
Nonmetallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s. ......................
Nonferrous metals...........................................................
Manufactures of metals, n.e.s. .......................................

7 Machinery and transport equipment...............................

95.4

95.3

95.4

95.5

95.5

95.2

95.2

95.1

95.0

95.0

95.0

95.0

95.1

Machinery specialized for particular industries................
General industrial machines and parts, n.e.s.,
and machine parts.........................................................
Computer equipment and office machines......................
Telecommunications and sound recording and
reproducing apparatus and equipment..........................
Electrical machinery and equipment................................
Road vehicles..................................................................

103.3

103.6

104.9

106.4

106.7

106.5

106.7

106.6

107.2

107.6

107.4

107.7

108.1

100.9
78.5

101.2
78.2

101.8
78.0

102.5
78.0

103.3
77.7

103.5
76.5

103.6
76.4

103.5
75.5

104.0
74.9

104.1
74.3

104.3
74.0

104.6
73.1

104.9
73.0

87.5
96.0
101.4

86.7
95.3
101.6

86.4
95.4
101.9

85.4
95.7
102.0

85.1
95.6
102.0

84.9
94.9
102.2

84.9
94.8
102.3

84.7
94.7
102.4

84.3
94.6
102.6

84.0
94.7
102.8

83.9
94.5
103.1

83.5
94.3
103.6

83.5
94.4
103.8

85

Footwear…………...........................................................

100.1

100.1

100.5

100.5

100.6

100.6

100.6

100.4

100.4

100.1

100.5

100.5

100.5

88

Photographic apparatus, equipment, and supplies,
and optical goods, n.e.s. …...........................................

99.8

99.9

99.9

100.3

100.0

99.4

99.3

99.0

98.2

98.2

98.2

98.2

98.6

72
74
75
76
77
78

106

2004

Nov.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

45. U.S. export price indexes by end-use category
[2000 = 100]
2003

Category

2004

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

100.5

100.8

101.5

102.2

103.0

103.7

104.1

103.4

103.9

103.4

103.8

104.5

104.8

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...…………… 121.4
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages…............. 122.8
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products…… 107.5

122.4
123.8
108.5

123.1
124.6
109.5

125.6
127.2
110.7

130.5
132.4
112.1

134.8
137.0
113.4

135.6
138.0
112.7

129.1
131.1
110.7

128.0
129.9
110.1

116.5
117.0
110.9

118.7
119.3
112.9

117.3
117.6
114.3

117.6
117.8
115.0

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 101.7

102.5

105.1

106.4

108.1

109.1

110.2

109.9

112.0

113.1

113.9

116.5

117.5

117.5

118.6

116.6

117.2

114.8

113.7

110.7

109.0

108.4

109.4

108.7

107.1

ALL COMMODITIES……………...................................

Nov.

Agricultural industrial supplies and materials….......

119.0

Fuels and lubricants…...............................…………
Nonagricultural supplies and materials,
excluding fuel and building materials…………...…
Selected building materials…...............................…

96.4

99.0

106.1

106.5

108.9

109.6

117.5

114.9

118.6

120.4

120.8

130.9

129.1

101.7
99.1

102.5
99.5

104.7
98.7

106.4
100.9

108.1
102.3

109.4
103.4

109.9
103.9

110.0
103.4

112.4
102.8

113.5
103.3

114.3
104.0

116.4
103.8

118.1
103.7

Capital goods……………...…………………………….… 97.3
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........ 101.7
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................……… 93.9

97.5
101.7
94.1

97.5
102.0
93.9

97.8
101.9
94.3

98.0
102.0
94.5

98.1
101.7
94.6

98.1
101.7
94.6

97.8
102.0
94.1

97.8
102.2
94.0

97.8
102.2
94.0

97.9
102.3
93.9

98.3
103.0
94.3

98.4
103.2
94.3

101.9

101.8

101.9

102.0

101.9

102.2

102.3

102.3

102.4

102.6

102.5

102.8

102.8

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………... 100.0
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 99.4
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 100.3

99.9
99.2
100.3

100.2
99.9
100.1

100.1
99.9
100.0

100.2
99.9
100.1

100.4
100.1
100.5

100.5
100.1
100.6

100.4
100.0
100.7

100.9
100.8
100.8

101.1
101.0
101.0

101.0
101.0
100.9

100.8
100.6
100.4

100.9
100.9
100.5

122.2
98.8

122.7
99.1

123.5
99.8

125.3
100.4

129.7
100.9

133.0
101.4

133.7
101.7

127.4
101.5

126.1
102.2

115.5
102.5

117.5
102.8

116.0
103.7

115.9
104.1

Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

Agricultural commodities……………...…………………
Nonagricultural commodities……………...……………

46. U.S. import price indexes by end-use category
[2000 = 100]
2003

Category

Nov.

2004
July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

96.8

97.5

99.0

99.4

100.2

100.4

101.9

101.7

102.1

103.6

104.1

105.8

106.0

Foods, feeds, and beverages……………...…………… 102.4
Agricultural foods, feeds, and beverages…............. 109.7
Nonagricultural (fish, beverages) food products……
86.0

103.2
110.9
86.0

103.7
112.0
85.1

105.3
113.4
87.2

105.9
113.0
90.1

107.2
114.2
91.7

106.8
114.0
90.6

106.9
114.3
90.3

107.5
114.5
91.8

107.3
114.1
92.3

108.7
116.5
91.4

110.0
118.5
91.0

110.3
119.2
90.5

Industrial supplies and materials……………...………… 100.7

103.6

108.5

110.0

112.7

113.9

119.7

119.3

120.6

126.6

128.4

135.0

135.0

Fuels and lubricants…...............................………… 102.0
Petroleum and petroleum products…………...…… 100.9

107.2
106.0

116.5
113.7

117.0
114.3

120.2
120.1

120.6
119.9

131.0
131.2

130.9
129.7

133.2
132.7

143.4
144.4

146.0
148.8

161.2
166.1

160.9
161.8

Paper and paper base stocks…...............................
93.9
Materials associated with nondurable
supplies and materials…...............................……… 104.2
Selected building materials…...............................… 108.1
96.4
Unfinished metals associated with durable goods…
Nonmetals associated with durable goods…...........
98.1

93.9

94.1

94.2

95.6

96.8

98.2

99.0

100.0

100.4

101.2

101.4

101.1

104.4
108.0
99.2
98.2

104.7
106.8
104.5
98.5

104.8
113.7
109.5
99.2

105.4
118.4
114.9
99.3

105.1
120.2
121.7
99.3

105.4
123.6
126.2
99.1

106.0
120.5
124.4
98.7

106.5
117.6
126.1
98.5

107.7
124.0
129.8
98.5

108.0
125.6
133.1
98.7

108.6
115.3
134.3
98.7

109.4
110.9
136.5
99.1

93.3
96.5
91.6

92.9
96.8
91.1

93.1
97.4
91.2

93.1
97.9
91.2

93.1
97.8
91.2

92.6
97.2
90.6

92.6
97.1
90.5

92.2
97.0
90.1

92.2
97.5
90.0

92.1
97.7
89.9

92.0
97.4
89.8

91.7
97.3
89.5

91.9
97.4
89.6

101.2

101.4

101.6

101.7

101.8

102.0

102.0

102.2

102.3

102.5

102.7

103.1

103.3

Consumer goods, excluding automotive……………...
98.1
Nondurables, manufactured…...............................… 100.0
Durables, manufactured…………...………..........…… 96.2
Nonmanufactured consumer goods…………...……
95.8

98.1
100.1
96.2
96.2

98.6
101.1
96.3
95.9

98.7
101.2
96.3
96.2

98.7
101.3
96.3
96.4

98.6
101.1
96.3
96.4

98.5
101.0
96.0
97.3

98.5
100.9
96.1
96.8

98.5
101.0
95.9
97.4

98.4
100.9
95.9
97.9

98.4
100.8
95.9
97.9

98.4
100.7
96.0
97.9

98.5
100.8
96.1
98.0

ALL COMMODITIES……………...................................

Capital goods……………...…………………………….…
Electric and electrical generating equipment…........
Nonelectrical machinery…...............................………
Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines……………...

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

Nov.

47. U.S. international price Indexes for selected categories of services
[2000 = 100, unless indicated otherwise]
Category

2002
Sept.

2003
Dec.

Mar.

June

2004

Sept.

Dec.

Mar.

June

Sept.

Air freight (inbound)…………….....................................
Air freight (outbound)……………...………………………

100.3
97.3

105.9
95.4

108.8
97.2

109.4
95.4

112.5
95.5

112.9
94.9

116.2
96.1

116.6
99.0

118.7
100.7

Inbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 = 100)…………
Outbound air passenger fares (Dec. 2003 = 100))….....
Ocean liner freight (inbound)…………...………..........…

–
–
93.5

–
–
93.3

–
–
94.0

–
–
116.1

–
–
116.2

100.0
100.0
117.7

105.1
99.3
119.1

106.1
114.2
121.1

110.1
114.2
120.3

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

107

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

48. Indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, and unit costs, quarterly data seasonally adjusted
[1992 = 100]

2001

Item

2002

2003

2004

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

118.8
140.4
113.2
118.2
110.2
115.2

120.9
141.5
114.2
117.0
113.1
115.6

122.7
143.2
115.2
116.7
113.4
115.5

123.2
144.4
115.2
117.2
113.6
115.9

124.7
145.0
115.0
116.3
115.7
116.1

125.0
145.5
114.8
116.3
116.8
116.5

126.2
147.4
115.3
116.8
117.7
117.1

128.6
149.6
116.8
116.4
119.0
117.3

131.2
151.7
117.7
115.6
120.8
117.5

132.0
153.2
118.7
116.0
120.7
117.8

133.3
154.2
118.4
115.7
122.9
118.4

134.2
155.9
118.3
116.1
124.8
119.4

135.0
157.3
118.9
116.6
124.8
119.6

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

118.5
139.6
112.5
117.8
111.9
115.6

120.4
140.7
113.5
116.8
114.7
116.0

122.4
142.6
114.7
116.4
115.1
116.0

122.8
143.8
114.7
117.1
115.4
116.5

124.1
144.3
114.4
116.2
117.7
116.8

124.6
144.7
114.3
116.1
118.9
117.2

125.8
146.6
114.7
116.6
119.6
117.7

127.8
148.7
116.1
116.3
120.4
117.8

130.6
150.9
117.1
115.5
122.3
118.0

131.7
152.5
118.2
115.9
121.9
118.1

132.8
153.3
117.7
115.4
124.3
118.7

134.1
155.2
117.8
115.7
126.1
119.6

134.7
156.5
118.3
116.2
126.6
120.0

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

123.0
137.9
111.1
112.8
112.1
114.7
79.4
105.2
109.8

123.9
126.3
139.3
139.9
112.5
112.6
113.4
111.6
112.4 1,110.8
116.2
114.0
75.8
89.1
105.4
107.4
110.1
109.6

127.9
141.3
112.7
111.2
110.5
112.9
94.7
108.1
109.7

129.2
142.1
112.7
110.7
110.0
112.7
95.7
108.2
109.4

130.2
142.9
112.8
110.4
109.7
112.3
101.8
109.5
109.6

131.3
144.1
112.7
110.7
109.8
113.2
99.2
109.4
109.7

134.1
146.3
114.2
109.7
109.1
111.4
111.0
111.3
109.8

137.2
148.5
115.3
109.0
108.2
111.1
118.7
113.1
109.9

138.9
150.0
116.2
108.7
108.0
110.5
123.2
113.9
110.0

138.9
150.9
115.9
108.8
108.6
109.5
128.1
114.5
110.6

140.1
152.9
116.1
109.4
109.2
109.9
134.3
116.4
111.6

141.5
154.4
116.7
109.4
109.1
110.3
134.6
116.8
111.7

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………

136.9
137.3
110.6
100.3

140.4
139.4
112.5
99.3

145.7
147.0
117.2
100.8

147.8
148.6
117.8
100.5

148.8
149.9
118.3
100.7

151.0
155.7
121.8
103.1

152.1
158.5
123.8
104.2

155.9
161.6
125.4
103.6

157.2
163.9
127.0
104.2

158.3
162.2
124.5
102.5

161.5
163.7
124.3
101.4

163.2
165.5
125.0
101.4

Business

108

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

143.8
144.1
115.9
100.2

49. Annual indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures, selected years
[1996 = 100]
Item

1980

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Private business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons......…………….............
75.8
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 103.3
88.8
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
59.4
Output…...............................………………………….……
Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
71.9
57.6
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
67.0
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
73.4
Capital per hour of all persons.......................……………

90.2
99.7
95.5
83.6

91.3
96.5
94.5
82.6

94.8
98.0
96.7
85.7

95.4
98.7
97.1
88.5

96.6
100.4
98.2
92.8

97.3
99.8
98.4
95.8

102.2
100.3
101.2
105.2

105.0
99.3
102.5
110.5

107.7
98.2
103.4
115.7

111.0
96.6
105.0
120.4

112.4
92.8
103.9
120.2

89.4
83.8
87.5
90.4

88.3
85.7
87.4
94.6

89.3
87.5
88.7
96.8

91.8
89.7
91.1
96.6

95.6
92.5
94.6
96.2

98.0
96.0
97.3
97.5

103.5
104.9
104.0
101.9

106.1
111.3
107.9
105.8

109.0
117.9
110.9
109.7

110.1
124.5
114.7
114.8

109.5
129.6
115.7
121.1

90.3
100.4
95.8
83.5

91.4
97.0
94.8
82.5

94.8
98.2
96.7
85.5

95.3
99.0
97.2
88.4

96.5
100.4
98.2
92.6

97.5
100.0
98.6
95.8

102.0
100.0
101.0
105.1

104.7
99.0
102.2
110.5

107.1
97.6
102.9
115.7

110.3
95.9
104.4
120.2

111.6
92.0
103.3
120.1

89.2
83.2
87.2
89.9

87.9
85.1
87.0
94.3

89.0
87.0
88.4
96.5

91.8
89.4
91.0
96.3

95.4
92.2
94.3
96.1

97.8
95.8
97.2
97.6

103.6
105.1
104.1
101.9

106.4
111.7
108.1
105.8

109.5
118.5
112.4
109.7

110.6
125.4
115.2
115.0

110.1
130.5
116.3
121.3

62.0
97.2
81.2
64.3

82.2
97.5
93.3
83.2

84.1
93.6
92.4
81.5

88.6
95.9
94.0
85.5

90.2
96.9
95.1
88.3

93.0
99.7
97.3
92.9

96.5
100.6
99.2
96.9

103.8
101.4
103.1
105.6

108.9
101.7
105.7
110.5

114.0
101.7
108.7
114.7

118.3
101.0
111.3
117.4

119.7
95.1
110.3
112.1

103.7
66.1
86.1
63.9
65.8
79.2

101.1
85.3
93.1
77.5
84.7
89.1

96.9
87.1
93.2
78.5
84.6
88.3

96.5
89.1
93.1
83.5
92.0
90.9

97.8
91.1
96.6
86.5
92.9
92.8

99.9
93.2
99.9
90.3
96.0
95.5

100.4
96.4
102.3
93.1
100.4
97.7

101.7
104.1
97.5
101.9
103.9
102.4

101.5
108.7
100.6
107.5
103.1
104.6

100.7
112.8
102.9
107.9
105.4
105.5

99.2
116.2
104.3
106.9
106.5
105.5

99.6
117.9
98.9
105.5
97.7
101.6

Private nonfarm business
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons........……………………… 77.3
Output per unit of capital services……………………… 107.6
91.0
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
59.6
Output…...............................………………………….……
Inputs:
Labor input...................................................................
70.7
55.4
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
65.5
Combined units of labor and capital input………………
Capital per hour of all persons......………………………… 71.8
Manufacturing
Productivity:
Output per hour of all persons...…………………………
Output per unit of capital services………………………
Multifactor productivity……………………………………
Output…...............................………………………….……
Inputs:
Hours of all persons.....................................................
Capital services…………...………..........………….……
Energy……………….………........................................
Nonenergy materials....................................................
Purchased business services......................................
Combined units of all factor inputs…………...………...

Monthly Labor Review

January

2005

109

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

50. Annual indexes of productivity, hourly compensation, unit costs, and prices, selected years
[1992 = 100]
Item

1960

1970

1980

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

48.7
13.8
60.5
28.4
24.9
27.1

66.0
23.5
78.4
35.6
31.5
34.1

79.0
54.0
88.9
68.4
61.3
65.8

94.4
90.5
96.1
95.9
93.9
95.1

101.7
106.0
98.9
104.3
108.2
105.7

104.5
109.5
99.5
104.8
111.9
107.4

106.5
113.0
100.5
106.1
113.9
109.0

109.3
119.7
105.0
109.5
109.9
109.7

112.4
125.4
107.8
111.6
109.2
110.7

115.7
134.2
111.6
116.0
107.2
112.7

118.3
139.7
113.0
118.1
109.5
114.9

124.0
147.8
113.7
115.2
117.0
115.8

129.6
147.9
115.1
114.1
123.0
117.4

Nonfarm business
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

51.6
14.4
63.0
27.9
24.3
26.6

67.7
23.6
78.8
34.9
31.1
33.5

80.3
54.2
89.2
67.5
60.4
64.9

94.4
90.3
95.9
95.6
93.6
94.9

102.1
106.0
98.9
103.8
109.2
105.8

104.7
109.4
99.4
104.5
112.1
107.3

106.4
112.8
100.3
106.0
114.6
109.1

109.2
119.4
104.7
109.3
110.9
109.9

112.2
124.9
107.3
111.3
110.8
111.1

115.3
133.7
111.2
116.0
108.8
113.3

117.8
138.9
112.4
118.0
111.1
115.4

123.6
142.1
113.2
115.0
119.0
116.4

129.1
147.0
114.4
113.9
124.8
117.9

Nonfinancial corporations
Output per hour of all employees...................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Total unit costs…...............................……………………
Unit labor costs............................................................
Unit nonlabor costs......................................................
Unit profits......................................................................
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

56.6
16.1
70.3
26.9
28.4
23.0
49.5
30.1
28.9

70.4
25.6
85.3
35.1
36.3
31.7
43.7
34.9
35.9

81.0
57.0
93.8
68.8
70.4
64.5
66.5
65.1
68.6

95.5
91.0
96.7
95.4
95.3
97.1
96.7
97.0
95.9

103.4
105.4
98.3
101.8
102.0
101.3
136.9
110.8
104.9

107.1
108.4
98.5
100.9
101.2
99.9
149.9
113.3
105.3

109.8
111.7
99.3
101.2
101.7
99.8
154.4
114.4
105.9

112.8
117.9
103.4
103.2
104.5
99.9
137.5
109.9
106.3

116.4
123.3
105.9
104.6
106.0
101.0
129.8
108.7
106.9

120.6
131.7
109.5
108.0
109.2
104.8
109.3
106.1
108.1

122.7
137.0
110.8
111.2
111.6
110.2
91.4
105.2
109.5

128.9
140.1
111.5
109.4
108.6
111.5
111.4
111.5
109.6

136.3
145.9
113.5
107.4
107.0
108.4
134.2
115.3
109.8

Manufacturing
Output per hour of all persons.......................................
Compensation per hour…………………………….………
Real compensation per hour………………………………
Unit labor costs…...............................……………………
Unit nonlabor payments…………...………..........………
Implicit price deflator………………………………………

41.8
14.9
65.0
35.6
26.8
30.2

54.2
23.7
79.2
43.8
29.3
35.0

70.1
55.6
91.4
79.3
80.2
79.9

92.9
90.1
95.7
97.0
101.1
99.5

110.1
107.7
100.5
97.8
107.6
103.9

113.9
109.9
99.8
96.5
110.4
105.2

117.9
112.0
99.7
95.0
110.5
104.6

123.5
118.8
104.2
96.2
104.1
101.1

128.2
123.8
106.3
96.6
105.0
101.8

134.2
135.0
112.3
100.6
107.0
104.6

137.1
138.3
111.8
100.8
105.8
103.9

147.1
143. 8
114.5
97.8
–
–

154.6
151.9
118.2
98.2
–
–

Dash indicates data not available.

110

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

51. Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

86.0
78.4
79.3
68.1
79.9
92.3

86.8
78.8
80.0
69.3
82.7
89.5

95.2
81.9
86.8
75.3
91.7
96.1

96.2
85.1
89.9
79.9
102.2
93.6

99.6
90.3
93.0
83.9
104.1
96.9

71.2
71.4

73.8
72.7

74.2
75.8

78.7
79.8

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

101.8
95.5
94.0
88.2
98.5
97.3

101.7
98.9
96.0
94.9
95.3
97.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.4
101.6
104.6
106.5
109.5
101.3

111.1
107.9
105.9
110.3
112.7
101.2

83.0
82.1

88.6
89.0

95.5
96.1

100.0
100.0

103.8
99.1

2000

2001

2002

109.5
115.2
106.8
115.8
124.4
96.2

107.7
117.4
109.0
114.4
131.8
99.3

112.3
119.3
111.7
112.2
143.9
103.8

104.1
103.1

107.0
113.1

106.4
110.0

102.4
114.9

Mining
21
211
212
2121
2122
2123

Mining……………………………………………………
Oil and gas extraction…………………………………
Mining, except oil and gas……………………………
Coal mining……………………………………………
Metal ore mining………………………………………
Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying…………

2211
2212

Power generation and supply…………………………
Natural gas distribution………………………………

3111
3112
3113
3114
3115

Animal food……………………………………………
Grain and oilseed milling………………………………
Sugar and confectionery products……………………
Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty………
Dairy products…………………………………………

90.1
89.0
91.0
86.4
90.8

89.3
91.2
93.8
89.7
92.1

90.2
91.1
90.5
90.7
95.4

90.2
93.8
92.5
93.8
93.9

87.3
94.7
94.0
94.9
95.4

94.0
99.1
94.3
97.1
98.7

87.5
91.3
98.2
98.2
98.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

109.4
107.5
104.0
106.8
99.1

109.5
114.2
107.1
108.4
94.5

109.7
112.5
111.9
109.8
96.0

127.2
117.3
109.9
117.0
96.2

–
–
–
–
–

3116
3117
3118
3119
3121

Animal slaughtering and processing………………… 94.5
Seafood product preparation and packaging……… 117.5
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing…………………
92.6
Other food products…………………………………… 91.9
Beverages……………………………………………… 86.5

96.8
112.0
92.3
93.5
90.1

101.5
115.3
95.6
95.9
93.8

100.9
113.9
96.0
102.8
93.2

97.4
114.1
96.7
100.3
97.7

98.5
108.4
99.7
101.3
99.6

94.3
116.2
97.7
103.0
101.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.9
117.0
103.8
106.9
98.5

100.3
130.2
105.4
108.8
92.4

101.9
137.6
105.3
110.2
90.6

102.7
147.3
106.3
103.2
91.7

–
–
–
–
–

3122
3131
3132
3133
3141

Tobacco and tobacco products………………………
Fiber, yarn, and thread mills…………………………
Fabric mills……………………………………………
Textile and fabric finishing mills………………………
Textile furnishings mills………………………………

81.4
73.9
75.0
81.7
88.2

77.3
74.7
77.7
80.4
88.6

79.6
80.1
81.5
83.7
93.0

73.7
84.6
85.0
86.0
93.7

89.8
87.2
91.9
87.8
90.1

97.5
92.0
95.8
84.5
92.5

99.4
98.7
98.0
85.0
93.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.1
102.2
103.9
100.6
99.9

92.1
104.6
109.8
101.7
101.2

98.0
102.6
110.2
104.0
106.8

100.0
110.5
109.1
109.7
106.9

3149
3151
3152
3159
3161

Other textile product millsv
91.1
Apparel knitting mills…………………………………
85.6
Cut and sew apparel…………………………………
70.1
Accessories and other apparel……………………… 100.9
Leather and hide tanning and finishing……………
60.8

90.0
88.7
72.0
97.3
56.6

92.0
93.2
73.1
98.7
76.7

90.3
102.5
76.6
99.0
83.1

94.5
104.3
80.5
104.6
75.9

95.9
109.5
85.5
112.4
78.6

96.3
121.9
90.5
112.6
91.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.0
96.6
104.0
110.8
98.0

110.4
102.0
118.8
103.3
101.6

110.4
110.2
127.7
104.9
110.0

105.0
108.4
131.7
114.8
109.7

–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

3162
3169
3211
3212
3219

Footwear………………………………………………
77.1
Other leather products………………………………… 102.5
Sawmills and wood preservation……………………
79.2
Plywood and engineered wood products…………… 102.3
Other wood products………………………………… 105.4

74.7
100.2
81.6
107.4
104.7

83.1
97.0
86.1
114.7
104.0

81.7
94.3
82.6
108.9
103.0

90.4
80.0
85.1
105.8
99.3

95.6
73.2
91.0
101.8
100.4

103.4
79.7
96.2
101.2
100.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.9
109.2
100.8
105.6
101.5

116.8
100.4
105.4
99.9
105.4

124.1
107.6
106.5
100.5
104.0

142.7
114.1
109.0
105.0
104.6

–
–
–
–
–

3221
3222
3231
3241
3251

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills…………………
Converted paper products……………………………
Printing and related support activities………………
Petroleum and coal products…………………………
Basic chemicals………………………………………

88.5
90.5
96.6
76.7
91.4

88.1
93.5
95.4
75.8
90.1

92.3
93.7
101.3
78.9
89.4

92.9
96.3
100.1
84.5
89.9

97.6
97.6
98.3
85.6
95.1

102.0
97.2
98.8
90.1
92.3

97.6
98.3
99.6
94.8
90.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.1
102.7
100.5
102.1
102.5

111.4
101.5
103.5
107.8
114.7

115.7
101.9
104.9
113.2
118.4

117.5
101.0
105.6
112.2
111.0

–
–
–
–
–

3252
3253
3254
3255
3256

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers……………………
Agricultural chemicals…………………………………
Pharmaceuticals and medicines……………………
Paints, coatings, and adhesives……………………
Soap, cleaning compounds, and toiletries…………

75.8
84.6
91.4
85.1
83.2

74.7
81.0
92.6
85.9
84.2

80.6
81.3
88.2
87.6
83.4

83.8
85.6
88.1
90.9
86.9

93.5
87.4
92.4
94.1
88.6

95.9
90.7
96.3
92.7
93.9

93.3
92.1
99.9
98.3
95.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.5
98.8
92.9
99.1
96.6

108.8
87.6
94.6
98.8
91.1

108.1
91.4
93.4
98.5
99.2

103.8
91.1
97.4
102.1
102.7

3259
3261
3262
3271
3272

Other chemical products and preparations…………
Plastics products………………………………………
Rubber products………………………………………
Clay products and refractories………………………
Glass and glass products……………………………

76.6
84.7
83.0
89.2
80.0

78.0
86.3
83.8
87.5
79.1

84.7
90.3
84.9
91.5
84.3

90.6
91.9
90.4
91.9
86.1

92.6
94.4
90.3
96.6
87.5

94.4
94.5
92.8
97.4
88.8

94.2
97.0
94.4
102.6
96.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

99.4
103.5
100.5
101.3
102.7

109.2
109.3
101.4
103.5
108.6

120.0
111.2
103.9
103.6
109.7

111.3
113.3
104.2
97.6
105.2

–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

3273
3274
3279
3311
3312

Cement and concrete products………………………
Lime and gypsum products…………………………
Other nonmetallic mineral products…………………
Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production………
Steel products from purchased steel………………

94.8
84.1
79.8
69.6
83.8

93.7
82.7
81.4
67.2
86.4

94.8
88.5
90.2
74.1
89.9

96.5
90.1
89.3
81.7
95.9

95.0
87.8
90.5
87.2
100.0

98.2
88.8
91.7
89.7
100.5

100.6
92.4
96.5
94.1
100.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.5
113.1
98.8
101.7
100.3

104.1
102.7
95.5
106.5
94.2

100.4
97.0
95.6
108.5
96.4

97.1
100.1
96.8
106.7
97.1

–
–
–
–
–

3313
3314
3315
3321
3322

Alumina and aluminum production…………………
Other nonferrous metal production…………………
Foundries………………………………………………
Forging and stamping…………………………………
Cutlery and hand tools………………………………

91.9
95.6
85.3
88.6
85.1

93.3
95.8
84.5
86.5
85.4

96.8
98.8
85.8
91.7
87.2

96.0
101.8
89.8
94.6
91.7

100.3
105.1
91.4
93.7
94.4

96.8
102.9
93.1
94.2
97.8

95.9
105.7
96.2
97.6
104.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.1
111.2
101.6
103.7
100.0

104.3
108.9
104.9
110.9
107.8

97.8
103.1
104.0
121.3
105.8

96.9
100.5
109.3
121.8
110.2

–
–
–
–
–

3323
3324
3325
3326
3327

Architectural and structural metals…………………
Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers……………
Hardware………………………………………………
Spring and wire products……………………………
Machine shops and threaded products……………

87.8
90.4
84.4
85.2
78.8

89.1
92.6
83.8
88.4
79.8

92.5
95.3
86.9
90.9
87.2

93.4
94.8
89.6
95.3
86.9

95.1
100.5
95.7
91.5
91.6

93.9
97.8
97.3
99.5
98.7

94.2
100.7
102.6
102.8
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.1
101.3
101.0
111.6
99.3

101.8
98.9
106.5
112.9
103.9

101.0
97.7
115.8
114.6
107.2

100.7
98.2
114.6
110.6
107.2

–
–
–
–
–

Utilities

Manufacturing

Monthly Labor Review

January

2005

111

Current Labor Statistics:

Productivity Data

51. Continued–Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

3328
3329
3331
3332
3333

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals………
Other fabricated metal products……………………
Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery
Industrial machinery……………………………………
Commercial and service industry machinery………

81.6
86.7
82.8
80.6
91.4

78.1
85.9
77.2
81.1
89.6

86.9
90.6
79.6
79.5
96.5

91.9
92.1
84.1
84.9
101.7

96.5
95.0
91.0
90.0
101.2

102.8
97.1
95.6
97.9
103.0

102.9
98.9
95.9
98.8
106.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
102.3
104.2
94.4
107.5

101.5
100.2
95.0
105.2
111.2

105.9
100.8
101.0
129.7
101.4

105.1
98.2
99.5
104.6
94.4

-

3334
3335
3336
3339

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment
Metalworking machinery………………………………
Turbine and power transmission equipment………
Other general purpose machinery……………………

88.8
85.3
85.1
85.9

88.2
82.3
84.6
85.2

90.8
89.3
81.2
85.1

93.8
89.3
84.8
89.8

97.3
94.0
93.3
91.5

96.6
99.1
92.1
94.6

97.8
98.1
97.9
95.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.6
99.1
106.4
103.2

110.4
100.5
113.3
105.6

108.3
106.4
117.1
113.0

110.8
102.0
130.2
109.4

-

3341

Computer and peripheral equipment………………

14.3

15.8

20.6

27.9

35.9

51.3

72.6

100.0

138.6

190.3

225.4

237.0

-

3342
3343
3344
3345
3346

Communications equipment…………………………
Audio and video equipment…………………………
Semiconductors and electronic components………
Electronic instruments…………………………………
Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction

47.3
75.5
21.4
76.0
86.6

49.3
82.8
24.5
80.5
91.2

59.3
92.1
29.6
83.1
93.0

62.1
98.8
34.1
85.8
96.8

70.1
108.5
43.1
88.8
106.1

74.6
140.0
63.4
96.8
106.7

84.3
104.7
81.8
97.7
103.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
103.1
125.2
101.3
105.4

134.0
116.2
174.5
105.1
106.8

165.5
123.3
233.3
114.3
104.0

155.2
126.3
231.6
116.1
98.6

-

3351
3352
3353
3359
3361

Electric lighting equipment……………………………
Household appliances…………………………………
Electrical equipment……………………………………
Other electrical equipment and components………
Motor vehicles…………………………………………

87.3
76.4
73.6
75.3
86.0

88.5
76.4
72.7
74.2
82.4

93.6
82.4
78.9
81.6
91.2

90.8
88.9
85.8
86.8
89.8

94.5
95.0
89.0
89.4
90.3

92.2
92.7
98.1
92.0
88.6

95.6
93.1
100.2
96.0
91.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

103.8
105.1
99.8
105.5
113.3

102.5
104.3
98.9
114.8
123.3

101.9
117.5
100.6
120.5
110.4

105.4
122.6
101.0
113.5
108.7

-

3362
3363
3364
3365
3366

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers……………………
Motor vehicle parts……………………………………
Aerospace products and parts………………………
Railroad rolling stock…………………………………
Ship and boat building…………………………………

75.8
75.7
87.7
77.2
99.6

71.8
74.5
92.1
80.0
92.6

88.3
82.4
94.1
81.1
98.5

96.3
88.5
98.2
82.3
101.3

97.7
91.8
93.8
83.1
99.0

97.3
92.3
93.7
82.0
93.1

98.4
93.1
98.1
80.9
94.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

102.7
104.8
118.5
102.9
100.3

103.1
110.4
118.0
116.0
112.2

98.4
112.7
101.0
117.7
120.1

99.4
114.8
114.7
124.7
119.8

-

3369
3371
3372
3379
3391
3399

Other transportation equipment………………………
Household and institutional furniture…………………
Office furniture and fixtures…………………………
Other furniture-related products……………………
Medical equipment and supplies……………………
Other miscellaneous manufacturing…………………

62.6
87.6
80.8
88.1
81.2
90.1

62.0
88.2
78.8
88.6
83.1
90.6

88.4
92.9
86.2
88.4
88.1
90.0

99.8
93.8
87.9
90.5
91.1
92.3

93.4
94.1
83.4
93.6
90.8
93.0

93.1
97.1
84.3
94.5
95.0
96.0

99.8
99.5
85.6
96.7
100.0
99.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

110.8
102.7
100.1
107.2
108.9
101.9

113.3
103.7
98.5
102.5
109.6
105.2

130.9
102.5
100.2
100.1
114.2
112.9

146.9
106.1
97.1
105.3
119.0
110.9

-

42
423
4231
4232
4233

Wholesale trade
Wholesale trade………………………………………
77.8
Durable goods…………………………………………
65.7
Motor vehicles and parts……………………………… 76.6
Furniture and furnishings……………………………
82.4
Lumber and construction supplies…………………… 115.0

79.1
66.1
73.3
87.2
113.2

86.2
75.0
82.2
92.0
119.6

89.5
80.5
88.0
95.8
113.9

91.3
84.5
94.1
93.3
111.9

93.3
88.9
93.6
96.8
103.6

96.2
94.0
94.9
97.0
103.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.4
105.6
104.7
97.5
102.9

110.9
115.3
119.8
100.8
104.8

114.1
119.6
114.0
105.5
101.7

117.1
120.3
114.1
105.4
108.6

123.6
127.7
121.7
101.8
119.2

4234
4235
4236
4237
4238

Commercial equipment………………………………
33.8
Metals and minerals…………………………………… 101.6
Electric goods…………………………………………
46.8
Hardware and plumbing……………………………… 88.8
Machinery and supplies………………………………
78.9

37.3
102.6
47.6
86.5
74.2

48.2
109.1
51.4
95.6
79.7

56.2
111.7
59.1
94.3
84.3

60.5
110.1
68.2
101.3
85.4

74.7
101.2
79.3
98.0
89.7

88.4
102.7
87.8
99.1
93.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

118.2
102.4
105.9
103.5
104.2

141.1
96.0
126.2
107.8
101.4

148.9
99.2
151.7
111.1
104.1

164.9
102.2
148.1
102.6
102.7

189.4
102.2
161.2
107.9
100.2

4239
424
4241
4242
4243

Miscellaneous durable goods………………………… 89.5
Nondurable goods……………………………………
98.4
Paper and paper products…………………………… 81.0
Druggists' goods………………………………………
81.8
Apparel and piece goods…………………………… 103.9

96.6
99.8
85.5
86.6
103.3

112.1
103.2
96.5
91.8
100.1

113.2
103.0
97.2
89.3
97.7

106.1
101.8
101.5
92.8
103.8

99.2
99.7
99.0
95.4
92.2

101.0
99.2
96.5
98.3
99.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.8
102.8
100.4
99.6
104.1

112.6
104.1
105.5
101.7
103.5

116.7
103.5
105.5
96.8
102.7

116.1
106.9
109.0
101.2
102.4

125.5
112.6
120.2
116.0
111.5

4244
4245
4246
4247
4248

Grocery and related products………………………… 96.4
Farm product raw materials…………………………
80.6
Chemicals……………………………………………… 107.3
Petroleum………………………………………………
97.3
Alcoholic beverages…………………………………… 109.4

98.2
85.9
106.6
107.0
111.2

103.6
85.9
112.5
118.3
107.4

105.1
84.0
110.0
119.1
105.6

103.3
80.4
110.5
115.8
105.9

103.0
87.7
102.1
108.7
102.5

99.8
90.6
100.0
105.9
104.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.9
100.4
99.3
115.0
109.7

103.6
114.2
98.0
112.0
110.1

105.2
119.0
95.8
112.5
111.0

109.4
120.0
93.6
116.5
111.6

111.8
135.4
96.9
126.0
117.3

4249
425
42511
42512

Miscellaneous nondurable goods…………………… 107.3
Electronic markets and agents and brokers………
70.7
Business to business electronic markets…………… 70.4
Wholesale trade agents and brokers………………
70.8

98.2
73.6
72.6
74.0

93.9
81.5
80.3
82.3

97.5
85.9
84.8
86.8

94.8
88.0
88.3
88.4

96.2
91.1
90.5
91.8

98.7
95.7
95.3
96.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
104.6
103.5
104.8

99.6
114.4
121.7
110.5

106.2
124.1
141.3
115.7

104.2
131.3
169.4
114.2

97.0
132.6
205.0
109.3

44-45
441
4411
4412
4413

Retail trade
Retail trade……………………………………………
Motor vehicle and parts dealers………………………
Automobile dealers……………………………………
Other motor vehicle dealers…………………………
Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores……………

83.2
89.7
92.1
69.0
85.0

83.3
88.3
90.8
71.7
84.0

86.8
92.6
94.8
78.3
89.1

89.4
94.0
96.0
84.1
90.6

92.8
96.9
98.0
90.2
95.4

94.7
97.0
97.2
91.0
97.9

97.7
98.8
98.9
97.7
98.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.3
102.7
102.7
105.9
105.7

110.3
106.4
106.4
113.0
110.0

114.2
107.2
106.6
108.6
112.0

117.4
110.0
109.1
112.6
109.3

122.7
109.7
106.0
116.4
115.8

442
4421
4422
443
444

Furniture and home furnishings stores………………
Furniture stores………………………………………
Home furnishings stores………………………………
Electronics and appliance stores……………………
Building material and garden supply stores…………

80.7
82.1
78.5
46.0
81.8

81.1
83.5
77.6
49.2
80.2

88.1
89.0
86.8
56.9
84.0

88.3
89.0
87.2
65.5
88.0

90.4
88.9
92.1
77.6
93.7

94.1
92.5
95.9
89.2
93.7

99.4
97.8
101.3
95.0
97.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.7
102.1
101.3
122.9
106.7

109.6
108.2
111.4
152.2
112.3

115.7
114.8
116.8
177.7
113.1

118.5
121.1
115.6
199.1
115.8

125.1
128.6
121.4
240.0
119.9

112

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

51. Continued - Annual indexes of output per hour for selected NAICS industries, 1990-2002
[1997=100]
NAICS

Industry

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

4441
4442
445
4451
4452

Building material and supplies dealers……………… 83.2
Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores
74.5
Food and beverage stores…………………………… 107.1
Grocery stores………………………………………… 106.5
Specialty food stores………………………………… 122.9

80.7
77.5
106.6
106.6
115.0

84.7
80.2
106.9
106.7
111.4

89.1
81.5
105.4
105.9
107.6

94.8
86.9
104.3
104.9
104.5

94.8
87.0
102.5
103.0
101.1

97.6
97.1
100.3
100.8
95.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107.6
101.2
99.9
100.3
95.0

4453

Beer, wine and liquor stores…………………………

100.1

100.2

101.0

94.4

92.9

96.2

103.1

100.0

446
447
448

Health and personal care stores……………………
Gasoline stations………………………………………
Clothing and clothing accessories stores……………

92.0
84.8
69.5

91.6
85.7
70.5

90.7
88.5
75.3

91.9
92.8
78.9

91.8
96.8
83.3

93.0
99.7
91.2

95.7
99.4
97.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

4481

Clothing stores…………………………………………

68.9

71.4

77.1

79.2

81.9

90.1

97.1

4482
4483
451
4511
4512

Shoe stores……………………………………………
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores………
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores...
Sporting goods and musical instrument stores….
Book, periodical, and music stores…………………

73.7
68.6
80.8
77.1
89.0

73.1
64.5
85.6
82.8
91.8

78.2
65.0
83.8
79.8
92.5

79.2
77.1
84.0
80.6
91.6

88.3
85.0
87.2
83.9
94.5

93.7
94.1
93.0
92.3
94.5

452
4521
4529
453
4531

General merchandise stores…………………………
Department stores……………………………………
Other general merchandise stores…………………
Miscellaneous store retailers…………………………
Florists…………………………………………………

75.3
84.0
61.4
70.6
75.1

79.0
88.3
64.8
68.0
75.9

83.0
91.6
69.7
74.2
85.1

88.5
95.0
77.8
79.1
91.4

90.6
95.1
82.6
87.0
85.4

4532
4533
4539
454
4541
4542
4543

Office supplies, stationery and gift stores…………
Used merchandise stores……………………………
Other miscellaneous store retailers…………………
Nonstore retailers………………………………………
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses………
Vending machine operators…………………………
Direct selling establishments…………………………

64.6
84.9
79.6
54.4
43.5
97.1
70.0

66.3
83.1
69.2
55.0
46.7
95.4
67.6

71.5
89.7
74.7
63.4
50.6
95.1
82.1

75.8
88.9
80.5
66.7
58.3
92.8
79.7

481
482111
48412
491

Transportation and warehousing
Air transportation………………………………………
Line-haul railroads……………………………………
General freight trucking, long-distance………………
U.S. Postal service……………………………………

77.5
69.8
88.5
96.1

78.2
75.3
92.4
95.8

81.4
82.3
97.5
96.5

5111
5112
51213
5151
5152
5171
5172
5175

Information
Newspaper, book, and directory publishers………
97.4
Software publishers…………………………………… 28.6
Motion picture and video exhibition………………… 109.4
Radio and television broadcasting…………………
96.1
Cable and other subscription programming………… 98.8
Wired telecommunications carriers…………………
64.8
Wireless telecommunications carriers……………… 76.3
Cable and other program distribution………………
99.1

96.1
30.6
108.9
97.8
94.3
68.4
73.8
94.3

52211

Finance and insurance
Commercial banking…………………………………

80.5

532111
53212

Real estate and rental and leasing
Passenger car rental…………………………………
Truck, trailer and RV rental and leasing……………

541213
54181

1999

2000

2001

2002

113.7
103.5
103.7
104.3
99.6

113.8
108.2
105.1
104.9
105.6

115.3
119.4
107.6
107.5
110.8

119.8
121.2
110.3
110.3
114.2

105.8

99.8

111.1

110.4

111.8

104.1
105.6
105.4

106.9
110.6
112.8

111.4
106.5
120.3

112.7
109.8
123.5

118.8
117.5
129.0

100.0

106.7

113.3

120.9

125.2

132.7

102.4
97.3
94.7
92.5
99.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.8
107.0
108.7
112.9
101.0

104.9
118.3
114.9
120.4
104.7

109.6
128.0
121.1
128.3
108.0

115.8
122.5
125.4
130.4
116.0

120.0
121.5
132.9
137.9
123.8

92.2
94.7
87.6
89.5
83.5

96.9
98.4
94.3
95.0
96.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.0
100.6
113.4
108.3
101.2

113.1
104.5
129.8
109.8
117.3

119.9
106.3
145.9
111.3
116.0

124.2
104.0
162.1
108.4
108.6

130.5
104.7
177.5
115.6
120.7

87.5
87.3
89.7
73.8
62.9
94.1
89.2

90.9
90.2
90.5
80.9
71.9
89.3
94.7

91.8
97.4
98.0
91.6
84.4
96.9
102.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

113.0
113.5
105.0
111.3
118.2
114.1
96.2

118.0
109.8
101.6
125.4
141.5
118.1
96.3

124.1
115.7
99.6
142.8
159.8
127.1
104.3

125.1
115.0
93.2
146.9
177.5
110.4
98.7

140.3
121.4
92.8
169.6
209.8
113.3
110.2

84.7
85.7
95.6
99.0

90.8
88.6
98.1
98.5

95.3
92.0
95.4
98.3

98.8
98.4
95.7
96.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

97.6
102.1
99.1
101.4

98.2
105.5
102.0
102.4

98.2
114.3
105.5
104.9

91.9
121.9
104.2
106.1

103.2
131.9
109.4
107.0

95.8
42.7
104.1
102.8
96.0
74.5
85.6
95.9

95.3
51.7
104.6
101.4
93.6
79.7
94.8
93.5

93.0
64.6
103.4
106.0
92.0
85.1
97.1
91.9

93.5
73.0
99.9
106.1
94.4
90.6
98.3
94.2

92.7
88.0
100.0
104.1
93.7
97.5
103.0
93.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.5
115.9
99.9
99.1
129.3
105.5
114.2
95.7

108.5
113.0
102.0
99.4
133.2
112.7
134.3
94.5

110.1
103.9
106.5
98.4
135.7
119.9
139.0
90.4

106.4
101.9
104.7
94.3
125.3
121.0
172.7
87.6

108.1
106.7
104.4
100.4
131.4
130.6
192.0
93.5

83.2

83.3

90.3

92.9

96.0

99.3

100.0

98.0

101.5

104.2

101.6

103.8

89.8
70.7

97.8
71.7

104.4
69.5

106.1
75.8

107.9
82.0

101.1
90.3

108.9
96.7

100.0
100.0

101.2
93.7

113.1
97.8

112.0
95.9

112.1
93.6

113.3
91.4

Tax preparation services……………………………… 92.4
Advertising agencies…………………………………… 105.0

84.7
99.7

99.5
111.9

119.1
111.3

119.9
106.8

96.2
101.4

92.1
102.1

100.0
100.0

105.1
95.8

99.2
110.1

91.8
116.6

78.2
116.7

92.1
123.9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

7211
722
7221
7222
7223
7224

Accomodation and food services
Traveler accommodations……………………………
Food services and drinking places…………………
Full-service restaurants………………………………
Limited-service eating places…………………………
Special food services…………………………………
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages………………

82.9
102.9
99.1
103.3
107.2
125.7

85.4
102.3
98.3
103.3
106.9
121.2

92.9
101.7
97.5
102.7
106.4
121.5

93.0
102.3
97.7
105.6
103.8
112.7

97.0
100.8
97.8
103.6
101.1
102.6

99.2
100.6
96.6
104.7
99.3
104.4

100.1
99.2
96.3
102.2
97.6
102.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101.2
100.0
102.4
102.1
100.0

103.6
101.1
99.2
102.5
106.0
99.4

107.7
103.5
100.8
105.1
111.7
100.4

102.0
103.7
100.8
106.6
108.4
98.2

104.1
104.9
102.0
107.1
108.1
107.2

8111
81211
81221
8123
81292

Other services (except public administration)
Automotive repair and maintenance………………… 92.8
Hair, nail and skin care services……………………
81.6
Funeral homes and funeral services………………… 96.1
Drycleaning and laundry services…………………… 95.6
Photofinishing………………………………………… 117.3

86.5
79.8
94.3
93.2
115.6

90.0
85.6
104.7
94.9
116.2

91.2
84.3
100.4
93.8
123.6

96.7
88.7
103.6
95.9
124.9

102.9
92.4
100.4
98.8
114.7

98.9
97.1
97.9
101.6
103.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.0
102.7
103.8
105.0
99.4

106.9
103.6
100.4
109.5
106.9

108.6
103.0
94.5
113.7
107.6

109.3
109.5
93.9
121.1
115.0

103.7
104.2
90.9
120.2
133.6

NOTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

Monthly Labor Review

January

2005

113

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

52. Unemployment rates, approximating U.S. concepts, in nine countries, quarterly data
seasonally adjusted
Annual average
Country

2002

2003

2002

II

2003

III

IV

I

II

III

2004

IV

I

II

United States………
Canada………………
Australia……………

5.8
7.0
6.4

6.0
6.9
6.1

5.8
6.9
6.4

5.7
7.0
6.3

5.9
6.9
6.2

5.8
6.7
6.2

6.1
6.9
6.2

6.1
7.2
6.1

5.9
6.8
5.8

5.6
6.7
5.7

5.6
6.6
5.6

Japan…………………

5.4

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.2

5.1

5.0

4.7

France………………

8.7

9.3

8.6

8.7

8.9

9.0

9.2

9.4

9.4

9.4

9.4

Germany……………

8.6

9.3

8.5

8.7

8.9

9.2

9.4

9.4

9.3

9.2

Italy1 …………………

9.1
5.1
5.2

8.8
5.8
5.0

9.2
5.0
5.2

9.1
5.1
5.2

9.0
5.2
5.1

9.0
5.2
5.1

8.8
5.6
5.0

8.7
5.8
5.0

8.6
6.2
4.9

8.6
6.6
4.8

Sweden2……………
United Kingdom……

9.9
–
6.8
4.8

1

Quarterly rates are for the first month of the quarter.

"Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series. For further

2

Preliminary data for 2003.

qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor
Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-2003 (Bureau of Labor

NOTE: Quarterly figures for France and Germany are calculated

Statistics, June 23, 2004), on the Internet at

by applying annual adjustment factors to current published data,

http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm.

and therefore should be viewed as less precise indicators of

Monthly and quarterly unemployment rates, updated monthly, are

unemployment under U.S. concepts than the annual figures. See

also on this site.

114

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

53. Annual data: employment status of the working-age population, approximating U.S. concepts, 10 countries
[Numbers in thousands]

Employment status and country

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

129,200
14,308
8,613
65,470
24,480
39,102
22,570
7,010
4,444
28,165

131,056
14,400
8,770
65,780
24,670
39,074
22,450
7,150
4,418
28,149

132,304
14,517
8,995
65,990
24,760
38,980
22,460
7,210
4,460
28,157

133,943
14,669
9,115
66,450
25,010
39,142
22,570
7,300
4,459
28,260

136,297
14,958
9,204
67,200
25,130
39,415
22,680
7,540
4,418
28,417

137,673
15,237
9,339
67,240
25,460
39,754
22,960
7,620
4,402
28,479

139,368
15,536
9,414
67,090
25,790
39,375
23,130
7,850
4,430
28,769

142,583
15,789
9,590
66,990
26,070
39,302
23,340
8,150
4,489
28,930

143,734
16,027
9,752
66,870
26,350
39,459
23,540
8,340
4,530
29,053

144,863
16,475
9,907
66,240
26,590
39,413
23,750
8,300
4,544
29,288

146,510
16,819
10,092
66,010
26,730
39,276
23,880
8,330
4,567
29,490

66.3
65.5
63.5
63.3
55.4
57.8
47.9
57.9
64.5
62.7

66.6
65.2
63.9
63.1
55.5
57.4
47.3
58.6
63.7
62.6

66.6
64.9
64.5
62.9
55.4
57.1
47.1
58.8
64.1
62.4

66.8
64.7
64.6
63.0
55.6
57.1
47.1
59.2
64.0
62.4

67.1
65.0
64.3
63.2
55.5
57.3
47.2
60.8
63.3
62.6

67.1
65.4
64.3
62.8
55.9
57.7
47.6
61.1
62.8
62.5

67.1
65.8
64.0
62.4
56.3
56.8
47.8
62.6
62.8
62.9

67.1
65.9
64.4
62.0
56.6
56.6
48.1
64.5
63.8
62.9

66.8
66.0
64.4
61.6
56.8
56.6
48.3
65.8
63.7
62.7

66.6
66.8
64.4
60.8
57.0
56.3
48.6
65.0
64.0
62.9

66.2
67.3
64.6
60.3
57.0
56.1
48.8
64.6
64.0
62.9

120,259
12,770
7,699
63,810
21,710
35,989
20,270
6,570
4,028
25,242

123,060
13,027
7,942
63,860
21,750
35,756
19,940
6,660
3,992
25,429

124,900
13,271
8,256
63,890
21,960
35,780
19,820
6,730
4,056
25,718

126,708
13,380
8,364
64,200
22,040
35,637
19,920
6,860
4,019
25,964

129,558
13,705
8,444
64,900
22,170
35,508
19,990
7,160
3,973
26,433

131,463
14,068
8,618
64,450
22,600
36,061
20,210
7,320
4,034
26,696

133,488
14,456
8,762
63,920
23,050
36,042
20,460
7,600
4,117
27,048

136,891
14,827
8,989
63,790
23,690
36,236
20,840
7,910
4,229
27,350

136,933
14,997
9,091
63,470
24,140
36,350
21,270
8,130
4,303
27,570

136,485
15,325
9,271
62,650
24,280
36,018
21,580
8,070
4,310
27,768

137,736
15,660
9,481
62,510
24,250
35,615
21,790
8,010
4,303
28,011

61.7
58.5
56.8
61.7
49.1
53.2
43.0
54.2
58.5
56.2

62.5
59.0
57.8
61.3
49.0
52.6
42.0
54.6
57.6
56.5

62.9
59.4
59.2
60.9
49.1
52.4
41.5
54.9
58.3
57.0

63.2
59.1
59.3
60.9
49.0
52.0
41.6
55.7
57.7
57.4

63.8
59.7
59.0
61.0
49.0
51.6
41.6
57.8
56.9
58.2

64.1
60.4
59.3
60.2
49.7
52.3
41.9
58.7
57.6
58.6

64.3
61.3
59.6
59.4
50.3
52.0
42.3
60.6
58.4
59.1

64.4
62.1
60.3
59.0
51.4
52.2
42.9
62.6
60.1
59.4

63.7
61.9
60.1
58.4
52.0
52.2
43.6
64.2
60.5
59.5

62.7
62.4
60.3
57.5
52.0
51.5
44.1
63.2
60.7
59.6

62.3
63.0
60.7
57.1
51.7
50.9
44.6
62.1
60.3
59.8

8,940
1,539
914
1,660
2,770
3,113
2,300
440
416
2,916

7,996
1,373
829
1,920
2,920
3,318
2,510
490
426
2,716

7,404
1,246
739
2,100
2,800
3,200
2,640
480
404
2,439

7,236
1,289
751
2,250
2,970
3,505
2,650
440
440
2,297

6,739
1,252
759
2,300
2,960
3,907
2,690
370
445
1,985

6,210
1,169
721
2,790
2,870
3,693
2,750
300
368
1,783

5,880
1,080
652
3,170
2,740
3,333
2,670
250
313
1,721

5,692
962
602
3,200
2,380
3,065
2,500
240
260
1,580

6,801
1,031
661
3,400
2,210
3,110
2,270
210
227
1,483

8,378
1,150
636
3,590
2,310
3,396
2,160
230
234
1,520

8,774
1,159
611
3,500
2,480
3,661
2,100
320
264
1,479

6.9
10.8
10.6
2.5
11.3
8.0
10.2
6.3
9.4
10.4

6.1
9.5
9.4
2.9
11.8
8.5
11.2
6.9
9.6
9.6

5.6
8.6
8.2
3.2
11.3
8.2
11.8
6.7
9.1
8.7

5.4
8.8
8.2
3.4
11.9
9.0
11.7
6.0
9.9
8.1

4.9
8.4
8.3
3.4
11.8
9.9
11.9
4.9
10.1
7.0

4.5
7.7
7.7
4.1
11.3
9.3
12.0
3.9
8.4
6.3

4.2
7.0
6.9
4.7
10.6
8.5
11.5
3.2
7.1
6.0

4.0
6.1
6.3
4.8
9.1
7.8
10.7
2.9
5.8
5.5

4.7
6.4
6.8
5.1
8.4
7.9
9.6
2.5
5.0
5.1

5.8
7.0
6.4
5.4
8.7
8.6
9.1
2.8
5.1
5.2

6.0
6.9
6.1
5.3
9.3
9.3
8.8
3.8
5.8
5.0

Civilian labor force
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Participation rate1
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Employed
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………
2

Employment-population ratio

United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Unemployed
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………

Unemployment rate
United States………………………………………………
Canada……………………………………………………
Australia……………………………………………………
Japan………………………………………………………
France………………………………………………………
Germany……………………………………………………
Italy…………………………………………………………
Netherlands………………………………………………
Sweden……………………………………………………
United Kingdom……………………………………………
1
2

Labor force as a percent of the working-age population.

Employment as a percent of the working-age population.
NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for information on breaks in series.

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics,
Ten Countries, 1959-2003 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 23, 2004), on the Internet at:
http://www.bls.gov/fls/home.htm.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

115

Current Labor Statistics:

International Comparison

Table 54. Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 15 economies
[1992 = 100]
Measure and economy

1960

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Output per hour
United States………………………
–
Canada……………………………… 37.8
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 13.9
Korea………………………………… –
Taiwan………………………………
–
Belgium……………………………… 18.0
Denmark…………………………… 25.2
France……………………………… 19.9
Germany…………………………… 29.2
Italy…………………………………… 24.6
Netherlands………………………… 18.8
Norway……………………………… 37.6
Sweden……………………………… 27.3
United Kingdom…………………… 30.0

0.0
54.9
–
37.7
–
–
32.9
46.3
39.0
52.0
46.2
38.5
59.1
52.2
43.2

70.5
72.9
69.5
63.6
–
47.6
65.4
83.2
61.6
77.2
78.6
69.1
77.9
73.1
54.3

96.9
93.4
91.6
94.4
81.5
88.8
96.8
98.4
93.9
99.0
96.6
98.7
98.1
94.6
89.2

97.9
95.3
96.4
99.0
91.6
96.5
99.1
100.3
97.0
98.3
96.1
99.0
98.2
95.5
93.9

102.1
105.8
106.1
101.7
108.5
102.8
102.5
100.2
101.0
101.8
101.2
102.0
99.6
107.3
103.8

107.3
110.8
104.9
103.3
118.2
106.7
108.4
112.6
108.9
109.6
104.8
113.1
99.6
117.8
108.0

113.8
112.4
105.8
111.0
129.3
115.1
113.2
112.5
114.4
112.3
107.9
117.3
100.7
124.5
106.2

117.0
109.7
113.6
116.1
142.3
123.1
116.3
109.8
114.7
114.7
108.3
119.3
102.5
129.5
105.4

121.3
113.5
115.2
121.0
160.4
129.3
125.5
118.0
121.7
120.4
110.3
121.4
102.0
141.0
106.9

126.5
115.5
118.5
121.2
178.8
135.9
126.9
117.4
127.9
122.0
110.8
124.1
99.9
149.5
108.4

132.8
122.1
119.9
126.7
198.9
143.4
125.5
123.1
133.0
121.4
110.6
127.0
103.6
162.7
113.6

143.5
129.3
128.0
135.9
215.8
151.0
130.8
126.6
142.5
127.0
113.5
132.7
106.6
175.5
121.0

145.2
127.0
132.4
135.9
214.3
160.8
132.6
127.2
148.0
127.8
114.0
132.5
109.8
170.3
125.1

160.0
130.5
136.2
139.9
235.2
170.9
141.7
131.3
155.1
131.0
112.1
135.4
111.7
185.6
127.7

171.0
132.1
140.7
146.2
256.4
177.2
146.2
136.9
158.0
134.4
110.9
–
113.5
196.5
134.8

Output
United States………………………
–
Canada……………………………… 33.4
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 10.8
Korea………………………………… –
Taiwan………………………………
–
Belgium……………………………… 30.7
Denmark…………………………… 42.0
France……………………………… 27.9
Germany…………………………… 41.5
Italy…………………………………… 23.0
Netherlands………………………… 31.9
Norway……………………………… 57.7
Sweden……………………………… 45.9
United Kingdom…………………… 67.5

–
58.9
–
39.4
7.0
12.7
57.6
72.7
57.7
70.9
48.1
59.8
91.0
80.7
90.2

75.8
83.6
89.8
60.8
29.9
44.0
78.2
94.3
81.6
85.3
84.4
76.9
104.9
90.7
87.2

101.6
106.0
104.1
97.1
86.7
90.0
101.0
101.7
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.0
101.4
110.1
105.3

98.3
99.0
100.7
102.0
95.0
96.1
100.7
100.7
99.8
102.3
99.3
99.8
99.0
104.1
100.1

103.5
105.9
103.8
96.3
105.4
102.4
97.0
97.0
95.7
92.4
96.5
97.7
101.7
101.9
101.5

111.1
114.1
109.1
94.9
116.8
108.5
101.4
107.3
100.3
95.1
102.4
104.5
104.6
117.0
106.2

118.4
119.6
108.7
98.9
129.9
114.9
104.2
112.6
104.9
95.2
107.2
108.2
107.3
131.9
107.8

121.3
119.6
112.6
103.0
138.3
120.3
105.9
107.7
104.6
92.5
105.4
108.9
110.3
136.4
108.6

127.9
127.7
115.1
106.5
145.0
128.3
112.7
115.9
109.7
95.7
108.8
111.6
114.2
146.5
110.7

133.1
133.9
118.6
100.2
133.5
132.6
114.4
116.7
115.0
97.7
110.7
114.9
113.7
158.3
111.3

138.9
144.9
118.3
101.9
162.6
141.5
114.4
117.9
118.7
95.8
110.3
117.6
113.6
172.5
112.1

147.6
159.2
123.8
109.2
190.2
151.8
119.9
121.9
124.3
100.1
113.6
122.8
112.8
188.3
115.0

139.6
153.6
123.8
105.5
194.3
143.1
120.4
121.6
128.0
99.9
113.0
121.9
112.3
183.1
113.4

142.9
158.0
128.7
103.4
209.1
152.1
121.6
120.8
129.1
99.6
111.7
121.0
111.5
190.6
109.9

145.4
157.3
130.2
106.7
219.1
160.9
120.9
121.4
128.5
99.8
110.2
117.6
107.3
194.4
110.3

Total hours
United States……………………… 92.1
Canada……………………………… 88.3
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 77.8
Korea………………………………… –
Taiwan………………………………
–
Belgium……………………………… 170.7
Denmark…………………………… 166.7
France……………………………… 140.3
Germany…………………………… 142.3
Italy…………………………………… 93.5
Netherlands………………………… 169.8
Norway……………………………… 153.6
Sweden……………………………… 168.3
United Kingdom…………………… 224.6

104.4
107.1
–
104.3
–
–
174.7
157.1
147.8
136.3
104.0
155.5
153.9
154.7
208.8

107.5
114.6
129.2
95.5
—
92.4
119.7
113.4
132.5
110.5
107.4
111.2
134.7
124.0
160.5

104.8
113.5
113.6
102.9
106.5
101.4
104.3
103.3
105.6
100.1
102.9
100.3
103.4
116.4
118.1

100.4
103.9
104.4
103.1
103.7
99.6
101.5
100.5
102.9
104.1
103.3
100.8
100.8
109.0
106.6

101.4
100.1
97.8
94.7
97.1
99.6
94.7
96.7
94.7
90.8
95.4
95.8
102.1
94.9
97.7

103.6
103.0
103.9
91.9
98.8
101.7
93.6
95.2
92.1
86.8
97.7
92.4
105.0
99.4
98.4

104.0
106.4
102.8
89.1
100.4
99.8
92.0
100.1
91.7
84.8
99.4
92.3
106.6
105.9
101.5

103.6
109.0
99.1
88.7
97.2
97.7
91.0
98.1
91.2
80.6
97.3
91.2
107.6
105.3
103.1

105.4
112.4
100.0
88.0
90.4
99.2
89.8
98.2
90.2
79.5
98.6
91.9
112.0
103.9
103.5

105.2
115.9
100.1
82.7
74.7
97.6
90.2
99.4
89.9
80.1
99.9
92.6
113.7
105.9
102.7

104.6
118.7
98.7
80.4
81.8
98.7
91.2
95.8
89.2
78.9
99.8
92.6
109.6
106.0
98.7

102.9
123.1
96.7
80.3
88.1
100.5
91.7
96.3
87.2
78.8
100.1
92.5
105.9
107.3
95.0

96.2
120.9
93.5
77.7
90.7
89.0
90.8
95.6
86.5
78.2
99.1
92.0
102.3
107.5
90.7

89.3
121.1
94.5
74.0
88.9
89.0
85.8
92.0
83.2
76.1
99.7
89.4
99.8
102.7
86.0

85.0
119.1
92.5
73.0
85.4
90.8
82.7
88.7
81.3
74.3
99.3
–
94.5
98.9
81.9

23.7
17.1
–
16.4
–
–
13.7
11.1
10.5
20.7
5.3
19.4
11.8
10.7
6.1

55.6
47.5
–
58.6
–
29.6
52.5
45.1
41.2
53.6
30.4
60.5
39.0
37.3
32.0

90.8
88.3
86.3
90.6
68.6
85.2
90.1
93.5
90.9
89.4
87.6
89.8
92.3
87.8
82.9

95.6
95.0
94.0
96.5
86.2
93.5
97.3
97.9
96.4
91.5
94.2
94.8
97.5
95.5
93.8

102.7
102.0
105.9
102.7
114.3
105.9
104.8
102.4
103.1
106.4
105.7
104.5
101.5
97.4
104.5

105.6
103.7
104.3
104.7
129.8
111.1
106.1
106.0
106.5
111.8
106.8
109.0
104.4
99.8
107.3

107.9
106.0
113.2
108.3
158.3
120.2
109.2
108.1
110.4
117.6
111.3
112.1
109.2
106.8
108.8

109.4
107.0
122.8
109.1
184.3
128.2
111.1
112.8
112.2
123.3
119.0
114.4
113.6
115.2
111.4

111.5
109.3
124.6
112.6
200.3
132.4
115.2
116.6
111.8
125.7
123.0
117.2
118.7
121.0
115.7

117.4
111.7
128.2
115.4
218.2
140.3
117.0
119.6
112.7
127.6
122.2
122.0
125.7
125.6
123.0

122.0
115.8
133.0
114.8
219.4
144.3
118.5
127.3
116.6
130.6
124.2
126.0
133.0
130.3
129.9

133.2
119.6
140.0
113.7
234.2
146.6
120.6
130.2
122.8
137.4
127.8
132.0
140.5
136.8
137.6

136.3
123.7
149.5
114.6
241.7
150.0
127.2
136.5
128.3
142.0
132.5
138.2
148.9
143.8
144.3

145.4
126.8
154.7
122.8
266.1
145.8
136.5
143.2
135.2
145.5
135.7
147.3
157.9
148.8
152.2

157.8
131.4
–
123.8
290.9
146.7
–
150.0
139.1
148.9
140.0
–
164.6
154.3
160.3

Hourly compensation
(national currency basis)
United States……………………… 14.9
Canada……………………………… 10.0
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 4.3
Korea………………………………… –
Taiwan………………………………
–
Belgium……………………………… 5.4
Denmark…………………………… 3.9
France……………………………… 4.3
Germany…………………………… 8.1
Italy…………………………………… 1.8
Netherlands………………………… 6.2
Norway……………………………… 4.7
Sweden……………………………… 4.1
United Kingdom…………………… 2.9
See notes at end of table.

116

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

Table 54. Continued– Annual indexes of manufacturing productivity and related measures, 15 economies
Measure and economy

1960

Unit labor costs
(national currency basis)
United States………………………
–
Canada……………………………… 26.4
Australia……………………………… –
Japan………………………………… 31.1
Korea………………………………… –
–
Taiwan………………………………
Belgium……………………………… 30.1
Denmark…………………………… 15.3
France……………………………… 21.7
Germany…………………………… 27.8
Italy…………………………………… 7.2
Netherlands………………………… 32.9
Norway……………………………… 12.6
Sweden……………………………… 15.0
United Kingdom…………………… 9.8

1970

1980

1990

1991

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

–
31.1
–
43.6
–
23.8
41.7
23.9
26.8
39.8
11.4
50.4
20.0
20.6
14.1

78.8
65.2
–
92.1
–
62.2
80.3
54.2
67.0
69.4
38.7
87.6
50.0
51.0
59.0

93.7
94.6
94.2
95.9
84.2
95.9
93.0
95.0
96.8
90.3
90.7
91.1
94.2
92.9
93.0

97.6
99.6
97.5
97.5
94.1
96.8
98.1
97.6
99.3
93.1
98.0
95.7
99.2
100.0
100.0

100.6
96.4
99.8
101.0
105.4
103.0
102.3
102.2
102.0
104.5
104.5
102.4
101.9
90.8
100.7

98.5
93.6
99.4
101.4
109.8
104.1
97.9
94.2
97.8
102.0
101.9
96.4
104.8
84.7
99.4

94.8
94.3
107.0
97.5
122.4
104.5
96.4
96.1
96.5
104.7
103.2
95.6
108.4
85.8
102.5

93.5
97.5
108.1
94.0
129.6
104.1
95.5
102.8
97.8
107.5
109.8
95.9
110.8
89.0
105.7

91.9
96.2
108.2
93.0
124.9
102.3
91.8
98.8
91.9
104.5
111.4
96.5
116.4
85.8
108.2

92.8
96.7
108.2
95.2
122.0
103.2
92.2
101.9
88.1
104.6
110.3
98.3
125.7
84.0
113.5

91.9
94.9
110.9
90.6
110.3
100.7
94.4
103.4
87.6
107.6
112.3
99.1
128.4
80.1
114.3

92.8
92.5
109.4
83.6
108.5
97.1
92.2
102.8
86.2
108.1
112.6
99.5
131.9
77.9
113.7

93.9
97.4
112.9
84.4
112.8
93.3
95.9
107.3
86.6
111.2
116.2
104.3
135.6
84.4
115.4

90.9
97.2
113.5
87.8
113.1
85.3
96.4
109.0
87.2
111.1
121.1
108.8
141.3
80.2
119.2

92.3
99.4
–
84.7
113.5
82.7
–
109.6
88.0
110.8
126.2
112.6
144.9
78.6
118.9

Unit labor costs
(U.S. dollar basis)
United States………………………
–
–
78.8
93.7
97.6
100.6
98.5
94.8
93.5
91.9
92.8
91.9
92.8
93.9
90.9
36.0
67.4
98.0
105.1
90.3
82.8
83.0
86.4
84.0
78.8
77.2
75.2
76.0
74.8
Canada……………………………… 32.9
–
–
100.1 103.3
92.3
98.9
107.8
115.1
109.4
92.6
97.3
86.5
79.4
84.0
Australia……………………………… –
15.4
51.5
83.9
91.8
115.3
125.8
131.6
109.5
97.4
92.2
101.0
98.4
88.0
88.9
Japan………………………………… 11.0
–
–
93.0
100.3
102.6
106.8
124.3
126.3
103.4
68.4
72.7
75.3
68.5
71.0
Korea………………………………… –
–
14.9
43.4
89.7
91.1
98.1
99.0
99.2
95.4
89.5
77.4
78.3
78.1
69.4
62.1
Taiwan………………………………
27.0
88.3
89.5
92.3
95.1
94.2
105.2
99.1
82.4
81.6
80.2
67.8
68.4
72.6
Belgium……………………………… 19.4
Denmark…………………………… 13.4
19.3
58.1
92.7
92.0
95.1
89.4
103.6
107.0
90.2
91.7
89.3
76.7
77.8
83.5
France……………………………… 23.4
25.7
83.9
94.1
93.1
95.3
93.4
102.5
101.2
83.3
79.1
75.3
64.2
62.6
66.5
Germany…………………………… 10.4
17.1
59.6
87.3
87.5
98.7
98.2
114.2
111.6
94.0
92.9
91.5
79.7
79.5
83.9
22.3
55.7
93.3
97.3
81.8
77.9
78.0
87.7
80.6
78.2
76.2
66.2
66.2
72.9
Italy…………………………………… 14.3
24.5
77.5
87.9
90.0
96.9
93.2
104.8
100.0
87.0
87.2
84.3
73.3
74.5
82.1
Netherlands………………………… 15.3
17.4
62.9
93.6
95.0
89.2
92.3
106.4
106.6
102.1
103.5
102.2
93.0
93.7
110.0
Norway……………………………… 11.0
23.1
70.2
91.3
96.3
67.8
64.0
70.0
77.3
65.4
61.5
56.4
49.5
47.6
48.1
Sweden……………………………… 16.9
United Kingdom…………………… 15.6
19.1
77.6
93.9
100.0
85.6
86.2
91.6
93.4
100.4
106.5
104.7
97.6
94.0
101.4
NOTE: Data for Germany for years before 1991 are for the former West Germany. Data for 1991 onward are for unified Germany. Dash indicates data not available

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

92.3
85.8
–
92.6
74.7
60.5
–
100.6
80.4
100.1
90.9
101.7
127.2
56.6
110.0

117

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

55. Occupational injury and illness rates by industry,1 United States
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers3

Industry and type of case2

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993

4

1994

4

1995

4

1996

4

1997

4

1998

4

1999

4

2000

4

2001

4

5

PRIVATE SECTOR

Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

8.6
4.0
78.7

8.8
4.1
84.0

8.4
3.9
86.5

8.9
3.9
93.8

8.5
3.8
–

8.4
3.8
–

8.1
3.6
–

7.4
3.4
–

7.1
3.3
–

6.7
3.1
–

6.3
3.0
–

6.1
3.0
–

5.7
2.8
–

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

10.9
5.7
100.9

11.6
5.9
112.2

10.8
5.4
108.3

11.6
5.4
126.9

11.2
5.0
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.7
4.3
–

8.7
3.9
–

8.4
4.1
–

7.9
3.9
–

7.3
3.4
–

7.1
3.6
–

7.3
3.6
–

Mining
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

8.5
4.8
137.2

8.3
5.0
119.5

7.4
4.5
129.6

7.3
4.1
204.7

6.8
3.9
–

6.3
3.9
–

6.2
3.9
–

5.4
3.2
–

5.9
3.7
–

4.9
2.9
–

4.4
2.7
–

4.7
3.0
–

4.0
2.4
–

Construction
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

14.3
6.8
143.3

14.2
6.7
147.9

13.0
6.1
148.1

13.1
5.8
161.9

12.2
5.5
–

11.8
5.5
–

10.6
4.9
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.8
4.0
–

8.6
4.2
–

8.3
4.1
–

7.9
4.0
–

General building contractors:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

13.9
6.5
137.3

13.4
6.4
137.6

12.0
5.5
132.0

12.2
5.4
142.7

11.5
5.1
–

10.9
5.1
–

9.8
4.4
–

9.0
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–

8.4
3.9
–

8.0
3.7
–

7.8
3.9
–

6.9
3.5
–

Heavy construction, except building:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

13.8
6.5
147.1

13.8
6.3
144.6

12.8
6.0
160.1

12.1
5.4
165.8

11.1
5.1
–

10.2
5.0
–

9.9
4.8
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.3
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.8
–

7.6
3.7
–

7.8
4.0
–

Special trades contractors:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

14.6
6.9
144.9

14.7
6.9
153.1

13.5
6.3
151.3

13.8
6.1
168.3

12.8
5.8
–

12.5
5.8
–

11.1
5.0
–

10.4
4.8
–

10.0
4.7
–

9.1
4.1
–

8.9
4.4
–

8.6
4.3
–

8.2
4.1
–

Manufacturing
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

13.1
5.8
113.0

13.2
5.8
120.7

12.7
5.6
121.5

12.5
5.4
124.6

12.1
5.3
–

12.2
5.5
–

11.6
5.3
–

10.6
4.9
–

10.3
4.8
–

9.7
4.7
–

9.2
4.6
–

9.0
4.5
–

8.1
4.1
–

Durable goods:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

14.1
6.0
116.5

14.2
6.0
123.3

13.6
5.7
122.9

13.4
5.5
126.7

13.1
5.4
–

13.5
5.7
–

12.8
5.6
–

11.6
5.1
–

11.3
5.1
–

10.7
5.0
–

10.1
4.8
–

–
–
–

8.8
4.3
–

Lumber and wood products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

18.4
9.4
177.5

18.1
8.8
172.5

16.8
8.3
172.0

16.3
7.6
165.8

15.9
7.6
–

15.7
7.7
–

14.9
7.0
–

14.2
6.8
–

13.5
6.5
–

13.2
6.8
–

13.0
6.7
–

12.1
6.1
–

10.6
5.5
–

Furniture and fixtures:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

16.1
7.2
–

16.9
7.8
–

15.9
7.2
–

14.8
6.6
128.4

14.6
6.5
–

15.0
7.0
–

13.9
6.4
–

12.2
5.4
–

12.0
5.8
–

11.4
5.7
–

11.5
5.9
–

11.2
5.9
–

11.0
5.7
–

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

15.5
7.4
149.8

15.4
7.3
160.5

14.8
6.8
156.0

13.6
6.1
152.2

13.8
6.3
–

13.2
6.5
–

12.3
5.7
–

12.4
6.0
–

11.8
5.7
–

11.8
6.0
–

10.7
5.4
–

10.4
5.5
–

10.1
5.1
–

Primary metal industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

18.7
8.1
168.3

19.0
8.1
180.2

17.7
7.4
169.1

17.5
7.1
175.5

17.0
7.3
–

16.8
7.2
–

16.5
7.2
–

15.0
6.8
–

15.0
7.2
–

14.0
7.0
–

12.9
6.3
–

12.6
6.3
–

10.7
5.3
11.1

Fabricated metal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

18.5
7.9
147.6

18.7
7.9
155.7

17.4
7.1
146.6

16.8
6.6
144.0

16.2
6.7
–

16.4
6.7
–

15.8
6.9
–

14.4
6.2
–

14.2
6.4
–

13.9
6.5
–

12.6
6.0
–

11.9
5.5
–

11.1
5.3
–

Industrial machinery and equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

12.1
4.8
86.8

12.0
4.7
88.9

11.2
4.4
86.6

11.1
4.2
87.7

11.1
4.2
–

11.6
4.4
–

11.2
4.4
–

9.9
4.0
–

10.0
4.1
–

9.5
4.0
–

8.5
3.7
–

8.2
3.6
–

11.0
6.0
–

Electronic and other electrical equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

9.1
3.9
77.5

9.1
3.8
79.4

8.6
3.7
83.0

8.4
3.6
81.2

8.3
3.5
–

8.3
3.6
–

7.6
3.3
–

6.8
3.1
–

6.6
3.1
–

5.9
2.8
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.7
2.9
–

5.0
2.5
–

Transportation equipment:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

17.7
6.8
138.6

17.8
6.9
153.7

18.3
7.0
166.1

18.7
7.1
186.6

18.5
7.1
–

19.6
7.8
–

18.6
7.9
–

16.3
7.0
–

15.4
6.6
–

14.6
6.6
–

13.7
6.4
–

13.7
6.3
–

12.6
6.0
–

Instruments and related products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

5.6
2.5
55.4

5.9
2.7
57.8

6.0
2.7
64.4

5.9
2.7
65.3

5.6
2.5
–

5.9
2.7
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.1
2.3
–

4.8
2.3
–

4.0
1.9
–

4.0
1.8
–

4.5
2.2
–

4.0
2.0
–

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

11.1
5.1
97.6

11.3
5.1
113.1

11.3
5.1
104.0

10.7
5.0
108.2

10.0
4.6
–

9.9
4.5
–

9.1
4.3
–

9.5
4.4
–

8.9
4.2
–

8.1
3.9
–

8.4
4.0
–

7.2
3.6
–

6.4
3.2
–

5

See footnotes at end of table.

118

Monthly Labor Review January 2005

1

55. Continued–Occupational injury and illness rates by industry, United States
Incidence rates per 100 workers

Industry and type of case2

1989

1

1990

1991

1992

1993

4

1994

4

1995

4

1996

4

3

1997

4

1998

4

1999

Nondurable goods:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

11.6
5.5
107.8

11.7
5.6
116.9

11.5
5.5
119.7

11.3
5.3
121.8

10.7
5.0
–

10.5
5.1
–

9.9
4.9
–

9.2
4.6
–

8.8
4.4
–

8.2
4.3

Food and kindred products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

18.5
9.3
174.7

20.0
9.9
202.6

19.5
9.9
207.2

18.8
9.5
211.9

17.6
8.9
–

17.1
9.2
–

16.3
8.7
–

15.0
8.0
–

14.5
8.0
–

13.6
7.5

Tobacco products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

8.7
3.4
64.2

7.7
3.2
62.3

6.4
2.8
52.0

6.0
2.4
42.9

5.8
2.3
–

5.3
2.4
–

5.6
2.6
–

6.7
2.8
–

5.9
2.7
–

6.4
3.4

Textile mill products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

10.3
4.2
81.4

9.6
4.0
85.1

10.1
4.4
88.3

9.9
4.2
87.1

9.7
4.1
–

8.7
4.0
–

8.2
4.1
–

7.8
3.6
–

6.7
3.1
–

Apparel and other textile products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

8.6
3.8
80.5

8.8
3.9
92.1

9.2
4.2
99.9

9.5
4.0
104.6

9.0
3.8
–

8.9
3.9
–

8.2
3.6
–

7.4
3.3
–

Paper and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

12.7
5.8
132.9

12.1
5.5
124.8

11.2
5.0
122.7

11.0
5.0
125.9

9.9
4.6
–

9.6
4.5
–

8.5
4.2
–

Printing and publishing:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

6.9
3.3
63.8

6.9
3.3
69.8

6.7
3.2
74.5

7.3
3.2
74.8

6.9
3.1
–

6.7
3.0
–

Chemicals and allied products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

7.0
3.2
63.4

6.5
3.1
61.6

6.4
3.1
62.4

6.0
2.8
64.2

5.9
2.7
–

Petroleum and coal products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

6.6
3.3
68.1

6.6
3.1
77.3

6.2
2.9
68.2

5.9
2.8
71.2

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

16.2
8.0
147.2

16.2
7.8
151.3

15.1
7.2
150.9

Leather and leather products:
Total cases ............................…………………………..…………
Lost workday cases....................................................................
Lost workdays........………..........................................................

13.6
6.5
130.4

12.1
5.9
152.3

Transportation and public utilities
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

9.2
5.3
121.5

Wholesale and retail trade
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

4

2000

4

2001

4

7.8
4.2
–

7.8
4.2
–

6.8
3.8
–

12.7
7.3
–

12.4
7.3
–

10.9
6.3
–

-

5.5
2.2
–

6.2
3.1
–

6.7
4.2
–

7.4
3.4
–

6.4
3.2
–

6.0
3.2
–

5.2
2.7
–

7.0
3.1
–

6.2
2.6

-

5.8
2.8
–

6.1
3.0
–

5.0
2.4
–

7.9
3.8
–

7.3
3.7
–

7.1
3.7
–

7.0
3.7
–

6.5
3.4
–

6.0
3.2
–

6.4
3.0
–

6.0
2.8
–

5.7
2.7
–

5.4
2.8
–

5.0
2.6
–

5.1
2.6
–

4.6
2.4
–

5.7
2.8
–

5.5
2.7
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.8
2.3
–

4.2
2.1
–

4.4
2.3
–

4.2
2.2
–

4.0
2.1
–

5.2
2.5
–

4.7
2.3
–

4.8
2.4
–

4.6
2.5
–

4.3
2.2
–

3.9
1.8
–

4.1
1.8
–

3.7
1.9
–

2.9
1.4
–

14.5
6.8
153.3

13.9
6.5
–

14.0
6.7
–

12.9
6.5
–

12.3
6.3
–

11.9
5.8
–

11.2
5.8
–

10.1
5.5
–

10.7
5.8
–

8.7
4.8
–

12.5
5.9
140.8

12.1
5.4
128.5

12.1
5.5
–

12.0
5.3
–

11.4
4.8
–

10.7
4.5
–

10.6
4.3
–

9.8
4.5
–

10.3
5.0
–

9.0
4.3
–

8.7
4.4
–

9.6
5.5
134.1

9.3
5.4
140.0

9.1
5.1
144.0

9.5
5.4
–

9.3
5.5
–

9.1
5.2
–

8.7
5.1
–

8.2
4.8
–

7.3
4.3
–

7.3
4.4
–

6.9
4.3
–

6.9
4.3
–

8.0
3.6
63.5

7.9
3.5
65.6

7.6
3.4
72.0

8.4
3.5
80.1

8.1
3.4
–

7.9
3.4
–

7.5
3.2
–

6.8
2.9
–

6.7
3.0
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.1
2.7
–

5.9
2.7
–

6.6
2.5
–

Wholesale trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

7.7
4.0
71.9

7.4
3.7
71.5

7.2
3.7
79.2

7.6
3.6
82.4

7.8
3.7
–

7.7
3.8
–

7.5
3.6
–

6.6
3.4
–

6.5
3.2
–

6.5
3.3
–

6.3
3.3
–

5.8
3.1
–

5.3
2.8
–

Retail trade:
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

8.1
3.4
60.0

8.1
3.4
63.2

7.7
3.3
69.1

8.7
3.4
79.2

8.2
3.3
–

7.9
3.3
–

7.5
3.0
–

6.9
2.8
–

6.8
2.9
–

6.5
2.7
–

6.1
2.5
–

5.9
2.5
–

5.7
2.4
–

Finance, insurance, and real estate
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

2.0
.9
17.6

2.4
1.1
27.3

2.4
1.1
24.1

2.9
1.2
32.9

2.9
1.2
–

2.7
1.1
–

2.6
1.0
–

2.4
.9
–

2.2
.9
–

.7
.5
–

1.8
.8
–

1.9
.8
–

1.8
.7
–

Services
Total cases ............................…………………………..……………
Lost workday cases.......................................................................
Lost workdays........……….............................................................

5.5
2.7
51.2

6.0
2.8
56.4

6.2
2.8
60.0

7.1
3.0
68.6

6.7
2.8
–

6.5
2.8
–

6.4
2.8
–

6.0
2.6
–

5.6
2.5
–

5.2
2.4
–

4.9
2.2
–

4.9
2.2
–

4.6
2.2
–

1

Data for 1989 and subsequent years are based on the Standard Industrial Class-

-

-

N = number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays;

ification Manual , 1987 Edition. For this reason, they are not strictly comparable with data

EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year; and

for the years 1985–88, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification

200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks

Manual , 1972 Edition, 1977 Supplement.

per year).

2

Beginning with the 1992 survey, the annual survey measures only nonfatal injuries and

4

Beginning with the 1993 survey, lost workday estimates will not be generated. As of 1992,

illnesses, while past surveys covered both fatal and nonfatal incidents. To better address

BLS began generating percent distributions and the median number of days away from work

fatalities, a basic element of workplace safety, BLS implemented the Census of Fatal

by industry and for groups of workers sustaining similar work disabilities.
5

Occupational Injuries.
3

Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees since 1976.

The incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per

100

full-time

workers

and

were

calculated

as

(N/EH)

X

200,000,

where:

NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.

Monthly Labor Review

January 2005

119

Current Labor Statistics:

Injury and Illness

56. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, 1997-2002
Fatalities
Event or exposure

1

1997-2001
average

Total…………….....................................................................

2

2002

2001

Number

Number

Percent

6,036

5,915

5,524

100

Transportation incidents...............................................................
Highway incident……....................................................................
Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment………….............
Moving in same direction…………...........................................
Moving in opposite directions, oncoming…………..................
Moving in intersection…………................................................
Vehicle struck stationary object or equipment…………..............
Noncollision incident...................................................................
Jackknifed or overturned—no collision…………......................
Nonhighway (farm, industrial premises) incident...........................
Overturned…………...................................................................
Aircraft……………………………………………………………………
Worker struck by a vehicle……………………………………………
Water vehicle …............................................................................
Rail vehicle…….………….…...…………………………………………

2,593
1,421
697
126
254
148
300
369
300
368
202
248
382
99
68

2,524
1,409
727
142
257
138
297
339
273
326
158
247
383
90
62

2,381
1,372
635
155
202
145
326
373
312
322
164
192
356
71
64

43
25
11
3
4
3
6
7
6
6
3
3
6
1
1

Assaults and violent acts..............................................................
Homicides…............………............................................................
Shooting………………………………………………………………
Stabbing………………………………………………………………
Other, including bombing……………………………………………
Self-inflicted injuries............………................................................

964
709
567
64
78
221

908
643
509
58
76
230

840
609
469
58
82
199

15
11
8
1
1
4

Contact with objects and equipment.…………............................
Struck by object…............………...................................................
Struck by falling object………….................................................
Struck by flying object…......………….........................................
Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects…............……
Caught in running equipment or machinery………….................
Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials…............……….......

995
562
352
58
290
156
126

962
553
343
60
266
144
122

873
506
303
38
231
110
116

16
9
5
1
4
2
2

Falls..………………………...............................................................
Fall to lower level…............……….................................................
Fall from ladder…………............................................................
Fall from roof…......…………......................................................
Fall from scaffold, staging…......…………...................................
Fall on same level…............………...............................................

737
654
111
155
91
61

810
700
123
159
91
84

714
634
126
143
87
63

13
11
2
3
2
1

Exposure to harmful substances or environments..………………
Contact with electric current…............………................................
Contact with overhead power lines…………..............................
Contact with temperature extremes…............………....................
Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances…............…
Inhalation of substances…………...............................................
Oxygen deficiency…............………...............................................
Drowning, submersion…………..................................................

529
291
134
41
106
52
89
71

499
285
124
35
96
49
83
59

538
289
122
60
98
49
90
60

10
5
2
1
2
1
2
1

Fires and explosions ..………………………...................................

197

188

165

3

21

24

13

–

3

Other events or exposures ……….………………………………………….
1

Based on the 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness

Classification Structures.
2

The BLS news release issued Sept. 25, 2002, reported a

total of 5,900 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2001. Since

3

Totals for 2001 exclude fatalities from the September 11

terrorist attacks.
3

Includes the category "Bodily reaction and exertion."
NOTE:

Totals for major categories may include sub-

then, an additional 15 job-related fatalities were identified,

categories not shown separately. Percentages may not add

bringing the total job-related fatality count for 2001 to 5,915.

to totals because of rounding. Dash indicates less than 0.5
percent.

120

Monthly Labor Review January 2005

COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Comparing the Retirement Savings of the Baby Boomers and Other Cohorts
by Sharon A. DeVaney and Sophia T. Chiremba
Originally Posted: January 24, 2005
Revision Posted: March 16, 2005
This study compares the retirement savings behavior of four different age cohorts and finds that Older Baby Boomers (born
from 1946 to 1954) are somewhat more likely than the other cohorts to hold a retirement account. It also finds that
households in the Swing cohort (1928 to 1945) hold the largest amount of retirement savings, followed by, in order,
households in the Older Boomers, Younger Boomers (1955 to 1964), and Generations X and Y (1965 to 1987) cohorts.

Introduction And Purpose
The baby boomers are nearing retirement or, in some cases, already have retired.1 The baby boom cohort, which consists of
persons born between 1946 and 1964, has presented challenges for the U.S. economy since its inception.2 First, in the
1950s and early 1960s, more schools were needed to accommodate large numbers of baby boomer students. Later, in the
late 1960s and early 1970s, as many boomers reached young adulthood, they contributed to housing shortages and
increased competition for jobs. Now, as the baby boomers begin to retire, the next challenge is having enough resources for
them to live comfortably during their retirement.
Opinions vary about the economic well-being of the baby boomers and how they will fare in their retirement. Scott A. Bass,
for example, argues that most baby boomers are healthier, better educated, and wealthier than previous generations.3 At the
same time, however, in a national study of bankruptcy conducted in 1991, Teresa A. Sullivan and her coauthors showed that
half of the individuals who filed for bankruptcy protection were baby boomers.4 In another study, Sophie M. Korczyk noted
that 8 in 10 baby boomers expect to work, at least part time, after they "retire," but only a third expect to scale back their
lifestyle during their retirement years.5 These conflicting observations motivated this comparison of the retirement savings
behavior of baby boomers with that of other cohorts.
Two theories--the life-cycle savings hypothesis6 and the theory of planned behavior7--provide a framework for examining
retirement savings behavior. The life-cycle savings hypothesis assumes that a household attempts to maintain a consistent
level of consumption over the lifetime of its members. To do so, many households borrow when its members are younger and
their earnings are lower, and then save in anticipation of retirement when its members are in midlife and their earnings are
higher. Most households reduce their savings during retirement.
The theory of planned behavior suggests that individuals are more likely to behave in a manner consistent with their
intentions when they have control over the factors involved. The theory is a modification of the theory of reasoned action,
which assumes that individuals form attitudes based on subjective norms. The attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived
control held by a person influence how likely that person is to perform a particular behavior. Karl-Erik Warneryd argues that
previous experience with savings behavior should be considered when the theory of planned behavior is applied to savings
behavior.8 In other words, if an individual has been involved in savings behavior--such as buying a home or making regular
allocations to a savings account or retirement plan--he or she will be more likely to save.
Based on these theories, the empirical model for this study is as follows: Retirement savings behavior is a function of attitude,
subjective norms, perceived control, and past experience. Retirement savings behavior is measured by (a) whether or not the
household has a retirement account, and (b) the amount of retirement savings.

Background For The Study
Retirement income traditionally has been viewed as a "three-legged stool" consisting of Social Security, employer pensions,
and private savings. Many believe that the legs have weakened in recent years, however, and that retirees will increasingly
require a fourth leg, earnings, to supplement their income during retirement. When workers were asked in the 1995
Retirement Confidence Survey which source of retirement income would be most important to them, they responded as

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

follows: 27.5 percent said "personal savings and investments," 26.1 percent said "employer pensions" (such as a defined
benefit plan), 24.7 percent said "my own contribution to a plan at work" (such as a defined contribution plan), 15.1 percent
said "Social Security," and 6.6 percent had other responses.9 Older respondents were significantly more likely to answer that
their most important source of retirement income would be either a defined benefit pension or Social Security benefits, while
younger respondents were significantly more likely to answer that it would be either a defined contribution plan or their
personal savings and investment.
Previous research has shown that age, education, income, and risk tolerance are positively related to retirement savings
behavior.10 Older individuals, persons who have more education, those with more income, and those who have increased
tolerance for risk, are likely to hold larger amounts of retirement savings. Individuals who are married and those who are
white are likely to have more retirement savings than unmarried persons and members of nonwhite ethnic or racial groups.
Some gender differences exist as well: According to the 1996 Retirement Confidence survey, men were more likely than
women to feel in control of accumulating money for retirement (42 percent compared with 28 percent).11 Also, men were
more likely than women to calculate the amount of money needed for retirement (39 percent compared with 25 percent).
According to the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), the most likely participant in a pension plan is white, a male,
high-earning, aged 45 to 54, and working for a public sector employer.12 When pension plan participants were grouped by
psychological characteristics, the "successful planners," who represented 21 percent of workers in the study, participated in
voluntary retirement plans at much higher rates than the "live-for-today" workers, who represented 14 percent of workers.
The psychological characteristics may result partly from being in a cohort.
A cohort is a group of people who share similar experiences and events. As a result, the members of a particular cohort are
likely to share certain attitudes and consumer behavior.13 In this study, the following cohorts are examined (with the range of
years in which cohort members were born shown in parentheses): the Swing cohort (1928-45), older Baby Boomers
(1946-54),14 younger Baby Boomers (1955-64), and Generations X and Y (1965-87). The Swing cohort is sometimes known
as the "silent generation." Members of this cohort came of age after World War II, and many were parents of baby boomers.
They are often thought to be more frugal and adaptive than other cohorts.15 Older baby boomers are sometimes described
as being idealistic and individualistic, while younger baby boomers have been described as emphasizing personal
fulfillment.16 Members of Generation X are sometimes viewed as being skeptical consumers, while members of Generation Y
have been described as having grown up with modern technology, especially computers.17 (See table 1.)

Hypotheses
Based on the theory of life-cycle savings and previous research on savings behavior, the following hypothesis was developed
for this study:
• H1: Households whose heads are older (such as the Swing cohort and the Older Boomers) will be more likely to hold
retirement accounts and to have larger amounts saved for retirement than households with younger heads.
Based on the theory of planned behavior and previous research on savings behavior, the following hypotheses also were
developed:
• H2: Heads of households with a greater tolerance for risk, who save regularly, and those who have a longer planning
horizon will be more likely to hold retirement accounts and to have larger amounts saved for retirement.
• H3: Households whose heads have more education and that have greater household income will be more likely to
hold retirement accounts and to have larger amounts saved for retirement than households whose heads have less
education and households with less income.
• H4: Households with children and those with self-employed heads will be less likely than households without children
and those without self-employed heads to hold retirement accounts and will have smaller amounts saved for
retirement.

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

• H5: Households that spend less than their income will be more likely to hold retirement accounts and to have larger
amounts saved for retirement than households that spend the same as or more than their income.
• H6: Households in which the heads are homeowners and those that have larger amounts of assets--both financial and
nonfinancial--will be more likely to hold retirement accounts and to have larger amounts saved for retirement than
renters or those with smaller amounts of financial and nonfinancial assets.

Data And Sample
The data used in this study were drawn from the 2001 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), which was sponsored by the
Federal Reserve Board of Governors and conducted by the National Organization for Research (NORC) at the University of
Chicago.18 The 2001 SCF was collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing. The SCF was based on a dualframe sample design. One set of the survey cases was selected from a standard multistage area-probability design. The
other set of the survey cases (the high-income sample) was selected as a list sample from statistical records derived from tax
data by the Statistics of Income Division of the Internal Revenue Service.
The sample for the study consists of households in which either the head of household or the spouse was not retired and was
less than or equal to 70 years of age. The study does not include anyone who might have been turning 70½ or those who
already had retired because they may have begun to withdraw funds from their retirement savings accounts. These criteria
for inclusion reflect the assumption that if a respondent or spouse is still working, they are more likely to be saving for
retirement. Also, individuals must begin to withdraw from qualified retirement plans on April 1 of the year in which they turn
70½ years old or when they retire, whichever comes later. These criteria reduce the sample size from 4,442 households to
3,428 households. A weight variable was used to provide descriptive statistics that are representative of the entire U.S.
population.

Measurement Of Variables
Dependent variables. There are two dependent variables: whether or not the head of household or spouse holds one or
more retirement accounts (1 = yes, 0 = no), and the total amount in the retirement accounts held by the household.
Retirement accounts are defined by the 2001 SCF to include thrift accounts (defined contribution plans), future pensions
(defined benefit plans), Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs), and Keogh accounts.
Holding at least one retirement account is examined using logistic regression.19 Logistic regression is an appropriate method
when the dependent variable is dichotomous. The total amount held in the household retirement accounts is examined using
tobit regression.20 Tobit regression is the appropriate method when the dependent variable is equal to zero for some
proportion of the observations, but their corresponding predictor variables are known.
Independent variables. The groups of independent variables include attitude, subjective norms, perceived control, and past
experience. Attitude is measured by risk tolerance in making saving and investment decisions, being a saver, and planning
horizon. In the SCF, risk tolerance was measured by the question, "Which of the following statements comes closest to the
amount of financial risk that you are willing to take when you save or make investments?" The responses were "take
substantial financial risks," "take above average financial risks," "take average financial risks," and "not willing to take any
financial risk." Each response was coded as a dichotomous variable and the response "not willing to take any financial risk"
was used as the reference category.
Being a saver was defined as having at least one positive response to the question, "Which of the following statements
comes closest to describing you and your spouse’s (or partner’s) saving habits?" The possible responses were "save
regularly by putting money aside each month," "spend regular income and save other income," "save income of one family
member and spend the other," "save whatever is left over at the end of the month," or "not saving." The reference category
was the "not saving" response.
Planning horizon was measured by the question, "In planning your family’s saving and spending, which of the following time
periods is most important to you?" The possible responses were "the next few months," "next year," "next few years," "next

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COMPENSATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

5-10 years," or "longer than 10 years." Each response was coded as a dichotomous variable with "next few months" used as
the reference category.
Subjective norms were measured by age, race, and marital status. The term subjective norm is defined as individuals
choosing to behave in a way that is typical of a certain group such as those of their same age, race, or marital status. Age
was measured by the parameters of the four cohorts: the Swing cohort, Older Baby Boomers, Younger Baby Boomers, and
Generation X and Y. The Older Baby Boomers were the reference group. Race was coded as 1 if the head of household was
white and zero if the head of household was nonwhite. Similarly, regarding marital status, respondents who were married
were coded 1, and those who were never married, divorced or separated, or widowed were coded zero.
Perceived control was measured by years of education, presence of children aged 18 years old or younger, household
income, and self-employment. The term perceived control is defined as the factors over which the individual has control, such
as the level of education that they attain or the number of children that they have. Education and income were continuous
variables. Households that had children aged 18 years or younger were coded 1, while those without children in that age
range were coded zero. Self-employment was coded 1 if the respondent was self-employed and zero if not.
Past experience in regard to savings behavior was measured by home ownership, financial assets, nonfinancial assets, and
a question about the relationship of spending to income. Financial assets included all types of financial investments except
retirement funds. Nonfinancial assets included the value of vehicles, residences, investment real estate, and equity in
businesses. Spending relative to income was measured by the question, "Over the past year, would you say that your
spending exceeded your family’s income, that it was about the same as your [family’s] income, or that you spent less than
your [family’s] income?" Each response was coded as a dichotomous variable. Spending equal to income was the reference
category. (See table 2 for the coding of variables.)

Results
Descriptive statistics. There was at least one retirement account in 57 percent of the households. The average or mean
amount in the retirement accounts was $49,944, but the standard deviation was $174,193, suggesting that the dollar amount
held in retirement accounts varies widely by individual households. The median amount held in retirement accounts--$2,000-provides another indication of the wide variation in the amounts held by households. (See table 3.)
Attitudinal variables. About 34 percent of households preferred not to take any risk when saving or investing, while 39
percent would take average risk, and 27 percent would take above average or substantial risk. Three-fourths of the sample
reported that they saved using at least one of the saving methods described in the survey. The responses for time preference
suggested that the households were more likely to prefer a longer period such as 5 to 10 years.
Subjective norms. Of the four cohorts, the Swing cohort was the smallest, representing just 14 percent of households. One
reason is that the members of this cohort are older, by definition, and some of the respondents had already retired and thus
were not included in the sample. Seventy-three percent of the household heads in the sample were white, and 53 percent
were married.
Perceived control. On average, respondents had completed about 13½ years of education. Forty-six percent of the
households had children aged 18 years or younger living in the home. Thirteen percent of the heads of household were selfemployed. The average or mean household income of the sample was $72,673; the median household income was $44,000.
Past experience. Fifty-six percent of the households were homeowners. The average amount of financial assets was
$101,518, and the average amount of nonfinancial assets was $250,590. Forty-four percent claimed that they had spent less
than their income in the previous year, while 19 percent indicated that they had spent more than their income, and 37 percent
reported that they had spent an amount equal to their income.

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Analysis
Prior to conducting the regression analyses, Chi-square tests were used to determine if there was a relationship among the
categorical variables and the cohorts, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of the continuous
variables by cohorts.21 However, Chi-square tests and Analysis of Variance consider the effect of only one variable at a time
while the regression analyses consider the effect of all of the variables simultaneously. Table 4 shows the results of the Chisquare tests, and table 5 shows the ANOVA results.
Older Baby Boomers were a little more likely to have a retirement account than the other cohorts. The heads of households
in the Older Boomer cohort and in the Swing cohort were more likely to hold average or above average risk tolerance than
younger Boomers and Generation X and Y. Older Boomers also were the most likely cohort to report that they are savers.
Both Older and Younger Boomers had a high preference for the longest time horizon for saving. Generation X and Y were
most likely to prefer the shortest time horizon which was the next few months to a year.
The Swing Cohort was more likely than the other cohorts to have a head of household who is white. The Younger Boomers
were most likely to have children 18 years or younger living at home. Heads of households in the Swing cohort were more
likely to be self-employed. Members of Generation X and Y and the Swing cohort were more likely to report that they spend
less than their total income. Three-fourths of both the Older Boomers and the Swing cohort were homeowners, while only 30
percent of Generation X and Y were homeowners.
The ANOVA results revealed that all of the cohorts differed significantly on the total amount in their retirement accounts.
Households in the Swing cohort had the largest amount in retirement savings, but it was only $14,000 more, on average,
than the amount of the Older Boomers’ retirement savings. Households in the Older Boomer cohort had twice as much in
their retirement accounts, on average, as the Younger Boomers. Older Boomers had attained the highest level of education.
Household income was highest for the Older Boomers and lowest for the Generation X and Y cohort. The amount of financial
assets was highest for the Swing cohort and lowest for the Generation X and Y cohort. Nonfinancial assets were also highest
for the Swing cohort and lowest for the Generation X and Y cohort.
Logistic regression results for likelihood of having an account. When all of the factors were considered simultaneously
using logistic regression, the following factors affecting the likelihood of holding a retirement account were statistically
significant: risk tolerance, being a saver, planning horizon, age cohort, race, marital status, education, self-employment,
spending behavior, and being a homeowner. (See table 6.) Heads of households with more tolerance for risk were more
likely to hold a retirement account, as were those who reported that they saved. Those who preferred longer planning
horizons (5 to 10 years and more than 10 years) were more likely to hold a retirement account. The Generation X and Y
cohort were less likely to hold retirement accounts than the Older Boomer cohort.
White heads of households and those who are married were more likely to hold a retirement account than households with a
nonwhite head or those in which the head is not married. Homeowners were more likely to hold retirement accounts than
renters. Those who reported that they spent less than their income were more likely to hold a retirement account than those
who said that they spent an amount equal to their income. Self-employed heads of households were less likely to hold a
retirement account than those who were wage and salary workers. Self-employed persons are often less likely to save for
retirement in tax-deferred savings options because they prefer to have access to their assets for their business. Some
business owners intend to sell their businesses in order to retire.22
Tobit regression results for amount saved in retirement accounts. The final step in the analysis was to examine the
relationship between the independent variables and the amount of retirement savings. The amount in retirement savings was
larger for those who were willing to take risk, those who saved, those with planning horizons of 5 to 10 years, those who were
married household heads, and those with more education. Compared with the Older Boomer cohort, the Generation X and Y
cohort and the Younger Boomers had less in retirement savings and the Swing cohort had more in retirement savings. Those
who reported that they spent less than their income had more in retirement savings than those who reported that they spent

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an amount equal to their income, and homeowners had more in retirement savings than renters. The amount in financial
assets and the amount in nonfinancial assets were both positively related to the amount in retirement accounts.

Discussion And Implications
The results of the Chi-square test showed that each succeeding cohort was more likely than the previous cohort to hold some
type of retirement account. Generation X and Y were least likely to hold a retirement account, while the Swing cohort was
most likely to hold a retirement account (45 percent compared with 73 percent). However, the logistic regression showed that
when all of the factors were considered simultaneously, there was no statistical difference between the Younger and Older
Boomers and the Swing cohort on the likelihood of holding a retirement account. Nevertheless, the results of the tobit
regression showed that the amount of retirement savings was significantly different for the cohorts. The Younger Boomers
and Generation X and Y had smaller amounts saved for retirement than the Older Boomers, but the Swing cohort had more
saved than the Older Boomers. Hence, the life-cycle hypothesis that household savings tends to increase with age was
supported.
The findings also support the theory of planned behavior. Retirement savings behavior was shown to be influenced by
attitude, subjective norms, perceived control, and past experience. Increased tolerance for risk when saving or investing,
reporting being a saver, being married, more education, being a homeowner, and reporting spending less than income were
significantly related to both dependent variables--holding a retirement account and the amount saved for retirement.
This study examined the retirement savings behavior of baby boomers compared with that of other age cohorts. It found that
obtaining more education, being more willing to accept risk, and enhancing past savings behavior were among the factors
that were most influential in having a larger amount saved for retirement. In this study, income was marginally significant (p
= .0805) in predicting the amount saved for retirement. This shows that, as hypothesized, income was positively related to
the amount of retirement savings. Future studies might examine income in more detail, such as by using income quartiles.
Another possibility for future studies would be to look at attitudes toward the use of credit and their influence on retirement
savings behavior.
Sharon A. DeVaney, Ph.D.
Professor of Family and Consumer Economics, Department of Consumer Sciences and Retailing, Purdue University.
Sophia T. Chiremba
Ph.D. candidate, Department of Consumer Sciences and Retailing, Purdue University.

NOTE: This is a revised version of an article that originally was published in January 2005. This version corrects table 4. The
heading for the second row of table 4 was corrected; it now says, "Not holding an account." In addition, the values in the
second column ("Generations X and Y") of the eighth and ninth rows ("Saver" and "Not a saver") have been corrected.

Notes
1 AARP, Baby Boomers Envision Retirement II: Survey of Baby Boomers’ Expectations for Retirement (Washington, DC, AARP, May 2004);
available on the Internet at http://research.aarp.org/econ/boomers_envision.pdf.
2 Cheryl Russell, The Master Trend: How the Baby Boom Generation is Remaking America (New York, Plenum Press, 1993).
3 Scott A. Bass, "Emergence of the Third Age: Toward a Productive Aging Society," in Francis G. Caro, Robert Morris, and Jill R. Norton, eds.,
Advancing Aging Policy as the 21st Century Begins (New York, Haworth Press, 2000).
4 Teresa A. Sullivan, Elizabeth Warren, and J. Lawrence Westbrook, The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. (New Haven, CT, Yale
University Press, 2000).
5 Sophie M. Korczyk, "Baby Boomers Head for Retirement," Journal of Financial Planning, March 2001, pp. 116-23.
6 Albert Ando and Franco Modigliani, "The Life Cycle Hypothesis of Saving: Aggregate Implications and Tests," American Economic Review,
March 1963, pp. 55-84.
7 Icek Ajzen, "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior," in Julius Kuhl and Jürgen Beckmann, eds., Action-control: From
Cognition to Behavior (Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, 1985) pp. 22-39; and Icek Ajzen, "The Theory of Planned Behavior," in Edwin A.
Locke, ed., Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Volume 50, 1991, pp. 179-211.

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8 Karl-Erik Warneryd, The Psychology of Saving: A Study on Economic Psychology, (Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar Publishing, 1999).
9 See Sharon A. DeVaney and Ya-ping Su, "Factors Predicting the Most Important Source of Retirement Income," Compensation and Working
Conditions, Fall 1997, pp. 25-31.
10 See, for example, Sharon A. DeVaney and T. Catherine Zhang, "A Cohort Analysis of the Amount in Defined Contribution and Individual
Retirement Accounts," Financial Counseling and Planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, 2001, pp. 89-102; and Zhan Chen and Sharon A. DeVaney,
"What Factors Affect the Household Net Worth of Employees and Business Owners?" Financial Services Review, Volume 11, Number 4,
2002, pp. 381-91.
11 See Sharon A. DeVaney and Ya-ping Su, "Gender Differences in Retirement Planning Knowledge," Personal Finances and Worker
Productivity, Volume 1, Issue 1, 1997, pp. 160-71.
12 Rachel Christensen, "Value of Benefits Constant in a Changing World: Findings from the EBRI/MGA Value of Benefits Survey," EBRI
Notes, March 2002, pp. 1-3.
13 Geoffrey Meredith and Charles Schewe, "The Power of Cohorts," American Demographics, December 1994, pp. 22-31.
14 This study follows others in separating the baby boomers into an older and a younger cohort. These studies tend to use the end of the
Vietnam War as the break point. Although the United States officially ended its involvement in the conflict in 1975, baby boomers born after
1954 were much less likely to have participated in the war or otherwise to have been affected in the same way as those born in 1954 or earlier.
15 Maurice J. Johnson and Evelyn C. Moore, Apparel Product Development, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2001.)
16 William Strauss and Neil Howe, Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. (New York, William Morrow, 1991); and
Walker J. Smith and Ann Clurman, Rocking the Ages (New York, Harper Collins, 1997).
17 Susan Mitchell, Amercan Generations: Who They Are, How They Live, What They Think, 2nd ed. (Ithaca, NY, New Strategist, 1998).
18 Arthur B. Kennickell, Codebook for 2001 Survey of Consumer Finances, 2003, (Washington, DC, Board of Governors of the Federal
Reserve System, 2003).
19 For more information on logistic regression techniques, see Paul D. Allison, Logistic Regression: Using the SAS System: Theory and
Application. (Cary, NC, SAS Institute and Wiley, 2001.)
20 For more information on tobit regression techniques, see Peter Kennedy, A Guide to Econometrics, 4th ed. (Cambridge, MA, MIT Press,
1998).
21 For more information on the ANOVA technique, see John Neter, William Wasserman, and Michael H. Kutner, Applied Linear Regression
Models, 2nd ed. (Homewood, IL, Irwin, 1989).
22 Sharon A. DeVaney, Deanna L. Sharpe, Constance Y. Kratzer, and Ya-ping Su. "Retirement Preparation of the Nonfarm Self-Employed,"
Financial Counseling and Planning, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998, pp. 53-59.

Table 1. Selected Characteristics of the Cohorts
Characteristic

Swing Cohort

Older Boomers

1928 to 1945

1946 to 1954

1955 to 1964

1965 to 1987

Great Depression, followed by

Post-World War II

Continued postwar

Downsizing, prosperity,

unprecedented growth

prosperity

prosperity

and bust

Cohort
experience

Post-World War II era

Vietnam War

Cold War

High technology

Core values

Adaptive personality

Years born
State of
economy

Buying habits

Quality for price

Idealistic,
individuality

Younger Boomers

Personal fulfillment

Generations X and Y

Pessimistic, diversity,
globalization

Spenders, brand

Debt is part of their

Skeptical consumers,

loyal

lifestyle

products that are "cool"

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Table 2. Coding of Variables
Variables

Coding

Dependent variables:
Holding one or more retirement accounts

1 if yes; 0 if otherwise

Dollar amount in retirement account

Continuous
Independent variables:
Attitudinal variables:

Risk tolerance in making savings and investment decisions:
No financial risk (reference group)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Average financial risk

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Above average financial risk

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

High risk

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Saver

1 if yes, 0 otherwise
Time plan for saving:

Few months or less than a year (reference group)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Next year

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Next few years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

5 to 10 years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Longer than 10 years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise
Subjective norms:
Age:

Generations X and Y: 18 to 35 years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Younger Boomers: 36 to 46 years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Older Boomers: 47 to 55 years (reference group)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Swing Cohort: 56 to 73 years

1 if yes, 0 otherwise
Others:

White (reference group: nonwhite)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Married (reference group: nonmarried)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise
Perceived control:

Educational attainment (in years)

Continuous

Presence of children (reference group: no children)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Self-employment (reference group: not self-employed)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Household income

Continuous
Past savings behavior:

Spending more than income

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Spending equal to income (reference group)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Spending less than income

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Home ownership (reference group: not a homeowner)

1 if yes, 0 otherwise

Financial assets

Continuous

Nonfinancial assets

Continuous

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Table 3. Weighted Descriptive Statistics for Nonretired Households with Heads Aged 70 Years or Younger in the 2001
Survey of Consumer Finances (N = 3,428)
Variables

Mean

Median

Standard Deviation Frequency (in percent)

Dependent variables:
Holding one or more retirement accounts
Dollar amount in retirement account

-

-

-

57.3

$49,944.82

$2,000.00

$174,193.94

-

Independent variables:
Attitudinal variables:
Risk tolerance:
No financial risk (reference group)

-

-

-

34.2

Average financial risk

-

-

-

39.1

Above average financial risk

-

-

-

21.2

High risk

-

-

-

5.4

-

-

-

78.5

Saver

Time plan for saving:
Few months or less than a year (reference
group)

-

-

-

17.7

Next year

-

-

-

11.3

Next few years

-

-

-

26.2

5 to 10 years

-

-

-

25.6

Longer than 10 years

-

-

-

19.1

Subjective norms:
Age:
Generations X and Y: 18 to 35 years

-

-

-

31.0

Younger Boomers: 36 to 46 years

-

-

-

31.8

Older Boomers: 47 to 55 years (reference
group)

-

-

-

23.3

Swing Cohort: 56 to 73 years

-

-

-

13.9

White (reference group: nonwhite)

-

-

-

73.4

Married (reference group: nonmarried)

-

-

-

53.1

13.4

13.0

2.7

-

Presence of children (reference group: no
children)

-

-

-

46.1

Self-employment (reference group: not selfemployed)

-

-

-

13.3

$72,673.51

$44,000.00

$222,653.46

-

-

19.0

Others:

Perceived control:
Educational attainment (in years)

Household income

Past savings behavior:
Spending more than income

-

NOTE: Dashes indicate "not applicable."

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Variables

Mean

Median

Standard Deviation Frequency (in percent)

Spending equal to income (reference group)

-

-

-

36.9

Spending less than income

-

-

-

44.2

Home ownership (reference group: not a
homeowner)

-

-

-

56.0

Financial assets

$101,518.85

$7,100.00

$807,102.23

-

Nonfinancial assets

$250,590.79

$92,050.00

$1,344,471.00

-

NOTE: Dashes indicate "not applicable."

Table 4. Chi-Square Analysis of Age Group and Selected Characteristics of Nonretired Households in the 2001 Survey
of Consumer Finances (N = 3,428) [In percent]
Variable

Generations X and Y

Younger Boomers

Older Boomers

Swing Cohort

Holding one or more retirement accounts

45.38

66.41

72.92

68.93

Not holding an account

54.62

33.59

27.08

31.07

Risk tolerance:

< 0.0001
0.0007

No financial risk

33.65

27.13

25.66

25.24

Average financial risk

36.49

38.61

43.86

44.17

Above average financial risk

22.75

27.32

25.11

24.11

High risk

P-value

7.11

6.93

5.37

6.47

Saver

73.70

83.49

87.28

84.95

Not a saver

26.30

16.51

12.72

15.05

Few months or less than a year

21.56

14.61

12.83

9.06

Next year

15.64

8.54

7.89

7.93

Next few years

28.32

23.72

21.60

25.73

5 to 10 years

18.25

27.99

31.36

38.51

Longer than 10 years

Time plan for saving:

< 0.0001
< 0.0001

16.23

25.14

26.32

18.77

White

68.25

77.89

81.36

86.25

Nonwhite

31.75

22.11

18.64

13.75

Married

39.81

63.85

67.54

69.74

Not married

60.19

36.15

32.46

30.26

Presence of children

50.47

67.65

44.63

10.19

No children

49.53

32.35

55.37

89.81

8.65

26.57

33.88

47.73

Not self-employed

91.35

73.43

66.12

52.27

Spending exceeds income

22.04

17.55

12.94

12.78

Spending equal to income

41.11

31.02

27.85

23.79

Spending less than income

36.85

51.42

59.21

63.43

Homeowner

29.74

64.23

74.89

75.57

< 0.0001

Not a homeowner

70.26

35.77

25.11

24.43

< 0.0001

Self-employed

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< 0.0001
< 0.0001
< 0.0001
< 0.0001
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Table 5. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Comparing the Means of Selected Characteristics by Age Group of
Nonretired Households in the 2001 Survey of Consumer Finances (N = 3,428)
Variable

Generations X and
Y
(a)

Amount held in retirement
account (ab, ac, ad, bc, bd, cd)

Younger Boomers
(b)

Older Boomers
(c)

Swing Cohort
(d)

F-test Pvalue

$8,791.98

$45,954.21

$82,682.83

$96,176.05

<.0001

13.2

13.6

13.8

12.8

<.0001

Household income (ab, ac, ad, bc,
bd, cd)

$44,295.22

$76,956.31

$96,199.76

$86,835.51

<.0001

Financial assets (ac, ad, bc, bd)

$35,983.29

$72,080.81

$160,370.84

$216,794.26

<.0001

Nonfinancial assets (ac, ad, bc,
bd, cd)

$94,241.93

$235,994.62

$347,121.69

$471,615.20

<.0001

Educational attainment, in years
(ac, ab, ad, bc)

NOTE: The pairs of letters a, b, c, d represent the means of the age cohorts that are significantly different from each other at the 0.05-percent
confidence level. For example, for the amount in retirement accounts, the letters ab show that the average amount in retirement accounts held
by the members of Generations X and Y is significantly different from that of Younger Boomers.

Table 6. Results of Logistic Regression for Holding One or More Retirement Accounts and Tobit Regression for the
Amount Held in Retirement Account(s) for Nonretired Households in the 2001 Survey of Consumer Finances
Holding retirement account
Independent variables

No financial risk (reference group)

Parameter
estimate

Pr > Chisquare

Amount in account
Odds
ratio

Parameter
estimate

Pr > Chisquare

-

-

-

-

-

Average financial risk

1.0013

<.0001***

2.722

256,511.90

<.0001***

Above average financial risk

1.3713

<.0001***

3.941

303,612.20

<.0001***

High risk

1.1799

<.0001***

3.254

321,276.00

<.0001***

Saver (reference group: not a saver)

0.6095

<.0001***

1.840

100,759.90

0.0247*

-

-

-

-

-

-0.0276

0.8692

0.973

52,158.40

0.3871

Horizon (reference group: few months to a
year)
Next year
Next few years

0.1938

0.1598

1.214

23,614.38

0.629

5 to 10 years

0.3789

0.0070**

1.461

109,303.20

0.0239*

Longer than 10 years

0.3424

0.0238*

1.408

75,977.82

0.1323

-

-

-

-

-

Generations X and Y

-0.5379

<.0001

0.584

–170,491.00

<.0001***

Younger Boomers

-0.1888

0.1257

0.828

–110,204.00

0.0024*

Swing Cohort

-0.1524

0.2904

0.859

200,361.30

<.0001***

White (reference group: nonwhite)

0.2737

0.0109*

1.315

72,858.97

0.0548

Married (reference group: not married)

0.4159

<.0001***

1.516

110,994.00

0.0009***

0.197

<.0001***

1.218

65,285.83

<.0001***

Presence of children (reference group: no
children)

0.1815

0.0757

1.199

42,851.69

0.1835

Self-employed (reference group: not selfemployed)

-0.4046

0.0004***

0.667

–17,958.60

0.5821

Older Boomers (reference group)

Education

NOTE: * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001; dashes indicate "not applicable."

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Holding retirement account
Independent variables

Household income

Parameter
estimate

Pr > Chisquare

Amount in account
Odds
ratio

Parameter
estimate

Pr > Chisquare

5.30E-08

0.2332

1.000

0.0151

0.0805

0.0135

0.9141

1.014

20,209.15

0.6456

-

-

-

-

-

Spending less than income

0.4597

<.0001***

1.584

136,644.00

<.0001***

Homeowner (reference group: not a
homeowner)

0.8962

<.0001***

2.450

183,083.30

<.0001***

Financial assets

-7.15E-09

0.0627

1.000

0.0031

0.0088**

Nonfinancial assets

-1.18E-09

0.7096

1.000

0.0103

<.0001***

Spending exceeds income
Spending equal to income (reference
group)

NOTE: * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001; dashes indicate "not applicable."

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