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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Frances P erk in s, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Isador L u b in , C om m issioner (o n lea ve)
A . F. H in rich s, A c tin g C om m issioner
♦

M oney Disbursements
o f W age Earners and Clerical W ork ers
19 34-36
Summary V olum e
By
F A IT H M. W ILLIAM S and ALICE C. H A N S O N
o f th e B u rea u o f Labor Statistics

Bulletin A[o. 638

U N IT E D S T A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFIC E
W A S H IN G T O N : 1941

F or sale b y th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, W ashington, D . C.




-

P rice 55 cen ts

U N IT E D ST AT ES D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R
F r a n c e s P e r k i n s , Secretary

B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
I s a d o r L u b i n , Commissioner (o n le a v e )
A. F. H i n r i c h s , Acting Commissioner
S i d n e y W . W il c o x

H u g h S. H a n n a

Chief Statistician

Chief, Editorial and Research

ST A F F OF TH E ST U D Y OF M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S OF W A G E E A R N E R S
A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S --- S U M M A R Y V O L U M E

F a it h M . W il l i a m s , Chief, C ost of

L iv in g D iv isio n
J e r o m e C o r n f i e l d , A ssociate S ta tis­

tician

C. H a n s o n , A ssista n t Chief,
C ost of L ivin g D iv isio n

A l ic e

M a r y C. R u a r k , A ssista n t in charge of
preparation of T abular S um m ary

S a m u e l M . G a h a g e n and H a r r y W i n c k e l , in charge of ta b u la tio n in th e field
ii




CONTENTS

Text
Page

P r efac e ________________________________________________________________________
S u m m ar y ____________________________________________
C hapter 1.-— Expenditure habits of wage earners and clerical workers___
C hapter 2.— Changes in family expenditures in the post-war period____
C hapter 3.— Income, family size, and the consumption level of the
fam ily_______________________________________________________
C hapter 4.— Food___________________________________________________________
C hapter 5.— Housing________________________________________________________
C hapter 6.— Housefurnishings and household operation_________________
C hapter 7.— Clothing________________________________________________________
C hapter 8.— Transportation and recreation________________________________
C hapter 9.— Medical care, personal care, and miscellaneous items______
C hapter 10.— Savings________________________________________________________
C hapter 11.— Spending habits of special groups of families________________
C hapter 12.— Aggregate spending and saving of wage earners and clerical
workers in large cities as related to their aggregate in­
come_________________________________________________________
List of text tables______________________________________________________________
List of figures___________________________________________________________________

v i i

1
9
34
46
66
86
104
121
132
150
167
187

207
223
227

List of Illustrations
Facing
Page

P late 1.— Group of delegates to boot and shoe workers’ convention, 1919_
2. — Women factory workers in Baltimore boarding a streetcar at the
close of their day’s work (1936)_______________________________
3. — Comparatively new one-family detached wooden houses in an
eastern metropolitan area______________________________________
4. — Back-yard view of Negro dwellings in one of the southern cities
covered__________________________________________________________
5. — Public Works Administration recent low-cost housing develop­
ment in Milwaukee_____________________________________________
6. — Public Works Administration recent low-cost housing develop­
ment in Memphis_______________________________________________
7. — Woman clerical worker dressed for the office_________________
8.— W orkers’ automobiles parked outside a factory in Baltimore. _
9. — After-work recreation in a public park in a large eastern city
10. — Camping out, Wisconsin Chequamegon National Forest____
11. — Child-health conference for preschool children_______________




in

36
37
86
87
102
103
124
140
141
148
149

IV

CONTENTS

Tabular Summary
Page

L ist of ta b le s_______________________________________________________________
D e ta ile d ta b le s_____________________________________________________________

230
232

Appendixes
A p p e n d ix
A p p e n d ix
A p p e n d ix
A p p e n d ix

A . — Scope and period covered by th e s t u d y ____________________

B .— Selection of fam ilies to be in te r v ie w e d _____________________
C.— P rocedures fo llo w e d _________________________________________
D .— N o te s on ta b le s____________________________________________
L ist of appendix ta b le s_____________________________________________________




355
359
362
383

402

Letter of Transmittal

U n it e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ,
B u r e a u of L a bo r S t a t ist ic s ,
Washington, D . C., June 15, 194-0.

The S e c r e t a r y of L a b o r :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report summarizing the
results of the survey of Money Disbursements of Wage Earners and
Clerical Workers in 42 Cities made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Previously issued bulletins have presented detailed data from this
survey by regions and by cities.
A. F. H in r ic h s , Acting Commissioner.
Hon. F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,




Secretary of Labor.




PR EFACE

It is now more than half a century since the Commissioner of Labor
was first instructed by the Congress in 1888 to obtain information on
the incomes and the family expenditures of the wage earners of the
country. In 1890, 42 percent of the gainfully employed workers in
the United States were employed in industry, transportation, clerical
service, and trade, and 41 percent in agriculture and allied occupa­
tions. In the 50 years which have intervened, there has been a
marked shift in the occupational distribution of the workers of the
Nation. Important changes in techniques of production have con­
siderably increased production per employed worker per year, both
in industry and agriculture, whereas the demand for industrial prod­
ucts has expanded faster than the demand for farm products. The
result, for many years, was a steady drift from the farms into industry
and trade. This drift was interrupted during the first years of the
depression and has since been resumed, although in diminished pro­
portion. In 1930, 58 percent of the gainfully occupied workers of the
Nation were employed in industry, transportation, clerical services
and trade, as compared with only 21 percent in agriculture and allied
occupations.
Important as it was in 1888 to know just what goods and services
were available to urban wage earners and clerical workers, it is more
important now. The National Resources Committee estimates that
out of the Nation’s 24,913,200 nonrelief families in 1935-36, 13,085,500
were dependent for the major part of their support on the earnings of
those two groups.
The study on which the present report is based was undertaken
primarily for the purpose of the revision of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ index of the cost of goods purchased by wage earners and
lower-salaried clerical workers. It has provided a new list of items
to be priced, and new weights for that index. In addition, it has
supplied valuable data about the kind of living available to the fami­
lies of employed wage earners and clerical workers in large cities, as
defined by the sources of their incomes, the kinds of goods and serv­
ices they buy in a year, and the kind of dwellings in which they live.
The material, supplying as it does the largest body of available
data on the entire range of items for which moderate-income families
in large cities spend, will be of great value to businessmen wishing




VII

VIII

PREFACE

to estimate the demand for specific products among urban families at
the income levels in which these groups are found. It will also be of
value to legislators and other students of taxation problems, to labor
leaders and employers in connection with wage adjustments, to wel­
fare workers planning family budgets and relief allowances, and to
students of consumption problems interested in the more theoretical
aspects of the subject.
Previous bulletins 1 have presented the data for the 42 separate
cities with populations over 50,000 covered in the Study of Money
Disbursements of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers. The present
volume summarizes what we have learned about the living of
white and Negro families in these cities combined. For the first
time since the study conducted in 1918-19 2 by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, we now have a general picture of the income level and the
plane of living of this important urban group. It had been apparent
for some time before the present survey was initiated, that consump­
tion habits had changed greatly since the last investigation of this
kind. The data presented in this bulletin make it possible to under­
stand the effect upon the living of moderate income families, of new
goods and services which have become available in the interval and
the changed tempo of urban living.
The Bureau is indebted to a number of different agencies for assist­
ance in the investigation. The Federal Emergency Relief Adminis­
tration and the Works Progress Administration supplied field investi­
gators in a number of cities. The W'orks Progress Administration
supplied part of the clerical workers needed in summarizing the data.
Local university, business, and welfare groups assisted in defining the
area to be covered, and in choosing the sample in different commun­
ities. Thanks are especially due to the housewives who patiently
worked with the Bureau’s representatives to recall the details of their
families’ receipts and disbursements over the year.
This investigation must be distinguished from the Study of Con­
sumer Purchases which was initiated a year after the present survey
was under way. The Consumer Purchases Study was undertaken by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation with the Bureau of
Home Economics of the Department of Agriculture, the National
Resources Committee, and the Central Statistical Board. Its pur­
pose was to provide comparable information on the incomes and ex­
penditures of urban and rural families in different regions, in all occu­
pational groups, and at all income levels. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics and the Bureau of Home Economics were responsible for
the collection and primary analysis of the data. The Bureau of
1 See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletins Nos. 636, 637, 639, 640, 641.
2 See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 357: Cost of Living in the United States.




PREFACE

IX

Labor Statistics conducted the survey in 32 cities of varying size,
representing different sections of the country. The Bureau of Home
Economics studied families in small cities, villages, and farm coun­
ties. These two agencies have prepared separate reports on distribu­
tion of income and family disbursements in the areas which their
respective surveys have covered. The National Resources Com­
mittee has utilized the results of the joint survey to prepare estimates
of the distribution of consumer incomes and consumer expenditures
in the entire United States.
A. F . H in r ic h s ,
Acting Commissioner of Labor Statistics.

D

ecem ber




31, 1940.

Bulletin T^o. 638 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

M oney Disbursements o f W age Earners and Clerical
W ork ers, 1934-36— Summary V olum e

Summary
This volume presents a summary of the Bureau’s Nation-wide
Study of Money Disbursements of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
in 1934-36. Separate results for each city have already been pub­
lished in a series of bulletins (Nos. 636, 637, 639, 640, and 641).
The survey covered 12,903 white families and 1,566 Negro families
in 42 cities with population over 50,000. Results for these 14,469
families in the 42 cities combined are presented in this report.
All families included in the survey met the following requirements:
Family incomes of at least $500 per year; no receipt of relief, either
direct or work relief, during the survey year; at least one earner em­
ployed for 36 weeks and earning at least $300; no clerical worker
earning over $200 per month or $2,000 per year.
In com e

The 14,469 families averaged 3.6 persons and their average income
was $1,524. Half of them had incomes below $1,458. The average
income of the 12,903 white families was $1,546 and of the 1,566 Negro
families was $1,008. The income of the 28 percent of families in which
the chief earner was a clerical worker averaged $1,642. Corresponding
figures for other occupational groups were: Skilled worker, 23 percent,
$1,661; semiskilled worker, 35 percent, $1,437; unskilled worker, 14
percent, $1,255.
E xpen d itu res

Data based on actual expenditures of these families show the over­
whelming importance of food, clothing, and housing, including fuel,
light, and refrigeration. These expenses were around two-thirds of
the total, even at the highest income levels surveyed. Outlays for the
major categories of family spending are shown in the following table.
The figures show not only the average for all families surveyed, but
the changing proportions claimed by the various categories at rela­
tively low, intermediate, and high income levels.
1




2

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
Average Yearly M on ey Expense fo r M ain Categories o f Fam ily Spending
[14,469 families in 1934-36]
Families with annual net
income of—

All families
Item
Amount

Percent­
age

Under
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,800

$1,800
and over
P ercen t

P ercent

All item s--------------

----------------------------

Food----- ---------- ---------- -------------------Clothing________________________________________
Housing--- ------------- ---------------------- -Fuel, light, and refrigeration----- ----------- ------Other household operation________________________
Furnishings and e q u i p m e n t _ ----------- ___
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance. _ ____ ____ ___________
Other transportation____ . ___ _________ _
Personal c a r e ____ ____________ _ _ __
Medical care_______ ___________________________
Recreation-----------------------------------------Education. __ ------------------------------------- .
Vocation . .
_ _ ..
._
Community welfare _. ----.
_ . . .
__ _
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the eco­
nomic family___________ _
-. _______
Other items____________ _______ _
_______ ____

P ercent

$1, 512

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

508
160
259
108
58
60

33. 5
10.6
17.1
7.1
3.8
4.0

36.2
9.0
19.5
8.6
3.4
3.4

33.9
10.2
17.7
7.4
3.7
4.1

31. 7
11.9
15.3
6.2
4.2
4.0

87
38
30
59
82
7
6
19

5.8
2.5
2.0
3.9
5.4
.5
.4
1.3

3.2
2.7
2.0
3.8
4.8
.3
.3
1.2

5.7
2.4
2.0
3.9
5.3
.4
.3
1.2

7.3
2.5
2.0
4.0
5.9
.6
.5
1.3

24
7

1.6
.5

1.1
.5

1.4
.4

2.0
.6

It is clear that with a family income of $1,200 or less per year even
limited supplies of food, clothing, and housing absorbed such a large
part of the total, that the margin left for recreation, medical care,
transportation, and other items was necessarily small. A t higher
incomes, larger quantities and better food were consumed, housing
was better and clothing more varied and attractive, but still there
was a proportionately greater share of the total available for miscel­
laneous categories of family spending.
Im p o r ta n c e o f S iz e o f F a m ily

In order to obtain a full picture of what may be called the eco­
nomic level at which a family lives, it is necessary to take account of
the complicating effect of family size and composition, and not merely
of the size of family income. For example, a family composed of a
young husband and wife only may live quite comfortably on an income
of $1,500. Another family, however, composed of an elderly father,
a middle-aged married couple, and four children ranging in age from
6 to 20 must forego many things the first family can afford, if it is to
stay within its $1,500, that is, it must live at a lower economic level.
This difference in family composition and size can be taken account
of by classifying families according to total expenditure per family
member. In counting the number of family members, the moder­
ately active man is taken as one unit, and each other member is
counted in proportion, making due allowance for the customary con­
sumption of persons of different age, sex, and activity.
Such a classification has been used, in addition to the family income
classification, in the reports giving the results of this survey by re-




SUMMARY

3

gions. It is also used in the tables in this bulletin which present de­
tails of family expenditure.
Current expenditure per family member averaged $455. When
families are classified by economic level, the largest families are found
at the lowest levels. Fifteen percent of the families and 35 percent
of the children were found in the group spending less than $300 per
year per family member. A t this level, the families averaged five
and a half persons. Forty-one percent of their total current expendi­
tures was spent for food; 26 percent for housing, fuel, light, and
refrigeration; and 10 percent for clothing. Less than a quarter of the
total could be used for the many other things which urban families
must buy.
F ood

Food expenditures constitute the most important single item in the
family budgets of the entire group of families surveyed, taking 33.5
percent of the average family’s expenditure. Despite the fact that
food took first place in expenditures, a large proportion of these fami­
lies did not spend enough to secure the amount and kinds of food
needed for good health for all the family and for normal growth of
the children. Although most of them had sufficient food to avoid
actual hunger, only about 75 percent of the white families and 32
percent of the Negro families spent enough to buy the recommended
“ minimum-cost adequate diet” of the Bureau of Home Economics.
This diet consists of lists of low-cost foods in proportions and
quantities sufficient to yield a balanced ration for persons of different
age, sex, and activity. The retail cost of each of these diets in each
city was computed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on the basis of
prices reported from retail stores for the year in which the consump­
tion survey discussed here was conducted. From these costs it was
then possible to compute the cost of the Bureau of Home Economics’
“ minimum-cost adequate diet” for a family of any stated composition.
The actual food expenditure of each family could then be compared
with the computed cost of the minimum adequate diet for that family.
While this comparison does not furnish information on the proportion
of families actually attaining adequate diets, it does furnish an esti­
mate of the proportion of families spending enough for food to have
obtained an adequate diet if the food selections had been wisely made;
and it indicates that less than three-fourths met that test.
H o u sin g

Housing expenditures, the item of next importance in the spending
of these families, averaged $34 per month. This figure includes
expense for fuel, light, and refrigeration, rent, and rental value of
owned homes. Two-fifths of these families lived in one-family de-




4

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

tached houses, one-fourth lived in apartments, and the rest in semi­
detached, row, or two-family houses.
The home of the typical wage-earner or clerical family with an
income above $500 had a bathroom with inside flush toilet and hot
running water. It had electric lights and gas or electricity for cook­
ing. Seventy-eight percent of the families surveyed had all of the
facilities just mentioned. Two-thirds had central heat in their
homes. Ice was used for refrigeration by two-thirds of these families
in 1934-36. During and since that period there has been a great
increase in sales of mechanical refrigerators. Twenty-six percent
had electric refrigerators at the time of the present study, and the
proportion is doubtless larger now.
Forty percent of the homes had garages and 30 percent, telephones.
Seventy percent of the families surveyed rented their homes. Of
these, 38 percent lived in houses, 24 percent rented heated apartments,
and 38 percent unheated apartments. Thirty percent of the families
were home owners; all but a negligible fraction of these lived in houses;
a few lived in apartments of which they were owners or part owners.
The total money expense of home owners for taxes, assessments,
interest, insurance, repairs, fuel, light, and refrigeration was $27 a
month. When the return on their capital investment is taken into
consideration, their total monthly housing expenditure actually
amounted to $39. Families renting heated apartments paid an
average of $35 for rent, light, gas, and refrigeration. Rent, fuel,
light, and refrigeration both for families renting unheated apartments
and for families renting houses averaged $31 per month.
H ou sefu rnish in gs and H ou sehold Operation

About one-twelfth of the total expenditure was absorbed by house­
hold expenses other than rent, heat, and light. These expenditures
were for furnishings and household equipment, cleaning supplies,
laundry and domestic service, telephone, water rent, insurance on
furniture, and other items connected with the running of the home.
The average annual expenditure of all families for furnishings and
equipment was $60 and for household operation, $58. Expenditures
for furnishings and equipment were very limited at the lowest income
level, where they amounted to only 2 percent of total expenditure.
They rose to about 4 percent at the $2,000 income level, after which
they showed a tendency to decline as a proportion of total expenditure.
Expenditures for household operation increased from about 3 percent
at the lowest income level to almost 4 percent at the highest. The
increase in the amount paid for household operation as income in­
creased was due principally to greater use of laundry service and paid
help. The total amount spent for the family home, including rent,




SUMMARY

5

value of housing “ in kind” from investment in owned home, fuel,
light, and refrigeration, furnishings, telephone, etc., averaged for all
the families about $44 per month, ranging from about $20 per month
for families with incomes of $500 to $600 a year to over $50 for those
with incomes above $1,800.
Clothing

Clothing expenditures, the third most important item in relative
importance, claimed 10.6 percent of total family expenditure. The
urgency with which families regard the need for comfortable and
socially appropriate clothing is evidenced by the larger outlay for
clothing per family at higher income levels. As incomes permitted,
these families of wage earners and clerical workers spent for clothing
not only more dollars, but a larger proportion of the total family
expenditure. When families were classified by amount of total
expenditure per family member a sharp increase in clothing expendi­
ture per person was found at higher economic levels. Important
differences were noted in total clothing expenditures of persons of
different age, sex, and occupation, even when allowance was made for
differences in income and family size. Employed women spent most,
then employed men, followed by women at home and men at home.
For both men and women over 18, outerwear (that is coats, sweaters,
suits, shirts, dresses, and blouses) represented the major clothing
expenditure.
The second major clothing expense for both men and women was
footwear, including shoes, slippers, rubbers and arctics, and hose. It
represented a larger expenditure, both in dollars and as a percentage
of the total, for women than for men. This fact is largely explained
by the importance of silk stockings in the women’s clothing expendi­
tures. Women’s silk and rayon stockings cost 72 cents per pair on the
average and accounted for $7.41 per year for each person, almost as
much as shoes which cost the average woman in these workers’
families $7.85 a year. The men bought a new overcoat or topcoat on
the average once in 5 years, at an average price of $21, and a new wool
suit once in 2 years at an average cost of $24.
A utom obiles

Forty-four percent of all the families covered in this study owned
automobiles. Almost all were purchased second-hand rather than
new. Of these families nearly 2 percent owned more than one auto­
mobile, and practically all of them included grown sons and daughters
who pooled their earnings with those of their elders. The average net
purchase price (gross price, minus trade-in allowance) was $300 per
family purchasing an automobile.




6

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

Other Transportation

The percentage of total expenditure devoted to “ other” transporta­
tion was less at the higher economic levels. The principal factor in
this decline was the smaller proportion of expenditures going to street­
car fares as automobile ownership became more frequent.
Radios

That the habit of “ listening to the radio” has become widespread is
shown by the high proportion of the families reporting radio ownership
in 1934-36. Seventy-four percent owned a radio. Even among those
families spending less than $200 per year per family member for all
items of family living, 40 percent had a radio.
Recreation

The average expenditure for tobacco accounted for over a third of
the total spent for recreation. Cigarette purchases were reported by
only a little over half the families at the low economic level but by
three-fourths at the high level. About 50 cents per week per family
spending went for this purpose at the low economic level compared
with almost 90 cents at the high economic level. Reading of the
daily paper and some attendance at movies were almost universally
reported.
M ed ica l Care and P ersonal Care

When these families had paid for the basic requirements of urban
living— food, shelter, clothing, transportation, and recreation— they
had, on the average, a margin of only one-tenth of their total expendi­
ture for medical care, personal care, gifts and direct personal taxes,
formal education, and miscellaneous items. Thus it is not surprising
to find that the actual average expenditure of all families for medical
care, $59 per family or $16 per person, was far below the amount that
has been estimated as necessary to obtain adequate medical care.
The greatest part of this expenditure went to the general practitioner,
while the dentist received the next largest share. These expenditures
combined with those for medicines and drugs comprised over one-half
of the total expenditure for medical care. The balance went for serv­
ices of hospitals, specialists, and nurses, and for eyeglasses, medical
appliances, and miscellaneous medical expense.
The average family expenditure of $30 for personal care was about
equally divided between services of barber and beauty shops and the
purchase of toilet articles and preparations. Haircuts accounted for
$10 of the $16 total for personal care services, permanent waves for
$2, and other waves for $1,70. Practically all of the families (96




7

SUMMARY

percent) bought toilet soap as well as laundry soap.
portion reported expense for haircuts.
E du ca tion

The same pro­

, V ocation, and M iscellan eou s

Formal education, vocational expense (including such items as union
dues), and miscellaneous expenditures each took one-half of 1 percent
or less of total family expenditure. Such expenditures, and those for
community welfare, all tend to be highly variable. Individual families
spent from nothing to rather large amounts in this way.
Savings

In the aggregate, the current incomes of the families studied were a
little greater than their current expenditures. The average savings
amounted to $11. Among families with incomes from $500 to $600
(the lowest income level included in this study) the year brought a
deficit, with an average net change in assets and liabilities for all
families of $80. This deficit became progressively smaller at successive
income levels, and changed to an average surplus at the $1,500 to
$1,800 income level. The average surplus was greater at each higher
income class, reaching a maximum of $231 for families with incomes
of $3,000 and over. In this report, expenditure for life-insurance
premiums is treated as savings.
Changes in F a m ily E xpenditures F ro m 1 9 1 9 to 1 9 3 4 -3 6

A comparison of the figures obtained in the present investigation
with those of a similar study made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
in 1917-19 shows marked changes in family expenditures in the interval.
Technological developments in the production of consumers7 goods
in the period of almost 20 years made a considerable difference not
only in the kinds of things on the market but also, combined with
other factors, in the prices charged for goods purchased by moderateincome families. Prices of food and of clothing were very much lower
in 1934-36 than in 1917-19, rents and housefurnishings prices were
slightly lower. Electric light and power rates were lower, but coal
cost more, since coal prices had been controlled at relatively low levels
during the first World War. A comparison has been made of actual
expenditures in 1934-36 with the cost at that date of goods comparable
to those which were purchased by families in 1917-19. It shows that
in the later period this group of employed workers spent more for food
and for housing than would have been required to buy the equivalent
of the food and housing purchased in 1917-19. The data available
on the kinds of foods purchased in the two periods indicate that the
consumption of this group at the later date was nearer the diets
242949°— 41------ 2




8

M O N EY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

recommended by nutrition specialists than were the diets of families
at approximately the same economic level in 1917-19.
C om parison o f W h ite and N egro F am ilies

The principal differences noted in the spending of white and Negro
families are associated with income differences. The same require­
ments for inclusion in the survey were applied to white and to Negro
families. As relatively more Negroes than whites were on relief or
unemployed at the time of the survey, the Negroes included rep­
resented the higher stratum of Negro wage earners and clerical
workers. Despite this fact, the incomes of the Negro families in­
cluded were substantially below those of the white families.
When expenditures for white families were compared with those for
Negro families at the same income level or economic level, few marked
differences were found. The principal ones were that Negroes saved
more because of their almost universal practice of paying insurance
premiums; that they contributed more to relatives; and that they
spent somewhat less for food. In Northern cities, Negro families
spent more for housing than white families at the same income level,
but the reverse was found in the South.
Regional Differences

The generalized averages for 42 cities combined necessarily do not
show differences between localities. Separate data for individual
cities have been presented in the series of bulletins mentioned earlier.
When a comparison is made of differences in family-spending patterns
between regions, many of these differences are found to be due to
income variations. Some are of course associated with climate and
custom. Regional differences in averages for main categories of
spending are in general small between families at the same income
level. For families with incomes between $1,200 and $1,500 the cate­
gory which showed the largest regional difference was housing. New
York City families had the largest expenditure for housing including
fuel, light, and refrigeration. Other North Atlantic cities had the
second greatest expenditure and Pacific coast cities, the lowest housing
expenditure. One of the most interesting contrasts found was the
difference in expenditures for automobile purchase, operation, and
maintenance. The highest average expenditure was found among the
Pacific coast families, with families in the W est North Central, East
North Central, Southern, and North Atlantic regions following in the
order named. Families in New York City had the lowest average
automobile expenditure. In fact, the average expenditure for auto­
mobile purchase, operation, and maintenance in Pacific coast cities
was 9 times greater than the average for New York City.




Chapter 1
EXPENDITURE HABITS OF WAGE EARNERS AND
CLERICAL WORKERS
How did the families of wage earners and clerical workers earn and
spend in American cities in the mid-1930*8? To present a composite
answer to that question is the purpose of this report. Data are
presented based on the incomes and expenditures reported by 14,469
families in 1 year during the period 1934-36. They were obtained
from families of employed wage earners and clerical workers in 42
cities, and include figures from native and foreign-born white and
Negro families.
This group of families, with at least one employed member and a
minimum income of $500 (the lower limit set by the plan of the
investigation), averaged $1,524 income per year. However, half of
the families studied had incomes of $1,458 or less.
The average family, taking all the families studied in the 42 cities
as one composite, spent a third of its entire income, $508, to purchase
the family’s food, from the butcher and baker, the grocer and dairy­
man, and at lunch counters and restaurants. The average annual
expense for housing, and fuel, light, and refrigeration was $367. For
some families this meant rented apartments with heat, light, and
current for refrigeration furnished by the landlord; for others it meant
payment of taxes, interest, and repairs on a 5- or 6-room house and
purchase of heating fuel, electricity for lighting, and ice for refrigera­
tion.
Clothing for this average family, which included 3.6 persons, cost
$160, or $44 per person. Winter coats for the men and older boys in
the family were purchased about once every 5 years and for the
women and girls about once every 4 years. On the other hand, shoes
are a continuing necessity. Shoes constituted one of the largest items
of clothing expenditure.
The overwhelming importance of expenditures for food, clothing,
and housing as a percentage of total expenditure, is shown in figure 1.
All the families studied had had some expense for these three items.
Some of the home owners went through the year of the study without
any outlay for the upkeep of the house, but all of them were responsible
for property taxes, and all taxes due were treated as a family expense;
any unpaid taxes due over the period of the year were entered as an
increase in family debts.
Expense for purchase, operation, and maintenance of automobiles
ranged from nothing at all among the 56 percent of the families not




9

10

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

operating cars to relatively large amounts among the few families
buying new cars during the year. When all families are considered
together, expenditures for purchase, operation, and maintenance
averaged $87 per family for the year. The survey found that more
workers’ families in western cities had cars than in eastern cities.
Furthermore, the families in smaller communities were more likely
to have cars than those in metropolitan areas where traffic congestion
is greater. The majority of the automobiles bought by this group of
workers’ families were purchased as used cars. They served to take
family members to and from work and school and to facilitate inex­
pensive week-end or vacation outings for the whole family. It was
impossible, however, to separate the extent to which automobile
expenditures were devoted to recreation as compared to other purposes.
After automobile expenditures came those for recreation of other
types, with an average of $82 a year. This included cameras, radio
purchase and upkeep, paid admissions to movies, ball games, and
other commercial amusements, purchase of newspapers and other
reading matter, cigarettes and other forms of tobacco, as well as sport
and play equipment.
Expenditures for household furnishings, medical care, and household
operation each averaged approximately $60. Expenditures for housefurnishings covered both purchase of new items, and replacement
of such items as light bulbs, towels, sheets, and kitchen utensils.
Included in household operation costs were telephone, laundry sent
out, soap and cleaning supplies, household help, postage, and similar
items.
Of the average dollar spent for medical care, 22 cents went for
drugs, medicines, eyeglasses, and medical appliances, 10 cents for
hospital service, and 68 cents for other medical service. Eighty-five
percent of the families reported expenditure for medicine and drugs,
and 50 percent for dental care.
Transportation by streetcar, bus, ferry, train, boat, and occa­
sionally by airplane, claimed a total of $38 of the average family’s
income. Another $30 was required to take care of the personal
grooming of these family members. Of this, the largest item was
haircuts, with other barber and beauty-shop services, and toilet
articles and preparations also claiming a share.
The other channels into which the typical workers’ family money
found its way were gifts and contributions to persons outside the
family, which aggregated $24; direct taxes and other contributions
to the community welfare, which averaged $19; $7 for formal educa­
tion; $6 for vocational expense, such as union dues and licenses; and
$7 for miscellaneous expenditures.




11

EXPENDITURE HABITS

The range and variety of the products of industry and agriculture
purchased by these families is very great, as merely suggested by the
categories of expenditure listed. It is clear that the combined dollars
in the pay envelopes of all American wage earners and clerical workers
Fig. I

PERCENTAGE

D IS T R IB U T IO N

O F E X P E N D IT U R E

AVERAGE FOR FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS AND
LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES
19 3 4- 36
ITFM
0

10

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES
20

30

40

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

added together form a major source of the Nation’s purchasing
power.1
1
See ch. 12. For an estimate of the aggregate consumption of all American families, including business and
professional, farm and village families, single individuals, and institutions, as well as families of wage earners
and clerical workers, see Consumer Expenditures in the United States, National Resources Committee.
Washington, 1939.




12

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMM ARY VOLUME
T able 1.— Expenditures fo r Groups o f Item s

, by Incom e Level

14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­ $500
lies
to
$600

$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000 over

Percent of families in survey____ 100.0

0.8

8.4

Average family size:
Persons________ __________
Expenditure units 1________
Food expenditure units 1___
Clothing expenditure units t_

3.11
2.85
2. 66
2.39

3.18
2.91
2. 71
2.47

3.60
3.32
3.12
2.88

20.4
3.41
3.11
2.90
2.64

23.8
3.54
3.24
3.02
2. 75

20.3
3. 62
3.32
3.12
2.86

15.1
3.76
3.48
3. 27
3.02

5.6

2.7

1.3

1.6

4.03
3.77
3.58
3.38

4.27
4.04
3.85
3.75

4.37
4.12
3.88
4.05

4.81
4.64
4.45
4.65

Average annual current expenditure
All item s------------------------ $1, 612

508
160
259
108
58
60

$651
250
49
132
64
20
13

87
38
30
59
82
7
6
19

9
17
13
22
28
2
2
7

20
25
17
33
38
2
2
10

40
29
22
42
54
4
3
13

73
33
27
53
72
5
4
17

99
40
32
64
87
7
7
20

137
43
37
78
104
11
9
25

162
52
43
81
129
14
11
28

161
65
51
97
152
19
22
35

197
78
59
109
177
17
14
37

212
115
71
115
232
22
18
48

24
7

5
18

7
5

13
4

18
5

26
6

35
9

46
11

52
20

63
25

92
21

Food--------- -------------Clothing__________________
Housing__________________
Fuel, light, refrigeration____
Other household operation __
Furnishings and equipment.
Automobile and motor­
cycle — purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance___
Other transportation ______
Personal care_ . . _
M edical care__ ___
Recreation_______
______
Education___ _ _
______
Vocation ________ _____
Community w e lfa r e ...____
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside economic
fam ily.. ------- -------Other item s__________

$851 $1,110 $1, 371 $1,629 $1,873 $2,160 $2,414 $2,704 $3,251
472
315
597
683
756
398
540
837 1,021
102
74
136
173
211
258
309
388
471
169
281
346
215
246
324
300
370
411
76
106
114
136
94
123
131
131
148
49
63
92
30
102
38
77
119
142
39
28
55
70
77
96
112
90
83

Percentage distribution
All item s_____________________

Food____________________
Clothing__________
_
Housing__________________
Fuel, light, refrigeration____
Other household operation...
Furnishings and equipment .
Automobile and
motor­
cycle — purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance.
Other transportation______
Personal care______________
Medical care----------------Recreation. --- --------Education.________________
Vocation_____ ____________
Community welfare_____ _
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside economic
family___________________
Other item s_______________

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
33.5 38.4 37.0 35.8 34.4 33.2 31.8 31.7 31.4 31.0 31.4
10.6
8.7
9.9 10.6 11.2 11.9 12.8 14.4 14.5
7.5
9.1
17.1 20.2 19.9 19.3 17.9 17.3 16.0 15.0 14.3 13.7 12.6
8.9
7.0
6.6
7.1
8.5
7.7
6.3
5.4
9.8
4.6
4.8
3.5
3.9
3.8
3.1
3.4
3.6
4.1
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.4
3.3
3.5
4.3
4.1
4.2
4.0
2.0
4.0
4.0
3.1
3.4
5.8
2.5
2.0
3.9
5.4
.5
.4
1.3

1.4
2.6
2.0
3.4
4.3
.3
.3
1.1

2.4
2.9
2.0
3.9
4.5
.2
.2
1.2

3.6
2.6
2.0
3.8
4.9
.4
.3
1.2

5.3
2.4
2.0
3.9
5.3
.4
.3
1.2

6.1
2.5
2.0
3.9
5.3
.4
.4
1.2

7.3
2.3
2.0
4.2
5.6
.6
.5
1.3

7.5
2.4
2.0
3.7
6.0
.6
.5
1.3

6.7
2.7
2.1
4.0
6.3
.8

1.6
.5

.8
2.8

.8
.6

1.2
.4

1.3
.4

1.6
.4

1.9
.5

2.1
.5

i For the method of computing family size in expenditure units, see appendix C.
Notes on this table are on p. 388.




1.4

7.3
2.9
2.2
4.0
6.5
.6
.5
1.4

6.6
3.5
2.2
3.5
7.1
.7
.6
1.5

2.2
.8

2.3
.9

2.8

.9

.6

13

EXPENDITURE HABITS

,

T able 2.— Expenditures fo r Groups o f Item s by Incom e Level
1 2 ,9 0 3 W H I T E F A M I L IE S I N 4 2 C I T IE S

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­ $500
lies
to
$600

$600 $900 $1, 200 $1, 500 $1, 800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000
to
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
to
$900 $1,200 $1, 500 $1, 800 $2,100 $2, 400 $2, 700 $3,000 over

Percent of families in survey___ 100.0

0.5

7.1

Average family size:
Persons________________
Expenditure units 1________
Food expenditure units 1___
Clothing expenditure units 1.

2.95
2.74
2. 59
2.24

3.12
2.86
2.67
2. 43

3.60
3. 32
3.12
2.88

19.8

24.2

3. 39
3.09
2.89
2.62

3. 53
3.23
3. 01
2.74

21.0
3.62
3. 32
3.12
2. 86

15.7
3.76
3.48
3. 27
3. 02

5.8

2.8

L4

1.7

4.02
3.76
3. 57
3. 37

4. 27
4.04
3.85
3.75

4.37
4.12
3.88
4.05

4.81
4.65
4.45
4.65

A v era g e a n n u a l cu rren t e x p en d itu re

$871 $1,116 $1, 372 $1, 630 $1, 872 $2,159 $2,415 $2, 703 $3, 249
541
683
323
473
597
756
401
837 1, 022
472
102
211
74
173
258
136
308
388
324
217
281
300
370
408
175
246
345
94
114
122
136
132
131
148
106
77
49
102
119
142
63
77
92
38
31
89
113
39
70
55
83
77
96
28

A ll item s.. ............ ..................... $1. 536

515
163
262
109
59
61

$736
273
50
160
72
23
12

90
39
30
60
84
7
6
19

14
20
13
21
32
3
3
6

21
26
17
34
39
2
3
10

41
29
22
42
54
4
3
13

74
33
27
53
72
5
4
17

100
39
32
64
87
7
7
20

137
43
37
78
104
11
9
25

162
52
43
81
129
14
11
28

162
65
51
97
152
19
22
35

196
78
59
109
177
17
14
37

213
115
71
115
231
22
18
48

25
7

5
29

6
5

13
4

17
5

26
6

35
9

46
11

52
21

63
25

91
20

Food. _________________
C lothing.____ ____________
Housing__________________
Fuel, light, refrigeration____
Other household operation. _
Furnishings and equipment _
Automobile and motor­
cycle — purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance___
Other transportation______
Personal c a r e . .________ __
Medical care____________
Recreation_______________
Education_______ _______
Vocation __
. . .
_ __ _
Community w elfare.. . .
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside economic
family. . . _______________
Other items_______________

P e r c en ta g e d istr ib u tio n

All item s_____________________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Food. __________________
33.5 37.1 37.1 35.9 34.5 33.2 31.9 31.6 31.3 31.0 31.4
9.9 10.6 11.2 11.9 12.8 14.4 14.5
Clothing__________________
9.1
6.8
8.5
10.6
Housing__________________
17.1 21.8 20.1 19.4 17.9 17.3 16.0 15.0 14.3 13.7 12.5
8.4
6.3
7.0
6.5
5.4
4.6
8.8
4.8
Fuel, light, refrigeration____
7.1
9.8
7.7
3.9
4.4
3.4
4.3
4.2
3.6
4.1
4.4
Other household operation...
3.6
3.8
3.1
3.5
3.2
4.1
4.3
4.1
3.1
3.5
1.6
4.0
4.0
Furnishings and equipm ent.
4.0
Automobile and motor­
cycle — purchase, opera­
2.4
7.5
3.7
5.4
6.1
7.3
6.7
7.3
6.6
1.9
5.9
tion, and maintenance _ _
2.4
2.4
2.9
3.5
3.0
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.7
Other transportation__
2.5
2.7
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
Personal care______________
2.0
1.8
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.2
3.8
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.9
2.9
3.7
Medical care______________
6.0
5.2
5.6
6.5
5.3
6.3
7.1
Recreation________________
5.4
4.3
4.5
4.8
.4
.7
.2
.4
.4
.6
Education________________
.4
.6
.7
.8
.5
.9
.6
.3
.3
.3
.4
.5
.5
.4
.5
Vocation__________________
.4
1. 5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.2
.8
Community welfare________
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside economic
1.2
1.9
2.3
2.8
1.2
1.6
2.1
2.2
.7
1.6
.7
family__________________
.4
.4
.9
.9
.6
3.9
.6
.4
.5
.5
.5
Other item s_______________
1 For the method of computing family size in expenditure units, see appendix O.
Notes on this table are on p. 388.




14

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
T able 3.— Expenditures for Groups of Items, by Income Level
1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income ofItem

All
families

Percent of families in survey____ - _________

100.0

Average family size:
Persons_________________ _____________
Expenditure units 1________ ____ —
Food expenditure units 1_______________
Clothing expenditure units *--------- . _-

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

8.7

3.59
3.28
3.07
2. 84

$500
to
$600

35.2

33.6

13.7

5.5

3.3

3.90
3. 57
3. 38
3.15

4.50
4.26
3. 99
3.98

3. 31
2.98
2.76
2. 59

3.42
3.11
2.89
2. 66

3.64
3. 33
2.98
2.86

3.76
3.45
3.21
3.03

$1,800
and
over

Average annual current expenditure
All item s................................................... ..........

Food--- --------- ------------ -----------Clothing_____________________ ____ ___
Housing--------- ------------------------Fuel, light, refrigeration-----------------Other household operation_____________
Furnishings and equipment____________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase,
operation, and maintenance__________
Other transportation------- ------------Personal care--- ------- -----------------Medical care-----------------------------Recreation____________________________
Education __________________________
V o c a tio n ___________________________ Community welfare______________ Gifts and contributions to persons outside
economic family------------ -------- - -Other item s------------- ----------- -----

$991
342
101
183
87
33
39

$543
221
47
97
54
16
15

$760
279
73
142
71
23
27

23
35
22
36
49
3
2
14

2
13
12
23
24
1
1

13
23
17
30
36
2
1
10

18

6

10
3

4

7

4

$1,018
353
98
190
95
34
40

$1, 304
417
139
251
105
47
59

$1,490
497
184
269
115
56
64

$2,191
643
273
366
131
87
100

27
36
22
37
50
2
2.
15

38
51
29
43
62
4
3
21

35
61
31
45
69
5
4
17

59
89
53
70
148
26
4
24

15

31

32
6

83
35

2

4

Percentage distribution
All items---- ---------- ----------------------

F o o d ----- ------------------------------C loth ing.._ --- ------------ -------- -H o u sin g _____ __ _ _ _______________
Fuel, light, refrigeration.._______ _ ___
Other household operation_____ __ __ _
Furnishings and equipment______ . ___
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase,
operation, and maintenance ____ __
Other transportation_______ _______
Personal care--- ------ ------ --------- -Medical care__________________________
Recreation____ _____________________
Education ------ - ------------------- _
Vocation. _______ :_____________ ___
Community welfare___________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside
economic family_____________________
Other item s___________ _______________

100.0
34.6
10.2
18.5
8.8
3.3
3.9

100.0
40.7
8.7
17.9
9.9
2.9
2.8

100.0
36.8
9.6
18.7
9.4
3.0
3.6

100.0
34.7
9.6
18.7
9.3
3.3
3.9

100.0
32.0
10.7
19.2
8.1
3.6
4.5

100.0
33.4
12.3
18.1
7.7
3.8
4.3

100.0
29.3
12.4
16.7
6.0
4.0
4.6

2.3
3.6
2.2
3.6
4.9
.3
.2
1.4

.4
2.4
2.2
4.2
4.4
.2
1.3

1.7
3.0
2.2
3.9
4.7
.3
.1
1.3

2.7
3.5
2.2
3.6
4.9
.2
.2
1.5

2.9
3.9
2.2
3.3
4.8
.3
.2
1.6

2.4
4.1
2.1
3.0
4.6
.3
.3
1.1

2.7
4.1
2.4
3.2
6.7
1.2
.2
1.1

1.8
.4

1.1
.7

1.3
.4

1.5
.2

2.4
.3

2.1
.4

3.8
1.6

.2

1 For the method of computing family size in expenditure units, see appendix C.
Notes on this table are on p. 388.

S cop e and M eth od o f S tu d y

The investigation in which these data were secured commenced
in the fall of 1934. It was undertaken primarily for the purpose of
revising the index of the cost of goods purchased by wage earners and
clerical workers, published currently by this Bureau. No compre­
hensive data on a Nation-wide basis on the purchases of workers’




EXPENDITURE HABITS

15

families had been available since the completion of the last similar
Nation-wide study conducted by the Bureau in 1917-19 among 12,096
families in 92 cities.
During the years intervening since 1919 various local studies had
been conducted by private agencies and the Bureau had made limited
studies of expenditures of families of Federal employees and of workers
in one large industrial plant. These studies had pointed to funda­
mental changes which had taken place in the consumption patterns
of the great majority of American families. More widespread use
of electricity, introduction of the radio, popularization of the auto­
mobile, development of inexpensive synthetic silk fibers, extensive
use of refrigerator trains, and countless other changes in the tech­
nology and organization of production had served to bring within
the reach of moderate-income families products which in 1919 were
unknown or were priced outside the range of their pocketbooks.
Not only had workers’ families readjusted their mode of spending to
the new type of products on the market, but their consumption
reflected adjustments to the quickened tempo of post-war American
life. The present investigation was designed to show a cross section
of this new way of American living insofar as it is revealed by the
kinds and amounts of goods and services purchased by typical workers’
families, the money expenditures with which these goods and services
were secured, and the balance between total incomes and current
expenditures.
Since the data were being obtained primarily for the purpose of
providing a basis for indexes of living costs, it was important that
they should not reflect the distorted spending of families whose incomes
had been abnormally low and irregular. On that account no data
were included from families with incomes under $500 a year or from
families which received relief during the year.2
The data, though limited to reports from 14,469 3 families in 42
cities with populations over 50,000, may be considered to be repre2 Principal among the criteria for inclusion were the following requirements:
1. The chief earner a wage earner or lower-salaried clerical worker. No families in which the chief earner
was a domestic worker were included, though families in which subsidiary earners were domestic workers
were eligible.
2. At least one wage earner or lower-salaried clerical worker who worked a minimum of 1,008 hours in
36 weeks (or 28 hours in each of 30 weeks if employed in a distinctly seasonal industry, such as the clothing
and construction industries).
3. A minimum annual income during the schedule year of $500, of which at least $300 was earned by one
person.
4. No clerical worker in the family who earned over $2,000 in the year covered by the schedule or $200 in
any one month of that year.
5. N ot over 25 percent of total family income from sources other than earnings (such as rents, interest, or di­
vidends). Receipts from boarders and lodgers were treated as earnings.
6. No income from direct relief or work relief at any time in the year covered by the schedule.
For a complete account of the sampling procedure, see appendix D of any of the regional bulletins.
8
Data from 199 Mexican families in Los Angeles and Houston are not included in this report. See B. L. S.
Bulletins Nos. 639 and 640.




16

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

sentative of the expenditures of families in cities of this size, meeting
the requirements of the investigation.
This representativeness was sought by two methods: First, the
families actually visited in any city were drawn by lot in such a
way that each family of an employed wage earner or lower-salaried
r
clerical worker had the same chance to be included as any other.
Those actually scheduled are, therefore, presumably representative.
Secondly, the 42 cities covered were distributed geographically from
north to south and from coast to coast in such a way that data for
several representative cities in each region could be combined. Pre­
liminary tests indicated that there were greater differences in con­
sumption and spending habits between cities in different regions than
between different cities in the same region. The data for all cities
studied within each region were therefore pooled and the averages
for the regions were then combined, each being given an importance
relative to that of the combined population of all cities with popu­
lations over 50,000 4 in that region.
This procedure gives to the pooled regional totals the relative
emphasis which is warranted by regional population distribution.5
F a m ily C om p osition and In com e

Wide differences in expenditure patterns are found at the successive
income levels covered by this study. They represent the effect not
only of the amount of money available for spending, but the fact
that, in the wage-earner and clerical groups, differences in family
income are associated with differences in family size and composition.
Variations in expenditure patterns from income level to income level
also reflect the influence of differing occupational and age composition
at high as compared with low income levels, and differences in the
relative importance of earnings from supplementary workers.6
The average economic family studied in these 42 cities consisted
of 3.60 persons, of whom 1.03 were children under 16 and 2.57 were
adults (see table 4). Approximately one-fifth of the families studied
were composed of man and wife only, and almost as many were families
including man, wife, and 2 to 4 children. Families consisting entirely
of adults, inclusive of families composed only of man and wife, con­
stituted over two-fifths of the entire group studied; families with
man and wife and children under 16 constituted almost another
4 The population of metropolitan areas as defined in the Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930,
Metropolitan Districts, Population and Area, rather than that within the city limits, was used. For N ew
York City, however, the population figure for the city proper in 1930 was used.
5 For a more complete description of the weighting process employed in combining data for 42 cities, see
appendix C, p. 366.
« In using these figures, it should be remembered that families of the wage-earner and clerical groups as
defined for this study include only families in which at least 76 percent of the income comes from earnings.




EXPENDITURE HABITS

17

two-fifths; while the remaining fifth were families with children and
adults in addition to, or other than, man and wife.
The families studied were definitely larger, and the proportion of
family members over 16 years old was greater, at the higher incomes.
Thus, the average number of persons per family increased from just
over three7 among families with incomes of $500-$600 to almost
five among those with incomes of $3,000 and over. Even more
strikingly, the average number of persons over 16 increased from 2.26
per family at the low income levels to 4.27 at the highest level studied.
Obviously, in families in which the husband and wife are the only
adults, the opportunity for supplementary earnings is much more
limited than in families in which there are three to five adults. Corre­
spondingly, the much smaller percentage of families composed of man,
wife, and children under 16 at higher income levels than at lower is
another evidence of this situation. In such families the possibility
of contributions from supplementary earners is relatively small,
and the majority of such families in the wage-earner and clerical
group were found at the lower income levels.
7
At the lower end of the income scale the relatively small number of families and the relatively small num­
ber of children in such independent families as were covered by this study, is probably due to the selective
effect of relief policy. In all but 1 of 42 cities, the average size of families on the relief rolls was 10 to 20 percent
larger than the average size of the families surveyed in this investigation. The difference between the
average size of the independent families in the lower income brackets and the families on relief emphasizes
the difficulty of supporting a family with several children in a period when employment opportunities are
limited.




18

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

T able 4.—Distribution by Occupation and Fam ily Type and Average Household Com­
position, by Income Level
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­ $500 $600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
$2,700 $3,000
lies
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000 over

O c c u p a tio n o f ch ief ea rn er a n d fa m i l y
typ e1

Percent of families in survey______ 100.0
Percent of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker..........................
Skilled wage earner...................
Semiskilled wage earner...........
Unskilled wage earner_______
Percent of families composed of—
Man and wife__________ ____
Man, wife, and 1 child 2__........
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2.
Man, wife, and 5 or more chil­
dren 2__________ ____ ______
Man, wife, children, and
adults (4 to 6 persons)2_____
Man, wife, children, and
adults (7 or more persons)2. _
Man, wife, and 1 adult.............
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults___
Man, wife, and 5 or more
adults____________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not in­
cluding man and wife)_____
Adults (4 or more persons, not
including man and wife) _ .
Adult or adults, and children
(2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)_____________
Adult or adults, and children
(4 or more persons, not in­
cluding man and w ife)____ _
Percent of families having no
homemaker_____ ______ _______

8.4

20.4

23.8

20.3

15.1

5.6

2.7

1.3

1.6

27.7 1.5 14.0
23.3 11.4 8.7
35.2 46.5 45.6
13.8 40.6 31.7

21.0
16.3
40.8
21.9

26.6
23.2
38.0
12.2

33.3
26.9
31.0
8.8

37.0
29.6
28.1
5.3

27.9
35.3
29.7
7.1

29.8
33.3
29.8
7.1

41.6
29.0
27.2
2.2

46.7
31.1
18.3
3.9

21.6 29.0 28.8
17.8 13.2 15.5
19.4 17.9 15.8

24.3
21.1
20.9

22.1
19.4
23.1

20.9
19.2
20.7

18.9
17.4
19.1

16.6
11.1
14.0

12.6
7.7
6.4

14.0
4.9
6.3

12.6
2.6
1.8

0.8

.9

.3

.9

1.1

1.2

.9

.7

.5

.4

0

0

11.6

5.1

8.0

9.1

10.1

11.6

15.0

17.6

22.4

12.5

15.4

1.9 2.1
4.6 7.9
2.5 • 2.1

2.9
6.8
3.2

3.0
7.9
3.8

3.5
8.5
6.9

4.9
9.5
7.0

6.3
10.0
11.9

7.6
10.5
17.9

6.3
15.4
26.1

10.3
7.0
27.8

3.8
8.3
6.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.6

.8

.8

2.9

6.3 15.8 12.7

7.2

5.9

4.8

4.2

6.0

5.0

4.1

3.5

1.6

0

1.0

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.4

3.4

5.0

7.8

13.3

1.0

7.4

2.8

1.0

1.2

.7

.4

.2

.7

1.3

2.3

2.3

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.4

1.8

3.0

1.8

2.5

.4

1.7

.1

.2

.5

.2

.6

.3

0

2.0

.8

4.59

4.97

.2

0

0

.3

C o m p o sitio n o f househ old

Average number of persons in
household_____________ _______
Percent of households with—
Boarders and lodgers................
Boarders o n ly ......................
Lodgers o n ly ............................
Other persons_____ __________
Average size of economic family:
Number of persons........... ........
Under 16 years................. .
16 years and over.............. .
Expenditure units_____ _____
Average number of persons in
household not members of eco­
nomic fam ily.................................

3.79 3.24 3.27

3.57

3.68

3.82

3. 97

7.2
2.7
7.8
5.3

6.5
2.7
6.3
3.9

8.9
4.9
9.9
5.2

6.6
3.2
9.0
5.8

8.4
2.3
9.4
6.8

3.41
1.03
2.38
3.11

3. 54
1.13
2.41
3.24

3.62
1.07
2. 55
3. 32

3.76
1.10
2.66
3.48

4.03
.99
3.04
3.77

4.27
.82
3.45
4.04

4.37
.58
3. 79
4.12

4.81
.54
4.27
4.65

.18

.19

.32

.25

.35

.30

.24

.21

6.2
1.6
4.6
2.7

4.4
1.6
4.6
3.6

3.60 3.11 3.18
1.03 .85 .86
2.57 2.26 2. 32
3. 32 2.85 2.91
.21

.12

.12

4.32
13.1
2.7
12.4
8.3

4.48
8.2
3.9
9.4
6.7

8.9
2.4
6.4
11.9

6.7
4.3
7.3
8.8

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are on p. 388.




19

EXPENDITURE HABITS

T able 5.—Distribution by Occupation and Fam ily Type and Average Household Com­
position, by Income Level
12,903 WHITE FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36

Item

Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­
lies $500 $600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 $3,000 over

O ccu p a tio n o f ch ief earner a nd f a m ily
ty p e 1

Percent of families in survey___

7.1

19.8

24.2

21.0

15.7

5.8

2.8

1.4

1 .7

Percent of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker....... ................ 28.8 2.4 16.9
Skilled wage earner................... 24.2 18.3 10.1
Semiskilled wage earner........... 35.4 53.3 48.8
Unskilled wage earner. _........... 11.6 26.0 24.2

22.4
17.2
41.8
18.6

27.1
23.7
38.1
11.1

33.6
27.1
31.1
8.2

36.8
29.4
28.0
5.8

27.9
35.4
29.7
7.0

30.0
33.5
29.7
6.8

41.7
28.9
27.2
2.1

46.8
31.3
18.4
3.5

23.6
21.6
21.5

21.9
19.7
23.3

20.9
19.3
20.8

18.9
17.5
19.2

16.6
11.1
14.0

12.7
7.8
6.4

14.0
4.9
6.3

12.7

Percent of families composed of—
Man and wife__________ ____
Man, wife, and 1 child2______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2
Man. wife, and 5 or more chil­
dren2. _________ ___________
Man, wife, and children and
adults (4 to 6 persons)2_____
Man, wife, and children and
adults (7 or more persons) 2__ _
Man, wife, and 1 adult_______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults___
Man, wife, and 5 or more
adults........... ...........................
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not in­
cluding man and w ife)______
Adults (4 or more persons, not
including man and w ife)____
Adult or adults, and children
(2 or 3 persons, not including
man and wife)_____________
Adult or adults, and children
(4 or more persons, not in­
cluding man and wife)_____
Percent of families having no
homemaker___________________

100.0

0.5

21.1 25.8 27.4

18.0 13.6 15.7
19.6 15.7 16.0

.8

2.6

.4

.9

1.2

.9

.7

.5

.4

0

0

3.6

7.9

9.0

10.1

11.6

14.9

17.6

22.6

12.6

15.5

.8
4.2
3.0

11.7

1.9
7.8
2.0

2.6
6.6
3.2

2.9
7.8
3.7

3.5
8.4
6.8

4.9
9.4
7.0

6.3
10.0
11.9

7.4
10.4
17.8

6.3
15.4
26.0

27.6

0

0

0

10.4
6.8

.1

.1

.1

.1

.6

.8

.8

2.9

6.4 23.8 14.5

7.6

5.9

4.8

4.2

6.0

5.0

4.1

3.5

0

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.4

3.4

5.0

7.‘8

13.4

7.9

3.1

1.1

1.2

.7

.4

.2

.7

1.3

1.6

2.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.4

1.8

3.0

1.8

2 .5

.4

3.0

.1

.2

.5

.2

.6

.3

0

2.0

.8

3.55

3.67

3.81

3.97

4. 59

4.97

6.8
2.5
6.2
4.0

7.3
2.8
6.9
4.8

6.6
3.1
8.9
5.7

8.4
2.2
9.4
6.8

3.39
1.02
2.37
3.09

3.53
1.13
2.40
3.23

3.62
1.07
2. 55
3.32

3.76
1.11
2.65
3.48

4.02
.99
3.03
3.76

4.27
.82
3.45
4.04

4.37
.58
3.79
4.12

4.81

.18

.19

.22

.25

.35

.29

.24

.21

.2

1.7

0

.3

C o m p o sitio n o f househ old

Average number of persons in
household----------------------Percent of households w ith—
Boarders and lodgers_________
Boarders only_______________
Lodgers only________________
Other persons_______________
Average size of economic family:
Number of persons___________
Under 16 years of age_____
16 years of age and over____
Expenditure un its___________
Average number of persons in
household not members of eco­
nomic fam ily____ ______ _______

3.79 3.11 3.22
7.5
1.6
5.0
2.8

4.8
1.3
4.3
3.5

2.95 3.12
1.03 .66 .81
2.57 2.29 2.31
3.32 2.74 2.86
.21

.15

.11

4.31
13.1
2.6
12.4
8.3

4.48
8.3
3.8
9.5
6.4

8.9
2.4
6.4
11.9

6.7
4.1
7.1
8.9

4!
4.

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.

Notes on this table are on p. 388.




20

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMM ARY VOLUME

T a b l e 6 .—

Distribution by Occupation and Fam ily Type and Average Household Com­
position, by Income Level
1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income ofAll
fami­
lies

Item

$500 to $600 to
$600
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
and
over

O c c u p a tio n o f ch ief earner and f a m ily t y p e 1

Percent of families in survey____

_ ______ 100.0

Percent of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker ___ _______________
Skilled wage earner _ ___ ___ _ _ _ .
Semiskilled wage earner---- ---------Unskilled wage earner_____ • _ _ _ __ _ _
Percent of families composed of—
M an and wife _ _ _ __
___ ___ _
Man, wife, and 1 ch ild 2 _ ___ _ _ _ ----Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2 _____ _
Man, wife, and 5 or more children2__ __ _
Man, wife, and children and adults (4
to 6 persons)2___ _
_ ____ ______ _
Man, wife, and children and adults (7
or more persons) 2_ ___ ______
Man, wife, and 1 adult _ _ ________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_____ _____
M an, wife, and 5 or more a d u lts ___ _
Adults (2 or more persons, not including
man and w ife)__________ ___________
Adults (4 or more persons, not including
man and wife). ___ _ __ __________
Adult or adults, and children (2 or 3
persons, not including man and wife) _ _
Adult or adults, and children (4 or more
persons, not including man and wife) _ Percent of families having no homemaker___

8.7

35.2

33.6

13.7

5.5

3.3

4.0
4.3
30.0
61.7

.3
2.6
38.1
59.0

.9
2.6
30.9
65.6

2.8
4.4
27.8
65.0

7.4
4.2
34.1
54.3

12.6
12.3
21.0
54.1

30.5
14.4
20.2
34.9

32.2
13.3
14.1
2.6

33.0
12.7
20.8
.7

35.1
14.7
14.9
3.2

34.0
14.7
13.0
3.1

29.8
8.6
14.5
1.2

19.7
9.3
9.3
4.7

9.6
9.6
3.8
0

9.8

7.1

8.4

10.4

10.4

13.9

21.2

5.2
10.0
4.8
.1

3.2
5.1
1.9
0

3.2
8.6
2.8
.2

6.2
9.6
4.0
0

8.0
13.3
6.7
0

7.0
16.3
15.1
0

7.7
19.3
17.3
0

5.5

4.5

1.6

6.1

1.2

5.8

.3

.7

.8

2.3

1.9

6.8

1.2

.2

0

0

3.2

2.9

2.5

.2

.4

3.7
.7
1.1
2.4
.2

0

0

0
.6
0

1.2
.5

3.8
0

C o m p o sitio n o f household

Average number of persons in household___
Percent of households with—
Boarders and lodgers._______ _____ _
Boarders only __ _ __ _______ _____ _
Lodgers only__________________________
Other persons. _ __ ___________________
Average size of economic family:
Number of persons------ -----------Under 16 years of age ________ ____
16 years of age and over__________ .
Expenditure units_____________________
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic fa m ily .......................

3.76

3.41

3.50

3.82

3.7
5.0
7.7
3.6

4.5
1.6
4.2
2.6

2.5
2.7
5.8
3.8

2.8
5.1
7.6
2.6

3. 59
1.09
2.50
3.28

3. 31
1.09
2.22
2.98

3.42
1.07
2.35
3.11

3.64
1.16
2.48
3. 33

3. 76
1.10
2.66
3.45

3.90
1.07
2.83
3. 57

4.50
.76
3.74
4.26

.20

.09

.17

.18

.31

.34

.34

4.05
7.1
8.6
12.8
2.0

4.34
5.5
8.0
13.4
10.2

4. 65
5.6
19.7
6.1
10.8

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are on p. 388.




EXPENDITURE HABITS

21

The persons who pooled their incomes, and were dependent upon the
common fund, were not the only members in the households. On
the average, one in five households had a member who was outside the
economic family, such as a boarder or lodger or guest. Approxi­
mately 7 percent of the households studied had boarders and lodgers,
another 8 percent had persons who lodged only, and 3 percent had
persons who boarded only. In general, there was a tendency for the
percentage of families having lodgers in their households to be larger
at higher income levels, up to the $2,100-$2,400 group, and to decline
slightly thereafter.
In com e and O ccupation

In 35 percent of the families surveyed, the chief earner was a
semiskilled laborer; in 28 percent, a lower-salaried clerical worker;
in 23 percent, a skilled laborer; and in 14 percent, an unskilled laborer
(table 4). The relatively small proportion of unskilled laborers in­
cluded is explained in part by the period of the business cycle in
which the investigation was undertaken and the difficulty experienced
by such workers in obtaining enough employment to attain an income
of at least $500, or to keep their families from the relief rolls.
The higher the income level, the greater in general was the propor­
tion of families in which the chief earner was a clerical worker or
skilled worker. Conversely, the lower the income level the fewer
relatively were the families, whose chief earner was classified as a
clerical or skilled worker. Therefore, in connection with the con­
sideration of differences in family expenditures as between income
levels, it is well to recognize that the families classified at the higher
income levels represent larger proportions of clerical and skilled
workers, as well as larger families composed of more adults than
those at the lower income levels.
Sources o f F a m ily In com e

One-third of all the families found it possible to supplement the
earnings of the principal earner by earnings of other members of the
family (table 7). The average number of persons per family who
reported some gainful employment during the year was 1.41. Of the
total family income (which averaged $1,524 for the entire group sur­
veyed), an average of $175 was contributed by subsidiary earners,
$1,285 by the chief earner, and the remainder, $64, covered income
from all other sources. This last item includes net earnings from
boarders and lodgers, which accounted for $32 of the $64. Average
amounts of $10 or less per year each were received from pensions
and insurance annuities, gifts from persons outside the economic
family, net rents, interest and dividends, and miscellaneous sources.




22

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME
T a b l e 7 .— Sources o f Incom e, by Incom e Level
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­ $500 $600 $900 $1200
$1500 $1800 $2100 $2400 $2700 $3000
lies to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to and
$600 $900 $1200 $1500 $1800 $2100 $2400 $2700 $3000 over

Percent of families in survey______________ 100.0

0.8

Percent of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners................
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers..
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends_______________
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_________ _________ _______
Other sources of income. ______ _______
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)______________________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_______________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)_______________
Inheritance________ ________________

10.0
4.5

6.0
2.7

8.7 14.8 11.3
5.3 5.8 3.8

9.3
4.7

9.6 10.4 11.1 10.5
5.1 8.2 7.4 4.6

6.7
6.7

5.8

3.7

5.5

5.6

5.6

6.9

37.8 46.4 53.4 42.5 39.3 35.0 32.1 30.8 28.6 26.1 19.1
.7
.8
.6 1.0
.5
.7
.5
.8
.3
.1 0

Average number of gainful workers per
family........................................................ .

1.41 1.29 1.26 1.25 1.30 1. 37 1.43 1.80 2.05 2.41 3.04

8.4 20.4 23.8 20.3 15.1

5.6

2.7

1.3

1.6

32.4 25.3 24.1 50.1 26.5 30.7 44.3 59.0 70.8 87.6 93.4
16.4 8.4 9.5 24.4 16.0 17.7 18.5 25.9 20.5 13.7 17.1
6.3 1.0 5.0 6.7 5.6 7.3 8.0 9.6 9.2 10.5 9.3
12.8 3.8 7.5 13.8 11.9 15.1 16.8 17.5 15.3 20.2 25.8
.1 4.4 4.9 3.0 3.7 3.4 7.8 9.2 5.7 8.4
3.7

6.5

6.8

7.2

5.9 12.4

59.2 41.0 44.5 52.9 58.1 63.0 63.1 68.1 70.4 73.9 77.4

Average annual amount
Total net family incom e................................
Earnings of individuals................. ..........
Chief earner_______________ ____ _
Subsidiary earners_______________
Males 16 years and over__________
Males under 16 years___________ _.
Females 16 years and over.............. .
Females under 16 years_______ . . .
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers..
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends_______ ____ ___
Pensions and insurance annuities .........
Gifts from persons outside economic
family. _. _____________ ____ _______
Other sources of income. ____________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses) _ ___________________
Average surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_____________________________
Average deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities)____________________ _________
Average net change ifi assets and liabilities
for all families in survey________________
Average inheritance_____________________
* Less than 60 cents.
Notes on this table are on p. 389.




$1524 $552
1460 542
1285 514
175
28
1257 371
0
0)
203 171
0
0)
32
8
1
7
4 0)
10 0)

$777 $1065 $1352 $1641
757 1026 1300 1577
722 973 1212 1439
35
53
88 138
585 888 1162 1413
0)
0)
0)
0)
172 138 138 164
0)
0)
0)
0)
10
23
30
34
. 3
6
4
8
1
2
3
3
3
6
5
8

$1937
1861
1661
200
1657
0)
204
0)
40
9
6
9

$2252 $2529 $2881 $3468
2100 2379 2800 3338
1675 1684 1745 1771
425 695 1055 1567
1729 1807 2047 2315
1 0)
0)
0)
370 572 753 1023
0
0
0)
0)
65
57
35
35
13
14
10
8
11
13
8
8
39
33
39
32

7
7

1
1

3
3

5
3

4

7

7
7

7
7

14
20

10
30

6
2

12
22

—3

-1

-3

-3

-4

-3

-2

-4

-4

-10

-5

149

36

56

79

108

151

223

243

254

331

377

203

202

159

186

194

218

225

233

268

325

319

+11 - 8 0 - 6 2 - 3 7 - 1 3 +19 +68 +94 +103 +160 +231
1
2
3
2
3
2
0
3
2
2 0)

E X P E N D IT U R E

23

H A B IT S

T able 8.— Sources o f Incom e, by Incom e Level
12,903 WHITE FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­ $500 $600 $900 $1200 $1500 $1800 $2100 $2400 $2700
$3000
lies to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to and
$600 $900 $1200 $1500 $1800 $2100 $2400 $2700 $3000 over

Item

Percent of families in survey________ _____ 100.0

0.6

Percent of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners________
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends_______________
Pensions and insurance annuities_____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family.............. ........... ...... ....................
Other sources of income______________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)__________ _____
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities).._____________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)_________________
Inheritance__________________________

10.2
4.5

6.2
2.4

7.2 11.3 11.4
3.7 3.3 3.7

9.3
4.7

9.7 10.4 11.0 10.5
5.1 8.1 7.5 4.6

6.5
6.5

5.9

4.1

4.1

5.7

5.6

6.9

7.1 19.8 24.2 21.0 15.7

5.8

2.8

1.4

1.7

31.9 14.0 22.2 21.4 25.7 30.4 44.2 58.9 70.6 87.6 93.4
16.5 9.7 9.6 14.5 15.7 17.6 18.5 25.9 20.5 13.7 16.8
6.5 1.7 3.8 4.6 5.7 7.3 8.0 9.6 9.3 10.5 9.4
13.1 6.0 5.8 10.0 11.9 15.1 16.8 17.4 15.3 20.2 26.0
3.6 0
1.9 2.8 2.9 3.7 3.4 7.7 9.2 5.7 8.4

4.9

6.9

7.2

5.9 12.4

58.9 24.2 38.3 51.9 57.8 62.8 63.0 68.1 70.5 74.0 77.4
38.1 57.3 55.9 43.4 39.5 35.2 32.1 30.7 28.6 26.0 19.0
.5
.6 1.7
.7
.5
.8
.8
.3 0
.8
0

Average number of gainful workers per
family........................................... ...... .......... 1.40 1.15 1.23 1.23 1.29 1.37 1.43 1.80 2.04 2.41 2.84

Average annual am
ount
Total net family income.................... .............
Earnings of individuals..... ......................
Chief earner__________ _______ ___
Subsidiary earners_______________
Males 16 years and over...................
Males under 16 years_____________
Females 16 years and over________
Females under 16 years___________
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents________ _____ ________
Interest and dividends_______________
Pensions and insurance annuities..........
Gifts from persons outside economic
family____________ _____ _____ _____
Other sources of in c o m e ___ __________
Deductions from income ( b u s i n e s s
losses and expenses)________________
Average surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or decrease
in liabilities)__________________________
Average deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)_______________ _____ _______
Average net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey________________
Average inheritance_________________ . . .
i Less than 50 cents.
Notes on this table are on p. 389.

242949

41




3

$1546 $555 $781 $1068 $1351 $1642
1482 542 760 1028 1300 1578
1304 523 729 979 1215 1442
178
31
49
85 136
19
1275 314 564 888 1164 1415
0 0)
0)
0)
<*)
<*)
207 228 196 140 136 163
0 (0
0)
0)
0)
0)
32
23
29
11
11
34
7
2
3
4
6
8
4 0)
2
1
3
3
10 0)
3
5
6
8

$1935
1859
1661
198
1657
0)
202
0)
40
9
6
9

$2253 $2530
2101 2379
1677 1687
424 692
1729 1806
1 0)
371 573
0)
(0
65
58
13
10
11
8
33
39

$2880
2799
1745
1054
2046
0)
753
0
35
8
8
32

$3466
3337
1772
1565
2314
0)
1023
0
34
14
14
39

7
7

1
1

3
3

6
3

7
4

7
7

7
7

14
20

10
30

6
2

11
22

-3

-2

-3

-3

-4

-3

-2

-4

-4

-10

-5

152

29

57

79

108

151

223

243

254

330

378

207

269

175

190

195

219

226

233

269

326

320

+11 -147 - 7 7 - 4 2 - 1 4 +18 +68 +94 +103 +160 +232
2
2
2
2
2
0
3
2
3
3
0

24

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME
T able 9.— Sources o f Incom e, by Incom e Level
1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with annual net income ofItem

All
fami­
lies

$500 to $600 to $900 to
$600
$900
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

8.7

35.2

33.6

13.7

5.5

3.3

42.6
15.0
2.4
7.0
5.1

39.7
6.8
0
1.1
.3

32.8
9.3
1.1
5.7
6.6

42.6
15.4
3.4
6.4
3.3

57.8
26.4
2.8
10.2
5.0

54.7
24.7
6.0
15.0
3.4

70.5
28.6
3.3
16.1
10.3

6.5
4.6

5.8
3.0

6.1
3.5

6.1
3.8

7.1
8.7

12.1
3.4

4.9
11.9

Percent of families in survey________ '______ 100.0
Percent of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners__________
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers -_
Other net rents________________ _______
Interest and d i v i d e n d s . _ ___________
Pensions and insurance annuities_______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_______ ___________ . . _____
Other sources of income________ _____
Deductions from income (business losses
__
_
and e x p e n s e s ) _ __________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)___ ______ ____
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)______________
Inheritance. ___ _ _____________ ____
Average number of gainful workers per family.

$1,800
and
over

2.7

3.2

2.3

2.7

4.1

1.5

3.4

66.0

62.3

63.4

66.0

68.0

77.4

67.3

31.1
.2

32.5
0

32.7
.5

30.9
0

31.3
.2

17.1
0

31.0
.9

1.53

1.47

1.37

1.52

1.67

1.73

2.46

Average annual amount
Total net family income___________________ $1,008
974
Earnings of individuals________________
Chief earner. __ _______ ____ _______
853
Subsidiary earners_______ ________
121
Males 16 years and over___________
852
Males under 16 years_______________
1
121
Females 16 years and over__________
Females under 16 years___ _____
C)
N et earnings from boarders and lodgers. _
21
Other net rents___________ _____ _______
2
Interest and dividends____ . ________
1
Pensions and insurance annuities_______
3
Gifts from persons outside economic
family________ . ___ _________ _ __
3
Other sources of in c o m e __________ ____
5
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)___ ____ ____ _____ ____
-1
Average surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or decrease in
84
liabilities)__________________________ •____
Average deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in liabili­
ties)____________________________________
98
Average net change in assets and liabilities for
+25
all families in survey ......................................
Average inheritance. _ _________________
0)

$549
543
503
40
443
0
100
0
4
0
0)
1

$758
742
692
50
678
0)
64
0)
8
1
0)
3

$1,031
999
895
104
887
3
109
0)
21
3
1
3

$1, 333
1,266
1, 087
179
1,081
0)
185
0
41
3
1
5

$1, 592
1.506
1, 234
272
1,301
3
202
0
54
7
1
7

$2, 315
2, 213
1,462
751
1, 715
0
498
0
56
6
1
12

1
C)

2
3

3
3

4
14

9
8

11
20

(’)

-1

-2

-1

53

80

122

40

0)
143

-4
277

55

84

97

153

108

146

+6
0

+6
0)

+ 23
0

+ 36
1

+92
0

+141
3

1 Less than 50 cents.
Notes on this table are on p. 389.

The striking role of earnings of subsidiary earners in family incomes
at the higher level is graphically shown in figure 2. A t each income
level below $2,100 the earnings of the chief earner constituted on the
average four-fifths or more of the total family income, but among
families with incomes of $3,000 or over his earnings represented only
slightly over half of the total. The fact that opportunities for an
individual wage earner to receive much over $2,000 are sharply lim-




EXPENDITURE HABITS

25

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME AMONG WAGE
EARNERS AND LO W ER-SALARIED CLERICAL
WORKERS AT SUCCESSIVE INCOME LE V E LS
IN 4 2 C ITIE S , 1 9 3 4 - 3 6
WHITE FAMILIES
IN M LEVEL
CO E

HUNDREDS OF DOLLARS

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

30

5

35

$500 UNDER $600
$600

UNDER

$900

$900

uSn° r
d
e

$

1200

$1200 UNDER $1500
$1500 UNDER $1800
$1800 UNDER $2100
$2I0Q UNDER $2400
$2400 Jg,* 2700
$2700 u!!e«$3000
$3000 "» OVER

NEGRO FAMILIES
*500„i!S, *6 0 0
$600

$900

$900$1200
$1200 JO, *1500
*1500 UNDER $1800
$1800

OVER

| |

C H IE F

EARNER

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS_________




OTHER SOURCES

26

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

ited 8 is indicated in figure 2 by the leveling off of the average earnings
of the chief earner at about $1,700. Although income from sources
other than earnings increased somewhat above the $1,800 family
income level, the principal factor accounting for those higher incomes
is to be found in the earnings of supplementary workers.
Boys and girls aged under 16 were not substantial contributors to
the family purse at any income level. Woman earners, however,
contributed about a third as much as man earners at the $600-$900
income level and almost one-half as much among families with incomes
over $3,000.
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers increased steadily from an
average of $10 at the $600-$900 level to a maximum of $65 at the
$2,100-$2,400 level, and declined at higher income levels. This
suggests that, on the whole, it is not until after family incomes exceed
$2,400 that pressure to supplement family incomes by taking roomers
or boarders lessens.
The largest source of income other than earnings was pensions and
insurance annuities (including industrial pensions). This item ac­
counted for an average of $39 at the highest income level, the second
greatest specified source of nonearned income at that level being net
rents from property. Part of this income was received by families
which owned two-family houses, one-half of which they occupied as
their own dwelling, renting the other half.
Income from such sources as other net rents, interest and dividends,
pensions and insurance annuities, gifts, and miscellaneous sources
were almost negligible at income levels below $900, and no one of
these sources provided on the average more than $40 per year at the
highest income level covered.
F am ily Expenditure Patterns
The average amount spent for each of the major categories of con­
sumer expenditures was larger at each successive income level than
at the one preceding, but the pattern of the distribution changed
markedly with increases in income.9
8 The plan of the investigation excluded families in which any clerical worker earned over $2,000, but no
upper limit was set for workers classified as wage earners, or for family income as such. See appendix D
of Bulletin No. 636, 637, 639, 640, or 641.
9 The data presented on differences in spending patterns of families at different income levels represent
findings for different families at the same time period. It is sometimes convenient, nevertheless, to speak of
comparisons in spending between income levels as changes in spending with changes in income. The rela­
tive increase over the income range in the outlay for a given category of spending provides an indication of the
elasticity of expenditures for that category. Elasticity may be measured in terms of the percentage increase
over a given income range in average outlay for the category, or it may be indicated by a comparison of the
increase in average expenditures for the category in question with the increase in income or in total expendi­
tures. Since the expenditure base has generally been used in the distribution of family expenditures, it has
been convenient throughout the greater part of the report to speak of expenditures for specific items or groups
of items as being relatively elastic or inelastic, according to whether amounts spent constituted an increasing
or decreasing proportion of total expenditures. It will be apparent from tables 7, 8, and 9 that the elasticity
of any category is much lower when computed in relation to income rather than to expenditures, because of
the influence of deficits at the lower income levels, and of savings in the upper portion of the income scale.




EXPENDITURE HABITS

27

Average incomes at the $2,700-$3,000 level were 271 percent
greater than in the $600-$900 income bracket. Current expenditures
were only 218 percent higher, however. A t the lower income level,
part of current spending was financed from savings, or through credit,
and at the higher level an important part of income was saved, and
current expenditure was 6.3 percent below current income among
families with incomes of approximately $3,000.
The relative size of expenditures at high as compared to low income
levels, by both white and Negro families, for food and other principal
items of expense, is shown in figure 3. It will be seen from that chart,
as well as from table 1, that food expenditures more than doubled
from the $600-$900 bracket to the $2,700-$3,000 bracket, but that
this was by no means the most striking increase in outlays as more
income became available. Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family were about nine times greater at the high
level, as were expenditures for formal education. The expansibility
in expenditures for such items, as soon as income permits, is indicative
of the scale of values of American workers. In the next most elastic
group of expenditure items come transportation and clothing expendi­
tures, which were six times and five times greater, respectively, at the
high as compared with the low income level. Although the absolute
amounts spent for clothing were greater than those for transportation
at every income level, the relative increase in the expenditure for
transportation was greater. The influence of the more widespread
purchase and more extensive operation of automobiles is clearly
reflected in this great elasticity of expenditures for transportation.The expansion in clothing expenditures represents not only the fact
that the clothing standards of wage earners and clerical workers in
America cannot be distinguished from those of any other economic
group, but also that the actual sums available for clothing expenditure
at the low income level are so small that there is great pressure to
increase this allowance as soon as incomes permit.
Recreation expenditures were approximately five times as great at
the high as compared with the low income level, and expenditures
for household operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration were
four times as great. In the former figure are included higher expendi­
tures for movies, reading matter, and tobacco of various forms.
The increase in the latter figure represents a more generous expendi­
ture for laundry services and some paid domestic help as well as
greater utilization of telephone service at the high income level.
Housing expenditures, including rent or current expenses of home
ownership, plus fuel, light, and refrigeration, represented almost 30
percent of total expenditures at the lowest income levels, a greater
proportion than any other item except food. Food and shelter must
be provided for the family, no matter how much sacrifice is made in




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

28

R E LA TIV E E X P E N D IT U R E S AT THE
$ 2 7 0 0 TO $ 3 0 0 0 INCOME LE V EL AS COMPARED
W ITH THE $ 6 0 0 TO $ 9 0 0 LEVEL
FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS AND LOWER-SALARIED
CLERICAL WORKERS IN 4 2 CITIES, 1 9 3 4 - 3 6
EXPENDITURES A THE $600 TO $900 LEVEL = 0
T
10
ITEM
100

200

300

RELATIVE EXPENDITURES
400
500
600

700

000

900

CONTRIBUTIONS
a GIFTS*

EDUCATION

VOCATION

TRANSPORTATION

CLOTHING

MISCELLANEOUS

RECREATION

HOUSEHOLD
OPERATION

COMMUNITY
WELFARE

PERSONAL CARE

MEDICAL CARE

ALL ITEMS
FURNISHINGS a
EQUIPMENT

FOOD

HOUSING

in c .
F U EL, LIGHT AND
REFRIGERATION

U .S . BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




* T 0 PERSONS OUTSIDE

THE ECONOMIC FAMILY

EXPENDITURE HABITS

29

other expenditures. On the other hand, home expenditures increased
at higher income levels relatively less rapidly than any other category
of expenditure. Among families with incomes from $2,700 to $3,000,
they averaged $501 or 19 percent of total family expenditure.
Even at this relatively high income level, food, housing, fuel, light,
and refrigeration claimed almost half of total family expenditure, but
this must be contrasted with two-thirds at the $600-$900 level.
Thus, families with incomes about four times as great had food and
housing expenditures slightly over twice as great but clothing expendi­
tures over five times as great.
It is evident from figure 3 that families with larger pay envelopes
spend more for food and housing than families with smaller pay. They
spend proportionately even more for laundry and other household
services, movies and other entertainments, clothing, automobiles, and
educational facilities. These are the items which are sacrificed when
imited income compels economy, but for which there is very great
pressure to increase expenditures as incomes increase.
Savings and Deficits
Each of the families surveyed gave, in addition to an estimate of
the items comprising their incomes and their current expenditures, a
careful estimate of the net changes for the year in their assets and
liabilities.1 It will be seen from table 7 that the entire 14,469 families
0
surveyed reported an average surplus for the year of $11. This was
a composite of large deficits at the low income levels (decreasing in
size until, at the $1,500-$1,800 income level, a small surplus was
reported), and at higher income levels, surpluses which grew succes­
sively larger, reaching a maximum of $231 for families with incomes
of $3,000 or over.1
1
Not all families with incomes below $1,500 had deficits, however,
nor did all those with larger incomes have surpluses. At each income
level, some saved, while some “ went in the hole.7 From table 7, it is
7
seen that the proportion of families having some savings rose from
44 percent at the $600-$900 level to 77 percent of those with incomes
of $3,000 or more.
At the lower income level, the savings of families having any surplus
averaged $36, while the deficits of families drawing on credit and past
10 For detailed discussion of the items comprising assets and liabilities, and method of computing net
surplus or net deficit, see ch. 10 and appendix D, pp. 385-386.
11 The fact that the average net change as reported for each income level in table 7 does not exactly equal
the difference between average incomes shown in table 7 and average current expenditures shown in table 1
is due to the slight balancing difference between total receipts and total disbursements which was permitted
when the original data were secured from the cooperating families. Since no family can be expected to
recall its receipts and disbursements over an entire year to the last cent, schedules were accepted in which
these two did not differ by more than 5 percent of the larger figure. The average balancing difference for all
families in the survey was less than 1 percent. (See ch. 10 and appendix D, p. 386, for further discussion
of allowable balancing difference.)




30

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

savings were of much greater magnitude— on the average, $202.
Among the families with incomes of $3,000 or more the relationship
of average surplus to average deficit was quite different. Those
making savings averaged $377, those having deficits $319.
Premium payments on life insurance were treated as savings in this
investigation,1 as were payments of principal oii the mortgage of
2
an owned home and payments for permanent improvements on owned
homes. Other forms of savings were increases in bank balances,
purchase of real property or stocks and bonds, as well as payment
upon debts of all kinds, including balances due on installment pur­
chases made prior to the year of the survey. Conversely, among the
deficit items were found decreases in bank balances, surrender or
settlement of insurance policies, proceeds from sale of goods or prop­
erty, and increases in debts due, including increases in balances due
on goods purchased during the year on the installment plan.
Inheritance, which is neither a part of current income nor a reduc­
tion in assets, has been treated as a separate item in total family
receipts. So few cases of cash inheritances were reported, however,
that the average for this item is negligible at all income levels.
Expenditure Patterns Am ong W hite and Negro Fam ilies
Differences between the average expenditures of the white and
Negro groups covered by the investigation are in large measure in­
come differences. Incomes of the families of white wage earners and
clerical workers averaged $1,546, and those of Negro workers averaged
$1,008.1 The proportions of families with incomes of $1,800 and
3
over amount to 27.4 percent in the white group as compared with 3.3
percent in the Negro group. When the data for the Negro families are
compared with those of the white families at the same income level,
however, some consistent differences in sources of income and in
expenditure patterns appear.
The earnings of the chief earners in Negro families were smaller
on the average than those of chief earners in white families at com­
parable income levels. As a result, Negro families depended more
heavily than did white families upon earnings of subsidiary earners
to achieve a given income level.
See chapter 10, p. 179.
13
In using these figures it is important to remember that a larger proportion of the Negro than of the
white families in the wage-earner and clerical groups in the cities studied were disqualified for the investi­
gation by the lower limit set for annual income ($600), and the requirements that no relief should have been
received during the year covered by the schedule, the chief earner should be a worker found on a regular
pay roll, and not in private domestic service. Although the same criteria were used in choosing the white
and Negro samples, because of the extremely low incomes of a large part of the Negro group, and the large
proportion receiving relief, the families included in the present survey represent a top stratum among
families of Negro wage earners and clerical workers. Even with these limitations, the proportion of Negro
families drawn in the sample with incomes above $1,800 was very much smaller than the proportion of
white families above that income level.




EXPENDITURE HABITS

31

The Negro families, at corresponding income levels, were slightly
larger than white families, though the tendency for the larger families
to be found at the higher income levels prevailed in both groups.
Also, there were relatively more families with small children at the
low income levels and more older families composed entirely of adults
at the higher income levels in both groups.
The proportion of families in which the chief earner was a semi­
skilled or unskilled laborer was very much greater in the Negro than
in the white group— 92 percent among the Negro families, as com­
pared with 47 percent among the white families. This situation
reflects the conventional limitation of Negroes to certain types of
employment in many communities, and their relative disadvantage as
compared with white workers in retaining employment during the
depression. There was a tendency corresponding to that found among
white families studied, however, for the proportion of clerical and
skilled workers to be larger at the higher income levels.
In terms of expenditures for the same items at comparable income
levels, consistent differences occurred in food and housing. The
Negro families spent on the average less for food at every corre­
sponding income level and less for housing at all but one income
level. In terms of percentages of the total, Negro families spent
relatively less for food than white families at three out of five com­
parable income levels and relatively less for housing at three out of
five levels. The smaller expenditures for food are only partially
accounted for by the relatively greater importance to Negro families
of food received as gift or pay.
In separate reports for Negroes in northern cities (see Bull. No. 637,
vols. I and II, and Bull. No. 636) a somewhat different situation on
housing expenditures is presented. There, the housing expendi­
tures by Negro families were consistently higher at comparable
income levels than were those by white families. The customary
limitation in many cities of Negro dwellings to certain districts has
operated in northern cities to increase rents to Negro families for
dwellings comparable in facilities to those occupied by white families.
This higher expenditure for housing in northern cities is reflected in
the lower expenditure for food. In the southern cities studied,
however, the housing facilities of the Negro families were considerably
less satisfactory than those of the white group, and their housing
expenditures were on the whole lower than those by white families
at the same income levels. The relatively heavy proportion of
total Negro urban population found in the South means that the
data from southern Negroes studied form a preponderant part of the
total. Consequently in the data shown in tables 2 and 3 (pp. 13 and
14) the average expenditures for housing for Negroes in all cities com-




32

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

bined are not higher than those for white families at comparable
income levels.
Consistently higher expenditures at comparable income levels were
found among Negro families for gifts and contributions to individuals
and to the community welfare. Expenditures for gifts to individuals,
in particular, showed a tendency to increase at higher income levels
relatively more rapidly among the Negro families studied than among
the white. Smaller amounts, on the other hand, were spent by
Negro families for transportation, medical care, recreation, educa­
tion, vocation, and miscellaneous items. As a proportion of total
expenditures, the Negro families studied consistently spent somewhat
more for clothing, for fuel, light, and refrigeration, for furnishings and
equipment, for personal care, and for gifts and contributions to
individuals and to the community welfare.
A striking difference in the spending patterns of Negro and white
families is found in the figures on surplus and deficit.1 (See tables 8
4
and 9, pp. 23 and 24.) Whereas white families showed a progression
from average deficits at low income levels to surpluses at high levels,
the Negro families showed average surpluses at all income levels
studied. The amount of the surplus was very small at the lowest
levels and was larger at higher levels, but in view of the figures from
the white families at comparable income levels, it is remarkable that
there should have been even a small average surplus at the lowest
levels. As with the white families, however, some families at every
income level had surpluses and some had deficits. A t the $600-$900
level, the proportion of Negro families having surpluses was much
greater than the proportion of white families with a favorable yearly
balance. Among Negro families with incomes over $1,800, about onethird had net deficits and two-thirds net surpluses, proportions not
greatly different from those at the lowest levels studied. The average
amounts of deficits and of surpluses per family having each, grew
progressively larger at higher income levels; the net change in assets
and liabilities for all Negro families combined rose from an average
surplus of $6 at the two lowest income levels studied to $141 at the
highest. The greater tendency for the Negro than for the white
families to have at least a small net saving may be in part an indication
of their greater difficulties in securing credit, and in part a greater
feeling of insecurity regarding income and a greater hesitation to make
commitments. It also undoubtedly reflects the almost universal
payment of life-insurance premiums by Negroes, and since these were
treated as a savings item 1 such disposition of funds by Negroes
5
tended to increase the net surplus shown for them. M ost of the Negro
families studied reported regular premium payments for life or for
14 See ch. 10.
See ch. 10, footnote 15, p. 179.

16




EXPENDITURE HABITS

33

burial insurance. Apparently these families place such payments high
on the list of essentials.
It is thus possible to summarize the differences between the expendi­
ture patterns of Negro as compared with white families at the same
income level, by saying that the Negroes in general make larger sav­
ings than the whites, that they pay more for gifts and contributions,
and that in consequence they spend less for most of the other cate­
gories of consumer expenditure.
As regards changes in expenditures from one income level to
another, however, the effect of larger incomes upon the expenditures
of the Negroes for the major categories of expenditure is very simi­
lar in its broad outline to the effect of larger incomes on the expendi­
tures of the whites.1
6
16 See footnote 9, p. 26.




Chapter 2
CHANGES IN FAMILY EXPENDITURES IN THE
POST-WAR PERIOD
The data on the expenditures of the 14,469 individual families who
cooperated in this study show wide variations in expenditure habits
from family to family. Even among families with the same income,
living in the same city, there are very great differences in the way
income is spent, and in the kind of goods consumed by each family
member.
There is, however, a striking similarity in the average expenditures
of families of the same economic status from community to community.
There are differences in the amounts spent for fuel, housing, and cloth­
ing that reflect differences in climate and local custom, but the sim­
ilarities are, in general, greater than the average differences. When
the pocket money and the food allowance and the rent money and
all the rest of the money families spent at a given income level are
averaged, expenditures fall into very definite patterns.
The resemblance of consumption habits in one city to those in
another should not be taken to mean, however, that these habits are
not susceptible to change. As a matter of fact, the similarity in the
expenditure patterns prevailing at the present time in the various
cities covered by this study is the more striking when the patterns
of the present day are placed against those of almost a generation ago.
Everyone is aware that the technological developments of the
twentieth century have made great changes in the lives of moderateincome families in the United States. It is, however, difficult to
realize that as late as 1919 motor cars seemed a luxury to this group.
Passenger automobiles had been produced commercially since the
nineties, but the cost of a car was for a long time far out of the reach
of the average American family. In 1908 less expensive models were
introduced, and in 1922 the wholesale price of a currently acceptable
touring car was $298, f. o. b. Detroit. Approximately the same type
of car would have cost $525 at wholesale at the end of the World War,
and $850 in 1908. It had little in common with the automobiles
which are purchased new today, but it met the requirements of Amer­
ican families in the 1920’s.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has comparable figures on the family
expenditures of employed wage earners and clerical workers at the end
of the World War and in 1934-36.1 So few families owned cars in the
1 For data for white families applying to expenditures in 1917-19, see U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin No. 357, Cost of Living in the United States, 1924. For data applying to 1934-36, a special tabula­
tion has been made of the expenditures of white families for the 35 cities included in both studies for those
families who met the requirements for inclusion in the 1917-19 study, that is, families composed of husband,
wife, and at least 1 child. See Tabular Summary, tables A-15, A-16, A-17, A-18.

34




CHANGES IN EXPENDITURES IN POST-WAR PERIOD

35

earlier period that expenditures for automobiles, motorcycles, and
bicycles were all classified together when the data were tabulated.
Fifteen percent of the families studied in 1917-19 had some expense
for one or another of these vehicles, as compared with 50 percent
owning automobiles alone in 1934-36. Radios were hardly known at
the time of the earlier study while more than three-quarters of the
families studied in 1934-36 reported radio ownership.
Changes in the houses they live in are perhaps quite as important
to the happiness of the average family as the addition of automobiles
and radios to their equipment. Slightly over one-half of the families
renting dwellings in 35 large cities studied at the end of the World
War had bathrooms, compared with nine-tenths of the families of
employed wage earners and clerical workers renting houses in the same
cities in 1934-36.
Electric power, which had been available to few in the wage-earner
and clerical groups before 1918, had declined in price over the period,
and dwellings wired for electric lights and small electrical appliances
had come within the buying range of the average employed worker.
As many as one-quarter of the families covered in the present study
were found to have electric refrigerators. The amount of modern
plumbing facilities and the number of telephones installed in the homes
of families of wage earners and lower-salaried clerical workers has also
increased markedly during the last two decades.
The changes which have occurred in food consumption since the
World War have had far-reaching effects on American diets. A t the
end of the war, as a result of extensive researches into the needs of
the human body, Americans for the first time became aware of min­
erals and vitamins in foods, and their importance in human nutrition.
This new information, together with lower food prices in general and
the lower prices of certain nutritionally valuable foods in particular,
and also the greater availability of fresh fruits and vegetables all the
year round, combined to produce striking changes in the food expendi­
tures of wage earners and clerical workers.
Larger per capita consumption of milk, oranges, lettuce, spinach,
and canned tomatoes was recorded in 1934-36 than in 1917-19. To­
mato juice and grapefruit were also consumed in large amounts by the
families recently studied. In addition, the 1934-36 survey indicated
the purchase of other foodstuffs which were not on the market or within
the reach of moderate income families at the time of the earlier study
in 1917-19.
The figures for the individual cities show that in general the greatest
increases in milk consumption have occurred in the cities in which
per capita milk purchases were lowest in 1917-19. The fact that
milk purchases in New York and Minneapolis were considerably
above the average in both periods undoubtedly reflects the special




36

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- SU M M A R Y VO LUM E

educational efforts in those cities and the methods by which low-cost
milk has been made available to low-income families.
Figures on purchases of citrus fruits in the two periods show the
effect of low prices near the centers of production. In 1917-19 the
highest per capita purchases were reported from Jacksonville, Fla.,
and Mobile, Ala. In 1934-36, purchases in all cities were much
larger and the largest amounts were reported in San Francisco and
Los Angeles.
T a b l e 1 .— Average Weekly Per Capita Consumption of Citrus Fruits and M ilk by White
Families of M a n , W ife, 1 Child Under 16, With and Without Others, in 35 Large
Cities in 191 7 -1 9 and 1 93 4 -3 6

City

Number of
families

Lemons
(each)

Oranges
(each)

Can­
Grape­ ned |
fruit i grape­
(each) fruit 1
(lbs.)

Milk
(quarts)

1917-19 1934-36 1917-19 1934-36 1917-19 1934-36 1934-36 1934-36 1917-19 1934-36
Baltimore_____ . _________
Birmingham.. ____________
B oston.. . . . . .
_ ______
Buffalo____________________
Cincinnati_________________

195
151
407
256
249

162
101
188
142
138

0.21
.24
.06
.17
.24

0. 25
.61
.37
.34
.29

0. 22
.39
.20
.20
.30

1.60
1.39
1.76
1.64
1.83

0.10
.09
.16
.09
.21

(2)
0.01
.01
(2)
.01

0.90
.50
1.79
1. 51
.93

1.97
1.20
2. 72
2. 01
2. 47

Cleveland_________________
Columbus_
_
_____ . . . .
D a lla s _ ______ . ______
_
D enver... ____________ . .
D etroit____________________

245
169
75
154
288

158
79
115
82
142

.17
.11
.28
.19
.17

.22
.14
.95
.74
.46

.37
.27
.25
.24
.27

2. 54
2.16
1.50
2.28
2.98

.06
.08
.12
.27
.14

.01
.01
.01

1.68
1.47
.75
1.50
1.49

2.82
1.84
2. 45
2.11
2.19

Grand R apids.. ________ .. . 100
H o u s to n ______
_____ ..
98
145
Indianapolis_____ _ . .. .
81
Jacksonville.
. ...
224
Kansas C ity____________ ._

72
69
95
99
127

.11
.42
.18
.16
.21

.28
.98
.26
.92
.28

.32
.33
.28
.72
.45

1. 20
1.61
1.31
.79
1.78

.18
' .14
.13
.20
.12

.01

0
0
(2)
0

1. 57
.97
1.42
.72
1. 34

2.19
1.93
2. 05
1.13
2.29

Los Angeles____________ . . .
Louisville . _
Manchester. . . . . . .. . . .
M em phis. . ___- . . . .
M ilwaukee___ . . . ____ .

202
105
112
103
198

198
66
52
66
192

.38
.12
.13
.25
.11

1.16
.44
.15
.49
.48

.39
.20
.20
.39
.21

3.87
1.14
1.98
1. 30
1.78

.06
.12

.01
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

1.25
.61
1.56
.62
1. 79

2. 29
1.98
2.23
1.64
2. 56

Minneapolis____ . . . ____ _
M obile____________________
N ew Orleans_______________
N ew York___ ______ _______
Norfolk___________________

240
108
147
518
100

200
64
134
171
83

.13
.25
.16
.14
.22

.25
.36
.74
.77
.38

.14
.57
.55
.32
.48

1.96
1.12
1.39
2.48
.87

.15
.06
.02
.12
.07

(2)
0
0
.01
(2)

1.91
.64
.74
2.28
.61

2.90
1.02
1. 35
3.18
.98

Philadelphia_______________
Pittsburgh_________________
Portland, M aine___________
Richmond_________ _______
Sacramento________________

301
254
97
153
107

105
192
92
62
69

.16
.15
.07
.12
.27

.40
.49
.06
.40
.89

.36
.23
.22
.39
.34

2. 47
2.16
1.17
.74
3. 21

.09
.08
.13
.05
.25

.01
(2)
(2)
0
0

1. 35
1. 25
1. 67
.52
1.62

2.15
1.96
1.82
.99
2. 41

St. Louis__________________
Salt Lake C ity_____________
San Francisco... _______ ..
Scranton__________________
Seattle_______ _____ ____

227
103
301
151
197

118
126
85
138
126

.18
.25
.28
.09
.16

.40
1.76
1.18
.24
.65

.51
.38
.44
.18
.30

2.68
3.04
4.46
2. 62
3. 27

.11
.19
.51
.11
.19

.02
.01
.02
(2)
.04

.82
1.05
1. 63
1.05
1.91

1.99
1.83
2.33
1.61
2. 70

0

.36
.10

0

.01

1 Grapefruit consumption was so infrequent among low- and moderate-income families in 1918 that it was
not given a separate place on the schedule used at that time.
2 0.005 pound or less.

The recent increase in the consumption of milk, butter, green
vegetables, and fruits has not, however, offset the dietary disad­
vantages resulting from the American preference for highly refined




P h oto b y U . S. D ep artm en t of Labor

plate

l . —G r o u p




o f d eleg a tes to

Bo ot

and

S h o e W o r k e r s ’ C o n v e n t i o n , 19 19. M r . S a m u e l G o m p e r s , S r .,
W o r n is T y p i c a l o f T h a t P e r i o d .

in

Ce n t e r .

C lo th in g

P h o to b y U . S. D e p a r tm e n t of L abor

P l a t e 2 . —W o m e n F a c t o r y W o r k e r s in B a l t i m o r e B o a r d i n g
C l o s e o f T h e i r D a y ’s W o r k . ( 1 9 3 6 . )




a

Streetcar

at th e

CH ANG ES IN

E X P E N D IT U R E S I N P O ST -W A R PE R IO D

37

wheat and sugar products, our neglect of skim milk and of the certain
inexpensive lean-meat products.
“ Thus certain trends in dietary practices tend to impoverish rather
than enrich diets from the nutritive standpoint. To a greater or less
degree these tend to offset the beneficial effect of increased consump­
tion of milk, green-colored vegetables, and fruits. In consequence,
diets are still relatively short in calcium and in vitamins A, B, and C .” 2
(See ch. 4.)
Clothing expenditures have changed materially, both in the total
amount spent and in the articles purchased. Nowadays when the
average woman in the family of a wage earner or a clerical worker
totals her clothing expenditures, she finds that her silk stockings have
run away with more money than any other single item in her budget.
Silk stockings were a luxury to women in the moderate-income group
before the World War. In most stores the only kind of silk hose sold
was a very heavy service-weight stocking, with a mercerized top,
double-sole lisle foot, with a silk “ boot” only 20 inches high. These
stockings cost $2 a pair at retail. After the war the much more
attractive sheer and semiservice hose began to appear in all the stores
at a lower price. Now silk stockings for everyday wear are the rule
even for women in moderate-income families.
With the increase during the last two decades of ready-made
children’s and women’s clothes available at reasonably low prices,
many a housewife has apparently given up the practice of making
her clothes and those of the children at home. This is indicated by the
drop in the number of families annually buying sewing machines from
about 8 percent in 1917-19 to less than 2 percent of the families of
wage earners and lower-salaried employees covered in the 1934-36
survey.
These changes in the kind and quality of goods available in the
retail market have combined with changes in prices since the end of
the World War to produce very marked alterations in the distribution
of family expenditures. The study mentioned above (see p. 34) as
providing data on the spending patterns of families of wage earners
and clerical workers in 1917-19 covers the expenditures of families
of husband and wife and at least one child for 12 months within the
period from August 1, 1917, to February 29, 1919. Seventy-five per­
cent of the material applies to the year 1918. In the interval between
the end of this study and the beginning of the present investigation,
the cost of living in the larger cities of the country rose to a high
point in M ay 1920, dropped sharply until December 1921, and rose
again gradually until December 1925. In 1926 costs began to decline
2 Stiebeling, Hazel K., in Yearbook of Agriculture, 1939 (p. 129), U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, 1939,




38

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- SU M M A R Y V O LUM E

again, gradually until December 1929, sharply between that date
and June 1933, rising again thereafter (see fig. 1). The result of all
these changes was that total living costs for wage earners and clerical
workers in large cities were approximately 5 percent lower in the
period included in the present investigation than in that included in
the bench-mark study at the end of the World War. Costs for different
types of goods and services had moved quite differently in the interval.
The estimated net change by groups of items is as follows:
Estimated Net Change in Average Cost o f Goods Purchased by Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers From the Period Covered by the Consumption Study of 1917— to That Covered
19
by the Consumption Study of 1934—
36

Food______________
Clothing___________
Rent______________
Fuel and light_____
Housefurnishings__
Miscellaneous items
All items__________

24 percent lower.
15 percent lower.
1 percent lower.
29 percent higher.
4 percent lower.
34 percent higher.
5 percent lower.

Food costs were substantially lower, due partly to the development
of new and more efficient techniques of agricultural production, and
partly to the falling off in the European demand for American agri­
cultural products. Clothing costs had declined partly because of the
invention of new methods of textile production, partly because of
improvements in the mass production of moderate-price ready-towear clothes. Fuel and light costs were higher, largely because coal
prices had been controlled at relatively low levels during the World
War period. The cost of miscellaneous items purchased by moderateincome families (medical service, movies, laundry service, telephone,
and newspapers) rose very rapidly in 1918, 1919, and 1920, and have
remained relatively stable since that time, which accounts for their
being in 1934-36 distinctly above the level of costs in 1917-19.
To secure a living which cost $1,200 in larger cities of the country
at the time of the 1917-19 survey, it would have been necessary on
the average in 1934-36 to spend only $1,140.
A comparison of the actual expenditures of families with money
incomes ranging from $1,200 to $1,500 in the two periods immediately
shows the differences in the distribution of the total amount spent
for goods and services (see table 2). Expenditures in 1934-36 were
somewhat lower for food, furniture, and furnishings; and considerably
lower for clothing; expenditures for housing, fuel and light, and mis­
cellaneous items were considerably higher.




COST OF GOODS PURCHASED BY WAGE EARNERS
AND LOWER-SALARIED WORKERS IN 3 2 CITIES

1

IN EX
D

IN EX
D

180

l-l

i

160

120

100

60

PO ST -W A R PE R IO D

80

E X P E N D IT U R E S I N

140

CHANGES IN

AVERAGE DECEMBER 1917 AND DECEMBER 1918 = 100

00

40

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




00
CO

40

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y V O LUM E

T able 2.— Current Expenditures of Families of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
With Incomes From $1,200 to $1,500 in 35 Large Cities in 1 9 1 7 -1 9 and in 1 93 4 -3 6
[Families including husband and wife and at least 1 child]

1917-19

1934-36

Cost at
1934-36
prices of
goods
pur­
chased in
1917-19

$521
205

$508
139

$389
169

60
216

339

57
281

1, 392

1,171

Average expendi­
tures in—

Average expendi­
tures in—

T otal____________________________

1 }29 P
w5
1, 261

-54

/
\

1934-36

P ercen t

Food ___________ ________________ Clothing___________ ___________________
Rent
_________ - __________ _
Fuel and light________________________
Furniture and furnishings -------------Miscellaneous items
_________________

1917-19

P ercent

Cost at
1934-36
prices of
goods
pur­
chased in
1917-19
Percent

41.2
16.3
15.0
5.5
4.8
17.2

36.4
10.0
17.5
7.8
3.9
24.4

33.2
14.4
16.0
7.5
4.9
24.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

The greatest difference between average expenditures at this income
level occurred in the case of miscellaneous items. Expenditures for
the miscellaneous group, which includes automobiles, radio, and tele­
phone, were almost three-fifths greater in 1934-36 than in 1917-19.
In analyzing these figures, it is important to return to the realinement of prices which occurred in the period between the two surveys.
In order to eliminate the effect of price differences as such from the
comparison of expenditure patterns, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’
indexes of the cost of food, clothing, rent, fuel and light, and mis­
cellaneous items have been applied to the average expenditures of
families in the $1,200-$ 1,500 income bracket in 1917-19. The result­
ing figures, which appear as column 3 of table 2, represent an estimate
of what the equivalent of the goods actually purchased in 1917-19
would have cost if they had been purchased in 1934-36.
A comparison of these figures with the expenditure patterns actually
found in 1934-36 shows that the families studied in the latter period
were spending considerably more for food than would have been
required to buy the foods purchased in 1917-19. Part of this increase
was due to the increase in eating out in the period between the two
surveys, and part to the fact that these moderate-income families
had taken advantage of lower food prices to satisfy food needs which
had not been met in the period at the end of the World War. The
data available on the kinds of food purchased indicate that the con­
sumption of employed workers at the present time is much nearer
the diets recommended by nutrition specialists than were the diets
of families at approximately the same general economic level in
1917-19.
Total clothing expenditures in 1934-36 were, on the other hand,
lower on the average than would have been expected on the basis of
expenditures in 1917-19. Clothing prices, as mentioned above, were




CH ANG ES IN

E X P E N D IT U R E S IN

P O ST -W A R P ER IO D

41

lower in 1934-36 than in the period at the end of the World War,
but clothing expenditures were lower than would have been required
to buy the equivalent of the clothing purchased earlier. Part of the
difference is doubtless accounted for by the increase in dwellings with
central heat. Riding to work in automobiles instead of walking long
distances for trolleys has probably reduced the need for heavy winter
clothing. In addition, the trend of styles in women’s clothing has
been in the direction of less voluminous and more tailored garments.
A comparison of actual housing expenditures in 1934-36 with those
estimated as required to provide the type of housing secured by the
families studied at the end of the World War shows a higher average
expenditure in 1934-36, when the comparison is made in terms of
housing as such, or in terms of housing expense combined with expense
for fuel and light. Dwellings of a better grade than those occupied
by workers at this income level were available in 1934-36— dwellings
with electric lights and modern plumbing. These urban workers were
not content with homes which were the equivalent of those with which
city families at this income level had perforce been satisfied in the
World War period. They found, however, that they could not obtain
the housing they wanted by paying the equivalent of the amounts paid
in 1917-19, and the lower cost of food and clothing gave them the
margin they needed to pay more for housing, as well as to increase
their expenditures for items classified in the miscellaneous category.
Families in this middle-income class in the 35 cities included in
both investigations spent $216 for miscellaneous commodities and
services in 1917-19. In 1934-36 the equivalent of these commodities
and services would have cost $281. Actually, however, families at
this income level in these same cities in 1934-36 spent $339 for goods
of this kind. The most marked change was in expenditures for travel.
In 1917-19, among families of the type covered by the Bureau’s
study at that time (i. e., families with husband, wife, and at least one
child) expenditures for travel of all kinds averaged $35 a year or 3
percent of total current expenditure in the $1,200-$1,500 income class.
The comparable figures for 1934-36 are $99, and 7 percent.
The travel figures for both periods include the expense of automo­
bile purchase, maintenance, and operation, an item which has become
of considerable importance even to moderate-income urban families
who are not actually dependent on motor transportation. Nowadays
when a family has had a successful year, it is more apt to think of an
automobile as a symbol of success than to turn to new clothes, or new
furniture for the parlor.
Expenditures for personal care have also increased markedly in the
interval between these studies. An expenditure of not quite $13
per family (1 percent of all current expenditures) in this income class
in 1917-19 has become $27, or 2 percent of all current expenditure in




42

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

1934-36. Obviously the barber and the hairdresser are receiving
considerably more attention than in 1917-19.
These differences in the distribution of expenditures by wage-earner
and clerical families in the $1,200 to $1,500 income class are repre­
sentative of differences up and down the income scale covered by these
two investigations, that is, from $500 to $2,500 and over. Without
exception the averages by income class show that in 1934-36 families
were spending a higher proportion of total expenditures for food and a
lower proportion for clothing than would have been necessary to buy
the equivalent of the 1917-19 purchases. In all except the lowest
income class they were spending a higher proportion for housing than
the equivalent of World War housing would have required. In this
lowest bracket again, there was a deviation from the rule as regards
furniture and furnishings. In every other income class the proportion
spent in 1934-36 was slightly less than would have been required to
purchase furniture and furnishings of types and in the amounts
bought in 1917-19. In all but one income class the expenditure for
miscellaneous items was proportionately larger in 1934-36.
One of the most striking differences between these two sets of
figures is in the matter of savings and deficits in each period. In the
group covered in 1917-19 in these 35 cities, only the families at the
lowest income level showed a deficit and that was a small one— not
quite $11. Above the $900 level, each group, on the average, showed
net savings (treating payments on insurance premiums as savings).
Among the comparable families covered in 1934-36, in a period
when the average cost of living was 5 percent lower, average deficits
appeared until the $1,800 level was reached. The group with in­
comes from $1,200 to $1,500 spent, for example, $131 more for com­
modities and services than the similar group covered at the end of the
World War. Their average incomes were, on the other hand, only
$20 higher. The balance of the additional current expenditure was
possible, partly because no net saving was made by families in this
bracket in 1934-36, and partly because these families made use of
funds other than current income. Part of these nonincome funds
were withdrawn from savings accounts, part were borrowed on install­
ment credit, part represented a surrender of insurance policies, while
the balance came from a variety of scattered sources. In contrast
with the situation in 1917-19 when the average family in the wageearner and clerical group in the $1,200-$ 1,500 income class saved $80
over the year, in 1934-36 the comparable families reported a net
decrease in assets and/or increase in liabilities of $30.2
2 See ch. 10 for a full description of the exact method of computing this change.




CHANGES IN EXPENDITURES IN POST-WAR PERIOD

43

In considering these differences, it is important to remember the
difference in the national situation at the time the two investigations
were made. Much of the data obtained in the 1917-19 investigation
applies to years ending between June 30 and November 1, 1918, a
time when Government loans were being floated in small denomina­
tions, and subscriptions to them by moderate-income families were
made at considerable sacrifice. Amounts paid on such subscriptions
by families covered in the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ study would,
of course, appear as savings in calculating changes in assets and
liabilities.
The investigation in 1934-36 was made just after a period of ex­
tensive unemployment and reduction in earnings, in which most low
and moderate-income families, even if they had not suffered acutely
from unemployment themselves, had postponed, insofar as possible,
all expenditures which were not immediately necessary. By 1934
and more particularly by 1935, conditions were somewhat improved,
particularly for the families having relatively steady employment, a
requirement for inclusion in the study. It was natural, therefore, to
find them bujdng with a certain amount of optimism to make up for
the enforced economies of the past, drawing on savings where possible,
and where savings were not available, on credit. (See ch. 10, p. 167.)
There seems, however, to have been another reason for the differ­
ences in the expenditures of families with the same incomes. There is
much that indicates that families of wage earners and clerical workers
actually have higher standards of living than similar workers at the
end of the war period. Their diets more nearly approach the recom­
mendation of specialists in human nutrition; they have homes with
better lighting; many of them are able to travel more because they
have automobiles. The change in the ideas of these workers as to
how they ought to live has resulted in fundamental changes in their
expenditure patterns. Insofar as the analyses already made make it
possible to compare the goods and services purchased by comparable
families, it would appear that the change has resulted in a level of
living for employed workers 3 which may actually be called higher
than that found at the end of the war.
3
It is important in using these figures to remember that this chapter does not attempt to estimate the
change in the consumption of the average family in the wage-earner and clerical groups in our large cities
from the middle of 1919 to the middle of 1936. The Bureau of Labor Statistics studies of the expenditures
of wage earners and clerical workers at both periods were made for the purpose of providing weights for costof-living indexes applying to changes in the costs of goods purchased by employed workers. On that
account, many families in the lowest income brackets were eliminated both from the study made at the end
of the war period, and from the present investigation. It is impossible to make any estimate of the income
distribution of all the urban families who regarded themselves as dependent on wages or clerical salaries
who were eliminated from the 1917-19 study.




44

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
T able 3.— Expenditures of Families o f Wage Earners and Salaried Workers

1 in

1 9 3 4 -3 6 Compared With 1 9 1 7 -1 9
[Families including husband and wife and at least 1 child. Data for 6,240 white families in 35 cities cover
12 months w ithin the period 1934-36 and for 6,561 white families in 35 cities cover 12 months within the
period 1917-19]
Families with annual net income of—
All
families

Under
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to $1,500 to $1,800 to $2,100 to $2,500
$1,500
$1,800
$2,100
$2,500 and over
1934-36

Percentage of families_______
Average number of persons in
family___ ___________ _

100.0
4.34

5.4
4.10

19.9
4.13

25.8

22.6

4.25

4.30

17.0
4.44

6.2

3.1

4.83

5.64

Average annual current expenditure for—
All item s.________ ____ _ $1, 552.91 $890.70 $1,131.24 $1,392. 75 $1,657.95 $1,893.15 $2,215.33 $2, 775. 55
551. 26
165.12
258.18
111.90

357. 79
77.64
166.11
74.64

432.47
103. 65
206.67
94.31

507. 95
138. 53
244.02
108.00

578.17
176.05
277.92
118.88

638. 21
211.47
300.29
123.81

749. 26
270.11
323.49
140.03

938. 02
387.03
360.65
149.18

63. 39
403. 06

31.82
182. 70

41.97
252.17

54.05
340. 20

74.33
432. 60

80.00
539. 37

90.83
641.61

107.17
833.50

N et change_________________

- 8 .1 8 - 101.46

- 4 9 .08

-30. 36

- 5 .8 1

+ 47.45

Percentage of total annual
current expenditure for—
All items. ________ __ ..

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

35.5
10.6
16.6
7.2

40.2
8.7
18.6
8.4

38.2
9.2
18.3
8.3

36.4
10.0
17.5
7.8

34.8
10.6
16.8
7.2

33.7
11.2
15.9
6.5

33.8
12.2
14.6
6.3

33.8
13.9
13.0
5.4

4.1
26.0

3.6
20.5

3.7
22.3

3.9
24.4

4.5
26.1

4.2
28a5

4.1
29.0

3.9
30.0

Food________________ ..
Clothing ______________
R ent__________________
Fuel and light___. . .
Furniture and furnishings-------------------Miscellaneous_____ __

F o o d ... ___________ . . .
Clothing. _____________
R ent--- ------- -------- -Fuel and light-----------Furniture and furnish­
ings__________________
Miscellaneous__________

+52. 92 +154.68

1917-19
Average number of persons in
fam ily... _______________

4.87

3.96

4.40

4.71

4.97

5.32

7.07

5.78

Average annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items. _ ____________ $1,385.20 $772.80 $1,046.10 $1,261.20 $1,486.24 $1, 720.80 $2,009. 81 $2, 530.06
Food. ......... .................. .
Clothing ___________
R en t..
____________ _
Fuel and light__________
Furniture and furnish­
in g s._________________
Miscellaneous__________
N et change________________
Percentage of total annual
current expenditure for—
All item s.______ ________
Food____________ ______
Clothing--------- -------R ent...................................
Fuel and light...................
Furniture and furnish­
in g s................................
Miscellaneous__________

558.81
234. 60
200.10
71.88

351.95
106.80
132. 67
51.27

453.94
156. 26
160. 76
61. 65

520.81
205.01
189. 73
69.26

592.49
254. 31
212.11
75.03

662.60
310. 24
233. 42
85.54

747.10
386.48
252. 83
89.13

957.82
550.06
274. 42
90.55

68.29
251. 52

24.48
105. 63

46.89
166.60

59.97
216.42

78.23
274.07

87. 65
341.35

109.85
424.42

113.87
543.34

+108.77 - 1 0 .75

+34.44

+80.50 + 141.42 +203.42 +259.00 +321.46

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

40.4
16.9
14.4
5.2

45.5
13.8
17.2
6.6

43.4
14.9
15.4
5.9

41.2
16.3
15.0
5.5

39.9
17.1
14.3
5.0

38.5
18.0
13.6
5.0

37.2
19.2
12.6
4.4

37.9
21.7
10.8
3.6

4.9
18.2

3.2
13.7

4.5
15.9

4.8
17.2

5.3
18.4

5.1
19.8

5.5
21.1

4.5
21.5

1 See appendix C, p. 366, for method of combining city data and of obtaining “all families” average.




CH ANG ES IN

E X P E N D IT U R E S I N

45

P O ST -W A R PER IO D

T able 4.— Estimated Average Cost in 1934— o f Goods Purchased in 1917—19 by
36
Families of Wage Earners and Salaried Workers

1

[Families of husband and wife and at least 1 child]
Families with annual net income of—
All
families

Under
$900

Average annual current ex­
penditure for—
All item s_______________ $1,316.24 $699. 77
Food___________ _______
Clothing_______________
R ent__________________
Fuel and light__________
Furniture and furnish­
ings__________________
Miscellaneous________ .
Percentage of total annual
current expenditure for—
All item s____ _______
Food------------ Clothing_______________
R en t.. . . . . ______
Fuel and light________ .
Furniture and furnish­
ings-------------------Miscellaneous_______

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to $1,500 to $1,800 to $2,100 to $2,500
$1,800
$1,500
$2,100
$2,500 and over

$960.46 $1,170.14 $1,392.35 $1,621.83 $1,920.97 $2,442. 90

423.93
200.09
198.39
92.43

257. 49
86.54
132. 56
63.12

336.63
127. 77
158. 35
77. 67

388. 52
169.06
186. 68
87.80

443.81
210. 99
210. 29
96.33

497.99
258.03
229.48
108. 66

567.46
324.43
256.39
113. 69

729.46
472.88
293. 77
116.72

65.39
336. 01

22.80
137. 26

44.13
215.91

56.83
281. 25

74.38
356. 55

83.47
444.20

103.10
555. 90

106.74
723. 33

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.9

32.2
15.2
15.1
7.0

36.8
12.4
18.9
9.0

35.0
13.3
16.5
8.1

33.2
14.4
16.0
7.5

31.9
15.2
15.1
6.9

30.7
15.9
14.2
6.7

29.5
16.9
13.4
5.9

29.8
19.4
12.0
4.8

5.0
25.5

3.3
19.6

4.6
22.5

4.9
24.0

5.3
25.6

5.1
27.4

5.4
28.9

4.4
29.6

1 Computed on the basis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics cost-of-living index.




Chapter 3
INCOME, FAM ILY SIZE, AND THE CONSUMPTION
LEVEL OF THE FAMILY
Any attempt to compare the actual expenditures of the families of
wage earners and clerical workers studied by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in 1934-36 with the cost of the “ American standard of
living” presupposes that there is general agreement about the goods
and services which go to make up that standard. As a matter of fact,
there are almost as many opinions about the details which must be
included in the “ American standard” as there are American homes,
and the general point of view about the essential details has changed
considerably with changes in production techniques of the last quarter
of a century. There is, however, a general agreement about certain
basic goods and services essential to the health and welfare of the
American family.
P o s t -W a r Standard Budgets

During the period of the World War and the economic readjust­
ments which followed it, figures on the cost of maintaining an adequate
family living were compiled by several different agencies of the
Federal Government. * In connection with the wage adjustments of
the war period, W . F. Ogburn, then in charge of the cost-of-living
section of the National War Labor Board, prepared and priced two
family budgets as of June 1918— a “ minimum of subsistence” budget
for a family of five costing $1,386, and a “ minimum comfort” budget
costing S l ^ O .1
In 1919 and 1920 the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
prepared two quantity budgets. The first was intended to represent
the needs of Government employees in Washington2 while the second
had a wider application. It was the “ minimum quantity budget
1 Bureau of Applied Economics, Inc. Bulletin No. 7: Standards of Living: A compilation of budgetary
studies. Washington, 1920.
2 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Tentative quantity and cost budget necessary to maintain a family
of five in Washington, D. C., at a level of health and decency. Washington, 1920. This budget was based
on a study of the expenditures of Government employees in Washington. The primary aim of the study
was to furnish information for the use of the Joint Commission of Congress on "Reclassification of Salaries.
The cost of this budget in August 1919 was $2,016 in Washington.

46




IN C O M E , F A M IL Y SIZ E , C O N S U M P T IO N LE V E L

47

necessary to maintain a worker’s family of five in health and decency” 3
and was prepared in cooperation with a committee of the National
Conference of Social Work and the Office of Home Economics in the
Department of Agriculture.
Recent Standard Budgets

Among the concrete formulations of standards of living at specified
levels which are most used at the present time are the “ maintenance
budget” of the Works Progress Administration, and the budgets
for families in different economic groups prepared by the Heller
Committee for Social Research.
The Works Progress Administration, in March 1935, found that in
59 cities of the United States the average cost of a budget for a
4-person family of a manual worker at' a “ maintenance” level was
$1,261. When the allowance for insurance premiums (which in the
recent Bureau of Labor Statistics investigation were treated as
savings) is deducted, the cost for items of current family living of the
W P A budget at that date becomes $1,215. The Works Progress
Administration characterized its budget as “ not so liberal as that for
a ‘ health and decency’ level which the skilled worker may hope to
obtain, but it affords more than ‘minimum of subsistence’ living.” 4
3 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Minimum quantity budget necessary to maintain a worker’s family
of five at a level of health and decency. M onthly Labor Review, June 1920, pp. 1-18.
The budget constituted the Bureau’s “best estimates at that time of what should be included in the
family budget of the workingman.” It was based in part on estimated standard requirements and in part
on the expenditures of wage-earning families in the United States, as shown in the investigation of 1917-19.
The food budget was obtained by averaging the actual amounts of foods used by 280 families selected
from the 1917-19 survey. These families were selected because they averaged 3.35 equivalent adult males
and purchased food amounting to 3,500 calories per man per day. Slight changes were made to make the
budget acceptable to trained dietitians as a standard budget intended to maintain the family in health.
The clothing budget was “intended to provide a fair degree of that mental satisfaction which follows being
reasonably well dressed,” consistent with the m in im u m requirement for health and social decency. It was
based on the clothing budgets of 850 families having three children under 15 years of age, as reported in the
1917-19 survey, modified to take account of suggestions from clothing experts and of the results of a special
study of such factors as replacement.
The standard of housing included in the budget required one room per person and a complete bathroom
with toilet.
The budget was never priced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but its cost was calculated for 10 large
cities in 1922, by the Labor Bureau, Inc., a private research agency. According to the figures of that agency,
the average for those cities was $2,282. If this cost of the budget were estimated in the dollar values of the
period of the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ most recent study of the family expenditures of wage earners and
clerical workers, it would amount to $1,898, but that budget is not applicable to present-day conditions.
The kinds of goods and services customarily consumed have changed greatly in the past two decades. The
fact that no automobile, no radio, no silk stockings, and no beauty-parlor services were included in the budget
suggests the changes in American consumption habits which have taken place since it was prepared.
4 Works Progress Administration Research Monograph XII: Intercity Differences in Cost of Living in
March 1935, 59 Cities, p. xiv.
The “ maintenance budget” was designed to provide for a family consisting of a moderately active man,
a moderately active woman, a boy aged 13, and a girl aged 8. The man is an unskilled manual worker who
wears overalls at work. The allowance for food included in the budget is based on the adequate diet at
minimum cost of the Bureau of Home Economics, using a restricted list of foods. The housing allowed is
a 4- or 5-room house or apartment in a fair state of repair, with an indoor bath and toilet for the family’s
exclusive use. The budget includes maintenance for an inexpensive radio, a daily newspaper, and attend­
ance at the movies once a week. It does not provide an automobile. N o provision is made for saving
other than life-insurance premiums, which amount to $46 a year.




48

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y V O LUM E

Yet another attempt to obtain quantity and cost statements of
given standards of living is represented by the work of the Heller
Committee for Research in Social Economics at the University of
California. The average cost of its budget for a 5-person family of
a skilled wage earner, as priced by the Heller Committee in San
Francisco at various intervals from November 1933 to October 1936,
was $1,953. That budget was designed to meet accepted require­
ments of health and decency and to “ accord with the spending habits
of the economic group.” 5 The equivalent of this San Francisco cost
for an average of 59 cities throughout the United States for March
1935 has been estimated to be $1,760.6 When the cost of life insur­
ance is deducted from this figure, it appears that the average current
expenditure provided by this budget (as distinguished from the
savings), may be estimated at $1,661, for the larger cities of the country.
No official estimate at a higher level than the W P A maintenance
budget has been made recently. Many economists use approximately
$2,000 as the amount needed at the present time to provide an urban
family of four persons with the goods and services included in what is
widely accepted as the “ American standard of living.” 7
The significant thing to be noted, when attempts are made to
compare the cost of each of these standards with actual family ex­
penditures, is that family size as well as total expenditure must be
taken into account. Each of these quantity-cost budgets, if equitably
shared by the indicated numbers of persons, provides for each of those
persons the standard set by the budget.
However, should the same
6 Heller Committee for Research in Social Economics, Quantity and Cost Budgets, University of Cali­
fornia, Berkeley, 1937.
The 1936 budget for the family of a skilled wage earner provides for five persons—a man, his wife, a boy
aged 11, a girl aged 6, and a boy aged 2. The food budget included in this standard was adapted from
“ Adequate Food at Low Cost" by Ruth Okey and Emily H. Huntington, with adjustments to take into
account customary food consumption as well as nutritional adequacy. The home is a five-room house,
apartment, or flat in a “working-class neighborhood.” The budget allows for the maintenance of a radio
and a second-hand automobile, and a small life-insurance policy.
8 To the San Francisco cost for each major category, as food, clothing, etc., was applied an adjustment
factor which was the ratio of costs in San Francisco to costs in 59 cities combined, as determined by the
Works Progress Administration as of March 15, 1935. (Research Monograph XII: Intercity Differences in
Cost of Living in March 1935, 59 Cities, p. 116.)
7 Perhaps the most widely known of the private estimates is that of Mordecai Ezekiel, who set an income of
$2,500 as necessary at 1929 price levels to furnish an average city family of four persons w ith the “ American
standard.” When this sum is converted to its equivalent dollar value in 1934-36 by the application of the
Bureau’s cost-of-living indexes, the corresponding money income in 1934-36 is found to be $2,015. When the
savings included in the Ezekiel budget are deducted, the cost of goods and the services it provides (adjusted
to the 1934-36 dollar) would be valued at $1,873 for a family of four.
The author defines the standard to which his dollar estimate applies as follows:
* * * decent shelter, decent clothing, and adequate food for growth and health. Under American
conditions, a family can hardly be said to be sharing in abundant living unless it can also enjoy the comforts
of civilization which many Americans have come to regard as necessities. Those include running water
and modern plumbing, adequate heat, the telephone and electric light, newspapers, magazines and books,
a minimum of health care from doctors and dentists, an automobile, and some opportunity for travel, recrea­
tion, amusement, and higher education. For the average city family of four persons, an annual income of
$2,500 is probably the minimum on which such comfortable living can be attained (using the 1929 level of
prices). In fact, such an income would probably not be high enough for most families to enjoy all the
comforts listed. Rather than set our standards too high, though, we may regard such an income as being
the minimum needed to enable a family to live a moderately full life under American conditions.
Ezekiel, Mordecai. $2,500 a Year: From Scarcity to Abundance. Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York,
1936, p p . 3-6.




49

IN C O M E , F A M IL Y SIZ E , C O N S U M P T IO N LE V EL

quantities of goods and services or the same total expenditures be
shared by a larger number of persons, it is obvious that each would fall
somewhat below the standard set by the budget. Conversely, should
the same total expenditures be divided among a smaller number of
persons than the budget estimate, each person would in fact enjoy
a plane of living higher than indicated by the standard set in the
budget.
Family size as well as income is of crucial importance in determining
the economic plane which the family is actually able to achieve.
Small family size and a high income make for a higher degree of com­
fort, while large families and limited incomes mean a more limited
provision of goods and services for each family member, or a lower
economic plane. •It is also clear that two families with the same
incomes, but one composed of husband, wife, and two children,
and the other composed of husband, wife, and six children, live on
widely separated planes of living.
Classification o f F am ilies b y Consum ption Level

8

In the study of incomes and expenditures of families of wage
earners and clerical workers in 1934-36, made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, account was taken so far as possible of the complicating
effect of family size as well as income upon the planes or levels of living
at which the families were found.
It was desired to analyze the expenditures of the families studied in
relation to their planes of living, and to make comparisons among the
kinds of expenditures of families living at different economic levels.
From the earlier discussion, it is apparent that classification by total
income or total expenditure, without regard to the number and age of
the consumers sharing the goods purchased by the family, would
group together families with very different expenditure patterns. The
procedure adopted met this difficulty by a plan of classification of
families which, in effect, was based upon total family expenditure per
equivalent adult. A cruder approximation would have used total
expenditure per capita. However, to treat each member of the family
as of equal importance in family spending would have been to ignore
the wide differences in consumption needs and in customary expendi­
tures for persons of different age and sex. The difference in clothing
requirements of a boy aged 2 and his sister aged 18 illustrates the point.
No satisfactory single scale of equivalence was available to express
the relative importance of the consumption needs of or customary
8
The terms “consumption level” and “economic level” are used synonymously to denote classification
of families according to total annual expenditure per family member, that is, “annual unit expenditure for
the total of all items of current family expenditure.” In counting the number of family members, a moder­
ately active adult male is counted as one unit. Each other member is counted in proportion, with due
regard to differences in customary consumption by age, sex, and activity. See fuller discussion in ensuing
pages. See also appendix C.




50

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y VO LUM E

expenditures for children of given ages, or of women, as a proportion
of the needs or customary expenditures of a man. The relative
requirements of men, women, and children are very different, in fact,
for food and for clothing, and there is no assurance that the relative
requirements for other items are similar to those for either food or
clothing. Therefore, scales of relative expenditures for each of these
three groups of items were computed separately,9 but for the purpose
of arriving at a final figure which may be designated as family ex­
penditure per equivalent adult. Since these scales were based upon
customary expenditures by persons of different age and sex, they
were called expenditure-unit scales. Hence the final basis for classi­
fication of families studied has been called annual unit expenditure,
that is, annual total family expenditure per expenditure unit.
The process of classifying families according to their consumption
level may be indicated from the case of two families, each spending
$1,450 during the schedule year. The first family consisted of a man of
40, working as a machine operator; his wife, aged 38; two sons, aged 15
and 6; and two daughters, aged 12 and 8. In addition, the family
was responsible during 6 months of the year for the total support of
the wife’s mother, who lived with the family during half the year.
This family is regarded as consisting of 6% equivalent full-time persons.
The second family consisted of a man of 27, also a machine operator;
his wife, aged 26; a daughter, aged 4 ; and an infant son 1 year old.
This is a 4-person family. The first family spent $725 and the smaller
family $780 for all items other than food and clothing The expendi­
ture per full-time equivalent person in the first family was $112 as
against $195 in the second family for all items other than food and
clothing. Although the larger family spent 7 percent less on these
items than the smaller, on a per capita basis its level was 43 percent
below that of the smaller. In the case of food, the scales adopted in
this study indicate th^t the first family consisted of the equivalent of
5.5 adult males in the family for the full year. This unit will be sub­
sequently referred to in the present study as “ food-expenditure unit.”
The second family consisted of 2.9 food-expenditure units. The first
family spent $580 per year for food, or the equivalent of $105 per
8 The scale of food expenditure units was based on data secured from the Bureau of Home Economics,
showing quantities of food consumed by persons of different age, sex, and physical activity, estimated partly
on the basis of energy requirements and partly on the basis of the actual food consumption of families of wage
earners and clerical workers. (To have secured records of the actual food consumption of individuals would
have required an unjustified expense). These quantities of foods were multiplied by the average retail
prices for each item, for the United States, at the dates of the investigation, and the dollar figures so obtained
were used to compute a scale of food-expenditure units for specified sex-age groups relative to the food ex­
penditures of an adult male.
Clothing-expenditure relatives were computed directly from the data secured in this study on clothing
expenditures for persons of different sex, age, and occupation.
There is not enough information available on the influence of age or sex on expenditures for items other than
food and clothing to improve upon the assumption that equal expenditures for these “other items" are
incurred for each member of the family. Each member was, therefore, considered the equivalent of an
adult male in his expenditures for this third group of items.
More detailed explanation of the method of computing expenditure units may be found in appendix C.




51

IN C O M E , F A M IL Y S IZ E , C O N S U M P T IO N LE V E L

food-expenditure unit. The second family spent $500, a substantially
smaller proportion of its total income, but amounting to $172 per
food-expenditure unit.
Finally, for clothing, on the basis of the scale of customary expendi­
tures as related to sex, age, and occupation, taking the average ex­
penditures of adult male wage earners and lower-salaried clerical
workers between the ages of 21 and 35, inclusive, as equivalent to one
clothing-expenditure unit, it was found that the larger of the two fam­
ilies contained 4.0 clothing-expenditure units while the smaller family
contained 2.6. The first family spent $145 for clothing and the smaller
family, $170. This was an average per clothing-expenditure unit of
$36 for the first family and $65 for the second. The economic level
of the first family was measured by the sum of these three types of
unit expenditure: $105 for food, $36 for clothing, and $112 for all
other items; total for the family, $253 per expenditure unit. The
smaller family, which it will be recalled had identical total expendi­
tures, was not classified with the larger family but rather with other
families that had an expenditure per unit of more than $400 but less
than $500. In both cases, this means that these particular families
were grouped as regards economic level with families whose incomes
may have been quite different. For example, a widow with one
young child, earning $100 a month, would be grouped with the smaller
of the two families, as would also a very large family with an income
of more than $3,000 per year.
D istribution o f F am ilies b y C onsum ption Level

When the 14,469 families of wage earners and clerical workers
studied by the Bureau of Labor Statistics were classified into groups
by $100 intervals in annual unit expenditure, in accordance with the
procedure outlined in the foregoing section, two-fifths of them fell
within the limits of expenditure of $300 to $500 per adult equivalent
per year; as many as 15 percent spent less than $300, while 10 percent
spent $800 or over.
One-third of all the white families studied fell within the class spend­
ing less than $400 per unit per year, and over two-thirds were classified
as having unit expenditures of less than $600. On the other hand,
two-thirds of the Negro families studied fell below $400 and ninetenths below $600 unit expenditure, as shown in the following statement:
P e r c e n t of—

Annual unit expenditure of—
Under $200_______________ __________________
$200 to $400_______________ _________________
$400 to $600_______________________ ___________
$600 and over.
___________

W h ite
fa m ilie s

N eg ro
fa m ilies

2. 3
31. 4
36.7
29. 6

18.
47.
25.
8.

Total____________________________ ___________ 100.0




1
5
6
8

100.0

B o th
races

3.
32.
36.
28.

0
0
2
8

100.0

52

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y VO LUM E

T able

1

.— Distribution

by Occupation and Family T ype and Average Household Com­
position , by Consumption Level

14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total
All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500
lies der to
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600

annual unit expenditure of —
$600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
to
to
to
to
to
to and
$700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over

O cc u p a tio n o f c h ief earn er and
fa m ily ty p e 1

Percent of families in su rvey.. .
Percent of families in which
chief earner is—
Clerical worker................ .
Skilled wage earner.............
Semiskilled wage earner___
Unskilled wage earner____
Percent of families composed
of—
Man and wife____________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2___
Man, wife and 2 to 4 chil­
dren 2___________ ______
Man, wife, and 5 or more
children 2______________
Man, wife, and children
and adults (4 to 6 persons) 2_
Man, wife, and children
and adults (7 or more
persons)2......................... .
Man, wife, and 1 adult____
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults.
Man, wife, and 5 or more
adults.. ________ ________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not
including man and w ife).
Adults (4 or more persons
not including man and
wife)____ ______________
Adult or adults, and chil­
dren (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)..
Adult or adults, and chil­
dren (4 or more persons,
not including man and
wife)...................................
Percent of families having no
home maker.............................

100.0

3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8 11.3

27.7 7.1 15.9 22.4
23.3 11.6 19.3 21.3
35.2 44.4 43.5 39.8
13.8 36.9 21.3 16.5

21.6
17.8

0
1.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

1.4 5.3 12.1 23.0 34.6 48.9 60.8 65.5 74.0 77.8 81.5
5.3 15.6 21.5 26.2 26.9 19.6 13.1 9.5 7.0 8.4 2.9
6.4

2.6

1.3

2.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4.7

1.9

1.3

.7

0

0

0

.1
.8
.3 0
9.6 11.8 10.5 11.7
8.6 6.6 5.1 3.7

0
8.9
3.5

0
5.4
.7

0
8.5
2.0

0
3.5
0

0
3.8
.5

0

.1

.1

11.6 16.5 24.2 18.0 12.6

8.0

9.8

4.6

28.0 32.3 33.6 36.8 37.2 38.3 37.7 40.8 47.8
22.3 26.5 25.8 26.6 27.2 29.6 30.1 29.9 19.5
36.0 31.7 29.5 28.5 29.3 25.8 27.7 25.2 28.4
13.7 9.5 11.1 8.1 6.3 6.3 4.5 4.1 4.3

19.4 22.9 34.9 32.6 23.4 13.5
.9

7.1

3.2

3.8 35.0 14.6
8.3
.9 2.9
6.2 4.8 5.2

1.0

3.6
6.8
7.9

.2

.9

.3

.3

.2

.1

0

0

0

6.3

.5

2.0

3.9

6.7

6.8

9.1

9.7

9.9 13.0

1.6

1.4

2.0

1.8

2.1

1.4

1.6

1.1

1.0

1.0

.7

.9

1.0

1.1

1.5

.9

.3

.2

1.3

5.0

3.1

2.2

1.2

.7

.2

.4

0

.4

.1

.2

.4

.2

.6

.4

.3

1.1

.5

0

0

0

6.0 10.3

9.6

2.4

1.0

0

0

.8

1.0

0

1.7

0

0

0

0

0

1.0

0

0

C o m p o s itio n o f household

Average number of persons in
household.....................:_____
Percent of households with—
Boarders and lodgers______
Boarders only......... .............
Lodgers only______ ______
Other persons.......................
Average size of economic family:
Persons........... ......................
Under 16 years of age___
16 years of age and over.
Expenditure units.—...........
Average number of persons in
household not members of
economic fam ily......................

3.79 6.61 5.33 4.32 3.93 3.33 3.01 2.69 2.60 2.49 2.47 2.37 2.12
7.2
2.7
7.8
5.3

7.5
1.9
3.5
2.7

6.1
2.2
5.3
3.1

3.60
1.03
2.57
3.32

6.49
3.14
3.35
5.81

5.19
2.21
2.98
4.64

.21

.14

.15

7.5
2.5
6.2
4.4

7.5
2.5
8.6
5.6

7.8 6.9 7.6
3.1 3.2 3.6
8.0 10.3 10.1
5.7 5.2 8.4

8.0
2.9
8.5
5.9

6.5 7.4 4.8
3.1 3.3 3.2
8.6 9.6 9.3
8.6 11.3 10.1

6.3
1.3
5.8
9.2

4.16 3.54 .3.13 2.79 2.55 2.38 2.28 2.26 2.21 2.00
1.43 .95 .69 .46 .28 .18 .15 .07 .08 .05
2.73 2.59 2.44 2.33 2.27 2.20 2.13 2.19 2.13 1.95
3.79 3.27 2.92 2.61 2.41 2.27 2.20 2.23 2.17 1.94
.20

.22

.22

.24

.27

.23

.24

.25

.19

.1 8

2
“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are on p. 391.




53

INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

T able 2.— Distribution by Occupation and Fam ily T ype and Average Household Com­
position, by Consumption Level
12,903 WHITE FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
lies der to to to to to to to
to
to
to and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over

O ccu p a tio n o f c h ief ea rn er and
fa m ily t y p e 1

Percent of families in survey__________ 100.0 2.3 11.7 19.7 20.6 16.1 11.6 7.4 4.7 2.7
Percent of families in which chief earn­
er is—
Clerical worker__________________
Skilled wage earner______________
Semiskilled wage earner__________
Unskilled wage earner............... ......
Percent of families composed of—
Man and wife__________ _________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2__________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2___
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2_
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)2____ ____________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)2____________
Man, wife, and 1 adult___________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults______
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not includ­
ing man and wife)______________
Adults (4 or more persons, not in­
cluding man and w ife)__________
Adult or adults, and children (2 or
3 persons, not including man and
wife)____ _____________________
Adult or adults, and children (4 or
more persons, not including man
and wife)____ __________ _____
Percent of families having no homem aker...____ ______________________

1.0

37.4 38.3 37.9 41.0 47.8
27.4 29.8 30.2 30.1 19.5
29.5 25.8 27.8 25.3 28.4
5.7 6.1 4.1 3.6 4.3

21.1 0
.6 3.8 10.5 21.8 33.9 48.7
18.0 .9 4.2 15.3 21.8 26.7 27.3 19.8
19.6 21.4 35.9 33.8 24.1 13.8 6.5 2.6
.8 8.9 3.4 1.0 .1 .1 0
0

60.3 65.7 73.9 78.2 81.5
13.2 9.5 7.1 8.4 2.9
0
0
1.3 2.0 0
0
0
0
0
0

17.3
20.7
44.8
17.2

23.3
22.2
40.3
14.2

28.8
23.0
36.2
12.0

33.0
26.9
31.9
8.2

0.8

37.0
26.9
28.5
7.6

28.8
24.2
35.4
11.6

8.9
14.5
47.6
29.0

1.4

34.0
26.2
29.7
10.1

11.7 16.1 25.1 18.4 12.9 8.2 4.8 1.9 1.4

.7

3.7 39.2 15.6 3.7 .8 .3 0
.1 0
8.2 .7 2.1 6.6 9.4 11.7 10.6 11.7 9.0
6.3 5.0 4.9 8.1 8.8 6.7 5.1 3.7 3.6
0
0.2 1.1 ,.3 .3 .2 .1 0
0

0
5.3
.7
0

6.4

.3 1.9 3.9 6.8 6.9 9.1 9.7 10.0 12.9

1.7 1.7 2.2 1.9 2.2 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.0
1.0

.3

.7 1.0 1.2 1.6

.9

.3

0

0

0

0
8.6
1.9
.6

0
3.0
0
0

0
3.8
.5
0

5.9 10.4

9.6

2.4

1.0

0

0

.8

1.0

0

1.7

.2

1.3 4.4 3.1 2.2 1.2

.7

.2

.4 0

0

0

0

0

.2

.6

.4

.3 1.1

0

1.0

0

0

.4

.2

.4

.2

C o m p o s itio n o f household

Average number of persons in house­
hold____________________ ______ ___
Percent of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.____________
Boarders only___________________
Lodgers only____________________
Other persons....................................
Average size of economic family:
Persons_________________________
Under 16 years of age_________
16 years of age and over. ...........
Expenditure units_______________
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic family.

3.79 6. 77 5.45 4.39 3.97 3.35 3.02 2.69 2.60 2.49 2.45 2.36
7.4
2.6
7.8
5.4

8.9
1.9
3.3
2.7

6.3
2.1
5.1
3.1

7.7
2.5
6.2
4.4

7.6
2.4
8.6
5.6

7.9
3.0
7.9
5.7

7.0
3.1
10.2
5.3

7.7
3.1
10.2
8.5

3.60
1.03
2. 57
3.32

6.64
3.17
3.47
5.96

5. 31
2.29
3.02
4.79

4.22
1.47
2.75
3.84

3.58
.97
2. 61
3.30

3.15
.70
2.45
2.94

2.80
.47
2. 33
2.62

2. 55
.28
2.27
2.44

8.0
2.8
8.4
5.9

6.4 7.4 4.8
3.1 3.3 2.7
8.7 9.6 9.3
8.6 11.3 10.2

2 .12

6.3
1.3
5.8
9.2

2.38 2.28 2.26 2.21 2.00
.18 .15 .07 .08 .05
2.20 2.13 2.19 2.13 1.95
2.27 2.20 2.23 2.17 1.94

.21 .15 .15 .20 .22 .22 .24 .27 .23

.24

.25

.19

.18

1
“ Children" are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults" are persons 16 years of age and over,
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States," B. L. S
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are on p. 391.




54

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

T able 3.— Distribution by Occupation and Fam ily Type and Average Household Com­
position , by Consumption Level
1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
A1
1
A il

Item

fam­ U n­ $200
ilies
der
to

$300

to

$400

to

$500

to

$600

to

$700

and
over

$200

$300

$400

$500

$600

$700

Percent of families in survey_______ _____ _________ 100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

Percent of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker________________________ ______
4.0
Skilled wage earner....... .......................................
4.3
Semiskilled wage earner............................... .......... 30.0
Unskilled wage earner......... .................................. 61.7

2.1
3.2
35.1
59.6

1.1
5.4
30.7
62.8

3.6
3.3
30.6
62.5

4.1
2.1
31.5
62.3

6.2
10.4
22.9
60.5

10.7
5.4
19.0
64.9

20.4
1.5
23.3
54.8

71.3
5.7

69.2
8.2

72.2
3.7

O ccu p a tion o f c h ief earn er and fa m ily t y p e

i

Percent of families composed of—
M an and wife....................... ...................................
Man, wife, and 1 child 2......... ........................ ......
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2_ ........................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children
__________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 per­
sons)2--------------- --------------------------Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)2.................. .............. ............................
Man, wife, and 1 adult.......................... .................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 a d u l t s .......................... .
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_______________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and
wife)_______ ______ _
_____ ______________
Adults (4 or more persons, not including man and
w if e ) ...__________________ _____ __________
Adult or adults, and children (2 or 3 persons, not
including man and wife)____________________
Adult or adults, and children (4 or more persons,
not including man and wife)________________
Percent of families having no homemaker__________

32.2
13.3

29.5
12.1

9.1
17.0

35.0
22.4

56.7
14.4

23.5
1.5

9.7
.3

3.3
0

9.8

17.8

16.2

9.4

5.2
10.0
4.8
.1

22.6
1.9
4.5
0

3.7
10.8
8.6
.2

.6
10.5
3.6
0

3.7

.6

3.3

4.8

4.4

.7

.3

.5

1.0

.3

1.1

1.4

2.5

.8

6.2

3.1

1.9

.4

.4

14.1
2.6

2.4
.2

0
3.1

0

.9

0
0

2.8

1.5

0

.4
15.8
1.6
0

0
13.0
3.9
0

0

0
0
0

0
9.0
3.5
0

0
10.2
4.3
0
8.1

7.4
2.7

1.5

0

0

3.1
0

0

0

0

0

.3

.6

0

0

0

.8

C o m p o sitio n o f household

Average number of persons in household___________
Percent of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.............. ...... .........................
Boarders o n ly .- .....................................................
Lodgers only........... ................................................
Other persons..................... ........ ............................
Average size of economic family:
Persons_____________________________________
Under 16 years of age........ ............................ .
16 years of age and over..................................
Expenditure units.................................................
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family............ ...... ........................ .

3. 76

6.15

4.09

3.13

2. 72

2.61

2.56

2.72

3.7
5.0
7.7
3.6

3.4
1.8
4.1
2.8

4.0
3.4
7.0
3.4

4.4
3.5
6.6
3.7

3.9
5.0
9.1
4.8

3.4
8.5
11.4
3.9

1.8
8.8
16.4
0

4.0
26.5
7.6
3.7

3.59
1.09
2.50
3.28

6.05
3.06
2. 99
5. 36

3.95
1.33
2. 62
3.08

3.00
.65
2.35
2.79

2. 52
.27
2.25
2.37

2.36
.11
2.25
2.26

2.22
.08
2.14
2.13

2.31
.04
2.27
2.20

.20

.12

.15

.2 2

.21

.26

.37

.44

1
“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357. 1924.
Notes on this table are on p. 391.




IN C O M E , F A M IL Y SIZ E , C O N S U M P T IO N LE V EL

55

Families found at low and at high consumption levels by no means
coincided with types found at low and high income levels.1 One of the
0
striking differences between the two types of classification was in
relation to family size. When families were classified by income,
average size of family was smallest at the lowest income level and
largest at the highest income level. This tendency was directly
related to the greater number of gainful workers associated with
higher family incomes. When families were classified by economic
level (by amount of annual unit expenditure), on the other hand,
the largest families were found at the lowest economic levels and the
average family size declined steadily as economic level increased (see
table 1). The average number of gainful workers per family showed
no consistent tendency either to increase or decrease from low to
high economic levels. In fact, for the white and Negro families
combined it ranged from 1.34 to 1.58, meaning that on the average
every second or third family had a supplementary earner (see table
4). The same tendencies both as to family size and number of gain­
ful workers were generally true of white and of Negro families when
classified by economic level. The Negro families at the lowest
economic levels were, however, smaller than the white, but their
average number of gainful workers was larger, at all comparable
economic levels, since there was greater need in the Negro group to
supplement the earnings of the chief breadwinner.
Average income for both white and Negro families increased from
low to high economic levels, but much less sharply than when families
were classified by income. Even within the same economic levels,
however, and despite the smaller number of gainful workers per family
in the white group, the white families had consistently higher average
incomes than did the Negro families (see tables 5 and 6).
10 For distribution of families by income level, see ch. 1, tables 4, 5, and 6, pp. 18-20.

242949°— 41------5




56

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

,

Table 4.— Sources o f Incom e by Consumption Level
14,469 W H IT E A N D N EG R O FA M ILIE S IN 42 C IT IE S
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in the period 1934-36]

Item

Fam ilies w ith tota l annual u n it expenditure of
A ll
fam i­ U n ­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700
$800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to and
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over

Percent of fam ilies in s u r v ey ___

100.0 3 .0

12.2 19.8 20.4

15.8 11.3

7.1

4 .6

2.fi

1.4

0 .8

1.0

Percent of fam ilies havin g—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____ ________ _________
N e t earnings from boarders
and lodgers____________
Other net ren ts_____________
Interest and d iv id en d s_____
P ensions and insurance ann u ities___________________
G ifts from persons outside
econom ic fam ily ......... .........
O ther sources of in com e____
D ed u ction s from incom e
(business losses and exp en ses)___________________
Surplus (n et increase in assets and/or decrease in liab ilities)_________________
D eficit (n et decrease in as­
sets and/or increase in lia­
b ilitie s)____________ J_____
Inheritance________________

3 7.8 3 2.2 34.6 3 3.8 3 4.3 3 8.7 39.4 42.2 4 4.3 4 8.6 64.1 59.2 74.2
.6
.1
.7
.4
.6
.3
.9
.9
2 .2
.5
.8
.7 3 .2

Average num ber of gainful work­
ers per fa m ily ________ _______

1.41 1.58

32.4 39.4 35.8 31.8 30.9 29.6 28.3 3 5.6 3 0.8 34.9 40.1 4 7.9 52.4
16.4 12.0 13.1 15.6 21.7 17.2 19.3 19.4 17.5 18.1 17.4 11.9 13.4
6 .3 4 .8
5.6 5 .8 7 .2 6 .2 6.3 6 .9
7 .6 6 .6 2 .2 4 .6 3 .4
12.8 7 .0 8 .5 9 .7 12.7 15.9 17.0 15.2 16.2 15.8 14.0 14.3 2 3.4
3 .7 3 .2
10.0 9 .5
4 .5 4 .4
5 .8 3 .4

2 .7

3.4

10.5 10.4
2 .7 4 .6
4 .2

4 .9

4 .0

3 .6

4 .4

3 .0

4 .6

1.5

4 .3

8 .6 11.8

9 .2 10.9
4 .2 4 .2

9 .3
4 .2

8.1
4 .0

9.1
5 .4

9 .5
6 .7

5.3
8 .0

10.9 17.6
9 .7 5.9

5 .4

7 .2

7 .6

6 .3

6 .4

7 .4

6 .3

8.1

7.4

5 9.2 62.1 61.9 6 2.6 6 3.2 5 9.2 58.3 54.6 52.7 4 8.2 35.6 36.9 2 3.6

1.48

1.43 1.40

1.37 1.35 1.40 1.34

1.37 1.43 1.48 1.53

Average annual am
ount
T otal net fam ily incom e________ $1524 $967 $1187 $1334 $1486 $1596 $1688 $1822 $1884 $1981 $2097
Earnings of in d iv id u a ls_____ 1460 932 1143 1280 1426 1528 1616 1756 1804 1900 2009
C hief earner____________
1285 819 1020 1139 1258 1358 1438 1519 1563 1621 1679
Subsidiary earners..........
175 113 123 141 168 170 178 237 241 279 330
Males:
16 years and over___
1257 813 1007 1115 1220 1328 1405 1501 1534 1600 1624
2
1
1 0)
U nder 16 years_____
0
0
0
0
0)
0)
0)
Fem ales:_____
16 years and over___
203 116 135 163 206 200 211 255 270 300 385
1 0)
U nder 16 years_____
0 0)
1
0
0
0
0
0
(0
N e t earnings from boarders
32 18
and lodgers_______________
26
30
30
35
33
39
38
38
35
4
5
Other net ren ts_____________
7
5
8
11
7
7
8
3
11
Interest and d iv id en d s_____
1
1
4
2
3
4
6
5
8
9
7
Pensions and insurance an­
n u ities____ _______________
3
4
10
7
10
13
9
28
10
10
6
Gifts from persons outside
econom ic fam ily__________
5
6
6
7
7
8
6
9
6
8
4
Other sources of in com e____
5
4
6
7
5
7
6
4
15
14
14
D ed u ction s from incom e
(business losses and ex­
p en ses)___________________
-2
-3
—2 - 3
-4
-3 -1
-4
-6
-4
-5
S u rp lus per fam ily h avin g sur­
plus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liab ilities) __
149 93 113 128 144 163 174 188 199 199 221
D eficit per fam ily h avin g deficit
(n et decrease in assets and/or
increase in liab ilities)_________
203 85 124 151 172 195 220 261 297 330 399
N e t change in assets and liab ili­
ties for all fam ilies in s u r v e y ...
- 8 -26 -65 -177
+ 11 + 30 + 27 + 29 + 32 + 21 + 15
2 ()
2 0)
Inheritance__________ _________
2
2
4
2
8
5
11
1 Less than 50 cents.
N o tes on th is table are on p. 391.




$2262 $2396
2140 2250
1735 1700
405 550
1672 1620
0
0
468
0

630
0

33
5
11

20
3
22

42

61

11
29

22
21

-9

-3

203

238

403

475

-164 -296
1
23

57

INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

,

T able 5.— Sources o f Incom e by Consumption Level
1 2,903 W H ITE FA M IL IE S IN 42 C IT IE S
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in th e period 1934-36]

Item

Percent of fam ilies in s u r v e y .. .
Percent of fam ilies havin g—
Earnings of subsidiary
earners__________________
N e t earnings from boarders
and lodgers______________
Other n et ren ts____________
Interest and d ivid en d s. . . .
P ensions and insurance
an n u ities________________
G ifts from persons outside
econom ic fam ily_________
Other sources of in com e___
D ed u ction s from incom e
(business losses and exp en ses)__________ ______
Surplus (n et increase in
assets and/or decrease in
lia b ilities)__________ ____
D eficit (n et decrease in
assets and/or increase in
liab ilities)_______________
Inheritance_______________
Average num ber of gainful
workers per fa m ily ........ ..........

F am ilies w ith total ann ual u n it expenditure ofA ll
fam ­ U n ­
$700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
ilies der $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 to
to
and
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over
100.0

2.3 11.7 19.7 20.6 16.1 11.6

7.4

4 .7

2 .7

1.4

0 .8

1 .0

3 1.9 3 7.9 3 5.3 31.5 3 0.7 29.1 28.0 35.0 30.6 3 4.9 39.9 4 7.6 5 2.4
16.5 13.3 13.1 15.7 2 1.9 17.1 19.2 19.0 17.5 18.2 17.5 11.5 13.4
6 .5 5.9 5.9 6 .0 7 .4 6 .3 6 .4 7 .0 7.7 6 .5 2 .2 4 .6 3 .4
13.1 8 .8 8 .7 9 .9 12.8 16.1 17.1 15.2 16.1 15.8 13.8 14.4 2 2.4
3.6

2.7

10.2
4 .5

9.6
4.8

5 .9

4 .2

2.1

3 .3

11.0 10.6
2 .6 4.7
4.3

5.1

8 .6 11.8

3 .6

4 .5

2.9

4 .6

1.4

4 .3

9 .4 11.0
4 .2 4 .2

9 .4
4.1

8 .0
4 .0

9 .2
5.4

9 .6
6 .6

5.3 11.0 17.6
7.7 9 .7 5 .9

5 .5

7.3

7 .6

6.4

6 .4

7.4

3 .9

6 .4

8.1

7.4

58.9 61.6 61.4 6 2.1 62.9 59.2 58.4 54.7 52.6 4 8.2 35.7 37.1 2 3.6
38.1 3 2.5 3 5.0 3 4.2 3 4.6 3 8.7 3 9.2 42.1 44.3 4 8.6 64.1 59.5 74.2
.9 2 .2
.4
.6
.5
.7 3 .2
.6 0
.7
.3
.9
.8
1.40 1.56 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.36 1.35 1.39

1.34 1.37 1.44 1.48 1. 53

Average annual am
ount
T otal n et fam ily incom e_______ $1546 $1021
Earnings of in d iv id u a ls____ 1482 981
C hief earner___________
1304 859
Subsidiary earners........
178 122
Males:
16 years and o v e r ...
1274 850
U nder 16 years____
3
0)
Females:
16 years and o v e r...
207 128
U nder 16 years____
0)
0)
N e t earnings from boarders
and lodgers._____________
32
21
Other net ren ts. _____ ______
7
5
Interest and d iv id en d s........
1
4
P ensions and insurance an­
n u ities................. ...............
10
4
G ifts from persons outside
econom ic fam ily........... .
7
6
Other sources of in com e___
7
4
D ed u ction s from incom e
(business losses and ex­
-1
p en ses)........... ........... .........
-3
Surplus per fam ily having sur­
plus (n et increase in assets
and/or decrease in lia b ilities)_
152! 100
D eficit per fam ily havin g deficit
(n et decrease in assets and/or
95
increase in liab ilities)________
207
N e t change in assets and lia­
bilities for all fam ilies in sur­
v e y .......... ...................................
+ 1 1 + 31
2! 0 )
In h eritan ce.......... .........................
i

Less th an 50 cents.

N otes on th is tab le are on p. 391.




$1219 $1352 $1502 $1606 $1695 $1821 $1888 $1983 $2101 $2255 $2396
1171 1297 1441 1538 1624 1756 1808 1901 2013 2136 2250
1045 1154 1271 1368 1446 1522 1568 1621 1683 1735 1700
126 143 170 170 178 234 240 280 330 401 550
1031 1129 1231
1 0)
1

1336 1414 1502 1538 1602 1628 1671 1620
0
0
0
0
0
0
0)
0)

139
(*)

166
1

210
0

202
0)

210
0

254
0

270
0

299
0

385
0

465
0

630
0

27
6
1

31
5
2

30
8
3

35
7
4

37
7
6

38
8
5

33
11
8

40
11
7

35
3
9

30
5
11

20
3
22

5

7

11

10

13

8

10

6

28

42

61

7
4

7
6

6
5

8
7

6
6

6
4

9
15

8
14

4
14

11
29

22
21

-2

-3

-2

-3

-4

-4

-6

-4

-5

-9

-3

117

131

146

165

175

188

200

199

221

203

238

129

154

173

197

222

262

298

330

399

403

475

+ 27 + 2 9
2! 0 )

+ 32! + 2 1 + 1 6
2!
2
3

—81 - 2 7 - 6 5 - 1 7 7 - 1 6 4 - 2 9 6
23
2!
5i
11
1
8;

58

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

,

T able 6.— Sources o f Incom e by Consumption Level
1 ,566 N E G R O FA M ILIE S I N 16 C IT IE S
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in the period 1934-36]

Item

Fam ilies w ith
A ll
fam­
Un
$200
ilies
der
to
$200 $300

Percent of fam ilies in s u r v ey .—----- ------------------- 100.0
Percent of fam ilies havin g—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------------------- 42.6
N e t earnings from boarders and lodgers_________ 15.0
2.4
Other net ren ts_________________________________
Interest and d iv id en d s_________________________
7.0
5.1
Pen sion s and insurance an n u ities___________ ..
6 .5
G ifts from persons outsid e econom ic fa m ily _____
Other sources of in com e---------------------------- 4 .6
D ed u ction s from incom e (business losses and
2.7
expenses)-------- --------------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
6 6.0
lia b ilities)____________ _________ ______
D eficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
lia b ilities)----------------------------------------- 31.1
.2
Inheritance.. . . ________________ ______________
Average num ber of gainful workers per f a m i l y ------

1.53

total annual u n it expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9 .3

5.0

3 .8

43.7
8 .2
1.6
1.8
4 .6
9.1
3 .2

4 1.0
12.9
2 .3
6.1
9.1
5.1
4 .0

38.7
13.5
2 .2
6 .7
6 .0
5 .6
3 .6

36.1
15.9
2.9
10.1
5 .7
5.0
5 .5

51.0
20.8
2 .2
7.3
3.3
5.9
5.0

45.5
2 6.2
3.4
12.3
1.9
6 .3
11.7

73.9
35.9
3.7
18.3
7.4
13.1
9.1

1.1

3.1

1.6

4 .0

2.4

4 .1

8 .5

6 3.6

6 7.2

71.5

71.4

57.2

52.4

53.0

3 1.5
.3

30.1
.4

26.4
.1

25.8
.2

37.8
0

4 7.6

0

4 7.0
0

1. 63

1.54

1.46

1.40

1. 59

1.47

1.84

Average annual amount
T otal n et fam ily incom e____________________________ $1,008
Earnings of in d ivid u als............................. .......... . 974
853
C hief earner...... ...............................................
121
Subsidiary earners........... ...................................
Males:
852
16 years and o v e r ......................... ..............
1
U nder 16 years...... ................................... .
Females:
121
16 years and over---------------- ----- ---U nder 16 years_____ _______________ . . .
0)
21
N e t earnings from boarders and lodgers_________
2
Other net ren ts_______________________ ______ __
1
Interest and d iv id e n d s. . ------------------------3
Pensions and insurance an n u ities_______________
3
G ifts from persons outsid e econom ic fa m ily ._ . . .
5
Other sources of incom e _______________________
D ed u ction s from incom e (business losses and
expenses)_________________________ ______ ____ - 1
Surplus per fam ily havin g surplus (net increase in
84
assets and/or decrease in liab ilities).......... ............ .
D eficit per fam ily havin g deficit (net decrease in
98
_____________
assets and/or increase in liab ilities)
N e t change in assets and liab ilities for all fam ilies in
su rvey______________________________________ _
. +25
Inheritance------------ -------------------------------(0

$811
790
704
86

$886
860
769
91

709

764
1

0)
80
1
10
1

95

0)

14

2

1
2
2
5

0)

1
4
6

-1
72

0)
74

$983 $1,027 $1,209 $1,327 $1,753
992 1,162 1,250 1,647
954
888
856
987 1,040 1,232
104
98
175
210
415
846
1

883 1,007
5
0

963
0

1,308
0

107

104
0
21
4
1
3
2
4

287
0
58
4
1
5
3
12

339
0
64
7
2
13
18
4

0)

14
2
1
6
3
4

-1
74

0)
87

155
0
36
2
1
1
3
5
-1

-6

-2

107

109

185

54

69

82

109

131

145

195

+29
0)

+25
1

+36
0)

+36
1

+ 12
0

-13
0

+7
0

i Less th an 50 cents.
N otes on th is table are on p. 391.

Calculation o f Standard B udgets in T erm s o f U n it E xp en d itu re

A clearer understanding of the meaning of a distribution of families
by consumption level may be obtained by classifying the standard
budgets discussed earlier in this article by unit-expenditure groups.
These budgets were adjusted to their average cost for the period
represented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics' investigation, 1934-36,
by the use of the Bureau's cost-of-living indexes. The family size
specified for each 1 was expressed in terms of expenditure units, using
1
11
For th e $2,000 bu dget for a fam ily of four persons the sam e fam ily com position as in th e W P A “ m ain te­
nance’' b u d get w as assum ed.




INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

59

the scales described earlier in this article. On this basis the total cost
per expenditure unit was determined for each: $331 for the W PA
“ maintenance” budget, $393 for the Heller Committee “wage earner”
budget, and $505 for the “ $2,000 standard for a family of four.” A
family of the composition and expenditure represented by the W P A
budget would, in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' investigation, nave
been classed with other families spending $300 but less than $400
per expenditure unit. In fact, 21 percent of the families included
in that investigation, even though they were relatively favorably
situated,1 had unit expenditures less than $331, the unit cost of the
2
W PA budget at the date of the survey. Furthermore, 34 percent of
the families studied had unit expenditures which would place them
below the level of the Heller Committee's “ wage earner” budget, and
56 percent spent less than the cost of the “ $2,000 standard for a
family of four.”
In view of the larger size of the families at the lower consumption
levels, 30 percent of the total number of persons covered in the investi­
gation were found to be living below the “ maintenance” standard; 44
percent below the Heller standard for wage earners; and 67 percent
below the “ $2,000 standard.” Considering the fact that the groups at
the higher consumption levels were largely mature families with rela­
tively few children under 16, the distribution of the children included
in the survey is even more striking. The proportion of children found
below the W P A “ maintenance” standard was 44 percent, below the
standard of the Heller wage-earner budget 61 percent, and below the
“ $2,000 standard” 82 percent.

,

P atterns o f E xp en d itu re b y C on sum ption L evel

The classification by consumption level is most useful in bringing
out in clear relief the spending habits of families which may be consid­
ered to be on the same economic plane.
The pattern of average expenditure changes gradually from one
consumption level to the next. At each level within the range covered
in this investigation, food expenditures took a larger share of the total
than any other group of items, and expenditures for housing, including
fuel, light, and refrigeration, came next. At the lower consumption
levels, clothing expenditures were third in importance, but at the
higher levels average expenditures for the purchase and operation of
automobiles exceeded average expenditure for clothing.
The percentage of expenditures made for food declined much more
sharply from low to high consumption level, namely, from 44 to 22 per­
cent (see table 7), than from low to high income level, for which the
12
Fam ilies receiving an y relief during th e year, or w ith incom es below $600, were excluded from th e stu d y .
See appendix B , p. 359.




60

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

,

T able 7.— Expenditures fo r Groups o f Item s by Consumption Level
14,469 W H ITE A N D N EG R O FA M ILIE S I N 42 C IT IE S
[D ata cover 12 m on th s w ith in th e period 1934-36]

Item

Fam ilies w ith total annual u n it expenditure of
A ll
fam ­ U n ­
ilies der $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over

Percent of fam ilies in s u r v e y ___

100.0

Average fam ily size:
Persons___________________
E xpenditure u n its......... .
Food expenditure u n its____
C lothing expenditure u n its.

3.6C
3 .32
3.12
2 .88

3 .0 12.2 19.8 2 0.4 15.8 11.3
6.49
5.81
5. 53
4. 77

5 .19
4.64
4.41
3 .90

4 .16
3.79
3. 55
3.22

3 .54
3.27
3 .05
2 .84

3.13
2 .92
2.72
2.55

2 .79
2.61
2.44
2 .32

7.1

4 .6

2 .6

1.4

0 .8

1.0

2 .55
2.41
2 .29
2.23

2 .38
2 .27
2 .16
2.10

2.28
2 .20
2.08
2 .12

2 .26
2 .23
2 .07
2 .12

2.21
2.17
2 .04
1.88

2.00
1.94
1.90
2.11

Average annual current expenditure
A ll item s...................... ............. — $1612 $947 $1171 $1314 $1448 $1586 $1681 $1806 $1911 $2071 $2314 $2444 $2759
F o o d ................ ....................
508 414 478 492 506 519 518 535 537 560 572 625 612
C loth ing............... .................
89 119 137 153 169 180 195 205 223 245 276 320
160
H o u sin g ............... ............. .
259 156 193 226 249 279 292 311 330 342 368 375 406
Fuel, light, refrigeration___
87 105 109 111 110 110 110 107 106 104 107
108
94
Other household operation.
32
58
38
62
70
77
86
45
53
87
99 120 128
Furnishings and eq u ip ­
m en t______ .1...............
42
54
19
28
63
75
85
60
99 116 123 135 154
A utom obile and m otor­
cycle—purchase, opera­
14
65
tion , and m aintenance___
87
28
48
87 109 144 161 221 343 317 441
Other transportation______
32
34
42
39
41
45
46
44
38
25
40
57
53
24
34
Personal care______________
30
19
26
30
31
33
52
38
41
43
49
36
45
56
67
75
M ed ical care..........................
59
29
71
84
88 103 114 117
82
R ecreation........................ .
36
53
76
89 101 108 116 131 133 138 173
65
6
6
7
8
6
E ducation_________________
7
6
9
8
7
9
2
14
7
10
Vocation____________ _____
6
2
3
6
7
5
10
12
13
14
10
21
22
21
12
16
17
19
21
C om m u n ity w elfare..........
19
25
24
28
30
G ifts and contributions to
persons outside econom ic
24
4
8
12
19
25
40
fa m ily .......... ......................
34
46
86 128
57
60
4
5
5
8
7
3
8
10
13
Other item s............................
15
34
10
19

Percentage distribution

F o o d - .....................................
C loth ing.................................
H ou sin g ..................................
Fuel, ligh t, refrigeration---Other household operation.
Fu rn ish ings and eq u ip ­
m en t...................................
A utom obile and m otor­
c y c le - p u r c h a s e , opera­
tion, and m ain ten an ce.__
Other transportation............
Personal care______________
M edical care........ .................
R ecreation........ ....................
E d u cation ____ ___________
V ocation .____ _____ ______
C om m u n ity welfare_______
G ifts and contributions to
persons outside econom ic
fa m ily __________________
Other item s_______________

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
33.5 4 3.7 4 0.8 37.4 34.9 32.7 30.8 29.6 28.1
10.6 9 .4 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7
17.1 16.5 16.5 17.2 17.2 17.6 17.4 17.2 17.3
7.1 9 .2 9 .0 8 .3 7.7 6 .9 6 .5 6.1
5.6
3 .8 3 .4 3 .2 3 .4 3 .7 3 .9 4 .2 4 .3 4 .5

100.0
27.1
10.8
16.5
5.1
4 .2

100.0
2 4.7
10.6
15.9
4 .5
4 .3

100.0
25.6
11.3
15.3
4.4
4 .9

100.0
2 2.2
11.6
14.7
3 .4
4 .6

5 .6

5 .3

5 .5

5.6

4 .0

2 .0

2 .4

3 .2

3 .7

4 .0

4 .5

4 .7

5 .2

5.8
2 .5
2 .0
3 .9
5.4
.5
.4
1 .3

1.5
2 .6
2.0
3.1
3 .8
.6
.2
1.3

2 .4
2 .7
2.0
3.1
4 .5
.5
.3
1.4

3 .7
2 .6
2 .0
3.4
4 .9
.5
.4
1.3

4.5
2 .7
2.1
3 .9
5.2
.5
.4
1.3

5.5
2 .6
2 .0
4 .2
5.6
.5
.4
1.3

6 .5
2 .5
2 .0
4 .2
6 .0
.5
.4
1.3

7.9
2 .5
1.9
4 .2
6 .0
.3
.6
1.2

8 .4 10.7 .1 4 .8
2 .4 2.1
1.7
2 .0 2 .0
1.9
4 .4 4 .2 4 .5
6.1 6 .3 5 .7
.4
.4
.3
.5
.6
.4
1.3 1.0 1 .2

1.6
.5

.4
.3

.*3

.9
.4

1.3
.3

1.6
.5

2 .0
.5

2 .2
.6

2 .4
.7

7

2 .8
.7

2 .6
1.5

13.0 16.0
2 .2 2.1
2 .0 1.9
4 .7 4 .2
5 .6 6 .3
.1
.5
.5
.5
1.0 1.1
3 .5
.4

4 .6
.7

N o tes on th is tab le are on p. 391.

corresponding figures were 38 and 31 percent. This contrast indicates
the effect, on the one hand, of the large number of mouths to be
fed in families with low unit expenditures, and on the other, of the
greater elasticity of demand for other items in the family budget,




INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

61

when a more favorable economic situation permits an expansion of
expenditure. Likewise, the great strain on a limited purse which
must provide for a large family is indicated by the proportion of
expenditure going for housing, including fuel, light and refrigeration.
This expenditure formed a smaller percentage of the total at low
consumption levels (25.7 percent) than at low income levels, though
under either method of classification, the proportion declined at higher
levels to around 17 or 18 percent.
The proportion of the total expenditure devoted to clothing, on the
other hand, remained relatively more stable when families were classi­
fied by consumption level. Whereas the percentage doubled from low
to high income levels studied, it increased only from 9.4 for families
with unit expenditures of less than $200 to 11.6 for those spending
$1,200 or over. This relative stability of the percentage spent for
clothing reflects two factors— the necessity for providing for large fam­
ilies at low consumption levels, and the expansibility of unit clothing
expenditures at the high levels.
The proportion of the total spent for transportation by public con­
veyance declined, since automobile travel was to a considerable extent
substituted for travel by streetcar and bus at the higher consumption
levels. Indeed expansibility in expenditures for automobile is par­
ticularly marked when families are classified by consumption level.
The percentage of total expenditure used for this purpose rose from
less than 2 to 16 percent at the highest consumption level studied, as
contrasted with an increase to only about 7 percent at the highest
income level studied. Thus the relatively small families with large
expenditures were the heaviest users of cars.
The percentage of the family’s total outlay spent directly for formal
education (for school supplies, school tuition, and payments for special
lessons) declined in general with rise in consumption level, although
irregularly. This change is accounted for by the fact that the families
at the higher consumption levels are in general those of older couples,
in which there are relatively few children of school age.
There was a marked increase, on the other hand, in the proportion of
total current expenditure going for household operation, furnishings
and equipment, and for gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family.
By the very nature of the classification by total unit expenditure,
when two families of the same composition and the same income spend
different amounts for current living, the family spending the larger
amount will be classified at a higher consumption level. It is, there­
fore, not surprising to find that families with large deficits were found
at the high consumption levels, and that families at low consumption
levels actually achieved small surpluses. It is perhaps more surprising
to find that the proportion of families spending more than current




62

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
T

able

,

8 . — Expenditures fo r Groups o f Item s by Consumption Level
12,903 W H ITE FA M ILIE S I N 42 C IT IE S
[D ata cover 12 m on th s w ith in the period 1934-36]

Item

Fam ilies w ith tota l annual u n it expenditure ofA ll
fa m ­ U n ­
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200
ilies
der
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1000 $1100 $1200 over

Percent of fam ilies in su rvey____ 100.0
Average fam ily size:
Persons........ ...........................
E xpenditure u n its....... .........
Food expenditure u n its____
C lothing expenditure u n its.

2 .3 11.7 19.7 2 0.6 16.1
6.64
5.96
5. 71
4.93

3.60
3 .32
3 .12
2.88

5.31
4.79
4. 51
3.98

4 .22
3.84
3 .60
3.26

3.58
3 .30
3.08
2 .86

3.15
2 .94
2.74
2.56

11.6

7 .4

4 .7

2 .7

1.4

2 .80
2 .62
2.45
2.33

2 .55
2.44
2.29
2.23

2 .38
2.27
2 .16
2 .10

2.28
2.20
2.08
2 .12

2. 26
2 .23
2 .07
2 .12

0 .8

1 .0

2.21 2.00
2.17 1.94
2 .04 1.90
1 .87 2.11

Average annual current expenditure
A ll item s........................................ $1636 $1000 $1201 $1331 $1464 $1599 $1689 $1806 $1917 $2071 $2319 $2442 $2759
F o o d .-------- --------------515 443 493 500 512 523 521 535 538 562 572 624 612
C loth ing__________________
163
92 121 139 155 171 181 196 206 224 245 275 320
H ou sin g._______________ .
262 162 197 228 251 281 292 310 331 341 370 372 406
Fuel, ligh t, refrigeration___
109
92 107 110 112 110 111 110 107 106 104 107
94
Other household operation.
59
35
63
86
40
45
54
70
77
87 100 120 128
F u rn ish in g s and equip61
m ent_________ . . . . . . . .
18
42
30
64
75
85
99 115 123 136 154
55
A u to m o b ile and m otor­
cy cle-p u rch ase, opera­
90
16
29
88 110 146 162 221 344 319 441
tion, and m aintenance___
66
50
39
32
42
44
Other transportation______
27
34
41
46
44
39
40
53
57
30
24
34
34
Personal care______________
30
32
38
41
19
26
43
49
52
60
72
36
45
57
68
75
30
85
88 103 114 117
M edical care_______ ___
84
R ecreation_________ ______
38
54
66
76
89 101 108 117 131
134 138 173
E d u cation ________________
7
6
7
8
8
9
6
7
8
7
9
2
14
6
2
V ocation____ . .
3
5
7
7
10
6
10
12
10
13
14
22
21
C om m u n ity welfare_______
17
21
25
21
19
13
16
19
28
24
30
G ifts and contributions to
persons outside econom ic
25
12
n
25
34
4
8
39
46
56
60
86 128
fa m ily .................................
7
5
10
3
8
15
4
5
8
13
34
10
Other item s.........................
19
Percentage distribution
All item s........................................ 100.0 100.0
F ood ______________________ 3 3.5 44.3
C loth in g____________ _____
10.6 9 .2
H ou sin g__________________
17.1 16.2
Fuel, ligh t, refrigeration___
7.1 9 .2
Other household operation.
3.8 3 .5
Furnishings and equip m ent
4 .0 1.8
A utom obile and m otorcy­
cle-p u rch a se, operation,
1.6
5.9
and m ain tenance________
2 .5 2.7
Other transportation______
2 .0
Personal care______________
1.9
3.9 3 .0
M edical care______ _______
5.4 3 .8
R ecreation________________
E d u cation ________________
.5
.6
.4
.2
V ocation______ ___________
C om m u n ity welfare_______
1.2 1.3
G ifts and contributions to
persons outside econom ic
1.6
.4
fam ily______________ —
.5
Other item s_____ _________
.3

100.0 100.0 100.0
41.1 37.5 35.0
10.1 10.4 10.6
16.4 17.1 17.1
8 .9 8 .2 7 .7
3 .3 3.4 3 .7
2 .5 3 .2 3 .8

100.0
32.7
10.7
17.5
6 .9
3.9
4 .0

100.0
30.9
10.7
17.3
6 .6
4.1
4 .4

100.0
29.6
10.8
17.1
6.1
4 .3
4 .7

100.0
28.0
10.7
17.3
5 .6
4 .5
5 .2

2 .4
2 .7
2 .0
3.0
4.5
.6
.2
1.3

3.8
2.6
2.0
3.4
4.9
.5
.4
1.3

4 .5
2 .7
2.0
3.9
5 .2
.5
.4
1.3

5 .5
2 .6
2.0
4 .3
5.6
.5
.4
1.3

6 .5
2 .5
2 .0
4 .3
6 .0
.5
.4
1.3

8 .0
2 .4
1.9
4 .2
6 .0
.3
.6
1 .2

8 .5
2 .4
2 .0
4 .4
6.1
.4
.5
1.3

.7
.3

.9
.4

1.3
.3

1.6
.5

2 .0
.5

2 .2
.6

2 .4
.7

100.0
2 7.2
10.8
16.5
5.1
4 .2
5 .6

100.0
24.7
10.6
15.9
4 .5
4 .3
5 .3

100.0
2 5.5
11.3
15.2
4 .4
4 .9
5 .6

100.0
2 2.2
11.6
14.7
3 .4
4 .6
5 .6

10.7 14.8 13.0 1 6.0
2.1
1.7 2 .2 2 .1
2 .0
1.9 2 .0
1.9
4 .2 4 .4 4 .7 4 .2
6 .3 5.8 5 .7 6 .3
.3
.4
.1
.5
.6
.4
.5
.5
1.2 1 .0
1 .0
1.1
2 .7
.7

2 .6
1.5

3 .5
.4

4 .6

.7

1

N o tes on th is tab le are on p. 391.

income increased (see table 4, p. 56) from the lower to the higher
levels. Only one-third spent more than current income among the
families with unit expenditure less than $500, whereas two-fifths or
more spent above current incomes among the families with unit
expenditures above $700.




INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

63

,

T able 9.— Expenditures fo r Groups o f Item s by Consumption Level
1 ,56 6

N EG R O F A M ILIE S I N 16 C IT IE S

[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in th e period 1934-36]
Fam ilies w ith total annual u n it expenditure of—
Item

P ercent of fam ilies in su rv ey ..
Average fam ily size:
P erson s..................................
E xpenditure u n its...............
Food expenditure u n its___
C lothing expenditure units.

All

fam i­
U n­
lies
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

100.0

18.1

2 5.4

22.1

16.3

9 .3

5 .0

3 .8

3 .59
3 .28
3 .07
2 .84

6 ,0 5
5. 36
5.01
4 .32

3 .95
3 .08
3. 33
3 07

3 .0 0
2. 79
2 .62
2 .47

2.52
2 .37

2 .36
2 .26
2.10
2.10

2 .13
1.98
2.03

2.22

2.31
2.20
2 .06
2.21

2.22
2 .16

$700
and
over

Average annual current expenditure
A ll item s................................. ............................................ $991
F o o d ................... .................... ..................... ..............
342
C loth in g .................................................................. . . 101
H ou sin g........................................................................ . 183
Fu el, ligh t, refrigeration.................................... ......
87
Other household operation.......................................
33
F urnishings and e q u ip m en t............................ ........
39
A utom obile and m otorcycle—purchase, opera­
23
tion , and m aintenance...........................................
35
Other transportation............................ .....................
22
Personal care...............................................................
36
M ed ical care............................ ..................................
49
R ecreation....................... ...........................................
3
E d u cation ....................................................................
2
V ocation ______ _______ ________________________
C om m u n ity w elfare____________ _____ _________
14
G ifts and contributions to persons outside eco­
18
nom ic fa m ily ............................. ................... ..........
4
Other ite m s................................................................

$792
328
81
137
73
24
22

$871
326
92
153
84
27
33

8
21
17
27
31
5
1
10

13
28
20
28
39
3
1
12

21
34
21
35
49
2
2
13

30
43
24
44
53
1
3
16

44
47
26
42
70
3
2
19

58
53
26
46
73
13
3
15

43
76
43
65
96
4
3
22

4
3

10
2

12
2

21
5

34
10

42
6

81
25

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4 1.5 3 7.5 3 4.7 32.8 30.1 29.0
10.2 10.6 10.2
9 .5
9 .7 10.0
17.3 17.6 18.5 18.3 19.0 2 1.8
9 .2
9 .4
9 .6
8 .8
8 .4
6 .7
3 .0
3 .1
3 .2
3 .4
3 .5
4.1
2 .8
3 .8
3 .7
4 .1
4 .3
4 .2

100.0
26.6
10.5
2 0.4
5 .4
4 .2
7 .1

$955 $1036 $1203 $1354
332
362
340
392
98
120
100
129
177
229
190
294
91
90
101
91
32
33
42
56
35
42
52
57

$1768
469
186
361
95
74
125

Percentage distribution
100.0
A ll item s.................................................................... ........... .
F o o d _______________________ ______ ________ ______
3 4.6
C loth in g _________ _______ ________ _________ _______ 10.2
H ou sin g............................. ............................... ................ 18.5
F u el, ligh t, refrigeration.................. ..................... .......
8 .8
O ther household operation _____ ________ _________
3 .3
F u rnishings and eq u ip m e n t__________ _____ ______
3 .9
A u to m o b ile and m o to rcy cle — purchase, opera­
2 .3
tion , and m aintenance__________________________
3 .6
O ther tran sportation ............................... ............. .........
Personal c a r e . . . ........... ............................................ — . 2 .2
M e d ica l care...................................................................... . 3 .6
4 .9
R ecreation ___________________ _____________________
.3
E d u c a tio n .................................................................. .........
.2
V o c a tio n _____ _____________________________________
C o m m u n ity w elfare_________ _____________________ . 1.4
G ifts and con tribu tions to persons outside eco­
n o m ic fa m ily ............................................................... . 1.8
.4
O ther ite m s ......................................... ..............................

1.0
2 .7
2.1
3 .4
3 .9
.6
.1
1.3

1.5
3 .2
2 .3
3 .2
4 .5
.3
.1
1.4

2 .2
3 .6
2 .2
3 .7
5.1
.2
.2
1.4

2 .9
4 .2
2 .3
4 .2
5.1
.1
.3
1.5

3 .7
3 .9
2 .2
3 .5
5 .8
.2
.2
1 .6

4 .3
3 .9
1.9
3 .4
5 .4
1.0
.2
1.1

2 .4
4 .3
2 .4
3 .7
5 .4
.2
.2
1 .2

.5
.4

1.1
.2

1.3
.2

2 .0
.5

2 .8
.8

3.1
.4

4 .6
1.4

Notes on this table are on p. 391.

A t the lowest consumption levels (as data to be presented in chapter
10 indicate), 60 percent or more of the funds drawn on in addition to
income took the form of borrowing or other commitments for future
payments. At the higher levels, however, families not meeting their
current expenses from income were able to depend more and more on
past savings. Among families with unit expenditures of $500 or more,




64

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

depletion of reserves of one sort or another exceeded increases in
obligations.
The years covered by this survey were characterized in general by
an increase in the use of installment credit and by a relaxation in the
terms of installment credit. They followed a period of intense strain
and very general unemployment, and it seems clear that among the
employed group covered by this survey, many families with relatively
few dependents and relatively large incomes were using their credit
standing to make purchases which had been postponed in the years
just previous.
U n it E xp en d itu res b y C on sum ption Level

Since the classification of families by consumption level has been
made on the basis of expenditure per unit, its meaning is brought out
even more clearly when one compares unit expenditures for component
items of the family budget. This is done in table 10 for the 15 per­
cent of families at the lowest and at the highest consumption levels
studied. The lowest 15 percent includes families spending less than
$300 per unit per year for all items; the highest 15 percent includes
families with unit expenditure of $731 or more.
The most striking fact in table 10 is that whereas total family
expenditures were not even doubled from the lowest to the highest 15
percent of the families, the increase in total unit expenditure was more
than threefold. Food expenditures increased only 22 percent per fam­
ily but more than doubled per food expenditure unit. The clothing
expenditures of the highest group of families were less than twice
those of the lowest group but were more than three and one-half times
as great per clothing expenditure unit. These figures indicate an
increase in level of living for individual family members much more
than proportionate to the increase in total family expenditure. M ost
striking among the other figures shown in table 10 is that the auto­
mobile expenditure and the gifts and contributions of the highest 15
percent of the families were more than 20 times as great per unit as
those of the lowest 15 percent; expenditures for furnishings and
equipment were 9 times as great; and expenses for medical care and
for recreation approximately 6 times as great.
It is when family expenditures are studied in this light that the
real contrasts between the consumption of families at different eco­
nomic planes become apparent.




65

INCOME, FAMILY SIZE, CONSUMPTION LEVEL

T a b l e 10.—Expenditures for Groups of Items by White and Negro Fam ilies at Selected

Consumption Levels
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in the period 1934-36]

Average per fam ily

A verage per u n i t 1

Item

E xpenditures
at
high consum ption
levels relative to
those at low levels
(expenditure
at
th e low levels =*
100)

15 percent 15 percent 15 percent 15 percent
of fami­ of fam i­ o f fam i­ of fam i­
A verage
lies at
lies at
lies at
lies at
per
low est
highest
low est
highest
consum p­ consum p­ consum p­ consum p­ fam ily
tion levels tio n levels tion levels tion levels
N um b er
N u m b er
N u m b er
N u m b er

of persons______________________
of food expenditure u n its ______
of clothing expenditure u n its____
of expenditure u n its____________

5.45
4. 50
4.07
4.87

Average
per u n it

2.36
2.26
2.15
2.13
Average annual am ount

T otal expenditures..........................................

$1,112

$2,026

*$228

*$951

182

417

F o o d ........................ ........................... .
C loth ing____________ __________ _____
H ousing (including fuel, ligh t, refrig­
eration)______________ _____ _______
Other household operation______ ____
Furnishings and eq u ip m en t.............. . .
A utom obile and m otorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and m ain tenance. .
Other tran sp ortation ............... .............
Personal care___________________ ____
M edical care.............................................
R ecreation_________ ______ _________ _
E d u cation -...............................................
V ocation...................................................
C om m u n ity welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside econom ic fa m ily ------------Other item s----- -------- --------------

454
114

553
220

* 101
4 28

3 245
4 102

122
193

243
364

286
37
27

444
89
106

52
7
5

188
38
45

155
241
393

362
543
900

24
30
23
34
50
6
3
14

209
46
39
87
123
7
11
23

4
6
4
6
9
1
1
3

89
19
17
37
52
3
5
10

871
153
170
256
246
117
367
164

2,225
317
425
617
578
300
500
333

7
3

55
14

1
1

23
6

786
467

2,300
600

1
A ll averages per u n it except total expenditure, * food expenditure,* and clothing ex p enditure,4 are
averages per person.
* A verage per expenditure un it
* A verage per food expenditure unit.
* A verage per clothing expenditure unit.




Chapter 4
FOOD
Food means more than energy for the day to most families of em­
ployed wage earners and clerical workers. Their three meals a day
the year round necessarily follow more or less routine menus, but
most of them are able to vary those menus with delicacies of one sort
or another on holidays and Sundays. Some of them provide for
the health and the future growth of their children as a matter of
course, with milk, orange juice, and cod-liver oil. To some of them,
the food budget includes lunches in a restaurant or at a lunch counter
for the gainfully employed, dinner downtown before the movies every
once in a while, or supper at a roadside restaurant while the family
is on an automobile trip.
The fact that most, if not all, of the families surveyed occasionally
used some of their food money for something beyond the basic neces­
sities does not, of course, imply that all of them could afford to secure
a nutritionally adequate diet and still provide for other family needs.
Although most of them bought enough food to keep them from feeling
hungry, a large proportion did not spend enough to secure the amount
and the kinds of food needed for good health for all the family and
for normal growth of the children. More than a quarter of these
families did not spend enough for food to secure the Bureau of Home
Economics’ “ minimum-cost adequate diet” at the time the study
was made.
Most families in the wage-earner and clerical group do not budget
their expenditures in advance. It would be very difficult for many of
them to do so because of the irregularity of their earnings. A large
proportion of these families, however, budgeted for their food expense.
Their weekly food expenditures did not reflect the lower costs of the
spring and summer months, but remained on the average remarkably
constant from one season to the next.1 The testimony of the field
interviewers confirms the impression that most of the families sur­
veyed reserved a definite sum after every pay day not only for rent
(an amount fixed by contract) but also for food, fixed by family
custom. Together these two items of inevitable expense took half
of the average family’s annual outlay.
T otal F ood E xp en d itu re b y In com e L evel

The average amount spent for food by the 14,469 families of wage
earners and clerical workers, who provided the data for this report,
1 Figures on total food expenditures for 1 w eek for each c ity separately are available in the following
bulletins: N os. 636, 637, 639, 640, and 641.

66




FOOD

67

amounted to $508 for the year, 33.5 percent of total current expense.
Among families with incomes from $500 to $600 (the lowest income
class covered in the study), sums spent for food represented 38 percent
of the current expenditure, and among families above the $2,400
income level, 31 percent. Average food expenditure per family for
the year rose from $250 at the lower level to $1,021 among families
with incomes of $3,000 and over (see table 1). The higher expendi­
ture in the highest income class shown for these occupational groups
is accounted for not only by the larger size of the family income, but
also by the larger number of persons to be fed. The larger size of
family at the higher income levels is connected with the fact that
most of the larger family incomes in this group represent the earnings
of more than one worker. Families in the $3,000 and over income
class averaged 4.27 persons over 16 years old; families in the $500
to $600 income class, only 2.26. The number of children per family
was very slightly larger at the lowest as compared with the highest
income level.
For graphic illustration of increases in food expenditures at suc­
cessive income levels, see chapter 8, figures 1 and 2.
T able 1.—Annual Food Expenditure, 14,469 Fam ilies in 42 Cities, by Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average food expenditure
per family
Families with annual net income of—
Amount

Percent of
expenditure
for all items

All f a m i l i e s . _________________________ - -

$508

33.5

$500 to $600_________________________________
$600 to $900_________________________________
$900 to $1,200_______________________________
$1,200 to $1,500_____________________________
$1,500 to $1,800_____________________________

250
315
398
472
540

38.4
37.0
35.8
34! 4
33.2

$1,800 to $2,100______________________________
$2,100 to $2,400______________________________
$2,400 to $2,700______________________________
$2,700 to $3,000______________________________
$3,000 and over_____________________________

597
683
756
837
1,021

31.8
31.7
31.4
31.0
31.4

Average
Average
number of
expenditure
food-expend­
per fooditure units
expenditure
per family
unit

3.12
•

$163

2.66
2. 71
2.90
3.02
3.12

94
116
137
156
173

3.27
3.58
3.85
3.88
4.45

183
191
196
216
229

Differences in the customary food consumption of persons of differ­
ent age, sex, and occupation have been estimated, and family size in
each income class has been measured in food-expenditure units,2 based
on estimated customary expenditures. The average number of foodexpenditure units per family at the highest income level was 67 percent
greater than at the lowest. It is for this reason that the increase in
unit food expenditure at successive income levels is not so large as the
increase in food expenditure per family. From $94 at the $500 to
3 For the scale used in this measurement, see appendix C.




68

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

$600 income level the amount spent for food per adult male equiva­
lent 3 rose to $229 among families with incomes of $3,000 and over, a
sum only two and two-fifths as large, although income was six times
as great and family food expenditure four times as large.

Fig. I

FOOD E X P E N D ITU R E S OF WAGE EA R N ER S
AND LO W ER-SALARIED C L E R IC A L W O RKERS
BY IN C O M E L E V E L
14,469 FAMILIES IN 4 2 CITIES
12 MONTHS WITHIN PERIOD 1934-1936
AVERAGE EXPENDITURE
IN DOLLARS

600

AND UNDER

900

900

1200

1500

AN U DER
D N

AND UNDER

AND UNDER

1200

1500

1 80 0

2100

2100

1800

2400

AND UNDER AND UN
DER

2400

AVERAGE EXPENDITURE
IN DOLLARS

AND UNDER

AND UNDER

2700

3000

2700

3000

OVER

AND

INCOME LEVEL IN DOLLARS
U .S . B U R E A U OF LA B O R STA TISTIC S

,

T otal F ood E xp en d itu re b y In com e and F a m ily T y p e

For families of any given size and composition, the decline in the
percentage of total expenditure allotted to food as incomes increase
is much more pronounced than when all families are considered to8Measured in food-expenditure units.




FOOD

69

gether. Data from New York City, which have been tabulated
separately for three family types, illustrate the difference between
the place of food in the finances of families of three different sizes
in successive income classes (see table 2). The percentage for families
of only husband and wife dropped from 37.6 to 28.4 over the income
span from $600 to $900 to the $2,100 to $2,400 level. These figures
may be contrasted with the decline from 39.5 to 35.5 over the same
income range for all families surveyed in New York.
Food expense necessarily forms a larger proportion of total expendi­
tures for the larger families at a given income level. This explains
why, in a group which includes larger families in the high than in
the low income classes, as in table 1, there should be a relatively small
decline in the proportion spent for food from the highest to the lowest
income classes characteristic of the group.
Table 2.—Food as a Percentage of A ll Current Expenditures Made for Fam ilies of Three
Types in New York City, by Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families composed of—
Families with annual net income of—

$600 to $900_________________________________
$900 to $1,200_______________________________
$1,200 to $1,500_____________________________
$1,500 to $1,800______________________________
$1,800 to $2,100______________________________
$2,100 to $2,400_____________________________

All fami­
lies 1

39.5
37.5
38.0
37.3
36.4
35.5

Husband
and wife
only
37.6
34.1
34.2
32.9
33.2
28.4

Husband
and wife
and 1 child

Husband
and wife
and 2 to 4
children

41.0
37.2
37.9
34.9
35.5
34.6

48.3
41.4
41.0
39.1
39. 7
35.2

1 Note that families including more than 4 children and families including adults besides the husband and
wife are included.

Total F ood E xp en d itu re at D ifferen t C on sum ption L ev els 4

When the amount spent for all items per adult-male equivalent is
made the basis of the classification, and data are obtained on food ex­
penditures at different consumption levels, the averages move quite dif­
ferently from those secured when food expense is tabulated by family
income class. It will be remembered 5 that families at the lower
consumption levels in the wage-earner and clerical group are, on the
average, considerably larger than those at the higher levels. The
large number of mouths to feed at the lowest consumption levels
shown in table 3 results in a relatively high average food expenditure
per family ($414) but a low annual expenditure per adult-male equiva4 The terms “consumption lever’ and “economic level” are used interchangeably to denote classification
of families by annual expenditure per unit for the total of all items of family expenditure. The unit used for
this purpose is the equivalent adult male. Each member of the family, taking into account age, sex, and
activity, is counted as the appropriate decimal equivalent of an adult male. For fuller explanation, see
ch. 3 and appendix C.
5 See ch. 3, p. 65.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

70

lent ($75). A t the highest consumption level shown, food expenditure
per family ($612) was larger by almost one-half than the expenditure
at the lowest level, but food expenditure per adult-male equivalent
($322) was more than four times as large.
T able 3.—Annual Food Expenditure of 14,469 Fam ilies in 42 Cities Combined, by
Consumption Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Expenditure per family
Families with total annual unit expenditure
of—

All families _
Under $200
$200 to $300
_ .................................. ......
$300 to $400_________________________________
$400 to $500 _______________________________
$500 to $600
_ . . i _
.............. .
$600 to $700 _______________________________
$700 to $800_________________________________
$800 to $900 _______________________________
$900 to $1,000
. ____
. ______
$1,000 to $ 1 ,1 0 0 _____________________________
$1,100 to $1,200_____________________________
$1,200 and over
__ ___ __ . _

Amount

Average size Expenditure
of family in per food-ex­
Percent of food-expend­ penditure
total expend­ iture units 1
u n it1
iture

$508

33.5

3.12

$163

414
478
492
506
519
518
535
537
560
572
625
612

43.7
40.8
37.4
34.9
32. 7
30.8
29.6
28.1
27.1
24.7
25.6
22.2

5.53
4.41
3.55
3.05
2. 72
2. 44
2.29
2.16
2.08
2.07
2.04
1.90

75
108
139
166
191
212
234
249
269
276
306
322

1 For scale used in computing family size in food-expenditure units, see appendix C, p. 363.

FOOD EATEN AT LUNCH COUNTERS AND RESTAURANTS
The majority of the workers in these moderate-income families
carry their lunches to work in discreet paper bags, in dinner pails, or
in the more convenient lunch boxes fitted with a vacuum bottle for
hot drinks in winter and cold ones in summer.
Thirty-seven percent, however, reported purchases of meals while
at work by some member of the family during the year. The amount
spent per family reporting such expenditure averaged slightly more
than 26 cents a meal, if one assumes that one worker ate lunch at a
restaurant or lunch counter 300 days per year. The proportion of
families with workers who could allow themselves this sort of relaxa­
tion in the middle of the working day increased strikingly as the
economic level of the families rose. In families spending less than
$200 to $300 per adult-male equivalent for all items, only 18 percent
reported expenditures for meals at work, but among families spending
$1,000 or more per adult-male equivalent there were more than 60 per­
cent. The average amount spent per family reporting such expense
also rose strikingly. It was almost three times as large at the highest
levels as at the low.




FOOD

71

T able 4.—Expenditures for Food Prepared at Home, and Food Eaten at Restaurants
and Lunch Counters, of 14,469 Fam ilies in 42 Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

All
fami­
lies

Item

Percentage of families in survey___ ________________________
Average number of food-expenditure units.

______________

100.0
3.12

Families with total annua' unit
expenditure of—
$200'
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

12.2

15.8

4.6

0.8

2.16

2.04

4. 41

2.72

Percentage of families spending for meals away from home:
At work.. _ ________________________ ________________
At school____________ _ ________
__________ ______
On v a c a tio n _____
___ ________ ______ ______________
Board at school___ . . . .
____________________________
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc__________________________

37.0
7.9
10.2
.4
33.7

20.9
9.5
2.5
.2
25.8

40.1
8.6
10.8
.5
35.1

48.9
3.8
22.8
.8
37.2

Percentage of families reporting food received as gifts, produced
at home, or meals received as pay_
_ ___________________

28.0

32.3

25.2

25.3

Average annual expenditure per family for all food___ . . _ $507. 72 $478. 47 $518. 54 $537.12
_
... _
Food prepared at home.. _ . . . . ___
461.17 458. 39 469. 05 460. 20
Food bought and eaten away from home, total_____ _ __
76. 92
46. 55
20. 08
49. 49
Meals at work____________________ _______________ 29. 08
12.19
46. 71
31.39
2. 57
2. 76
.92
Meals at school_______________________ ___________
2. 35
Other meals, not vacation__________________________
4. 42
9.24
1.37
3. 81
Meals on vacation_______ _______________________
.32
5. 27
2.10
2.13
Board at sch o o l_____ _________ _____ ___________
.82
.64
.03
1.90
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc_______________________
3. 60
12.88
7.96
8.58
Average estimated value per family of gifts of food and homeproduced food and meals received as pay 1.. _____ ______

7.11

9. 91

6.24

4. 63

66.7
0
37.9
0
48.0
31.4
$624. 76
488. 43
136. 33
81. 53
0
23.13
13.29
0
18.38
4.11

1 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include gifts of food received, food produced at
home, and meals received as pay reported by 5.8 percent of the families for which they could not estimate the
value.

Data presented in table 4 show the percentage of families reporting
expenditures for meals of different kinds away from home, and
average expenditures for all families combined and for families at
certain consumption levels. In using this table, it is convenient to
remember that the average income of the 14,469 families surveyed
was $1,524. Incomes of the families at the consumption levels
specified averaged as follows:
F am ilies w ith to ta l annual u n it expenditure of—
in c o m e
$ 2 0 0 to $ 3 0 0 ____________________________________________ $1, 1 87
$ 5 0 0 to $ 6 0 0 ___________________________________________
1, 5 9 6
$ 8 0 0 to $ 9 0 0 ___________________________________________
1, 8 8 4
$ 1 ,1 0 0 to $ 1 ,2 0 0 _______________________________________
2, 2 6 2

Family size in food-expenditure units for given consumption levels
is shown in table 4.
The amounts reported as spent for other meals away from home,
and for candy, ice cream, and drinks purchased for consumption away
from home, were on the average small. Almost 34 percent of the
families reported some expenditure for the three items last named,
and the average amount spent during the year per family reporting
242949




72

MONET DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

such expenditure rose from not quite $14 among families with a
$200-$300 unit expenditure to $38 among those with a $1,100-$ 1,200
unit expenditure.
AVERAGE

E X P E N D IT U R E S

FOR

FOODS

OF

D IF F E R E N T

TYPES

Expenditures for food in grocery stores and markets, dairies, deli­
catessens, and bakeries averaged $461 for the year for these 14,469
families. The percentage distribution of this expenditure was as
follows:
P ercent

M eat, fish, and p o u ltr y ______________________________________
E g g s----------------------------------------------------------------M ilk and m ilk products 1____________________________________
F ats 1---------------------------------------------------------------All fruits and v eg eta b les_____________________________________
C itrus fruits and to m a to e s______________________________
Green, leafy, and yellow v e g e ta b le s_____________________
P o ta to e s_________________________________________________
Other fruits and v e g e ta b le s .____________________________
Grain p rod u cts_______________________________________________
Sugars, sw e e ts _______________________________________________
A ccessories___________________________________________________
T o ta l_________________________________________________

24.
5.
12.
10.
20.
5.
7.
2.
5.
15.
3.
7.

1
6
7
8
2
0
4
3
5
6
7
3

100. 0

i Cream and butter classified with fats.

As compared with wage earners and clerical workers covered in food
consumption studies in other countries from 1928 to 1936, the families
which supplied the data for this report devoted a relatively low pro­
portion of their total food expenditure to cereal products (flour, meal,
breakfast cereals, bread, and other baked goods) and a relatively high
proportion to fruits and vegetables and meat. Consumption of
milk by urban wage-earner and clerical groups in the United States
appears to have been lower than in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzer­
land, and certain other North and Central European countries, accord­
ing to the latest consumption statistics available. It was, however,
considerably higher than in the countries of Southern Europe and
South America for which data have been received here.
The distribution of actual food expenditures as shown above is in
some ways quite different from that recommended by Sherman and
Gillett for an economical and nutritionally adequate diet.6 The rec­
ommended distribution allocates 20 percent or more of the total food
expenditure to milk and cheese, while the actual distribution shows
less than 13 percent going to milk and milk products. The recom­
mended distribution allocates 20 percent or less of the total to meat,
fish, and eggs, while the actual expenditures gave almost 30 percent to
this group of foods. Twenty percent or more was recommended for
6 Sherman, H. C.: Chemistry of Food and Nutrition (pp. 535-536).




5th ed.

New York, 1937.

FOOD

73

bread and cereals, while the actual expenditure shows not quite 16
percent as spent for this group of foods. The proportion of the actual
expenditure going to fruits and vegetables and to fats, sugars, sweets,
and other accessories was, however, very similar to that recommended
for a low-cost diet which will provide the greatest advantage in terms
of health and well-being.
The average food expenditure for the entire group was quite ade­
quate to provide good nutrition. If all of the families covered had
had as much to spend as this average, the adaptation of their food
purchases to provide nutritionally adequate diets would have been a
relatively simple matter. The average spent for food came to about
$2.70 per capita per week— approximately halfway between the sum
needed to buy the “ minimum-cost adequate diet” and the “moderatecost adequate diet,” of the Bureau of Home Economics, in cities above
50,000 population in 1935.7
When the allowances for milk and milk products and for fruits and
vegetables in these diets are compared with actual average expendi­
tures, however, it appears that actual milk expenditures were about
40 percent below the expenditure recommended in the minimum-cost
diet, and 52 percent lower than that recommended in the moderatecost diet. The actual expenditure for citrus fruits and tomatoes was
between the allowances of these two diets, but the actual expenditure
for green, leafy, and yellow vegetables and other vegetables and
fruits was 28 percent below the allowance of the minimum-cost ade­
quate diet and 51 percent below the allowance of the moderate-cost
adequate diet.
AVERAGE

EX PE N D IT U R E S FOR FOOD OF D IFFER EN T TYPES, BY
CONSUMPTION LEVEL

At the higher consumption levels covered in this investigation,
expenditures per family for foods of all types are larger than at the
lowest of the three consumption levels for which the detailed food
consumption figures have been compiled.8 The distribution of food
expenditures is, however, distinctly different from one consumption
level to the next. Expenditures for meat, fish, and poultry, fruits and
vegetables, and accessories take a larger proportion of the total, and
grain products and potatoes a considerably smaller proportion of the
total at the highest than at the lowest level. The proportions going to
milk and milk products, and fats, are also somewhat lower at the
highest level.
7 See Stiebeling, H. K., and Ward, M. M.: Diets at Four Levels of N utritive Content and Cost, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 296, 1933.
8 These are families with total annual unit expenditures for all items of family living of “under $400,”
“$400 to $600,” and "$600 and over.”




74

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

T able 5.—Percentage Distribution of Expenditures for Food To Be Prepared at Home of
14,469 Fam ilies in 42 Cities Combined, by Groups of Items
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Type of food

All families

Families with total annual unit
expenditure of—
Under $400

$400 to $600

$600 and over

Annual per capita expenditure 1______________

$128.11

$96.76

$139.11

$180.90

Meat, fish, and poultry_____________________
Eggs-------------------------------------------Milk, cheese, ice cream________ _______ ____
Fats.----- -------------------------------------Grain products_ __________________________
_
Citrus fruits and tomatoes.___ ______________

24.1
5.6
12.7
10.8
15.6
5.0

22.4
5.9
13.7
11.0
18.2
4.1

24.3
5.5
13.0
10.7
15.0
5.2

25.6
5.3
11.2
10.8
13.1
5.9

Green, leafy, and yellow vegetables__________
P otatoes.. . ___________ ___________ _______
Other fruits and vegetables .. . . . ___________
Sugars and sweets__________________________
Miscellaneous------ --------- -- -----------

7.4
2.3
5.5
3.4
7.6

6.6
2.6
5.0
3.7
6.8

7.6
2.2
5.7
3.4
7.4

8.3
2.0
5.9
3.1
8.8

T otal________________________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1Does not include sales tax.

See Tabular Summary, table A-2, and appendix D.

The smaller proportion of the total going to expenditures for milk,
cheese, and ice cream at the highest consumption level is accounted
for by the smaller number of children at this level. Twenty-one per­
cent of the adults in the families studied, but only 8.3 percent of the
children, were found at the highest consumption level; only 46 percent
of the adults, but 62 percent of the children, at the lowest level. Al­
though many nutrition specialists recommend a quart of milk a day
for persons of all ages, a majority of the scientists in the field regard
a pint a day as adequate for an adult, and a quart for each growing
child. Using the latter allowance as a standard, the milk purchases of
families at the lowest of the three consumption levels met 37 percent
of their needs, those of the middle group 50 percent, and of the highest
group 63 percent.
Perhaps the most striking difference between food consumption at
the three levels is the larger quantity of food purchased at the higher
levels. Calculating purchases in terms of pounds purchased per foodexpenditure unit (in order to take account of the smaller bulk con­
sumed by children), the averages at the three levels are found to be
3.4, 4.2, and 4.9 pounds per food-expenditure unit per day. This
difference is in part accounted for by the relatively large purchases of
flour, cereals, and other grain products at the lowest consumption
level. These are highly concentrated foods and there is little waste
in preparing them for the table. At the higher levels, purchases of
fruits and vegetables, which necessarily involve more waste in prepara­
tion for use, are of greater importance. Part of the difference in the
quantity of food purchased is, however, simply accounted for by the




75

FOOD

fact that some of the families at the lowest economic level spent so little
for food.
Per capita expenditure 9 for food increased from $1.86 per week at
the lowest of the three consumption levels to $3.48 per week at the
highest, an increase of 87.1 percent. Some of the most important
of the foods which showed relatively greatest increase are as follows:
P ercent of
increase

P er c e n t o f
increase

C ream ______________________________ 7 9 5 T o m a to e s___________________________ 3 2 2
313
G rapefruit_________________________ 4 0 8 Ice cream ___________
F resh p e a s_________________________ 3 5 6 C hicken, broilin g___________________ 3 11
L am b c h o p s_________________________3 3 4 Sirloin ste a k ________________________ 2 6 6
C ak es_______________________________ 3 2 2

D ifferen ces B etw een the F ood C on sum ption o f W h ite and
N egro F am ilies

The outstanding difference in the average food consumption of the
white and Negro families is due to the difference in their average
incomes. The average number of persons per family was almost
exactly the same in the two groups, but it will be remembered that
the incomes of the Negro families in this group averaged $1,008 per
family, and those of the white families $1,546, or more than 50 percent
higher. (Seech. 1, pp. 23-24.) The Negroes had much less money
to spend on the average and they spent proportionately less for food.
Expenditure for food per food-expenditure unit per year averaged
$111 for the Negro families and $165 for the white families.
In view of the concentration of Negro families at the lower income
levels, it was to be expected that they would, on the average, spend a
higher proportion of their total expenditures for food. Actually
the white families devoted 33.5 percent of their aggregate current
expenditures to food; the Negro families, 34.6 percent. The differ­
ence in these percentages is less than might have been expected,
due to the fact that Negro families of a given economic status spent
less for food per adult-male equivalent than white families of the same
status. This difference appears whether the white and Negro families
are classified by income level (see table 6) or by consumption level
(see table 7).
» Since human needs for and customary consumption of foods of different types vary considerably for
persons of different age and sex, it is impossible to compute any single measure of family size which will be
appropriate for comparing the consumption of specific foods from one family to another. Children’s need
for milk is approximately twice as great as that of adults, while the need of heat-producing foods (starches
and sugars) for adults is about twice as great as that of children. Children’s consumption of meat varies from
that of adults at a still different rate. In order to secure figures on quantities of individual foods purchased
and on expenditures for individual foods which would provide a reasonably satisfactory basis for comparison
and yet not present a misleading appearance of refinement, data on family purchases of individual foods have
been converted to a per capita basis.




76

MONET DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

Table 6.—Annual Food Expenditures by Income Level, 12,903 White Fam ilies in 42
Cities and 1,566 Negro Fam ilies in 16 Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Negro families

W hite families

Food expendi­ Aver­ Aver­
Food expendi­ Aver­ Aver­
ture per family
age
age
ture per family
age
age
num­ expend­
num­
Families with total
ber of expend­
ber of
Pro­
annual net in ­ Pro­
iture portion
iture
foodfoodportion
come of—
Per­
Per­ expend­ per
per
of fam­
food- of fam­ Aver­ cent of expend­ foodAver­ cent of iture expend­ ilies
ilies
iture expend­
total
total
age
age
expend­ units
expend­ units
iture
iture
per
per
iture fam ily1 u n it 1
iture fam ily1 u n it1
All families_______

100.0

$515

33.5

3.12

$165

100.0

$342

34.6

3. 07

$111

$600 to $600_______
$600 to $900_______
$900 to $1,200_____
$1,200 to $1,500____
$1,500 to $1,800____

.5
7.1
19.8
24.2
21.0

273
323
401
473
541

37.1
37.1
35.9
34.5
33.3

2. 59
2.67
2.89
3.01
3.12

105
121
139
157
173

8.7
35.2
33.6
13.7
5.5

221
279
353
417
497

40.7
36.8
34.7
32.0
33.4

2. 76
2.89
2. 98
3. 21
3. 38

80
97
118
130
147

$1,800 to $2,100____
$2,100 to $2,400____
$2,400 to $2,700
$2,700 to $3,000. _
$3,000 and over

15.7
5.8
2.8
1.4
1. 7

597
683
756
837
1,022

32.0
31.6
31.3
31.0
31.4

3.27
3. 57
3.85
3.88
4.45

183
191
196
216
230

2 3.3

2 643

2 29.3

2 3.99

2 161

1 For scale used in computing family size in food expenditure units, see appendix O, p. 363.
2 Figures apply to families with incomes of $1,800 and over.

T able 7.—Annual Food Expenditures by Consumption Level, 12,903 White Fam ilies
in 42 Cities and 1,566 Negro Fam ilies in 16 Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
W hite families

Families with total
annual unit ex­
penditure of—

All families___

Pro­
por­
tion of
fami­
lies

Negro families

Food expendi­
ture per
family

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
foodPer­
excent of pendiAver­ total
ture
units
age
ex­
per
pendi­
ture fam ily1

Aver­
age
ex­
pendi­ Pro­
ture
por­
per
tion of
fami­
foodexlies
penditure
u n it1

Food expendi­
ture per
family

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
foodPer­
excent of pendiAver­ total
ture
age
ex­
units
per
pendi­
ture fam ily1

Aver­
age
ex­
pendi­
ture
per
foodexpenditure
u n it1

100.0

$515

33.5

3.12

$165

100.0

$342

34.6

3.07

$111

Under $200_______
$200 to $300_______
$300 to $400_______
$400 to $500_______
$500 to $600_______
$600 to $700_______

2.3
11.7
19.7
20.6
16.1
11.6

443
493
500
512
523
521

44.3
41.1
37.5
35.0
32.7
30.9

5.71
4. 51
3.60
3. 08
2.74
2. 45

78
109
139
166
191
213

18.1
25.4
22.1
16.3
9.3
5.0

328
326
332
340
362
392

41.5
37.5
34.7
32.8
30.1
29.0

5.01
3.33
2.62
2.22
2.10
1.98

65
98
127
153
172
198

$700 to $800_______
$800 to $900_______
$900 to $1,000______
$1,000 to $1,100____
$1,100 to $1,200____
$1,200 and o v e r .__

7.4
4.7
2.7
1.4
.8
1.0

535
538
562
572
624
612

29.6
28.0
27.2
24.7
25.5
22.2

2.29
2.16
2.08
2.07
2.04
1.90

234
249
270
276
306
322

2 3.8

2 469

2 26.6

2 2.06

2 228

1 For scale used in computing family size in food expenditure units, see appendix C, p. 363.
2 Data apply to families with total annual unit expenditure of $700 and over.




77

FOOD

This lower expenditure by the Negro families is partly accounted
for by the fact that* the Negro group is perforce accustomed to using
less expensive cuts of meat and less expensive vegetables than the
white group. Another factor is that the Negro families eat in restau­
rants and lunch rooms less than the white families. Average expendi­
tures for meals away from home by Negro families were one-half to
one-sixth lower than those of white families at the same consumption
level, except for families at the lowest level for which separate figures
are available. At this lowest plane, the white families averaged $11
per year per family for food at restaurants and lunch counters, while
the Negro families averaged $13.
The distribution of average expenditures for food by all the white
families surveyed and all the Negro families, shown in table 8, reveals
that the white families devoted a larger proportion of their total food
expenditures to milk and milk products, to citrus fruits and tomatoes,
and to “ other” fruits and vegetables; the Negro families a larger
proportion to fats, to green, leafy, and yellow vegetables, and to
potatoes.
8.—Percentage Distribution of Expenditures for Food To Be Prepared at Home, by
Groups of Items, 12,903 White Fam ilies in 42 Cities and 1,566 Negro Fam ilies in
16 Cities

T able

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
W hite families

Type of food

All
fami­
lies

Annual per capita expenditure 1___
Meat, fish, and poultry____
__ __
Eggs--------------------------------Milk, cheese, and ice cream___
Fats_____________________________
Grain products
_
_ __
Citrus fruits and tomatoes . .
Green, leafy, and yellow vegetables..
Potatoes________________________ _
Other fruits and v e g eta b le s.___. . .
Sugars and sweets.
_.
...
. ..
M iscellaneous.. _ . . . _ ____ . _.
Total_______________________
1 Does not include sales tax.

$129.87
24.1
5.6
12.8
10.7
15.6
5.1
4.7
2.2
8.2
3.4
7 .6 ’
100.0

Negro families

Families with total
annual unit expendi­
ture of—

Families
with
total
annual unit expendi­
ture of—

Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$600
and
over

$98. 52 $139. 28 $181.15

All
fami­
lies

$89.00

Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$74.07 $131. 57

$600
and
over
$160. 49

22.4
5.9
14.0
10.7
18.3
4.2

24.3
5.5
13.0
10.6
15.1
5.3

25.6
5.3
11.2
10.7
13.1
6.0

25.4
5.1
8.6
15.3
16.1
3.2

24.0
4.8
8.9
15.8
17.4
2.7

27.1
5.6
7.8
15.1
14.1
3.9

29.4
5.4
9.0
12.8
11.6
4.8

4.3
2.5
7.3
3.6
6.8

4.8
2.2
8.4
3.4
7.4

5.2
2.0
9.0
3.1
8.8

6.7
3.4
4.4
4.6
7.2

6.5
3.7
4.4
5.0
6.8

7.0
3.1
4.5
4.2
7.3

7.9
2.7
4.0
3.2
9.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

See Tabular Summary, table A-2, and appendix D.

When the comparison is made in terms of the distribution of ex­
penditures by families of whites and Negroes spending $400 to $600
per expenditure unit, another type of difference appears. M ost of
the Negroes in the United States either live in the South or are the
children of parents who were born and brought up in the South. The




78

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

food-consumption habits of the Negro group as a whole are much more
influenced by the habits of the South than are those of the white
group as a whole. The food expenditures of the Negroes at the $400
to $600 unit-expenditure level differ from those of the white families
at that level in that a larger proportion of the total was spent by the
Negroes for lean meat, fish, and poultry; for green, leafy, and yellow
vegetables; for fats; for potatoes (particularly sweetpotatoes); and for
sugars and sweets. A smaller proportion of the total went to milk
and milk products, to grain products, to c'itrus fruits and tomatoes,
and to “ other” vegetables. The proportion spent for eggs and acces­
sories was approximately the same for the two groups.
The expenditure for milk by Negroes was low partly because of the
fact that more Negroes than white use evaporated milk, which is
cheaper than fresh milk in urban communities, and partly because the
Negroes on the average consume less milk than the whites. They also
consume less butter, relying more on salt pork, bacon, and other fats.
Stiebeling and Phipard found that “ the large quantities of vitamin A
rich vegetables eaten in the South compensate in large measure for
the rather low butter consumption.” 1
0
The tendency of the Negro group to spend less per pound of food
purchased is well illustrated by data from white and Negro families
in New York City, both from groups with unit expenditure of $400 to
$600 for all consumption goods.
T able 9.— P er Capita Purchases o f Food To B e Prepared at H om e, N ew York C ity
Fam ilies W ith Total Annual Unit Expenditure o f $400 to $6.00
[Data cover 1 week w ithin the period 1934-36]
W hite fam ilies1

Type of food

Food purchased

Pounds

Grain products______________ __________
Eggs____ _ ________ _______________
M ilk and milk products3________ ______
F a ts 3 ............ - ___ _
___________
Meat, poultry, and fish_________________
Fruits and vegetables_________ _________
Sugars and sweets ......................................
Accessories____________________________
T otal.............................. ...................

4.584
.633
7.048
.773
2.871
10. 530
1. 089

Cents

49.4
17.1
46.8
27.5
84.6
66.1
7.5
20.3
319.3

Negro fam ilies2

Average
price
per
pound
(in
cents)
10.8
27.0
6.6
35.6
29.5
6.3
6.9

Food purchased

Pounds

4.437
.683
3. 807
1.028
3. 722
10.137
1. 626

Cents

39.1
16.6
28.0
29.2
85.9
49.7
9.2
19.9

Average
price
per
pound
(in
cents)
8.8
24.3
7.4
28.4
23.1
4.9
5.6

277.6

1 D ata apply to the winter quarter only.
2 Data apply to an average for 1 week in each of 4 quarters.
3 Butter and cream classified with fats.
w Stiebeling, H. K., and Phipard, E. F.: Diets of Families of Employed Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in Cities. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 507.




79

FOOD

For each type of food except milk and milk products, the Negro
families spent less per pound than the white families. The one ex­
ception is accounted for by the fact that the white families devoted a
larger proportion of their expenditure for this group of items to fresh
milk and less to evaporated milk, cheese, and ice cream.
The lower per capita expenditure for grain products by the Negroes
is due to the fact that they bought less baked goods than the white
families, but purchased more of their grain products in terms of flour
and meal. Lower costs for fats are explained by smaller purchases of
butter and greater reliance on salt pork and bacon. In the vegetable
group, the difference is due in part to larger purchases of cabbage,
collards, and kale, and smaller purchases of more expensive vegetables
by the Negro group. It is clear that in these differences between the
food purchases of white and Negro families in New York City, the
Negroes definitely show the influence of Southern consumption pat­
terns. The influence of the South is even more apparent when one
analyzes the purchases of lean meat, fish, and poultry by these two
New York City groups.
T able 1 0 .— P er Capita Purchases o f Lean M eat, Poultry, and Fish To B e Prepared at
H om e, N ew York C ity Fam ilies W ith Total Annual Unit Expenditure o f $400 to
$600
[Data cover 1 week within the period 1934-36]
W hite families

Negro families

Type of food
Pounds
Beef_______________________________________
Veal ______________________________________
Lamb __ _______ _____________ ___ ___
Pork__________ __________ _________
Miscellaneous m eats__ _
_______ _________
Poultry. _________________ _______________
F ish_______________________________________
Total _________

_____________

____

Cents

Pounds

Cents

0. 718
.231
.313
.288
.159
.775
.387

22.2
6.9
9.1
7.9
6.3
23.1
9.1

0.386
.082
.498
.771
. 185
1.221
. 579

8.9
2.3
11.9
17,7
4.2
32.8
8.1

2. 871

84.6

3.722

85.9

The larger purchases of pork, poultry, and fish combined with
smaller purchases of beef and veal by these New York City Negro
families is reminiscent of the food-consumption habits which prevail
throughout the South. The slightly larger purchases of lamb by the
Negro families are not, however, typical of the South. Lamb con­
sumption in that region is not, in general, as high as it is in other
parts of the country.

Variations in Food Consumption Habits From City to City
The persistence of Southern food-consumption habits among Negro
families in New York City, who have been away from the South, some
of them, for more than a generation, is but one aspect of the general




80

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

tendency toward individuality in food consumption which appears
throughout the data collected in this investigation. The pattern of
the food purchases among wage earners and clerical workers differed
greatly from city to city.1 This would not have been so remarkable
1
two generations ago, when a large proportion of American wage earners
were newly arrived from European countries with distinctly different
food habits. However, today, the greater part of the foreign-born
have been here for 25 years. One might have expected a very con­
siderable uniformity in the average food purchases of the wage-earner
and clerical group as a whole at the present time, at least if one had
judged from the general uniformity in types of clothing worn from city
to city within the same region. As a matter of fact, however, differ­
ences in food consumption inherited from the colonial period still per­
sist in certain parts of the country. Perhaps the most striking instance
of this sort appears in the case of New Orleans and Birmingham. In
New Orleans, customs inherited from the French still prevail to a
considerable extent in matters pertaining to food.
The food consumption of the white wage-earner and clerical group
in Birmingham is, however, considerably influenced by the foods
available in the South Appalachian Mountains from which many of
Birmingham’s white workers have migrated. As a result, expenditures
for pork products in 1917-18 and in 1934-35 were much higher in
Birmingham, and for veal, poultry, and fish, much higher in New
Orleans. Expenditures for green vegetables, salad oils, and salad
dressing were much larger in New Orleans. The amounts spent for
white flour and corn meal were considerably larger in Birmingham,
while those for white bread, spaghetti, and noodles were higher in
New Orleans. Although average incomes among the white group
were higher in Birmingham, the white group in New Orleans on the
average spent more for food.
Data on food purchases obtained in Milwaukee and Cleveland,
where there are a large number of families of Central European
descent, are very different from those obtained in Boston, where
families of Anglo-Saxon and Irish descent predominate. Purchases
of rye bread, cheese, veal, fresh pork, sausage, lard, cabbage, lettuce,
apples, bananas, and coffee were considerably greater among the
families studied in Milwaukee and Cleveland both in 1917-19 and
in 1934-36. On the other hand, purchases of rolled oats, lamb, fresh
fish, dried beans, fresh spinach, dried fruit, and tea were greater
1 A statistical test of the significance of the difference in food consumption between different cities in the
1
same region was conducted by comparing expenditures on about 100 specific foods for the following pairs of
cities: Cleveland-Cincinnati; Dallas-Houston; Kansas City-St. Louis; and San Diego-Los Angeles. For
each pair, the test showed that the difference between the two patterns of food consumption was sufficiently
large to make it extremely unlikely that the differences could be attributed to the fluctuations of random
sampling.




81

FOOD

among the families studied in Boston in both periods. See Tabular
Summary, table A -18 .
Many of the differences in food preferences between localities as
shown by these studies have no dietary significance. The nutritional
content of the diets in the two places may be the same and the actual
foods consumed quite different. It is, of course, important to know
about local preferences and to take account of them in any program
which attempts to bring diets to a point where they will adequately
provide for growth and health.

Nutritional Adequacy of the Diets
A calculation of the proportion of families spending enough to buy
the “ minimum-cost adequate diet” of the Bureau of Home Economics
indicates that 75 percent of the white families and 32 percent of the
Negro families made such expenditure. There is a striking progression
in the proportions from the families with unit expenditures of less than
$400 to those spending $600 or more.
In making these estimates, the cost of the “ minimum-cost adequate
diet” was calculated on the basis of average prices in the period to
which the expenditure data apply in each city surveyed. It is, of
course, possible to shop with care and buy at lower prices than these.
A careful selection of in-season fruits and vegetables and fish will
lower the cost, but on the other hand, to secure a nutritionally adequate
diet at the calculated cost requires thoughful planning and foodconsumption habits which follow nutritional needs very closely.
These figures furnish, therefore, an estimate of the proportion of fam­
ilies spending enough to secure nutritionally adequate food; they do
not furnish information as to the proportion of families actually
attaining adequate diets. The following statement shows the per­
centage of families spending enough for food to buy the “ minimumcost adequate diet” of the Bureau of Home Economics, by unit
expenditure for all items.
_______P e r c e n t

Unit expenditure for all items:
All families________________________________
Less than $400____________________________
$400-$600_________________________________
$600 and over_____________________________

W h ite
fa m ilie s

of—
N egro
fa m ilie s

75

32

40
88
98

11
1 73
____

1 Families with unit expenditure of $400 and over.

A detailed analysis of food-consumption records kept for 1 week in
several seasons by a sample of approximately 4,000 of the families
cooperating in the present investigation was made by Stiebeling and
Phipard.1 The diets as shown by these records were classified as
2
13 See footnote 10, p. 78.




82

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

good or fair if the uncooked food materials consumed furnished per
nutrition-requirement unit at least the following quantities:
Specifications for diets rated good and fair: daily allowances of certain important
nutrients per day for a 154-pound moderately active man
N u tr ie n t

G ood
diets

Protein: grams______________________________
67
0. 68
Calcium: grams_____________________________
Phosphorus: grams__________________________ 1. 32
Iron: milligrams_____________________________
15
Vitamin A: International units______________ 6, 000
Vitamin Bi: Thiamin: milligrams____________
1. 5
Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid: milligrams_______
75
Vitamin G: Riboflavin: milligrams__________
1. 8

F a ir
diets

45
0. 45
0. 88
10
3, 000
.75
37
0. 9

Their analysis shows from 11 to 21 percent of the white families in
the several regions, and 11 percent of the Negro families in the South,
consuming food which, as uncooked food material, provided generous
quantities of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamins A, B,
ascorbic acid, and riboflavin. These included a wide margin of
safety, probably about 50 percent above average minimum require­
ments for protein and the minerals, and a wider margin, as much as
two or three fold, for the vitamins. These generous margins provide
not only for some waste in use but also for the higher than average
requirements of some individuals and the fact that more than the
minimum quantities of certain nutrients needed for growth or equi­
librium appears to be advantageous.
The percentage of the families in this sample whose diets were
classified as fair and poor are shown in table 11. Stiebeling and
Phipard found that “ The chances for better diets increased with rising
per capita expenditures for foods. This was due chiefly to a more
liberal use of milk, meat, eggs, leafy green vegetables, and fruits, when
more money was available. But the quality of the food supply
selected by families was by no means only a matter of level of food
expenditure. A t every expenditure level above a certain minimum,
some families succeeded in obtaining good diets but others procured
food only fair or poor, from the standpoint of nutritive value. For
example, with an expenditure of $2.50 a person a week for food, 32 per­
cent of the families in East South Central cities bought good diets,
while 37 percent obtained diets that were classed as poor” 1 (that is,
2
in need of improvement, since they were below, in one or more
respects, what is now considered average minimum requirement).
12 See footnote 10, p. 78.




83

FOOD

T able 11.— Proportion o f A ll Fam ilies Studied Obtaining Diets o f Different Grade, by
Color o f Fam ily and Region
Proportion obtaining diets graded—
Color of family and region
Good
White:
North Atlantic______________ _______ _________________
East North Central___________________________________
East South Central__________ ____________ ____ _______
P acific.- --- __________ _____ ___________ ______
Negro: South ______________________________________

_

Poor

Fair

P ercent

P er c e n t

P ercent

11
12
21
14

32
28
33
46

57
60
46
40

11

25

64

In summarizing their findings, Stiebeling and Phipard estimate that
there is little likelihood of a deficiency in protein in the diets of many
employed workers' families. Most of the diets furnished an adequate
amount of phosphorus. Less than a half, however, purchased food
supplying as much as 0.70 gram or more of calcium per unit per day (a
safe allowance), while about a sixth had diets furnishing less than the
average minimum requirement of 0.45 gram of calcium per unit per
day. About half the diets supplied 15 milligrams of iron per unit per
day (the amount needed for a “ good diet"), and all but about 5 per­
cent, a “ fair" allowance, 10 milligrams.
About a third of the families obtained diets high enough in vitamin
A to insure good visual adaptation in semidarkness, and about a
fifth obtained a liberal allowance. About half the families purchased
foods which furnished less vitamin B x than the standard of the good
diet for this nutrient. An abundance of vitamin Bi promotes good
functioning of the digestive tract. Acute deficiencies result in a
disease of the nervous system called beriberi.
Somewhat less than half of the families secured the specifications of
the good diet as regards vitamin C (ascorbic acid), a substance found
in abundance in citrus fruits and tomatoes and in certain green and
leafy vegetables and fruits, but almost 90 percent had a “ fair" allow­
ance. Diets without sufficient provision of this nutrient result in
increased susceptibility to infection and in restlessness and irrita­
bility in children. An acute deficiency in vitamin C may produce
scurvy, but other symptoms are more common in this country.
Riboflavin (essential in the production of an enzyme involved in cell
respiration and the energy metabolism of the body) was fairly well
supplied by these diets. The pellagra-preventive factor was appar­
ently amply supplied except in the Southeast, where the deficiency
among the low-income groups is serious.
Deficiencies in the consumption of calcium and vitamins A, B, and
C are readily understood when the division of actual expenditure is
compared with recommendations for adequate nutrition at expenditure
levels just above and just below the average prevailing in this group.




84

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

Milk is one of the most important sources of calcium and of vitamins
A and B. The relatively low proportion of the average allotted to
milk and milk products is responsible in large part for these deficiencies.
The deficiency which appears in the analysis as regards vitamin C is
probably accounted for by the fact that actual purchases of green and
leafy vegetables were considerably below those in the recommended
diets.
The average nutritive content of the diets of the white and Negro
families at three different economic levels have been analyzed by the
Bureau of Home Economics. (See table 12.) The average food
energy provided by these diets exceeded the energy allowances used
by this Bureau in calculating its standard food budgets, except
among families at the lowest economic level. Among the white
and Negro families spending less than $400 per adult equivalent for
all items, the energy value of the diets provided, on the average,
slightly less than the 3,000 calories per day for a 154-pound man at
moderate work, whose needs are used as a “ nutrition unit” in cal­
culating the adequacy of family diets. The average food, protein,
and iron value of the food of families— Negro and white— in each
economic group generally met or exceeded the Bureau's allowances
for good diets as given on page 82. Within a group of families whose
diets furnish an average of 3,000 calories, 67 grams protein, or 15
milligrams of iron, probably about half have food that furnishes these
nutrients in quantities that are below average, according to previous
studies.
The most prevalent and serious deficiencies in the diets of the fami­
lies studied appear to be in calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and ascorbic
acid. The averages for calcium given in table 12 paint a somewhat
darker picture than is actually the case, however, inasmuch as the
data on food consumed did not provide the detail necessary to take
account of the calcium furnished by self-rising flour, a product widely
used in the Southeast. The use of self-rising flour probably increased
the calcium content of diets in that locality, among families at the
lowest economic levels, by 50 percent and among those at the highest
economic level by 20 percent. Even allowing for this qualification,
calcium remains one of the serious and prevalent dietary shortages.
Diets approached the level recommended for calcium only among
white families in the highest economic group. Even among these
families probably more than half had food that furnished less than
0.7 gram of calcium per nutrition unit per day.
Relatively little information is available on the riboflavin needs of
human beings. If a standard of 1.8 milligrams per man per day be
accepted, at the lowest economic level the averages indicate gross
inadequacy, and at the higher levels that about a third of the families
would fall below the requirement for a good diet.




85

FOOD

The ascorbic acid content of diets generally improves more mark­
edly than other nutrients with rise in economic status. Only at
the lowest economic levels were the averages for ascorbic acid con­
tent below accepted dietary standards. Probably the diets of only
about a fourth of the families in these groups furnished as much as
75 milligrams of ascorbic acid per unit per day, whereas at the highest
economic level the diets of three-fourths or more probably met or
exceeded this allowance.
In general, successive increases in the average nutritive value of
diets accompanied progressively higher economic status, but for
most nutrients the dietary improvement proceeded at a lesser rate
than spending for all living.
T able 12.— Average N utritive Value o f Diets P er Capita and P er N utrition Unit Per
D a y, by Color and Total Expenditure P er Consumption Unit, 1 Year During the
Period 1934—
36
[White and Negro families of employed wage earners and clerical workers in cities]
Color and total expendi­ Energy
ture per consumption
value
unit in 1 year
(1)

(2)

Pro­
tein
(3)

Calci­ Phos­
um
phorus
(4)

(5)

Vitamins
Iron
A
(6)

Bi

C

G

(7)

(8)

(9)

GO)

M illi­
gra m s

Per nutrition u n it1

White:
Under $400 ....... ........
$400-$600____________
$600 and over________
Negro:
Under $400___________
$400-$600_____________
$600 and over.

C alories

G ra m s

G ra m s

G ra m s

M illi­
gra m s

M illi­
gra m s

M illi­
gra m s

2,840
3, 260
3, 580

70
84
96

0.47
.59
.70

1.17
1.36
1.54

12.4
15.2
17.1

In t.
u n its

4,900
6,900
8,600

1.6
1.9
2.1

65
97
123

1.6
2.0
2.4

2,990
3, 860
3. 780

67
93
96

.32
.53
.57

1.10
1.48
1.48

14.0
17.5
17.3

4, 400
6, 800
8, 200

1.7
2.2
2.2

54
88
109

1.3
2.0
2.1

1 Analysis furnished by the Bureau of Home Economics of the Department of Agriculture. The figures
are in terms of the nutritional needs of a moderately active man of 154 pounds. They should be compared
with the specifications for a good diet given on page 82.

The relationship between food consumption and health is now so
well established that it must be a matter of general concern that so
large a proportion of this relatively favored group was not securing
the foods needed for a nutritionally satisfactory diet. There is
abundant clinical evidence that the vitamins and the minerals listed
above are needed for physical well-being. Part of the consumption
deficiencies just shown could easily be remedied by more widespread
knowledge of nutritional needs, but a large part is due to the in­
adequacy of incomes to meet total family needs. As noted in chapter
3, 44 percent of the children in the families of the employed workers
covered by this investigation were members of families whose expendi­
tures did not come up to the modest standard of the W P A “ mainte­
nance budget.”




Chapter 5
HOUSING
When the city worker talks of housing expense today, he is likely to
think not only of the cost of a roof over his head but also of heat in
winter, refrigeration in summer, and light the year round. To meet
these needs, the families of wage earners and clerical workers sur­
veyed spent an average of a little over $30 a month or a fourth of the
total family expenditure.
In the case of tenant families, this figure includes rent and fuel,
light, and refrigeration. For home owners it covers fuel, light, and
refrigeration, as well as the money cost of maintenance and repair of
the house, but not payments on principal of mortgage er the cost of
permanent improvements to the home. The last two items were
treated as family savings or investment.
Almost a third of the families surveyed were home owners. For
these families, the money spent during the year for taxes, assessments,
interest, insurance, and repairs does not tell the whole story of current
housing cost. Especially for a family with a substantial equity in its
home, these current expenditures are frequently less than the amount
it would have to pay in rent to obtain an equally good house. The
difference between such estimated rental value and the money actually
paid for current housing expense is in fact income “ in kind” from the
family investment in the owned home. It is correspondingly ex­
penditure in kind for current housing, since the family has chosen to
take the return on its investment in the form of housing. This type
of housing expenditure averaged $12 a month per home-owning family
surveyed.1 When averaged with the expenditures for all families
studied, it raises the total housing expenditure for all families in the
survey from the $30 previously mentioned to $34.
There was a notable increase at higher income levels in the pro­
portion of families owning their homes. The rise was from below
20 percent to over 40 percent within the income ranges of this survey.
The figures at each income level are as follows:
i Housing expenditure “in kind” was calculated as the difference between estimated rental value and
actual money expense for taxes, assessments, interest, refinancing charges, insurance, and repairs. The
home owners were asked to estimate the rental value of their homes. This figure was checked by field agents
with the real estate values of similar dwellings in the locality.

86







P l a t e 4 —B a c k -Y a r d V i e w




of

N e g r o D w e l l i n g s in a S o u t h e r n C i t y . S i n g l e p r i v y a t L e f t S e r v e s T h r e e F a m i l i e s .
o f P o o r e s t H o u s i n g F o u n d in t h e S u r v e y .

A n Ex a m p l e

87

HOUSING
F a m il i e s w ith a n n u a l
n e t in c o m e of—

P e r c e n ta g e o f f a m i li e s
w ho w ere hom e o w n ers

All families____
$500-$600_____
$600-$900_____
$900-$1,200___
$1,200-$1,500_ _
$1,500-$1,800__
$1,800-$2,100__
$2,100-$2,400_ _
$2,400-$2,700_ _
$2,700-$3,000__
$3,000 and over

___
29. 8
_____16. 3
_____ 23. 5
_____24. 1
_____26. 4
_____ 31. 5
_____ 36. 0
___
42. 0
____ 37. 8
_____ 43. 7
_____ 41. 7

A t the higher incomes there were in general more adult earners and
larger families, a combination favorable to home ownership.
H o u sin g E xp en d itu re b y Tenure and T y p e o f D w elling

Housing expenditures differed not only for owners and renters but
according to the kind of dwelling occupied (see table 1). Tenants of
heated apartments had the highest average housing expenditure and
the smallest number of rooms.2 Tenants of unheated apartments
had more space and paid lower rents; in general these apartments
were located in older dwellings. In New York City, for example,
most of the families renting apartments for which heat was not fur­
nished by the landlord lived in “ old law tenements” on Manhattan
and in lower Brooklyn and used stoves for heating purposes. A few
of the New York City apartments for which the tenant provided the
heat were in two-family flats in Queens and Brooklyn; these were frame
buildings with a separate furnace for each family.
T able

1.— Monthly Housing Expenditure and Average Number of Rooms, by Tenure
and Type of Dwelling, in 42 Large Cities
[D ata cover 12 m on th s w ith in th e period 1934-361

Class of occupant

H o m e o w n e r s 1____________ ___________________________
H ouse ren ters_______________
_____ ______ ______
R enters of heated a p artm en ts___________________ _____
R enters of un heated ap artm en ts___
_ _____________

T otal
m on th ly
R ent or
housing rental value
expenditure
$39
31
35
31

2 $29
21
31
21

Fu el, ligh t,
Average
and refrig­ num ber of
eration ex­ rooms per
fam ily
pend itures
3 $10
3 10
4
10

6 .4
4.1
3 .8
4 .7

1 98.8 percent of th e hom e owners lived in houses.
* Includes $17 m on ey expenditure, and $12 housing “ in k in d " from in v estm en t in ow ned hom es.
3 A ssum ing th at expenditures for fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration are th e sam e for house owners and house
renters. Separate figures on such expenditures are available for fam ilies liv in g in houses and p ayin g for
heat separately from rent or ow nership p aym en ts, b u t not b y tenure.
s T h e difficulties in v o lv ed in obtaining data on size of rooms m ade it seem inad visab le to a ttem p t to ascer­
ta in such inform ation in th e present in vestigation . Q uestions about w ind ow space and su n ligh t were
o m itted for th e sam e reason.

242949°— 41------7




88

MONET DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

Home owners had the lowest money expenditures, $27 per month,
but when the return on the investment is taken into consideration
they spent more than renters of heated apartments. They had
almost twice as much space, however, for this expenditure, and were
accordingly better able to provide privacy for family members, and
room for recreational activity and hobbies.
The fact that rented houses averaged a smaller number of rooms
than did apartments rented unheated is surprising. It is explained,
to a considerable extent, by the relative scarcity of apartments and
the predominance of rented houses in the southern cities, and the
fact that many Negro families surveyed lived in small houses which
frequently had only one or two rooms.
The percentage of white and Negro families in each region living in
the several types of dwelling is shown in table 2. Here the predomi­
nance of houses among the Negro wage earners and clerical workers
in the southern and North Atlantic cities is clear, as is also the relative
importance of heated apartments in the northern and eastern cities.
It is because the majority of families living in apartments for which
they provide the heat were found in the North and East that the aver­
age expenditure for fuel and light reported by these families is as
high as that for families in houses.
T able

2 . —Percent

of Fam ilies Living in Dwellings of Specified Type and Tenure in
42 Large Cities Grouped by Region, 1934-36
W h ite fam ilies

Region

A ll
fam i­
lies i

L ivin g in
apartm ents
ren ted—

N egro fam ilies

L ivin g in
houses—

H e a t­ U n ­ R e n t­
O w ned2
ed
heated
ed
N e w Y ork C ity _________
N orth A tla n tic __________
Sou thern________________
E ast N orth C entral_____
W est N orth C entral_____
P acific________ _______ _

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

62.1
9 .2
8 .9
11.3
15.7
9 .2

2 3.3
3 2.0
17.2
3 0.9
19.4
1 5.6

2 .2
25.3
4 2.1
2 6.9
3 0.0
34.0

12.4
3 3.5
3 1.8
3 0.9
3 4.9
4 1.2

A ll
fam i­
lies i

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

L iv in g in
apartm ents
rented—

L iv in g in
houses—

H e a t­ U n ­ R e n t­
O w ned2
ed
ed
heated
9 3.0
8 .1
1.1
4 .0
8 .1

6 .0
2 2.2
16.7
4 0.3
4 5.0

0
55.1
5 9.5
41.3
22.0

1 .0
1 4.6
2 2.7
14.4
2 4.9

1 O m ittin g fam ilies w h o changed their tenu re or ty p e of dw ellin g during th e year of the stu d y.
2 T reating all hom e ow ners as if th e y liv e d in houses; 98.8 percent of w h ite hom e ow ners and 100.0 per­
cen t of N egro hom e ow ners liv e d in houses.

The differences in customary payments for housing and fuel, light,
and refrigeration in cities in different regions of the country are shown
in table 3. The highest payments were in New York City and the
lowest in the South.




89

HOUSING

PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES LIVING IN
DWELLINGS OF SPECIFIED TYPE BY TENURE

1934 1936
-

14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES GROUPED BY REGION
0

10

20

30

PERCENTAGE
40
50

60

NEW YORK
CITY

NORTH ATLANTIC
CITIES

SOUTHERN
CITIES

EAST NORTH
CENTRAL CITIES

WEST NORTH
CENTRAL CITIES

PACIFIC COAST
CITIES

FAMILIES LIVING IN RENTED APARTMENTS
FAMILIES LIVING IN RENTED HOUSES
FAMILIES LIVING IN OWNED HOMES
U S BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




70

80

90

90

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

T able 3.—Monthly Housing Expenditures 1 by Tenure and Type of Dwelling, in 42
Large Cities Grouped by Region, 1934—
36
W hite fam ilies

Negro fam ilies

L ivin g in
L iving in
R entin g
R enting
houses 3—
apartm ents—
houses 3—
apartm ents—
A ll
A ll
fam ­
fam ­
ilies 2 H ea t­
ilies 2 H ea t­
U n ­ R ent­ O w n ed 4
U n ­ R en t­ O w ned *
heated
ed
heated
ed
ed
ed

Region

N e w York C ity _________
N orth A tla n tic_________
Sou thern________________
E a st N orth C entral.........
W est N orth C entral_____
Pacific___
___ _

$41
33
28
29
29
34

$40
33
26
29
28
27

$31
33
25
29
29
31

$49
35
27
31
31
30

$55
41
35
39
38
35

$41
29
18
21
22

$42
25
23
27
23

$30
24
18
21
23

$31
19
21
23

$43
40
21
25
28

1 In clu d in g fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration.
2 O m ittin g fam ilies w ho changed their tenure or ty p e of dw ellin g during the year of th e stu d y.
a T hese figures have been com pu ted on th e assum ption th a t fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration expenditures of
house renters and house owners are th e same. Separate figures on such expenditures are available for fam ilies
liv in g in houses m aking p aym en ts for heat separately from rent or ow nership paym ents, b u t not b y tenure.
* In clu d in g m on th ly value of incom e from in vestm en t in ow ned jhomes and treating all hom e owners as
o ccu p yin g houses. See table 2, footnote 2.

H o u sin g Facilities f o r A ll F am ilies Surveyed

A general picture of the quality of the dwellings of these average
families of employed wage earners and clerical workers is presented in
table 4. Three-fourths lived in houses and one-fourth in apartments.
M ost of them had a bathroom, electric lights, and gas or electricity for
cooking. Two-thirds had central heat but less than one-third had
telephones.
Table 4.—Housing Facilities of 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
in 42 Large Cities
[D ata pertain to hom es occupied at end of schedule year, w ith in th e period 1934-36]
Item
Percent of fam ilies livin g in—
1-fam ilydetached h ou se.
1-fam ily sem idetached
or row hou se......... .......
2 -family house.................
A partm ent_____________
W ith elevator
D w ellin g w ith janitor
service_______________
Percent of fam ilies havin g—
B a th r o o m ......................
Inside flush toilet______
O utside flush to ilet........
Other typ e to ilet_______
Sole use of toilet b y
household. .................
W ater inside d w ellin g ...
R u n n in g water inside
d w ellin g_____________
H ot running w ater in ­
side dw elling..... ...........
P u m p inside d w e llin g ...




H om e H om e
A ll
owners renters fam ilies

69.2

2 5.3

3 8.6

1 7.2
12.4
1 .2
.l

13.9
2 7.2
3 3.6
2 .3

14.9
2 2.7
2 3.8
1.6

.6

2 1.5

15.2

9 3.1
95.2
.9
3 .9

8 9.6
95.7
2 .0
2 .3

90.7
9 5.5
1.7
2.8

9 7.4
9 8 .2

91.9
98.7

9 3.6
9 8.5

97.6

9 8.1

9 7.9

8 6.3
.6

8 2.0
.6

8 3 .3
.6

Item
P ercen t of fam ilies havin g—
W ater outside d w ellin g .
S in k _______ ___________
E lectric lig h ts. .
Gas or electricity for
cooking______________
Refrigerator:
E lectric......................
Other m e c h a n ic a lic e _________________
N o n e .........................
Central heat—h o t air,
h ot w ater, or stea m —
T elep h on e_____________
Garage....... .......................
G arden or law n space—
E ach of the following
items: R unn ing hot
water, inside flush to i­
let, electric light, and
gas or electricity for
c o o k in g ............. ..........

H om e H om e
A ll
owners renters families

1.8
9 8.2
9 8.4

1.3
98.1
9 8.2

1.5
98.1
9 8.3

9 0.4

8 9 .6

8 9.8

2 7 .8
1 .9
6 2.9
7 .4

2 5 ,2
2 .7
6 5.6
6. 5

2 6.0
2 .5
6 4.8
6 .8

7 3.4
45.0
5 8.9
6 5.7

64.3
2 3.9
3 3.5
3 1.6

67.1
30. 3
4 1.2
4 1 .9

8 0.8

76.4

77.7

HOUSING

91

HOME OW NERS

The typical home owner lived in a one-family detached house.
Fewer than 1 in 10 home owners were without a bathroom, an inside
flush toilet reserved for the sole use of the household, running water,
electric lights, and gas or electricity for cooking. Two in ten home
owners lacked one or more of the following conveniences: Running
hot water, inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or electricity for
cooking. Two-thirds of the home owners used ice for refrigeration,
but almost a third had electric or other mechanical refrigerators.
Two-thirds had garden space and nearly half had telephones.
RENTERS

Over half the renters lived in apartments or in two-family houses
arranged for occupancy by one family above the other. An average
monthly rental of $23.50 was reported by all families living in rented
dwellings, whether house or apartment, at the close of the study year.
Nine out of ten families which rented their dwellings had bathrooms,
inside flush toilets, running water, electric lights, and gas or electricity
for cooking.
Three-fourths of the renters had each of the following conveniences:
Running hot water, inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or elec­
tricity for cooking. About two-thirds of them had central heat, and
the same proportion used ice for refrigeration. About one-third had
garages and garden or lawn space. Telephones and electric refrigera­
tors were found in about a fourth of the rented dwellings.
Total H o u sin g E xpen ditu re b y In com e Level

Total money expenditure for housing 3 did not reach the average of
$33 per month until family incomes exceeded $1,500 per year. (See
table 5.) Families in the survey with incomes from $600 to $900 per
year spent an average of about $20 a month, and that amount con­
stituted 29 cents of the total family dollar spent. Families with in­
comes from $2,400 to $2,700 spent $40 per month, yet this amount
represented only 20 cents of each dollar spent by the families in this
income class. (See ch. 6, figs. 1 and 2.)
s R en t or current housing expenditure of hom e owners plu s fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration. For som e fam ilies,
fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration costs are included in rent w hile for other fam ilies th ey are paid separately. For
th is reason, total housing expenditure inclu ding all th ese item s is m ore nearly com parable for all cities and
all incom e levels.




92

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

F ig . 2

PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES
HAVING SELECTED HOUSING FACILITIES
1934 1936
-

12,903 WHITE AND 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES GROUPED BY REGION
NEW YORK CITY
W H IT E

F A M IL IE S

PACIFIC COAST
CITIES
W H IT E

F A M IL IE S

INSIDE FLUSH TOILET, RUNNING HOT WATER,
ELECTRIC LIGHTS, a GAS OR ELECTRICITY FOR COOKING
CENTRAL HEATING

U S BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




93

HOUSING

Table 5.—Monthly Money Housing Expenditures of 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers in 42 Large Cities, by Income Level
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in th e period 1934-361

A nnu al net incom e of
fam ily

A ll fam ilies.................. .
$500 to $600__________
$600 to $900_____________
$900 to $1,200____________
$1,200 to $1,500__________
$1,500 to $1,800.........
$1,800 to $2,100__________
$2,100 to $2,400__________
$2,400 to $2,700__________
$2,700 to $ 3 , 0 0 0 - ........
$3,000 and over........ ........

A ver­ H ousing i
H o u sin g 1
Per­
plus fuel,
Fuel, light, plus fuel,
age
Fuel, light,
cent of nu m ­ light, and H ous­ and refrig­ light, and H ous­ and refrig­
ing »
ing i
eration
fam i­ ber of refrigera­
eration
refrigera­
tion
tion
lies in
per­
sur­
sons
v ey
per
fam ily
Percent of m on ey expenditure
A m oun t
100.0

3.60

$31

$22

$9

2 4.2

17.1

7.1

.8
8.4
20.4
23.8
20. 3
15.1
5. 6
2.7
1.3
1.6

3.11
3.18
3. 41
3. 54
3. 62
3. 76
4. 03
4. 27
4. 37
4. 81

16
20
26
30
33
35
38
40
42
47

11
14
18
21
23
25
27
29
31
34

5
6
8
9
10
10
11
11
11
12

30.0
28.8
27.8
25. 7
24.3
22.5
21.3
19.7
18. 5
17.2

20.2
19. 9
19.4
18.0
17.3
16.0
15.0
14.3
13. 7
12.6

9 .8
8 .9
8.4
7. 7
7.0
6. 5
6.3
5.4
4.8

4.6

i Includes rent plus repairs paid b y tenants, and expenditures of hom e owners for taxes, insurance, repairs,
refinancing charges, interest on mortgage, bu t not paym en ts on principal or cost of perm anent im p rovem ent
to ow ned hom es.

When the value of housing in kind of home owners is added, the
total housing expense for all families is about $3 per month larger
than when computed only on a money basis. (See table 6.) As
there were more home owners at higher income levels, the effect is
more noticeable there. (See ch. 6, fig. 3.)
Table 6.— Total Monthly Housing Expenditures of 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers in 42 Large Cities, by Income Level
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in th e period 1934-36]
T otal expense for
housing i

T otal expense for
housing i
A nnual n et incom e of fam ily
A m oun t

All fam ilies__________________
$500 to $600......... ................... $600 to $900__________________
$900 to $1,200________ _______
$1,200 to $1,500.............- ..........
$1,500 to $1.800.______________

Percent
of total
m on th ly
incom e 2

$34
19
23
29
33
37

26.9
3 8.0
35.0
32.3
29.0
26.8

A nnu al net incom e of fam ily
A m ou n t

$1,800
$2,100
$2,400
$2,700
$3,000

to $2,100______ ________
to $2,400_______________
to $2,700— ....................
to $3,000_____ _________
and o ver______________

P ercen t
of total
m o n th ly
incom e 2

$40
43
44
48
52

2 4.5
23.1
2 1.0
19.8
18.1

1 Includin g m on ey expenditure for rent, current housing expenditure of hom e owners, fuel, ligh t, and
refrigeration, and value of housing in k in d from in vestm en t in ow ned hom e.
1 Includin g m on ey incom e and value of incom e received in kin d from in v estm en t in ow ned hom e.




94

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

The families at higher income levels had more members per family
than did those at lower income levels and consequently needed more
housing space. It is thus impossible to conclude the comparison of
their housing expenditures when averages per family have been
examined. When averages are computed in terms of expenditure per
family member, it appears that families at the $600 to $900 level spent
$6.42 per member per month for housing. This is contrasted with
$9.31 for families having incomes of $2,400 to $2,700. In other words,
although money expenditures per family were 95 percent greater at
the high income level than at the low one mentioned, expenditure per
person was only 45 percent greater. Total housing expenditure,
including value of housing in kind from investment in owned homes,
was 45 percent greater per person at the high income level.
H o u sin g b y C onsum ption L e v e l 4

The details of housing facilities and expenditures are available for
the families studied, classified by total expenditure per adult equiv­
alent. For housing, particularly, the family expenditures are much
more meaningful when consideration is given to the number of
persons among whom they are shared. Total housing expenditures
per family (including fuel, light, and refrigeration and imputed
expenditures of home owners) were 55 percent greater for families
with total annual unit expenditures of $1,100 to $1,200 than for those
with unit expenditures of $200 to $300.5 (See table 7.) Yet such
expenditures per person were 249 percent greater at the higher con­
sumption level, partly because they had smaller families on the aver­
age. The greater privacy per family member at the high consumption
level is indicated by the 0.49 person per room at that level as compared
with 1.12 persons per room among families with total annual unit
expenditures of $200 to $300. These figures may be compared with
the generally accepted American standard of a minimum of one room
per person.
4 For explanation of “ consum ption le v e l” and “econom ic le v e l” see ch. 3.
5 For average incom es of the fam ilies at the consum ption levels discussed see ch. 3, p. 56.




95

HOUSING

Table 7.—Housing Space per Person, and Housing Expenditures per Fam ily and per
Person, of Fam ilies in 42 Large Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[D ata cover 12 m on ths w ith in tho period 1934-361

Item

Average num ber of persons in household:
A ll fam ilies._________ ____________ _____________
H om e ow ners..............................................................
H ouse ren ters.......................................... ..................
Renters of centrally heated apartm ents_________
Renters of apartm ents not cen trally heated_____
Average num ber of rooms per family:
A ll fam ilies_____________________________________
H om e ow ners___ _____ _________ ____ __________
H ouse renters_________________ ____ ___________
R enters of cen trally heated apartm en ts_________
R enters of apartm ents n ot cen trally heated_____
Average nu m ber of persons per room:
A ll fam ilies_____________________________________
H om e ow ners______________ _____ ______ ______
H ouse renters________ _________________________
R enters of cen trally heated apartm en ts---------Renters of apartm ents n ot cen trally h eated _____
H ousing, including fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration:
Average expenditure per family:
A ll fam ilies L .____ _________________________
H om e owners *____________ ____ ___________
H ouse renters * . . ____ ___________ _________
R enters of cen trally heated apartm en ts____
Renters of apartm ents n ot centrally h eated . _
Average expenditure per person in household:
A ll fam ilies 1________________________ _______
H om o owners *________ ____ _______________
H ouse renters 3_________ _______ _ ________
Renters of cen trally heated apartm en ts_____
Renters of apartm ents not cen trally h e a te d ..
Average in vestm en t of hom e owners in ow ned hom e
during year:
Per fa m ily ...______ ____________________________
Per m em ber of econom ic fam ily________________

A ll
fam ilies

Fam ilies w ith total ann ual u n it
expenditure of—
$200 to
$300

$5001 o
$600

$800 to
$900

$1,100 to
$1,200

3.79
4.09
3.98
3.15
3 .65

5 .33
5 .66
5.15
4.69
5.13

3.33
3 .50
3 .36
3 .28
3 .12

2 .60
2 .85
2.58
2 .56
2 .42

2.37
2.51
2 .40
2 .42
2 .16

5.10
5 .99
5.33
3 .77
4.74

4.78
5.93
5 .22
3.91
4.75

5 .07
5.99
5.47
3.81
4.69

4 .95
6.22
5 .32
3 .68
4 .80

4 .80
5. 71
5.81
3 .51
4 .79

.74
.68
.75
.84
.7 7

1.12
.95
.99
1.20
1.08

.6 6
.5 8
.61
.8 6
.6 7

.53
.4 6
.4 8
.7 0
.5 0

.49
.44
.41
.6 9
.4 5

$409.74
469.16
374. 05
427.67
368.85

$341.22
393. 73
314.35
355.12
312. 21

$433.18
495.90
411.49
422.66
387.66

$480. 26
566.52
444. 53
461.07
418.30

$530. 01
541.38
490.56
580.00
461. 71

120.89
114. 71
93.98
135. 77
101.05

64.02
69. 56
61.04
75. 72
60.86

130.08
141. 69
122.47
128.86
124. 25

184. 72
198. 78
172.30
180.11
172.85

223.63
215. 69
204.40
239.67
213.75

84.13
21.97

68.35
12.45

93.68
29.00

104.51
42.48

260. 61
120.65

1 Including value of housing in k in d from in vestm en t in ow ned hom e.
* Including value of housing in kin d from in vestm en t in ow ned hom e. T h ese figures are com pu ted on
th e assum ption th at fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures of renters of un heated houses and of house
owners are the sam e. Figures on such expenditures are available for fam ilies liv in g in houses and payin g
for heat separately from rent or ow nership paym en ts, b u t not b y tenure. (See footnote 2, table 2.)
* T h ese figures are com puted on th e assum ption th at fuel, ligh t, and refrigeration expenditures of renters
of un heated houses and of house owners are th e same. Figures on such expenditures are available for fam ilies
liv in g in houses and payin g for heat separately from rent or ow nership paym en ts, b u t n ot b y tenure.

,

Investm ent in O w ned H o m e b y Consum ption Level

Forty-five percent of the home owners invested in their homes during
the year. These investments averaged $185. They took the form
either of down payments on principal of mortgage or other form of
home loan, or permanent improvements, such items as the addition
of a room, the installation of a furnace, or building of a garage. The
average investment, per family investing, of both white and Negro
families at selected consumption levels, was as follows:
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
family investing
$200 to $300_________________________________________
$161
$500 to $600_________________________________________
191
$800 to $900_______________
219
$1,100 to $1,200______________________________________
478




96

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

The fact that the investigation was made at a time when business
recovery was under way but not yet complete undoubtedly accounts
for the relatively small proportion of home owners making reductions
in principal owed or making permanent improvements. When such
expenditures are averaged for all home owners, whether investing or
not, the average is reduced to $84. (See table 7.) That average
investment per home-owning family at the high economic level shown
in table 7 was 4 times as great as at the lower level, while such invest­
ment per person was 10 times as great, emphasizes the greater strain
upon family funds of the large families.

,

H o u sin g F acilities b y C onsum ption Level

Housing facilities among both tenants and owners (see table 8)
were markedly better for families at the higher consumption levels.
Thus the percent of owners having running hot water, inside flush
toilet, electric light, and gas or electricity for cooking, rose from 64
percent at the $200 to $300 unit-expenditure level to 100 percent at the
$1,100 to $1,200 level. The corresponding percentages for renters were
56 and 97 percent.
Running water inside the dwelling, electric lights, and sinks were
available to 90 percent or more of the families even among the least
favored in this group 6 of employed wage earners and clerical workers.
Inside flush toilets were available in not quite 9 out of 10 homes at the
$200 to $300 unit-expenditure level.
The electric refrigerator is the outstanding example of the type of
facility which was afforded by only a small proportion of families at
the low consumption levels, but by a rapidly expanding proportion at
higher levels. Included in this group are also the telephone and
garage. It is evident from the expenditures for these three items that
they are much desired by this group of families. The percentage of
families having them is very restricted at low consumption levels, but
expands rapidly at higher ones. Items which show proportionately
greater frequency at low consumption levels, but some increase at
higher levels, are hot running water, bathrooms, inside flush toilets,
and central heating.
6
N o fam ilies on relief or w ith incom es below $500 were included in the investigation.
requirem ents for inclusion in th e stu d y , see appendix B.




For details of the

97

HOUSING
T

able

8 .—

Housing Facilities of Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in
42 Large Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels

[D ata pertain to hom e occupied at end of sch ed ule year during period 1934-36]
H OM E O W NERS

A ll
fam ilies

Item

F am ilies w ith total annual u n it
expenditure of—
$200 to
$300

Percent of fam ilies livin g in—
1-family detached hou se_____________ __________
1-family sem idetached or row h ou se..... .................
2-family h ou se-------------------------------------A p artm en t_____________________________________
W ith elevator____ _________________________
D w ellin g w ith janitor service__________ ______
Percent of fam ilies havin g—
B athroom ........ ............ ....................... ........................
Inside flush to ilet......................................... ..............
Outside flush t o ile t1____________________________
Other ty p e to ile t_______________________________
Sole use of to ilet b y hou seh old _______ ____ _____
W ater inside d w ellin g __________________________
R u n n in g w ater inside d w ellin g _________ _______
H o t running w ater inside dw ellin g______________
P u m p inside d w ellin g __________________________
W ater ou tsid e d w ellin g _______________________ .
S in k . __________ _______________________________
E lectric lig h ts______________ _____ ______ ______
Gas or electricity for cooking.............. ............ ........
Refrigerator:
E lectric............ . ............................................ .
Other m ech a n ica l..---------------------------Ice _________________________________________
N o n e --------------------------- ----- ----------Central heat—h ot air, h ot w ater, or steam ______
T elep hone_____________________ ____ ___________
G a r a g e -................. ...............— ------ ------------G arden space___________________________________
E ach of th e follow ing items: R u n n in g h ot water,
inside flush toilet, electric ligh t, and gas or
electricity for cooking--------- ------------------

$500 to
$600

$800 to
$900

$1,100 to
$1,200

6 9.2
17.2
12.4
1 .2
.1
.6

65.7
2 3.0
10.6
.7
.3
.3

6 8 .2
17.5
1 2.9
1 .4
0
.9

6 8.4
14.4
15.6
1.6
0
.4

7 2.5
13.0
14.5
0
0
0

93.1
9 5.2
.9
3 .9
9 7.4
9 8.2
9 7.6
86.3
.6
1.8
9 8.2
9 8 .4
9 0.4

8 3 .2
8 8.6
1.6
9 .8
9 8 .4
9 5.0
9 3.8
72.4
1 .2
5 .0
9 5.6
9 7.5
78.9

9 6.9
9 7.6
.6
1.8
9 6.8
9 9 .4
9 8 .6
91.1
.8
.6
9 9 .4
9 9 .2
9 2.5

97.7
100.0
0
0
9 7.0
100.0
100.0
9 6.0
0
0
9 9 .7
9 9 .4
9 9 .0

100.0
100.0
0
0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0
0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2 7.8
1.9
62.9
7 .4
7 3.4
45.0
58.9
65.7

9 .1
.6
8 0 .2
10.1
6 2.5
2 0.2
46.6
62.4

3 3.8
2 .0
59.2
5.0
76.4
54.1
63.3
6 6.4

49.3
5 .8
3 8.6
6.3
8 0.9
74.2
73.1
73.5

63.5
10.1
2 3.6
2.8
7 4.0
63.9
69.8
71.1

8 0.8

6 3.6

8 4.6

96.0

100.0

2 5.3
13.9
27. 2
3 3.6
2.3
21.5

30. 5
21. 7
24.0
2 3.8
.2
8 .9

2 3.4
11.9
2 8.8
35.9
2. 7
24.7

17.0
8 .7
27. 2
47.1
3 .2
3 7.7

15.7
13.6
19.0
51.7
15.6
44.6

8 9 .6
95. 7
2 .0
2.3
91.9
9 8.7
9 8.1
8 2.0
.6
1.3
9 8.1
9 8 .2
8 9.5

78.1
8 9.9
3. 9
6. 2
9 0.2
9 6.6
96.1
64.9
.5
3 .4
9 5.7
95.3
7 6.6

93. 2
98.1
1. 0
.9
92.3
9 9.8
9 9.0
87. 7
.8
.2
9 9.1
9 9 .4
95.8

9 7.1
9 9 .4
.6
o
95. 7
100.0
9 9.4
95. 8
.6
0
99. 6
9 9.3
9 8.5

9 7.8
100.0
o
0
9 5.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
o
o
100.0
9 8.7
9 8.7

2 5.2
2 .7
65.6
6 .5
6 4.3
2 3.9
3 3.5
31.6

6 .9
.5
82.8
9 .8
4 5.2
7.7
2 0.7
34.0

2 8.8
2 .9
63.7
4 .6
7 0.9
2 9.4
3 6.7
2 9.7

5 0.8
5 .7
3 8.3
5 .2
7 9.2
4 4.5
4 5.6
2 8.9

56.7
12. 2
27.7
3.4
84.5
52.3
50.6
34.2

7 6.4
$23. 51

5 5.6
$17.90

8 4 .2
$24.74

93.7
$29.11

9 7.4
$34. 40

TENANTS
Percent of fam ilies liv in g in—
1-family detached house
_ _ _
__
1-family sem idetached or row house_____________
2-family house___________ ______________________
A p artm en t_____________________________________
W ith elevator__________________ _____ _____
D w ellin g w ith janitor service_________________
Percent of fam ilies h avin g—
Bathroom _ ______________ ____________ ___
Inside flush toilet
______ ___________________
Outside flush t o il e t 1 - - _____________________
Other ty p e to ilet___ __ ______ - ______ ____ ___
Sole use of toilet b y household ________________
W ater inside dw ellin g
_ _ _ __________ ___
R u n n in g w ater inside d w ellin g _________________
H o t running w ater inside d w ellin g ____ ________
P u m p inside d w e llin g _________________________
W ater ou tsid e d w ellin g_____ ___________________
Sin k
. . .
__________ _ .
E lectric lig h ts ._____ ________________ __________
Gas or electricity for cooking___________________
Refrigerator:
E le c t r ic ___________________________________
Other m echanical__________________________
I ce _______________________________ ________
N on e
. _
_____ ____ _____ __________
Central heat—h ot air, h ot water, or steam _______
T elep h on e.______________ ______________________
Garage_____________________ __________________
Garden space_______________________ _____ —
E ach of th e following item s: R u n n in g h ot water,
inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or
electricity for c o o k in g ________________________
A verage m o n th ly rental rate p aid __________________

1 T h e large proportion of ou tsid e flush toilets is explained b y th e conversion in som e southern cities of
privies to flush toilets as required b y c ity ordinance w hen sewers w ere laid. In a nu m ber of northern cities
as w ell, a few fam ilies used outsid e flush toilets.




98

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
H o u sin g E xp en d itu res, b y C on sum ption L evel

Families at the lower consumption levels who were living as tenants
paid only about $17 a month rent for a house or unheated apartment,
or $25 a month for a heated apartment. (See table 9.) When they
spent as much as $1,100 to $1,200 per adult equivalent, they paid
two-thirds to three-fourths as much again for rent.
T able

9 . — Average Annual Rent 1 Paid by Tenant Families o f

Wage Earners and

Clerical Workers in 42 Large Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture of—
Type of dwelling

Houses________________________ __ __________
___________
Apartments rented heated___ _ _
Apartments rented unheated___ _
_
_

All
families

$251
375
253

$200 to
$300
$204
304
208

$500 to
$600
$283
369
269

$800 to
$900
$307
409
299

$1,100 to
$1,200
$361
514
348

1 Including repairs paid by tenant. These averaged less than $1.10 in each instance except for house renters
in the $1,100-$1,200 unit expenditure class where they averaged $6.64.

Money expenditures of home owners were greatest for taxes and
interest. These two items accounted for 77 percent of current money
housing expenditures, exclusive of fuel, light, and refrigeration. Re­
pairs and replacements accounted for an additional 16 percent of the
current housing outlay. The remainder was absorbed by assessments,
insurance, refinancing charges and, in a few cities, by ground rent.
A larger proportion of families at higher consumption levels were able
to make investments in their homes, and the amount per family
investing was correspondingly greater. (See table 10 and p. 95.)
In general, the families at higher levels (see p. 56 for average income
by consumption level) also carried more insurance and paid more
on principal and taxes. The rental value of their homes was in general
higher. The value of housing received in kind from the investment
in their homes was higher, interest paid was correspondingly lower.
These lower interest payments reflect the greater equities of the
families at the higher consumption levels.




99

HOUSING
T able

1 0 . — Housing Expenditures of Home-Owning Families of Wage Earners and

Clerical Workers in 42 Large Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

All
families

Item

Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture of—
$200 to
$300

$500 to
$600

$800 to
$900

$1,100 to
$1,200

Percent of families which invested during schedule
year in owned home______ ___ ______________

45.4

42.5

49.1

47.7

54.6

Average amount invested during schedule year, total.
Payments on principal_____ __________________
Improvements on home_______________ _____

$84.13
65.85
18. 28

$68. 35
54. 36
13. 99

$93. 68
75.95
17. 73

$104. 51
81.15
23. 36

$260.61
221.43
39.18

Average estimated annual rental value_____________

346.32

283.85

367.08

428. 88

411. 57

Total money expenditure o n owned home_________
Taxes_____________ _________________________
Assessments_________________________________
Repairs and replacements____________________
Fire insurance on home____ ______ ____ _ _ ___
Liability insurance on home. ________ _________
Ground rent._______________
_____________
Interest on mortgages__________ ____ ____ _____
Refinancing charges___________ _____ _________

202.46
78.15
3. 75
32. 72
7.23
.11
1.05
77.29
2.16

149.43
63.91
1.88
15. 26
5. 62
.11
1.23
59. 39
2.03

220.18
81.82
4. 72
37.64
7.99
.24
1. 20
83.87
2.70

277.01
101.63
3.39
54.16
10. 39
.32
1. 34
103.70
2.08

205.11
70.26
15.50
25.07
12.81
1.73
0
76.10
3.64

Average income in kind from investment in owned
home_______________________ ______ __________

143.86

134.42

146.90

151.87

206.46

,

,

E xpen d itu res fo r F u el L igh t and R efrigeration

For families in houses where heat was furnished by the occupant
(both home owners and renters), fuel, light, and refrigeration expendi­
tures were principally for coal, electricity, and gas. (See table 11.) Ice
was purchased by two-thirds of the families, but by a much larger
proportion at the low than the high consumption levels. Heating
fuels, on the other hand, did not show the consistent increase which
might have been expected at higher consumption levels. This may
be due in part to the fact that the adult families are found principally
at the higher consumption levels. They would not be under the same
necessity as families with small children to keep their houses heated
throughout the day, nor to such high temperatures.
Coal, electricity, gas, ice, and coke— in that order— were the largest
items in the fuel bills of renters of unheated apartments. Fuel oil
was substituted, to a considerable extent, for coal and wood at the
higher consumption levels. Ice was used by a declining percentage
of families at higher consumption levels. In certain localities families
reported the use of lignite, briquets, and charcoal. These instances
were relatively rare, however, so that the average expenditure for these
items is small. Coke was rather frequently reported, however, and the
average expenditure ranged from $3 to $19 at the several consump­
tion levels.




100

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

T a b l e 11.

— Light, and Refrigeration Expenditures of Families
Fuel,

Making Separate

Payments for Heat
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Families living in—
Houses1

Item

Apartments

Percent of
families
spending
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____________

__________

Average
amount2

Percent of
families
spending

100.0

$122. 84

100.0

$116. 27

97.2
30.0
42.4
1.6
14.3
.9
.1
21.7
4.8
85.9
*9.2
1.4
68.5

30. 26
18. 42
19. 60
.80
8.84
.35
(<)
2. 32
2. 40
27. 01
1.08
. 12
11. 64

96.8
35.1
33. 5

26. 02
18.11
14.19
.03
10.45
.20
.04
1.56
8. 75
24. 39
.91
.04
11. 58

Electricity ___ _____ __________
________ ___
Anthracite____________ _______________ . . ______
Bituminous coal______________ _____________________
Lignite____________________________________________
Coke______________________________________________
Briquets__________________________________________
Charcoal._ _____________ ______ ________ ______
W ood________ _______ ______________ . ___________
F u e lo il... _____________________ _____ ________ .
Gas_______________________________________________
Kerosene________________ ________________________
Gasoline (not for automobile) .. _ _ _______ _ . _
Ice_________________ ___________ _________________

00

18.9
.7
.3
19.5
16.9
89.5
6.7
.7
73.0

Average
amount2

1Includes owners and tenants making payments for heat separate from rent. See table 2, footnote 2.
2 Average based on all families whether they incurred the expense or not. Averages per family spending
may be obtained by dividing the average expenditure for all families (shown in columns (2) and (4)) by the
corresponding percentage of families spending (in columns (1) and (3), respectively).

3Less than a half of 1 percent.

*

Less than

y>

cent.

Families renting apartments for which the charge for heat was
included as a part of the rent reported separate expense only for
electricity, gas, and ice. The proportions spending for the first two
items were greater at the higher consumption levels while the reverse
was true for ice. (See table 12.)
T able

1 2 . — Fuel, Light, and Refrigeration Expenditures of Families Renting Heated

Apartments in 42 Large Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

All fam­
ilies

Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture of—
$200 to
$300

$500 to
$600

$800 to
$900

$1,100 to
$1,200

Percent of families spending for—
Electricity_________________ ________________
Gas______ ___________ ___________ ________
Ice____________ _______________________

80.2
77.8
50.2

72.1
68.0
77.1

81.1
79.6
49.8

82.6
78.0
29.9

92.1
94.2
14.3

Average expenditure for fuel, light, and refrigeration -Electricity___________________ _ -------------Gas____ _ - - ______________________ . ___
Ice_______________________ ________________
All other fuel_________________________________

$53.07
23. 74
17. 65
10. 48
1.20

$51.15
19. 09
17. 08
12.48
2.50

$53.35
23. 81
18. 30
10.89
.35

$52. 01
26. 29
17. 58
7. 89
.25

$65. 86
35. 93
25. 42
4. 51
0




HOUSING

101

H o u sin g o f W h ite and N egro F a m ilies

The total housing expenditures of Negro families surveyed were
$286 per year or approximately $24 a month as compared with $35 per
month for white families. These figures include fuel, light, and refrig­
eration expenditures as well as value of housing in kind from invest­
ment of home owners. The Negro families had 4.4 rooms per family,
as compared with 5.1 for the white families. Over a third, 36.9
percent, of the Negro families lived in one-family detached houses
as compared with 38.7 percent of the white families.
The difference in housing expenditures of white and Negro families
is no greater than would be expected from the difference in their
incomes. The average income of the white families surveyed was
$1,546, and of the Negro families was $1,008. A t comparable income
and consumption levels, it was generally found that in northern cities
the Negroes actually paid higher rents than white families. The
Negroes are by custom restricted to certain sections of the city.
This means that to obtain housing of quality comparable with that of
white families they must pay more. In southern cities, on the other
hand, Negro families generally paid lower rents than white families of
similar financial status. The facilities of the dwellings they occupied
were, however, considerably below those of the white families, indi­
cating again the operation of restrictions in the dwellings available to
Negroes.
R egional D ifferen ces in H o u sin g F a cilities
W H IT E FA M IL IE S

Climatic and other regional differences affect the kinds of housing
found in different sections of the country. Only 27 percent of the
white families in the Southern cities and 34 percent in the Pacific coast
cities had central heat, as compared with 84 percent of those living
in cities in the East North Central area. (See table 13.) Garden and
lawn space were rare for families studied in New York City and the
other North Atlantic cities, as compared with the other regions.
Apartments are most typical in New York City, but one-family de­
tached houses are more frequent on the West coast, and in West North
Central and Southern cities.
Electric refrigerators were reported by the largest proportion of
white families in the West North Central cities, whereas telephones
were most frequently reported on the Pacific coast.
The combination of running hot water, inside flush toilet, electric
light, and gas or electricity for cooking was reported by 93 percent of
the white families in New York City, 92 percent in Pacific coast
cities, 83 percent in the East North Central area, 77 percent in the
North Atlantic, 74 percent in the West North Central, and 64 percent
in the Southern cities.




102

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

T a b l e 1 3 . — Housing Facilities of White Families in 42 Large Cities,

New
York
City

Item

Percent of families living in—
1-family detached house_______ _____
1-family semidetached or row house.
2-family house_____________________
Apartment___ _____________________
With elevator_______________ _
Dwelling with janitor service________
Percent of families having—
Bathroom___ _______ _____________
Inside flush toilet__________________
Outside flush toilet_________________
Other type toilet___________________
Sole use of toilet by household___ . . .
Water inside dwelling_ _ _______ _
_
Running water inside dwelling______
Hot running water inside dwelling___
Pump inside d w ellin g________ ___
Water outside dw elling.. ________ .
S in k.________________ ___________
Electric lights_____________________
Gas or electricity for cooking___ ____
Refrigerator:
E lectric_______________________
Other mechanical_______________
Ice________ ________ ___________
N one____________________ ____
Central heat—hot air, hot water, or
steam .______________________ ____
Telephone_________________________
Garage____________________________
Garden or lawn space_______________
Each of the following items: Running
hot water, inside flush toilet, elec­
tric light, and gas or electricity for
cooking___________ ____ __________

11
North
Atlantic
cities

by Region

8
12
East
Southern North
cities
Central
cities

5
West
North
Central
cities

5
Pacific
Coast
cities

5.6
2.3
20.1
72.0
7.0
77.6

28.0
26.2
26.2
19.6
.6
5.8

53.8
21.1
15.5
9.6
.1
3.8

47.5
5.9
31.2
15.4
.9
6.5

57.0
5.9
16.6
20.5
.6
11.4

67.3
6.6
9.7
16.4
2.8
6.7

91.5
99.2
.8
0
91.2
100.0
100.0
94.5
0
0
100.0
99.8
97.8

91.8
97.6
.6
1.8
95.3
99.8
99.3
85.2
.2
99.6
99.0
88.3

92.8
92.8
3.5
3.7
90.7
98.0
97.3
68.9
.7
2.0
95.9
97.1
85.9

90.6
96.1
1.1
2.8
94.1
98.7
97.7
85.0
1.0
1.3
98.8
99.3
96.0

90.4
94.4
1.4
4.2
91.8
99.1
98.3
80.3
.8
.9
98.0
99.3
89.8

99.2
99.5
.3
.2
99.3
100.0
99.9
97.9
.1
0
100.0
99.9
93.7

27.4
11.3
60.0
1.3

23.5
1.4
69.3
5.8

28.6
1.8
67.2
2.4

28.7
1.0
64.6
5.7

34.3
1.1
58.1
6.5

25.2
1.4
45.4
28.0

77.5
14.3
9.7
15.3

75.0
31.1
27.2
39.9

27.1
34.6
57.2
46.7

84.0
25.6
58.1
51.4

78.3
42.6
56.8
44.8

34.1
53.1
75.9
60.2

92.5

76.8

63.9

82.6

73.6

91.7

.5

N E G R O F A M IL IE S

In general, the Negro families surveyed had less satisfactory housing
facilities than the white families in every region. (See table 14.)7 In
New York City, however, the figures obtained show that the Negro fami­
lies included in the investigation had what may be regarded as a min­
imum combination of housing facilities. In some instances the propor­
tion of such families in New York having a given facility was even
greater than that of the white families studied, for example, hot running
water, janitor service, and central heat. These figures all reflect the
general restriction of Negro wage earners in New York City to apart­
ment areas. None of the Negro families in New York City reported a
garage, and a much smaller percentage than of white families had
garden or lawn space. A smaller proportion had electric refrigerators.
As regards the aspects of housing not measured by the study— size of
rooms, provision of sunlight, air, and quiet— the majority of New
York City families, white as well as Negro, are at a disadvantage as
compared with other city families in the United States. Southern
Negro families had the lowest proportion (20 percent) using gas or
7
In using the figures for Negroes for all regions it is particularly important to remember that families
on relief were excluded from the study as well as families with incomes below $500. (See appendix B.)










103

HOUSING

electricity for cooking. They also had the highest percentage report­
ing outdoor flush toilets and privies. Only 11 percent of the south­
ern Negro families surveyed had all of the following housing facilities:
Running hot water, inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or elec­
tricity for cooking. This figure compares with 29 percent in East
North Central cities, 32 percent in West North Central, 69 percent in
North Atlantic cities and 95 percent in New York City.
T a b l e 1 4 . — Housing Facilities of Negro Families in 16 Large Cities, by Region

New
York
City

Item

Percent of families living in—
1-family detached house_____________ _________
1-family sem idetached or row house

2 -family house________ _____ ________________
Apartment__________________________________
With elevator____________________________
D w elling w ith janitor service_

_

____

Percent of families having—
Bathroom__ ________________________________
Inside flush toilet
_________________________
Outside flush toilet___________________________
Other type toilet
______________________
Sole use of toilet by household________________
Water inside dwelling________________________
Running water inside dwelling________________
Hot running water inside dwelling______ ______
Pump inside dwelling________________________
Water outside dwelling_______________________
Sink _______ ______________________________
Electric lights_______________________________
fins nr electricity for coolring

Refrigerator:
Electric_________________________________
Other mechanical________________________
Ice _____________________________________
None____________________________________
Central heat—hot air, hot water, or steam____ _
Telephone
- _______________ _______
G arage_________________________ _________
Garden or lawn space________ _______________
Each of the following items: Running hot water,
inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or
electricity for cooking_______________________

242949'0— 41-




-8

2
North
Atlantic
cities

2
9
East
Southern North
cities
Central
cities

2
West
North
Central
cities

0
0
5.0
95.0
14.0
94.0

9.1
61.1
13.6
16.2
.5
3.5

55.0
27.9
10.3
6.8
0
.6

34.8
17.9
20. 9
26.4
.5
3. 5

33.0
9.6
28.2
29.2
.5
10.0

99.0
100.0
0
0
96.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
0
0
100.0
98.0
97.0

87.4
94.0
4.5
1.5
82.3
100.0
100.0
81.8
0
0
99. 5
96.0
84.3

40.0
49.1
27.2
23.3
81.5
71.3
68.6
17.7
2.7
28.7
68.6
62.2
20.0

46.3
73.1
5. 5
21.4
79.1
82.1
79.6
36.8
2.5
17.9
84.6
92.0
53.7

62.2
68.9
10. 5
20.6
75.6
92.3
91.8
37.8
.5
7.7
89. 5
95.2
62.7

10.0
2.0
88.0
0
94.0
12.0
0
2.0

8.6
0
91.4
0
54.0
17.7
5.6
11.6

1.9
0
90.1
8.0
9.4
9.6
12.6
37.5

6.0
0
92.0
2.0
34.3
8.5
20.4
46.8

15.8
0
83.7
.5
32.5
24.9
16.7
24.4

95.0

69.2

10.8

29.4

32.1

Chapter 6
HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION 1
About a twelfth of the total outlay of the average family surveyed
goes for household expenses even after rent, heat, and light have been
paid for.2 These additional expenses are made up of sums for furnish­
ings and household equipment, cleaning supplies, laundry and domestic
service, telephone, water rent, insurance on furniture, and other
miscellaneous items connected with the running of the household.
They averaged almost $120 a year, or 7.8 percent of total expenditure
of $1,512. Expenditures for these items, as will be seen from table 1,
were about equally divided between furnishings and equipment on the
one hand and household operation 1 on the other.
E xp en d itu res at D ifferen t In com e L evels

For families at the lowest income levels studied, the amounts spent
averaged $20 or less per year for each of these categories, whereas
families with annual incomes above $2,400 spent over $90 a year on
the average for each. (See table 1.) A t the highest income levels
covered in this investigation, there was a tendency for expense for
household operation to exceed that for furnishings and equipment,
due principally to greater use of laundry service and paid help.
As a proportion of total family expenditures, the outlays for house­
hold operation and for furnishings and equipment each claimed around
2 to 4 percent at different income levels. There was, however, a real
difference in tendency for the two types of expenditure. For house­
hold operation there is a consistent tendency for the proportion of
total expenditures to increase from about 3 percent to almost 4.5
percent at the highest levels studied. This change is primarily due
to the increase in use of household services, which is subject to con­
siderable expansion as dollars for spending are greater.3 (See figs.
1 and 2.)
Expenditures for furnishings and equipment showed a different
tendency. They were severely restricted at the lowest income level,
where they amounted to only 2 percent of total expenditure. The
percentage rose with income to a maximum of a little over 4 percent
at around the $2,000 family income level, but thereafter tended to
decline.4 (See figs. 1 and 2.)
1 Other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, which were included with housing proper, and described in
ch. 5, p. 86.
2 For data on expenditures for housing proper see ch. 5, p. 99.
3 Data from the Study of Consumer Purchases, Urban Series (see vol. I of Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulls. Nos. 642-647 and 649, also vol. IV of Bureau of Labor Statistics Bull. No. 648), confirm these findings
and show considerable elasticity in expenditures for household operation at higher income levels.
4 Similar tendencies were found in the Study of Consumer Purchases, Urban Series, where in most cities
the proportion of total expenditures going for furnishings and equipment reached a maximum at around
$2,000 and then dropped off. (See reference in footnote 3.)

104




105

HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

T able 1.— Annual Expenditures for Furnishings and Equipment, and for Household
Operation, by Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average expendi­ Percentage of total
ture per family
money expendi­
for—
ture for—
Families with annual net income of—

Furnish­ House­ Furnish­
ings and hold op­ ings and House­
equip­
equip­ hold op­
ment 1 eration 2 ment 1 eration 2

All families_______ ___ __ ________________________________

$60

$58

4.0

3.8

$500 to $600_______________________________________________
$600 to $900_______________________________________________
$900 to $1,200______________________________________ _______
$1,200 to $1,500____________________________________________
$1,500 to $1,800____________________________________________

13
28
39
55
70

20
30
38
49
63

2.0
3.3
3.5
4.0
4.3

3.1
3.5
3.4
3.6
3.9

77
90
96
83
112

77
92
102
119
142

4.1
4.2
4.0
3.1
3.4

4.1
4.3
4.2
4.4
4.4

$1,800
$2,100
$2,400
$2,700
$3,000

to $2,100____________________________________________
to $2,400____________________________________________
to $2,700____________________________________________
to $3,000____________________________________________
and over------------------ -------------------- ------- --

i Includes all purchases made during the year whether paid for or not. Full price of goods purchased
on installment (purchase price less trade-in allowance, if any, plus carrying charges, if any) is included
here, regardless of balances owing on installment. (See appendix D, p. 400.)
8 Other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, which were included with housing proper.

A t the low income levels the bare minimum for replacement of the
most necessary household goods is about all that can be afforded.
Families in somewhat better economic circumstances must also make
replacements, but at least a part of their expenditure is directed
toward additions to their stock of furniture and equipment, articles
of the type which contribute to comfort and a few that partake of the
nature of luxury consumption, chairs, tables, dressers, supplemented
by inexpensive items of decoration in the form of curtains, table linen,
floor coverings, lamps, and pictures, in conjunction with a few con­
venience items, such as electric refrigerators and vacuum cleaners.
Once these things are achieved, there is little thought of their replace­
ment until they wear out, within the income ranges of families studied
in this investigation. Changing the style of home furnishings to
express changes in the taste of the family members can be carried
out by moderate-income families only with respect to inexpensive
accessories, not for major items of furnishings. Consequently, though
dollar expenditures for this entire class of goods increase, their rela­
tive tapering off suggests in general that basic needs have been met
by the time the family incomes reach approximately $2,000 and that
other needs are more urgent.6
At higher income levels where it is possible to gratify the desire to
purchase attractive pieces of electrical equipment, new curtains or rugs
or furniture, these items are found to be in competition with such
®The findings in the Study of Consumer Purchases, Urban Series, showed that this tapering off continues
up to about the $5,000 income level, when there is again an increase in relative expenditures for furnishings
and equipment. (See references in footnote 3.)




106

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

N o t e .— I ncom e in kind from investm ent in owned hom e not included in figures
1 and 2.




HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

R E L A T IV E FA M ILY HO M E E X P E N D IT U R E S
COMPARED W ITH T H O S E FOR SELECTED
CATEGORIES OF FAMILY S P EN D IN G AT
SUCCESSIVE INCOME LEVELS, 1934-1936
1 4 ,4 6 9 W HITE AND NEGRO FAM ILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 4 2 CITIES
a n n u a l e x p e n d it u r e

(In D ollars)

a n n u a l e x p e n d it u r e

(In Dollars)

The slopes of the lines show the percent increase in expenditure corresponding to the percent increase in income. A
slope greater than that o f a 4 5 degree line represents a gain o f the specified kind o f expenditure relatively
greater than the gain in income-, a slope less than that o f a 45 degree line represents again relatively sm aller

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




107

108

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

rivals for the family funds as an automobile, movies and other
recreational activities, and gifts to relatives. The relative dropping
off in expenditures for furnishings and equipment at higher income
levels shown in figure 2 is thus a complement of the sharp increases
shown in some of the more expansible items of family expenditure.
F a m ily H o m e E xp en d itu res b y In com e L evel

A picture of the total annual cost of operating a home can be had by
adding the cost of furnishings, equipment, and operation to the current
cost of housing proper,6 including fuel, light and refrigeration. (See
fig. 3.) For all the families covered in this survey this total cost was
$528 or about $44 per month, and it claimed a third of total family
income.
The total amount spent for the family home showed a clear tendency
to be greater at higher incomes, averaging over $50 per month for
those with incomes over $2,000, as compared with about $20 per
month for families with annual incomes of $500 to $600 per year.
The smaller amount claimed more than two-fifths of total family in­
come at the lowest level mentioned. The larger sums spent at higher
income levels did not represent such a large proportion. Indeed, for
families with annual incomes of $3,000 and more they constituted
only a quarter of the total income. A small part of the decline in the
proportion of income devoted to home expenditures after about the
$2,000 mark is accounted for by the decline in the proportion spent
for furnishings and equipment discussed earlier. In far larger part,
however, it reflects the priority inevitably given to expense for
shelter at the lower income levels, even at considerable sacrifice of
other types of expenditure. At higher income levels, on the other
hand, while there is a definite tendency to increase the amounts
spent for housing proper, the increases are relatively smaller than
those for certain other kinds of expenditure which are stinted or
absent entirely at lower incomes.
The increase in amount spent per family at higher income levels
for the family home is, however, much less sharp when calculated on
a per person basis. In the present investigation, a very close relation­
ship was found between number of earners and size of income. Thus
families with larger incomes tended to be those with more than one
adult earner, generally families with several adults and few children.
Taking account of the number of persons sharing the housing pro­
vided, it is seen that average amounts spent per capita doubled be­
tween the $500 and $1,800 income levels, but thereafter increased little
if at all. This compares with a doubling in amounts spent per family
6 For details of current expenditures for housing proper of the families here discussed, see ch. 5.




Fig. 3

1934-1936
ANNUAL
FAMILY
INCOME

H OUSING* F U E L , L IG H T
AND REFRIGERATION

OTHER HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS ft
OPERATION
EQUIPMENT

$500
TO

6 0 0

$1 2 00
TO

1 5 0 0

$2 100
TO

2 4 0 0

$ 3 0 0 0
AND

HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

FAMILY HOME EXPENDITURES
AT SELECTED INCOME LEVELS

OVER

U N IT E D




STATES

BUREAU

OF

L A B O R STATISTICS

* INCLUDING VALUE OF HOUSING RECEIVED IN KIND FROM INVESTMENT IN OWNED HOME

o

CO

110

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

from the $500 to the $1,800 income level and a more than tripling of
expenditures at the highest income levels.
T able 2.—Annual Family Home E xpenditureby Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Average annual home expenditure per family
Average
Families with total number
annual money in­ of per­
come of—
sons per
family

A verage an n u al
home
expendi­
ture per person

Total expenditure

Amount

Value of Money expenditure3
housing
received
in kind
Total
Money
Percent expendi­ expendi­
from
Percent
invest­ Amount of total
ture
ture 8
of total
money
income 2 ment in
expendi­
owned
ture
home

All families____

3.60

$528

33.7

$43

$485

32.1

$147

$135

$500 to $600________
$600 to $900________
$900 to $1.200_______
$1,200 to $1,500_____
$1,500 to $1,800_____

3.11
3.18
3. 41
3.54
3. 62

251
331
421
495
572

43.7
41.1
38.3
35.6
33.9

22
28
35
39
44

229
303
386
456
528

35. 2
35.6
34.8
33.3
32.5

81
104
123
140
158

74
95
113
129
146

$1,800
$2,100
$2,400
$2,700
$3,000

3. 76
4. 03
4. 27
4.37
4. 81

629
703
731
774
880

31.6
30.4
28.3
26.2
24.9

52
61
56
71
67

577
642
675
703
813

30.9
29.7
28.0
26.0
25.0

167
174
171
177
183

153
159
158
161
169

to $2,100_____
to $2,400_____
to $2,700_____
to $3,000_____
and over_____

1 Annual family home expenditure includes the following items: (1) Average annual current housing ex­
penditure, which includes (a) rent paid by tenants, (b) taxes, assessments, interest, refinancing charges, in­
surance, and repairs paid by home owners, but not payments on principal or permanent inprovememts to
owned homes, (c) average annual value of housing received “in kind” from investment in owned home; (2)
fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures whenever these were not included in rental or ownership pay­
ments; (3) other household operation expenditures; and (4) purchases of furnishings and equipment.
2 Treating as income the sum of money income and value of income received “in kind” from investment in
owned home.
3 For these items of home expenditure, as for all other items purchased by the families surveyed, bills
incurred during the year but unpaid were treated as money expenditures. Thus taxes due but unpaid are
here included as money expenditures. Total amounts obligated for purchases on installment were treated
as money expenditures. The amounts owing but unpaid were taken into account in computing the net
change in each family’s assets and liabilities over the year. (See appendix D.)

F a m ily H o m e E xp en d itu res b y C on sum ption L evel

The type of home a family has is clearly affected not only by the size
of its income, but by the number, age, sex, and occupation of the
persons for whom that income must provide. It will be remembered
that the families in this survey were classified therefore by consump­
tion level. The larger families tend in general to fall in the lower
consumption levels and the smaller families in the higher levels. On
the average, family incomes were higher at the higher consumption
levels.7
The average income of the 14,469 families surveyed was $1,524 and
of the families at certain consumption levels was as follows:
Average
F a m ilie s w ith total a n n u a l u n i t e x p e n d itu r e of—

in co m e

$200 to $300_________
_ _ „
_ ____________________ $1,187
$500 to $600_____________________________________________ 1, 596
$800 to $900________________________________ ______ ______ 1, 884
$1,100 to $1,200____________________________ ___
. . . 2,262
7 For fuller explanation of terms “consumption level” and “economic level” see ch. 3.




111

HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

The details of expenditures for furnishings and equipment, and for
household operation, as well as those for housing proper, available
for the families studied, are thus classified by total expenditure per
adult equivalent. Differences between the housing expenditures of
families at successive consumption levels and at successive income
levels are shown by a comparison of table 3 with table 2. Whereas
the total home maintenance expenditure per person increased from
$81 at the $500 to $600 income level to $177 at the $2,700 to $3,000
level, an increase of 118 percent, the percentage increase from the
$200 to $300 to the $1,100 to $1,200 unit expenditure levels was 349
percent.
Table 3.—Annual Family Home Expenditure,1 at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average annual home expenditure per family

Average
Families with total Average number
of
income
annual unit ex­
per
persons
penditure of—
family
per
family

Average annual
home expendi­
Value of Money expendi­ ture per person
ture s
housing
received
in kind
from
Percent
of total
Total
Money
Percent invest­
Amount of total ment in Amount money expend­ expend­
iture 3
income 2 owned
expend­ iture
iture
home
Total expendi­
ture

All families _ _ ___

$1, 524

3.60

$528

33.7

$43

$485

32.1

$147

$135

$200 to $300 ______
$500 to $600_______
$800 to $900_______
$1,100 to $1,200____

1,187
1, 596
1,884
2,262

5.19
3.13
2. 38
2. 21

408
558
665
784

33.1
34.0
34. 5
34.0

44
44
43
47

364
514
622
737

31. 5
32.4
32.5
30.2

79
178
279
355

70
164
261
333

1 See footnote 1, table 2.
3 See footnote 2, table 2.
3 See footnote 3, table 2.

It is also notable that the percentage of total money outlay claimed
by money expense for home maintenance shows little tendency to
decline at the higher consumption levels, as contrasted with the rather
notable decline by income levels shown in table 2. This remains
true despite the fact that family size is decidedly smaller at higher
consumption levels than at higher income levels.8
Attention may now be directed to consideration of the break-down
of the family dollar going for furnishings and equipment, and house­
hold operation. These data are presented in table 4 for families
classified by consumption level.
Electrical equipment, furniture, and textile furnishings, in the order
named, vie for the largest part of the furnishings and equipment dollar.
s The small families at the upper consumption levels were comprised mainly of adults, as were the large
families at the upper income levels. (Large families at low consumption levels included a considerable
number of children not yet in the labor market. The small families at low income levels also included
some children but seldom more than one adult earner.) The small families of adults at the upper consump­
tion levels, living relatively comfortably, apparently found the alternatives to spending of their money on
the home less urgent than did larger families of adults with approximately the same family incomes.




112

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

Glassware, china, and silverware accounted for less than 3 percent
even at the highest consumption level. At the lowest consumption
level shown, expense for textile furnishings (principally towels and
bedding) exceeded electrical-equipment purchases. Here the neces­
sity for replacement of these indispensable items precluded the pur­
chase of all but relatively inexpensive pieces of electrical equipment.
A t intermediate consumption levels electrical equipment claimed the
largest part, but at the highest level shown in table 4 expenditures
for furniture were greater. It is thus clear that the greatest expansi­
bility from low to high consumption levels appears in expenditures
for furniture. They were six times as large at the highest consump­
tion level shown in table 4 as at the lowest. Electrical equipment
showed almost as great a tendency to increase, with expenditures over
five times as great at the high as at the low level.
T able 4.—Expenditures for Main Groups of Furnishings and Equipment, and House­
hold O p eration at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
$1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
$1,200
$300 $600 $900 $1, 200

Average expenditure per family

Percentage distribution of
expenditures

Furnishings and equipment, total $59. 94 $30.14 $63. 45 $98. 99 $135.25 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

6. 96
8. 66
.57
7. 23
6. 72

15. 93
14. 53
1.24
20. 95
10. 80

30. 25
19. 57
1.83
32. 26
15. 08

43. 72
29.91
3. 72
38. 63
19. 27

30.6
19.8
1.8
32.6
15.2

32.3
22. 1
2.8
28. 6
14.2

58.31

38. 43

62. 44

86. 29

120.09 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

4. 84
Water r en t3--- ------------------Telephone___ _____ _____ ____ _
9. 98
Laundry and domestic service___ 15.98
Paper, cleaning supplies, and
matches______________________ 18. 37
Stationery, postage, etc-------- -3. 48
2. 29
Interest on debts 4
___ _____
Insurance on furniture___________ 1.45
Other it e m s ______________ . .. 1.92

5.16
3. 63
4. 95

4. 94
11.95
17.15

4. 63
18. 37
32.16

5. 57
21.89
58. 78

8.3
17.1
27.4

13.4
9.5
12.9

7.9
19.1
27.5

5.4
21.3
37.3

4.6
18. 2
49.0

18. 77
1.86
1. 88
.71
1.47

18. 54
3. 46
2. 37
1. 67
2. 36

18. 37
4. 44
3.19
2.20
2. 93

17. 52
5. 01
3. 70
4. 21
3. 41

31.5
6.0
3.9
2.5
3.3

48.9
4.8
4.9
1.8
3.8

29.7
5.5
3.8
2.7
3.8

21.3
5.1
3.7
2.5
3.4

14.6
4.2
3.1
3.5
2.8

16. 58
Furniture--- ----------------- -Textile furnishings---13. 95
Glassware, china, and silverware.- 1.21
18. 39
Electrical equipment___________
Miscellaneous equipm ent2-------- 9.81
Household operation, to ta l1_____

27.6
23.3
2.0
30.7
16.4

23.1
28.7
1.9
24.0
22.3

25.1
22.9
2.0
33.0
17.0

1 Excluding fuel, light, and refrigeration.
2 See table 8 for items included.
3 Includes only water rent paid for separately from dwelling rent or by home owners.
4 Excluding interest on mortgage, which was treated as expense for housing proper, and carrying charges
on installment purchases, which were included as expenditures for the specific items purchased on install­
ment. Since many families borrow money for a variety of purposes, it is very difficult to allocate interest
paid on such debts to the particular uses to which the money was put. Therefore, such sums as were re­
ported by the families interviewed have been included here in the total for household operation. They are
relatively small in amount and may, if the reader desires, be subtracted from the total for household opera­
tion. If such subtraction is made, the percentages shown in the table would, of course, have to be recom­
puted so that the total expenditure for household operation minus interest on debts would equal 100 percent.

For all families surveyed the two groups of items which accounted
for over half of the total for household operation (other than fuel,
light, and refrigeration) were cleaning supplies, and laundry and




113

HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

domestic service. The expenditures for these two items moved in
opposite manner, however, from low to high consumption levels.
Cleaning supplies bulked very large at the lowest consumption levels,
where housewives necessarily did most of their own work. As the
pressure on family funds relaxed, the total expenditure for cleaning
supplies remained substantially unchanged, but there was a notable
increase not only in the amount but in the proportion of the total
household operation dollar going for laundry and domestic service.
Telephone service was the next greatest kind of household opera­
tion expense, and it showed a strong tendency to increase at higher
consumption levels.
Expenditures fo r Household Operation 9 b y Consum ption Level
A break-down of items of household operation in greater detail
than shown in table 4 is presented in table 5. Full-time domestic
service is seen to be very rare among these families of wage earners and
clerical workers even at the highest consumption levels. That which
was reported occurred usually in Southern cities and was not neces­
sarily used for the entire year. Part-time service, on the other
hand, was a rapidly expanding item reported by as many as a fourth
of the families at the highest consumption level, as shown in table 5.
The average payments for service at that level per family spending
were $73 a year or about $6 per month.
T able 5.— Expenditures fo r Selected Item s of Household Operation at Selected
Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total an­
nual unit expendi­
ture of—

All
fami­
lies $200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

All
fami­
lies
$800 $1,100
to
to
$900 $1, 200

Percentage of families spending
Water rent_____________________
Telephone ___
_________ ___
Domestic service: Full time 2____
Part tim e_____
Laundry out___
_______
Interest on debts 3______________
Insurance on furniture__________

39.8
35.9
2.2
7.3
31.9
11.3
19.9

42.6
15.0
1.1
2.5
15.2
11.0
12.8

38.9
42.1
3.1
7.1
35.0
11.3
22.8

36.2
59.1
3.0
16.6
54.4
13.6
28.1

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per family
spending 1

34.9 $12.16 $12.11 $12. 70 $12. 79
68.3 27.80 24. 20 28. 38 31.08
4.4 90. 91 31.82 80. 32 122.00
24.8 37.81 21.20 35.49 41.87
67.7 35.17 26.78 34.69 39.61
11.3 20. 27 17.09 20.97 23.46
46.2
7.29
5. 55
7.83
7.32

$15.96
32.05
167.05
72.90
49. 26
32.74
9.11

1 Average expenditure per family spending may be converted to average expenditure for all families by
multiplying the expenditure in question by the percentage of families spending for the item in question at
the given consumption level.
2 The annual figures cannot be divided by 52 to obtain weekly wage rate paid, since the average includes
expenditures by families having full-time help for any portion of the year.
3 See table 4, footnote 4.
9 Excluding fuel, light, and refrigeration.




114

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

Payments for laundry sent out were reported by as many as 15
percent of the families at the lowest consumption level. The amounts
spent at that level, about 50 cents per week per family spending,
indicate that for some families laundry service was limited to men’s
collars or shirts. In some cases families sent curtains and blankets
just once a year. Other families used “ wet wash” service once in
several weeks. A t the highest consumption level for which data are
shown in table 5, however, a much larger proportion of the families
reported expense for laundry out and those spending averaged almost
$1 per week.
Expense for laundry soaps, starch, and bluing, not presented
separately in the table, showed some tendency to be lower at higher
consumption levels, a correlative of greater use of laundry services.
Outlay for soap flakes and cleaning powders, on the other hand, was
somewhat greater at upper levels.

,

Furniture Expenditure b y Consum ption Level
The fact that major items of furnishings and equipment are bought
only once a generation by these moderate-income families is con­
firmed by the data in table 6 on percentage of families spending.1
0
In the furniture line, the highest proportion of families reporting ex­
penditure for an item appears for tables (other than kitchen tables)
and for living-room suites, each reported by 5.2 percent. From these
figures it may be concluded that once in 20 years is the average fre­
quency for these families to make replacements or additions to their
furnishings, once the household has been established.1 Bedsprings
1
were purchased by 4 percent of the families, or at the rate of once in
25 years per family. Bedroom suites, couches, and daybeds were re­
ported by still smaller percentages of families, as were dining-room
suites. Less than 2 percent of the families surveyed reported pur­
chase during a year’s period of such items as chiffoniers and chests,
dressers, benches and footstools, desks, bookcases and shelves, daven­
ports, and sideboards.
There was a clear tendency, however, for expenditures for the less
strictly utilitarian items to be reported by a greater proportion of
the families of the higher consumption levels. This was the case
especially for tables for use elsewhere than in the kitchen, upholstered
chairs, suites of furniture, stands, and costumers. Seven percent or
10 The scope of the investigation made it impossible to obtain an inventory of the furnishings and equip­
ment owned by the families surveyed. It is, therefore, not known how many families had the use of any
specific item of furniture, while data on repairs are only general and do not indicate kinds of furniture
repaired. It is clear that many more families owned and used items of furniture than reported their purchase
within the year. An inventory of certain major items of furnishings and equipment owned was obtained
in the Study of Consumer Purchases. See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 648, vol. IV.
11 Families which had not been housekeeping for at least 11 months during the year were excluded from
the investigation. Consequently, the averages presented in this article do not include the expenditures
for furnishings and equipment of families setting up housekeeping.




HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

115

more of the families at the higher consumption levels purchased
living-room and bedroom suites, while less than 1 percent purchased
couches or daybeds, 2 percent bought dressers or chiffoniers, and 1
percent bought davenports.

,

T a b l e 6 . — Furniture Expenditures at Selected Consumption Levels

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1, 200
Percentage of families spending

Suites: Living room ........... .
Bedroom.. .................
Dining room............. .
Beds: W ood...........................
M etal_______________
Cots, cribs: Wood..... ........... .
M etal. ......... ......
Bedsprings________________
Davenports________ ______ _
Couches, daybeds.................
Dressers_________ ________ _
Chiffoniers, chests_________
Sideboards, b u ffets............ .
Desks_____________________
Bookcases, bookshelves_____
Tables, except kitchen______
Chairs: Wood______ ______ _
Upholstered_______
Benches, stools, footstools_
_
Tea carts, wheel trays______
Stands, racks, costumers___
Other_____________ _______ _

5.2
3.5
2.6
2.0
2.7
2.2
.5
4.0
.6
2.6
1.2
1.5
.3
1.1
.8
5.2
3.6
3.2
1.2
.1
1.7
5.1

3.7
1.8
1.1
1.2
2.2
1.1
.7
2.8
.2
1.8
.7
.7
.1
.5
.2
2.0
2.2
1.1
.3
0
.9
2.4

4.8
2.8
2.6
2.2
2.5
3.7
.4
3.9
.6
2.8
1.5
1.8
.1
1.2
.9
5.8
3.7
2.8
1.0
.2
1.8
4.8

7.1
7.0
5.5
2.2
3.0
3.0
.4
4.5
.1
3.6
.8
1.8
.7
2.8
2.3
10.1
4.1
7.1
2.2
0
2.4
8.2

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per family
spending *

10.8 $102.12 $74.05 $101.04 $106.90 $150.46
98. 57 72. 22 113.93 126. 43 131. 55
7.1
3.5
75.00 44. 55
69. 62
80. 55
97. 71
3.2
20.00 17.50
19.09
38.12
20.91
15.19 12. 73
2.3
19.60
15. 33
31.74
1.5
10.91
6. 36
10. 27
8. 67
11.67
.6
10.00
4.29
12.50
35.00
6. 67
12.00
5.6
8.93
14.44
12. 56
13.04
43. 33 25.00
1.0
30.00
80.00 133.00
29. 23 26. 67
.7
28.06
12. 86
27.86
2.1
14.17 14.29
13. 75
18.00
5. 71
2.1
15.33 11.43
11.11
13.33
20.00
0
10.00 20.00
30.00
8. 57
0
19.09 16.00
42. 38
2.1
22. 50
31.43
.7
8. 75 10.00
5. 65
8. 57
8.89
8.46
8.28
13. 61
14.7
4.00
11.88
6.3
7.22
6.82
14.29
7. 30
9. 27
19. 38 12. 73
26.22
9.8
18.93
18. 59
3. 33
4. 55
2.26
3.1
3. 33
2.00
10.00
14.29
.7
0
0
10.00
4.12
2.22
6.3
5.00
7. 46
3. 33
11.9
21.57 15.00
21.59
23.87
20.42

i See table 5, footnote 1.

Expenditures for furnishings and equipment in any given year are
subject to extremely wide variations from family to family. Since
the majority of the items which come under this heading are at least
semi durable in nature, families are usually able to adjust the level of
their spending to the current family situation with regard to other
demands on income. In general, young families in the process of
building up their household equipment will spend more for furnishings
than will those that have been long established. A family which has
established a household may do without any new additions to its
stock of goods in a year when its income is reduced or other demands
are particularly urgent. Prices which will be paid for a given article
also show a very wide range of possibilities; thus a table may cost
anywhere from 59 cents to $100 or more, and couches and daybeds
may be of inexpensive metal construction or may be expensive,
heavily upholstered pieces. It is important to bear in mind these
variations in expenditures of any one family from year to year, and
between two families in the price paid for a given type of article,




116

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

which explain the irregularity in the averages despite the relatively
large numbers of families upon which they are based.1
2
The items of furniture accounting for the largest outlays per family
spending were suites of furniture for living rooms, bedrooms, or
dining rooms. Davenports and couches came next in size of expend­
iture. For all of these items, except couches, there was a marked
tendency for expenditure to be larger at higher consumption levels.
The decline at the highest level in amounts for couches and day beds
per family spending, as well as the very high figure for davenports,
are probably explained by chance variation.1
2

,

Expenditure fo r Electrical Equipm ent b y Consum ption Level
Electrical equipment ranges all the way from electric-light bulbs,
purchased by the majority of families, to electric stoves, ironers, and
mangles bought by less than 1 percent of the families surveyed. Light
bulbs, items of relatively short durability, were the most frequently
reported item. The next most frequently reported item was lamps,
purchased by 11 percent of all families surveyed. A much higher
proportion at high than at low consumption levels reported purchases
of lamps, again confirming the suggestion that this is one item which
moderate income families replace more frequently than would be
absolutely necessary, in order to introduce an element of variety in
their homes. Families at higher levels also permitted themselves pur­
chases of much more expensive lamps.
It is striking that a higher percentage of all families surveyed
reported purchase of electric refrigerators and electric washing
machines (see table 7) than of any item of furniture (see table 6). The
great contribution of these items to- lightening the housewife’s tasks
and facilitating more pleasant living for the entire family is witnessed
by these figures. There was a much greater increase in proportion of
families reporting purchase of refrigerators than washing machines
at the higher consumption levels. The relatively smaller increase in
expenditures for washing machines is explained by greater use of
laundry services at higher consumption levels (see table 5).
Electric irons were purchased by about 1 percent more families
than bought washing machines. Their primarily utilitarian nature
is indicated by the failure of the percentage of families purchasing, to
increase at higher consumption levels.
There was practically no increase in the average outlay per family
spending for washing machines and electric refrigerators at higher
consumption levels. In purchasing such substantial items, the
families tend to pay as much as they think is required to obtain an
12
For measures showing the relatively high variability in expenditures for furnishings and equipment as
compared with those of other types of family expenditures see Tabular Summary, table 24, in Bureau of
Labor Statistics Bulletins Nos. 636, 637 (vols. I and II), 639, 640, and 641.




117

HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

article of reasonably good durability, and large enough for the family
needs, if necessary, extending their payments over a longer period
of time.
T able

7 . — Expenditures for

, at

Electrical Equipm ent

Selected Consumption Levels

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

All
fami­
lies

Item

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

All
fami­
lies

$1,100
to
$1,200

$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per family
spending i

Percentage of families spending
Vacuum cleaners_______
Refrigerators (electric)__
Electric stoves, hotplates_
Washing machines______
Irons. . . . .
________
Ironers, mangles_______
Heaters, fans__________
Sewing machines (elec­
tric) _______________
Toasters______ ______ _
L am ps.. . . . __________
Light bulbs____________
Other.______________ .

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—

4.3
5.8
.7
5.7
6.6
.3
1.7

1.7
1.3
.2
4.8
6.9
0
.6

5.9
6.8
.6
5.9
7.2
.4
2.0

8.6
11.2
1.8
5.2
6.7
0
3.3

9.1
12.0
.5
7.8
11.2
0
2.1

$44.19
163. 62
54.29
62. 63
4.09
43. 33
6. 47

$49.41
165. 38
20.00
57.92
3.04
0
6. 67

$43.89
164. 26
65.00
63. 39
4. 31
42.50
5.50

$45.00
178. 57
42. 22
58. 27
4.48
0
7. 27

$65.82
169.33
104.00
63. 33
4. 73
0
7.62

1.0
3.8
10.6
57.6
4.4

.4
1.7
4.9
53.0
1.9

1.1
4.4
12.6
59.8
4.8

1.5
4.7
16.6
60.8
7.2

1.0
8.9
26.8
55.0
12.7

77. 00
2. 37
5.94
1.34
6. 36

85.00
1.76
3.47
1.09
2. 63

57. 27
2. 27
5. 55
1.34
5.00

80. 67
2.98
7. 41
1.53
7. 64

96.00
2. 58
9. 07
1.75
12. 52

China

and

1 See table 5, footnote 1.

Expenditures fo r

Textile Furnishings

,

,

Silverware

,

Glassware E t c b y Consum ption Level
Expenditures for utilitarian items which must be replaced rather
frequently, such as brooms, brushes, mops, towels, and sheets, are
presented in table 8. Such items, by their nature, are purchased by
a relatively large proportion of families and show little tendency to
increase at higher consumption levels.
Relatively expensive and more durable items of textile furnishings,
tableware, and miscellaneous equipment also appear in table 8.
Such items as mattresses, blankets, linoleums, curtains, table porce­
lain ware, and glassware are purchased with expectation of a longer
period of service, and consequently are purchased in any 1 year by a
smaller proportion of families. These are items for which expendi­
tures, when made, are fairly substantial, and show some tendency
to be greater at higher consumption levels.
Many of the items listed in table 8 contribute more to the amenities
of living than to comfort in the physical sense of the term. Expendi­
tures for such items as rugs, inlaid linoleum, silverware, mirrors,
pictures, clocks, and ornaments show a clear tendency to be greater per
family spending at upper consumption levels. These are the items
which are somewhat more likely to receive larger outlays when in­
creased family funds permit some supplementing of barest essentials.




118
T able

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
8 . — Expenditures for

Furnishings and Equipment, at Selected Consumption
Levels

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total an
Families with total annual
nual unit expenditure of—
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies
$200
$500
$800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 |$1, 200
$300
$600
$900 $1,200
Percentage of families spending

Average expenditure per family
spending1

T e x tile fu rn ish in g s

Carpets, rugs_____________ _____
Linoleum, inlaid. __
_ _
_
Felt-base floor coverings_________
Mattresses _ _ _____
Pillows__________ _______ _____
Blankets___________
__ Comforts, quilts
___ _ _ _ _ Sheets_________________________
Pillowcases_________ ______ .
Bedspreads, couch covers____ _
Tablecloths, napkins, doilies:2
Cotton-----------------------Linen------- ---------------T ow els:2 Linen____________ ___
Cotton turkishOther cotton_______
Table runners, dresser scarfs___ _
Curtains, draperies_
_ ______
Dishcloths, cleaning cloths _. ___
Other__________________ ______

15.2
5.7
8.7
9.7
2.7
15.4
3.8
29.3
21.9
10.0

11.4
5.2
7.6
9.2
1.4
14.7
3.1
21.6
16.6
7.2

16.9
5.4
8.6
8.7
2.7
16.1
4.2
29.8
23.3
10.0

18.6
6.9
8.6
11.2
4.5
16.2
5.0
33.9
23.4
12.9

27.1 $26. 45 $17.46 $26.04 $31.02
3.5 11.93 11.35 11.85 15. 36
6.9
8. 82
8. 39
8.26
7.91
11.2 16.80 14.02 15.98 16.07
2.0
3.33
2.86
2. 96
3. 56
14.5
5. 65
6.02
6.10
6.48
4.8
5.53
4.84
5.48
6.40
34.3
4. 30
3. 66
4. 40
5.19
25.0
1.87
1.63
1.97
2.14
20.6
4. 20
3.06
4.30
6.12

9.9
3.0
6.6
31.8
8.3
4.1
31.6
19.5
10.7

8.9
.9
4.3
30.6
8.0
2.4
21.6
11.7
9.8

10.1
2.8
5.931.6
8.0
4.8
32.5
22.7
10.4

11.1
5.3
7.9
35.4
8.9
7.7
41.1
30.1
10.5

10.5
7.4
17.6
35.3
16.4
12.0
57.4
30.3
13.7

1.92
3.67
1.67
1.79
1.08
2.20
5. 95
.62
3. 74

1.35
1.11
1.16
1.41
.88
.83
3. 66
.43
2.86

2.08
3. 21
1.69
1.99
1.25
1.88
6.37
.62
4. 62

$33. 28
31.43
12.17
25.18
5.00
7. 93
8.12
6. 82
2.64
8. 59

2.70
3. 77
2.41
1.92
1.46
2. 60
7. 83
.66
5. 33

2.48
2. 97
2.56
3. 14
1.34
2.00
10. 56
.63
7.08

$5.74
1.88
12. 25
1.90
2.11

$13. 33
1.96
28. 57
.59
.57

$1.48 $2. 82 $3.54
4.29
4. 83
3. 53
1.15
1.21
1.25
.33
.49
.58
85.00 211.67 223. 33
18. 21 14. 80 26. 00
37.70 53. 59 55.00
1.73
1.88
3. 55
1.37
2. 38
3. 27
1.08
1.11
1.32
1.38
1.55
1.61
12.00 17.00 12.00
10.00 13.85 13. 48
3.00
3. 33
4.15
1.54
2.11
2.47

$5. 95
4.00
1.33
.95
294.29
30.00
64. 87
1.23
7. 99
1.35
1.97
0
29.47
12. 59
5.81

Silverw are, ch in a , a n d glassw are

China or porcelain, table______ _ 13.9
Glassware____ - _ - - _____ - 16.4
Tableware: Silver,- _ - _____
3.4
Other_______________ 1.0
Other___ __________________ _ 1.8

13.6
13.5
2.2
.8
1.1

12.2
16.6
4.2
.8
2.1

16.2
17.6
4.0
2.1
1.9

14.7
17.9
4.9
1.7
.7

$4.60
1.28
8. 53
3.00
2. 22

$2.65
.74
3.64
1.25
1.82

$5. 25
1.45
6.67
5.00
1.90

M iscella n eo u s fu rn ish in g s and e q u ip m en t

Mirrors, pictures, clocks, orna­
ments________________________
C arpet sweepers. __ _____________
Brooms, brushes, mops__________
Dustpans, pails, etc_____________
Gas refrigerators________________
Ice boxes_______________________
Stoves and ranges (not electric)__
Canning equipment, cookers_____
Pots, pans, cutlery______________
Tubs, boards, wringers__________
Ironing boards, racks, baskets___
Sewing machines (not electric)___
Baby carriages, gocarts__________
Trunks, hand baggage__________
Household tools, ladders, c a n s _
_
Window shades, wire screens,
. awnings______________________
Lawn mowers, garden equipment- _
Repairs, cleaning_______________

10.9
2.8
62.1
11.3
.4
2.7
8.4
8.6
24.7
5.5
4.8
.9
2.8
2.4
5.7

6.1
.7
67.1
12.0
.2
2.8
8.7
8.1
20.5
7.4
2.9
.5
2.6
1.0
3.9

10.3
2.9
58.0
10.3
.6
2.5
7.8
8.5
23.5
4.5
5.8

16.1
5.1
58.5
10.4
.9
2.0
10.0
7.6
26.6
5.3
6.2

3.9
2.1
5.7

2.3
4.1
8.5

15.5
5.2
7.1

17.0
4.5
3.2

14.3
5.4
8.1

16.9
5.6
11.3

1.0

1.0

20.0 $2. 75
5.5
3. 57
52.6
1.16
8.4
.44
.7 215.00
1.7 18. 89
11.3 46.07
5.7
2.09
2.47
23.9
5.2
1.09
1.46
6.6
0
14. 44
3.8 12.86
2.7
4.17
6.2
2.11
13.0
6.5
9.2

3.81
3.65
7.89

2.29
2.67
5.94

4.06
3. 52
8. 77

6.69
4.82
10.80

8.85
4.46
10.43

1 See table 5, footnote 1.
2 The distinctions between textile furnishings of linen and cotton were those reported by the housewives
themselves. It is possible that some of the items reported as linen may have been part linen and part
cotton. The item linen towels includes dish towels as well as hand towels. The average expenditures for
all kinds of towels may be added to obtain total towel expenditures regardless of fiber. The percentages of
families spending are not additive, however, since the same family may have reported purchase of more than
one kind of towel.




HOUSEFURNISHINGS AND HOUSEHOLD OPERATION

119

Purchases on the Installm ent P la n

In the tabulation of data on increases and decreases in installment
obligations, separate figures were secured on changes in obligations
for automobiles and “ other” items. No distinction was made in the
tabulations of changes in amounts due on furnishings and equipment
as compared with clothing, jewelry, or other articles which families
might buy on the installment plan. Inspection of the returns from
individual families shows, however, that major items of furnishings
and equipment account for the bulk of such installment purchases.
T able 9.— Changes in Debts Payable to Firms Selling on Installment Plan for Goods
Other Than Automobiles, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families having net
increase in install­
ment obligations
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Percentage
of families

Families having net
decrease in installment
obligations

Average
amount
per family Percentage
having in­ of families
crease 1

Average
amount
per family
having de­
crease 1

All families________________________________________

24.3

$74.69

9.5

$77. 26

$200 to $300________________________________________
$500 to $600________________________________________
$800 to $900________________________________________
$1,100 to $1,200_____________________________________

22.9
24.4
25.8
22.3

49.87
76.48
106.82
155. 70

10.3
9.4
9.7
6.9

53.69
86. 38
100. 72
94. 49

1 Average for all families, whether having increase or decrease, may be computed by multiplying the item
in question by the corresponding percentage at the given consumption level.
N ote.—If a family bought a refrigerator or other item on the installment plan during the year of the study,
the entire cost of the refrigerator (purchase price less trade-in, if any, plus carrying charges, if any) was
treated as family expenditure. The amounts shown in tables 6 and 7 thus represent total obligations,
whether paid or not, for the year. Any balance unpaid at the end of the schedule year was tabulated as
increase in obligations to firms selling on the installment plan. Correspondingly, installment [payments for
items bought during the previous year were tabulated as decrease in obligations to firms selling on the install­
ment plan. These figures, together with those for other debts and investments, were used to compute the
net change in the family’s assets and liabilities for the year. Expenditures for a refrigerator or other item
bought on the installment plan during the year, for which payments were completed before the end of the
year, would appear only as an item of equipment expense and would not be tabulated under the heading of
increase or decrease in installment obligations. (See appendix D.)

A general idea of the extent of installment purchase of furnishings
and equipment can be gained from table 9. It must be borne in mind
that those figures include only increases and decreases in installment
obligations on all types of goods bought on installment except auto­
mobiles, and that they do not include installment purchases com­
pletely paid off during the year. Nevertheless, they do tell a large
part of the story of installment sales.
A fourth of the families reported net increases in installment
obligations (other than for automobile) for the year, while only a
tenth reported net decreases. In times of complete economic stability,
it might be expected that some families would be making new com­
mitments and others paying off old ones in about equal proportions,
242949°— 41------9




120

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

so that the percentage having net decreases and those having net
increases might tend to cancel each other. Even in normal periods,
however, the element of secular growth and expanding markets would
tend to result in an excess of new commitments over liquidation of old
obligations. The disparity in 1934-36, however, is probably greater
than would be explained by that factor alone.
A change in marketing practice during the middle 1930’s is of im­
portance in explaining the excess of families having increases over
those having decreases in obligations.1 This was the liberalization in
3
installment terms offered by retail firms in 1933, which remained in
effect until 1937. A further explanation is the situation in which
these families found themselves during the period of the business cycle
in which the study was made. The period was one of partial recov­
ery from several years of severe depression and unemployment. All
of the families surveyed had succeeded in staying off the relief rolls,
and all had at least one employed earner and minimum incomes of
$500. Such families, many of whom had deferred purchases of all
but minimum housekeeping items for several years, were feeling more
and more the need of replacements or actual additions to their stock
of furnishings and equipment. They were thus likely to decide to
undertake such purchases when attractive terms were offered.
The amounts paid off per family with a net decrease in obligations
were greater at low consumption levels than the new amounts in­
curred by families at the same levels having net increases in obliga­
tions. This conservatism in the size of new commitments made does
not disappear until the higher consumption levels are reached.
i3
The cashing of the soldier’s bonus bonds in June 1936 was not an important factor, since the latest month
for which data for any family were obtained was M ay 1936. As the law was enacted in January 1936, a few
families may have made commitments in anticipation of receiving additional funds in June.




7

Chapter
c l o t h in g

1

The clothing dollar of the average employed city worker’s family
must meet many demands. It must provide shoes and sturdy gar­
ments for school children, suitable clothes for the employed member
or members to wear to work, and apparel adequate to meet the
accepted social standards of the community in which the family lives.
That these requirements constitute a major demand upon the
family purse is clear from the proportion of total family expenditures
which they claim. After food and housing, clothing was the next
largest category of expense, yearly disbursements per family averaging
10.6 percent of the total family expenditure. The urgency with
which families regard the need for warm and socially appropriate
clothing is evidenced by the larger outlay for clothing per family at
higher income levels. As incomes permitted, these families of wage
earners and clerical workers spent for clothing not only more dollars,
but a larger proportion of the total family expenditure.
The average clothing expenditure per family was $49 for those
with incomes of $500 to $600, but rose to a much higher figure, $388,
for those with incomes of $2,700 to $3,000, and to $471 for those with
incomes of $3,000 and over. The first figure represents 7.5 percent
of total expenditure of families at the lowest income level studied,
while the last two figures represent more than 14 percent of total
expenditures of families at the highest income levels included in the
investigation.2 At the high income levels family size is greater,
which accounts in part for the very great expansion in clothing expendi­
tures at the upper income levels, but expenditure per person was
definitely higher at higher incomes.
When families are classified 3 on a basis which takes into account
not only the amount of funds available for spending, but the number
of dependents on those funds, the increase in clothing expenditures
from low to high levels is less striking. This is accounted for by
the smaller family size at the higher expenditure levels, discussed in
chapter 3.

,

Clothing E xp en d itu res b y A g e

, Sex, and Occupation

Total family clothing expenditures are by no means prorated
equally among the members of workers’ families. The age, sex, and
activity of the family members make a great difference in their cloth1 See Tabular Summary, table A-17.
2 See ch. 1, table 1, p. 12; ch. 6, figs. 1 and 2; and ch. 8, figs. 1 and 2.
3 See ch. 3, table 7, p. 60.




121

122

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

ing needs, and these differences are reflected in the apportionment
of the family clothing dollar.
In figure A are shown the relative clothing expenditures of persons
of different age, sex, and occupation, as determined from the data
obtained from the present investigation. They represent the com­
posite clothing expenditures of persons of the indicated sex-ageactivity groups in approximately 10,000 white families in 42 cities,
after eliminating the effect of differences in family size and income.4
In the rise and fall of the curves of this chart lies a dramatic story
of changes in the individual's clothing expenditures at different points
in his life. Perhaps the most striking contrast which emerges is the
fact that the high points on the curves for women's clothing expendi­
tures are almost half again as high as those for men's clothing
expenditures.5
In the United States, the clothing purchased by families of low
and moderate income is patterned as closely as possible after the
clothing worn by individuals in the upper income group. In a study
of higher income families recently conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, it was found that clothing expenditures of wives, most of
whom were not employed outside the home, were from a third to a
half greater than those of husbands at incomes of $2,500 or more.
A t first glance at figure A it might appear that women in families
of wage earners and clerical workers also spend more than men for
clothing. Closer examination of the data in this chart shows, how­
ever, that these high clothing expenditures are limited to woman
members of the family who were themselves earners, either in clerical
or wage-earning occupations. The women at home— including the
homemakers, daughters neither in school nor gainfully employed,
and other women who were part of the economic family— spent much
less for clothing than did the employed women. The women at
home also spent distinctly less than the employed men. Clearly,
in these families, economic pressure was so great that women at home
were obliged to keep their own clothing expenditures below even the
small amounts spent by their men for clothes to wear to work, and
below the amounts spent by the woman members of the family who
held jobs. The keen competition which women meet in seeking jobs,
particularly in clerical work, is evidenced in the high expenditures for
clothing of the employed women.
A young woman's activity in the years from 15 to 21 is seen, from
figure A, to have a direct influence upon her clothing budget. If
4 These figures do not reflect differences in income between wage earners and clerical workers, since in­
come and family size were held constant in making the averages graphed in figure A. The average income
of the white families covered in the investigation was $1,546, the average family size was 3.6 persons.
5 The clothing expenditures of male wage earners and clerical workers from 21 through 35, which averaged
$56.68, were taken as equal to 1.00 in the preparation of the chart and the table on which it is based. See
appendix O.




123

CLOTHING

" AESTIMATED ANNUAL CLOTHING EXPENDITURES'
BY PERSONS OF DIFFERENT AGE, SEX, AND OCCUPATION
42 CITIES COMBINED
1.00 »$56.68

0

2

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

36

42

48

AGE

AGE

•AFTER ELIMINATING THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENCES IN FAMILY
SIZE AND INCOME. BASED ON DATA FROM WHITE FAMILIES '

J. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




54

60

66

124

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

she remains in school and dependent on her family, she has less to
spend for clothes, on the average, than her classmates who dropped out
of school to take jobs. But she is apt to have more to spend as a
student than if she marries and sets up her own home, possibly with
the arrival of children before her young husband is well established in
a regular occupation.
It is also noteworthy that clerical workers, whether men or women,
spent more for clothing than did wage earners, with the same income,
but that this situation was much more pronounced in the case of
women after about 26 years of age. Women of maturer years, who
remain in the clerical occupations, though they spend somewhat less
than the younger girls, evidently find it necessary or desirable to
spend substantially more to maintain a good appearance than women
wage earners of their own age. The older women working in fac­
tories or other wage-earning situations apparently can economize by
wearing uniforms or work aprons during the day, but they do spend
for street and dress clothes more than if they were at home and not
receiving a pay check.
The men at home, most of whom were there because of illness or
involuntary unemployment, spent the least for clothing of any of
the adult groups.
After differences in the heights of the curves for the various sexoccupation groups, the next most striking aspect of the curves, shown
in figure A, is their shape through the age span. As would be expected,
clothing expenditures for children increase as they grow older, reaching
a maximum for the age group 18 to 21. (Again it is interesting to
note the higher expenditures for girls than boys from age 12 on.)
For both men and women, the peaks in clothing expenditures come
in the years of early maturity, when they are starting to work, marry­
ing, and establishing themselves in life. There is a tapering off in
clothing expenditures with advancing age, gradual in most cases,
but notably sharp for woman wage earners. The sharpness in the
decline for men at home after age 21 suggests the transition of boys
from the category of those recently out of school and hunting jobs
who have parents to provide for them to that of the older unemployed,
many of them having dependents of their own. The relatively
sharper decline in later years for woman workers than for men from
high levels between 21 and 30 years reemphasizes the greater impor­
tance of clothing to women in the years when they are most likely
to marry.
A n a ly sis o f Clothing Expenditures f o r M e n and W o m en

Turn now to a consideration of the individual clothing items
which make up these total clothing expenditures. The detailed
articles of clothing purchased by the families studied have been




P h o to b y U . S. D e p a r tm e n t of L abor
P L A T E 7 .—W O M A N C L E R IC A L W O R K E R O P E R A T IN G A C H E C K -W R IT IN G




M A C H IN E .

125

C L O T H IN G

tabulated according to sex and age groups, separately for whites and
for Negroes and also for the two color groups combined.6
For both men and women over 18, outerwear, consisting of coats,
sweaters, suits, shirts, and dresses and blouses, took the largest expend­
iture of any group of clothing items. Such garments accounted for,
on the average, $25 a year, or over half of the men’s clothing expend­
itures which totaled $49. They took an average of $23 or 42 percent
of women’s total clothing expenditures of $55.
The rate at which the men in these urban workers’ families pur­
chased coats in 1934-36 would mean that a man bought a new overcoat
or topcoat once in 5 years at an average price of $21. A new light- or
heavy-weight wool suit was bought once in 2 years and cost an average
of $24. Among the women, heavy coats were purchased by two in
nine women, meaning that at that rate these women would buy
new coats once in 4 % years and would pay an average price of $32.
Similarly, these women averaged 1.1 silk or rayon dresses a year,
at an average cost of about $6 per dress.
T a b l e 1 .— Expenditures for Groups of Clothing Items by M en and Women in 14,469
White and Negro Families, at Selected Consumption Levels,1 in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Sex and age group, and item of
clothing

All
fami­
lies 2

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per person

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
of—

All
fami­
lies 2 $200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800 $1,100
to
to
$900 $1,200

Percentage distribution

Men and boys 18 years of age and
$49.18 $26. 89 $54. 47 $75. 87 $106.14 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
over: Total
- ____ ___
1. 25
2. 72
3. 60
5. 50
2. 36
4.8
Headwear_________________
4.6
5.0
4.7
55. 05 51.3 49.6 51. 2 53. 2
25. 24 13. 34 27. 89 40.31
Outerwear ______ _______
3.45
2.01
3.68
5. 09
7. 26
7.0
Underwear____________ ____
7. 5
6.8
6.7
7. 67 12. 63 15. 54
21.20 23.6 28.6 23. 2 20. 5
Footwear
_____
11. 59
2. 62
7. 55 11. 33
Miscellaneous_______ _ __ _ 6. 54
17.13 13.3
9.7 13.8 14.9

100.0
5. 2
51.9
6.8
20.0
16.1

Women and girls 18 years of age
and over: Total _
_ . . 55. 48
Headwear------ -- ---------- 3. 37
Outerwear____________
23. 37
Underwear... ___________ - 6. 96
Footwear ______ ______ _ 17.02
Miscellaneous________ _____ 4. 76

100.0
6.3
47.9
11.9
23.1
10.8

26. 29
1.49
10. 45
3. 23
9. 64
1.48

62. 20
3.81
25. 89
8. 08
19. 03
5. 39

96. 02
6. 02
41.84
11.91
26.35
9. 90

147. 38 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
9. 27
6.1
5.7
6.1
6.3
70. 57 42. 1 39.7 41.6 43.6
17. 48 12. 5 12.3 13.0 12.4
34.08 30.7 36.7 30.6 27.4
15. 98
8.6
5.6
8.7 10.3

1 For fuller explanation of “consumption level” and “economic level,” see ch. 3.
2 The average net income of all families included in this investigation was $1,524.

Footwear, including shoes, slippers, rubbers and arctics, and hose,
accounted for the second major clothing expense for both men and
women (table 1). It represented a larger expenditure, both in dollars
and as a percentage of the total, for women than for men. This fact
6
Averages for white families were so nearly the same as those for all families combined that they have not
been shown in Tabular Summary, table A-17. They may be consulted in the files of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.




126

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

is largely explained by the importance of the items silk and rayon
stockings and shoes. Stockings accounted for $7.41 per person and
cost 72 cents per pair on the average. Shoes cost the average woman
in these workers’ families $7.85 a year.
For men, such items as suspenders, garters, handkerchiefs, gloves,
and ties, grouped under the heading of “ miscellaneous” in table 1,
took the third largest expenditure. They were followed by purchases
of underwear and headwear, in the order named.
For women, on the other hand, expenditures for underwear were
larger on the average than those for miscellaneous accessories or for
headwear.
The size and relative importance of these main groups of clothing
expenditures were not the same for men and women in families
classified at low economic levels as for those in families at high levels.7
Clothing expenditures per person were about four times as great for
men in families with $1,100 to $1,200 per equivalent adult male for
all items as for men in families which spent only $200 to $300 per
adult male for all items. For women in these families clothing ex­
penditures were almost six times greater at the high as compared
with the low level. Although outerwear took the greatest expendi­
tures at all economic levels, it increased in relative importance at
high economic levels among the women, but for men, remained at
about half of total clothing expenditure at all consumption levels.
Footwear for women, on the other hand, declined in relative impor­
tance at higher consumption levels, while expenditures for accessories
and other miscellaneous items were of proportionately greater
importance.
Among the men, also, the same tendencies were found in the changing
importance of footwear and accessory expenditures at high as compared
with low economic levels. The expenditures for major categories of
clothing, at a low and a high economic level, for men and for women
are shown in figure B.
When individual items of clothing are listed in order by size of
expenditure, as in tables 2 and 3, it is evident that some 15 to 17
apparel items constitute about two-thirds to three-fourths of the total
clothing expenditure. These items are not the same, however, and
appear in different rank order at low and at high economic levels.
Thus, for women in families with total unit expenditures of $200 to
$300, silk stockings, followed by street shoes and then by silk and
rayon dresses, lead the list of clothing items. The amounts spent
for them annually, on the average, were small, however— $3.62 per
7 For explanation of classification of families by economic level or consumption level, see ch. 3.




127

CLOTHING

DISTRIBUTION OF ANNUAL CLOTHING
EXPENDITURES FOR INDIVIDUALS IN FAMILIES
AT LOW AND HIGH ECONOMIC LEVELS
WHITE AND NEGRO PERSONS IN 14,469 FAMILIES
IN 4 2 CITIES COMBINED
12 MONTHS WITHIN THE PERIOD 1 9 3 4 - 3 6

MEN

0

U S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




20

40

60

80

128

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

person for silk hose and $2.66 for silk and rayon dresses.8 In terms
of average per article purchased, the expenditures for the women at
the low economic level were 61 cents per pair of silk hose and $4.59
for a silk and rayon or all-rayon dress.
T a b l e 2 . —Expenditures

for Selected Items of Clothing by Women in White and Negro
Fam ilies, at Two Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
IData cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Families with total annual unit expenditure of
$200 to $300

Families with total annual unit expenditure of
$1,100 to $1,200

Average expenditure
Item and rank

Item and rank
Per Per ar­
woman ticle

Total clothing expen d it u r e ..._____ $26. 29
1. Silk hose
________ _ _ ____
2. Street shoes
_____________
3. Silk, rayon dresses
. ______
4. Heavy fur-trimmed coats______
5. Heavy plain coats ___ _____
6. Cotton house dresses_________
7. Dress shoes___ ___________
8. Felt h a t s , ___
. . . ________
9. Cotton street dresses________ _
10. Light wool coats______________
11. Corsets, girdles_______ ____
12. Wool suits ___ _________ _____
13. Ravon bloomers, panties, _ ___
14. Shoe repairs____________ ______
15. Straw hats___________________
16. Cleaning, repairing _ _____
Expenditure for selected items:
Amount
___
__ _______ .
Percent of total clothing ex­
penditure _________________

Average ex­
penditure

3. 62
3.37
2. 66
1.61
1.12
1.10
.94
.86
.81
.75
.60
.59
.47
.46
.41
.39
19. 76
75.2

Per Per ar­
woman ticle
Total clothing expenditure_______ $147.38

$0. 61
2. 96
4. 59
23. 00
14.00
.92
2. 85
1. 51
1.65
12. 50
2.14
9. 83
.39
1.37

1. Silk, rayon dresses.. _ _______
20.64
________
2. Silk h o s e ____
14. 51
3. Fur c o a t s .._________ ____
10.61
4. Street shoes.
. . . ______
9.93
5. Heavv fur-trimmed coats___
9. 53
6. Wool suits __
___ _____
6.05
7. Cleaning, r ep airin g..________
5.92
8. Felt hats_____ ___ _________
4.82
9. Light wool coats____ ______
4. 26
10. Dress shoes
__________ _
4. 24
11. Corsets, girdles __________
3. 89
12. Silk slips ______
_______
3. 61
13. Wool dresses. . .. _________
* 3. 51
14. Cotton street dresses_________
2.98
15. Handbags, purses_______ ____
2.73
16. Heavy plain c o a t s ._____ __
2. 40
17. Straw hats _ __________ . . .
2. 37
Expenditure for selected items:
Amount
112.00
Percent of total clothing ex­
penditure_______________ _
76.0

$8. 29
.95
151. 57
5.12
47. 65
19. 52
3.03
21. 30
5.17
2.19
1.84
10. 32
3.14
2.08
18. 46
3.12

At the consumption level at which families had total unit expendi­
tures of $1,100 to $1,200, the first three items in size of average
expenditure were silk and rayon dresses, silk hose, and fur coats.
Expenditures for the first two items averaged $21 and $15 per per
son, respectively, and $8.29 and $0.95 per article. Fur coats were
purchased by 7 percent of the women at the high consumption level
and did not even appear in the list of items comprising 75 percent of
women’s clothing expenditure at the low level.
Other items which appeared in the list totaling three-fourths of
clothing expenditures of women in families at the high consumption
level, but not at the low level, as shown in table 2, were silk slips, wool
dresses, and handbags. Items which appeared in the list at the low
level but not in the first 17 items at the high level were cotton house
dresses, shoe repairs, and rayon bloomers. The identical 16 items
8
These averages are based upon expenditures of all women in the age group 18 and over, whether they
purchased or not. The women who did not buy any of the indicated items during the entire year were
treated, for purposes of getting the average, as having made zero expenditures.




129

CLOTHING

which comprise 75 percent of total clothing expenditures of women in
families at the low consumption level, accounted for only 65 percent of
expenditures of women in families at the high consumption level.
It is apparent from the relative shifts in importance of these items
that at low consumption levels women must perforce keep their cloth­
ing expenditures to a rather restricted list of necessaries. Even at the
low level, however, they do find several pairs of silk hose and one or
two cheap rayon dresses indispensable. When the women live in
families with much more ample funds, they spend much larger amounts
for hose and dresses, and a few of them buy such luxuries as fur coats;
and more at that level purchase handbags and other accessories, and
the variety is greater and the quality better of wool dresses and suits,
silk slips, and dress shoes purchased.
For the men, it is likewise seen from table 3 that in families at a high
consumption level, they spend not only more for clothing than men
in families with more limited purchasing power, but suits displace
shoes as the item of first importance. Such items as ties, shoe shines,
topcoats, rayon hose, pajamas, and nightshirts receive relatively
more expenditure, and wool trousers, cotton trousers, overalls, and
cotton hose receive relatively less.
T able 3.—Expenditures for Selected Items of Clothing by Men in White and Negro
Fam ilies, at 2 Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months w ithin the period 1934-36]
Families with total annual unit expenditure of
$200 to $300

Item and rank

Average ex­
penditure
Per
man

Total clothing expenditure............ . .
1. Street shoes..................................
2. Heavy wool suits.......................
3. Lightweight wool suits________
4. Cotton and other dress shirts.. —
5. Overcoats
__
6. Work shoes...................................
7. Wool trousers
8. Cleaning, repairing
9. Felt hats
_____
10. Cotton work shirts—....................
11. Shoe repairs
_________ __
12. Overalls, coveralls..... ..................
13. H eavy cotton hose____________
14. Dress cotton hose........... .............
15. Cotton trousers
________
Expenditure for selected items:
Amount
___
Percent of total clothing ex­
penditure




19.99
74.3

Item and rank

Average ex­
penditure
Per
man

Per
article

Per
article

Total clothing expenditure_______ $106.14

$26.89
3. 33
2.84
2. 61
1.53
1. 51
1.10
.92
.89
.86
.86
.82
.74
.72
.66
.60

Families with total annual unit expenditure of
$1,100 to $1,200

$3.30
21.85
18.64
1.08
16.78
2. 56
2.88
2. 53
.80
1.42
.17
.17
1.62

1. Lightweight wool suits_______
2. Heavy wool suits____________
3. Street shoes........ .......................
4. Cleaning, repairing..................
5. Overcoats_____________ _____
6. Cotton and other dress shirts..
7. Ties______________ _______ _
8. Felt hats____________________
9. Shoe shines_________________
10. Topcoats......... ...........................
11. Pajamas, nightshirts ________
12. Cotton work shirts...................
13. Work shoes................................
14. Rayon hose.................................
15. Shoe repairs_________________
Expenditure for selected items:
Am ount____________________
Percent of total clothing ex­
penditure_____________ ___

13.87
12. 75
9.49
8. 45
8.11
7.15
3.97
3. 91
2.46
2.27
2.10
1.66
1.62
1.43
1.36
80.60
75.9

$26.67
31.10
5.97
31.19
1.58
.69
4.12
22.70
1.76
1.21
3.95
.27

130

M ONEY

D ISB U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

VOLUM E

Clothing E xpen d itu res fo r Children

A summary of the main groups of clothing items, for children in all
families studied and in those at three selected consumption levels, is
presented in table 4.9 There were not enough children in families
at the higher consumption levels to justify preparation of separate
averages for higher intervals than that of families with total annual
unit expenditures of $700 and over. The relative importance of foot­
wear in children’s total clothing allowances is seen to be very great
in all the children’s groups and more especially so in the families at the
low consumption level. At higher consumption levels, shoes and
other footwear claim larger dollar expenditures, but are exceeded by
expenditures for outerwear, which occupy a position of greater relative
importance at high than at low consumption levels.
T able 4.— Expenditures for Groups of Clothing Items for Children in 14,469 White
and Negro Fam ilies, at Selected Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Sex and age group and item of expenditure

All
fam­
ilies 1

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$700
and
over

Average expenditure per person
Girls 12 through 17 years: T otal_______ $39.85
1.69
Headwear--- ---- ---------------15. 82
Outerwear_______________________
U nderwear.__ ___________________
4.17
Footwear__________ ______________
15.31
2. 86
M iscellaneous___ ___________ ____ _
Girls 6 through 11 years: T otal________
23. 52
.64
Headwear_______ _______________
Outerwear_____ _________________
8. 22
Underwear______ ____ ______ _____
2. 58
Footwear_________________________ 10.34
Miscellaneous_______•_____________
1.74
Girls 2 through 5 years: T otal_________
16. 83
Headwear. ______ _______ _____
.37
Outerwear___ ______ _____________
5. 67
Underwear_______________________
2. 28
Footwear_________________________
6. 75
Miscellaneous................ ......................
1.76
Boys 12 through 17 years: T otal--------- 35. 58
Headwear________________________
.76
Outerwear_______ ____ ___________
18. 24
Underwear_________ ______ ______
2. 37
Footwear ............ ........ ..................... 11. 68
Miscellaneous____________________
2. 53
Boys 6 through 11 years: Total__.........
25.90
Headwear________________________
.54
Outerwear____________ __________
10. 64
Underwear...........................................
2. 06
F ootw ear.............. ..............................
10.86
Miscellaneous___________________ .
1.80
Boys 2 through 5 years: T otal................. 17. 36
Headwear_______ _______________
.30
Outerwear_______ _________ . . .
5.49
Underwear......... ........ .........................
1.99
Footwear........................... .............. .
7.17
Miscellaneous________ ____ _ _ . . .
2.41

$26. 93
1.08
10. 71
2. 56
11.24
1.34
15. 60
.41
5. 03
1. 64
7. 68
.84
10.18
.20
3. 38
1. 24
4. 50
.86
25.49
.57
12.74
1.67
9.15
1.36
18.73
.34
7.44
1.41
8.60
.94
10. 50
.16
2.99
1.12
4.80
1.43

$58. 83 $107. 42
2. 73
5.10
23. 22
47. 21
6. 78
11.22
20.88
33.12
5. 22
10. 77
38. 66
55. 44
1.04
1.78
14. 47
21.50
4.16
6. 25
15.81
20.12
3.18
5. 79
23. 89
45.97
.58
1.04
8.15
17. 02
3. 42
7.16
9.11
15. 35
2. 63
5. 40
55.08
76.14
1.18
1.49
28. 80
41.13
3. 56
5. 49
16. 66
20. 37
4. 88
7. 66
37. 32
46.14
.85
1.02
15. 65
19. 79
3. 06
3. 87
14. 59
17. 36
3.17
4.10
23. 68
38 87
.42
.72
7.87
12. 43
2.97
4.84
14. 24
9.07
3. 35
6.64

All
fam­
ilies 1

Families with total
annual unit expend­
iture of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

Percentage distribution
100.0
4.2
39.7
10-5
38.4
7.2
100.0
2.7
34.9
11.0
44.0
7.4
100.0
2.2
33.7
13.5
40.1
10.5
100.0
2.1
51.3
6.7
32.8
7.1
100.0
2.1
41.1
8.0
41.9
6.9
100.0
1.7
31.6
11.5
41.3
13.9

100.0
4.0
39.8
9.5
41.7
5.0
100.0
2.6
32.2
10.5
49.3
5.4
100.0
2.0
33.2
12.2
44.2
8.4
100.0
2.2
50.0
6.6
35.9
5.3
100.0
1.8
39.8
7.5
45.9
5.0
100.0
1.5
28.5
10.7
45.7
13.6

100.0
4.6
39.5
11.5
35.5
8.9
100.0
2.7
37.4
10.8
40.9
8.2
100.0
2.4
34.1
14.3
38.2
11.0
100.0
2.1
52.3
6.5
30.2
8.9
100.0
2.3
41.9
8.2
39.1
8.5
100.0
1.8
33.3
12.5
38.3
14.1

1 The average net income of all families included in the investigation was $1,524.
9 D etails of child ren’s clothing expenditures appear in the Tabular Sum m ary, table A-8.




$700
and
over

100.0
4.7
44.0
10. 4
30.9
10.0
100.0
3.2
38. 8
11.3
36.3
10.4
100.0
2.3
37.0
15.6
33.4
11.7
100.0
2.0
54.0
7.2
26.7
10.1
100.0
2. 2
42.9
8.4
37. 6
8.9
100.0
1. 9
32.0
12.4
36.6
17.1

131

CLOTHING

D ifferen ces in Clothing E xpen d itu res o f W h ite and N egro F a m ilies

It is not possible, within the limits of this chapter, to discuss in
detail the differences in clothing expenditures of individuals in white
as compared with those in Negro families. Total clothing expendi­
tures of white men and women at comparable economic levels were
somewhat higher than those of Negroes. (See table 5.) These
differences, in terms of dollars spent, are small at all except the higher
economic levels. In percentage terms, they are moderately large,
however, especially when compared with the differences in income per
family member of white and Negro families within the same economic
level. (See ch. 3.) No consistent relationship was found in the
size of average expenditures for clothing for white children of various
ages as compared with Negro children. In some age groups at some
consumption levels the expenditures for Negro children were higher
on the average than those for white children.
T able 5.— Total Clothing Expenditures per Person, Aged 18 Years and Over, by Color
and Sex, in Fam ilies Classified by Consumption Level, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
White

Negro

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Men

Women

Men

Women

All families 1______________________________________

$49.90

$56.48

$33.13

$33. 23

Under $200 ................................................ ...... ................ $200 to $300________________________________________
$300 to $400______ ______ __________________ ______
$400 to $500____ _____ ______________________________
$500 to $600. ________ ______________________________
$600 to $700 ________ ______________________________
$700 to $800_________ _______________________________

17.04
26.92
37. 51
44.82
54.61
64. 22
73.08

15.58
26.42
38. 22
51.57
62.41
72. 63
83. 92

18.66
26.52
33.16
39. 34
49.43
55.06
8 69. 31

15.05
24.89
34.87
38.76
53.32
59.15
2 83. 85

1 The average income of all white families included in the investigation was $1,546, of Negro families was
$1,008.
2 Figures for Negroes are for families with total unit expenditures of $700 and over.




Chapter 3
TRANSPORTATION AND R ECR EATIO N 1
Annual expenditures for transportation and for recreation constitute
respectively the fourth and fifth largest category in the average outlay
of moderate-income families in cities. The average yearly expendi­
ture in 1934-36 for 14,469 families was $125 for transportation,
and $82 for the amounts classified in this study under the heading of
recreational expense. This latter item includes sums spent for amuse­
ments, games and sports, for recreational supplies and equipment, for
nontechnical reading, and for tobacco. The amounts spent for trans­
portation and recreation were exceeded only by expenditures for food,
housing (including fuel, light, and refrigeration) and clothing. (See
fig . 1 .)

No sharp separation can be made among these five major categories
of family expenditure on the basis of “ necessaries” and “ luxuries.”
Although a family must, of course, have a minimum of food, shelter,
and clothing, not all elements in such expenditures, particularly among
families at higher consumption levels, come within strict definitions of
“ necessity.” Such, for example, are purchase of meals in restaurants,
of candy, ice cream, and drinks, of novelty items of clothing and of
housefurnishings selected with an eye to their prestige value. As
necessary as minimum food essentials, to most urban families, is the
use of some form of conveyance to work, school, and markets. The
daily reading of at least one newspaper, listening to the radio, and
occasional attendance at the movies provide information and the
relaxation necessary in the tension of city living. Performance of
routine, repetitive tasks during the day, and living in the close quar­
ters frequently enforced by population concentration in our larger
cities make desirable some form of relaxation and diversion to main­
tain bodily and mental health.
Obviously the expenses classified under the heading of “ recreation”
do not include all the sums spent for goods and services used in con­
nection with activities which are thought of as recreational. An im­
portant part of transportation expense, especially by families at the
higher consumption levels, represents money spent for week-end out­
ings, picnics on summer evenings, visits, and trips to the movies. Yet
it is impracticable to separate expense for such purposes from transpor­
tation to school or work; the total automobile expenditure, whether for
recreational trips or otherwise,2 therefore appears here as transporta1 See Tabular Summary, table A-9, for transportation and table A-10 for recreation.
2 Expenditures for use of the family automobile for strictly business purposes, such as by a salesman,
were deducted from family automobile expenditure. Such use was infrequent among families of wage earners
and clerical workers. (See appendix D , notes on tables.)

132




TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

FAMILY EXPENDITURES FOR TRANSPORTATION
AND RECREATION COMPARED WITH THOSE FOR FOOD,
HOUSING AND CLOTHING AT SUCCESSIVE
INCOME LEVELS, 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 6
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 4 2 CITIES
ANNUAL EXPENDITURE

On Dollars)

U S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




ANNUAL EXPENDITURE

(/„ Dollars)

133

134

M ONET

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

VOLUM E

tion expense. Refreshments served to guests in or out of the home
appear as food expenditures. Boy Scout uniforms and athletic gar­
ments were listed as clothing expenditures. Conversely, some items
listed under the heading of recreational expense are educational as
much as recreational in nature.3

,

E xp en d itu res fo r T ran sportation and R ecrea tion b y In com e L evel

It is clear that in the two categories of family expenditure under con­
sideration in this chapter— transportation and recreation— are mingled
elements of education, relaxation, and essential utility. Nevertheless,
there is a substantial proportion of “ luxury” expenditure in these
categories as evidenced by the changes in spending for these items at
different income levels. Transportation and recreation expenditures
for families at successive income levels, when plotted as curves, show
a much sharper upward inclination than do the curves for food and
housing. (See fig. 2.) This is particularly true when the curve for
automobile transportation is separated from that for other trans­
portation, the automobile curve going up quite steeply at higher in­
come levels. The actual expenditures for food and housing also
increase from one income level to the next, but the increase is rela­
tively much less rapid than that for automobile and recreation ex­
penditures. This means that a larger part of the expenditures for
these two categories is of a relatively less urgent nature; it represents
items added to the family consumption when incomes permit, but
dispensable in times of emergency or event of income contraction.
The curves for total transportation expenditure and for clothing, on
the other hand, at most points within the income range of the families
studied in this investigation, bear a fairly close resemblance. Evi­
dently the purchase of an automobile vies closely with increases in
clothing expenditures, as family incomes increase.
Combined transportation and recreation expenditures accounted
for 13.7 percent of the total family expenditure, which averaged
$1,512 for all the families surveyed. Transportation alone accounted
for 8.3 percent of the total, and within the income limits of $500 to
$3,000 approached but did not exceed expenditures for clothing.
Both transportation and recreation expenditures increased at higher
income levels, in dollars and as percentages of total family expendi­
ture, though transportation expenditures showed the greater elas­
ticity. Expenditures for automobile purchase, operation, and main­
tenance were much more elastic than those for all other forms of
* R eading expenditures (other th an purchase of school textb ooks w hich were classified w ith expenditures
for form al education, and for technical journals or literature w hich were classified as occupational expense)
have been inclu ded under th e heading of recreation, although th e d a ily new spaper claim s th e major part of
th e to ta l reading expenditure. M u sical instrum ents and supplies, w hich m a y have been purchased for use
b y children, have also been included w ith expenditures for recreation, although expenditures for m u sic
lessons w ere treated as a part of formal education expenditure. (See appendix D , notes on tables.)




T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

AND

R E C R E A T IO N

RELATIVE FAMILY EXPENDITURES
FOR TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION COMPARED
WITH THOSE FOR FOOD, HOUSING AND CLOTHING
AT SUCCESSIVE INCOME LEVELS, 193 4-1936
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 4 2 CITIES

ANNUAL EXPENDITURE
(In D o lla rs )

ANNUAL EXPENDITURE
( I n D o lla rs )

The slopes o f the lin es show the percent increase in expenditure corresponding to the percent increase in income.
A slope greater than that o f a 4 5 degree line represents a gain o f the specified kind o f expenditure relatively
g reater than the gain in income, a slope less than that o f a 4 5 degree Une represents a gain relatively smaller

U. S

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

242949°— 41-




10

135

136

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

transportation. Automobile expenditure was 10 times as great at
the income level $2,700 to $3,000 as at the $600 to $900 level, while
the average income at the former level was almost 4 times that at
the latter. Expenditure for transportation other than by automobile
failed to keep pace with the change in income and was only 3 times
as great. (See fig.. 2 and ch. 6, figs. 1 and 2.)
T

able

1.— Expenditures for Recreation and Transportation o f 14,469 Families,
by Income Level, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Average expenditure
Average expenditure per family forper person for—
Aver­
age
num­
Other
Other
Other
ber of
Auto­ trans­ Recre­ Auto­
Annual net income per­ Recre­ mobile 1 porta­ ation mobile 1 trans­ Recre­ Auto­ trans­
porta­ ation mobile 1 porta­
ation
sons
tion
tion
tion
per
fam­
ily
Percent of total expend­
Amount
Amount
iture
All families................. 3.60

5.4

5.8

2.5

$82

$87

$38

$23

$24

$11

$500 to $600_________
$600 to $900_ ................
$900 to $1,200...........
$1,200 to $1,500.......... .
$1,500 to $1,800..........
$1,800 to $2,100______
$2,100 to $2,400______
$2,400 to $2,700______
$2,700 to $3,000.......... .
$3,000 and over...........

4.3
4.5
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.6
6.0
6.3
6.5
7.1

1.4
2.3
3.6
5.3
6.1
7.3
7.5
6.7
7.2
6.4

2.7
3.0
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.7
2.9
3.5

28
38
54
72
87
104
129
152
177
232

9
20
40
73
99
136
162
161
196
209

18
25
29
33
40
43
52
66
78
113

9
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
47

3
6
12
21
27
36
40
38
45
43

5
8
9
9
11
12
13
15
18
24

3.11
3.18
3.41
3. 54
3.62
3.76
4.03
4. 27
4.37
4.81

i Includes expenditures for purchase, operation, and maintenance.

The fact that higher family incomes among these wage earners
and clerical workers are definitely associated with large families and
with more adult earners has already been discussed in the first chapter
of this report. (See p. 16.) When recreation and transportation
expenditures are reduced to a per person basis, as in the last three
columns of table 1, the increase from low to high income levels is
accordingly less marked. The elasticity in expenditures for these
two items remains, even on a per person basis, but is less striking
than on the family basis. The expenditures per person at the income
level $2,700 to $3,000, as compared to those at the $600 to $900 level,
were over 3 times as great for recreation, 7% times as great for auto­
mobile expenditure, and a little over 2 times as large for other forms
of transportation. Income per person was almost 3 times as great
at the high level under discussion— $659 as against $244 at the $600
to $900 level.
The proportion of families owning automobiles increased rapidly
from low to high income levels. This rise, however, was not as great
as the increase in the proportion purchasing cars during the schedule
year. As would be expected, the families in the upper income levels
find it much easier to buy a new car than would the families at the




137

TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

lower levels, who generally try to make the family car “ last another
year.”
T able 2.— Families Owning and Purchasing Automobiles, by Income Level, in 42 Cities
Combined
[D ata cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Percentage of families
Total annual income

Owning
automo­
biles

Purchasing
automobiles
during sched­
ule year

All families

44.4

10.8

$600 to $600__________
$600 to $900_________ ____________________________________________________
$900 to $1,200___________________ ________________________________________
$1,200 to $1,500 ________ ____ __________________________________________
$1,500 to $1,800 _________ _____________________________________________
$1,800 to $2,100 _______ ____ ____________________________________________
$2,100 to $2,400_______________ ________________________________________
$2,400 to $2,700 ___________________________________________________
$2,700 to $3,000 ______________________ _____ _____ ___________________
$3,000 and over ________ ______ __ ______ ___ _____ _______________ ___

9.5
21. 7
32.6
45.1
49.8
56. 2
58.8
54.6
61. 7
60.1

1. 6
4. 3
6.2
9. 4
12.1
15.1
18.4
19.1
16. 7
26.5

Expenditures fo r Transportation and Recreation 9
by Consum ption Level
The effect upon family spending for transportation and recreation,
when family size as well as income are taken into account, is shown by
a comparison of table 3 with table 1. Average expenditures per person
at high consumption levels 4 (table 3) were markedly greater than those
at high income levels (table 1).
Table 3.— Expenditures Per Person for Recreation and Transportation of 14,469
Families, by Consumpton Level, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average expenditure per person
for—
Average
total ex­
penditure
per
family

Average
number of
persons
per
family

Recrea­
tion

All families....................................... .............

$1,512

3.60

$23

$24

$11

Under $200.....................................................
$200 to $300_____ ______ _________________
$300 to $400.....................................................
$400 to $500.....................................................
$500 to $600....................... - ...........................
$600 to $700.....................................................
$700 to $800____________________ ________
$800 to $900....................................................
$900 to $1,000.......... ...........................-............
$1,000 to $1,100-.............................................
$1,100 to $1,200................................................
$1,200 and over..............................................

947
1,171
1,314
1,448
1,586
1,681
1,806
1,911
2,071
2,314
2,444
2,759

6.49
5.19
4.16
3. 54
3.13
2.79
2. 55
2.38
2.28
2. 26
2.21

6
10
16
21
28
36
42

2
5
12
18
28

8

Total annual unit expenditure

2 .00

49
57
59

62
86

4 For fuller explanation of “consumption level” and “economic level” see ch. 3.




Automo­
bile pur­
Other
chase, oper­ transpor­
ation, and
tation
mainte­
nance

39

56

68
97

152
144

220

4
6

11
13
15
17
19

20
18

24
29

138

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

Automobile expenditures per person for families at the relatively
high consumption level represented by a total expenditure of $1,100 to
$1,200 per equivalent adult per year, are 29 times as great as those for
families spending only $200 to $300 per year per equivalent adult.
Recreation expenditures per person were 6 times as great; while
transportation expenditures other than by automobile were 4 times
as great per person at the high consumption level as compared with the
low.
Autom obile and Radio Ownership
The automobile and the radio have truly wrought a revolution in
the transportation and recreation facilities within reach of the average
employed wage-earner or clerical worker’s family as compared with
what they could afford 20 years ago. The extent to which these
goods have become part of the consumption patterns of moderateincome families is shown for all the families surveyed and for families
at selected consumption levels as follows:
T o ta l a n n u a l u n it e x p en d itu re

P er c e n ta g e o f fa m ilie s o w n in g —
M o r e than 1
A u to m o b ile s
a u tom obile

R a d io s

All families_____________ __ 74. 0

44. 4

0. 8

$200 to $300___________
$500 to $600___________ . .
$800 to $900_____ _____ _
$1,100 to $1,200________ __

27.
48.
58.
66.

.4
.8
.9
3. 1

63.
76.
80.
84.

8
7
8
8

8
5
4
5

It is not surprising that radios, being much less expensive, were
owned by more than twice as many families as owned automobiles, at
the low consumption level. Automobile ownership, however, increased
relatively more rapidly than radio ownership at higher consumption
levels. This suggests that at the lower economic levels, the satura­
tion point has been more nearly reached for radios than for automo­
biles, or conversely, that the demand for automobiles is, at the present
time, relatively much more expansible than that for radios, in the
wage-earner and clerical group.
The number of families owning more than one automobile was
negligible at all except the highest consumption levels. That the
figure there is as high as 3 percent is explained by the fact that such
families usually had several adult earners. The second car represents,
in practically all cases, a purchase by an earning son or daughter.
Autom obile Expenditures
That these automobiles were generally purchased second-hand
rather than new is indicated by the average net expenditure (gross
price, minus trade-in allowance) of $300 per family purchasing an




TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

139

automobile. (See table 4.) Of the cars bought by the 10.8 percent
of families making purchases during the survey year, only one-fourth
were new cars. The proportion of families buying new automobiles
increased very markedly, however, at higher consumption levels, while
the proportion buying used cars also increased, but not so sharply. At
low economic levels a family can manage to have a car only by buying
a used one at second-, third-, or fourth-hand. As their per capita
resources increase, more can buy used cars and they buy somewhat
less ancient models in a better state of repair. Increasingly, at higher
levels more families are able to buy new cars, almost universally on
the installment plan.
T able

4 . — Expenditures fo r

Automobile and Motorcycle Purchase, Operation, and

Maintenance, by Families, at Selected Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Percent of automobiles owned, made i n 1933 or later__.......................... .................... ............................
1927 to 1932....................................................... .......................
Before 1927__________________________________________
Percent of families purchasing automobiles in year:
New cars__________________________ : __________________
_
Second-hand cars____ ____________________ ____________
Percent of families purchasing motorcycles in year___________
Average expenditure per family purchasing for—
Automobile purchase 1_______________________________ .
Motorcycle purchase__________________________________
Average expenditure per automobile-owning family for—
Total operation and m aintenance______________________
Gasoline ________________________________________
Oil........................................................................................
Tires and tubes __________________________________
Repairs and maintenance__________________________
Other automobile and motorcycle expense___________

Families with total annual unit
expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
$200 to $500 to $800 to $1,100
to
$600
$900
$300
$1,200

18.1
72.8
9.1

3.2
77.6
19.2

15.6
77.5
6.9

31.9
62.2
5.9

57.9
34.9
7.2

2.7
8.1
.1

.1
4.0
.2

1.6
8.6
0

7.5
11.6
0

27.9
8.4
0

$300
60

$104
70

$259
0

$385
0

$557
0

123
67
8
7
11
30

84
47
6
6
6
20

125
69
8
8
11
29

150
81
9
8
14
38

173
93
11
6
16
47

1 Gross price, minus trade-in allowance.

Motorcycles were purchased by a negligible fraction of the families
studied, and gasoline and oil for motorcycles formed an insignificant
part of total expenditures for these items.
Operation and maintenance expenditures per car-owning family are
shown in table 4. Gasoline constituted over half of the total at all
consumption levels. Repairs and maintenance expenditures were fairly
low, since a large proportion of the wage earners make most of the
repairs on their cars themselves. Garage rent and parking charges,
licenses, taxes, insurance, fines and damages, and other miscellaneous
expenses came to an average of $30 per year for all families in the sur­
vey. The much larger expenditures per owning family at high
consumption levels for gasoline and other operating expenses indicates
greater daily use of the car at those levels and more week-end outings
and vacation trips.




140

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

The fact that many of the families surveyed (over half at lower
consumption levels) did not have cars means that when averages are
computed for all families surveyed the average is reduced by those fam­
ilies not purchasing. The details of automobile expenditure with aver­
ages for all families surveyed 5 are presented in table 5. On that basis
total automobile and motorcycle purchase, operation, and maintenance
accounted for 2.4 percent of family expenditure for families with
total annual unit expenditures of $200 to $300, but increased to 13.0
percent for families spending $1,100 to $1,200 per unit and averaged
5.8 percent for all families surveyed. Automobile purchase accounted
for only 0.4 percent of all family expenditure at the low level, rose
to 8.3 percent at the high level, and averaged 2.1 percent for all
families.
T able

5 . — Automobile and Motorcycle Expenditure o f 14,469 Families, at Selected

Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Percent of families in survey. _ _ __ _
_________ ___
Percent of families owning automobiles. . . . _ __________ .
Percent of automobiles owned
__ . . . _ ______. . .
Made in—
1936______________________________________________
1933-35___________________________________________
1930-32
.
. . .
__________________________
1927-29___________________________________________
Before 1927
. . _______ . . . . ___________
Originally purchased—
N ew .
_ _ _ ______ _____ _ . _____ ______
Second-hand__
____ ___ _
_
_ . . . __
Percent of families purchasing automobiles in year:
N e w .. _ _____
______
_ . . .
_ _______
_ _____ ...
Second-hand _______ _ __ _ . _
Percent of families purchasing motorcycles in year_______ ____

All
fam­
ilies

Families with total annual unit
expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

100.0
44. 4
100. 0

12.2
27.8
100.0

15.8
48. 5
100.0

4.6
58. 4
100. 0

0.8
66. 5
100.0

1.3
16.8
31.0
41.8
9.1

0
3.2
18. 4
59.2
19. 2

.6
15.0
32. 9
44.6
6. 9

2. 7
29. 2
33.9
28.3
5. 9

2 1 .0

37. 2
62.8

19. 9
80.1

38.3
61. 7

50. 4
49. 6

71.1
28. 9

2.7
8.1
.1

.1
4.0
.2

1.6
8.6
0

7. 5
11.6
0

27.9
8 4
0

$1,100
to
$1,200

7.9
50.0
13.9
7. 2

Average annual amount
Purchase, operation, and maintenance, t o t a l_______ ______
Purchase of—
Automobiles_____________
___.. _______________ _
Motorcycles_____________ ____ ___________ ____ ________
Gasoline________________________________________ . . . ____
Oil________________________________________________ _____
Tires______ __________________________ __________________
Tubes_______ . . . ___ ________ ____ _____________________
Repairs and maintenance_________________ ____________ __
Garage rent and parking____________________ ____________
Licenses and taxes_____________________________ _________
Insurance. ____________ ________ _______ _____ ____ _____
Fines and damages.. _ _______ ___________________ __ __
Rent of automobile and/or motorcycle
_
_
. ____
Other automobile and motorcycle transportation e x p e n s e ..__

$87. 44

$27.63

32. 44
.05
29. 77
3. 66
2.87
.37
4. 88
3.22
4. 69
3. 96
.28
1.09
.16

4. 25
. 14
13.03
1.64
1.24
. 15
1. 69
.70
2. 74
.81
.08
1.03
.13

$86. 99 $161. 24
26. 40
0
33. 35
4.05
3.45
.48
5. 37
3.31
5.02
3.92
.44
1.06
.14

73. 55
0
47.12
5. 50
4.03
.48
8.17
6.30
6. 77
7.37
.43
1.09
.43

$317.34
202. 33
0
61. 77
7. 24
3.60
.42
10.65
8.88
8.34
12. 78
.33

. 78
.22

* The average expenditures shown in table 5 may be converted to average expenditures per automobile­
owning family by dividing the expenditure in question by the percent of families owning automobiles at
the given consumption level.







P h o to b y U . S. D ep a r tm e n t of L abor
P L A T E 8 .—W O R K E R S ’ A U T O M O B IL E S P A R K E D O U T S ID E A F A C T O R Y IN B A L T IM O R E .




P h o to b y N ation al Park S ervice

P l a t e 9 . —A f t e r -Wo r k

r e c r e a t i o n in a

P ublic

p a r k in a

La r g e E a s t e r n C i t y .

TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

141

Other T ran sportation E xp en d itu res

Expenditures for transportation other than by automobile or motor­
cycle account for $38, or 2.5 percent of the total expenditure of the
families surveyed. Though the amounts are relatively small, these
expenditures cover not only daily streetcar or bus fares for a large
proportion of the families, but also the more rare boat and railroad
rides and a very few airplane rides. Average expenditure per family
for the “ other” transportation vras generally higher at successive
consumption levels but the percentage of total expenditure devoted to
it declined from low to high consumption levels, being 2.7 percent for
families spending annually $200 to $300 per unit and 2.2 percent for
those spending $1,100 to $1,200 per unit. The principal factor in this
decline is the smaller proportion of expenditures going to streetcar
fares at higher consumption levels. The proportion of families report­
ing trolley expenditure rises slightly from low to middle consumption
levels and then tapers off slightly at higher consumption levels, as auto­
mobile ownership becomes more frequent. It averages 81 percent for
all families surveyed. Streetcar fares constituted $28 or 89 percent of
“ other” transportation expenditures among families with total annual
unit expenditure of $200 to $300, and $35 or only 66 percent of the
total for those spending $1,100 to $1,200.
Railroad and local bus tie for second place in terms of use, with
9.4 percent of families reporting expenditure for each. There was a
considerable increase, however, from low to high consumption levels in
proportion of families reporting railroad fares, which are more of the
“ luxury” type of expenditure for vacations or special trips. The
train trips were not generally long ones, however, as indicated by the
average expenditure of $19 per family reporting such expenditures.
Taxis, reported by 8.1 percent of the families, likewise were used much
more frequently by families at higher consumption levels.
The
amounts spent for taxis averaged 50 cents per month for the families
using them, but only 50 cents a year for all families in the survey.
After taxis the forms of public conveyance next most frequently
reported as used were the interurban bus, followed by boats. Interurban busses evidently are used by a small proportion of the families
for regular commutation, as neither the proportion of families using
them nor the amount spent per family spending show any marked
increase at higher consumption levels. Boat fares, on the other hand,
are in the “ luxury” class with train fares, showing a sharp upward
tendency at higher consumption levels.
Bicycle expenditure, either for purchase or repair, was reported
by less than 1 percent of the families and was more frequent at the
lower consumption levels where most of the children are found. Air­
plane rides were very rarely reported, and the amounts spent for them




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

142

indicated that in general they were limited to sightseeing trips over a
city. So few families reported such expense that the averages, even
when based on families reporting expenditure, were erratic, reflecting
the unusual expenditures of one or two families.
Details of transportation other than by automobile or motorcycle
for families at selected consumption levels are shown in table 6.
T

able

6 . — Expenditures for Transportation Other than by Automobile or Motorcycle, by

Families, at Selected Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

All
fami­
lies

Item

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Percent of families spending
Streetcar..................... ............
Local bus____ _____________
Taxi______________________
Bicycles, purchase and repair.
Railroad__________________
Interurban bus_____________
Boat____ __________________
Airplane...................................

80.8
9.4
8.1
.9
9.4
6.6
4.3
.2

79.4
8.0
4.1
1.0
4.7
4.5
1.8
0

82.7
9.0
8.5
.9
9.4
6.3
5.2
.1

80.9
11.5
13.1
.1
17.9
10.4
5.9
.6

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per family
spending

76.8 $39.49 $35. 59 $41.92 $40. 78
12.6 25. 64 20.00 25.89 36.09
23.3
6. 30
5.12
6.00 11.80
21.11 18.00 18. 89 30.00
0
28.0 19.04 12. 34 17. 34 25. 64
6.6 12.88 14. 22 13.49 14.81
10.0 13.95
4.44 11.15 14. 58
0
5.00
0
30.00
1. 67

$45.76
24.52
6.61
0
27. 57
15.30
40.70
0

R ecreation E xp en d itu res

Expenditures for recreation, including amounts spent for amuse­
ments and recreational equipment, tobacco, and reading, took 5% cents
of each dollar spent by these families of wage earners and clerical work­
ers. Although there was a substantial increase in the amount spent,
from low to high consumption levels, the percentage of total expendi­
tures going for recreation thus defined showed only a slight tendency
to increase at higher levels (see table 7).
T a b l e 7 . — Summary o f Expenditures for Recreation, by Families, at Selected

Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Amount




15. 36
28.97
18. 62
19. 34

11.17
21.26
11.49
8.93

16. 49
31.80
20. 78
19.87

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Percent of total family expenditure

Recreation, total................... $82.29 $52.85 $88.94 $116.00 $137.80
Reading .................................
Tobacco--........................... .
Commercial entertainment-.
Other recreation....................

All
fami­
lies

19. 55
35.28
26.90
34. 27

23.18
40. 52
32.26
41. 84

5.4

4.5

5.6

6.1

5.6

1.0
1.9
1.2
1.3

.9
1.8
1.0
.8

1.0
2.0
1.3
1.3

1.0
1.9
1.4
1.8

.9
1.7
1.3
1.7

TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

143

The average expenditure for tobacco among all the families surveyed
accounted for over a third of the total spent for recreation. Reading;
commercial entertainment, including movies, plays, concerts, and
spectator sports; and other recreational expenditures made up the
total.
Averages, as in table 7, based on all families surveyed, whether or
not they incurred a given expenditure, do not readily present a picture
of the actual spending for individual items. Various types of recrea­
tion, by their very nature, make more appeal to the tastes or needs of
one family than another. Thus families with small children are partic­
ularly interested in play equipment; those with members musically
inclined purchase musical instruments or supplies. Some who are
athletically inclined want sport equipment; others find their pleasure
in the radio and in magazines. The percentages given in table 8 show
the wide range in proportion of families reporting expenditures for the
specific items making up the recreation total.
Reading of the daily newspaper and some attendance at movies are
the items which are almost universally reported. A newspaper, either
delivered to the home or bought at a newsstand, was reported by
almost all of the families surveyed, even at the low consumption levels.
Reading of a daily paper is a habit of great tenacity, and serves almost
all the family members. Magazines were reported by a much smaller
proportion of families, but a proportion which increased rapidly at
higher consumption levels. Evidently magazine subscriptions or news­
stand purchases are items which families add to their expenditures as
rapidly as resources permit. The amount per family spending, how­
ever, even at high consumption levels, was not so much as $6 per year.
In reviewing the expenditures for books and magazines, it is
important to remember the fact that these data represent the expend­
itures of families in the larger cities of the country where library
facilities are readily available to most families. The families buying
books spent enough to buy several inexpensive ones. Those renting
books from loan libraries paid enough, even at the relatively low
consumption level of those with total annual unit expenditures of $200
to $300, to read 10 books per year, assuming an average rental charge
of 15 cents per book, and the expenditure was much higher at higher
consumption levels.
Cigarette purchases were reported by only a little over half the
families at the low consumption level but by three-fourths at the high
level (see table 8). About 50 cents per week per family spending
went for this purpose at the low consumption level, compared with
almost 90 cents at the high consumption level. The tension of routine
jobs and city living, together with unusually effective advertising, have
contributed to a rather wide extension of smoking, and to many of the
smokers in the families surveyed, daily smokes were necessaries.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

144

The items listed in tabl6 8 tell equally interesting stories regarding
other items of the urban family’s recreation expenditures. Movies
are attended by adults increasingly at higher consumption levels, where
the expenditure reaches a figure of over 50 cents per week per family
spending. Expenses for plays and concerts are reported by a some­
what larger proportion than those buying books, though the per­
centage of families reporting and the amount spent per family incur­
ring such expense both rise at higher consumption levels.
T

able

8 . — Expenditures fo r Recreation, by Families, at Selected Consumption Levels,

in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

All
fam­
ilies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Percent of families spending
Newspapers, street_________
Newspapers, home delivery.
Magazines________________
Books purchased (other than
school texts)_____________
Books borrowed from loan
libraries_________________
Cigars____________________
Cigarettes_________________
Pipe tobacco_______________
Other tobacco_____________
Movies (adult admission)___
Movies (child admission)___
Plays and concerts_________
Spectator sports____________
Musical instruments_______
Sheet music, records, rolls___
Radio purchase.....................
Radio upkeep_____________
Cameras, films, and photo­
graphic equipment_______
Athletic equipment and sup­
plies____________________
Children’s play equipment...
Pets"(purchase and care)___
Recreational associations___
Entertaining in home 1_____
Entertaining out of home L ..

40.3
70.5
51.5

All
fam­
ilies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

Average expenditure per family
spending

39.3
71.2
45.1

33.8
70.4
26.6

5.0

2.1

5.7

7.4

12.4

7.40

5. 24

3.6
15.5
58.9
26.3
8. 6
79.8
29.9
7.9
19.8
2.5
5.5
9.7
25.7

.6
10.0
53.4
28.2
13.5
65.0
48.3
4.6
10.6
2 5
3.7
7.9
19.3

3.9
17.5
61.6
24.6
6.8
84.2
26.3
8.8
21.5
2.7
5.6
9.3
28.4

5.5
20.1
61.9
22.3
4.6
88.8
8.4
12.8
30.9
1.8
4.2
11.4
29.3

11.0
16.2
73.6
24.2
2.8
94.3
2.7
13.4
28.2
1.7
4.5
17.6
29.9

3. 61
17. 61
37. 88
10. 38
13. 95
18.37
7.19
5. 57
6. 92
45. 60
3. 27
50.10
4.24

1. 67
14.00
28. 43
10. 35
13. 04
11. 65
7.10
1. 96
3. 77
27.20
2.70
40. 76
3.26

17.1

7.7

18.2

24.9

26.7

3. 27

1. 56

3.63

3.78

3.22

8.0
20.2
19.4
18.6
6.2
3.3

5.5
21.6
12.2
10.9
1.5
1.5

7.8
20.7
21.4
20.4
6.8
3.2

10.7
8.0
25.7
24.5
11.0
5.3

10.3
1.7
14. 2
36.2
22.0
11.0

9. 25
7. 52
9.90
10. 65
9. 52
27. 27

5.27
5. 46
4. 34
8. 62
4. 00
10.00

9. 23
8.12
9. 72
10.00
7. 21
33.12

13. 55
10. 62
15.14
15. 27
16. 27
57.55

8.45
50. 59
27. 39
12. 04
15. 86
24. 27

45.7
68.2
62.4

55.5 $11.86
69.1 11.43
73.3
4. 57

$9. 02 $12.85 $14. 07
10.13 11. 87 12. 80
3. 27
4. 56
5.80
8. 42

$16.14
12. 71
5.23

6. 49

8.95

2.82
5. 27
18. 91 22. 09
40. 29 44.23
10.89 12. 33
14. 56 15. 43
20. 23 24. 74
7.57
8.45
5. 34
7. 03
6. 00 10.74
40. 00 115. 56
3. 21
3. 57
49. 78 56. 67
4.47
4.81

4. 55
22. 28
46.10
8. 02
37.14
29. 66
2. 22
9. 78
10. 35
64.12
3. 56
77. 73
5. 42

1Except food and drinks.

Radios were purchased during the year by about 10 percent of the
families surveyed, at an average price of $50. A t higher consumption
levels, as would be expected, the price paid was greater. It will be
recalled that the proportion of the families owning radios (see p. 138)
was substantially greater than the proportion purchasing. About a
fourth of the families had some expense during the year for radio
repair or upkeep, such as purchase of new tubes.

Musical instruments were purchased by a very limited number of
families. The size of the expenditures suggests some, second-hand
pianos and some smaller instruments, such as banjos.




145

TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

The photographic hobby is one enjoyed by a substantial proportion
of the families surveyed, particularly at the higher consumption levels,
though the amounts spent were so small as to cover, in most instances,
only films and some developing.
Amounts spent for children’s play equipment per family spending
increased strikingly at higher consumption levels. The desire to supply
children with adequate toys is evidently very strong and is gratified
when means permit.
Memberships in the Y . M . C. A. or other associations providing
recreational facilities or outings were reported by a tenth of the families
at the low consumption level, but by a third at the high level.
Favors, party decorations, and other forms of entertaining accounted
for relatively small expenditures by a small proportion of the families,
though both proportions and expenditures showed a tendency to be
greater at high consumption levels.
Certain of the items of recreation which by their nature cannot be
shared among all members of the economic family are presented in
table 9 on the basis of expenditure per person. Pipe-tobacco expendi­
tures per man are about the same at all consumption levels, while cigars
show some increase at higher levels and cigarettes show a large in­
crease. Most of the other items show substantial increases in expendi­
ture per person at higher consumption levels.
T able

9 . — Expenditure per Person o f Specified Age or Sex for Selected Items o f Rec­

reation, for Families at Selected Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities Combined
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

All families

Item

Cigars per man 18 years of age and over__________ _
Pipe plus other tobacco per man 18 years of age and
over ____________________________________ ____
Cigarettes per person 16 years of age and over______
Movies (adult) per person 16 years of age and over...
Movies (child) per child under 16 years of age______
Plays and concerts per person 16 years of age and over.
Children’s play equipment per child under 16 years of
age---------------- ------- -------- -------- ---------

Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture of—
$200 to
$300

$500 to
$600

$800 to
$900

$1,100 to
$1,200

$2.39

$1.09

$2.98

$4.15

$3.68

3.45
8. 68
5.70
2.09
.17

3.66
5.09
2.54
1.55
.03

3. 31
12.17
6.98
2. 88
.19

3.22
12. 45
9.99
3.94
.41

3.04
15.93
13.13
7.50
.62

1.48

.53

2.43

4.72

10.75

Geographical V ariations in E xp en d itu res For T ransportation
and R ecreation

The effect of population density, as well as differences in incomes, on
expenditures for transportation are strikingly apparent when data on
automobile expenditures are compared as between regions. Somewhat
less striking, but none the less interesting, differences among the cities
of various regions occur in expenditures for movies, tobacco, and street-




146

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

car fares. Data for selected items of transportation and recreation by
region are shown in table 10.6
The percentage of families owning automobiles is very much higher
in the Pacific coast cities than in New York City, with cities in the
Fig 3

PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES
OWNING AUTOMOBILES AND RADIOS
1934-1936
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES GROUPED BY REGION
PERCENTAGE

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

NEW YORK CITY

II NORTH
ATLANTIC CITIES

12 SOUTHERN
CITIES

8 EAST NORTH
CENTRAL CITIES

5 WEST NORTH
CENTRAL CITIES

5 PACIFIC COAST
CITIES

OWNING AUTOMOBILES

H j|j

OWNING

RAOIOS

U S BUREAU O LABOR STATISTICS
F

two North Central regions ranking comparatively high. The low of
15 percent in New York City clearly reflects the high cost of garage
and parking space, traffic hindrances, and the alternative of cheap
and rapid subway transportation. The fact that North Atlantic
• In preparing th is table, the data from all of the cities studied w ith in a region were pooled, g ivin g to each
c ity a relative im portance in the regional average proportionate to the size of the sam ple in th a t city . (See
app en dix C .)




147

TRANSPORTATION AND RECREATION

cities ranked second lowest in percentage of automobile ownership
undoubtedly shows the influence of these same factors in other large
cities of the most densely populated portion of the country. In
Seattle and the California cities, on the other hand, the ownership of
some kind of car by over two-thirds of the families studied attests
quite different factors at work. Good roads, comparative ease in
getting out of city traffic, inviting and inexpensive camping spots in
nearby mountains, on lakes and sounds, and at the ocean, contribute
to wide use of the motorcar in Pacific coast cities. The cities of the
West North Central and of the East North Central regions rank
second and third high in the proportion of families owning automo­
biles, while the Southern cities were the lowest of any except New
York and the North Atlantic cities. It is notable that at the highest
consumption level shown in table 10, all of the Southern families
drawn in the sample owned automobiles.
T

able

1 0 .— Expenditures for

Certain

Items

of

Transportation

and Recreation by

Families, at Selected Consumption Levels, in 42 Cities, Grouped by Region

Item

New
York
City

11
8 East
12
North
North
Atlan­ South­ Cen­
ern
tic
tral
cities
cities
cities

5 West
5
North Pacific
Cen­ coast
tral
cities
cities

All families in survey
14.8
Percent of families owning automobiles______ _______
Average expenditure for—
Automobiles and motorcycles, total_________ ___ $31.90
Purchase ______________________ __________ 11.10
Operation________________ ________ ______
20.80
Other transportation, total------- ------- --------- 59.94
Streetcar_________ ____________ _____ _____
49.68
2.93
Local bus__________ ____ _______ _____ ___ 7.33
Other_______________________________ _____
79.7
Percent of families owning radios. ............................. .
Average expenditure for—
Recreation, total
................. ...................................... $112. 74
20. 37
Reading........... ........ .................... ................... .
38. 25
Tobacco_____ _____________ _______ ______
30. 04
M ovies_______________ _____ ______________
2.99
Other commercial entertainm ent.. ________
4.56
Radio purchase and upkeep_______ _____ ___

34.8

45.5

57.9

61.2

70.3

$65.40
20.88
44. 52
38. 51
33.94
1. 31
3.26
74.4

$92.64 $117. 21 $115.84
37.69
48.60
44. 52
54.95
68. 61
71. 32
32.36
32. 61
36. 02
23. 82
26. 73
30. 54
4. 26
3. 30
1. 79
4.28
2.58
3.69
62.2
73.5
78.8

$139.39
46.63
92. 76
34.28
25.93
1.59
6. 76
78.7

$76. 24
14. 65
28.64
15. 43
1. 64
5.17

$72.89
12. 31
28. 01
13.94
1.12
6.90

$80.94
15.88
27. 57
13.74
1.61
7. 57

$73. 57
13.68
24.64
14.64
1. 61
4.37

$90.64
16.00
27.11
18. 36
2.66
6.09

Families with total annual unit expenditure of $200
to $300
Percent of families owning automobiles.........................
1.8
Average expenditure for—
Automobiles and motorcycles, total............ ........... $1.26
Purchase...................................................... ........
0
Operation.................... ........................................
1.26
Other transportation, total........ .............................. 39.76
Streetcar............... .................... ................. ........ 38.11
.83
Local bus.............................. ................... ..........
.82
Other................................................... ................
Percent of families owning radios...................................
67.9
Average expenditure for—
Recreation, total................. ...................................
$58. 26
Reading....................... ......................................
13.08
Tobacco.......................... .................................... 24.11
M ovies......... ............ ......................................... 15.08
Other commercial entertainment......................
.05
Radio purchase and upkeep..............................
3.68




18.9

25.4

40.7

43.5

61.6

$19.45
3.10
16.35
34.67
32. 32
1. 01
1.34
67.6

$25. 52
4.38
21.14
26.41
21.93
2.69
1.79
50.1

$39.79
6.21
33.58
26.79
23.59
2.10
1.10
63.0

$41.11
8.80
32.31
34.59
28.01
1.67
4.91
69.9

$61.99
5.24
56. 75
29.07
24.22
1. 59
3.26
66.1

$55. 25
11.58
23. 35
11. 51
.52
3.07

$48.21
8.75
19.99
9. 64
.47
4.70

$52.66
12.05
20.26
9.73
.47
4.82

$47.17
10.12
17.14
10.89
.59
3.63

$53.00
11.92
15. 50
12.50
.59
4.08

148

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

Table 10.— Expenditures fo r Certain Item s of Transportation and Recreation by
Fam ilies, at Selected Consum ption Levels, in 42 Cities, Grouped by Region— C o n .

Item

New
York
City

8 East
11
12
North
North
Atlan­ South­ Cen­
ern
tral
tic
cities
cities
cities

5 West
5
North
Cen­ Pacific
coast
tral
cities
cities

Families with total annual unit expenditure of $500
to $600
Percent of families owning automobiles........................

10.6

Average expenditure for—
Automobiles and motorcycles, total_____________ $17. 03
1. 94
Purchase--------------------------- -------Operation_________________________________ 15. 09
Other transportation, total____________________ _ 63.91
57. 49
Streetcar_____________
_______________
1. 89
Local bus_________________ _________ _____
4. 53
Other_______________________ ____________ _

40.4

58.2

64.0

62.8

71.4

$71. 82 $109. 79 $114.88 $116.66
38.90
18. 80
37.96
44. 23
53. 02
70.89
76.92
72. 43
40. 81
33.49
33.98
38. 65
36.11
24.99
27.60
33.37
1. 46
3. 68
3.93
.97
4.82
3. 24
2. 45
4. 31

$123.48
31. 52
91.96
33.14
24.97
2.00
6.17

76.9

77.2

71.7

74.8

82.8

79.4

Average expenditure for—
Recreation, total_________________ _____ _______ $117. 28
20. 66
Reading_______________________ __________
Tobacco____ ______________________________ 40. 28
35. 73
M ovies- ------- ---------- ------------------1. 74
Other commercial entertainment....................
3.82
Radio purchase and upkeep _ ......... ........... . _

$82. 88
15. 38
32. 50
16. 69
2. 00
4. 86

$81. 49
14. 70
31.61
15. 69
1. 55
6.76

$88. 69
17. 05
29.86
15. 39
1.51
8. 34

$79. 73
15.33
25.83
16. 25
1.55
6. 56

$84.87
15. 77
27.08
16.86
1.97
5.41

Percent of families owning radios ................ ................

Families with total annual unit expenditure of $800
to $900
Percent of families owning automobiles_____________

23.0

54.6

69.8

68.2

73.8

80.2

Average expenditure for—
Automobiles and motorcycles, total_____________ $51.91 $138. 93 $202. 48 $196. 36 $222. 36
20. 22
51.91 100. 66
97.96 121. 36
Purchase______ __________ - ____________
Operation. ________
__________
______ 31.69
87. 02 101.82
98.40 101. 00
69. 66
Other transportation, total__________________ .
47. 34
34. 35
39. 63
35.40
40.51
19. 92
Streetcar__________________________________ 45. 02
27. 37
25. 74
5. 79
1. 64
6. 39
Local bus______________ __________________
6. 92
4. 25
18. 85
Other________________________________ ____
5.19
8.04
5. 34
5. 41

$229. 52
97.89
131. 63
35.15
23.47
.36
11.32

Percent of families owning radios____ _____ _________

82.0

Average expenditure for—
Recreation, total___________________________ _ $143. 32
24. 76
Reading__________________________________
41.28
Tobacco______________________ . . . ..........
34.46
M ovies____ _____ _ _ ___________________
7.26
Other commercial entertainment__________ _
Radio purchase and upkeep_______ ____ ____
4. 09

80.1

75.8

78.8

88.0

87.5

$99.56 $110. 60 $119.61 $101.83
18. 49
.16. 87
19. 62
17. 87
29. 60
41. 78
35.11
31. 48
20. 81
20.69
18.37
19.16
3.10
2.97
3. 43
4.95
3. 83
12.25
13.27
7.07

$126.27
18.00
38. 80
22. 57
4.52
10.17

Families with total annual unit expenditure of
$1,100 to $1,200
Percent of families owning automobiles.........................

28.9

69.2

100.0

76.2

86.7

90.5

Average expenditure for—
Automobiles and motorcycles, total......... ........... . $73. 51 $362. 59 $376.78 $506.22 $417. 52
25.11 232.10 195. 37 393.13 263. 75
Purchase. ________________________________
Operation_________________________________ 48.40 130.49 181.41 113.09 153. 77
52. 65
26. 66
Other transportation, total_____ _______________
89. 59
28. 22
45. 40
52. 56
49.22
Streetcar___ ____ ______ ____ ______________
7. 22
25.62
35.18
Local bus..............................................................
2.44
0
10.21
.49
2.77
2.11
Other................. ....................... ........................... 34. 59
3.43
9.23
7.45

$372.07
204. 50
167. 57
38. 29
15.31
7. 72
15.26

Percent of families owning radios........ ...........................

88.4

76.9

100.0

90.5
$169.72
24.63
37. 72
30. 55
8.06
26.53




85.0

76.2

Average expenditure for—
Recreation, total..... .................................................. $147. 73 $138. 73 $118.49 $116. 22 $129.14
23. 29
18.95
20.92
Reading................................................................ 26. 92
18.86
49.38
43.47
28.38
38.07
Tobacco......... ..................................................... 39. 30
21.64
24.90
17.66
28.29
M ovies......... ...... ........ ............. ........................... 39.37
Other commercial en terta in m en t...................
5.39
2. 71
2.31
4.43
3. 62
14.22
7.33
17.55
11.51
Radio purchase and upkeep..............................
17.18

P h o to b y U . S. F orest S ervice

Plate 10.— amping Out. Wisconsin Chequamegon National Forest. T his Type of recreation Has become I ncreasingly Popular
C
in the Last 20 Years.




P h o to b y U . S. D e p a r tm e n t of L abor

Plate 11.— hild-Health Conference for Preschool Children. M any Conferences of T his Type Are paid for T hrough
C
S
ocial S
ecurity Funds.




T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

AND

R E C R E A T IO N

149

The average figures on automobile purchase (counting families which
made no purchase as having had zero expenditures) do not follow the
same pattern as car ownership. Although New York City is still the
lowest and the North Atlantic region next lowest, the East North
Central group outranks the Pacific and West North Central groups
in average amounts spent for car purchase. In car-operation expendi­
tures, however, the Pacific coast cities were notably higher than those
in other regions, with the West North Central and East North Cen­
tral cities vying closely for second place. New York remained at the
bottom, with North Atlantic cities next lowest.
In expenditures for other transportation, New York City families
made up for low automobile expenditures with high streetcar and
subway expenditures, and the North Atlantic cities which were sec­
ond lowest in automobile expenditures were second highest in street­
car expenditures. Aside from these two groups there were no notable
regional differences in expense for streetcar fares. Local bus fares
represented greater expenditure per family in the South than in any
other region, while New York City, followed by the Pacific cities,
ranked highest in all other transportation expenditures.
In recreation expenditures, one finds the New York City family’s
compensation for lack of the automobile and ready access to facili­
ties for outdoor sports taking the form of relatively high expenditures
for movies and other commercial amusement. New Yorkers, in the
wage-earner and clerical group, take their recreation predominantly
in the form of indoor amusements. A higher percentage of them own
radios than in any other region, although the regional differences in
radio ownership are slight. New York families also spend more for
reading than Southern families, which ranked lowest on two of the
items of recreation; namely, reading and other commercial entertain­
ment.
The relationships as between regions for these various items of recre­
ation and transportation were not always the same at low and high
consumption levels. At a low consumption level, the absence of motor­
car ownership in New York City was especially pronounced. A t high
levels Southern cities exceeded other regions in automobile ownership,
and the Pacific cities exceeded New York City in expenditures for
recreation of all the types classified under this heading.




Chapter 9
MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, AND MISCELLA­
NEOUS ITEMS 1
After the three main requirements— food, shelter, and clothing—
have been paid for, moderate-income city families find on the average
that less than two-fifths of their incomes are left for the many other
goods and services which are essential to urban living. In addition,
almost three-tenths of the average income goes to pay for household
operation, furnishings, transportation, and recreation. That leaves a
margin of only one-tenth to cover all of the items of family expenditure
discussed in this chapter— medical care, personal care, gifts and direct
personal taxes, formal education, and miscellaneous expenditures.
Even* though these items form, on the average, a relatively small
part of the total family expense, they include outlays of great impor­
tance to physical and mental well-being. Medical care in an emergency
is crucial to health, if not to life itself. The provision of school books
and tuition for advanced study or for special lessons may make it
possible for the family to carry out cherished ambitions for the children
or the adults of the family. Contributions to dependent relatives
frequently are essential to the preservation of self-respect. In some
cases they are sufficient to avoid recourse to relief or doubling up of
families in one household. Neatness and attractiveness of personal
appearance, reflected in expenditures for personal care, give a feeling
of self-confidence to the job holder or job seeker as well as to the
student or homemaker. Expenditures for such items are, therefore,
even when small in amount, of considerable interest in human terms.
They cumulate, in the case of expenditures for medicines and drugs
or toilet preparations, for example, to impressive aggregate outlays for
the products of certain manufacturing and service groups. (See ch. 12.)
E xp en d itu res fo r M ed ica l Care

, by

In com e L evel

Expenditures for all kinds of medical care and personal care, for the
14,469 families included in the investigation, are shown in table 1.
Medical care for these nonrelief families with incomes over $500
averaged $59 per family or $16 per person for 12 months within the
period 1934-36.
1
See the following Tabular Summary tables: Table A-14, medical care and personal care; table A-16,
formal education, vocation, community welfare, gifts and contributions, and other miscellaneous items.

150




151

MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS
T

able

1 . — Expenditures fo r M edical and Personal Care b y 14,469 Fam ilies o f W age

Earners and Clerical W orkers, by Incom e Level, in 42 Large Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Medical care

Annual net income

Average
number
of per­
sons per
family

Average expendi­
ture—
Per
family

Per
person

Personal care
Percent
of total
current
expendi­
ture

Average expendi­
ture—
Per
family

Per
person

Percent
of total
current
expendi­
ture

All families................................ .

3.60

$59

$16

3.9

$30

$8

2.0

$500 to $600.....................— ........
$600 to $900................. ................
$900 to $1,200________ ________
$1,200 to $1,500............................
$1,500 to $1,800............................

3.11
3.18
3.41
3.54
3.62

22
33
42
x 53
64

7
10
12
15
18

3.4
3.9
3.8
3.9
3.9

13
17
22
27
32

4
5
6
8
9

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

$1,800 to $2,100............................
$2,100 to $2,400..................... — _
$2,400 to $2,700............................
$2,700 to $3,000............................
$3,000 and over..................... ......

3.76
4.03
4.27
4. 37
4. 81

78
81
97
109
115

21
20
23
25
24

4.2
3.8
4.0
4.0
3.5

37
43
51
59
71

10
11
12
14
15

2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2

The figures on medical-care expenditure represent medical, dental,
and hospital services purchased in general on an individual-fee basis,.
drugs and medicines, medical appliances, and health-insurance pre­
miums. Unpaid medical bills, if incurred within the year of the
investigation, are included as expenditures.2 The , total cost of the
medical services received by the families represented in the study was
undoubtedly somewhat larger than this amount. Clinic and ward
services are supported in part by endowments and contributions to
hospitals, and in part by services contributed by the medical staff.
Some, but not many, of these families reported the payment of clinic
fees, and as many as 4 percent paid for beds in hospital wards. In­
formation on the subject of free medical care was obtained only in
New York. For the 897 white families of employed wage earners
covered in the New York City investigation, the following statement3
shows the number of families reporting free service, together with
those reporting charges for corresponding service.
F m rep gserv e—
a ilies ortin
ic
C a ed
h rg
for
F
ree
Room in hospital ward________________________________
28
6
Clinic______________________________
General practitioner:
0
Home visit________________________________________ 345
Office visit_________________________________________ 360
2
Specialist______________________________________________ 138
2
a In using all the figures collected in the expenditure study and especially those on medical care, it is
important to keep in mind that the data represent family obligations incurred during the year, whether or
not the family had paid the charges incurred. (See appendix D, p. 384.)
8
This ratio is not to be taken to represent the amount of free clinical work in N ew York City. Relief
families were not covered in this survey, nor were families with incomes of less than $600. Free medical
care, however, was not regarded as a form of relief.
242949°— 41-------11




1124

152

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

VOLUM E

FAMILY E X P E N D IT U R E S
FOR SPECIFIED GROUPS OF ITE M S
AT SUCCESSIVE INCOME LEVELS
1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 6
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES
ANNUAL EXPEN D ITUR E
On D o lla r s )

U. 3. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




ANNUAL EXPENDITURE
On D o l l a r s )

M E D IC A L

CARE, PER SO N A L

CARE,

M ISC E L L A N E O U S

Fig. 2.

R E L A T IV E FAMILY E X P E N D IT U R E S
FOR SPECIFIED GROUPS OF ITEM S
AT SUCCESSIVE INCOM E LEVELS
1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 6
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 42 CITIES
ANNUAL EXPENDITURE

(In D o llars)

ANNUAL EXPENDITURE

(In D o lla rs )

200

1 00
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

20

10
9

8
7
6
5
4
3

2

I

The slopes o f the lines shorn the percent increase in expenditure corresponding to the percent increase in income A
slope greater than th a t o f a 4 5 degree hne represents a gom o f the specified fund o f expenditure rela tiv e ly
greater than the gam m income-, a slope less than th at of a 4 5 degree hne represents a gain relatively sm aller

U S BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




153

154

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

The two cases of free service by specialists included above were
services supplied by a pediatrician and a throat specialist.
As a percentage of total family expenditure, medical-care expend­
itures remained fairly stable at around 3% to 4 percent. (See fig. 2.)
Families with incomes from $500 to $600 reported average annual
medical-care expenditures of only $22 per family, or $7 per person—
3.4 percent of their total expenditures. At higher income levels the
amounts spent per family and per person were markedly greater.
(See table 1 and fig. 1.) Because families at higher income levels
were larger, the increase per person from low to high income levels
was not, however, as great as the increase in expenditure per family.
ADEQUACY

OF

EX P EN D ITU R E

FOR

M ED ICA L

CARE

The average expenditure for medical care of $59 per family or $16
per person may be compared with various estimates of the cost of
adequate medical care. Thus, the Committee on Costs of Medical
Care4estimated the amount of service necessary to meet the people’s
real needs, if paid for on a group basis rather than an individual feefor-service basis, at $36 per person per year. This included $11 for
dental care and $25 for other medical needs.5 This is over twice the
amount of the actual expenditures for medical and dental care of the
families of wage earners and clerical workers studied. Furthermore,
most of these families paid for their medical care on an individual feefor-service basis rather than under a form of group medical care.
More recently the Technical Committee on Medical Care of the Inter­
departmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Welfare Activities6
estimated $25 per person per year as the reasonable minimum cost
per person of adequate medical care (including dentistry), if the care
is purchased by groups rather than by individuals.7 This sum is
also substantially in excess of the sums paid by these families of wage
earners, principally on an individual basis.
On the basis of private medical care at minimum fees on a fee-forservice basis, the Technical Committee just mentioned refers to the
* The Committee on Costs of Medical Care was organized in M ay 1927 by a group of physicians, health,
officers, social scientists, and representatives of the general public to “study the economic aspects of theprevention and care of sickness including the adequacy, availability, and compensation of the persons and
agencies concerned.” The chairman was Ray Lyman Wilbur. Funds for a 5-year program of research were
supplied by a number of agencies and independent foundations.
* Committee on Costs of Medical Care. Publication No. 28 (final report): Medical Care for the American
People (p. 31), Chicago, 1932. See also Publication No. 25 of the same committee: Ability to Pay for
Medical Care, by Louis S. Reed (p. 84), Chicago, 1933.
6 The Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Welfare Activities was appointed by the
President in August 1935 under the chairmanship of Josephine Roche, to forward the operation of the varied
Federal program provided by the Social Security Act. The Technical Committee on Medical Care was
charged by the Interdepartmental Committee in 1937 with the task of surveying the health and medicalcare work of the U. S. Government. Its report was presented at the National Health Conference in Wash­
ington, July 18 to 20, 1938.
7 Report of the Technical Committee on Medical Care. (In Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate
Health and Welfare Activities, Proceedings of National Health Conference, July 1938, p. 57.)




MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

155

estimate of $76 per person per year computed by Samuel Bradbury.8
This estimate excludes dentistry, medicines, appliances, and any
clinic or free service provided by the community. In citing this
estimate the Technical Committee commented, “Obviously such ex­
penditures for medical care would be possible for the great majority
of families only with extraordinary adjustments in the distribution
of income, in budgets, and in standards of living.” 9 There is a wide
disparity between this figure and those shown in table 1. Even for
the highest income group shown, the expenditures of the wage-earner
and clerical families would have to be tripled to reach such a standard.
One is forced to conclude that in fact the medical needs of many of
these families are dangerously slighted.
Expenditures fo r Personal Care, by Incom e Level

Expenditures for personal care, although not having the direct
relation to the physical well-being of medical-care expenditures, are of
considerable importance to the self-respect and self-confidence of
family members. The stability of the ratio of such expenditures to
total expenditures, at all income levels within the range studied (see
table 1 and fig. 2), suggests the extent to which good grooming has
been accepted as a necessary part of present-day living. In terms of
dollar expenditures the amounts spent per family increased steadily
at higher income levels, reaching a high of $71 for families with
incomes of $3,000 and over, or $15 per person at that level. (See
table 1.) This compares with $4 and $5 per person per year for families
with incomes from $500 to $900. The latter figure would allow for
about one haircut a month and minimum purchases of toilet prep­
arations.
Expenditures fo r G ifts , Taxes, and M iscellaneous /terns, by
Incom e Level

Gifts and contributions to relatives and other persons outside the
family claimed an average of $24 per family, or 1.6 percent of total
family expenditures. (See table 2.) The amounts spent per family
increased markedly from low to high income levels. (See fig. 1.)
In contrast to medical- and personal-care expenditures, they showed
a striking tendency to take an increasing proportion of total expenses
at higher income levels; such contributions expand very rapidly when
incomes permit. (See fig. 2.) The fact that the investigation was
8 Lee and Jones (Committee on Costs of Medical Care, Publication No. 22, Chicago, 1932) estimated the
medical care required by a population with the age distribution which prevailed in 1930; and Dr. Samuel
Bradbury estimated its cost on a fee-for-service basis at $76 per person (Samuel Bradbury, M. D.: The
Cost of Adequate Medical Care, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1937, p. 53). The average cost of
adequate care was figured in general according to the current schedule of minimum fees for services rendered,
as shown in the 1933-34 Blue Book of the Chicago Medical Society.
9 See footnote 7.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

156

made during 1934-36, when recovery from the depression was under
way but not complete, may mean that these contributions to rela­
tives and other persons were heavier than would have been the case
in a period of more normal employment.
Direct taxes (other than real estate, automobile, and sales taxes)1
0
and other contributions to community welfare took almost as large a
proportion, 1.3 percent, of total family expenditure. The average per
family was $19, and ranged from $7 for those with incomes of $500 to
$600 to $48 for those with incomes of $3,000 and over. (See table 2.)
As a percentage of total family expenditure within the income range
of wage earners, such outlays were much more stable from one income
level to another than were gifts and contributions to individuals.
(See fig. 2.)
T a b le 2.— Average Expenditures fo r Specified Groups o f Item s by 14,469 Fam ilies o f
W age Earners and Clerical W orkers, by Incom e Level, in 42 Large Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Annual net
income

Direct Gifts and
contribu­
For­
taxes
tions to
mal Voca­ and
com­ relatives
edu­ tion
munity and other
cation
welfare persons

Direct Gifts and
Mis- For­
taxes
contribu­
celmal Voca­ and
tions to
lane- edu­ tion
com­ relatives
ous cation
munity and other
items
welfare persons

Amount

Miscellaneous
items

Percent of total current expenditure

All families___________

$7

$6

$19

$24

$7

0.5

0.4

1.3

1.6

0.5

$500 to $ 600-1.......... —
$600 to $900___________
$900 to $1, 200............... .
$1, 200 to $1,500..........
$1, 500 to $1,8 0 0 „ ....... -

2
2
4
5
7

2
2
3
4
7

7
10
13
17
20

5
7
13
18
26

18
5
4
5
6

.3
.2
.4
.4
.4

.3
.2
.3
.3
.4

1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

.8
.8
1.2
1.3
1.6

2.8
.6
.4
.4
.4

$1, 800 to $2,100_______
$2,100 to $ 2,4 00 - ....... .
$2,400 to $2, 700_______
$2, 700 to $3, 000.......— .
$3, 000 and over........ . ..

12
14
19
17
22

9
11
22
14
18

25
28
35
37
48

36
46
52
63
92

9
11
20
25
21

.6
.6
.8
.6
.7

.5
.5
.9
.5
.6

1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5

1.9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.8

.5
.5
.8
.9
.6

Items taking half of 1 percent or less of total family expenditure
were formal education, vocational expense, including such items as
union dues, and miscellaneous expenditures. (See table 2.) Ex­
penditures for these items and for community welfare all tend to be
highly variable. Individual families spent from nothing to rather
large amounts on each of these items; consequently averages for these
items fluctuate from one income or consumption level to another
10
A t the lower income levels, taxation tends to be indirect rather than direct. The percentage of income
taken in direct taxes is not to be assumed to be a measure of the support of community activities by the group
of families covered. For an estimate of total tax payments, see Colm, Gerhard, and Tarasov, Helen: M on­
ograph No. 5, Temporary National Economic Committee: Who Pays the Taxes? Allocation of Federal,
State, and Local Taxes to Consumers’ Income Brackets, Washington, 1940.




MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

157

much more than averages for some other items purchased much more
regularly, as food.1
1
The American public-school system provides the greatest part of
the educational services received by children of wage earners and
clerical workers at no specific charge to the parents. Thus, the
expenditures for formal education shown in table 2 do not indicate the
complete cost of the education of the children in the families surveyed.
They do represent, however, any direct outlays made by the family
for school books or school supplies, as well as tuition or cost of such
special lessons as music or dancing lessons. They also include the
school cost, other than room and board, of any children attending
school or college away from home.
Educational and vocational expenditures showed a general tendency
to increase at higher income levels, both in dollars and as a percentage
of the total. (See table 2, also figs. 1 and 2.) The increase in the
percentage was, however, considerably less than in the case of gifts
and contributions to individuals, but more than in the case of direct
taxes and contributions to community welfare. The fact that families
at higher income levels were larger means that the increase in expendi­
ture per person is somewhat less than that in expenditure per family.
Declines at the highest income levels are explained partly by the high
variability of these averages. The decline for education is also due
in part to the small number of children under 16 found in families
at the high income levels. One factor in the decline in vocational
expense at the high income levels is the greater proportion of clerical
workers, who are less likely than are wage earners to have expenditure
for union dues.
Expenditures for miscellaneous items, except for a striking irregu­
larity at the low income level, showed a general tendency to increase
at higher incomes. The high average of $18 at the $500 to $600
income level is an illustration of the possible effect upon the average
of unusual expenditures by one or two families. One family at this
income level in a northern city spent a total of $1,100 for two funerals,
and paid for them by settlement of a life-insurance policy. The
average, excluding that one family, would drop from $18 to $1.
11
Coefficients of variation have been computed to measure, in percentage terms, the extent of variation
from the average of expenditures of individual families. These measures in almost every city showed the
greatest variation for these small miscellaneous expenditures. (See Tabular Summary, tables 24A and
24B, of Bulletins Nos. 636, 637 (vols. I and II), 639, 640, and 641.)




158

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

,

D eta ils o f E xp en d itu res b y C on sum ption L e v e l 1
2
DETAILS OF MEDICAL-CARE E X PE N DITU R E

Expenditures for specific items of medical care, when averaged
for all families surveyed, whether or not they incurred the given
expense, were as follows:
A gef o
vera r
General practitioner:
su
rveyed
Home visit----------------------------------------------------------------- $6. 95
Office visit____________________________________________ 6. 86
Dentist___________________________________________________ 10. 84
Medicine and drugs.______________________________________
9. 70
Specialist and other practitioner----------------------------------------- 8. 92
Accident and health insurance_____________________________ 4. 05
Hospital, private room____________________________________
3. 60
Hospital, bed in ward-------------------------------------------------------1. 90
Eyeglasses________________________________________________
3. 22
Clinic_____________________________________________________
. 45
All other medical expenses------------------------------------------------2. 69

In medical care, especially, an individual family very seldom spends
in any 1 year the amount which is the average. Much depends on
whether there is a serious illness, or whether certain members need
eye or dental attention. From table 3 may be seen the frequency
with which families reported expenditures for specific items of medical
care. Thus, 85 percent of the families spent for medicines and drugs,
but only 1 percent for a private nurse in a hospital. Fifty percent
reported expenditure for dentists. Office visits to general practi­
tioners were reported by 43 percent of the families surveyed and
home visits by 38 percent. Only 5.5 percent reported use of clinics
and as few as 17 percent had specialists or other practitioners.
The average outlay per family spending for a given item is always
larger than the average based on all families. Such wide variations in
the proportions of families incurring a given expense mean that the dif­
ferences between these two averages vary greatly from item to item.
The figures on page 318 may thus be compared with those shown in
table 3. Average expenditure for eyeglasses for the 22 percent of
families spending was $15, as opposed to $3 when the average is based
on all families. The average expense per family spending was greatest
for specialists and for private rooms in hospitals, with nurse in hospital
coming next, and bed in hospital ward, fourth. Expense for securing a
private nurse in the home, sometimes used to avoid hospitalization,
or following hospitalization, occasioned the next greatest item of
expenditure per family spending, though only 1.3 percent had such
i* Classification by consumption level or economic level is the term used to denote classification of families
by annual expenditure per unit for the total of all items of family expenditure. The unit used for this pur­
pose is the equivalent adult male. Each member of the family, taking into account age, sex, and activity,
is counted as the appropriate decimal equivalent of an adult male. For fuller explanation, see ch. 3,
or appendix C.




159

MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

expenditure. Dental services averaged $22 for the year for the 50
percent of families paying for dental services. Home visits from gen­
eral practitioners averaged $18 for the 38 percent of families having
them and office visits $16 for 43 percent of the families.
T able 3.— Medical-Care Expenditures by 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners and
Clerical Workers, by Consumption Level, in 42 Large Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with total annual
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1, 200
$300 $600 $900 $1,200

Item

Average number of persons in eco­
nomic family__________________ 3.60

5.19

3.13

2. 38

2.21

Percent of families spending
General practitioner:
Home visit__________________
Office visit _ ______ _________
Specialist and other practitioner—
Dentist
_ ____________________
Clinic___ _______ __________ . Nurse in home:
Private
_________________
Visiting __________________
Nurse in hospital— _________ ___
Hospital:
Private room— ______________
Bed in ward_________Medicine and drugs_____________
Eyeglasses
_ _____________ _
Medical appliances_______ _____ _
Accident and health insurance____

3.60

5.10

3.13

2.38

2. 21

Average expenditure per family
spending i

38.0
42.7
16.7
49.5
5.5

38.7
34.1
10.8
38.1
6.3

40.3
46.1
19.2
52.9
5.3

30.9
44.9
20.8
57.1
3.4

36.9
49.6
21.0
69.2
.6

$18
16
53
22
8

$16
10
37
15
5

$21
17
55
22
9

$23
26
71
27
19

$27
30
99
35
5

1.3
.4
1.1

.7
.3
.5

1.4
.4
1.3

1.4
.3
1.8

4.2
0
4.8

29
15
46

13
17
16

27
20
68

49
27
96

40
0
53

6.8
4.2
85. 4
22.0
8.6
21.5

3.2
4.6
83.6
17.5
5.8
17.6

8.9
4.7
86.8
22.9
8.6
21.3

8.8
3.9
84.3
25.3
9.2
25.2

12.1
1.0
91.0
38.4
9.8
30.0

53
45
11
15
2
19

36
29
8
14
1
20

56
50
12
15
3
18

79
46
14
18
3
21

67
16
16
15
4
22

1 Average expenditure for all families, whether incurring the expense or not, may be found in Tabular
Summary, table A -ll.

Expenditures for clinic service averaged only $8 for the 5.5 percent
of families reporting such expense. As noted earlier, it is not known
how many families received clinic service without charge. Except for
New York City (see p. 151), no data are available regarding service
given by general practitioners, dentists, or hospitals without charge.
When families are classified by consumption level, it is found that as
their economic resources become greater an increasing percentage
secure eyeglasses and avail themselves of the services of specialists,
dentists, and private hospital facilities.
Not only do more of the
families at the higher consumption levels report expense for medical
attention, but the expenditures of these families are greater. This
suggests that only the most urgent medical needs are satisfied when
the economic resources of the family are restricted.
D ETA ILS

OF

P E R S O N A L-C A R E

EX P EN D ITU R E

The average family expenditure of $30 for personal care was about
equally divided between services of barber and beauty shops, and toilet
articles and preparations. Haircuts accounted for $10 of the $16




160

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

total for personal-care services, permanent waves for $2, and other
waves for $1.70.
Toilet soap and haircuts were the most universally purchased items
of personal-care expense. Ninety-six percent of the families surveyed
reported expenditures for these items. (See table 4.) The family
spending for haircuts averaged almost $1 per month. This would
mean approximately three 35-cent haircuts per month for all family
members. Toilet soap, on the other hand, represented an average
expense of a little under 40 cents a month per family. There was no
tendency to increase soap expenditures at higher consumption levels,
presumably because of the smaller family size at the higher levels.
Another indication of the extent of at least a small expenditure
for neat personal appearance is the purchase of cosmetics and toilet
preparations by 86 percent of the families and of tooth powder, tooth
paste, and mouth washes by 93 percent.
For all items of personal care except haircuts and toilet soap, there
is a decided tendency for a larger percentage of families to incur
expenditures at higher consumption levels. This tendency is most
pronounced for the shampoos and manicures, but is also quite im­
portant for shaves by barber, and for permanent and other waves. It
exists, but to a much less extent, for various toilet articles and prepara­
tions. The fact that haircuts are not universally reported at the high­
est consumption level is undoubtedly explained by the few families
with no adult male members.
T able 4.—Personal-Care Expenditures by 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers, by Consumption Level, in 42 Large Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total annual
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1,200
$300 $600 $900 $1,200

Average number of persons in eco­
nomic family__________________ 3.60

5.19

3.13

2. 38

2.21

Percent of families spending
irersoiiai-uure services*
Haircuts....................................
Shaves by barber.......................
Shampoos............................... .
Manicures____ ______________
Permanent w a v e s . ____ _____
Other waves. . _____________
Other personal-care services.......
Toilet articles and preparations:
Toilet soap_________ ____ ____
Tooth powder, tooth paste,
mouth w a s h e s ..._______. . .
Cosmetic and toilet prepara­
tio n s.._ _____________ ____
Brushes, razor blades, and other
toilet articles_______________

3.60

5.19

3.13

2.38

2.21

Average expenditure per family
spending i

96.1
11.6
12.4
4.4
40.2
31.7
2.2

95.0
8.2
3.4
.8
26.8
14.5
1.0

97.4
13.1
13.1
5.1
43.8
37.8
2.4

97.8
16.9
22.1
9.1
49.1
45.6
1.6

96.4

96.0

93.6

96.3

97.6

5

5

5

5

5

92.8

88.7

93.9

94.0

97.9

4

4

5

5

6

85.7

77.8

88.0

91.2

95.5

4

3

5

6

7

78.5

70.7

80.5

83.7

92.2

3

2

3

3

3

98.0
21.7
35.8
26.8
51.9
62.5
8.8

$11
6
6
6
5
5
6

$10
5
4
2
4
3
7

$10
6
5
5
5
5
6

$11
6
8
7
6
8
4

$13
6
9
7
6
8
10

1 Average expenditure for all families, whether incurring the expense or not, may be found in Tabular
Summary, table A-ll.




MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

161

Average expenditures per family spending for practically all of the
items of personal care are remarkably stable. There is very little
increase per family spending with rise in consumption level. The
only exceptions are shampoos, manicures, finger waves, and cosmetics
and toilet preparations, for which expenditures were notably greater
at higher levels. These items partake somewhat more of the char­
acter of luxury expenditures than do those for such minimum essen­
tials as soap, tooth cleansers, and haircuts. They indicate in part the
influence of advertising and the appeal of various aids to beauty and
grooming.
The fact that family size was smaller at high consumption levels
means that all of the items of personal-care expenditures, when
computed on a per person basis, increased rapidly from low to high
consumption levels. Expenditures for tooth and mouth-wash
preparations were three and one-fourth times as great at the high
consumption level as at the low, while expenditures for cosmetics
and toilet preparations were seven times as great. Expenditures
per person for all families and for those at low and high economic
levels for the individual items of personal care are shown in table 5.
T able 5.—Average Expenditure per Person for Personal Care in Fam ilies of Low
and High Unit Consumption Level
Average expenditure per person in—

Item

All
families

Families w ith total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200 to $300

Haircuts___________________________________________________
Shaves by barber_______ ___________________________________
Shampoos__________________________ ____ ___________________
Manicures________________________________ _______ __________
Permanent waves___ ______________________ _____ ___ ______
Other waves ____ - __ ____ ___________________ _ _
Other personal-care ser v ic e s.________________________________
Toilet soap __________________ _________ ____ ____________
Tooth powder, tooth paste, mouth washes......... ...... ........... ..........
Cosmetics and toilet preparations.. ____ ___ _____ ___________
Brushes, razor blades, and other toilet articles.......... ................ .

$2. 81
.20
.21
.07
.53
.47
.04
1.29
1.13
1. 04
.56

$1.82
.07
.03
0)
. 18
.09
.01
.94
.68
.45
.27

$1,100 to
$1,200
$5.92
.61
1.50
.83
1.50
2. 31
.42
2.14
2.19
3.23
1.46

1Less than Yi cent.

The extent to which the permanent wave has become commonplace
in maintaining attractive personal appearance is indicated by the
fact that 40 percent of the families had such expenditure. The pro­
portion expanded rapidly at higher consumption levels from 27
percent at the low level to 52 percent at the high level shown in table
4. The average annual expense per family spending remained about
$5 or $6 at all consumption levels.
Other types of hairdressing were reported by 32 percent of the
families, the proportion at the high level being four times that at the




162

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

low level shown in table 4. Expenditures for shampoos, per family
spending, also show a definite tendency to expand as means permit. The
relatively small expenditure at low economic levels for shampoos and
waves means that the women in families at those levels must rely to
a considerable extent on their own care of the hair.
Manicures and personal-care services other than for the hair were
negligible at low consumption levels, but at the highest level shown
in table 4 as many as one-fourth of the families spent over 50 cents
a month for manicures.
D ETA ILS

OF

E D U C A TIO N A L

AND

VO CA TIO N A L

EXPENSE

About a third of the families had some expenditure for tuition, school
books or supplies, or special lessons for family members living at home,
and the average cost for those families spending was $19. (See table
6.) The expenditure at the highest level shown in the table was
almost threefold that at the lowest level shown. The percent of
families having such expenditures was, however, smaller at the
higher consumption levels. This is accounted for by the relative
preponderance of children in families at the lower consumption levels.
T

able

6 . —Formal

Education and Vocation Expenditures by 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage
Earners and Clerical Workers, by Consumption Level, in 42 Large Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total annual
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1,200
$300 $600 $900 $1,200

Average number of persons in eco­
nomic family............................. .
3.60

6.19

3.13

2.38

2.21

5.19

3.13

2.38

2.21

Average expenditure per
family spending 1

Percent of families spending
Formal education:
Members away from home.......
Members at home______ _____
Vocation:
Union dues or fees_____ ______
Professional association dues or
fees........... .............................
Technical literature__________

3.60

1.3
33.1

1.7
47.6

1.4
29.4

1.1
14.1

0
7.4

$58
19

$26
12

$50
25

$183
42

0
$34

24.0

18.8

24.7

27.8

31.2

24

16

25

32

38

2.3
1.2

1.0
.4

2.2
1.3

3.8
3.0

5.0
2.0

12
7

5
2

12
10

17
3

9
8

i Average expenditure for all families, whether incurring the expense or not, may be found in Tabular
Summary, table A-12.

Very few families in this wage-earning and clerical group sent
children away to school. Only 1.3 percent of the families had such
expense, and the proportion declined at higher economic levels where
there were fewer children. The average expenditure for such educa­
tion (exclusive of room and board cost) increased from $26 per family
spending at the lowest consumption level shown in table 6 to $183
among the few families with total annual expenditures per family




MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

163

member of $800 to $900. No families at the highest economic level
reported such expense. This is explained in large part by the com­
position of families at the higher consumption levels. Among these
families of wage earners and clerical workers, those at the high con­
sumption levels were principally small families with several adult
earners and few children. In the group with no expenditures for
education (those with total annual expenditure per adult equivalent
of $1,100 to $1,200) there were only eight children under 16 in every
hundred families. Average family size at that level was 2.21 and the
average number of workers was 1.48.
Expenses incurred in connection with the worker’s job or occupa­
tion are, in one sense, not family expenditure at all. From the point
of view of computing the family’s net income, they are rather an
occupational expense which should be deducted from the earnings.
Among families of wage earners, however, union dues, which form the
greatest portion of such occupational expense, are generally thought
of as family expenditures. For that reason, a category of expense
called vocational expenditure is presented for these families. Almost
one-fourth of the families reported payments for union dues, as con­
trasted with only 2 percent reporting professional association dues or
fees and 1 percent reporting expense for technical literature in the
field of their jobs. The latter two items showed a rapid increase in
proportion of families having such expenditures at higher consump­
tion levels. There was an even greater proportionate increase in the
percent of families paying union dues or fees. Expenditure per family
for vocational expense, computed as an average for all families,
whether they incurred the expense or not, is shown in table 2. Com­
puted as an average only for the families spending, unions cost the
families contributing an average of $24 per year, professional associa­
tions half that amount, and technical literature a fourth that amount.
Each of these items showed a general tendency to be greater at higher
consumption levels.
D ETA ILS

OF

EX P EN D ITU R ES

FOR

G IFTS

W ELFARE,

AND

M ISC ELLA N EO U S

AND

CO N TR IB U TIO N S,

C O M M U N ITY

IT E M S

Contributions to churches, synagogues, and other religious organ­
izations were made by three-fourths of the families. Over half con­
tributed to the community chest and over a fourth paid poll, income,
or personal-property taxes. (See table 7.) About $21 per year was
the average for those contributing to religious organizations at all
consumption levels, even the lowest. Community chest contribu­
tions on the other hand were made by an increasing proportion of
families and the amounts per family increased at higher levels.
Taxes shown in table 7 include only poll, income, and personalproperty taxes. (See table 2 for average based on all families whether




164

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

paying taxes or not.) Taxes on owned homes were treated as a part
of housing expenditure. (See ch. 6 and appendix D .) Those for
automobile licenses and other car taxes are shown as automobile
expense. (See ch. 5 and appendix D .) It was not possible to sepa­
rate sales taxes from the price of the article purchased, as families
frequently could recall the total cost of an item, as a pair of shoes,
but not the amount of tax included in the price. Further, since
practices of retailers varied in showing the tax separately or including
it in the price, many families did not know how much sales tax they
had paid. Therefore, sales taxes have simply been included in the
expenditure for the specific commodity.
T able 7.— Taxes, Gifts, Contributions, and Miscellaneous Expenditures by 14,469
Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, by Consumption Level, in 42 Large
Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with total annual
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
unit expenditure of—
All
All
fami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1,200
$300 $600 $900 $1,200
Percent of families spending

Community welfare:
Religious organizations_______
Community chest and other
organizations______________
Taxes—poll, income, and per­
sonal property_____________
Gifts and contributions:
Christmas, birthday, etc., gifts.
Support of relatives__________
Support of other persons_____
Miscellaneous:
Funerals__________ __________
Legal costs__________ _______
Gardens......................... ...........
Fam ily losses________________

Average expenditure per family
spending i

74.2

78.8

74.2

64.3

60.4

$21

$17

$22

$29

$26

54.9

43.7

58.3

63.8

69.6

5

3

5

7

8

27.3

28.7

27.0

27.0

34.2

5

4

4

5

8

68.3
17.2
6.2

47.3
9.2
2.6

75.2
19.6
7.4

81.9
25.8
8.5

90.4
38.9
10.0

19
61
14

10
32
11

19
51
13

29
80
21

35
135
12

1.4
1.5
8.3
1.4

1.0
1.1
9.1
.9

1.3
1.2
8.0
1.2

1.7
2.7
10.0
2.2

1.7
1.1
6.6
2.9

244
53
4
43

153
17
3
38

238
73
4
44

344
134
6
55

252
24
4
29

i Average expenditure for all families, whether incurring the expense or not, may be found in Tabular
Summary, table A-12.

About a fourth of the families paid income, poll, or personalproperty taxes, up to the highest consumption levels where the pro­
portion increased to a third. The amounts paid increased from about
$4 to an average of $8 per tax-paying family at the highest consump­
tion level shown in table 7.
Gifts and contributions to individuals show extremely great expan­
sion as more funds for spending become available. Thus, expense for
Christmas and birthday gifts to persons outside the family was re­
ported by 90 percent of families at the high consumption level as
compared with 47 percent at the low level shown in table 7. The
amounts devoted to this item by these families were three and a half
times as great at the high as at the low level.




MEDICAL CARE, PERSONAL CARE, MISCELLANEOUS

165

Support of relatives was reported by a rapidly increasing propor­
tion of families at higher consumption levels. That is to say, as soon
as the economic resources of the families permitted there was a striking
increase in the amounts spent for the assistance of less fortunate rela­
tives. The amounts which they gave more than quadrupled from the
low to the high consumption levels shown in table 7.
The proportion of families spending for the items listed under the
general heading of “ Miscellaneous” appears to be independent of the
financial well-being of the family. W ith the exception of gardens
these are in general the items for which a family spends only when
visited by misfortune. As could be expected, the expenditures for
funerals for families incurring this expense increased from the low to
the high consumption level. Average expenditures for legal costs per
family spending are extremely uneven, principally because of the high
variability of such averages.
C om parison o f Selected Item s o f M ed ica l Care and M iscella n eou s
E xp en d itu res o f W h ite and N egro F a m ilies

When the economic resources of white and Negro families are the
same, as measured by the amount spent per equivalent adult member,
their expenditures for certain of the items discussed in this article
form an interesting contrast (see table 8). A t both the low and the
relatively high consumption levels for which the comparisons are
shown, the same general differences are found. A larger proportion of
white families make expenditures for dental work than do the Negro
families, and the cost to those families is greater. The fact that the
percentage of Negro families spending for dental care increased at the
higher consumption level is, however, an indication of a felt need for
such service among the Negro group. The Negro families, on the
other hand, are more apt to buy accident and health insurance and
their payments for this protection are larger than those of white
families who buy this type of insurance.
More Negro families contribute to the support of relatives than do
the white families with comparable economic resources, and their
contributions are larger. Also, more Negro families make donations
to religious organizations than do white families, but the amounts
given by the white families are larger.
In considering the figures shown in table 8 1 it must be noted that the
3
Negro families were smaller than the white and that their incomes were
lower. They had a somewhat higher average number of gainful work­
ers and the chief earner was an unskilled laborer in a much higher
proportion of the families. Total expenditure per equivalent adult
13
In using the figures for Negro families it is particularly important to remember that families on relief
were excluded from the study as well as families with incomes below $500. (See appendix B.)




166

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

male, however, for both the white and Negro families for which data
are presented in table 8 placed them in the same consumption levels.
T

able

8 . —Expenditures

by White and Negro Fam ilies 1for Specified Items, at Selected
Consumption Levels

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
Item

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—

$200 to $300

$200 to $300

$500 to $600

$500 to $600

White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro
Percent of families spending
General practitioner:
Home visit................................................ .
Office v isit..................................................
D entist__________________________________
Clinic______________________ _____ _______
Medicine and drugs................... ......................
Accident and health insurance_____________
Support of relatives..... ....................................
Support of other persons______ ____ _______
Funerals -----------------------------------Religious organizations___________________
Taxes___ ____ __________ ________________

38.5
34.7
40.0
6.5
83.1
15.7
8.0
2.5
1.0
77.9
29.0

40.4
28.2
19.2
4.6
88.6
36.9
21.6
3.8
.7
88.3
26.1

40.3
46.4
53.6
5.3
86.8
21.0
18.9
7.5
1.3
73.9
27.1

39.6
33.9
27.3
5.6
86.7
34.8
47.2
5.2
3.3
86.4
21.3

Average expenditure per
family spending 2
$16
10
16
5
8
18
31
12
160
18
4

$12
8
10
5
7
26
35
6
123
12
4

$21
17
22
9
12
18
50
12
228
22
4

$15
16
11
3
12
27
62
17
237
19
5

1 Negro families were surveyed in 16 of the 42 large cities in which white families were surveyed.
2 Average expenditure for all families, whether incurring the expense or not, may be found in Tabular
Summary, tables A -ll and A-12.




Chapter 10
SAYINGS1
In the aggregate, the current incomes of the families studied in the
42 cities covered in this survey in 1934-36 were a little greater than
their current expenditures. When surpluses and deficits are balanced,
the average net savings amounted to $11 per family. One of the
largest items contributing to the surpluses was insurance premiums,
which averaged $82 for all families studied. Three-fifths of the fami­
lies included in the survey reported a surplus 2 or net saving which
averaged almost $150. Almost two-fifths of the families, however,
had a deficit.2 A very small proportion reported no net change
in assets or liabilities, and their current incomes and current
expenditures were approximately in balance.3
In considering these figures, it is important to bear in mind the
occasional large expenditure which must be made by every family,
and the general level of incomes among the families of wage earners
and clerical workers. The purchase by a family with an income of
around $1,500 of an electric refrigerator for $150, for example, must
inevitably be financed in part by some means outside of current in­
come. It may be from past savings which have been set aside for
this purpose, or from current borrowing. Using either method, the
family will show a deficit in the particular year in which an extra­
ordinary occasional purchase is made.
The important thing to observe, therefore, is not that a number of
families spent more than their incomes in a given year, but the balance
at a given income level between aggregate income and aggregate
expenditures. Under normal circumstances we might expect that
exceptional outlays made in any 1 year by some of the families at
this income level would balance accumulations made by other families
in anticipation of later purchases from savings, or reductions of
liabilities incurred for purchases of previous years.
In this connection, it is important to note the setting of the period
in which these surveys were made. There had been a period of 3 or
4 years of intense anxiety during which there was no certainty as to
what the future held in store. It would appear that a number of
families in the wage-earner and clerical groups had managed, even
during the worst days of the depression, to conserve small amounts
of their past savings or of their current income. By 1934, and more
1 See ch. 1, tables 7, 8, and 9; ch. 3, tables 4, 5, and 6; and Tabular Summary, tables A-13 and A-16.
2 For further definition of surplus or saving, and of deficit or dissaving, as used in this discussion, see
appendix D, p. 385.
3 For discussion of method of calculating net change in assets and liabilities and relation to balancing
difference, see p. 171 and appendix D.

167
242949°— 41------ 12




168

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

VOLUM E

particularly by 1935, anxiety with reference to the future was some­
what relieved. This was especially so among families covered by
this investigation, since families without relatively steady employ­
ment and those who had been on relief at any time during the survey
year were excluded from the study. These families, many of whom
had refrained from large purchases for several years, were feeling the
necessity of replacement or were sufficiently encouraged to undertake
purchases of new items.
Surplus and D eficit by Incom e Level
Among families with incomes from $500 to $600 (the lowest income
level included in the investigation), the average net change in assets
and liabilities for all families was a deficit of $80 (see table 1). This
deficit became progressively smaller at successive income levels, and
changed to an average surplus of $19 for families in the $1,500 to
$1,800 income class. The average surplus was greater at each higher
income level, reaching a maximum of $231 for families with incomes
of $3,000 and over (see fig. 1). The proportion of families having
a surplus tended to be greater at higher income levels and the average
amount of such surplus likewise increased. The proportion of fami­
lies having a deficit declined at successive income levels, although,
with one exception, the average size of the deficit among families
“ going into the red” was greater at the higher income levels. The
large deficits incurred by 46 percent of the families at the lowest
income level are explained by the great difficulty which large city
families find in trying to stretch incomes of this size to meet urgent
needs. It also suggests that not all of the families with incomes at
that level had customarily had such limited incomes. Some families,
finding their current income restricted, drew upon reserves or con­
tracted debts instead of reducing further their current consumption.
Large city families at that income level who had neither savings nor
ability to borrow in general probably went on relief.
A larger proportion of the Negro families surveyed managed to
achieve surpluses than did the white families (see table 2). The
average surplus per family having surplus was greater at correspond­
ing income levels for Negro families than for white, and similarly
Negro families incurred smaller deficits. So pronounced is this
tendency that the average net change in assets and liabilities for all
Negro families surveyed was positive, that is to say, was a surplus,
at every income level— even the lowest included in the investigation.
The fact that this surplus was consistently smaller at lower income
levels suggests, however, that the pattern of surplus and deficit is
fundamentally the same for Negro families as for white, except that
the turning point from deficits to surpluses occurs lower in the income
scale for Negroes, probably somewhere a little below the $500 level.







SAVINGS

169

170
T a b l e 1 .—

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

Average Surplus and Deficit of 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in 42 Cities, by Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36J

Families with annual net income of—

All families_____ __________ __________
$500 to $600____________________________
$600 to $900____________________________
$900 to $1,200________________ _______
$1,200 to $1,500.---_____________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________ _____ ________
$1,800 to $2,100_________________________
$2,100 to $2,400________ _____ - ........ ........
$2,400 to $2,700____________________ ____
$2,700 to $3,000_________________________
$3,000 and over___________ ___________

Average
number
of per­
sons per
family
3.60
3.11
3.18
3.41
3.54
3.62
3. 76
4.03
4. 27
4. 37
4. 81

Percent of families
having
Surplus

Deficit

59.2
41.0
44.5
52.9
58.1
63.0
63.1
68.1
70.4
73.9
77.4

Average amount per Average
surplus
family having—
or deficit
for all
families
Surplus
Deficit
in sur­
vey 2

37.8
46.4
53.4
42.5
39.3
35.0
32.1
30.8
28.6
26.1
19.1

$149
36
56
79
108
151
223
243
254
331
377

$203
202
159
186
194
218
225
233
268
325
319

+$11
-80
-62
-37
-13
+ 19
+ 68
+94
+103
+105
+231

1 The difference between 100.0 and the sum of the percentages of families having surplus and those having
deficit is accounted for by the families having no net change in assets and liabilities, that is, whose incomes
and expenditures were equal (or balanced to within 5 percent of the greater figure). (See appendix D.)
2 T hat is, positive or negative net change in assets and liabilities (see p. 174).

A large factor in the greater proportionate savings of Negro families
is the payment of life-insurance premiums, an item which will be
more fully discussed later.4 In general, however, the ability of
Negro families to spend beyond their current incomes is restricted
by the limited extent of their accumulated reserves and the relatively
small amount of credit they can command. This factor would tend
to restrict the proportion of Negro families reporting negative changes
in assets and liabilities.
T a b l e 2 .—

Average Surplus and D eficit of 12,903 White Fam ilies in 42 Cities and 1,566
Negro Fam ilies in 16 Cities, by Income Level
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Families, by color, with annual net
income of—

Average Percent of families Average amount per
having 1—
number
family having—
of persons
per fam­
Surplus
Deficit
Surplus
Deficit
ily

Average
surplus or
deficit for
all fam­
ilies in
su rvey2

W h ite fa m ilies

All fam ilies... --- - _ _____________
$500 to $600____________________________
$600 to $900____________________________
$900 to $1,200________________ ____ _____
$1,200 to $1,500_________________________
$1,500 to $1,800_______ ____ _____ _______
$1,800 to $2,100___________ ____ - .............
$2,100 to $2,400...............................................
$2,400 to $2,700______________ ___________
$2,700 to $3,000-...................... ......................
$3,000 and over___________________ _____

3.60
2.95
3.12
3.39
3. 53
3.62
3.76
4.02
4.27
4.37
4.81

58.9
24.2
38.3
51.9
57.8
62.8
63.0
68.1
70.5
74.0
77.4

38.1
57.3
55.9
43.4
39.5
35.2
32.1
30.7
28.6
26.0
19.0

$152
29
57
79
108
151
223
243
254
330
378

$207
269
175
190
195
219
226
233
269
326
320

+$11
- 14 7
-77
-42
-14
418
+ 68
+ 94
+103
+106
+232

3.59
3.31
3.42
3.64
3.76
3.90
4.50

66.0
62.3
63.4
66.0
68.0
77.4
67.3

31.1
32.5
32.7
30.9
31.3
17.1
31.0

84
40
53
80
122
143
277

98
55
84
97
153
108
146

+ 25
+6
+6
+23
+ 36
-1-92
+141

N e g r o fa m ilie s

All families______
__________________
$500 to $600_______________ ____________
$600 to $900_____________ _____ _________
$900 to $1,200__________ ________ _______ _
$1,200 to $1,500_________________________
$1,500 to $1,800________________________ _
$1,800 and over— ....... — ............. .............

1 See footnote 1, table 1.
2 T hat is, positive or negative net change in assets and liabilities.

* Seep. 179.




(Sec appendix D .)

SAVINGS

171

Calculation o f N et Change in A ssets and Liabilities
The figures cited on savings and deficit have been computed from
the families' own statements about net changes in their assets and
liabilities 5 and do not represent simply a balancing difference between
reported incomes and reported current expenditures.6
Neither do the figures on assets and liabilities represent a complete
statement of the net worth of the families surveyed, but only of
changes 7 in their net worth. Further, the only changes taken into
consideration were those which occurred as the result of the actual
transfer of property or funds. Changes in the market value of real
estate or personal property remaining in the hands of the families
studied are not included.
As an aid to more complete understanding of the figures discussed
in this article, summaries of entries on the schedule 8 are presented as
they would appear for two individual families, one of which had a
surplus and the other a deficit for the year.
For illustration, it is assumed 9 that during the 12 months from
March 1935 to February 1936, inclusive, family A paid off $500 on the
principal of the mortgage on the family home. This appears on the
schedule as a decrease in debt in the form of mortgage on owned home.
The family also paid semiannual premiums totaling $39 on a lifeinsurance policy. Both the mortgage and tne life-insurance items are
entered on the right-hand side of the schedule page ‘and their sum,
$539, represents the total annual net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities reported by family A. This amount represents
the total of funds disbursed for items other than current family
consumption.
8 Each family, in addition to furnishing data on all sources of current income and estimating outlay for all
items of current family expenditure, reported separately on any changes during the year in the amounts
of its assets or liabilities (see summary of schedule entries, pp. 172-173.).
6 M ost families were not able to present a statement of total receipts and total disbursements which bal­
anced exactly. For definition of receipts and disbursements, see appendix D . No schedule was accepted for
use from a family which could not supply a statement of total receipts and total disbursements which
balanced within 5 percent. (See appendix D .) The average balancing difference showed a slight tendency to
be negative, that is, for current expenditures plus other disbursements reported to exceed current income plus
nonincome sources of funds reported. In no city surveyed, however, was the average balancing difference
as great as 2.0 percent.
7 The great interest which would attach to figures on total net worth, i. e., the value of assets held and lia­
bilities owing, was recognized when the study was planned. The scope of the investigation, and the diffi­
culties of ascertaining this information, however, precluded its inclusion in the schedule. Furthermore,
it is the figures on net change for the year which when added to current income (if a deficit) or to current
expenditure (if a surplus) indicate the magnitude of the family’s total receipts or total disbursements for
the year. For definitions of the terms net money income, current expenditure, total receipts, total disburse­
ments, as used in this study, see appendix D.
s For facsimile of the schedule, see appendix F in Bulletin No. 636, 637, 639, 640, or 641.
9 The data shown for families A and B are hypothetical and not data actually reported by individual
families. They conform closely, however, to the kinds of situations actually reported by various families
and illustrate the method of treatment.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

172

Summary of Schedule E ntries1for Fam ily A (Fam ily Having a Surplus)
[Changes in the form and amount of family assets and liabilities in the year Mar. 1, 1935, to Feb. 29, 1936.
N ot including changes due to appreciation or depreciation of property which has not changed hands.]
Funds made available for family use
from sources other than family income
in schedule year

Amount

Decrease in assets:
Reduction in savings account-------

$200.00

Increase in liabilities:
Increase in amounts due firms selling
on the installment plan— goods
other than ai'| tr‘' r,bil#1
m
.
Increase in miscellaneous debts
(doctor for tonsillectom y)________

45.00

Disposition of money received during
the schedule year not used for current
family expenditures
Increase in assets:
Payments on life insurance (pre­
miums paid semiannually)_______
Decrease in liabilities:
Decrease in principal of mortgage on
owned home______ _____________

Amount

$39.00
500.00

25.00

______________________

Total..............................................

539.00

N et ch a n g e ...............................................

Total

270.00

+269.00

1 These entries would appear on page 18 of the schedule.
Bulletin No. 636, 637, 639, 640, or 641.

For schedule facsimile, see appendix F in

It is further assumed that during the 12 months included within
the survey year for family A, the family cleared up the balance of
$65 which it still owed on March 1, 1935 (the beginning of the survey
year), for a radio purchased for Christmas 1934 (prior to the survey
year). Had there been no other installment sales transaction by
family A, that item would have been entered on the right-hand side
of the schedule page as a decrease in debt to firms selling goods other
than automobiles on the installment plan. However, in September
1935 (during the survey year), family A purchased a $200 electric
refrigerator 1 for which it paid $50 down and a balance of $8 a month.
0
There was still owing on the refrigerator at the end of February 1936
a balance of $110. This increase in installment debt of $110, balanced
against the $65 decrease represented by payments on the radio, left a
net increase for the year, in debt owing to firms selling on the install­
ment plan, of $45. This item of $45 is the only entry which appears
for these two installment-account transactions.1 It shows on the
1
left side of the page as a net increase in debt to firms selling goods
other than automobiles on the installment plan.
A withdrawal by family A of $200 more than deposited during the
year in the savings account also, appears on the left-hand side of the
page as a net reduction in cash in savings account. A bill of $25
owing the doctor for a tonsillectomy performed during the survey
year is listed as an increase in “ other debts.” The total for the
entries on the left-hand side of the page is $270 and may be designated
the net decrease in assets and increase in liabilities for family A.
This amount represents funds from sources other than current family
income made available for family spending during the year.
10 The entire sum of $200 for the electric refrigerator would also be entered on page 14 of the schedule as
an expenditure for that item. (See ch. 6, p. 119.)
11 The field agent was instructed in such cases to write an explanatory note on the blank page 19 of the
schedule which could be checked by editors and tabulators.




SAVINGS

173

The totals on the right- and left-hand sides of the page may now
be balanced against each other to find out whether family A ends the
year with a deficit or a surplus. Thus, $270 subtracted from $539
leaves a balance of $269 on the right-hand side of the balance sheet,
which is a positive net change in assets and liabilities, hence a surplus
or net saving, or increase in net worth, for family A.
Family B, through a somewhat different set of financial transactions,
came out with a net balance on the left-hand side of the sheet, that is,
with a deficit or net dissaving, a decrease in net worth. Family B
bought a $400 automobile 1 in November 1935 for which it paid $90
2
down and three monthly payments totaling $90, leaving a balance
owing at the end of February 1936 of $220. That amount appears
on the left-hand side of the page as net increase in debt to firms
selling automobiles on the installment plan. Family B also had a
net reduction of $60 in its savings account and borrowed $120 from
a small-loan company to help pay for the installation of an automatic
hot-water heater. The entries on the left-hand side of the page thus
total $400 for net decreases in assets and increases in liabilities for
family B. This $400 constitutes funds from sources other than cur­
rent income made available for family spending during the year.
Summary of Schedule Entries 1for Fam ily B (Fam ily Having a Deficit)
[Changes in the form and amount of family assets and liabilities in the year Mar. 1, 1935, to Feb. 29,1936.
Not including changes due to appreciation or depreciation of property which has not changed hands. [
Funds made available for family use
from sources other than family income
in schedule year

Amount

Decrease in assets:
Reduction in savings account______

$60.00

Increase in liabilities:
Increase in amounts due small-loan
companies. _ . _________________
Increase in amounts due firms sell­
ing on the installment plan—auto­
mobiles __________ .
Total__ _
Net change.

________

_ ... .

__ __

______________

120.00
220.00
400. 00

Disposition of money received during
the schedule year not used for current
family expenditures
Increase in assets:
Investment in improvements on
own home (installation of auto­
matic hot-water heater) ______ _
Payments on life insurance (pre­
miums paid quarterly)_____ . . .
Decrease in liabilities:
Decrease in amounts due firms sell­
ing on the installment plan—goods
other than automobile (washing
m achine).._____
_.
Total

_____________________ _

Amount

$125,00
26.00

55.00
206.00

-194.00

1 These entries would appear on page 18 of the schedule.
Bulletin No. 636, 637, 639, 640, or 641.

For schedule facsimile, see appendix F in

The other side of the balance sheet for family B shows the $125
automatic hot-water heater installation as an investment in the form
of a permanent improvement to the owned home. In addition a
balance of $55 1 owing on an electric washing machine purchased on
3
the installment plan in January 1935 (prior to the survey year) was
paid off during the survey year. This item appears on the right side
12 The entire amount of $400 would be entered on page 16 of the schedule as expenditure for automobile
purchase. (See ch. 8, p. 138.)
13 No expenditure for this washing machine is entered on schedule page 14 because the purchase was not
made during the survey year. (See appendix D.)




174

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

of the schedule page as a decrease in debt to firms selling goods other
than automobiles on the installment plan. Payment of $26 in life
insurance premiums is also entered on the right side of the page. The
entries on the right come to a total of $206 for net increases in assets
and decreases in liabilities for family B. This total represents funds
disbursed during the year for items other than current family con­
sumption. This total subtracted from the $400 on the left side, leaves
family B with a negative net change in assets and liabilities of $194,
that is to say, with a deficit or net dissaving, a decrease in net worth
of that amount.
It is the data for surpluses and deficits, calculated as just outlined,
which appear in the first four columns of tables 1 and 2. To average
the net change in assets and liabilities for families A and B, one adds
the + $ 2 6 9 and the —$194 with a resulting + $ 7 5 for the two families
or an average net change of + $ 3 7 .5 0 per family. The net change,
being positive, is surplus. Such a figure is comparable to those
shown in the last column of tables 1 and 2.
Surplus and D eficit, b y Consum ption Level
When families are classified not according to their incomes, but
according to their consumption level 1 there is a striking reversal in
4
the pattern of surplus and deficit from that found for families classified
by income level. Families at the lowest consumption levels had
the largest surpluses and those at the highest consumption levels the
largest deficits. (See fig. 2.)
T able 3.—Average Surplus and D eficit of 14,469 Fam ilies of Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in 42 Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months w ithin the period 1934-36]

Families with total annual unit
expenditure of—

All fam ilies.............. ..................
Under $200___________ _______
$200 to $300___ ____ __________
$300 to $ 40 0 ....____ __________
$400 to $500__________________
$500 to $600__________________
$600 to $700__________________
$700 to $800__________________
$800 to $900__________________
$900 to $1,000_________________
$1,000 to $1,100_______________
$1,100 to $1,200_______ _______ _
$1,200 and over_______________

Average
annual
income
per
family

Average
number
of per­
sons per
family

$1, 524
967
1,187
1, 334
1, 486
1, 596
1, 688
1,822
1,884
1,981
2,097
2, 262
2. 396

3.60
6.49
5.19
4.16
3. 54
3.13
2.79
2. 55
2. 38
2.28
2. 26
2. 21
2.00

Percent of families
having 1—
Surplus

Deficit

59.2
62.1
61.9
62.6
63.2
59.2
58.3
54.6
52.7
48.2
35.6
36.9
23.6

37.8
32.2
34.6
33.8
34.3
38.7
39.4
42.2
44.3
48.6
64.1
59.2
74.2

Average
Average amount
per family having— surplus
or deficit
for all
families
Surplus
Deficit
in sur­
vey 2
$149
93
113
128
144
163
174
188
199
199
221
203
238

$203
85
124
151
172
195
220
261
297
330
399
403
475

+$11
+30
+ 27
+ 29
+ 32
+21
+ 15
-8
-26
-65
-177
-164
-296

1 The difference between 100.0 and the sum of the percentages of families having surplus and those having
deficit is accounted for by the families having no net change in assets and liabilities, that is, whose incomes
and expenditures were equal (or balanced to within 5 percent of the greater figure). (See appendix D.)
2 1. e., net change in assets and liabilities.
For explanation of consumption level and economic level see ch. 3.




175

SAVINGS

This result is to be expected from a classification by current expendi­
ture. A family may incur a deficit in attaining a relatively high
level of current expenditure. Likewise, a family saves by refraining
from spending for current goods and services up to the limit of its
income. In the classification by- consumption level, therefore, fami­
lies with deficits move up the scale to a higher level of spending than
current income alone would allow, and families with surpluses for the
year move down the scale. This serves to emphasize the fact that the
consumption level of a given family in a given year is determined not
only by its current income, but also by its past savings and its ability
to borrow. Families at the higher consumption levels not only had
on the average larger incomes than those at the lower levels, larger
accumulations of past savings, and correspondingly greater ability to
borrow, but were also of smaller size and therefore had less fear of
depleting reserves or of taking on the responsibility of borrowing.
Consequently, it is not surprising to find that in a period when busi­
ness recovery was getting under way, the groups with the highest
level of current spending were those having the largest average
deficits.
T able 4.—Average Surplus and Deficit of 12,903 White Fam ilies in 42 Cities and
1,566 Negro Fam ilies in 16 Cities, at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Families, by color, with total
annual unit expenditure of—

Average Average Average
number
annual
annual
of ex­
income
income penditure per ex­
per
family units per penditure
family
unit

Percent of
families
having 1
—
Sur­
plus Deficit

Average
amount per
family
having—

Average
surplus
or deficit
for all
families
in sur­
Sur­
vey 2
plus Deficit

W h it e fa m ilie s

All families_____ _____________

$1,546

3. 32

$466

58.9

38.1

$152

$207

+$11

Under $200__ _____ ___________
$200 to $300___________________
$300 to $400___________________
$400 to $500___________________
$500 to $600__________ ____ ____
$600 to $700___________________

1, C21
1,219
1,352
1,502
1,606
1,695

5.96
4.79
3.84
3.30
2.94
2.62

171
254
352
455
546
647

61.6
61.4
62.1
62.9
59.2
58.4

32.5
35.0
34.2
34.6
38.7
39.2

100
117
131
146
165
175

95
129
154
173
197
222

+31
+ 27
+29
+ 32
+21
+ 16

$700 to $800______________ _____
$800 to $900____________ ____
$900 to $1,000__________________
$1,000 to $1,100________________
$1,100 to $1,200________________
$1,200 and over___ _ __ . ___

1, 821
1,888
1,983
2,101
2,255
2,396

2.44
2.27
2.20
2.23
2.17
1.94

746
832
901
942
1,039
1,235

54.7
52.6
48.2
35.7
37.6
23.2

42.1
44.3
48.6
64.1
59.0
75.0

188
200
199
221
203
238

262
298
330
399
403
475

-8
-27
-65
—177
—164
- 298

All families______ ___________ _

1,008

3.28

307

66.0

31.1

84

98

+ 25

Under $200___________ ________
$200 to $300__________ _________
$300 to $400___________________
$400 to $500___________________
$500 to $600__________ ____ ____
$600 to $700___________________
$700 and over_________________

811
886
983
1,027
1,209
1,327
1,753

5.36
3.08
2.79
2. 37
2. 26
2:13
2.20

151
288
352
433
535
623
797

63.6
67.2
71.5
71.4
57.2
52.4
53.0

31.5
30.1
26.4
25.8
37.8
47.6
47.0

72
74
74
87
107
109
185

54
69
82
109
131
145
195

N e g r o fa m ilie s

1 See footnote 1, table 3.
2 1. e., net change in assets and liabilities.




K29
- -25
H-36
H[-36
-12
-13
+7

-

176

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

A larger proportion of Negro than of white families at the Jower
consumption levels had surpluses and a smaller proportion had
deficits (see table 4). This confirms the general difference in inci­
dence of surplus and deficit in the two color groups, noted when fami­
lies were classified by income level. At the higher consumption
levels, however, there was a departure from this relationship. At
unit-expenditure levels of $500 to $600 and higher, relatively fewer
Negro than white families had surpluses and at the unit-expenditure
level of $600 to $700 relatively more had deficits. Incomes of Negro
families at these two consumption levels averaged $1,209 and $1,327,
as compared with an* average of $956 for the three next lower levels.
Negro families with such resources are obviously in a better position
to secure credit than families at the lower levels. However, their
income per unit even at those levels was below that of white families.
Hence it is not surprising that the average size of surplus as well as of
deficit, per family having, was smaller at every consumption level for
the Negro than for the white families.
Sum m ary o f N et Increase and Decrease in A ssets and Liabilities
It is of considerable interest to determine to what extent funds
drawn from sources other than current incomes represent past
reserves and to what extent they constitute claims on future income.
Conversely, to what extent do funds disposed of for other than cur­
rent family expenditures represent additions to assets, and to what
extent are they used merely for liquidation of old obligations? A
summary of data on these points is presented in table 5.
Of the total of family funds disbursed for items other than current
consumption, over a quarter went to decrease old obligations and
almost three-quarters to increase assets, including payment of insur­
ance premiums. This was substantially the case at all consumption
levels and for Negro families as well as white. The proportions
devoted to decrease of old obligations were slightly higher, however,
lor Negro families, constituting almost 30 percent of total funds
spent for items other than current expense for goods and services.
There was also a slight tendency for this proportion to decline for
white families at higher consumption levels.
There was a much more pronounced shift from low to high con­
sumption levels in the sources of funds drawn upon other than from
current income. A t the lowest consumption level shown in table 5
only a little over a third represented withdrawals from past reserves,
while almost two-thirds constituted commitments for future pay­
ment, including balances due on installment accounts. A t higher
consumption levels, the proportion represented by decrease in assets
became progressively larger until at the highest level shown it ac-




SAVINGS

177

Fig 2

CHANGES IN ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OVER THE
SCHEDULE YEAR AT SUCCESSIVE CONSUMPTION LEVELS
1934-1936
1 4 ,4 6 9 FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS
AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 4 2 CITIES
DO LLARS

DOLLARS

40
20
0
20

40
60
80
I 00
120

I 40
I 60
I 80
200
220

240
260
280
300

-- ----- '----- ------ ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- '----- ----- »
-1

1

UNDER 200

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

$200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

UNDER

UNDER

UNDER

UNDER

UNOER

UNOER

UNOER

UNOER

UNDER

UNDER

AND

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100

EXPEN D ITU R E PER FAMILY MEMBER
WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO AGE,SEX AND DEGREE OF ACTIVITY

U S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1200 OVER

3 00

178

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

counted for two-thirds, leaving only one-third of nonincome funds
to be supplied by increases in liabilities. For Negro families these
tendencies w
^ere even more pronounced.
T a b le 5.— Increases and Decreases in Assets and Liabilities of Families of Wage
Earners and Clerical Workers in 42 Cities at Selected Consumption Levels
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-361

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—

All
fami­

Families with total
annual unit expendi­
ture of—

$200

$500

$800

$1,100 lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100

$300

$600

$900

$1,200

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

$300 $600 $900 $1,200

Average amount

Percentage

14,469 families in 42 cities
Funds disposed in disbursements other
than for current consumption—total $164.48 $123. 26 $178.98 $202.62 $262.16
N et increase in assets 1__________ 119.85 87.81 128.02 149.85 194.43
N et decrease in liabilities 2_______ 44.63 35.45 50.96 52. 77 67. 73
Funds received from sources other than
current income—total_____________ 153.12 96.74 158.12 230. 36 424. 27
N et decrease in assets 3__________
77.26 36.08 82.77 128. 31 273. 71
N et increase in liabilities 4_______
75.86 60.66 75.35 102. 05 150. 56

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
72.9 71.2 71.5 74.0 74.2
27.1 28.8 28.5 26.0 25.8
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
50.5 37.3 52.3 55.7 64.5
49.5 62.7 47.7 44.3 35.5

12,903 white families in 42 cities
Funds disposed in disbursements other
than for current consumption—total. $167.80 $127. 73 $180. 71 $203.01 $261. 72
N et increase in assets 1__________ 122.35 91.10 129. 36 150. 35 194.96
45. 45 36.63 51. 35 52.66 66. 76
N et decrease in liabilities 2______
Funds received from sources other than
current income—total. 1___________ 157.06 101.10 159. 61 230.91 426. 39
79. 97 38.88 83. 81 128.90 275. 08
N et decrease in assets 3__________
77.09 62. 22 75.80 102. 01 151. 31
N et increase in liabilities 4_______

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
72.9 71.3 71.6 74.1 74.5
27.1 28.7 28.4 25.9 25.5
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
50.9 38.5 52.5 55.8 64.5
49.1 61.5 47.5 44.2 35.5

1,566 Negro families in 16 cities
Funds disposed in disbursements other
than for current consumption—total. $90. 57 $77.48 $111.60
64.14 54.10 75.67
N et increase in assets i __________
N et decrease in liabilities 2_______ 26.43 23.38 35.93
Funds received from sources other than
65. 46 52.08 99.93
current income—total_____________
16.86
7.44 42.17
N et decrease in assets 3__________
N et increase in liabilities 4_______
48.60 44.64 57. 76

100.0 100.0 100.0
70 8 69.8 67.8
29.2 30. 2 32.2
100.0 100.0 100.0
25.8 14.3 42.2
74.2 85.7 57.8

—

—

1 For example, increase in money in banks, making permanent improvements to owned home, or pay­
ment of life-insurance premiums, etc. (See appendix D.)
2 For example, payment on principal of mortgage on owned home, repayment of money borrowed, pay­
ment of balance owing on goods purchased in preceding year on installment plan, etc. (See appendix D.)
3 For example, withdrawal of funds from bank, sale of property, surrender or settlement of insurance
policy, receipt of payment of funds previously loaned to others, etc. (See appendix D.)
4 For example, obligating one’s self to pay a mortgage, borrowing from banks or other lenders, contracting
to pay for goods on the installment plan, contracting other debts, etc. (See appendix D.)

This comparison shows clearly that while families at higher con­
sumption levels have an ability to command credit if they so desire,
they also have greater reserves to fall back upon. Consequently,
their tendency is to draw first upon reserves and only secondarily to
make substantial future commitments. Families at the lower con­
sumption levels* especially the Negro families, have in general such
limited reserves that their principal means of spending funds in excess
of current income must come from incurring debts. As their credit




SAVINGS

179

resources are limited, they cannot spend very much beyond current
income.
In interpreting the data shown in table 5, one should guard against
the assumption that the averages shown for net increase in assets
and for net decrease in liabilities can be added to obtain average
surplus. It is clear from the sample schedule entries discussed earlier
that a surplus family may have had some net withdrawals from assets
or increases in liabilities, so long as these were outweighed by net
increases in assets and decreases in liabilities. Thus, it is the balancing
of four sets of items, increase and decrease in liabilities as well as
increase and decrease in assets, which determines whether or not the
family had a surplus. The combination of two of these items, in­
crease in assets and decrease in liabilities, yields only the total of
funds spent for items other than current living. It is the balance of
this total with the complementary one for funds received from sources
other than current income, which is equivalent to the surplus or
deficit of the particular family or group of families under consideration.
L ife In su ra n ce

Far the most significant claim upon funds disposed for items other
than current family consumption was for life-insurance 1 premiums.
6
Nine out of ten of the families surveyed reported such payments,
and the average yearly payment per family purchasing was $93.
(See table 6.)
The universality of the practice of paying for life insurance among
families of urban wage earners and clerical workers is indicated by
the fact that the percentage of families reporting this item is almost
as great at the lowest consumption level as at the highest shown in
table 6. Likewise, the average premium paid per family was rela­
tively high, even at the lowest consumption level. There was a slight
1
5
It is recognized that most insurance-policy premiums include payments for several elements, only one of
which is truly savings. The first is the actual cost of life-insurance protection during the year in question.
This would amount to the cost on an actuarial basis of term insurance for 1 year at the actual age of the
insured. Such cost is properly current family expenditure for insurance protection for the year. Another
element is the part of the premium which goes toward operating costs of the insurance company. This
element is especially large in the case of industrial insurance, which covers the expense of making weekly
collections. This element is also not properly savings, but merely a form of current family expenditure.
Any amounts included in the premium payments in excess of these two items, which accumulate in the form
of net cashable value of the policy, are truly savings. To the extent that policies are allowed to lapse under
terms which mean loss of payments previously made, even such payments can only doubtfully be classed
as savings.
In a study among Federal employees carried on by the Bureau of Labor Statistics just prior to the initia­
tion of this investigation, the schedule provided for securing information on the type of insurance covered
by the premiums reported. It was found that very frequently informants were unable to provide the infor­
mation; hence, the question was not included in the present schedule. It is, therefore, impossible to esti­
mate how much of the amount paid in life-insurance premiums represents savings and how much was paid
for insurance protection during the year or other services of the insurance company. The entire amount of
such payments has therefore been treated as a disposition of funds for items other than current family ex­
penditure, an increase in assets, and hence as savings. In using the figures on savings, the reader should
make such allowances for this treatment as required by the purpose at hand.




180

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

tendency for the proportion of families paying insurance premiums
to be lower at the consumption levels representing total annual cur­
rent expenditure per equivalent adult male of $700 to $800 and more.1
6
This is probably due to the relatively fewer families with children at
those levels and the consequently less need felt for protection. A
higher proportion of the families at those levels reported settlement
of insurance policies.
T able 6.— Disposition of Funds Received During Survey Year N ot Used for Current
Fam ily Expenditure, 14,469 Families of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in
42 Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Percent of families disposing
of funds for indicated items

Item for which funds were disposed

Average amount per family dis­
posing of funds

Families with total
annual unit expen­
diture of—

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
of—

AllAllfami­
fami­
lies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 lies $200
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1,200
$300

$500
to
$600

$800 $1,100
to
to
$900 $1,200

N e t in crea se in assets

Increase in cash:
On hand_______________ ___________
In checking account ...................... .
In savings account_________________
Investment in—
Improvements in own home________
Other real estate (including real es­
tate mortgages)__________________
Building and loan shares________ _
Stocks and bonds. ________________
Other property____________________
Payments of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance..... ................................
Annuities____________ ____________
Increase in outstanding loans to others. __

2.3 1.2 2.4 1.6
1.2 0)
1.0 2.7
11.4 4.6 12.1 20.0

2.3 $70. 87 $78. 33 $75. 42 $43.12 $183.04
1.8 150.00 186.05 151.00 195. 56 138.33
15.3 157. 81 144.13 157. 52 154. 30 214. 31

3.7

3.3

3.1

4.1

5.0 150.00 140.91 177.42 160.49 174.00

.9
.9
.8
1.1

.6
.5
.3
.6

1.0
.7
1.1
.9

.9
1.8
1.3
1.3

3.3
.5
1.8
7.9

268. 89 148. 33 197.00 387. 78 183.03
101.11 122. 00 155. 71 131.11 58.00
165.00 70.00 142. 73 225. 38 62. 22
176. 36 55. 00 98. 89 189. 23 435. 70

88.6 87.8 90.5 84.7
4.1 1.9 4.7 4.8
1.8 1.0 2.3 3.3

90.0 92.81 82. 22 98.14 105. 29 107.16
10.6 58.78 38. 95 55.96 61.04 70.66
1.5 91.67 54.00 137. 83 93.64 29. 33

11.7 12.1 12.8 11.2
1.5 1.6 2.0
.8

10.6 182.82 139.09 188.91 213.12 485.66
1.7 123.33 113. 75 125. 00 125.00 39.41

N e t decrea se in liabilities

Payment on principal of mortgages on
own home_______ __________ ______ _
Payment on principal of other mortgages.
Payment of debts to—
Banks....................................................
Insurance companies..........................
Small-loan companies______________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles___________________
Other goods. __________________
Individuals_____ _ _ _____ _______
Other__________ __________________

.5
.7
2.1

.3
.5
3.9

.8
.8
1.9

.2
.7
1.6

1.1 90.00 46. 67 48. 75 195.00 129.09
0
55. 71 52.00 82.50 38. 57
0
1.0 75.24 61.79 77.89 110.62 244.00

2.2 1.4
9.5 10.3
2.6 1.8
7.3 8.7

2.4
9.4
2.7
7.3

3.1
9.7
2.3
5.5

2.8
6.9
.7
1.5

176. 82 112.14 206. 25 253.87 98. 21
77.26 53. 69 86. 38 100. 72 94. 49
85. 38 67. 22 100. 37 113.04 221. 43
75. 62 65.29 81.78 95.09 60.00

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

An even higher percentage of the Negro than of the white families
studied reported payment of insurance premiums. In general, about
the same tendencies in the movement of this percentage from low to
high consumption levels was noted for Negro families.1 The per­
6
centage was over 90 at all but the lowest consumption level, but
1 See Tabular Summary, table A-13.
6




SAVINGS

181

dropped slightly at the $700 and over unit-expenditure level. The pre­
miums paid by Negro families averaged much less than for white fami­
lies, however, and centered at a little over $58 per family paying, the
amounts being definite^ greater the higher the consumption level.
As compared with the 90 out of 100 white and Negro families paying
premiums, 7 out of 100 reported receipt of funds by surrender of
insurance policies and 2 out of 100 through settlement of insurance
policies (see table 8). The surrender rate was definitely greatest at
the lowest consumption levels, where pressure upon current family
income was greatest. The settlement rate, on the other hand, was
greater at higher consumption levels. This suggests, in part, that
families at those levels were better able to pay premiums until the
maturity of the policy and consequently to receive its full returns.
Families at the higher consumption levels were also relatively older and
hence there were relatively more deaths of their parents; consequently
they tended more frequently to receive settlements of policies paid
for by persons inside the economic family. The average amount
received per family surrendering a policy was $130 and this average
was larger at higher consumption levels. The average settlement
was $380, but there was no clear relationship between this average
and consumption level.
A much lower proportion of the Negro families studied, 3 percent,
reported surrender of insurance policies than of white families, for
whom the percentage was over 7. About the same proportion of
the Negro families, 2 percent, reported settlement of insurance poli­
cies. In relation to the size of the premiums paid by Negro families,
the average amounts received by Negro families for surrender, $74,
and for settlement, $189, were substantially lower than the corre­
sponding figures for white families. Even at the comparable consump­
tion level of $200 to $300 total annual unit expenditure, the average
amounts received in surrender and settlement, respectively, by Negro
families were about half the corresponding average amounts received
by white families. The proportion of white families reporting surren­
der of policies at that consumption level was 9.8 compared with 3.7
for the Negro families.
In general, therefore, it appears that the Negro families held on to
their insurance policies more tenaciously than did the white families
during the partial recovery period of 1934-36. A slightly higher pro­
portion reported premium payments, but a much lower proportion
reported surrender. A t a comparable consumption level, the white
families making premium payments averaged payments about 50
percent greater than Negro families, while, at the same consumption
level, white families surrendering policies received payments twice as
great as Negro families.




182

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
Savings Item s Other Than L ife In su ra n ce

After life-insurance premiums, the second most frequently reported
form of disposition of funds other than for current living was pay­
ment on principal of mortgage on owned home, indicated by 12 per­
cent of all families surveyed. The average payment on the mortgage
was $183. Though the percentage of families reporting such pay­
ment showed little change by consumption level, the average amount
of such payments per family making them showed a sharp rise from
$139 at the lowest consumption level to $486 at the highest, as shown
in table 6. The uncertainties of job tenure and ever-present possi­
bility of having to move to a new locality to seek work, apparently
operate to prevent families who might be financially able from buying
homes.
Taking aggregate disbursements of the families surveyed for items
other than current family living, insurance premiums alone accounted
for 50 percent of the total.1 Payment of principal on mortgage on
6
owned home was slightly greater than aggregate increase in savings
accounts, and these two items combined contributed 24 percent
of the total. Payments on old installment accounts for goods other
than automobiles constituted about 4 percent of such disbursements,
and the addition of payments on automobiles purchased on installment
prior to the survey year brings the total for all installment payments
for goods previously purchased to 7 percent of total non-currentconsumption disbursements. No other single item of increase in assets
or decrease in liabilities accounted for over 3 percent of such aggre­
gate disbursements.
M ost families in the survey, however, reported changes in assets
or liabilities of only two or three types. The average amounts paid
per family having such disbursements are shown in table 6. There
it is seen that for families making such disposition of funds, a good
many items bulked larger than insurance premiums. The largest
item of all, on that basis, was investment in real estate other than
the family home, and the second was payment of principal on mort­
gage on owned home. For the latter item, as well as for most though
not all of the other items shown in table 6, the average amount per
family disbursing was greater at higher consumption levels.
Net increase in cash in savings accounts was reported by 11 percent
of the families, and this percentage showed a sharp tendency to rise
at higher consumption levels. The average amount of such increase
per family having an increase, however, showed no regular tendency
to be greater at higher consumption levels, ranging from $144 to $214
for the levels shown in table 6.
See Tabular Summary, table A-13.




183

SAVINGS

The next most frequently reported form of disposition of family
funds for items other than current living, was reduction of installment
obligations incurred prior to the schedule year for furniture and
equipment and other goods, except automobiles. These were followed
by reductions in miscellaneous debts, in which were included bills
owing doctors, grocers, stores, etc. No other form of net increase in
assets or decrease in liabilities was reported by as many as 5 percent of
the families.
In general, the percentage of families reporting increase in a given
asset item or decrease in a liability item tended to remain about the
same or to increase slightly at higher consumption levels with a few
notable exceptions. Items for which the percentage of families
reporting was notably higher at higher consumption levels were
increase in cash in savings accounts and payment of annuity premiums.
For this group of families such forms of savings partake of the nature
of luxuries. Items, on the other hand, reported by a smaller propor­
tion of families at high consumption levels were repayments of debts
to small-loan companies, reduction in old balances owing for goods
other than automobile sold on the installment plan, and reduction in
miscellaneous debts. These items apparently represent forms of debt
avoided when economic circumstances permit and hence on the docket
for repayment by relatively fewer families at high than at low con­
sumption levels.
In general, the same tendencies were found among Negro families
as among white families studied in their disposition of funds for items
other than current living. Table 7 gives a comparison of the items
reported by the largest proportions of each group.
T able 7.— Principal Items for Which Funds Were Disposed Other Than for Current
Family Living, 12,903 White Families in 42 Cities and 1,566 Negro Families in 16
Cities

[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

1. Life-insurance premiums _
2. Principal on mortgage on owned
home_-_ _____ _____ _ -- ----3. Increase in savings account--_ ..
4. Payment of old debts to firms selling
goods other than automobiles on
installment plan_________________
5. Payment of miscellaneous old debts,.
6. Annuity premiums,. ______
____

242949°— 41------ 13




Percent­
age of
white
families
reporting
88.5
11.8
11.6
9.2
7.4
4.1

Item

1. Life-insurance premiums___ ____ __ _
2. Payment on old debts to firms selling
goods other than automobiles on
the installment plan __ ___
3. Principal on mortgage on owned home.
4. Increase in savings account- ______
5. Payment of miscellaneous old debts. _
6. Annuity premiums________________

Percent­
age of
Negro
families
reporting
91.3
16.4
9.0
6.1
4.3
4.0

184

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

As with the white families, most items of increase in assets or de­
crease in liabilities were reported by the same or a slightly higher
proportion of Negro families at higher consumption levels. Increases
in savings accounts and payments of annuity premiums showed par­
ticularly notable rises. Items showing a general downward tendency
in proportion of Negro families reporting were, as for white families,
repayments to small-loan companies and reductions in miscellaneous
old debts. The movement of the percentages at different consump­
tion levels of Negro families reporting for individual items was fre­
quently less regular than for white families, due to the smaller num­
ber of Negro families studied and the consequent greater influence
upon the average of one or two families making unusual disbursements.
F u n d s F rom Sources Other Than C urrent In com e

On the other side of the family balance sheet, funds in addition to
current income were made available from withdrawals from previously
accumulated assets, or increases in obligations of various types, or
from inheritance. Less than 1 percent of the families received in­
heritances, however, so that item is of negligible importance in any
aggregate sense. For the few families involved, inheritance was,
however, a substantial item, averaging almost $400.
Three items stand out as the form of deficit financing used by the
largest numbers of families studied (see table 8). Net increases in
miscellaneous debts (chiefly in the form of open accounts owing to
merchants, doctors, and other suppliers of goods and services) were
reported by a fourth of the families surveyed, though the proportion
declined at higher consumption levels. Net increase in obligations for
goods other than automobiles purchased during the survey year on
the installment plan were reported by 24 percent of the families.
This percentage showed no regular tendency to decline at higher con­
sumption levels. The third major source of nonincome funds was
net withdrawal from savings accounts, reported by a fifth of all the
families surveyed. This percentage rose sharply at higher consump­
tion levels, indicating that such families were better able to meet
unusual expenses by resort to savings and found it less necessary to
go into debt.
In the aggregate for all families surveyed, over a fourth of all non­
income funds came from net withdrawals from savings accounts.
About 19 percent came from net increases in installment obligations
for automobiles and other goods and 7 percent from borrowing from
individuals. Surrender of insurance policies accounted for 6 percent,
while approximately as much came from borrowing from insurance
companies and small-loan companies combined. Settlement of in­
surance policies accounted for 4 percent of aggregate nonincome funds




185

SAVINGS

drawn upon by the families surveyed. No other item of decrease in
assets, increase in liabilities, or inheritance accounted for as much as
4 percent of the total.
In terms of amounts obtained per family drawing on each such
source of funds (see table 8), the greatest item was sale of real estate,
followed by inheritance and then by settlement of insurance policies.
The smallest yield per family drawing on that source came from sale of
goods and chattels, and the next smallest item on that basis was in­
stallment debts for goods other than automobile.
T able 8.— Funds M ade Available During the Survey Year for Family Use From Sources
Other Than Current Income, at Selected Consumption Levels, 14,469 Families of
Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in 42 Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Percent of families receiving
funds from indicated source
Funds made available for family use
from sources other than family in­
come in schedule year

Average amount per family
receiving

Families with total
annual unit expenditure of—

All
All
fam­
fam­
ilies $200 $500 $800 $1,100 ilies
to
to
to
to
$300 $600 $900 $1,200

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$800
to
$900

$1,100
to
$1,200

N e t decrea se in assets

Reduction in cash:
On h a n d ..________ ___ _____
3.4 2.4 4.2 3.6
In checking account_____________ 1.6 1.0 1.9 3.8
In savings account______________ 19.0 10.2 21.4 24.5
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages) __ ___ _ _ __ __ .5
.4
.4
.5
Building and loan shares________
.6
.2
.8 1.0
Stocks and bonds. _ __ _ _ _
.9
.2 1.2 1.7
Goods and chattels.— _____
2.8 2.5 2.9 3.9
Other property_________________
.7
.6
.6 1.8
Insurance policies:
Surrender______________________
7.2 9.3 6.7 5.6
Settlement
_____
1.7 1.4 1.4 2.9
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others. _
__ _ _
1.9 1.0 2.0 3.5

7.4 $133.24 $109.58 $129. 29 $187. 50 $121. 76
10.1 245. 62 106.00 152. 63 172.11 359.41
35.1 221. 74 150. 39 227.10 265.59 425.93
1.0 487. 50 210.00 640.00
285.00 290.00 273. 75
0
5.8 291.11 155.00 205.83
2.6 55. 71 33.20 61.38
.6 84. 29 75.00 76.67

246.00
187.00
451. 76
51.79
156.11

570.00
0
463. 28
276.15
133.33

4.9 129.72 115. 81 123.13 161. 96 154. 29
1.7 380. 59 158. 57 365. 00 731. 72 153. 53
8.2 127.89

84.00 151.00 115. 71 343. 66

N e t increa se in liabilities

Increase in mortgages on own home. __ 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.5
Increase in other mortgages___ _ __
.4
.3
.5
.3
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks___ _
1.4 1.1 1.8 1.0
Payable to insurance companies.
4.0 4.1 4.3 3.7
Payable to small-loan companies.. 5.4 5.4 4.8 5.8
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles..- _______ ___ 5.2 1.6 5.1 9.0
Other goods..
___________ 24.3 22.9 24.4 25.8
Payable to individuals__________
8.1 10.9 8.5 7.1
Other debts___ _____ _ ______ 24.9 36.9 20.6 19.6
Inheritances_____________________ .
.7
.3
.8
.6

.5 354.62 196. 25 387.69 226.00 888.00
0
210. 00 62.50 213.33 294.00
0
1.7 133. 57
5.4 131.00
2.3 96.11

50. 91 152. 22 159.00 52. 35
80.00 133. 02 172.97 163. 33
77.04 100. 62 114. 66 60.00

20.6 201.35 93.12 171. 76 254. 22
21.8 74.69 49.87 76.48 106. 82
6.9 125.43 88. 62 141.41 217.18
18.5 78. 47 72. 36 82.23 85.15
.7 398.33 237.14 616.67 1,001.25

308.20
157. 71
323. 33
80. 27
140.00

Five percent of the families reported net increase in debt to smallloan companies and the same proportion found the year’s end left
them with a net increase in installment obligations for automobiles
purchased during the year. The former percentage was lower at




186

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

higher consumption levels, whereas the percentage increasing auto­
mobile obligations rose strikingly at higher consumption levels. Four
percent of the families borrowed from insurance companies but less
than 1% percent from banks, while as many as 8 percent borrowed
from individuals. Seven percent surrendered insurance policies for
whatever cash value they commanded. No other source of non­
income funds was reported by as many as 4 percent of the families
surveyed.
In general there was a tendency for the average per family drawing
upon each such source of nonincome funds to be greater at higher
consumption levels. The tendency was irregular in many instances,
however, because of the relatively small proportion of families reporting.




Chapter 11
SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS OF
FAMILIES
The general picture of income and spending habits given in chapter 1
is presented as a composite for all of the families surveyed. No dis­
tinction is shown there for western as compared with southern or
northern families, native as compared with foreign-born families, or
home owners as compared with home renters. In this chapter, atten­
tion is directed to a review of such differences as appear to exist in the
spending patterns of such special groups of families.
R egion al D ifferen ces in A ctu a l Fam ily E xpen d itu res

Differences in income, climate, and custom, as well as family size
and kinds of goods and services available all affect the spending of
families living in different sections of the country.
It is to be expected that housing expenditures in metropolitan New
York, for example, where the area available for expansion surrounding
the city is strictly limited and most families live in apartments, would
be considerably higher than those for families living in frame houses
on the Pacific coast or in the South. The separate expenditures for
fuel, light, and refrigeration by New York City families would be
expected to be relatively low on the average because for so many of
them these items are included in rent. The fuel expense of southern
and Pacific coast families would be expected to be low, on the other
hand, because of the mildness of the climate.
Money expenditures alone do not necessarily measure the satisfac­
tions obtained by the families spending. It is impossible to put a
money value upon fresh air and sunshine, green trees and gardens,
play space and swimming holes, use of municipal libraries and mu­
seums, availability of theaters, lecture groups, or clinics. The types
and amounts of the material economic goods obtained by the family
are, however, by and large measured by its expenditures at given
prices.
The data of this investigation, when they are summarized by city
or by region, reflect differences in the money incomes of the wageearner and clerical groups in the given areas, as well as differences in
family size and composition, and in price level. *They do not therefore
measure differences in cost of the same level of living as between com­
munities. The investigators who participated in the present study
were sent not to stores to price a predetermined list of goods and
services but to families who were willing to give detailed facts about




187

188

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

their income and expenditures. The results obtained must conse­
quently be distinguished from those obtained by pricing a hypothetical
budget such as those described on pages 46-49.
T a b l e 1. — Average Regional Cost of Living in 53 Cities With Population Over
50,000 in March 1935 1
[Works Progress Administration maintenance budget for a manual worker’s family of 4 persons]
Average cost Average for
of budget2 53 cities=100

Region
New York City_______________________________________________________
13 North Atlantic cities________ ___________ _ _ _ _ ____ _ __ _______
8 East North Central cities
____________
_
_
______
8 West North Central c itie s______ _____ ____ __ ______ ____ ________
18 Southern cities3___ _____
__ __ _ ___
___ _ _ _ _ _
_ ______
5 Pacific coast cities____ __ _______________ _______ _
_________
53 cities______

____ ____

_______

_

$1,328. 73
1, 238. 90
1, 245. 87
1, 208. 30
1,163. 03
1,229. 93

109.8
102.4
102.9
99.8
96.1
101.6

1,210. 41

100.0

_ _ _

1 Computed for regions as defined for the present investigation. Data are from Stecker, M. L., Intercity
differences in cost of living in March 1935, 59 cities, Research Monograph XII, Works Progress Administra­
tion, Division of Social Research, 1937, pp. 158-159.
2 Does not include life insurance.
3 Does not include Washington, D. C.

Difference in the average cost of the standard budget, defined by
the Works Progress Administration at the maintenance level for a
manual worker’s family of four persons, amounts to approximately
14 percent between the most expensive and the least expensive areas
for which the income and expenditure figures have been summarized
for cities of the size-class covered in the present investigation. (See
table 1.)
It is of some interest to compare these cost figures of a standard
budget with the average incomes of the families from which data were
secured in the present investigation.
T a b l e 2 . — Average Family Incomes, by Regions
14.469 FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS AND CLERICAL WORKERS
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Region

Dollars

Average
for all
families=100

New York City
_
_
______
_______
11 North Atlantic cities___ __________________ _________ ______ __
8 East North Central cities
_ _
5 West North Central-Rocky Mountain cities __________ _ ________ __
12 Southern cities
_ __
_
_
____ _ _ _ _ _ _
5 Pacific coast cities___ _________
_____________ _
________ _ _

1, 737
1,490
1,499
1,485
1,369
1,607

114.0
97.8
98.4
97.4
89.8
105.4

42 cities

1, 524

100.0

_____

_

____

________

___

__

These figures indicate that average incomes in the Pacific region
were about 7 percent below those in New York City. Incomes in
the North Atlantic and North Central cities were about 15 percent
lower, and in the Southern cities about 21 percent lower than in




SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS

189

New York. These differences are considerably greater than the
differences between the cost of the maintenance budget for large cities
similarly grouped by regions.
In view of the fact that income differences were not adequately
compensated by lower living costs in some regions, it is to be expected
that average differences in family expenditures by region will reflect
these income differences, as well as those differences in expenditures
which are associated with differences in climate and custom.
T a b l e 3 . — Summary o f Income and Expenditures
14,469 FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES, BY REGION

New
York
City

11 North
Atlantic
cities

8 East
North
Central
cities

5 West
North
Central
cities

12
5 Pacific
Southern
coast
cities
cities

Average family size:
Persons____________ __ ______ __
Expenditure units.
_ _ _._ _ _
Food expenditure units.
Clothing expenditure units..
Net family income ..
_. . . . _ _ __
Net change in assets and/or liabilities _

3.64
3. 38
3.17
3. 04
$1, 737
-6 8

3.80
3.49
3.29
2.97
$1, 490
+14

3.49
3.21
3.00
2. 76
$1, 499
+13

3. 45
3.18
2.96
2. 77
$1, 485
+31

3. 63
3. 35
3.13
2.90
$1, 369
+26

3.20
2.98
2.80
2.60
$1,607
+70

Expenditures for groups of items:
Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items.. ___________________

$1, 828

$1, 486

$1, 500

$1, 464

$1, 351

$1, 552

Food _ _ ___
_ ___ ___ _ .
Clothing______
. . . . ____
Housing . . .
. . .
______
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
Other household operation ._ __
Furnishings and equipment_____
Automobile______ _____ _ _____
Other transportation.. . . . _ ___
Personal care
__
_____
Medical care...
___ ________
Recreation________ ___________
Education
___ _
_
__
Vocation. __
_ _
___
Community welfare _ _ .
Gifts__________________________
Other items _ _ _ _ _

664
200
385
90
67
47
32
60
35
63
113
6
15
15
30
6

507
155
266
125
54
56
65
39
28
53
76
6
5
23
20
8

488
165
234
112
52
70
117
32
29
59'
81
8
5
17
24
7

469
150
226
110
57
64
116
36
29
64
74
9
6
21
27
6

430
148
201
93
68
63
93
32
30
60
73
7
4
19
23
7

497
162
240
81
68
59
140
34
35
72
91
10
6
14
36
7

Percentage of annual current expenditure
for—
All items. ___________
_ ___ _ _

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Food. _
___ _ _
Clothing...
___
__ ____
Housing. ______ _
_____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration________
Other household operation.. ____
Furnishings and equipment _ ______
Automobile.. ________ ______ _____ _
Other transportation____ __ _____
Personal care _ . _______ _ _
Medical care. _ .
_______
______
Recreation __ ___ ______ _______
Education. ___________________ _
Vocation ______ _______ ____________
Community w elfa re._____________
Gifts____________ ________ ___ _
Other items _
___
____

36.3
10.9
21.1
4.9
3.7
2.6
1.8
3.3
1.9
3.5
6.2
.3
.8
.8
1.6
.3

34.1
10.4
17.9
8.4
3.6
3.8
4.4
2.6
1.9
3.6
5.1
.4
.3
1.6
1.4
.5

32.6
11.0
15.6
7. 5
3.5
4.7
7.8
2.1
1.9
3.9
5.4
.5
.3
1.1
1.6
.5

32.0
10.3
15. 4
7.5
3.9
4.4
7.9
2.5
2.0
4.4
5.1
.6
.4
1.4
1.8
.4

31.8
n .o
14.9
6.9
5.0
4.7
6.9
2.4
2.2
4.4
5.4
.5
.3
1.4
1.7
.5

32.0
10.4
15.5
5.2
4.4
3.8
9.0
2.2
2.3
4.6
5.9
.6
.4
.9
2.3
.5

N ote.—See appendix D, “ Balancing difference” (p. 386), for explanation of why total incomes do not ex­
actly equal total expenditures plus net change in assets and liabilities.

A summary by regions of the spending of the 14,469 families studied
in this investigation is presented in table 3. (See also table A—
14,




190

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

p. 330). The New York City families spent on the average almost
$300 more for all goods and services than the next highest average for
any other area ($1,552 for 5 Pacific coast cities). The incomes of the
New York City families were not correspondingly higher. Hence
they showed an average deficit of $68, as compared with at least a
small average surplus in ever}7 other region. The third highest total
expenditure was made by families in 8 East North Central cities in
which the average was $1,500. This contrasts with $1,486 for 11
North Atlantic cities, $1,464 for 5 West North Central-Mountain
cities and $1,351 for 12 Southern cities.
The differences among the various regions in total expenditure are
not necessarily found, however, for specific categories of spending.
Thus New York City families rank first in total expenditure but
lowest in expenditure for automobiles and furnishings and equipment.
The traffic congestion and the parking difficulties of a metropolitan
area, combined with a low-fare rapid transit system, readily explain
the small average automobile expenditure. Limited living space in
this unique metropolis accounts for the low furnishings and equipment
figure.
The Southern cities in general had the lowest expenditures of any
region for the same categories for which New York had the highest.
Expenditures of the Southern families surveyed averaged less than for
any other region for food, clothing, housing, and vocational expense.
They were also among the lowest for recreation and for transportation
other than by automobile. The South, on the other hand, was
relatively high in expenditures for household operation chiefly because
of the more frequent use of domestic service. The South also ranked
high among the regions in expenditures for furnishings and equipment,
personal care, and contributions to community welfare.
The Pacific coast cities ranked first or second in magnitude of
expenditures for automobiles,1 medical care, gifts and contributions
to individuals, formal education, personal care, and household operation
other than fuel, light, and refrigeration. They ranked lowest, how­
ever, in expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration. The mild
climate in the four California cities and in Seattle, which feels the
moderating effect of the Japanese current, together with low electricity
rates in Seattle, which has a municipally owned plant, explain this
figure. Fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures were highest, as
would be expected, in the three northern regions— the North Atlantic,
East North Central, and West North Central-Mountain cities.
That many of the differences in family spending patterns as be­
tween regions are due to income variation is shown by contrasting
table 4 with table 3. In table 4, families at the same income level,
between $1,200 and $1,500, in each region have been selected for
1 See ch. 8.




191

SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS

comparison. The differences as between regions are much less
marked when incomes are approximately the same, and the ranking
of regions by size of expenditure for given categories is greatly altered.
New York City families with incomes of $1,200 to $1,500 still
spend the most, and show an average deficit of $41 as compared with
surpluses achieved by families at that income level in 3 regions and
a deficit of only $6 in other North Atlantic cities. The spending of
the New York families at this income level is, however, only about
$100 greater than that of the families at the same income level in the
region with the lowest total expenditure, the West North CentralMountain cities.
f
T a b l e 4 . — Summary

of Income and Expenditures

3,332 W H ITE AND NEG RO FA M ILIES IN T H E $1,200-$1,500 IN CO M E GROUP IN 42 C IT IE S,
BY REGION

Item

New
York
City

11 North
Atlantic
cities

8 East
North
Central
cities

5 West
North
Central
cities

12
5 Pacific
Southern
coast
cities
cities

Average family size:
Persons. . . . ____ _ _ .
Expenditure units. __
....
Food expenditure units
... _
Clothing expenditure units . . . . ___
N et family incom e... _________
Net change in assets and/or liabilities.

2. 97
2. 77
2. 56
2. 58
$1, 354
-41

3. 67
3. 37
3.17
2. 86
$1, 346
-6

3. 69
3. 35
3.12
2. 87
$1, 330
-1

3. 33
3. 07
2. 85
2. 66
$1, 340
+35

3.81
3.49
3. 26
2. 99
$1, 337
+22

3.12
2. 88
2.70
2. 46
$1, 346
+ 33

Expenditures for groups of items:
Average annual current expenditure
for—
All item s.. .
_
.
_
_

$1, 420

$1, 359

$1, 342

$1, 316

$1, 326

$1, 330

Food________ __ . . __________
Clothing . .
_ _ ..
Housing. . _ ____ . . . . .
.
Fuel, light, and refrigeration
Other household operation...
Furnishings and equipment.
Automobile .
_ ___ . .
Other transportation. . _
Personal care __
Medical care
_ ______ _ _.
Recreation..
________ . . . ..
Education. _
______
...
Vocation... _
_ _ _ _ _ _._ _
Community welfare._ __ __ __ _
Gifts_________ _ ... _____ __ ._
Other item s..
_
. ._

476
122
404
73
53
39
13
48
31
36
77
3
6
10
28
1

452
137
266
119
45
52
52
40
27
47
69
3
3
21
22
4

449
149
210
115
43
69
76
37
26
53
65
6
3
19
18
4

429
135
195
108
50
67
82
45
29
58
57
4
6
19
29
3

436
140
199
98
61
68
75
34
29
58
71
6
4
19
22
6

443
130
221
73
54
46
116
31
29
62
71
7
4
12
26
5

Percentage of annual current expenditure
for—
All it e m s __ _________ ______ __ _ _

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Food___ _________ _____ _______
Clothing _ _
_ ___________ _
Housing___________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______ ._
Other household operation
Furnishings and equipment_______ _
Automobile______________ _ ______
Other transportation. __ _ ___ _
Personal care. _ . .
___ _ ..
Medical care_____ . . .
. . ___ _
Recreation___ _ _ __ _ ___ _ _.
Education________ _______ _
__
Vocation ______
_ _ _ _ ___ _
Community welfare ._
___ _____
Gifts______________________________
Other items. .

33.5
8.6
28.5
5.1
3.7
2.8
.9
3.4
2.2
2.5
5.4
.2
.4
.7
2.0
.1

33.3
10. 1
19.6
8.8
3.3
3.8
3.8
2.9
2.0
3. 5
5.1
.2
.2
1.5
1.6
.3

33. 5
11.1
15.7
8.6
3.2
5.1
5.7
2.8
1.9
4.0
4.8
.4
.2
1.4
1.3
.3

32. 6
10.3
14.8
8.2
3.8
5.1
6.2
3.4
2.2
4.4
4.3
.3
.5
1.5
2.2
.2

32.9
10.6
15.0
7.4
4.6
5.1
5.7
2.6
2.2
4.4
5.3
.4
.3
1.4
1.7
.4

33.3
9.7
16.6
5.5
4.1
3.5
8.7
2.3
2.2
4.7
5.3
.5
.3
.9
2.0
.4

N ote.—See appendix D, “ Balancing difference” (p. 386), for explanation of w hy total incomes do not
exactly equal total expenditures plus net change in assets and liabilities.




192

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

Regional differences in averages for specific categories of spending
are in general small as between families at the same income level.
Even though small, however, they are of interest in reflecting certain
geographical or other regional factors which affect consumption
habits. This is particularly true since when similar comparisons are
made for income brackets other than the one just considered, similar
differences are found.
The category showing the largest regional difference is housing.
Even when housing expenditures are added to those for fuel, light,
and refrigeration to equalize the differences due' to inclusion of this
item iii rent, New York City families at this income level paid on the
average a fourth more than those in 11 other North Atlantic cities
where the average was second highest. For total money housing
expenditures including fuel, light, and refrigeration, the average
expenditures were third greatest for families in the East North
Central cities, wit>h the West North Central-Mountain cities, the
Southern cities, and the Pacific coast cities following in the order
named. It should be borne in mind that this contrast in housing
expense between New York City, which has been treated as a region
in itself, and cities in other regions is in part to be ascribed to citysize difference as much as if not more than to regional difference.
The same caution holds for all comparisons for New York City with
the other regions. When imputed expenditure in terms of imputed
interest on the investment in owned homes (i. e., the annual value of
housing in kind received from investment in owned home) is added
to the money expenditure the regional differences are not so striking.
Home ownership is more common in the areas outside New York
City.
Food expenditures, even for families at the same income level,
remained highest in New York City and were lowest in the West
North Central-Mountain cities. The difference, however, was less
than $50 per year. The other North Atlantic cities were second
highest in food expenditures and the Southern cities the second
lowest. The relatively high cost of food in metropolitan centers and
the extent of the custom of eating in restaurants in New York City
and other large cities probably explain these figures.
When family incomes are the same, at this $1,200 to $1,500 level,
the Southern cities retain their first place in expenditures for house­
hold operation in which are included wages paid to domestic servants.
The maximum difference between regions in the average for this item
at this income level was, however, only $18 per year. The Southern
families at this income level ranked second or third among the regions
in expenditures for clothing, furnishings and equipment, automobile,




SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS

193

medical care, recreation, formal education, and personal care. They
ranked fifth in expenditures for food, housing (not including fuel,
light, and refrigeration), and transportation other than by automobile,
but for no category of spending ranked lowest among the regions.
The New York City families at this income level spent more on the
average than the families studied in any other region for transportation
other than by automobile, for personal care, and recreation, as well
as food and housing mentioned earlier. They had the lowest expen­
ditures, on the other hand, for clothing. New York City, being the
center of much of the garment industry of the country, offers in its
stores a wide variety of low-priced garments from which these families
evidently supplied themselves. New York City families at the $1,200
to $1,500 income level also had the lowest expenditures of any region
for furnishings and equipment, automobiles, medical care, and com­
munity welfare.
Pacific coast families at this income level had the highest expendi­
tures of any region for automobiles and for formal education. The
attraction of the open road, the countryside, and the moderate
weather, as well as the distances between localities explain in part
this expenditure for automobiles. It is also partly to be attributed to
the high freight rates paid on cars shipped to the Pacific coast and the
consequent differential in price of cars of approximately 20 percent
in coast cities compared with prices at the factory. A t this income'
level, it is the West North Central-Mountain cities, as might be
expected, which rank second in automobile expenditures. Southern
families tie with those in the East North Central for third place for
this item of yearly expenditure. The figures for automobile expendi­
ture include operation and maintenance costs as well as purchase.
Families in the East North Central cities at this income level had
the highest expenditures for clothing and for furnishings and equip­
ment, and ranked high in average outlay for formal education, as
well as for automobiles.
Regional Differences A m o n g W h ite and N egro Families*

Another factor which makes a difference in the pattern of average
family spending as between regions is the proportion of white and
Negro families in the population. In tables 5 and 6 are presented
data for all Negro families studied in each of 5 regions 2 and data for
Negro families at the $900 to $1,200 income level,
2 No Negroes were studied in Pacific coast cities.




194

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME
T a b l e 5 . — Summary

of Income and Expenditures

1,566 NEG RO FA M ILIES IN 16 C IT IE S, BY R EG IO N
[Data covered 12 months within the period 1934-36]
North
NewYork Atlantic
City
cities

East
North
Central
cities

West
North
Central
cities

Southern
cities

Average family size:
Persons _ ________________
______________
Expenditure units. _
- - ______ _____ . ..
Food expenditure units--- ---------------- ---Clothing expenditure units___________________
N et family income
__________ _____ _______
N et change in assets and liabilities __ _______ _

3.13
2. 97
2. 75
2. 79
$1.446
+ 10

3.46
3.23
3.07
2. 73
$1,138
+ 22

3.51
3.15
2,93
2. 72
$999
+37

3.36
3.08
2. 88
2. 63
$1,126
+35

3.79
3.44
3.20
2. 98
$875
+23

Average annual current expenditure for—
All item s_________________ -----_____________

$1, 459

$1,125

$963

$1,097

$855

451
149
417
73
50
49
5
56
34
31
82
3
5
8
30
16

371
105
244
103
37
37
27
43
24
35
54
2
2
17
23
1

359
97
153
96
30
45
20
35
20
31
43
4
1
16
11
2

370
110
162
102
40
48
44
49
26
48
45
2
4
16
29
2

302
92
135
77
29
35
22
26
19
37
44
3
1
13
15
5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

30.9
10.2
28. 6
5.0
3.4
3.4
.4
3.8
2.3
2. 1
5.6
_2
13
.6
2.1
1.1

33.0
9.3
21. 7
9.2
3.3
3.3
2.4
3.8
2.1
3.1
4.8
.2
.2
1.5
2.0
.1

37.2
10.1
15.9
10.0
3.1
4.7
2.1
3.6
2.1
3.2
4.5
.4
.1
1.7
1.1
.2

33.7
10.0
14.8
9.3
3.6
4.4
4.0
4.5
2.4
4.4
4.1
.2
.4
1.4
2.6
.2

35.3
10.8
15.8
9.0
3.4
4.1
2.6
3.0
2.2
4.3
5.1
.4
.1
1.5
1.8
.6

_ --------------Food_._ ________ _______
Clothing ____ _______________________ ____
Housing. . . . . __ __ _
. . . . . . _____ ...
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___ ________ __ ..
Other household operation . . .
....
Furnishings and equipment_________ _________
Automobile
- _
___ ___ __ __
Other transportation___ _ _
Personal care.
__ ____-_
Medical care
___ _ _____
-_ _
...
Recreation _____________________ _________
____
_ _________
Education___ _
Vocation_____ _________________ _ _ __________
Community w e lfa r e .___ __ _. - _ __ _
Gifts------------------ -------------------- -----Other item s----------- --------------------------Percentage of annual current expenditure for—
All item s__________________________________ _
Food____
__ --- ------- -------------------Clothing____________________________________
Housing.
__ _ .
_
.
______
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
Other household operation ___
_
___. . .
Furnishings and equipment_______________ __
Automobile . . . . . . . . .
.
. _ _ _ ...
Other transporation _.
_
. ...
. ..
Personal care
_ _
Medical care ___
___
Recreation
. Education-------- ----------- ----- -----------Vocation__________ ________ _______
____
Community welfare____
__ _ _ _
__ _
Gifts_______------ -- ____ ______. . .
___________
Other item s_________________

N ote.—See appendix D, “Balancing difference” (p. 386), for explanation of w hy total incomes do not
exactly equal total expenditures plus net change in assets and liabilities.

In general, the same conclusions hold for Negro families as for all
families, that most of the differences in averages for the families in
the entire region are income differences. When comparison is made
within an income level, as in table 6, there is no significant difference
in regional rankings of total expenditure for all goods and services.
Neither is there any significant tendency for one region to rank con­
sistently high or low in outlay for each or most of the main categories
of family expenditure.




195

SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS
T a b l e 6 .— Summary

of Income and Expenditures

504 NEG RO FA M ILIES IN T H E $900-$1,200 IN C O M E GROUP IN 16 C IT IE S, BY R EG IO N
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

North
NewYork Atlantic
City
cities

East
North
Central
cities

West
North
Central
cities

Southern
cities

Average family size:
Persons ___________ _ ___ _______________
Expenditure units - ... ___ _______ _____
Food expenditure units____ __ ________ ____
Clothing expenditure units___________________
N et family income _ ______________ __________
N et change in assets and liabilities.-- . ___
_ ___

2. 83
2.61
2. 38
2.42
$1, 067
-11

3.49
3. 25
3.09
2. 68
$1,038
+24

3. 52
3.19
2.99
2. 70
$1,025
+28

3. 55
3.24
3.02
2. 75
$1, 033
+28

3.97
3.63
3.37
3.18
$1,025
+22

Average annual current expenditure for—
All item s________ _______ _____ ____ ____ „

$1,105

$1, 029

$1,001

$1, 015

$1,007

364
102
348
66
32
29
38
25
20
53
1
5
6
13
3

348
88
234
100
32
30
27
35
22
30
48
1
2
16
14
2

362
94
159
100
33
48
28
36
20
37
45
2
1
18
17
1

364
93
153
104
35
41
21
49
23
51
46
2
3
15
10
5

346
108
162
90
35
43
31
35
22
42
54
4
2
14
15
4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

32.9
9.2
31.5
6.0
2.9
2.6
(2)
3.4
2.3
1.8
4.8
.1
.5
.5
1.2
.3

33.8
8.6
22.7
9.7
3. 1
2.9
2.6
3.4
2.1
2.9
4.7
.1
.2
1.6
1.4
.2

36.1
9.4
15.9
10.0
3.3
4.8
2.8
3.6
2.0
3.7
4.5
.2
.1
1.8
1.7
.1

35.9
9.2
15.1
10.2
3.4
4.0
2.1
4.8
.2.3
5.0
4.5
.2
.3
1.5
1.0
.5

34.3
10.7
16.1
8.9
3.5
4.3
3.1
3.5
2.2
4.2
5.3
.4
.2
1.4
1.5
.4

Food-----------------------------------------'Clothing ____________ ______ _____________
Housing.
__________ _____ __ _________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration __
___ ___ _
Other household operation ____
______
Furnishings and equipm ent______ ________ _
Autom obile_______________ ___ _ _ __ ______
Other transportation__ ___ _____ ______
Personal care________ ______________ _ _ ___
Medical care
___________ _ _ _ ______ _____
Recreation _
____ __ __ _
__ ___
Education_____ _____ _
__ _________ ______
Vocation__________ ___ ________ ___ ___ ___ _
Community welfare. __ _____
___ ______
Gifts_____________________ _ ________________
Other item s___________ ________ _____ _____
Percentage of annual current expenditure for—
All item s___ ___ .__ ___---------------------Food______ ____ ____ ___ ______________ ___
Clothing ________ _ _____
___
_ _____
Housing___
__
___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_______ _____ _ __
Other household operation
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Furnishings and equipment. _ __ __ ____
Automobile _______ __
___ _____
„ Other transportation __
_ _ _ _ _________
Personal care.
Medical care _ __
__ __
___
__ .
Recreation ___
____
____
Education.__ _
_
__ __
_ __
Vocation. __ . . .
. . .
Community welfare. __ ______
___ __
G ifts.. ________________ _____ ______ _____ .
Other item s_________ ____ ______ _ _ ____

0)

1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
N ote.—See appendix D, “ Balancing difference” (p. 386) for explanation of w hy total incomes do not
exactly equal total expenditures plus net change in assets and liabilities.

The general pattern of regional differences found for white and
Negro families combined at a given income level, also holds for Negro
families at a given income level. Thus New York City Negroes spent
more for housing than Negroes in other regions. They spent no
more for food, however, than Negroes in the East or West North
Central cities. They spent least for automobiles, while Southern




196

MONET DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

Negroes at that income level spent most for automobiles. New York
City and Southern Negroes at the same income level tied within $1
in expenditures for recreation. Southern Negroes with incomes from
$900 to $1,200 spent more than Negroes in any other region for
clothing, followed by New York City and then by the other Northern
Negro families.
N a tive-B o rn Com pared W ith F o r e ig n -B o m

To what extent do families with foreign-born homemakers on the
average carry over certain customs and traditions from their native
lands to a degree sufficient to influence their expenditure patterns?
To answer this question a special analysis was made comparing fam­
ilies with native-born homemakers with those having foreign-born
homemakers. The analysis was made from among the schedules in
each of the 30 Northern cities surveyed. The 12 Southern cities were
omitted because of the negligible size of their foreign-born populations.
In each of those 30 cities 3 in the Northern, Central, Mountain, and
Pacific regions, families with foreign-born homemakers were matched
with families having native-born homemakers. The schedule of a
family in a given city having a foreign-born homemaker was matched
with the schedule of another family in that city having a native-born
homemaker whose income, family type, and occupational class of the
chief earner 4 and total annual unit expenditure 5 were the same within
narrow limits. The result was that through selection in tabulation,
two subsamples were obtained, alike in all characteristics considered
most likely to affect family spending, except nativity. There were not
sufficient cases of families of any given nativity to permit further
classification by country. The various countries of birth of these
homemakers are, however, represented in this sample in approximately
the same proportion as in the total sample of families surveyed.
These proportions are fairly close to those shown for the country as a
whole in the 1930 census.6
It should be noted that in the country as a whole, the foreign-born
population has a higher average age than the native-born because of
the restriction of entry of immigrants in the post-war period. In
3The 30 cities included: N o r th A tla n tic R e g io n , New York City, Boston, Buffalo, Johnstown, Lancaster,
Manchester, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland, Rochester, Scranton, Springfield; E a s t N o r th C en tra l
R e g io n , Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Indianapolis, Lansing, Milwaukee;
W e s t N o r th C entra l a nd M o u n t a i n R e g io n , Denver, Kansas City, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Salt
Lake City; P a c ific R e g io n , Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco-Oakland, Seattle.
4 Account was taken of clerical, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled work.
5 For explanation of total annual unit expenditure, see ch. 3 and appendix C.
6 See appendix E of Bulletins Nos. 636, 637, 639, 640, and 641.




SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS

197

this paired sample, however, there is relatively little age difference
because family type was kept the same in making up the pairs.7
The careful limits of the criteria used in selection of these subsamples
mean that differences in spending patterns which might be due to
such extraneous factors as income, age, family size, occupation,
funds available for spending per family member, or locality, have
been substantially eliminated. Accordingly, the differences in
spending patterns which are found between these paired samples of
native-born and foreign-born families are to be attributed principally
to factors associated with the one important element in which the
two samples differ, namely, nativity of homemakers.
The average incomes and expenditures of the families in these
paired samples are presented in table 7. Incomes for both groups
averaged about $1,530 as compared with the average of $1,524 for
the entire 14,469 families surveyed.
Despite this similarity in incomes, the native-born families did not
spend as much for commodities and services as the foreign-born, their
total current expenditures averaging $16 less. Their savings averaged
$16.24, contrasted with an average deficit of $2.22 for the foreignborn families. Such a difference in savings is larger than would
have occurred by chance.
The items for which foreign-born families spent more than the
native-born are food, clothing, furnishings and equipment,, miscellane­
ous expenditures, medical care, transportation other than by automo­
biles, and household operation. Items for which the native-born spent
more on the average are housing, including fuel, light and refrigera­
tion, automobiles, recreation, and personal care.
7For family types used, see ch. 1, table 4, p. 18. Ages of persons in families of types classified by num­
ber of children under 16 would tend to correspond rather closely. It may be, however, that, for families of
husband and wife only, there are age differences between the native-born and foreign-born. Whether
husband and wife were young or old, families of this composition were considered of the same family type
and hence eligible for pairing. Accordingly, the foreign-born families may represent a slightly older age
group than the native-born in this paired sample. The difference in age, if any, however, would be much
less than for the native and foreign population of the country as a whole.
There were considerably more native-born than foreign-born families drawn in the random sample of
14,469 families. Accordingly, this technique of pairing families meant in effect including almost all of the
foreign-born families sampled and finding a match for each among the larger number of native-born families
studied. A few of the foreign-born families for whom data were available had to be excluded from the
analysis because no match could be found among the native-born families. The paired sample, however,
represents a much larger proportion of all the foreign-born than of all native-born families drawn in the
random sample. Since this is true and since the native-born were paired by family type w ith foreign-born
families who in general tend to be older (see above) the native families included in the paired sample are
necessarily older on the average than native families in the entire random sample. Consequently, the dif­
ferences in spending noted between these paired samples of foreign-born and native-born families should
not be assumed to be the same as would be found between a random sample of the native-born and a random
sample of the foreign-born population.




198

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

T able 7.— Income and Expenditures of a Paired Sample 1 of Foreign-Born and NativeBorn 2 Families
2,812 W H ITE FA M ILIES IN 30 C ITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average by which foreignborn exceed native-born

Average
Item

Annual net money income__________
_ ____
N et change in assets and liabilities_______________
Current money expenditure for all items___ ______
Food_________________ ___________
Housing, including fuel, light, and refrigeration.
Household operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration._
...
. _ __ __ __
Furnishings and equipm ent.. . . . ______ __
Clothing_____________ ___ ______ __ _ __ . . .
Total transportation_______________________
Automobile purchase, operation, and main­
tenance _
_
.
--------Other transportation _
___ _
Recreation.- _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
____
Medical care________ - ______ _ _________
Personal care____
______________
Other items______ _
__________ _______
Annual value of housing in kind received from in­
vestment in owned home___ _
. .

Nativeborn

Foreignborn

$1,533. 33
+16. 24
1, 529. 56
530. 24
386. 92

$1, 528. 52
- 2 . 22
1, 545. 93
548. 27
371. 58

—$4. 81
-18. 46
+16. 37
+ 18.03
-15 . 34

0.31

54. 87
51. 35
160.00
118. 65

55.04
60. 68
170. 59
108. 48

+ . 17
+9. 33
+10. 59
- 1 0 .1 7

.31
18.17
6. 62
8. 57

78. 78
39. 87
85. 54
54. 63
30.92
56. 44

65. 21
43. 27
79.00
58. 75
28. 86
64. 68

-13. 57
+ 3.40
- 6 . 54
+ 4.12
- 2 . 06
+8. 24

17.23
8. 53
7. 65
7. 54
6. 66
14.60

36. 96

50. 79

+ 13.83

37.42

Amount

Percentage

1.07
3.40
3. 96

1 Each pair of foreign-born and native-born families had the following characteristics: Residence in the
same city; income level the same, i. e., incomes the same within at most $300; family type the same; occupa­
tional group the same, within 2 classes. (Permissible combinations were: A clerical worker paired with a
clerical worker or a skilled worker; a skilled worker paired wdth a skilled worker, a clerical worker, or a
semiskilled worker; a semiskilled worker paired with a semiskilled or skilled worker; an unskilled worker
paired with an unskilled worker.) Annual unit expenditure the same within narrow limits such that the
aggregate unit expenditure of all foreign-born families paired in a city differed by not more than 1 percent
from the aggregate unit expenditure of all native-born families paired in that city.
3
Families were classed as foreign-born or native-born on the basis of nativity of the homemaker, since the
homemaker exercises a predominant influence upon the consumption habits of the family.

For none of the main categories of family spending was there as
much as $20 difference between the average expenditures of the
foreign-born and native-born. The averages for the foreign-born
families differed from those for the native-born by less than 10 percent
for every category except furnishings and equipment, automobile, and
miscellaneous expenditures. The foreign-born spent on the average
18 percent more for furnishings and equipment, but 17 percent less
for automobile purchase, operation, and maintenance. It seems likely
that the foreign-born families in general lived nearer the center of
town using automobiles less, but other transportation relatively more.
It has not been possible, however, to analyze the place of residence of
the native- and foreign-born families. When total transportation
expenditures are considered, the average for the foreign-born was
only 9 percent below that for the native families.
In terms of the percentage by which expenditures of foreign-born
families exceeded those of native-born, the next largest difference after
furnishings occurred in the case of miscellaneous expenditures, which
were 15 percent greater for the foreign-born. Transportation other
than by automobile claimed expenditures by the foreign-born more
than 8 percent greater than those by the native-born, while medical
care expenditures were greater by more than 7 percent and clothing




SPENDING HABITS OF SPECIAL GROUPS

199

expenditures by almost 7 percent. The differences for the remaining
categories for which expenditures were greater by the foreign-born
were all less than 4 percent.
For the smaller list of categories for which average expenditures of
foreign-born were less than of native-born families, no other category
even approached the difference of 17 percent for automobiles. The
next greatest proportionate difference was in total transportation
(automobile plus other forms of transportation) for which the differ­
ence was almost 9 percent. The percentage difference for recreation
was almost 8, for personal care almost 7, and for housing almost 4
percent.
An understanding of the meaning of these differences in expenditures
of comparable families having native-born from those having foreignborn homemakers can be gained by studying the proportion of cases
in which the differences were in the same direction. If the two groups
did not basically differ in consumption one would expect that the
expenditures of about half the foreign-born families would be smaller
than those of the native-born, while half would be larger, and the
average differences could be dismissed as due to chance variations.
Such a random distribution was, however, not found for most of the
categories of expenditure. In the case of expenditures for automo­
biles, for example, in a very large proportion of cases expenditures by
the foreign-born were smaller than those by the native-born.
A more precise test 8 was made to ascertain whether the dif­
ferences between the two samples were greater than would have
occurred by chance. It indicated that the differences in total
current expenditure (and hence in surplus or deficit), and that for
household operation, may be dismissed as having no significance.
That for medical care is uncertain. Differences for all the other
categories of spending, however, were greater than would have
occurred by chance.9 The greatest significance is found in the lower
s The value of “t,” the ratio of the mean difference between the two samples to the estimated standard
error of the difference, was computed for each item. The value of “t ” for all 1,406 pairs in 30 cities com­
bined is as follows: Current money expenditure for all items, 0.94; food, 2.59; housing, including fuel,
light, and refrigeration, 3.15; household operation, other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, 0.12; furnishings
and equipment, 3.04; clothing, 2.71; automobile purchase, operation, and maintenance, 2.69; other transpor­
tation, 2.41; recreation, 2.83; medical care, 1.51; personal care, 3.32; no “t ” measure was computed for
“total transportation” or for “other items.”
For a paired sample of this size a value of “t ” of 1.96 or more indicates a statistically significant difference
between the expenditures of the native-born and foreign-born families. A value of “t ” of that size or greater
could be expected to occur entirely by chance between two completely random samples of this size in only
5 times in 100; a “t ” of 2.58 or larger could be expected to occur by chance only 1 time in 100.
9
Such statistical significance was not found in the preliminary analysis when the paired samples of some
of the 30 cities were studied separately. The differences between the averages for the native-born and the
foreign-born families within a given city were in most instances very small. When the value of the “t ”
factor was computed for each category of spending for the separate cities “t ’s” of a magnitude to indicate
statistical significance did not appear. The fact that the “t ’s” do become significant when computed for
the entire 2,812 families means that the differences, though small, are persistently in the same direction.
Hence it may be generalized that there is a small but consistent difference in the spending patterns of compa­
rable native-born and of foreign-born families.
2 4 2 9 4 9 ° — 4 1 ------ 1 4




200

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

expenditures of the foreign-born for personal care and for housing. It
seems likely that European attitudes toward land proprietorship ex­
plain the larger proportion of foreign-born than of native home owners.
For home owners current money expenditure for housing is generally
less than for renters (see p. 201) and this is the probable explanation
of the lower expenditures of the foreign-born. If the annual value of
the housing in kind received by home owners from investment in
their homes is added to money housing expenditure, the average for
total housing expense for native-born becomes $423.88 and for foreignborn $422.37. The difference between them is not significant.
It is understandable that the smaller amounts spent by the foreignborn families for automobiles and recreation fit in with certain ways
of living carried over from their early life, as do the larger expenditures
for food and clothing. Their larger expenditures for furnishings and
equipment would off-hand be expected to be related to the greater
proportion of home owners. For a paired sample of renters and
owners, however (see p. 201), the reverse relationship was found,
namely, that renters spent more for furnishings and equipment.
Hence there appears to be a definite tendency among foreign-born
families as such to spend more upon equipment for the home.
In summary, attention should be directed to the fact that the
statistical significance of the differences between the spending patterns
of native- and of foreign-born families lies not in their size, which was
generally very small, but in their persistence. The small differences,
in city after city, were noted in the same direction. Hence, such
consistent even though small differences in a sample of the size of this
one do assume significance in the sense that they cannot be dismissed
as due to chance variations. They may nevertheless have very little
general economic significance.
H o m e Owners Com pared W ith H o m e Renters

A similar analysis has been made of the spending habits of 623
pairs of white families who were home owners and home renters, in
11 cities 1 in the .North Atlantic region.
0
The same procedure was followed in the selection of these paired
samples of home owners and home renters as in the analysis of families
with foreign-born and native-born homemakers described on page 196.
Income, age, family composition, occupational class, and total annual
unit expenditure 1 were, by design, the same within narrow limits for
1
each pair of home-owning and home-renting families. Hence it may
10 These cities were Boston, Buffalo, Johnstown, Lancaster, Manchester, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Port*
land, Rochester, Scranton, Springfield. Limitations of time and funds did not permit extension of the
analysis to additional cities.
11 See footnote 1, table 8.




S P E N D IN G

H A B IT S

OF

S P E C IA L

201

GROUPS

properly be assumed that such average differences as are found in their
spending habits are principally explained by factors associated with
the one important point of difference between the two samples, namely,
home tenure.
The differences noted in the spending of these families are shown
in table 8. It will be observed that, because of the requirements of
pairing, the average income of home owners ($1,564) and of home
renters ($1,561) was the same within a very few dollars. The differ­
ence is no greater than might have occurred by chance. The average is
slightly higher than the average of $1,499 for all white families sur­
veyed in these 11 North Atlantic cities. Since there were more renters
than home owners in the sample, the procedure in selecting the pairs
was virtually that of pairing the renters against the home owners, i. e.,
more schedules from renter than from home-owner families were dis­
carded. Since more home owners were found at the higher income
levels, it was to be expected that the average incomes for the families
in this paired sample would be higher than for all white families in
the region.
T able 8.— Income and Expenditures of a Paired Sample 1 of Home-Owning and HomeRenting Fam ilies
1,246 WHITE FAMILIES IN 11 NORTH ATLANTIC CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]
Average by which renters
exceed owners

Average
Item
Home
owners

Home
renters

$1, 564. 50
+36. 34

$1, 561. 04
+28.09

—$3. 46
-8 . 25

__ ___

1, 534. 25

1, 548.07

+13. 82

+ .9

Food_________ ______ _____ _____ _ _____
Housing including fuel, light, and refrigeration.
Household operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration.. . . . .
____ ______
...
Furnishings and equipment .
. . .
Clothing . . .
....
_ __
_ _
Total transportation___________ .
______
Automobile purchase, operation, and main­
tenance .
_
_____. . . ____ _
Other transportation . . . _____ _ _ _ _ _ _
Recreation__ _ _______ _ _______________
Medical care______________ ____ _______ _ _
Personal care_____ _______________________
Other items _
.
. . .
Annual value of housing in kind received from in­
vestment in owned home. . _
...

544. 48
369. 25

519. 56
415.15

-24. 92
+45. 90

-4 .6
+12.4

62.14
49. 25
163. 72
115.04

52. 39
60. 92
165. 98
108. 30

-9 . 75
+11. 67
+2. 26
-6 . 74

-15.7
+23.7
+1.4
-5 .9

71.00
44.04
74.05
55.17
28. 26
72. 89

66.66
41.64
84. 83
53. 33
29. 66
57.95

-4.34
-2.40
+10. 78
-1.84
+1.40
-14.94

-6 .1
-5 .4
+14.6
-3 .3
+5.0
-20.5

Annual net money income - _
Net change in assets and liabilities

________ _
_ _______

Current money expenditure for all items

Amount

Percentage
-0 .2

132.12

1
Each pair of home-owning and home-renting families had the following characteristics: Residence in
the same city; income level the same, i. e., incomes the same within at most $300; family type the same;
occupational group the same within 2 classes; annual unit expenditure the same within narrow limits such
that the aggregate unit expenditure of all home owners paired in a city differed by not more than 1 percent
from the aggregate unit expenditure of all renters paired in that city.

In contrast with the small but significant difference in averages for
most categories of spending found between paired samples of foreignborn and of native-born families, significant differences in spending




202

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

as between home-owners and renters were found for only two categories
not directly connected with housing.1 Those were recreation ex­
2
penditures and food expenditures.
Recreation expenditures of renters were 14 percent greater than those
of home owners.
Such expenditures, as classified in this study,
include movies and other paid admissions, athletic or hobby equipment,
newspapers and magazines, cigarettes and tobacco, radios, and musical
supplies. It is not surprising that home-owning families find their
homes more satisfactory places for recreation than renting families.
The fact that they spend more for automobiles than renting families
seems to suggest that they depend more on their cars than on com­
mercial amusements for recreation. On the other hand, there may
have been a tendency for home owners to live farther from the city
center and hence to have greater need for automobile transportation.
That home owners spent more for food than renters may be related
in part to more frequent entertainment of guests in their homes.
Though the effect of family size was minimized in making up the
pairs, it is possible that the number of persons, especially children, in
the families of owners was slightly greater than in the case of renters 1
3
and that this accounts for the larger food expenditure.
As would be expected, the most significant difference between spend­
ing of home owners and home renters was in current money expense
for housing including fuel, light, and refrigeration. Renters paid 12
percent more than home owners. Home owners do not usually pay the
full equivalent of the current rental value of their homes for such items
as taxes, assessments, interest, refinancing charges, repairs, and in­
surance. These are the items which were treated in this investigation
as current housing expenditures of home owners. Current housing
expenditures do not include payments on principal of mortgage or
down payments on home; such items were treated as investment.
(See ch. 10.) When the annual value1 of the housing in kind received
4
1
2
The statistical significance of the differences in spending between pairs of families of the same income, occu­
pation, family type, and annual unit expenditure (see p. 387 for definition of annual unit expenditure) has
again been measured by the value of “ t” (see p. 199). The value of “ t” for each item measured for all 623 pairs
in 11 cities combined is as follows: Current money expenditure for all items, 0.51; food, 2.28; housing including
fuel, light, and refrigeration, 5.99; household operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, 4.20; furnish­
ings and equipment, 2.48; clothing, 0.38; automobile purchase, operation, and maintenance, 0.55; other
transportation, 0.96; recreation, 3.48; medical care, 0.47; personal care, 1.43. No “ t” measure was computed
for “ total transportation” or for “ other items.” For a paired sample of this size, a value of “ t” of 1.96 or
more indicates a significant difference between the expenditures of the home-owning and the home-renting
families. A value of “ t” of that size or greater could be expected to occur entirely by chance between 2
completely random samples of this size in only 5 or less times in 100.
1
2
There is some latitude in number of persons in families classified as of the same type. (See ch. 1, table 4,
p. 18.) In the Study of Consumer Purchases conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, it was found that
large families were more apt to be home owners than small families. (See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin
No. 642, vol. I.) Hence it is likely that the number of persons in the families of home owners in the paired
sample was slightly greater than in the families of renters.
1
4
Computed as the difference between annual rental value and sums actually paid out for the following
items: Taxes, assessments, interest, refinancing charges, repairs, insurance. (See ch. 5.)




S P E N D IN G

H A B IT S

OF

S P E C IA L

G ROUPS

203

from investment in owned homes (which amounted to $132.12 for
the home-owning families included in this comparison) is added to
money expenditures for housing, it appears that the total current
housing expenditures of the home owners was almost $100 greater
than that of the renters.
Higher furnishings and equipment expense by renting families was
found to be greater than would occur by chance. This may be in part
a reflection of greater use of built-in equipment by home owners. It
suggests also that home-owning families, in general living in more
outlying districts than renters, met their greater expenditures for
automobiles, in part at least, by cutting down on furnishings. Also
renting families, not having the responsibility for meeting payments
on the mortgage, may feel somewhat freer to make purchases of
electrical equipment or other items of comfort or convenience about
the house.
Since most home owners have an obligation to meet mortgage pay­
ments, it is not surprising that their savings exceeded those of renters.
They were not as much greater, however, as might have been expected,
the averages being $36 for home owners and $28 for renters.
Among the 643 families of home owners, 29.1 percent reported pay­
ments on principal of mortgage, averaging $158 per family making
payments. When these payments are averaged among all 643 home
owners,1 however, the figure is reduced to $46. The fact that average
6
savings of home owners were lower than their average payments of
principal on mortgage is explained by the fact that they had counter­
balancing increases in liabilities such as balances owing on installment
purchases. (Seech. 10.)
Despite the somewhat greater average savings of home owners, the
pioportion of renters having surpluses was, as a matter of fact, slightly
greater. The size of their surpluses, however, was smaller, resulting in
lower average savings for the entire group of renters than of owners.
The figures are shown in table 9.
An interesting tendency shown by the figures is the notably higher
savings of home owners at income levels above $2,000, the excess over
savings of renters being greater than the amounts of their mortgage
payments. The figures also indicate a slackening, at higher income
levels, in the increases in percentage of home owners making mortgage
payments and in the amount of such payments per family investing.
is For the entire sample of home owners studied (see ch. 5 and Tabular Summary, table A-4) a rather small
amount was reported paid on principal of mortgage. The period of the study may have been a factor here.
It may be that recovery from the depression had not advanced far enough in 1934-36 to make home owners
among moderate-income families feel able to make payments of substantial size on their mortgages.




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T able 9.— Savings of a Paired Sample of Home-Owning and Home-Renting Fam ilies,
1,246 White Fam ilies in 11 North Atlantic Cities
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-36]

Item

Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­
lies Under $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100
$2,400 over

Number of families:
Owners___________________ ________
623
Renters______________________________
623
Percentage of families having—
Surplus:
Owners _
_ ___ . _______ _
63.4
Renters__________________________
66.5
Deficit:
Owners______________ ___________
35.2
Renters__________________________
31.8
Average per family having—
Surplus:
Owners_________
_ __ $183
Renters_________ _______ _ . _
$121
Deficit:
Owners---- ------ ----------------------------- $226
Renters_______ ___________________ $165
Average net changes in assets and liabilities
for all families:
Owners ____________
_ _____ +$36
Renters______________________________ +$28
Percentage of owners making payments on
principal of mortgage___________________
29.1
Average size of principal payment:
Per owning family making payment____ $158
Per owning family____________________
$46

31
31

124
124

140
140

138
138

119
119

41
41

30
30

38.7
38.7

51.6
62.9

59.3
67.1

66.7
68.8

73.9
72.3

80.5
78.0

76.7
56.7

61.3
54.8

47.6
34.7

38.6
32.1

32.6
28.3

24.4
27.7

19.5
19.5

16.7
43.3

$85
$43

$104
$57

$137
$92

$169
$142

$238
$157

$318
$156

$264
$275

$174
$187

$241
$138

$188
$195

$268
$112

$251
$154

$172
$155

$207
$318

—$74
—$86

—$61
—$12

+$8
-$1

+$25 +$115 +$222
+$66 +$70 +$92

+$168
+$18

16.1

21.0

20.0

34.1

39.5

36.6

43.3

$99
$16

$133
$28

$130
$26

$182
$62

$144
$57

$221
$81

$178
$77

Fam ilies H aving Surplus Compared W ith Those H aving Deficit
Another question to which an answer has been attempted by the
use of a paired sample is this: In what way are the current-expenditure
patterns of families who achieve a surplus different from those of
families which go in the red?
A special analysis of 258 white families having surpluses compared
with 258 white families having deficits was made for 4 cities in Cali­
fornia.1 The same criteria were used in selecting the families for the
6
analysis as in the case of the paired samples of native-born and
foreign-born families (see p. 196) and the paired samples of home
owners and home renters.
The characteristic of having a surplus or having a deficit, while
perhaps not quite so tangible as nativity or home tenure, is the one
important factor which distinguishes one-half of this paired sample
from the other. Other differences such as income, family composition,
or occupation have been eliminated by the procedure of pairing the
families.1 Hence, such differences in the expenditure patterns as
7
occur between the two groups of families may be associated with this
one important characteristic in which they differ, namely", achieving
1 The cities were Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Franeisco-Oakland. Limitations of time
6
and funds did not permit extension of the analysis to additional cities.
» See p. 205.




S P E N D IN G

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a surplus or having a deficit. It may be thought of as a “propensity
to save” on the part of the surplus families and a “propensity to con­
sume” 1 on the part of the deficit families.
8
The most striking difference between the expenditure patterns of
the paired surplus and deficit families shown in table 10 is the more
than $200 difference in their total current expenditures. This would,
of course follow from the basis of the classification and the fact that
income differences had been eliminated in the process of pairing.
The families having deficits not only had greater total expenditures,
but their average spending for every category but one was greater
than the corresponding expenditure of the families having surpluses.
Two of the categories of spending for which the differences between
surplus families and deficit families were largest1 are the ones for
9
which deficit financing (see ch. 10) of consumers goods on a formal
contract basis is most frequent. They were transportation (including
T a b l e 1 0 . — Income

and Expenditure of a Paired Sample 1 of Fam ilies Having Surplus
and Fam ilies Having Deficit
516 WHITE FAMILIES IN 4 CALIFORNIA CITIES
[Data cover 12 months within the period 1934-35]
Average by which deficit
families exceed surplus
families

Average
Item
Surplus
families
Annual net income--_____ - ______________
Net change in assets and liabilities_______________
Current money expenditure for all items______
Food__________________________
_________
Housing including fuel, light, and refrigeration.
Household operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ __
Furnishing and equipm ent____ _ ___
Clothing_________ __ _ _______ ____ ____
Transportation ___ __ ______
__ _______
Recreation
_______ _____________ _ _ _
Medical c a r e .-_________ ______ _______ _
Personal care. ______ _ _ _ _ _______ _
Other items.
_ _
. __
____ _

Deficit
families

$1,561. 42
123. 95

$1, 528. 88
134. 73

—$32. 54
-258. 68

2.1
208.7

1, 462. 07

1, 679. 80

+217. 73

14.9

486. 79
321. 69

503. 63
336. 98

+16. 84
+15. 29

3.5
4.8

68. 93
50. 80
156. 38
136. 65
88. 37
58. 22
34. 32
59. 92

66. 32
88. 92
179. 04
217. 42
101. 64
86. 94
36. 92
61.99

- 2. 61
+38.12
+22. 66
+80. 77
+13. 27
+28. 72
+2. 60
+2. 07

3.8
75.0
14.5
59.1
15.0
49.3
7.6
3. 5

Amount

Percentage

i
Each pair of surplus and deficit families had the following characteristics: Residence in the same city;
income level the same, i. e., incomes the same within at most $300; family type the same; occupational group
the same within 2 classes.
1 See John Maynard Keynes, General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Harcourt, Brace
8
& Co., New York, 1936.
!9 The statistical significance of these differences was estimated by computing the value of “ t.” (See foot­
note 8, p. 199.) This measure indicates whether the differences between individual pairs of families are as
often in one direction as the other and hence may be ascribed to chance, or whether they are persistently in
one direction. The “ t” measure as computed for each category for the 258 pairs of families in 4 cities com­
bined is as follows: Current money expenditure for all items, 16.52; food, 1.86; housing, including fuel, light,
and refrigeration, 1.62; household operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, 0.82; furnishings and
equipment, 4.92; clothing, 3.24; transportation. 6.62; recreation, 2.77; medical care, 4.04; personal care, 2.03;
formal education, 1.71; other items. 0.54. No “ t” measure was computed for “ automobile” separate from
“ other transportation.” For a paired sample of this size a value of “ t” of 1.965 or more is significant. For
a “ t” of that size or larger, the chances that such differences as were found would have occurred in any two
samples drawn at random would be 5 or less in 100.




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automobiles) and furnishings and equipment. For automobiles or
equipment purchased on the installment plan, the total cost of the
article was treated as current expenditure 2 if the purchase was made
0
in the schedule year, whether or not the payments were completed
during the year. The amounts still owing at the end of the schedule
year were treated as an increase in liabilities and taken into account
in computing the family’s deficit. (See ch. 10 and appendix D .)
The third most important category in which the current expendi­
tures of the surplus families and the deficit families differ is medical
care. As a rule, when the deficit represents expenditures for medical
care, it is in the form of doctor’s bills 2 which may remain unpaid
1
for some time.
Other items showing a significantly greater expenditure by deficit
families than by surplus families are clothing, recreation, and personal
care. Enough of these families were so inclined to keep up personal
appearance and provide relaxation, even though they found it neces­
sary to draw on their reserves or use credit to do so, that they in­
fluenced the averages to an appreciable extent.
2 Throughout the report the term “ current expenditures” is used to mean expenditures for ultimate
0
consumers’ goods, including relatively durable consumption goods. The time and funds available for the
investigation have not made possible the presentation of separate totals distinguishing expenditures for the
more slowly consumed as distinguished from quickly consumed goods. Indeed, the data on depreciation
rates for relatively durable consumers’ goods are so fragmentary that it would be extremely difficult to do
so. Expenditures for such durable goods as automobiles, mechanical refrigerators, and other furnishings
and equipment have been classified with expenditures for food and carfare and other quickly consumed
goods as “ current expenditures,” while money spent for permanent improvements on owned homes and
other real estate or as payment on the principal of mortgages has been classified as savings. The total cost
of consumers’ goods purchased on credit was included in current expenditures and the amount of the obli­
gations outstanding at the end of the year was taken into account when computing changes in liabilities
over the 12-month period. (See table A-13 and appendix D.)
2 It should be noted that for bills incurred for medical services or for any other goods or services such as
1
grocery bills, charge accounts at department stores, or installment contracts, only the net increase for the
year in such obligations was included in computing the family’s deficit. (See ch. 10 and appendix D.)




Chapter 1 2
A G G R E G A T E SP E N D IN G A N D S A Y IN G OF W A G E
E A R N E R S A N D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S IN L A R G E
C IT IE S A S R E L A T E D TO T H E IR A G G R E G A T E IN ­
COM E
The combined spending of all wage earners and lower-salaried cleri­
cal workers forms an impressive mass market for the products of in­
dustry, agriculture, and trade. It is an important segment of total
national spending. An examination of the data secured in this survey
from the standpoint of the importance of urban wage earners and cleri­
cal workers in relation to the consumer expenditures of all American
families is presented in this chapter.
While the present study was not a survey of all wage earners and
clerical workers, it provides the basis for estimates of the incomes and
spending of a substantial proportion of the total. Five and one-half
million is the number of families which has been estimated to be the
total group to which the sample data for 1934-36 may be considered
to apply. That number of families in 1935-36 lived in cities with pop­
ulation over 50,000 and met the other principal requirements for in­
clusion of sample families in the survey.1 Accordingly, it may be
said that the 5% million families found themselves in substantially the
same situation so far as income and spending is concerned, as did the
sample of families surveyed.
These families comprised almost half of the Nation’s total of non­
relief families primarily dependent for support upon wage earners and
clerical workers. They constituted in 1935-36 about one-fifth (19
percent) of all families (of 2 or more persons) of the Nation. Their
aggregate income amounted to somewhat less than one-fifth (18 per­
cent) of the total family income of the country as estimated by the
National Resources Committee for the years 1935-36. The fact that
this represented about the same proportion of family population and
of income indicates that this group represents neither the extremes of
poverty nor wealth. Only 8 percent of them fell within the income lim­
its defined by the National Resources Committee for the “ lower onethird” of the Nation’s families, 50 percent fell within the middle third,
and 42 percent within the upper third of the Nation’s families.
These 5,500,000 families had aggregate annual incomes in 1934-36
of $8,400,000,000. This figure is almost one-fifth of the total national
1 That is, they were primarily dependent for their support on the earnings of wage earners and clerical
workers, had not received relief, had incomes of at least $500, and had no clerical worker with earnings over
$2,000. The figure of 5 H million is based upon the National Resources Committee report “ Consumer Incomes
in the United States,” Washington, 1938, and upon special tabulations by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
of the source data from the Study of Consumer Purchases.




207

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income of families of two or more persons, and 14 percent of total
national consumer income.2
B asis o f Estim ates
The estimated totals of income and expenditure for 5,500,000
families in 1934-36 are based upon data provided by the sample of
families visited in this investigation. This sample was carefully
chosen to represent a cross section of the families of the employed
wage earners and lower-salaried clerical workers in large cities.
Hence it is reasonable to estimate that the income distribution in
1934-36 of all the 5,500,000 families was about the same as for the
sample group. On this assumption, it is estimated that the total
income of these families in 12 months of 1934-36 was approximately
8,400 million dollars. (See table 1.)
T able 1.—Estimated Fam ily Income of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in Large

Cities
[5,500,000 families; 12 months during the period 1934-36]
Families

Aggregate income

Annual net family income
Number

Percentage

Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage

All families...........................................................

5, 500, 000

100.0

$8, 369, 200

100.0

$500-$600_______ ________ ______ _____ _______
$600-$900______ ________ ____________________
$900-$1,200_________________________________
$1,200-$1,500________________________________
$1,500-$1,800....................................... ..................

44, 000
462, 000
1,122, 000
1,309, 000
1,116, 500

.8
8.4
20.4
23.8
20.3

24, 300
359. 000
1,194,900
1, 769, 700
1,832,200

.3
4.3
14.3
21.1
21.9

$1,800-$2,100........ .................................................
$2,100-$2,400........ .................................................
$2,400-$2,700—.................... ............... ..................
$2,700-$3,000________________________________
$3,000 and over---------- -------- -----------------------

830, 500
308,000
148, 500
71, 500
88,000

15.1
5.6
2.7
1.3
1.6

1,608, 700
639, 600
375,600
206, 000
305,200

19.2
8.3
4.5
2.5
3.6

Distribution o f Expenditures in

1934r-36

In 1934-36, it is estimated that the aggregate spending of these
5K million families was $8,339,400,000. (For discussion of their
savings, see p. 212). The estimated division of these expenditures by
main categories is shown in table 2.
Food expenditures alone were almost $3,000,000,000, while housing,
together with fuel, light, and refrigeration, accounted for slightly
over $2,000,000,000. Automobile purchase took $193,000,000; auto­
mobile operation and maintenance, $287,000,000.
Recreation
amounted to $452,000,000, while clothing expenditures reached
a total of $892,000,000. Expense for medical care totaled $326,000,000 and for personal care, $166,000,000.
The sheer size of these figures indicates the importance of the
combined pay envelopes of the millions of city workers who form
2 See National Resources Committee, Consumer Incomes in the United States, Washington, 1938, p. 34.




S P E N D IN G

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IN C O M E

a part of America’s mass markets for the products of agriculture,
industry, and trade, of which this group is a part.
Table 2.—Distribution of Estimated Aggregate Expenditures of Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in Large Cities
[5,500,000 families; 12 months during the period 1934-36]
Item

9

Aggregate annual current expenditure for:
All items_______________________
__________________
F ood__________________________________________________________
Clothing __________________
________ __ ____________ ___
Housing ...
Fuel, light, and refrigeration
...........
O ther household operation...
Furnishings and equipment
_.
Automobiles:
Purchase
Operation and m aintenance
O ther transportation
Personal care
M edical care
■ Recreation
_
... ..................
Form al education
...
_
____ _
Vocation. _ ____________ __ _____ _ ____________ ___ _____
Community welfare__ _ _ _ __
__
__ __ __
__ __
Gifts__________________________________________________________
__ ___
_
_ _
Other items
_ __ _
_

Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage

$8,339,400
2, 792,000
891,700
1,423,800
595,300
320, 300
329,100

100.0
33. 5
10.7
17.1
7. 2
3.8
3.9

193, 500
287, 500
209,800
166, 200
326, 200
452, 500
39,300
34,100
105, 600
134, 200
38,300

2.3
3.4
2.5
2.0
3.9
5.4
.5
.4
1.3
1.6
.5

Comparison W ith Totals fo r the N ation
The magnitude of these expenditures appears more clearly when
they are placed in perspective. National estimates of consumer
expenditures are available for 1935-36, against which may be set the
expenditures of this segment of the families of urban wage earners and
clerical workers for 12 months during the period 1934-36. The
expenditures of this group of families in 1934-36 constituted almost
one-fourth of total national expenditures for transportation other than
by automobile and almost the same proportion of national outlay for
furnishings and equipment. They were about one-sixth of the
national totals for clothing, food, and personal care and more than
one-seventh of the totals for housing, medical care, and recreation.
The comparisons are shown in table 3.
Table 3.—Expenditures of Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in Large Cities as a
Percentage of Expenditures of A ll Consumer Units
[ 5,500,000 families; 12-months during the period 1934-36]
Item
Food. ________
_ -----_____________
________ _______ ___ ___ _
__
C loth ing.__ _ __ ____ ______ _____ _ __ __ _____ _ ____________________ ___ _ __
Housing____ ________ _____ ____ _____________ ________ _____ _______________________
Household operation._ _ __ ______ ___ _____ _ __ _________________________ __ _
Furnishings and equipment ___________________________________________________
___
Automobile purchase, maintenance, and operation
__ ____________________ _____
Other transportation
«_ __ __ __ __________ _____
Personal care __
_ ____ ___ _____ _______ Medical care
_ _
_ _ _ _
____ ___ ____________________ _ __
Recreation
_
_
__
_ _ _ ____ ______________________ ___________
Education_____________ ___
_____ ______ ___ ______________________________________
Other
__ _
__ _ __ _______________




Percentage
16.5
16.9
15.0
11.6
23.1
12.7
23.8
16.0
14.7
14.3
7.7
9.3

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Expenditures F or Autom obiles
One commodity, automobiles, has been selected for illustrating in
greater detail the relation of the spending of this group of
million
families to that of the Nation as a whole.
A consideration of the relation in 1934-36 of the automobile pur­
chases of these families to total automobile sales shows that this group
purchased an average of 148,200 new automobiles a year during the
survey period, about 5 percent of total new cars sold. (See table 4.)
The importance of the
million families in the automobile market
is not measured merely by the number of new automobiles they pur­
chased, however. For every new car purchased by these families in
1 year, they bought three used cars, the total number being 445,900
per year. The mass market for new automobiles is made possible
only by an even larger market for used cars. It has been estimated
that 65 percent of new cars sold in the period 1934-36 were purchased
as replacements for old cars.3 Such replacement sales are possible
only if a used-car market of substantial size exists. The exact num­
ber of new-car purchases made possible by sales of almost 450,000
used cars to urban wage earners and clerical workers cannot be accu­
rately estimated. It may be conservatively estimated, however, that
at least half the used-car purchases played a part in the purchase of
additional new cars by persons not included among the group under
consideration.
T able 4.—Estimated Aggregate Purchases of Automobiles by Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in Large Cities
[5,500,000 families; 12 months during the period 1934-36]
Number of families purchasing

Aggregate expenditure

Income
New cars Used cars
Total___________________

Either

New cars

Used cars

Either

____

148,200

445,900

594,100

$500-$600_______________________
$600-$900_______________________
$900-$1,200_____________________
$1,200-$1,500___________________
$1,500-$1,800__________________

0
0
0
35.300
31.300

700
19.900
69, 600
87, 700
103,800

700
19,900
69,600
123,000
135,100

0
0
0
10,105,480
16,825, 655

72,160
2,162,160
12,802,020
20.237.140
24,451,350

72,160
2,162,160
12,802,020
30, 342,620
41,277, 005

$1,800-$2,100___________________
$2,100-$2,400___________________
$2,400-$2,700___________________
$2,700 and over __
_ _

37.400
19, 400
10.400
14, 400

88,000
37, 300
18,000
20.900

125,400
56, 700
28,400
35,300

23,204,170
11,919,600
6, 565,185
9, 271, 735

21.161.140
9, 948,400
4,692,600
4,821,685

44,365, 310
21; 868,000
11, 257, 785
14,093, 420

$77,891,825 $100, 348, 655 $178,240,480

It appears that purchases of used cars by this group resulted in the
sale of at least 350,000 new cars per year in this 1934-36 period. Al­
though they are not ordinarily considered a vital factor in the sale of
new cars, it is apparent from these estimates that their purchase has a
considerable effect on the new-car market.
3
Roos, C. F., and von Szeliski, Victor: “ Factors governing changes in domestic automobile demand/’ in
The Dynamics of Automobile Demand. New York, 1939, pp. 54-55.




S P E N D IN G

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211

The E ffect o f Incom e on Autom obile Purchases
The effect of changes in income on purchases of new cars can be
estimated from the spending patterns of families of different incomes
at the time of the study. Table 5 shows the average expenditures in
one year by this group of families at'different income levels separately
1 year by this group of families at different income levels separately
for new and for used cars. Also shown is the percentage of all families
at each income level purchasing either a new or a used car during 1
year.
The relation of income to new-car purchases among this group of
city families is immediately apparent from the table. A t incomes
below $1,200 no new cars were bought. From that point on, as income
increases the frequency of purchase increases rapidly, so that at the
highest income level 9 percent of the families purchased a new car
during the year. The average expenditure per family increased
from almost $8 to about $58, a sevenfold increase in car purchase
with only a doubling in income.
T able 5.—Estimated Average Purchases of Automobiles by Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in Large Cities
[5,500,000 families; 12 months during the period 1934-36]
Second-hand cars

New cars

Income class

Percent­
age pur­
chasing

Average
expendi­
ture per
family i

Average
expendi­
ture per
family
purchas­
ing i

Percent­
age pur­
chasing

Average
expendi­
ture per
family i

Average
expendi­
ture per
family
purchas­
ing i

All cars

Average
expendi­
ture per
family i

2.7

$14. 20

$526. 08

8.1

$18. 23

$225. 08

$32.43

$500-$600______________
$600-$900______________
$900-$l,200____________
$1,200-$1,500___________
$1,500-$1,800___________

0
0
0
2.7
2.8

0
0
0
7. 72
15.07

0
0
0
285.87
538.19

1.6
4.3
6.2
6.7
9.3

1.64
4. 68
11. 41
15. 46
21.90

102. 79
108.74
184.01
230.68
235. 48

1.64
4.68
11.41
23.18
36.97

$1,800-$2,100___________
$2,100-$2,400___________
$2,400-$2,700___________
$2,700 and over_____ _.

4.5
6.3
7.0
9.0

27.94
38. 70
44.21
58.13

620. 91
614.31
631.55
645.88

10.6
12.1
12.1
13.1

25.48
32. 30
31.60
30. 23

240.41
266. 91
261.13
230. 73

53. 42
71.00
75.81
88. 36

All families

______

i Net expenditure, i. e., gross purchase price minus trade-in allowance.

Used-car purchase was much more frequent among families in this
group than new-car purchase. Even at the lowest income levels,
2 percent of the families purchased used cars. Frequency of used-car
purchase increased with income but not so rapidly as new-car purchase.
The tapering off of the frequency of used-car purchases at higher in­
come levels clearly reflects a shift from used to new cars.




212

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME
Savings

There remains for consideration the volume of saving of these
families of wage earners and clerical workers, as contrasted with their
purchases of consumer goods and services for current family living.
Since savings for the economy as a whole constitute a deferral of con­
sumption, the data on this subject are of special interest.
The data on savings of the sample of families surveyed in 1934-36
were not obtained simply by subtracting expenditures from income.
The families were asked to report in detail any increases or decreases
for the year in investments or debts, that is, the net extent of previous
obligations paid off, new obligations incurred, withdrawal from reserves,
or addition to reserves.4 (See ch. 10.)
Using the reported figures on savings as such from the families
surveyed in 1934-36 as the basis for the estimates, the data shown in
table 6 are obtained.
T a b l e 6 . — Estim ated Aggregate Savings o f W age Earners and Clerical W orkers in Large

Cities

[5,500,000 families; 12 months during the period 1934-36]
Aggregate net change in
assets and liabilities
Income class
Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage of
aggregate in­
come

+$63, 000

+ 0 .8

$500-$600- _________ __________________________________ __________
____________ - __________
-- ____
$600-$900
- __
$900-$l,200
- _________________
- - ________ ____ ______
$1,200-$1,500
_____________
_____ - - -- ____- --- - __________
$1,500-$1,800___________________________________________________________

- 3 , 500
-27, 700
-41, 800
-17, 700
+ 21,000

- 1 4 .4
- 7 .7
- 3 .5

$1,800-$2,100
______________ ___________
________ -- ____ - ___
$2,100-$2,400___________________________________________________________
$2,400-$2,700
______ _ _ ____________
__________ __
$2,700-$3,000
_______ ____ __ ________________
$3,000 and over
_ _ _ _ . _________

+56,
+28,
+15,
+11,
+20,

All families

____

900
900
200
400
300

-

1.0

+ 1 .1
+ 3 .5
+ 4 .5
+ 4 .0
+ 5 .5
+ 6 .7

The 3,000,000 families with incomes below $1,500 spent aggregate
amounts in excess of their aggregate incomes to the extent of nearly
$91,000,000. Their aggregate net use of credit, or of previous savings
or other reserves— in other words, their aggregate deficit— was thus
over 2}i percent of their aggregate income. The 2,500,000 families
with incomes above $1,500, on the other hand, spent less than their
incomes and had an aggregate net saving of $153,700,000, or not quite
4
That such net change in assets and liabilities reported by a given family when added to expenditures, did
not always exactly equal its income is entirely understandable from the difficulties of recalling in precise
detail family expenditures over a year period. The discrepancy, if any, constituted a small amount of the
year’s expenditures unaccounted for or a slight overestimate of expenditures. So long as this discrepancy
was not greater than 5 percent of total income or expenditure in any individual case, the schedule was ac­
cepted for tabulation and the discrepancy treated as a balancing difference. The net balancing difference
for all families surveyed was less than 1 percent.




SPENDING AND SAVING AS RELATED TO INCOME

213

3 percent of their aggregate income. The aggregate savings of
$63,000,000 for the entire group of 5,500,000 families represented
eight-tenths of 1 percent of their aggregate income and about 1 percent
of the aggregate national savings estimated by the National Resources
Committee at $5,978,000,000 for 1935-36.
T he S itu ation in 1 9 4 0

Had the survey been made in 1940, a somewhat larger number of
families would have met the requirements for inclusion because of the
improvement in the employment and relief situation as compared with
the earlier period. Furthermore the incomes of the families surveyed
would undoubtedly have been higher in 1940. It is not possible to
estimate just how many additional families would have been added to
the 5,500,000 if the survey had been made in 1940. Nor is it possible
to judge exactly how many of the original number would have been
removed by death or other changes in family composition, or by in­
crease in earnings of clerical members of the family beyond the $2,000
limit. It is, however, possible to estimate within a fair degree of ac­
curacy the extent of the increase in incomes which the same or sim­
ilarly situated 5,500,000 families received from 1934-36 to 1940. An
estimate can also be made of the disposition made by these families
of their increased incomes.5 The estimates for 1940 are calculated
from the figures obtained in 1934-36 with adjustments for economic
changes which have taken place since that time.
In com e in 1 9 4 0

It is estimated that the annual incomes of a similarly situated group
of 5,500,000 families in 1940 aggregated $10,000,000,000, an increase
of more than $1,500,000,000 over their annual incomes in 1934-36.
Total wage and salary payments in the Nation increased about 25
percent from the date of the study to 1940.6 If it is assumed that
the incomes of the 5,500,000 families increased by the same percent­
age an estimate is obtained of $10,600,000,000 for their aggregate
income in 1940. This figure represents the probable outside limit of
the correct estimate. It should be reduced somewhat, however, to
take account of the fact that some of this increase in wage and salary
payments undoubtedly reflects increase in employment of families
not originally eligible for inclusion in the study because of relief
status, low employment or earnings, and hence not included within
the 5,500,000. Total nonagricultural employment increased about
10 percent over the same period.7 If we make the extreme assump5 Alternatively the estimates presented in the remainder of this article may be thought of as relating to
the income and expenditures which the original 5,500,000 families would have enjoyed if conditions of 1940
had prevailed in 1934-36.
6 According to national income estimates of the U. S. Department of Commerce.
7 According to the estimates of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.




214

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

tion that none of this increase in employment went to persons in the
5.500.000 families, but allow for an appropriate increase in their wage
rates, we undoubtedly understate the extent of increase in their income.
Such an assumption gives an estimate of $9,500,000,000, which
represents the lower reasonable limit of a correct estimate.8 It can
be stated with some assurance that the true figure for the 1940 income
of the 5,500,000 families lies somewhere between $9,500,000,000 and
$10,600,000,000. It is recognized that estimates such as these under
discussion can at best be only approximations. For convenience,
therefore, an intermediate figure of an even $10,000,000,000 has been
used as the estimate of the aggregate income of 5,500,000 families in
1940.
The estimated distribution of the $10,000,000,000 among the
5.500.000 families in 1940 is shown in table 7. This distribution has
been computed on the assumption that the relative positions of the
5.500.000 families remained the same in 1940 as in 1934-36, i. e.,
that the degree of inequality in the distribution of their income was
the same in both periods. Corresponding figures for 1934-36 have
been shown in table 1.
T able

7 . — Estim ated F a m ily In com e o f W ag e Earners and Clerical W orkers in Large

C ities , 194 0

[5,500,000 families]
Families

Aggregate income

Annual net family income
Number

Percentage

Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage

___

5, 500, 000

100.0

$10, 000, 000

100.0

$500-$600 ______________ _________________ _ _
$600-$900_____________ _____________________
$900-$l,200______ ____ _____ _____ — ........... —
$1,200-11,500______ ________ _________________
$1,500-$1,800________ _______________________

1, 000
212,000
633, 000
1,020, 000
1, 098, 000

3.9
11.5
18.6
20.0

166, 300
675, 200
1, 381, 700
1, 805,100

1.7
6.8
13.8
18.0

946,000
766, 000
414, 000
171,000
239,000

17.3
13.8
7.5
3.1
4.3

1,836, 300
1, 711, 500
1, 041, 900
492, 700
889, 300

18.4
17.1
10.4
4.9
8.9

All families ....... ........... ............ .............. .

$1,800-$2,100________________________________
$2,100-$2,400________________________________
$2,400-$2,700________________________________
$2,700-$3,000 _____ _________________________
$3,000 and over__________ _ __ ______________

In crea se in R eal In com e

The cost of living for this group of families had risen 2.6 percent
from 1934-36 to 1940, and the increase in their real income has not,
therefore, been so great as in their money income over this period.
Of $1,631,000,000 increase in money income $218,000,000 was re­
quired to compensate for increased living costs, and the remainder,
8 The estimate of $9,500,000,000 is obtained by the following calculation:
125
— X 8.4 billion=9.5 billion




SPENDING AND SAVING AS RELATED TO INCOME

215

$1,413,000,000, represents the amount of money available for the
purchase of additional goods and services.
D istribu tion o f E xp en d itu res in 1 9 4 0

The estimated current expenditures of these 5,500,000 families in
1940 aggregated $9,736,000,000. Their expenditures for food alone,
it is estimated, accounted for $3,181,000,000. (See table 8.) Housing
expense probably totaled about $1,568,000,000, and an additional
$642,000,000 was estimated as spent for fuel, light, and refrigeration.
The third largest category of expenditure is for clothing, which, it is
estimated, took $1,113,000,000.
T able

8.— Distribution o f E stim ated Aggregate Expenditures o f W a ge Earners and Clerical
W orkers in Large Cities , 1 94 0
[5,500,000 families]
Item

Aggregate annual current expenditure for:
All items
__
__
__
_______________________________

Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage

$9,735,900

100.0

Food ____ _______ _________________________________________
______________ ________
Clothing
_ ___ _
Housing
__
_
____ _______________ __ _________ ___
Fuel, light, and refrigeration- _________ ________ _________ ______
Other household operation _ __ __ _ _______________________ _
Furnishings and equipment_____________________________________
Automobiles:
Purchase
__ ____
- ___________________________________
Operation and maintenance__ _______________________________
Other transportation___________________________________________
Personal care
_ _
______ ______________________ __
Medical care
______________________________ -

3,181, 400
1,113,100
1, 568, 200
641, 500
389, 400
386,100

32.7
11. 5
16.1
6.6
4.0
4.0

262, 400
355,000
249, 500
196, 300
380.100

2.7
3.6
2.6
2.0
3.9

Recreation._ _ __ ____________________________________________
Formal education____ ________ ___ ____ _________________________
Vocation _
_____ _ _____________ _ __ ______________ ___
Community w e lfa r e __________________ ____________ ___ ___ ____
Gifts
___
_______________________________________
Other items. _ ___________________
____ - - _
______

557.100
52, 900
46, 800
127, 000
179, 300
49, 800

5.7
.5
.5
1.3
1.8
.5

Recreation usually claims the next largest part of total expenditures.
W ith the income estimated for 1940, $557,000,000 would go to purchase
of reading matter, tobacco, admissions to movies, spectator sports and
other entertainments, equipment for games, cameras, and other hob­
bies; $389,000,000 to household operation; and $386,000,000 to housefurnishings and equipment. Medical care expenditures are estimated
to have aggregated $380,000,000 for the year.
The cost of operation and maintenance of automobiles is estimated at
$355,000,000 for these families in 1940. The figure covers chiefly gaso­
line, oil, tires, and tubes. Purchase of automobiles, it is estimated,
took approximately $262,000,000. (For further discussion of automo­
bile purchases in 1940 see p. 219.) This figure was greater than that
for total costs for transportation by all means other than the family
car. The aggregate for this purpose was $250,000,000.
242949°— 41------15




216

MONET DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

It is estimated that $196,000,000 was spent for personal care.
Gifts and contributions to relatives or others outside the economic
family took $179,000,000; direct income, personal property and poll
taxes, contributions to religious organizations, community chests, and
other contributions to the community welfare took $127,000,000;
direct expense for formal education amounted to $53,000,000; voca­
tional expenses, largely union dues, to $47,000,000; while other mis­
cellaneous expenditures accounted for $50,000,000.
If spending continued to follow the same general pattern at various
income levels in 1940 as in 1934-36, it may be estimated that with an
increase between the two periods of $1,600,000,000 in money income
received by this group of families, there was an increase in total
current spending of about $1,400,000,000. Thus a 19-percent increase
in income was accompanied by only about a 17-percent increase in
spending. (For a discussion of increase in saving see p. 220.)
This increase in their family expenditures was not evenly divided
among the various categories of consumption. (See table 9.) The
largest absolute increase, estimated at over a third of a billion dollars,
went to food. Clothing took the second largest increase, an estimated
$221,000,000. Large shares of the increased spending also went to
housing, recreation, automobile operation and maintenance, house­
hold operation, furnishings and equipment, automobile purchase, and
medical care. The smallest absolute increases went for vocational
expense, formal education, and miscellaneous expenditure.
T a b l e 9 . — Distribution o f E stim ated Increase in Aggregate Expenditures o f W age Earners

and Clerical W orkers in Large Cities

[5,500,000 families; 1940 compared with 1934-36]
Increase from 1934-36 to 1940
Item

Aggregate annual current expenditure for:
All i t e m s ___________________
__________________ _

Amount (in
thousands)

Percentage
distribution
of the
increase

Increase as a
percentage of
expenditures
in 1934-36

$1, 396, 500

100.0

16.7

Food___________ ______ ___ _____ ___________ ______
C lo th in g ___
_______ _____________ ____ _______
H o u s in g _________________ __________ ________ _ _
Fuel, light, and refrigeration _ _____ _______________
Other household operation.
________ ________ _
Furnishings and equipment
_______ ___________
Automobiles:
Purchase
_ _ _
__ ________ ________
Operation and maintenance _ _____________ -Other transportation___ ___ __________ _ _________
Personal care _ ____
_
_ __ ___ _________
M edical c a re.--___________ _ ___ _ __ _ ___ _ _
R ecreation__________________________________ ____

389, 400
221, 400
144, 400
46, 200
69,100
57, 000

27.9
15.9
10. 3
3.3
4.9
4.1

13.9
24. 8
10.1
7.8
21. 6
17. 3

68, 900
67, 500
39, 700
30,100
53,900
104, 600

4.9
4.8
2.8
2. 2
3. 9
7.5

35. 6
23. 5
18.9
18. 1
16. 5
23.1

Formal education....... ............. .
___ __________ __
Vocation
___________ _ _ __ ______ _ __
Community welfare_______ _____ _ _ ________
G i f t s . __________ ____ _ __ ___________________
Other items _ _ _ _ _
__ _

13, 600
12,700
21, 400
45,100
11, 500

1.0
.9
1.5
3. 2
.8

34.6
37. 2
20.3
33. 6
30.0




SPENDING AND SAVING AS RELATED TO INCOME

217

With an average income increase of 19 percent, and with many
families moving into higher income brackets, expenditures for four
spending categories showed increases of 30 percent or more. These
were the expenses for which very little is left over after necessities
are taken care of on a limited budget— gifts, formal education, voca­
tion, and miscellaneous expense. Spending categories which usually
increase more as income goes up and which are estimated to have
increased by 20 to 30 percent, more than proportionate to the in­
creased income, were automobile purchase, operation, and mainte­
nance; clothing; recreation; and household operation, exclusive* of
fuel, light, and refrigeration. The least expansiveness was probably
in fuel, light, and refrigeration and in housing expenditures. Food,
though extremely large in absolute amount, no doubt showed the next
least relative expansion.
B a sis o f E stim a tes o f Changes A ccom p a n yin g In creased
In com es

The data presented in previous articles have shown the differences
in the relative importance of purchases of goods of different types at
certain income levels. It is important to bear in mind the fact that
those figures at each income level represent the expenditures of different
families at approximately the same period. They do not show the
expenditures of the same family as it rose or fell in the income scale.
Students have long recognized the importance of data on the dis­
bursements of the same families over a consecutive period, but the
expense in time and energy of such a study and the difficulties in
locating families who would be representative in other ways, year
after year, have prevented its being made.
For the purpose of the present estimates of changes in spending and
saving with changes in income, it has been assumed that families
moving into a higher income bracket would, on the average, distribute
their purchases as did the families who actually had the higher incomes
at the period of the earlier survey, thus assuming that no marked
change in consumption habits had occurred in the interval.9 This
assumption is likely to be less true to fact during a short period when
incomes increase suddenly, but probably closely approaches the
truth when there is a period of time for adjustment to the new spend­
ing level. The adjustment period varies for each commodity, prob­
ably being longest for housing.
In estimating the changes in expenditures from 1934-36 to 1940, it
was assumed that price changes over the period had not been great
9
The few studies which have been made of changes in total purchases with changes in aggregate income
over a period of time confirm estimates made on the foregoing assumption.
See National Resources Com­
mittee, Patterns of Resource Use, Washington, 1939; and C. F. Roos and Victor von Szeliski, “ Factors
governing changes in domestic automobile demand,” in The Dynamics of Automobile Demand, New
York, 1939.




218

MONEY” DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

enough to make a significant difference in family spending patterns
for these major categories of consumer goods and services. The
Bureau’s index of cost of goods purchased by wage earners and lowersalaried clerical workers had shown an increase of 2.6 percent between
the two periods. There were, however, considerable differences in
the price movements of the different categories most important in
the family budget. Food costs were down 2 percent as compared with
their level in 1934-36, and the fuel, electricity, and ice group was
down 1 percent. Miscellaneous items had increased by 3 percent,
clofhing by 5 percent, and house furnishings by 6 percent over the
same time interval. The greatest change of all was in rents, which
had shown a 10-percent increase since the period of the investigation,
when rents were still depressed due to the drop in income during the
period of the depression.
In the absence of a new field survey which would show the actual
distribution of expenditures by families presented with choices under
somewhat altered price relationships, it was assumed that the average
distribution of family expenditures among the major consumption
categories at given income levels had not changed greatly between
1934-36 and 1940.
The procedure in making the expenditure estimates for 1940 was to
work from the altered income distribution. Families at a given money
income level were assumed to have made the same average money
expenditures for a given category ol consumption in 1940 as did the
families at that money income level in 1934-36. In effect this practice
assumed that with changes in price, quantities taken will be altered
in such a way that expenditures will remain the same. It is recognized
that this assumption does not entirely conform with actuality. It seems
preferable, however, to the assumption that quantity taken would
remain the same regardless of price. The latter assumption has been
discarded, and with it the procedure of adjusting the average ex­
penditures at each income level in 1934-36 by an amount equal to
the index change in cost, before multiplying by the number of families
estimated to be at that income level in 1940. The assumption made
is borne out by observations ol field agents in 1934-36 with respect
to food expenditures. This was a period of rising food prices, but house­
wives frequently reported that a given sum, as $10 per week, was
set aside for groceries, and this amount was spent regardless of shifts
in individual food prices over the year covered by the schedule.
The rise of 17 percent in housing expenditures estimated as the re­
sult of the higher incomes in 1940 more than meets the 10-percent
increase in rental charges which occurred between 1934-36 and 1940.
About a third of the families in the group were home owners. Since
the decline in the costs of home owners was much less than the decline




SPENDING AND SAVING AS RELATED TO INCOME

219

in costs for renters from 1929 to 1933, it seems unlikely that the ad­
vance in the fixed charges of home owners or their maintenance costs
was as great as the advance in rents between 1934-36 and 1940. The
estimate ol housing expenditures in 1940 does not, however, allow for
as much improvement in the amount ol housing space and in the
quality of the housing facilities of the group, as would be provided for
in the quality and quantity of food or clothing estimated as purchased.
It suggests, nevertheless, that better housing would have been found
if the families surveyed had been visited in 1940 rather than in 1934-36.
In the absence of a new field survey there is no positive basis for
estimating to what extent, in view of rising rents, families whose in­
comes had increased would have purchased homes or moved to better
quarters instead of increasing savings or expenditures lor other types
of goods and services to the extent estimated. Consequently the
figure of 17-percent increase in housing expenditure should be re­
garded as a minimum.
A u tom ob ile P urch a se in 1 9 4 0

A t the same rate of spending for cars as prevailed in 1934-36, by
1940 the number of new cars purchased by these families would have
been about 215,000, an increase of almost 70,000 cars or 45 percent
more than their purchases in 1934-36. Total new-car sales for all
families in the country had increased by about 700,000 Irom 1934-36
to 1940, an increase of a little more than 25 percent. Although this
group had accounted for only 5 percent of the sales of new cars in
1934-36, these estimates indicate that they probably accounted for
10 percent of the additional 700,000 cars sold in 1940.
By 1940 their used-car purchases estimated in the same way had
probably increased to approximately 516,000 cars, an increase of
about 70,000 over 1934-36. Whereas their new-car purchases had
increased by almost 50 percent, used-car purchase had increased
only about 15 percent over this period.
This analysis indicates that these families of wage earners and
clerical workers in large cities constitute a marginal group with
respect to automobile purchases. The effect of income changes on
their new-car purchases are much more pronounced than they are
for the population at large. When incomes increase, their purchases
of new cars increase much more sharply than do those of the country
at large and, conversely, when incomes decrease their new-car pur­
chases are much more sharply curtailed.1
0
10
This corresponds to the experience of the industry from 1929 to 1932, when it found that automobile
sales to wage earners declined much more markedly than for the population as a whole. Scoville, John W.:
Behavior of the Automobile Industry in the Depression. Detroit, 1936, pp. 6 and 7.




220

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
Savings in 1 9 4 0

If the same pattern of saving at successive income levels had been
followed by these families in 1940 as in 1934-36 with the turning point
from average deficit to average surplus occurring at the same income
level, the aggregate net savings of the group would have been
$223,000,000, as shown in table 10. The estimates indicate that for
this group savings are more than three times as great when incomes
increase by one-fifth. The prime reason for this great increase in
savings is the movement of families upward in the income scale, with
a larger proportion in 1940 having incomes above $1,500, the point
in the income scale at which the families surveyed in 1934-36 began
to show a surplus. The estimates indicate further that 10 percent of
the increased incomes of this urban group went into savings, and 90
percent into current expenditures. The National Resources Com­
mittee, making estimates for a hypothetical situation resembling the
actual increase in national income from 1934-36 to 1940, estimated
that in the entire population, 25 percent of the increase would be
allotted to savings.
T able 10 .— Estim ated Aggregate Savings o f W age Earners and Clerical W orkers in
Large Cities , 194 0

[5,500,000 families]

Income class

All families
$500-$600_______________________
$600-$900_______________________
$900-$1,200- _ __________________
$1,200-$1,500____________________

Aggregate net
change in
assets and
liabilities
+$223,100, 000
-100,000
-13,100, 000
- 23, 400, 000
-13, 300,000

Income class

$1,500-$1,800__________ „
$1,800-$2,100______________
_
$2,100-$2,400____________________
$2,400-$2,700____________________
$2,700-$3,000___________________
$3,000 and over_____
__ ___ _

Aggregate net
change in
assets and
liabilities
+$20, 900, 000
+64, 300, 000
+72, 000, 000
+42, 600, 000
+18, 000, 000
+55, 200, 000

Within a given money income class, the average savings per family
are assumed to be the same at both periods. It seems likely, that, with
the increasing security of employment, families in 1940 had greater
confidence than in 1934-36 in making future commitments. Data
from trade sources indicate over a 25-percent increase in the volume of
installment sales from 1935 to 1940, and a liberalization in the terms of
such sales. To the extent that the 5,500,000 families in 1940 were
making new commitments of this sort, in excess of their paying off of
similar obligations carried over from preceding years, the savings
figures indicated in table 10 should be reduced.1 On the other
1
11
For the definition of savings used in this investigation see p. 385. Purchases of all durable goods except
houses were treated as current family expenditures. Payments on principal of mortgage for purchase of a
home were treated as savings. The lack of availability of data on different rates of depreciation for various
types of durable goods made it impracticable to take account of their capital value. It is recognized that, to
the individual, purchase of a durable good on the installment plan, may appear an investment. Without
a complete accounting of his capital position, however, obligations due on such purchases must be considered
a liability. They were so treated in the current investigation.




SPENDING AND SAVING AS RELATED TO INCOME

221

hand, there may have been other factors working in an opposite
direction. The burden of contributions to unemployed relatives,
which was substantial in 1934-36, had undoubtedly eased by 1940,
with a consequent tendency to lower the average withdrawal from
reserves of families at comparable income levels. In the absence of
comprehensive family living surveys for years since 1936, no final
statement on this point is possible.
P robable F u tu re Changes in E xpen d itu res

The aggregate amount of the changes in spending resulting from the
increased incomes of these 5,500,000 families since 1936 is of consider­
able importance. For the purpose of anticipating probable future
demand, the relative importance and the direction of the estimates
of change are of even more significance than the dollar amount. To
the extent that no great changes occur in relative costs of various
parts of the family budget, the shifts in consumption to be anticipated
during the next few years as a result of wage payments growing out of
the defense program will be similar to those estimated as having
occurred between the years of the survey and 1940. Not only will the
changes in consumption for these 5,500,000 families be likely to con­
tinue in the directions indicated if their incomes increase further, but
the volume will be swelled by purchases made by other families
formerly on relief, or having incomes below $500, whose members are
being reabsorbed into the labor market.
Even if no material price changes occur, it still seems clear that food
expenditures will continue to show the greatest absolute increases,
thus benefiting the farmers. Clothing demands, purchases of auto­
mobiles, and recreational demands will increase considerably, as well
as demands for furnishings and equipment, housing, and medical care.
The expenditure patterns presented in this report are based on the
manner in which families of wage earners and clerical workers dis­
posed of their incomes during 1934-36. These patterns have indi­
cated a standard of comfort which far exceeds that of almost all other
countries of the world, even though they show room for improvement
when compared with generally accepted American standards. W e
have seen that 73 percent of these families spent enough for food to
purchase a “ minimum-cost adequate diet.” According to analyses
of the United States Bureau of Home Economics for a sample of the
families surveyed, the diets actually consumed were rated good or
fair (meeting in all respects what are now considered average mini­
mum dietary requirements in the United States not only for calories
and proteins but also for minerals and vitamins) among 40 to 60 per­
cent of the families surveyed in different regions. The best figure
(60 percent of the families with fair or good diets) was for white fami-




222

MONET DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

lies in Pacific coast cities, and the worst (36 percent with good or fair
diets) for Negro families in the South. Seventy-eight percent of
families surveyed in 1934-36, a little over three out of four, had all of
the housing facilities generally regarded as standard in modern Ameri­
can housing. On the other hand, few families spent for medical care
amounts judged necessary, on the average, to meet normal medical
requirements.
Fuller employment and increasing wage incomes in the last few
years since the survey was made have undoubtedly made improve­
ments in the situation of these families of city workers.
It seems clear that the primary efforts of the country for the next
few years at least will be devoted to the expansion of the national
defense. The most urgent requirements of this group of moderateincome families and others at even lower economic levels can no
doubt be met in large part without any interference with the defense
effort. Actual and potential supplies of many food materials are
ample for demands now anticipated.
In the fields of clothing, furniture, housing, and automobiles, sup­
plies and possibilities of expansion are somewhat more limited. Ac­
cordingly, as the defense program advances, some changes will un­
doubtedly occur in family purchases at the income levels under
consideration in this report.
The defense program will also undoubtedly cause changes which
will alter the applicability of the savings estimates presented here.
The survey made in 1917-19 showed a much greater saving in propor­
tion to income than the recent survey, largely because of the wide­
spread purchasing of Liberty bonds and thrift stamps in the earlier
period in contrast to the deficits accumulated in the period just prior
to the study made in 1934-36. Now that incomes are increasing
because of fuller employment and rising wage levels, and a popular
war-savings program is again being offered to the public, savings will
probably again be made in considerably higher relative volume than
in those years immediately following the depression.




L is t o f T e x t T a b le s
Chapter 1

Page

T able

1.— Expenditures for groups of items, by income level__________
2. — Expenditures for groups of items, by income level, white fami­
lies______________________________________________________
3. — Expenditures for groups of items, by income level, Negro fami­
lies______________________________________________________
4. — Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by income level_________________
5. — Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by income level, white families. __
6. — Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by income level, Negro families-_
7. — Sources of income, by income level______________________
8. — Sources of income, by income level, white families_______
9. — Sources of income, by income level, Negro families______

12
13
14
18
19
20
22
23
24

C hapter 2

T able

1.— Average weekly per capita consumption of citrus fruits and
milk by white families of man, wife, one child under 16, with
and without others, in 35 large cities in 1917-19 and 193436_______________________________________________________
2. — Current expenditures of families with incomes from $1,200
to $1,500 in 35 large cities in 1917-19 and 1934-36_______
3. — Expenditures of families of wage earners and salaried workers
in 1934-36 compared with
1917-19____________________
4. — Estimated average cost in 1934-36 of goods purchased in 191719 by families of wage earners and salaried workers______

36
40
44
45

C hapter 3

T able

1.— Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by consumption level____________
2. — Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by consumption level, white fami­
lies______________________________________________________
3. — Distribution by occupation and family type and average
household composition, by consumption level, Negro fami­
lies______________________________________________________
4. — Sources of income, by consumption level_________________
5. — Sources of income, by consumption level, white families__
6. — Sources of income, by consumption level, Negro families__
7. — Expenditures for groups of items, by consumption level_
_
8. — Expenditures for groups of items, by consumption level, white
families_________________________________________________
9. — Expenditures for groups of items, by consumption level, Negro
families_________________________________________________
10.— Expenditures for groups of items at selected consumption
levels____________________________________________________




223

52

53

54
56
57
58
60
62
63
65

224

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
C hapter 4
Page

T able

1.— Annual food expenditure, by income level__________________
2. — Food as a percentage of all current expenditures made for fam­
ilies of three types in New York City, by income level_____
3. — Annual food expenditure, by consumption level__________
4. — Expenditures for food prepared at home, and food eaten at
restaurants and lunch counters, at selected consumption
levels____________________________________________________
5. — Percentage distribution of expenditures for food to be prepared
at home, by groups of items_____________________________
6. — Annual food expenditures by white families and Negro fami­
lies, by income level_____________________________________
7. — Annual food expenditures by white families and Negro fami­
lies, by consumption level________________________________
8. — Percentage distribution of expenditures for food to be pre­
pared at home, by groups of items, white families and Negro
families, by consumption level___________________________
9. — Per capita purchases of food to be prepared at home, New
York City families with total annual unit expenditure of
$400 to $600_____________________________________________
10. — Per capita purchases of lean meat, poultry, and fish to be pre­
pared at home, New York City families with total annual
unit expenditure of $400 to $600_________________________
11. — Proportion of all families studied obtaining diets of different
grade, by color of family and region______________________
12. — Average nutritive value of diets per capita and per nutrition
unit per day, by color and total expenditure per consump­
tion unit, 1 year during the period 1934-36_______________

67
69
70

71
74
76
76

77

78

79
83

85

Chapter 5

T able

1.— Monthly housing expenditure and average number of rooms,
by tenure and type of dwelling___________________________
87
2. — Percentage of families living in dwellings of specified type
and tenure in 42 large cities grouped by region___________
88
3. — Monthly housing expenditures by tenure and type of dwelling
in 42 cities grouped by region____________________________
90
4. — Housing facilities of 14,469 families______________________
90
5. — Monthly money housing expenditures, by income level___
93
6. — Total monthly housing expenditures, by income level_____
93
7. — Housing space per person, and housing expenditures per
family and per person, at selected consumption levels------95
8. — Housing facilities of families, at selected consumption levels __ 97
9. — Average annual rent paid by tenant families, at selected
consumption levels^_____________________________________
98
10. — Housing expenditures of home-owning families, at selected
separate payments for heat______________________________
99
11. — Fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures of families making
separate payments for heat________________________________
100
12. — Fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures of families renting
heated apartments, at selected consumption levels__________
100
13. — Housing facilities of white families, by region____________
102
14. — Housing facilities of Negro families, by region___________
103




LIST OF TEXT TAfiLES AND FIGURES

225

Chapter 6
Page

T able

1.— Annual expenditures for furnishings and equipment, and for
household operation, by income level_____________________
2. — Annual family home expenditure, by income level_______
3. — Annual family home expenditure, at selected consumption
levels____________________________________________________
4. — Expenditures for main groups of furnishings and equipment,
and household operation, at selected consumption levels. _
5. — Expenditures for selected items of household operation, at
selected consumption levels______________________________
6. — Furniture expenditures, at selected consumption levels___
7. — Expenditures for electrical equipment, at selected consump­
tion levels_______________________________________________
8. — Expenditures for furnishings and equipment, at selected con­
sumption levels__________________________________________
9. — Changes in debts payable to firms selling on installment plan
for goods other than automobiles, at selected consumption
levels____________

105
110
111
112
113
115
117
118

119

Chapter 7

T able

1.— Expenditures for groups of clothing items by men and women,
at selected consumption levels___________________________
2. — Expenditures for selected items of clothing by women, at
two consumption levels__________________________________
3. — Expenditures for selected items of clothing by men, at two
consumption levels______________________________________
4. — Expenditures for groups of clothing items for children, at
selected consumption levels______________________________
5. — Total clothing expenditures per person, aged 18 years and
over, by color and sex, in families classified by consumption
level____________________________________________________

125
128
129
130

131

Chapter 8

T able

1.— Expenditures for recreation and transportation, by income
level_____________________________________________________
2. — Families owning and purchasing automobiles, by income level.
3. — Expenditures per person for recreation and transportation,
by consumption level____________________________________
4. — Expenditures for automobile and motorcycle purchase, oper­
ation, and maintenance, at selected consumption levels._
5. —Automobile and motorcycle expenditure, at selected consump­
tion levels_______________________________________________
6. — Expenditures for transportation other than by automobile
or motorcycle, at selected consumption levels____________
7. — Summary of expenditures for recreation, at selected con­
sumption levels__________________________________________
8. — Expenditures for recreation, at selected consumption levels. _
9. — Expenditure per person of specified age or sex for selected items
of recreation, at selected consumption levels--------------------10.— Expenditures for certain items of transportation and recrea­
tion, at selected consumption levels, by region----------------




136
137
137
139
140
142
142
144
145
147

226

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
Chapter 9
Page

T able

1.— Expenditures for medical and personal care', by income level - _
2 . —Average expenditures for specified groups of items, by income
level____________________________________________________
3. — Medical-care expenditures, by consumption level_________
4. — Personal-care expenditures, by consumption level________
5. — Average expenditure per person for personal care in families
of low and high unit consumption level--------------------------6. —^Formal educational and vocational expenditures, by consump­
tion level_____________________ - _________________________
7. — Taxes, gifts, contributions, and miscellaneous expenditures,
by consumption level___________________________________
8. — Expenditures by white families and Negro families for speci­
fied items, at selected consumption levels_________________

151
156
159
160
161
162
164
166

Chapter 1 0

T able

1.— Average surplus and deficit, by income level________________
2. — Average surplus and deficit, by income level, white families
and Negro families______________________________________
3. — Average surplus and deficit, at selected consumption levels. _
4. — Average surplus and deficit, at selected consumption levels,
white families and Negro families________________________
5. — Summary of increases and decreases in assets and liabilities,
at selected consumption levels___________________________
6. — Disposition of funds received during the survey year not used
for current family expenditure___________________________
7. — Principal items for which funds were disposed other than for
current family living, white families and Negro families___
8. — Funds made available during the survey year for family use
from sources other than current income, at selected con­
sumption levels__________________________________________

170
170
174
175
178
180
183

185

Chapter 11

T able

1.— Average regional cost of living in 53 cities with population
over 50,000 in March 1935. (Works Progress Administra­
tion maintenance budget for a manual worker’s family of 4
persons)____________________ - __________________________
2.— Average family incomes, by region_________________________
3. — Summary of income and expenditures, by region_________
4. — Summary of income and expenditures in the $1,200-$1,500
income group, by region_________________________________
5. — Summary of income and expenditures, Negro families in 16
cities, by region_________________________________________
6. — Summary of income and expenditures, Negro families in the
$900-$1,200 income group in 16 cities, by regions________
7. — Income and expenditures of a paired sample of foreign-born
and native-born white families___________________________
8. — Income and expenditures of a paired sample of home-owning
and home-renting white families_________________________
9. — Savings of a paired sample of home-owning and home-renting
families_________________________________________________
10.— Income and expenditures of a paired sample of white families
having a surplus and families having a deficit____________




188
188
189
191
194
195
198
201
204
205

LIST OF TEXT TABLES AND FIGURES

227

Chapter 1 2
Page

T able

1.— Estimated family income of wage earners and clerical workers
in large cities____________________________________________
2. — Distribution of estimated aggregate expenditures of wage
earners and clerical workers in large cities________________
3. — Expenditures of wage earners and clerical workers in large
cities as a percentage of expenditures of all consumer units _ _
4. — Estimated aggregate purchases of automobiles by wage earners
and clerical workers in large cities-_______________________
5. — Estimated average purchases of automobiles by wage earners
and clerical workers in large cities__________________ _____
6. — Estimated aggregate savings of wage earners and clerical
workers in large cities_____________________________ „ _____
7. — Estimated family income of wage earners and clerical workers
in large cities_______________ __________________________
8. — Distribution of estimated aggregate expenditures of wage
earners and clerical workers in large cities, 1940______
9. — Distribution of estimated increase in aggregate expenditures
of wage earners and clerical workers in large cities, 1934-36
to 1940_________________________________________________
10.— Estimated aggregate savings of wage earners and clerical
workers in large cities, 1940______________________________

208
209
209
210
211
212
214
215

216
220

List of Figures
Chapter 1

F igure 1.— Percentage distribution of expenditure__________ ___________
2. — Sources of family income, at successive income levels______
3. — Relative expenditures at the $2,700 to $3,000 income level as
compared with the $600 to $900 level______ _____________

11
25
28

Chapter 2

Figure 1.— Cost of goods purchased by wage earners and lower-salaried
workers in 32 cities, from December 1917 through December
15, 1936_ ______________________________________________
_

39

Chapter If.

F igure 1.— Food expenditures, by income level_________________________

68

Chapter 5

F igure 1.— Percentage of families living in dwellings of specified type, by
tenure______________________________________________
2.— Percentage of families having selected housing facilities______

89
92

Chapter 6

F igure 1.— Family home expenditures compared with those for selected
categories of family spending, at successive income levels _
106
2. — Relative family home expenditures compared with those for
selected categories of family spending, at successive income
levels________________________
107
3. ' —Family home expenditures,
at selected income levels-----109




228

MONET DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME
C hapter 7
Page

F igure A.— Estimated annual clothing expenditures by persons of dif­

ferent age, sex, and occupation___________________________
B.— Distribution of annual clothing expenditures for individuals
in families at low and high economic levels_______________

123
127

Chapter 8

F igure 1.— Family expenditures for transportation and

2.

3.

recreation com­
pared with those for food, housing, and clothing, at succes­
sive income levels________________________________________
133
— Relative family expenditures for transportation and recrea­
tion compared with those for food, housing, and clothing,
at successive income levels________________________________
135
— Percentage of families owning automobiles and radios_____
146
C hapter 9

F igure 1.— Family expenditures for specified groups of items, at successive

income levels_____________________________________________
2.— Relative family expenditures for specified groups of items, at
successive income levels__________________________________

152
153

Chapter 1 0

F igure 1.— Changes in assets and liabilities over the schedule year, at

successive income levels__________________________________
2.— Changes in assets and liabilities over the schedule year, at
successive consumption levels_____________________________




169
177




Tabular Summary

229

List of Tables
A verag es fo r J+2 C ities C om bin ed
Page

T able

A—
1.— Distribution of families, by consumption level and income
level:
White and Negro families_______________________ __
232
White families______________________________________
233
Negro families______________________________________
233
A -2.— Food expenditures, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
234
Negro families______________________________________
235
A -3.—Housing facilities, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
242
Negro families______________________________________
244
A -4.— Housing expenditures, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
246
. Negro families______________________________________
250
A -5.—Fuel, light and refrigeration expenditures, by consumption
level:
White and Negro families___________________________
252
.
Negro families______________________________________
256
A -6.— Household operation expenditures, other than for fuel,
light, and refrigeration, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
258
Negro families______________________________________
259
A -7.— Furnishings and equipment expenditures, by consumption
level:
260
White and Negro families___________________________
Negro families______________________________________
265
A -8.—Clothing expenditures, by consumption level:
270
White and Negro families___________________________
Negro families______________________________________
298
A -9.— Transportation expenditures, by consumption level:
313
White and Negro families___________________________
Negro families______________________________________
314
A-10.— Recreation expenditures, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
315
Negro families__________________________________________316
A - l l . —Medical care and personal care expenditures, by consump­
tion level:
White and Negro families___________________________
318
Negro families______________________________________
319
A-12.— Formal education, vocation, community welfare, gifts and
contributions, and miscellaneous expenditures, by con­
sumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
321
Negro families______________________________________
322
230




TABULAR SUMMARY

231
Page

T able A - 13.—Disposition of money received during schedule year not

useyd for current expenditure and funds made available
for family use from sources other than family income in
schedule year, by consumption level:
White and Negro families___________________________
Negro families______________________________________

324
328

A verages f o r J^2 C ities G rou p ed into 6 R egion s

A-14.— Summary of income and expenditures, by income level:
White and Negro families___________________________
White families______________________________________
Negro families______________________________________

330
334
339

A verages f o r 3 5 C ities

A-15.—Distribution of families of types comparable with those
studied in 1917-19, by consumption level and income
level:
White families______________________________________
A-16.—Description of families studied and sources of income of
families of types comparable with those studied in 191719, by income level:
White families______________________________________
A - 17.—Expenditures for groups of items of families of types com­
parable with those studied in 1917-19, by income level:
White families______________________________________
A-18.— Average annual per capita quantity of food purchased for
consumption at home by white families of man, wife, one
child under 16, with and without others_______________

242949°— 41------ 16




344

345

346

347

232

T a b l e A — .— Percentage Distribution of Families by Income Level and Consumption Level
1
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Income level

All
fami­
lies

$1,000 $1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1,400 $1,500 $1,600 $1,700 $1,800 $1,900

$0

$100

$200

$300

$400

$500

$600

$700

$800

$100

$200

$300

$400

$500

$600

$700

$800

$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1,400 $1,500 $1,600 $1,700 $1,800 $1,900 $2,000

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

$900
to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

All families_______________

100.0

0. 06

$500 to $600______________
$600 to $900______________
$900 to $1,200_____________
$1,200 to $1,500___________
$1,500 to $1,800___________
$1,800 to $2,100___________
$2,100 to $2,400___________
$2,400 to $2,700___________
$2,700 to $3,000___________
$3,000 to $3,300___________
$3,300 to $3,600___________
$3,600 to $3,900___________
$3,900 to $4,200___________
$4,200 to $4,500___________
$4,500 to $4,800___________
$4,800 to $5,100___________
$5,100 to $5,400___________
$5,400 to $7,800___________
$7,800 to $8,100____________

.82
8. 36
20. 41
23. 75
20. 30
15.10
5. 57
2. 72
1.33
.70
.44
.27
. 11
.08
.02
0
.01
0
.01

.02
.03
.01




0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. 96 12. 24 19.78 20. 41 15. 82 11.27
.27
1.09
1.02
.39
.12
.05
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.30
2. 43
4. 42
2. 90
1.31
.65
. 16
.05
0
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.18
2. 46
5. 58
5. 51
3. 35
1.83
.53
.20
.08
.02
.04
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.02
1.72
4. 32
5.61
4. 27
2. 87
.82
.45
.20
.05
.05
.02
C
1)
(0

0
0

0
0

.01

0)

.44
3.30
3.43
4.05
2. 53
1.08
.53
.20
.07
.08
.05
.04
.01
0
0
.01
0
0

.02
.13
1.24
3.15
2. 55
2. 48
.75
. 46
.19
. 12
.08
.05
.03
.01
.01
0
0
0
0

7.15

4.58

2. 59

1.38

0. 80

0. 41

0. 23

o .n

0.08

0. 05

0. 07

0

0.01

0
.05
.29
1.81
1.94
1. 56
.83
.36
.12
.07
.04
.05
.01
.02
0
0
0
0
0

.01
.01
.15
.55
1.69
1.21
.45
.22
.11
.05
.07
.04
0
.02
0
0
0
0
O
’

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
.01
.15
. 19
.22
.07
.08
.06
.01
.01
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
.02
.02
.02
.01
.03
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
0
.03
.02
0
.01

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
0
0
0
0
0

.05
.24
.61
.98
.31
. 11
.18
.07
.01
.01
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0

.01
.12
.23
.55
.22
.10
.05
.06
.01
.01

0)

.01
0
0
0
0
.01

0

1

0
0
0
0

.02
.03
.03
.10
.09
.06
.04
.02
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0)

.04
.05
.07
.04
.03

0)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.03
.01
.01
0
.01
0
.01
0
.01
0
0
0
0
0

.01
0
.01
C
1)

0
0

.02

.01
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0

0

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMMARY VOLUME

14,469 white and Negro families

12,903 white families
All families____

100.0

0. 02

$500 to $600____
$600 to $900____
$900 to $1,200— .
$1,200 to $1,500..
$1,500 to $1,800-.
$1,800 to $2,100_ _
$2,100 to $2,400..
$2,400 to $2,700- _
$2,700 to $3,000- $3,000 to $3,300-_
$3,300 to $3,600_ _
$3,600 to $3,900. $3,900 to $4,200. _
$4,200 to $4,500.$4,500 to $4,800-_
$4,800 to $5,100-.
$5,100 to $5,400_.
$5,400 to $7,800-.
$7,800 to $8,100-_

.50
7.12
19. 81
24.19
20. 95
15. 67
5.80
2. 83
1. 40
.74
.45
.29
. 12
.09
.02
0
.01
0
.01

2. 32 11. 65 19. 68 20. 59 16.11 11. 55

0)
.01
.01

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.13
.78
.85
.37
.12
.05
.02

.16
2. 04
4. 30
2.91
1. 33
.68
.16
.05
0
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

. 16
2.12
5.51
5. 65
3. 46
1.89
.55
.20
.08
.02
.04
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.02
1. 56
4.18
5. 77
4.41
2. 98
.86
.47
.21
.05
.05
.02
0)
C
1)
.01
0
0
0
0

0

.42
3. 21
3. 51
4.17
2. 62
1.13
.55
.21
.08
.08
.05
.05
.02
0
0
.01
0
0

.02
.13
1.22
3.17
2. 65
2. 57
.78
.48
.20
.13
.09
.06
.03
.01
.01
0
0
0
0

7. 37

4. 74

2. 69

1. 43

0. 84

0. 43

0. 25

0.12

0. 08

0.05

0. 07

0

0.01

0

.01
.01
. 15
.56
1. 75
1. 26
.47
.23
. 12
.05
.07
.04
0
.02
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
.01
. 12
.24
.58
.23
. 10
.05
.06
.01
.01
0)
.01
0
0
0
0
.01

0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
C
1)
.04
.05
.08
.05
.03
0)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
0
.03
.02
0
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.05
.30
1. 84
2.00
1.61
.87
.37
. 13
.07
.04
.06
.01
.02
0
0
0
0
0

.05
.25
.63
1.02
.32
. 11
.19
.08
.01
.01
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.01
.16
.20
.23
.07
.08
.07
.01
.01

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.02
.03
.03
. 11
.09
.07
.04
.02
.02

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.02
.02
.03
.01
.03
.01

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.03
.01
.01

.01
.01

.01

0

.01

.01
0)
0
.02
0
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0

All families_______________

100.0

$500 to $600_______________
8. 72
$600 to $900_______________ 35. 20
$900 to $1,200______________ 33. 62
$1,200 to $1,500____________ 13. 64
5. 48
$1,500 to $1,800____________
2.17
$1,800 to $2,100____________
.40
$2,100 to $2,400____________
.44
$2,400 to $2,700____________
.03
$2,700 to $3,000____________
0
$3,000 to $3,300____________
.22
$3,300 to $3,600____________
0
$3,600 to $3,900____________
.08
$3,900 to $4,200____________

0.70 17. 37 25.35 22.10 16. 35

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.33
.32
.05

3.70 3. 70
7. 94 10. 96
4. 67 7.18
.82 2.63
.83
. 16
.05 0
.05
.03
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.86
9.84
7. 26
2. 55
1.06
.35
.09
.09
0
0
0
0
0

.07
5.28
7. 49
2.06
1.01
.36
0
.05
.03
0
0
0
0

9.32

5. 04

2.17

0. 96

0. 45

0.13

0. 06

0

0

0

0

0

0

o

0

.06
.80
5. 20
1.58
1.04
.47
.09
.08
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
.10
0
« 0
0
0
.03
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.06
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.06
1.58
2. 63
.33
.36
0
.08
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0

. 14
.98
.26
.40
.08
.14
.09
.08

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.05
.23
.68

0
0
0
0
0

.06
.11
.18
.03

.07

0
0
0

td

d
SUMMARY

1,566 Negro families

H
>

1 Less than 0.005 percent.




OO

234

T a b l e A — , P art I. — Annual Food Expenditures, by Consumption Level
2
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Percentage of families in survey
Average number of food expenditure units
in 1 year--------------------- --------Percentage of families spending for meals
away from home:
At work--------- -----------------At school. _______
- - - -- --On vacation-.- ________________
Board at school______________________
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc __
Number of families reporting food re­
ceived as gifts, or produced at home, or
meals received as pay------------ ---

100.0

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to
$1,000

3.0

12.2

19.8

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

2.29

2.16

2.08

2.07

2.04

1.90

5.53

4.41

3.55

3.05

2.72

2.44

$1,000 to
$1,100

$1,100 to
$1,200

$1,200
and over

37.0
7.9
10.2
.4
33.7

17.6
7.8
1.3
.3
17.4

20.9
9.5
2.5
.2
25.8

27.9
9.4
4.2
.1
31.6

36.3
9.7
7.9
.4
33.2

40.1
8.6
10.8
.5
35.1

46.1
6.9
15.0
.9
39.3

52.1
5.3
17.9
.7
38.0

48.9
3.8
22.8
.8
37.2

56.6
2.6
24.0
.5
45.1

62.5
1.3
33.5
.8
33.5

66.7
0
37.9
0
48.0

67.1
.5
34.0
.9
50.1

28.0

37.7

32.3

29.7

25.8

25.2

26.8

28.6

25.3

27.9

25.9

31.4

25.9

$507. 72
461.17

$413.54
402. 09

$478. 47
458. 39

$492. 25
463.36

$506.47
466. 66

$518. 54
469.05

$518. 31
457. 57

$534. 56
459. 36

$537.12
460. 20

$560.05
471. 88

$571. 50
457. 22

$624. 76
488. 43

$611.56
459. 55

46. 55
29.08
2. 35
4. 42
2.10
.64
7.96

11.45
7.06
1.80
.21
.08
.09
2.21

20.08
12.19
2. 57
1.37
.32
.03
3.60

28.89
17. 62
2. 77
1.94
.53
.16
5.87

39.81
25.66
2.74
2. 55
1.18
.55
7.13

49.49
31. 39
2.76
3.81
2.13
.82
8. 58

60.74
38. 59
2. 01
6. 32
2. 43
1.37
10.02

75. 20
48.11
1. 73
8. 56
4.62
.98
11.20

76. 92
46. 71
.92
9. 24
5. 27
1.90
12.88

88.17
55.45
.91
11.39
5.83
.33
14.26

114. 28
62.57
1.19
20. 28
8. 79
1.15
20. 30

136. 33
81.53
0
23.13
13.29
0
18.38

152.01
89.14
.07
25.35
16. 36
2.83
18. 26

7.11

10. 62

9. 91

8.00

6.49

6.24

7.16

5.26

4.63

5.81

2.00

4.11

6. 48

1 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include gifts of food received, food produced at home, and meals received as pay, reported by 5.8 percent of the families
but for which they could not estimate the value.




VOLUM E

Average annual expenditure per family for
all food------------------------------Food prepared at home______________
Food bought and eaten away from home,
total _________ - _____ _____
Meals at work—_
- _ _______ _
__________
Meals at school___ Other meals, not vacation__________
Meals on vacation___ _______ _ Board at school____ __.
_- - . . .
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc___
Average estimated value, per family, of
gifts of food and home-produced food
and meals received as pay (incom­
plete) 1_____________________________

3.12

Under
$200

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

All
families

M ONEY

Item

TABULAR

235

SUM M ARY

T a b l e A — , P a r t I .— Annual Food Expenditures, by Consumption Level
2
1,566. NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

Percentage of families in su rv ey____ 100.0
Average number food expenditure
3.07
units in 1 year ________ ___ . __
Percentage of families spending for
meals away from home:
At work ___ - .
_____________
23.4
At school. _ _______ ______ ______
8.8
On vacation __
2.2
Board at school_________________
.8
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc.. .
24. 5
Percentage of families reporting food
received as gifts, or produced at
home, or meals received as p a y ___ 31.1

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to.
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

2.10

1.98

2.06

5.01

3.33

2.62

2. 22

$700
and
over

18.0
11.0
.5
0
21. 5

20.6
13.7
.8
.8
20.8

21.1
8.2
1.5
.5
26.2

23.2
6.0
1.9
.3
25.0

30.7
3.4
4.2
3.2
25.3

34.3

2.2
5.7
3.0
33.2

50.6
3.0
16.3
0
36.7

36.3

33.4

27.5

27.3

27.2

28.8

40.3

Average annual expenditure per
family for all food.. . _ $342. 07 $328.44 $325. 51 $331. 79 $339. 73 $362.14 $391. 69
Food prepared at home
319.51 315.02 309.57 311.84 318. 51 332. 71 340. 79
Food bought and eaten away from
29.43
15.94
home___
19.95
21.22
50.90
22. 56
13.42
8. 76
17. 67
24.88
Meals at work____ _____ _____
12.80
7. 34
11.97
12.85
.94
2. 69
2.95
1.53
.72
Meals at school-- - _____
_ .
2.05
1.86
2.46
Other meals, not vacation. 1.01
10.08
2.47
.70
1.14
1.51
.65
.11
. 11
.70
Meals on vacation
___ _
.29
.08
.26
.1.53
0
.17
.12
4.85
Board at school_
_
.47
.12
6.18
9.67
Candy, ice cream, drinks, etc___
2.58
2.94
5.11
4.62
4.48
Average estimated value per family
of gifts of food and home-produced
food and meals received as pay (in­
7.43
13.03
12.49
10.77
12.01
14.18
10.46
complete)1______________________

$468. 72
391.55
77.17
42. 51
1.43
22. 39
2.35
0
8.49

10.78

1 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include gifts of food received, food produced
at home, and meals received as pay, reported by 3.4 percent of the families, but for which they could not
estimate the value.




236

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A — . P art I I .— Estimated Quantity of and Expenditure for Food Purchased for
2
Preparation at Home in 1 Year, by Consumption Level
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture for all goods and services of—

All
families

Item

Under $400

3.61

4.72

3.37

2. 55

3.12

Average number of equivalent full time persons
per family________________________________
Average number of food-expenditure units per
fam ily___________________________________

$400 to $600

4.02

2. 91

2.28

Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

All
families

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

Lb.

Total _ __ _______________ __ . __
Grain products, to ta l._1_______ ..
223. 5
Bread and other baked goods, total.. 142.2
Bread: W hite____________________
92.5
Graham, whole wheat______
10.6
R ye______________________
13.5
Crackers ........... .................. ...............
5.6
Plain rolls................................. ...........
3.6
Sweet rolls. ..................... ....................
3.6
Cookies............................................ .
3.7
Cakes________________________ _.
4.7
P ie s ... ________ ______ _____ ___ _
2.8
Other ___ _ _ _______________ _
1.6
Ready-to-eat c e r e a ls ..______ ____
4.7
Flour and other cereals, total._ ___
76.6
47.7
Flour, w heat____ _________ ____
Corn meal. _ __________ ______
4.0
Hominy .. ____________ _____
.8
5.2
R ice.. . __ __________ i ____
5.5
Rolled oats _ . . . . . . _
._ _
Wheat cereal.__ . . . .
.
.
2.4
Macaroni, spaghetti, noodles___
10.0
Other grain products____
' _
1.0
Eggs, total. ___. . . ______ _______
30.4
Milk: Fresh, whole .
____ _ 198. 4
4. 6
Buttermilk and other m ilk. _.
Evaporated and condensed,..
15.8
Cheese: American_________________
3.8
Cottage__________________
1.5
Other___________ _________
1.7
_
Ice cream_ ____________________
2.5
Fats, total..... ........................... ...... ... ■ 51.4
Butter .................................. ......
18.8
Cream _ . . . _________ _
...
2.6
Other table fats_______________
2.5
Lard______ . . . ____ ________
9.6
Vegetable shortening__________
2.8
Table or cooking oils___________
3.3
Mayonnaise and other salad
dressing____________________
4.2
Bacon, sm o k e d _______________
6.2
1.4
Salt side of pork_______________




$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

$600 and over

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

All
families

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

Lb.

Lb.

226.4
147.4
92.0
12.0
15.0
6.3
3.8
4.2
4.2
5. 2
2.7
2.0
5.3
73.7
46.1
3.1
.7
4.9
5.5
2.7
9.5
1. 2
31.8
210.2
4.7
16.5
4.3
1.7
1.9
2.8
53.8
20.6
2.7
2.2
9.3
3.2
3.1

234. 2
158.5
87.3
14.0
17.7
6.9
5.8
4.9
5.2
9. 4
5.3
2.0
5.9
69.8
41.8
2.7
.8
5.2
5.1
3.0
10.0
1. 2
39. 1
239. 1
4.7
16.6
5.1
2.4
2.7
4.6
67.3
25.9
6.9
1.4
8.6
4.5
3.9

$128.93
19.99
14. 27
7. 66
.91
1. 21
.81
.62
.59
.71
1.08
.39
.29
.80
4. 92
2. 32
.16
.05
.37
.46
.37
1.07
. 12
7.16
12. 21
.22
1. 29
1.00
.20
.69
.64
13.83
6. 71
.72
.42
1.48
.54
.78

2.8
4.7
1.7

4.9
6.7
1.1

6.4
8.8
.9

.87
2. 04
.27

$600
and
over

Lb.

216.7
131.6
95.2
8.1
10.7
4.6
2.4
2.6
2.6
2.4
1.8
1.2
3.6
81.5
51.4
5.2
.9
5.4
5.5
1.9
10.3
.9
25. 4
171.9
4.4
14.9
2.9
1.0
1.3
1.3
42.7
14.2
.7
3.2
10.3
1.9
3.2

$400
to
$600

$97.27 $140.02
17. 63
21.00
12.15
15.19
7.75
7. 71
.66
1.06
.94
1. 33
.62
.91
.39
.70
.42
.67
.47
.80
. 51
1. 22
.23
.40
.20
.35
.61
.91
4.87
4.90
2. 39
2.26
. 19
. 14
.05
.04
.36
.37
.44
.48
.29
.41
1.05
1. 06
. 10
.14
5. 69
7. 71
10.15
13. 61
. 17
.24
1. 21
1.35
.75
1.12
.13
.23
.50
.79
.31
.70
10. 63
14. 83
4. 99
7.47
.21
.73
.53
.37
1.56
1. 45
.34
.60
.68
.80

$182.27
23. 61
17. 61
7.44
1.25
1.61
1.05
1.00
.85
1.12
2.15
.76
.38
1.03
4. 97
2.18
. 13
.05
.41
.44
.46
1.14
. 16
9.58
14.56
.29
1.37
1.37
.34
.98
1.28
19.47
9. 38
1.88
.24
1.39
.91
.97

.94
2.25
.22

1.39
3.11
.20

.57
1.42
.33

TABULAR

237

SUM M ARY

T a b l e A — , P art I I .— Estimated Quantity of and Expenditure for Food Purchased for
2
Preparation at Home in 1 Year, by Consumption Level— C o n tin u e d
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

All
families

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

Meat, poultry, fish, and other sea
food, total.
__
_
__ Beef:
Fresh, steak, porterhouse, sirloin______ _
top round_____
other_________
roast, rib________
chuck______ __
other. _____ _ _
boiling, chuck. ___ _ _
plate________
other.. _ ___
Other beef_________ __ __.
Veal: Fresh, steak, chops_____
roast . _ __ ___
stew..
______ _
Lamb: Fresh, chops.__ ________
roast_
_
_
_
stew _ _ _ _ _ _ .
Pork: Fresh, chops_____ _ _ .
loin roast ___ __
other __ _ _ _ .
Smoked ham, slices
whole or half
p ic n ic..___
____
Pork sausage
Other pork . _ _
Other fresh meat. _________
Miscellaneous meats, total—
_ _
Bologna, frankfurters. _ _
Cooked: Ham _ _ _ _ _
Tongue
_ ___
Liver
_
_ ______
Other meat products
_ __
Poultry: Chicken, broiling_ ___ .
_
roast.__ _ _ _ .
stew _ _ _ _ _
Turkey. __ __ _____ __
Other_______________ __ .
Fish and other sea food:
Fish: Fresh . . . __ _ _ _
C a n n ed ____ _ _ _
Cured _ _ __ ___ ___ ..
Other sea food
_______ _
. _
Vegetables and fruits, total ______
Potatoes _
__ __
Sweetpotatoes, yams___________
Peanut butter _
Other dried legumes and nu ts__
T om atoes.. . . . .
Canned tomato products. __ .
Green and leafy vegetables:
Cabbage _.
_ _
Lettuce ...
_ _ __ __
Spinach, fresh _ . . .
canned. __ ___. . .
Lima beans, fresh
. _ ...
Beans, snap (string), fresh...
canned.
Peas, fresh . . .
canned. . _ _ _ _ .
Other green and leafy vege­
tables, fresh.. _ _ _____
canned __ _ __.
1 Less than 0.05 pound.




Lb.

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

All
fami­
lies

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600

and
over

Lb.

Lb.

125.2

97.6

135.8

171.6

$30.87

$21. 68

$33.90

$46.41

7.7
5.3
5.1
7.6
5.3
2.5
4.4
.8
2.0
1.9
4.1
2.8
1.6
3.1
4.0
1.6
6.8
4.2
2.8
1.5
3.3
1.1
3.0
.9
.1
12.8
7.7
1.8
.2
2.1
1.0
5.4
3.3
4. 2
.6
.5

4.5
4.0
4.7
5.7
5.1
2.1
4.4
.8
1.8
1.5
2.8
2.3
1.5
1.6
2.3
1.5
5.2
3.3
2.7
1.1
2.2
1.1
2.3
1.0
0)
11.5
7.4
1.3
.1
1.8
.9
2.6
2.1
3.1
.5
.2

8.4
6.3
5.2
7.8
5.6
2.9
4.7
.7
1.9
2.3
4.6
3.1
1.6
3.5
5.5
1.7
7.4
5.0
3.1
1.5
3.6
1.1
3.4
.8
.1
13.0
8.0
1.8
.1
2. 2
.9
6.4
2.6
4.7
.3
.7

14.2
7.0
5.6
11.5
5.7
3.2
3.9
.7
2.3
2.3
6.2
3.5
1.8
6.2
5.4
1. 7
9.5
5. 2
2.8
2.3
4.8
1.3
4.0
.9
.2
14.7
7.8
2.7
.3
2. 5
1. 4
10.0
7.1
6.0
1.5
.8

2. 39
1.47
1.05
1.88
1.13
.62
.84
. 13
.36
.44
1.12
.64
.30
.94
.94
.30
1.92
1.05
.60
.48
.85
.25
.76
.17
.03
3.47
1.84
. 79
.06
.51
.27
1. 52
.99
1.11
.21
. 12

1.29
1.03
.89
1.31
1.03
.46
.79
. 13
.31
.32
.69
.49
.27
.44
.48
.27
1.42
.75
.54
.32
.56
.22
.54
.18
.01
2.82
1. 65
.56
.03
.35
.23
.71
.54
.76
.16
.03

2. 48
1.75
1.14
1.94
1.18
.71
.93
. 12
.35
.53
1. 28
.70
.31
1.05
1.34
.33
2.09
1. 23
.63
.52
.99
.26
.88
. 17
.03
3.57
1.91
.79
.05
.55
.27
1.79
.97
1. 25
.10
.19

4.72
1.99
1.26
3. 06
1.24
.81
.82
.15
.47
.55
1.87
.84
.37
1.91
1.34
.35
2. 78
1. 41
.64
.80
1.27
.29
1.07
.19
.06
4. 72
1. 93
1. 29
. 12
.78
.40
2. 92
2. 04
1. 66
.49
.21

10.0
2.8
.5
1. 6
476.8
137.3
7.2
1.6
8.4
12.6
12.5

8.4
2.1
.5
1.1
374.3
128.4
6.4
1.4
9.1
6.6
10.3

10.6
3.5
.5
1.7
515.9
141.5
7.0
1.8
8.2
14.3
12.8

12. 1
3.8
.6
2.8
641.7
150.2
9.3
1.4
7.7
22.7
16.4

1.76
.55
. 11
.37
25. 91
2. 64
.27
.27
.78
1.43
1.14

1.26
.36
.08
.22
17. 72
2. 25
.23
.25
.74
.66
.94

1.91
.65
.11
.42
28. 66
2. 78
.27
.32
.78
1.62
1.19

2. 57
.78
. 16
.60
40.10
3. 28
.39
.26
.91
2. 85
1.52

20.4
10.6
6.9
1.3
1.1
5.9
2.6
4.2
6.3

19.6
6.7
5.0
1.1
1.1
4.0
2.0
2.1
4.9

20.0
11.7
7.9
1.4
1.0
6.4
3.1
4.8
6.5

22.8
17.1
9.4
1.7
1.5
9.3
3.3
8.0
8.5

.54
1.16
.49
.13
.11
.56
.25
.40
.71

.46
.74
.36
.10
.10
.34
.18
.18
.54

.57
1.29
.55
.14
.10
.64
.31
.44
.78

.66
1.92
.69
.17
.16
.96
.33
.82
1.00

9.6
1.6

7.8
.8

9.7
1.7

13.4
2.9

.76
.21

.56
.09

.81
.23

1.26
.43

Lb.

238

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A - 2 , P ar t I I .— Estimated Quantity of and Expenditure for Food Purchased for
Preparation at Hom e in 1 Year, by Consumption Level— C o n tin u e d
14,469

W H ITE A N D N E G R O FA M ILIE S IN 42 C ITIES
Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

All
families

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

Vegetables and fruits, total—Con.
Yellow vegetables: Carrots_____
Other vegetables:
Celery____________________
Corn, canned______
____
Onions___________________
Other fresh v eg eta b les_____
Other canned vegetables___
Citrus fruits:
Lemons____________ ______
Oranges________________ __.
Grapefruit, fresh_________
Other fruits:
Apples: Fresh-------------Bananas_______________ __
Peaches: Canned_______ __
Pineapple: Canned____ . Other fresh fr u it s ___ . _ _.
Other canned fruits and
fruit juices. _ ________ __
Dried:
Prunes.. _ _ _ _ _
Raisins_______ ____ _
Other dried fruits______
Sugar and sweets, total _____ ______
Sugar: W hite_____ _ _ _
)
B r o w n .._________
Other sweets: C andy...
____
Jellies_ _
_
Molasses, sirups. _
Other sweets____
Miscellaneous, total___ ___________
Packaged d e s se r ts.____
Tea_____________
________
C offee... -__ . __ _ _______
Cocoa____________________ . . .
Soups, canned____ . . . _ __
__ . . _____
Cod-liver oil___
Soft drinks consumed at hom e...
Other drinks consumed at home.
Other foods___ __
__________
Sales tax on food............... ......
2 Sales tax not included.




Lb.

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Lb.

Lb.

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

All
fami­
lies

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—

Lb.

Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

13.8

10.1

15.4

19.1

$0.67

$0.46

$0.76

$0.97

7.1
5.1
18.4
18.3
.9

4.4
4.1
14.8
11.8
.7

7.8
5.3
20.0
20.7
1.1

12.2
6.9
23.2
29.5
1.3

.60
.53
.79
1.18
.44

.35
.40
.62
.68
.24

.66
.56
.86
1.32
.50

1.08
.75
1.04
2.03
.78

7.1
48.0
14.3

4.5
33.5
6.5

7.9
54.5
16.4

11.7
70.0
.28. 5

.64
2. 65
.57

.38
1.77
.24

.73
3.03
.63

1.10
4.01
1.22

39.9
22.2
3.0
2.3
15.8

33.0
17.2
1.8
1.1
8.7

44.6
25.7
3.3
2.9
18.9

48.0
27.6
4.8
4.1
31.9

1.80
1.12
.32
.30
1.27

1.37
.83
.20
.14
.58

2.05
1.30
.36
.37
1.41

2.37
1.45
.54
.53
2.61

4.0

1.6

4.2

8.9

.46

.19

.48

.99

3.0
1.3
.9
57.3
50.7
1.8
1.7
3.0
.1
25.6
1.1
1.5
10.8
1.3
3.8
.4
2.2
3.6
.9

4.6
1.6
1.2
70.8
63.1
2.6
2.4
2.6
.1
43.5
2.0
2.2
14.3
.9
5.5
.5
6.9
9.5
1.7

4.9
1.6
1.9
75.4
66. 2
3.7
2.5
2.8
.2
68.3
2.6
2.4
17.9
.9
7.0
.6
13.8
21.3
1.8

.39
.14
.19
4. 35
3.10
.61
.34
.29
.01
2 9.75
.49
1.01
3.37
.20
.62
.38
.49
1.51
1.68
.82

.29
.12
.14
3.58
2. 70
.37
.24
.26
.01
2 6. 61
.31
.76
2. 58
.23
.46
.29
.16
.56
1.26
.51

.46
.17
.19
4.70
3. 35
.63
.42
.29
.01
2 10. 27
.55
1.12
3.60
.18
.66
.38
.54
1.40
1.84
.91

.52
.17
.33
5. 57
3.60
1.13
.46
.36
.02
2 15.97
.75
1.36
4.78
.17
.92
.56
1.16
3.86
2.41
1.37

3.9
1.4
1.2
65.4
58.0
2.4
2.1
2.8
.1
40.4
1.8
2.0
13.4
1.1
5.0
.5
6.1
9.2
1.3

TABULAR

239

SU M M A R Y

T a b l e A — , P a r t I I .— Estimated Quantity of and Expenditure fo r Food Purchased for
2
Preparation at Home in 1 Year, by Consumption Level
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

All
families

Item

Families with total annual unit expendi­
ture for all goods and services of —
Under $400

Average number of equivalent full-time persons
per fam ily__________________________________
Average number of food expenditure units per
family_____________________________________

All
families

4. 21

2.46

2. 26

3.07

3. 55

2. 06

2.01

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of —
Under
$400

Lb.

______ _ __ _
Total. ___ ___
Grain products, t o t a l ___________ _ 228.4
Bread and other baked goods, total-_
75.5
64.2
Bread: W hite_____ ___ _______ _ _
Graham, whole wheat____
2.8
1.2
R ye-------- __ ___ ---Crackers. ___ __ _ ______ _
_
2.0
Plain rolls. _ _______________ _ _
1.2
1.0
Sweet rolls___ _
_______ _ ___
.9
Cookies_______ _____ ___ _____
1.4
Cakes. _ ____. . .
______
.5
Pies----- ---- --------- -.3
Other______________ ___________
Ready to eat cereals. _ _ _ _ _
___
1.8
Flour and other cereals, total___ _
151.1
86.9
Flour, w heat____ _ ______ _
Cornmeal
32.7
Hominy
_ __ __ _______ _ _
4.5
16.3
Rice__ _ __ __ ___ ----- -4.5
Rolled oats_
_ _
_ _ _ _
Wheat cereal _ ___
__ __
1.1
4.8
Macaroni, spaghetti, noodles___
.3
Other grain products. __
22. 7
Eggs, total. __ ___ _
84.7
Milk: Fresh, whole___ _____ _ ___
14.3
Buttermilk and other m ilk__
16.2
Evaporated and condensed. __
2.6
Cheese: American ___
.1
Cottage____ _
.4
Other.. _ _ _ _ _
__ .
1.6
Ice cream _ __ _
____ _
_ _
64.5
Fats, total_____________ __ ______
11.1
B u tte r _______ _ ._ _______
Cream
_
_______
.3
2.2
Other table fats _______ _
24.6
Lard__ _
__ ___ _
1.7
Vegetable shortening__ _ __
.8
Table or cooking oils___ _____
Mayonnaise and other salad
2.8
dressing.
__ _
9.3
Bacon, smoked ___ ___ ___
11.7
Salt side of pork................. .........




$600 and over

3.79

Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

$400 to $600

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Lb.

Lb.

276.0
102.1
84.1
5.2
1.9
2.9
1.6
2.1
1.0
1.8
.7
.8
2.4
171. 5
101.3
35.2
5.3
17.2
4.7
.9
6.5
.4
36.0
114.9
17.8
20.6
4. 2
.1
.5
1.8
86.3
18.4
1.3
1.7
29.3
2.9
1.5

247.1
99.2
63.9
11.4
2.1
3.1
4.5
3.6
2.8
5.3
1.4
1.1
2.8
145.1
82.1
20.2
7.0
21.8
5.4
1.8
6.6
.2
39.9
123. 8
13. 7
25.2
4.7
.7
.6
8.6
82.1
20.9
.6
1.9
20.4
7.7
3.8

2.2
8.3
11.4

4.1
12.9
14.2

6.4
12.1
8.3

All
fami­
lies

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of —
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Lb.

215.5
67.6
59.6
1.6
1.0
1.8
.9
.6
.-7
1.0
.3
.1
1.6
146.3
83.7
32.9
4.1
15.7
4.4
1.0
4.2
.3
18.4
74.9
13.6
14.5
2.1
.1
.3
1.1
58.3
8.8
.1
2.3
23.8
1.0
.4

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

$89.03 $74. 08 $131. 59
12. 91
18. 99
14. 30
5. 63
9. 51
6. 57
4. 65
7. 04
5.12
.50
.15
.26
.08
.06
. 18
.22
.49
.29
. 11
. 19
.15
.09
.35
. 17
.11
.18
. 14
.38
.26
.19
.04
.11
.06
.04
.01
.09
.24
.41
.28
7. 04
9. 07
7. 45
3. 94
5. 27
4.17
1.12
1. 28
1.13
.22
.19
. 26
1.03
.92
.85
.40
.36
.37
. 12
. 14
. 13
.44
.65
.49
.02
.02
.04
4. 53
3. 58
7. 37
4. 04
4. 63
6. 30
.50
.60
.53
1. 24
1.38
1.70
1.00
.60
.48
.02
.02
.01
.05
. 14
.07
.47
.28
.51
11.72
19. 84
13. 63
3. 00
3. 87
6. 56
.02
.37
. 10
.36
.26
.34
4. 30
3.46
3.59
.48
.28
.15
.54
.07
. 19
.58
2. 54
2.14

.44
2.16
2. 06

.94
3. 74
2. 65

$160. 85
18. 68
10. 21
5.47
1.09
.20
.58
.62
.64
.44
.80
.19
.18
.37
8.10
3. 89
.81
.41
1. 58
.41
.25
.72
.03
8. 72
7. 37
.66
2.16
1.13
. 11
. 19
2. 91
20.52
7. 44
.34
.33
3.17
1.41
.74
1.47
3. 97
1. 65

240
T

able

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

VOLUM E

a r t I I . — Estimated Quantity of and Expenditure for Food Purchased for
Preparation at Hom e in 1 Year, by Consumption Level— C o n tin u e d

A— , P
2

1 ,566

N E G R O F A M IL IE S I N 16 C IT IE S

Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—

All
fami­
lies

Under
$400
Meat, poultry, fish and other sea
food, total_____________________
Beef:
Fresh, steak, p o rterh o u se,
sirloin______
top round_____
other_________
roast, rib___________
chuck_________
other_________
boiling, chuck_______
plate________
other________
Other beef________________
Veal: Fresh, steak, chops______
roast_____________
stew _____________
Lamb: Fresh, chops___________
roast____________
stew____________
Pork: Fresh, chops____________
loin roast. ________
other____________
Smoked ham, slices______
half or whole____
picnic__________
Pork sausage____________
Other pork_____________
Other fresh m eat______________
Miscellaneous, total_______________
Bologna, frankfurters__________
Cooked: Ham ________________
Tongue______________
Liver_________________________
Other meat products__________
Poultry: Chicken, broiling________
roast___________
stew____ _______
Turkey__________________
Other___________________
Fish and other sea food:
Fish: Fresh___________________
Canned_________________
Cured__________________
Other sea food_________________
Vegetables and fruits, total________
Potatoes______________________
Sweetpotatoes, yam s__________
Peanut butter_________________
Other dried legumes and nu ts___
Tomatoes, fresh_______________
Canned tomato products_______
Green and leafy vegetables:
Cabbage__________________
Lettuce___________________
Spinach, fresh_____________
canned___________
Lima beans, fresh__________
Beans, snap (string), fresh__
canned.
Peas, fresh________________
canned______________
Other green and leafy veg­
etables, fresh____________
canned__________
i Less than 0.05 pound.




Lb.

Lb.

119.0

101.5

$400
to
$600
Lb.

$600
and
over

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

All
fami­
lies

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Lb.

171.2

198.2

$22.55

$17.73

$35. 66

$47.12

4.3
2.5
2.0
4.3
3.5
.7
4.5
.9
2.0
1.6
3.7
1.6
1.2
1.3
2.4
1.0
7.9
2.6
4.9
1.3
3.4
3.5
4.9
3.0
.3
12. 2
6.7
.7
.1
4.1
.6
5.4
4.2
4.9
.6
.6

3.5
2.1
1.8
3.6
3.3
.6
4.8
1.1
1.9
1.4
3.2
1.6
1.2
.8
1.2
.8
6.8
1.9
4.6
1.0
2.7'
3.1
4.0
2.9
.4
11.7
6.4
.6
(0
4.1
.6
3.4
2.7
3.1
.2
.2

7.1
4.4
2.3
7.0
4.4
1.3
3.7
.4
2.2
2.2
4.6
.9
1.1
2.2
7. 2
1.5
11.7
3.6
5.9
2.4
4.7
5.5
8.3
4.0
.2
14.1
7.5
1.1
.2
4.8
.5
9.9
9.1
8.7
.5
2.2

7.6
3.4
3.5
6.1
3.0
0
3.2
0
3.1
1.3
7.6
3.1
1.2
5.4
4.3
2.0
10.5
8.8
4.7
2.7
8.8
2.7
6.4
1.9
0
14.3
9.0
1.4
0
3.1
.8
20. 3
9.0
18.7
6.1
.6

1.03
.58
.36
.87
.62
.12
.66
. 12
.28
.26
.76
.31
.17
.35
.51
.15
1.97
.61
.72
.36
.79
.66
1.03
.41
.04
2. 27
1.29
.23
.01
.66
.08
1.40
1.00
1.18
.20
.14

.78
.46
.31
.69
.58
. 10
.67
. 14
.25
.23
.60
.29
. 17
.20
. 22
. 10
1. 66
.43
.68
.26
.63
.55
.81
.38
.05
2. 06
1.20
.16
.01
.61
.08
.81
.60
.68
.08
.05

1.77
1.07
.43
1.43
.84
.25
.60
.07
.34
.36
1.12
.21
. 16
.61
1. 54
.26
3.13
.80
.85
.72
1.06
1.14
1.84
.52
.03
2.80
1.45
.45
.04
.80
.06
2. 72
2. 24
2.17
.23
.54

2.09
.75
.81
1.60
.59
0
.68
0
.55
.19
1.85
.84
.16
1. 54
1.18
.42
2.64
2.42
.82
.67
2.24
.58
1.54
.33
0
3. 32
1. 96
.43
0
.81
. 12
5.50
2. 53
4.98
1.80
.13

18.1
1.6
.6
1.5
334.8
87.3
30.6
.8
18.2
5.0
7.9

16.4
1.6
.5
1.4
287.8
78.7
28.9
.8
18.4
3.3
6.8

23.5
1.8
.9
1.7
476.9
113.0
35.6
.7
19.8
7.4
11.5

23.9
2.1
.9
1.0
547.6
123.3
38.1
1.5
13.3
22.9
10.4

2.09
.23
.07
.23
15.79
2.01
1.04
.14
1.19
.54
.63

1.77
.21
.05
. 18
12.75
1.77
.95
.14
1.15
.34
.53

3.02
.27
. 12
.40
24.33
2. 81
1.30
. 12
1.43
.85
.96

3.67
.33
.17
.20
30.97
2. 78
1.49
.23
1.22
2, 34
1.02

30.9
3.0
5.6
.6
2.2
7.8
1.4
1.9
3.0

27.6
2.2
4.3
.5
2.2
6.6
1.0
1.1
2.7

40.3
5.5
9.1
1.0
2.6
10.3
2.5
3.7
4.0

45.3
7.3
12.0
1.3
.8
18.0
2.9
6.4
4.0

.83
.34
.35
.05
.18
.64
.11
.16
.31

.76
.23
.26
.04
.18
.48
.08
.08
.27

1.06
.67
.62
.09
. 19
.92
.21
.35
.42

1.05
.90
.78
.11
.09
1.90
.22
.64
.51

17.7
.5 1

17.0
.4

19.7
.8

22.6
1.4

.93
.06

.76
.03

1.46
.11

1.87
.20

TABULAR

241

SUM M A R Y

T a b l e A - 2 , P art I I .— Estimated Quantity o f and Expenditure fo r Food Purchased for
Preparation at Hom e in 1 Year, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
1,566

N EG R O FA M ILIES IN 16 C IT IE S —Continued
Average quantity purchased per
person in 1 year

Item

All
families

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—
Under
$400

Vegetables and fruits, total—Con.
Yellow vegetables: Carrots___
Other vegetables:
Celery __________ _ _ _ _ _
Corn, canned______ ___ __
Onions.
.............. ........ ...
Other fresh vegetables______
Other canned vegetables. __
Citrus fruits:
Lemons
________ ______
Oranges.
__ __ _ __ __
Grapefruit, fresh__ . . . _. _
Other fruits:
Apples, fresh._____________
Bananas.. __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Peaches, canned__________
Pineapple, canned . ..
_ __
Other fresh fruits____ ___
Other canned fruits and fruit
juices__ __
__
Dried:
Prunes____ ____ _
Raisins.__ ___
Other dried fruits______
Sugars and sweets, total-__ _ __ _
Sugars: W hite \
BrownJ--- -Candy ________________ _ ___
Jellies. _ _ _ _ __________ _ _
Molasses, sirups____ _ _ _ ___
__ __
__ _.
Other sweets__
Miscellaneous, t o t a l ___
_______
Packaged dessert__ _______ _
Tea ________________________
C o ffe e ______________________
_____________ ___
Cocoa____
Soups, c a n n e d ._________
Cod-liver oil-.. _ _ ______ ._
Soft drinks consumed at home —
Other drinks consumed at home..
Other foods--- ---------------Sales tax on food______________
1 Less than 0.05 pound.




$600
and
over

Lb.

Lb.

$400
to
$600
Lb.

Average expenditure per person
in 1 year

All
fami­
lies

Families with total an­
nual unit expenditure
for all goods and serv­
ices of—

Lb.

Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

3.9

3.0

5.6

10.5

$0.19

$0.14

$0. 28

$0.56

1.6
4.6
19.5
8.9
.3

1.3
3.8
16.0
7.0
.2

2.5
6.7
31.1
14.8
.3

2.8
7.9
31.6
19.4
2.1

.12
.43
.73
.45
.12

.10
.34
.60
.35
.08

.19
.65
1.14
.72
.17

.18
.92
1. 28
1.00
.49

5.4
17.2
5.3

4.0
11.8
3.2

8.8
33.2
11.5

15.0
42.5
14.7

.49
.97
.23

.36
.65
.13

.82
1.92
.54

1. 30
2. 35
.68

21.0
10.9
1.9
.7
3.8

17.4
8.6
1.4

35.1
21.2
3.5
1.7
7.1

27.2
10.7
3.6
1.8
10.5

.92
.45
.20
.09
.34

.76
.34
.15
.05
.18

1. 53
.91
.32
.22
.69

1. 23
.56
.46
.27
1.13

A

2.5

1.4

1.0

1.3

6.5

.12

.09

.13

.49

2.3
.3
1.4
68.3
58.0
1.3
1.3
7.7
C
1)
23.4
.7
1.1
9.6
1.1
1.2
.2
4.7
4.3
.5

2.1
.3
1.3
62.1
51.7
1.2
1.1
8.1
0)
18.3
.6
.9
8.1
1.0
.9
.2
2.3
3.9
.4

2.5
.5
2.0
90.5
79.3
2.0
2.1
6.9
.2
39.7
.9
2.0
14.8
1.4
1.5
.1
14.3
4.1
.6

4.2
0
5.1
82.9
76.3
1.0
2.0
3.6
0
39.5
1.2
1.0
13.8
.9
4.2
.2
6.5
10.3
1.4

.21
.03
.19
4.11
3.12
.21
.21
.56
.01
2 6. 39
.16
.52
2. 23
.18
.15
.09
.45
1. 28
1. 33
.03

.18
.03
.17
3. 72
2.81
.16
.17
.58
(3)
2 5.06
.12
.43
1.85
.17
.11
.10
.21
.97
1.10
.01

.21
.05
.27
5.50
4.17
.43
.33
.52
.05
2 9. 61
.29
.86
3. 54
.24
.17
.05
1.32
1.18
1.96
.02

.50

2 Sales tax not included.

3 Less than 0.5 cent.

0

.22
5.15
4.04
.26
.41
.44
0
214. 80
.34
.69
3. 36
.22
. 54
.21
.92
6.01
2.51
.36

242

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A - 3 .— Housing Facilities, by Consumption Level
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

j .1I
A

fami- Un- $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
$1,100 $1,200
lies dcr to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

I. Percentage of families in
survey who rented prin­
cipal home at end of
69.7 2.0 8.2 13.7 14.1 10.9 7.9 5.1 3.3
schedule year_______
Percentage of families in
each consumption level
who rented principal
home at end of schedule
year__________________ 69.7 65.9 67.1 69.3 69.0 69.4 69.7 71.9 71.1
Average monthly rental
rate at end of schedule D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l.
year__________________ 23. 51 14. 92 17. 90 20. 74 22. 69
Percentage of families liv­
ing in—
1-fam ily d e ta c h e d
house_____________ 25.3
1- family semidetached
or row house_______ 13.9
2-family house_____7- 27.2
M ultiple dwelling (3family or more)____ 33.6
Dwelling with ele­
vator______________ 2.3
Dwelling with janitor
service____________ 21.5
Percentage of families
having—
Bathroom in dwelling
unit_______________ 89.6
Toilet: Inside flush___ 95.7
Outside flush. _ 2.0
2. 3
Other ty p e___
Sole use of toilet by
household_________ 91.9
Water: Inside dwell­
98.7
ing—
Running___ 98. 1
Hot running. 82.0
.6
N ot running.
Outside dwell­
1.3
ing only---Sink________________ 98. 1
Electric lights_______ 98.2
Gas or electricity for
cooking___________ 89.5
Refrigerator: Electric, 25.2
Other
m e chanical___ 2.7
Ice only_ 65.6
N one___ 6.5
Hot air, hot water, or
steam heat________ 64.3
Telephone___________ 23.9
Garage______________ 33.5
Garden space________ 31.6
Each of the following
items:
Inside flush toilet,
running hot water,
electric lights, and
gas or electricity
for cooking______ 76.4




D o l. D o l . D o l. D o l.
25. 24 26.16 27. 67 28. 54

2.0

1.1

0.6

0.8

76.1

75.8

76.9

75.5

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

29. 53 30.40 34. 40 35. 22

36.4 30.5 28.7 26.1 23.4 23.0 21.2 17.0

17.3

16.4

15.7

13.1

32.2 21.7 15.2 11.3 11.9 11.9 12.9 8. 7
12.2 24.0 26.8 31.3 28.8 27.1 25.9 27. 2

10.6
24.8

4.5 13.6
31.6 • 19.0

7.8
23.3

19.2 23.8 29.3 31.3 35.9 38.0 40.0 47. 1

55.8

47.3

47.5

51.7

3.2

6.0

6.0

15.6

13.3

8.9 13.7 19.1 24.7 25.7 33.6 37.7

36.5

44.6

44.6

50.8

62.1 78.1 87.3 90.0 93.2 95.2 95.5 97. 1
76.5 89.9 94.7 95.9 98.1 99. 1 99.0 99.4
9.8 3.9 2.4 2.3 1.0
.6
.2
.6
.9
.3
.8 0
13.7 6.2 2.9 1. 8

97.5
99.7
.3
0

95.1 97.8
99.6 100.0
.4
0
0
0

98.1
98.6
0
1.4

86. 1 90.2 91.0 90.2 92. 3 94.1 94.8 95.7

95.6

96. 1

96.3

.2
4.2

.2

.4

1.4

2.7

4.1

4.0

95.3

91.4 96.6 98.6 99.0 99.8 99.8 99.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
90.6 96.1 97.8 98.7 99.0 98.7 99.2 99.4 99.6 99.5 100.0 100.0
45.0 64.9 76.3 81. 5 87.7 91.2 93. 3 95.8 95.7 94.5 100.0 96.6
.5
.3
.8 1. 1
.1
.8
.8
.6
.4
.5
0
0
.2
.2
8.6 3.4 1.4 1.0
.7 0
0
89.6 95.7 98. 1 98.5 99. 1 99.0 99. 2 99. 6 99.6
82.9 95.3 98.0 99. 1 99.4 99.8 99.8 99.3 100.0

0
0
98.6 100.0
99. 6 98. 7

51.6 76.6 85. 1 90. 1 95.8 96.3 97.4 98.5
3.1 6.9 12.9 21. 5 28.8 36.9 38.4 50.8

99.2
49.9

96.4
59.8

98.7 100.0
56.7 59.9

.5 1.0 2.5 2.9 2.8 4.3 5.7
0
77.1 82.8 77.3 70.2 63.7 56. 0 53.4 38.3
19.8 9.8 8.8 5.8 4. 6 4.3 3.9 5. 2

7.0
39.5
3.6

3.5
35.2
1.5

12.2
27.7
3.4

16.8
22.6
.7

29.7 45.2 57.8 63,5 70.9
6.6 7.7 13.7 19.9 29.4
13.8 20.7 26.6 33.3 36.7
32.2 34.0 33.1 32.4 29.7

79.2
44. 5
45.6
28.9

81.8
40.5
48.9
29.7

82. 7
51.4
52.8
26.4

84.5
52.3
50.6
34.2

85.1
53.7
55.5
27.3

29.4 55.6 68.3 75.3 84.2 87.7 91.9 93.7

94.6

92.2

97.4

96.1

72.8
32.3
39.4
31. 5

75. 1
36.0
41.9
29.6

0
98.9
98.3

TABULAR

243

SUM M A R Y

T a b l e A — .— Housing Facilities, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
3
14,469

Item

W H IT E AND N EG R O FA M IL IE S IN 42 C IT IE S —Continued
Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

II. Percentage of families in
survey who owned prin­
cipal home at end of
schedule year ____ _ _
Percentage of families in
each consumption level
who owned principal
home at end of schedule
year... _ ____
_.
Percentage of families liv ­
ing in—
1-family d e t a c h e d
house_____________
1-family semidetached
or row h ou se...
2-family house _____
Multiple dwelling (3family or more)____
Dwelling with ele­
vator . . . .
...
Dwelling with janitor
service.
_ _
Percentage of families
having—
Bathroom in dwelling
u n it.... .
Toilet: Inside flush__
Outside flush..
Other ty p e___
Sole use of toilet by
household . . ..
_
Water: Inside dwell­
ing_______
Running___
Hot running
Not running
Outside dwell­
ing on ly ...
Sink________________
Electric lights.. _
Gas or electricity for
cooking___________
Refrigerator: Electric.
Other
m e chanical .
Ice only.
N one___
Hot air, hot water, or
steam heat________
Telephone
Garage. _ _ _ _ _ _
Garden space
_. ..
Each of the following
items:
Inside flush toilet,
running hot water,
electric lights, and
gas or electricity
for cooking. .. _ .




30.3

1.0

4.0

6.1

6.3

4.9

3.4

1.3

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.2

30.3 34.1 32.9 30.7 31.0 30.6 30.3 28.1 28.9

23.9

24.2

23.1

24.5

69.2 63.8 65.7 72.8 69.4 68.2 70.3 68.0 68.4

63.3

92.0

72.5

67.5

17.2 27.2 23.0 16.2 15.1 17.5 15.7 13.6 14.4
12.4 9.0 10.6 9.6 14.3 12.9 12.5 17.5 15.6

14.9
21.8

5.8
1.1

13.0
14.5

25.7
6.8

1.2

0

.7

1.4

.1

0

.3

.1

.3

.3

1.2

1.4

1.5

0

0

0

2.0

0

1.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

.6

93.1 70.5 83.2 91.8 94.6 96.9 97.3 98.8 97.7
95.2 76.2 88.6 93.8 96.6 97.6 99.0 99.5 100.0
.5
.9 6.6 1.6 1.6
.6
.3
.1 0
.4 0
3.9 17.2 9.8 4.6 2.9 1.8
.7

98.6
99.2
.8
0

97.5 100.0 100.0
97.5 100.0 100.0
0
0
0
2.5
0
0

97.4 99.6 98.4 97.2 98.1 96.8 96.1 97.6 97.0

94.2

96.9 100.0

98.2 87.5 95.0 98.0 98.9 99.4 99.6 100.0 100.0
97. 6 86.0 93.8 97.2 98.6 98.6 99.3 99.8 100.0
86.3 54.8 72.4 83.7 86.7 91. 1 94.4 98.4 96.0
.8
.3
.8
.3
.2 0
.6 1.5 1. 2

98.7 100.0 100.0 100.0
98.7 100.0 100.0 100.0
97.0 93.5 100.0 96.5
0
0
0
0

.9

.9

.1

1.6
0
.4

.6

.4

.9
0
.3

95.6

.6
.4 0
0
1.3
0
0
1.8 12.5 5.0 2.0 1.1
0
98.2 86.2 95.6 98.4 98.4 99.4 99.6 99.8 99. 7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
98.4 89.2 97.5 97.5 99.2 99. 2 99.6 99.8 99.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
90.4 59.6 78.9 88.5 92.8 92.5 98.3 97.3 99.0
27.8 3. 1 9.1 18.5 26.5 33.8 39.7 44.9 49.3

96.6
49. 2

96.0 100.0 100.0
51.2 63.5 68.5

.6 1.3 1.3 2.0 3.2 2.9 5.8
1.9
.3
62.9 77.2 80.2 72.4 63.9 59.2 52.0 48.9 38.6
7.4 19.4 10. 1 7.8 8.3 5.0 5. 1 3.3 6. 3

4.7
41.1
5.0

2.5
44.7
1.6

10.1
23.6
2.8

6.6
17.0
7.9

80.9
74.2
73. 1
73.5

78.4
64.4
77.5
71.1

80.5
73.8
91.8
80.9

74.0
63.9
69.8
71.1

70.6
80.3
86.0
68.5

80.8 41.9■ 63.6 76.1 82.8 84.6 93.4 95.4 96.0

88.8

89.9 100.0

96.5

73. 4
45.0
58. 9
65. 7

49. 1
11. 1
27.2
63.2:

62.5
20.2
46.6
62.4

70.8
33.5
54.8
65.0

75.7
44. 1
57.4
65. 5

76.4
54. 1
63. 3
66.4

80.0
62.7
67.6
67. 2

82.1
65.7
67.9
62.9

244

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME
T

able

A — .— Housing Facilities, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
3
1,566

N EG RO FA M ILIES IN 16 C ITIES

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure
All
fami­
$400
$300
$500
$600
lies Under $200
to
to
to
to
to
$200
$500
$700
$300
$600
$400

of—
$700
and
over

H o u s i n g fa cilities in d w ellin g occu p ied at en d
o f sched ule yea r

I. Percentage of families in survey who
rented principal home at end of schedule
year_________________________________
Percentage of families in each consump­
tion level who rented principal home at
end of schedule year___________________
Average monthly rental rate at end of
schedule year_________________________
Percentage of families living in—
1-family detached house_______________
1- family semidetached or row house__
2- family house______________________
Multiple dwelling (3-family or more)___
Dwelling with elevator________________
Dwelling with janitor service__________
Percentage of families having—
Bathroom in dwelling u n it____________
Toilet: Inside flush___________________
Outside flush__________________
Other typ e__________________
Sole use of toilet by household_________
Water: Inside dwelling_________ ^_____
Running____________________
Hot running________________
N ot running________________
Outside dwelling only_________
Sink_________________________________
Electric lights________________________
Gas or electricity for cooking___________
Refrigerator: Electric_________________
Other mechanical________
Ice only_________________
N one___________________
Hot air, hot water, or steam heat_______
Telephone___________________________
Garage_______________________________
Garden space_________________________
Each of the following items:
Inside flush toilet, running hot water,
electric lights, and gas or electricity
for cooking_______________________




82.0

14.6

20.6

18.9

13.3

7.4

4.3

2.9

82.0

80.6

81.2

85.4

81.7

79.6

86.8

76.4

$16. 24 $12.18 $13.82 $15.09 $17.01 $20.19 _$26. 05 $32. 99
28.7
30.8
15.1
25.4
1.7
12.0

44.1
35.3
9.9
10.7
.7
3.2

34.1
34.0
11.6
20.3
.4
4.6

28.1
29.0
16.8
26.1
.2
8.7

21.3
27.6
23.6
27.5
1.3
15.3

16.0
29.2
20.5
34.3
3.3
19.3

9.2
34.5
6.3
50.0
9.4
40.1

13.8
11.4
12.9
61.9
11.4
54.3

55.4
67.8
17.0
15.2
78.5
83.8
81.7
40.3
2.1
16.2
82.6
77.7
46.8
4.3
.2
91.0
4.5
30.3
8.1
7.8
25.5

37.1
50.3
24.7
25.0
75.8
73.9
70.6
20.7
3.3
26.1
71.8
56.7
17.1
.4
0
88.3
11.3
17.4
2.1
8.1
31.5

44.5
57.8
19.9
22.3
78.5
80.1
77.4
26.4
2.8
19.9
78.3
73.1
35.2
1.5
.4
93.5
4.6
19.7
5.3
6.8
29.6

59.3
71.3
16.6
12.1
78.4
83.5
81.3
39.1
2.2
16.5
83.0
80.3
48.1
3.7
.4
91.2
4.7
27.5
8.2
7.6
24.5

61.0
75.6
14.9
9.5
77.1
89.6
89.2
50.3
.4
10.4
87.7
89.3
60.9
2.8
0
96.4
.8
34.8
9.1
10.9
25.6

68.7
81.0
12.0
7.0
82.5
90.1
88.6
62.6
1.5
9.9
90.0
83.8
67.9
3.5
0
95.0
1.5
40.1
7.0
7.5
18.5

87.5
91.8
6.3
1.9
78.6
98.7
98.7
74.5
0
1.3
95.3
97.9
84.4
23.0
0
77.0
0
66.9
22.1
7.6
8.0

92.4
95.7
0
4.3
89.6
96.7
96.7
90.7
0
3.3
96.7
100.0
94.7
28.3
0
71.7
0
88.5
35.3
1.0
15.0

32.3

11.1

18.3

29.5

42.1

56.7

71.4

87.5

245

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b le A — .— Housing Facilities by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
3
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Families with
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

H o u s i n g fa cilitie s in d w ellin g occ u p ie d at en d
o f sch ed u le yea r —Continued

II. Percentage of families in survey who
owned principal home at end of sched­
ule year____________________ _ ___ _
Percentage of families in each consumption
level who owned principal home at end
of schedule year___ __ __
_______
Percentage of families living in—
1-family detached house__ _ _ _ __ __
1-family semidetached or row house __ _
2-family house ________ _
________
M ultiple dwelling (3-family or more)___
Dwelling with elevator. _ . . .
Dwelling with janitor service._ __ _ __
Percentage of families having—
Bathroom in dwelling un it__
_______
Toilet: Inside flush _____________ ___
Outside flush____________ _ __
Other type
. . . _ . _ _______
Sole use of toilet by h o u seh o ld ______ _
Water: Inside dwelling______ _______
Running_________________
Hot running____
______ ___
N ot ru n n in g _________ _ ___
Outside dwelling only_________
Sink____ . . . ._ _ . . . __ _ ______ _
Electric lights___ ____________
_ ...
Gas or electricity for cooking___ ____
Refrigerator: Electric_______ ______ _
Other mechanical ______
Ice only ________ .
N one.
. . _ ___ _ __
Hot air, hot water, or steam heat______
T elep hone______ _ _ _ _ ________ _
Garage. _. _______ ________________
Garden space . ___ ______ _ ___ ._
Each of the following items:
Inside flush toilet, running hot water,
electric lights, and gas or electricity
for cooking ___________ __ . . . .




18.0

3.5

4.8

3.2

3.0

1.9

0.7

0.9

18.0

19.4

18.8

14.6

18.2

20.4

13.2

23.6

74.2
19.4
6.4
0
0
.5

92.0
6.4
1.6
0
0
0

74.3
16.4
9.3
0
0
0

67.3
30.0
2.7
0
0
3.0

72.2
18.6
9.2
0
0
0

74.3
17.7
8.0
0
0
0

50.6
28.3
21.1
0
0
0

51.7
48.3
0
0
0
0

59.2
65.5
8.9
25.6
97.9
75.4
74.8
44.8
.6
24.6
75.0
85.5
49.5
10.5
0
86.4
3.1
33.0
29.5
31.3
55.3

32.6
34.2
16.0
49.8
98.4
55.3
53.7
10.7
1.6
44.7
54.5
68.0
10.7
0
0
93.6
6.4
11.0
16.6
21.1
66.1

43.3
55.7
8.8
35.5
97.0
65.8
65.8
34.1
0
34.2
66.9
82.7
39.3
1.8
0
93.5
4.7
29.2
8.3
25.4
60.5

66.9
70.7
8.7
20.6
98.2
78.6
78.6
46.7
0
21.4
77.8
86.0
53.8
8.5
0
88.0
3.5
26.6
33.9
43.0
58.0

67.4
83.6
2.8
13.6
98.1
87.4
87.4
59.6
0
12.6
85.5
95.0
71.4
20.6
0
79.4
0
38.0
42.9
41.0
40.7

94.6
89.7
8.8
1.5
100.0
97.1
97.1
82.3
0
2.9
91.2
97.1
77.9
19.5
0
80.5
0
59.6
37.2
37.8
55.0

83.2
91.6
8.4
0
83.1
85.7
85.7
74.9
0
14.3
100.0
100.0
68.9
25.3
0
74.7
0
43.8
74.9
29.6
21.2

100.0
96.8
3.2
0
93.7
100.0
93.7
77.9
6.3
0
100.0
100.0
93.7
41.0
0
59.0
0
81.1
83.2
15.8
49.4

38.1

2.7

29.0

43.8

55.9

71.4

52.1

65.2

246

T a b l e A — .— Housing Expenditures, by Consumption Level
4
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

Average number of persons in economic family______
Average number of persons in household____________
Percentage of families investing in:
Principal home________________________________
Vacation home_________________________________
Percentage of families having current expenditure
for—
Owned principal home:
Taxes_______________________________________
Assessments_________________________________
Repairs and replacements____ _________________
Fire insurance on home_______________________
Liability insurance on home___________________
Ground rent_________________________________
Interest on mortgages_________________________
Refinancing charges__________________________
Rented principal home:
Rent (gross rent less concessions)_______________
Repairs by t e n a n t . _________________________
Secondary housing:
Owned vacation home________________________
Rent on vacation or trips______________________
Rent at school________________________________

Average amount invested during schedule year in
owned:
Principal home, total___________________________
Payment on principal of mortgage and down pay­
m ent___________________________________
Improvements on home_______________________
Vacation home_________________________________
Average current expenditure for:
Owned principal home, total____________________
Taxes_______________________________________
Assessments__________________________________
Repairs and replacements_____________________




$1,200
and
over

Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to
$1,000

100.0
3.60
3. 79

3.0
6.49
6.61

12.2
5.19
5.33

19.8
.4.16
4.32

20.4
3. 54
3.93

15.8
3.13
3.33

11.3
2. 79
3.01

7.1
2. 55
2.69

4.6
2. 38
2.60

2.6
2.28
2.49

14.0
(2
)

12.8
0

14.2
0

14.0
0

14.8
0

15.2
0

14.3
.1

11.9
.1

13.3
0

7.9
0

15.1
0

14.5
0

13.0
.5

$1,000 to $1,100 to
$1,100
$1,200
1.4
2. 26
2.47

0.8
2. 21
2.37

1.0
2.00
2.12

30.1
4.3
14.8
13.9
.2
.6
19.3
1.7

34.0
1.5
7.8
12.2
0
.4
20.1
l.i

32.4
3.5
12.7
13.7
.2
.9
21.4
2.2

30.1
3.9
13.9
13.6
.3
.6
19.2
2.2

30.9
4.2
15.2
14.4
.1
.8
20.2
1.6

30.3
4.8
15.0
15.1
.3
.6
20.2
1.9

30.1
4.9
17.4
13.2
.2
.4
18.6
1.5

27.7
5.1
17.1
11.8
.2
.5
17.3
1.0

28.6
4.6
17.8
15.8
.4
.4
19.5
1.6

24.8
5.4
15.5
10.9
0
.2
14.5
.5

25.5
6.0
15.8
15.1
.4
0
17.3
1.4

24.1
5.0
11.9
14.6
2.3
0
15.0
1.6

23.9
5.1
15.5
13.6
0
.4
13.9
0

70.1
4.2

66.4
3.5

67.6
3.9

70.2
4.5

69.5
3.7

70.1
4.2

69.9
4.6

72.6
4.1

71.3
3.8

76.4
5.3

75.4
6.2

76.9
7.4

74.7
4.8

.3
7.3
.4

0
.3
.3

.3
1.4
.1

.1
2.8
.1

.3
5.5
.5

(2
)
8.0
.5

.4
9.8
.7

.3
11.5
.3

.7
18.3
.5

.7
19.6
.2

0
25.3
1.1

1.7
30.2
0

.5
30.1
.9

$27.10

$20. 38

$21. 51

$23. 33

$26. 53

$29. 91

$30.02

$35. 91

$29. 42

$20. 79

$37. 79

$62. 80

$27. 51

21.45
5. 65
.04

14.36
6.02
0

16. 92
4. 59
0

18.31
5. 02
0

21.24
5. 29
0

24. 39
5. 52
0

22.67
7. 35
.03

29.24
6. 67
.40

23.16
6. 26
0

15.88
4. 91
0

28. 28
9. 51
0

50.89
11.91
0

25.19
2. 32
.27

61.70
23. 62
1.13
10.11

39.92
18. 88
.68
2.82

49.03
20.91
.63
4.99

53. 94
21.17
1.14
7. 88

61.12
23.90
.93
8. 61

67. 54
25.03
1. 42
11.43

70. 83
27. 25
1.15
12. 55

69. 83
25. 37
1.15
13. 98

79. 81
28. 98
1.12
15.60

68. 22
23. 46
.74
22. 36

85. 64
23. 83
5.66
20. 78

48.05
16. 80
3. 56
5. 76

81.09
22. 36
.80
27.26

MONET DISBURSEMENTS --- SUMMARY VOLUME

I. Percentage of all families in survey 1________________

All fam­
ilies

2 4 2 9 4 9 °— 41

Fire insurance on home _ __
____
Liability insurance on h o m e . __________ _
Ground rent___ _______ _____ _________ _ . . . .
Interest on m ortgages_____
Refinancing charges______
Rented principal home, total. .
_ ____ _
Rent (gross rent less concessions) . . . . ____ _ .
Repairs by tenant_______ . . . . . _ ___ _
Secondary housing, total___
. ... _
Owned vacation home.. . ______ _
__ .
Rent on vacation or trips______ _____________
Rent at school___ ___________ _ ___________

I. Percentage of families who owned their principal
home for 12 months___ _ _
. . . . .
Average number of persons in economic family_____
Average number of persons in household... _ _
Percentage of families who invested during the sched­
ule year in owned principal hom e... ___________
Average amount invested in schedule year, total_____
Payment on principal of mortgage and/or down pay­
ment. ______
______ _
Improvements on home_____
_____________
Average current housing expenditures on owned
principal home, total. . __ _. __ . __ __ __ _
Taxes________
___ _ _ ______ ____
Assessments________ ______ _ _________ . . .
Repairs and replacements __________ . . . . . .
Fire insurance on home . __ _______ _. .
Liability insurance on home_____ ______ ._
Ground rent __
______________ . . . .
Interest on mortgages. .
. . . ___ . _____
Refinancing charges _________

1.40
0
.13
15.51
.50
115.97
115. 72
.25
.07
0
.02
.05

1.88
.04
.40
19.45
.73
143.43
143.10
.33
.27
.08
.17
.02

1.96
.08
.25
20. 52
.94
171. 61
171.17
.44
.40
(3)
.31
.09

2.15
.02
.38
24. 58
. 55
186. 77
186.44
.33
1. 27
.04
.92
.31

2. 46
.07
.36
25. 93
.84
209.92
209. 45
.47
1.81
(3)
1.35
.46

2. 47
.04
.21
26. 66
.50
218. 76
218.11
.65
2.63
.20
1.80
.63

2.23
.02
.35
26.09
.64
237.90
237. 41
.49
3.32
.08
3.02
.22

3.03
.10
.38
30.04
. 56
244. 65
244. 27
.38
6.02
. 15
5.17
.70

5.10

5. 52

4. 78

5.15

5.16

5.07

5.08

5.06

15.7
18.6
25.9
24.2
15.6

16.0
21.3
26.3
21.5
14.9

11. 7
17.9
24.8
26.9
18.7

14.1
18.2
27.4
25.2
15.1

14. 5
18.0
26.3
25.5
15.7

15.5
19.6
27.1
23.0
14.8

16. 7
18.1
25. 5
23.6
16.1

17. 5
17.9
26.4
23.7
14.5

29.8
3. 83
4.09

1.0
6.87
7.01

3.9
5.49
5. 66

6.0
4. 41
4.64

6.2
3.67
3. 90

4.7
3.23
3. 50

3.3
2. 85
3.22

2.0
2. 52
2.88

2.29
0
.11
19.11
. 15
268. 44
267. 70
.74
5.11
.41
4. 56
. 14

3.29
.02
0
30.30
1.76
276. 58
276. 23
.35
5.82
0
5.05
.77

3.23
.40
0
17.29
1.01
320.02
318.47
1.55
7. 33
.17
7.16
0

2.80
0
.19
27.68
0
311.38
310.62
.76
13. 21
1.30
10.50
1.41

4.95

4. 96

4.89

4.80

4. 51

21. 3
15.9
24.8
22.1
15.9

20.9
24.3
18.3
21.1
15.4

27.2
18.4
19.7
20.8
13.9

30.2
18.8
25.3
17.1
8.6

29.7
23.5
18.9
15.3
12.6

1.3
2.46
2.85

.6
2. 38
2.68

.4
2.38
2.62

.2
2.16
2. 51

.2
2.18
2.30

45.4

38.1

42.5

44.5

46.4

49.1

46.1

41.7

47.7

32.3

56.5

54.5

59.3

$84.13

$58.22

$68. 35

$70. 61

$81. 84

$93. 68

$96. 26

$90.81

$104. 51

$81. 53

$128. 59

$260. 61

$108. 26

65.85
18.28

40. 77
17.45

54. 36
13.99

54.22
16. 39

65.40
16.44

75. 95
17. 73

73.07
23.19

67. 61
23.20

81.15
23. 36

60.88
20. 65

93.63
34.96

221.43
39.18

100.44
7. 82

202.46
78.15
3.75
32.72
7.23
.11
1.05
77. 29
2.16

118.18
56.19
2.03
7.76
4.18
0
.38
46.15
1.49

149. 43
63.91
1.88
15.26
5. 62
. 11
1.23
59.39
2.03

176. 78
69. 62
3. 75
26.03
6. 30
.03
.84
67.18
3.03

195. 35
76. 99
3.01
27.02
6.89
(3)
1.22
78.47
1.75

220.18
81.82
4.72
37.64
7.99
.24
1.20
83.87
2.70

234. 95
90. 72
3.85
41.58
8.08
.15
.69
88. 59
1.29

239.13
90.50
4.09
41.89
7.96
.07
1.27
91.89
1.46

277.01
101. 63
3.39
54.16
10.39
.32
1.34
103.70
2.08

284.00
97. 39
3.23
92. 61
8.45
0
.47
81.59
.26

341.83
100. 61
22.74
84.16
12.86
.08
0
115. 57
5. 81

205.11
70.26
15.50
25.07
12.81
1. 73
0
76.10
3. 64

285.89
77.18
3.23
102. 70
10.28
0
.77
91.73
0

TABULAR SUMMARY

Average number of rooms in dwelling unit
Percentage of families living in dwellings with—
________
Less than 4 rooms. . . . . _______
4 r o o m s._________ __ . . . .
5 rooms________ ______
6rooms_. _____________ ._ __ __ _ . . . _____
7 rooms or more._ . . . . ___ . . . . . _____

2. 22
.05
.31
23. 56
.70
195. 28
194.83
.45
1.87
.08
1.49
.30

1 The total number of families surveyed includes those in each of the four subgroups shown in this table (i. e. home owners, house renters, apartment renters with heat included
in rent, and apartment renters with heat not included in rent) and also families who changed their housing status during the year for whom no separate subgroup is shown.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
3 Less than 0.5 cent.

247




248

T a b l e A — .— Housing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n tin u e d
4
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to
$1,000

$1,000 to $1,100 to
$1,100
$1,200

$1,200
and
over

$346. 32

$214.30

$283.85

$314. 61

$340.00

$367. 08

$397. 94

$395. 92

$428. 88

$424. 29

$448. 80

$411. 57

$414. 44

143.86

96.12

134.42

137. 83

144.65

146.90

163.00

156. 79

151. 87

140.29

103. 55

206. 46

128. 55

5. 99

5. 59

5.93

5.88

6. 01

5. 99

6. 07

6.04

6. 22

6. 05

6. 05

5. 71

5. 77

2.5
9.1
23.9
33.7
30.8

5.7
13.9
27.6
30.3
22.5

3.3
11.0
20.0
33.2
32.5

2.8
10.1
24.9
34.3
27.9

2.1
8.6
24.0
35.6
29.7

2.0
7.7
27.4
33.9
29.0

1.8
7.0
22.4
32.2
36.6

1.1
7.9
25.2
33.7
32.1

2.5
6.5
19.8
30.3
40.9

6.7
10.1
13.5
35.7
34.0

4.9
8.6
20.4
36.7
29.4

5.6
17.3
28.6
25.6
22.9

1.6
12.9
18.1
35.5
31.9

26.3
3.89
3. 98

1.3
6. 59
6. 69

4.3
5.00
5.15

5.9
4.11
4.28

5.0
3. 49
3.74

3.7
3.15
3. 36

2.5
2.88
3. 08

1.7
2. 52
2. 77

.8
2. 34
2.58

.5
2.19
2. 49

.2
2. 25
2. 38

.2
2.12
2. 40

.2
2. 01
2. 08

Average expenditure for rented principal home,
total... . . . . . ....
. _ . . . . _______
$251. 21
Rent (gross rent less concessions)______ __________ 250. 21
Repairs by tenant . . . .
.. _____ . . . . _
1.00
Average monthly rental rate.
20. 65

$172. 30
171. 94
.36
14. 39

$204. 47
203. 73
.74
16. 69

$229. 66
228. 49
1.17
18. 67

$255. 98
255. 45
.53
20. 96

$282. 67
281. 63
1.04
23. 05

$285. 30
283. 85
1.45
23. 25

$295. 00
294. 08
.92
23.90

$306. 89
305. 82
1.07
27. 05

$327. 67
325. 68
1.99
28. 26

$319. 06
317. 61
1. 45
26.12

$360. 75
354.11
6. 64
30. 42

$339. 37
337. 61
1.76
29.06

5. 33

4.93

5. 22

5.28

5. 40

5. 47

5. 48

5. 32

5. 32

5. 47

6.15

5. 81

4. 84

10.0
16.7
27.7
28. 5
17.1

19.4
23.6
24.9
18.6
13.5

12.1
19.1
25.2
25.7
17.9

11.0
15.8
27.2
30.3
15.7

9.6
15.9
26.3
31.6
16.6

8.6
15.0
28.4
28.3
19.7

7.3
15.5
30.6
28.9
17.7

6.0
14.4
32.6
30.6
16.4

7.3
14.0
35.0
29.3
14.4

12.9
16.9
22.4
26.9
20.9

4.6
18.4
21.7
36.2
19.1

7.4
19.4
24.4
28.5
20.3

9.4
39.6
18.9
17.6
14.5

16.3
3. 09
3.15

.1
5.19
5.19

.6
4. 67
4. 69

2.1
3. 91
4.01

2.9
3.45
3. 53

3.1
3.13
3. 28

2.5
2. 72
2. 82

1.8
2.68
2. 78

1.3
2. 43
2. 57

.8
2. 30
2. 43

.5
2. 09
2.18

.2
2. 39
2. 42

.4
1.98
1. 91

Average estimated annual rental value _____ _____
Average imputed income from equity in owned
principal home_________________________________
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit_
_ _____
Percentage of families living in dwellings with:
___
. _____
Less than 4 rooms- _ . _ _ _
4rooms.__ _________ _________ ____ _________ _
__________________
____
5 rooms___ _ . . .
6 rooms____ __________________ ____ _________
7 rooms or more.. ___
_______ ___
III. Percentage of families who rented house for 12
months- ....
Average number of persons in economic family___
Average number of persons in household
_ _ ..

Average number of rooms in dwelling unit_______
Percentage of families living in dwellings with:
Less than 4 rooms____________
4 rooms______ ______ _______
5 rooms___ __________ _______
Grooms_____________ . . .
7 rooms or more___ _____
IV. Percentage of families who rented apartment for
12 months with heat included in rent.. . . .
Average number of persons in economic family
Average number of persons in household___________




.

VOLUM E

$300 to
$400

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — SU M M A R Y

$200 to
$300

Item

M ONEY

All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

Average expenditure for rented principal home,
total___ _ . . .
_ __
$374. 60
Rent (gross rent less concessions)________________
374.48
Repairs by tenant________ ____________________
.12
Average monthly rental rate______________________
31.28

i

$222. 99
221. 40
1.59
18. 66

$303. 97
303. 78
. 19
25. 23

$324. 97
324.88
.09
27.12

$356. 76
356. 69
.07
29. 80

$369. 31
369.16
. 15
30. 90

$377. 38
377. 24
. 14
31. 66

$402. 56
402. 56
(3)
33. 57

$410. 34
410.19
. 15
34.13

$413.09
412. 71
.38
34.42

$410.12
410.12
0
33.76

$514.14
514.14
0
43.78

$473. 26
472. 37
.89
39. 37

4.14

3. 91

3.93

3. 91

3. 81

3. 69

3.83

3. 69

3. 72

3. 39

3. 51

3. 40

27.8
38.6
6.9
26.7
0

40.3
23.2
17.0
13.3
6.2

41.5
29.5
20.0
6.3
2.7

42.9
30.5
17.6
6.8
2.2

42.9
34.6
15.1
6.8
.6

50.9
26.2
16.3
5.6
1.0

50.3
25.0
13.4
7.9
3.4

57.0
25.3
12.4
5.3
0

53.5
25.7
14.4
6.4
0

65.6
25.4
5.1
2.8
1.1

77.9
13.6
7.0
1.5
0

57.0
27.5
13.0
0
2.5

V. Percentage of families who rented apartment for 12
months with heat not included in rent___________
Average number of persons in economic family____ _
Average number of persons in household ... ___. . .

25.8
3. 50
3. 65

.5
6. 29
6. 64

3.2
5. 05
5.13

5.4
4. 04
4.19

5.9
3. 48
3.58

4.1
2. 97
3.12

2.8
2. 67
2. 83

1.5
2. 58
2. 76

1.1
2. 25
2. 42

.6
2.15
2. 32

.3
2.37
2.60

.2
2.16
2.16

.2
1.94
2.13

Average expenditure for rented principal home,
total________________________________________ $252. 58
Rent (gross rent less concessions) ________
251. 98
Repairs by tenant... ________ __________ _____
.60
Average monthly rental rate_ ______________
_
21.01

$185. 84
185. 53
.31
15. 48

$207. 84
207. 66
. 18
17. 33

$234.19
233. 87
.32
19. 47

$240.90
240. 32
.58
20. 09

$268. 77
267. 98
.79
22. 45

$281. 08
279. 92
1.16
23. 47

$299. 72
298. 50
1. 22
24.90

$299.10
298. 40
.70
24.92

$298. 06
297. 38
.68
24. 56

$339. 35
338. 94
.41
27. 94

$348. 37
347. 76
.61
28.78

$328.19
327. 55
.64
28.13

4. 74

4. 64

4. 75

4. 70

4. 69

4. 69

4.84

4. 97

4. 80

4.90

5.09

4. 79

4. 71

16.7
25.2
32.4
19.4
6.3

24.0
28.6
34.2
9.1
4.1

17.1
24.8
29.0
22.0
7.1

18.6
24.6
32.1
18.3
6.4

18.9
24.5
30.8
19.1
6. 7

17.2
25.5
33.4
18.9
5.0

13. 5
26.5
32.3
20.4
7.3

12.4
25.3
33.4
21.7
7.2

13.1
22. 5
37.4
22.5
4. 5

6.7
32.3
32.2
19.2
9.6

8.8
21.6
34.5
24.0
11.1

5.2
29.1
51.6
14.1
0

16.2
14.2
43.2
23.2
3.2

Average number of rooms in dwelling unit. __ . ..
Percentage of families living in dwellings with:
Less.than 4 room s... ______ _ _______________
4 rooms____ _____ ______________ ___________
5 rooms_______________________________________
6 rooms_____ _________ ______ _____ ______
7 rooms or more____ _
_____
_____ ______

1

SU M M A R Y

3. 77
48.0
28.6
15.3
6.2
1.9

TABULAR

_
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit_
Percentage of families living in dwellings with:
__ .
Less than 4 rooms___ _____ _ ___ _ _ _
4 rooms. .. . _ ______ ____ . . . ____ ____ ______ _
5 rooms... . ________ _____________ . . . . _____
6 rooms___ _______ _ _______ _. _________
7 rooms or more. _. . . . .

3 Less than 0.5 cent.

249




250

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
T a b l e A — .— Housing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
4
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure
All
fami­
$300
$400
$500
$600
lies
Under $200
to
to
to
to
to
$200
$300
$400
$500
$600
$700

I. Percentage of all families in survey 1_ . __ 100.0
Av. no. of persons in economic fam ily...
3. 59
Average number of persons in household. ..
3. 76
Percentage of families investing in—
Principal home __
9.9
Vacation home ______ __ ______ ...
0
Percentage of families having current ex­
penditure for—
Owned principal home:
17.6
T a x e s __ _ _______ _
________
.8
Assessments. . _____ .. ________
6.7
Repairs and replacements__ _
_ _
Fire insurance on home___ . . . . .
9.6
.2
Liability insurance on hom e.. . . _ .
.6
Ground rent_
_ _. _ _
_ _
11.5
Interest on mortgages___ _
. . .
1.0
Refinancing charges___ __ ._ _ . . .
Rented principal home:
Rent (gross rent less concessions) _. _. 82.4
Repairs by tenan t.. _. . . .
_ _.
3.7
Secondary housing:
Owned vacation hom e.. ______ .
0
Rent on vacation or trips . . . . . . _
1.0
Rent at school.________ ___ . . .
.7

18.1
6. 05
6.15

25.4
3. 95
4.09

22.1
3.00
3.13

16.3
2. 52
2. 72

10.8
0

10.0
0

8.4
0

8.8
0

19.1
.6
4.8
9.5
0
.3
13.6
1.6

18.5
.8
6.2
9.8
0
.7
11.1
1.3

14.0
.4
5.1
8.1
0
.5
10.5
.8

80.9
1.8

81.6
4.0

0
0
0

0

.3
.4

9.3
2. 36
2.61

of—
$700
and
over

5.0
2. 22
2.56

3.8
2.31
2.72

12.2
0

5.4
0

18.9
0

18.6
1.4
8.5
10.1
0
.7
10.3
.7

19.2
1.9
10.5
11.8
2.0
.6
10. 5
0

12.7
0
3.6
5.0
.6
0
8.2
0

22.9
.8
15.9
15.7
0
1.5
20.6
3.0

85.9
4.7

81.4
3.4

80.2
3.8

86.7
2.7

76.5
9.1

0

0

0
3.1
2.5

0
2.2
3.0

0
6.5
0

.8
.5

.8
.3

Average amount invested during schedule
year in owned:
Principal home, t o t a l . _____
______ $12. 71 $15. 97 $8.86 $10. 31 $15. 08 $16.16 $4. 57 $2Q. 01
Paym ent on principal of mortgage and
10.84 11.00
down paym ent________ __________
9. 71 12. 94 13.17
8.56
4. 57 25.28
4. 97
Improvements on hom e____ _
____
1.87
.30
.60
2.14
2. 99
0
3. 73
Vacation h om e._ _______ . . . __ . . .
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Average current expenditure for—
22. 12 17. 74 16. 89 20. 87 22. 56 33. 52 17. 96 60.85
Owned principal home, total. __ _
4. 65
5.91
7. 22
Taxes . . .
_ _ __ . . . . . .
__ . . .
7. 18
8. 42 10. 27
7.15 14. 67
. 11
. 12
.07
.28
.37
Assessments.. . . . ________ ____ _
0
.08
(3)
3.74
3.20
3. 21
3.14
3. 72
Repairs and replacements.._____ ____
5. 76
1.08 11.98
.84
1.09
.95
.81
Fire insurance on hom e..
... _
1. 50
1.69
.64
2.24
0
Liabilitv insurance on home ___ _
. 10
0
0
.93
.24
0
0
. 12
.32
.49
Ground rent
.36
.45
.32
0
1.04
7. 83
Interest on mortgages_
_ .
. . .
5. 90
9. 08
8. 77
8. 11 14. 18
8. 85 30.10
.99
.45
.43
.54
Refinancing charges _ .
:
...
.08
0
0
.74
Rented principal home, total..
. . 160. 83 119. 57 135. 75 155. 67 167. 17 192. 93 273. 54 299. 46
160. 42 119. 27 135. 10 155. 32 166. 85 192. 55 273.38 298. 94
Rent (gross rent less concessions) .
.41
.30
.65
.35
Repairs by tenant _ . . ____. . . .
.32
.38
. 16
.52
Secondary housing, total___
0
.50
. 17
.09
.31
2. 33
2. 69
.86
0
0
0
Owned vacation home _
0
0
0
0
0
0
Rent on vacation or trips
.
. 13
.05
.03
. 17
.40
.26
.86
.37
0
. 12
Rent at school________ . . . _______
.06
. 14
1.93
2. 43
0
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit.
Percent of families living in dwellings with:
Less than 4 rooms__ _______________ _
4 rooms____ . _________ _______ _ _.
5 rooms . . . _____
. _ . . . _____
6 rooms____________________________ _
7 rooms or more_______ . . . __________
II. Percentage of families who owned their
principal home for 12 months . . . ____
Av. no. of persons in economic family__
Average number of persons in household.
Percentage of families who invested dur­
ing schedule year in owned principal
home_______ ____ _
...

4. 44
33.6
23.8
19.5
13.8
9.3
17.7
3. 80
4.00
53.5

4. 52
30.9
25.7
20.4
15.0
8.0
3.5
6.28
6. 35
55.0

4. 36
33.8
25.7
21.3
9.9
9.3
4.7
4.10
4.18
52.3

4.29
39.4
23.4
15.9
12.9
8.4
3.1
3. 36
3.54
51. 3

4. 42
36.0
20.4
21.1
14.7
7.8
2.9
2.88
3. 21
50.5

4. 65
30.2
21.6
18.3
21.0
8.9
1.9
2. 51
2. 73
54.4

4. 64
29.5
19.2
19.8
12.7
18.8

4. 90
14.5
32.1
18.0
19.7
15.7

.7
2. 20
2. 36

.9
1.87
2.04

41.0

80.0

Average amount invested during sched­
ule year, total_____________________ $66.80 $83.14 $45. 72 $70.07 $68. 82 $65.15 $34. 53 $122. 74
Paym ent on principal of mortgage
and down paym ent... ______ . . 57.60 57.10 44.11 65. 84 57.09 63.46 34. 53 106.97
9.20 26. 04
1.61
4.23 11.73
1.69
Improvements on hom e_____________
0
15. 77
1 The total number of families surveyed includes those in each of the 4 subgroups shown in this table
(i. e., home owners, house renters, apartment renters with heat included in rent, and apartment renters
with heat not included in rent) and also families who changed their housing status during the year for whom
no separate subgroup is shown.
3 Less than 0.5 cent.




TABULAR SUMMARY

251

T a b l e A — .— Housing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
4
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

ah

fami­
lies
Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

Average current housing expenditures on
owned principal home, total_________ $124. 32 $92. 78 $92. 07 $142. 97 $124. 65 $161.90 $135.66 $257. 74
Taxes_______________ _ _
40. 61 24. 29 33.90 48.44 46. 68 49.49 53. 95 62.08
.59
.02
.69
.51
Assessments.-________ _
1.55
0
1.80
0
Repairs and replacements------- - 20. 92 16. 75 17. 44 20. 96 20. 62 27. 76
8.13 50.70
4. 41
6.12
Fire insurance on home— _ __ -- __
5. 73
4.96
8.10
8. 47
4.86
9. 47
.56
Liability insurance on h o m e ___ _
_
0
0
0
0
4. 47
1.85
0
.62
2.04
2. 69
2. 29
Ground rent_____ ___ _____ ____
2. 47
4. 41
1.56
0
50. 84 40. 92 30. 74 61.21 44. 96 68.35 66. 87 127. 37
Interest on mortgages____ ______
2. 54
Refinancing charges _
5.20
2. 32
3.83
.27
3.71
0
0
Average estimated annual rental value___ 212. 85 146. 92 171.11 250. 25 236. 70 267. 69 302.03 289.40
Average imputed income from equity in
owned principal home ____ _
88. 53 54.14 79. 04 107. 28 112. 05 105. 79 166. 37 31.66
5. 23
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit5. 40
5.12
5. 61
5. 34
5.70
6.02
5. 23
Percent of families living in dwellings with:
11.4
16.3
8.6
2.9
11. 3
13.6
16.7
0
Less than 4 rooms-. _____ ____- - 24.3
4 rooms______ _ _ ___ __ _______
17.7
22.5
8.4
12.2
9.5
.12.7
15.7
22.2
26.4
25.4
5 rooms — __ ___ _ _________ _
__
42.8
35.4
23.7
6.3
22.8
21.5
22.5
6 ro o m s___
______________ - - ___
12.6
18.8
35.2
20.1
54.8
38.9
22.1
20.6
29.5
29.4
24.9
12.8
23.2
7 rooms or more-------------- ----------4.3
I I I . Percentage of families who rented house
47.2
11. 4
10. 5
5.9
for 12 months.. _ _ __
_________ _
13.7
3.1
.7
1.9
3.82
6. 06
2.40
Av. no. of persons in economic family,
3.93
2.89
2.18
2. 28
2. 29
4. 01
6.15
Average number of persons in household _ _
4.09
3.05
2. 70
2.65
2. 63
2.79
Average expenditure for rented principal
$171. 24 $143.44 $159.08 $172.05 $190. 29 $220. 38 $256.37 $240. 08
home, total..
__ __
__ 170.51 142. 97 157. 91 171. 36 189. 82 220.13 255. 61 239. 22
Rent (gross rent less concessions) _ _
.73
.86
.47
1.17
.47
.76
.69
.25
Repairs by tenant-.. ________ _______
Average m onthly rental rate.—
___ 14. 23 11.94 13.19 14. 25 15. 87 18. 33 21.30 19. 94
4. 52
4.41
4. 78
4. 50
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit.
4.37
4. 81
4. 68
5.31
Percent of families living in dwellings with:
34.7
30.9
30.1
31.9 .1 33. 7
26
19.1
12.9
Less than 4 room s..
25.7
15.6 , 24.6
23.5
23.0
23.2
23.1
43.1
4 rooms---- -------- --------------------24.4
20.1
20.5
19.4
18.8
22,7
6.8
7.8
§ rooms. _ _____ ____ _
...
_
15.9
15.5
12.3
17.0
19.0
28.2
12.9
6 rooms... _ _ _ _ _ _ _
.
.
12.7
9.6
7.5
13.6
6.3
9.4
37.3
11.7
7 rooms or more___
_____ 6.7
IV. Percent of families who rented apartment
10.9
.3
1.0
2.5
for 12 mo. with heat included in rent__
2.0
1.5
1.8
1.8
4. 23
2. 81
4. 45
3.13
3.00
2. 85
2. 43
2. 55
Average no. of persons in economic fam ily. _
4. 23
4. 56
3.02
3. 28
Average number of persons in household,__
3.23
3.25
2. 72
3.12
Average expenditure for rented principal
$376. 33 $210. 64 $387.12 $286. 98 $337. 26 $402. 20 $422. 85 $475. 50
home, t o t a l . ____
_ ________
376. 25 210. 64 387.12 286. 98 337. 26 402. 20 422. 63 475. 24
Rent (gross rent less concessions)___
.08
0
.22
0
0
0
0
.26
Repairs by tenant
- ________ _____
Average monthly rental rate
_ ___ __ 31.32 17. 55 32. 26 23. 91 28.10 33.83 35. 03 39. 60
4.20
4. 27
5.04
3.60
4.07
4.11
4. 58
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit,
5. 03
Percent of families living in dwellings with:
30.9
34.0
33.1
0
46.6
19.4
36.8
16.7
Less than 4 rooms ____
_ _ __
32.1
31.0
31.9
31.5
22.6
42.8
32.6
23.1
__
__ _
4 rooms____ _
25.4
31.9
16.2
15.6
35.4
22.0
18.0
27.1
5 rooms..
_ _ ___
______ _ _ _
10.8
36.2
16.5
0
4.6
16.8
9.0
9.0
6 rooms___
______
_______ ____ _
3.3
5.3
8.5
5.3
13.5
0
0
4.5
7 rooms or more _.
_ _ . _
- ___
V. Percentage of families who rented apart­
ment for 12 months with heat not in­
5.9
2.9
6.4
5.0
.6
.4
23.9
cluded in r en t.. __ _
_ __ _
2.7
2. 21
5.80
4.31
2. 96
3. 23
1.88
2.07
2.31
Av. no. of persons in economic fam ily.__
4. 42
2. 29
3.32
5.89
3.05
2.37
1. 90
2.13
Average number of persons in household._
Average expenditure for rented principal
home, total _ _ ___ _ _
_______ $160. 95 $156. 21 $148. 50 $160.02 $156. 83 $180. 04 $221. 82 $226. 90
Rent (gross rent less concessions)_______ 160. 70 156.19 148.41 • 159. 89i 156.64 179.03 221. 82 224. 36
.02 :
2. 54
.25
.19
.09
.13
Repairs by tenant
__ . __
__ _
1.01
0
13.48 13.02: 12.18 13.69' 13.08 14.92 18. 29 18. 91
Average monthly rental rate_____
3.97
3.43
3. 51
2.15
Average number of rooms in dwelling unit.
3.46
3.44
3.46
3.35
Percent of families living in dwellings with:
55.2
57.5
39.6
55.4
52.3
67.6
Less than 4 rooms _
62.7
45.7
36.1
31.2
26.0
8.7
22.3
26.6
22.4
8.9
4 rooms
10.2
12.5
9.4
17.4
45.6
11.2
16.7
19.0
_
5 rooms __ _ _ _ ___ ____
3.4
4.2
1.9
4.7
0
0
6.6
7.9
6 rooms_______ ____
_ . . . ------4.5
0
1.9
1.0
2.4
1.3
0
0
7 rooms or more. .
_
__




252

T a b l e A — . — Fuel, Light, and Refrigeration Expenditures, by Consumption Level
5
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration,
total_____ __ ________ __
____
Electricity___________ . . .
Anthracite________________ ____ _______ _
Bituminous coal ._ _ . . . ._
Lignite________________
_
___ _
C o k e .______ _
Briquets________________ ____________________
Charcoal________________ ____________________
Wood. .
____
F u elo il_____ ____________
_ _____ _
Gas____ __________________ __________________
Kerosene_________ _____ ______ _________ ______
Gasoline (not for auto)__________ _ ___________
Ice___ _____ ____ _ ............ .
_ _ ...




$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to
$1,000

$1,000 to $1,100 to
$1,100
$1,200

$1,200
and
over

100.0

3.0

12.2

19.8

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

94.1
26.6
32.4
.9
13.2
.7
0)
17.0
7.6
85.2
7.1
1.2
66.2

79.8
28.8
50.6
.1
5.3
.4
.3
30.9
.6
54.3
27.0
3.1
80.2

94.6
32.1
42.9
.6
10.7
.7
.2
23.5
8.6
76.1
13.3
1.4
81.9

94.5
27.8
37.1
1.3
12.2
1.1
(0
19.2
8.8
83.2
8.6
1.2
76.8

95.5
27.6
32.6
.7
14.8
.5
0)
17.4
8.6
87.3
5.5
1.1
69.6

94.5
26.3
27.8
1.1
13.9
.6
.1
14.0
6.7
89.5
5.2
1.0
63.3

94.0
24.5
26.6
.8
15.6
.6
0)
14.4
7.2
90.6
3.6
1.3
56.2

95.1
22.9
26.4
1.0
13.4
.4
0
14.0
7.4
91.1
4.4
1.1
54.5

93.7
23.2
26.3
.9
12.3
.4
0
9.9
4.6
90.0
.8
1.0
41.9

94.4
25.1
18.8
.6
14.6
.7
0
11.7
7.5
91.5
2.1
.3
46.9

92.1
16.2
21.5
1.8
18.0
0
0
9.6
4.6
85.5
3.2
0
41.2

96.4
13.9
26.5
1.2
12.6
.7
0
9.6
5.2
91.0
4.2
1.5
34.4

93.4
14.7
8.9
.5
8.5
1.4
0
10.9
3.5
87.8
3.0
0
29.4

$108.15

$86. 99

$104. 90

$109.10

$111.37

$109. 90

$110.15

$109. 75

$107. 20

$105. 87

$103.63

$107.17

$93. 70

27.65
15.11
14. 50
.44
7.77
.23
.01
1. 70
3.90
24. 46
.86
.07
11.45

19.67
12. 37
17. 95
.09
1.88
.01
.02
4.27
3.-50
15.12
2.81
.26
9.04

24. 56
15. 82
16.91
.27
5.26
.24
.02
2. 59
4.83
21. 28
1.71
.11
11. 30

26. 43
14. 81
16.21
.63
7.13
.36
.02
2.06
4. 51
23.63
1.12
.09
12.10

27.33
16.10
14. 87
.34
8. 91
.23
(2)
1.58
4.35
25. 04
.68
.07
11.87

28.84
15.63
12.89
.53
8.23
.19
( 2)
1. 31
3.43
26. 01
.58
.06
12. 20

29.29
14. 71
13.06
.44
9. 53
.24
(2)
1.17
3.62
26.12
.39
.04
11.54

30. 41
14.05
13.31
.48
8.03
.16
0
1.56
3.26
26. 30
.53
.08
11. 58

30.88
15. 78
13.26
.44
7.94
.12
.02
.76
1.81
26.85
.25
.07
9. 02

30. 53
16. 49
8. 90
.21
9.53
.02
0
.82
2.35
26. 59
.32
(2)
10.11

31.07
12. 01
11.22
. 91
11. 55
0
0
.55
2.68
23. 83
.54
0
9. 27

35. 84
9.26
13. 52
.45
10. 50
.11
0
.37
3.32
25. 44
.31
.03
8. 02

33. 01
8. 67
8.96
.28
4. 85
.60
0
.92
3.49
25. 77
.39
0
6.76

D ISB U R S E M E N T S -

I. Percentage of families in s u r v e y . __ _________ _
Percentage of families spending for:
Electricity__________ ____
______ _
____
A nth racite_____
B ituminous coal
Lignite__________________
_
_________
_ _
Coke__________
Briquets_________________
___
___________
Charcoal... _ . . . __ ______ _____ _
. . . _____
Wood____________________________ ___________
Fuel oil__________________________ ___________
____________________ ___________
Gas______
__________ _ ___________
Kerosene. __ ___
Gasoline (not for a u t o ) __ ___________ ______ _ ._
Ice______________

All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

M ONEY

Item

G
G

d

>

w
<

o
d

II. Percentage of families in houses making payments
for heat separately from rent___________________
Percentage of families spending for:
Electricity________________ ___________________
Anthracite_____________________________________
Bituminous coal________________________________
Lignite________________________________________
C o k e ._________ ______ ____ _ ______________ .
Briquets_______________________ _____________
Charcoal.__ _______________ . . . . . . ___________
W ood_____________________ _ ________________
Fuel oil________________________________________
Gas___________________________________________
Kerosene_______ _____ ________ _____________
Gasoline (not for auto)______ ____ _______________
Ice_________________ __ ______________________

2.3

7.8

11.5

10.5

7.9

5.5

3.5

1.9

1.0

0.6

0.3

0.4

97.2
30.0
42.4
1.6
14.3
.9
.1
21.7
4.8
85.9
9.2
1.4
68.5

80.3
32.5
54.6
.2
4.1
.5
.3
32.6
5.3
52.8
27.7
3.0
79.4

95.0
31.1
50.8
1.0
9.3
.8
.2
25.8
3.9
76.0
15.0
1.9
80.1

97.1
28.4
46.1
2.2
12.2
1.3
0)
21.6
4.7
84.2
11.3
1.5
76.9

98.7
30.5
39.8
1.3
16.6
.4
(9
22.7
5.7
88.5
7.0
1.4
69.3

98.7
29.7
38.2
2.0
16.1
.6
.2
18.0
4.1
91.3
6.6
1.4
65.2

98.6
28.5
35.8
1.8
18.5
.6
(9
19.1
4.7
94.8
3.9
.8
59.4

99.3
29.2
41.0
2.1
15.9
1.2
0
20.0
6.0
92.3
5.7
1.6
55.0

98.1
37.8
36.3
2.2
16.6
1.0
0
14.9
5.0
93.8
3.6
1.4
43.6

100.0
41.9
24.4
1.5
22.1
1.0
0
16.7
6.4
98.7
1.0
0
49.1

100.0
25.7
31.0
4.5
24.4
0
0
12.3
6.8
85.4
6.5
0
47.4

98.8
18.9
48.9
2.9
10.9
1.7
0
14.5
1.7
86.9
9.2
3.6
34.9

100.0
32.7
30.1
1.4
18.2
4.0
0
21.7
5.8
95.4
7.2
0
40.8

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration,
. . . . _ .. _. . ____ $122.84
total __ ______________

$86. 24

$109. 88

$119.44

$125. 32

$128.82

$132. 45

$134. 07

$137. 64

$134.97

$140. 23

$129. 81

$135.66

26. 09
16. 75
19.91
.43
4.84
.32
.02
3. 09
2.19
22. 63
1.88
.16
11.57

29. 01
16.17
21. 05
1.07
7. 68
.57
.02
2. 41
2. 05
25. 69
1.39
. 11
12.22

33.19
19.88
18.78
.89
11. 75
.35
(2)
1.71
2. 86
30. 97
.42
.04
11. 61

34. 26
20.46
20. 51
1. 01
10.17
.35
0
2.48
3.17
29. 40
.56
. 16
11. 54

36.11
23. 62
19. 65
1. 06
11. 33
.29
0
1.17
2.11
32.68
.26
. 17
9.19

34. 97
29. 39
11.92
.51
14.61
.05
0
1.68
1. 46
30. 91
.01
0
9. 46

37.28
19. 52
18.89
1.94
16.78
0
0
.86
3.98
30. 53
1.08
0
9. 37

40.02
16.17
27. 05
1.09
7.17
.27
0
.73
1.07
28. 40
.65
.07
7.12

38. 58
19. 51
16. 62
.81
10.06
1.73
0
.49
4.19
34. 39
1.10
0
8.18

Electricity.. _____________ ______ . . . . .. . . .
Anthracite
. . ______________ _______ ____
Bituminous c o a l_______ ______________________
Lignite_____ . _ _______ ._ __ _____ _________
C o k e .____ . . . _ __________ _____ _____ _______
Briquets_______________________________________
Charcoal_________ ___________________________
Wood_________________________________________
Fuel oil________________________________________
Gas__________ _______ ______ . . . _______ . . .
Kerosene______________________________________
Gasoline (not for auto)----------------------------Ice______ ______________________________ _____

30. 26
18.42
19. 60
.80
8. 84
.35
(2)
2. 32
2. 40
27. 01
1.08
. 12
11.64

19.76
10.59
19. 50
. 12
2. 06
.01
.03
4.68
2.13
15. 30
2. 86
.26
8.94

30.18
19. 65
19.14
.65
10.29
.29
(2)
2.12
2.60
27.44
.82
.14
12. 00

32.26
19. 38
18. 51
1. 01
10.09
.24
(2)
1. 92
2.37
29. 72
.67
.06
12. 59

H
3
>

W
d
>

SU M M A R Y

53.2

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than 0.5 cent.

253




254

T a b l e A — .— Fuel , Light, and Refrigeration Expenditures , by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
5
14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Fam
ilies with total annual unit expenditure of—

III. Percentage of families in houses not making pay­
ments for heat separately from rent_____________
Percentage of families spending for—
Electricity____________________________________
Gas___________________________________________
Ice____________________________________________

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to $1,000 to $1,100 to
$1,000
$1,100
$1,200

$ 1,200

0)

and
over

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0)

0)

0)

58.5
48.7
61.1

29.4
29.4
64.7

69.9
46.6
76.7

39.3
49.3
49.3

45.0
44.7
79.6

58.2
64.1
66.2

20.6
20.6
24.4

91.4
74.0
48.0

81.7
81.7
63.6

30.8
30.8
23.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

88.9
66.7
77.8

56.4
56.4
28.2

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration,
total________________________________________

$41. 37

$45. 98

$46. 60

$32. 62

$37. 68

$46. 25

$13. 99

$53. 97

$70. 01

$13. 86

$82.13

$82. 01

$40. 5
1

Electricity_____________________________________
Gas___________________________________________
Ice____________________________________________
All other fuel__________________________________

1 . 44
5
11.63
12.18
2.12

5.31
9. 43
11.20
20.04

18.66
1 . 50
0
8.25
9.19

12.81
11. 83
7.88
. 10

8. 91
10.04
15. 90
2. 83

1 . 61
5
14. 38
13.22
3.04

7 21
.
2. 06
2. 74
1.98

22. 86
16. 98
14.13
0

26. 37
1 1
8. 8
25. 46
(2
)

3. 85
3.85
6.16
0

15. 32
14. 38
52. 43
0

36. 00
17. 78
28.23
0

22. 82
8. 46
9. 23

IV. Percentage of families in apartments making pay­
ments for heat separately from rent____________
Percentage of families spending for:
Electricity_____________________________________
Anthracite____________________________________
Bituminous coal_______________________________
Lignite________________________________________
Coke__________________________________________
Briquets______________________________________
Charcoal______________________________________
Wood_________________________________________
Fuel oil_______________________________________
Gas___________________________________________
Kerosene______________________________________
Gasoline (not for auto)__________________________
Ice____________________________________________




1.0

(9

0

29.3

0.6

3.7

6.0

6.8

4.6

3.1

1.8

1.3

0.7

0.3

0.2

0.2

96.8
35.1
33.5
(9
18.9
.7
.3
19.5
16.9
89.5
6.7
.7
73.0

90.1
38.4
47.0
0
10.1
0
.4
28.1
12.3
59.1
23.2
2.9
79.8

93.8
38.7
33.6
0
15.9
.7
.4
23.1
20.8
78.5
11.0
1.3
84.8

95.8
35.2
33.9
.3
16.3
.9
.3
23.4
19.1
84.3
7.1
.6
78.4

97.9
34.4
35.1
0)
18.8
.9
0
18.1
16.1
90.3
6.1
.3
75.7

97.6
39.4
29.9
.3
19.8
.7
0
17.0
15.1
93.7
5.7
1.0
71.8

98.4
34.4
30.6
0)
23.5
1.1
0
18.0
17.1
96.2
4.8
1.4
61.8

98.0
32.4
27.8
0
22.9
0
0
17.5
17.8
98.2
5.5
.8
66.4

96.8
31.8
36.8
0
18.7
0
2.1
13.4
8.9
94.7
2.5
(0
48.5

98.9
29.5
31.1
0
22.0
1.1
3.6
15.4
16.7
96.8
4.8
0
56.3

100.0
19.0
41.7
0
30.1
0
0
16.7
12.5
100.0
(0
0
51.4

100.0
25.4
28.2
0
26.3
0
0
16.9
21.6
93.9
0
0
49.8

97.4
25.0
32.1
0
21.2

0
0
18.6

0

100.0
3.2

0
50.0

M ONEY DISBURSEMENTS ---- SUMMARY VOLUME

Item

All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration,
total_____________ ____________ ____________ $116. 27

$97.28

$104. 37

$112.70

$116. 54

$118. 89

$122. 40

$123. 87

$119. 20

$123. 48

$125. 61

$113. 34

$120. 58

26. 02
18.11
14.19
.03
10.45
.20
.04
1. 56
8. 75
24. 39
.91
.04
11.58

20.03
20.22
14.73
0
2.55
0
.02
3.21
9.12
15.19
3.01
.15
9. 05

22. 44
16.46
13. 82
0
7. 03
.12
.07
1.97
11.31
19. 32
1.50
.03
10. 30

24. 66
17. 90
13. 55
.06
8.33
. 13
.06
2.06
10. 64
22. 41
1. 02
.03
11.85

25. 73
17. 55
14.89
.03
10. 84
.35
(2)
1. 51
8.88
24. 38
.71
(2)
11. 67

26. 78
20.41
12.61
.03
11.31
.27
.03
1.14
7. 49
25. 55
.80
.07
12. 40

28.28
18. 01
13. 83
(2)
13. 92
.21
.04
1.12
7. 83
26. 73
.57
.04
11.82

29. 38
16. 34
13. 69
0
13. 50
0
0
1.39
6. 90
29.24
1.02
(2)
12. 41

27.76
20.79
17. 79
0
11. 30
0
.07
.99
3. 32
27. 59
.42
(2)
9.17

28.11
17.19
15. 27
.04
12.93
(2)
0
.50
5. 54
30.79
.44
0
12.67

29. 90
13. 75
17.47
0
19.11
0
0
.69
5.14
29.48
.60
0
9. 47

27. 75
13.10
11.36
0
15. 73
0
0
.23
13.62
21.41
0
0
10.14

34. 62
12. 05
19. 55
0
8.72
0
0
.45
0
35.19
.06
0
9.94

Electricity__________________ __ _____________
Anthracite_____ ___ __________ _ _ __ __ ___
Bituminous coal__ __ __ _ _ _________________
Lignite _ _
_ ____
_ _____
____
Coke_ _ _ _ __ _ ____ __________ _ _ _ __
Briquets___________ __________________________
Charcoal _ _ ____
__
______ _
W ood_________________________________________
F u elo il____ ______ ______ __ _____________
Gas_______________________ __ -__ __ _________
Kerosene. _ _ _
_ _
_
_ _ _ _____
Gasoline (not for auto)____ _
_ ___ ___
Ice___ _ _
_ _ _ _
_
_______

V. Percentage of families in apartments not making

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration,
total _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____
Electricity _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
____
Gas______ _ _______ ______ ___________ ___
Ice __ __ _ ___ ___
______
_____
All other fuel ___ ________ ____ _________________
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than 0.5 cent.

0.1

0.6

2.1

2.9

3.1

2.6

1.7

1.3

0.9

0.5

0.3

0.4

64.2
64.2
77.9

72.1
68.0
77.1

72.7
72.7
66.1

79.3
77.5
61.6

81.1
79.6
49.8

81.1
76.1
49.4

84.6
82.4
44.0

82.6
78.0
29.9

82.5
76.5
30.0

88.8
75.7
27.2

92.1
94.2
14.3

93.1
81.7
18.5

$53. 07

$48. 65

$51.15

$49. 90

$55. 24

$53. 35

$51. 89

$55.37

$52.01

53. 53

$46. 81

$65. 86

$50.07

23. 74
17. 65
10.48
1.20

15.68
18. 41
9.04
5. 52

19. 09
17. 08
12. 48
2. 50

19. *6
16. 92
12.14
1.68

22.81
18. 74
11.71
1.98

23.81
18. 30
10.89
.35

23. 09
15.85
11.45
1. 50

25.99
18.62
10. 27
.49

26. 29
17.58
7.89
.25

28.12
17. 58
7.05
.78

24. 55
12.78
7.41
2. 07

35. 93
25. 42
4. 51
0

28. 36
17.19
4.35
.17

255




16.5
80.2
77.8
50.2

TABULAR SUMMARY

payments for heat separately from rent_________
Percentage of families spending for—
___ __ _
Electricity _________ _ ___ ___
Gas____________ ____ ___________
____ _____
Ice___ _______
_
________________
_ __

256

M O N EY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMM ARY VOLUME

T a b l e A—
5.— F u e l, L ight, an d R efrigeration E xpend itures,
1,566

by

C onsum ption Level

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

I. Percentage of families in survey________
Percentage of families spending for—
Electricity. __ ______________________
Anthracite
_________ _____________
Bituminous coal _ ___________ _______
Lignite. . . . _____ ________________
Coke_______ _ ____________ _ _____
Briquets . . . . ______________ . . .
Charcoal. __ _ __ __ __ . . .
____
W o o d .___________ . . . _ . . .
. ._
Fueloil.
_. . . . .
_ _
_
_
Gas ___ . . .
._
. . . ___ ____
Kerosene____ _ ___
._ . . . __
Gasoline (not for auto)___ ______ . . . _
Ice __________________ _ _ _____ ..

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

75.5
16.3
64.3
0
1.8
.3
.8
39.5
1.0
46.5
38.5
2.4
92.0

56.0
16.3
69.1
0
2.5
.3
1.2
60.5
1.2
16.3
60.6
5.0
93.2

72.8
14.0
72.9
0
2.2
.9
1.8
45.9
1.5
35.7
44.9
3.9
95.2

77.8
17.5
69.9
0
1.4
0
.3
36.6
.8
49.3
38.7
1.6
92.5

83.8
14.8
63.1
0
1.1
0
.3
29.8
.5
58.5
24.4
.8
93.3

85.0
18.0
52.4
0
3.0
0
.6
26.6
.6
70.9
27.9
0
93.3

89.8
21.9
33.3
0
0
0
0
21.5
0
82.4
8.1
0
80.2

95.1
19.2
25.3
0
0
0
0
10.7
1.5
87.4
14.9
0
76.4

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration, t o t a l._______ _ _ ._ _. $86. 73 $72. 58 $83.94 $89. 52 $91.44 $100. 90 $91.10 $94. 51
Electricity.
_______ __
Anthracite __________ . . . __
____
Bituminous coal____ _
_
_ _
Lignite. __ _ _
___ . . . _ _ _ _ _ _
Coke. _ _ __ __ ___ __ _ _ _
Briquets. ___ ___ _ _ ______ _ ___
Charcoal______ ____________ __ . . . _
W ood________________________________
Fuel oil__________ . . . _____
____
Gas __ . __ _______
K erosene.___ ___
__ _. _ _ ___
Gasoline (not for auto).
___ ____
Ice..
_____
_
___
II. Percentage of families in houses making
payments for heat separately from rent _
Percentage of familing spending for—
Electricity _ _
_ _
_
_____
Anthracite
._
______ _ . __.
Bituminous coal.. _ _______ _
Lignite.
_ _ ___ __
. . . __ __
Coke. _ . . .
_ _______________ _
Briquets _ __ ___________ _ . . . . . .
Charcoal__ _ _ ___
__
___ . . .
W ood_______________________________
Fueloil_______ __ __
_
_ __ __
Gas___ _ .__ . . .
___
______
K erosene.___
_____
_ _ __ __
Gasoline (not for auto)
I c e ... . . . . . . _ ___
. . . _ __ .

16. 57
7.68
23. 38
0
.61
.01
.05
6.18
.24
12. 75
3.88
.15
15. 23

10. 92
5. 56
24. 33
0
.81
.01
.09
9. 66
.14
4. 43
5. 40
.29
10.94

15. 37
7.22
25.13
0
.40
.04
.10
7. 69
.16
9.27
4. 31
.23
14. 02

16. 91
7. 34
25.42
0
.71
0
.01
5.84
.30
13.46
3.98
.10
15. 45

63.0

14.5

18.0

13.8

8.3

4.6

2.3

1.5

73.7
22.1
69.5
0
2.2
.3
1.2
48.9
1.0
38.7
44.8
2.9
91.3

53.8
17.4
69.6
0
2.7
.4
1.2
65.0
1. 2
13.4
61.5
5.0
94.7

72.0
19.3
72.6
0
2.8
.6
2.2
51.4
1.6
31.2
47.4
3.2
93.4

76.7
22.4
73.9
0
.7
0
.4
46.9
0
44.1
42.9
2.9
91.4

88.4
24.5
68.7
0
1.1
0
.7
36.3
1.0
52.5
31.4
1.7
90.6

88.2
26.3
61.1
0
6.1
0
1.2
31.7
1.2
67.0
33.8
0
90.1

100.0
39.4
52.5
0
0
0
0
37.4
0
81.6
13.1
0
76.9

93.7
48.3
47.9
0
0
0
0
21.3
3.8
91.2
23.9
0
61.6

18. 06
7.33
24. 61
0
.40
0
.03
3.65
.45
16.47
2.85
. 12
17. 47

19. 06
10.89
20. 80
0
1.53
0
.04
5.03
.28
20. 61
3.65
0
19.01

24.67
12.11
11.85
0
0
0
0
1.64
0
21.83
1.08
0
17. 92

25. 96
10. 34
11.06
0
0
0
0
1.00
.13
24.20
1.98
0
19.84

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration, total. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $92. 01 $72. 53 $86.46 $95.46 $104. 85 $121. 25 $114.48 $120. 71
Electricity. _
__
___ _
_______
Anthracite _______ _____
_____
Bituminous coal __ _ __ __ __ __ _ __
_ ______ _ _ _ _
Lignite _ ____
C oke... _ ___ ________________ _ _ __
Briquets____ _ ___ ___ _ _ __
Charcoal. ___ _ _________
____
Wood________________________________
Fueloil_____
..
_____
______
Gas______ _
_ ___
Kerosene___ ___ __ _
Gasoline (not for auto)
_ __ ___ _
Ice____________________ ______________




16. 45
10.93
25. 79
0
.71
.01
.07
7.85
.26
11.08
4. 39
.17
14. 30

10. 53
6.11
24.18
0
.9 i
.01
.09
10. 36
.06
3. 56
5.57
.25
10. 86

15. 60
9.60
25. 25
0
.54
.03
. 11
9.20
.22
7. 66
4. 33
.18
13.74

17.14
10.18
27. 30
0
.38
0
.02
8.09
0
12.41
4. 32
.16
15. 46

19. 75
13. 79
29.28
0
.23
0
.06
4.08
.89
16.33
3.28
.24
16. 92

21.59
16. 63
27.38
0
3.12
0
.07
5. 73
.85
21.98
4.79
0
19.11

26.62
24.52
18. 87
0
0
0
0
1.44
0
26.04
.83
0
16.16

28.13
26. 06
20. 43
0
0
0
0
2.16
.34
27. 48
4.68
0
11.43

TABULAR SUMMARY

257

Table A—
5.— F u e l, L ight, and Refrigeration E xpend itures, by C onsum ption Level— Con.
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

III. Percentage of families in houses not mak­
ing payments for heat separately from
rent__________________________ ___
Percentage of families spending for—
Electricity ___ _ _ ___ _
Gas
___ ___ ______________
__
Ice
__ _________________
Average expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration, total.
_ _
Electricity
. . _ __________ _
___ .
Gas . . .
__ _ __ _
Ice.
_ _____
___ _ __
All other fuel.__ _
_ ________
IV. Percentage of families in apartments
making payments for heat separately
from rent __ __
__ ___ _ __
Percentage of families spending for—
Electricity ____
____ _ ____
Anthracite __ _
_ _
Bituminous c o a l . __ _ _ _
Lignite. _
Coke. _ __ _
_
__ _
Briquets __ __
_ _
Charcoal__ __ __________
W o o d ______________________
Fueloil____
___ _____ _
_ _
Gas ______ _ _____ ___ _ _
Kerosene.
_
_ _ _ __ _
Gasoline (not for auto)
_ _ _ __ __
___
Ice_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ ___ _
Average expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration, total,_ ______________

fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

1.4

0.3

0.1

37. 6
30. 6
75.9

31.8
30. 9
68.2

0
0
100.0

$46. 97 $46.81 $34.14
6.12
6. 09
15.12
19. 64

5. 53
9. 41
11. 64
20. 23

0
0
1 93
8.'
15. 21

$300
to
$400

0.1
0
0
0

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1

50.2
49.8
100.0

56.6
13.2
56.6

0
0
50.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

$6.00 $48. 61 $71. 35 $35. 92 $50.44
0
0
0
6. 00

9. 26
10. 40
19. 26
9. 69

11.03
1. 93
10. 82
47. 57

0
0
9. 06
26. 86

8. 97
11.46
30.01
0

24. 7

3.0

6.3

6.2

5.2

2.9

0. 7

0.4

77.1
8.5
82. 5
0
1.9
.5
.5
34.3
1.4
49. 5
37. 8
2.2
94.7

64.2
9.3
80.4
0
3.7
0
1.9
46.7
1.9
25. 7
56.8
5.6
87.5

73.6
5. 4
86.0
0
.9
1.8
.9
37.5
1.8
39.3
43.0
5.9
96.1

83.2
9. 5
85. 7
0
3. 5
0
0
27. 7
2.8
53.1
38.2
0
97.1

82.4
4.5
87. 2
0
1.8
0
0
34.1
0
56.2
26.2
0
92.1

71.9
16.6
65. 4
0
0
0
0
34.2
0
65.0
36.3
0
100.0

87.3
23.6
.64.0
0
0
0
0
18.7
0
79.8
14. 9
0
92.4

100.0
0
100.0
0
0
0
0
26.1
0
82.6
8.7
0
91.3

$86. 07 $77. 28 $81. 05 $88. 57 $88. 09 $90. 87 $106. 97 $90.66
12. 96
2. 80
29. 61
0
.46
0
. 10
7.83
.57
6. 83
4. 28
.52
11.32

15.42
2.82
28. 62
0
.68
.01
.03
4. 66
.34
14. 24
4.01
. 17
15. 07

V. Percentage of families in apartments not
making payments for heat separately
from rent
__
__ _ ________
Percentage of families spending for—
Electricity__________________ _________
Gas
_ ________ ________ _
__
Ice _
______________ ____ __

10.9

.3

1.0

2.0

2.4

1.6

1.8

1.8

86.8
86.2
87.2

68.1
68.1
100.0

100.0
94.3
91.5

76.9
76.9
88.6

76.3
82.6
97.6

94.3
94.3
84.1

87.2
82.7
75.1

100.0
95.5
82.6

Average expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration, total___________ _______
Electricity.___ ___ ___ _________ ___ _
Gas _ __ ______________________ __
Ice. _ _ ______________ _________ ____
All other fuel.________________________




14.28
1.74
29. 08
0
.05
.05
.09
4. 52
.02
11.92
4.79
.44
14. 07

16.04
.95
29. 43
0
.87
0
0
4.99
0
16.00
3.65
0
16.16

Electricity _ _
Anthracite
____
__ _____ _
Bituminous coal .
Lignite _ _
_ __ _
Coke___ ____
___ ______ _
Briquets_____ _
__ __ ________ __
Charcoal.. _ _____ _____ ______ ___
W ood________________________________
Fuel oil_ _
_
__ ___ ______ _
G a s __
___
_
________
Kerosene___________ ______ _ _ _
Gasoline (not for auto)__ __ __ ______
Ice __
___________ _______ _____

16. 73
3. 52
29.88
0
1.68
0
0
2.80
1.06
14.50
3.76
0
14. 64

13.67
6. 34
23.48
0
0
0
0
6. 28
0
19.18
3.73
0
18.19

25. 30
6.86
22.18
0
0
0
0
1.35
0
26. 75
3.57
0
20. 96

17.10
0
33.72
0
0
0
0
1.66
0
19. 97
.48
0
17. 73

$62.07 $47. 63 $61.33 $53. 72 $58. 74 $67.13 $59.68 $76.05
21.11
19. 91
20. 45
.60

15.03
19. 61
12. 99
0

20.46
23.26
16. 23
1.38

16.52
17.70
17.00
2.50

18.04
19.02
21.68
0

22. 47
23. 43
21.23
0

24.49
15. 39
19.80
0

26. 87
23.10
26.02
.06

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— -SUMMARY VOLUME

258

T able A - 6 .— H ousehold O peration E xpenditures Other T han fo r F u e l, L ight, an d R efrig­
eration, by C onsum ption Level
14,469

Item

Percentage of families in sur­
vey_____________________
Percentage of families spend­
ing for—
Water rent______________
Telephone ____________
Domestic service:
Full-time. ___ ________
Part-time___________
Laundry out-_
Postage, telegrams___ _
Moving, express, freight,
drayage----------------------Safe-deposit box_________
Insurance on furniture___
Interest on debts. _- ____

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700
$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

100.0

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

39.8 47.6 42.6 40.8 40.3 38.9 39.4 38.1 36.2
35.9 10.3 15.0 25.0 33.3 42.1 48.8 50.9 59.1

31.0
57.5

36.0
64.1

34.9
68.3

33.4
67.1

2.2
.3 1.1 1.3 2.2 3.1 2.6 3.8 3.0
7.3 1.0 2.5 3.3 6.2 7.1 10.1 12.1 16.6
31.9 9.5 15.2 21.3 28.9 35.0 42.5 46.6 54.4
85.5 66.9 77.4 82.9 86.9 88.0 90.4 91.7 89.4

2.9
14.6
56.7
92.0

3.2
23.9
62.7
95.0

4.4
24.8
67.7
88.8

6.5
31.1
75.2
92.4

9.7 7.7 10.9 11.1 12.0 14.2 14.5
.4
.7 1.8 3.2 5.0 8.2 7.1
8.7 12.8 15.5 18.7 22.8 23.2 24.1
7.4 11.0 11.4 10.7 11.3 12.6 10.7

15.8
10.0
29.6
9.6

19.1
10.9
30.2
15.5

14.1
17.1
46.2
11.3

22.1
14.8
36.7
19.6

11.7
4.5
19.9
11.3

3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8 11.3

7.1

15.7
10.8
28.1
13.6

Average expenditure per
family for household op­
eration other than fuel,
light, and refrigeration,
total________________ $58.31 $31.74 $38.43 $44.62 $53.31 $62.44 $69.57 $77.16 $86.29 $87.04 $99. 49 $120.09 $128.46
Water rent______________ 4. 84
Telephone______________ 9. 98
Domestic service:
Full-time_____________ 2. 00
Part-time_____________ 2. 76
Household paper____ ___ 3. 58
Bar soap
__
______ 3. 63
Starch, bluing___________ 1.25
Soap flakes, powder _ _
5. 73
Cleaning powder, polish,
steel wool, etc._ _ __ ___ 2. 44
1.74
Matches __ ______ _
Laundry out ___ ______ _ 11.22
Stationery, pens, pencils,
ink___________________ 1.39
Postage, telegrams_______ 2. 09
Moving, express, freight,
drayage. _ _
____ 1.10
Safe-deposit box _ _ ___ . 16
Insurance on furniture___ 1.45
Interest on debts _ _ ___ 2. 29
Other items-. ______
.66




5. 39 5.16 4. 85 4. 83 4. 94 4. 70 4. 55 4. 63 3.92 4. 96 5. 57 4. 21
1.83 3. 63 6. 07 8. 59 11.95 13. 92 15.26 18. 37 17. 41 20. 89 21.89 23. 87
.45
.17
2. 92
4.72
1.54
4. 71

.35
.53
3. 35
4. 40
1.48
5. 55

.77
.89
3.60
3.78
1.33
5. 76

1.83
1.97
3. 61
3. 65
1.27
5. 74

2. 49
2. 52
3. 71
3. 47
1.22
5.86

3.12
3. 54
3. 61
3. 31
1.09
5. 79

4.05
5.08
3. 67
3.19
1.15
5. 72

3. 66
6. 95
3. 58
3.12
1.14
6.11

2. 53
8.10
4. 03
2. 90
.95
6. 30

2. 62 7. 35 5. 92
9.83 18.08 15.22
3.88 3. 43 3. 77
2. 95 2.76 2.80
.83
.91
.77
5. 34 5.70 5.96

1.44 2.07 2.24 2. 40 2. 57 2. 63 2. 67 2. 91 3. 06 3.00 3. 45 3. 35
1.94 1.92 1.86 1.70 1.71 1. 59 1.70 1.51 1.54 1.84 1.27 1.53
2. 05 4. 07 6. 08 9. 13 12.14 15. 46 18. 42 21.55 23. 49 27. 47 33. 35 41.56
.82 1.06 1.16 1.29 1.42 1.65 1.62 1.68
.88 1.24 1.61 1.95 2. 32 2. 57 2. 85 2. 96

2.33
3.01

2. 32
3.72

1.71
3. 29

2. 85
4. 40

.50 .62 .87 1.00 1.14 1.43 1.70 1.48
.01 .02 .06 . 11 .20 .29 .28 .45
.60 .71 1.15 1.27 1.67 1.79 1.81 2.20
1.44 1.88 2. 00 2. 34 2. 37 2. 27 2.58 3. 19
.33 .39 .54 .63 .74 .81 .86 .80

1.49
.41
2. 49
2. 22
.86

1.44
.42
2. 93
3. 92
1.13

1.72
.74
4. 21
3.70
.96

3.23
.50
2. 65
4. 55
1.32

259

TABULAR SUMMARY

T a b l e A— .— H ousehold O peration E xpenditures Other T han for F u e l, L ight, and R efrig­
6

eration, fry C onsum ption Level— Continued
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Percentage of families in survey - - _ _ __
Percentage of families spending for—
Water rent __ - ____
___
__ __
Telephone,. _ _ _ _ _
_______
Domestic service: Full-timePart-time_______ _
Laundry out-_- ____________________ __
Postage, telegrams__ ____ __ Moving, express, freight, drayage-- _ _
Safe-deposit box _____ ___ __
Insurance on furniture.- _ _ ___ _ _
Interest on debts
__
___
_ __
Average expenditure per family for house­
hold operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration, total____________________
W ater rent - _
_
_
__ _
Telephone-.
_ _ __ _ . ___ _ _ _
Domestic service: Full-time- _
Part-time- _ ______
Household paper _ ___ _ _ __ _
Bar soap _____ _ ______ __ ______ _ _
Starch, bluing
_ __
______
Soap flakes, powder. - _ _ _ _ _ _____ .
Cleaning powder, polish, steel wool, etc- . _
Matches_______ _______ _ ___________
Laundry out___ _
_ _ __ ___ _ _
Stationery, pens, pencils, ink________ ___
Postage, telegrams___ _________________
Moving, express, freight, drayage____ __
Safe-deposit box___ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Insurance on furniture. ___ _ _
Interest on debts
______
_ __ _____
Other items _ _
__ _




Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

31.2
14.6
.7
2.6
19.5
74.7
10.7
.7
12.8
7.7

34.5
7.4
.6
.6
5.0
65.5
8.3
0
4.8
8.6

34.9
7.7
.6
1.5
12.9
72.3
10.7
.3
10.2
7.9

30.4
12.1
.3
2.5
18.2
75.3
10.2
.4
16.0
6.7

26.8
18.0
.9
3.5
22.5
77.2
9.9
1.1
13.9
5.3

26.8
16.7
1.6
1.9
35.7
87.7
9.7
1.0
14.4
10.3

18.5
37.3
0
8.7
45.3
79.4
19.5
3.3
25.1
8.9

32.4
59.4
2.5
7.3
53.2
96.4
17.4
.8
14.5
8.2

$33.08 $23. 56 $27. 08 $31. 69 $33. 44 $41.82 $55. 73 $73. 50
3. 54
4.11
.26
.56
2. 27
3. 97
1.29
3.53
1.25
1.64
5. 71
.83
1.31
.66
.03
.84
1.04
.24

3.87
1.19
.29
.16
1.88
4. 63
1.42
2. 93
.67
1. 73
.96
. 72
.89
.34
0
.40
1.07
.41

3.82
1.73
.30
.13
2.28
4.10
1.25
3. 25
1.20
1.83
3. 30
.80
1.05
.58
.01
.64
.65
.16

3. 50
3. 81
.29
.70
2. 27
3.78
1.34
3. 58
1.22
1.70
3. 93
.81
1.34
.58
.01
.98
1.50
.35

3. 53
4. 77
.27
1.08
2. 33
3.74
1.28
3.82
1.47
1.46
5.19
.80
1.34
.58
.04
.95
.63
. 16

3.13
5.15
. 18
.11
2. 49
3. 77
1.36
3. 73
1.44
1.57
12. 82
.86
1.67
.73
.06
1.26
1.40
.09

1.80
13. 09
0
2.59
2. 61
3.07
.93
4. 08
1.68
1.16
16.28
.99
1. 72
2.17
.17
1.49
1. 77
.13

3. 62
18.60
.21
.59
2. 59
3. 65
1.07
5. 38
2. 46
1.19
25. 76
1. 44
3. 29
1.33
.04
1.17
.79
.32

260

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

T a b l e A — — F u rn ish in gs an d E quipm ent E xp en d itu res, by C onsum ption Level
7.
14,469

Item

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300
$400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300f $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

Percentage of families in sur­
vey_____________________ 100.0 3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8 11.3 7.1 4.6
2.6
1.4
1.0
0.8
Percentage of families re­
porting receipt of gifts of
furnishings and equip­
ment. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14.9 13.7 11.4 14.1 15.0 14.5 16.6 16.9 17.4 16.3 20.0 12.8 20.5
Average value per family of
furnishings and equip­
ment received as gifts (in­
____ _______ $2. 81 $1.54 $1.75 $2.20 $2. 50 $2. 84 $3.15 $4.80 $3. 26 $4. 24 $7.81 $4. 62 $5. 81
complete) 1
Percentage of families spend­
ing for—
5.2 1.2 3.7 4.8 4.6 4.8 6.2 7.5 7.1
8.5 10.8 10.8
Suites: Living room___
9.5
3.5
.9 1.8 2.2 3.3 2.8 4.7 5.7 7.0
6.9
8.7
Bedroom.
____
7.1
8.2
.9 1.1 1.4 2.1 2.6 3.7 4.7 5. 5
4.1
Dining room. __ _ 2.6
7.1
8.4
3.5
2.0 1.3 1.2 2.0 1.8 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.2
3.9
2.4
3.2
5.4
Beds: W ood____ _______
2.0
2.6
Metal____ ________ 2.7 2.5 2.2 3.4 3.4 2.5 1.8 2.0 3.0
2.3
1.7
2.2
.6 1.1 1.7 2.1 3.7 2.9 1.8 3.0
1.2
3.0
Cots, cribs: W o o d ______
1.5
1.8
.5
.4
.7
.4
.6
.4
Metal_______
.3
.4
.7
0
.5
.6
.5
4.0 3.6 2.8 3.3 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.3 4.5
8.3
7.6
Bedsprings._ __ _______
5.6 11.2
.6
.2
.2
.4
.6
2.0
.5
.9 (2
.1
1.8
Davenports_____________
1.0
1.4
)
2.6 1.1 1.8 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.9 3.3 3.6
3.7
3.3
Couches, d a y b e d s ...___
.7
3.3
1.2
.4
.9 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.4
.7
.8
3.0
1.5
2.1
Dressers _ __ _ _
3.9
1.5
.6
2.2
.7 1.0 1.4 1.8 1.9 2.7 1.8
1.2
2.1
Chiffoniers, chests_______
5.1
.3
.2
.1
.2
.2
.1
.6
.7
.4
.4
.7
Sideboards, buffets______
0
.9
.1
.5
.8
.7 1.2 1.6 1.5 2.8
1.4
Desks____ _____________ 1.1
2.3
2.1
3.3
.8
.1
.2
.3
.6
.9 1.3 1.4 2.3
1.0
2.6
Bookcases, bookshelves. __
.7
3.4
5.2
. 6 2.0 2.9 4.2 5.8 6.0 7.5 10.1 15.4 15.3 14.7 18.9
Tables, except kitchen___
6.7
3.8
Chairs: Wood. _
____ 3.6 2.2 2.2 3.3 3.1 3.7 4.1 5.2 4. 1
6.3
9.2
3.2
.4 1.1 1.7 2.7 2.8 3.9 5.1 7.1 10.0 11.9
9.8 11.9
Upholstered_____
.3
.8
2.2
Benches, stools, footstools. 1.2 0
.8 1.0 2.0 2.2 2.2
2.8
3.1
4.1
.1 0
.2
0
0
0
.1
.3 0
.7
Tea carts, wheel trays____
1.3
.7
0
3.2
.9 1.0 1.4 1.8 2. 4 2.8 2.4
Stands, racks, costumers. _ 1.7 0
6.8
6.3
5. 7
.9 2.4 3.4 4.6 4.8 6. 5 8.5 8.2 12.0 11.0 11.9 11.4
Other furniture
. . . __ 5.1
Carpets, rugs____
_ .. 15. 2 3.9 11.4 12.7 13.7 16.9 18.4 20.1 18. 6 25.4 21.0 27.1 34.2
5.7 4.3 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.4 5.8 6.4 6.9
Linoleum, inlaid.
7.8
5.2
6. 4
3.5
Felt-base floor coverings. __ 8.7 4.1 7. 6 9.2 9.1 8.6 8.9 8.9 8.6 12.4
8. 1
6.9 14.3
9.7 7.9 9.2 9.4 9.8 8.7 10.3 10.9 11. 2 11.7 16.1 11.2 13.9
Mattresses______________
2.7
Pillows_________________
.5 1.4 1.6 2.5 2.7 3.0 4.1 4. 5
7.7
6.0
2.0
8.6
Blankets __________ __ 15. 4 10. 6 14.7 15.3 16.4 16.1 15.3 13.8 16.2 19. 5 13.2 14.5 18.7
Comforts, quilts___ __
_ 3.8 2.4 3.1 3.7 3.2 4.2 3.9 4.2 5.0
6.1
5.2
7.3
4.8
Sheets__________________ 29.3 24.4 21. 6 27.4 29. 8 29.8 32.8 33.8 33.9 34.8 41.0 34.3 35. 2
Pillowcases___
_ _ _ _ _ 21.9 14.8 16.6 20.9 22. 3 23.3 24. 3 25.0 23.4 24.8 24.2 25.0 29.9
Bedspreads, couch covers. _ 10.0 6. 5 7. 2 8.4 9. 5 10.0 11.4 11.8 12.9 17.6 17.4 20. 6 18.1
T ablecloths, napkins,
doilies:
Cotton________________ 9.9 7.2 8.9 8.6 8.9 10.1 10.8 13.1 11.1 13.9 14.0 10.5 14.7
Linen_________________ 3.0
.5
.9 1.9 2.8 2.8 5.1 4.2 5.3
7.1
5.1
7.4 13.8
Towels: Linen________ _ 6.6 3.6 4. 3 6.7 6.7 5.9 7.5 7.4 7.9
8.2 11.3 17.6 10.0
Cotton, turkish... 31.8 21.9 30, 6 31.8 33.4 31.6 30.7 32.3 35.4 32.8 32.5 35.3 34.2
Other cotton.
8.3 8.0 8.0 8.2 8.2, 8.0 8.3 8.3 8.9 20.5 12.2 16.4
8.1
Table runners, dresser
4.1 1.4 2.4 2.9 2.9 4.8 4.0 7.2 7.7
scarfs____
7.7 14.0 12.0 10.8
Curtains, draperies ____ 31. 6 11.8 21. 6 29.8 29.6 32.5 36.7 40.0 41.1 44.8 44.5 57.4 43.9
D i s h c l o t h s , cleaning
cloths, etc___________ _ 19.5 6.4 11.7 16.5 19.6 22.7 22.9 24.6 30.1 24.5 18.0 30.3 29.3
Other textile furnishings.. 10.7 7.8 9.8 10.9 10.1 10.4 10.5 12.5 10.5 14.7 15.6 13.7 14.8
China or porcelain, table... 13.9 11.3 13.6 14.8 13.1 12. 2 15.0 10.5 16.2 17.5 20.8 14.7 19.7
Glassware_______________ 16.4 14.1 13. 5 16.3 15.4 16.6 18.3 18.7 17.6 17.3 20.9 17.9 27.6
3.4 2.0 2.2 3.1 2.8 4.2 3.6 4.0 4.0
Tableware: Silver. . _ _
5.5
6.0
4.9
7.8
Other... ___ _ 1.0
.9 1.0
.7
.8
.7
.8 1.9
.9 2.1
1.3
1.7
0
1.8
. 5 1.1 1.7 1.7 2. 1 2.2 2.5 1.9
Other silverware, e t c ___
3.0
1.2
.7
1.8
1 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include the gifts of furnishings and equipment
reported received by 2.4 percent of the families but for which they could not estimate the value.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




261

TABULAR SUMMARY

T able A —
7.— F u rn ish in gs an d E qu ipm ent E xpend itures, by C onsum ption Level— Con.
14,469

Item

Percentage of families spend­
ing for—Continued.
Vacuum cleaners._ .
_ _
Refrigerators (electric)___
Electric stoves, hotplates. _
Washing machines. ______
Irons __________________
Ironers, mangles___ _____
.
Heaters, fa n s .._____
Light bulbs.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _
L a m p s.______
______
Toasters___ _ . . . ______
Sewing machines (electric).
Other electrical equipment.
Mirrors, pictures, clocks,
ornaments____ _ _ _
Carpet sweepers____ _
Brooms, brushes, mops___
Dustpans, pails, etc
Gas refrigerators. _ . _
Iceboxes_____ .
Stoves and ranges (not
electric)_______________
Canning equipm ent,
cookers
Pots, pans, cutlery______
Tubs, boards, wringers___
Ironing boards, racks,
baskets . _
Sewing machines (not
electric)_______________
Baby carriages, gocarts___
Trunks, hand baggage___
Household tools, ladders,
cans__________________
Window shades, wire
screens, awnings
Lawn mowers, garden
equipment____________
Repairs, cleaning _ . . .
2 Less than 0.05 percent.




WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

4.3 0
1.7 2.4 4.4 5.9 5.2 5.5
5.8
.8 1.3 2.9 5.9 6.8 8.6 8.6
.9
.7
.1
.2
.6
.6
.6 1.2
5.7 2.7 4.8 6.1 6.4 5.9 5.7 4.9
6.6 2.9 6.9 6.4 6.4 7.2 6.6 6.9
.3 0
.2
.1
.4 1.0
0
.4
.6 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.8 3.0
1.7 (2
)
57.6 44.3 53.0 56.9 57.3 59.8 60.6 60.0
10.6 2.0 4.9 6.9 9.3 12. 6 13.3 14.8
3.8
.3 1.7 3.0 3.6 4.4 5.2 5.2
.4
1.0 0
.6
.8 1. 1 1.3 1.7
4.4 2.7 1.9 2.9 4.2 4.8 5.7 5. 1
10.9 3.9 6.1 9.7 11.2 10.3 12.8
2.8
. 7 1.3 1.7 2.9 4.8
.7
62.1 68.6 67. 1 66.3 63.0 58.0 60. 5
11.3 8.2 12.0 11.6 11.8 10.3 11.9
.4 0
.2
.2
.3
.6
.9
2.7 1.4 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.5 2.3

8.6
11.2
1.8
5.2
6.7
0
3.3
60.8
16.6
4.7
1.5
7.2

3.7
11.7
.6
7.3
8.9
.5
3.4
62.7
23.2
7.5
2.1
8. 7

10.9
12.1
2.2
5.8
10.3
1.2
3.8
55.9
20.8
5.0
1.2
7.5

9.1
12.0
.5
7.8
11.2
0
2.1
55.0
26.8
8.9
1.0
12.7

15.1
12.9
3.1
3.9
7.6
.5
7.3
68.4
26.9
9.0
3.9
12.1

13.1 16.1
4.3 5.1
56.0 58.5
10.2 10.4
.9
(2
)
3.8 2.0

17.3
6.1
57.7
10.8
1.3
2.7

18.0
4.8
51.2
12.4
.4
2.4

20.0
5.5
52.6
8.4
.7
1.7

21.5
5.8
54.8
21.1
0
4.2

9.6 10.0

10.8

10.3

11.3

8.9

8.6 4.7 8.1 10.4 9.2 8.5 7.8 8.1 7.6
24.7 12.9 20.5 22.6 25.1 23.5 28.4 28.0 26.6
5.5 11.3 7.4 6.2 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.1 5.3

8.0
32.8
5.3

8.7
32.9
4.1

5.7
23.9
5.2

6.5
32.6
3.7

8.4

8.0

8.7

7.6

8.3

7.8

8.6

4.8

1.6

2.9

4.4

4.3

5.8

5.2

5.1

6.2

10.1

6.8

6.6

7.0

.9
2.8
2.4

.6
1.3
.2

.5
2.6
1.0

.9
2.4
1.6

.8
2.4
2.1

1.0
3.9
2.1

.9
3.7
3.5

.8
3.0
4.6

1.0
2.3
4. 1

1.7
3.1
4.9

1.9
1.8
6.6

0
3.8
2.7

2.9
1.4
8.7

5.7

2.8

3.9

5.4

5.4

5.7

6.3

6.7

8.5

9.2

8.5

6.2

12.4

15.5 12.6 17.0 16. 2 15.0 14.3 15.9 16.0 16.9

18.1

12.2

13.0

11.2

6.9
12.8

9.2
13.0

6.5
9.2

13.8
16. 1

5.2
7.1

1.5
2.0

4.5
3.2

4.9
5. 7

4.8
5.4

5.4
8.1

6.7 5.2 5.6
9.7 11.2 11.3

262

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME

Table A— — F u rn ish in gs an d E qu ipm ent E xpend itures, by C onsum ption Level— Con.
7.
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

Lverage number of articles
purchased per family:
Suites: Living room_____
B edroom _______
Dining room_____
Beds: Wood____________
Metal. __ ............ .
Cots, cribs: Wood __ ___
Metal_______
Bedsprings_ _ ________
Davenports____ _________
Couches, daybeds.-- ___
Dressers _ ____________
Chiffoniers, chests____ _
Sideboards, buffets______
Desks__________________
Bookcases, bookshelvesTables, except kitchen___
Chairs: Wood_______ _ _
Upholstered_____
Benches, stools, footstools.
Tea carts, wheel trays -. _
Stands, racks, costumers. _
Carpets, rugs 4__________
Linoleum, inlaid 4
_______
Felt-base floor coverings 4
_
Mattresses-.. _______
Pillows. _______ ______
Blankets________________
Comforts, quilts _____
Sheets__________________
Pillowcases __ . . . . . . . _
Bedspreads, couch covers Towels: Linen.
Cotton, turkish .
Other cotton. ___
Table runners, dresser
scarfs_________________
Curtains, draperies___ __
Vacuum cleaners___. . .
Refrigerators (electric)___
Electric stoves, hotplates. _
Washing m achines.____
Irons___________________
Ironers, mangles
____
Heaters,fans.. ............ .
Light bulbs. _______ _____
Lamps__________________
Toasters ______________
Sewing machines (electric).
3 Less than 0.005 article.
4 Expressed in square yards.




0. 05
.04
.03
.02
.03
.02
0)
.05
.01
.03
.01
.02
(3
)
.01
.01
.06
.08
.04
.01
(3
)
.02
1. 36
.60
1.00
.11
.06
.30
.06
1.17
1.16
.14
.44
2.28
.55

0.01
.01
.01
.02
.02
.01
(3
)
.03
(3
)
.01
(3
)
.01
0
.01
(3
)
(3
)
.08
.01
0
0
0
.31
.43
.51
.10
.01
.23
.03
.85
.66
.10
.39
1.29
.41

0.07
.07
.06
.02
.03
.03
(3
)
.05
(3)
.04
(3
)
.02
(3
)
.03
.02
. 12
.08
.09
.03
0
.03
1.43
.64
.83
. 12
.11
.31
. 10
1. 51
1. 36
.20
.59
2. 51
.69

0.08
.07
.04
.09
.02
.03
.01
.09
.02
.04
.03
.02
0
.02
.01
.20
. 11
. 12
.03
.01
.04
2. 53
.94
1.49
. 14
. 17
.30
.07
1.53
1.40
.22
.61
2. 62
.63

0.11
.09
.07
.02
.03
.01
0
.09
.02
.04
.01
.01
(3)
.01
.03
.20
.09
. 15
.02
.01
.07
1.82
.20
.92
. 19
. 11
.24
.09
1.68
1. 22
. 21
.91
2. 15
.59

0.11
.08
.04
.03
.06
.02
.01
.06
.01
.01
.02
.02
0
.02
.01
. 19
. 19
. 10
.03
.01
.09
2. 45
.60
1.18
. 17
.03
.24
.05
1.98
1. 80
.29
1.01
3. 03
. 79

0.10
.08
.08
. 05
.02
.02
.01
.12
.01
.03
.04
.05
.01
.03
.05
.25
.10
. 15
.04
0
,06
3. 37
.65
1.58
. 14
.20
.28
.09
1.28
1. 42
. 22
.91
2. 99
.50

. 10
1. 41
.05
.06
.01
.06
<07
(3
)
.02
4. 63
. 14
.04
.01

.03 .06 .08 .07 .06 . 10 .20 . 16
.35 .86 1.22 1.27 1.48 1.76 1.95 2. 02
.02 .03 .04 .06 .05 .06 .08
0
.01 .01 .03 .06 .07 .09 .09 . 11
.01 .01 .01 '.01 .01 .02
(3
)
(3
)
.02 .05 .06 .07 .06 .06 .05 .05
.03 .07 .07 .06 .07 .06 .07 .07
0
0
.01 0
0
0
.01 0
.02 .03 .03 .04
.01 .01 .01 (3
)
3.18 3. 94 4.40 4. 64 4. 63 5. 17 5. 26 5.15
.03 .06 .09 . 11 . 16 . 19 . 19 .22
.01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .05 .05
0
.01 .01 .01 .01 .02 .02
(3
)

. 17
2. 21
.04
. 12
.01
.07
.09
.01
.08
5. 52
.35
.08
.02

.24
2.00
. 11
. 12
.03
.06
. 10
.01
.04
5. 40
.27
.06
.01

.37
2. 84
.09
. 12
0
.08
.n
0
.03
4. 45
.39
.10
.01

. 19
2. 30
.15
.13
.03
.04
.08
.01
.07
6. 50
.42
.09
.04

0. 03
.01
.01
.01
.03
.01
.01
.03
(3
)
.02
.01
.01
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
.03
.08
.02
(3
)
0
.01
.87
.62
1.10
. 11
.04
.30
.05
.82
.81
. 10
.28
2. 01
.55

0.05
.02
.01
.02
.04
.02
.01
.04
(3
)
.02
.01
.01
0
.01
0
.03
.08
.02
(3
)
0
.01
1.15
.55
1. 12
. 11
.03
.29
.06
1.03
1.09
. 11
.48
2. 18
. 55

0.05
.03
.03
.02
.04
.02
0
.06
(3
)
.02
.01
.01
(3
)
.01
.01
.05
.08
.03
.01
0
.01
1. 32
.66
.93
. 11
.04
.32
.04
1.16
1.13
. 14
.44
2. 41
.56

0.05
.03
.03
.02
.03
.04
(3
)
.04
.01
.03
.02
.02
(3
)
.01
.01
.07
.07
.04
.01
0
.02
1.43
.61
1.11
. 10
.06
.31
.06
1.22
1.37
. 14
.43
2. 44
. 57

0.06
.05
.04
.02
.02
.03
0
.04
.01
.03
.01
.02
.01
.02
.01
.07
.09
.04
.03
(3
)
.03
1. 66
.45
.74
. 12
.06
.29
.06
1.31
1.25
. 13
.65
2. 22
.59

0.07
.06
.06
.03
.02
.02
.01
.05
.01
.03
.01
.03
.01
.01
.01
.09
. 17
.06
.02
(3
)
.03
1. 70
.66
.95
.13
.08
.27
.06
1.45
1.39
. 18
.49
2. 47
.57

TABULAR SUMMARY

263

Table A—
7.— F urn ish in gs and E qu ipm ent E xpend itures, hy Consum ption Level— Con.
1 4 ,4 6 9

Item

W H I T E A N D N E G R O F A M I L I E S I N 4 2 C I T I E S — C o n tin u e d

Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

Average expenditure per
family for—
Furnishings and equip* D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l.
ment, total-.- ____ 59.94 18. 89 30.14 41. 57 54. 41 63. 45 75.13 85. 49 98. 99 115. 80 123. 24 135. 25 153. 82
Furniture, total_______ 16. 58 4. 39 6. 96 10. 62 14. 24 15. 93 20. 34 27.10 30. 25 39.64 42. 39 43. 72 51.68
Suites: Living room__- 5.31 .93 2. 74 3.97 4. 64 4.85 6. 47 8. 61 7.59 12.16 13. 67 16, 25 12. 92
Bedroom_____ 3. 45 .88 1.30 1.70 2.91 3.19 3.80 6. 29 8. 85 9.06 11.33 9. 34 7. 87
Dining room.. 1.95 .73 .49 .84 1.63 1.81 2. 66 3. 86 4. 43 4. 36 4. 32 3. 42 11. 48
Beds: Wood_________ .40 .30 .21 .33 .35 .46 .47 .65 .42
.74
.57
.87 1. 22
Metal________
.41 .26 .28 .52 .49 .49 .28 .27 .46
. 18
.25
.27
.73
Cots, cribs: W ood___
.24 .05 .07 . 13 .23 .38 .40 .17 .35
.42
.58
.09
.13
Metal___
.05 .03 .03 .11 .03 .05 .02 .04 . 14
.03
.04
. 15
0
Bedsprings - __ ___
.48 .28 .25 .36 .45 .49 .55 .62 .65 1.02 1.41
.73 1.67
Davenports______
.21
.26 .04 .05 . 17 .24 .18 .56 . 18 .08 1.20 1. 35 1. 33
Couches, daybeds____ .76 . 16 .48 .66 .68 .78 1.00 1.07 1.01 1.31 1.33
.09 1.49
Dressers ___ ____
.24
.75
. 17 .05 . 10 . 11 .15 .27 . 18 . 16 . 11
.46
. 12
Chiffoniers, chests___
24 .37 .51 .20
.23 . 17 .08 . 13 .22
.31
.20
.42 1. 01
Sideboards, buffets___ .03 .02 .02 .02 .02 .03 . 10 .06 .06
.02
.08 0
.01
Desks___
_________
.23
.89
.21 0
.08 . 10 . 10 .27 .31 .31 .88
.58
.45
B ook cases, b o o k ­
shelves, . .
.32
.09
.26
.06
.07 .01 .02 .02 .03 .08 .20 . 11 .13
Tables, except kitchen. .44 .02 .08 . 18 .28 .48 .49 .59 1.20 1.23 1.73 2.00 3.19
Chairs: Wood ..
.63
.35
.56
.26 . 13 . 15 . 19 .20 .27 .28 .44 .38
.90
Upholstered-- .62 .05 . 14 .25 .42 .53 .83 1.06 1.32 2.11 2. 56 2. 57 5. 52
Benches, stools, foot­
stools ___________
.15
.34
.04 0
. 14
.07
.01 .02 .02 .02 .07 .09 . 10
.02 0
Tea carts, wheel trays_ .03 0
0
.02 0
.07
.10
0
0
. 10 0
Stands, racks, cos­
tumers. __________
.02 .03 .06 .06 .07 . 14 .12
.09
.20
.47
.27
.07 0
Other_______________ 1.10 .28 .36 .78 1.09 .98 1. 23 1.85 1. 77 3. 27 1. 67 2. 84 2. 21
T ex tile fu rnishings,
total
13. 95 5. 22 8. 66 11.00 12. 85 14. 53 16. 55 18. 60 19. 57 25. 23 25. 25 29.91 33. 72
Carpets, rugs _ ____ 4. 02 .69 1.99 2. 90 3. 42 4.40 5. 13 5. 58 5. 77 8. 96 7. 62 9. 02 14.29
.73
Linoleum, inlaid. . _
.90 1.14 1.10
.68 .40 .59 .57 .75 .64 .63 .76 1.06
Felt-base floor cover­
.84
.82
ings—
.71
.73 .31 .67 .74 .78 .71 .72 .77 .68 1.24
Mattresses. _ _ ___ 1.63 .88 1.29 1.36 1.56 1.39 2. 03 2. 26 1.80 2.50 3. 83 2.82 2. 57
.34
.35
. 19
. 10
Pillows _______ _
.04 .04 .07 .08 .09 . 16 . 16
.09 0
.92 1. 15 1.36
Blankets
. . . ____ .94 .85 .83 .90 .97 .97 .95 .91 1.05 1.08
Comforts, quilts_____
.39
.29
.70
.71
.21 . 14 . 15 . 18 . 18 .23 .23 .25 .32
Sheets _ __
1.26 .70 .79 1. 05 1.26 1.31 1. 47 1.65 1. 76 1.80 1.93 2. 34 1. 97
.45
.66
Pillowcases _ ___
.41 . 18 .27 .35 .39 .46 .48 .54 .50
.58
.80
Bedspreads, couch
.72 1. 77
.83
.82
covers _ . __ . . . __ .42 .21 . 22 .30 .41 .43 .43 .57 .79
Tablecloths, napkins,
doilies:
.26
.26
.40
.60
Cotton__________
. 19 .06 . 12 . 14 . 16 .21 .22 .33 .30
.52
.22
.24
.66
Linen___________
.11 .02 .01 .04 .09 .09 . 21 . 17 .20
.32
.45
.24
.18
Towels: Linen.__ . . .
. 11 .08 .05 .09 . 10 . 10 . 14 . 15 . 19
Cotton, turk.59 1.11
.71
.98
ish_______
.57 .23 .43 .50 .59 .63 .60 .70 .68
.22
.11
.13
.11
Other cotton. .09 .05 .07 .09 .09 . 10 .09 . 12 . 13
Table runners, dresser
.33
.24
.96
.20
.09 .01 .02 .04 .06 .09 .09 . 17 .20
scarfs . .
. _ Curtains, draperies_
_ 1.88 .24 .79 1.29 1.50 2. 07 2. 53 2. 78 3. 22 4. 07 4.09 6. 06 4. 39
Dishcloths, cleaning
.20
. 12
.19
.24
cloths, etc
__ _
.12 .03 .05 .09 . 11 . 14 . 16 .17 .20
.59
.68
.97 1.13
Other_______________
.40 .14 .28 .33 .36 .48 .35 .56 .56
Silverware, china, and
glassware, total____ 1.21 .32 .57 .87 .86 1. 24 1.64 1.87 1. 83 3. 52 2. 86 3. 72 3. 26
China, or porcelain,
.64 .19 .36 .48 .48 .64 .77 .92 .93 1.78 1.16 1.96 1. 86
table _____________
.64
.35
.72
.54
Glassware______ .. . .21 .07 .10 . 16 . 17 .24 .30 .28 .33
.67
Tableware: Silver____ .29 .05 .08 .19 . 15 .28 .43 .56 .49 1.09 1.00 1.40
.02
.05
.01 0
.04 .09 .03 .04
Other____ .03 .01 .01 .01 .01
.04 («)
.01
.06
.02 .03 .05 .04 .05 .08 .04
.04 0
Other___ _________
8Less than 0.05 cent.

2 4 2 9 4 9 ° — 41-




-18

264

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

T a b l e A — — F urn ish in gs an d E qu ipm ent E xpend itures, by C onsum ption Level— Con.
7.
1 4 ,4 6 9

W H I T E A N D N E G R O F A M I L I E S I N 4 2 C I T I E S — C o n tin u e d

Item

Average expenditures per’
family for—Continued.
Furnishings and equipment—Continued.
Electrical equipment.
total__ _
Vacuum cleaners___
Refrigerators (electric).
Electric stoves, hotplates
Washing machines.. _
Irons________________
Ironers, mangles-------Heaters, fa n s__ _ __
Light bulbs ____ _ .
Lamps______________
Toasters _ _ _______
Sewing m a c h in e s
(electric)____ __ __
Other_______________

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un- $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

18. 39 4.15 7. 23 11.82 17.81 20. 95 24.11 25. 71 32. 26 31.13 39.28 38. 63 43.53
.84 .99 1.96 2. 59 2.08 2.29 3.87 1.22 5.20 5.99 6. 63
1.90 0
9.49 1.47 2.15 4. 81 9.13 11.17 13. 63 14. 67 20.00 17. 62 21.48 20. 32 20.13
. 38
3.57
.27
.13
. 11
. 77
.63
.09

.04 . 28 .28 . 39 . 51 . 50 . 76
(5
)
1.98 2. 78 3.61 3. 97 3.74 3. 85 3.28 3.03
. 10 .21 .24 .25 .31 .27 .27 .30
0
0
.10 .06 .17 .19 .56 0
02 . 04 . 07 . 10 . 11 . 13 . 14 . 24
45 . 58 . 68 . 77 . 80
89
88
93
.06 . 17 .29 .42 .70 .76 1.13 1.23
0
12 .12 .14
.03 .05 .08 .10

. 64
5.30
.42
.25
. 14
1. 03
1.52
.29

1 99
3.92
.51
.69
. 28
. 94
1.90
.14

. 52
4.94
.53
0
.16
. 96
2. 43
.23

2. 39
2. 67
.89
.28
17
1. 32
4.15
.54

. 63 1. 26 1.41 1. 21
.24 .42 .46 .55

1.93
.77

1.54
.69

. 96
1.59

3. 57
.79

. 77 0
.28 .07

.34
.05

. 54
.16

. 56
.23

Miscellaneous
equip­
ment, total..
____ 9.81 4. 81 6. 72 7.26 8. 65 10.80 12.49 12. 21 15.08 16.28 13.46 19.27 21.63
M irrors, p ictu res,
clocks, ornaments. ._ .30 .07 .09 .20 .27 .29 .39 .44 .57
.72
.78 1.19 1.51
Carpet sweepers_____
.10 .03 .03 .06 .07 . 14 .14 .17 .18
.23
.22
.25
.20
Brooms, brushes, mops .72 .86 .77 .72 .68 .70 .71 .69 .73
.74
.68
.78
.70
Dustpans, pails, etc... .05 .03 .04 .04 .05 .05 .05 .06 .06
.06
.06
.08
. 16
Gas refrigerators
.86 0
.74 2.06 0
.17 .56 .46 1.27 2.07 .37 2.01 2.08
Ice boxes ____ ______
.51 .20 .51 .48 .56 .37 .48 .82 . 52
.56
.15
.51 1.49
Stoves and ranges (not
electric)
3. 87 2.70 3. 28 2. 72 3.69 4.18 4. 44 4. 86 5.50 6.04 4.88 7. 33 5. 66
Canning equipment,
cookers
. 19
. 25
. 18 . 05 . 14 . 22 . 17 . 16 . 20 . 21 . 27
.23
. 07
Pots, pans, cutlery___ .61 .13 .28 .55 .47 .56 .95 .84 .87
.81 1.23 1. 91 2. 07
Tubs, boards, wring­
.06 . 11 .08 .06 .06 .05 .06 .06 .07
.02
ers . . .
.06
.05
.07
Ironing boards, racks,
baskets
.12
.07 .02 .04 .06 .06 .09 .08 .09 .10
.17
.10
.13
Sewing machines (not
electric)_ .13 .13 .06 .09 .15 .17
11 .20 .12
.25
.26
.20 0
Baby carriages, gocarts . . .
_
.84
. 36 .09 . 26 . 23 .29 . 54 . 45 . 51 . 31
.09 1.12
.43
Trunks, hand baggage. .10 (5
.03 .03 .08 .07 .15 .22 .17
.29
.34
.34
.97
)
Household tools, lad­
.43
ders, cans
__ .
.12 .04 .06 .08 .10 . 12 . 11 . 13 .21
.38
.20
. 36
Window shades, wire
screens, awnings___
.59 . 22 .39 .40 .57 .58 .70 .84 1.13 1.03 1.08 1.15
.86
Lawn mowers, garden
.41
.19 .02 . 12 . 16 .18 . 19 .23 .22 .27
.67
equipment.
.27
.29
Repairs, cleaning____
.56 .04 . 19 .25 .39 .71 .65 .91 1.22 1.29 1.56
.78 3. 82
Other_______________
.33
.42
.43 .07 . 18 .35 .35 .56 .52 .57 .77
.96 1.88
5 Less than 0.05 cent.




TABULAR SUMMARY

265

T a b l e A — .— Furnishings and Equipment Expenditures , by Consumption Level— Con.
7
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Percentage of families in survey
__ _
Percentage of families reporting receipt of
gifts of furnishings and equipment______
Average value per family of furnishings and
equipment received as gifts (incomplete) L .

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

7.9

8.3

6.6

7.2

8.1

8.9

6.0

16.7

$1.09

$0. 52

$0.88

$1.08

$1.64

$1.07

$0.72

$3.47

Percentage of families spending for—
Suites: Living room_______ ____ _____ _..
6.0
3.2
3.7
6.8
6.5
7.6
8.3
12.9
Bedroom__________ __ _ . _____
2.2
4.4
4.7
3.9
5.3
6.3
7.6
13.9
2.1
Dining r o o m _________ _ ______
1.6
2.1
1.8
2.2
2.9
3.0
0
2.2
2.4
Beds: W ood___ ________ _______ ____
2.5
1.6
1.8
3.6
2.2
.6
Metal.
____________ __ _ _ ____
2.6
1.3
2.1
1.9
2.0
2.6
0
.8
Cots, cribs: W ood___________ ____ ______
.5
.6
.8
.5
.7
0
0
0
.4
.4
Metal______________________
.6
.9
0
.9
4.4
0
2.4
2.2
3.2
Bedsprings_____________________________
4.2
2.9
3.6
0
5.1
.6
1.2
Davenports______ ____________________ _
.7
.8
.7
.9
0
0
2.1
2.2
Couches, day b e d s _____________________
1.7
2.6
1.8
2.2
0
5.1
1.4
Dressers..
___ ..
. . . _______ _ __
1.3
.8
.3
1.0
2.6
2.2
5.7
Chiffoniers, chests, __ _ ________
.6
1.0
.6
1.0
.7
2.0
0
4.7
.3
0
.6
.3
Sideboards, buffets. ___________________
.6
0
0
0
.3
.5
.3
0
.6
Desks___________ ____ ___
________
0
0
.8
.1
.1
.3
0
Bookcases, bookshelves________________
0
0
0
0
Tables, except kitchen___ _ ___ ______
4.4
2.6
3.1
3.0
2.6
1.0
4.9
10.1
3.2
2.4
Chairs: Wood. _ __ ________ _______
2.5
5.8
1.5
1.6
3.5
7.3
4.1
Upholstered ..
________
1.9
.6
1.5
.9
1.5
4.6
9.8
.4
0
.2
.9
.6
Benches, stools, footstools ___________ _
0
2.2
0
.1
0
0
0
0
1.6
Tea carts, wheel trays. __ . . . _______ __
0
0
.7
.4
.4
1.5
0
0
Stands, racks, costumers_____ _ _ __ . . .
1.6
7.6
4.4
.6
5.2
3.2
10.2
4.0
Other furniture... . _
_____ _ __
5.7
14.6
4.4
12.4
Carpets, rugs... _____ ______________
12.6
8.2
10.1
10.8
20.6
32.8
6.1
5.3
7.5
6.2
4.6
6.9
Linoleum, inlaid ____ _
________
_
7.0
3.7
7.5
7.5
6.7
12.5
Felt-base floor coverings _________
2.7
7.7
5.6
22.4
7.2
8.0
7.5
8.8
8.5
8.9
Mattresses __. ___ ________ __________ _
4.3
6.7
3.4
3.4
5.4
Pillows. . . . ____________________ ___ _
1.6
.6
.7
.9
2.8
10.9
11.6
8.9
11.3
12.8
10.9
12.7
Blankets______ ________ ____ ____ _ ___
13.0
.5
2.3
2.3
1.3
1.9
Comforts, quilts____
__ __
______
2.0
3.0
6.8
25.2
21.4
23.4
26.8
_ ___ ___
25.0
25.0
30.9
Sheets____ __ ___ ______ _
23.3
15.4
16.2
17.1
17.0
17.9
17.6
Pillowcases.. _ ___ ____________________
21.7
19.6
12. 7
12.8
13.6
13.3
9.0
10.5
16.8
20.5
Bedspreads, couch covers.__ ___ ______
4.1
3.6
5.0
5.3
6.6
3.7
6.2
Tablecloths, napkins, doilies: Cotton____
4.7
2.1
2.2
Linen
1.3
.3
1.3
1.2
.6
0
1.1
3.9
5.3
3.8
Towels: Linen _______
__
. _____
4.8
1.8
8.7
4.7
10.2
16. 1
Cotton, turkish____
___ _
17.1
15.7
16.9
21.0
12.6
18.4
7.2
7.6
7.9
8.8
6.5
Other cotton. _____ _ ___
6.8
5.4
11.8
2.4
2.1
2.7
2.8
1.9
Table runners, dresser scarfs____ ________
2.0
3.5
9.6
10.4
19.2
17.9
20.5
16.7
18.9
24.8
30.5
Curtains, draperies___ _
___ _. ______
7.6
6.6
9.3
23.1
11.7
12.7
19.9
Dishcloths, cleaning cloths, etc__________
36.3
5.2
7.1
8.2
7.7
7.9
10.0
5.1
11.6
Other textile furnishings..
________ __
8.2
8.2
7.1
11.2
5.9
China or porcelain, table__ ______ _
___
7.8
8.8
15.8
9.1
12.2
10.3
11.5
7.3
10.2
11.4
Glassware..
_ .
..... ......................
12.3
2.1
1.5
2.3
1.1
2.2
3.0
Tableware: Silver. __ ___ ________ ____
3.5
4.4
.4
1.1
.9
.9
.5
1.5
Other__________ _______
1.9
7.4
1.4
1. 1
.9
1.1
.3
2.5
0
Other silverware, etc.. ___ _ ___ ___ _
3.7
1 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include the gifts of furnishings and equipment
reported received by 0. 5 percent of the families but for which they could not estimate the value.




266

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

T a b l e A —7. — Furnishings and Equipment Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n .

1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Percentage of families spending for—Con.
Vacuum cleaners_________ ___________
Refrigerators (electric)— ___ ___________
Electric stoves, hotplates________________
Washing machines______
__________
Irons____ __________________ ___ Ironers, mangles______________________
Heaters, fans.. . . . ________________. . .
Light bulbs _________ __________________
Lamps_________________________ . . . . . .
Toasters____________ _________________
Sewing machines (electric) __. _ ______ - Other electrical equipment______
____
Mirrors, pictures, clocks, ornaments ___
Carpet sweepers. _ ___________________
Brooms, brushes, mops. __
____ ___
Dustpans, pails, etc____
_ . ____
Gas refrigerators_____
. _.
Iceboxes____ _____ _
Stoves and ranges (not electric)__________
Canning equipment, cookers _ _ ______
Pots, pans, cutlery. __ _ _ _
__ _ _ _
Tubs, boards, wringers
__
_ _
Ironing boards, racks, baskets. _ ________
Sewing machines (not electric)___________
Baby carriages, gocarts_________________
Trunks, hand baggage. . _ ____________
Household tools, ladders, cans _ _______
Window shades, wire screens, awnings___
Lawn mowers, garden equipment________
Repairs, cleaning_______ __ __________




Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

0.9
2.2
.8
1.2
7.2
0
.5
44.5
6.0
.4
.5

2.2
7.2
.9
68.1
11.7
0
4.3
13.5
1.5
16.8
15.7
2.2
.8
1.2
1.3
1.0
17.7
1.2
2.2

0
0
.3
.6
3.9
0
0
33.7
2.6
0
0
.9
4.2
0
64.2
7.4
0
3.1
9.1
1.5
12.9
22.1
2.2
1.5
2.0
.2
0
12.5
1.6
.9

0.2
.5
.7
.9
7.8
0
.2
42.3
6.3
0
.4
2.9
4.4
.4
64.7
11.7
0
4.0
17.4
1.3
16. 5
20.6
2.3
.2
1.8
1.6
1.3
18.9
1.1
2.3

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

0.6
2.1
1.1
1.4
7.2
0
.3
45.6
5.2
.8
.4
.7
7.7
.9
76.3
13.7
0
4.3
11.8
1.7
17.6
12.4
1.2

.7

1.4

.7
.9

16. 5
2.0
2.3

$400
to
$500

1.1
2.8
.9
.2
9.3
0
1.0
43.9
7.0
.6
.6
1.0
8.2
.3

63.8
12.8
0
5.4
14.0
2.1
18.0
17.5
2.3
1.0
0
.6

.9

16.0
.3
.3

$500
to
$600

2.3
2.9
.6
1.0
5.4
0
2.8
53.2
9.8
.9
0
8.8
8.4
.9
59.7
7.2
0
3.9
13.5
1.0
15.8
9.7
1.8
.6
0
1.9
1.0
25.2
0
0

$600
to
$700

0
6.6
3.3
3.8
9.3
0
0
61.5
13.2
0
1.6
6.2
8.9
.6
68.9
18.3
0
9.2
21.2
1.9
17.3
10.0
3.8
1.9
1.6
2.7
1.6
27.3
1.1
10.1

$700
and
over

8.2
13.8
0
2.3
12.5
0
0
61.8
19.1
2.2
4.4
8.6
18.7
13.1
73.1
17.2
0
2.5
18.1
0
21.0
2.2
4.7
0
0
9.3
4.4
17.0
1.5
7.9

TABULAR

267

SU M M A R Y

T a b l e A — . — Furnishings and Equipment Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n .
7
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Average number of articles purchased per
family:
Suites: Living room___ ______ _________
Bedroom.
...
_
....
D iningroom ..
_
_. _
Beds: Wood_ ____ . . . __ _ . . . _______
_
M etal____ ______ ______
______
Cots, cribs: W ood.. _ _ _
. . . . _____
Metal _ __________ . . . . . .
Bedsprings____________
__ _____ _ __
Davenports ________
....
Couches, d a y b e d s ...______
_ ___
Dressers...
_______
Chiffoniers, chests
________ . . . . __
Sideboards, buffets
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______
D esks___ ______ .. _ _____ _ _____
Bookcases, bookshelves. _
....
Tables, except kitchen. ._ _ _____ ______
Chairs: Wood_________ ______ _____
Upholstered . . . . . .
___ .
Benches, stools, footstools. ._ . . . ______
Tea carts, wheel trays____________ ____
Stands, racks, costumers_
_
______
Carpets, rugs 4____ _ _________________
Linoleum, inlaid 4__________ ________ _.
Felt-base floor coverings 4__ _
Mattresses _ _____ . . .
Pillows . . . ______
_____ ___. . .
Blankets_________
__________
Comforts, q u ilts ____ _________________
Sheets____________________ _ _____ ____
Pillowcases ..
...
...
. . .
Bedspreads, couch covers.. .
_ _
Towels: Linen
. __
Cotton, turkish ______ . ____
Other cotton_______ ______
Table runners, dresser scarfs___ __.
Curtains, draperies...
Vacuum cleaners
.
.
Refrigerators (electric)_________ ______
Electric stoves, hotplates __
_____ _
Washing machines
_ __
Irons. .. .__. _ _ ._ . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
Ironers, m a n g les___
_ __ _ _ ______
Heaters, fans __ ________ ____ ____ ___
Light bulbs___
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __
Lamps ___ _ __ _____
_ ___ .
T oasters_______________
________
Sewing machines (electric)____ _ ______
3 Less than 0.005 article.
4 Expressed in square yards.




Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

0.06
.05
.02
.02
.02
.01
.01
.03
.01
.02
.01
.02
(3)
(3)
(3)
.04
. 10
.03
(3)
(3)
.01
1.16
.71
.87
.09
.03
.21
.03
.80
.79
. 19
.22
.77
. 16
.07
.63
.01
.02
.01
.01
.07
0
.01
2.8S
.Of1
(3)
.01

0. 04
.02
.02
.03
.03
.01
.01
.02
.01
.02
(3)
.01
0
(3)
(3)
.01
.08
.01
0
0
0
.51
.55
.38
.09
.01
.30
.01
.86
.70
. 18
.09
. 51
.48
.05
.38
0
0
(3)
.01
.04
0
0
2. 01
.07
0
0

0.07
.04
.02
.02
.01
.01
(3)
.02
.01
.02
.01
.01
.01
0
(3)
.03
.11
.02
(3)
0
(3)
.47
.97
.84
. 11
.02
. 18
.04
.84
.65
. 19
.21
.80
.46
.07
. 64
(3)
(3)
.01
.01
.08
0
(3)
2.46
.08
0
(3)

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

0.03
.04
.02
.02
.02
.01
(3)
.04
.01
.03
.01
.01
(3)
.01
0
.03
. 17
.01
.01
0
(3)
.70
.60
.82
.09
.02
. 19
.03
.87
.88
.21
. 19
.78
.36
.06
.56
.01
.02
.01
.01
.07
0
(3)
2. 73
.06i
.01
(3)

$400
to
$500

0. 06
.06
.03
.02
.02
.01
0
.03
.01
.02
.02
.01
.01
0
0
.03
.03
.02
.01
0
0
1. 79
.45
.57
.10
.05
.22
.02
.81
.70
. 12
.32
.87
.37
.06
.80
.01
.03
.01
(3)
. 10
0
.01
3.06
.08
.01
.01

$500
to
$600

0.08
.06
.02
.04
.03
0
.01
.04
.01
.02
.03
.02
0
.01
0
.04
.06
.06
0
0
.01
.99
1.26
1. 73
.08
.07
. 12
.02
.93
.87
. 15
.12
1.08
.48
.04
.77
.02
.03
.01
.01
.05
0
.03
3. 77
. 14
.01

$600
to
$700

0.08
.08
.03
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
.06
0
0
0
0
.05
.03
. 10
0
.02
-.02
1. 85
.54
.94
.04
.10
.24
.03
1.50
1.25
.37
.53
.55
.31
.07
. 55
0
.07
.03
.04
.09
0
0
4.32
. 15
0
.02

$700
and
over

0.13
.14
0
.02
.01
0
.07
.07
0
.05
.02
.05
0
.01
0
. 19
. 14
. 12
.02
0
.14
3.85
.46
1.37
.07
.08
.17
.11
.95
1.11
.25
.14
.85
.45
.30
.93
.08
.14
0
.02
.14
0
0
6.18
.36
.02
.04

268

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A — .— Furnishings and Equipment Expenditures , by Consumption Level— Con.
7
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

Average expenditure per family for—
Furnishings and equipment, total________ $39.45 $22.14 $32.65 $35. 24 $42.16 $52. 27 $57. 30 $124.95
Furniture, total,.- _
16, 37
9.00 12. 59 13.43 18.50 26. 33 18.87 57.08
Suites: Living room
_ _ ___ __ _
5. 47
4. 45
6.92
3. 07
4.01
9. 42
5.77 15.83
___ _
4.91
Bedroom___ ___ _
8.04
1.88
3. 81
3.46
5. 88
4. 66 23. 67
Diningroom____ _
1.63
1.17
1.32
2.00
2.40
1.96
1.38
0
Beds: W ood_____ _
______
.48
.26
.32
.28
.67
.22
1.84
.86
Metal____ _________ _______
.21
.27
.14
.21
.26
.41
.04
0
Cots, cribs: Wood- _
_ __ _
.05
.10
.01
.03
0
. 13
0
0
M e ta l____
. 10
.02
.05
0
.06
1.88
.03
0
BedspringS___ ___
_ _ _ __
.31
. 15
.23
.34
.40
.39
1. 23
0
Davenports._ ____________
_____
. 19
.15
. 10
.20
.39
.34
0
0
Couches, daybeds___ _____ __
.53
.35
.44
.86
.25
.65
1.61
0
.24
.14
.54
Dresses,- _
__ __ ___
.15
.11
.44
06
1. 59
Chiffoniers, chests.
_ ______ _ _
.20
.20
.16
.18
. 19
.35
.53
0
.02
.02
Sideboards, buffets
___ __ ______
0
.07
.02
0
0
0
.04
Desks _
_ __ --------.01
0
.04
.15
0
.22
0
Bookcases, bookshelves._______ ___
.02
.02
.05
0
0
0
0
0
Tables, except kitchen_____________
.18
.10
.29
.24
.49
.09
.13
.32
Chairs: Wood___
- __ _ --------.12
.27
.26
.16
.07
.18
.04
2.76
Upholstered, ______ __ ___
.29
.09
. 14
.08
. 13
.85
.30
2. 72
Benches, stools, footstools__
:_ _ __
.04
.02
.01
0
.01
.01
0
0
Tear carts, wheel trays.
_ -----------0
0
0
0
0
.02
0
(5
)
Stands, racks, costumers, _ _______
.01
.01
.01
0
0
.03
.05
. 10
.35
1. 22
.97
.90
.90
2.11
Other______ ____________________ _
4. 52
3.67
Textile furnishings, total _ _ _ _ ____
7.99
7.59
8.00
4.93
7. 50
8.96 11. 22 21.19
1.64
Carpets, rugs _ ___
_ ------ -1.90
.35
2.00
1.84
4. 22
8.51
1.61
.74
.55
.39
.51
.33
.84
Linoleum, inlaid __ _
_
_____
.76
.46
.65
.34
Felt-base floor coverings,-, _ __ _
.67
.65
.49
1.02
1.79
.59
1.02
.99
.89
.92
1. 31
.91
.49
1. 43
Mattresses________ _ _ _
----.02
.04
.01
.09
.03
.01
.05
Pillows _
_ _
.06
.59
.70
1.01
.60
.80
Blankets. __ _________ _ — _ __ _
.45
.93
.46
.09
.01
.08
. 13
.04
. 10
.43
Comforts, quilts
_ ____ _ ___ _
.11
.74
.91
.79
.87
.88
Sheets __ _ _ ___
____
1. 26
1.65
1.14
.22
.29
.25
.18
.26
.24
.49
.36
Pillowcases _
_
_ _
.50
.48
.36
.42
Bedspreads, couch covers.46
.46
.99
1. 14
Tablecloths, napkins, doilies: Cotton,,
.02
.06
.06
.08
.07
.06
.08
.06
Linen, __
.03
.01
.03
.07
.04 0)
.01
0
.04
.04
.04
Towels: Linen , .
________ _
.01
.04
.06
.03
.16
Cotton, turkish
_ ___ __
.24
.18
.09
.13
.22
.21
.27
.26
Other cotton _ _
_ _ _ _
.05
.04
.06
.06
.06
.08
.05
.11
Table runners, dresser scarfs ___
.05
.01
.05
.04
.02
.02
.45
.02
.62
.74
.16
.69
.98
1. 02
Curtains, draperies _
_ _.
2. 44
.97
.02
.04
Dishcloths, cleaning cloths, etc, __ _
.05
.05
.03
.10
. 13
.09
.21
.15
. 12
. 17
.23
.35
1.03
Other________ _______________ - -__
.13
.35
.44
Silverware, china, and glassware, total—
.31
.28
.62
.52
1.51
.43
.24
China or porcelain, table__ _ _ _
.18
. 12
.16
.10
.49
.06
.40
.09
.07
.07
.10
.08
.05
Glassware, __ _ _ _ _
___ _______
.10
.20
.10
.09
.49
Tableware: Silver. __ __
_ ___ _
.13
. 10
.06
.40
.06
.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
.02
.01
. 16
Other. __ _______ ____
.02
.01
.01 («)
.03
.04
0
.17
Other_____ ________________________




TABULAR

269

SUM M ARY

T a b l e A — . — Furnishings and Equipment Expenditures , by Consumption Level— Con.
7
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Average expenditure per family for—Con.
Furnishings and equipment—Con.
Electrical equipment, total. . . . .
Vacuum cleaners . . . _
_ __ _ _
Refrigerators (electric)____ ____ _
Electric stoves, hotplates _
Washing m achines.. _ _ _________
Irons.
__
. _________
_. .
Ironers, mangles____________
... .
Heaters, fans. ___________________ _ .
Light bulbs___ _ _ _ _ ____ _ . .
Lamps. ____ _____ _ _ _________ _
Toasters____
_ _
_____________
Sewing machines (electric)____ _____
Other____ _____ _________ _ . . . . __
Miscellaneous equipment, total___ .
Mirrors, pictures, clocks, ornaments.. __
Carpet sweepers_____ __ _________
Brooms, brushes, mops _ ______ _.
Dustpans, pails, etc.
_.
. . .
Gas r e fr ig e r a to r s._
_
_ .
_ .
Ice boxes._ .
__
_ _ _ _ _ .
Stoves and ranges (not electric)_____
C anning equipment, cookers _ . . . . . .
Pots, pans, cutlery. _ ___ . . . .
Tubs, boards, wringers.
._ _ _
Ironing boards, racks, baskets.. _ _
Sewing machines (not electric) _ _____
Baby carriages, gocarts.
... _ _
Trunks, hand baggage.
...
Household tools, ladders, cans __ _ _
Window shades, wire screens, awnings.
Lawn mowers, garden equipment. _ .
Repairs, cleaning
__
. . .
Other______ ____ ________ _ . . .
8 Less than 0.005.




Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

$5.98
.27
3.17
.33
.77
.27
0
.04
.40
.33
.01
.33
.06
8.68
. 14
.03
.86
.05
0
.81
5.07
.02
.21
. 17
.02
.20
. 11
09
.01
.57
.03
. 16
.13

$1.24
0
0
(5)
.69
. 14
0
0
.25
15
0
0
.01
6. 66
.04
0
.94
.03
0
.48
3.65
.01
.10
.24
.02
.48
.16
.01
0
.24
.01
(5)
.25

$2.61
.10
.67
.01
.51
.27
0
(5)
.31
. 29
0
.44
.01
9. 51
.09
.01
.92
.04
0
.75
6. 25
.02
.25
.22
.02
.05
. 12
.08
.02
.48
.02
.05
. 12

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$6.56
.17
3.04
1.04
1. 05
.24
0
. 10
.40
.20
.03
.26
.03
7. 31
. 12
.02
.84
.07
0
.85
4.08
.01
.24
. 12
.02
.14
.20
.01
.01
.39
.04
.07
.08

$5. 90
.30
4.01
.01
.08
.35
0
.04
.41
.21
.01
.47
.01
9.48
. 18
(5)
.79
.08
0
1.39
5. 56
.02
.22
. 15
.03
.06
0
.01
.01
.79
.05
.02
. 12

$8.06 $16. 47 $29.01
1.13
0
1.30
4. 47 10.48 19.18
0
.01
1.90
.91
2.26
1.82
.49
.35
.37
0
0
0
.09
0
0
.54
.63
.98
.39
.51
2. 3
1
.04
.01
0
0
.23
1.86
.02
.23
1 03
.
8. 30 10. 22 16.16
.21
.08
.77
.66
.01
.01
.74
.79
.75
.06
.06
-04
0
0
0
.89
.07
.77
4. 56
7.11
6. 38
.02
0
.01
.22
.21
.33
. 12
.01
. 10
.04
.09
.03
.65
0
.01
0
.18
0
1. 01
.07
.46
.03
.01
.01
.84
.60
2.07
0
.02
2.
0
.33
.04
.01

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

270

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

T a b l e A — .— Clothing Expenditures,
8

by

VOLUM E

Consumption Level

PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
fami­ U n­ $200
lies der
to
$200 $300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1, 000i $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1, 000 $1,100 i $1, 200 over

C lo th in y e x p e n d itu r e s

Percentage of fami­
lies in survey___ _ 100.0 3.0
Average number of
clothing expendi­
tu re u n its per
family___________ 2.88 4. 77
Percentage of fami­
lie s s p e n d in g
for—
Ready-made cloth­
ing, dry clean­
ing, and acces­
sories__________
99.9 99.5
Y ard goods and
fin d in g s .______ 56.9 58.9
Paid help for sew­
5.2 3.2
ing—
Percentage of fami­
lies reporting cloth­
ing received as
gifts--------------- 49.0 51.0

12.2

19.8

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

3. 90

3. 22

2. 84

2. 55

2. 32

2. 23

2. 10

2. 12

2.12

2.12

2.11

99.9 100.0

99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0

99.9

99.9 100.0

99.9 100.0

59. 3

58.4

59.6

56.4

55.1

54.2

52.0

58.1

52.7

47.5

60.0

3.2

3.4

4.3

5.9

6.0

8.4

9.2

7.6

10.2

7.5

14.9

52. 7

51.1

49.4

49.5

49.0

43.9

42.6

43.9

43.6

44.0

38.1

A verage e x p e n d i­
ture per family D o t. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. Dol. Dol. Dol. Dol. D o l. D o l. D o l.
for c lo th in g ____ 160. 33 89.31 118. 67 137. 35 1 5 2 . 8 9 169. 40 180. 33 195. 42 204. 86 2 2 3 . 4 9 2 45 . 06 276. 45 3 2 0 . 4 5
Ready-made cloth­
ing, dry clean­
ing, and acces­
sories__________ 156. 22 86. 07 115. 36 133. 60 148. 83 165.00 175. 77 191. 00 200. 52 2 1 7 . 75 240. 33 272. 69 313. 02
Y ard goods and
findings...
3. 86 3. 18 3. 23 3. 63 3. 88 4. 07 4. 21 4. 01 3. 92 5. 23 4. 02 3.29 6.16
Paid help for sew­
ing______ ___
.35
.41
.42
.25 .06
. 18
.33
. 51
.47 1. 27
.71
. 12
.08
Average value per
family of clothing
received as gifts
(incomplete)2___ 8. 93 9. 93 8. 95 8. 86 8.91 8. 94 10. 00 7. 95 8.23 9. 48 8.17 10. 08 9. 22
Percentage of fami­
lies having men
and boys 18 years
of age and over 1__ 94. 3
Number of men and
boys 18 years of
age and over U . 16, 508
Average number of
men and boys 18
years of age and
over per family
having such men
and boys 1 _ _ _ _ 1. 21
Percentage of fami­
lies having boys
12 through 17 years
15.6
of age 1__________
Number of boys 12
through 17 years
of age 1_____
___1 2, 692

95. 7

95.5

96.2

94.2

93.8

93.0

94.2

615 2,267 3, 357 3, 366 2, 535 1, 744 1,091

91. 7

93.3

95. 0

96.6

91.3

711

371

205

114

132

1.47

1. 34

1. 22

1. 21

1. 18

1. 15

1. 12

1.17

1. 06

1. 08

1. 02

1.05

44.9

33. 3

22.0

14.8

10. 2

6.8

4.6

1.7

2. 1

1.0

0.9

1.4

761
481
250
112
48
13
2
266
8
2
748
1
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
2 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include gifts of clothing reported received by
5.1 percent of the families, but for which they could not estimate the value.




TABULAR

271

SU M M A R Y

T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
PER SO N S1 IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
fami­ Un­ $200
lies der
to
$200 $300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
and
to
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

C loth in g e x p e n d i­
tu res —Continued

Average number of
boys 12 through 17
years of age per
f a m ily h a v in g
1.19
such b o y s1____
Percentage of fami­
lies having boys 6
through 11 years
of age 1___ _____ _ 17.5
Number of boys 6
through 11 years
of age U__ ______ 2, 960
Average number of
boys 6 through 11
years of age per
f a m ily h a v in g
such b o y s 1. . ____ 1.17
Percentage of fami­
lies having boys 2
through 5 years of
age 1-------------12.0
Number of boys 2
through 5 years of
age 1-------------- 1,900
Average number of
boys 2 through 5
years of age per
f a m ily h a v in g
such boys 1 _____
1. 09
Percentage of fami
lies having women
and girls 18 years
of age and over 1-- 98. 1
Number of women
and girls 18 years
of age and over 1- _ 18, 018
Average number of
women and girls
18 years of age and
o ver per fa m ily
having such wo­
1. 27
men and girls 1___
Percentage of fami­
lies having girls
12 t h r o u g h 17
years of age 1_____ 16.0
Number of girls 12
through 17 years
2, 728
of age 1 _
Average number of
girls 12 through 17
years of age per
f a m i l y h a v in g
such girls 1. _ _ _ 1. 18
Percentage of fami­
lies having girls
6 through l i years
of age 1__________ 17.4
Number of girls 6
through 11 years
of age 1__________ 3,001

1. 36

1. 29

1. 19

l. 10

1. 07

1. 01

1.00

1. 16

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

43.2

36.6

24.4

17.4

11.8

6.8

4.5

3.5

2.9

0.5

0

0.7

261

804

839

575

281

114

50

23

11

1

0

1

1. 38

1.24

1.20

1.12

1.04

1.03

1.06

1.00

1.00

1.00

0

1.00

25. 6

22.5

16.3

12.3

8.6

6.7

5. 1

3.0

1.3

0

1.7

0

133

459

523

390

205

110

53

20

5

0

2

0

1.19

1. 15

1.12

1. 07

1.04

1. 01

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0

97. 3

98. 2

97.8

98.8

98. 1

97.4

98. 2

96. 5

96. 5

98.0 100.0

91.3

641 2,417 3, 777 3, 734 2, 763 1, 905 1,177

723

405

219

122

135

1. 51

1.39

1. 35

1. 28

1. 23

1.20

1.16

1.13

l.}2

1.12

1.05

1.07

47. 1

35.2

22.0

14.6

11.1

6.7

4.1

3.2

1.6

0.5

0

1.4

295

766

737

480

266

111

42

22

6

1

0

2

1.43

1.23

1.17

1. 11

1. 05

1. 02

1.00

1.06

1.00

1.00

0

1.00

48.3

39.4

24.7

16.5

11.6

8.2

4.8

2.3

2.4

0

0.9

1.4

287

809

840

554

290

141

52

15

9

0i

1

3

1 Includes only persons dependent on funds for 52 weeks.




0

272

M ONET

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A — .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un­ $200
lies der
to
$200 $300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

C loth in g e x p e n d i­
tu res —Continued

Average number of
girls 6 through 11
years of age per
f a m i l y h a v in g
such girls 1__
Percentage of fami­
lies having girls 2
through 5 years
of a g e1__________
Number of girls 2
through 5 years of
age 1 ---------Average number of
girls 2 through 5
years of age per
f a m i l y h a v in g
such girls i ______
Percentage of fami­
lies having infants
under 2 years of
age 1 ------------Number of infants
under 2 years of
age 3_____
Average number of
infants under 2
years of age per
f a m i l y h a v in g
infants 3_ _______

1.19 1. 36

1.16

1.19

1.14

1.09

1. 05

1.03

1.00

1. 00

0

1.00

1. 50

11.6 24.9

19.3

16.9

11.4

10.3

7.2

3.4

2.1

2.1

1.5

1.7

0

130

385

541

361

257

117

35

14

8

3

2

0

1.10 1.19

1.13

1.12

1. 07

1.09

1. 00

1. 01

1. 00

1. 00

1. 00

1. 00

0

10.4 17.2

15.0

12.1

10.1

10.3

8.8

6.3

5.9

5.6

5.5

4.3

3.6

76

270

362

311

237

144

65

39

23

‘l l

5

5

1. 03 1. 01

1. 02

1. 05

1. 04

1. 01

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.10

1.00

1.00

1.00

1,853

1,548

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
3
Infants 1 to 2 years of age are included only if dependent on family funds for 52 weeks; those under 1
year of age are included regardless of the number of weeks dependent on family funds.




TABULAR SUMMARY

273

T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
PERSONS 1 IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fam­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500
ilies der to to to to $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to to to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

C loth in g , m e n a nd b o ys 18 yea rs o f
age a nd over 1

dumber of articles:
Hats: F elt_____________________
Straw ________ ___
Caps: Wool_________________
Other___________________
Overcoats_______________
Topcoats_______________________
Raincoats______________________
Jackets: Heavy fabrics._ _______
Leather_______
Other. _ ________ . . .
Sweaters: H eavy________________
L ig h t.. ___ _
...
Suits: H eavy wool . . . ___
Lightweight wool_ . . . _
_
Cotton, lin en ... . . . _____
Palm Beach____________
Other . . .
Trousers: Wool_________________
Cotton.. _____
#Other___ _ . . . . . .
Overalls, coveralls._. __ . . .
Shirts: Cotton, work___
Cotton and other, dress___
Wool____________________
Underwear:
Suits, cotton, knit. .
____
w oven___________
cotton and wool_________
rayon and s ilk .. . . . . . .
Undershirts, cotton.
cotton and wool_
_
rayon and silk____
Shorts, cotton_________________
rayon and silk _. ___
Drawers, cotton and wool______
Pajamas and nightshirts_______
Shoes: Street.. __ . . .
W ork___________________
Canvas_________________
Other___________________
Boots: Rubber__________________
Leather_________________
Arctics_________________________
Rubbers_______________________
Shoe: Repairs___ _
S h in e s _____ _______
Hose: Cotton, h e a v y _______
dress____
______
Rayon. . . . _
___
Silk_________
Wool____________________
Gloves: Work, cotton___________
other... ________
Street, leather_ ____ _
_
other.. . . . . . . _
Ties____________________________
Collars_________________________
Bathing suits, sun suits_________
Handkerchiefs__________________
Accessories_____________________
Bathrobes______________________
Cleaning, repairing _ __ _
Other_________________________

0. 53 0. 22
.21 .10
.20 . 14
.14 .09
.15 .04
.06 .01
.04 .01
.10 .07
.05 .01
.03 .03
.13 .08
.14 .07
.24 .06
.23 .10
.02 .02
.01 (4)
.02 .01
.33 .22
.43 .32
.08 .04
.60 .42
1.22 .88
2. 33 .96
.06 .02

0. 34 0. 44 0. 51 0.62 0.68 0. 72 0. 71
.12 .16 .20 .25 .26 .26 .32
.18 .20 .20 .21 .21 .21 .20
.12 .14 .11 .13 .15 . 16 .21
.09 .13 .13 . 15 .18 .22 .20
.02 .05 .05 .07 .09 .09 . 13
.02 .03 .04 .04 .04 .07 .05
.09 .10 .10 .10 .09 .09 . 12
.03 .05 .05 .06 .07 .07 .07
.02 .03 .02 .03 .05 .08 .02
.12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 15 .13 .12
.10 .13 .12 . 14 .15 . 18 . 16
.13 .18 .21 .26 .32 .36 .37
.14 . 18 .23 .25 .28 .32 .35
.01 .01 .02 .03 .03 .04 .03
(4) .01 (4) .01 .01 .02 .01
.01 .01 .02 .01 .01 .02 .03
.32 .34 .32 .33 .37 .34 .36
.37 .41 .45 .46 .42 .37 .52
.05 .08 .07 .07 .07 . 10 . 11
.52 .67 .61 .59 .61 .64 .54
1.07 1.05 1.25 1. 27 1.31 1.28 1.43
1.42 1.94 2. 20 2. 62 2. 93 3.15 3.20
.04. .05 .06 .07 .09 .09 .08

0. 90
.34
.20
. 14
.23
.13
.08
.09
.08
.04
.17
.17
.48
.34
.06
.01
.04
.32
.46
.10
.69
1.58
3. 60
.06

0. 96
.34
.20
.26
.18
. 15
.05
.12
.06
.03
.17
.18
.42
.47
.06
.02
.01
.31
.56
.22
.69
1.69
3.70
.08

0.95
.45
.19
.28
.26
.10
.04
.11
. 14
.03
.17
.20
.41
.52
.06
.04
.06
.29
.50
. 16
.68
1.37
4. 52
.06

0.83
.38
.18
.06
.41
.16
.05
.12
.13
.01
.24
.22
.48
.55
.03
.04
.05
.36
.44
.12
.36
1.27
4. 36
.05

.49
.28
.33
.03
1.49
.33
.07
1.71
.04
.24
.46
1.25
.43
.03
.05
.04
.01
.05
.26

.44
.21
.23
.01
1.02
.24
.03
1.19
.01
.17
.19
1.01
.43
.03
.02
.04
(4)
.04
.20

.49
. 18
.30
.02
1.28
.29
.06
1.49
.04
.20
.27
1.14
.45
.02
.04
.03
.01
.04
.25

.49
.26
.34
.02
1.49
.31
.06
1.69
. 03
.23
.41
1.22
.44
.03
.04
.04
.01
.05
.29

.51
.29
.36
.05
1.63
.33
.07
1.87
.03
.27
.56
1.34
.43
.03
.06
.04
.01
.06
.28

.49
.30
.38
.05
1.83
.30
.06
2. 07
.05
.23
.67
1.45
.44
.04
.06
.04
.01
.06
.27

.61
.36
.34
.07
1.83
.54
.09
2.33
.07
.33
.76
1.48
.44
.04
.08
.03
.02
.07
.35

.64
.37
.39
.04
1.82
.36
.10
2. 05
.06
.22
.86
1. 50
.39
.03
.07
.04
.02
.08
.33

.40
.36
.41
.05
2.12
.74
.16
2. 36
. 11
.59
.97
1.76
.36
.05
.12
.02
.03
.08
,32

.67
.57
.37
.08
2.02
.50
. 15
2.06
.06
.50
.98
1.74
.36
.03
.14
.03
.02
.08
.32

.93
.26
.39
. 12
2. 59
.23
.36
2.83
.32
.22
1.19
1. 59
.41
.04
.11
.04
.05
.10
.18

.57
.29
.50
.07
2.98
.64
.34
3.20
. 18
.51
1.17
1.66
.42
.10
.12
.07
.04
.08
.40

2. 90 4.27
2. 77 3.82
.91 1.72
.21 .24
.08 .26
1.33 1.90
. 19 .28
.04 . 13
.02 .03
.83 1.45
.06 .06
.01 .03
2. 67 3. 61
.07 . 17
.01 .01

4. 06
4. 64
2. 31
.42
.36
2. 44
.36
. 15
.04
2. 08
. 10
.04
4. 71
.28
.05

3. 77
4. 41
2. 55
.58
.37
2. 32
.47
.21
.02
2. 52
.21
.05
4. 97
.22
.03

4.18
4.61
2. 56
.85
.44
2.10
.27
.26
.03
3.03
.28
.08
5. 45
.34
.03

3. 80
4. 36
2.76
1.36
.46
2. 20
.20
.32
.04
3. 43
.39
.09
5.73
.25
.05

4. 46
4. 34
3.26
1.42
.63
2. 66
.59
.27
.02
3. 86
.44
. 11
7.20
.35
.06

3. 95
3. 89
3.04
1.37
.74
2. 38
.47
.37
.03
3. 75
.63
.16
6.17
.38
.10

4. 09
3. 29
4.27
2. 20
.67
1. 70
.19
.33
.07
4. 52
.27
. 12
6. 72
.45
.07

3.11
5. 56
4. 65
2. 29
.45
2. 28
.59
.40
.04
3. 39
.64
.16
7. 50
.50
.11

3.22
4. 36
5. 38
2. 79
.77
2. 51
.13
.48
.02
5.74
.48
.14
6. 78
.31
.06

2.64
6.73
2. 62
2. 65
.47
1.12
.36
.59
.07
6.17
1.11
.25
7.41
.53
.15

3. 97
4. 33
2. 51
.79
.41
2. 21
.35
.22
.03
2. 55
.25
.07
5.10
.27
.03

.30
.18
.20
.02
.69
.18
.01
.78
(4)
.17
.07
.76
.39
.04
.02
.03
.01
.02
. 12

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

274

T a b l e A - 8 . — Clothing Expenditures, hy Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
PERSONS 1 IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Fam ilies w ith total annual u n it expenditure of—
Item

A ll
fam i­ U n ­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900
$1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

C lo th in g , m e n a n d b o y s 18
y e a r s o f a ge a n d o v e r 1—Con.
D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

T otal expenditure- _ _ _ _ _ _ 49.18 17.42 26.89 37.32 44. 65 54. 47
Hats: F e l t _______________ 1.69 .4 8 .8 6 1.22 1.52 1.96
S t r a w . . ______ _
.4 0 .13 . 18 .2 7 .34 .4 7
Caps: W ool____________
.2 0 . 12 . 16 . 19 .2 0 .21
.05 .0 6 .0 6 .08
O ther_____________
.07 .0 5
O vercoats________________ 3.20 .60 1.51 2. 45 2.76 3. 27
.63
.93 1.35
T op coats___ ___________ __ 1.13 .15 .3 0
R ain coats________________
. 18 .0 7 .0 7 .14 . 17 .2 0
.24 .34 .3 9 .44 .41
.41
Jackets: H ea v y fabric____
L eather_________
.34 .0 6 .1 8 .2 9 .2 9 .4 2
O ther______ _ _ .09 .0 7 .0 5 .0 9 .0 6 .0 9
Sweaters: H e a v y _______
.40 . 16 .2 8 .3 5 .4 2 .4 7

Light__________
Suits: Heavy wool_______
Lightweight wool__
Cotton, linen_____
Palm Beach______
Other____________
Trousers: W ool_________
Cotton________
Other_________
Overalls, coveralls. . __ _
Shirts: Cotton, work____
Cotton and other,
dress___ __ ____
W ool____ ___ _
Underwear:
Suits, cotton, kn it_____
w oven___
cotton and wool _ _
rayon and silk___
Undershirts, cotton____
cotton and
wool _.
rayon and
silk_____
Shorts, cotton_____ __
rayon and silk__
Drawers, cotton and
wool________________
Pajamas and nightshirts.
Shoes: Street _ _. ______
W ork________
Canvas___________
Other _ _ _ _ _ _
Boots: Rubber. _ __ _ __
Leather __ ___
Arctics__________________
Rubbers________________
Shoe: Repairs_________ _
Shines____________
Hose: Cotton, heavy____
dress______
Rayon____________
Silk_______________
Wool.
_ ________
Gloves: Work, cotton____
other____
Street, leather
other_____
T ies____________________
Collars__________________
Bathing suits, sun s u its ...
H andkerchiefs.._ __ _ _
Accessories______________
Bathrobes______________
Cleaning, repairing______
Other___________________

.26 .10 .16 .22 .25
6.11 1.34 2.84 4.31 5.17
5. 23 1.71 2.61 3. 55 4.93
.23 .09 .07 .14 .21
.10 .03 .01 .05 .05
.29 .23 . 11 . 14 .30
1.13 .58 .92 1.10 1.06
.74 .51 .60 .72 .75
.17 .07 .10 .14 .15
.95 .53 .74 .97 .92
1.13 .67 .86 1.00 1.09
3.05
. 11

D o l.

D o l.

73. 07
2.58
.59
.23
.09
5. 81
1.79
.36
.45
.43
.09
.47

75. 87 90. 88 93. 86 106.14 125. 73
2. 56 3. 39 3.69 3.91
3. 55
.7 2
.8 0
.91
1. 27
.96
.21
.21
.33
.21
.33
.09
.11
.14
.11
.04
5.17 6. 45 5.18 8.11 12.16
2. 53 2.63 3.19 2.27 4.30
.24
.4 5
.23
. 16
.51
.49
.56
.6 6
. 54
.64
.49
.7 0
.38
1.01
1. 27
. 22
.11
.0 8
.15
.0 2

.32
8. 77
6. 61
.30
.15
. 18
1.34
.78
.18
1.02
1. 25

.42
9. 85
8.06
.43
.34
.50
1.29
.66
.24
1.15
1.33

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

.42
.59
.67
.64
.76
.38
.43
.45
.38
.54
10. 43 13.99 12. 04 12. 75 14. 95
8.62 8. 65 12. 43 13. 87 15. .58
.25
.72
.57
.80
.53
.20
.11
.26
.46
.56
.92
1.18
.24
.83 1. 09
1.36 1.43 1. 30 1.34 1.62
.94
.92 1. 03
.92
.94
.25
.33
.31
.42
.38
.96 1. 12 1.30 1.29
.75
1.49 1.85 1.99 1.66 1.80

.90 1.53 2.28 2.79 3. 44 4.14 4.46 4. 73
.03 .06 .07 . 11 .13 .11 .23 . 16

5. 56
. 17

5. 72
. 18

7.15
.23

7. 82
.14

.80
.44
.50
.04
.72

.54
.42
.73
.06
.99

.92
.77
.76
.09
.75

1.10
.41
.61
.25
1.07

.72
.38
.93
. 10
1. 34

.54
.31
.43
.03
.52

.28
.16
.21
.02
.20

.42
.21
.25
.01
.31

.50
.26
.37
.02
.40

.52
.27
.42
.02
.50

.57
.34
.38
.05
. 56

.58
.35
.55
.06
.69

. 73
.47
. 54
.06
.70

. 17

.07

. 11

. 13

. 15

.16

.20

.32

.22

.37

.26

. 13

.39

.04
.61
.02

.01
.22
(s)

.02
.39
(•)

.03
.48
.02

.04
.58
.02

.03
.67
.01

04
.81
.02

.06
.91
.04

.09
.82
.04

. 10
1.00
.07

.10
.86
.03

.18
1.15
.13

.23
1. 43
.12

. 14 . 17
.77 .94
5.70 6.70
1.38 1.43
.05 .06
.16 .16
.10 .13
.05 .07
. 14 . 14
.33 .32
1.33 1. 53
.43 .61
.82 .81
1.01 1.01
.63 .73
.31 .50
.19 .23
.45 .44
.13 .11
.44 .55
.04 .05
1.69 2.13
.08
11
.21 .24
.51 .61
.15 . 15
.13 .26
3. 33 4.15
.38 .57
weeks.

.26
1.13
6. 87
1.51
.06
.21
. 10
. 10
.17
.43
1.64
.82
.89
.96
.88
.58
.29
.58
. 19
.54
.04
2. 43
.11
.32
.78
.20
.27
4. 43
.60

. 15
1. 27
7.24
1.40
.06
.21
. 12
. 14
.24
.40
1.51
.76
.81
.94
.82
.56
.33
.48
. 18
.76
.04
2. 53
.17
42
.72
.23
.50
4. 68
.62

.31
1.55
8. 62
1.26
. 11
.33
. 12
.23
. 18
.40
1.72
1.34
.87
.94
1.12
.88
.34
.63
.12
.66
.11
3. 09
.09
.34
.79
.28
.34
6. 67
.78

.25
1.69
8. 82
1.31
.08
.43
. 13
. 13
.20
.42
1.61
1.49
.62
1. 37
1. 32
.98
.22
.50
.32
.88
.03
3. 30
.20
.54
.91
.38
.65
7. 02
.31

. 14
.64
5. 17
1.31
.05
. 13
. 11
.06
. 12
.30
1.23
.39
.75
.90
.61
.29
.17
.45
.14
.38
.04
1.46
.07
. 16
.47
. 13
. 15
2. 76
.32
1 Includes only persons dependent
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




.30
6.80
5.91
.26
.14
.25
1.24
.81
. 18
1.03
1.20

D o l.

64. 06
2. 30
.55
.21
.0 7
4.19
1.70
.21
.35
.4 6
.1 7
49

.08 .09 . 10
.07 .20 .33
2. 34 3. 33 4.16
.98 1.10 1.32
.04 .03 .03
.02 .04 .08
.08 .09 .09
.02 .01 .04
.03 .08 .09
. 11 .21 .27
.56 .82 1.11
.04 .07 .13
.47 .72 .72
.51 .66 .90
.19 .34 .49
.04 .07 .13
.03 .10 .14
.30 .39 .48
.06 .10 .12
.04 . 16 .24
.01 .02 .03
.26 .57 .93
.01 .01 .03
.01 .06 .08
.17 .26 .35
.02 .05 .09
.02 .02 .06
.65 .89 1.64
.1 7 .09 .16
on family funds

. 13
.51
4. 85
1. 31
.04
.09
.11
.05
. 11
.33
1.24
.23
.71
.89
.62
. 21
.15
.48
.18
.33
.03
1.26
.05
. 13
.42
10
.11
2. 27
.22
for 52

. 13
.26
2.10 2.12
9.49 9. 62
1. 62 1.60
.04
.29
.33
.40
.13
.30
.29
.33
.31
.24
.22
.47
1.36 2.13
2.46 3.25
.88
.71
1.16 1.72
1.43 1.65
1.00 1.16
.48
.34
.59
.32
.07
.14
1. 00 1. 47
.01
.22
3. 97 4.90
.14
.35
.82
.45
1. 03 1.19
.22
.45
.28
.84
8. 45 10. 65
.92 1. 51

TABULAR

275

SU M M A R Y

T a b l e A— .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C lothing, boys 12 through 17 years

of age 1
Number of articles:
0. 07
Hats: Felt_____________ _________
0.42
.02
Straw____________ __ . . .
.02
.27
Caps: Wool___________________
.37
.07
Other_______ . . . ____ - _
.09
.06
Overcoats____
- -------.13
Topcoats____________ _______ .02
(4)
.02
Raincoats. _,
.07
.17
Jackets: Heavy fabric,
_ _
.24
.04
Leather _ __ _ _ ___
.13
.03
Other_______ _____. ___
.03
.25
Sweaters: H eavy,
_
___ _
.39
. 17
Light, ____________ ,
.37
Playsuits: Wool kn it__
.01
(4)
Cotton suede, ... _ _ _
, 01
.01
Other_________ ______
.01
(4)
.08
Suits: Heavy wool_________ . ,_,
.20
.10
Lightweight wool___ __ __
.22
.02
Cotton, lin en ,__ _
.. . . .
.02
Palm Beach___ _ ______
0
(4)
.01
Other_________ _______
.02
.52
Trousers: Wool____ _________ ,
.77
.45
Cotton _
. ...
.64
.05
Other_____________ ,
1.31
.26
Overalls, coveralls
________ ,
.39
.45
Shirts and blouses: Cotton, w ork,.
.53
C o tto n a n d
1.33
other, dress,,
2. 79
.02
W ool________
.04
.31
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it___
.38
. 19
woven
.19
.24
cotton and wool.30
rayon and silk,.
0
.02
.67
Undershirts, cotton, __
1.65
c o tto n
an d
.20
.34
wool—
rayon
an d
.03
silk___
.05
Shorts, cotton_______
.70
1.86
rayon and silk.
.04
(4)
Drawers, cotton and
wool. . . .
. 10
. 19
Pajamas and night­
.05
shirts_________
.40
Shoes: Street. . . . . . . . .
_ .
2.17
1. 65
W o rk ... . . . . . . _ ____
.05
.09
Canvas
.33
.57
.
.03
Other_____ _ ____
.07
Boots: Rubber. _ ____
.
.01
.02
Leather. _ _____
.01
.03
.03
Arctics____ ______ __________
.05
. 14
Rubbers____ _____ ______ _ __
.30
Shoe: Repairs _ . __
Shines _. _.
______ _
Hose: Cotton, heavy. . . _ _ _
3.59
2. 57
dress__________ ___
2. 95
5. 01
Rayon_______ ________ .
.41
1.46
Silk______________________
0
.16
.05
Wool_____________________
.23
Gloves: Work, cotton. ___ ______
.17
.08
.01
other.
. _____
.02
.04
Street, leather_ ______
_
.25
other____ ________
.17
.06
.69
Ties____________________________
1. 93
.01
Collars_________________________
(4)
.17
.04
Bathing suits, sun s u it s ..___ ____
3. 37
1.09
Handkerchiefs... ______________
. 10
Accessories_____ . . . .. . . . .
.20
0
.02
Bathrobes_______________ _____
Cleaning, repairing
Other__________________________
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds




0. 38
.02
.35
.09
.09
.01
.04
.22
.11
.03
.32
.29
.01
(4)
.01
.15
.17
.01
(4)
.01
.68
.52
.10
.38
.42

0. 71
.02
.40
. 11
.10
.03
.06
.27
.11
.04
.37
.40
.01
.01
.01
.19
.22
.04
(4)
.02
.85
.68
. 15
.43
.58

0.24
.03
.36
.11
. 15
.02
.08
.25
. 13
.03
.44
.50
.02
.01
.01
.21
.26
.02
0
.03
.79
.71
.15
.46
.43

0. 33
.04
.41
.07
.24
.02
.11
.32
. 18
.02
.57
.46
.01
.02
.04
.35
.29
.01
.01
.01
.92
.86
.23
.33
.98

0.48
.01
.40
. 10
.29
.02
.18
.22
.26
.04
.50
.52
.02
.04
.02
.38
.31
.08
.01
.03
.92
.76
.21
.41
.53

0.45
.03
.41
.07
.32
.04
.12
.14
.23
.05
.72
.52
.04
.02
.02
.63
.37
.04
.01
.04
.85
.72
.13
.16
.52

2. 32
.03
.43
.21
.32
(4)
1. 21

2. 91
.05
.37
.19
.30
.01
1.81

3.13
.05
.36
.21
.24
.03
1. 95

3. 56
.07
.42
. 14
.30
.05
2. 38

4.15
.03
.33
.22
.30
.02
2. 31

4.54
.07
.36
. 12
.33
.04
2. 64

.22

.33

.42

.43

.68

.55

.03
1.37
.02

.02
2. 02
.04

.04
2. 25
.04

. 12
2.64
. 12

.02
2.63
0

.45
3.14
.35

. 11

.22

.21

.32

.52

.38

. 19
1.86
.06
.51
.06
.02
.03
.06
.24

.38
2. 24
.12
.64
.05
.02
.03
.05
.33

.49
2.29
.08
.67
. 11
.02
.03
.04
.35

.77
2. 59
. 15
.66
.10
.02
.02
.06
.43

.81
2. 98
.07
.62
.17
.07
.11
.10
.32

1.49
3.10
.03
.64
.06
.05
.02
.07
.52

3.09
4. 81
1. 07
.11
.14
.21
.01
.13
.16
1. 33
.01
.10
2.88
.09
.01

3. 57
5. 27
1.44
.09
.27
.16
.02
.27
.16
2.04
.01
.15
3. 53
.23
.02

3. 57
4. 83
1.94
.21
.26
.18
.01
.32
.15
2.14
.07
.20
3. 70
.26
.02

5.05
7.05
1. 87
.28
.26
. 14
.03
.38
.24
3.13
.01
.33
4.49
.25
.01

5.44
6.10
2. 01
.90
.41
. 17
0
.51
.21
3. 38
.01
.37
5. 80
.25
. 12

4.86
4. 26
3. 09
.42
.87
.,06
.06
.58
.35
4. 09
.04
.66
5. 30
.35
.08

for 52 weeks.

4 Less than 0.005 article.

276

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T a b l e A — . — Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Item

All
fami­
lies

Families w ith total annual unit expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

$41. 39
.54
: 05
.26
.06
2.14
.30
.27
.92
.75
. 11
1. 03
.81
.02
.01
(5)
3. 38
3. 95
. 13
0
.30
2.17
1.20
.32
.43
.36

$55. 08
.79
.04
.32
.03
3. 72
.14
.37
1.23
1. 00
.04
1.34
.83
.02
.02
.01
5. 96
4. 38
.05
.08
.10
2. 71
1.64
.51
.33
.89

$62. 68
1.04
.02
.34
.06
4. 60
.22
.69
.80
1. 70
.18
1. 36
.97
.02
.03
.02
6. 76
5. 62
.21
. 12
.19
2. 92
1. 56
.42
.40
.41

$76.14
1.11
.04
.31
.03
5. 36
.35
.50
.47
2. 01
.19
2.26
.95
.03
.02
.03
11. 03
7. 03
.32
. 11
.40
2.66
1.35
.40
. 15
.40

2. 81
.04
.31
. 18

3. 40
.08
.34
.10

3. 85
.04
.24
.19

5.12
.07
.26
.13

.21
.01
.57

.23
.07
.72

.29
.02
.78

.47
.01
.96

.12

.13

.28

. 19

.02
.68
.02

.04
.85
.05

.01
.‘86

.15
1.17
. 12

.06

.08

C lothing, boys 12 through 17 years

of age 1—Continued
'otal expenditure ___ _
$35. 58 $14. 56 $25. 49 $34. 96
.12
.25
.41
Hats: Felt____ _ _ _ _ .43
.02
.02
.02
Straw __ ___ __
_
.03
.24
.28
.16
Caps: W o o l . . ___ _____
_ _ _ _
.25
.04
.06
.06
___
Other. __ ________
. 05
1.09
1.22
Overcoats____ _
__
.53
1.76
.29
. 11
Topcoats.
___ __ _ ___ __ _ _
. 19 (5)
.17
. 18
Raincoats ___
.05
.22
.69
.92
.44
Jackets: Heavy fabric. __ _ _ __ _
.82
.54
.12
.49
Leather
__ _ __ ___
.65
. 13
.09
Other
__ ___ ___ ___ _
.06
. 11
.79
.34
.57
Sweaters: H eavy _______ _
___
.85
.59
.40
L ight___ ____ _
_ _
.16
.59
.01
Playsuits: Wool knit_______ _
.01
(5)
(5)
.01
.01
Cotton suede. _ _
_
.01
(5)
.01
Other________ _____ _
.01
(5)
.01
2. 94
1.92
1.10
Suits: Heavy wool _ __ _ _ ____
3. 21
3. 06
.82
2. 25
Lightweight wool _ __ _
3.11
.18
.03
Cotton, linen___ _ _ _ __
.03
. 11
.02
.01
Palm Beach _____ _
0
.03
.10
.13
Other___ ______
____ _
.09
.15
2.17
1.49
Trousers: Wool___
_______ _ _
.93
1.95
1.04
.77
C o tto n ..________ _
9 52
1.03
.33
.16
Other_______ _____ __
.11
.28
Overalls, coveralls. __ _
______
.36 * .41
.23
.37
.45
Shirt and blouses: Cotton, w ork...
.27
.30
.41
C o t t o n and
1.72
2.43
other, dress
.91
2. 37
.03
.02
Wool_______ -.03
(5)
.28
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it.___
.30
.21
.29
woven..
. 14
. 15
.10
. 15
cott on and
.22
.22
wool. . . . . . .
.18
.23
.01
rayon and silk.
0
.01
(5)
.49
Undershirts, Cotton. _
.33
. 18
.48
cotton
and
.12
wool. _
.07
.07
.11
rayon
and
silk__
.01
.01
.01
.02
Shorts, cotton_______
.58
.38
.18
.56
rayon and silk.
.01
.02
(5)
(5)
Drawers, cotton and
.07
wool .
___ _
.03
.04
.06
Pajamas and night
shirts.
.42
.18
.44
.05
Shoes: Street.__ ______ _______
5.12
6. 45
3. 65
6. 43
Work____________________
.31
. 17
. 11
.24
Canvas
_____________
.56
.43
.52
.25
Other___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
.08
.06
. 12
.03
Boots: Rubber___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
.03
.02
.03
(5)
Leather _ ___ _ _______
.10
. 10
.02
. 11
Arctics___
_ _ _ _ _ _ _________
.11
. 11
.11
.05
.31
R ubbers...
__ _ ___ ___ _______
.23
.12
.30
Shoe: R epairs._ _ _________ _ __
1. 51
1.17
.53
1. 57
Shines__ _ _ _ _____ . . .
.01
.02
(5)
(5)
Hose: Cotton, heavy. __ __ __
.83
.61
.46
.78
dress._ __ ___ ____
1. 05
.86
1.01
.50
Rayon . _ __________ . . .
. 19
.27
.29
.07
Silk______________________
.02
0
.02
.05
.11
W ool_____________________
.03
.06
.10
Gloves: Work, cotton___________
.04
.05
.03
.05
other ___ _____ .
.01
.01
(5)
(5)
Street, leather... ^ _ ___
.29
.04
.15
.30
other______ ____
.10
.02
.08
.10
Ties__________ ____________ ___
. 15
.34
.57
.60
Collars_______ ___ _____
(s)
C
5)
(5)
(5)
Bathing suits, sun suits_____
.33
.05
.16
.26
Handkerchiefs_____ ___ _______
.24
.18
.23
.06
Accessories____________ _
__ _
.02
.04
.07
.08
Bathrobes.
_________ _ . __
.05
0
.04
.01
Cleaning, repairing.
_ ______ _
. 14
.31
.54
.70
Other. _ . . . _____ __________ _ _
.12
.03
.07
.06
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.




0

.20

.54
.95
.84
7.18
8. 64
10. 42
.24
.46
.24
.63
.70
.67
.24
.20
.33
.03
.03
.04
.13
.08
.43
.07
. 15
.23
.35
.47
.36
1.83
2. 60
2.47
.02
.07
.06
.84
1.04
1.26
.98
1.61
1.52
.44
.42
.43
.08
.08
.23
. 12
.11
.23
.07
.04
.05
.01
.02
0
.37
.48
.67
.09
. 16
.17
.72
1.10
1.22
(5)
(5)
(s)
.39
.84
.80
.29
.35
.46
.10
.12
.11
.07
.04
.30
.95
1.61
1. 57
.07
.07
. 15
5 Less than 0.5 cent.

.14
1.89
11.13
.09
.61
.14
.11
.06
.18
.57
3. 75
.07
1.12
1.16
.89
.18
.31
.07
.02
.86
.29
1.83
.01
.99
.60
.23
.32
2.31
.05

TABULAR SUMM ARY

277

T a b l e A — . — Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C o n t in u e d
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families w ith total annual unit expenditure of—
fami­
lies Under
$200
C loth in g , b o ys 6 through 11 y e a rs o f age

$400
to
$500.

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

0.06
.01
.54
. 19
. 15
.30
.05
. 19
. 10
.03
.36
.38
.07
.08
. 14
. 15
. 16
.27
.01
.04
.70
.63
. 17
.88

0. 02
.01
.31
. 15
.07
(4)
(4)
.07
.04
.02
.24
.26
.03
.03
.05
.09
.09
.09
0
.01
.52
.45
.03
.57

0. 02
.01
.44
. 15
. 12
.02
.03
. 17
.08
.02
.28
.28
.04
.04
.08
. 12
. 12
. 19
0
.03
.62
.55
. 13
.68

0.04
.01
.53
. 17
. 13
.03
.04
. 19
. 10
.04
.29
.42
.06
.06
. 11
. 12
. 19
.28
.01
.04
.71
.58
.14
.91

0. 07
.02
.64
.21
. 16
.05
.07
.23
.13
.03
.45
.44
. 10
. 11
.20
. 18
. 18
.33
.01
.05
.74
.72
.23
1 . 01

0.10
.02
.73
.24
.23
.07
.09
.26
.09
.05
.45
.49
. 11
. 13
.22
. 19
. 19
.29
0
.05
.93
.82
.29
.90

0. 21
.01
.98
.37
.35
.03
. 19
.31
. 16
.04
.71
.49
. 17
. 19
.34
.25
.21
. 77
.01
.07
.92
1.04
.29
1.28

0. 26
.01
.57
.30
.32
.05
. 10
.30
.10
.06
.74
.55
.13
. 14
.25
.30
.23
.53
.03
.01
.81
.89
.20
1.09

2. 87
.07
.94
.47
.47
.03
.51
. 13
.01
.56
.01
.08
. 55
2. 98
.50
. n
.05
.07
. 15
.30

. 66
.01
.62
.24
.28
(4)
. 14
.06
0
. 19
0
.03
.09
1. 94
.32
.08
.01
.02
.07
.14

2. 25
.04
.78
.45
.36
.01
.37
.08
.01
.39
(4)
.04
.24
2. 68
.46
.09
.04
.06
. 10
.24

2. 76
.07
.89
.40
.50
.02
.59
. 11
.01
* .64
.01
.06
.47
2. 98
. 57
.08
.06
.08
. 14
.32

3.26
. 12
1.16
.50
.55
.06
.55
.22
.02
.62
.02
. 13
.75
3. 25
.53
. 15
.04
.06
.23
.33

4.15
.06
1.15
.55
.62
. 12
.67
. 15
.02
. 78
0
. 12
1 . 02
3. 44
.48
. 14
.07
. 11
. 14
.41

5. 05
. 17
1. 43
1 . 06
.69
.06
.98
.04
.01
.99
0
0
1.42
4. 08
.69
.23
. 12
. 10
.27
.48

4. 42
. 16
1.14
.88
.78
0
.79
.45
.03
.86
0
.28
1.62
4. 04
.47
.23
.09
. 12
.32
.36

4.28
4. 53
.30
.03
.35
. 19
.20
.39
1. 41
.01
.18
2. 29
.30
.05

2. 65
2. 80
.09
0
.02
. 13
.01
. 18
. 57
0
.07
1 . 20
.03
0

4. 22
3.51
. 19
.01
. 18
. 15
. 12
.37
.94
.01
. 10
1. 56
.20
.01

4. 01
5. 21
.40
.02
.38
.24
.20
.43
1. 35
.01
. 15
2.26
. 50
.04

4. 85
4.69
.34
.03
.46
.20
.26
.43
1. 70
.01
.25
2.81
.29
.09

5. 35
5. 61
.32
. 12
.61
.16
.37
.35
1. 76
.01
.28
2.88
. 16
.09

4. 39
6. 91
.63
.04
.65
.18
.38
.56
2.16
0
.43
5. 26
.49
.13

5.19
5.12
.55
.21
.70
.35
•.37
.37
2.74
0
.33
3. 49
.30
. 15

1

Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
Less than 0.005 article.




$300
to
$400

1

Number of articles:
_
_ __ _
Hats. Felt_ _ _ _____
Straw________ _______ ____ _
Caps: W ool___ ___________
Other____ __________ _ _ _ _
Overcoats.. . . . _______ _ __
. . .
Topcoats.. . .
. . . . . . . _________
Raincoats ____ . . . ___ __ ____ .
Jackets: Heavy fa b r ic ___ _ __ . . . ._ .
Leather . ._
_
_ _______
O th er.____ ___ . . _____
Sweaters: Heavy . . . ____,
________
Light_____ _____ ___________
Play suits: Wool knit. _
___ _ .
Cotton suede
___ _ _____
Other.. _____ _____ . . . _____
____
Suits: Heavy w ool___ __ . . . . _
Lightweight w ool____
... ... .
Cotton, linen_____ __ ______ . . . .
Palm Beach__ __ __ _ __ . _ __ .
_ ...
____
Other __ _____ __
___ __
Trousers: Wool. . _ _ _ . ___ __
C o tto n ..______. . . _ . . . _____
Other. __ . ______ . .
---------Overalls, coveralls. . _
_
___ . . .
Shirts and blouses: Cotton and other, ex­
cept wool.
_ ...
W ool________________
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it_____ __ _ .
woven. _
cotton and wool. .
rayon and silk_ .
_
Undershirts, cotton_________
cotton and wool.
rayon and silk ...
Shorts, cotton____ . . . .
rayon and silk _
Drawers, cotton and wool___
Pajamas and nightshirts..
Shoes: Street
.
.
_ .
. . . ____
C anvas..
. . .
_______
Other.. . . _______
______ _
Boots: Rubber . . . _____. . . _ _
Leather . . . ___________ . . . __
Arctics
____________ . . . ___ __ _____
Rubbers. _______________ . . . ______
Shoe: R epairs. ____ ______________ ___ __
Shines. ______ __ . . .
_
... _
Hose: Cotton, heavy ____________ __ . . . . . .
dress ' _ _ _ ____ . . . __ . . .
______ __
R a y o n ... . . . ______ __
Silk______________________________
Wool_____________________________________
Gloves: Cotton. .
______
_________
Leather_______ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _
Other. ___ ___ _ ___ _ __
Ties_______________
_________________
Collars__________ ___________________
Bathing suits, sun suits'.________________
_ _____ ___
Handkerchiefs____ __
Accessories. __ . _ _____ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___
Bathrobes____ _______ _____ _______
Cleaning, repairing.
Other____________
1
*

$200
to
$300

278

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S — S U M M A R Y V O L U M E
T a b l e A - 8 . — Clothing Expenditures , hy Consumption Level— C o n tin u ed
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C lo th in g , b o ys 6 through 11 y e a rs o f a g e 1—Con.

Total expenditure_________________ _____ $25.90 $11.10 $18. 73 $24. 77 $31.03 $37. 32 $49. 68 $46.14
.07
.02
.01
.05
Hats: Felt____ ______________________
.07
. 12
.29
.32
.01
.01
Straw ... __________________ _ __
.01
.01
.01
.01
(5)
(5)
.36
.13
.24
.33
Caps: W ool---------------- -------- ------.44
.57
.77
.50
. 10
.05
.07
.09
Other____________________________
. 12
.15
. 19
.20
1.00
.26
.66
.72
1. 16
Overcoats____________ _________________
1.75
3.10
2.81
.13
.05
.10
.22
Topcoats. ________________________ ___
.33
.23
.26
(*)
. 14
.01
.05
R a i n c o a t s . . . . ___________________ __
. 10
.20
.25
.67
.28
.55
.17
.43
.55
_______________
.67
Jackets: Heavy fabric.
.78
.97
.89
.39
.14
.28
.36
.61
Leather. _____________________
.40
.72
.69
. 10
.03
.04
.13
Other___ ______________ _____ _
.08
.14
. 17
.22
Sweaters: H eavy. _ _ _________ ______
.56
.24
.37
.47
.70
.83
1.18
1. 37
.45
.21
.30
.48
.54
L ight________________________
.63
.71
.64
.18
.09
.04
. 15
Play suits: Wool kn it______ _____ _______
.25
.33
.46
.34
.10
.02
.05
.08
.14
Cotton suede_____ ____ _______
. 18
.25
. 19
. 18
.09
.05
. 15
.33
Other......... ...... ............................
.25
.34
.46
1.00
.52
.70
.85
1.15
Suits: Heavy w ool........ ........ ............. ...... ...
2.10
1.-67
2. 40
.99
.65
.66
1. 07
1.22
1.23
1. 36
Lightweight w ool...............................
1. 61
.36
.09
.23
Cotton, linen. . . . _______________
.35
.49
.38
.98
.78
.02
0
0
.02
Palm Beach...................................... .
.01
0
.06
.18
.12
.09
.01
.16
.08
Other__________________ _________
.16
.34
. 12
1.14
.70
.85
1.15
1.26
Trousers: Wool_____________ _____ ______
1.76
1. 59
1. 53
.76
.44
.61
Cotton_____________ __________
.70
.92
1. 01
1. 32
1.13
.23
.03
. 15
.21
.34
Other. _. . . .
. . . . . . . . ._
.38
.53
.41
.70
.41
.56
.75
.81
Overalls, co v era lls_____________________
.76
1.13
.96
Shirts and blouses: Cotton and other, ex­
1. 94
.83
1. 38
1. 76
2.31
cept wool__________
3.12
3. 97
3. 38
.06
.03
.04
Wool________________
.10
.07
.15
.13
(5)
.59
.30
.48
.56
.71
.72
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it__________
1.11
.71
.31
.29
w oven________
. 13
.25
.36
.37
.67
.48
.32
.21
. 15
.33
.39
cotton and w ool.. . ._
.47
.51
.57
.02
rayon and silk____ _ _
.01
.01
.03
.07
.02
0
(5)
.09
. 13
.03
. 15
. 14
Undershirts, cotton._________
. 18
.27
. 19
.05
.01
.03
.04
cotton and wool.
.09
.06
.04
.18
rayon and silk ...
0
.01
.01
.01
.01
(5)
(5)
(5)
. 15
.09
.04
Shorts, cotton__ _
•________
. 18
. 17
.23
.29
.23
0
rayon and silk___ . . .
.01
0
0
(s)
0
(5)
(5)
.03
.02
.01
.01
.05
Drawers, cotton and w ool___
.05
0
.09
.46
.20
.06
.37
.65
.90
Pajamas and nightshirts . . . _
1.26
1.41
6. 34
2. 94
5.13
6. 27
Shoes: Street and dress. ___________ ____
7. 17
8.49 10. 66 10. 53
.34
.44
.40
.22
Canvas_____ __________________
.46
.45
.68
.49
. 16
.08
. 14
. 12
.20
Other.. __ _____ _ ____ ________
_
. 17
.39
.30
.09
.02
.05
Boots: Rubber. ______________ _________
.10
.09
. 13
.20
.13
.22
. 19
.04
. 15
.18
.34
Leather _____________________ _
.32
.43
.22
.21
A rctics.. . _ __________________ _________
.13
.07
.32
.25
.44
.47
.09
.20
.26
.28
.30
Rubbers____ ________________________
.40
.46
.32
1. 08
.53
.83
.97
1.31
Shoe: R e p a ir s ..___ _______ ____ ________
1.52
2.18
1.85
.01
0
.01
Shines________________ ____ ______
.03
.09
. 15
(5)
(s)
.82
.93
Hose: Cotton, h eavy____ _______ ________
.96
.47
1.18
1.26
1.13
1.11
.95
.49
.71
1.06
dress____________ ____ ____
1. 00
1.23
1. 73
1.17
__________________
R a y o n ... .
.06
.02
.03
.08
.08
.07
. 13
.11
Silk______________________________
.01
0
.01
.03
.01
.05
(s)
(5)
Wool_______
____________ ____
.13
.02
.07
. 13
.19
.22
.31
.25
.05
Gloves: Cotton..
__ _______________ __
.06
.03
.07
.07
.07
.05
.18
.14
.13
.21
.07
.29
.32
Leather______________________ _
.28
(5)
. 17
.08
. 14
.18
.19
Other______
_____ ____ ______
. 17
.31
.14
.27
.08
. 16
.26
.34
.51
Ties___________________________________
.53
.62
0
.01
Collars__________ ______ _________
0
0
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
Bathing suits, sun suits_________________
. 18
.05
. 10
.42
. 14
. 18
.58
.23
. 14
.09
.21
.06
.13
.18
H andkerchiefs..............................................
.38
.24
.05
.03
.05
.05
.06
Accessories_____ . . . ------------------.11
. 10
(5)
.09
0
.01
.07
.14
Bathrobes . . . . . _ _____________ ____
.17
.30
.36
Cleaning, repairing---- ----- -------------.22
.03
.04
.17
.28
.44
.58
.95
.02
.01
.02
.01
.05
.05
.04
O ther.. ._ __ _. _ _________________
.01
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




279

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e A— . — Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C loth in g , b o ys 2 through 5 yea rs o f age

0. 04
.02
.30
. 14
.16
.05
.01
.04
.01
.01
.25
.34
.31
.31
.46
. 12
. 18
1. 22
.01
. 14
. 11
. 10

$400
to
$500

.04
1.18
.61
.02
1. 09
.44
.52
.04
.24
.16
.01

.22
.02
. 15
.83
2. 78
. 11
. 15
.04

.01
.17
. 14

2. 78
3.98
.42
.09
.33
.07
0

. 10
.30
. 18

.40
.63
.07
.05

0. 02
(4)
.24
. 11
. 11
.01
0
.02
.01
.01
.16
.23
.22
.21
.33
.05
.08
.84
.01
.06
.07
.06

0. 04
.02
.32
. 16
. 15
.04
.01
.05
.03
. 02
.23
.32
.25
.26
.38
. 11
.20
1. 26
.02
. 17
. 11
. 13

0. 04
.03
.33
. 12
. 19
.08
.02
.03
.01
.02
.27
.43
.29
.29
.43
. 14
. 19
1.23
.01
.21
. 14
. 11

. 10
.15
1.78
.03
.03
0

(4)
.08
.03
.05
.37
2. 21
.10
.12
.02

.01
.38
.01
. 16
.82
2.99
. 11
.10
.03

.01
.23
.01
.23
.88
3.15
. 14
.21
.04

1.58
1.81
.04
0
.01
.05

3. 07
2. 70
.30
.04
. 11
.05

2. 70
4. 56
.42
.09
.29
.06

0

0

0. 04
.01
.09
.08
.08
.02
0
.01
.01
0
.10
.29
.16
.16
.24
.03
.06
.61

(4)

.05
.02
.05

.01
1.02
.25
0
.67
.21
.24
0
.07
. 15
0
0

.04

.01
.03
.02

0

0
0

.04
.01
.20
.09
.07

.01
1.10
.45
(4)
.77
.43
.33
0
.13
. 11

(4)
.09
.09

.06
.22
.05

.29
.44
.04
(4)

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.




$300
to
$400

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

i

Number of articles:
Hats: Felt___ _
__ ___ __ ________
Straw
___ _ __________ ___
Caps:Wool__ ___ ___ _ _____
Other___
_ ________
__ _ _
O vercoats____ _ _ __ _ _ _ ___ _
_
_ _
Topcoats. .
__ ___________ _ _ __ __
Raincoats__
_ ____ _ ___ __ _ .
Jackets: Heavy fa b r ic ____
_ ___ __ _
Leather __ _ _
_ __ __ __
Other _______ ___ __ __ _
Sweaters: H eavy. _________
____
Light______
_
----- _.
Play suits: Woolknit___ __ ___ ______ _
Cotton suede ------____ __
Other, ___ ____ _
______
Suits: Heavy w o o l __ _ ___ __ __ ___ _
Lightweight wool____
_ _ _ _ _
Cotton, linen_____ ____ _
_ _
Palm Beach_ ___ _
__
_ _ _
Other______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Trousers: Wool _ _ _ _ _ _
_____
Cotton__ ______
______
_______ _ _
Other___
Overalls, coveralls.
_ ___ __ ___
Blouses: Cotton and other, except wool__
Wool _
___ ______ _____
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it.............. _
woven _ _ _ __
cotton and wool _
rayon and silk.
Undershirts, cotton. _ _____
cotton and woolrayon and silk___
Shorts, cotton.
___ _____
rayon and silk. _
Drawers, cotton and wool___
Pajamas and nightshirts_____
Shoes: Street
___ _____ _ __ ___ _ _
Canvas
_ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___
_____
Other_______
Boots: Rubber. ___ ___ _ __
__ __
L e a th e r .___
_
_ _
__ ___
Arctics____
__ _
_ ______ _
Rubbers _ _ _ _ _ _
__
_________
Shoe: Repairs
_____ _
Shines _
_
__
__ ___
Hose: Cotton, heavy. __ _ ______ _
__
dress. _______ _ _ _
Rayon _
_ _ _ _ _ _ ___
Silk_____________________________
W ool____________________________
Gloves: Cotton _ __ ___
_ ___ _ ___
Leather _ _
_______ ______
O th er____
_ ___ __ ___ _ ___
Ties___
________ ___ _______ _ ___
Collars________________ _
_ _ __ _ _
.
Bathing suits, sun suits ____
___ _
Handkerchiefs_______ _
________ __
Accessories_______
___ _ _ __ ____
Bathrobes.
_
________
Cleaning, repairing
_
___ ______
Other __________
_____________ ___

2 4 2 9 4 9 ° —4 1 ---- 19

total annual unit expenditure of—

.05
1.17
.61
.03
.98
.38
.52
.08
.36
. 14

.02
.18
.12

.07
.32
.22

.33
.84
.07
.03

0. 06
.01
.34
.16
. 16
. 11
.01
.08
0
0
.38
.44
.40
.47
.60
.24
.29
1. 23
.01
. 19
.12
. 14

0.07
.01
.42
.21
.32
.04
.01
.06
.03
0
.28
.53
.47
.40
.70
. 17
.30
2.16
0
. 15
.14

0.07
.03
.43
.29
.33
. 11
.05
.06
.02
.02
.61
.36
.63
.63
.94
.07
.34
2. 71
0
.15
.30

.02
. 14

0

.13
1.37
2. 98
.09
.22
.08

.03
.33
. 11
. 11
1. 39
3.07
. 10
.19
.06

2. 94
4.18
.55
.08
.60
.06

2. 27
4. 93
.60
.05
.36
.13

3. 62
5.18
.39
.35
.33
.07

2. 73
6. 08
.68
.07
.95

0

0

0

0

.09
1. 34
.75
.03
1.14
.51
.53
.02
.25
.19

.02
.22
.17

. 14
.29
.32

.37
.57
.04
.07

.04
1.22
.61
.02
1.32
.47
.75
.05
.35
.19

0

.02
.26
.17

.14
.39
.27

.45
.35
.13
.08

. 10
.01
.95
1.01
.02
1.85
.61
.93
.01
.12
.07

.04
.22
.23

.13
.36
. 13

.69
1.00
.22
.14

.21
.09
1.23
.99
.01
2.41
.66
.88
.06
.25
.56
0

.28

.50
2.15
3. 79
.18
. 15
.03

.02
.40
.30

.07
.17
.78
.10

.81
1.54
.10
.13

280

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y V O LUM E

T a b l e A — . — Clothing Expenditures , by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C lo th in g , bogs 2 through 5 y e a rs o f age

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1—Con.

Total expenditure
_______ _ ___ ____ $17.36
Hats: Felt_____ _ _ _ _________ ______
.03
Straw___________ _______
_ ___
.01
Caps: Wool____ _ ____ _________ _____
. 19
Other_____ ______ _ ___________
.07
Overcoats___ ______ ___ ___ _______
.87
Topcoats___________ ______ ______ __
.20
.02
Raincoats__
________ _ _________ _
.08
Jackets: H eavy fabric___ _ ________ _
Leather
_________ _ _____
.04
.02
Other __________ ____ ____ _
.35
Sweaters: H eavy __ ______ _ _________
.34
Light__________ ___________
.75
Play suits: Wool k n it_ __ _______ ______
Cotton suede____________
. 34
Other.. _ ___________ __________
.57
.41
Suits: H eavy wooL ___
______________
Lightweight wool_____ _
_ .
.40
1.13
Cotton, lin en .. _________ _ __
Palm B e a c h . . . _______________ _
.01
Other____ _____________________
.21
Trousers: W ool_________________________
.15
C otton.. ____________ ______
.12
.04
O th e r .___ _ . . . _____ ___ _
.75
Overalls, coveralls._
__ ____________
.33
Blouses: Cotton and other except wool___
.02
W ool______
________________
.61
Underwear: Suits, cotton, knit . _ . . . _
.26
woven________
.31
cotton and wool. . . . ._
.02
rayon and silk. ______
.07
Undershirts, cotton _ __ __
cotton and wool.06
rayon and silk-..
(5)
Shorts, cotton. . _
____
.05
rayon and s ilk .______
(5)
Drawers, cotton and wool___
.03
Pajamas and nightshirts.. _ _
.58
___ . . . . . . _ .
4. 81
Shoes: Street
...
C anvas._______
__ _ _ _______
.09
Other. _______ _
. . . ___
. 14
Boots: Rubber____ _______
_
_____
.04
Leather.. __________ . . . . . . . . .
.03
Arctics. ___ _ ________________ . . . _
.21
Rubbers _ _ . . . _ __________ ________
.12
Shoe: Repairs. _ _ ____________ _____
.23
Shines
_
. . . _______________
(5)
Hose: Cotton, h ea v y .______ _
_______
.57
dress________ ___ _
.
.73
Rayon_____________________ __ . . .
.08
Silk_______________________________
.02
W ool______________________________
. 10
Gloves: Cotton_______________ __ ______
.02
L eather_________________ _ . . .
.05
Other__________________________
. 13
Ties____ _____________________________
.03
0
Collars. _. . . . _____________________
.21
Bathing suits, sun suits____ ________ ____
.04
Handkerchiefs._ ___________ _ __
.02
Accessories__________ ________ ________
.07
B a th r o b e s.____ __ __ _ ______ ________
. 15
Cleaning, repairing.__ _ ________ . . . __
.03
Other __________ . . . _______ _________

$5.98 $10. 50 $15.60 $20. 63 $23. 68 $29.05 $38.87
.02
.04
.01
.09
.02
.07
.07
.01
.02
.01
.01
(5)
(5)
(5)
.17
.23
.24
.34
.04
.11
.41
.07
.04
.07
.09
.11
.02
.23
.76
.99
1. 02
1.73
.24
.42
2.46
.13
.29
.53
.20
.05
.03
.48
.01
.04
0
.03
.03
0
.09
.03
.10
.15
.07
. 10
.02
. 12
.08
.02
0
.21
.02
.01
.05
.04
.02
.01
0
0
0
.11
.26
.38
.60
.40
. 17
.09
1. 49
.27
.44
.55
.70
.19
.16
.44
.56
1.44
.97
1.00
.49
.18
1.74
.25
.44
.45
.22
.65
.08
.79
.43
.74
1.09
.76
.37
. 14
1. 33
.36
.63
.80
.65
.16
.07
.49
.31
.69
.49
.77
.11
. 17
.97
1.00
1.48
1.18
2. 36
.68
3.13
.37
.02
0
.01
.01
.01
0
(«)
. 19
.29
.45
.09
.30
.04
.40
.12
.19
.20
.22
.08
.02
.33
.14
.12
.18
.12
.05
.03
.25
.03
.06
.07
.01
.01
.06
.01
.75
.82
.87
.83
.65
.68
.80
.31
.39
.38
.58
.75
.11
.20
.02
.02
.02
.03
0
.01
(5)
.47
.77
1.32
.41
.70
1.45
.25
.22
.41
.32
.27
.21
.41
.07
.28
.34
.56
.58
.16
.67
. 10
.03
.02
.04
.01
0
.04
0
.04
.09
.07
. 14
.03
.06
.02
.05
.08
.06
.05
.06
.03
. 19
.01
.01
.03
0
0
(s)
(5)
.07
.05
.01
.05
.08
.08
.01
0
.05
0
0
(5)
(5)
(s)
.03
.06
.01
.06
.02
.13
.01
.52
.64
.99
1.12
.23
1.81
.08
4.56
5. 62
6.14
7. 20
3.15
9. 77
2. 21
.09
.09
. 12
.09
.06
.18
.02
.09
.23
.25
.22
.11
. 19
.01
.03
. 11
.05
.07
.04
.01
0
.03
.04
.06
. 09
.05
.01
.01
.22
.27
.30
.28
.09
.58
.03
.09
.15
. 14
.23
.06
.27
.01
.20
.31
.21
.30
.19
.57
.03
.01
.01
0
0
(5)
(5)
(5)
.57
.60
.50
.88
.64
.56
.25
.78
.78
1.00
1.03
1.27
.24
.48
.08
.10
. 12
.08
.05
.17
.01
.02
.02
.01
.11
.12
0
(*)
. 14
. 13
.39
.03
.07
. 19
(5)
.02
.02
.06
.03
.03
.01
.02
.04
.08
.09
.09
.14
0
.03
. 12
.13
.21
.20
.39
.08
.01
.04
.03
.05
.05
.01
.03
(6)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.14
.27
.28
. 16
.40
.49
.06
.04
.04
.03
.02
.07
. 11
.01
.02
.01
.04
.01
.01
.01
0
. 14
.25
.26
.01
.03
. 10
.01
.13
.20
.32
.08
1.29
.02
(5)
.04
.02
.03
.19
.03
.02
.01

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




total annual unit expenditure of—

281

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e A— . — Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami­
lies U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1, 200
der to
to
to
to
and
to
to
to
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

C lo th in g , w o m e n a nd girls
18 y e a rs o f age a nd over 1

Number of articles:
Hats:
Felt__________________
Straw_________________
Fabric________________
Caps and berets:
Wool_________________
Other_________________
Coats:
Heavy, plain__________
fur trimmed____
Fur___________________
Light, w ool_____ _ _ _
cotton__________
silk, rayon------Raincoats____ ___ _ _ _
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit_____________
Wool fa b ric... _ _____
Leather, leatheretteOther_________________
Suits:
Wool_________________
Silk, rayon------------ Other_______________
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon________
Cotton_______________
O t h e r , _____________
Skirts:
Wool_________________
Other_________________
Dresses:
Cotton, house_________
street,. __ _ _
Silk, rayon.
___ _
Wool_________________
Other_________________
Aprons_________________
Coveralls_______________
Knickers, breeches, shortsUnderwear:
Slips, cotton
____
silk-,
_______ _
rayon__________
Corsets, girdles ___ _
Brassieres____________
Union suits and combi­
nations:
Cotton____________
Wool_____________
Silk, rayon________
Underwaists, shirts____
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton______________
R ayon---------------Silk_________________
Nightgowns and sleep­
ing pajamas:
Cotton, light.. -. flannel______
Silk, rayon__________

0. 93 0.44 0. 57 0. 72 0. 92 1.02 1.15 1. 25 1.34
.48 .18 .30 .39 .46 .56 .61 . 64 .68
.25 .10 .15 .21 .25 .28 .35 .33 .37

1.52
.81
.42

1.59
.76
.57

2.24
.97
.75

.04
.01

.04
.01

.05
.02

.04
.01

.04
.01

.04
.02

.05
.02

.08
.02

.08
(4)

.06
.02

.13
.03

.21
.06

.09 .05
.11 .05
.02 0
. 12 .04
.02 (4)
(4) 0
.02 .01

.08
.07
(4)
.06
.01
(4)
.01

.09
.10
.01
.10
.02
(4)
.01

.10
.11
.02
. 11
.02
(4)
.02

. 10
.12
.02
.13
.02
.01
.03

.11
.13
.04
.16
.03
.01
.04

.10 .11
.14 .13
.04 .05
.18 .18
.02 .03
.01 (4)
. 12 .04

.09
.16
.06
.22
.04
.01
.05

.11
.19
.05
.24
.03
.08

.13
.20
.07
.20
.02
.01
.06

.14
.16
.11
.24
.06
.01
.08

.15
.05
.01
.01

.06
.03
(4)
.01

.10
.05
(4)
.01

.11
.04
.01
.01

. 15 .16
.05 .05
.01 (4)
.01 .01

. 17
.05
.01
.01

.17
.07
.01
.01

.23
.09
.02
.02

.25
.07
.01
.04

.21
.06
.01
.02

.41
.09
.02
.01

.36
.09
.04
.04

. 10
.03
.03

.03
.01
.01

.06
.01
.01

.08
.02
.02

.10
.02
.03

.12
.03
.03

.13
.04
.04

.14
.03
.04

. 17
.05
.66

.18
.05
.05

.20
.05
-.05

.31
.09
.08

.26
.04
.04

. 16 .03
.08 .04
.01 (4)

.09
.06
(4)

.11
.06
.01

. 14
.04
.01

.16
.09
.01

.21
.09
.02

.24
.08
.02

.24
. 13
.01

.25
.11
.03

.36
.16
.01

.61
.33

.39
.15
.04

.04
.02

.10
.01

. 10
.02

. 12
.02

. 12
.02

.12
.02

.14
.03

.15
.02

.14
.04

.19
.03

.31
.06

.15
.04

.88 1.20 1.31 1.50 1.44 1.64 1.73 1.93
.40 .49 . 55 .65 .62 .63 .70 . 75
.37 .58 .85 1.08 1.20 1.36 1.48 1.73
.05 .09 .11 . 15 . 19 .21 .21 .25
.04 .03 .05 .06 .07 .09 .11 .15
.23 .34 .41 .53 .55 .62 .60 .57
.03 .02 .04 .03 .04 .05 .05 .05
.01 .01 .03 .03 .04 .07 .06 .11

1.91
.67
1.80
.25
.11
.60
.10
.05

1.77
. 52
1.81
.23
.20
.65
.02
.13

1.62
.95
2. 49
.34
.17
.68
.07
.10

1. 62
1.11
2.83
.55
.36
.43
.09
.19

.05
.01

. 12
.02
1.48
.61
1.09
.16
.07
.49
.04
.04

0

0

.42
.78
.48
.52
.77

.45
. 16
.25
. 12
.36

.50
.30
.43
.28
.52

.45
.53
.50
.41
.69

.43
.74
.53
.53
.77

.44 .35 .34 .36
.95 1.05 1.17 1.46
.52 .51 .46 .41
.60 .63 .73 .75
.84 .95 .76 1.08

.33
1.39
.59
.90
1.12

.37
1.75
.45
.89
1.17

. 12
1.96
.42
1.08
2. 07

.31
2. 39
.55
1.13
1. 30

.21
.10
.31
.35

.21
.02
.10
.27

.20
.07
.23
.25

.19
.09
.24
.32

.21
.10
.29
.37

.21
.10
.34
.42

.20
.09
.50
.34

.23
.14
.51
.60

.08
.10
.47
.49

.13
. 15
.55
.48

.14
.17
.75
.53

. 16 .17 . 19 .17 .13 .17 .16 .11 .16
1.56 1.21 1.22 1.44 1.68 1.78 1. 55 1.73 1.51
.38 .07 .16 .26 .34 .42 .52 .52 .70

.22
1.65
.83

.17
1.74
1. 35

.15
1.79
1. 36

.24
1.83
1. 62

.59
.25
.80

.88
.36
1.06

.48
.22
.23

.20
.09
.02

.32
.12
.08

.39
.21
.13
in clu d es only persons dependent on family funds
4 Less than 0.005 article.




1. 43
.71
.46

.49
.22
.21

.27
.14
.25
.32

.57
.28
.26

for 52 weeks.

.53
.25
.31

.25
.14
.41
.41

.59
.23
.41

.66
.30
.38'

.71
.22
.65

.74
.34
.69 1

282

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y V O LU M E

T able A— .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS 1 IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami- Un $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900
$1,000 $1,100 $1, 200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1, 000 $1,100 $1, 200 over

C lo th in g , w o m e n a n d g ir ls
1 8 y e a r s o f ag e a n d over

Continued.

Number of articles—Con.
Pajamas, lounging and
beach:
Cotton_______________ 0. 04 0.01 0. 02
.03 .01 .01
Silk, rayon____________
Other_________________ .01 0
(4)
.05 .01 .02
Bathrobes______________
.03 .01 .01
Kimonos, negligees______
Hose:
Silk__________________ 10. 27 3.58 5. 92
.81 1.26 .91
R ayon________________
.62 .75 .80
Cotton________ _______
Wool— _______________ .06 .01 .03
Shoes:
Street....... ........... ........... 1. 54 1.05 1.14
.46 .30 .33
D ress_________________
.23 .10 .14
Sport_________________
.42 .24 .27
House slippers__________
Shoes:
Repairs_______________
Shines________________
.12 .06 .08
Rubbers________________
Arctics, gaiters------------ .16 .06 .12
Gloves:
Cotton________________ .44 . 14 .26
.28 .03 .09
Leather_______________
.04
Other_________________ . 11 (4)
Bathing suits, sun suits___ .08 .01 .04
Handkerchiefs__________ 3. 63 1.92 2. 49
Furs___________________ (4)
(4)
(4)
Mufflers, scarfs__________ .09 .02 .03
Handbags, purses--------- .64 . 16 .32
.08 .04 .05
Umbrellas______________
Garters, belts, hairpins,
etc________________ i —
Cleaning, repairing______
Other__________________
in c lu d e s only persons dependent on family
4 Less than 0.005 article.




0.02 0.04 0. 05 0.06 0. 05 0. 06
.02 .03 .03 .05 .06 .07
.01 .01 .01 .02
(4)
(4)
.03 .05 .08 .17 .07 .10
.02 .04 .04 .04 .04 .10

0.05
.06
(4)
.11
.11

0.07
.05
.01
.12
.09

0.12
.10
.02
.08
.03

0.11
.16
.06
.22
.09

8. 34 10. 03 11.71 12.13 13.60 15. 34 16.26 19. 26 18. 80 26. 07
.34
.88 .95 .58 .51 .96 .24
.42
.44 1.82
.75 .67 .59 .37 .39 .49
.36
.31
.26
.21
.06 .05 .06 .08 .07 .06
.11
.01
.01
.08
1.38 1. 54 1.64 1.60 1.75 1.96
.40 .46 .46 .54 .57 .65
.18 .21 .25 .27 .28 .30
.35 .44 .47 .50 .50 .53

1.96
.77
.34
.60

2.15
.65
.37
.57

1. 94
.82
.47
.49

2.44
.92
.72
.69

.16
.22

.20
.24

.20
.27

.24
.24

.22
.27

.32 .42 .54 .59 .54 .71
.16 .26 .35 .39 .44 .55
.07 . 10 . 12 . 14 . 17 .19
.05 .07 .09 . 10 . 13 . 17
3. 23 3. 68 4.14 4. 13 4. 40 4. 66
.01 .01 .01
(4)
(4)
(4)
.06 .08 .10 .11 .14 .14
.47 .61 .77 .83 .86 1.06
.06 .07 .09 .09 .11 .09

.77
.63
.18
.20
4. 37
.01
.16
1.11
.14

.98
.63
.57
.21
5.14
(4)
.20
1. 36
.16

.89
.92
.24
.17
4. 56
.04
.26
1. 31
.19

.95
1.10
.33
.29
6. 21
.01
.35
1. 62
.18

.10
.13

.13
.16

.12
.18

.13
.20

funds for 52 weeks.

.16
.19

283

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able A — .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1, 000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1, 200 over

C loth in g , w o m e n and girls
18 yea rs o f age a nd over l—

Continued.
D o l.

55. 48
Total expenditure_____
Hats:
Felt__________________ 1.90
Straw
_ ______ ____
.95
Fabric___ ___ _ _ __ _ .47
Caps and berets:
Wool_ _ ___ _ ___ _ .04
_
Other_______ _______ _ .01
Coats:
Heavy, plain . ___ _ _ 1. 84
fur trim m ed _
_ 3. 58
Fur__________________ 1. 61
Light, wool___________ 1.78
cotton .
____ . 17
silk, raycn___ __ .04
Raincoats___
_ _ _ __ .05
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit-_ - - ___ _ .32
. 11
Wool fabric___________
Leather, leatherette____ .03
Other________________
.05
Suits:
Wool_________________ 1.46
Silk, rayon____________
.23
Other_________________ . 17
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon.
_ __
.29
Cotton________________ .10
Other.
_______ .
.02
Skirts:
Wool_________________
.27
Other_________________ .04
Dresses:
Cotton, house.
1.60
street.
1.39
Silk, rayon____________ 6. 54
.96
Wool_________________
Other_________________ .41
Aprons_________________
.22
Coveralls_______________
.04
Knickers, breeches, shorts. .06
Underwear:
Slips, c o tto n ____ _
.30
silk_____________ 1.13
rayon..
._ __ .43
Corsets, girdles-__ .
1. 50
Brassieres____________
.40
Union suits and combi­
nations:
Cotton______________ . 15
W ool_______________
.11
Silk, rayon__________
.30
Under waists, shirts____
. 16
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton. ._ . . . ._
.07
R ayon______________
.71
Silk_________________ .29
Nightgowns and sleep­
ing pajamas:
Cotton, light. ___ .. .42
flannel____ ._ .23
.34
Silk, r a y o n .._____

D o l.
D o l.
D o l.
D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l . D o l.
15. 45 26. 29 38. 07 51.17 62. 20 72. 37 83. 79 96. 02 107. 41 119. 21 147. 38 182.43

.57
.21
.09

.86 1. 22 1. 75 2.16 2. 61 2. 94 3. 38
.41 .64 .87 1.10 1. 32 1. 51 1.69
.20 .32 .41 .51 .66 .66 .87

.02
(5)

.02
(6)

.03
.01

4.19
2.12
.97

4. 82
2. 37
1. 87

6. 51
2. 86
1.82

.05
.02

. 12
.09

.17
.06

.03
.01

.03
.01

.04
.02

.05
.02

.07
.01

.07
.01

.63 1. 12 1.50 1.93
.73 1. 62 2. 43 3. 25
.27 . 58 .94
.38 .75 1.20 1. 58
.03 .06 . 13 .20
0
.01 .01 .03
.03 .03 .03 .04

2. 03
4. 23
1.62
2. 05
. 15
.04
.04

2. 34
4. 88
2. 57
2. 41
.21
.07
.09

2. 55
6.19
3. 07
3.15
.24
.11
.09

2. 59
5. 55
4. 33
2. 98
.28
.05
. 10

1. 94
6. 69
6. 75
3.60
.28
.09
.09

.38
. 10
.02
.05

.40
. 11
.05
.03

.42
. 17
.04
.05

0

3.72 2. 40 2. 99
8. 43 9. 53 5. 49
4. 62 10.61 11.03
4.16 4. 26 4. 57
. 18
.20
.59
0
.14
.08
. 18
. 15
.30

.08
. 15
.01
.01

. 19
.08
.01
.01

.22
.07
.02
.05

.52
. 18
.08
.06

.70
.20
.04
. 13

.58
.16
.04
.06

1.11
.26
.09
.04

1.01
.33
.27
.17

.27
.05
.03

.59
.08
.05

.87 1.28 1.65 2. 09 2. 09 2. 67
. 11 .17 .26 .37 .26 .70
.09 . 14 . 18 .20 .26 .50

3.14
.64
.48

3. 76
.57
.38

6. 05
.91
.59

5. 03
.54
.23

.03
.03
(5)

. 11
.05
(5)

.18
.06
.01

.24
.08
.02

.30
. 11
.02

.42
.11
.03

.49
. 14
.05

.52
.16
.03

.61
.18
.07

.71
.20
.05

1. 55
.42

1.10
.26
.11

.07
.02

.19
.01

.24
.03

.27
.05

.29
.03

.31
.04

.37
.07

.42
.06

.43
.08

.62
.04

.82
. 11

.45
.08

. 77 1.10 1. 32 1. 61 1. 78
. 55 .81 1.03 1.44 1. 55
1.41 2. 66 4. 26 5.90 7. 03
. 16 .39 . 52 .79 1.20
. 10 . 11 . 19 .36 .44
.08 . 13 . 18 .24 .26
.02 .02 .05 .03 .04
.01 .03 .03 .05
(5)

1.88
1.63
8. 73
1.27
.50
.30
.05
.09

2. 08
1.95
10. 55
1. 56
.71
.28
.05
.09

.33
. 10
.02
.06

.30
2. 41
.66
3.14
.72

.32
3.12
.44
2. 97
.75

.07
3. 61
.45
3. 89
1.94

.37
4. 99
.62
4. 43
1.06

.17
. 15
.60
.16

.19
.17
.64
.31

.07
.16
.76
.25

.12
.28
.69
.33

.16
.22
1.18
.40

.07
.86
.46

.09
.93
.59

.08
.90
.70

.06
.92
1.26

.07
1.03
1.32

. 14
1.34
1.84

.59
.26
.67

.68
.32
.72

.74
.25
1.03

.85
.51
1.26

.77
.31
1. 57

1.00
.65
2. 26

.27
.33
.30
.60
. 17

.29 .30 .33 .30 .28 .36
.63 .99 1.34 1. 57 1.88 2. 38
.40 .45 .48 .47 .44 .43
.97 1.39 1.84 1. 97 2. 44 2. 59
.28 .36 .45 .61 .45 .71

. 12
.03
.06
.08

. 13
.06
. 16
.08

. 12
.08
.20
. 14

.16
. 11
.27
.16

.16
.11
.34
.17

.21
. 17
.39
.17

.21
.19
.47
.20

.06
.40
.04

.07
.47
.09

.07
.61
. 17

.06
.72
.22

.07
.81
.32

.07
.77
.41

.21
. 11
.08

.31
.19
. 15

.42
.22
.25

.51 .50
.28 .26
.38 .45
52
1 Includes only persons dej)endeiat on family7 funcIs for . weijks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.
. 12
.06
.02

0

2. 38 2. 36 2. 58 1. 95 2. 33
2. 10 1. 89 1. 77 2.98 4.10
12. 27 13. 49 15. 14 20. 64 25. 29
1.90 1. 76 1.94 3. 51 5. 09
. 94
.87 1. 66 1.60 3.82
.29
.34
.35
.29
.27
.11
.05
. 12
.03
.12
. 11
.19
. 16
.74
. 16

.22
. 17
.16
.22
. 10




3.78
1. 85
.96

284

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S — -SUM M ARY V O LUM E

T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
PERSONS1 IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
A ll
fami­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1, 200 over

C lo th in g , w o m e n a nd girls
18 ye a rs o f age a nd over 1—

Continued

Pajamas, lounging and
beach:
Cotton________________
Silk, rayon_____ ______
Other______
Bathrobes______________
Kimonos, negligees____ _
Hose:
Silk__________________
R a y o n .__
_________
Cotton______________ _
W ool_________________
Shoes:
Street_________________
Dress_________________
Sport_________________
House slippers__________
S h o eRepairs__________ ____
Shines_____ _______ _
Rubbers________________
Arctics, gaiters _____ __
Gloves:
Cotton________________
Leather_______________
O t h e r ..___ _________ _
Bathing suits, sun suits__
Handkerchiefs_______ _
Furs____________________
Mufflers, scarfs __ __ _
Handbags, purses.
Umbrellas ... _ _ _
Garters, belts, hairpins,
etc___________________
Cleaning, repairing ___ _
Other___________________

.05 .01
.07 .01
.01 0
.20 .01
.09 .01

.03
.03
.01
.11
.03

.05
.05
.01
.17
.07

.06
.07
.01
.26
.09

.08
. 11
.02
.27
.11

.08
. 11
.02
33
.14

.10
. 14
.07
.44
.28

.09
. 14
.02
.48
.32

.13
.18
.01
.40
.29

.18
.23
.09
.45
.08

.24
.79
. 19
1.17
.34

7. 07 1.98 3.62 5. 29 6.78 8.00 8.94 9.90 11.42 12. 64 14. 23 14. 51 21.22
.34 .47 .34 .36 .42 .27 .27 .35 .27
.17
.25 1.27
. 18
. 16 .16 .19 . 18 .17 .17 . 10 .10 .13
.10
.12
.08
.07
.04 .01 .02 .03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .03
.09
.03
.07
.01
5.50 2. 56 3. 37 4. 23 5.29 6. 26 6. 79 7.50 8. 25
1.72 .52 .94 1.30 1.67 1.77 2.13 2. 47 2. 96
.63 .18 .30 .43 .56 .72 .82 .88 .97
.37 .13 .19 .28 .38 .44 .49 .50 .60

8. 59
3. 37
1.15
.67

9. 96
3.05
1.27
.72

9. 93 11. 86
4. 24 4. 68
1.93 3. 05
.99
.60

.80
.04
. 12
.23

.26
(5)
.05
.06

.46
.01
.07
.13

.64
.01
.10
.17

.83
.02
. 13
.22

.90 1.01 1.02 1.08
.04 .08 .04 .09
.13 .14 .17 .17
.27 .30 .33 .38

1.30
.17
.20
.41

1.46
.22
.24
.46

1. 52
.32
.27
.40

1.74
.42
.23
.64

.33
.52
. 11
.22
.31
.07
.08
.88
. 16

.08
.02
(5)
.02
.09
.02
.01
.12
.06

.16
. 12
.03
.07
. 15
(5)
.02
.29
.08

.22
.25
.06
. 13
.24
.02
.04
.50
. 11

.31 .41 .45 .44 .64
.44 .62 .77 .87 1.15
.09 . 12 .16 .19 .20
. 18 .25 .29 .38 .50
.30 .37 .40 .45 .53
.02 .02 .10 .28 .36
.07 .08 . 11 . 14 . 14
.76 1.07 1.17 1.36 1.85
. 13 .20 . 19 .23 .21

.68
1.34
.18
.69
.51
.31
.16
1.91
.35

.81
1. 41
.33
.64
.74
.04
.26
2. 77
.45

.89
2.15
.26
.67
.67
.01
.32
2. 73
.51

1. 05
2.31
.51
1.17
.93
.89
.41
3.81
.62

. 14 .17 .19 .22 .23 .27
.81 1.36 1.87 2. 33 2. 65 3.70
.08 .21 .18 .31 .84 .34
funds for 52 weeks.

.29
4. 24
.90

.38
4. 55
.77

.39
.50
5.92 10.48
1.46 2. 29

.18
1. 63
.26
1 Includes only persons dependent
fi Less than 0.5 cent.




.02
.02
(5)
.04
.01

.05 .09
. 16 .39
.01 .08
on family

TABULAR

285

SUM M ARY

T a b l e A — .— Clothing Expenditures , by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

Item

C lothin g, girls 12 through 17 yea rs o f age

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1

Number of articles:
Hats: F elt------ ---------------- -------S tr a w ________________________ Fabric________________
. _
Caps and berets: W ool.
___ __________
Other__________ _____
Coats: Heavy, plain____________________
fur trimmed . . . ______ _
Fur____________________________
Light, w o o l.. __ . . . . . . . . . .
cotton
. . . . . . . . ----silk, rayon . . . _________ .
Play suits: Wool k n it____ .. ----------________
Cotton suede _
Other_______ ______ ________
R a in co a ts___
...
--- -Sweaters and jackets:
Wool k n it______ _____ . . . . . . . . ..
Wool fabric_____
-------- ------- ..
Leather, leatherette_____ _______
Other. ... . _ . .. _______________
Suits: Wool----- ----- ---------------Silk, rayon _ _ ____
. . . . ----Other________________ _________
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon.. _ __ ____ . . . . . .
Cotton. _ . . . —
-------- . . . ----- .
Other____ _
. . . ..
--- - . . .
Skirts: W ool___________________________
Other______________ . . . -----Dresses: Cotton, h o u se.._
street... . ---Silk, rayon___ . . . . . -----W ool____ _ . . . -------------O th e r ___________ . . . . . . .
Aprons _ . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ .. --Coveralls _ . ___ .. . ._ . . .
Knickers, breeches, shorts. __ _. _ --Underwear: Slips, cotton____
...
silk . ____________
rayon._ . . . -------- .
Corsets, girdles--------------Brassieres.. . . . .
.....
Union suits and combinations:
Cotton___ _____ _
.. .
W o o l... . _ --------- --Silk, rayon ___ _ ___ _
Underwaists, shirts . . . ____
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton___ _ ______ _ . . .
R a y o n ---- ------- --------Silk______________ : ______
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
jamas: Cotton, light____ .
flannel____
Silk, rayon________

0. 64
.28
.18
.37
.06
.22
.09
(4)
. 11
.02
(4)
.02
.03
.04
.08

0.28
.11
.07
.29
.04
.10
.03
0
.05
.01
0
(4)
(4)
.01
.05

0.45
.22
.12
.37
.05
.19
.07
(4)
.08
.02
0
.01
.01
.02
.06

0. 59
.26
.19
.31
.08
.24
.10
0
.12
.01
0
.02
.03
.03
.07

0. 77
.35
.18
.43
.06
.25
.10
.01
.16
.02
.01
.03
.04
.06
.08

0.97
.38
.25
.42
.08
.23
.13
.01
.15
.03
.12
.04
.06
.08
.15

1. 23
.41
.26
.47
.07
.38
.15
.03
.12
.06
.02
.06
.08
.11
.23

1.59
.51
.53
.48
.08
.25
.31
.01
.18
.06
0
.06
.10
.13
.23

.39
.16
.05
.04
.15
.02
.04

.16
.09
(4)
.02
.04
(4)
.01

.25
.16
.03
.02
.10
.01
.04

.40
.17
.04
.03
.13
.01
.01

.52
.20
.08
.05
.20
.02
.07

.66
.17
.06
.03
.19
.03
.04

.52
.17
.09
.05
.26
.04
.02

.73
.16
.18
.19
.39
.04
.04

.23
.40
.02
.40
.05
.48
1.28
.74
.17
.05
.09
.02
.14
.62
.46
.56
.16
.81

.02
.11
.01
.18
.02
.32
.88
.35
.09
.02
.02
.02
.61
.06
.29
.04
.31

.14
.36
.01
.30
.04
.51
1.09
.54
.11
.03
.05
.01
.06
.63
.22
.50
.08
. 56

.26
.36
.01
.42
.05
.51
1. 23
.71
.19
.03
.07
.02
.12
.59
.50
.52
.14
1.00

.34
.47
.01
.53
.05
.41
1.47
.88
.19
.06
.13
.02
.20
.63
.55
.63
.20
.89

.40
.50
.08
.55
.11
.48
1.80
1.08
.16
.08
.19
.04
.19
.58
.85
.74
.33
1.14

.31
.85
.08
.44
.07
.91
1. 38
1.36
.24
.07
.14
.07
.59
.88
.81
.87
.58
.95

.63
.85
.05
.85
.10
.55
2.20
1.96
.63
.20
.11
.03
.46
.68
1.66
1.11
.44
1. 51

.14
. 12
.18
.51

.17
.07
.02
.24

.13
.06
.15
.44

.16
.15
.21
.50

.16
.12
.22
.57

.07
.19
.23
.77

.13
.20
.34
.85

.38
.10
.46
.55

.41
2. 35
.25

.43
1. 44
.03

.48
1.87
.13

.32
2. 54
.19

.36
2.68
.34

.46
3.20
.42

.26
3. 07
.65

.84
2.40
1. 36

.34
.24
.15

.08
.05
.01

.19
. 19
.06

.36
.23
.13

.40
.35
.21

.57
.31
.29

.72
.39
.54

.88
.28
.34

0

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.




total annual unit expenditure of—

286

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
T able A — .— Clothing Expunditures , by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSONS i IN 14,460 W H IT E AND N EG R O FA M ILIES IN 42 C IT IE S — Continued
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

Item

C lo th in g , girls 12 through 17 y e a rs o f age

Continued.

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1—

Numer of articles—Continued
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton____ _ _ _____ _ _ .
____
Silk, rayon, _ _ ________ ________ _ ,
Other___ _
_______ __ _____ ,
Bathrobes ___ _____ ____ __
___
Kimonos, negligees_____ .
.
Hose: Silk _ _ _____
_
______R a y o n ,_ ______ _ _________ ,,
C otton,, _____
, , _______
Wool____________________________
Shoes: Street, „
Dress,
________ , ---------______ _______ ,
Sport_____ _
House slippers___ _________
Shoe: Repairs_____ _____ _____ _
,
Shines_____ _
___ ,,
Rubbers___ _ __ _
_ _______
Arties, gaiters____ _,
_________ ,,
Gloves: C otton,_ _ ______ _ , ________
Leather___________________
Other___ ____ _ _________ ___
Bathing suits, sun suits .
_ __ _ _ __
Handkerchiefs,_. _ ,_ ________
___
Furs________
___________________
Mufflers, scarfs,, _,, , ---------- , , , , ,
Handbags, purses_________ ___________
Umbrellas ., ___ , , _,
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc. _______ , ,,
Cleaning, repairing, _ _ __
_ ,
,,,
O th er_ _ ___ _ _______ _________
,,
1 Includes only persons dependent on fam ily
4 Less than 0.005 article.




total annual unit expenditure of—

0.07
.03
.01
.05
.02
7.13
2.11
3. 38
.21
2.10
.55 '
.56
.18
.14
.29
.37
.13
.19
.19
3. 32
(4)
.15
.54
.05

0.02
(4)
(4)
.01
.01
2.20
1.30
3. 47
.05
1. 76
.27
.32
.08

0.05
.02
(4)
.02
.01
4. 72
2.09
3.49
.19
1.91
.44
.47
.11

0.05
.03
(4)
.04
.01
7.15
2. 70
3. 22
.25
2.17
.50
.56
.19

0.10
.03
.01
.09
.01
9. 21
2. 00
3. 66
.22
2. 37
.71
.63
.23

0.14
.03
.01
.10
.04
9.93
2. 05
3.20
.30
2.19
.72
.79
.27

0. 07
.07
0
.10
.02
11.71
2.11
3.11
.50
2. 32
.84
.67
.32

0.22
.24
.04
.19
.02
21.17
.48
2. 62
.09
3. 01
1.08
.89
.47

.04
.21
.16
.01
.07
.03
1.7
0 0
.05
.23
.01

.12
.23
.28
.06
.16
.09
2. 52
(4)
.09
.36
.05

.14
.30
.37
.16
.20
.17
3. 53
( 4)
.14
.48
.06

.21
.35
.42
.22
.24
.28
3. 67
0
.19
.65
.08

.13
.35
.67
.17
.27
.36
4.78
0
.21
.86
.06

.21
.29
.62
.29
.21
.53
4. 67
0
.30
1.08
.09

.22
.50
.59
.45
.42
.60
3.91
0
.35
1. 54
.11

funds for 62 weeks.

287

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e A — . — Clothing Expenditures , by Consumption Level— C on tin u ed
8
PERSO NS i IN 14,469 W H IT E AND N EGRO FA M ILIES IN 42 C IT IE S —Continued
Average expenditure per person
Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C loth in g , girls 12 through 17 y e a rs o f age

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1

Total expenditure________ ___ ______ . __ $39. 85 $14.87 $26.87 $37.85 $50. 71 $58.83 $71. 66 $107.42
Hats: Felt-- __________________________
.26
.72
2.80
.85
.49
1.5]
1.80
1.08
Straw _ _______ ________ _____ _
.10
1.04
.37
.54
.25
.35
.48
.75
.20
.05
.19
.21
.34
.34
Fabric___________________________
.11
.80
.24
.21
.42
Caps and berets: Wool________ ______ . . .
.15
.21
.29
.29
.35
.02
.03
.02
.04
Other_____ ________ .03
.06
.03
.05
2. 42
2. 28
3. 26
Coats: Heavy, p la in ____.
__________ .78
2.16
2. 74
4.17
3. 76
.30
2. 33
2. 92
fur trimmed______ _______
1.48
.93
1.47
1. 52
6. 51
.02
0
.52
1.36
Fur_____________________________
.17
0
.27
.07
.36
2.54
1.08
.63
1.06
1.69
1. 51
1.43
Light, wool_____ _____ _
___ .11
.32
.32
.09
.11
.20
cotton___________________
.08
(5)
.01
0
0
0
.03
.13
0
silk, rayon________________
(5)
.34
.08
.01
.03
.06
.11
.16
.23
Play suits: W ool knit __. ___ __________
.04
.13
.06
.09
Cotton suede-- ___ __ . . .
.03
.01
.02
(5)
.01
Other_______________________
.08
.03
.11
.06
.23
.34
.16
.54
.05
.12
.12
. 14
.08
.27
.41
Raincoats.. _ ___________ _ ________
Sweaters and jackets:
.69
.20
.40
.91
1. 33
1.04
1.84
.68
Wool k n i t ____________ _ ___________
.34
.29
.11
.27
.40
.39
.39
Wool fabric--------- ------------------.28
.02
.87
.09
.17
.27
.33
.37
Leather, leatherette___________________
.08
.02
.03
.10
.04
.10
.37
.07
.09
Other____________________ __________
2. 25
5.70
1. 29
.25
.74
1.13
1.99
1. 62
_ __________ _______
Suits: Wool____
.02
.12
.19
.35
.02
.06
.13
.08
Silk, rayon_
_ . . . . . . ---- -----.21
.14
.02
.14
.10
.03
.11
.18
O th er____________________ _____
Waists and middies:
.41
.60
1.17
.03
.16
.30
.47
.31
Silk, rayon.... _ - ------------ ------ .47
.98
.10
.25
.32
.43
.85
.35
C otton .__ __________________ _____
.01
.02
.09
.05
.01
.20
.03
Other______________________ - ---(s)
.56
1.12
1.23
1.22
1.84
.26
.77
.81
Skirts: Wool___________________________
.22
.20
.03
.05
.07
.08
. 16
.08
Other___________ --- ---- -----.60
.22
.42
.52
.46
.55
1.19
.48
Dresses: Cotton, house — ---------- -2. 33
2. 76
4.64
.84
2. 20
1. 39
1.69
street _ __ ----------1.83
4. 41
9. 77
2. 82
2. 53
3. 32
6. 31
1.10
1. 73
Silk, rayon____________________
.21
2. 61
.34
.62
.70
.71
.59
.98
W ool_________________________
1.00
.03
.31
.33
.18
.08
.13
.18
Other----- ---- -- -------.01
.04
.05
.10
.04
.03
.09
.09
Aprons ___ _____ _ ------------- -------.02
.04
0
.01
.02
.01
.05
.08
_ --- ---------Coveralls____
.01
.22
.93
.09
.20
.49
. 14
.05
Knickers, breeches, shorts----------------.44
.34
.23
.29
.38
.38
.53
.36
Underwear: Slips, cotton.----- ----------.63
1.01
.99
2.27
.05
.19
.51
.51
silk. ------ ---------- -.41
.50
.57
.98
.31
.37
.77
rayon__________ --- .15
.64
.50
.21
.03
.07
.19
.26
.71
Corsets, girdles_______ _. .
.49
.44
.29
.40
.25
.07
.15
.30
Brassieres---- --------- -. Union suits and combinations:
.10
.05
.26
.07
.08
.11
.08
.07
Cotton__________________
.04
.09
.13
.17
.10
.05
.15
.08
Wool____________________
.34
.01
.09
.13
.22
.17
.31
.13
Silk, rayon_______ ______
.26
.22
.27
.36
.16
.06
.13
.16
Under waists, shirts- „ ______
Bloomers and panties:
.32
.14
.10
.15
.11
.13
.08
.13
Cotton--------------------1.09
.96
1.11
1. 34
.80
.38
.58
.78
Rayon___________________
.55
.20
.06
.09
.27
.37
.14
.01
Silk_____________________
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
1.04
.31
.51
.71
.13
.28
.05
.28
jamas: Cotton, light------.39
.35
.19
.33
.31
.22
.03
.15
flannel_____
.47
.14
.23
.33
.01
.06
.77
.17
Silk, rayon____
1Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




288

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
T able A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures , Consumption Level— C o n tin u ed
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

C lo th in g , girls

1% th ro vgh

All
fami­
lies

U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$0.05
.04
(5)
.09
.02
3.91
.83
.69
.07
5.55
1.38
1.15
.13
1.09
.01
.13
.34
.23
.17
.14
.25
.22
(5)
.11
.36
.10
.10
.53
.05

$0.10
.04
.02
.22
.02
5. 27
.65
.78
.10
6. 42
2.17
1.43
.20
1.29
.01
.21
.47
.28
.29
.18
.61
.27
0
.15
.57
.15
.19
.88
.11

$0.16
.04
.03
.29
.07
5.45
.77
.76
.11
6.83
2. 27
2.16
.25
1.65
.02
.15
.46
.46
.23
.20
.71
.33
0
.17
.76
.08
.17
1.40
.26

$0.10
.11
0
.28
.05
6. 64
.68
.83
.07
7. 59
2. 82
1.63
.34
1.75
.03
.25
.30
.40
.47
.17
1.00
.36
0
.28
1.07
.19
.21
1.83
.73

$700
and
over

17 y e a rs o f age —

Continued

Total expenditure—Continued.
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton---------- ---------------------$0.08 $0.01 $0.04
Silk, rayon__________ ____________ __
.04
.03
(5)
.01
Other________________________________
0)
(«)
.02
.03
Bathrobes________________________ _____
.13
.02
Kimonos, negligees___ _____ _________
.01
.01
3.89
2.32
1.13
Hose: Silk_____________________________
R ayon___________________________
.67
.35
.65
Cotton__________________ ____ _ __
.70
.59
.67
.02
.07
.07
Wool____ ____ ___________________
5. 50
4. 39
3.51
Shoes: Street___________________________
1. 53
1.03
Dress____ ______ ________________
.58
1.22
.50
.87
Sport____ ____ __________________
.14
.06
House slippers----------------------------.05
.84
1.10
.46
Shoe: R e p a i r s . _______________________
.01
Shines_________________________ _
0
(6)
.14
.04
.10
Rubbers-------- -------- -----------------.34
.24
.17
..
Arties, gaiters--------------------.14
.23
.07
Gloves: Cotton---------------------------Leather________________________
.01
.06
.17
Other__________________________
.04
.13
.10
.39
.06
Bathine: suits, sun suits_________________
.15
.22
.09
Handkerchiefs______________________
.15
0
Furs__________ „___________ ________ ___
(5)
(5)
.02
.11
.05
Mufflers, scarfs. ______________________
.44
.22
.09
Handbags, purses___________________ ..
.09
.04
Umbrellas___ ___________ _______ _
(5)
.03
.11
.06
Garters, belts, hairpins, e tc ... __________
Cleaning, repairing___________ ________
.65
.07
.23
. . . ..
.13
.06
.01
Other ... _ ________ ___________
i Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
8 Less than 0.5 cent.




$0.34
.35
.05
.76
.05
12.13
.26
.67
.03
10.49
3.14
2.72
.49
2.12
0
.31
.76
.55
.73
.43
1.81
.55
0
.29
1.80
.18
.20
2. 26
1.34

TA B U L A R

289

SU M M A R Y

T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures , b y C onsum ption Level — C on tin u ed
PERSO NS i IN 14,469 W H IT E AND NEG RO FA M ILIES IN 42 C IT IE S—Continued
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with
A11
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

Item

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11 y e a rs o f age

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1

Number of families—Continued.
_
Hats: F elt_ ___ _________ ______
_____
Straw_______ ________ _
Fabric___________________________
Caps and berets: W o o l________________
___ ___
Other___
Coats: Heavy, plain--- ---------------fur trimmed_____________
Fur_____________________________
Light, wool______ _____________
cotton___ ______________
silk, rayon__ _____________
Play suits: Wool k n it______ _________ ___
Cotton suede________________
Other_______________________
Raincoats___
__ _______________ ___
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool k n it___________________________
Wool fabric_________________________ _
Leather, leatherette___________________
Other _______________________________
Suits: W ool___________ _____________ _
Silk, rayon------ ------------------Other___________________________
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon.. _ _________________ _ _ _
C o tto n .------- ---------------- ---------Other_______________________
______
Skirts: W ool_________________ _
_ ...
Other--- -------- ----------Dresses: Cotton--------------------------Silk, rayon__________ . . . -----W ool__________________________
Other_______________________
Aprons_____. . . ____ . . . _________ _ .
Coveralls____ ____________ _. . --Knickers, breeches, shorts . . .
Underwear: Slips, cotton. __ . . . .
silk___ _____________
rayon________ ______
Union suits and combina­
tions: Cotton.. . . . .
Wool______________
Silk, rayon____ ____
Underwaists, shirts. .. --Bloomers and panties:
Cotton___ _______
. .
Rayon------ ------- -------Silk______________________
Nightgowns and sleeping
pajamas: Cotton, light----flannel_
_
Silk, rayon........ .

0.18
.12
.08
.45
.09
.21
.08
(4)
. 13
.02
.01
.08
.07
.09
.11

0. 09
.03
.03
.36
. 12
.11
.02
(4)
.03
(4)
0
.02
.02
.02
.05

0.10
.09
.05
.39
.06
.18
.05
0
.08
.02
.01
.04
.03
.04
.06

0.15
.11
.11
.43
. 11
.21
.08
(4)
.12
.01
(4)
.06
.06
.07
.08

0.22
.15
.10
.51
.08
. 23
.09
0
.16
.03
.02
.11
.10
.12
.17

0. 33
.16
.10
.53
.10
.14
.13
(4)
.22
.03
.02
.15
.14
.17
.17

0. 32
.17
.13
.59
.08
.31
.11
0
.17
.03
0
.17
.15
.19
.22

0.48
.27
.24
.68
.04
.42
.17
0
.30
.04
.10
.28
.24
.31
.26

.33
.12
.02
.02
.04
.01
.02

.14
.08
(4)
.04
.01
0
0

.26
.09
.02
.02
.02
.02
.01

.31
.11
.02
.02
.03
(4)
.02

.39
.15
.03
.02
.05
(4)
.05

.52
.16
.02
.03
.07

.54
16
.04
.02
.08

.69
.17
.07
.12
.08
0
0

.01
.09

.15
.02
2. 78
.35
. 14
.05
.03
.03
.16
.94
.08
.11

.04
.53
.03
.25
.03
3.17
.49
.20
.18
.06
.03
.11
.93
.13
. 15

.04
.24
.02
.20
.04
3. 24
.55
.14
.04
.01
.02
.10
.69
.20
.19

.13
.54
.03
.41
.03
3. 59
.47
.25
.35
.03
.06
.13
1.50
.37
.15

0

.03

0
0

.02
.20
.01
. 12
.02
2.47
.31
. 12
.06
.03
.02
.09
.72
.07
.09

.03
(4)
1.62
.09
.06
.06
(4)
(4)
.01
.47
.01
.05

.01
.10
.01
.06
.03
2.00
.20
.07
.02
.02
.02
.06
.62
.02
.04

.58
.29
.16
.64

.36
.06
.03
.29

.58
.17
. 11
.48

. 52
.26
.16
.79

.66
.44
.18
.60

.64
.47
.29
.83

.60
.34
.21
.74

.93
.59
.33
1.10

.92
1.58
.17

.64
.93
.04

.95
1.19
.10

.90
1.46
.13

1.08
1.89
.32

.77
2. 34
.27

1.06
2. 43
.26

1.22
2. 52
.50

.28
.33
.05

.10
. 13
0

.18
.20
.01

.29
.32
.02

.32
.43
.12

.38
.54
.10

.51
.54
.14

.52
.57
.20

0

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.




total annual unit expenditure of—

0

.01
.19

.08
.02
2. 25
.31
.12
.04
.02
.02
.06
.62
.04
. 11

0

.04
.19

290

M O N E Y D IS B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y V O LU M E
T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing E x p en ditu res , b y Consum ption Level — C o n tin u ed
PERSO NS i IN 14,469 W H IT E A ND N EG R O FA M IL IE S IN 42 C IT IE S
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
Under $200 to $300 to $400 to $500 to $600 to $700
lies
and
$200
$300
$400
$500
$600
$700
over

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11 y e a rs o f a g e 1—Con.

Number of families—Continued.
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton____________________
Silk, rayon-----------------Other_____________________
Bathrobes--------------------Kimonos, negligees-----------Hose: Silk---------- ---------Rayon-----------------Cotton________________
Wool_________________
Shoes: Street and dress_______
Sport________________
House slippers----------------Shoe: Repairs_______________
Shines________________
Rubbers____________________
Arctics, gaiters---------------Gloves: Cotton______________
Leather_____________
Other_______________
Bathing suits, sun suits______
Handkerchiefs_______________
Furs________________________
Mufflers, scarfs______________
Handbags, purses___________
Umbrellas__________________
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc___
Cleaning, repairing-----------Other______________________
1 Includes only persons dependent on family
4 Less than 0.005 article.




0. 06
.03
0)
.05
(4)
.97
1.42
6. 99
.50
2.91
.39
.17

0. 01
(4)
0
(4)
0
. .37
.46
4. 70
.06
2.13
.24
.02

0. 02
.01
(4)
.01
(4)
.57
.90
6.75
.35
2. 63
.37
.07

0.06
.02
(4)
.03
(4)
.92
1.70
6. 52
.43
2. 76
.36
.19

0. 06
.03
(4)
.08
0
1.38
2. 00
7. 21
.60
3.35
.46
.25

.17
.30
.24
.08
.27
19. 43
2.24

.12

.15
.28
.22
.05
.20
.09
1.42
0
.06
. 13
.02

.16
.25
.21
.06
.24
.15
2. 09
0
.07
.22
.06

.17
.38
.24

.24
.04

.15
.10
.01

. 10

.04
.84
0

.02
.09
(4)

funds for 52 weeks.

.11

.33
.26
3.08
0
.10
.26
.03

0.10
.03

. 11
(4)
1.32
1.70
9. 83
.83
3.53
.48
.29

0.17
.09
.03
. 11
0
1.59
2.15
7. 35
.84
3. 33
.57
.30

0. 23
.25
.05
. 16
0
1.97
.98
9.98
1.74
4.07
.52
.42

.24
.44
.42
.10
.44
.37
3. 47
.01
.11
.44
.07

.14
.43
.26
.19
.43
.41
3.88
0
.17
.46
.07

.24
.35
.42

0

.22

.58

.66

4.18
0
.26
1.07

.10

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

A -8. — Clothing

291

Expenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11 y e a rs o f a g e 1—Con.

Total expenditure_____ _ . _ . . _ ------ . $23. 52
. 17
Hats: F elt_____________________ —
. 12
Straw--- --------- ----------- ---Fabric. . . . . _____________ ______
.06
Caps and berets: W ool.
_ __ __ __
.25
O th er___ ____ _
_ __
.04
Coats: Heavy, plain____ _ __ __ -----1.53
.61
fur trimmed___________ _
.01
Fur_____________________________
.79
Light, w ool________ _ __ ------.08
cotton----- ----------------.09
silk, rayon. ------... .
.32
Play suits: Wool k n it------ ------------.08
__________
Cotton su ed e.. .
. 16
Other_____ ____
—.
.
.17
Raincoats____________ _
___________
Sweaters and jackets:
.47
Wool k n it___ ______ ______ ____ _ .
.16
Wool fabric__________________________
.05
Leather, leatherette________________ .
.02
Other_______ _ . . . ._ --------- - .
.19
Suits: W o o l . . _________________________
.01
Silk, r a y o n ________________ . . .
.06
Other___ _____________________ _
Waists and middies:
.02
Silk, rayon--- ------ ----------------- -.15
Cotton------------ ------------------- .
Other_____________________ ________
(6)
.17
Skirts: Wool_________________ -- -----.02
Other______________
________
2. 46
Dresses: C o tto n .___ _________________
Silk, rayon--- ------------- -----.71
.27
W ool__________________________
.09
Other______________ . . . ------Aprons . . . . .
_ _ _. _ _ --- .
.01
.02
Coveralls. __ __ __ ____ _
.
Knickers, breeches, shorts.__ __ . . . _ ._ _
.06
Underwear: Slips, cotton.__ . . . _ __ . . . .
.29
.06
silk_____
....
.05
rayon------ -----------Union suits and combina­
.33
tions: Cotton_____ . .
.23
Wool______________
Silk, rayon_________
.09
.18
Underwaists, shirts.
_ . ...
Bloomers and panties:
.24
Cotton . .
---.41
R a y o n _________________
Silk______________________
.06
Nightgowns and sleeping
.19
pajamas: Cotton, light____
flannel___
.25
.04
Silk, rayon___ .

$9. 26 $15. 60 $21.06 $29.34 $38. 66 $40. 27 $55. 44
.06
.13
.23
.37
.08
.40
.68
.03
.07
.10
.15
.19
.21
.41
.03
.05
.09
.03
.08
.13
.17
.15
.21
.23
.30
.31
.43
.49
.04
.02
.05
.04
.05
.07
.03
.63
1.45
1.05
1.83
2.13
2. 95
3.94
.12
.26
.58
.80
1.18
1.17
1.94
.02
0
.01
0
.04
0
0
.44
.67
1.04
1. 29
.10
1.68
2. 51
.01
.02
.12
.09
. 11
.15
.19
0
.05
.16
.12
0
1. 21
(5)
.07
.49
.13
.24
.64
.68
1.03
.02
.12
.03
.06
.16
.17
.26
.04
.12
.24
.07
.32
.34
.51
.14
.42
.06
.08
.26
.29
.48

0
0

.16
.08
.01
.02
.06

.01
.13

.56
.20
.06
.02
.22
.01
.12

.79
.27
.07
.03
.50

.90
.24
.08
.04
.46

1.27
.25
.10
.12
.33
0
0

.20
.02
3.17
.90
.31
.06
.01
.01
.10
.40
.07
.06

.04
.36
.02
.42
.04
4.08
1.22
.44
.28
.03
.02
.10
.40
.12
.09

.05
.19
.02
.37
.07
4. 03
1.67
.38
.28
.01
.02
.13
.37
.17
.11

.17
.51
.03
.68
.05
4. 78
1.63
.69
.42
.01
.06
.13
.68
.40
.09

.04
. 15

0

.17.

0
0

(5)
.04
0
.03
(5)
1.10
.15
.09
.04
(5)
(5)
.01
.13
.01
.01

(5)
.07
(5)
.08
.02
1.66
.40
.15
.04
.01
.02
.04
.21
.01
.02

.11
.01
2. 22
.69
.28
.07
(5)
.01
.04
.25
.02
.04

.16
.03
.01
.07

.31
.12
.05
.11

.28
. 19
.08
.23

.39
.37
.09
.17

.46
.40
.17
.26

.47
.33
.18
.23

.53
.50
.31
.42

.13
.21
.01

.23
.28
.02

.22
.38
.04

.31
.49
.09

.23
.67
.10

.29
.77
.10

.31
.75
.26

.04
.07

.10
.13
.01

• .18
.33
.02

.21
.36
.09

.31
.46
.09

.39
.41
.11

.44
.54
.16

0

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




.41
.14
.04
.02
.18
.01
.03

.31
.10
.03
.02
.07
.01
.03

0

0

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME

292
T able

A -8. —

Clothing E x p en ditu res , b y Consum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 14,469 W HITE A ND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
an
All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

$0.10
.04
0
.25
.01
.48
.47
2. 21
.31
9.10
89
.20
1.35
.02
.24
.54
.22
.09
.29
.39
.17
.02
.07
.20
.07
.08
.40
.06

$0.15
.10
.03
.18
0
.58
.55
1.75
.38
9. 20
1.20
.28
1.30
.04
.14
.55
. 15
.23
.28
.41
22
0
.12
.21
.10
. 12
.69
.10

$0.20
.34
.03
.29
0
.63
.27
2. 55
.69
11.55
1.12
.39
2.00
0
.33
.59
.29
.33
.47
.61
.29
0
.23
.61
13
. 15
.38
.50

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11 yea rs o f a g e 1—Con.

Total expenditure—Continued.
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
C otton----- _ _ _ ---------- ------------ .
Silk, rayon____ _
___ _ _______ ___
Other_________ _______ __ ______ ____
Bathrobes___ _______ _____________
Kimonos, negligees___ _ _ _ _______
Hose: Silk______ _______________ ___
R a y o n _________ _ _ _________
C otton____ ___ •_ _______ ____ _
W ool____________________________
Shoes: Street and d r e ss _________ _ _ _
Sport__________________ _______
House slippers______ _ ___ _________
Shoe: R epairs... ___ _________ . . . ..
Shines__ __ ___________ _______
Rubbers.________ ______________________
Arctics, gaiters_________________ ______
Gloves: C o tto n _______ _______________
Leather.
__ ___ _. ._
_____
Other.. _ _ . . . ___ ____ ______
Bathing suits, sun suits____ _
___
Handkerchiefs____
_ ______ _________
Furs_____________ ___________________
Mufflers, scarfs._ ___ _________ ____ _
Handbags, p u rses_
_ _ __ ______
Umbrellas________________ ____________
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc_________ ___
Cleaning, repairing
__
_ _ __
Other _ ___ ___ _ -_. ____
_ _ _ _
1 Includes only persons dependent on fam ily
8 Less than 0.5 cent.




$0.05
.03
(5)
.08
(5)
.26
.33
1.45
.16
6.06
.62
.12
.83
.01
.14
.36
.11
.07
.16
.19
.13
(5)
.05
.10
.05
.06
.21
.05

$0.01 $0.02
(5)
(5)
0
(5)
.02
(5)
0
(5)
.07
.15
.09
.19
.80
1. 26
.01
.10
3.15
4.47
.28
.52
.01
.04
.34
.55
(5)
(5)
.08
. 11
. 14
.29
.03
.08
.03
(5)
.05
.10
.04
.08
.05
.08
0
0
.01
.03
.02
.04
.02
(5)
.01
.04
.02
. 10
0
.01
funds for 52 weeks.

$0.03 $0.04
.02
.01
(5)
(5)
.04
.13
0
(5)
.21
.31
.45
.38
1.35
1. 56
.14
.20
5. 55
7.49
.56
.75
.10
.16
.80
.96
0
(5)
.13
.16
.31
.45
.09
.11
.04
.10
.14
.19
.15
.29
.11
.17
0
0
.04 . .07
.07
.10
.06
.05
.06
.08
.14
.33
.04
.05

293

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

A— .—
8

Clothing E xpenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —Continued

PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C loth in g , girls 2 through 5 yea rs o f age

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1

Number of articles:
Hats: F elt_________ - - --------------Straw.---------F a b r ic .._____________ ______
--------Caps and berets: Wool-- __
Other____
. _
Coats: Heavy, plain-- __ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _
fur trimm ed____ _________
Fur_____________________________
Light, wool
_ _ _____ - - - - - _
cotton____________________
silk, r a y o n .- - ___________
Play suits: Wool k n it-_ ------ -----Cotton suede______________
Other ________ ___________ _
Raincoats
- ---- -- --Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit- ___ ______ _
_ _ ------Wool fabric___ ___ - - ----------Leather, leatherette------ ------------Other_____ ____________ ____ ______
Suits:Wool_. __ __ --- ------ - .
Silk, rayon___--- --------- --------Other____________________________
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon ___________ - ----------Cotton._______________ ______
Other_____ _______________ ______ ____
Skirts: W o o l...
--- ------- -- Other---- --- -------- -----Dresses: C o tto n _____________ ___ ___
Silk, rayon____ __ __ ___
_
W ool__________________________
Other---------- ------- -----Aprons __
_ _ - - - - - - - --- -- -_
Coveralls.
-------------------___
■ Knickers, breeches, shorts __ -------- __
Underwear: Slips, cotton __ ------- . _
silk____ ________ _
r a y o n __ ___ _ __ _
Union suits and combina­
tions: C otton--------------Wool_______________
Silk, rayon_____ _ _
Underwaists, shirts____ ___
Bloomers and panties:
C o tto n ___________ ______
R ayon__ _____ _
_ _ __
Silk______________________
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
jamas: Cotton, lig h t- .- ___
flannel____
Silk, rayon.
___

0.07
.06
.06
.32
.08
.17
.03
(4)
.10
.04
.01
.19
.12
.13
.03
.36
.13
(4)
.02
.05
.01
.03

0.02
.04
(4)
.21
.21
.09
(4)
0
.04
.01
(4)
.10
.07
.07
(4)

0.05
.03
.05
.23
.05
.17
.02
0
.05
.03
(4)
.10
.07
.07
.02

0.06
.04
.04
.27
.06
.16
.02
0
.09
.03
.01
.10
.08
.09
.02

0.07
.08
.06
.37
.09
.17
.03
0
.12
.04
.01
.25
.16
.17
.03

.20
.08

.22
.10
.01
.03
.03

.26
.09
(4)
.02
.04
(4)
.02

.43
.19
(4)
.03
.04
0
.04

0

.06
.03
0
(4)

0

0

0

.02

.01
.07
.03
.07

0

.04
.08
.01
.02

0
0
0

.83
.55
.18
.02

.05
(4)
.03
(4)
2.11
.15
.08
.09
.01
. 15
.01
.28
.04
.05

.69
.29
.13
.75

.45
. 18
.06
.29

.64
.16
.08
.56

.54
.23
. 13
.61

.73
.31
.20
.77

.80
.43
.12
1.12

1.07
.41
.06
1.19

1. 38
.85
.24
1.65

.90
.66

1. 23
.46
.04

1.08
.96
.08

1.29
1. 39
.29

1.23
1. 39
.32

1. 77
2.03
.27

2.43
2. 99
.44

.19
.25
.01
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.

.23
.43
.01

.41
.55
.08

.48
.73
.05

.73
.82
.07

.73
1.16
.07




1.24
1.11
.16
.33
.49
.03

0

.14
.19
.01

.04
.01
3.07
.34
.06
.07
.05
.25
. 11
.54
.05
.04

0

.06

.02
.02
3.05
.29
.07
.11
.04
.19
.01
.56
.10
.09

0

.71
.16

.01
.01
2.04
.12
.06
.12
.03
.04
.04
.34
(4)
.01

0

0

.50
.18

0.21
.13
.16
.54
.17
.25
.11
.01
.22
.07
.02
.71
.45
.48
.14

.01
0
(4)
0
1.74
.05
.05
.04
.13
.26
0
.38
0
.07

.01

.01
.04

0

0.07
.07
.06
.42
.15
.17
.08
0
.19
.06
.01
.40
.25
.27
.04

.01
.04
(4)
.03
.01
2.60
.23
.07
.09
.04
. 18
.04
.44
.05
.05

0

0

0.08
.08
.09
.43
.10
.21
.06
(4)
.15
.05
.01
.20
.13
.14
.02

0

.04

.05
.07
3. 59
.39
.03
.06
.02
.37
.01
.73
.04
0

0

.07
.03

.10
0
5. 67
.92
.40
.17
.14
.23
.05
1.12
.17
.03

294

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS— SUMMARY VOLUME
T a b l e A - 8 .— Clothing Expenditures, by Consum ption Level— C ontinued
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families w ith
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C loth in g , girls 2 through 5 y e a rs o f age

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

1—Con.

Number of articles—Continued.
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton______________________________
Silk_______________________ ______
Other____________________________ ___
Bathrobes____________ ____ _________ ___
Kimonos, negligees_____________________
Hose: Silk_______ _______________ ______
R ayon________________ ____ _____
Cotton________________ ____ _____
W o o l... . . ...... .......................... .
Shoes: Street and dress_____ ______ ___
Sport______ _ ________________ _
House slippers.____ ____________________
Shoe: Repairs__________________________
Shines. _____________________________________
Rubbers_______ _________ _________________
Arctics, gaiters__________ ______________ ____
Gloves: Cotton. ........................... ...........................
Leather___________ ________ _______
Other......... ..... ........................ ............... .............
Bathing suits, sun suits. ...................................
H a n d k e rc h iefs.. .......... ............. .................. .............
F u rs.. _ . . .
. . .
_____________________________
Mufflers, sca r fs ______________ ______ ______________
Handbags, purses _________________________ ______ _
U m brellas ____ ______________ ______ ______ ______
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc________ ________
Cleaning, repairing _ ____ __ _________ __
Other ----------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------1 Includes only persons dependent on family
4 Less than 0.005 article.




total annual unit expenditure of—

0.05
.01
(4)
.05
(4)
.65
.99
5.80
.48
2.55
.20
.15

0.02
0
0
0
0
.27
.16
4.60
.14
1.77
.12
.04

0.03
0
0
.01
0
.23
.76
4.75
.22
2.19
.13
.05

.13
.17
.13
.04
.18
.29
.81
(4)
.05
.13
.02

.06
.03
.07
.02
.06
.16
.32

.08
.14
>09
.03
.15
.16
.49

0

.03
.04
.05

0
(4)
.05
0

funds for 52 weeks.

0.04
.01

.02
(4)
.66
.93
5.69
.39
2.48
.18
.11

0.06
(4)
(4)
.06
0
.83
1.24
6. 39
.65
2.68
.22
.23

0.09
.02
.01
.14
.01
.76
1.44
6. 31
.83
2.85
.28
.26

.07
.14
.09
.03
.13
.19
.70

.13
.25
.17
.06
.23
.38
.83

.24
.19
.19
.06
.21
.30
1. 28
.01
.08
.18
.04

0

0

.02
.09
.01

0

.06
.17
.02

0.01
.06

0

0.29
.15

0

.04
.01
.47
1.02
6. 70
.81
2.94
.20
.17

.26
0
2.58
1.15
9.04
.83
4. 49
.35
.37

.13
.22
.11
.06
.26
.62
1.12
0
.08
.21
.03

.35
.44
.27
.11
.53
1.07
2.13
0
.22
.34
.12

TABULAR SUMMARY

295

T a b l e A— .— Clothing E xpen ditu res , b y C onsum ption Level — Continued
8
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Families with
A 11
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
to
$200
$300

Item

C lo th in g , girls 2 through 5 y e a rs o f age

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

i—Con.

Total expenditure_______ . . .
. . . . . _ __ $16.83
.06
Hats: F elt_____________________________
.04
Straw________________________
.04
Fabric__________________________
.19
Caps and berets: W ool--------------- ___
Other_______________
.04
Coats: Heavy, plain___ _ _____________
.96
fur trimmed __ __________
.25
Fur_____________________________
.01
.45
Light, w ool-.- __________cotton_____ ___________ _
.11
silk, rayon________________
.02
Play suits: Wool k n it___________________
.63
Cotton suede________________
. 15
Other_____________________ _
.25
.03
Raincoats....................... ..................
_ __
Sweaters and jackets:
.44
Wool knit- __ ______________________
.18
Wool fabric___________________________
Leather, leatherette. _____ ____________
(5)
.03
Other--------- -------- ------- ----------.27
Suits: W ool......... ........................ ........ ... ..
Silk, rayon....................... .................
.01
.09
Other______________________ _____
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon__________________________
(6)
.02
C otton___ _______ ______________ _____
Other____________ _________ __________
(5)
.03
Skirts: W ool...... ..................... .....................
Other__________________________
(5)
2.10
Dresses: C o tto n .______________________
Silk, rayon
______________ _
.36
.11
W ool__________________________
.07
Other________________________
.01
Aprons________ ___ ___ . . . ------.10
Coveralls____________ ____ ____ _____ _
.02
Knickers, breeches, shorts.__ __ --------. 15
Underwear: Slips, cotton---- -- --------silk__________________
.03
rayon___ _ _ __ _ . . .
.02
Union suits and combina­
tions: Cotton_____________
.35
W ool______________
.22
Silk, rayon_____ _ _
.06
Underwaists, shirts . . . . . .
.23
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton____ _ _______ . . .
.22
R a y o n ...------------------.25
Silk___ ______ ___________
.05
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
.19
jamas: Cotton, light______
.35
flannel_____
.03
Silk, r a y o n _______

$6.80 $10.18 $13. 54 $18.91 $23.89 $27. 46 $45.97
.04
.01
.05
.07
.25
.11
.08
.03
.02
.03
.05
.07
.07
.10
.02
.02
.04
.09
.04
.18
(5)
.10
.24
.42
.10
.15
.23
.28
.04
.02
.12
.02
.06
.10
.06
.35
.77
.87
1.01
1.39
1.02
1. 76
. 13
. 17
.15
.43
.62
1. 37
(5)
0
0
0
0
.04
.10
0
.09
.19
.38
.51
.73
1. 20
.91
.02
.05
.13
.24
.08
.23
.18
.01
.02
.02
.06
.04
.01
(5)
.15
.32
.44
.77
.92
1.82
1. 33
.04
.08
.11
22
.32
.43
.18
.06
.13
.72
.31
.18
.37
.53
.03
.02
.03
.02
.06
.10
(5)

0
0

.14
.07
.03
.10
.01

0
(5)
0
(5)
0
.86
.05
.05
.03
.03
.10
0
.08
0
.02

0

.22
.09
.01
.02
.13

0

.06

.51
.22
(5)
.02
. 16
0
.07

0

.01
.03

0

0

.64
.24
.01
.38
.03
.20

0

0

.97
.37
.15
.51
.01
. 11

1. 23
.85
0
0
1. 23
0
.24
.02
.02

.01
(5)
1. 29
.14
.07
.09
.01
.03
.03
. 11
(5)
.01

.02
(5)
.01
(5)
1. 55
.24
.10
.06
(5)
.09
.01
.09
.02
.02

.05
(5)
2.46
.42
.10
.05
.01
. 15
.02
. 19
.02
.02

.04
(5)
2.91
.47
.14
.10
.01
.11
.01
.18
.07
.05

.17
.10
.02
.05

.27
.10
.02
.14

.29
.14
.05
.17

.35
.24
.08
.23

.38
.38
.05
.38

.66
.35
.04
.36

.97
.69
. 16
.98

.17
.10

.21
.09
.01

.18
.20
.02

.26
.32
.09

.21
.38
.08

.34
.46
. 13

.47
.80
.20

.07
.10
.16
.09
(5)
(5)
i Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
* Less than 0.5 cent.

.12
.28
.01

.26
.40
.06

.33
.55
.03

.42
.68
.05

.51
.96
.07

242949°— 41------20




0

0

.01

.30
.09
(5)
.04
.26
.01
.07

0

0

.03

0

.02

.04
.03
3. 73
.65
.07
.04
.01
.20
.01
.31
.02
0

0

.07
0
5.80
1.85
.54
.11
.02
.14
.07
.44
.18
.02

296

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME
T able A —
8.— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— Continued
PERSONS i IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$0. 03
(5)
0
.02
(5)
.13
.17
1.03
. 10
3.91
.26
.06
.13
0
.07
. 16
.03
.02
.06
.14
.03
0
.02
.02
.01
.04
.08
.04

$0. 04
(5)
0)
.09
0
.18
.24
1.19
.20
4. 73
.30
.13
.17
(5)
. 12
.30
.06
.03
. 11
.27
.05
0
.03
.04
.01
.05
.17
.03

$0.08
.02
.01
.23
.01
.20
.32
1. 32
.25
5.69
.41
.15
.26
.02
.23
.26
.09
.05
. 11
.31
.04
.03
.04
.05
.05
.05
.25
.05

$0.01 $0.17
.04
. 14
0
0
.06
.40
.03
0
.13
.60
.22
. 2C
1.35
1.97
.3 1
.28
6.49 10.04
.41
.30
.12
.21
.51
. 14
0
0
. 15
.3;
.26
.5f
.06
. 2(
.04
.1C
.27
.14
.43
.41
.08
.21
0
0
.06
.1C
.05
.01
.03
.11
.09
. 11
.45
.61
.10
0

$700
and
over

C loth in g , girls 2 through 5 yea rs o f a g e 1—Con.

Total expenditure—Continued
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton__________________
________
Silk_________________________________
Other-------------- ------------------B a th r o b e s.-------------------------Kimonos, negligees_____ ______ ___ _ _
Hose: Silk_______________
________ _
Rayon________ ___ ______________
C otton________________ _
.
W ool____________ _
_______ _
Shoes: Street and dress.- . . . __ _ _
Sport______________ __________
House slippers_________________________
Shoe: Repairs_____ _____ _____ ____
Shines________________________ _
Rubbers______ _ __ ___ . . . . . . . . _
Arctics, gaiters_______ _
Gloves: Cotton. _ ----------------------Leather_________________ ____
Other... __ _ _ . . . _____ ___
Bathing suits, sun suits
_______ _____
Handkerchiefs.. . _
._.
F u r s ___________
_
. _______
Mufflers, scarfs ._
. . . ____. . .
Handbags, purses____ _____ _____ _____
Umbrellas_____ . . . . . .
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc_____________
Cleaning, rep a irin g .--Other______ _ _______ _______ . . .
1 Includes only persons dependent on f amily
6 Less than 0.5 cent.




$0. 01 $0.01
0
0
0
0
0
.01
0
0
.04
.05
.02
.13
.84
.68
.05
.05
2. 23
2. 93
. 17
. 13
.01
.03
.06
.09
0
0
.04
.06
. 15
.03
.02
.03
.01
.02
.02
.06
.05
.09
.02
.02
0
0
.01
(5)
.01
(5)
.01
0
.03
(5)
.01
.04
.04
. 10
funds for 52 weeks.
$0. 04
.01
(5)
.08
(5)
. 14
.18
1.09
. 14
4. 37
.26
.09
. 16
(5)
. 11
. 21
.05
.03
.09
.21
.04
(5)
.03
.03
.02
.05
.14
.04

297

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e A— .— Clothing Expenditures , b y C onsum ption Level — Continued
8
PERSONS IN 14,469 WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

C loth in g , in fa n ts

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

3

Number of articles:
Caps, hoods, bonnets____ _ _ _ ____
Coats ___ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sweaters, sacques_______ ______
Sweater suits_________ _ _ _ _ _ _
Dresses, rompers___ __
___ _
Skirts, gertrudes_____ ____ __ ___
Shirts, bands _ _ _ _____ __
D iapers.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _______ __
Sleeping garments._ _______ ___
Stockings_ _ __ _________
_
Bootees, shoes. _ _______ _____
Layettes ___ ________ _____ _
Other____ _____________ _ _ _

0. 70
.27
.61
.38
2. 34
.73
2. 45
9. 37
1.40
4. 30
1.84
.25

0. 27
.05
.28
. 18
1.40
.30
1.20
6. 28
.60
2. 30
1.07
.05

0.59
.21
.49
.18
1.95
.54
1.64
6. 30
.76
3.91
1.55
.03

0. 55
.25
.46
.31
2.11
.66
2.41
7.11
1.27
4. 43
1.83
.21

0. 65
.28
.70
.51
2. 36
.80
2.52
8. 62
1.35
4. 26
2.11
.24

0. 92
.29
.84
.51
2. 68
.89
2.76
10.28
1.81
4. 72
2.01
.28

0.94
.36
.69
.55
3.01
.78
3.18
12. 98
1.88
5.44
2.07
.93

1.03
.29
.78
.36
2. 79
1.03
3.41
18.80
2. 25
3. 85
1.70

$15. 62
.62
1.29
.68
1.26
2.13
.32
1.05
1.30
1.26
1.24
2.90
.61
.96

$20.14
.83
1. 33
.92
.98
2. 41
.74
1.60
2. 33
1. 30
.96
2.22
1. 78
2. 74

.22

Average expenditure per person
Total expenditure____ _ _______ __ _
Caps, hoods, bonnets. _ ________
Coats___ __ ___
_ _______ __
Sweaters, sacques____
Sweater suits. _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
Dresses, rompers______ ________
Skirts, gertrudes... _ ____
Shirts, bands
_______ _ _ _
D ia p e r s ___ _ _ ____________
Sleeping garments.
__ __ _ _
Stockings.
_ _ ._
_ __ __
Bootees, shoes.__ ___ __ _ __ _ _
Layettes ___
_ _ _______
Other____
________

$11. 66
.42
.84
.56
.89
1.52
.29
.93
1.00
.83
.87
2. 04
.58
.89

$3.98
.10
. 15
.20
.26
.49
.08
.33
.51
.21
.37
.70
. 12
.46

$6.91
.25
.48
.35
.31
.99
. 14
.53
.63
.40
.68
1.43
.25
.47

$9. 30
.33
.69
.41
.75
1.21
.24
.86
.72
.66
.84
1. 79
.28
.52

$11. 87
.40
.82
.61
1.27
1. 55
.28
.97
.86
.86
.89
2. 30
.43
.63

$15.06
.55
1.05
.76
1. 23
1.91
.32
1.12
1.19
1.23
1.00
2. 45
.98
1. 27

3 Infants 1 to 2 years of age are included only if dependent on family funds for 52 weeks; those under 1 year
of age are included regardless of the number of weeks dependent on family funds.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

298
T able

A— .—
8

Clothing Expenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C loth in g e x p en d itu res

Percentage of families in survey___________
100.0
18.1
25.4
22.1
16.3
9.3
5.0
3.8
Average number of clothing expenditure
2.84
4.32
units per fam ily________________________
2.47
3.07
2.16
2.10
2.03
2.21
Percentage of families spending for—
Ready-made clothing, dry cleaning, and
accessories____________________________
99.9 100.0
99.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
62.1
Yard goods and findings_________________
55.2
60.3
51.6
49.0
47.7
46.5
64.6
Paid help for sewing____________________
7.6
9.3
6.4
8.4
6.8
8.8
3.8
12.3
Percentage of families reporting clothing
received as gifts_________________________
32.0
36.1
32.0
31.7
23.0
31.2
30.2
56.8
Average expenditure per family for clothing— $100. 58 $80. 68 $91. 79 $98. 31 $99. 64 $120. 09 $128. 70 $185. 84
Ready-made clothing, dry cleaning, and
accessories____________________________ 97. 92 77. 65 89.19 95. 90 97. 58 118. 20 126. 61 177. 90
2. 84
2. 49
Yard goods and findings_________________
2. 45
2.24
1. 81
1. 75
2.04
6. 52
.19
Paid help for sewing____________________
.21
.11
.17
.25
.14
.05
1.42
Average value per family of clothing received
5.24
as gifts (incomplete) 2__________________
3. 77
3. 90
3. 56
3. 08
3. 22
4.13 10. 49
Percentage of families having men 18 years of
96.8
97.4
age and over 1___________________________
97.5
97.1
96.1
91.1
98.6
94.9
Number of men and boys 18 years of age and
1,801
365
373
266
over1__________________________________
487
168
76
66
Average number of men and boys 18 years of
age and over per family having such men
1.33
1.26
1.11
1. 08
and boys 1______________________________
1.18
1.17
1.05
1.18
Percentage of families having boys 12 through
37.1
17.6
7.4
10.7
17 years of age 1_______________________
15.0
2.7
0
0
143
Number of boys 12 through 17 years of age L—
40
289
83
19
4
0
0
Average number of boys 12 through 17 years
1.36
of age per family having such boys 1______
1.18
1.09
1.00
1.23
1.00
0
0
Percentage of families having boys 6 through
45.2
23.9
9.8
11 years of age U ______________________
17.8
5.5
3.4
2.7
1.3
173
116
Number of boys 6 through 11 years of ageU__
43
14
2
353
4
1
Average number of boys 6 through 11 years
1.22
of age per family having such boys 1 ------1.27
1.27
1.35
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Percentage of families having boys 2 through
26.1
14.9
6.6
5.1
5 years of age 1________________________
11.2
0
0
2.7
89
66
Number of boys 2 through 5 years of age 1__
28
16
4
203
0
0
Average number of boys 2 through 5 years of
1.20
age per family having such boys 1________
1. 22
1.22
1.12
0
1.16
1.00
1.00
Percentage of families having women and
98.9
99.2
99.1
girls 18 years of age and over 1____________
99.2
98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0
Number of women and girls 18 years of age
516
420
395
296
70
and over 1______________________________ 1,949
161
91
Average number of women and girls 18 years
of age and over per family having such
1.41
1.22
1.31
1.17
1.19
women and girls 1______________________
1. 25
1.10
1.15
Percentage of families having girls 12 through
39.6
23.4
13.9
7.4
4.1
17 years of age 1_________________________
0
17.8
3.8
Number of girls 12 through 17 years of age U_
155
51
0
107
23
345
6
3
Average number of girls 12 through 17 years
1.39
0
of age per family having such girls i______
1.24
1.15
1.06
1.23
1.00
1.00
Percentage of families having girls 6 through
50.2
20.9
12.7
6.6
2.1
3.8
0
11 years of age 1_________________________
18.5
Number of girls 6 through 11 years of age 1_
_
195
22
90
50
363
3
0
3
Average number of girls 6 through 11 years
of age per family having such girls i_______
1. 25
1.37
1.09
1.14
1. 31
1.00
0
1.00
Percentage of families having girls 2 through
28.3
15.9
.4
4.3
.7
1.3
1.7
5 years of age 1____________________
..
10.3
94
70
18
1
2
1
Number of girls 2 through 5 years of age 1___
187
1
Average number of girls 2 through 5 years of
1.22
1.18
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.16
1.11
1.00
age per family having such girls 1________
Percentage of families having infants under
20.5
10.8
8.1
0
9.1
.7
5.1
3.1
2 years of age 3__________________________
44
4
0
60
28
1
145
8
Number of infants under 2 years of age 3____
Average number of infants under 2 years of
1.02
1. 00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0
1.02
1.04
age per family having infants 3___________
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
2 The aggregates on which these averages are based do not include gifts of clothing reported received by
4. 5 percent of the families, but for which they could not estimate the value.
3 Infants 1 to 2 years of age are included only if dependent on family funds for 52 weeks; those under 1 year
of age are included, regardless of number of weeks dependent on family funds.




TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

299

A -8.— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level—Continued
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
$300
$400
$500
$600
$700
Under $200
lies
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200
$300
$600
$700
$400
$500
over

C lo th in g , m e n a nd b o ys 18 yea rs o f age a n d over

1

Number of articles:
0. 42
Hats: Felt_____________________________
Straw_______ _____ ______________
.19
.26
Caps: Wool_________________ ______ _
. 11
Other------------------------.10
Overcoats-------------- ----------------- .03
Topcoats_________________ ___________
.04
Raincoats____ _
- -----------------.09
Jackets: H eavy fabric--------------------.03
Leather_
_
_________ ____ _
.02
Other_____________
______
.12
Sweaters: H eavy____
„ ________ ____
.08
L ight____________
________
.19
Suits: H eavy w ool_____________________
.17
Lightweight wool________________
.03
Cotton, linen________ ___ _ _
Palm Beach-_- _ __ ___________
.01
.01
O th e r ...___________ . . . ---------.26
Trousers: W ool_________________ _______
.35
Cotton. . . . _________________
.04
O ther... ____________________
.70
Overalls, coveralls. . . . . . . . . _____
1.10
Shirts: Cotton, work____________________
Cotton and other, dress____ _____
1. 57
.02
Wool___________________________
.58
Underwear: Suits, cotton, knit_______ . . .
.24
w oven___ _ ..
.23
cotton and wool___ . . .
.04
rayon and silk ________
1.09
Undershirts, cotton__________
.29
cotton and wool-.
.06
rayon and silk_
_
1.31
Shorts, cotton.
. . . . ____
.04
rayon and silk_______
.18
Drawers, cotton and w o o l.._
.28
Pajamas and nightshirts___ _
.91
Shoes: Street-----------------------------W ork___________________________
.50
.02
Canvas.. _____________ . . . ____
.02
Other______. . . . . . _________ . . .
Boots: Rubber. ___________ ___________
.05
Leather _ ____________ ___ ____
(4)
.02
Arctics..
----- -----. . . _________ __ .
. 13
Rubbers______________ _______________ .
Shoe: Repairs____ ______ _____
S h in e s _____ ___
__ _
2. 92
Hose: Cotton, heavy_____ _______ _______
3.50
dress____
.
______
R ayon_________
_______________
1. 69
.61
Silk_____________________________
W ool____________________________
.10
Gloves: Work, cotton___________________
1.79
.36
other___________________
Street, leather......... ............. ...........
.11
.02
other____ _____________ _
T ies______ _______ _____________________
1.20
.16
Collars____________ ___________ ________
.02
Bathing suits, sun suits_________________
Handkerchiefs__________________ ______
3. 88
Accessories_________ _______________ . . .
.18
.02
Bathrobes............................ ...........................
Cleaning, repairing_________ ___________

0.24
. 13
.19
.09
.05
0)
.03
.07
.01
.02
.08
.05
.08
. 11
.04
(4)
.01
.17
.33
.04
.63
.99
.95
.01
.40
.19
.18
.01
.76
. 16
(4)
.87
(4)
. 16
.09
.70
.49
.03
.01
.05
.01
.02
.08

0. 38
. 13
.26
. 11
.09
.01
.05
.08
.03
.02
.13
.06
. 18
.15
.02
(4)
.01
.27
.38
.02
.68
1.08
1.41
.03
.55
.23
.16
.03
1.01
.26
.04
1.22
.01
.15
. 14
.88
.49
.01
.01
.04
•(4)
.01
. 10

0. 48
.24
. 27
. 14
. 11
.02
.05
.12
.04
.01
.09
.10
. 17
.18
.03
.01
.01
.27
.38
.06
.78
1.18
1.63
.01
.57
.33
.28
.03
1.32
.36
.08
1.43
.05
.27
.28
.96
.51
.01
.02
.04
(4)
.02
. 13

0.47
.25
.30
.09
. 11
.06
.05
. 11
.02
.02
. 16
.09
.26
. 16
.03
.01
.01
.29
.35
.03
.86
1.13
1.72
.04
.69
.28
.27
.02
1.19
.29
.05
1.46
.07
.10
.46
1.03
.55
.02
.02
.07
.01
.04
. 18

0. 49
.21
.28
. 12
.17
.06
.03
. 10
.03
.03
.15
.09
.28
.28
.01
.01
.02
.27
.29
.09
.66
.97
2.01
.01
.68
.21
.28
.08
1.17
.22
. 13
1.31
.09
.16
.42
.98
.51
.02
.05
.07
0
.06
.18

0. 68
.32
.31
.07
. 17
.03
.01
.08
.01
0
.09
.09
.32
.30
.03
0
.03
.32
.31
. 10
.62
1.18
2. 77
.01
.64
.12
.38
.09
1.20
.28
.30
2.02
. 13
.15
.63
1.09
.31
.02
.05
.02
0
0
.22

0. 75
.33
.36
.05
.21
.12
.02
.08
.05
.11
.12
. 17
.51
.22
.03
.02
.05
.26
.21
.01
.43
1. 42
2.64
0
.61
.18
.11
.25
1.37
1.11
.07
2.15
.07
.53
1.05
1.19
.47
.01
.02
.03
0
.04
.20

2. 30
2. 66
.71
.32
0
1. 25
.14
.02
.01
.62
.10
(4)
2. 77
.09
0

3. 07
3. 43
1.67
.63
.10
1.96
.23
.09
.01
.94
.02
.03
3.18
.14
.01

2. 77
3. 70
1.75
.54
.09
1. 61
.61
.11
.02
1.34
.08
.02
4.29
.26
.01

2. 67
3.33
2. 05
.67
.12
1.76
.66
. 14
.02
1.43
.24
.04
4. 78
.16
.04

3. 43
3.79
1.87
.77
.26
2. 60
.28
.21
.02
2.03
.14
.02
5. 26
.27
.06

5.09
6. 97
3.21
1.27
.09
1.59
.24
.21
.02
1.46
.35
.02
4.78
.23
.07

3. 34
3. 44
3.24
1.04
. 19
1.38
.26
.24
.02
2.32
1.42
0
4. 52
.22

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
* Less than 0.005 article.




.08

300

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
T able

A -8 .—

Clothing E xpenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average expenditure per person

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C lo th in g , m e n a n d b o ys 18 yea rs o f age and
o v e r 1—Continued

Total e x p e n d i t u r e __
_ _ ____________ $33.13 $18.66 $26. 52 $33.16 $39. 34 $49. 43 $55.06 $69. 31
Hats: Felt_____________________________
1.09
.50
.87
1.12
1. 29
1.39
2.61
2. 57
Straw_______ __ ______
__ _
.33
.22
. 18
.42
.40
.41
.68
.73
Caps: W ool___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ _ _ _
.26
. 17
.24
.32
.34
.27
.30
.45
Other_________ _______________ _
.07
05
.04
.08
.09
. 12
.04
.02
Overcoats______ _____ _
__
1.99
.78
1.44
2. 00
2. 02
4. 00
5. G
2
3. 46
Topcoats____________
_____ ____ __
.44
.04
.10
.33
.89
1.00
.57
2. 25
Raincoats____ _ _________ ________ _
.20
.18
.21
.27
.24
.13
.03
. 12
Jackets: Heavy fabric, __ _______ ______
.31
. 19
.24
.42
.41
.34
.53
.30
Leather___ _______
_______
. 13
.04
.13
.19
.09
.24
.06
.29
.04
__ __ _
.02
Other______ _____
.03
.02 • .04
.09
0
. 19
Sweaters: H eavy. __ ________ ______
. 15
.27
.24
.28
.39
.39
. 17
.24
. 11
L ight________________________
.06
.09
. 14
. 13
. 16
. 10
.22
Suits: H eavy wool.
___ ________ _
4. 47
1.67
3. 68
3. 39
6. 01
7.31
7.89 14. 42
Lightweight wool....... ...... ................
1.91
3.16
2.11
3. 02
3. 36
6.77
6.80
4.55
Cotton, lin en .__ ___ _ _______ . . .
.18
. 19
.16
.20
.34
. 13
.10
.32
Palm Beach________ _ _______
.06
.03
.01
.11
.07
. 14
0
. 15
Other. . ._ ___________________
. 17
.21
.04
. 14
.64
.06
. 12
1.23
Trousers: Wool_____ _______ ___________
.77
.79
.46
.77
.88
1.24
.83
1. 23
Cotton_____ _ _ ________ . . .
.64
.56
.50
.60
.55
.56
.50
.31
O ther... . . . _______________ .
.08
.06
.03
. 12
.08
.17
.21
.02
Overalls, coveralls____________ _______ _
1.11
.85
1.12
1. 24
1.37
1.15
.97
.73
Shirts: Cotton, work______ ._ ___ ______
.88
.79
.76
.92
.96
.82
.93
1.63
.92
1. 52
Cotton and other, dress______ __
1.88
2.04
2.09
2.66
3.61
3.96
W ool___________________________
.04
.03
.01
.02
.06
.01
.01
0
.58
.51
Underwear: Suits, cotton, k n it___ _ . . .
.40
.55
.79
.72
.70
.83
woven ..
.22
. 15
. 18
.33
.26
. 11
.26
. 19
cotton and wool
_ _
. 25
. 17
. 17
.26
.44
.41
.20
.30
rayon and silk.
. ._
.04
.01
.03
.02
.02
.25
.07
. 17
Undershirts, cotton _ _ . . .
.34
.20
.30
.40
.37
.39
.40
.69
cotton and wool.
. 14
. 14
.07
.10
. 19
.12
.10
.55
rayon and silk..
.02
.03
.02
.03
. 12
.07
.03
(5)
Shorts, cotton______________
.42
.24
.44
.37
.48
.69
.43
1.06
rayon and silk. . . . . .
.02
.02
.01
.03
.04
.06
.03
(5)
Drawers, cotton and wool___
. 11
.09
.08
.17
.05
.09
. 11
.32
.35
.09
.62
Pajamas and nightshirts. ._
. 13
.35
.79
1.41
.56
Shoes: Street... __ __ ___ ______________
3. 40
2.08
2.96
3. 59
4.13
4. 93
4.29
5.90
Work___________________________
1.27
1.15
1. 20
1.24
1.46
1.58
.92
1.49
.02
.02
.02
.03
.05
Canvas_______ _ __ ___ _ __
.04
.05
.01
O ther... ______________ _____ . . .
.05
.02
.03
.07
.07
.06
.28
.04
Boots: Rubber. _________________ _
. 16
. 14
. 12
. 16
.25
.04
.19
.11
.01
.02
.01
.01
.03
0
0
0
L e a th e r ._____________ ________
.05
.04
.02
Arctics........ ........ .......................... ... .........
.01
.09
.18
0
.04
. 15
.09
. 12
. 15
.24
Rubbers . ___________________________
.20
.25
.27
.90
.53
.77
.99
1.08
1.21
1.35
Shoe: Repairs_________
____________
1.28
.30
.04
. 12
.28
.24
.65
.91
1.69
S h i n e s . . ___ _._ . . _______
. 47
.34
.45
.45
.75
Hose: Cotton, heavy_____ __ _ . . . . . .
.46
.54
.97
.69
.45
dress____________________
.72
.79
.58
.82
1.55
.94
Rayon____________ ____ __________
.39
. 14
.38
.51
.37
.47
.78
.90
.18
.15
.22
Silk_____________________________
.06
.18
.27
.47
.48
.04
0
,06
____
.03
.03
.10
.03
.05
Wool___ _______________ _
.55
.64
.94
.74
Gloves: Work, cotton— ................ .............
.56
.38
.53
.46
.15
.17
.32
.12
.24
.14
other_____ _____ _________
.06
.11
. 15
.02
.11
.15
.18
.31
.28
.35
Street, leather__________________
.02
other________________ ..
.01
.03
.02
.03
.05
.03
(5)
.55
.21
.60
.67
.92
.85
.36
1. 71
Ties________________________ ___________
.04
.02
.01
.02
.06
.03
.09
.42
Collars_________ . . . _________________
.01
.01
.02
.01
.03
.03
0
Bathing suits, sun suits. _ ______________
.01
.29
.34
. 18
.22
.38
.38
.33
.56
Handkerchiefs__________________________
.02
.12
.14
.11
.08
.05
.08
Accessories_____________________ ______ _
.18
.08
0
.01
.06
.16
.22
.23
.29
Bathrobes______________ ___......... ...........
1.75
.92
1. 32
1.87
2.10
2.46
3.19
4.05
Cleaning, repairing_________________ . . .
.27
.15
.11
.75
Other____ _______ ______________________
.36
.11
.92
.14
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

A— —
8.

301

Clothing E xpen ditu res , b y C onsum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles pur­
chased per person

Average expenditure per person

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—

Item
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

Clothing-, b o ys 12 through 1 7 1
y e a rs o f age

Total______ _
__
Hats: Felt_______________
0. 20
.05
Straw. _________
Caps: Wool. __
.51
Other__________ __ .
. 16
Overcoats. __ _______
.10
.01
Topcoats. . . . . ___
.03
Raincoats
. 13
Jackets: Heavy fabric_____
.04
Leather. ___ .
.02
Other___________
.31
Sweaters: Heavy______ . . .
.26
Light-------------------0
Play suits: Wool knit. . _ _
.01
Cotton suede...
0
Other__ ____
.26
Suits: Heavy wool __ . . . .
.18
Lightweight wool__
.03
Cotton, linen.. _ __
0
Palm Beach.. _____
.02
Other________ ___
.52
Trousers: W o o l . . ___
.51
Cotton___
_ .
. 13
Other__________
.32
Overalls, coveralls.__
Shirts and blouses:
.30
Cotton work
_
1.87
C otton and other, dress___
.03
W ool__________________
Underwear:
.45
Suits, cotton, k n it______
w oven____
.23
.29
cotton and wool__
.02
rayon and silk ._ _
.76
Undershirts, cotton _ _
cotton and
. 24
wool
rayon and
.01
silk. __ _
.99
Shorts, cotton. _ _ . . . _
rayon and silk___
0)
.08
Drawers, cotton and wool.
. 13
Pajamas and nightshirts. _
1.77
Shoes: Street. . . . . . . . . .
.05
Work. _ _ . . .
.44
C a n v a s ___ __
.03
Other___ __ . . . - . .
.01
Boots: Rubber _______ .
.01
Leather. . .
... .
.02
Arctics
. . . __
. 12
Rubbers__ _ _ . . .
Shoe: Repairs
Shines
3. 00
Hose: Cotton, heavy _.
2.84
dress______
.90
Rayon _ _
.04
Silk_______________
. 10
Wool______________
.08
Gloves: Work, cotton ____
other _______ (4)
.07
Street, leather _____
.11
other. _ _
.90
T ies... ._ _ ______ _____
Collars _ _ .
. . . .
(4
)
.04
Bathing suits, sun suits___
1.62
Handkerchiefs___
.13
Accessories. _____ _ . . .
.02
Bathrobes. ____ ____ . .
Cleaning, repairing
Other____
_____ _ __
1 Includes only persons dependent on
4 Less than 0.005 article.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




0.10
.02
.42
. 13
.02
.01
.01
.09
.02
.03
.22
.24
0
.01
0
. 19
. 13
.02
0
.01
.50
.44
.06
.29
.32

0. 27
.07
.52
. 13
. 18
0
.01
. 12
.05
.03
.28
.30
0
.01
0
.29
. 19
0
0
.01
.43
.42
.21
.42
.31

0. 30
. 11
.68
.34
. 13
.04
.10
.21
.08
.02
.63
.22
0
.02
0
.37
.28
.07
0
.02
.66
.85
.21
.30
.13

0.37
.05
.82
.18
.27
.04
.14
.17
.04
0
.45
.36
0
.02
0
.33
.27
.05
0
.18
.74
.61
.08
. 16
.47

$23. 29 $13. 92 $26. 29 $38. 77 $43. 33
.14
.36
.43
.61
.98
.06
.03
.08
. 12
.01
.34
.65
.48
.33
.23
.14
.05
.07
.17
.08
2. 22
2.24
.19
4.03
1.36
.64
.02
. 12
0
.46
.02 (5
.32
.66
. 11
)
.62
.38
.64
.36
.23
.12
.07
.13
.07
.31
.05
.06
.08
.07
0
.74
.53
.30
.43
1.43
.34
.21
.32
.41
.28
0
0
0
0
0
.02
.05
.15
.03
.01
0
0
0
0
0
2.43
4.56
4. 74
5.02
3. 57
2. 20
1. 22
2.41
5.12
3.62
. 11
.08
0
.35
.21
0
0
0
0
0
.11
.26
.01
.10
2.63
.94
.92
1.06
1.65
1. 23
.52
.62
.56
.50
.80
.32
.19
.10
.30
.08
.21
.39
.14
.28
.36
.21

2. 49
.09

2. 63
0

1.69
0

1.37
.02

.49
.25
.14

.50
.28
.48

.90

.50
.09
.48
.18
1.26

.40

.28
. 13
. 18
.01
.19

. 11

.17

.49

.84

.63
.01
.08
.05
1.41
.03
.26
.01
0
.01
.01
.06

.02
1. 23
0
. 14
.09
1.80
.08
.62
.07
.03
.02
.05
.07

0
1.85
0
0
.24
2.49
.03
.87
.03
.04
0
.03
.30

0

1.89
2. 02
.22
0
.03
.06
.01
.01
.03
.36
.01
.02
.71
. 12!
0

4. 09
3. 27
1.03
.09
. 18
. 15
0
. 12
. 13
1. 36
0
.03
2.19'
. 14
0

5.29
3.10
2. 85
0
0
.08
0
.07
.26
1. 44
0
.08
3.71
.07
.07

2. 02
5.90
1. 28
.20
.31
.04
0
.44
.29
1. 61
0
.09
1.60
.26
. 13

.22

.07

1.33
(4)

0

.40
.25
.30
.59

0

0

0

0
0

.81

.51
2. 66
.05
.22
0
0
0
0
.39

0

. 18

.

16

.03
. 11
.87
.04
.57
.53
. 17
.01
.04
. 03

(5
)

.09
.08
.23

(5
)

.06
. 11
.04
.07
.51

.32
14
. 11

.32
.07
.29
.09
.30

.40
.20
.30
0
. 12

.

0

. 19

.06

.15

(5
)

(5)

.48
1.40
0

.01
.32

(5
)

.03
. 13
4.18
. 10
.33
.04
.04

.10
2.12
0

.04
0

.25

.16

1.77
.05

.22

. 12

(5
)

.11

family funds for 52 weeks.

.92

(5
)

.03
.04
2. 90
.05
.20

(5
)

0

.02
.01
.04
.44
.01
.27
.34
.04
0
.02
.02
.01

(5
)

.02
.09

(5
)

.02
.04
.01
0
.22!
.03;

0

.05
.07
4. 57
.15
.35
. 13
.05
.07
.07
.07
.91
.06
.71
.48
.27
.02
.07
.05
0
. 11
.04
.33
0
.05i
.14
.03;
0
.54

.02!

.14
0
0
0

.47

.34
6. 26
.04
.78
.02
. 18
0
.04
.30
2.13
. 10
1.46
.75
.34
0
0
.02
0
. 11
.25
.39
0
. 11
.32:
.05i
.27
1.15i
.32!

.24
0
0
0

.26

.47
7.04
.29
.27
0
0
0
0
.34
1.17
0
.38
1. 49
.30
.03
.10
.01
0
.57
.31
.44
0
.31
.08
. 13
.35
1.12
.58

302

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME
T able

A -8 .—

Clothing Expenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles pur­
chased per person
Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—

Item

fami­
lies Under $200 to $300 to
$300
$400
$200

$400
and
over

C loth in g , b o ys 6 through 11 y e a rs
o f age 1

T o t a l__ _______ _ _
Hats: F elt____ _ _____ .
Straw___
Caps: WooL
_____
Other, _
__ __
Overcoats,
Topcoats____
Raincoats . _
Jackets: Heavy fabric . ,,
Leather, _ _ _
O t h e r .,_______ _
Sweaters: H eavy_________
Light___ _____
Play suits: Wool k n it_____
Cotton suede,_,
Other_____ _
Suits: Heavy wool
Lightweight wool_
_
Cotton, linen ____
Palm B each,__
_
Other_____________
Trousers: W ool. . _
C otton__ ___ _
Other...
Overalls, coveralls
Shirts and blouses:
Cotton and other, except
w o o l,..
Wool_________ _____
Underwear:
Suits, cotton, kn it______
woven_____
cotton and wool___
rayon and silk____
Undershirts, cotton.
cotton and
w o o l___
r a y o n and
silk _
Shorts, cotton. _
rayon and silk___
Drawers, cotton and wool
Pajamas and nightshirts,
Shoes: Street,
__ __
Canvas_____
Other. _ _______
Boots: Rubber _ __
Leather, __ __ _
Arctics.,
_______
Rubbers____ _
__ _
Shoe: Repairs
Shines., _
Hose: Cotton, heavy___ .
dress., . . .
R ayon,,, _
__
Silk_________
W ool_____________
Gloves: Cotton__________
Leather__________
Other___£_______
T ies,., ,_
______
Collars.
___ __
_
Bathing suits, sun suits___
Handkerchiefs. _ _ _ _ _ .
Accessories,_ _ _______
Bathrobes___ _____ __
Cleaning, repairing
Other. ____
___ _ ___

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies Under $200 to $300 to $400
and
$200
$300
$400
over

0.07
.02
. 56
.20
. 16
.01
.03
.07
.07
.01
.31
.37
.07
. 10
.09
. 16
.17
.30
0
.04
.35
.52
.09
.58

0.04
(4)
.42
. 15
. 11
.01
.02
.02
.06
0
.26
.33
.03
.04
.03
.08
. 12
. 17
0
.01
.33
.48
.05
.49

0. 05
.02
.64
.23
.15
.01
.04
.08
.11
0
.30
.48
.09
.12
.11
.20
.24
.46
0
.04
.38
.66
.07
.72

0.06
0
.79
.22
.22
0
.02
.21
.04
.03
.46
.31
.14
.21
. 19
.26
.19
.29
0
.20
.47
.47
.19
.46

0. 41
.13
.78
.36
.40
.04
.14
.15
0
.06
.51
.15
.22
.31
.28
.36
.20
.47
0
.04
.05
.21
.27
.90

$15. 20
.06
.01
.30
.08
.74
.05
.10
.15
.18
.03
.32
.28
.07
. 12
.05
1.11
1.01
.31
0
.09
.45
.46
. 11
.49

1.59
.03

1.57
0

2. 31
.08

2. 35
0

2. 30
.02

1.08
.01

.92
.44
.34
.01
.11

.65
.35
.36
.02
.08

1.07
.58
.35
0
.17

1.53
.45
. 18
0
.06

.91
.46
.48

.08

.08

.09

.02

.01
.24

(4)
. 17
0
.02
. 20
2.18
.37
.05
.02
.03
.02
.10

0

.03
.07
1. 70
. 24
.03
.01
.01
0
.06

.01
.27
2. 56
.43
.02
.03
.05
0
.11

.02
.29
2. 97
.63
.21
0
.04
.07
.25

2. 48
2. 75
. 16
.04
.09
.07
.05
. 16
.44
0
. 10
1.04
.04
.02

2.18
1. 67
.05
0
0
.05
.01
. 10
.27
0
.03
.64
(4)
0

2.24
3. 78
.23
. 12
.05
.09
.03
.21
.55
0
.12
1.14
.02
0

4.60
3. 35
.27
0
.63
.06
.18
.29
.81
0
.20
2. 22
.09
.09

0

.09

0

0
0

.33

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




Average expenditure per person

$9. 50 $17. 52 $25. 94 $26. 93
.03
.05
.04
.31
0
.07
(5)
(5)
.18
.64
.32
.59
.05
.09
. 16
.20
.28
.73
3.16
1.43
.01
.02
.69
0
.03
.13
.02
.58
.04
.21
.34
.31
. 19
.23
. 10
0
0
0
.19
.06
.22
.66
.30
.65
.23
.12
.35
.42
.03
.07
.30
.13
.05
. 12
.52
.22
.02
.05
.09
.21
.42
2. 87
1.38
2. 27
.56
1.29
1.82
1.41
.16
.59
.42
.48
0
0
0
0
.01
.09
.34
. 14
.44
.04
.49
.57
.36
.64
. 17
.56
.04
. 11
.37
.29
.49
.52
.60
.39

0

1.29
.04

1.45
0

1.48
.02

.32
. 15
. 14
.01
.02

.64
.27
.17

.92
.24
. 14

.66
.35
. 17

.04

.52
. 21
. 15
(5)
.03

.10

0

.80

.03

.02

. 11

(6)

.05

0

0

.04

0

.01

.04

(5)

.01
.05
0
.01
(5)
.04
. 15
2. 61
4. 46
. 16
.25
.02
.05
.02
.05
.02
. 10
0
0
.08
.03
. 65
. 36
0
.01
.34
.42
.59
.30
.05
.01
0
.02
0
.02
.01
.02
.01
(6)
.03
.07
.04
. 10
0
0
.04
.09
.04
.05
(5)
(5)
0
0
.05
. 13
.02
.02

0

0

.02

. 15
0
.01
(5)
.76
. 14
.21
2. 36
3. 81
6. 49
.62
. 26
.56
.05
.09
.42
.02
0
0
.02
.06
. 11
.12
.02
.07
0
.07
.21
.55
. 87
.01
.01
.44
1.90
.94
4. 75
.48
. 62
.04
.45
.09
.05
.01
0
.04
.24
0
.18
.02
.03
. 15
.03
. 16
. 11
.06
. 12
.53
.08
. 14
0
0
0
.31
. 10
. 19
1.40
.05
. 12
.06
.02
.03
.02
. 11
.09
. 11
. 19
.01
0
4 Less than 0.005 article.
52 weeks.
0
0

0

0

0

.01
.02

0
0
0

.05

.77
4. 59
.53
.07
0
.05
. 16
0
.83
.09
.31
1.07
.08
.01
0
. 11
. 10
.08
. 13
0
.43
.07
.21
.09
.36
.01

TABULAR SUMMARY

303

T a b l e A— .— Clothing E xpenditures , b y C onsum ption Level —Continued
8
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles pur­
chased per person
Item

Average expenditure per person

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies Under $200 to $300 to $400
and
$200
$300
$400
over

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies Under $200 to $300 to $400
and
$200
$300
$400
over

C lo th in g , b o ys 2 through 5 y e a rs
o f age 1
T otal______ ______ ______
Hats: F elt_______________
Straw____ ___ _ __
Caps: W o o l.________ __
Other. __
_____
Overcoats _____________
Topcoats________________
R aincoats._______ . . . . _
Jackets: H eavy fabric _. .
Leather. _ ___ _
O ther.. . _ _ _ _ _ _
Sweaters: H e a v y ________
Light__________
Play suits: Wool knit. . . .
Cotton suede...
Other_________
Suits: Heavy wool____ . . .
Lightweight wool_
_
Cotton, linen __
Palm Beach____. . .
Other__ . . . __ _ _.
Trousers: Wool
___
Cotton____
Other_ __ _ _
_
Overalls, coveralls. __ _
Blouses: Cotton and other,
except wool. __ _
W ool_ __
_
Underwear:
Suits, cotton, kn it___ _
woven __
cotton and wool __.
rayon and silk. __ _
Undershirts, cotton. __ _
cotton and
wool _
rayon and
silk ____
Shorts, cotton..
_ ...
rayon and silk___
Drawers, cotton and wool
Pajamas and nightshirts..
Shoes: Street.. _ __
Canvas__________
Other.
________
Boots: Rubber ______
Leather__________
Arctics _ _ . . .
Rubbers_____ _
_
Shoe: Repairs
Shines
. . . _ _.
Hose: Cotton, heavy
dress ___ _
R ayon.. . . .
Silk___________
W ool____ _____
Gloves: Cotton___ . . . _
Leather_______ __
Other___________
Ties______ ._ ___ . . .
Collars. _
Bathing suits, sun suits___
Handkerchiefs
Accessories _______ . _
Bathrobes . . .
_____
Cleaning, repairing. ___ _
Other____________

6.02
.02
.30
. 19
. 12
.04
0
.03
.02
(<)
.20
.42
.12
.38
.57
.04
.09
.91
(4)
. 22
. 11
.14
.03
1.00
.42
.02
.91
.33
.53
.01
. 16

0. 03
0
.16
. 17
.08
.01
0
.02
0
0 .
.09
.30
.10
.32
. 49
0
.07
.46
.01
. 19
.03
. 17
-03
1.08

0. 01
.04
.37
.21
. 17
.07
0
.06
0
0
. 23
.64
.09
. 28
.42
.90
.16
1.19
0
.12
.11
.18
.05
1.20

. 20

.58
.05

.47
.22
.41

1. 25
.28
.33
0
.22

0

0

. 11
0

.17
.01

0

.03
.01
.09
.31
1.96
. 12
.05
(4)
.01
.02
.08

.02
.06
1.70
.04
0
0
0
0
0

2.05
2. 64
.33
.03
.04
.09
.05
. 13
.03
0
.22
. 14
.04
.05

1.16
2.12
0
0
.02
.01
0
.04
.02
0
. 19
0
0
.02

0

.03

6.06
.06
.55
.15
.23
.05
0
.06
.03
.02
.48
.48
.21
.66
.99
.13
.06
1. 22
0
. 65
.39
.06
0
.35
0

1. 46
.33
1. 63
.06
.11

.01
0
0
0

.05

.39

0
0
0
0
0
0

0

.33
2. 04
.14
.01
0
.01
.05
.10

.08
0
1. 06
2. 41
. 19
.29
.03
.03
.06
.09

2.70
2. 77
.57
.03
0
.08
.05
.05
.02
0
.15
0
.02
.02

3.17
4.16
.50
.17
.24
.11
.06
.44
.11
0
.37
1.00
.26
.17

.08
. 14
. 19
. 18
. 19
.61
.91

.04
1.83
0
.08
.08
0
0
.83
.78

. 17
.01

.95
1.02
.16
0
0

.41
.20
.22
(5)
.03

0

.42

.45
0
0

.32
.32

0
0
0

.84
.32
2. 32
.28
.04
0
0
0
.36

,
2. 33
2. 04
.84
0
0
.42
.28
.34
0
0
.35
0
0
. 14

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.00 5 article.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




$10.15
.01
(5)
. 15
.06
.44
. 11
0
.06
.08
(5)
. 18
.30
.14
. 27
.31
.21
.24
.80
(6)
. 25
. 10
.08
.03
.58

.06
0

.01
(5)
.02
. 18
2. 74
.09
.04
(5)
.02
.02
.05
. 20
0
.34
.36
.06
(5)
.01
.03
.04
.04
(5)
0
.22
.01
.01
.05
.09
.02

$5. 94 $11. 06 $16. 79 $16. 81
.01
.05
0
(5)
.01
.02
0
0
.06
. 19
.31
.21
.05
.06
.05
. 15
.24
.67
.81
0
.24
.01
. 12
.16
0
0
0
0
.03
. 10
. 14
0
0
0
.08
.71
0
0
.01
0
.08
.19
.46
.23
. 18
.44
.34
.33
.10
.09
.25
.31
.20
.18
.49
.59
. 22
.20
.56
.68
0
.40
.61
0
. 14
.53
.03
.06
.33
1.13
1.48
1.03
.01
0
0
0
. 14
.04
.07
1.23
.03
. 11
.34
.06
.08
. 13
.03
0
.02
.06
0
0
.64
.67
.51
.20
0

0

.08

. 21
.02

.19
.09
. 14

.55
.11
.19

.03

0

0

.64
.37
.71
.03
.02

.05

(5)

0

.01
0
(s)
.04
2. 01
.03
0
0
0
0
0
. 11
0
.15
.28
0
0
(5)
0
0
.01
(5)
0
.16
0
0
.01
(«)
.03

0
0

.01

. 15
2. 82
.09
.01
0
.02
.05
.05
. 12
0
.39
.40
.08
(5)
0
.02
.03
.02
(5)
0
.33
0
.01
.02
.04
.01

0

0
0

.32

(5)

0

.13

0
0
0

.01

.60
3. 62
.20
.27
.03
.08
.06
.03
. 26
0
.54
.55
.05
.03
.06
.02
.03
.12
.01
0
.40
.04
.04
.19
. 14
.01

.51
.56
.70
.08

.11
0
0
0

.21
.31
4. 58
.20
.02
0
0
0
.28
. 72
0
.69
.32
.26
0
0
.17
.23
.09
0
0
.49
0
0
.14
.59
.02

304

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---- SUMM ARY VOLUME
T a b l e A - 8 . — Clothing E xpenditures , b y Consum ption Level —

Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person
All
fami­
lies

C loth in g , w o m e n a nd girls 1 8 yea rs o f age and
over1
lumber of articles:
Hats: Felt--- ----------- -------------Straw__________
_ _ _ _ _ _ __.
Fabric----------------------- _
Caps and berets: W ool.. --- -------- -Other. _ _______________
Coats: Heavy, plain----------------------fur trimmed_
_
_______
Fur_______
____________ ______
Light, wool_____ __
. . . ---cotton. __ ___ .
silk, rayon_________ ____
Raincoats. _ _ __ ______
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit. . . . .
_. __ ________
Wool fabric__________ ______________
__ __ _
Leather, leatherette___
Other____
_ . ---- ----------- __ _
Suits: W o o l... ----------------- -------- _
Silk, rayon------------------Other
.
. . . ---- ------- Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon------------------------------Cotton__________________ . . . ------- -Other _________ _____
- ------Skirts: W ool___
------ ------ -Other---- ------ ._ __
Dresses: Cotton, house___
___________
street
_ __ _ . . .
Silk, rayon----- _
_______
W ool.. ____ _____
_ ._ _
Other __________
_ _ . _ _
Aprons________________________________
Coveralls.
_____
_
— _._ _
Knickers, breeches, shorts.__ _ _ _ ---Underwear: Slips, cotton--- - _ _ _._ _
silk..
__ ______ .r a y o n _ ________ .__
_
Corsets, girdles. _
_____
_________ ._ _
Brassieres
Union suits and combina­
tions: Cotton_____________
W ool... __________
Silk, rayon_________
Underwaists, shirts.................
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton__________ _____
Rayon____________ . . .
Silk ____________________
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
jamas: Cotton, light.- ___ _
flannel___ _
Silk, rayon.__ _____
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton_______________________ _ _ _.
Silk, rayon__________ ______________
Other. ....... .......................................... ...
Bathrobes______________________________
Kimonos, negligees__________________ _
Hose: Silk_____
_________________ __
R ayon.. __________ ____ ____
Cotton______________________ _____
W ool_____________________________
Shoes: Street. ______________________ .
Dress___________________________
Sport..................................................
House slippers___________ ________ ___ _.
i Includes only persons dependent on family
4 Less than 0.005 article.




0.68
.37
.14
.07
.02
.09
.09
(4)
.07
.01
(4)
.04

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

0.41
0. 59
.21
.32
.08
.15
.07
.06
.02
.01
.06
.10
.03
.06
0
0
.04
.06
^ .01
(4)
0
(4)
.02
.04

.09
.05
.01
.01
.07
.02
.02

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

0. 65
.41
.15
.08
.03
.10
.08
(4)
.06
.01
(4)
.04

0.78
.44
.12
.09
.01
.09
.12
0
.09
.01
(4)
.05

0.86
.40
.23
.06
.03
.10
.21
.01
.11
.01
0
.03

.11
.06
.01
.01
.07
.02
.02

.10
.06
.01
.01
.07
.04
.03

.01
.18
.04
(4)

.05
.05

.08
.02
1.35
.74
.72
.08
.11
.27
.04
.05
.47
.59
.43
.21
.42

.11
.04
.01
.10
.01
1.94
.58
.84
.11
.06
.27
. 12
.02
.66
.83
.38
.21
.24

.22
.08
(4)
.09
0
1. 50
.36
1.40
. 12
.07
.34
.02
0
.34
.87
.58
.42
.20

0
1.52
.77
1.40
. 16
.09
.27
0
0
.20
.84
.52
.40
.49

1.17
.73
.14
.03
.03
.12
. 14
.03
.09
.02
0
.05

1.50
.46
.31
.08
0
. 16
. 10
.03
.14
.02
.02
.06

.06
.05
.01
.01
.03
.01
.01

.15
.06
.01
.02
.05
.03
.02

.11
.05
.01
.02
.09
.02
.03

.03
.02
.03
.01
.86
.38
.33
.04
.03
. 10
.01
.01
.45
.17
.38
.05
.19

.04
-.07
(4)
.09
.01
1.17
.54
.53
.05
.03
.37
.02
.02
.57
.30
.48
.11
.28

.06
.04
.01
.09
.01
1.12
.61
.73
.11
.05
.25
.02
.02
.46
.45
.63
.12
.42

.27
.11
.21
.32

. 17
.03
.09
.24

.29
.10
. 17
.31

.29
.15
.22
.34

.28
.10
.29
.34

.29
.13
.23
.59

.16
.22
.39
.43

.27
.24
.43
.58

.23
1. 38
.22

.25
1.31
.06

.23
1. 34
. 15

.21
1.52
. 12

.28
1. 22
.30

. 14
1.64
.46

.12
1. 34
.71

.21
1.49
.69

.38
.17
.11

.31
.08
.03

.33
.16
.06

.35
.23
.12

.55
.15
.09

.46
.25
.15

.42
.17
.28

.37
.11
.56

.01
.01

.01
.01
(4)
.05
.02
8. 39
1.74
.60
.06
1.29
.37
.22
.37

.05
.02
.01
.10
.06
11.92
1.59
.47
.03
1.39
.44
.23
.66

.06
.05
.01
.08
.01
1. 21
.55
.66
.08
.05
.26
.03
.02
.49
.44
.48
.15
.32

.01
.01
(4)
.03
.03
7.81
1.41
.67
.04
1.21

0

0
0

.01
0

.01
.01

.02
.01
.02
.01
3. 23
6.03
1.36
1.44
.79
.75
.04
(4)
1.02
1.14
.24
.S t
.31
.09
.12!
• If
.24
. 3C
.S t
l
funds for 52 weeks.

0

.02
.03
9.27
1.23
.71
.08
1.27
.39
.13
.33

0

0

.10
.05

0

.04
.02

.12
.01
15. 42
.79
.40
0
1.40
.36
.23
.45

0
0
0

. 16

.09
.05
.08
. 14
.03
.06
.17

0
0

.04

.07
.05
16.11
1.57
.42
0
1. 55
.65
.30
.59

TABULAR SUMMARY

305

T a b l e A - 8 . — Clothing E x p en ditu res , b y C onsum ption Level — Continued
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased per person

Item

Families with
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
$200
to
to
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C loth in g , w o m e n and girls 18 yea rs o f age and
over 1
—Continued

Shoe: Repairs____________
Shines_____________
Rubbers---_______________
Arctics, gaiters___________
Gloves: Cotton___________
Leather__________
Other____________
Bathing suits, sun suits---Handkerchiefs____________
Furs.----------------------Mufflers, scarfs___________
Handbags, purses________
Umbrellas___________
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc
Cleaning, repairing_______
Other___________________

$. 05
.09
.30

. 10

.05

$.02

.01
.11
.02
.01

2. 60

.01

0
1. 79

! 39
.08

. U1
.18
.04

$. 03
.09
.23
.07
.02
.01
1.98
0
.02
.31
.07

1 Includes only persons dependent upon family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.




$.05
.09
.41
.11
.07
.01
2. 91
0
.03
.45
.10

$.06
.11
.37
.10
.07
.01
3.20
0
.04
.48
.08

$.04
.15
.38
.19
.04

$. 10

.36
.14

$. 14
.29
.59
.50

3. 32

.02
2. 63

.06
5. 25

.56
.17

.04
.58
.08

.01

.01
.10

.12
.21

.01

.20

0

.02

.69
.09

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

306
T able

A— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— Continued
8.—
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average expenditure per person
Item

AH
f amilies

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

C loth in g, w o m e n a nd girls 18 yea rs o f age and
over 1—Continued

Total expenditure_ _ _____________ __ _ $33. 23 $15. 05 $24. 95 $34. 87 $38. 76 $53. 32 $59.15 $83.85
_
1.09
Hats: Felt_____________________________
.53
.83
1. 04
1.29
1. 59
2.16
3.08
Straw, _ ___ __________________
.57
.25
.62
.45
.72
.70
1. 38
.84
.19
. 19
.07
.22
Fabric________________ _______ .17
.33
.23
.52
Caps and berets:Wool______________ __
.04
.03
.04
.06
.06
.04
.03
.05
.01
Other--------------------.01 (5)
.02
.03
.01
0
(5)
1. 49
Coats: Heavy, plain-_________ ________
.65
1. 38
1.78
1.39
1.74
1.63
5. 01
2.27
fur trimmed____________
.61
2. 32
1. 06
3.15
6. 39
4. 32
4. 35
Fur_____________________________
.32
0
.29
.71
0
0
4.04
1.11
Light, w o o l., __ __ _________ ___
.92
.42
.65
.70
1.16
2. 35
1.22
2. 21
.06
.02
cotton ..____ _________ . . .
.03
. 14
.08
.02
.02
.23
silk, rayon______ _______
.03
0
.02
.02
.06
0
0
.10
.05
.21
Raincoats___ ____ _____ ________ _
__
.10
.14
.09
.10
.08
.16
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool k n i t . ___ ____ _______ __________
.18
.08
.22
. 15
.26
.24
.24
.33
Wool fabric____ _____________________
.08
.06
. 10
.08
.08
.10
.11
0
.02
.03
.02
.02
Leather, leatherette___________________
.04
.01
0
0
Other ---- ----------------------------.02
.04
.02
.03
.11
.01
.01
0
1.17
.99
.95
Suits: W ool------- ------- ----------- _
.38
.78
1.40
2. 30
1.00
.10
Silk, rayon___ _____________ ____
.18
.19
.13
.16
.32
.41
.39
.09
.09
O th er ...,,. . . . . ____________ __
.05
.05
.08
.35
.04
.29
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon___ ____________________ __
.09
.10
.04
.04
.07
.22
.40
.35
C otton_______________________________
.04
.03
.01
.05
.04
.04
.09
.03
Other ____
_____________________
.01
0
.01
0
.01
. 12
(5)
(6)
Skirts: Wool____ _______ _________ _ _.
. 16
.06
. 16
. 19
.19
. 17
.22
.37
.02
.02
Other----- -----------------------.01
.01
.04
.03
0
0
.71
1.09
1.08
1. 33
1.16
Dresses: Cotton, house.. . ___________ _.
1.93
1. 52
1.69
.55
street__ ______ ______
1.07
.95
1.16
1.42
1.27
1. 34
2.11
Silk, rayon, __ _ _______________
3.81
3. 57
1.44
2. 56
4.18
8. 41
5.16
9.01
.61
Wool__________________________
.45
.27
. 16
.44
.77
.78
1.33
.09
Other___ ______________________
.26
.26
.62
.08
.59
.34
.43
.03
.10
.10
. 11
.10
Aprons. --------------- -----------------.11
.23
. 10
.02
.03
C overalls,.. ------- ----- ----------------.01
.02
.04
.11
.01
0
Knickers, breeches, shorts______________
.01
.01
.01
.02
.02
0
0
(5)
.27
.23
.24
Underwear: Slips, cotton-----------------.27
.47
.30
.20
.16
silk____ ____ ________
.56
.19
.52
.34
.80
1.12
1.41
1.23
_ __
.35
.22
.32
.50
rayon _______
.34
.30
.43
.51
Corsets, girdles______
.08
.25
.40
.23
.56
1.02
1.15
1.15
.12
.17
Brassieres ______ ____ ___
.05
.09
.16
.12
.31
.09
Union suits and combina­
.21
.18
.11
tions: Cotton
______
.18
.20
.31
. 13
.23
W ool______________
.10
.02
.12
.07
.10
.19
.14
.26
Silk, rayon_________
.22
. 15
.05
.11
. 15
.18
.27
.56
Underwaists, shirts_________
.13
.12
.19
.08
.10
.22
.16
.31
Bloomers and panties:
.08
.06
.11
Cotton________ _______
.08
.08
.04
.21
.05
R ayon___ _____ __________
.47
.65
.60
.54
.55
.80
.74
.87
Silk_____________________
.15
.03
.08
.23
.10
.34
.36
.58
Nightgowns and sleeping pa­
.17
jamas: Cotton, light.
___
.26
.24
.42
.20
.36
.34
.37
.14
.04
.19
flannel____
.13
.13
.28
.17
.12
Silk, rayon_______
.02
.07
.21
. 15
.16
.10
.39
.97
Pajamas, lounging and beach:
Cotton_____________________
_ ____
.02
.01
.01
.01
.01
.06
.07
0
Silk, rayon,____ ______________________
.02
.02
0
.01
.01
.07
.03
.16
Other _________ ________
______
0
0
0
.01
.05
0
0
(8)
.11
.01
.22
.05
.06
Bathrobes_________ _ --- _
.28
.36
.28
.06
.02
.05
.05
.01
Kimonos, negligees,
______
________
. 18
.14
.26
5.47
6. 61 10.51 11.23
4.73
1.79
3. 55
5. 31
Hose: Silk____________________ _______
.47
.73
.84
Rayon................. .
_
_______
.58
.56
.50
.94
36
.21
.17
.15
Cotton_________________ _
.16
.15
. 16
.09
.15
.02
W ool____ _______ ________________
.04
.04
.01
.06
0
0
(5)
2.29
3.59
3.10
4.77
Shoes: Street_______________
..
3.70
3.98
5.69
6.83
Dress___________________________
1.16
.66
1.28
1.29
.98
1.62
1.37
2.70
.34
.16
.29
.28
53
Sport— ________________________
.53
.53
.94
House slippers,_______________________ _
.13
.25
24
.29
.17
.52
.38
.68
.21
Shoe: Repairs________ _______
____
.46
.38
.40
.56
1.27
.66
.89
.02
.02
Shines........___
.
_____ _ .
.01
.01
.03
.01
.02
.24
1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
* Less than 0.5 cent.




307

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able A -8 . — Clothing E xp en ditu res , b y C onsum ption Level — Continued
PERSO NS 1 IN 1,566 N EG RO FA M ILIES IN 16 C IT IE S — Continued
Average expenditure per person

Item

C lo th in g , w o m e n and girls 18 yea rs o f age and
over i—Continued

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

Rubbers-------------- -------------------$0.04 $0.01 $0.02
.07
Arctics, gaiters_______1_________________
.11
.01
.13
Gloves: C otton.________________________
.20
.06
.02
Leather________________________
.07
.15
.02
Other__________________________
.05
.01
.02
.01
Bathing suits, sunsuits_________________
0
Handkerchiefs_________________________
.09
.13
.18
Furs_____________________ _
•____________
.07
.05
0
.02
.01
Mufflers, scarfs_________________________
.01
.24
Handbags, purses______________________
.38
.11
Umbrellas_____________________________
.11
. 13
.06
.04
.05
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc______________
.07
.21
.45
Cleaning, repairing_____________________
.80
.03
.25
.05
Other_______ _____ ____________________
i Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.




$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$0.06
. 11
.25
.17
.05
.04
.19
0
.02
.39
. 16
.07
.89
.13

$0.05
.14
.27
.15
.07
.01
.24
0
.03
.49
.14
.06
1.02
.08

$0.04
.17
.30
.31
.03
.04
.25
.29
.07
.67
.33
.13
1.41
.20

$0. 07
.15
.27
.23
.22
.03
.19
.07
.03
.65
.14
.08
1.74
.07

$700
and
over

.21
.08
.49
.38

0
1.50
.14
.18
2.54
4.67

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

308

T a b l e A - 8 . — Clothing E xpenditures , b y Consum ption Level — C o n tin u e d
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased
per person

Item

Average expenditure per person

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
$400
$300
Under $200
and
to
to
$200
over
$300
$400

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies Under $200
$300
$400
to
to
and
$200
$300
$400
over

C lo th in g , girls 12 through 17
yea rs o f age 1

______ _
Total _______
Hats: F elt_______________
0. 55
Straw___ ___ ___ _
.20
Fabric.-. _________
. 14
Caps and berets: Wool .36
Other___
.09
Coats: Heavy,plain______
.20
fur trimmed.06
Fur______________
0
Light, wool_______
.09
cotton______
.01
silk, rayon.__
0
Play suits: Wool k n i t ____
(4)
Cotton suede-__
0
Other__ _____
.01
R a in co a ts___ ___________
.05
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit . _________ _
.33
Wool fabric___
______
. 14
.05
Leather, leatherette. _ . _
Other____ ______ ____
.02
Suits: W ool.. _ _______ _
.09
Silk, rayon,.
.01
.04
Other_____________
Waists and middies:
Silk, r a y o n _______ _
.09
Cotton _______ _ _ _
. 16
Other, _
___
.02
Skirts: Wool.
__
_
.26
Other
.05
.49
Dresses: Cotton, house___
street _ _
1. 05
Silk, rayon
. 59
Wool ___ __
. 10
.03
Other.......... ..........
Aprons ____ _____ _ _
.04
Overalls
_____
.
(4)
Knickers, breeches, shorts, _ (4)
Underwear:
Slips, cotton _______
.68
silk______ _____
.27
r a y o n .______ _
.39
Corsets, girdles________
.03
Brassieres______________
.36
Union suits and combi­
nations:
Cotton........................ .
.24
Wool____ ___________
. 12
Silk, rayon___________
.06
Underwaists, shirts_ .
_
.29
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton___________ ___
.45
R ayon____ ___________
1. 81
.07
Silk__________________
Nightgowns and sleeping
pajamas:
Cotton, ligh t_________
.27
fla n n e l._____
. 16
Silk, rayon___________
.04
Pajamas, lounging and
beach:
Cotton________ ____
.02
Silk, rayon___________
.02
Other_______________
(4)
1 Includes only persons dependent on
* Less than 0.005 article.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




0. 38
. 15
.09
.33
.09
. 14
.04
0
. 10
0
0
(4)
0
(4)
.03

0. 53
.23
.11
.47
.06
.26
.02
0
.06
.02
0
(4)
0
.01
.09

0. 61
.37
.17
.41
.21
.24
.09
0
.05
0
0
(4)
0
.01
.01

1. 29
. 14
.39
. 12
.02
. 19
.26
0
. 13
0
0
.02
0
.06
.02

.26
. 16
.02
.01
.03
.01
.01

.24
. 19
.05
.04
. 16
.01
.01

.40
.04
.03

.81
.08
. 18

.01
.09

.06
. 16

$25. 60 $14. 94 $27. 56 $29.11 $64. 71
.65
.37
.59
.72
2. 10
.25
. 11
.28
.59
.25
. 17
.07
. 11
. 19
.80
.20
. 18
.25
.25
. 11
.04
.04
.02
.07
.01
2.15
3. 09
1.11
3. 40
2.12
1. 19
.41
.33
1. 33
7. 53
0
0
0
0
0
.58
.56
.60
.26
1.13
.07
0
.22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.01
.01
.01
.07
(5)
.09
.07
. 16
.02
.07

.26

.38
.20
. 10
.02
.99
.02
.08

. 18
.38
.08
.43
.01
.43
.95
.74
. 19
. 14

.38
. 13
.05
. 19
.39
. 12
1. 08
1. 56
. 15
.08
0
0
0

. 10
. 11
.02
.42
.08
.41
1. 16
2. 27
.31
. 12
0
(5)
(5)

.30
(5)
.28
.87
1.13
.21
0
(5)
0
0

.45
.03
.75
1. 62
1. 75
.21
.01
.06
(5)
.01

.63
.97
. 14
. 13
.35

. 29
.23
.22
.02
. 10

.28
.06
.15
.01
.04

.27
.29
.27

.54

.63
.22
.65
.03
.61

.22
.05
.04
.21

.21
. 15
.10
.26

.41
.27
.11
.31

.10
.09
.78

.10
.07
.04
.09

.43
1.47
.07

.67
1.95
.06

.29
1. 72
0

0
3.08
.20

. 19
.05
.01

.28
.17
.04

.35
.36
.03

0

0

.30
. 18
.07
.01
.26
.01
.03

.36
.34
.09
.05
1. 75
.03
.06

.02
.05

.09
. 11

0

.64
.07
.03

.46
.08
.38

.04

0
2. 90
0
.49'

. 14
.28
. 10
.75
.02
.32
.88
2. 52
. 52
.61
0
0
0

.47
.07
.01
.38
.70
.07
1.42
9. 11
.78
.24
0
0
0

. 14

.35
. 17
.41
.04
.19

.27
.91
. 13
. 14
. 12

.09
.03
.02
.05

.10
.10
.07
.06

.15
.18
.05
.06

0

.13
.65
.03

. 12
.39
.03

.21
.60
.03

.07
.54

0
2. 21
. 13

.56
.30
.17

.17
* .12
.05

.10
.03
.01

.17
. 13
.02

.20
.27
.04

.44
.28
.34

.03
.03
0
0
.06
.04
.01
(4)
0
0
0
(4)
family funds for 52 weeks.

.02
.02
(5)

.03
.01
(6)

0

.21
(4)
.40
.97
.37
.08
0
.01
0
0
.78
.07
.27
.02
. 15

0

.29
.02
. 77
1.19
. 55
.06
.01
. 11
.01
.01

0

.59
.38
.51

0

0
0
0

.04
.03

0

0

.17

0

0

0

0

.03
.02

0

0

0
0

.44

.05

0
0

.08
.05
.37

.04

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

A— .—
8

309

Clothing E xpen ditu res , b y C onsum ption Level —Continued

PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased
per person

Average expenditure per person

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
$300
$400
Under $200
to
to
and
$200
$300
$400
over

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
$300
$400
Under $200
to
to
and
$200
$30b
$400 over

C loth in g , girls 12 through 17
y e a rs o f age —Continued

Bathrobes
_______
Kimonos, negligees_______
Hose: Silk_____ _ _ __ _
R a y o n ._ _________
Cotton_____ . . .
W ool______________
_______
Shoes: Street___
D ress... ________
Sport. __ _ _____
House slippers___________
Shoe: Repairs ______
Shines. _
_______
Rubbers__ _______ ______
Arctics, gaiters___________
Gloves: Cotton_____
Leather.
Other. _. ______
Bathing suits, sun suits___
Handkerchiers. ______
Furs________________
Mufflers, scarfs___________
Handbags, purses. __ ____
Umbrellas.
_____ _____
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc.
Cleaning, repairing.. ___
Other_______

(4)
(4)
4.84
1. 33
2. 86
. 13
1.83
.40
.37
.04

0
0
2. 46
.79
3.17
.04
1. 81
.25
.22
.01

0
.01
4. 42
2.08
2. 74
.04
1.83
.47
.49
.08

$0. 01
0
5. 02
1. 74
3.50
.61
1. 88
.49
.33
.04

$0.02
0
17. 38
.80
.76
.08
1. 78
.75
.74
.07

.04
.08
.21
.02
.04
.08
2. 55
0
.05
.35
.03

.02
(4)
.09
.01
.03
.01
1. 49
0
.02
.22
(4)

.04
. 13
.25
.04
.04
.08
3.12
0
.01
.32
.02

.08
.06
. 18

.04
.07
3. 84
0
.06
.34
.06

.02
.33
.72
.05
.02
.48
3.70
0
.36
1. 07
. 13

0. 08
.02
.01
. 52
.08
. 13
.01
0
.04
.02
0
(4)
(4)
.01
.02

0.20
.20
.06
.51
.08
. 14
.02
0
. 10
.03
0
.04
.07
.09
.06

0. 46
.21
. 10
. 56
. 16
.37
.08
0
.06
.02
0
.01
.01
.02
.08

0.19
.20
. 12
.39
.25
.49
.20
0
.42
.03
0
.09
. 14
. 18
.26

.27
. 14

.58
. 17
.02

.20
. 13
.06
.07
.04

0

$. 01
(5)
2. 45
.43
.52
.04
3. 89
.99
.73
.03
.67
.01
.03
.09
. 11
.04
.02
. 15
. 13
0
.03
.24
.05
.04
.29
.07

0
0
$1. 04
.27
.49
.01
3.31
.58
.33
.01
.36
0
.02
(5)
.03
.01
.02
.01
.07
0
.01
. 11
.01
.05
.09
.02

0
(3)
$2. 30
.66
.52
.01
3.95
1.19
1.00
.05
. 76
0
.04
. 16
.10
.08
.03
.08
.16
0
(5)
.17
.02
.04
.28
.02

$0.02
0
2.10
.59
.82
. 19
4. 46
1.17
.52
.02
. 98
0
.06
.07
.09
0
.02
.16
.20
0
.04
.15
.15
.04
.25
.04

$0.06
0
10.22
.21
.20
.03
5. 57
1.93
2.13
.05
1. 32
. 08
.03
.34
.52
. 10
.01
.98
.21
0
. 19
1. 21
.22
.03
1.31
.50

13. 83
. 13
.06
.03
.23
.04
1.24
.30
0
.45
.06
0
.03
.02
.03
. 13

8. 38
.06
.01
.01
.20
.02
.70
.04
0
. 12
.05
0
(5)
(5)
(5)
.03

14. 21
. 15
. 10
.05
.23
.03
1. 03
. 11
0
.49
.09
0
.06
.04
.06
. 11

23. 96
. 34
. 18
.05
.32
.05
2. 54
.80
0
.56
.02
0
.05
.03
.05
.10

32.16
. 11
.08
.07
.33
. 15
3. 30
1.90
0
2. 43
. 12
0
.09
.06
.09
.87

. 16
. 13
.01
.04

.27
.17

.62
.25
.02

.24
. 19
.17
.05
.09

.03

.26
. 16
.02
.03
.01
(6)
(6)

.02

.01
.05

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11
yea rs o f age 1

Potal
. _
___
Hats: F elt_______________
0.17
Straw _____________
.08
Fabric.__ . . . _____
.04
Caps and berets: W ool____
. 51
Other___
. 10
Coats: Heavy, plain.
.20
.03
fur trimmed.
Fur______________
0
Light, wool____ . . .
.09
.02
cotton _____
silk, rayon.. _
0
Play suits: Wool knit
.02
.03
Cotton suede.._
.04
O ther._ _ . . .
Raincoats
____ _ _ _
.06
Sweaters and jackets:
.25
Wool kn it____ . . . _ _
Wool fabric _____
. 14
Leather, leatherette. __
.01
Other.. . . . .
. __
.06
Suits: W ool... _ __ __ _.
.02
Silk, rayon
.01
Other_______ ____
(4)
Waists and middies:
Silk, rayon____________
.03
Cotton. _______ _ _
.08
O ther... __ ___
._ ._
0
.03
Skirts: Wool______. . .
.03
Other____________
1 Includes only persons dependent on
4 Less than 0.005 article.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




. 17
. 14
(4)
.09
0
0
0

0

.04
.04
.03
.01

0
0
0
0

0

.02

0

.02

0

.10
.05
.06

. 13
.02

0

.04
.21
.02
.08

0
0

0
0
0

family funds for 52 weeks.

0

.02
.03

0
0
0

0

0
0
0

.01
.02

.01
(6)

0
0

.01

0

.01

0

.04
.05
.04

0

.03
.01
.02
.16
.02
.17

0
0
0
0
0

.04
.01

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

310
T abm e

A-8.— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— Continued
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles purchased
per person

Item

Average expenditure per person

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
$400
Under $200
$300
to
and
to
$200
over
$300
$400

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies
Under $200
$300
$400
$200
to
to
and
$300
$400
over

C loth in g , girls 6 through 11
yea rs o f age —Continued

Dresses: Cotton
__ . . .
2. 37
.22
Silk, rayon____
.08
Wool___________
.08
Other___________
.03
Aprons_. _ _____ ___ _
.03
Coveralls. ___________
Knickers, breeches, shorts._
.03
Underwear:
.65
Slips, cotton __ _____
.03
silk_____ _____
rayon__________
. 12
Union suits and combinations:
.69
Cotton_______________
.18
W ool________________
Silk, rayon. _
_
.07
.32
Underwaists, shirts. _ _
Bloomers and panties:
.96
Cotton______ _______
R a y o n ._ . . .
1. 06
.02
Silk__________________
Nightgowns and sleeping
pajamas:
Cotton, light. —
_
.22
. 18
flannel _
Silk, rayon. _______
(4)
Pajamas, lounging and
beach:
Cotton _______________
.03
.04
Silk, rayon___________ _
Other. ._ _ _ ---------.01
.01
Bathrobes---------Kimonos, negligees_____
(4)
.69
Hose: S ilk _______________
R ayon_____________
.93
4. 88
Cotton. ______ _ __
.23
W ool______________
2. 45
Shoes: Street and dress___
.26
Sport_____________
.03
House slippers___________
Shoe: Repairs____________
Shines _ _________
Rubbers_________________
.06
.09
Arctics, gaiters___________
Gloves: Cotton__________
. 17
Leather. . . .
.04
.05
Other. ________
Bathing suits, sun suits___
.06
Handkerchiefs___________
1.43
0
Furs_____________________
.02
Mufflers, scarfs .
__ _..
. 13
Handbags, purses________
Umbrellas. ____________
.01
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc.
Cleaning, repairing _ ____
O th er... _______ ._ . __
1 Includes only persons dependent on
4 Less than 0.005 article.
5 Less than 0.5 cent.




1.68
.06
.05
.03
.02
.02
0

2. 38
.31
.03
.08
.04
.02
. 10

2. 76
. 57
.27
.30
.05
.08
0

6. 47
.41
.08
.03
.03
.06
.07

$1.90
.42
. 18
.08
.01
.02
.01

$1.16
.09
. 10
.02
.01
.02
0

$1.89
.64
.07
. 11
.01
(fi)
.04

$2.53
1.09
.68
.30
.02
.03
0

$5.90
.74
. 13
.05
.01
.02
.05

.45
.01
.07

. 75
.03
.03

.62
.14
.34

1. 83
.02
.43

.20
.01
.05

. 14
(5)
.02

.22
.01
.01

.22
.05
. 16

.47
.01
.22

.42
.08
.01
. 17

.96
.31
.07
.36

1.15
.16
.10
.54

.80
.46
.46
.71

.32
.13
.04
.09

.19
.05
.01
.05

.50
.21
.03
.09

.47
.09
.06
. 17

.42
.45
.23
.22

1.19
.96
.02

.67
1.14
0

.35
1. 55
.05

1. 44
.58

. 19
.28
(5)

.23
.26
(5)

.13
.26

.07
.42
.01

.23
.20

.40
.41
.01

.50
.29
.02

.09
. 11
(5)

0

.11
. 12

.18
.27
.01

(4)
.01
0
(4)
0
.36
.44
4. 43
.08
2. 03
. 16
0

.03
.02
.03
.01
.01
.60
1.35
4. 40
.21
2. 54
.30
.01

.06
0
0
0
0
2. 21
1. 65
6.15
.81
3. 44
.31
.13

. 14
.46

.02
.03
.08

.11
.13
. 16
.02
.04
.13
1.17
0
.01
.14
0

.07
.14
.43
.09
.13
.03
3.16
0
.08
.21
.02

.03
.02
(5)
.01
(5)
. 15
.17
.80
.05
3. 94
.36
.02
.30
0
.04
.09
.06
.03
.02
.09
.06
0
.01
.03
.01
.01
.05
.01

(5)
(5)
0
.01
0
.08
.07
.70
.02
2. 86
. 18
0
. 19
0
.02
.03
.02
0
.01
.01
.04
0
.01
.03
.01
.01
.02
.01

0

0

0

. 13
. 10

.02
.01
.83
.01
.08
.02

0

0

0
0

. 10

.51
1. 71
7. 26
.26
3. 23
.72
.14

.11
.33
.35
.22
. 15
.28
3.28
0
0
.23
0

family funds for 52 weeks.

.05
.04

0

0

.04
.01
.02
.01
.01
. 12
.27
.77
.04
3. 93
.43
(5)
. 33
0
.08
.14
.07
.02
.02
. 16
.05
0
.01
.03
0
.01
.05
0

0
0
0
0

0

. 19
.22
.01

.06

.49
.33
1.10
.21
6. 60
.38
. 11
. 44
0
.06
. 13
. 19
.08
.06
.16
. 11
0
.05
.04
(5)
. 01
. 12
.01

.33
.28

0

.09
.18

.10
0
. 19
.29
1. 08
.06
6. 57
1.26
.04
. 72
0
.08
.26
.13
. 13
.06
.27
. 16
0
0
.06
0
. 03
. 06
0

311

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

A— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level—Continued
8.—
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles pur­
chased per person

Average expenditure per person
Families w ith total annual
unit expenditure of—

Families w ith total annual
unit expenditure of—

Item
amilies

U n­
der

$200

$200

$300

$300

$400

to

to

$400

and
over

fami­
lies

U n­
der

$200

$300

$200

$300

$400

$ 5. 26
( 5)
( 5)

$8 . 72 $ 15. 77 $ 18. 98

to

to

$400

and
over

Clothing, girls 2 through 5
years of age 1
T otal___________________
Hats: F elt____________
Straw___________
Fabric__________
Caps and berets: Wool____
Other,
Coats: Heavy, p lain ___
fur trimmed
Fur_____________
Light, wool______
cotton_____
silk, rayon,_
Play suits: Wool knit_____
Cotton suede,
Other________
Raincoats_______________
Sweaters and jackets:
Wool knit_____________
Wool fabric____________
Leather, leatherette____
Other_________________
Suits: Wool_____________
Silk, rayon________
Other_____________
Waists and middies.
Silk, rayon____________
Wool__________________
Other_________________
Skirts: Wool_____________
Other____________
Dresses: Cotton__________
Silk, rayon______
Wool___________
Other___________
Aprons__________________
Coveralls________________
Knickers, breeches, shorts.
Underwear:
Slips, cotton___________
silk______________
rayon____________
Union suits and combi­
nations: Cotton______
Wool________
Silk, rayon___
Under waists, shirts_____
Bloomers and panties:
Cotton______________
Rayon_______________
Silk_________________
Nightgowns and sleeping
pajamas: Cotton, light.
flannel,
Silk, rayon,.
Pajamas, lounging and
beach: Cotton_________
Silk___________
Other__________
Bathrobes_______________
Kimonos, negligees______

0.08
.02
.01
.21
.10
.20
.01
0
.03
.02
.01
.04
.05
.08
.01

0.01
.01
.01
. 18
.10
.10
.01
0
.01
.02
.01
.02
.02
.04
.01

0.11
.01
0
.26
. 12
.30
.01
0
.07
.02
.01
.06
.07
. 12
.01

0.27
.11
.08
.21
0
.15
.04
0
0
0
0
.08
.10
.16
0

0. 33
0
0
.13
0
.73
0
0
0
0
0
.01
.02
.03
0

.22
. 11

.21
.10

.23
.11

.21
.26




.07
.01
.01
.10
.03
.67
.05

.47

0

.09
.06
0
.01

0
.02
0
( 4)

.01
2.11
. 19
.03
.03
.01
. 11
.03

0

.52
.03
.69
.24
.07
.16

.65
.48
0

0
0

.16
.06
.01

0
.03
0
.01
0
1.80
.04
.02
0
.02
.07
0
0

.36

0

0

. 19

.23
.02

0
0
0
0

.01

0

.06

0

0

.03
.04
.01

0
.02
0
0
.02
2.40
.20
0
.08
.01
.05
.08
0

.52
.04

.11
. 14

0
0
0
0
0

0
0

.18

0
0
0
0
0
2.16
1. 03
.22
0
0
.12
0
0
0

.43

0
0
0
0
0

0

.13

0
0
0
0
0
4.13
0
0
0
0
2.00
0
0
0
0

.50
.40

.90
1.02
0

0
1.34
0

0
0
0
0

.01

.15
.51

0
0
0
0

.09

.15
.09

.11
.08

0

.05
.21
.07

0
.01
0

0
.01
0

( 5)
( 5)

( 5)

1.04
.29
.04
.01

0

.07
.01
.11
.27
.13
.03
.04

0

09
.10

.09
.12
.01
0
0
0
0

.01

.75
.04
.03

0

.01
.04

( 5)

.67
.40

0
0
0
0
0

0

.09
.20
0
.03

0

( 5)

.27
1.00
.53
0

0

.08
.06
.02
.07
.03
. 14
.01

0

.61
.61
.31
.16

.32
.25
.02

0

.01
.07
.03
.33
.01
0
.01
.08
.03
.02
.01
.04
.01

0

.96
.37
.07
.25

.09
.75
.39

.80
.01

0
0

i Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
4 Less than 0.005 article.
6 Less than 0.5 cent.
2 4 2 9 4 9 ° — 4 1 ----- 21

$ 7.89

0

0

.11
.01

.09
.04
.96
.07
.19
.06
.03
.14
.06
.28
.01

.06
.01

0

0
0
0
0
0
1.18
1. 93
.31
0
0
.06
0

0
0
0
0
0
2. 60
0
0
0
0
1.43
0

( 5)

0
0

.01
1.28
.23
0
.03

( 5)

.03
.02

0

. 19

( 6)

.40
.23
.03
.06
0

.04
.06
0
0
0
0
0
0

.08
0
2.29
0
0
0
0
0
.01
.01
.03
0
.58
0
0
0
0
0
1.86

.02
0
.02

.09
.09

0

.09
.04
.19

.34

.25
.36
0
0
1. 08
0
0

. 16

0

0
0
0
0

.89
.21

0
0

.15
.04
0
.01
.02
0
.03

0
0

0

.23
.09
.08
.24

.08
.08
.16
.13
.01

0
0
0
( 5)

0

.05

0
0
0

.38
.29
. 11
.03

. 13
.36
.31
0

.15
.24

0

.09
.34

0

0
0
0
.07
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0

.35
.35
.24

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS----SUMMARY VOLUME

312
T able

A— Clothing Expenditures, by Consumption Level— Continued
8.—
PERSONS i IN 1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Average number of articles pur­
chased per person

Item

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

Average expenditure per person

All
fami­
lies

Families with total annual
unit expenditure of—
U n­ $200
der . to
$200
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

$0.03
.08
.47
.03
2.36
. 10
.02
.07
0
.05
.02
.03
.01
.01
.12
.02
0
.01
.01
(5)
.01
.05
0

$0.01
.02
.39
.02
2.03
.11
(5)
.02
0
0
0
.02
0
(5)
.02
.01
0
0
(5)
(5)
0
.02
0

$0.05
. 15
.46
.02
2.12
.11
.01
. 09
0
.08
.03
.03
0
.01
.24
.02
0
0
.01
0
.01
.01
0

$0. 08
.06
.80
. 10
4. 50
.06
.13
.09
0
.07
.04
.07
.07
.02
.16
.07
0
.05
.10
0
.05
.27
0

$0.16
.20
1.10
0
4. 35
0
.03
. 51
0
.33
.39
0
0
.20
.02
0
0
.33
0
0
. 13
.26
0

7. 01
.31
.83
.34
.55
1.13
.16
.37
.72
.38
.49
1.40
.04
.29

2.86
.11
.17
.24
.13
.35
.08
.16
.47
.06
.22
.57
0
.30

5.86
.31
.79
.26
.29
.93
.19
.39
.78
.34
.37
1.09
0
. 12

14.48
.69
1.14
.65
1.41
3.13
.22
.79
1.06
.93
.98
2. 87
.19
.42

13. 79
.37
3. 40
.35
1.48
1.05
.23
.41
.92
.81
1.04
3.20
0
. 53

C loth in g , girls 2 through 5 yea rs
o f age— Continued

Hose: Silk___ ___________
Rayon____________
Cotton____________
Wool______________
Shoes: Street and dress___
Sport_____________
House slippers___________
Shoe: Repairs ________
Shine___ __________
Rubbers_____ _ ________
Arctics, gaiters. __ ______
Gloves: Cotton__________
Leather__________
Other____________
Bathing suits, sun suits___
H andkerchiefs__________
Furs__
_________ _____ _
Mufflers, scarfs___ _____
Handbags, purses. . . _ ___
Umbrellas.
_ ____
Garters, belts, hairpins, etc.
Cleaning, repairing.__ . _
Other. _
__
_____
C loth in g , in fa n ts

0. 34
.50
3. 36
. 12
1.88
.09
.04

0

.06
.01
.09
.01
.03
.21
.57
.02
.07
.01

0.26
.14
3.12
. 10
1.80
.09
.01
0
0
0

0
0

.08
.01
. 11
.41
.03
.02

0. 41
.96
3.15
.11
1.64
.10
.03

0. 32
.43
5. 08
.27
3.07
.04
.27

.12
.02
.08

.09
.04
.23
.09
.04
.40
1.30
0
.09
.35
0

0
0

1.23
.38
.75
.59
5. 85
.64
2.17
7.78
1.59
6.50
3. 01
.08

.46
1.01
.37
.80
1.69
.54
.91
6. 72
.94
4.09
2.15
0

0

0
0
0

.03
.30
.65
.07

1.06
1.20
5. 07
0
2.47
0
. 13

0
0
0
0

.33
.13
.47
.07
.33

6

T o t a l ___ _________ ___ _
Caps, hoods, bonnets___ _
Coats______ . . . . . .. . . .
Sweaters, sacques _ _ _. . . .
Sweater suits_____________
Dresses, rompers____ ..
Skirts, gertrudes___ _
Shirts, bands__________ _
Diapers. . . . _ . . . ___
Sleeping garments________
Stockings___ . . . _ __ _ .
Bootees, shoes___
....
Layettes__________ _. ..
Other.__ _ ___________ .

.71
.36
.48
.30
2. 39
.51
1.34
7. 02
.73
3. 32
1.45
.02

.31
. 13
.42
. 10
1.00
.27
.65
5. 78
.19
1.70
.77
0

1.61
.48
.43
.22
2. 29
.76
1.90
8. 39
.87
3.17
1. 36
0

1 Includes only persons dependent on family funds for 52 weeks.
8 Less than 0.5 cent.
8 Infants 1 to 2 years of age are included only if dependent on family funds for 52 weeks; those under 1
year of age are included regardless of the number of weeks dependent on family funds.




TABULAR SUMMARY
T able

313

A—
9.— Transportation Expenditures, by Consumption Level
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

fami­ Un­ $200 $300
lies der
to
to
$200 $300 $400

Percentage of families
in survey. __ ______ 100.0 3.0 12.2 19.8
Percentage of families
spending for trans­
97.6 88.3 94.7 96.6
portation. ______
Percentage of families
owning automobiles. 44.4 17.0 27.8 37.0
1.3 0
0
Made: 1936______
.3
3.2 8.2
16.8 0
1933-35___
31.0 18.8 18.4 27.1
1930-32___
1927-29___
41.8 61.2 59.2 49.3
9.1 20.0 19.2 15.1
Beforel927_
O r ig in a ll y p u r ­
chased:
N ew ___ _____ _ 37.2 18.2 19.9 28.4
Second-hand___ 62.8 81.8 80.1 71.6
Percentage of families
purchasing a u t o ­
mobiles in year:
2.7 0
.1
N ew ___________
.3
8.1 4.5 4.0 6.8
Second-hand_____
Percentage of families
purchasing motorcy­
.1 0
.2
.1
cles in year_____. . .
Percentage of families
owning more than 1
.8 0
.4
.7
automobile. .. ..
Percentage of families
spending for trans­
po rta tio n o th e r
than a u t o m o b ile
and motorcycle:
Trolley..
____ 80.8 73.1 79.4 80.0
9.4 5.5 8.0 8.6
Local bus________
8.1 3.5 4.1 6.0
Taxi____ ____ .
.9 1.2 1.0
.9
Bicycle. ______
9.4 2.9 4.7 5.8
Railroad. _____ _
6.6 3.9 4.5 5.2
_
Interurban bus_
4.3 1.1 1.8 3.0
B o a t.. . ____ .
.2 0
0
.1
Airplane___ _ _ _
Average expenditure
for all transporta­ D o l.
tion, total____ .. 125. 81
A u to m o b ile s and
m o t o r c y c le s —
purchase, opera­
tion, and main­
87. 44
tenance____ _
Purchase of:
Automobiles___ 32. 44
.05
Motorcycles___
Gasoline______ . 29. 77
Oil______________ 3. 66
2.87
T ires.._ ________
.37
Tubes___________
Repairs and main­
tenance________ 4. 88
Garage rent and
3. 22
parking. .. ..
Licenses and taxes. 4. 69
3. 96
Insurance. . . . __
Fines and dam­
ages----- ------.28
Rent of automo­
bile and/or mo­
1.09
torcycle_______
Other automobile
and motorcycle
transportation
.16
expense________
i Less than 0.05 percent.
2Less than 0.5 cent.




D o l.

D o l.

39.29 59. 22

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

98.8

98.7

99.3

99.1

99.4

99.8

99.4

99.9

98.2

42.8
.5
11.0
32.1
46.8
9.6

48.5
.6
15.0
32.9
44. 6
6.9

52.8
1.3
18. 4
36.8
37.2
6.3

57.5
2.4
24.0
37.0
32.7
3.9

58.4
2.7
29.2
33.9
28.3
5.9

68.4
4.4
34.6
33.0
23.7
4.3

71.4
5.5
50.1
28.2
14.7
1.5

66.5
7.9
50.0
21.0
13.9
7.2

78.9
6.9
59.6
16.9
13.3
3.3

31.7
68.3

38.3
61.7

43.1
56.9

43.1
56.9

50.4
49.6

49.1
50.9

50.9
49.1

71.1
28.9

62.4
37.6

.8
7.6

1.6
8.6

3.6
8.9

5.6
10.9

7.5
11.6

11.6
13.1

20.5
23.7

27.9
8.4

32.8
19.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

.1

.1

.8

.8

1.0

1.2

.9

1.3

2.9

3.1

2.9

82.5
9.2
7.0
1.4
9.1
6.5
3.9
0)

82.7
9.0
8.5
.9
9.4
6.3
5.2
.1

82.5
10.8
11.7
1.3
13.0
8.3
5.0
.3

79.6
11.4
11.7
.2
12.3
9.1
6.4
.6

80.9
11.5
13.1
.1
17.9
10.4
5.9
.6

80.6
9.9
12.3
0
15.7
10.2
7.8
.4

77.4
11.7
15.3
0
14.6
6.7
8.3
.4

76.8
12.6
23.3
0
28.0
6.6
10.0
0

77.3
15.0
20.2
.4
26.5
7.7
17.3
4.2

D o l.
D o l.
8 2 .10 103. 55

D o l.

D o l.

127. 82 151. 62

D o l.
188. 36

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

206. 98 265. 05 382. 77 370. 26 498.09

13.93 27. 63 48. 41 64.68 86.99 109. 25 143. 81 161. 24 220. 55 342. 92 317. 34 440.96
2.89
0
5.67
.77
.48
.06

4. 25
.14
13. 03
1.64
1.24
.15

11. 55 16. 82 26.40 37.80 58. 58 73. 55 111. 39 208. 51 202. 33 288. 51
.09 0
.04
0
.07 0
0
0
0
0
20. 91 26. 85 33. 35 37.70 43.98 47.12 54.26 70. 73 61.77 76.18
2. 56 3.16 4. 05 4. 85 5.57 5.50 6.70 9. 87 7.24 9. 62
2. 09 2. 67 3. 45 3. 53 4.45 4. 03 5.03 5.71 3.60 6. 51
.32
.64
.42
.56
.98
.29
.48
.48
.65
.48

.40 1.69 2. 82

3.89

5.37

6.91

8. 27

8.17 12.14 11.19 10. 65 16. 54

.56 .70 1. 65
1. 66 2. 74 3.68
.45 .81 1. 50

2.30
4. 37
2.81

3. 31
5.02
3.92

4.69
5. 70
5.75

6. 49
6. 34
7.96

6. 30 9.07 8.86 8.88 9.64
6. 77 7. 45 9. 76 8. 34 9.88
7. 37 12.10 15. 53 12.78 18. 91

.08

.15

.20

.44

.26

.32

.43

.16

.93

.33

2. 54

.98 1.03 1.04

1.07

1.06

1.41

1.00

1.09

1.28

.87

.78

.81

.13

.14

.17

.22

.43

.32

.32

.22

.84

0

.01

.13

.13

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

314

T able A -9.— Transporation Expenditures, by Consumption Level—Continued
14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ U n­ $200 .$300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $ 1,000 $ 1,100 $ 1 , 200
to
to
to
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $ 1,000 $ 1,100 $ 1, 200 over

Item

D o l.

Other transportation. 38. 37
Trolley _ ______ 31.91
2.41
Local bus_______
T axi____ . __ __
.51
.19
Bicycles_________
1.79
Railroad________
.85
Interurban bus___
.60
B oat_______ _ .
.01
Airplane___
Other transporta­
.10
tion expense___

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

25. 36 31.59 33. 69 38.87 40. 83 42. 37 44. 55 45. 74 44. 50 39. 85 52. 92 57.13
23.16 28.26 29.17 33. 66 34. 67 34.15 34. 38 32.99 34. 66 26.89 35.14 30. 40
1.03 1.60 2.20 2.18 2. 33 3.02 3.13 4.15 2.62 2.39 3.09 5. 37
.24 .21 .35
.30
.51
.63
.73 1. 52
.98 1. 26 1. 54 2.13
.36
.17
.31
.24 .18 .15
.03
.03 0
0
0
. 13
.32 .58 .87 1.19 1. 63 2.13 3. 20 4. 59 4. 05 5.40 7. 72 11. 64
.20 .64 .59
.75
.85 1.09 1.30 1.54 1.24 1.17 1.01 1. 40
.06 .08 .27
.31
.58
.93 1.69
.86
.90 1.32 4.07 5.13
0
0
.01
.03
.01
.01
.03
(2)
(?)
.01 0
.46
.12
.06
.10
. 11 .04 .09
.08
.05
1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

.02

1.41

.35

.47

Families with. total annual i nit expenditure of—
u
4.11
fami­ Under $200 to
$300 to $400 to $500 to $600 to $700
lies
and
$200
$300
$500
$400
$600
$700
over
100.0
25.4
Percentage of families in survey . _ ___ ___
IS. 1
22.1
16.3
9.3
5.0
3.8
Percentage of families spending for trans92.4
83.5
90.1
97.0
portation____________________ _____ --93.0
99.1
98.9 100.0
9.9
15.1
11.5
Percentage of families owning automobiles.
25.4
19.3
14.6
20.1
16.3
0
.6
0
0
.7
0
Made: 1936__________________________
0
4.9
0
6.4
6.5
3.5
1933-35________________________
13.8
4.8
10.6
14.1
25.3
1930-32________________________
28.0
15.7
33.2
19.9
28.3
58.1
44.2
1927-29________________________
59.1
65.6
74.7
68.4
51.0
55.5
31.3
27.6
9.1
6.1
9.4
2.4
Before 1927____________________
5.8
6.2
0
9.2
Originally purchased:
3.0
12.3
6.1
13.4
8.2
14.6
N e w .. _______
.
------31.7
33.7
93.9
87.7
97.0
Second-hand. _ . . . ________________
86.6
85.4
91.8
68.3
66.3
Percentage of families purchasing automo­
biles in year:
0
.3
N ew . _________________ _ . .. . . . .
0
.4
.3
0
2.4
.8
2.1
3.9
2.0
4.9
Second-hand. ____ _ _
.
4.9
8.4
4.5
5.5
Percentage of [families owning more than 1
0
.3
0
.9
0
2.6
automobile—.. _ . . .
... —
0
0
Percentage of families purchasing motor­
0
0
0
0
cycles in year..
.
0
0
0
0
Percentage of families spending for trans­
portation other than automobile and
motorcycle:
79. 9
71.5
77.9
80.1
79.9
90.6
Trolley.-.
------88.1
94.1
5.9
6.9
_______ __
6.1
6.7
5.9
Local bus _ ______ _
5.8
.6
9.0
9.4
5.5
5.2
12.4
14.1
Taxi_________
. . . _. _______ ____
9.6
10.8
29.9
.4
.3
1.1
.4
0
0
Bicycle . _ _ . . . . --- -- . . . . - ..
0
0
10.1
6.3
8.7
7.2
12.9
9.4
19.9
Railroad. ..
. ------- -------------30.3
2.6
Interurban bus . _
---- --- .. 4.3
1.6
3.3
7.7
7.0
8.9
7.3
2.6
1.5
4.9
2.5
2.7
1.5
3.3
____
. . ------. . .
6. 5
Boat .. ______
0
0
.1
0
0
0
1.9
Airplane. . __ -----------------------0
Average expenditure for all transportation,
total____________________ ___________ $57. 81 $28. 55 $40. 23 $54. 66 $72. 66 $90. 09 $111.25 $118. 42
Automobiles and motorcycles— purchase,
22. 79
7. 76 12. 70 20. 94 30.09 43. 57 58. 09 42. 91
operation and maintenance_________
1. 24
2. 42
7. 53 17.21 31.25 18.88
7. 85
8. 54
Purchase of: Automobiles_____________
0
0
Motorcycles ____ ____
0
0
0
0
0
0
2. 82
5.61
6. 67 12. 43 13. 31 11.31 10.89
7.66
Gasoline____________
.
.. --------1.94
1.04
.35
.57
1.58
1.01
1. 59
1.57
Oil__________________________________
.61
.72
1.03
.85
1.48
1.86
1. 76
Tires--------------------------------- __
.97
.09
. 12
. 12
. 11
.23
.08
.26
.04
Tubes_______________________________
1.72
2. 42
1. 27
.84
4. 40
.40
.73
2. 43
Repairs and maintenance ..
_______
.12
1.14
.16
1.33
4.92
Garage rent and parking
_ _ _ _ .
1.18
2.90
3. 66
2. 66
1.81
1.07
1.39
1.55
2.94
2. 25
Licenses and taxes_______ _____ _____
2. 58
.26
.15
.01
.05
.08
.45
.52
Insurance.. -------------- -----------.28
0
.04
.09
.06
.01
.20
0
Fines and damages________ _________
.28
61
1. 02
Rent of automobile and/or motorcycle. . .
.65
.41
.53
.47
.07
1.09
Other automobile and motorcycle trans­
.01
0
.01
0
.03
0
0
portation expense___________________
0
35.02 20.79 27. 53 33. 72 42. 57 46. 52 53.16 75. 51
Other transportation_____ . . . 29.88 17. 80 24. 69 29. 35 34. 01 40.92 47. 48 56. 71
Trolley______________________________
1.94
2. 91
1.42
1. 73
1.18
.88
.23
6. 44
Local bus. ______
-_.52
.76
.83
.78
.33
1.00
3.79
Taxi _________________ . . . . .
.98
.06
.17
.05
.06
0
0
0
0
Bicycles _______ ______ _____
. .
.72
2. 36
1. 45
.67
1.01
1.23
3.91
5. 79
Railroad.
___________ .. ------.34
.53
. 14
.19
1.17
1. 54
.51
.54
Interurban bus _ _ ____ ____ ____
.91
.47
. 19
.55
.41
.02
2. 22
.18
B o a t___________ _
___ . . . . . . . .
0
0
0
0
0
.03
0
Airplane. _________ ________________
00
.38
. 12
.31
.01
0
0
0
.02
Other transportation expense__________ 1
2 Less than 0.5 cent.
Item




TABULAR SUMMARY

315

T able A—
10.—Recreation Expenditures, by Consumption Level
14,469

Item

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES

Families with total
All
fam­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500
$600
ilies der to
to
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700

Percentage of families in
survey_______________ 100.0
Percentage of families
74.0
owning radios______
Percentage of families
spending for—
Reading:
Newspapers, streets _ 39.3
Newspapers, home
delivery__________ 71.2
Magazines__ ______ 45.1
Books
purchased
(other than school
texts)_____ _ ___ 5.0
Books borrowed from
3.6
loan libraries_____
Tobacco:
15.5
Cigars..
- __
58.9
Cigarettes. _ . _
Pipe tobacco __ ___ 26.3
8.6
Other tobacco___
Commercial entertain­
ment:
Movies (adult admis­
sion) _____________ 79.8
Movies (child admis­
sion) _____________ 29.9
Plays and concerts. __ 7.9
19.8
Spectator sports___
Recreation
e q u ip ment:
Musical instruments _ 2. 5
Sheet music, records,
rolls______________ 5.5
9. 7
Radio purchase_____
Radio upkeep______ 25.7
Cameras, films, and
photographic equip­
m ent_____________ 17.1
Athletic equipment
and supplies
__ _ 8.0
C h ild r e n ’s p la y
equipment____ _ 20. 2
Pets (purchase and
care)__________ _ 19.4
Recreational associa­
tions_______________ 18. 6
Entertaining:
In home, except food
6.2
and drinks _
Out of home, except
food and drinks___ 3.3
Average expenditure for
recreation, to ta l._ . . .
Reading, total_____ _
Newspapers, street...
Newspapers, home
delivery__________
Magazines___ ____
B o o k s p u rch a sed
(other than school
texts) .
.
.. .
Books borrowed from
loan libraries_____
Tobacco, total
Cigars____ _ _
Cigarettes__________
Pipe tobacco.. . _
Other tobacco.
1 Less than 0.5 cent.




D o l.

annual unit expenditure of—
$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

40.3 63.8 71.0 75.2 76.7

82.2

80.8

80.8

81.6

82.5

84.8

80.3

26.2 33.8 36.2 37.8 40.3

42.8

45.8

45.7

48.1

43.9

55.5

58.6

64.0 70.4 72.5 72.4 70.5
11.9 26. 6 35.2 42.7 51.5

73.0
59.0

69.6
58. 7

68.2
62.4

70.8
67.2

73.4
67.0

69.1
73.3

63.8
71.9
14.7

.7

2.1

4.6

4.1

5.7

7.6

6.3

7.4

6.3

10.0

12.4

.3

.6

2.4

3.8

3.9

5.7

6.1

5.5

7.6

5.0

11.0

8.0

10.0 12.7 15.4 17.5
53.4 55. 5 58.9 61.6
28.2 29.2 26. 6 24.6
13.5 9.5 8.5 6.8

21.1
61.4
24.8
6.8

17.1
65.4
25.0
5.7

20.1
61.9
22.3
4.6

22.8
69.4
24.3
6.4

27.6
68.2
25.9
4.0

16. 2
73.6
24.2
2.8

21.1
73.0
18.6
4.7

44.6 65.0 77.0 82.0 84.2

86.8

82.2

88.8

91.7

87.1

94.3

88.8

45. 2 48.3 40.9 32.3 26.3
3.9 4.6 5.0 6. 8 8.8
7.3 10.6 15.4 18.9 21. 5

19.1
10.5
25.9

13.5
10.4
23.9

8.4
12.8
30.9

6.6
14.8
34.1

2.0
14.1
33.9

2.7
13.4
28.2

4.2
22.5
40.2

4.9
40.8
28.2
18.7

2.7

3.2

2.3

1.8

2.0

2.8

1.7

.4

. 5 3.7 6.2 6.1 5.6
4.3 7.9 9.3 9.3 9.3
10.8 19.3 21.8 25.2 28.4

7.0
9.4
31.7

4.7
12.9
31.0

4.2
11.4
29.3

4.5
11.7
36.8

7.8
13.9
32.6

4.5
17.6
29.9

9.5
25.8
37.6

1.5

7.7 14.4 16.8 18.2

1.8

5.5

2.2

2.5

2.7

2.7

21.4

20.5

24.9

28.4

30.1

26.7

31.8

7.8

11.1

10.3

10.7

9.8

13.0

10.3

19.7

17.0 21.6 25.8 23.5 20.7

18.8

14.2

8.0

8.6

2.3

1.7

3.2

6.0 12.2 14. 6 18.9 21.4

25.2

28.2

25.7

30.9

26.8

14.2

31.4

7.7 10.9 15.8 17.3 20.4

22.8

24.8

24.5

24.9

27.8

36.2

37.5
16.9

6.4

8.0

.2

1.5

3.6

4.9

6.8

9.3

10.2

11.0

15.3

12.5

22.0

.6

1.5

2.2

2.9

3.2

5.3

3.2

5.3

7.8

7.3

11.0

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

10.7
D o l.

82. 29 36. 00 52. 85 65. 44 75. 62 88.94 100.92 107. 77 116. 00 130. 76 133. 44 137. 80 173.10
15. 36 7. 59 11.17 13. 07 14. 79 16.49 18. 52 18. 36 19. 55 21.28 21.05 23.18 25. 47
4. 66 1.87 3.05 3.60 4. 36 5.18 5. 64 6. 35 6. 43 7. 38 6. 05 8.96 9.18
8.14 5. 37 7.13 7. 85 8.31 8. 37
2. 06 .33 .87 1.40 1.75 2. 35
.37
.23
28.97
2. 73
22. 31
2. 73
1. 20

.16

.23

.01 .01 .06
15.99 21.26 24. 73
.75 1.40 1.75
10. 07 15.18 18. 56
2.801 2.92 1 3.03
2. 37 1 1.76 1 1.39

.01

.11

. 14
27.97
2. 41
21. 70
2. 73
1.13

.48

8.94
2.92

8. 51
2. 83

8.73
3. 62

.80

.37

.48

9.24 10.00
3. 77 3. 74
.61

.22
.29
. 11
.28
.30
31.80 33.31 35. 70 35.28 39. 66
3. 31 3. 82 3. 45 4. 44 5. 23
24. 82 26. 05 28. 86 27. 38 31.17
2. 68 2. 45 2. 58 2. 75 2. 42
.99
.99
.81
.71
. 84!

1.07

8.78
3. 83

8. 30
5. 55

1.11

2. 03

.41
.19
.50
43.18 40. 52 43.75
7. 85 3. 61 3. 05
32. 32 33.93 38. 55
2. 41 1.94 1.72
. 60 1.04
.43

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

316

T a b l e A - 1 0 . —Recreation
14,469

Expenditures, by Consumption Level—Continued

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

fam­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600
ilies der to
to
to
to
to
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700

Average expenditure for
recreation—Con.
Commercial entertain- D o L
ment, total______ 18. 62
Movies (adult admis­
sion) _____________ 14. 66
M ovies (child admis­
sion) _____________ 2. 15
.44
Plays and concerts.
Spectator sports____ 1.37
R e c r e a t io n a l equip­
ment, total____ . 12. 01
M u s i c a l in s tr u ­
ments _______ . . .
1.14
Sheet music, records,
rolls.. _ ______
_
.18
Radio purchase_____ 4. 86
Radio upkeep______ 1.09
Cameras, films, and
photographic equipment__ _ . . . __ . .56
Athletic equipment
and supplies _____
.74
Children’s play equip­
m ent___ ______ 1. 52
Pets (purchase and
care)_____________ 1. 92
Recreational associa­
tions_______________ 1.98
Entertaining:
In home, except food
and drinks_______
.59
Out of home, except
.90
food and drinks___
Other recreation______ 3. 86
1 Less than 0.5 cent.




D oL

D oL

D oL

D oL

D oL

DoL

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1, 200 over

DoL

D oL

DoL

DoL

D oL

D oL

6.35 11.49 14.20 17.16 20.78 22.40 24. 75 26.90 32.87 32. 31 32. 26 39.04
3. 85 7. 57 10. 46 13.60 17.03 18. 37 20.28 21.97 26.94 27. 58 27.97 28.90
2.19 3. 43 2.92 2. 32 1.99
.06 .09 . 13 .24 .47
.25 .40 .69 1.00 1.29

1. 39
.80
1.84

1.23
.75
2. 49

.71
.90
3. 32

.50
1.58
3. 85

.09
.71
3. 93

.06
1.31
2.92

.52
3. 55
6. 07

4.02 6. 75 9.60 10.58 12.30 16. 21 17.31 17. 23 18. 42 20. 22 23. 03 28. 81
.74 1.08

2. 01

1.27

2.08

2. 32

.10 .17 .23 . 18
0)
2. 63 3. 22 4.11 4. 44 4.63
.28 .63 .81 .96 1.27

.30
5. 58
1.47

.11
6.98
1.54

. 15
6. 46
1. 41

.31
6.17
1.92

.96

.76

.94

.99

1. 61

.86

1.87

.96

1. 42

1. 45

2.37

1. 43

.87

5. 76

.14

.01
.08

.68 1.16

.12
.29

.32

.51

.66

.31

.54

.72

.71

1.09

.77

.54
. 16
.33
9.41 13.68 11.60
1.75 1. 62 2.12

.72 1.18 1. 81 1.78 1. 68

1.59

1.59

.85

.93

.25

.86

.18

. 16

.53

.91 1. 38 2.08

3. 34

3. 64

3.89

3. 41

4. 73

3.89

5.97

.61

.94 1. 33 1.57 2.04

2.70

3.07

3. 74

3.85

3. 55

4. 36

6. 57

.01

.06

2.00

1. 46

3.49

3. 71

.49

.83

1.07

1.79

.05 . 15 .24 .58 1.06
1.38 1.03 2. 07 2.60 3. 98

1.89
5. 06

1.00
6.51

3.05 2.14 1. 45
8.46 10. 54 10. 22

.20

.37

2. 67 2.91
8.29 22.84

TABULAR SUMMARY

317

T able A-10.—Recreation Expenditures, by Consumption Level— Continued
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of—

Item

Percentage of families in survey___ _____
Percentage of families owning r a d io s .___ _
Percentage of families spending for—
Reading:
Newspapers, street.. ________________
Newspapers, home delivery___ _ _
M agazines_______
____ ________
Books purchased (other than school
texts)
___
_______
Books borrowed from loan libraries
Tobacco:
Cigars..
_ ___ ___
Cigarettes. _
________
___
Pipe tobacco_____
Other tobacco___ ____
Commercial entertainment:
Movies (adult admission).
Movies (child admission) __
Plays and concerts____
Spectator sports____
_ _
Recreational equipment:
Musical instruments___ ___
_ _
Sheet music, records, rolls _
Radio purchase___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ . . .
_ ___ _ . . .
Radio upkeep____ ____
Cameras, films, and photographic equip­
m ent__________ _ _. _______ _ . _
Athletic equipment and supplies__ _
Children’s play equipment. _ _ _ _
Pets (purchase and care)___ _____
Recreational associations. ___ ____
Entertaining:
In home, except food and drinks___. . .
Out of home, except food and drinks __

A11
All
fami­
lies

U n­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

100.0
48.6

18.1
27.8

25.4
40.8

22.1
52.8

16.3
58.8

9.3
57.5

5.0
72.2

3.8
80.8

27.4
65.6
15.1

13.5
66.8
6.2

20.4
67.3
11.6

26.8
70.6
15.6

29.1
68.1
17.2

35.9
58.8
19.9

65.3
50.9
20.2

69.6
43.9
50.9

1.7
.3

0
0

1.4
.2

.9
.4

3.4
.3

1.9
0

5.5
0

4.4
2.5

16.6
47.9
24.5
15.6

10.0
40.6
22.0
20.2

12.9
43.0
23.8
22.6

18.3
51.8
24.8
11.9

18.9
47.4
31.3
10.5

25.7
56.5
26.6
11.4

12.9
56.2
11.9
12.4

34.2
61.9
20.9
6.2

52.4
20.4
7.5
12.3

35.2
31.3
4.2
5.5

50.6
27.3
5.3
9.1

55.2
21.2
5.5
9.6

58.0
12.1
9.0
18.0

59.3
8.4
12.3
20.3

63.3
4.6
14.1
22.3

74.8
2.9
23.2
25.1

1.1
2.7
8.9
14.5

.6
.3
3.4
8.3

1.7
3.1
8.1
10.6

1.4
2.3
7.3
15.2

0
4.4
10.6
18.6

.6
2.1
12.4
17.6

2.7
2.2
20.8
21.2

0
9.0
14.9
31.0

2.2
1.6
12.7
9.8
10.7

.2
1.1
19.1
3.6
4.1

.9
2.0
17.6
5.6
7.0

2.4
1.1
13.7
9.4
10.3

2.7
1.3
7.5
11.2
12.4

1.8
1.5
3.3
19.4
14.1

9.3
1.6
5.2
18.6
12.7

6.8
5.4
.8
28.2
50.0

3.2
1.8

.2
.5

1.5
1.3

1.7
2.6

4.4
1.6

7.9
3.2

10.4
2.2

10.1
4.4

Average expenditure for recreation, total___ $48. 67 $30. 86 $38. 61 $48. 93 $53.00 $69.91 $72. 86 $95. 96
8. 74
7. 69
8.88
Reading, total ____ _________________
5.99
9. 43 10. 37 13.11 15. 24
.82
1. 52
2. 47
2. 25
2. 46
Newspapers, street_________
3. 67
7. 61
8. 38
4.98
5. 86
5. 75
6.11
Newspapers, home delivery. _ ____
6. 46
6. 02
4. 64
4.11
.46
.19
.48
.42
.64
Magazines
_
__ __
.30
.56
2. 42
Books purchased (other than school
.05
.03
0
.01
.09
.04
texts)____ ___________ ______ _ __
.30
.26
.01
0
.01 0)
0
Books borrowed from loan libraries._ __
0
.07
0)
20. 22 14. 88 16. 77 21.04 21.35 28.29 27. 61 29.17
Tobacco, total.__ _
_ ______
2. 34
1.88
.97
2. 27
2. 84
3.39
Cigars _____
__
_____
2. 78
7.24
9.41 10.14 14.48 13. 63 20.19 21. 46 18.94
Cigarettes __
_
_
._ _ _ _ 13.39
2.14
2. 21
2. 56
2. 53
3. 32
3. 30
Pipe tobacco____
_ __
1.28
2.67
2. 54
2. 36
1. 96
1.73
1.56
1. 41
Other tobacco____ ______________ _
2.09
.32
4. 31
8. 31
6.71
7.93
9. 69 13. 35 10.49 19. 07
Commercial entertainment, total___ _ _
4. 68
6. 05
2. 48
5. 74
Movies (adult admission)_______ _
7. 45
9. 88
8. 25 15. 74
1. 53
1. 42
.61
Movies (child admission)______ _
_ __
1. 16
1.45
.73
.33
. 15
.94
.33
. 11
. 10
Plays and concerts___ _
__ _ . . .
.20
.37
.89
1.29
Spectator sports.
_____
.77
.27
.40
.57
1.14
1.92
1. 02
.89
7.68
4. 08
6. 05
7. 35
Recreational equipment, total
_ _
7. 36 12. 61 15. 66 16.18
.62
.02
.83
1. 23
.51
Musical in stru m en ts___ ______ _
0
1.71
0
.06
.06
.08
.13
.01
.04
Sheet music, records, rolls. _ _ __ __
. 10
0)
2. 42
3. 38
3. 76
4. 60
4. 45
8.59 10.97 10.28
Radio purchase_________
__________
.32
.82
1. 24
.25
.65
.61
Radio upkeep_________________ _______
1.34
.88
Cameras, films, and photographic equip­
.09
.01
.06
.10
.20
.74
ment.
_ ___ . . . _ ___
_ _
.08
0)
.04
.06
.07
.01
. 15
.09
Athletic equipment and supplies.
.05
.15
.92
1.13
.83
1.10
.65
.29
Children’s play equipment____________
.23
.04
.33
.64
.80
. 18
1.06
1. 66
Pets (purchase and care)________ _ .
1. 04
4.19
.28
.48
.86
.87
.98
1. 34
Recreational associations____ _______ ____
.86
4. 73
Entertaining:
.06
.56
.79
.82
.33
.01
.10
2. 23
In home, except food and drinks___
.03
. 12
.45
.35
.20
.01
.43
.13
Out of home, except food and drinks___
.82
2. 32
1. 32
2. 32
3. 06
3. 28
3.88
9. 21
Other recreation _____ . . .
______
1 Less than 0.5 cent.




MONEY DISBURSEMENTS---SUMMARY VOLUME

318

T able A— —
11.

M ed ica l Care Expenditures and Personal Care E xpenditures , b y
Consum ption Level

14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure of-

Item

All
fami­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700" $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

M e d ic a l care e x p en d itu res

Percentage of families in sur­
vey____________________
Percentage of f a m il i e s
spending for medical
care:
Services of:
General practitioner:
Home,- . . . __
Office. _ ____________
Specialist and o th e r
practitioner .. ___ _.
D entist
___ __ _
Clinic _ _ _ ..
Nurse: In home: Private.
Visiting.
In hospital______
Hospital: Private room..
Bed in w ard...
Medicine and drugs . . . .
. . .
Eyeglasses___
Medical appliances .. . . .
Accident and health in­
surance.. . . . .
. ..

100.0

3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8 11.3

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

38.0 32.1 38.7 40.6 39.8 40. 3 36.4 31.1 30.9
42.7 26.8 34.1 40.3 43.9 46.1 47.0 46.4 44.9

36.7
49.5

34.3
47.6

36.9
49.6

39.0
55.2

20.8
57.1
3.4
1.4
.3
1.8
8.8
3.9
84.3
25.3
9.2

20.6
61.6
3.8
2.4
1.2
2.4
11.3
3.1
87.8
28.0
22.9

22. 7
62.8
2.9
2.3
0
3.0
10.6
1. 7
88.0
33.8
20.0

21.0
69.2
.6
4.2
0
4.8
12.1
1.0
91.0
38.4
9.8

29.5
61.4
1.7
2.8
0
4.5
12.6
2.4
91.6
28.7
10.0

21.5 19.9 17.6 18.4 21. 7 21.3 24.3 25.7 25.2

27.3

29.3

30.0

27.4

16. 7 7.7 10.8 14.0
49.5 30.6 38.1 47.1
5.5 9.3 6.3 6.5
1.3 1.3
.7 1.8
.2
.1
.3
.4
.4
.5
1.1
.6
6.8 1.5 3.2 4.5
4.2 4.5 4.6 5.2
85.4 79.9 83.6 85.2
22.0 15.3 17.5 20.1
8.6 3.4 5.8 7.8

Average expenditure per
family for medical care, D o l.
total__________________ 59. 18
Services of:
General practitioner:
Home. . . . . ....
6. 95
Office_______________ 6. 86
Specialist and o th e r
practitioner_________ 8. 92
D en tist_____ _____ __ 10. 84
Clinic.. .. _
.45
Nurse: In home: Private- .38
Visiting. .06
In hospital_____
.51
Hospital: Private room. _ 3. 60
Bed in ward__ 1.90
Medicine and drugs___ _ 9. 70
Eyeglasses______________ 3. 22
Medical appliances. _ . . .
.20
Accident and health in­
surance______ . _ _
4.05
Other medical care___
1.54
Average expenditure per
person for medical care,
total____________________ 16. 44

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

16.1
49.5
5.5
1.4
.4
.9
6.6
4.3
86.1
21.0
8.3

D o l.

19.2
52.9
5.3
1.4
.4
1.3
8.9
4. 7
86.8
22.9
8.6

D o l.

21.8
52.8
5.5
.9
.3
1.0
8.9
3.4
85.9
24.0
11.6

D o l.

7.1

19.9
55.9
4.1
1.2
.5
1.5
8.7
2.7
84.8
26. 7
9.8

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

28. 90 35.76 44.73 56.47 67. 27 71.40 74. 57 84. 49 88. 22 103. 35 113. 84 116. 85
4. 22 6.14 6. 56 6. 97 8. 47 6.58 7.19 7. 07 6. 49 8. 66 10. 09 7. 69
2. 45 3. 51 4.89 6. 45 7. 63 8. 39 9.45 11. 49 11.97 11.18 14. 82 15.53
2. 42
3. 83
.24
.20
.02
.09
.37
2. 44
6. 28
1.50
.08

4. 01
5. 82
.29
.09
.05
.08
1.16
1.33
6. 76
2. 41
.08

5.91
7. 40
.32
.25
.03
.08
1.61
2. 12
8. 21
2. 66
. 12

7. 72
10. 93
.58
.45
.04
.25
3.05
1.92
9.95
3. 06
.24

10. 57
11.57
.47
.38
.08
.88
4. 96
2. 35
10. 63
3. 35
.22

13. 46
12.06
.65
.29
.02
.42
5. 57
1.89
10. 85
3. 65
.32

10. 45
16. 00
.51
.56
.25
.82
4. 41
1.34
11.87
4.22
. 19

14. 73
15. 49
.65
.68
.08
1. 72
6. 92
1.80
11.67
4. 59
.28

4. 30 3. 47 3. 27 3. 76 3. 90 4. 50 5.07 5.29
.46 .56 1.30 1.10 1.81 2. 75 2. 24 2. 03

12.11 15. 65 20. 73
22. 34 21. 77 24. 11
.37
.03
.46
.60 1.71 1. 70
0
.06 0
1.44 2. 55 2. 53
6.70 9. 97 8. 07
.92
1.92
. 16
12. 30 15. 92 14.14
4. 48 5. 20 5. 95
.21
.56
.35
5. 56
1.58

7.13
1.76

6.54
4. 62

33. 29
22. 40
.22
.91
0
1. 20
10. 34
2. 33
10. 33
4. 28
. 15
5. 96
2. 22

4. 45 6. 89 10. 75 15. 95 21.49 25. 59 29. 24 35.50 38.69 45. 73 51.51 58. 42

P e r so n a l care exp e n d itu r e s

Percentage of families spend­
ing for personal care:
Personal care services:
Haircuts . . .
Shaves by barber______
Shampoos..
....
Manicures. ___ _______
Permanent waves _
Other waves ..
Other personal care serv­
ices_________________
Toilet articles and prep­
arations:
Toilet soap . _
Tooth powder, tooth
paste, mouth w ashes..
Cosmetic and toilet prep­
arations___ . . . . . .
Brushes, razor blades,
and other toilet arti­
cles. _______________




96.1 90.0 95.0 96.5
11. 6 4.8 8.2 7.5
12.4 1.1 3.4 6.2
4.4 0
.8 1.4
40.2 12.3 26.8 36.0
31.7 5.6 14.5 23.7
2. 2

1.6

1.0

1.4

95.0
11.0
9.9
3.0
42.4
29.6

97.4
13.1
13.1
5.1
43.8
37.8

97.1
15.6
17.9
3.9
44.4
42.6

96.9
17.2
22.2
6.4
49.2
43.8

97.8
16.9
22.1
9.1
49.1
45.6

97.0
20.9
31.3
12.4
48.3
51.4

97.0
13.5
28.7
15.5
55.2
46.8

98.0
21.7
35.8
26.8
51.9
62.5

97.7
17.7
48.9
30.9
55.7
60.0

1.5

2.4

2.5

4.4

1.6

5.6

4.8

8.8

4.8

96.4 94.7 96.0 96.7 97.1 93.6 96.4 95.0 96.3

97.5

98.5

97.6

96.8

92.8 75. 2 88.7 92.6 94.3 93.9 95.2 94.6 94.0

96.7

98.0

97.9

96.7

85.7 64.1 77.8 84.6 86.6 88.0 90.4 89.8 91.2

93.5

93.3

95.5

93.5

78.5 62.1 70.7 75.6 79.5 80.5 84.3 79.7 83. 7

91.0

87.2

92.2

87.6

TABULAR SUMMARY

319

T a b le A I 1.— M ed ica l Care Expenditures and Personal Care E xpenditures , b y
C onsum ption Level —Continued

14,469

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fami­ U n­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
$1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

Item

P e r s o n a l care exp e n d itu r e s —

Continued

Average expenditure per
family for personal care, D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l. D o l.
total__________________ 30.10 18. 55 23. 62 26.12 29. 70 31.43 33.36 34. 36 37. 73
Personal care services,
_ - - 15. 62 8. 42 11.45 12.93 15.19 16. 34 17. 85 18. 54 20.70
total_____
H aircuts,-.
__ _ ___ 10.13 7. 52 9. 45 9. 84 10. 20 10. 21 10. 51 10. 56 10. 81
Shaves by b arber_____ .72 .18 .37 .34 .77 .84 1.02 .92 .97
Shampoos___
___ _
.76 .05 . 14 .28 .51 .72 1.06 1.49 1.83
.02 .04 . 19 .27 .32 .32 .60
Manicures , , _ __ .
.27 0
Permanent waves__
1.92 .36 .95 1.40 1.97 2.18 2.45 2.51 2. 90
Other waves_
_ __
1.69 .21 .45 .94 1.45 1. 97 2.34 2. 59 3. 52
Other personal c a r e
services_______ __ _ . 13 . 10 .07 .09 .10 . 15 .15 .15 .07
Toilet articles and prep­
arations, total_____ , 14. 48 10.13 12.17 13.19 14. 51 15. 09 15.51 15. 82 17.03
Toilet s o a p ___________ 4. 65 4. 71 4. 88 4.82 4. 69 4. 57 4. 50 4. 32 4. 44
Tooth powder, tooth
paste, mouth washes, - 4. 08 2. 74 3. 55 3.78 4.18 4. 34 4.13 4. 52 4. 53
Cosmetic and toilet prep­
arations_____________ 3.74 1.53 2. 33 2. 90 3. 65 4.03 4. 48 4. 67 5. 44
Brushes, razor blades,
and other toilet arti­
2. 01 1.15 1.41 1.69 1.99 2.15 2.40 2.31 2. 62
cles ,
_ __
Average expenditure per
person for personal care,
total,, __ __ . __
8. 36 2. 86 4. 55 6.28 8. 39 10.04 11.96 13. 47 15. 85

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

40.84 42.66 48. 87 52.06
22.87 23. 23 28. 93 31.80
11.00 11.70 13. 09 13.19
1.50 1.05 1.34 1.74
2. 33 2.24 3. 32 5.03
.93 1. 42 1.84 3. 06
2.92 3.06 3. 32 3. 90
3.74 3. 27 5.10 4. 61
.45

.49

.92

.27

17. 97 19.43 19.94 20.26
4. 71 4. 54 4. 73 4. 51
4. 72

5. 21

4. 85

5.24

5.70

6.78

7.14

7.67

2.84

2. 90

3. 22

2.84

17. 91 18. 88 22.11 26.03

1,566 NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Families with
All
fami­
lies Under $200
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

M e d i c a l care exp e n d itu r e s

Percentage of families in survey_______ __ _
Percentage of families spending for medical
care:
Services of—
General practitioner: Home _ .
--Office,, _
___
Specialist and other practitioner,
__ .
Dentist _
_
_ _______ _
Clinic__________________ __________
Nurse: In home: Private______ _____ _
Visiting _ ___
In hospital___ , _____________
Hospital: Private room___ ___ _
___
Bed in ward __ _ __ ___ __
Medicine and drugs____ ________ ___ _
Eyeglasses____ ____ _ ______ __ _, __
Medical appliances, _ ___
__ _. __
Accident and health insurance _,, __ _,_ _

100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

38.3
31.3
4.4
20. 6
6.0
.2
.3
.1
1.4
3.0
88.8
13.3
4.4
35.8

35.7
19.7
3.3
13.7
7.4
.6
.3
0
1.1
2.1
87.8
6.5
2.3
34.3

40.4
28.2
3.6
19.2
4.6
.2
.6
0
.7
3.9
88.6
11.8
4.2
36.9

38.4
27.3
4.5
20.6
7.4
0
.3
0
.8
1.9
90.1
12.8
4.2
36.6

35.2
39.6
3.0
22.3
2.7
.3
.3
0
2.3
3.9
92.1
18.3
5.8
39.1

39.6
33.9
5.6
27.3
5.6
0
0
0
.6
3.8
86.7
14.7
5.2
34.8

39.1
51.7
7.7
21.0
9.4
0
0
0
4.6
3.7
78.9
19.2
4.8
31.1

45.0
54.7
12.9
37.2
9.3
0
0
1.5
5.5
5.0
87.9
26.8
7.9
23.8

Average expenditure per family for medical
care, total _
______ ____ ________ __ $35. 63 $26. 63 $28. 33 $34. 68 $44. 41 $42. 05 $46. 50 $64. 58
Services of—
7.54
5. 77
9.41
5. 84
4. 68
5. 07
7. 93
General practitioner: Home____________
5. 23
2. 28
4. 49
5. 45
5.11
7.11
1.49
3. 50
Office,.
, _. _ _
3. 39
6.24
1.63
3. 76
3. 27
.85
1. 60
Specialist and other practitioner____ _
1. 79
1.03
2. 77
2.91
3.44
9.48
2. 27
.63
1.95
1 86
D entist_ ________
_
_,_ _______ , _
.35
.21
.33
. 11
.18
.58
.25
.23
Clinic______________________________
0
0
0
0
02
.05
.07
.01
Nurse: In home: Private,, ___ _ ___ _
0
.04
.06
.01
0
Visiting, ___________
0
.06
.07
0
.04
0
0
0
0
0
1.12
In hospital _____
_______ __
.22
2.90
5. 48
.56
.06
. 11
. 13
.73
Hospital: Private room ,., _____ _ ___
.96
.51
.56
.43
1.82
1.46
.98
4.01
Bed in ward_____ _________




320

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS-— -SUMMARY VOLUME

T able A -T l.— Medical Care Expenditures and Personal Care Expenditures, by
Consumption Level— Continued
1,566

NEGRO FAMILIES IN 16 CITIES

Item

Families with
All
fami­
Under $200
lies
to
$200
$300

total annual unit expenditure of—
$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

M e d i c a l care e x p e n d itu r e s —Continued

Medicine and drugs_________ ____
Eyeglasses___________________ ______ _
Medical app liances__________ _______
Accident and health insurance___________
Other medical care___ __ ___ _______
Average expenditure per person for medical
care, total___ ______ _
_____ ____

8.48
1.45
.07
10.10
.37

7.73
.48
.02
9.08
.19

6. 42
1. 01
.06
9. 77
.26

8. 77
1.73
.05
10. 66
.40

9. 89
1.99
.13
12. 33
.53

10. 51
1. 92
.03
9. 43
.41

8. 82
1.89
.21
9. 38
.51

12. 42
3. 22
.06
6. 79
.76

0.92

4. 40

7.17

11. 56

17. 62

17. 82

20. 95

27. 96

94.9
7.9
17.2
1.0
1.0
11.8
11.0

90.0
6.4
3.6
0
0
4.4
6.4

96.2
6.3
12.7
.5
.8
8.9
8.7

95.5
6.6
14.8
.3
1.3
10.1
11.2

96.8
10.7
21.6
1.8
1.3
13.7
10.9

96.5
9.1
25.9
1.3
2.0
17.8
15.9

92.9
6.8
36.0
1.6
1.9
23.6
15.9

96.9
18.9
62.3
8.0
0
36.8
21.4

P e r s o n a l care e x p e n d itu r e s

Percentage of families spending for personal
care:
Personal care services:
Haircuts________ _______ ______ _ ___
Shaves by barber _____________ ____
Shampoos____ _ ________________ _ _
M anicures___ _____________________
Permanent waves_____________________
Other w aves______________ _ _____ _
Other personal care services___________
Toilet articles and preparations:
Toilet soap__________ __________ __
Tooth powder, tooth paste, mouth
washes________ ____ ____________
Cosmetic and toilet preparations. . . . . . .
Brushes, razor blades, and other toilet
articles_____________________________

96.4

97.2

97.1

96.9

97.1

94.2

92.2

96.1

84.0
75.6

77.9
65.1

77.7
74.7

87.0
76.0

89.8
83.8

89.1
74.7

86.7
78.3

96.1
92.7

72.2

68.2

70.3

72.9

75.1

72.9

75.9

80.4

Average expenditure per family for personal
$21. 92 $16. 93 $19, 50 $21.10 $23. 78 $25. 98 $25. 94 $42. 84
care, total . . . ___ _ _
9. 58 10. 42 12. 02 13.94 13. 56 26. 34
Personal care services, total__ . . . _ _ _ 11.10
7. 85
Haircuts .. _ . . . _ . . . . ___ _
7.16
6. 67
7.12
7.10
7.17
7. 51
7. 11
9.24
Shaves by barber_________ ___ . . .
.66
.40
.40
.64
.80
.81
.77
2.59
Shampoos ____________ _______
.21
2. 34
.90
1.03
1. 88
1.46
3.03
7. 60
Manicures______ ____________ _____ _
.01
.01
.02
.04
0
.08
.07
.43
.02
Permanent w a v e s ___ ____ ____ . . .
0
.09
.05
.05
.15
.07
1.15
.19
Other waves ______ _ ________ ______
.49
.87
.70
1.95
3. 62
.98
1.55
Other personal care services. _ . . . _____
.82
.38
.64
.89
1.06
1.16
.96
1.71
Toilet articles and preparations, total . . .
10. 82
9.08
9. 92 10.68 11. 76 12.04 12. 38 16. 50
T o iletso a p .. . . .
__ . . . _ _
4. 02
4.02
3.97
3.98
4.03
4. 46
3. 31
4.18
Tooth powder, tooth paste, mouth
washes. __
.
. . . ______. . .
2.54
2. 63
2. 99
3. 05
3.46
3.63
3. 43
5.02
2.11
Cosmetic and toilet preparations.
____
2. 39
1.48
2. 35
2.61
3. 32
2.85
4.98
Brushes, razor blades, and other toilet
1.42
articles___ _ . . . . . . . . . ..
._
1.09
1.34
2.32
2. 32
1. 36
1.16
1.36
Average expenditure per person for personal
2.80
care, total____________ ______ _______
6.10
4.94
7. 03
9. 44 11.01 11.68 18. 55




TABULAR SUMMARY

321

T a b l e A-12.—Formal Education, Vocation, Community Welfare, Gi/fcs and Contribu­

tions, ami Miscellaneous Expenditures, by Consumption Level
14,469

Item

WHITE AND NEGRO FAMILIES IN 42 CITIES
Families with total annual unit expenditure ofAll
fam­ Un- $200 $300 $400 $500
$600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
ilies der
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

F o r m a l ed uca tion exp en d itu res

Percentage of families in surv ey____________________ 100.0 3.0 12.2 19.8 20.4 15.8 11.3 7.1 4.6
Percentage of families spending for—
Members away from home. 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.7
.5 1.1
Members at home_______ 33.1 53.8 47.5 42.0 37.0 29.4 22.9 18.3 14.1

2.6

1.4

.2
15.9

1.1
8.2

0.8
0

1.0

7.4

.9
11.4

Average expenditure per
family for formal educa­
tion, total_____________ $7.19 $5.85 $6. 36 $6. 34 $7. 35 $8. 07 $9. 21 $5. 64 $7. 90 $6.86 $8. 55 $2.48 $9. 05
For members away from
home_________________
.75 .75 .45 .28 .54 .70 1.77 .38 2. 01
.20 4. 64 0
.98
For members at home____ 6.44 5.09 5.91 6. 06 6. 81 7. 37 7.44 5.26 5.89 6. 66 3.91 2. 48 8.07
V o ca tion e x p en d itu res

Percentage of families spending for—
L nion dues or fees. _ __ _ _ 24.0 13.6 18.8 23.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 27.2 27.8
T
Professional
association
dues or fe e s .__________
2. 3
.4 1.0 1.8 2.2 2. 2 2. 7 3.6 3.8
Technical literature_____
1.2 0
.4
.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 1.5 3.0

28.5

29.8

31.2

28.2

5.9
2.2

6. 0
4.5

5.0
2.0

4.0
3.1

Average expenditure per
family for vocational
items, total__________ _ $6. 20 $2.05 $3.12 $4. 54 $5. 67 $6. 76 $7. 34 $9. 74 $9. 65 $11.88 $10. 02 $12. 74 $13. 50
Union dues or fees_______ 5. 71 1.93 2. 92 4. 33 5.31 6. 22 6.52 8.87 8.80 11. 23 9. 34 11.94 10. 25
Professional
association
dues or fees____________ .27 .02 .05 .14 .20 .26 .41 .62 .66
.47
.45
.45
.76
Technical literature______ .08 0
.01 .03 .05 .13 .16 • 18 .10
.11
.13
.15
.18
Other items of vocational
expense_______________
. 14 .10 . 14 .04 .11 .15 .25 .07 .09
.07
.11
.20 2. 31
C o m m u n i t y w elfa re ex p e n d i­
tu res

Percentage of families spend­
ing for—
Religious organizations___ 74.2 77.6 78.8 78.7 76.2 74.2 71.3 67.2 64.3
Community chest and
other organizations_____ 54.9 31.8 43. 7 50.9 54.7 58.3 62.0 61.3 63.8
Taxes: Poll, income, and
personal property______ 27. 3 34.9 28.7 27.8 26.3 27. 0 25.1 25.4 27.0
Average expenditure per
family for community
welfare, total ______ __
Religious organizations___
Community chest and
other organizations._ _
Taxes: Poll, income, and
personal property______

62.3

66.5

60.4

67.3

68.7

69.6

71.1

26.9

32.7

34.2

29.9

63.5

$19.21 $12.09 $16.04 $16.98 $18.74 $20 52 $21.60 $21.01 $24.51 $21.06 $27. 84 $23. 82 $30. 40
15. 40 9. 39 13. 48 13. 95 15. 28 16. 59 17. 34 16. 31 18. 61 16.10 20. 67 15.89 18. 47
.78 1.35 1.84 2. 39 2. 77 3.10 3.40 4. 42

3. 71

5.14

5.24

9.10

1.24 1.92 1.21 1.19 1.07 1.16 1.16 1.30 1.48

1.25

2.03

2.69

2. 83

Percentage of families spend­
ing for—
Christmas, birthday, etc.,
68.3 29.0 47.3 60.2 70.4 75.2 79.2 82.2 81.9
gifts____________ ____
17.2 4.5 9.2 12.6 15.6 19.6 24.8 27.5 25.8
Support of relatives.........
Support of other persons... 6.2 2.2 2.6 4.1 6.4 7.4 8.3 8.9 8.5

85.8
30.3
7.8

84.7
36.1
12.6

90.4
38.9
10.0

90.0
43.2
12.9

2. 57

G ifts a nd con trib u tio n s

Average expenditure per
family for contributions
and gifts to persons out­
side economic family,
to ta l_________________ $24.37 $3 82 $7. 77 $11.75 $19.44 $25.39 $34.36 $39.62 $46.13 $56.90 $60.28 $85. 67 $128.20
Christmas, birthday, etc.,
gifts_____ _ _________ 13. 08 2. 36 4. 53 7. 72 11.07 14. 47 17. 86 20.12 23. 61 31.33 27.69 32. 06 43.74
10. 44 1.32 2. 95 3.78 7.17 9. 99 15.40 18.05 20. 74 24.84 30.87 52. 45 82.99
Support of relatives
.73 1.72 1.16 1.47
Support of other persons.. .85 .14 .29 .25 1.20 .93 1.10 1.45 1.78




322

M ONEY

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

VOLUM E

T able A —
12.— F orm al E d u cation , V ocation, Com m unity W elfare, Gifts an d Contributio n s, and M iscellan eou s E xpend itures, fey Consum ption Level— Continued
1 4 ,4 6 9

W H I T E A N D N E G R O F A M I L I E S I N 4 2 C I T IE S

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­ Un­ $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800
$900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200
lies der to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 over

Item

M is c e lla n eo u s ex p en d itu res

Percentage of families spend­
ing for—
Funerals________________
Legal costs______________
Gardens__
_________
Family losses_________ __

1.4
.4
1.5
.8
8.3 11.9
1.4 1.5

1.0
1.1
9.1
.9

1.2
1.0
8.7
1.2

1.2
15
72
LI

1.3
1.2
8.0
1.2

1.4
2.0
7.4
1.6

2.2 1.7
1.4 2.7
7.1 10.0
2.3 2.2

2.6
2.5
1.0
2.9

4.6
2.3
12.4
2.0

1.7
1.1
6.6
2.9

4.0
4.1
12.7
2.4

Average expenditure per
family for miscellaneous
items, total____________ $7.00 $2. 74 $3. 62 $4. 60 $5.30 $7. 62 $7.80 $9.82 $12.90 $15.02 $33. 61 $10. 24 $18.93
F u n era ls.._____________ 3. 41 .37 1. 53 2. 26 2. 21 3.09 4.12 6. 23 5.85 6. 68 25.99 4.28 8. 82
Legal costs____ _________ .79 .11 .19 .47 .66 .88 1.01 .66 3. 63 1.67
.39
.26 2. 39
.34 .50 .24 .25 .28 .36 .44 .34 .57
Gardens________________
.47
.29
.58
.66
Family losses___________
.60 .28 .34 .42 .58 .53 .50 1.52 1.20
.96
.86
.84
.34
Other__________________ 1.86 1.48 1.32 1.20 L 57 2. 76 1.73 1.07 1.65 5.24 5. 79 4. 57 6. 27
1 ,5 6 6 N E G R O F A M I L IE S I N 1 6 C I T IE S

rtem

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies Under $200 to $300 to $400 to $500 to $600 to $700
and
$300
$400
$200
$500
$600
$700
over

F o rm a l education exp en d itu res

Percentage of families in survey - _ .
__
Percentage of families spending for—
Members away from home. . .
_ ___
Members at home
____
Average expenditure per family for formal
education, total. ___ . . .
___
For members away from home______ . _
For members at home. . . ___ _______

100.0

18.1

25.4

22.1

16.3

9.3

5.0

3.8

1.2
31.9

1.1
67.5

.8
38.4

1.1
24.5

.5
14.7

2.5
12.2

3.6
11.9

0
12.3

$3.16
.79
2. 37

$4. 77
.07
4.70

$2. 60
.09
2. 51

$1. 65
.08
1. 57

$1.10
. 17
.93

$3.13 $13. 48
1.95 10. 55
1.18
2. 93

$4. 32
0
4. 32

5,1
.3

5.9
.4
.2

11.0
.3

17.2
.5
.3

15.0
1.5
0

11.0
3.5
0

19.5
2.2
0

V oca tion exp en d itu res

Percentage of families spending for—
Union dues or fees______________________
Professional association dues or fees_____
Technical literature...
________

10.8
.7
.1

Average expenditure per family for voca­
tional items, total ______
___ _____
Union dues or fees__________ __
_____
Professional association dues or fees __ _ _
Technical literature-...--. _ __________
Other items of vocational expense_______

$1.78
1.50
.04
.01
.23

$. 89
.55
.02
0
.32

$. 98
.62
.04
.02
.30

$1. 68
1.55
.02
0
.11

$2. 95
2. 54
.03
.03
.35

$2. 47
2. 36
. 11
0
0

$2. 72
2. 52
.16
0
.04

$3. 31
3.00
.01
0
.30

87.5
46.6
23.3

86.1
37.9
25.8

88.3
46.9
26.1

88.8
48.3
24.0

88.4
50.8
23.8

86.4
55.8
21.3

80.8
44. 6
10.9

87.5
37.5
7.8

0

0

C o m m u n ity w elfa re exp en d itu res

Percentage of families spending for—
Religious organizations__________________
Community chest and other organizations_
Taxes: Poll, income, and personal property.

Average expenditure per family for com­
munity welfare, total__________________ $13.86
Religious organizations__________________ 11.72
Community chest and other organizations.
1. 19
Taxes: Poll, income, and personal property.
.95




$9. 73 $12. 35 $13.47 $15.84 $19. 34 $14. 94 $22.42
8.08 10. 32 11. 33 13.28 16. 60 12. 82 20. 54
1.02
1.12
.73
1.46
1. 76
1. 70
1.51
.92
1. 01
1.02
1.10
.42
.98
.37

TABULAR

323

SUM M A R Y

T a b l e A - 1 2 .— F orm al E d u cation , V ocation, Com m unity W elfare, Gifts an d Contribu­
tio n s, and M iscellan eou s E xp en d itu res, by C onsum ption Level— Continued
1 ,5 6 6

N E G R O F A M I L I E S I N 1 6 C I T IE S — C o n tin u ed

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­ $200 to $300 to $400 to $500 to $600 to $700
der
and
$300
$500
$400
$600
$700
$200
over

G ifts and contribu tion s

Percentage of families spending for—
Christmas, birthday, etc., gifts__________
Support of relatives______ .
________
Support of other persons.. _ _ __ __

37. 2
25.9
5.3

17.3
9.0
2.4

Average expenditure per family for contribu­
tions and gifts to persons outside eco­
$17. 67
nomic family, total,.
______
3. 62
Christmas, birthday, etc., gifts__________
13. 57
Support of relatives_________ ___ _ ____
Support of other persons. _ _ _ _ _ _ _
.48

$3. 71
1.20
2. 33
. 18

28.6
21.6
3.8

39.8
23.6
4.0

51.2
29.9
7.8

42.4
47.2
5.2

58.1
44.6
7.4

70.7
53.9
23.2

$9. 63 $12. 42 $21.20 $34. 04 $41.82 $81.15
3.05
5. 34
1.95
3.85
9.48 13.99
7. 47
8.81 15. 37 29. 30 31. 71 65.20
.21
.56
.49
.89
.63
1.96

M is c e lla n eo u s exp en d itu res

Percentage of families spending for—
Funerals______ ______________________
Leeal costs___________________ ___ ___
Gardens_______________________________
Family losses.
_ _
_____________

1.4
.8
8.3
1.5

1.1
0
13.7
.9

0.7
.7
12.0
.2

0.8
.5
4.2
1.9

1.2
.9
5.3
2.2

3.3
1.0
6.0
3.6

Average expenditure per family for miscel­
__ _
laneous items, total. __________
Funerals.__ _ . . . _________ ___ __
________ ___ _ _ ____
Leeal costs___
Gardens
_ _ _ _______ _ ______ _
Family losses _ ___ _ ___ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _
Other_____ _ ______ _______________

$4.43
2. 66
.43
.17
.22
.95

$2.95
.90
0
.31
.03
1.71

$2.09
.86
.13
.23
.01
.86

$2. 21
.90
.20
.09
.14
.88

$4. 63
2.94
.48
.08
.51
.62

$9. 76
7. 82
.54
.14
.81
.45




2.7
1.6
2.2
0

4.7
5.8
7.3
4.4

$5. 66 $24.60
4. 04 17.68
.67
5.16
.04
.07
0
.61
.91
1.08

1 4 ,4 6 9

324

T able A—
13.— D isp osition o f M on ey Received D u rin g Schedule Year N ot Used fo r Current E xpenditure and F unds M ade A vailable fo r F a m ily Use
From Sources Other Than F am ily Incom e in Schedule Year, by Consum ption Level
W H IT E A N D N E G R O F A M I L IE S I N 4 2 C I T IE S

Families with total annual unit expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$700

$700 to
$800

$800 to
$900

$900 to
$1,000

$1,000 to $1,100 to
$1,100
$1,200

$1,200
and
over

Percentage of families in survey___ _________________
Percentage of families receiving funds from—

3.0

12.2

19.8

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

Reduction in cash:
*
On hand . _ -- ___________________________
In checking account___________________ _____
In savings account________ _ _
_________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real-estate mortgages)___
Building and loan shares. _______ _________
Stocks and bonds_______ _________ ________
Goods and chattels_________________ _______
Other property_____________________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender______ ______ ______ __________ Settlement____________
_ ______- ____ _
Receipts from outstanding loans to others_______

3.4
1.6
19.0

1.3
.1
3.9

2.4
1.0
10.2

3.8
1.0
13.4

2.9
1.2
19.0

4.2
1.9
21.4

3.4
1.9
24.3

4.8
2.4
25.2

3.6
3.8
24.5

1.8
3.6
31.0

4.9
6.4
36.4

7.4
10.1
35. 1

3.7
2.3
41.5

.4
.6
.9
2.8
.7

0
.4
.1
3.1
0

.5
.2
.2
2.5
.6

.2
.5
.5
2.3
.9

.3
.6
.5
2.4
.6

.4
.8
1.2
2.9
.6

.4
.5
.9
2.8
.7

.3
.9
1.2
4.1
.6

.5
1_0
1.7
3.9
1.8

0
.8
1.9
3.6
1.1

.8
.9
1.6
3.8
.6

1.0
0
5.8
2.6
.6

3.9
1.5
4.5
6.1
2.0

7.2
1.7
1.9

9.5
1.4
.4

9.3
1.4
1.0

8.4
1.6
1.6

7.3
1.3
2.0

6.7
1.4
2.0

5.8
2.3
2.0

4.8
2.1
2.6

5.6
2.9
3.5

7.2
1.9
3.0

3.4
5.2
4.4

4.9
1.7
8.2

4.0
3.2
2.6

1.3
.3

1.7
0

1.6
.4

1.7
.2

1.3
.3

1.3
.3

1.0
2.0

.9
.3

1.5
.5

.5
.4

3.6
.4

.5
0

0
1.3

1.4
4.0
5.4

.9
1.8
5.5

1.1
4.1
5.4

1.7
3.9
6.5

1.2
3.8
5.8

1.8
4.3
4.8

1.7
3.9
5.4

1.8
3.2
3.8

1.0
3.7
5.8

1.0
5.0
2.7

2.9
7.7
7.0

1.7
5.4
2.3

3.2
6.3
7.0

5.2
24.3
8.1
24.9
.6

1.3
22.4
9.7
38.2
.1

1.6
22.9
10.9
36.9
.7

3.2
24.2
8.2
28.5
.4

3.9
25.2
7.9
24.0
.6

5.1
24.4
8.5
20.6
.3

4.9
24.1
5.6
20.7
.9

7.2
23.8
7.4
18.7
.5

9.0
25.8
7.1
19.6
.8

12.1
25. 7
8.0
16.9
.9

21.4
22.2
7.8
25.4
2.2

20.6
21.8
6.9
18.5
.7

30.6
27.1
8.3
19.0
3.2

In crea se in liab ilities:

Increase in mortgages on own hom e___
. - Increase in other mortgages-- __ __ _______
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks___________________________
Payable to insurance companies.-- __________
Payable to small-loan companies___ _______
Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles
_________________ _______
Other goods- ------------------------------------------Payable to individuals______________________
Other debts_____ _____________ _ ________
Inheritance-......................... —................... ................




VOLUM E

100.0

D ec r e a s e in a ssets:

D I S B U R S E M E N T S --- S U M M A R Y

F u n d s m ade available fo r fa m ily u se fr o m sou rces other than
fa m ily in com e in schedule year

M ONEY

Item

All
families

A-verage amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in liabilities_______
D ecrea se in assets _________________________________

Reduction in cash:
On hand________________________________________
In checking account_____________________________
In savings account______________________________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real-estate mortgages)_____
Building and loan shares________________________
Stocks and bonds_______________________________
Goods and chattels______________________________
Other property_________________________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender_________________________ ____ ________
Settlement______________________________________
Receipts from outstanding loans to others_______
In crea se in liab ilities ______________________________

4. 53
3. 93
42.13
1. 95
1. 71
2. 62
1. 56
.59

$424. 27 $505. 02
273. 71 271. 29

$61.61

$96. 74
36.08

$116. 22
52. 62

$130. 57
63. 61

$158.12
82. 77

$163. 22
83. 19

$217. 54
124. 70

$230. 36
128. 31

$254. 43
140. 04

$407. 74
253. 98

1. 60

2. 63
1. 06
15. 34

4. 89
1. 33
26. 44

3.19
2. 96
35. 69

5. 43
2. 90
48.60

4. 93
3.24
48. 22

7. 27
10. 33
61. 65

6. 75
6. 54
65. 07

3. 93
7. 66
91. 41

5. 39
26. 40
153. 74

9. 01
36. 30
149. 50

5. 85
23. 26
160. 90

.08
1.06

1. 05
.58
.31
.83
.45

. 12
1.19
.95
.84
.49

1. 03
1.49
1. 73
1.12
.20

2. 56
2.19
2. 47
1.78
.46

1.23
.82
2. 85
1. 44
.33

9. 53
6.44
3. 77
3.19
.92

1. 23
1. 87
7. 68
2. 02
2. 81

0
1. 80
2. 95
1. 47
1. 90

1.83
1.17
16. 72
6.08
.32

5.70
0
26. 87
7.18
.80

24. 33
5. 06
18. 76
9.26
3.54

6. 27
.73

10. 77

12.01

.02

2.05

0
. 10

0

.10

49.60
1 99
.

.84
60. 66
3.14
.25

11. 25
3. 82
1. 30
63. 60
5. 51
.43

9. 32
5. 02
1.86
66.96
4.00
.68

8. 25
5.11
3. 02
75. 35
5.04
.64

8.24
9.26
2.63
80. 03
4.24
.42

7. 27
11.24
3. 09
92. 84
10. 07
1. 50

9. 07
21. 22
4. 05
102. 05
3. 39
1. 47

13. 69
11. 30
3. 93
114. 39
2. 62
.59

3. 99
27. 47
10. 87
153. 76
.66
1. 45

7. 56
2. 61
28.18
150. 56
4.44
0

8. 84
8. 52
2. 97
233. 73
0
2.26

1.87
5.24
5.19

.93
3. 75
2.95

.56
3.28
4.16

1. 21
4.17
5. 57

1. 62
4. 71
4. 95

2.74
5. 72
4. 83

2. 56
6.24
5.89

3. 54
4.04
5. 95

1.59
6. 40
6. 65

1. 44
11. 41
3.74

5. 67
13. 56
6. 38

.89
8. 82
1. 38

3. 84
21. 52
14. 42

10. 47
18.15
10.16
19. 54
2. 39

.34
8.44
5.69
25.51

1. 49
11.42
9. 66
26. 70

.02

1.66

3. 33
14. 20
8.00
21.18
.51

6. 66
17. 32
9. 29
17. 73
1. 70

8. 76
18.66
12. 02
16. 94
1. 85

13. 98
22.13
7. 99
16. 58
3.96

16.17
21.84
12.00
17. 73
1. 71

22.88
27. 56
15. 42
16.69
8. 01

30.76
33. 78
14.23
15. 82
5.13

59.13
25. 61
12. 42
28. 88
11.36

63. 49
34. 38
22.31
14. 85
.98

101. 82
40. 82
27. 71
21. 34
23.22

100.0

3.0

12.2

19.8

20.4

15.8

11.3

7.1

4.6

2.6

1.4

0.8

1.0

2.3

1.3
.4
1.5

1.2

2.0
.7
8.5

2.8
1.0
11.2

2.4
1.0
12.1

2.7
2.3
16.2

2.9
2.5
16.1

1.6
2.7
20.0

3.1
2.7
18.8

3.6
1.1
16.3

2.3
1.8
15.3

2.6
2.6
17.6

2.1

3.3

1.1

.8

.1
.4
.6

.6

.5
.3
.6

3.7
.7
.9
.5
.7

3.4
1.0
.7
.6
.9

3.1
1.0
.7
1.1
.9

5.1
.9
1.1
.8
1.7

3.7
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.8

4.1
.9
1.8
1.3
1.3

2.8
.8
1.7
1.2
1.8

2.9
2.0
.8
.6
1.5

5.0
3.3
.5
1.8
7.9

4.3
1.3
0
2.0
1.3

88.6

82.2

4.1
1.8

.2

88.8
3.1
1.1

89.4
4.2
1.7

90.5
4.7
2.3

89.6
5.0
2.0

88.1
5.9
2.5

84.7
4.8
3.3

88.5
3.4
2.7

88.3
11.8
2.6

90.0
10.6
1.5

85.4
5.3
6.3

9. 34
6. 47
2. 43
75. 86
4. 61
.63

0

2. 22

D isp o sitio n o f m o n ey received d u rin g the schedule year not
u sed fo r cu rren t fa m ily exp en d itu re

Percentage of families in survey_______________________
Percentage of families disposing of funds in—

i>
W
d
F

SUMMARY

Increase in mortgages on own home_______________
Increase in other mortgages_______________________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_______________________________
Payable to insurance companies_________________
Payable to small-loan companies________________
Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles__________________________________
Other goods___________________________________
Payable to individuals__________________________
Other debts_____________________________________
Inheritance_________________________________________

$153.12
77.26

In crea se in assets:

1 Less than 0.05 percent.




1.2

11.4
3.7
.9
.9

1.2

.6

87.8
1.9

1.0

325

Increase in cash:
On hand__________________________________ _____
In checking account____________________________
In savings account______________________________
Investment in:
Impro vements in own home____________________
Other real estate (including real-estate mortgages) _
Building and loan shares________________________
Stocks and bonds_______________________________
Other property_________________________________
Payments of premiums for insurance policies:
Life insurance__________________________________
Annuities_______________________________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others____________

From Sources Other Than F a m ily I