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U NITED STATES D E PARTM EN T OF LABO R
F rances P erk in s, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Isador L u b in , Commissioner

M oney Disbursements o f Employed W age
Earners and Clerical W ork ers in
T w elv e Cities o f the South

1934-36
By
FA ITH M . WILLIAMS and ALICE C. HANSON
assisted by GENEVIEVE B. W IM SATT
o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Bulletin T^o. 640

U N IT E D S T A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFICE
W A S H I N G T O N : 1941

F or sale b y th e S u p e rin ten d en t o f D o cu m e n ts, W ash in g ton , D . C.




P rice 60 cen ts

U N IT E D ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R
F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,

Secretary

B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
ISA D O R L U B IN

Commissioner

Sidney W. W ilcox

A. F. H inrichs
Chief Economist

Chief Statistician

H ugh S. H anna
Chief, Editorial and Research

STAFF FOR THE STUDY OF MONEY DISBURSEMENTS OF WAGE
EARNERS AND CLERICAL WORKERS IN 12 CITIES OF THE SOUTH

F aith M . W illiams
Chief, Cost of Living Division

G ertrude Schmidt W eiss and A lice C. H anson
General Directors of Field W ork

A lice C. H anson
General Director of Tabulation

E dna D. H orner
Assistant Director of Tabulation
d ir e c t o r s o f f ie l d w o r k

Ann James, Baltimore
R uth A llen , Birmingham
Sam B arton , Dallas
R obert T homas, Houston
R uth A llen and R obert T homas,
Jackson

R obert T homas, Jacksonville

L illian L unenburg and Sara L andau ,
Louisville

R uth A llen and G rover V aughn
Memphis

R uth A llen , Mobile
R uth A llen and R obert T homas,
New Orleans

E arle H olsinger, Norfolk
E dna B erglund , Richmond
s u p e r v is o r s o f t a b u l a t io n in t h e f ie l d

E nid F rancis ; Samuel M . G ahagen ; A lice W . H erbst and B elle R a n k in ;
K athryn H eath and E ppa H eaton ; Sara L andau and E dward K ilpatrick ;
R obert T homas and W ayman R egister.
ii




CONTENTS
Page

P reface _________________________________________________________________
Summary _________________________________________________________________
Part I. W hite F amilies Other T han M exican :
C hapter 1. Income Level and Money Disbursements______________
Current expenditures of each city group as a whole_____________
Food_____________________________________________________
Housing__________________________________________________
Clothing__________________________________________________
Transportation______________________________________________
Recreation__________________________________________________
Other items_________________________________________________
Family income__________________________________________________
Distribution of expenditures at successive income levels___________
Variations in money disbursements__________________________
Income levels and planes of living_____________________________
Size and composition of family______________________________
Planes of living determined by family size as well as incom e..
Equivalence between total expenditures and economic levels.
Order of expenditures at different economic levels_________________
Expenditures at two economic levels_________________________
Changes in assets and liabilities__________________________________
C hapter 2. Expenditures for Specified Goods________________________
Food____________________________________________________________
Annual food expenditures____________________________________
Food expenditures in 1 week in spring, summer, fall, and
winter quarters___________________________________________
Housing_________________________________________________________
Home ownership____________________________________________
Types of dwellings__________________________________________
Size of homes_______________________________________________
Garages-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Facilities____________________________________________________
Housing expenditures_______________________________________
Home owners___________________________________________
Renters________________________________________________
Vacation housing_______________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____________________________
Other items of household operation______________________
Furnishings and equipment______________________________________
Clothing_________________________________________________________
Variability of clothing expenditures__________________________
Total expenditure per family for clothing____________________
Gifts of clothing_____________________________________________
Clothing expenditures for men and boys. .
__________




in

xi
1
7
7
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9
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10
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10
10
17
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25
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53
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62

IV

CONTENTS

P art I. W hite F amilies Other T han M exican — Continued.
C hapter 2. Expenditures for Specified Goods— Continued.
Clothing— Continued.
Clothing expenditures for women and girls_________________
Occupational differences in the clothing expenditures of
adults__________________________________________________
Transportation________________________________________________
Recreation____________________________________________________
Personal care__________________________________________________
Medical care__________________________________________________
Formal education_____________________________________________
Vocation______________________________________________________
Gifts and contributions to individuals and to the community
welfare_____________________________________________________
Miscellaneous items___________________________________________
C hapter 3. A Generation of Changing Living Standards___________
Distribution of current expenditures in 1934-36 as compared
with those in 1917-19---------------------------------------------------------Part II. N egro F amilies _____________________________________________
C hapter 1. Income Level and Money Disbursements______________
Family income________________________________________________
Size and composition of family____________________________
Current expenditures of each city group as a whole_____________
Distribution of expenditures at successive income levels________
Order of expenditure at different economic levels_______________
Order of expenditures at two economic levels______________
Changes in assets and liabilities________________________________
C hapter 2. Expenditures for Specified Goods______________________
Food__________________________________________________________
Annual food expenditure__________________________________
Food expenditures in 1 week of the spring and winter quar­
ters____________________________________________________
Housing_______________________________________________________
Home ownership__________________________________________
Types of dwellings________________________________________
Size of homes_____________________________________________
Garden space and garage__________________________________
Facilities_________________________________________________
Housing expenditures_____________________________________
Home owners________________________________________
Renters______________________________________________
Secondary housing____________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration__________________________
Other items of household operation___________________
Furnishings and equipment____________________________________
Clothing______________________________________________________
Total expenditures per family for clothing_________________
Gifts of clothing__________________________________________
Clothing expenditures for men and boys___________________
Clothing expenditures for women and girls_________________
Recreation____________________________________________________
Transportation________________________________________________
Personal care__________________________________________________

Medical c a r e _ - ^ ^ - ^ - _ - ^ - .......................................




Page
64
65
68
71
72
73
75
76
76
78
79
79
83
85
85
88
88
89
92
94
96
101
101
101
101
105
105
105
105
106
107
108
108
108
108
108
109
110
111
111
111
111
113
114
114
117

117

CONTENTS

V
Page

Part III. M exican F amilies in H ouston___________________________
Chapter 1. Income Level and Money Disbursements______________
Family income________________________________________________
Size and composition of family____________________________
Current expenditures of the city group as a whole______________
Distribution of expenditures at successive income levels________
Order of expenditures at different economic levels______________
C hapter 2. Expenditures for Specified Goods______________________
Food_________________________________________________________
Annual food expenditure__________________________________
Food expenditures in 1 week in spring, summer, and fall
quarters________________________________________________
Housing______________________________________________________
Housing facilities_________________________________________
Housing expenditures_____________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______________________________
Other items of household operation________________________
Furnishings and equipment____________________________________
Clothing______________________________________________________
Total expenditure per family for clothing__________________
Clothing expenditures for men and boys___________________
Clothing expenditures for women and girls_________________
Other groups of current expenditures___________________________
P art IV. T abular Summary__________________________________________
P art V. A ppendixes __________________________________________________
Appendix A. Notes on Tabular Summary__________________________
General_______________________________________________________
Economic family______________________________________________
Household____________________________________________________
Net family income or net money income_______________________
Current expenditures__________________________________________
Surplus or deficit______________________________________________
Surplus_______________________________________________________
Deficit________________________________________________________
Inheritance___________________________________________________
Total money receipts__________________________________________
Total money disbursements______________________________
Balancing difference___________________________________________
Schedule year_________________________________________________
Averages based on all families_________________________________
Sales tax______________________________________________________
Notes on individual tables_____________________________________
Local conditions affecting the data_____________________________
Cost of living_____________________________________________
Employment_____________________________________________
Sales tax_________________________________________________
Relief____________________________________________________
Table A. Number of families of 2 or more persons on
relief in the period covered by the survey when relief
was at a maximum________________________________
A ppendix B. Scope of the Investigation__________________________
Geographic area covered in the Southern region_______________
Scope of the Nation-wide study______________________




119
121
121
122
123
124
125
131
131
131
132
134
134
134
135
135
135
135
135
137
138
139
141
629
631
631
631
631
631
632
633
633
633
634
634
634
634
634
634
635
635
648
648
649
649
649

650
651
651
651

VI

CONTENTS

P art V. A ppendixes — Continued.
A ppendix C. Period Covered by the Study_________________________
Table B. Period to which data in schedules for cities in the
Southern region apply_______________________________________
A ppendix D. Selection of Families to be Interviewed____________
Method of choosing the sample________________________________
Rules for determining eligibility of families_____________________
A ppendix E. Nativity of Homemakers in Families Studied_________
Table C. Homemakers born in the United States______________
A ppendix F. Field Procedure______________________________________
Interview method of securing data_____________________________
Figure B. Schedule facsimile______________________________
Check interviewing____________________________________________
Food check lists for 1 week____________________________________
Weekly records of food consumption___________________________
A ppendix G. Analytical Procedure________________________________
Income classification__________________________________________
Classification by economic level________________________________
Expenditure unit— food relatives_______________________________
Table D. Relative food expenditures for persons of differ­
ent age, sex, and occupation____________________________
Expenditure unit— clothing relatives___________________________
Table E. Relative clothing expenditures for persons of dif­
ferent age, sex, and occupation__________________________
Expenditure unit— other items_________________________________
Total expenditure unit_________________________________________
Figure C. Sample code sheet______________________________
Adjustment for contact with families through other member than
chief earner_________________________________________________
Table F. Derivation of adjustment factors for earner groupsTable G. Illustration of application of adjustment factors
to schedule data________________________________________

Page
654
654
658
658
660
664
664
666
666
667
686
686
686
688
688
688
688
689
690
690
693
693
694
695
697
699

List o f T ext Tables in Part I
T able

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.

Expenditures for groups of items___________________________
Occupational classification of chief earners__________________
Family incomes____________________________________________
Sources of family income at successive income levels________
Items comprising family income____________________________
Average unit expenditure at successive income levels_______
Total family expenditure equivalents for families of three dif­
ferent types, at given economic levels----------------------------Average unit expenditure at successive economic levels______
Expenditures in rank order at two different economic levels. _
Percentage of families having surplus and deficit, and net
change in assets and liabilities during the schedule year
at successive economic levels_____________________________
Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule year at
successive economic levels-----------------------------------------------Unit food expenditure at two different economic levels--------Expenditures for food per capita per week---------------------------Proportion of families spending enough to purchase an ade­
quate diet at minimum cost----------------------------------------------




7
12
13
15
17
27
30
33
36

40
42
46
48
50

00

Is TENT'S

V II
Page

T able

15. Average number of persons per room at successive economic
levels___________________________________________________________
16. Housing facilities at the end of the schedule year_____________
17. Housing expenditures____________________________________________
18. Expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration_________________
19. Expenditures for furnishings and equipment at successive eco­
nomic levels____________________________________________________
20. Distribution of annual clothing expenditures for individuals
in families at successive economic levels, men and boys____
21. Distribution of annual clothing expenditures for individuals in
families at successive economic levels, women and girls___
22. Expenditures for automobile operation and maintenance for
automobile owners, at successive economic levels___________
23. Radio ownership and purchase at successive economic levels.
24. Expenditures for medical care at successive economic levels__
25. Percentage of total expenditures for community welfare and
gifts and contributions going to various items______________
26. Percentage change in the cost of goods purchased by wage
earners and clerical workers from the time of the 1917-18
survey to the time of the 1934-36 survey___________________
27. Distribution of current family expenditures in 1917-19 and
1 9 3 4 -3 6 ________________________________________________________
28. Differences in incomes and current expenditures between the
groups studied in 1917-19 and 1934-36, in nine cities______

53
55
57
58
61
63
65
69
71
74
77

80
81
82

L is t o f F ig u r e s i n P a r t I
F igure

1. Patterns of family expenditures, at successive income levels,
Baltimore______________________________________________________
2. Relative family expenditures, at successive income levels,
Baltimore______________________________________________________
3. Distribution of family expenditures at two different economic
levels, Louisville______________________________________________
4. Changes in assets and liabilities at successive income levels,
Richmond______________________________________________________
5. Proportion of families having selected housing facilities, at
successive economic levels, Norfolk__________________________
A. Estimated annual clothing expenditures by persons of dif­
ferent age, sex, and occupation_________________
67

19
20
32
39
52

L is t o f T e x t T a b l e s i n P a r t II
T able

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

Family income__________________________________________________
Sources of family income at successive income levels________
Expenditures for groups of items_______________________________
Average unit expenditure at successive income levels_________
Average amount spent per expenditure unit at successive
economic levels____________________________________________
93
34. Expenditures in rank order at two different economic levels._
35. Percentage of families having surplus and deficit, and net
change in assets and liabilities during the schedule year
at successive economic levels________________________________
36. Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule year, at
successive economic levels____________________________________




85
87
89
91

95

97
98

CONTENTS

V III

P age

T able

37. Expenditures for food per capita per week__________________
38. Proportion of families spending enough to purchase an ade­
quate diet at minimum cost, at three economic levels_____
39. Average number of persons per room at successive economic
levels____________________________________________________
40. Housing facilitiesat the end of the schedule year____________
41. Housing expenditures______________________________________
42. Expenditures for furnishings and equipment at different eco­
nomic levels_____________________________________________
43. Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fami­
lies at successive economic levels, men and boys__________
44. Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fami­
lies at successive economic levels, women and girls_______
45. Radio ownership and purchase, at successive economic levels.
46. Expenditures for recreation and transportation at two different economic levels______________________________________

102
104
106
107
109
110
112
113
114
116

List o f Figures in Part II
F igure

6. Distribution of family expenditures at two different economic
levels, Louisville_________________________________________
7. Changes in assets and liabilities at successive income levels,
Richmond_______________________________________________

90
100

List o f Tables in Part III
T able 47.
48.
49.
50.

Sources of family income at successive income levels________
Expenditures for groups of items___________________________
Expenditures in rank order at two different economic levels. _
Percentage of families having surplus and deficit, and net
change in assets and liabilities during the schedule year at
successive economic levels__________________________
129
51. Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule year at
130
successive economic levels_________________________
52. Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fami­
lies, at successive economic levels, men and boys__________
53. Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fami­
lies at successive economic levels, women and girls_______

122
123
127

137
139

List o f Figures in Part III
F igure 8. Distribution of family expenditures at two differenteconomic
levels, Houston____________________________________
126

List o f Tables in Tabular Summary
T able

1. Distribution of families by economic level and income le v e l..
2. Description of families studied, by economic level_____
149
Occupation of chief earner.
Family type.
Nativity of homemaker.
Composition of household.
Earnings and income.
3. Expenditures for groups of items, by economic l eveL—




143

193

CONTENTS

IX
Page

T able

4. Disposition of money received during schedule year not used

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
18.
19.

20.
21.
22.

23.
2 4 -A .
2 4 -B .

2 4 -C .
2 4 -D .
25.

for current expenditure, and funds made available for
family use from sources other than family income in
schedule year, by economic level_____________________________
Description of families studied, by income level_______________
Occupation of chief earner.
Family type.
Nativity of homemaker.
Composition of household.
Earnings and income.
Expenditures for groups of items, by income level____________
Food used at home and purchased for consumption at home
during 1 week, by economic level____________________________
Annual food expenditures, by economic level__________________
Housing facilities, by economic level___________________________
Housing expenditures, by economic level______________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration expenditures, by economic level.
Household operation expenditures other than for fuel, light,
and refrigeration, by economic level_________________________
Transportation expenditures, by economic level_______________
Personal care expenditures and medical care expenditures, by
economic level_________________________________________________
Recreation expenditures, by ecomonic level____________________
Formal education, vocation, community welfare, gifts and
contributions, and miscellaneous expenditures, by economic
level-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Clothing expenditures, by economic level_____________________
Furnishings and equipment expenditures, by economic level..
Description of families studied at three economic levels_______
Composition of household.
Earnings and income.
Expenditures for groups of items, at three economic levels___
Distribution of families of types comparable with those
studied in 1917-19, by economic level and income level___
Description of families of types comparable with those
studied in 1917-19, by income level___________________________
Composition of household.
Earnings and income.
Expenditures of families of types comparable with those
studied in 1917-19 for groups of items, by income level____
Coefficients of variation of money disbursements— White
families_________________________________________________________
Coefficients of variation of expenditure items at successive
income levels, Houston— White families other than Mexi­
can_____________________________________________________________
Coefficients of variation of expenditure items at successive
income levels, Norfolk— White families_______________________
Coefficients of variation of expenditure items at successive
income levels, Norfolk— Negro families_______________________
Expenditures for groups of items estimated from regression
equation, Baltimore— White families_________________________

215
239

283
305
393
405
417
441
465
477
489
501

513
525
559
565

576
587
593

609
625

625
626
626
627

N ote.— For each table except 24A and 25, comparable data for Negro families
appear immediately following those for white families.







PREFACE

This bulletin is one of a series which present data on the incomes
and expenditures of 14,668 families of wage earners and clerical
workers in 42 cities with populations over 50,000. In the present
volume are set forth data covering the incomes, current expenditures,
savings, and deficits of 2,710 white workers’ families in 12 cities of
the South, 858 Negro workers’ families in 9 of those cities, and 100
Mexican families in Houston. Figures are also shown on housing
facilities, the amount and kind of food, clothing, and housefurnishings
purchased in the year of the study, and the types of medical care
received.
The investigation was undertaken in 1934-36 for the primary pur­
pose of providing the basis for a revision of the weights used for the
cost-of-living indexes published currently by the Bureau. The last
comprehensive investigation had been made in 1917-19 when wartime
price changes and wage adjustments had made imperative a study of
the expenditures of workers’ families. In the years intervening since
that date, rapid changes in workers’ purchasing habits had taken
place. Changes in technology and in organization of production had
served to bring within the workers’ reach many items which had been
nonexistent or prohibitive in price in the war days. These included
silk stockings, rayon fabrics, the widespread use of electricity, modern
plumbing, the automobile, and the radio, as well as many other prod­
ucts of modern industry. Such fragmentary studies by private
agencies and by the Bureau as had been made since 1919 pointed to
impressive changes in workers’ consumption habits. A comprehen­
sive inquiry into these new levels of living was accordingly urgently
required to obtain an adequate list of the items properly entering into
an index of the cost of goods purchased by wage earners and clerical
workers.
The increasing importance of the South in the industrial life of the
Nation makes the data presented in this volume of particular interest.
When compared with comparable data for other regions, they make
possible a comparison of the difference in levels at which families in
varying regions of the country are actually living.
The study in Houston was made in cooperation with the Works
Progress Administration and the Bureau of Social Research of the
University of Texas. In Memphis, the Tennessee Relief Administra­
tion and the Shelby County Consumers’ Council cooperated in the




xi

X II

PREFACE

investigation, while in New Orleans the School for Social Work of
Tulane University and the Louisiana Emergency Relief Administra­
tion lent their aid. The study in Richmond was carried on in cooper­
ation with the Richmond and Henrico County Consumers’ Council,
the Virginia State Tax Commission, and the Virginia Emergency
Relief Administration. In Baltimore, Dallas, Louisville, and Nor­
folk, the investigation was carried on with the cooperation of the
Works Progress Administration. The investigation was furthered
by the assistance of many officials in these organizations and from
interested individuals and civic bodies too numerous to be mentioned
here by name. In addition, two groups must be recognized as having
made the study possible: the individual worker who performed the
field collection and office tabulation of the data, often under unfavor­
able conditions, on a high plane of professional responsibility; and
the housewives who laid aside their household tasks long enough to
furnish answers to the detailed questions in the schedules.
In the final analysis and preparation of this report, special contri­
butions to problems of method were made by Jerome Cornfield,
William S. Shelton, and Samuel E. Cohen. M ary C. Ruark was
responsible for the final tabulations. Adrienne C. M ayer assisted
in checking the table forms and preparation of text.
IS A D O R

L U B IN ,

Commissioner of Labor Statistics

M ay 1939.




.

Bulletin 7\[o. 640 of the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

M oney Disbursements o f W age Earners and Clerical
W ork ers in 12 Cities o f the South, 1934-36
Summary
This is a study of the levels at which 3,668 families of employed
wage earners and clerical workers are living in 12 cities in the Southern
Region— Baltimore, Birmingham, Dallas, Houston, Jackson, Jackson­
ville, Louisville, Memphis, Mobile, New Orleans, Norfolk, and Rich­
mond. M oney incomes of these families averaged $1,369. (See
pages 15, 87, and 122.)1 The incomes of the white families, other than
Mexican, studied in the 12 cities averaged $1,464; the income of the
Negro families $875, while average incomes of 100 Mexican families
covered in Houston amounted to $924.
These differences in income are not, however, an adequate measure
of variations in the economic level of the three groups. Size of
family ranged from an average of 3.6 persons among the white fam­
ilies other than Mexican to 4.9 among the Mexicans. Number of
persons per family among the Negroes averaged 3.8 persons. (See
Tabular Summary, table 2.)
The earnings of the chief earners in all these families averaged
$1,321. Their earnings were supplemented in average families by
earnings of grown children, wife, or other family members, but only
to the amount of $147. (See Tabular Summary, table 2.)
Families of wage earners predominated in the sample, which was
chosen to represent a cross section of the wage-earner and clerical
group in Southern cities. (See pp. 12, 86, and 122.)
The average family in this region spent practically all its income
for current family living with a total of $1,353. Food, clothing, and
housing together claimed more than seven-tenths of total family
expenditure. Less than three-tenths remained to provide for house­
hold operation, furnishings and equipment, medical care, automobile
and other transportation, recreation, personal care, education, gifts
and taxes and miscellaneous expenditures. (See pp. 7, 89, and 123.)
1
This reference and those given in subsequent paragraphs in this summary indicate the pages where
figures for individual cities are given.




1

2

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

Food alone cost the average family $433. In other words, food
took 37 cents out of the average dollar spent to meet the families’
current needs. When actual expenditure for food is compared with
the cost of the Bureau of Home Economics “ adequate diet at mini­
mum cost” it is found that 63 percent of the white families, 22 percent
of the Negro families, and 20 percent of the Mexican spent enough to
secure this diet. (See pp. 50, 104, and 133.)
Housing expenditures were second in importance, taking a total of
$201, of which $93 represented amounts spent directly for fuel, light,
and refrigeration. This total expenditure for shelter represents
almost 15 cents out of the average dollar. (See pp. 7, 89, and 123.
Clothing claimed $148 or 11 cents of the dollar. This sum covered
cleaning and shoe repair as well as ready-made clothing for all mem­
bers of the family. A negligible amount was spent for materials for
home sewing. As would be expected from the difference in their
average incomes, there were wide differences in the clothing expendi­
tures of these three groups. Those of the white families averaged
$159; of the Mexican families, $127; of the Negro families, $92.
Among the white families other than Mexican, the women and girls
18 years of age and over spent more for clothes, on the average, than
men in the same age group. In the Mexican and Negro groups, the
men spent more; the Negro men slightly more than the Negro women;
the Mexican men two-thirds more than the Mexican women. (See
Tabular Summary, table 17.)
Of the 28 cents left from the average dollar after food, housing, and
clothing had been paid for, the families studied in these southern
cities spent 7 cents for automobile purchase, operation, and main­
tenance. Among all the families covered, 46 percent owned automo­
biles. The city with the largest proportion of automobile owners was
Houston, where 74 percent of the families interviewed reported that
they owned cars. (See pp. 69 and 116.)
A comparison of the percentage distribution of expenditures by
families in the wage-earner and clerical group in 1917-19 and in
1934-36 shows striking changes over the 17-year interval. Some of
the differences are due to changes in price relationships. Costs of
food, housefurnishing goods, and clothing were lower at the time of
this investigation than at the end of the war period; costs of fuel and
light and miscellaneous items, higher. Study of the data on actual
money expenditures and on prices shows, however, that part of the
change in spending is due to changes in consumption habits since the
World War. Marked changes in transportation expenditures have
come with the automobile. There are, in addition, trends toward
larger purchases of food, smaller purchases of clothing, and larger
current expenditures for housing. (See p. 81.)




SUM M ARY

3

Differences between the figures on average family expenditures in
the cities covered by this report reflect differences in the income level
of the wage earner and clerical groups in these communities, in con­
sumption habits, and in family size and composition, as well as what­
ever differences there may be in the price level. They do not measure
differences in living costs as between communities.
The results of this investigation must be distinguished from those
obtained by pricing a hypothetical budget to secure the cost of a
previously defined standard of living.2 The investigators who partici­
pated in the present study were sent, not to stores to price a prede­
termined list of goods and services, but to families which were willing
to give the detailed facts concerning their incomes and expenditures.
Some of the data obtained on the goods and services purchased by
workers’ families afford a basis for evaluating the adequacy of the
living of the families cooperating in the investigation. A detailed
comparison has not been made, however, between the goods actually
purchased by the families studied, and the goods included in budget
estimates of the amounts needed for maintaining healthful family life.
The terms “ level of living” and “ plane of living” have been used
to describe the actual economic status of the families studied. This
actual way of living is distinguished from their “ standard of living,”
the type of living which they regard as normal and proper, or from a
“ norm of living” established by a group or an agency as adequate or
suitable for certain purposes. The term “ standard of living” is
sometimes used to mean not only the manner of living regarded as
proper and suitable by the families themselves, but that recommended
by a group or an agency; it is further used to mean the way the
families actually are living. This triple usage has been found to be
confusing, and on that account the use of the term “ standard of
living” in this publication is restricted to its primary meaning as a
standard. “ Planes of living,” the subject of this report, have been
distinguished both from standards of the families themselves and
from norms or budgets set by agencies or groups.
The families to be interviewed in the investigation were chosen by
a random sampling method from the lists of employees furnished
by employers also chosen at random. (See appendix D , pp. 658-663.)
Since the investigation was initiated primarily for the purpose of
obtaining new weights for a cost-of-living index, and the funds for
field work and analysis were limited, the survey was restricted to
2
Such a study has recently been completed by the Works Progress Administration, Division of Social
Research, in cooperation with the Retail Price Division of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In this survey,
prices were obtained in 59 cities covering the cost of items of goods and services necessary for a maintenance
level and an emergency level of living for a 4-person family of a manual worker. Results of this study are
published in a report of the Works Progress Administration by Margaret Loomis Stecker, entitled “ Inter­
city Differences in Costs of Living in March 1935, for 59 Cities,” Washington, D . C., July 1937.




4

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'E

THE

SOUTH

the income levels most representative of employed wage earners
and clerical workers,3 the groups for which the Bureau’s cost-ofliving index is computed. The following criteria were used in the
selection of families:
1. A t least one wage earner or lower-salaried clerical worker who worked a
minimum of 1,008 hours in 36 weeks; or 28 hours in each of 30 weeks if employed
in a distinctly seasonal industry, such as the clothing and construction industries.
(1,008 hours was used as being equivalent to 3 % eight-hour days in each of 36
weeks.)
2. No income from direct relief or work relief at any time in the year covered
by the schedule.
(See appendix A, p. 650, for proportion of families on relief at
the period of the investigation.)
3. A minimum annual income during the schedule year of $500, of which at
least $300 was earned by one person.
4. No clerical worker in the family who earned over $2,000 in the year covered
by the schedule or $200 in any 1 month of that year.
5. N ot over 25 percent of total income from sources other than earnings (such
as rents, interest, or dividends). Net receipts from boarders and lodgers were
treated as earnings.
F a m i ly ty p e s covered .— The group supplying the material on which,
this report is based includes families of all types except single person
families.4 Because of the limitation of funds, the Nation-wide survey
of wage earners and clerical workers was not enlarged to include a
study of the money disbursements of persons living alone, either as
lodgers or as householders.
In any random sample of the population or any occupational group,
size of family varies from income level to income level. Since the
averages presented in this report are based upon the actual expendi­
tures of a random sample of families of the wage earner and clerical
groups, wherever comparisons are made between the spending of
families at different income levels, these differences in size of family
must be taken into account.
3 The importance of obtaining data on the consumer purchases of higher-salaried clerical workers, pro­
fessional workers, managers and officials, and those in business for themselves was generally recognized
Early in 1936 the Bureau of Labor Statistics undertook a Study of Consumer Purchases which covers all
economic groups, in 32 different cities. Funds were allotted to the project by the Works Progress Admin­
istration. At the same time a coordinated study was undertaken by the Bureau of Home Economics in
66 farm counties, in 140 villages, and in 19 small cities. Both of these investigations were made in coop­
eration with the National Resources Committee and the Central Statistical Board. For cities covered
see appendix B, p. 651.
4 The study of the living of single individuals presents a separate and distinct problem which will be
covered by the Bureau at a later date. At the request of the emergency relief board in Philadelphia, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics undertook a study of the incomes and money disbursements of employed wage
earners and clerical workers living as single individuals in that city in the year 1934-35. The results of
that investigation will be published in a subsequent bulletin.




Part I.— White Families Other Than Mexican

5

74390°

-41-




-2




Chapter 1
Income Level and M oney Disbursements
Current Expenditures of Each City Group as a W h ole1
The average current expenditures of the families of white wage
earners and lower salaried clerical workers studied in each of the 12
cities in the South approximated very closely average incomes in each
city. Current expenditures ranged from an average of $1,289 in
Louisville to $1,572 in Houston.
T

able

1.— Expenditures for groups of item s , 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -8 6

Richmond

Norfolk

New Orleans

Mobile

Memphis

Louisville

Jacksonville

Jackson

Houston

Dallas

Birmingham

Item

Baltimore

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Average annual current
expenditures for all
items__________________ $1, 402 $1,462 $1,458 $1, 572 $1, 537 $1,554 $1, 289 $1,434 $1,403 $1,294 $1,569 $1, 556
Percentage of total annual
current expenditure
for—
All items..................... . 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Food............................. 35.6 30.5 30.4 28.2 27.6 30.2 36.1 28.6 30.7 35.7 32.6 29.4
10.5 11.4 11.8 10.6 13.7 10.7 10.0 10.7 12.0 10.6
Clothing_____ _______
9.3 11.2
16.4 12.5 14.5 14.5 14.8 13.0 14.1 14.3 13.0 16.0 14.9 16.4
Housing_____________
Fuel, light, and re­
5.8
7.3
6.6
5.0
7.3
4.6
7.8
7.2
6.4
7.9
frigeration.. . _____
5.9
7.6
Other household op­
3.9
6.6
5.0
5.1
6.9
eration..... .......... .......
6.9
3.9
5.9
6.1
4.5
5.2
5.1
F u r n i s h i n g s and
4.4
5.2
6.0
3.2
4.3
3.9
4.4
5.1
5.9
4.7
5.6
equipment_________
4.0
Automobile and mo­
torcycle purchase,
operation, and main­
7.2 10.2 11.1
4.3
9.4
9.5
5.0
8.3
7.7
4.6
6.0
6.5
tenance.. _________
2.0
1.7
1.8
2.7
Other transportation...
3.9
1.4
1.9
1.5
1.9
3.0
2.2
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.9
2.3
2.0
2.2
2.4
1.8
2.1
Personal care________
2.3
3.4
5.0
4.1
5.3
4.0
5.0
4.3
5.8
4.4
4.3
4.1
Medical care_________
5.3
5.3
5.7
4.9
5.7
5.7
6.4
4.8
Recreation______ ____
4.7
5.7
5.6
5.7
5. C
.7
.4
.4
.4
.6
.5
.5
.4
.6
.3
.6
Education___________
.6
.2
.2
.4
.5
.2
.3
.3
.2
Vocation_____________
.6
.3
.3
.1
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.2
1.5
1.3
1.2
Community welfare. _
1.5
1.9
1.7
Gifts and contribu­
tions to persons
outside the econo­
2.2
1.3
1.9
1.6
1.9
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.9
1.5
1.3
mic family_________
l.fi
.5
.1
.8
.3
.7
.8
.8
.4
.3
.6
.6
.5
Other items.................
i Throughout the report, the term “ current expenditures” is used to mean expenditures for ultimate
consumer goods, including relatively durable consumption goods. Interest on money borrowed for family
use has been included in such expenditures, but savings and investments have not. The time and funds
available for the investigation have not made possible the presentation of separate totals giving expendi­
tures for the more slowly consumed, as distinguished from quickly consumed, goods. Indeed, the data
on depreciation rates for relatively durable consumer goods are so fragmentary that it would be extremely
difficult to do so. Expenditures for such durable goods as automobiles, mechanical refrigerators, and
other furnishings and equipment have been classified with expenditures for food and carfare and other
quickly consumed goods as “ current expenditures,” while money spent for permanent improvements on
owned homes and other real estate or as payment on the principal of mortgages has been classified as savings.
The total cost of consumers goods purchased on credit was included in current expenditures, and the amount
of the obligations outstanding on them at the end of the year was taken into account when computing
changes in liabilities over the 12-month period. (See appendix A, p. 632.)




7

8

TW ELVE

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OF

THE

SO U TH

Food.
The central importance of food in the living of these workers’
families is indicated by the fact that, in all the cities, expenditures for
food represented a larger proportion of total current expenditures
than any other item. This was true despite the decline in food prices
from 1926 to 1933. Among the white families from whom figures
were obtained in Baltimore, Louisville, and New Orleans, the propor­
tion spent for food was on the average about that found among
families with comparable incomes in New York City. In the remain­
ing Southern cities the average percentage was from 4 to 9 points
lower than that reported in New York. Of the 12 cities under con­
sideration, the percentage of total expenditures allotted to food was
highest in Louisville, averaging 36.1, and lowest in Jackson, where
it was 27.6.
Average annual food expenditures ranged from $409 in Memphis
to $511 in Norfolk. When family size and composition are taken into
account, Norfolk also ranked highest, with $164 per adult male
equivalent, while Baltimore, Dallas, Louisville, and Houston came
next in that order.
An analysis of the data shows that the average family food expendi­
ture is a function not only of income and family size, but also of the
level of food prices at the time of the investigation. A significant
correlation was found between the rank of food costs in 11 cities,2
and the rank of the average expenditure for food by families included
in the survey. There is a definite tendency for the amount spent for
food per family and per adult male equivalent to be greater in those
cities where the food costs were higher.
In New Orleans the average food expenditures ranked considerably
higher than would be expected from the level of food costs, the aver­
age income, and the size of family. The reason lies in part in the
large amounts spent for meals at work. Whereas in the other 11
cities, annual expense for noon lunches and other meals by the white
families averaged $26, the corresponding expenditures in New
Orleans were $43. The relatively high food expenditure in New
2 For the 11 cities for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics collects retail food prices, the retail cost of the
Bureau of Home Economics’ adequate diet at minimum cost for a man at moderate work was computed for
a period approximating that covered by the investigation. (See Stiebeling, H. K., and Ward, M . S., Diets
at four levels of nutritive content and cost, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 296, Washington,
1933.) The cities rank as follows in the cost of this diet for the specified periods:

Year ending

Cost of
adequate
diet

Baltimore.____ _____ Feb. 29,1936
Dallas.. ____________
Jacksonville.
, _
Aug. 31,1935
Louisville___________ Feb. 29,1936
Norfolk..................... . ____ do_______

$129
128
128
128
128

City




Year ending

City

Houston
Richmond
Birmingham.
Mobile
Now Orlpans

_
_

Cost of
adequate
diet

Feb. 29,1936
Nov. 30,1934
do
Feb. 28,1935
Nov. 30,1934

$120
119
118
113
107

IN C O M E

LEVEL,

AND

M ONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

9

Orleans is not, however, entirely explained by expenditures at res­
taurants and lunch counters. The average expenditure for food to
be consumed at home was also higher than would be expected, and
seems to imply that there was a greater emphasis in New Orleans
than in the other cities on the variety and the quality of the food
which went into the year’s menus.
The amount of family income also affects the average. In Norfolk,
where the white families studied enjoyed the highest income, the
average amount spent for food was greatest even though that city
did not have the highest food costs. Average income for the families
covered in each city appears nevertheless to be a less important
factor in the southern area than in other regions.

Housing.
Consistently for the white families in all of the 12 cities, expendi­
tures for housing came next in importance to food. Due to the
varying proportion of families having heat and light included in rental
payments, accurate comparison of housing expenditures can be made
only after the outlays for housing and for fuel, light, and refrigeration
have been combined. The proportion of total expenditure allotted
to this aspect of family living ranged from 19 percent in Jacksonville
to 24 percent in Richmond. In general, these percentages tend to
be lower than those found in the North Atlantic, East North Central,
and West North Central regions. The differences are probably due
in part to differences in mean winter temperatures 3 and hence lower
fuel expenditures in the Southern region.
A rough notion of housing adequacy may be formed by a check on
the type of housing facilities. The proportion of renters without one
or more of the four following housing facilities, running hot water,
inside flush toilet, electric light, and gas or electricity for cooking,
ranged from 70.7 percent in M obile to 17.8 percent in Jackson. For
home owners, the corresponding figure ranged from 65.6 percent in
M obile to 13.9 percent in Baltimore. These figures were in general
higher than those among white families in other regions studied.

Clothing.
Clothing expenditures came third in importance for the Southern
groups studied everywhere except in Dallas and Houston. In all 12
cities the range in the proportions of total expenditures they claimed
was somewhat narrower than that in the percentages allotted to food
and housing. In 6 of the 12 cities the percentage of the total al­
lotted to clothes ranged from 10.0 to 10.7 percent. The lowest
percentage was 9.3 in Norfolk, and the highest 13.7 in Jackson.
3
Normal mean temperatures for November, December, January, February, and March are: Baltimore,
39.0°; Birmingham, 49.8°; Dallas, 51.0°; Houston, 57.5°; Jackson, 51.1°; Jacksonville, 58.9°; Louisville, 40.3°;
Memphis, 46.6°; Mobile, 55.3°; New Orleans, 58,3°; Norfolk, 45.2°; and Richmond, 42.6°, Fahrenheit.




10

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SOUTH

T ransportation.
In Dallas and Houston the competition of automobile expenditures
with those for clothing is very close. In these two cities sums paid
out for transportation, both for the purchase, operation, and main­
tenance of automobiles and motorcycles and for other forms of trans­
portation, constituted the third largest item of family expenditures,
exceeding those for clothing. In the remaining cities this type of
outlay formed the fourth largest item. A large part of these ex­
penditures were undoubtedly for recreational purposes, but it was
impossible to secure from the families surveyed any estimate of the
distribution of transportation expenditures between the various
purposes they served.
Automobile expenditures were notably lower in Baltimore, New
Orleans, and Louisville, while in each of these cities a higher propor­
tion of the expenditures were for other forms of transportation.

Recreation.
The types of expenditure classified under the heading of “ recrea­
tion” claimed on the average about 5 cents of each family dollar.
They ranked fourth in importance of total expenditures in Baltimore
and New Orleans, fifth in Norfolk, and sixth in Birmingham, Houston,
Jackson, Jacksonville, Louisville, and Mobile. In the recreation
group there have been included expenditures for amusement by
families of all tastes, but expenditure for tobacco and movies consti­
tuted the biggest items classed under this heading in each of the 12
cities.

Other items.
Between 3 and 6 percent of total expenditures were devoted to
medical care, and from 4 to 6 percent to furnishings and equipment.
In most cities slightly more than 2 percent of all expenditures were
allocated to personal care; i. e., services in barber shops and beauty
parlors, cosmetics, and toilet articles and preparations. Household
operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, education, voca­
tion, community welfare, and gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic families made up the balance of the annual
expenditures.
Family Income

The families studied included persons working in manufacturing
industries, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and communi­
cation, building construction, public employment, hotels and restau­
rants, banking and real-estate houses, garages, laundries, and places
of amusement. In addition, in Norfolk persons engaged in fishing
were also included, as were individuals employed in coal mines in
Birmingham, and in oil wells in Houston. N o families in which the
chief earner was in domestic service were included in the investiga-




IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

MONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

11

tion, although a family was eligible for scheduling if subsidiary earners
were domestic servants.
In all the cities except Jacksonville, where trade was the most im­
portant source of employment, the largest proportion of families had
a chief earner engaged in manufacturing. Iron and steel and tobacco
manufacturing, together with sawmills and woodworking industries,
were the most important in the number of employees drawn from
manufacturing industries. Workers in food processing and its allied
trades likewise constituted an important part of the sample drawn
from manufacturing in all the cities covered in the area. Food man­
ufacturing (primarily the canning of sea food) was especially promi­
nent in the New Orleans manufacturing sample, and food manufac­
turing of other types was of notable importance in Birmingham,
Jackson, Jacksonville, Louisville, and Mobile. M any of the workers
whose names were drawn from manufacturing establishments were
employed in printing, publishing, and engraving establishments, in
chemical and allied trades, and in textile and clothing manufacture.
After manufacturing, in most of the 12 cities, the next largest group
of names were drawn from workers in wholesale and retail trade of
various types, and from those in the diverse occupations classed under
the heading of transportation and communication. These latter in­
cluded dock and wharf workers in the seaport cities, workers on
steam railroads and electric trolley systems, auto bus and truck op­
erators, operators and maintenance employees of telephone and tele­
graph companies, etc. Public employees in municipal, State or
Federal offices or agencies also constituted a substantial portion of
the sample.
Families of wage earners predominated in all the samples, com­
prising between 53 and 76 percent in each of the 12 cities (see table
2). In Birmingham, Dallas, Jackson, Jacksonville, and Norfolk,
families of skilled workers predominated in the wage-earner group,
with those of semiskilled workers next in order, and those of unskilled
workers least numerous. In the 7 other cities, families in which
the chief earner was a semiskilled worker were the most numerous,
those of skilled workers being of next importance, and those of unskilled
workers least (see table 2).
In a time of full employment, the proportion of wage earners would
have been somewhat larger in all the cities studied. Even though
the dates covered by the survey in these southern cities were sub­
stantially later than the low points in both employment and payrolls
in the manufacturing industries.4 Other reports6 have shown that
* Data on employment and pay rolls in separate cities are not available.
The low points in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics indexes of employment and pay rolls in manufacturing industries for the country as a
whole were reached in July 1932 and March 1933, respectively.
6
See for example, Works Progress Administration, Division of Social Research, Monograph IV, 1936, Ur­
ban Workers on Relief, vol. I., Washington, 1936.




12

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SOUTH

such workers have suffered more from irregularity of employment
and low earnings in the period since 1929 than clerical workers,
and that consequently a larger proportion of them have been on
relief. Since the present study excluded families below certain
levels of employment and income, and families having been on
relief 6 during the year prior to the interview by the field workers,
the proportion of clerical workers is larger than it would have been
had the study been made in 1929.
T

able

2 .— Occupational classification of chief earners, 1 year during the period
1 9 8 4 -8 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Percentage of families in which chief earner was—
City

Baltimore______ ___________ ______ ____ _
Birmingham._ _ _ ___ ___________________
Dallas_____
________________ __________
Houston. _______________ ___ ____________
Jackson._
_____________________________
Jacksonville
__ _ ____ _ _____________
Louisville _______________________________
Memphis.________________________________
Mobile ______________ _________________
New Orleans _ _______________ ________
Norfolk-Portsmouth______________________
Richmond___________ ___________________

Number of
families in
survey

419
202
294
258
150
178
197
194
146
318
162
192

Clerical
worker
29.3
37.1
46.9
41.1
46.7
44.9
24.4
40.7
34.9
39.6
28.4
34.9

Skilled
wage
earner
28.4
33. 7
24.1
22.5
26. 7
28.1
29.4
27.3
28.8
23.0
41.4
29.2

Semiskilled
wage
earner
32.0
25. 2
23. 5
27.1
21.3
24. 7
30. 5
28.9
32. 2
26.4
22. 2
32.8

Unskilled
wage
earner
10. 3
4.0
5.5
9.3
5.3
2.3
15.7
3.1
4.1
11.0
8.0
3.1

Net money income per white family studied averaged $1,300 in
Louisville and New Orleans, slightly over $1,400 in Mobile, about
$1,450 in Baltimore, Birmingham, Dallas, and Memphis, about
$1,550 in Houston, Jackson, and Jacksonville, and about $1,600 in
Norfolk and Richm ond.7 The average income is influenced in all
cities by a scattering of the higher incomes. In every city, the mean
average was slightly higher than the median, the income level that
divides the families into two equal groups (see table 3).
« No figures are available showing the exact number of familes on relief at same time during the period
covered by the data. Figures supplied by the Division of Social Research, Works Progress Administration,
make it possible, however, to calculate for each city the ratio of the number of families of two or more persons
on relief in the month of the maximum relief load during the period of the survey to the number of such
families as shown by the census of 1930. This rate varies from 4.2 for Norfolk to 36,0 for Mobile.
(See appendix A, p. 650.)
7
To ascertain whether these differences from city to city represented only the chance differences inherent
in random sampling or whether they revealed actual differences between income levels of all workers in the
respective cities, a statistical test was conducted. R. A. Fisher’s method for the analysis of variance as
exemplified in intraclass correlation (discussed on pages 226 and 227 of his “ S t a t i s t i c a l M e t h o d s f o r R e s e a r c h
W o r k e r s , ” 6th ed., London, 1936) was used to test whether the mean incomes obtained in the several cities
differed more than could be expected if successive samples had been drawn at random from the same popu­
lation. It was shown that differences in these 12 cities were great enough to imply a statistically significant
difference between them.




IN C O M E

LEVEE,

AND

MONEY

13

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

T able 3. — F am ily incom es , 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6

Number of families in
survey...............................
Net money income:
Arithmetic average. __
First quartile...............
M edian_____________
Third quartile_______

419

202

$1,437 $1,441
1,089 1,078
1, 381 1,390
1, 700 1,785

294

258

150

$1,475 $1, 567 $1,541
1,134 1,249 1,080
1,440 1, 505 1,441
1,800 1,842 1,926

178

197

194

146

318

162

Richmond

NorfolkPortsmouth

New Orleans

Mobile

Memphis

Louisville

Jacksonville

Jackson

Houston

Dallas

Birmingham

Item

Baltimore

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

192

$1, 566 $1,308 $1,459 $1,417 $1,302 $1,614 $1,585
1,125
911 1,277 1,169
978 1,104 1,036
1,517 1, 236 1,440 1,383 1,260 1, 560 1,495
1,922 1, 535 1,816 1,828 1, 655 1,955 1,908

The range of money incomes was from $500,8 the lower limit set by
the plan of the investigation, to the $4,670 reported by a family
drawn in the random sample in Richmond. The highest income
covered in the survey in each of the other cities was as follows:
Mobile__________________________________________________ $4,426
Houston_________________________________________________ 3, 941
New Orleans_____________________________________________ 3, 835
Baltimore_______________________________________________
3, 744
Birmingham_____________________________________________ 3, 680
Jacksonville_____________________________________________
3, 677
Jackson_________________________________________________
3, 657
Louisville________________________________________________ 3, 654
Norfolk_________________________________________________
3, 573
Dallas___________________________________________________ 3, 402
Memphis________________________________________________ 2, 880

The occupation of the chief earner was found not to be the most
important factor in determining the fam ily’s annual income.® The
number of earners in the family and their length of employment were
quite as significant, if not more so.
In each city the maximum incomes were reported by families in
which several persons contributed to the family purse. For example,
the Richm ond family having an annual income of $4,670 was made up
of eight persons, five of whom were earning and contributing their
earnings to a common fund. The average number of earners in the
family having the maximum annual incomes in the other cities was 3.4.
8
No incomes below $600 were drawn in the samples studied in Houston, Jackson, Louisville, and
Norfolk.
• An “ economic family” as defined for this study consists of two or more persons living together and shar­
ing their economic resources. In most cases the members of an economic family are related by ties of blood,
marriage, or adoption, but in some cases, an unrelated member was found to share income and family living.
Persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption were not treated as members of the economic family if they
lived in the household as boarders and kept their funds separate from family funds, unless they gave a com­
plete record of their incomes and expenditures. Persons who were members of the economic family for an
entire year were not necessarily members of the household for the year. A member supported by the family
in school, college, or hospital for all or part of the year, or a member working away for that period, would be
treated as a member of the economic family but not of the household for the entire year. In computing the
number of persons who were part of the economic family for a year, the number of weeks each member had
shared his income with the family was listed, the numbers summed and the total divided by 52. This
procedure yielded the number of equivalent persons who had made up the family for 1year.




14

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

The relationship between family income and number of contribu­
tors to the family fund suggested by the foregoing example is con­
firmed by other data from the investigation (see table 4). Average
earnings of the chief earner at the lowest income level (i. e. families
receiving from $500 to $900) averaged between $631 and $763 in the
12 cities. The proportion of total family income represented by the
earnings of the chief earners decreased with rise in income level.
This decline was accounted for largely by the sharp increase in earn­
ings of subsidiary earners among families with larger incomes, as
there was no regular change in the proportion of total income coming
from sources other than earnings at different income levels. In some
cases, two earners produced less than $900 of family income; in fact,
in half the southern cities, at least 1 out of every 5 families with
incomes of less than $900 had more than 1 person employed at some
time during the year. The proportion of families with more than 1
gainful worker increased, though not markedly, within the family
income range from $900 to $2,100. In general, 1 out of each 2 to 4
such families had more than 1 earner. Within this range the family
income of wage earning families depends to a great extent upon the
size of the individual incomes. However, the opportunities for
individual earnings of more than $2,100 are so limited among wage
earners 1 that family incomes of more than this amount depend
0
primarily upon the presence of several earners. Thus in all but 1
southern city studied, at least 1 out of 2 of the families that had
incomes of more than $2,000 achieved this level because of the presence
of 2 or more earners in the family; in 3 cities all families above this
level averaged more than 2 earners per family. The number of
gainful workers per family was relatively lowest at all income levels
in Norfolk, where a large number of highly skilled workers are regularly
employed in the navy yards.
In view of the criteria used in selecting families for inclusion in the
study (see pp. 658-663), it is not surprising to find that earnings of
individuals (excluding receipts from boarders and lodgers) constituted
the chief element in family incomes. Indeed, in every city, earnings
of individuals represented 95 percent or more of total family income
(see tables 4 and 5). Of the remaining 5 percent of family income,
the greatest proportion came from net receipts from boarders and
lodgers. The next largest item in most cities was pensions and
insurance annuities, followed by rent, interest, and dividends. The
latter items accounted for an average of $17 per family in NorfolkPortsmouth and, at the low end of the range, for only $5 per family
in Birmingham, Dallas, and Louisville. Gifts from persons outside the
economic family (chiefly relatives) and income from miscellaneous
io
it should be noted that families of clerical workers earning more than $2,000 were not included in the
sample.




15

INCOME LEVEL, AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS

souices were generally small. Business losses and expenses not
deductible from individual earnings but deductible from total family
income, averaged $6 or less in all cities but Houston.
T

able

4 . — Sources of fa m ily income at successive income levels, 1 year during the
period 1934.-36
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers— White other than Mexican]

Income group

Number
of fami­
lies

Percentage of income from—
Average
Average number
net
of gainful
money
workers Earnings Earnings
of sub­
Other
per
of chief
income 1
sidiary sources 4
family 2
earner
earners 3

Baltimore, all families............ .................... .

419

$1,437

1.40

84.8

13.9

1.3

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900.......................................$900 to $1,200....................................
$1,200 to $1,500— .............................
$1,500 to $1,800________ ______ _
$1,800 to $2,100____________ ____ _
$2,100 to $2,400____________ ____ _
$2,400 to $2,700______________ ____
$2,700 and over......................... .......

49
95
120
67
51
17
9
11

765
1,057
1,349
1,625
1, 933
2, 252
2,483
3,070

1.16
1.24
1.31
1. 39
1.63
2.24
2.33
1.91

94.5
90.1
88.1
90.6
81.7
61.6
68.7
69.5

4.7
8.5
10.9
9.2
16.5
36.4
29.7
26.5

.8
1.4
1.0
.2
1.8
2.0
1.6
4.0

Birmingham, all families--------------------------

202

1,441

1.39

86.1

10.8

3.1

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900___ ______ ___________
$900 to $1,200...................... ..............
$1,200 to $1,500-............................. .
$1,500 to $1,800-............................ .
$1,800 to $2,100..................................
$2,100 to $2,400____ ____ _________
$2,400 and over....... ....................... .

24
39
50
41
36
7
5

748
1,044
1,320
1, 639
1,892
2, 211
3,131

1.32
1.31
1.31
1.43
1.29
1.69
2.98

84.4
89.0
90.4
88.2
88.3
76.8
52.2

12.0
8.0
7.1
9.1
8.9
21.3
38.2

3.6
3.0
2.5
2.7
2.8
1.9
9.6

Dallas, all families................................. ........

294

1,475

1. 36

85.8

12.9

1.3

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200________ ___________
$1,200 to $1,500.................................
$1,500 to $1,800____________ ____ _
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
$2,100 to $2,400___________________
$2,400 to $2,700_______ ___________
$2,700 and over................. ................

30
57
71
57
57
8
8
6

759
1,040
1,331
1, 618
1,915
2,223
2, 507
2, 926

1.23
1. 33
1.34
1.19
1. 37
1.62
2. 50
2.17

87.7
89.2
89.9
91.5
87.0
73.6
62.3
52.9

7.9
10.0
9.4
7.6
12.3
25.3
35.4
41.3

4.4
.8
.7
.9
.7
1.1
2.3
5.8

258

1, 567

1. 52

86.7

11.9

1.4

12
46
67
58
53
10
12

738
1,068
1, 357
1, 642
1,929
2, 243
2,979

1. 75
1. 35
1.3A
1.47
1.53
1.80
2.83

85.6
92.1
91.5
92.6
89.0
72.3
53.1

13.7
7.6
6.9
6.6
9.2
21.5
45.5

.7
.3
1.6
.8
1.8
6.2
1.4

150

1,541

1.59

79.7

18.2

2.1

17
30
32
24
20
15
5
7

761
1,043
1, 327
1,636
1,929
2,208
2,492
2,983

1. 29
1. 30
1.34
1.46
1.95
1.87
2.80
2. 71

93.8
91.9
86.0
86.6
72.8
77.1
57.8
57.0

6.3
6.7
11.1
10.9
26.1
19.3
41.5
41.1

-.1
1.4
2.9
2.5
1.1
3.6
.7
1.9

Houston, all families____________ ______ _
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200_____________________
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
$2,100 to $2,400___________________
$2,400 and over.................................
Jackson, all families.....................................
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200.............. ................... .
$1,200 to $1,500__________ ____ _
$1,500 to $1,800............... ...................
$1,800 to $2,100__________ ______ _
$2,100 to $2,400__________ ________
$2,400 to $2,700_________ _________
$2,700 and over....... ....................... .

1Net money income is defined in appendix A, p. 631.
2A gainful worker is defined as a person having had some gainful employment in business or industry or
domestic service at any time during the year. (Some families included persons in domestic service as
subsidiary earners.)
3 Including net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
4Less business losses and expenses not deductible from earnings of the year covered by the schedule.




16
T

TW ELVE

able

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

4 . — Sources of fa m ily income at successive income levels, 1 year during the
period 1 9 3 4 -3 6 — C on tinu ed
Percentage of income from—
Average
number
of gainful
Earnings
workers Earnings of sub­
Other
per
of chief
sidiary
sources
family
earner
earners

Number
of fami­
lies

Income group

Jacksonville, all families_________________
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200_____________________
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
$2,100 to $2,400___ ____ __________
$2,400 to $2,700______ ____________
$2,700 and over__________________
Louisville, all families___________________

Average
net
money
income

178

$1, 566

1.50

84.3

13.9

1.8

20
33
33
32
34
13
5
8

751
1,056
1,345
1, 626
1,924
2, 233
2,528
3,189

1.45
1.42
1. 30
1.41
1.47
1.69
2.20
2.50

90.0
89.4
92.9
86.1
90.5
82.0
62.9
52.0

7.6
9.1
4.2
11.6
8.7
17.3
36.5
44.6

2.4
1.5
2.9
2.3
.8
.7
.6
3.4

197

1, 308

1. 31

88.6

10.1

1.3

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200_____________________
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
$2,100 and over................................

33
59
51
29
17
8

781
1, 057
1, 340
1, 650
1,944
2, 545

1.18
1.20
1. 35
1.34
1. 65
1.50

95.1
91.7
86.6
92.0
82.9
78.8

4.2
7.0
12.5
7.6
16.7
13.4

.7
1.3
.9
.4
.4
7.8

Memphis, all families____________________

194

1,459

1.18

90.4

7.8

1.8

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200_____________________
$1,200 to $1,500__________ _____
$1,500 to $1,800.— ______ _____
$1,800 to $2,100___ _______________
$2,100 and over..... .......... _..............-

25
35
44
37
40
13

749
1,072
1,345
1, 628
1,915
2, 381

1.04
1.14
1.20
1.11
1.12
1. 77

97.6
92.4
89.6
95.1
91.9
72.4

1.1
5.7
9.6
2.8
6.3
24.8

1.3
1.9
.8
2.1
1.8
2.8

Mobile, all families______________________

146

1,417

1.41

87.6

10.8

1.6

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200____________ _______
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
$2,100 and over__________________

29
21
35
24
26
11

702
1, 056
1, 320
1, 652
1,938
2, 575

1.20
1. 39
1.45
1.23
1. 34
2.39

97.0
86.6
87.9
92.6
92.7
65.2

3.1
10.2
9.9
6.9
5.3
33.8

-. 1
3.2
2.2
.5
2.0
1.0

New Orleans, all families__________ _

318

1. 302

1.33

84.9

12. 5

2.6

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900______________________
$900 to $1,200____________ _______
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2.100...................... ............
$2,100 to $2,400___________________
$2,400 and over________ _________

74
71
60
72
25
7
9

731
1,038
1,332
1, 671
1,885
2,094
2,656

1.17
1.13
1.37
1.29
1.73
2. 36
2.43

94.0
92.3
84.7
89.0
79.8
49.0
55.3

5.1
5.7
11.6
8.7
19.2
39.7
44.3

.9
2.0
3.7
2.3
1.0
11.3
.4

-----

162

1, 614

1.12

93.4

3.7

2.9

Families with annual net income of—
$600 to $900 5_____________________
$900 to $1,200_______ ____________
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
$1,800 to $2,100-.____ ____________
$2,100 to $2,400--______ _________
$2,400 and over— ............... ..............

10
23
40
32
28
20
9

785
1, 057
1,344
1, 620
1,917
2,199
2,876

1.00
1.35
1.05
1.06
1.14
1.15
1.11

97.2
90.0
95.2
96.2
95.6
95.0
79.3

2.4
8.1
3.6
2.0
3.1
3.5
4.6

.4
1.9
1.2
1.8
1.3
1.5
16.1

Richmond, all families_________________ .

192

1, 585

1.59

79.8

18.4

1.8

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900 _____________________
27
750
1.16
$900 to $1,200____________________
29
1, 111
1. 52
$1,200 to $1,500___________________
42
1,347
1. 55
$1,500 to $1,800___________________
37
1,658
1.40
$1,800 to $2,100___________________
24
1,977
1.67
$2,100 to $2,400___________________
12
2, 214
1. 69
$2,400 to $2,700___________________
12
2, 540
2. 28
$2,700 and over_______________
9
2. 99
3,270
6No cases of families receiving less than $600 occurred in the sample.

94.7
85.0
86.9
87.2
82.5
75.4
64.3
50.7

3.1
14.3
11.0
11.3
16.3
20.7
34.8
46. 6

2.2
.7
2.1
1.5
1.2
3.9
.9
2.7

Norfolk-Portsmouth, all families-----




IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

MONEY

17

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

T able 5. — Item s comprising fa m ily incom e , 1 year during the period 193J+S6

NorfolkPortsmouth

New Or­
leans

Mobile

Memphis

Louisville

Jackson­
ville

Jackson

Houston

Dallas

Birmingham

Xl"0
p
Vo

1

i

Item

B a 11 i more

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Number of families in
194
202
294
258
150
318
162
192
178
197
146
survey ----------------------419
Average net money in­
come, to ta l... _______ $1, 437 $1,441 $1, 475 $1, 567 $1,541 $1, 566 $1, 308 $1, 459 $1, 417 $1, 302 $1, 614 $1, 585
Average earnings from
all individuals_________ 1, 391 1, 370 1, 435 1, 525 1,490 1, 518 1, 258 1,394 1, 384 1,248 1, 541 1, 521
Net earnings from board­
11
21
19
33
39
35
20
19
20
26
25
ers and lodgers_____ __
27
Total income from all
other sources:
Rent, interest, and
12
11
11
5
6
15
6
dividends____ _ _
11
5
7
5
17
Pensions and insur­
4
6
15
9
13
17
11
11
7
8
20
3
ance annuities_____
8
4
3
5
7
8
9
7
3
6
7
Gifts________________
1
5
6
9
4
2
4
5
12
7
7
Miscellaneous sources.
3
19
Business losses and ex­
-5
-4
-6
-2
-6
-1 5
-5
-1
penses (deduct)________
0)
0)
0)
0)
i Less than $0.50

Distribution of Expenditures at Successive Income
Levels
Family expenditures for each one of the major groups of items in the
budget increased with increases in income. The relative increase
differed, however, from one item to another. (See Tabular Summary
table 6.) The percentages spent for food, and for housing, and fuel,
light, and refrigeration combined, were generally smaller at the higher
income levels than at the lower. On the other hand the percentage
spent for clothing, transportation, items of household operation other
than fuel, light, and refrigeration, and gifts to persons outside the
economic family tended to increase with increases in income.
The tendency noted in other regions for the percentage of total
expenditures allotted to personal care to remain constant regardless
of income holds true in general for the cities in the southern region,
but the average proportion in the southern cities is as a rule 2.5
percent, as compared with 2.0 in most of the cities in other regions.
Recreation expenditures accounted for about the same percentage
of total expenditures at high as at low income levels, except in New
Orleans, where there was a very definite rise in the proportions allotted
to recreation from low to high income levels. Contributions to com­
munity welfare in the form of income and poll taxes, gifts to com­
munity institutions, and other miscellaneous expenses received about
the same percent of total expenditures at high as at low income
levels.
The particular circumstances of a given family, its tastes and habits,
its experience, with unexpected illness or other emergencies, all may
contribute to explain differences in its expenditures in a particular




18

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

year from those of other families in the same city, even if they were
of the same size and have the same incomes. In small samples, the
experience of individual families tends at times to produce erratic
movements. Thus, for example, expenditure for medical care showed
no clear relation to income level. Also, the percentage expenditures
for furnishings and equipment failed to show a consistent tendency
from low to high income levels in all 12 cities. Irregularities in the
movement of the percentage of total expenditures going to such items
as clothing, recreation, gifts, and contributions were noted in many
cities. At the highest incomes, where the sample is smallest, there
were irregularities even in the movement of the percentage of total
expenditures going for food and housing.
The general pattern of expenditure emerges more clearly if the
data are portrayed without regard to these fluctuations that may be
due entirely to the fact that only a small proportion of the workers in
the city could be surveyed. The pattern is best revealed by curves
that cut through these accidental variations and that approximate
the results which would probably have been obtained had it been
possible to obtain a schedule from every family in the employed
wage earner and clerical group. Such an estimate for Baltimore is
presented in figures 1 and 2.
The scale used in figure 1 in graphing patterns of family expend­
itures was chosen to show the absolute importance of the different
items included in the family budget. It shows the concentration of
family funds in expenditures for food and housing. It also brings out
the current competition between expenditures for clothing and for
transportation. A t all income levels within the range studied, average
family expenditures for transportation (including expenditure for
automobile purchase and operation) were nearly as great as those for
clothing. A t no income level in Baltimore, however, did they exceed
clothing expenditures as in Dallas, Houston, and certain cities in the
Pacific, West North Central, and East North Central regions. In
this respect Baltimore was more like Philadelphia, selected as typical
of the North Atlantic region than like the cities farther west. The
cluster of lines at the bottom of the chart makes clear the relatively
small sums available for other expenditures after the essentials of
food, housing, clothing, and transportation are paid for. They empha­
size the difficulties which families in this group encounter when they
meet unexpected emergencies, and the limited margin with which
they buy those commodities and services which are so important in
adding variety to urban life.
The difference in the relative change from one income level to
another in expenditures for competing categories of consumption is
best illustrated by the logarithmic scale of figure 2. The thin lines
on the chart indicate the slope which would be graphed for an expendi-




19

INCOME LEVEL AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS
F i* I

PATTERNS OF FAMILY EXPENDITURES AT SUCCESSIVE
INCOME LEVELS AMONG WAGE EARNERS AND
LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS

BALTIMORE, 1935-1936
WHITE

ANNUAL
EXPEN D IT U RE
( I n D o lla rs )

FAMILIES

ANNUAL
EXPEN D ITURE
( I n D o lla rs )

IOOO

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
900

1200

1500

1800

2100

2400

ANNUAL INCOME IN DOLLARS
U. 9. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




2700

3000

20

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

Fig. 2

RELATIVE FAMILY EXPENDITURES AT SUCCESSIVE
INCOME LEVELS AMONG WAGE EARNERS AND
LOWER SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS

BALTIMORE, 1935-1936
A N N U A L E X P E N D I T U R E (In D o lla r s )

W H IT E

FAMILIES

A N N U A L E X P E N D IT U R E ( In D o lla r s )

A N N U A L IN CO M E IN D O L L A R S
The slopes o f the lines show the percent increase in expenditure corresponding to the percent increase inincom e. A
slope g reater than th a t o f a 4 5 degree line represents a gain o f the specified k in d o f expenditure re la tiv e ly
g reater than the gain in income-, a slope less than th a t o f a 4 5 degree line represents a gain relatively sm a lle r.

t ) .s . Bu r e a u of la b o r s t a t is t ic s .




IN C O M E

LEVEL,

AND

MONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

21

ture that increased in exact proportion to income: thus, for example,
a tenfold increase of expenditure accompanying a tenfold increase of
income as one reads from left to right. The relative steepness of the
curves therefore suggests the relative elasticities of the various types
of expenditure. Thus, housing expenditures are here seen to be much
less elastic than those for most other categories of goods or services
and to increase much less rapidly than income. The pressure on
low-income families of housing costs, which are relatively higher in
Baltimore than in comparable cities, partly explains the inelasticity
of the housing figure.
Especially among the larger families at the higher income levels
there is a tendency to let increases in purchases of other types take
precedence over increases in housing expenditures. Thus, food
expenditures, also less elastic than other expenditures at low incomes,
rise almost in proportion to income at the higher levels. While this
is true of total family expenditures for food, figures presented in table
6 show the irregularity of the increases in food expenditures per adult
male equivalent with rise in family income. These figures and the
curves in figures 1 and 2 serve to emphasize the fact that due to the
urgency of other wants which go unsatisfied at the lower-income levels,
expenditures for food and housing in the wage earner and clerical
group seldom rise above the level regarded by the group as a satis­
factory minimum (taking size and composition of family into account)
while in many cases they fail to reach that minimum.
The much greater urgency of increases in clothing expenditures as
compared with those for food and housing is easily understood when
the small size of the average clothing expenditures at low-income levels
is considered.
Transportation and furnishings and equipment expenditures show
even greater elasticity than those for clothing up to the $1,200 income
level. The rapid rise suggests that few families at the lowest income
levels studied can afford automobiles or other than bare essentials of
household equipment, but that these items are among the first to be
added when incomes permit. A t higher levels within the income
range studied, however, transportation expenditures continue as
elastic as those for clothing, in contrast to a rapid tapering off in
relative purchase of furnishings and equipment. Evidently, after a
few of the most essential items of convenience and comfort have been
added to the house furnishings and equipment, additional funds are
more likely to go for clothes or automobiles, recreation, gifts, or
miscellaneous items. Household operation expenditures, other than
those for fuel, light, and refrigeration, on the other hand, increase
relatively rapidly after the $1,200 income level, reflecting the demand
for laundry services and some domestic help when income permits,
7 4 3 9 0 °— 41------- 3




22

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

while the flatness of the curve at the lower income levels suggests the
indispensable character of certain expenditures for household supplies

Variations in money disbursements.
For many reasons of taste, habit or circumstances peculiar to a
given year or a given family situation, the expenditures of a particular
family for a certain item or group of items may deviate considerably
from the average for a large group of families. Thus a family which
experienced a serious illness of the principal earner might be obliged
to incur medical and perhaps hospital expenses and possibly to defer
purchases of clothing and recreational items and payments on back
debts; a family with a gifted child might make considerable sacrifices
of clothing, transportation, and even food in order to provide special
lessons in the hope of an artistic career for the child; the young couple
recently married will probably spend much more for furniture and
equipment than an older couple with the same incom e; a family with
dependent relatives must make larger contributions to persons outside
the economic family than one whose relatives are more fortunately
situated.
In interpreting the average figures presented in this volume, it is
important to keep in mind some idea of the extent of these variations
from the average, and their magnitude for the different main cate­
gories of expenditures.
Because of differences of family income and size as well as for the
reasons cited, the average expenditure of all families covered has only
a limited significance. This is more true for certain categories of
expenditure than for others. Data presented in table 24-A of the
Tabular Summary show the extent to which the expenditures of
individual families vary from the average in each city. In general
the cities with the highest average expenditures had the lowest meas­
ures of variation 1 while the reverse was true of cities with smallest
1
average expenditures.
Though the measures of variation are not identical from city to
city for given categories of expenditure, they are sufficiently similar
to reveal distinct patterns of variation for different types of expendi­
tures. There is relatively less variation in food and housing ex­
penditures than in any other item of the family budget. The next
group of items, personal care, clothing, recreation, and household
operation, other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, are definitely more
variable. When we come however to medical care, transportation,
and furnishings and equipment, we find relatively the greatest vari-

1

* The measure of variation used, the coefficient of variation, expresses the dispersion about the average
of the individual items which go to make up the average. The measure is in percentage terms, i. e., is inde­
pendent of the size of the average. For fuller statement, see appendix A, note on tables 24-A and 24-B, p. 647.
In the textual discussion, the terms variation, measure of variation, degree of variation, variability, etc.,
should be understood always to refer to coefficients of variation as set forth in tables 24-A and 24-B of
the tabular summary.




INCOME LEVEE. AND MONEY DDSBUESEMENTS

23

ability, three or four times as much as for food expenditures. The
variability in savings and in deficits, for families ending the year with
savings, or “ in the red,” along with that for transportation and “ other
items” places them in the most variable group of expenditure items.
The very listing of the above groups of items suggests the probable
reasons for the striking differences in variability for certain categories.
Food and housing, m ajor items in the family budget, must be pur­
chased regularly by all families and, within the income and occupa­
tional range of this study, wide variations from the average are not
to be expected. A t the opposite extreme, many items of furnishings
and equipment are purchased by relatively few families in any 1 year
and such outlays when made involve comparatively heavy expendi­
tures. The great irregularity in transportation expenditures represents
the difference between expenditures at one extreme of those families
which spent only for trolley or bus fares essential to get to work and
to stores, and at the other extreme of those which purchased auto­
mobiles during the schedule year. Contrary to the tendency noted in
other regions, the relative variation in transportation expenditures
were, in general, greater in the larger cities than in the smaller ones.
Irregularity in medical care expenditures reflect differences in emer­
gency situations encountered during the year by individual families.
The relatively high variability in savings and deficits indicates the
wide differences in the circumstances affecting expenditure and in the
management of family finances. Tests reveal that there is no apparent
relation between the excess of expenditures over incomes, the average
income or expenditure, or city size and the size of the coefficient of
variation of deficits or surpluses.
Even at the same income level, it is hardly to be expected that any
two families will spend their funds in exactly the same way. The
significance of the various averages presented— the extent to which
families tend to conform to the average pattern— is shown by income
levels for the cities of Houston and Norfolk in tables 24-B and 24-C
of the Tabular Summary.1 For almost every category of expenditure
2
there is less variation in the expenditures of families in any given
income class than there is in the expenditures of the city group as a
whole.
The data presented in the Tabular Summary, tables 24-B and 24-C
for Houston and Norfolk on the variability of expenditure by income
level can also be studied in connection with similar data from other
regions. When the findings for seven cities in six different regions
are compared, it is found that there was relatively less variation from
the average in the expenditures of individual families at higher than

12

Measures of variation for families of separate types by income level, were computed for families studied
in New York City (see B . L. S. 637, vol. I, Tabular Summary, table 24). Funds were not available for similar
computations for other regions.




24

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

at lower incomes for a number of categories. This was true of expendi­
tures for clothing, furnishings and equipment, and medical care.
The higher relative variations in expenditures for several categories
at the lower income levels suggest the close pressure of these narrow
margins of family income. For a low income family, an emergency or
unusual expenditure for medical care, furnishings, or automobile was
apt to mean a sharp corresponding trimming in the others, so that
individual families studied spent anywhere from zero to rather large
amounts for some of these items. Their incomes were not large
enough to permit them to allocate their resources regularly from year
to year in about the same proportions for these various family require­
ments, but rather they stretched their dollars as best they might.
For the higher income families, on the contrary, the smaller relative
variability in several categories of expenditures indicates that it was
possible for these families to work out a more consistent pattern of
expenditures. Such drastic rearrangements in their budgets were not
required even should an emergency expenditure arise. They were
more nearly able to plan regular replacements of items of clothing and
furnishings, to make regular as well as emergency expenditures for
medical care, and to plan definite expenditure for personal care.
Income Levels and Planes o f Living

Size and composition o f family.
The amount of the family income and the number of persons in the
family are both of importance in determining the way the family
income is spent. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the family
types which predominate at each income level among the families
studied. The average size of the white families drawn in the sample
in each of the 12 cities varied from 3.31 persons in Dallas to 4.03
persons in M obile.1
3
If the investigation had been extended to families on relief, the
average size of family would have been somewhat larger in all the
cities.1
4
1
3
Data are available in the 1930 census (those for Jackson and for Mobile in the unpublished records of the
Census Bureau) which make it possible to calculate the median size of white families of two or more persons
in each city at that date. In
cities, the average size of family in the sample surveyed was slightly larger
than the census median, in slightly smaller. The median size of families of two or more persons as com­
puted from the census data are as follows:
Baltimore________________________________ 3.65
Louisville________________________________ 3.43
Birmingham_____________________________ 3.
Memphis________________________________ 3.42
Dallas_____________________ ____ _________ 3.29
Mobile______ ______ _____________________ 3.72
Houston..._____ _________________________ 3.29
New Orleans...____ _____________________ 3.73
Jackson__________________________________ 3. 50
Norfolk__________________________________ .
Jacksonville_______________________ ____ 3.40
Richmond_______________________________ .
The average size of the families of two or more persons on the relief rolls in these cities in the month when
relief was at a maximum varied from 3.4 persons in Dallas to 4.8 in Birmingham and Memphis. (See appen­
dix A, p. 650.)

1

11

6
6

1
4




35
7
35
5

INCOME LEVEL, AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS

25

In all 12 cities except Jacksonville and Norfolk about 40 percent of
families reported no children under 16 years of age.1 The propor­
5
tion was about one-third in those two cities.
In 11 of the 12 samples the average size of family in the group with
incomes less than $900 was less than that for the samples as a whole.
This smaller family size at the lowest income level among the inde­
pendent families covered in the present investigation compared with
the larger size of the families on the relief rolls emphasizes the diffi­
culty of supporting a family with several children in a period when
opportunities for employment are limited.
It has already been indicated that among families of wage earners
and clerical workers, increases in family income are largely dependent
on the number of employable persons making up the family group.
When the families are classified by family income, the number of
persons over 16 years of age tends to increase with increases in the
total income. This situation is characteristic of all 12 cities. The
change in the number of children under 16 years of age with increase
in the income of the family is less regular.1
6

Planes of living determined by family size as well as income.
Preliminary study of the variations in the amounts and kinds of
goods purchased by families in different income classes emphasizes
the obvious fact that the plane at which a family lives is determined
quite as much by the number, age, sex, and occupation of the persons
dependent on family income as by the size of the income. Since
average size of family is larger at higher income levels, it is impossible
to assume that the plane of living is proportional to income. Further­
more, it is evident that in any one income class there are included
families with very different planes of living, the differences depending
on the composition of the families to be supported with the given
income.
For example, among the 419 families surveyed in Baltimore, there
were 67 with incomes ranging from $1,500 to $1,800. Of these, 31
were families including 2 or 3 persons. They lived in relative comfort
is Except in New Orleans, of the families without young children, about a half were families of husband
and wife only; between a fourth and a third were families of husband, wife, sons, and daughters or other
family members over 16 years of age; and about a fifth were families of adults not including a husband and
wife. This last group is made up of a variety of family types: widows or widowers with children over 16
years old, and brothers and sisters uniting their economic resources are the most frequent. In New Orleans
the families without children under 16 were about equally divided among these three family types.
In Mobile and Richmond, the largest number of children under 16 years of age occurs at the lowest
income level, and the number varies irregularly as incomes rise. In Norfolk the number of children per
family rises with increase in income to approximately one and one-half children at the $1,200 to $1,500 group
and in Baltimore at the $1,500 to $1,800 group, and then declines irregularly. In Jacksonville an average
of one and one-half children per family is reached at the $1,800 to $
income group, and then the average
declines. In Louisville, a maximum of two cnildren is reached at this income level. In Jackson the aver­
age climbs to one and two-thirds children under 16 years of age in the group with incomes of $2,100 to $2,400.
At no one of the income levels studied in the other five cities (Birmingham, Dallas, Houston, Memphis,
and New Orleans) did the average number of children exceed one and one-third per family.

1
6




2 0
,10

26

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

at this income level. In the same income class there were 36 families
of 4 or more persons in which expenditures were definitely more re­
stricted, depending on the number and the age of the persons in the
family. (See Tabular Summary, table 5.) In this group of families
the plane of living was necessarily considerably lower than in the
families with only 3 or less members.
Since one of the primary purposes of the investigation was to deter­
mine the kind of purchases made by families at different economic
levels, the detailed analysis of expenditures has been based upon a
classification which takes into account not only the total amount of
money available for family living, but, also, the composition of the
family for which it is spent. The process of classifying families ac­
cording to their consumption level (see appendix G, pp. 688-695) may be
indicated from the case of two families, each spending $1,450 during
the schedule year. The first family consisted of a man of 40 working
as a machine operator; his wife, 38; two sons aged 15 and 6; and two
daughters, aged 12 and 8. In addition, the family was responsible
during 6 months for the total support of the wife’s mother, who lived
with them during half the year. This family is regarded as consisting
of six and one-half equivalent full-time persons. The second family
consists of a man of 27, also a machine operator; his wife, 26; a daugh­
ter of 4 years and an infant son 1% years old. This is a four-person
family. The first family spent $725 and the smaller family $780 for
all items other than food and clothing. There is not enough informa­
tion at present available on the influence of age or sex on these general
types of expenditure to improve upon the assumption that equal ex­
penditures are incurred for each family member. The per capita
expenditure per equivalent full-time person in the first family was
$112 as against $195 in the second family for all items other than food
and clothing.
In the case of food, studies of customary expenditures and of dietary
needs have been made in sufficient detail to allow for the creation of
scales of expenditure for each age, sex, and activity group in terms of
the customary expenditures of an adult male employed full time. The
food-expenditure scales adopted in this study indicate that the first
family consists of the equivalent of 5.5 adult males in the family for
the full year. This unit will be subsequently referred to in the present
study as a “ food-expenditure unit.” The second family consists of
2.9 food-expenditure units. The first family spent $580 per year for
food, or the equivalent of $105 per expenditure unit. The second
family spent $500, which, although a substantially smaller proportion
of its total income, amounted to $172 per food-expenditure unit.
Finally, in connection with clothing, it has been possible as a result
of this study to derive scales of customary expenditures related to sex,
age, and occupation. If the average expenditures of adult male wage




INCOME LEVEL A M

27

MONEY DISBURSEMENTS

earners and lower-salaried clerical workers between the ages of 21 and
35 inclusive are regarded as equivalent to one clothing expenditure
unit, the larger of the two families contains 4.0 clothing expenditure
units while the smaller family contains 2.6. The first family spent
$145 for clothing and the smaller family, $170. This was an average
per clothing expenditure unit of $36 for the first family and $65 for
the second.
The economic level of the first family has been measured by the
sum of these three types of unit expenditure; $105 for food; $36 for
clothing; and, $112 for all other items; total for the family, $253 per
expenditure unit. The smaller family is classified with those that
have expenditure per unit of more than $400 but less than $500. In
both cases, this means that these particular families are grouped as
regards economic level with families whose incomes may be quite
different. For example, a widow with one young child, earning $100
a month, would be grouped with the smaller of the two families, as
would also a very large family with an income of more than $3,000.
Since family income is so closely related to family composition it
is important that expenditures be analyzed in relation to number of
expenditure units. This will be more clearly seen from table 6. For
example in Baltimore, the average family expenditure at the highest
income level shown was slightly more than 3 % times that at the low­
est, but the unit expenditure at the highest income level was only
slightly more than that at the lowest level.
In subsequent discussions in this bulletin, expenditures will be
analyzed b y economic or consumption level. The number of levels
distinguished for any given city depends on the number of families
which furnished information, and the way in which they were dis­
tributed among the several expenditure-per-unit groups.
T

able

6 . — A v era g e u n it exp en d itu re at successive in co m e levels , 1 yea r d uring the
p eriod 1 9 8 4 - 8 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Income group

Average
Average Average
Average Average amount Average
size of
unit
total
Number family in
spent for unit ex­
pendi­
expendi­ unit food clothing
of
other
families expendi­ ture per expendi­ expendi­ items per ture for
ture
ture
all items
family
ture
person
units

B A L T IM O R E

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $900_____ _____ ____
$900 to $1,200..........................
$1,200 to $1,500...... ...............
$1,500 to $1,800...... ................
$1,800 to $
................. .
$2,100 to $2,400..................... .
$2,400 to $2,700____________
$2,700 and over.._ ...............

2,10
0




49
95

120
67
51
17
9

11

2.59
2.94
3.10
3.61
3.83
4. 26
4. 28
4.30

$799
1,053
1, 352
1, 568
1, 841
2,092
2,399
2,743

$127
147
164
167
172
177
204

22
2

$24
39
48
60
61
69
64
94

$156
171
223
206
245
242
291
317

$308
358
436
434
481
491
561
638

28

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH

T able 6 . —

A verag e u n it exp en d itu re at successive in co m e levels, 1 ye a r d u rin g the
p eriod 1 9 3 4 - 8 6 — Continued

Income group

Average
Average Average Average Average Average
size of
amount
Number family in
total
unit
unit ex­
of
expendi­ unit food clothing spent for
pendi­
expendi­
expendi­
other
families
ture per
expendi­
ture
ture
items per ture for
family
ture
all items
units
person

B IR M IN G H A M

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900________________
$900 to $1,200...... ...................
$1,200 to $1,500.......................
$1,500 to $1,800........ ..............
$1,800 to $
.......................
$
to $2,400_____ ______
$2,400 and over......................

2,10
0

2,10
0

24
39
50
41
36
7
5

3.33
3. 39
3.47
3.49
3.20
2.84
4.73

$769
1,080
1, 350
1, 676
1, 910
2,179
2,856

$83
113
131
142
196
243
153

$27
46
50
64
73
114

$116
159
206
261
346
442
300

$231
319
389
480
597
767
604

27
41
51
71
84
117
104

122

137
178
232
278
330
433
406
405

279
342
432
518
609
800
684
732

27
40
52
62
71
71
84
114

138
179
258
322
374
307
330
307

265
368
456
535
632
568
573
590

39
51

275
366
491
469
536
456
503
681

10
0

DALLAS

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900..:_____________
$900 to $1.200______________
$1,200 to $1,500______ ____ _
$1,500 to $1,800........ .............
........ .......... .
$1,800 to $
$2,100 to $2,400____________
$2,400 to $2,700____________
$2,700 and over____________

2,10
0

30
57
71
57
57

8
8
6

26
.8
3.05
3.10
3. 07
3. 07
2.60
3. 76
3.80

797
1,044
1, 338
1, 590
1,871
2,081
2,571
2,780

112
129
146
168
187
238
172
205

H OUSTON

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $900................. ..........
$900 to $
________ ____ _
$1,200 to $1,500______ _____
$1,500 to $1,800......................
$1,800 to $ ,
. ............... .
$2,100 to $2,400____________
$2,400 to $3,000................... .
$
and over. ..................

1,20
0

210
0

30
,0 0

12

46
67
58
53

10
7
5

2.80
3.05
3.08
3.03
3.09
3. 76
4. 07
5. 37

743

1,122
1, 405
1, 620

1,954
2,135
2, 333
3.168

10
0

131
142
156
185
185
166
159

JACKSON

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$600 to $900________________
$900 to $
______________
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800................... .
$1,800 to $
.......................
$2,100 to $2,400....................
$2,400 to $2,700____________
$2,700 and over.................. .

1,20
0

2,10
0

17
30
32
24

2.87
3.03
2. 76
3.48
3.60
4. 67
4
3.83

1, 354
1, 631
1, 930
2,130
2,443
2,610

93
118
139
133
135
136
135
171

114

141
195
285
258
319
247
277
396

33
33
32
34
13
5

2.91
2.89
3. 31
3. 22
3. 76
3. 41
3. 76
3. 52

793
1,062
1,334
1, 592
1, 905
2,116
2, 524
3,266

113
137
142
160
164
178
161
193

27
38
46
60
67
74
81
128

132
191
214
273
274
367
423
593

273
367
403
494
507
621
671
928

33
59
51
29
17

2.81
2.78
3. 51
3. 22
4.60
3.88

793
1, 071
1,324
1, 582
1,863
2, 426

150
153
170
157
216

26
38
50
56
51

133
193
173
260
195
320

282
385
377
491
405
625

2
0
15
5
7

.8
6

790

1,110

6
6
75
79
70

8
8

JACKSONVILLE

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $900_______________
$900 to $1,200______________
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800____________
$1,800 to $
____________
$
to $2,400.............. .......
$2,400 to $2,700.....................
$2,700 and over___________

2,10
0

2,10
0

2
0

8

LOUISVILLE

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$600 to $900________________
$900 to $1,200______________
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800.......................
$1,800 to $
____________
$
and over......................

2,10
0

2,10
0




8

122

8
8

29

INCOME LEVEL, AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS
T

able

6 . — A verag e u n it exp en d itu re at successive in co m e levels , 1 yea r d uring the
p eriod 1 9 3 4. - 86 — Continued

Income group

Average Average
Average
Average Average amount Average
size of
Number family in
total
unit
unit food clothing spent for unit ex­
expendi­
of
pendi­
other
families expendi­ ture per expendi­ expendi­
ture
ture
items per ture for
family
ture
all items
units
person

M EM PHIS

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $900_______________
$900 to $1,200. .......................
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800____________
$1,800 to $ ,
- ...............—
$
and over____________

2,10
0

210
0

25
35
44
37
40
13

2.69
3. 27
3.42
3.18
3. 35
3.62

$756
1,139
1,403
1.573
1, 809
2,062

$106

111

$30
44
50
64
73
70

$143
189
230
276
312
344

$281
348
412
495
540
570

5
24

564
806
1,058
1,341
1,566
1,850
2,532

77
95
108
117
138
144
146

18
26
39
51

11

3. 52
3. 55
3. 40
3.70
3. 58
3. 84
4.90

65
105
163
189
230
272
294

160
227
311
362
437
482
517

14
60
71
60
72
25
7
9

3.23
3.24
3.40
3. 50
3. 46
4.12
4.23
4.65

579
792
1,007
1,337
1,661

85
107
123
145
162
166
182
181

82
109
140
189
254
229
256
275

179
244
296
382
480
458
505
541

126
167
194
300
273
333
455

264
328
403
543
506
584
737

125
196
235
259
292
313
299
361

245
359
419
449
514
564
540
643

124
151
152
153

M O BILE

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $600....................... $600 to $900....... ....................
$900 to $1,200____ ____ ____
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800.....................
$1,800 to $
____________
$
and over_______ ____

2,10
0

2,10
0

21
35
24
26

6
8
65
79

N E W OR LE A N S

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $600.................. .........
$600 to $900-................. .......
$900 to $1,200____ _________
$1,200 to $1,500.......................
$1,500 to $1,800____________
$1,800 to $
............... — _
$
to $2,400. ............. .......
$2,400 and over......................

2,10
0

2,10
0

1,8 8
8

2,135
2, 516

10

27
33
47
60
62
65
82

N O R FO LK

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$600 to $900......... ...................
$900 to $1,200......................$1,20a to $1,500.............. .
$1,500 to $1,800..............
$1,800 to $
....... ...............
$2,100 to $2,400................. .
$2,400 and over............. ........

2,10
0

10

23
40
32
28

2
0
9

3.02
3. 27
3. 38
2.89
3.69
3.62
3.38

2,114
2,490

3.33
3. 34
3.18
3. 72
3.
3.63
4. 21
4.65

1, 331
1,669
1,880
2,048
2,274
2,990

797
1,073
1, 363
1, 570

1.8 6
6

112

128
159
183
169
181
208

25
32
48
58
61

6
8
6
8

RICHM OND

Families with annual net in­
come of—
$500 to $900......... ...................
$900 to $1,200...................... .
$1,200 to $1,500____________
$1,500 to $1,800...... .............
$1,800 to $
...... ............ .
$2,100 to $2,400....................
$2,400 to $2,700........ .............
$2,700 and over......................

2,10
0




27
29
42
37
24

12
12
9

6
6

817

1,20
0

98
119
137
131
152
173
154
179

2
2

41
45
57

6
8
73
82
98

30

TWEILVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

Equivalence between total expenditures and economic levels.
Since most American studies of expenditure have been based upon
differences in expenditure at various income levels, it may be con­
venient to translate the economic levels under discussion into equiva­
lent total annual expenditures for the two families described above.
On the basis of the scales used in this study, the first family is re­
garded as consisting of 5.7 expenditure units, while the second family
consists of 3.4. An economic level of $250 expenditure per unit for
the first family implies total 'annual expenditures then of $1,425,
while a level of $650 unit expenditure for the same family would
mean total expenditures of $3,705. The equivalence is shown in
table 7.
T a b l e 7 . — Total f a m i ly expenditure equivalents f o r fa m ilies o f three different typ es
at given econom ic levels
[Families ol wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Total family expenditure
Economic level—Families with annual unit
expenditure of—

$150___________________ __________________ ____________
$250 __............................... ................. .......................................
$350. _____ ______________ ______ _____________________
$450_________________ _________________________________
$550______ _________________ _____ _____________________
$650— ................................................... .....................................

Family of 5.7,
expenditure
units 1

Family of 3.4,
expenditure
units 2

$855
1,425
1, 995
2,565
3,135
3,705

$510
850
1,190
1,530
1,870

Family of 1.9,
expenditure
units 3

2,210

$285
475
665
855
1,045
1,235

1 Family consisted of a man 40, working as a machine operator; his wife 38; two sons aged 15 and 6, and two
daughters aged 12 and 8.
2 Family consisted of a man, 27, working as a machine operator, his wife, 26; a daughter, 4 years old; an
infant son, 1J4 years old.
3 Family consisted of a man, 35, working as a machine operator; and his wife, 31.

Order o f Expenditures at Different Economic Levels

At lower unit expenditure levels there were a few small families
with very low incomes, but more large families with incomes approach­
ing the median. Families of these two different types were nearer
together as far as spending patterns are concerned than two families
with the same money income, one of husband and wife and no other
persons and the other including in addition several other children.
Similarly at the higher expenditure levels, there were some medium
or large-sized families with high incomes, but more small families
With incomes approaching or exceeding the median; these two types
of families were closer in their spending habits than families of
divergent size but similar incomes.




INCOME LEVEE AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS

31

Differences between the average expenditure patterns of families
at the lowest and highest economic levels may be illustrated by data
from the group studied in Louisville (see figure 3).
There were 40 families at the lowest expenditure level analyzed
and they averaged about 5 persons per family. Their incomes
averaged $1,185. They devoted 43 percent of their total outlay to
food, and almost 21 percent to housing, fuel, light, and refrigeration,
having thus only one-third of the total left for clothing, other items
of household operation, transportation, recreation, medical care,
personal care, and other items which must be purchased in an American
city.
The 17 families spending at the higher level of $600 to $700 per
unit per year had an average of about 2.8 persons per family. Their
incomes averaged $1,621 per year. They spent over one and a half
times as much for food per food expenditure unit as the larger families
at the lower level, but the outlay represented only 28 percent of their
total expenditure. Their expenditures for housing, fuel, light, and
refrigeration averaged $116 per person as compared with $47 at the
lowest level, but the percentage of the total devoted to housing at the
highest level was only 19.2 percent. The families at the highest level
analyzed had thus 53 percent of their expenditures yet to make after
they had paid for food, housing, heat, light, and refrigeration.
Table 8 presents unit expenditures at successive economic levels.
The relatively slow increase in unit food expenditures in comparison
to the much more rapid increases in unit clothing expenditures and
in other expenditures per capita, emphasizes the differences in the
demand for commodities of these different types. The strikingly
greater increase in the average food unit expenditures from low to
high economic levels (table 8) than from low to high income level
(table 6) shows clearly that the classification of families by economic
level succeeds much better in throwing together families of similar
spending patterns than does classification by family income level.




32

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

Fig. 3

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY EXPENDITURES OF WAGE
EARNERS AND LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS
AT TWO DIFFERENT ECONOMIC LEVELS
LOUISVILLE, 1 9 3 5 -1 9 3 6
WHITE FAMILIES
PERCEN T OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES

0

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




10

20

30

40

50

33

INCOME LEVEL AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS
T

able

8 . — A verage u n it expenditure at successive econ om ic levels , 1 yea r d u rin g the
period 1 9 3 4 -3 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Economic level

Average Average
size of
Number family in total exof
expendi­ expendi­
families
ture per
ture
family
units

Average Average
expendi­ amount
ture for spent for
other
all items
items
per ex­
per per­
pendi­
son
ture unit

Average
unit
food
expendi­
ture

Average
unit
clothing
expendi­
ture

$80
114
148
173

$19
29
43
53
62
79
91
94
84
155

157
216
286
345
421
493
733
643

$173
254
348
446
543
644
736
854
944
1,144

291
243

24
32
48
53
73
83
92
96
92
125

73
114
160
236
294
373
424
563
563
691

169
238
331
430
533
657
731
860
945
1,069

81
99
131
150
180
195
204
247
233
251
284

33
45
57
71
82
98
108
94
126
157

2
0

65
125
171
227
281
349
429
472
594
655
896

166
249
346
434
530
628
736
826
927
1,034
1,335

73

181
238
309
373
444
517
604
763

155
254
346
429
535
639
734
838
925
1,117

109
161
226
300
380
436
568
751

331
417
532
622
749
828
1,123

B A L T IM O R E

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100to $200-................ ..........
$200 to $300— ............. ..........
$300 to $400-...................... $400 to $500..................... .......
$500 to $600.......................
$600 to $700......... ...................
$700 to $800-.................... —
$800 to $900— ........................
$900 to $1,000-...................—
$1,000 and over.....................

14
60
92

10
0
6
6
40
23

1
1
7
6

5.62
4. 56
3. 58
3.05
2.64
2. 59
2.39
2.46
1.98
2.24

$970
1,160
1,246
1, 360
1,434

1,668
1, 759
2,102
1,870
2,563

2
00

223
223
233
236
346

$73

12
1

B IR M IN G H A M

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200-..........................
$200 to $300.......................... .
$300 to $400-........................$400 to $500„..........................
$500 to $600-................ ..........
$600 to $700......................... $700 to $800......................... $800 to $900— ........................
$900 to $1,000-............... ........
$1,000 and over............... —.

1
0

29
49
32
28

2
1
1
0
5
6
1
2

5.12
4.39
3. 87
3.35
3.04
2. 61
2. 22

2.01

2.41
2.13

865
1,047
1,281
1, 441
1,621
1, 715
1 622
,
1,728
2,277
2,277

73
91
123
142
162
177

21
1
21
0

DALLAS

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200-..........................
$200 to $300— ....................
$300 to $400— .................... .
$400 to $500-.....................
$500 to $600— ............. ..........
$600 to $700............................
$700 to $800-.........................
$800 to $900-.........................
$900 to $l,000-._............. —
$1,000 to $1,100............... —
$1,100 and over.................. .

1
1
29
54
51
54
39
19
14
9

6
8

5. 25
4.14
3. 51
3.16
2.72
2.60
2.44
2.23
2.18

2.11

873
1,032
1,214
1,371
1,442
1,633
1,797
1,842

2,021

2.05

2,182
2,736

5.41
4.03
3.84
3.34
2.95
2.81
2.53
2.26
2.24
2.06

839
1,023
1,327
1,434
1,578
1,795
1,856
1,895
2,071
2,301

4.85
4.13
3.09
3.29
2.95
2.30
2.81

1,027
1,366
1,290
1,750
1,835
1, 722
2,328
2,370

HOUSTON

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200......................... .
$200 to $300-...........................
$300 to $400.............................
$400 to $500.............................
$500 to $600-...................... —
$600 to $700— .................... $700 to $800-...........................
$800 to $900-........................$900 to $1,000-.......................
$1,000 and over................ .

6

18
44
49
47
36
25

1
1
1
2
1
0

69
108
124
143
162
186

200
220
232
228

1
2

34
41
48
65
77
90
96
83
117

12
1

JACKSON

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $300............................
$300 to $400— ______ ______
$400 to $500________ ______
$500 to $600........................... .
$600 to $700_____________
$700 to $800.______ ________
$800 to $900— ............. .........
$900 and over..................... .




14
25
44
32
16

8
5
6

2.11

72
113
126
152
154
195
163

2
12

30
55
64
81

8
6

114
95
150

212

34

TWELVE CITIES OP THE SOUTH

T able 8 . —

A verag e unit expenditure at successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r d uring
p eriod 1 9 3 4 -8 6 — Continued

Economic level

Average Average
size of
Number family in total exexpendi­
of
families expendi­ ture per
ture
family
units

Average
unit
food
expendi­
ture

the

Average Average
Average expendi­ amount
unit
ture for spent for
clothing
other
all items
expendi­
items
per ex­
ture
per per­
pendi­
son
ture unit

JACKSONVILLE

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $300________________
$300 to $400________________
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600________________
$600 to $700— .....................
$700 to $800_______ _______
$800 to $900— ...................—
$900 to $1,200— ____ ______
$1,200 and over____________

22

37
39
30
17
13
9

6
5

4.34
4.06
3.14
2.96
2. 81
2. 79
2.26
2.17
2.07

$977
1,365
1,378
1,590
1,802
2.060
1,915
2,309
3,006

5.01
4. 54
3.45

906
1,135

2.47
2. 67
2.49
2. 02

$94
126
157
171
183

200
222

$25
41
48

6
6

93
90

10
0
11
0

242
263

150

1,172
1,317
1,701
1,802
1, 799

93
115
149
172
188
192
243
268

29
43
51
64
71

2.72
2.15
2. 22
2.08

2.86

915
974
1,267
1,391
1, 528
1,710
1 601
,
1,844
2,242

71
89
119
139
156
159
206
218
190

35
44
57
67
77
87
85
106

5.48
4. 51
4.31
3.16
2.92
2. 79
2.84
1.96

831
1,076
1, 455
1,361
1,575
1, 755
2,072
1,749

143
167
162
194
224

5.58
4.09
3.63
3.10

861
980
1,225
1,350
1,524
1,702
1,758
1,801
2,077

77
109
133
155
184
208
228
256
360

$106
170
232
297
359
451
526
718
1,023

$225
336
439
537
641
738
847
1,064
1,452

69
106
159
216
281
374
391
539

181
250
351
441
533
637
724
891

69

172
230
312
386
453
529
787

162
235
338
428
534
629
845
831
778

64
108
173
226
301
386
432
583

152
239
338
431
539
629
730
892

60
103
161
227
276
342
405
498
654

154
240
337
435
529
633
726
834
1,135

LOUISVILLE

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200............................
$200 to $300________________
$300 to $400— ............... — $400 to $500............................
$500 to $600............................
$600 to $700...........................
$700 to $800________________
$800 and over..... ...................

8

40
44
42
27
17
7

1
2

2.66

1,211

2
0

8
8
84

M EM PH IS

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200— ........... ..........
$200 to $300_________ _____
$300 to $400________________
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600_______________
$600 to $700________________
$700 to $800________________
$800 to $900________________
$900 and over_____________

8

25
40
34
29
25
15

8
1
0

5.65
4.14
3. 75
3. 25

2
1

11
1

M OBILE

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100to $200________________
$200 to $300___________ — .
$300 to $400-..................— .
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600________________
$600 to $700_______________
$700 to $800_______________
$800 and over_____________

14
30
30

20
2
1
1
2
8
1
1

67
97

12
1

2
1

32
52
62
73
85
105

86

N E W O R LEANS

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200_________ ____ _
$200 to $300________________
$300 to $400________________
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600________________
$600 to $700_______________
$700 to $800..........................
$800 to $900.............................
$900 and over........................




31

6
6

60
70
38
19
16

1
2
6

2.88

2.69
2.42
2.16
1.83

17
27
43
51
67
82
92
82

17
2

35

INCOME LEVEL AND MONEY DISBLPRSEMENTS
T able 8 . —

A verag e u n it expenditure at successive econ om ic levels , 1 yea r d uring the
p eriod 1 9 8 4 - 8 6 — Continued

Economic level

Average Average
size of
Number family in total exof
expendi­ expendi­
families
ture per
ture
family
units

Average
unit
food
expendi­
ture

Average
unit
clothing
expendi­
ture

141
162
171

$31
37
54
63
60

Average Average
expendi­ amount
ture for spent for
all items
other
per ex­
items
pendi­
per per­
son
ture unit

NORFOLK

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $300............................
$300 to $400________________
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600________________
$600 to $700_______________
$700 to $800________________
$800 to $900________________
$900 to $1,000______________
$1,000 and over.................. .

26

2
2

37
26
16

8
1
2
5
1
0

4.54
4. 24
3.49
3.18
2. 40
2.38
2. 21
1.93

$1,074
1,471
1,509
1,696
1, 494
1,728
1.840
1,812
2,537

$102

219
250
308
264

2.05
4.59
4. 21
3.39
3. 31
2. 80
2. 34
2. 52
2. 22

936
1,151
1,397
1,452
1,757
1, 797
1, 739

70
103
125
136
164
164
194
189
219

2.22

2
21

70
79
133

$103
168
218
299
335
440
511
556
749

$237
347
432
533
622
726
833
939
1,143

16
31
45
53
76
74
74
103
117

69
116
162
242
290
404
474
551
720

457
251
332
428
531
642
743
842
1,061

66

RICHM OND

Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
$100 to $200_____ _____ ____
$200 to $300________________
$300 to $400________________
$400 to $500________________
$500 to $600_______________
$600 to $700_______________
$700 to $800_______________
$800 to $900________________
$900 and over.............. ........

1
0

24
35
38
28
18
23
7
9

2,122
2, 355

Expenditures at two economic levels.
A comparison of the distribution of total family expenditures at
two economic levels i. e. annual unit expenditures of $200 to $300
and of $600 to $700 (see table 9) shows the shift in consumer demand
from one of the lowest planes at which independent families were
found to the highest plane of living enjoyed by any considerable num­
ber of families of wage earner and clerical workers in each of the 12
cities covered in the Southern region.
The overwhelming absolute importance of food and housing in the
budgets of these workers’ families is shown by the fact that they
retained first and second place at high as well as low economic levels
in every city. Clothing was the item of third importance at high as
well as low levels in every city but Houston. Here the competition
between clothing and the automobile is illustrated at the high level,
where expenditures for the latter exceeded those for the former.
The greatest shift in the purchases of the white families in each of
the 12 cities occurred in the proportion of total funds spent for the
purchase, operation, and upkeep of automobiles and motorcycles.
Except in Jackson and M obile, rise in rank of such expenditures from
the lowest to the highest expenditure levels were balanced by decreases
in the rank of expenditures for transportation other than by automo­
bile or motorcycle.




36
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOOTH

able

9 . — E x p en d itu res in rank order at two different econom ic levelsy 1 yea r during
the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—white other than Mexican]
Economic level—Families with annual unit expenditure of—

Group expenditure item

$200 $600 $200
to
to
to
$300 $700 $300

$600 $200 $600 $200 $600
to
to
to
to
to
$700 $300 $700 $300 $700

Baltimore Birmingham
Food__........................................ .
Clothing-----------------------------------Housing, including fuel, light,
and refrigeration________ ___
Other household operation _____
Furniture and equipment____ _
Automobile and motorcycle pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance__________ _____________
Other transportation____________
Personal care_________________ _
Medical care____________________
Recreation..................................
Education..______ _____________
Vocation______ ______ __________
Community welfare___________ .
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily—
Other items................. ............ .......

1

3

1

1

3

3

3

3

4

3

2
7
8

2
6
8

5.5
5.5

2

2

2
6

2
5
6

2
6

2
7
6

7
8.5

10.5
5
9

5

1
0

1
0
8

3
11.5
9

1
2

5
13
15
11.5

6

1
2
15

9.5
9.5

1

5
7

4

8
9
1
0

4

1
2
8
6

8

10.5

1
1

1 1
2 2

15
14
10.5
9
13

1
2

7
5
13
14

1
1
15

7
4
14
15

13

1
1

7
5

15
13

14

4

1
0
9
8

7
13
14

1
2
1
1
15

1

7

9
4
14
15

13

1
1

1

Jackson

3

4
9

1

Houston

$600 $200 $600
to
to
to
to
$300 $700 $300 $700

3

4
13
14
10.5

1

Dallas

$200

1

1

8

1
0

4

12.5
15
12.5

14
8.5

14

1

1

3

3

3

2

2

1
1
1
0
5
6

Jackson­
ville 1

2
4
8

2
6
8

5

6
4

7

1
2
1
0
7
8

4

1
1

1
0
9
6
5
1
1
15
1
2

1
2

9
13

14
13

13

14
15

1
0
9
7
5
14
15

1
1

Economic level—Families with annual unit expenditure of—

$200

$600
to
to
$300 $700

$200

Louisville

Group expenditure item

Memphis

1
Food __________ _____ _____
3
Clothing________________________
Housing, including fuel, light
2
and refrigeration_____________
Other household operation---------- 8
Furniture and equipment----------- 4
Automobile and motorcycle pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
9.5
nance . ______
____________
7
Other transportation...................
9.5
Personal care........ ...................... .
6
Medical care....................................
5
Recreation______________ _______
Education............... .......... J.......... . 13
Vocation_______ _________ ____ 14
1
Community welfare__________ . 1
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
2
ily--------------- - ................. ............ 1
Other items___________________ _ 15

1

3

2

9
5

$600
to
to
$300 $700

1

3

2
5
7

4
8
1 1
0 0
1
2 9
8 6

1

3

2
6

$200
to
$300

Mobile

1

3

2

4

5.5
9

5

4

7
15
14
13

1
1

1 1
1 0
9
8
7
7
8 5.5
2
14 1
13 15
1 1
0 1

6
1
1

12.5
12.5

15

4
14
15

$600
to
$700

1

$200

$600 $200 $600 $200 $600
to
to
to
to
to
to
$300 $700 $300 $700 $300 $700
New Or­
leans

1

3

3

2

2
7
1
0

2
8

9

6
9
1
0

4
5
7
9

1
0
8
6

13.5
13.5

6
8

5
4
14
13

1
1

1
1

1
2

1
2

1
2

15

15

13.5
13.5

1

3

5

4
7
15
14

1
2
1
1

13

Norfolk

1

1

Richmond

1

2

3

3

3

3

2

2
6
8

2
6
8

7
8.5

5
9

1
0

5
7

1
1
8
1
0
6

1
2
7
4
14
15

5

9
4
7

4
13
15
9

1
2
14.5
1 1
1 1

12

13

14

1
0

13
14.5

1

4
13

1
1
6

5
14
15

1
0
8.5

12

1100-300 instead of 200-300.

Expenditures for gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family underwent the second greatest change in relative
rank from low to high economic levels for the region as a whole,
becoming more important at the higher level in every city except Nor­
folk. For personal care expenditures there was a shift downward of 1
to 3 ranks in 8 cities. In 10 of the 12 cities expenditures for medical




INCOME LEVEL AND MONEY DISB'UTtSEMENTS

37

care were o f less importance comparatively at the highest than at the
lowest economic level. Expenditures having the lowest ranks, as edu­
cation, vocation, and 4 other items,” retained about the same relative
‘
importance among families with annual unit expenditure of $200 to
$300 as among families with annual unit expenditure of $600 to $700.
The relatively small expenditures for formal education at the latter
level is explained by the type of families found at this level at each of
the cities.1
7
Changes in Assets and Liabilities 1
8

On the average the current expenditures of white families studied in
these 12 cities of the Southern area were less than their current incomes
except in Birmingham where there was an average net deficit of $1.
In the other 11 cities the lowest average savings were found in the
Jackson group, where the figure was $9, while the highest average of
$50 occurred in Baltimore.1
9
In Birmingham 54.4 percent of the families covered in the survey
reported an average surplus of $145 for the year or an aggregate of
$15,950. This was exceeded however by an aggregate deficit of
$16,192 reported by 43.6 percent of the families, representing an aver­
age deficit of $184. In Baltimore, typical of most of the southern
cities, on the other hand, a larger proportion of the families (70.6 per­
cent) reported a surplus, but the average surplus per family was
slightly smaller ($141). The average deficit of the families having
net deficits, which comprised 28.2 of the Baltimore sample, was
$175. As a result the aggregate savings of the Baltimore group
amounted to $41,736 as against aggregate deficits of $20,650.
In considering these figures it is important to keep in mind the
financing of the occasional large expenditure which must be made by
every family, and the general level of incomes among the families of
wage earners and clerical workers. Median incomes in these eleven
white groups ranged from $1,236 to $1,560. The purchase by a fam­
ily at this income level of an electric refrigerator for $150 for example,
must inevitably be financed by some means outside of current income.
It may be from past savings which have been set aside for this purpose
or from current borrowing. Using either method, the family will
1 The families at that level average nearly 3 persons. The number of persons under 16 years old averaged
7
about one-half persons per family and the number of persons gainfully employed at some time during the
year averaged slightly over 1^$ persons per family.
1 For the purpose of this study, changes in assets and liabilities are computed on the basis of changes which
*
occurred as the result of the transfer of property or funds. Changes in the market value of real estate or per­
sonal property remaining in the hands of the families studied are not included in these figures. For more
detailed explanation, see appendix A, notes on table 4, p. 637.
is The figures just cited have been computed from the families’ own statements about changes in their
assets and liabilities and do not represent a balancing difference between reported incomes and reported
current expenditures. (See appendix A, p. 634.) No schedule was accepted for use from a family which could
not supply a statement of the total receipts and total disbursements which balanced within 5 percent.
7 4 3 9 0 °— 41------- 4




38

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

show a deficit of current income as regards current expenditures in the
particular year in which an extraordinary occasional purchase is made.
The important thing to observe, therefore, is not that a number of
families spent more than their incomes in the given year, but the bal­
ance at a given income level between aggregate income and aggregate
expenditures. Under normal circumstances we might expect that ex­
ceptional outlays made in any one year by some families would bal­
ance accumulations made by other families in anticipation of later
purchases from savings, or in reducing liabilities incurred for purchases
of previous years.
In this connection it is important to note the setting of the period
in which these surveys were made. There had been a period of 3 or 4
years of intense anxiety during which there was no certainty as to
what the future held in store. It would appear that a number of fami­
lies in the wage earner and clerical groups had managed even during
the worst days of the depression to conserve small amounts of their past
savings or of their current income. B y 1934, and more particularly
by 1935, anxiety with reference to the future was somewhat relieved,
especially in the case of the group of families covered by this investiga­
tion, since families without relatively steady employment and fami­
lies having been on relief at any time during the year prior to the inter­
view by the field agent were excluded from the survey.
Among ten of the twelve white groups under consideration in the
present chapter net deficits appear at income levels under $900. (See
Tabular Summary table 5.) In Louisville and in Richmond a net sur­
plus for the families studied does not appear until income has reached
$1,200 (see figure 4 ); in Jackson and Norfolk not until the $1,500 level;
and in Birmingham not until $1,800. In Houston and Memphis there
was a net surplus at the income level $500 to $900, but net deficits at
succeeding income levels until families achieved an income of $1,500.
When families are classified on the basis of current expenditures,
it follows that families may attain a relatively high level of current
expenditure by incurring a current deficit. Thus deficit families
move to a higher level of living than current income alone would
allow, and families with the same income but with surpluses for the
year move down. As is to be expected under these conditions, less
regularity is shown in deficit and surplus financing in table 10 with
families classified by consumption level, than is shown in table 5 of
the Tabular Summary with families classified by income. In general
a net surplus is found at low consumption levels and net deficits at
high ones. This is not to be taken to mean that low income families
characteristically have surpluses. It serves to emphasize the fact,
however, that the consumption level at which a given family lives
in a specified year is determined not only by its current income, but
also by past savings and ability to borrow.




IN C O M E

LEIVEEi A N D

M ONEY

39

D lS B 'U 'E S E M E N 'T S

Fig . 4

C HA NG ES IN A S S E T S A N D L IA B IL IT IE S OVER
T H E SCHEDULE YEAR AMONG WAGE EARNERS
AN D L O W E R -S A L A R IE D C L E R IC A L W O R K E R S
A T S U C C E S S IV E IN C O M E L E V E L S
R IC H M O N D , 1 9 3 4 - 1 9 3 5
WHITE FAMILIES
D O LLAR S

D O LLA R S

280

NET SURPLUS

ALL
FAM ILIES
A N N U A L IN C O M E IN D O L L A R S
U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




40
T

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH

10. — Percentage o f fa m ilie s having su rp lu s and deficit, a nd net change in
assets and liabilities during the schedule yea r at successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r
during the period 1934-—3 6

able

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Percentage of fam­
ilies having—

City and economic level

Num­
ber of
families

Average amounts of—

Net change in assets and
liabilities for all families
Net
surplus

Net
deficit
Per
family

Baltimore, all families______
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400.................
$400 to $600. ............. .
$600 and over_______
Birmingham, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400................
$400 to $600.............. .
$600 and over----------Dallas, all families______ . . .
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400.............. .
$400 to $600.... ............
$600 and over_______
Houston, all families________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600_________
$600 and over_______
Jackson, all families________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400.. ...........
$400 to $600_________
$600 and o v e r ..____
Jacksonville, all families. . . .
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600_________
$600 and over............
Louisville, all families. . . . . .
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400...........
$400 to $600_________
$600 and over_______
Memphis, all families______
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400.............
$400 to $600.............
$600 and over_______
Mobile, all families.________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600.............
$600 and over_______
New Orleans, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600..........
$600 and over.............




Per ex­
pendi­
ture
unit

Per
gainful
worker

Surplus
per
family
having
surplus

Deficit
per
family
having
deficit

419

70.6

28.2

+$50

+$15

+$36

$141

$175

166
166
87

75.3
71.1
60.9
54.4

22.9
28.3
37.9
43.6

+59
+61
+13

+15

+39
+47
+9

115
136

-2

+21
+5
-1

2
12
145

119
126
308
186

63.6
45.0
50.0
53.7

35.2
51.7
48.1
38.1

+43

60
54
294

+10

94
105
95
258

57.4
62.9
40.0
57.7

27.7
33.3
53.7
41.9

66.2

202
88

68

-12

-6 4
+17

-1

-4
-2 7

+6

+29
-9
-5 0
+13

119
171
171
155

94
172
311
174

+7

+20
+46
-3 1

+8

107
178
183
182

125
151
214

+46
+46
-6 0

165
197
176
162

104
182
295
162

+18
+29
-5 6

103
178
228
149

253
164

+16
+38

93
150
218
130

84
145
264
150

+27
+62
-4 2

+21

+12

-1 8
+4

+76

+19

-9 0
+9

-3 6
+3

222

96
94
150

65.6
43.6
52.0

32.4
34.4
56.4
46.0

39
76
35
178

64.1
53.9
34.3
61.8

30.8
44.7
65.7
36.0

+33
+42
+33

+10

59
69
50
197

62.7
63.8
58.0
65.0

35.6
31.9
42.0
34.0

+28
+50
+ 16
+33

+7
+16

+6
+10

+11

92
69
36
194

68.5
71.0
44.4
57.7

30.4
29.0
52.8
36.6

+50
+ 55
-5 2
+41

+12
+21
-22
+13

+33
+50
-4 3
+35

200

264
203

73
63
58
146

60.3
61.9
50.0
57.5

27.4
34.9
50.0
41.8

+69
+80
-3 5
+27

+17
+26
-1 5
+7

+61
+67
-2 9
+ 19

145
227
247
151

174
317
143

74
41
31
318

56.8
68.3
45.2
56.6

41.9
31.7
54.8
31.4

+28
+106
-7 7
+15

+35
-3 1
+4

+6

+18
+83
-6 2

119
195
164

10
1

276
149

157
108
53

55.4
62.0
49.1

27.4
30.6
45.3

+30
+33
-6 2

+11

+22

98
119
130

89
134
277

+66

-88

+21

+8
+13
-3 3

+7

-2 6

+6

+22

+25

+11
+25
-5 0

115
126
196

108

1
20

94

11
2

68

95

86

IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

M ONEY

41

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

T able 10 . —

Percentage o f fa m ilie s having su rp lu s and deficit, and net change in
assets and liabilities during the schedule year at successive econ om ic levels, 1 yea r
during the period 1 9 8 4 -S 6 — Continued
Percentage of fam­
ilies having—

City and economic level

Num­
ber of
families

Average amounts of—
Net change in assets and
liabilities for all families

Net
surplus

Net
deficit
Per
family

Norfolk, all families________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600.... ............
$600 and over_______
Richmond, all families______
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400................
$400 to $600.............. .
$600 and over_______

Per ex­
pendi­
ture
unit

Per
gainful
worker

Surplus
per
family
having
surplus

Deficit
per
family
having
deficit

162

63.0

35.8

+$35

+$11

+$31

$173

$205

48
63
51
192

66.7
66.7
54.9
59.4

33.3
31.7
43.1
39.1

+57
+70
-2 7
+37

+13

+46
+64
-2 6
+23

143
181
196
183

116
159
312
183

69

58.0
63.6
56.1

43.5
33.3
40.4

+17
+73
+17

+4

+10

+7

+11

115
185
262

132
323

66

57

+21
-12
+10
+22

+46

10
1

In studying the deficit financing of the family groups (see left-hand
side of page 18 of facsimile of schedule, p. 684, and appendix A, p.
633), it is of considerable interest to note that except in Richmond,
the largest part of their aggregate deficits was met by increasing
liabilities, rather than decreasing assets. Typical of these 11 city
groups, the families studied in Memphis obtained $102 by borrowing
(i. e., increasing liabilities) but only $35 by decreasing assets accumu­
lated prior to the schedule year. (See table 11.) As the consumption
level of the families rose, in each of the 12 cities, an excess of current
expenditures over income was increasingly met by withdrawal from
past savings.
The most frequently specified sources of funds other than family
income were net increases in installment account obligations for goods
other than automobiles in Baltimore, Dallas, Jacksonville, M em ­
phis, and Mobile, and increases in “ other debts” (which include
grocers', doctors' and hospital bills) in the remaining cities. W ith­
drawals from savings constituted the next most frequently used source
of funds for families in Baltimore. Increases in “ other debts” were
the next most important sources in Jacksonville, Memphis, and
Mobile. Increases in amount due on installment plan for goods
other than automobiles accounted for the second most frequently
used source of funds in all other cities except Dallas.
Increase in installment purchases were responsible only for a fourth
to a half of the total increase in liabilities in the 12 cities. Even so,
however, they were considerably larger than the amounts spent in
paying off liabilities incurred in this way in times previous to the




42

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

schedule year. Evidently by 1935 sufficient optimism regarding
future prospects prevailed among the families studied to account for
their willingness and ability to undertake major purchases deferred
for some time.
T

able

11 . — Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule yea r at successive
econ om ic levels , 1 yea r during the p eriod 1 9 8 4 - 3 6

City and economic level

Num­
ber of
fami­
lies

Aver­
age in­
crease
in
assets1

Aver­
age de­
crease
in
liabili­
ties 1

Average
decreases in
amounts due
on goods pur­
chased on
installment
plan 1
Auto­
mo­
biles

Baltimore, all families ----Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600________
$600 and over............
Birmingham, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600............
$600 and over______
Dallas, all families-------------Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600. .............
$600 and over______
Houston, all families___ . .
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400________
$400 to $600________
•$600 and over______
Jackson, all families________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400....... .........
$400 to $600...............
$600 and over..........
Jacksonville, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400------------$400 to $600................
$600 and over______
Louisville, all families ..........
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400...............
$400 to $600................
$600 and over............
Memphis, all families______
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600..............
$600 and over______
Mobile, all families. ________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600...............
$600 and over..........

419

$120

$43

166
166
87

98
115
170
118

34
39

202
88

60
54
294

94
105
95
258

68

96
94
150

86

96
195
93

46

11
0
130
131
96

100
189
90

$
1
(2
)

20
5
6

2
1
2
1

3
13

1

8
1
2

23

5
24

94
105
119
77

1
1
22

26
26

42
70
30
108

33
17

8
8
10
1

146

49
85
92
60

3
28
9
13

59
69
50
197

144
132
369
107

35
70
75
50

0
20

92
69
36
194

97

142
127

37
47
90
51

73
63
58
146

79
146
166
97

41
63
52

74
41
31

72
137
104

51
171

11
0

6
1
0

50
77
56
48

39
76
35
178

77

$10

60

3

8
8

66

18
3

2
1
6

5

4

Aver­
age in­
crease
in
liabili­
ties 1

Auto­
mo­
biles

Other
goods

1
0
8

6
8

Aver­
age de­
crease
in
assets1

Average
increases in
amounts due
on goods pur­
chased on
installment
plan1

Other
goods

$49

$64

$
6

$33

23
36

50
57
103
123

5
16
16

2

26
34
46
27

2
1
1

14
34
39
26

16
18

12
2

15

27
36
130
36

150
186

88

43
28

17
23
70

45
87
132
139

4
25
55
37

19
24
36
40

30
42
177
61

1
2

21
2

24
69
26

25
34
55
23

5
15
76
25

44
23

116
138
74

16
15
48
7

29
28

63
62
129

2
0

9

2
0
13

13

1
0
19
1
2
7
14
16

57

8
8

41
57
90

6
8

1
0

85
37
91
49

1
1
8
1
1
6

32
156
35

4

2
1

16
30

66

84
97

97
52
73

200
105

6
6

12
0
35

6
1
0
6

8
5
1
2

66
52

188
105

7
5
4

6
17
2
2

2
2
11
0

12
0

61

10
0

73

186

4
4

23

2

9

2
1

2
1
2
1

26
27
33
32

31
40

1
0

13
30
57
30

8
13
1
2

23
14
69

1 Averages computed by dividing the total number of families at each expenditure level into the aggregate
increases or decreases of the families reporting such increases or decreases.
2Less than $0.50.




I N -G O M E

LEVEL,

AND

MONEY

43

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

T ables 11. —

Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule yea r at successive
econom ic levels , 1 yea r during the p eriod 1 9 8 4 - 3 6 — Continued
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers— White other than Mexican]

City and economic level

Num­
ber of
fami­
lies

Aver­
age in­
crease
in
assets

Aver­
age de­
crease
in
liabili­
ties

Average
decreases in
amounts due
on goods pur­
chased on
installment
plan
Auto­
mo­
biles

New Orleans, all families-. Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400................
$400 to $600................
$600 and over............
Norfolk, all families________
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400________
$400 to $600________
$600 and over______
Richmond, all families_____
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under $400_________
$400 to $600________
$600 and over______

Aver­ Aver­
age de­ age in­
crease crease
in
in
assets liabili­
ties

Auto­
mo­
biles

Other
goods

318

$74

$1
2

$2

$4

$29

$51

157
108
53
162

56
94
87
142

2
2

17
27

2
2
0

3
4
4

28
63
91
123

48
63
51
192

157
174
130

63
129
171
106

69

66
57

88

100
10
1
188

55
46
79
34
67
38
92
74

3

6

15
25
80
38

1
0
0
0

5
9
4
18

14
36
64
53

1
8

17

7

13

2
1
15

Average
increases in
amounts due
on goods pur­
chased on
installment
plan

27

2
8
112

90

1
00
133

$
6
(2
)

6

26
18

1

14
38
15

7
15
26

Other
goods

$12
6
15
2
1
41

27
43
51

22
15
31

22

2Less than $0.50.

On the other side of the balance sheet, the most frequent form of
savings among the families in the South (see Tabular Summary table 4)
was the payment of life insurance premiums,2 reported by 87 per­
0
cent or more of the white families in each of the 12 cities except
in Dallas, Memphis and New Orleans, where the percentages were
74, 81, and 69 respectively. The average amount of such pre­
miums per family making payments ranged from $64 in Houston
to $104 in Memphis. The average amount of premiums paid in­
creased with rise in economic level except in Louisville and Mobile,
where there was a slight tendency to decrease. Payments on prin­
cipal of mortgages and down payments on owned homes constituted
the type of savings next in order of frequency in Baltimore, Dallas,
Memphis, and New Orleans; increase in savings account was second
in Norfolk, decreases in debts due individuals and due doctors,
grocers, etc., were the second most frequently reported form of
savings in M obile and Louisville, and in the other 5 cities decreases
in installment payments due on goods other than automobiles was
second.
2 In a study among Federal employees carried on by the Bureau of Labor Statistics just prior to the
o
initiation of this investigation the schedule provided for securing information on the type of insurance
covered by the premiums reported. It was found that very frequently informants were unable to provide
the information and the question was not included in the present schedule. It is, therefore, impossible
to estimate how much of the amount paid in life insurance premiums represents savings and how much
was paid for insurance protection during the schedule year.




44

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO UTH

A comparison in each of the 12 cities of the number of families
reporting the purchase of an automobile and the number of families
reporting an increase in installment obligations for the purchase of
automobiles, both during the schedule year, shows that in Houston
and Norfolk four-fifths of the families purchasing automobiles financed
them by installment contracts of which a balance remained unpaid
at the end of the year covered by the schedule. About two-thirds of
the families purchasing automobiles in Dallas and Jacksonville, about
a third in New Orleans and one-half or slightly less than a half of the
families in the other 7 cities did so. Since about two-thirds of the
cars were bought second-hand and cost less than $200, it is probable
that a considerable number of families buying cars paid for their
automobiles within the period of the schedule year. In some cases
the families resorted to small loan companies for the purpose of
financing automobile purchase, but the figures as reported in this
study do not make possible any conclusion as to the proportion
doing so.




Chapter 2
Expenditures for Specified Goods
Food

Annual food expenditures.
The total amount of unit food expenditure increased markedly with
rise in consumption level.1 In 7 of the 12 cities, families spending $600
to $700 per expenditure unit for all items paid out over 90 percent
more for food for each adult male equivalent in the household than
families with a total unit expenditure of $200 to $300. In the other
5 cities, the increase ranged from 59 to 79 percent. (See table 12 and
Tabular Summary, table 8.)
In contrast to the increase in unit food expenditures in each of
the cities in the South, the average proportion of total current ex­
penditures spent for food per family declined. This was partly
because of the decrease in size of the family associated with rise in
economic level, and partly because of the fact that the additional
funds available at the higher levels were used for needs which the
urgency of food purchases at the lower planes had made it impossible
to satisfy.
Average dollar expenditures per family for food prepared at home
(including money spent for lunches carried to work and to school)
increased from low to high expenditure levels in eight cities. Ex­
penditures for food prepared at home in Louisville, Memphis, and
Richmond were lower at the higher level, and those in M obile were
approximately the same at both levels.
Conversely, actual dollar expenditure for food purchased and eaten
away from home increased with rise in the economic level, the per­
centage varying from 61 in Birmingham to 235 in Richmond. Out
of each dollar spent for food at the low economic level in Baltimore,
Norfolk-Portsmouth, Richmond, M obile, and Memphis between
3 and 6 cents was used to purchase food away from home. Between
7 and 10 cents was so spent in all the other cities except Birmingham,
where the figure was 11 cents. A t the high economic level, 8 cents
of each food dollar spent in Norfolk-Portsmouth was allotted to this
i Classification by consumption level or economic level is the term used to denote classification of families
by annual expenditure per unit for the total of all items of family expenditure. The unit used for this pur­
pose is the equivalent adult male. Each member of the family, taking into account age, sex, and activity, is
counted as the appropriate decimal equivalent of an adult male. In the Tabular Summary tables, details
of annual food expenditures are shown by as many economic levels as the number of cases in each city and
the type of data for this table would allow. However, for purposes of discussion in the text, three comparable
levels for all cities are used. They are: low economic level, under $400; intermediate, $400 to $600; high,
$600 and over.




45

46

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F T H E

SO U TH

item. The proportion rose through the other cities to reach a maxi­
mum of 19 cents in New Orleans. Meals at work accounted for at
least 50 percent of the total amount spent for food away from home
at both low and high levels in every city except Norfolk and Rich­
mond. A t the low economic level, this proportion was smaller in
these two cities, 31 percent and 38 percent, respectively; at the high
economic level it rose to 56 percent and 71 percent.
Expenditures for board at school (which were classified with ex­
penditures for meals away from home) were extremely rare throughout
all the groups studied. Such expenditure was reported by only 17
out of the 2,710 white other than Mexican families covered in this
region.
T

able

12 . — Unit food expenditure at two different economic levels, 1 year during
the period 1934.-36
[Families of wa?e earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Economic level—Families with annual
unit of expenditure of—
City

Number
of
families
Baltimore_______ _____ ______ ________
Birmingham_____________________________
Dallas_____ _____ ________________________
Houston_____________________________ —
Jackson i----------- --------------------------------------Jacksonville!_______ ____ ____ ______ ____
Louisville._______ __________________ ____
Memphis________________ _____________ .
Mobile __ .................................. ............ . . .
New Orleans____ ____ _
_______________
Norfolk i____ ______ _____________________
Richmond_____________ _________________

$600 to $700

$200 to $300

60
29
29
18
14

2
2

40
25
30

66

26
24

Unit food
expendi­
ture
$114
91
99
108
72
94
115
89
97
109

12
0
103

Number
of
families
40

2
1

39
36
16
17
17
25

1
2
19
16
18

Unit food
expendi­
ture
$223
177
195
186
154
183
192
159
162
208

21
2
164

Percentage
increase in
unit food
expendi­
ture

95.6
94.5
97.0

72.2

113.9
94.7
67.0
78.7
67.0
90.8
116.7
59.2

i $100 to $300 instead of $200 to $300.

Food expenditures in 1 wee\ in spring, summer, fall, and winter
quarters.
Data on the purchase of 194 separate foods are available for 1
typical week in 1 quarter for each city.2 They show a marked increase

3

In order to avoid overburdening the housewives cooperating in the investigation, the schedule was not
planned with a view to obtaining estimates of the annual consumption of individual foods. The section on
the details of food purchases provided only for a summary of annual food expenditures and the details of
food purchased and consumed only during the week prior to the visit of the field agent. Since the figures
on average amounts purchased and consumed were in the great majority of cases identical, data on food
purchases only are presented here. Data on number of families using are presented to give a more complete
picture of consumption (see Tabular Summary, table 7).
In most cities, the field work extended over more than one season. The differences between the averages
secured in the several quarters in such instances reflect not only seasonal differences in food purchased,
but also accidental differences in the economic level and the national backgrounds of the families in the
subsamples interviewed in the different quarters. It was, therefore, decided to publish in full for each city
only the estimates for that season in which data were secured from the largest number of families. Data
are for the spring quarter in Baltimore, Dallas, Houston, Louisville, Mobile, and Norfolk-Portsmouth; in
the summer quarter in Jackson; in the fall quarter in Jacksonville; and in the winter quarter in Birmingham,
*
Memphis, New Orleans, and Richmond.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

E U R S P E C IF IE D

GOODS

47

in the expenditures for food per person with rise in economic level.
They also show that the types and quantities of foods purchased are
distinctly different at the various levels.
For these cities, the per capita 3 expenditures and quantities pur­
chased of meats, poultry, and sea food showed marked increases
from the low to the high economic levels. Green vegetables and
fruits, important sources of minerals and vitamins, likewise increased
in respect to average expenditures and to quantity purchased, except
in M obile where per capita expenditures at the intermediate level
were larger than at the high.
For starchy foods such as flour, macaroni, rice, cereals, etc., on
the other hand, the tendency was not so consistent. In Baltimore,
Dallas, Jacksonville, Louisville, Memphis, New Orleans, and NorfolkPortsmouth, quantities and per capita expenditures showed an in­
crease at the high level; in the data for Jackson, which apply to the
summer, the movement was strikingly downward. In Birmingham
and Richmond, expenditures were higher at this level, but the types
of cereal food purchased differed considerably, and the quantities
purchased were less than at the low level. This suggests that as
economic resources permitted, the families varied their diets and
obtained more of their calories from dairy products and other pro­
tective foods.
Expenditures for total grain products, however, increased at
higher levels. They varied at the low level from 29.6 cents in Jackson
to 39.7 cents in New Orleans, and at the high level from 37.1 cents in
Houston to 57.0 cents in Norfolk-Portsmouth (see table 13). This
increase can probably be ascribed more to a change in the form and
quality of such products purchased than to an increase in their
quantity.
Expenditures for milk constituted the largest average expenditure
for any single item of food in all the cities except Mobile, where
white bread equaled it, and New Orleans, where the latter out­
ranked it. The difference between the average expenditure for milk
at the low and high economic levels varied from 48 percent in Dallas
to 136 percent in Birmingham and Norfolk.

8

Since human needs for and customary consumption of foods of different types vary considerably for
persons of different age and sex, it is impossible to compute any single measure of family size which will
be appropriate for comparing the consumption of food from one family to another. The need of children
for milk is approximately twice as great as that of adults, while the need of adults for the heat-producing
foods (starches and sugars) is about twice as great as that of children. Children’s consumption of meat
varies from that of adults at a still different rate. In order to secure figures on quantities of individual
foods purchased and on expenditures for individual foods which would provide a reasonably satisfactory
basis for comparison and yet not present a misleading appearance of refinement, data on family purchases
of individual foods have been converted to a per capita basis.




48

TW ELVE

T able

C IT IE S O'E T H E

SO UTH

13.— Expenditures for food per capita per week during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6 1
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Average per capita expenditure in 1 week in the following quarters:

117

129

128

108

Richmond

Mobile

114

New Orleans

Louisville

204

Memphis

Houston

314

Birmingham

Dallas

Number of families furnishing data
on food purchased in specified
quarter___________________________

Winter

Jacksonville

Baltimore

Norfolk-Portsmouth

Item

Jackson

Sum­
mer Fall

Spring

155

22
0

114

300

156

Total expenditure for—
All foods_____________ _________ - $2.60 $2. 38 $2. 31 $2.41 $1.92 $2.67 $1.92 $2.32 $ . 26 $2.31 $2.30 $2.41

2

Grain products...... .......... .......
Eggs------------------------------------Milk, cheese, ice cream_____
Butter and cream_________ .
Other fats__________________
Meat, poultry, fish, and
other sea food_____________
Vegetables and fruits..............
Sugars and sweets__________
Miscellaneous foods................
Sales tax________ ___________
Total expenditure for—
All foods........................................Grain products_____________
Eggs------------------------------------Milk, cheese, ice cream_____
Butter and cream____ ______
Other fats__________________
Meat, poultry, fish, and
other sea food ____________
Vegetables and fruits_____ _
Sugars and sweets__________
Miscellaneous foods_________
Sales tax___________ ________

.41
. 14
.29
.14

.37

.12

.36
.09
.30

.69
.54
.08
.19

.45
.56

.44
.52

.37
.09

.50
.51
.09
.18

1

.40
.13
.30
.09

.42
.33
.08
.17

.40
.14
.27

.32

.63
.52
.13

.20
.04 .11
.11
.12 .22 .19 .21 .22 .25
.31
.09

.10

.38
. 15
.30
.09

.39
.16
.27

.43

.37

.21

.33
.17
.29
.08
.23

.28
.42

.49
.44

.42
.46

.40
.46

.54
.45

.60
.47

.23
.07
.25

.10 .17
.24 .22
.12 .10 .11
.20 .14 .17

.11 .11
.10 .10 .10 .10 .09 .10
.15 .19
.22 .15 .16 .18 .21 .21 .20
0 0 0 0 0 0 .04 0 0 0 0 0

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

Pet.

10 .010 .010 .010 .010 .010 .0 10 .010 .010 .010 .010 .010 .0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15.8 15.5 15.6 16.6 19.3 15.0
5.4 5.1 3.9 5.4 4.7 5.2
1 1 .1 13.0 13.0 12.5 10.4
4.1
5.4 3.8 4.8 3.7
8.7 11.4 9.4
4.6 9.3

16.7 16.4 1.4.6 16.9 18.7 15.4
5.2 6.5 7.5 7.0 4.3 7.1
12.9
11.7 10.4 9 .1
3.6 3.9 3.5 5.2 4.4 4.6
13.0 9.0
8 .6
6 .1
7.1

26.5 18.9 19.0 20.7 21.9 23.6
22.5
17.2 19.5
3. 1 4.6 4 .8 3.7 4.2 4.9
7.3 6.3
7.5 8 .8

1 1 .6
18.6 17.3 23.5 24.9
21.9 19.0 20.4 19.9 19.6 19.5
5.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 3.9 4.1
7.8 6.9
9.1 9.1

2.1

8.2

21.2

2 .8 23.5
0
0

0

8.2
0

0

0

12.8
10.2

10.1 12.0

8.2
0

21.1

2.0

0

8
.0
0

0

0

8.2
0

* See appendix A, p. 639, for statement of reason for use of per capita figures.

White bread accounted for the second largest per capita expenditure
in Baltimore, Dallas, Houston, Jackson, Louisville, and Norfolk.
The relation between average per capita expense for bread and the
general expenditure plane is irregular. This average was largest
at the high economic level in seven cities, at the intermediate three,
and at the low in Houston and New Orleans. The average quantity
purchased was largest at the high level in all the cities except Jackson­
ville, Louisville, Mobile, and New Orleans, where it was largest at
the intermediate, and Houston and Baltimore, where it was largest at
the low. Eggs, second in Birmingham, Jacksonville, Memphis, and
Richmond, and third in the other cities, showed in general a striking
increase at the higher level. Average quantities purchased were also
much larger at this level. Butter, fourth in importance of expenditure
was consistently higher in both amount purchased and expenditure at
the high level. The rapid expansion in consumption of such pro tec-




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FO'R S P E C I F I E D

49

GOODS

tive foods by w o r k e d families at higher planes of living suggests that
means rather than tastes limit their use at the lower levels.
No consistent seasonal variation appears between the data secured
in cities studied in different seasons. However, in general, the per
capita expenditures for green and leafy vegetables were higher for
the cities in which the figures on food purchased apply to the spring.
Even a preliminary review of the figures shows that the diets of
the families at the highest economic level had, on the average, a
considerably higher nutritive content than those at the lowest economic
level shown. The quantities purchased per capita of foods rich in
minerals and vitamins essential to growth and the maintenance of
health were appreciably greater among the families at the higher
levels of spending, and show that as family resources increased, these
workers were buying diets more nearly meeting their own nutritional
needs and those of their families.
It is of considerable interest to estimate the adequacy of food
expenditures at the different consumption levels. Such an estimate 4
furnishes a rough approximation to the probability of adequacy of
the diets purchased to meet the nutritional needs of the families
studied. (See table 14.) The prices used in this calculation were the
prices collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its food cost
indexes. It is, of course, possible to shop with care and buy at lower
prices than these; a judicious selection of in-season fruits and vegeta­
bles and fish will lower the cost. On the other hand, to secure an
adequate diet at the calculated cost requires extremely careful planning
and food-consumption habits which follow nutritional needs very
closely, and the probabilities are that not all families spending such
amounts did in fact achieve adequate diets. The figures furnish,
therefore, the basis for an estimate of the proportion of families spend­
ing enough for nutritionally adequate food, though they do not show
the proportion of families actually getting it.5 The proportions for all
families and for families at different consumption levels show that the
percentage spending enough to purchase an adequate diet rose very
rapidly with rise in consumption level.

4

For this purpose the size of each family was measured in adequate-food-cost units based on the U. S.
Bureau of Home Economics’ adequate diet at minimum cost (Stiebeling, H. K., and Ward, M . M ., Diets
at four levels of nutritive content and cost; U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 296, Washing­
ton, 1933) and average food expenditures per adequate-food-cost unit were also calculated for each family.
These expenditures were compared with the calculated cost of the same diet for a man at moderate work,
which was taken as a unit in the adequate food cost scale.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics turned over to the Bureau of Home Economics of the United States
Department of Agriculture, for nutritional analysis, detailed records of actual food consumption for week
of a sample of the families studied. See Hazel K. Stiebeling, “ Nutritive Value of Diets of Families of Wage
Earners and Clerical Workers in North Atlantic Cities, 1934-35,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1936. Also
see Hazel K. Stiebeling and Esther F. Phipard, “ Diets of Families of Employed Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers in Cities,” U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 507, January 1939.

5




1

50
T

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

14.— Proportion of fam ilies spending enough to purchase an adequate diet at
m inim um c o s t1 at successive economic levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6

able

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

All
families

City and item

Economic level— Families with
annual unit expenditure of—
Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

B ALTIM O RE

Families in survey________________________ ______ ___________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost___________________ _

419

6 .0
8

BIRM IN G H AM

Families in survey.---------------------------- ---------------------------------Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost____________________

202

56.9

166
33.7

8
8
2 1 .6

166
8 6 .1

87
98.9

60

54

73.3

96.3

DALLAS

Families in survey____________________________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost __________ _______

294
63.3

94
2 0 .2

105

95

75.2

92.6

HOUSTON

Families in survey:_________________________ _____ ______ ____
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost _ __________________

258

68

96

94

67.4

25.0

69.8

95.7

JACKSONVILLE

Families in survey____________________________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost . . . -----------------

178

59

69

50

65.7

18.6

82.6

98.0

LOU ISVILLE

Families in survey____________________________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost _____________ _____

197

92

69

36

59.4

28.3

80.9

97.3

M EM PH IS

Families in survey____________ ______________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost _____________ _____

194

73

63

58

62.4

23.3

77.8

94.8

M OBILE

Families in survey__________________________
____
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost ___________________

146

74

41

31

50.7

1 2 .2

87.8

93.5

N E W ORLEAN S

Families in survey________________________ ___________ ______
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum c o s t___ __________ . . _

318

157

108

53

67.6

41.1

90.7

1 0 0 .0

N O RFO LK

Families in survey___ __________________ ______ . . . _________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost ____ _____ _______

162

48

63

51

63.6

18.8

69.8

98.0

RICHMOND

Families in survey------------------------------------------------------------------Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to pur­
chase an adequate diet at minimum cost -----------------------------

192

69

66

57

55.4

21.7

58.2

93.0

i Based on the adequate diet at minimum cost of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home
Economics. The cost of this diet per adequate food cost unit during the period of the investigation was
$128.65 in Baltimore, $118.01 in Birmingham, $128.37 in Dallas, $
in Houston, $127.66 in Jacksonville,
$127.71 in Louisville, $112.53 in Memphis, $113.31 in Mobile, $107.03 in New Orleans, $128.02 in Norfolk, and
$118.51 in Richmond. Data are not presented for Jackson because retail prices are not available for that
city.

120
.22

Housing

Home ownership.
The proportion of white families owning their homes ranged from
16.7 in New Orleans to 43.0 in Baltimore. The absolute difference
between the percentage of home owners at low and high economic
levels was not large. The proportion increased with rise in economic




E X P E N D IT U R E S

PO E SP E C IF IE D

GOODS

51

le v e l6 in eight cities, while in Dallas, Houston, Memphis, and New
Orleans it declined. The somewhat higher percentage of home
owners at the lower economic levels in four cities is in part connected
with the larger families at the lower level and the consequent im­
portance of housing in their economic planning. Since it is frequently
difficult to locate large houses and apartments for rent, the large
family has more incentive to buy than the small one.

Types of dwellings.
In the South, the proportion of families of wage earners and clerical
workers living in one-family detached houses is very much larger than
in other regions, for there are comparatively few apartments of any
kind in these cities. Except in Baltimore, where the proportion is
9 percent, and in New Orleans, where it is 27.4 percent, more than
half the families studied in the South lived in such dwellings, with a
maximum of 87 percent in Mobile. In general, for this region the
proportion of families in one-family detached dwellings increased as
the size of city decreased. Baltimore, the largest city, showed the
smallest percentage, while M obile, next to the smallest city, showed
the largest. The predominance of semidetached and row houses in
the architecture of Baltimore and New Orleans is shown by the large
proportion of families living in that type of dwelling, 68.0 and 47.0
percent, respectively. Two-family houses were the next most fre­
quently reported type of residence, chosen by about a fifth of the
families in most cities. Buildings housing three or more families were
in the minority everywhere. Eighteen percent of the families in
Norfolk reported homes of this type, while in the other cities the
proportion ranged from 4 percent in Baltimore to 13 in Richmond.

Size o f homes.
In all cities studied in this region, home owners and renters of
houses had larger homes than did those renting apartments, and
renters of unheated apartments had more space than those whose
fuel was included in their rent. The home owners averaged about
five and one-half rooms per family and renters of houses about five
rooms. Families living in apartments where heat was not included
in the monthly rental averaged about four rooms, while those with
heat furnished by the landlord and included in the rent averaged
close to three and one-half rooms. In general, the largest homes
were reported in Norfolk, the city with the highest average income,
and the smallest in New Orleans.
Although white families who were home owners or house renters
were, on the average, larger than those living in multiple-family
« Throughout, economic or consumption level is defined by the amount spent per expenditure unit per
year. In Tabular Summary tables 9 and 10 details for housing are shown by as many economic levels as the
number of cases in each city and the type of data for this table would allow. However, for purposes of discus­
sion in the text three comparable levels for all cities are used. They are: Low economic level, under $400;
intermediate, $400 to $600; high, $600 and over.




52

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F T H E

SO U TH

dwellings, their homes were enough larger to make up for their greater
numbers of children. In table 15 it is seen that in general, the num­
ber of persons per room 7 is greatest among renters of unheated apart­
ments, that is, apartments in which heat was furnished by the tenants
— usually by means of stoves. When we compare families living at the
higher economic levels with those at the lower, there is observed a
pronounced downward movement in the number of persons per room.
Fig. 5

PROPORTION OF FAMILIES OF WAGE EARNERS AND
LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS HAVING
SELECTED HOUSING FACILITIES AT
SUCCESSIVE ECONOMIC LEVELS
NORFOLK, 1 9 3 5 -1 9 3 6
WHITE

FAMILIES
80

RUNNING WATER, HOT
AND COLDjINSlOE FLUSH
TOILET, ELECTRIC LIGHTS
AND GAS OR ELECTRIC­
ITY FOR COOKING (ALL
FIVE ITEM S)

C E N T R A L HEATING

ECONOMIC

LEVEL

( ANNUAL AMOUNT SPENT
PER EXPENDITURE UNIT)
UNDER

BBSH $400 A

$40 0

$600
OVER

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is due in large part to the smaller size of families at the higher
living planes. In all the cities, except Dallas, studied in this region,
families in one or more tenure groups at the low economic level aver­
aged more than one person per room, which is below the rough stand­
ard usually accepted in the United States as indicating the minimum
of necessary space. In table 10 of the Tabular Summary, the data
from which these figures are computed are available in a more detailed
break-down by economic level.
7 For the purpose of calculating number of persons per room, hallways, open porches, kitchenettes,
dinettes, and baths were not counted as rooms.




53

EXPENDITURES FOR S'PEiOIF'IED GOODS

Garages.
The increasing importance of the automobile in enabling the Ameri­
can worker to locate land and a house he can afford to buy is indicated
by the fact that more than half of the home owners in all the groups
studied except in Baltimore, where less than a fifth possessed this
facility, had garages. Among renters, the proportion of families hav­
ing a garage was considerably less except in Dallas and Houston,
where the two groups were nearly equal. Much the best off of all
these cities was Houston, where the proportions were 94 and 96 percent
respectively.

Facilities.
Among the families renting their homes, from three-fourths in
Mobile to a fifth or less in Baltimore, Dallas, and Jackson lived in
dwellings without one or more of the following facilities: Inside flush
toilets, running hot water, electric lights, and gas or electricity for
cooking. In all 12 cities, the percentage of home owners lacking
these facilities is considerably less than that of renters. (See table 16.)
It will be observed from the table and from figure 5 that while a larger
proportion of the home owners had comfortable plumbing arrange­
ments, electric refrigerators, and telephones, renters relatively more
frequently enjoyed central heating and gas or electricity for cooking.
A considerable proportion of renting families, and even some among
home owners, shared the use of the toilet with other families.
T able 1 5 .— Average number of persons per room at successive economic levels, 1
year during the period 1 9 3 4 -8 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Item

All
families

Economic l e v e l — f a m i l i e s
with annual unit expendi­
ture of—
Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

BALTIMORE
Number of families in survey_______________________ _______ _____
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners_______________________________________________
Renters of houses_____________________________________________
Renters of heated apartments_______________________________
Renters of unheated apartments_____________________________

419

166

166

87

0. 63
0. 77
0.83
0.98

0.81
0.89
1.02
1.06

0.59
0.65
0.81
0.90

0. 44
0.58
0. 72
1.00

BIRMINGHAM
Number of families in survey_______
__________________________
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners_________ ______________________________ ______
Renters of houses________ - _____________________ ___________
Renters of heated apartments_______________________ _____ __
Renters of unheated apartments____________________________

202

88

60

54

0. 69
0. 76
0. 75
0.83

0. 86
0.91
2. 76
0.99

0. 66
0.69
0. 87
0. 58

0. 52
0. 44
0.66

DALLAS
Number of families in survey__________ ________________________
Average number of persons per room among:
H o m e o w n e r s .-_ _____________________ ________________ _
_
Renters of houses________ ___________________ _____________ .
Renters of heated apartments________________ ______ _______
Renters of unheated apartments________________ _________ _

74390°— 41------ 5




294

94

105

95

0. 69
0. 73
0.82
0.68

0.94
0.94
0.97
0.99

0. 63
0. 65
1.08
0. 65

0. 52
0.56
0. 63
0. 52

54
T able

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO UTH

1 5 .— Average number of persons per room , at successive economic levels, 1
year during the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6 — Continued

All
families

Item

Economic le v e l— fam ilie s
with annual unit expendi­
ture of—
Under
$400

HOUSTON
Number of families in survey____________________ ____________
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners_____ ____________ _____ ___________ _____
Renters of houses..........................................................................
Renters of heated apartments __________________ ____ ___
Renters of unheated apartments..___________ _____________
JACKSON
Number of families in survey_________________ __________ ____
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners............................. .............................................
Renters of houses_____________ ________ ____________ _____
Renters of heated apartments ____________________________
Renters of unheated apartments.............. ......................... .......
JACKSONVILLE
Number of families in survey___________________________ _____
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners_______________ ________ ____________ _______
Renters of houses....................... ...................................................
Renters of heated apartments ____________________________
Renters of unheated apartments.____________ _____________

1

1

258

6
8

0.71
0.81

0.90
0.99

0.73

1.09

06
.8

$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

96

94

0.70
0.79
1.05
0. 74

0.53
0.64
0. 73
0. 64

150

39

76

35

0. 87
0.93

1.13
1. 05

0. 77
0.91

0.78
0.73

1.04

1. 46

0. 97

0.95

178

59

69

50

0.69
0. 72

1.15
0.96

0.59
0. 67

0.54
0. 53

0.87

1.07

0. 87

061
.

LOU ISVILLE

Number of families in survey. _____ _________________ _________
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners_________________________ ___________________
Renters of houses____________ __________ _________________
Renters of heated apartments ........... ................................ .
Renters of unheated apartments........................................ .......

1

197

92

0.78
0.95

0.97
1.17

0.71

0. 51
0.61

6.96

1. 31

0.78

0. 67

69

06
.6

36

M EM PH IS

Number of families in survey____________ _________________ _
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners................................................................................
Renters of houses................... ... ...................................................
Renters of heated apartments_______ ______ ______________
Renters of unheated apartments........................................ ......

194
0.73
0.78
0.79
0. 84

73

1.00

1.05
1. 38
.

1 21

63

58

0. 65
.
0.94
0.64

0.47
0.56
0.53
0.72

06
6

M O B ILE

Number of families in survey....................... ....................................
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners................................................. ................................
Renters of houses_________________ ____ ________________
Renters of heated apartments ........... ..................... .................
Renters of unheated apartments ________ ______ ______

1

146

74

41

31

0.80
0.94

1.06

0.58
0. 69

0.59
0.57

1.21

1

N E W O RLEAN S

Number of families in survey_________________________________
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners........................................ ........................................
Renters of houses................... ..................................................... .
Renters of heated apartments
.............................................
Renters of unheated apartments............................................

318

157

108

53

0.89
0.93

1.05
1.14

0.84
0.77

0.55
0.64

0.95

1.14

0.79

0.61

N O R FO LK

Number of mailies in survey_________________ ____________ ___
Average number of persons per room among:
Home owners______________________ _____ ________________
Renters of houses........................................................... .............
Renters of heated apartments_________ ____ ______ _______
Renters of unheated apartments...............................................

162

48

63

51

0. 59
0. 77
0.77
0.76

0.81
0.85
1. 50
0.97

0.60
0. 75
.
0. 76

0.41
0.57

08
8

08
.6
0.55

RICHMOND

Number of families in survey............. ............... .........................
Average number of persons per room among:
Homeowners.. ___________ ____ _____ __________
Renters of houses______________________________
Renters of heated apartments................... ..........................
Renters of unheated apartments.............................
1 Figures not presented because of small number of families.




192

06
.6
06
.8

0.67
0.91

69

66

57

0.74
1.05
1. 65
1.07

0.73
0. 77
1.29
0.80

0.54
0. 57
0. 55

08
.6

55

EXPENDlTTJRElS FOR SPECIFIED GOODS
T able

16. — Housing facilities at the end of the schedule year, 1 year during
the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6

Number of families who owned principal home at end of schedule year. _.
Percentage of owners having—
Central heat-----------------------Gas or electricity for cooking...
Electric refrigerator.................
Running hot water.................
Inside flush toilet....................
Sole use of toilet......................
Telephone...............................
Garage................—.................
Garden space...........................
Play space_________________
Each of the following items:
Inside flush toilet, running
hot water, electric lights,
and gas or electricity for
cooking---------------------Number of families who rented prin­
cipal home at end of schedule year.. _
Percentage of renters having—
Central heat________________
Gas or electricity for cooking...
Electric refrigerator............. .
Running hot water..................
Inside flush toilet......... ...........
Sole use of toilet____________
Telephone................. —...........
Garage----------------------- -------Garden space....... ...................
Play space............................
Each of the following items*
Inside flush toilet, running
hot water, electric lights,
and gas or electricity for
cooking.........................

180
88.3
98.9
46.1
89.4
93.3
95.0
27.2
18.9
62.8
67.2

96

94

43

43

68

65

64

53

25.8
0
80.3 96.9
27.3 35.4
69.7 75.0
89.4 92.7
97.0 100.0
59.1 58.3
69.7 85.4
62.1 60.4
84.8 85.4

0
97.9
36. 2
64.9
92.6
97.9
57.4
95.7
91.5
97.9

0
95.3
14.0
83.7
97.7
97.7
65.1
83.7
79.1
95.3

2.3
60.5
46.5
67.4
83.7
97.7
46.5
88.4
67.4
97.7

41.2
95.6
38.2
77.9
85.3
98.5
41.2
67.6
82.4
98.5

40.0
86.2
30.8
67.7
93.8
96.9
66.2
90.8
56.9
83.1

4.7
64.1
32.8
48.4
82.8
96.9
42.2
70.3
40.6
89.1

1.9
86.8
9.4
54.7
94.3
94.3
18.9
50.9
49.1
67.9

66

54

Richmond

Norfolk

New Orleans

Mobile

Memphis

Louisville

Jacksonville

Jackson

Houston

Dallas

Birmingham

Item

Baltimore

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

46

61.1 60.9
87.0 84.8
55.6 58.7
72.2 78.3
94.4 95.7
94.4 100.0
53.7 65.2
75.9 65.2
46.3 45.7
72. 2 65.2

86.1 60.6 74.0 64.9 81.4 51.2 77.9 63.1 34.4 50.9 72.2 60.9
239

136

198

164

107

135

129

129

82

265

108

146

75.3
97.1
25.1
83.3
91.2
82.0
10.5
12.6
40.6
48.1

39.7
79.4
27.2
69.9
94.1
91.9
37.5
63.2
33.8
80.9

1.0
98.0
32.8
79.3
98.5
97.0
41.4
79.3
31.8
67.7

2.4
98.2
32.3
77.4
98.8
93.9
37.2
93.9
71.3
85.4

1.9
97.2
9.3
83.2
98.1
70.1
57.9
64.5
54.2
84.1

1.5
40.0
11.1
57.8
98.5
87.4
23.7
72.6
38.5
81.5

24.8
96.1
28.7
62.8
78.3
82.9
14.0
45.7
58.9
78.3

39.5
81.4
20.2
71.3
96.1
81.4
38.8
74.4
32.6
58.9

2.4
51.2
26.8
30.5
85.4
91.5
18.3
57.3
22.0
90.2

1.5
86.8
9.4
50.6
92.5
93.6
17.0
31.3
30.9
53.2

47.2
79.6
46.3
50.9
93.5
84.3
34.3
45.4
23.1
48.1

37.7
75.3
34.9
66.4
93.8
85.6
32.2
32.2
26.0
58.2

79.1 64.0 77.8 76.2 81.3 31.9 61.2 65.9 29.3 47.2 49.1 59.6

In table 9 of the Tabular Summary, the data on housing facilities
are presented in greater detail, including a break-down according to
economic level. The increase from the low to the high economic
level in the use of electric refrigerators, telephones, central heating,
and hot running water was greater than that of any other items.

Housing expenditures.
When families are classified according to economic level, the pro­
portion of total expenditures devoted to housing and fuel, light, and
refrigeration combined shows a slightly declining movement from
lower to higher expenditures level in all cities but Mobile (see table 3
of the Tabular Summary). In part this tendency is a reflection of the
smaller families found at the higher economic levels, but it is also
found in studying changes in housing expenditures with increases in
income among families of one size and type.
H o m e o w n ers .— Among home owners, average current housing
expenditures ranged from $119 in Dallas to $226 in Richmond.
Included in this total are taxes, assessments, repairs and replacements,
fire and liability insurance on home, interest on mortgages, and




56

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OOF T H E

SO O JTH

refinancing charges. In all the cities studied, there was a notable
increase in amount used for this purpose by home-owning families
at higher as compared with those at lower economic levels, though it
was not proportionate to the increase in total unit expenditure.8
From table 17 it is apparent that the amount invested in homes
by owners making such investments is not large, ranging from $69
in New Orleans to $158 in Jacksonville for the 12-month period
covered by the schedule. Investment in housing has been treated to
include both payments on principal of mortgage and for permanent
improvements to a home, such as the addition of an enclosed porch.
Investments of this type showed a regular tendency to increase with
improvement in the families’ plane of living.
The home owners cooperating in the Study supplied the field in­
vestigators with their estimates of the annual rental value of their
homes, varying from an average of $395 in Richmond to $223 in
Birmingham.9 When the amount which home-owning families esti­
mated would have been necessary to rent their homes at market price
is compared with their current housing expenditure, there is a net
difference of income in kind, which may be called the imputed income
from equity in owned home. The average amount of this imputed
income is shown on table 17 to range from $181 in Dallas to $55
in Birmingham.
R en ters .— Rental rates paid in these Southern cities (see table 17)
ranged from $11 to $34 per month, depending on the city and the
type of accommodation. There was a distinct tendency, as indicated
in table 10 of the Tabular Summary, for these rates to increase as
economic level rose.
8 By total unit expenditure is meant the amount of current expenditure for all items per expenditure unit.
• The rank order of the average rentals as estimated by home owners for the 11 cities covered in this region
both by the present investigation and by the Works Progress Administration study of “ Cost of Living in
59 Cities” shows a very high correlation with rental values obtained in the latter study. As mentioned
above, the Works Progress Administration investigation attempted to secure the cost of the same level of
living in each city covered. On the basis of the cost of a given level of housing, the 11 cities included in
both studies rank as follows from the highest to the lowest cost: Norfolk, Richmond, Baltimore, Memphis,
Dallas, Houston, Louisville, New Orleans, Birmingham, Mobile, and Jacksonville. When ranked from
highest to lowest according to the average values of owned homes reported by the wage earners and clerical
workers covered in the present investigation, the order is as follows: Richmond, Baltimore, Norfolk, Mem­
phis, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Jacksonville, Louisville, Mobile, and Birmingham. One would
judge from a comparison of the two types of ranking that the home owners of New Orleans and Jacksonville
are somewhat better off than the average for the entire home-owning group in all the cities.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

T

able

FOR

S P E C IF IE D

57

GOODS

17. — Housing expenditures, 1 year during the period 1 9 8 4 -3 6

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Item

Balti­
more

Home owners for 12 months:
Number of families________________________
180
Average current money expenditure_______ $200.10
Average amount invested during year in
$82.47
owned home______ ______________________
Average annual rental value_______________ $352.00
Average imputed income from equity in
owned home........................................... ........ $152.00
Renters of houses for 12 months:
141
Number of families.......... .......... .................. .
$21.93
Average monthly rental rate paid__________
Renters of apartments for 12 months with heat
included in rent:
Number of families________________________
65
$22.82
Average monthly rental rate paid__________
Renters of apartments for 12 months with heat
not included in rent:
31
Number of families.................. ........................
$12. 31
Average monthly rental rate paid..................
Secondary housing:
419
Number of families in survey____ ____ ____
Average expenditure for owned vacation
0
home______________________ ______ ______
Number of families spending for rent on
vacation home or trip.. _________________
11
Average expenditure for rent on vacation or
$22. 85
trip per family making such expenditure.. .
Number of families spending for rent at
1
school___________________________ _______

Item

Louis­
ville

Home owners for 12 months:
66
Number of families............................................
Average current money expenditure.............. $139.76
Average amount invested during year in
owned home______ ____ _________ ___
$88. 27
Average annual rental value_____ _________ $287. 00
Average imputed income from equity in
owned home________ _____ ________ _____ $147. 00
Renters of houses for 12 months:
Number of families... . . . ______ ________
76
Average monthly rental rate paid__________
$17.11
Renters of apartments for 12 months with heat
included in rent:
Number of families________________________
0)
Average monthly rental rate paid__________
0)
Renters of apartments for 12 months with heat
not included in rent:
Number of families_______ ____ ___________
43
$14.19
Average monthly rental rate paid...............
Secondary housing:
Number of families in survey________ _____
197
Average expenditure for owned vacation
0
home_______ _____ ______________________
Number of families spending for rent on
on vacation home or trip_________________
6
Average expenditure for rent on vacation or
trip per family making such expenditure. _ $58.44
Number of families spending for rent at
1
school....... .................................... ........ ..........

Birming­
Dallas
ham

Hous­
ton

Jackson

Jackson­
ville

61
$168.14

91
$119.17

85
$170. 38

43
$204.25

40
$139. 72

$84.66
$223.00

$117.35
$300.00

$104. 22
$295.00

$86.07
$355.00

$158.48
$295.00

$55.00

$181.00

$125. 00

$150.00

$155.00

102
$13. 73

126
$20.15

102
$19. 88

58
$19.65

67
$19. 67

22
$22.47

35
$25. 81

10
$22. 08

0)
0)

10
$11. 44

37
$19. 70

41
$24. 52

30
$20. 48

58
$17. 23

202

294

258

150

178

0

0

0

0

0

19

11

35

14

25

$19. 35

$19.51

$9.51

$21. 21

$14.17

2

3

3

0

0

Mem­
phis

Mobile

New
Norfolk
Orleans

64
$172.56

62
$168. 37

53
$164.05

53
$173.55

46
$225. 70

$125.92
$323.00

$69. 77
$264. 00

$68.53
$305. 00

$147.95
$347.00

$119.08
$395.00

$150.00

$96.00

$141. 00

$173.00

$169. 00

79
$17. 55

67
$15.03

188
$17. 22

49
$20. 36

60
$21. 86

24
$29.55

21
$34.33

70
$18.14

33
$17.89

59
$17.61
192

20
$26.15
29
$14. 75

0)

C1)

0)

0)
0)
0)

0)
0)

Rich­
mond

194

146

318

162

0

0

0

0

0

3

11

6

5

21

$21.99

$19. 51

$57. 77

$19.12

$10.42

0

1

1

2

1

1 Detailed information not presented because of small number of families in this classification.

V a ca tion h o u sin g .— Among the families covered in the investigation,
vacations played but a minor part. The proportion making expendi­
tures for rent on vacation or trips was smallest in Memphis, where
but 3 families out of 194 reported them, and largest in Jacksonville,
where the figures were 25 out of 178. The average expenditure per
family paying rent on vacation or trip ranged from $10 in Houston




58

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OE

THE

SO U TH

to $58 in Louisville and New Orleans. In all the cities studied, as
the plane of living rose there was a sharp increase in the average
amount spent for rent on trips.
F u e l , light , and refrigera tion .— As is seen in table 18, expenditures
for fuel, light, and refrigeration were heaviest in winter and fall,
indicating that but few of the families of workers have sufficient
reserve funds or storage facilities to lay in a coal supply in the summer
time when they might take advantage of the prevalent lower prices.
Expenditures in this category in spring and summer are made chiefly
for electricity, gas, and refrigeration (ice, or fuel for a mechanical
refrigerator).
In table 11 of the Tabular Summary, detailed information is pre­
sented for expenditures on all types of fuel, light, and refrigeration,
including electricity, anthracite, bituminous coal, coke, briquets,
wood, fuel oil, gas, kerosene, gasoline not used for automobiles, and
ice. Since the actual amount paid for fuel, light, and refrigeration
depends to a large extent on whether a house or an apartment is
involved, and whether the rent paid the landlord includes heat, data
are presented separately for families in four categories as well as in
the form of averages for all families (see table 11 of the Tabular Sum­
mary). As would be expected, the largest total payments for fuel,
light, and refrigeration were made by families heating houses, with
coal, electricity, and gas constituting the largest item of expenditure.
T able 18.— Expenditure for fu el , light, and refrigeration, 1 year during the period
1 9 3 4 -8 6

*

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Item
Number of families in survey
____ ___
Total expenditures for fuel, light and re­
frigeration for—
Year
__________________________
W inter _________________________
Spring__________________________
Summer_________________________
Fall
...... ..............- .....................

Item

Balti­
more
419
$103.37
28. 65
18. 47
20.53
35.72
Louis­
ville

Birming­
ham

Dallas

Houston

Jackson

Jackson­
ville

202

294

258

150

178

$97. 26

$84. 89

$78.39

$70. 68

$92. 23

27.35
19. 35
23. 35
27. 21

25. 75
19. 50
18. 49
21.15

23.06
18. 35
18. 27
18. 71

19.39
16. 37
18.11
16.81

29.16
19. 60
20.03
23.44

Mobile

New
Orleans

Norfolk

Memphis

Rich­
mond

Number of families in survey________ ___
Total expenditures for fuel, light and re­
frigeration for—
Year __ ____________________________

197

194

146

318

162

192

$93.78

$111.00

$100. 83

$82.73

$124. 24

$118.08

Winter............................................ .
Spring _____________ ___________
Sum m er.___ ______ ______
Fall ............... .......... ................... .

26.01
16.89
19.84
31.04

32. 85
25. 56
22. 49
30.10

30.04
22. 54
23. 25
25.00

22.91
19.11
18.99
21. 72

36. 94
23. 53
25. 49
38. 28

33. 32
24.48
27.82
32. 46

When families paying for heat separately from rent are classified
by total unit expenditure, the dollar outlays for fuel, light, and re-




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FUR

S P E C IF IE D

GOODS

59

frigeration show a slight increase from low to high levels. The fact
that they do not increase more sharply indicates two things. One,
that there is an essential minimum which cannot be cut if the house­
hold is to function, and the other, that even at the highest spending
levels which these people reach, the demands of other items in the
budget are still so urgent that there is little money to spare for in­
creased consumption in this field. As funds available for spending
increase, however, a greater upward swing from low to high consump­
tion levels appeared for electricity than for any other item included
in this group.
Other item s o f household op era tio n .— Items of household operation
other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, which include water rent,
telephone, domestic service, laundry sent out, laundry soap and
cleaning supplies, and other miscellaneous items (see table 12 of
Tabular Summary), showed marked increase from low to high eco­
nomic levels, approximately doubling in all these 12 cities. The items
showing the greatest response to change in economic level were tele­
phones, domestic service, laundry sent out, and insurance on furniture.
Furnishings and Equipment

The very high variability 1 of expenditures for house furnishings
0
and equipment from family to family in a given year is shown by
figures presented in Tabular Summary table 24-A, p. 625. Thus, in
relation to the average expenditure of all families in this region, the
total furnishings and equipment expenditures of individual families
varied more than four times as much as did their total food expendi­
tures. These divergences are readily understandable from the nature
of the purchases involved. M ajor items of furnishings and equipment
are usually bought only at rare intervals in a family’s lifetime, and
many of even the smaller items in this category are such that pur­
chasing them can be dispensed with entirely in a year of financial
stringency.
Variability of the total expenditures of individual families for fur­
nishings and equipment is, of course, greatly exceeded by the vari­
ability of expenditures for specific items in this group. The family
which bought a living room suite last year will perhaps make no im­
portant addition to its stock of furniture this year, but will save to­
ward purchases of other such items in subsequent years. On account
of this high variability, average expenditures for specific items of
furniture and furnishings for relatively small groups of families do not
show significant movements, and the figures on the details of furniture
and equipment purchases have been presented as regional averages
rather than in terms of averages by cities (see Tabular Summary,
table 18).
For discussion of variability, see pp. 22 and 647.




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Expenditures for furnishings and equipment, which were greatest
for furniture, electrical appliances, bedding, and miscellaneous equip­
ment, varied significantly with economic level.1 At. the lowest level
1
$42.19 was spent for this group of items, whereas families at the
highest economic level spent $109.62 for this purpose.
A t all economic levels, the items purchased by the largest propor­
tion of families were fundamentals of household equipment: brooms,
brushes, m ops; light bulbs; sheets and pillow cases; cotton Turkish
towels; curtains and draperies; pots, pans, and cutlery; and window
shades, screens, and awnings, with little variation in rank order of
items between the different economic levels.
Of the various groups of items coming under the general head of
furnishings and equipment, silver, china, and glassware shows the
largest percentage increase in average expenditure from lowest to
highest economic level, and furniture the second largest.
When the average expenditure for living room suites is computed
for those families buying such furniture, 51 among the 1,027 families
at tne lowest economic level averaged $82; 61 of the 982 families at the
intermediate level averaged $91, and 55 of the 701 families at the
highest averaged $100.
Electric light bulbs were always the most frequently purchased
item for electrical equipment. At the low economic level, electric
irons ranked second in frequency with 87 families purchasing, lamps
third with 61 families purchasing, and washing machines fourth with
53 families purchasing. Electric refrigerators required the largest
average expenditure at all levels.
Expenditures for carpets and rugs by families at the highest economic
level averaged $4.84, as compared with $1.68 at the lowest level.
When these averages are converted to averages per family buying,
91 families at the lowest plane averaged $19, whereas 123 families at
the highest averaged $28. On the other hand, average expenditures
for equipment of a more strictly utilitarian type, felt base floor
covering, were the same at both levels, $0.65. Average expendi­
tures per family purchasing this type of floor covering were slightly
larger at the high level.
1 See footnote 11, p. 22.
1




61

EX PE ND IT U 1E FOR SPECIFIED GOODS
1E 1S

T able 19. — Expenditures for furnishings and equipment at successive economic
levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6
[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican, in 12 cities combined]
Economic level—families with an­
nual unit expenditure of—
Item
Under $400 $400 to $600
Number of families in survey____ _____ _______ ___________________
Total expenditure for furniture and equipment ..............................
Furniture___________ __________________________ ____ _____ ___
Textile furnishings_________________________________ _______ _
Silverware, china, and glassware____________ _________ ________
Electrical equipment
__ _____ _______________________ ___ _
Miscellaneous equipment_____________________________________

1,027
$42.19
10. 27
8.94
.61
12. 65
9. 82
P ercen t

Total expenditure for furniture and equipment
______ __________
Furniture
___________ __________ ___________ _________ ___
Textile furnishings ...
- ___________ _______ _ ______ _____
_
Silverware, china, and glassware______________ ________ _____
Electrical equipment
___ ___________ ______ ____________
Miscellaneous equipment______________________________________

100.0
24.3
21.2
1.2
30.0
23.3

982
$65. 22
18.53
12.59
1. 06
20. 83
12. 21
P ercen t

100.0
28.4
19.3
1.6
32.0
18.7

$600 and
over
701
$109. 62
32. 58
18. 91
2.18
38. 72
17. 23
P ercen t

100.0
29.7
17.3
2.0
35. 3
15.7

C lothing

Variability1 of clothing expenditures.
2
Clothing expenditures for any one individual vary greatly from year
to year. An even greater variability exists between the clothing
expenditures of different indivudals in any one year. This high degree
of variability results from such factors as the stock of clothing left
over from the previous year, the money income of the family, and the
number of persons within the home whose needs must be supplied from
family funds, and such unusual situations as may require special
purchases. Because of this high variability, it is difficult to secure
representative averages on the clothing expenditures of individuals
unless data are available from a large number of persons. For this
reason, average expenditures for individuals for specified articles of
clothing have been computed for the region as a whole, and not for
separate cities.

Total expenditure per family for clothing.
Among the major items of consumer expenditures, those for clothing
are the most elastic. With increases in economic resources among
families of wage earners and low-salaried clerical workers, more and
more of the family funds go to solve the problem of what to wear.
The larger average expenditure per family at the high consumption
level 1 is the result not only of the purchase of larger quantities of the
3
1 See footnote 11, p. 22.
2
1 Throughout, economic or consumption level is defined by amount spent per year per expenditure
3
unit. For each of the tables showing details of expenditures, as many economic levels have been shown as
the number of cases and type of data would allow. Since clothing expenditures are shown by sex and age
groups as well as by economic level, only three such levels are presented for this table. They are: Under
$400, $400 to $600, and $600 and over. The age groups shown for each sex in the tabulation of items of clothing
purchased are: 18 years of age and over, 12 through 17 years, 6 through 11 years, and 2 through 5 years. Pur­
chases for children under 2 years old are shown without regard to sex.




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same items purchased by families at the low level, but also of greater
variety and better quality of goods (see Tabular Summary table 17).
The universality of the custom of buying clothing ready to wear
is indicated by the overwhelming proportion of these funds going to
purchase of ready-made clothing, dry cleaning, and accessories.
Expenditures for yard goods and findings used for sewing garments
at home averaged around $5 per family at each of the low and inter­
mediate economic levels and $6 at the high level. Paid help for sew­
ing was used so infrequently that the average expenditure per family
was only 12 cents at the lowest economic level, 36 cents at the inter­
mediate level, and 83 cents at the highest.

Gifts o f clothing.
Among families of wage earners and clerical workers, the custom of
exchanging gifts of clothing at Christmas, birthdays, or other special
occasions is quite extensive. If such presents were paid for from
family funds and exchanged within the economic family, they were
not recorded on the schedule as gifts, but simply as clothing expenses.
If, however, gifts were received from persons outside the family circle,
an attempt was made to ascertain their value. Fifty percent of the
families at the low economic level, 52 percent at the intermediate
level, and 48 percent at the high reported receiving them. Their
value averaged around $10. Since a large proportion of the families
receiving gifts could not estimate the value, and these have not been
included, the above figures do not give a complete account of this
item.

Clothing expenditures for men and boys.
Total clothing expenditures per person decreased from $53 for men
and boys 18 years and over through each age group 1 to $14 for boys
4
aged 2 to 5 years. Such a relationship between average expenditures
and age is observed at each of the three economic levels studied.
Within each age group, however, the average expenditure per person
more than doubled from the low to the high consumption level.1
5
Clothing expenditures are summarized according to those for headwear, outerwear, (defined to include shirts as well as suits, trousers,
overcoats, jackets, sweaters, and similar items), underwear, footwear
(defined to include hose of all types, shoes, slippers, rubbers, and
overshoes), and miscellaneous items. An analysis of these outlays
when made by men and boys at a low plane of living and by those at
one of the highest reached by any considerable number of wage
earners and clerical workers reveals a strong similarity in the clothing
consumption habits of these two different groups. Those at the high
level naturally buy more, and get a better quality; their annual
i* The age groups distinguished for this table are: 18 years and over, 12 to 17 years, 6 to 11 years, and 2 to 5
years.
See footnote 13, p. 61.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

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63

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expenditure per person is more than twice that at the low level. The
items purchased, however, are the same, and the rank order of the
five categories does not change. Apparently higher spending levels
than these must be reached before individual tastes can be indulged.
(See table 20.)
T

able

20. — Distribution of annual clothing expenditures for individuals in fam ilies
at successive economic levels, 1 year during the period 1984.-86

[Men and boys in families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican, in 12 cities
combined]
Average clothing expenditure per person in—
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—

Sex, age group, and type of clothing
All
families

Under
$400

Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
All
families
Under
$400

$400 to $600 and
over
$600

$400 to $600 and
over
$600

Men 18 years of age and over:
Headwear......................................
Outerwear................................... ...
Underwear.................................. .
Footwear................................ .......
Miscellaneous items....................

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

$2.63
26. 20
3. 55
11.21
9. 21

$1.70
16.98
2.34
8.07
4.54

$2.82
27. 52
3. 65
11.74
9.86

$4.01
40.41
5. 48
15. 95
16. 45

5.0
49.7
6.7
21.2
17.4

5.1
50.4
7.0
24.0
13.5

5.1
49.5
6.6
21.1
17.7

4.9
49.0
6.7
19.4
20.0

Total__________ _________ ____

P ercen t

52. 80

33.63

55.59

82. 30

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Boys 12 through 17 years of age:
Headwear........ ......... .....................
Outerwear.....................................
Underwear____ ___________ ____
Footwear_______________ _______
Miscellaneous items____________

.57
17.96
2.22
9. 49
3. 23

.46
13. 70
1.74
8. 08
2.13

.80
25.44
3.06
12. 30
5.24

.97
42.08
5.02
15. 54
9. 36

1.7
53.7
6.6
28.4
9.6

1.8
52.4
6.7
30.9
8.2

1.7
54.3
6.5
26.3
11.2

1.3
57.7.
6.9
21.3
12.8

Total_________________________

33. 47

26.11

46.84

72. 97

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Boys 6 through 11 years of age:
Headwear. _______________ ____
Outerwear_______ ____ _____ ___
Underwear............................. ........
Footwear_____________________ _
Miscellaneous items____________

.39
10. 82
1.83
8.40
1.42

.26
8. 34
1.39
6. 88
.93

.57
14.18
2.38
10.61
2. 25

.84
20.88
3. 73
13. 44
2.98

1.7
47.4
8.0
36.7
6.2

1.5
46.8
7.8
38.7
5.2

1.9
47.3
7.9
35.4
7.5

2.0
49.9
8.9
32.1
7.1

Total_______________________ _

22. 86

17.80

29.99

41.87

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Boys 2 through 5 years of age:
Headwear______________________
Outerwear....... ...............................
Underwear____ ____ __________
Footwear________ ______ _______
Miscellaneous items____________

.33
6. 44
1.41
5. 62
.50

.21
4.38
.92
4.06
.28

.43
8.62
2.05
7.80
.82

.89
13. 50
2. 63
8. 34
1. 35

2.3
45.0
9.9
39.3
3.5

2.1
44.5
9.3
41.3
2.8

2.2
43.6
10.4
39.6
4.2

3.3
50.6
9.8
31.2
5.1

Total................................. .........

14. 30

9. 85

19.72

26. 71

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Shoes, although purchased more frequently than any other single
item, received a declining proportion of total clothing expenditure.
They had to be bought even at the low level, where they averaged
1.2 pairs per person purchasing and cost $3.48. At the high level, the
pressure of other items was so urgent that these figures had increased
only to 1.6 and $4.79. It was the purchase of a new suit which really
increased as more money became available to use for clothes. This
item took the greatest proportionate expenditure (50 percent) at all
levels. The absolute amount paid, however, rose from about $22
at the low plane to $27 at the high, and the number of men buying




64

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suits was doubled. To put it differently, men at the low level bought
a new suit once in 6 years; at the high they were able to do so once
every 3 years.
Miscellaneous expenses, though perforce a small item in the clothing
budget, rose faster than anything else as plane of living improved.
Handkerchiefs, ties, and other relatively short-lived garments were
frequently purchased by both groups. Cleaning and repairing services
were used by 56 percent of the men at the low level, who paid $4.58
per year for them, and by as many as 85 percent at the high plane at
an average price of $11.78.

Clothing expenditures for women and girls.
Total average clothing expenditures for women and girls were in
general similar to those for men and boys. The average, however,
was slightly lower than the men’s in the adult group— $50 as contrasted
with $53. It is significant that women make greater adjustments in
their clothing expenditures than men. Thus, women in families at
the lowest economic level spent 42 percent less than the average for
all women, while men in the same group spent 36 percent less. Appar­
ently the economies inevitable at the low level made it necessary for
women who stayed at home to depart farther from the clothing
standards of their group than men who went out to work. On the
other hand, women in the highest economic group spent 72 percent
more than the average, while men spent only 54 percent more.
The distribution of these expenditures between the five main types
of clothing was different among the women. Larger percentages were
devoted to headwear, underwear, and footwear, and less to outerwear
(see table 21). The percentage spent for outerwear, however, in­
creased with economic level, while that for footwear declined.
At both low and high economic levels, shoes ranked first, both in
frequency of purchase and proportion of total expenditure. The
following percentages of women had expenditures for the indicated
types of shoes, and the average prices paid were as shown.
Low economic level High economic level
Item
Percent
Street shoes..__________ ______________________________________
Dress shoes___________________________________________________
Sport shoes_____________________________________ ____ ________

Average
price

Percent

65
18
10

$3
3
2

77
31
19

Average
price
$4
4

3

Silk hose ranks second in frequency of purchase at both levels,
ranging from 5.8 pairs at 66 cents to 12.2 pairs at 79 cents. Felt hats
followed them in order of frequency of purchase.
Silk and rayon dresses, usually thought of as the most important
item in a woman’s wardrobe, ranked fourth in frequency of purchase.




E X P E N D I T U iR E lS

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65

GOODS

As a proportion of total clothing expenditure, they were third at the
low level, when 42 percent of the women bought them at an average
price of $4.86, and first at the high, where 72 percent purchased and
paid $7.58 per dress. Thus, even at the high level, one out of four
women was unable to buy a new silk (or rayon) dress at any time dur­
ing the schedule year.
T

able

2 1 .— Distribution of annual clothing expenditures for individuals in fam ilies
at successive economic levels, 1 year during the period 19SJ^S6

[Women and girls in families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican, in 12 cities
combined]
Average clothing expenditure per person in—

Sex, age group, and types of clothing

Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies

Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
All
fami­
lies

Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

Women 18 years of age and over:
Headwear
_ _
______
Outerwear___________ - ______
Underwear______________ ______
Footwear. ____ . _____________
Miscellaneous items________ - .

$3.38
20.10
6. 48
15.44
5.00

$1.85
11.18
3. 65
10. 21
2.17

$3.43
20.99
6. 70
16. 21
5.00

$5.99
34.91
11.16
23. 73
10.04

6. 7
39.9
12.9
30.6
9.9

6.4
38.4
12.6
35.1
7.5

6.6
40.1
12.8
30.9
9.6

7.0
40.8
13.0
27.6
11.6

P ercen t

Total_________________________

50. 40

29.06

52. 33

85. 83

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Girls 12 through 17 years of age:
Headwear______________________
Outerwear___ ___ ___ _______ _
Underwear_______ _____ _______
Footwear ______ _____ _______
Miscellaneous items____ _______

1.73
14. 88
4. 21
13. 32
3.04

1. 22
10.47
2. 98
10. 62
1. 59

2.30
21. 34
5. 80
16. 88
4. 69

3. 74
28. 95
8.85
21.93
9. 35

4.7
40.0
11.3
35.8
8.2

4.5
39.0
11.1
39.5
5.9

4.5
41.8
11.4
33.1
9.2

5.1
39.8
12. 2
30.1
12.8

Total________________________

37.18

26. 88

51.01

72.82

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

. 59
7.15
1.88
8. 61
.82

.41
5.28
1. 41
7.05
.52

.88
9. 77
2. 70
11.18
1. 27

1.32
15.70
3. 63
13. 95
2. 27

3.1
37.5
9.9
45. 2
4.3

2.8
36.0
9. 6
48.1
3.5

3.4
37.9
10. 5
43.3
4.9

3.6
42.6
9. 8
37.8
6.2

____ ___ _____________ -.19.05

14.67

25. 80

36. 87

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.37
5. 62
1.73
6. 23
. 53

. 24
3.74
1.09
4. 76
.21

.45
7. 17
2. 30
7. 34
.57

.99
12. 01
3. 34
11. 44
2. 60

2.6
38.8
11.9
43.0
3.7

2.4
37.2
10.9
47.4
2.1

2.5
40.2
12.9
41.2
3.2

3.3
39. 5
11.0
37.6
8. 6

14. 48

10. 04

17. 83

30. 38

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Girls 6 through 11 years of age:
Headwear__________ ______ ____
Outerwear__________________ . _
Underwear____________________
Footwear
________________ Miscellaneous it e m s .__ ___ - _
Total

Girls 2 through 5 years of age:
Headwear______________________
Outerwear_____________________
Underwear_______ ____ _
__ _
Footwear______ ___ ___ ___ ___
Miscellaneous items. ________ .
T o ta l...._____ _______________

Occupational differences in the clothing expenditures o f adults.
Expenditures for clothing by the adults included in the Study were
found to have been affected, to an important degree, by the occupa­
tion of the persons included in the Study, as well as by the economic
level of the family. An analysis of the relative affect of occupation
and social environment on clothing expenditures has been made for
all white persons studied in 2,710 families in the 12 Southern cities
and 30 other cities combined. The total clothing expenditures of
men and women engaged in clerical work were contrasted with the




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expenditures of those in manual work and those at home without
gainful employment, and of boys and girls at school, after elimination
of any effect upon these differences which might be due to differing
incomes or family composition (see appendix G, pp. 690 to 693).
Among the employed workers, under 21, for both men and women,
difference between average expenditures for clothing by wage earners
and by clerical workers were negligible. At older ages, however, for
both men and women, the expenditures of clerical workers were con­
sistently greater than those of wage earners. The differences varied
for men from 7 percent in the group aged 21 to 24 years to 15 percent
in the group aged 27 to 30. The greater expenditure by clerical
workers than wage earners for clothing was less pronounced for
women than for men up to the 27th year, but thereafter was much
more pronounced for women, reaching a maximum difference of 44
percent in the age group 42 to 48.
Average clothing expenditures of men and women at home without
gainful employment were substantially lower than those of employed
individuals. Among the men, expenditures of clerical workers
exceeded those of men at home by 38 percent or more for the
groups aged 15 to 21, and by 100 percent or more for the groups aged
21 to 60. For women the comparable figures are somewhat less
striking, 15 percent for the group aged 15 to 18 and from 52 to 78
percent for the groups from 18 to 60 years of age. The fact that it is
more customary for adult women to be at home without gainful
employment than for adult men, whereas most of the men found in
this situation were involuntarily at home because of unemployment
or illness, probably explains this very low level of clothing ex­
penditure for unemployed men at home.
Clothing expenditures for boys aged 15 to 21 at school were onefifth to one-fourth greater than those of unemployed boys at home of
the same age, but were in turn exceeded by 13 percent or more by
clothing expenditures of clerical workers in the same sex-age group.
Girls at school aged 15 to 18 spent 7 percent more than girls at home,
but girl clerical workers of that age spent 7 percent more than the
school girls. A t the next age level, 18 to 21, girl clerical workers
spent 25 percent more than school girls, who in turn spent 22 percent
more than girls at home.
A t every age level, in comparable occupational categories, the
women spent more for clothing than did men, the average expenditure
for women clerical workers aged 24 to 27 being 45 percent greater than
that for men clerical workers of the same age, and the differences in
the age group 36 to 42 for the same occupations being 57 percent.
Women wage earners aged 24 to 27 spent 46 percent more for clothing
than men wage earners of the same age and in the age group 36 to 42
the difference was 23 percent.




EiXPENDITTJQ&ElS

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The relationships discussed in the foregoing paragraphs may be
seen graphically in figure A .1
6

#" ESTIMATED ANNUAL CLOTHING EXPENDITURES
BY PERSONS O DIFFERENT A E, SEX, AND O C PA N
F
G
C U TIO
42 CITIES COMBINED
I.OO- $56.68

0 2

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

36

42

48

54

AGE

AGE

•AFTER ELIMINATING THE E FF E C T OF D IFFEREN CES IN FAMIUf
S IZE AND INCOME. BASED ON DATA FROM WHITE FAMILIES.

U. t. BUREAU OF LABOR. STATISTICS

The data on which this chart is based are shown in appendix G, table D , p. 690.




60

66

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T r anspor t ation

In all cities studied in this region, expenditures for transportation
showed a sharp increase at the higher economic levels as compared
with the lower, more than doubling in each city. (See Tabular
Summary, table 13.) The chief factor in this increased expenditure
was the automobile, since the average outlays for all other forms of
transportation increased but slightly from low to high economic levels.
The upward swing at higher economic levels in expenditures for
automobile maintenance and operation is indicated in table 22. Not
only did the percent of families owning automobiles rise markedly,
but the amount spent for operation and maintenance by such families
showed a substantial increase.
Thirty-six percent of the group studied in New Orleans operated
automobiles, whereas 74 percent in Houston had their own cars. In
Baltimore, Louisville, and New Orleans, where the high cost of garage
and parking space and the traffic conditions typical of metropolitan
areas generally make automobile operation relatively expensive, the
smallest proportion of families operated their own cars. Expenditures
of all sorts for automobile transportation formed 53, 65, and 61 per­
cent, respectively, of total transportation expense in these three cities.
In the other cities covered in this region, the proportions varied from
74 to 87 percent.
The proportion of families purchasing automobiles within the
schedule year (table 13 of the Tabular Summary) was naturally much
smaller than the proportion owning cars. Never more than 7 percent
of the families in any city in this region purchased a new car during
the schedule year, while those purchasing second-hand cars varied
from 5 percent in Baltimore to 17 percent in Jacksonville.
Net expenditures for automobiles, new and second-hand, averaged
$194 per family purchasing in M obile and $365 in Dallas. The aver­
age for the remaining 10 cities ranged between $200 and $350.1
7
Data presented in table 22 show average expenditures for automobile
operation and maintenance in these 12 cities. Expenditures for
gasoline and oil made up from 60 to 70 percent of the total in each city
except Baltimore. In Baltimore where the proportion for gasoline and
oil was only 55 percent, 13 percent on the average was spent for garage
rent and parking, as compared to less than 4 percent in any other of

17

These averages were computed by dividing the aggregate amount spent for automobiles by the families
studied in each city by the number of families purchasing automobiles. They include amounts still due
at the end of the schedule year but do not include the trade-in value of cars which may have been turned
in on the transaction. Payments on automobiles purchased in previous years are not treated as automobile
expense in this report, but as reduction of outstanding liabilities. (See appendix A, pp. 632 and 637.)




E X P E N D IT U R E S

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69

GOODS

these 12 cities. Baltimore has an ordinance against over-night
parking on the street, which is strictly enforced. In general, the pro­
portion of the operation and maintenance expenditure spent for gaso­
line and oil declined with rise in economic level. In part this decline
is due to the increasing percentage going to parking and garage expense
and in part to larger expenses for repairs and insurance. One factor
in the situation is the tendency for wage earners needing to economize
on their cars to make their own repairs.
T

2 2 . — E x p en ditu res
fo r autom obile operation and m aintenance fo r auto­
m obile ow n ers , at successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r d uring the period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

able

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]
Economic level—families with
annual unit expenditure of—
City and item

All fami­
lies
Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

BALTIMORE
Percentage of families owning automobiles _____________________
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile __________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil______
____________ ___________________
Garage rent and parking_______________ _________________
Other____________ _____ ___________________________________

27.0

14.5

27.1

50.6

$136.23

$100.34

$132.47

$159. 76

55.5
13.4
31.1

53.1
9.5
37.4

58.6
12.5
28.9

53.6
15.4
31.0

BIRMINGHAM
Percentage of families owning automobiles ___________________
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile.
_________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil__________________________________________
Garage rent and parking________________________________
O th er.. ------- --------- ------------------------ --------- -----------------------

57.9

45.5

61.6

74.1

$115. 29

$94. 07

$100. 35

$150. 40

62.4
0.9
36.7

64.3
0.3
35.4

63.1
0.4
36.5

60.8
1.6
37.6

DALLAS
Percentage of families owning autom obiles______ __
...
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile ________ .
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil____
. ________________________ ______
Garage rent and parking.......................... .......... ......... .........
Other________ ___________________________________________

68.7

54.3

69.5

82.1

$99. 22

$72. 03

$99. 34

$116.85

73.7
1.0
25.3

74.9
0.1
25.0

73.3
0.7
26.0

73.5
1.6
24.9

HOUSTON

Percentage of families owning automobiles.
_. ________________
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile __________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil_______________ _____ _____ ___________ . . .
Garage rent and parking______•
________________ ________
Other_____________________________________________ ______ _

73.6

54.4

76.0

85.1

$133. 05

$106. 25

$139. 30

$139.62

63.1
1.8
35.1

64.7
1.5
33.8

61.8
1.4
36.8

63.7
2.4
33.9

JACKSON

Percentage of families owning automobiles -----------------------------Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning au to m o bile_________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil-------------------- -------------------------------------------Garage rent and parking_______________________________
Other_______________________________ _____________________

65.3

51.3

54.5

82.9

$125.02

$100.68

$112. 82

$166. 78

66.8
0.3
32.9

64.5

68.4

35.5

31.6

65.8
0.7
33.5

JACKSONVILLE

Percentage of families owning automobiles_________ ______ ______
Expenditue for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile ________ ...
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil.. _ _ . ________________ _____________
Garage rent and parking______________ __________________
Other______________________________ ______ ____________ _

74390°— 41------6




67.4

50.8

75.4

76.0

$125. 06

$82. 68

$117. 91

$168. 34

70.3

64.2

0. 5
29.2

70.0
0.6

72.8
0.6

3 5 .8

2 9 .4

2 6 .6

70

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SOUTH

T able

2 2 .— E x p en d itu res f o r autom obile opera tion and m ain ten an ce f o r autom obile
ow n ers, at successive econ om ic levels, 1 yea r during the p eriod 1 9 3 4 — 6 — Con.
8
Economic level—families with
annual unit expenditure of—
City and item

All families
Under
$400

$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

LOUISVILLE

Percentage of families owning automobiles. ----- ---------------------Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile___________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil________________ _________ ______ ____
Garage rent and parking._______ __________ _______ _
Other................. ........................................ ................. ..........

37.1

30.4

37.7

52.8

$96. 56

$71. 33

$87. 90

$145. 52

66.5
1.2
32.3

72.9
1.8
25.3

68.4
0. 5.
31.1

60.2
1.3
38.5

M EM PHIS

Percentage of families owning automobiles. ----------------- ------Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile___ ________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil___ __________________ ____ ___________
Garage rent and parking..-----------------------------------------Other................................. ...................................... ...........

59.3

46.6

58.7

$128. 77

$95.95

$124.30

65.8
0.6
33.6

70.2
0.1
29.7

67.1
0.5
32.4

75.9
$157.84
62.8
0.8
36.4

M OBILE

Percentage of families owning automobiles_______________ ____
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile. ................
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil.....................................................................
Garage rent and parking______________________ _______
Other...... .......................... .......................................................

56.2

44.6

68.3

67.7

$136.12

$111. 38

$136.19

$174. 66

63.8
0. 2
36.0

65.2
0. 3
34.5

62.9
37.1

63.3
0.4
36.3

N E W O RLEAN S

Percentage of families owning automobiles_____________ ______
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile___________
Percentage for—
Gasoline and o i l . . . ......... .......... .........................................
Garage rent and parking......................................................
Other...................................................................... .......... .......

35.5

24.8

41.7

54.7

$123.51

$98.75

$132. 33

$142. 24

63.9
2.6
33.5

65.2
2.8
32.0

61.6
3.0
35.4

66.2
1.7
32.1

N O RFO LK

Percentage of families owning automobiles...................................
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile ................
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil_____________________________________ _
Garage rent and parking________________ ______ ______
Other...... ................... .......................................................... .

42.0
$124.10
60.3
1.0
38.7

22.9

41.3

60.8

$127. 55

$111. 68

$133.21

54.3
0.2
45.5

63.9
1.3
34.8

59.9
1.1
39.0

RICHMOND

Percentage of families owning automobiles______________ ______
Expenditure for automobile maintenance and operation:
Average amount per family owning automobile_____ _____
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil.................. ..................... .........................
Garage rent and parking______________________________
Other.................................................................................. .

52.1

31.9

60.6

66.7

$132.10

$74. 21

$131.44

$166.38

' 60.2
3.6
36.2

64.3

59.5
3.7
36.8

59.8
4.5
35.7

35.7

Of the amount spent for -all other means of transportation, the
largest portion went to trolley fares, largely used for carrying earners
to work and children to school. In 11 cities, the proportion of fami­
lies using the trolleys was greatest in Louisville, where 87 percent
reported expenditures for this item, and least in Norfolk, where 70
percent of the families had none. Only 1.1 percent of the families
in Jacksonville reported expenditures for trolleys, but 49 percent for




E X P E N D IT U R E S

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71

GOODS

buses. Average expenditures for all forms of transportation other
than by automobile and trolley, including local bus, taxi, bicycle,
railroad, interurban bus, boat, or airplane were relatively small.
Recreation

The largest proportion of total expenditures for items classified
under the general heading of recreation in each of these 12 cities went
to tobacco, principally in the form of cigarettes, the amounts per
family averaging from $24 in Louisville to $36 in Jackson. (See
Tabular Summary, table 15.) The second largest item of expenditure
in all cities except Louisville was for movies, and the third was news­
papers either delivered at home or purchased on the street. In
Louisville, expenditures for newspapers exceeded those for movies.
Expenditures for all types of reading matter combined exceeded total
expenditures for movies only in Birmingham, Louisville, Memphis,
and Mobile. In all 12 cities, it was confined almost exclusively to
newspaper and magazines. The largest proportion of families spend­
ing for the purchase or rental of books occurred in Birmingham
where 8.9 percent of the families reported such expense. The propor­
tion of families purchasing magazines was larger, varying from 23
percent in Louisville to 64 percent in Houston.
Expenditures for recreational equipment of various sorts, such as
cameras and films, athletic supplies, and radios and other musical
instruments, varied from $9 in Louisville and Richmond to $23 in
Norfolk. Sixty-eight percent of all families in the region owned
radios; those who bought one during the year averaged $50 in pay­
ment for it.
When families are classified by unit expenditure, total outlays for
recreation almost doubled from low to high economic level. The
items which showed relatively greatest increases were radio purchase
(table 23), tobacco, and movies, which were not quite twice as large at
the higher planes as at the lower. Expenditures for reading matter as
a whole rose moderately, but those for magazines increased threefold.
T

able

23. — R a d io ow n ersh ip and purchase at successive econom ic levels , 1 year
during the period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican, in 12 cities combined]
Economic level—families with
annual unit expenditure of—
Item

All
families
Under
$400

Number of families in survey__________________________ ____ __
Percentage of families:
Owning radio_________________________________________
Purchasing ra d io.__________________ ___ ___________
Average amount paid for radio per family purchasing_______




$400 to
$600

$600 and
over

2,710

1,027

982

701

67.9
12.6
$50

57.7
10.9
$46

71.5
12.5
$46

77.6
15.1
$60

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OF

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T o get a more complete picture of the money spent for recreation
and leisure time activities, it is necessary to examine expenditures
classified under other categories. Thus, food includes purchases of
candy, ice cream, and drinks consumed both within and without the
home, the cost of food served to guests, of meals on vacations and
trips, and of meals purchased in restaurants. Under transportation
are included expenses for bus, boat, or train trips, as well as total
family automobile expenditure, a portion of which is in most cases
properly chargeable to recreation. Expenses of vacation homes or
rent on vacation or trips (rarely reported by families in this survey)
appear under the heading of housing expenditure. Bathing suits,
sun suits, slacks, and other items of clothing used for sport and
vacation wear are classified as clothing expenditures. While it is
not possible to calculate exactly what portion of these expenditures
may be considered made for recreation purposes, it is apparent that
they do contribute something to this field.
Personal Care

M oney spent for personal care (see Tabular Summary, table 14),
which accounts for close to 2 percent of total expenditures at each
economic level in all 12 cities, includes expenditures for services (hair­
cuts, shaves, shampoos, manicures, etc.) as well as for toilet articles
and preparations, such as brushes and cosmetics. Such expenditures
generally doubled from the lowest to the highest economic level, and
were about equally divided between personal care services and toilet
articles and preparations in Baltimore, Birmingham, Dallas, Memphis,
and Norfolk. In the remaining cities average expenditures for
toilet articles and preparations were larger.
Haircuts were the most frequently purchased type of personal care
service, followed by permanent waves. Of each dollar spent for
services, haircuts accounted for 60 to 78 cents, and between 8 and 23
cents were spent for permanent waves. While expenditures for hair­
cuts remained relatively constant from one economic level to another,
the amount spent for shaves by barbers, shampoos, and permanent
waves tended to increase with improvement in plane of living.
An irreducible minimum of toilet soap, tooth powder, tooth paste,
brushes, and other such articles, is achieved even by families at the
lowest level, but their use does not increase with progression to a
higher plane. Those families with a little more money to spend on
their grooming apparently start buying cosmetics and toilet prepara­
tions, as expenditures for these items more than doubled from the
lowest to highest economic level.
At the higher economic levels, where the families were small,
expenditures per person for these goods and services were three
times as high as they had been at the lower levels.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

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73

Medical Care

A fairly consistent increase in the amount spent for medical care
per family from the lowest to the highest economic levels occurred in
each city (see table 24 and Tabular Summary, table 14). This tend­
ency, combined with the smaller family characteristic of the higher
economic level, suggests considerably more adequate care for the
health of each person among the families at the upper planes. Since
it has been found from the United States Public Health Survey and
other studies that the incidence of illness is certainly not less in the
families in the lower economic strata, the greater expenditures at the
higher levels probably indicated treatment for ills which go unat­
tended among less fortunate families, as well as better treatment.
They may also indicate, to some extent, the practice of members of
the medical profession of charging for services in proportion to what
is known of the fam ily’s ability to pay.
The actual average expenditures per person for medical care more
than trebled in each city from the lowest to the highest economic
level. The average at the highest level shown varies from $30 to $38
per person except in Richmond and Memphis, where the figures are
$46 and $52. Obviously the expenditures per person for most wage
earners in the South compare unfavorably with the figure of $76 per
person estimated by Samuel Bradbury and accepted by the Technical
Committee on Medical Care as needed to provide the fundamentals
of good medical care on a fee-for-service basis.1
8
Medicine and drugs were purchased by a larger proportion of
families than any other form of medical care at all economic levels.
Frequently this meant attempts at home diagnosis and treatment to
save the expense of physicians’ fees.
In general, at the lowest economic level, the largest proportion of
expenditures for medical services per family was devoted to payment
of general practitioners and to dental care. On the average in most
cities the former was the most frequently used type of medical serv­
ice at this plane. At the highest economic level in nine cities, ex­
penditures for the services of dentists were reported by more families
than expenditure for any other type of service. In Baltimore and
Mobile, the most frequent item was general-practitioner office visits,
while in Houston they tied with dentists. The average expenditures
per family for the services of general practitioners tended to increase
with economic level. In general, the families studied visited the
offices of general practitioners for medical assistance about as fre­
quently as they called those doctors to their homes; in most cities
is Lee and Jones (Committee on Costs of Medical Care, Pub. No. 22, Chicago, 1932) estimated the medical
care required by a population with the age distribution which prevailed in 1930, and Samuel Bradbury
estimated its cost on a fee-for-service basis at $76 per person (Samuel Bradbury, The Cost of Adequate
Medical Care, Chicago, 1937, p. 53).




74

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OF

THE

SOUTH

the average expenditure per family was slightly larger for the latter
type of service. Both the proportion of families using and the aver­
age expenditure per family for specialists tended to increase sharply
with rise in economic level.
T able 24 . —

E xp en ditu res fo r medical care at successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r
during the period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

Number
of
families

City and economic level

Average
Average
Average
number of expenditure expenditure
persons
for medical for medical
per
care per
care per
family
person
family

Baltimore, all families________________________________

419

3.57

$13

$47

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $300___________________________ _____
$300 to $400__________________ ________________
$400 to $500.____ ______________ ________ ______
$500 to $600____________________ ______________
$600 to $700___________________________________
$700 and over_________________________________

74
92
100
66
40
47

5.29
3.91
3.35
2.80
2. 74
2.40

6
9
14
14
25
35

33
35
48
40
69
84

Birmingham, all families______________________________

202

3.67

21

77

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400___________________________________
$400 to $600 _________________________________
$600 and over---- ------- ----------------------------------- ...

88
60
54

4.56
3.43
2.49

13
29
34

58
100
84

Dallas, all families. __________________________________

294

3.31

18

58

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400_____________________________ _____
$400 to $600_________________ __________ ______
$600 and over___________________________ _____

94
105
95

4.29
3.17
2. 51

10
17
31

43
55
77

Houston, all families___________ ____ _________________

258

3. 40

23

79

Families w ith annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400___________________________________
$400 to $600_________________________ ____ ____
$600 and over_________________________________

68
96
94

4. 47
3. 38
2.63

11
24
37

51
80
97

Jackson, all families___________________________________

150

3. 55

22

77

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400___________________________________
$400 to $600..... .........................................................
$600 and over________________________________

39
76
35

4. 75
3. 34
2. 68

13
22
38

62
73
101

178

3. 54

18

64

59
69
50

4.58
3.29
2.64

9
21
30

43
69
81

197

3. 57

J6

56

92
69
36

4. 52
2.82
2. 56

9
21
32

42
60
83

194

3. 53

23

83

73
63
58

4. 56
3.28
2.49

12
23
52

53
75
129

146

4.03

15

62

74
41
31

5.07
3.26
2.59

10
22

49
71
80

Jacksonville, all families____________________________
Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400_____________ _____________________
$400 to $600............................................... .............
$600 and over_____________________________ _
Louisville, all families___________________________ ___
Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400..... ................................ .......................
$400 to $600..... ............................................... ..........
$600 and over______________ _______ _________
Memphis, all families.................................................. .......
Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400.._______ ____ ____ ___________ ____
$400 to $600___.............. ........................... ..............
$600 and over___________________ ___________
Mobile, all families_______________________________

.

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400.............. ................. ...............................
$400 to $600............................................................. .
$600 and over.............................................................




------------- “

75

EXPENDITURES FOR SPECIFIED GOODS
T able 24 . —

E x p en d itu res f o r m edical care at successive econom ic levels, 1 yea r
during the period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 — Continued

City and economic level

Number
of
families

Average
Average
Average
number of expenditure expenditure
persons
for medical for medical
per
care per
care per
family
person
family

New Orleans, all families__________________________ . . .

318

3.80

$14

$55

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
Under $300_______ ____ _______________________
$300 to $400.................. .......... ................. .................
$400 to $600........................ .......... ........ ................
$600 and over.________________________________

97
60
108
53

5.08
3.90
3.24
2. 52

7
11
19
38

33
45
60
95

Norfolk, all families ________________ ________________

162

3. 63

18

64

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400________________ ____ _____ ____
$400 to $600___________________________________
$600 and over..._______ _____ _________________

48
63
51

4. 89
3. 67
2. 39

8
20
31

40
74
75

Richmond, all families........ ............ . _ _______________

192

3. 79

22

83

Families with annual unit expenditure of—
$100 to $400
______
______________________
$400 to $600 ....................................... ........ .......... .
$600 and over._________ ________________ ______

69
66
57

5.04
3.57
2. 54

12
24
43

60
84
109

Except in Memphis, at every economic level in each city the pro­
portion of families reporting payment for the use of the services of a
clinic was small, particularly in view of the fact that it is usual for
clinics to make some nominal charge for all service, even to very poor
families. In Memphis, about 10 percent of the families reported the
use of this service, while in the other cities except Jackson and Mobile
the proportion ranged from 1 in 50 to 1 in 100. In the two excepted cities,
no families reported any such expenditures. The amount spent per
family for the use of clinics seems not to be a function of plane of
living, since there was no discernible movement of either increase or
decrease in amount with rise in economic level.
No figures were secured of the amount of free medical care received
by these families.
W ith the exception of Baltimore, Memphis, New Orleans, and N or­
folk there was a distinct increase in the expenditure per family for
accident and health insurance with rise in economic level. For all
families, it ranged from less than $3 in Norfolk to $11 in New Orleans.
Formal Education

If the investigation had been extended to cover all the goods and
services received without direct expense by the groups studied, a large
section of the schedule would have been devoted to the amount and
kinds of education provided by the city and by other agencies for
children and adults. Elementary school, high school, and trade school
classes, and classes in museums and libraries and parks, free of im­
mediate cost to those who take advantage of them, are to a greater
or less degree a regular part of the life of all the 12 cities covered by




76

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THE

SO U TH

this report. They are, of course, paid for by the citizens, but no
figures have been secured in the present study on the use of these
educational facilities by the group covered, or the indirect cost of this
group of the city’s educational system.
Direct expenditures for formal education (see Tabular Summary,
table 16), for textbooks, school supplies, and tuition, occupy but an
insignificant place in the expenditure pattern of the families studied.
They accounted for one-half of 1 percent of total expenditures among
the families studied in each of the 12 cities covered in this area.
A function of number of persons of school age in the various families,
direct outlays for formal education showed no positive correlation
with economic level. In every city the bulk of all formal education
expenditures, which averaged between $4 and $9, were for members
living at home. They covered all such items as books, pencils, paper,
and supplies.
In five cities no families reported expenditures for education of
members living away from home. In the remaining cities the per­
centage of families reporting these expenditures reached a maximum
of four in Birmingham, Dallas, and Richmond.
Vocation

Expenditures for union dues or fees, professional association dues
or fees, technical literature, and similar items have been classified as
“ vocational expense” (see Tabular Summary, table 16). In general,
such expenditures increased sharply from the lowest to the highest
economic level, but the small number of cases upon which the averages
are based result in irregularities in tendency. The largest part of
these outlays went for union dues and fees, which ranged from $2
per family in Richmond to $7 in Memphis, and tended to increase
from the lowest to the highest economic level.
The number of families making expenditures for professional dues
or fees ranged from 1 in 5 cities to a peak of 18 in Dallas.
Gifts and Contributions to Individuals and to the Com munity
Welfare

For each of the 12 cities except Memphis, Mobile, and Norfolk, the
total amount contributed to the support of relatives and other persons
outside the economic family was uniformly greater than contributions
to religious organizations and community chests, and paid in taxes.
The former type of expenditure also increased much more rapidly from
the lowest to highest economic level.
The average amount spent per family in gifts and contributions to
individuals varied from an average of $18 in Baltimore and M obile
to $30 in Houston, Jacksonville, and Richmond. Contributions to




E X P E N D IT U R E S

F'OR S P E C I F I E D

77

GOODS

welfare agencies plus personal taxes ranged from $17 in Baltimore to
$30 in Norfolk.
In each of the cities, gifts to religious organizations constitute the
bulk of the contributions to community welfare. The proportion of
families making such contributions tended to increase slightly with
rise in living plane. The actual average contribution tended to in­
crease, but not in as great a proportion as the total community welfare
contribution.
Amounts paid in poll, income, and personal-property taxes increased
markedly from the lowest economic level to the highest. The average
expenditure per family for such items 9 ranged from 6 cents in Balti­
more to $6 in Norfolk. These variations are due in part to differences
in the laws of the various States at the time covered by the investiga­
tions.
Christmas and birthday gifts constituted the major proportion of all
expenditures for persons outside the economic family at both the lowest
and highest economic level in Baltimore, Dallas, and Norfolk. Con­
tributions for support of relatives exceeded expenditures for gifts at the
highest economic level in all other cities, and also at the lowest plane
in Birmingham, Jackson, Jacksonville, Louisville, and Richmond.
T

able

2 5 , — Percentage o f total expenditures f o r com m u n ity welfare and gifts and
contributions going to various item s , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 3 4 .-3 6

Jackson

Jacksonville

Louisville

Memphis

Mobile

202

294

258

150

178

197

194

146

318

162

192

$50

$45

$49

$48

$50

$46

$44

$39

$33

$54

$57

37.2
6.0
1.9

40.3
4.3
3.9

29.0
6.7
2.9

30.7
2.1
7.5

35.4
3.7
1.2

33.1
4.4
2.3

39.3
6.9
3.1

45.2
7.4
2.2

30.9
7.7
5. 4

39.7
4.3
11.2

31.6
6.9
8.9

19.0
33.6

31.6
18.6

28.3
30.4

16.7
41.8

22.5
35.3

16.6
38.1

30.1
19.5

16.3
27.6

24.0
27.0

24.4
18.6

24.7
24.6

2.3

1.3

2.7

1.2

1.9

5.5

1.1

1.3

5.0

1.8

3.3

Richmond

Houston

5
*
<
u
£

Norfolk

Dallas

Number of families in
419
survey____ - _ ______
Total expenditures for
community welfare and
$35
gifts and contributions..
Percentage of expendi­
tures for community
welfare and gifts and
contributions:
Religious organiza­
45.3
tions-. ___ - _
3.1
Community chest___
0.2
Taxes1 ___ ______
Christmas, birthday,
etc., gifts___________ 30.6
Support of relations... 19.9
Support of other per­
0.9
sons -------------- -------

C
G
a
<
3
a
>

Birmingham

Item

Baltimore

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

i Included only poll, income, and personal-property tax.
9 Taxes on real estate are not included in these averages. They were entered with expenditures for housing.
Sales taxes were included with expenditures for the items to which they apply. See appendix A, p. 649.




78

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'E T H E

SO U TH

Miscellaneous Items

In general, expenditures for all miscellaneous items increased rap­
idly from the lowest to the highest economic levels, but due to the
small numbers of families reporting them, great irregularities in
tendency appear for the individual items.
Expenditures for funerals were reported by one family in Dallas,
Jacksonville, and Memphis, and by a maximum of seven in New
Orleans, at an average cost ranging from $26 in M obile to $415 in
Louisville. Legal costs and gardens were other outstanding items in
this group of expenditures, although usually averaging less than a
dollar and a half in all cities except Birmingham, where $4 was spent
on these items.




Chapter 3
Distribution of Current Expenditures in 1934-36 as
Compared W ith Those in 1917-19
In addition to covering families including a husband and a wife,
the present investigation also includes incomplete families of various
types, such as brothers and sisters living in the same household and
pooling their incomes, or a widow and her children. In this respect
it differs from that made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1917-19
in 11 of these 12 cities. The earlier study was restricted to families
having as a minimum “ a husband and wife and at least one child,
who is not a boarder or lodger.” 1 Since 2-person families, according
to the 1930 census, constituted 22 percent or more of the families of
two or more persons in each of the 12 cities covered in the 1934-36
investigation, the limitation of the earlier study was abandoned. Be­
cause of the more extensive coverage of the present study, special
tabulations are presented to make possible comparisons with the
earlier investigation.2
A comparison of the percentage distribution of expenditures by
families studied in 1917-19 3 with that by comparable families studied
in 1934-36 in cities in the southern region sheds much light on changes
in the consumption situation which have taken place between these
two periods. The cities in the South which were studied both in
1917-19 and in 1934-36 are Baltimore, Birmingham, Dallas, Houston,
Jacksonville, Louisville, Memphis, Mobile, New Orleans, Norfolk,
and Richmond. However, to make comparisons of the expenditures
of the two groups of families, it is desirable to convert the dollar figures
of the 1917-19 study to values which are comparable to the price
levels which prevailed in 1934-36. Cost of living indexes needed for
this conversion are available for all of these cities except Dallas and
Louisville. In the Tabular Summary, tables 21, 22, and 23 present
income and expenditure data for all 11 cities for families studied in
1934-36 which are of the same composition as those included in the
earlier study. The following discussion is, however, limited to the 9
cities for which indexes are available.
1 TJ. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cost of Living in the United States. Bull.
No. 357, 1924, p. 2.
2 Somewhat over one-half of the families from whom data were obtained in these cities in 1934-36 were of
the types studied in the 1917-19 investigation. For the white families the proportions ranged from 50.0
percent in Jackson to 62.9 percent in Jacksonville. A special summary of the income and expenditure
data from these families is presented in tables 21, 22, and 23 of the Tabular Summary.
The types of families contributing to the present survey and not included in the 1917-19 study are as
follows: families of man and wife only, man and wife and other persons over 16 years old, and incomplete
families not including a married couple.
sData for this study are published by the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, Cost of Living in the United States, Bull. No. 357, 1924.




79

80

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO U TH

The percentage changes which have taken place in the costs of
goods from 1917-18 to 1934-36 for Baltimore, Birmingham, Houston,
Jacksonville, Memphis, M obile, New Orleans, Norfolk, and R ich­
mond are given in table 26. Costs of food and clothing decreased for
all the cities, while those for miscellaneous items increased. The cost
of the other component parts of the family budget had also changed
considerably.
T a b l e 26 . — Percentage change in the cost o f goods purchased hy wage earners and
clerical workers f r o m the tim e o f the 1 9 1 7 - 1 8 su rvey to the tim e o f the 1 9 8 4 ~ 8 6
su rvey 1

[Families of wage earners and clerical workers—White other than Mexican]

City

Baltimore___________________
Birmingham_____ ___________
Houston___ ____ ____________
Jacksonville_________________
Memphis. ........... ........ .......... __
Mobile _______________ ____
New Orleans_____________ _
Norfolk.. .................. .................
Richmond_____________ _____

Food

-1 7 .0
-3 8 .2
-2 7 .2
-3 2 .0
-3 6 .2
-3 6 .4
-3 2 .6
-3 1 .7
-3 6 .2

Clothing

-1 2 .4
-2 6 .2
-2 2 .0
-2 6 .6
-2 3 .6
-2 1 .2
-2 7 .3
- 6 .9
-2 1 .5

Rent

+15.0
-3 3 .0
- 8 .3
-2 5 .7
-1 2 .0
-1 4 .9
+14.5
-1 1 .9
- 2 .6

Fuel and
light

Housefur­
nishing
goods

+25.3
+ 4 .1
-2 1 .5
+ 8 .5
+21.4
- 7 .1
- 8 .0
+ 8 .9
+16.8

+ 0 .1
-2 2 .5
+ 2 .2
-1 2 .7
-1 4 .9
- 8 .8
-1 0 .6
- 4 .4
-.2

Miscella­
neous
H39.5
-10.0
-15.0
-16.9
1-19.8
K20.7
1-27.1
[-31. 2
(-27. 2

i The schedules taken in Baltimore cover the year ending July 31,1918; in Norfolk, the year ending Nov.
30, 1918; in Birmingham, Houston, and Richmond, the year ending Dec. 31, 1918; in Memphis, Mobile,
and New Orleans, the year ending Jan. 31, 1919; and in Jacksonville, the year ending Feb. 28, 1919.

T o secure goods which cost $1,500 at the time covered by the
1917-19 survey, it would have been necessary to spend at the time
covered by the second survey $1,168 in Birmingham, where the great­
est decrease in price level appears, but $1,358 in Norfolk, where the
least decrease is shown. Baltimore is the only city in the group where
the price level was higher and it would have been necessary to spend
$1,532 at the second period for goods which cost $1,500 at the time
covered by the 1917-19 survey.
Comparing the families in the $1,200 to $1,500 income band in the
1917-19 study with the similar families studied in 1934-36, one of the
most striking facts is the general increase in the level of expenditure.
From table 27, this change is apparent. When the figures on average
expenditures by the wage earners and clerical workers studied in the
nine cities have been converted to the purchasing power prevailing
during the period of the present investigation, there are increases in
total expenditures, ranging from $16 in Baltimore to $393 in Bir­
mingham. The percentage increases in the real level of expenditure in
these cities are shown in table 28. They are not a result entirely of
increases in real incomes. In contrast with the situation found in
1934-36, where this group of families in all cities except Baltimore
reported expenditures in excess of incomes, the group studied in
1917-19 reported savings averaging from $17 in Richmond to $99 in
Birmingham in terms of 1934-36 dollars.




T able 2 1

.

— D istribution o f current f a m i ly expend itures in 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 1 and 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

[White families of wage earners and clerical workers with annual net incomes of $1,200 to $1,500]
Baltimore

Ex
penditure

Per­
cent

Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

Memphis
Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

Mobile
Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

New Orleans
Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

Norfolk
Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

Richmond
Ex­
pend­
iture

Per­
cent

18

35

41

42

17

50

100.0 $1, 307
41.0
474
231
13.9
17.1
238
74
4.9
23.1
290

100.0 $1, 301
36.3
487
210
17.7
18.2
247
5.6
64
22.2
293

100.0 $1, 315
37.4
513
16.2 .
238
19.0
211
4.9
58
22.5
295

100.0 $1, 275
539
39.0
190
18.1
16.1
219
4.4
46
22.4
281

100.0 $1, 349
514
42.3
262
14.9
17.2
242
3.6
106
22.0
225

100.0 $1, 310
38.1
515
19.4
202
17.9
216
7.9
67
16.7
310

100.0
39.3
15.4
16.5
5.1
23.7

100.0
33.9
12.2
23.7
4.6
25.6

$952
294
134
177
57
• 290

100.0 $1,147
392
30.9
14.1
142
199
18.5
65
6.0
349
30.5

100.0 $1,097
34.2
322
169
12.4
202
17.3
65
5.7
30.4
339

100.0 $1,119
29.4
310
15.4
160
242
18.4
5.9
55
352
30.9

100.0 $1,108
27.7
326
14.3
188
21.6
185
4.9
53
31.5
356

100.0 $1, 136
363
29.4
17.0
138
16.7
237
41
4.8
32.1
357

100.0 $1, 221
351
32.0
12.1
244
230
20.9
101
3.6
31.4
295

100.0 $1,173
28.7
329
20.0
158
225
18.8
8.3
67
24.2
394

100.0
28.0
13.5
19.2
5.7
33.6

35
100.0 $1, 345
36.2
436
9.7
141
291
24.6
4.2
62
25.3
415

41
100.0 $1, 410
32.4
432
142
10.5
245
21.6
4.6
103
30.9
488

23
100.0 $1, 353
450
30.7
10.1
128
267
17.4
36
7.3
34.5
472

29
100.0 $1, 413
33.2
416
9.5
156
19.7
306
2.7
95
34.9
440

24
100.0 $1, 397
29.5
436
11.1
176
21.7
268
6.7
97
31.0
420

34
$1, 329
480
139
317
35
358

28
100.0 $1, 392
515
36.1
10.5
145
337
23.8
2.6
86
27.0
309

23
100.0 $1, 364
37.0
444
10.4
138
24.1
349
6.2
60
22.3
373

166.6
31.2
12.6
19.2
6.9
30.1

166.6
32.6
10.1
25.6
4.4
27.3

by means of percentage changes in the cost of food, clothing, rent, fuel, and light, fur­
niture and furnishings, and miscellaneous items, from the year of the earlier studies in
each of the 9 cities.
3 Expenditures in 1934-36 dollars. For detailed distribution of expenditures, see
Tabular Summary, table 23.
4Includes refrigeration.

E X P E N D IT U R E S

35
100.0 $1, 313
39.0
539
182
14.9
18.4
225
6.1
64
21.6
303

CURRENT

37
100.0 $1, 222
41.8
476
14.3
182
20. 5
226
4.7
74
18.7
264

1 Data for 1917-19 based on figures published in Bureau of Labor Statistics' Bulletin
357, pp. 9, 10, 34, 36, 42, 44, 46, 48, and 54. The period covered by the schedules secured
in the various cities is as follows: Baltimore, year ending July 31, 1918; Birmingham,
Dec. 31,1918; Houston, Dec. 31,1918; Jacksonville, Feb. 28,1919; Memphis, Jan. 31,1919;
Mobile, Jan 31, 1919; New Orleans, Jan. 31, 1919; Norfolk, Nov. 30, 1918; Richmond,
Dec. 31, 1918.
2 Data in terms of 1934-36 dollars were computed from original expenditure figures




Jacksonville

OF

Families studied in 1917-19:
Number___ _
__ ...... ................. .
60
Expenditures in 1917-19:1
Total...... ................................... ........ $1,310
Food_______ _________________
547
Clothing... _________________
187
Housing, fuel, and light______
269
62
Furniture and furnishings___
Miscellaneous________________
245
Expenditures in terms of 1934-36:2
Total................................ ................. $1, 338
Food................................ ..........
454
Clothing_____________________
163
Housing, fuel, and light______
317
62
Furniture and furnishings___
342
Miscellaneous________ ______
Families studied in 1934-36, types compa­
rable with those studied in 1917-19:3
Number___ ______________ _________
65
Total________________________________ $1, 354
Food________ ______ _____________
490
Clothing...____ _________________
131
Housing, fuel, and light4_________
333
Furniture and furnishings_______
57
Miscellaneous___________ ________
343

Per­
cent

Houston

D IS T R IB U T IO N

Ex­
pend­
iture

Birmingham

OO

82

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO U TH

An analysis of the figures secured from the groups studied in
Birmingham in the two periods will illustrate the type of changes in
family living which have occurred in the interval between the investi­
gations. The group in the income band $1,200 to $1,500 in 1917-19
spent on the average $1,222 for current living. Of this, $476 (39 per­
cent) was spent for food. Because of the decline in food prices, the same
kinds and quantities of food could have been purchased for $294 at the
time of the second investigation, but food habits had changed to such
an extent that the group studied in 1934-36 actually spent on the
average $142 more than this for food, $436 or 32.4 percent of their
total current expenditures. Clothing prices also declined. Although
the average clothing expenditures of the group in the income band
$1,200 to $1,500 in 1934-36 were $41 less than those in the same
income band in 1917-19, they were $7 more than the calculated 193436 cost of clothing bought in 1917-19. The average expenditures for
furniture and furnishings of the group of families studied in 1934-36
were $12 less than those of the group studied at the earlier period, but
$5 more than the calculated 1934-36 cost of furniture and furnishings
bought in 1917-19. The cost of housing, fuel, and light decreased,
while that of miscellaneous items increased in Birmingham in the
interval between the two surveys. The group studied in the second
period is found to have spent more for these two groups of items
both in dollars and percentage wise than the group studied in the
earlier investigation.
A comparison of the cost of the 1917-19 purchases in 1934-36
dollars with the actual purchases in 1934-36 shows in all nine cities a
tendency toward larger purchases of food and larger current expendi­
tures for housing, fuel, and light. Expenditures for clothing decreased
in six cities, increased in two and in one city the same average ex­
penditure is shown for the two periods. Expenditures for furniture
and furnishings increased in four cities and decreased in five.
The group covering miscellaneous items in each city claimed a
larger percentage of the 1934-36 total than appeared in the 1917-19
purchases expressed in the dollars of those years. The percentage
allotted to miscellaneous items in 1934-36 is larger in only three of
the nine cities, however, when the 1917-19 purchases are converted
to the 1934-36 price level.
T a b l e 2 8 .— D ifferen ces in in com es and current expend itures 1 between the groups
studied in 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 and 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 in 9 cities
[Wage earners and clerical workers with annual net incomes of $1,200 to $1,500—White families]
Incomes

Expendi­
tures

P ercen t

City

P ercen t

-1 .4
Baltimore...........................
+26.0
Birmingham,.....................
Houston
____________
+14.3
+19.2
Jacksonville_____________
+17.2
Memphis-----------------------Both in terms of the 1934-36 price level.

1




+1. 2
+41.3
+22.9
+23.3
+26.3

Mobile_____ _____ ______
New Orleans____________
Norfolk _______________
Richmond________ _____

Incomes

Expendi­
tures

P ercen t

City

P ercen t

+16.7
+12.9
+8.3
+13.7

+26.1
+17.0
+14.0
+16.3




Part II.— Negro Families
83




Chapter 1
Income Level and M oney Disbursements
Schedules were obtained from Negro families in Baltimore, Bir­
mingham, Jackson, Louisville, Memphis, M obile, New Orleans, N or­
folk, and Richmond. These samples were chosen at the same time
and in the same way as those for the white families in these nine cities,
and represent a cross section of the families of employed Negroes in
1935-36. The families studied cannot be regarded as representative
of the total Negro population of wage earners and clerical workers in
each of these cities, since there was a minimum income and employ­
ment requirement, and the study did not extend to families on relief.
(For the proportions of families excluded from the study because of
this ruling, see section below on “ family size and composition.” )
Family Income 1

Family incomes of the selected group surveyed averaged about $800
in Birmingham, Jackson, Memphis, Mobile, and New Orleans; about
$900 in Norfolk and Richm ond; and between $950 and $1,000 in
Baltimore and Louisville.2
The average income was influenced in all cities by a scattering of
the higher incomes. Median incomes were somewhat lower than the
mean; that is, more than half of the families received incomes less
than the average for all families. Table 29 shows the average net
money income, and the incomes below which one-fourth, one-half,
and three-fourths of the families surveyed fell.
T able 29.—

F a m ily in co m e , 1 yea r d uring the period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6

[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Item

Number of families in survey .
Net money income:
Arithmetic average..........
First quartile____ ______
Median_________________
Third quartile...................

Balti­
more

Bir­
ming­
ham

Jackson

Louis­
ville

Mem­
phis

Mo­
bile

New
Orleans

NorRich­
folkPorts- mond
mouth

107

101

100

74

94

94

83

109

96

$990
770
936
1,164

$828
635
767
916

$784
624
706
905

$969
780
887
1,088

$821
628
780
936

$759
583
721
851

$841
641
780
1,005

$939
718
884
1,088

$929
725
847
1,027

1 Details of family income when families are classified by economic level, are in Tabular Summary, table 2,
and when classified by income level, in Tabular Summary, table 5.
2 R. A. Fisher’s method for the analysis of variance as exemplified in intraclass correlation (discussed on
pp. 210 and 211 of his “ Statistical Methods for Research Workers,” 5th ed., London, 1934) was used to test
whether the mean incomes obtained in the two cities differed more than could be expected if successive
samples had been drawn at random from the same population. It was found that the range in the incomes
of both groups is so large that no statistical significance can be attributed to the differences between average
incomes of Negro families found in the cities in this area. There is, however, a significant difference between
the average incomes of the white and Negro families studied in these cities.

74390°— 41------7




85

86

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO U TH

It will be remembered that the plan of the Study provided that no
family with an income of less than $500 be included. In each of the
groups surveyed, the maximum family incomes received were: Balti­
more, $2,696; Birmingham, $1,976; Jackson, $2,004; Louisville, $1,973;
Memphis, $1,842; Mobile, $1,670; New Orleans, $1,692; Norfolk,
$1,982; and Richmond, $3,449. In Jackson, Memphis, Louisville
New Orleans, and Norfolk these maximum incomes were attained by
families having but a single earner, who was a mail carrier in the first
two cities, an engineer in the fire department in Louisville, a boiler­
maker on a railroad in New Orleans, and a packer in the N avy Yard
in Norfolk. From two to four earners were contributing to the
funds of the families having the maximum incomes in the other four
cities. For example, in Baltimore, the family receiving $2,696 had
four earners, the homemaker being engaged in private domestic
service, with one son a cook in a hospital, another son a baker’s
helper, and a third son an unskilled laborer in the lumber industry.
In accordance with the fundamental purpose of the investigation,
the chief source, of family income was earnings. The highest earn­
ings reported for any one individual among the Negro groups studied
ranged from $2,004 for a mail carrier in Jackson to $1,300 for an
embalmer in Mobile. Income from all other sources, of which net
earnings from boarders and lodgers were the largest part, ranged from
$12 in New Orleans to $52 in Richmond. Gifts from persons outside
the economic family (chiefly relatives) accounted for less than 50
cents in two cities and a maximum of $4 in Memphis.
Families of unskilled wage earners predominate in the samples
studied in each of the nine cities except Richmond, where semi­
skilled workers are the most numerous. Families of the latter type
are the second most numerous in the other eight cities. Except in
Louisville, 10 percent or less of the families had skilled workers as
chief earners and 5 percent or less had chief earners engaged in clerical
work. In Louisville, the corresponding proportions were 15 percent
and zero.
The importance of earnings of subsidiary earners in family income
is about the same for the Negro as for the white families studied.
In general it is apparent that the percentage of total income pro­
vided by the chief earner decreases with a rise in total family in­
come, while the percentage provided by subsidiary earners increases
markedly. The average number of persons reporting employment
at any time during the year 3 was substantially higher at the upper
levels in most cities. In Baltimore, for instance, there were 1.36
gainful workers at the $600 to $900 level, but 2.33 for the $1,500 and
over group.
3
A gainful worker is defined as a person having had some gainful employment in business or in industry
or domestic service at any time during the year.




IN C O M E

T able 30. —

LEJVETj A N D

M ONEY

87

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

Sources o f f a m i ly in com e at successive in com e levels , 1 yea r d uring the
period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Percentage of income from—
Average
number
of gainful
workers Earnings Earnings
of sub­
Other
per
of chief
sidiary sources3
family ’
earner
earners 2

Number
of
families

Average
net
money
income

Baltimore, all families_____ _____________
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600..________ ___________
$600 to $900......................................
$900 to $1,200— . ...........................
$1,200 to $1,500— ................... ........
$1,500 and over__________________

107

$990

1.60

80.0

18.4

1.6

8
36
42
15
6

539
758
1,028
1, 338
1,890

1.50
1.36
1.62
1.87
2.33

90.4
89.5
81.5
70.5
62.8

9.6
10.2
17.2
23.3
37.2

0
.3
1.3
6.2
0

Birmingham, all families________________
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600______________________
$600 to $ 9 0 0 -...........— ____ _____
$900 to $1,200-............................. .
$1,200 and over...............................

101

828

1.60

87.2

11.8

1.0

22
52
16
11

548
752
995
1,492

1. 59
1. 54
1.88
1.55

91.4
92.8
72.7
85.3

8.4
6.4
24.9
14.3

.2
.8
2.4
.4

Jackson, all families____________________ _
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600______________________
$600 to $900.................................... .
$900 to $1,200-................................
$1,200 and o v er...........................

100

784

1.66

86.7

12.0

1.3

20
54
20
6

541
710
983
1,593

1.90
1.41
2.00
1.83

82.1
93.5
76.2
86.1

17.7
5.6
22.0
10.4

.2
.9
1.8
3.5

Income group

74

969

1.42

90.7

8.4

.9

37
24
8
5

762
1,016
1, 329
1, 666

1.30
1.42
2.13
1.20

93.4
89.9
85.3
92.8

6.3
9.9
14.3
2.8

.3
.2
.4
4.4

Memphis, all families____________________
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600_____________ ________
$600 to $900...... ............ ... .................
$900 to $1,200....... .......................... .
$1,200 and over..... ............................

94

821

1. 22

92.9

6.1

1.0

15
53
19
7

553
741
1,018
1,468

1.13
1.17
1.37
1.43

99.3
94.6
89.5
88.3

0
4.5
9.9
10.5

.7
.9
.6
1.2

Mobile, all families__ ______________ ____
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600______________________
$600 to $900...... ......................... —
$900 and over..................................

94

759

1.76

84.7

14.4

.9

28
48
18

556
733
1,139

1.60
1.62
2. 40

92.6
88.0
73.4

7.4
10.4
26.5

0
1.6
.1

83

841

1.41

88.1

11.8

.1

15
36
25
7

552
720
1,044
1,346

1.37
1.25
1.64
1.48

90.6
92.8
84.3
83.4

9.2
6.7
15.9
16.6

.2
.5
-.2
0

Norfolk, all families------------ --------------------Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600______________________
$600 to $900................. ..................... .
$900 to $1,200-..................................
$1,200 to $1,500..................................
$1,500 and over— .............................

109

939

1.50

87.6

11.5

.9

11
47
31
15
5

540
760
1, 019
1,327
1,836

1.45
1.42
1. 55
1.73
1. 20

91.7
87.8
87.6
82.7
95.5

8.1
11.3
11.6
17.0
1.7

.2
.9
.8
.3
2.8

Richmond, all families.. ........... ........ ........
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600______________________
$600 to $900.......................................
$900 to $1,200.....................................
$1,200 and over..................................

96

929

1. 77

75.3

20.7

4.0

11
41
33
11

553
766
1,034
1, 596

1.54
1.74
1.80
2.04

87.5
80.2
77.3
58.6

10.3
18.0
19.5
30.7

2.2
1.8
3.2
10.7

Louisville, all families___________________
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $900....................... ...............
$900 to $1,200-..................................
$1,200 to $1,500............................
$1,500 and over........................... .

New Orleans, all families.............................
Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600........ ...............................
$600 to $900.......................................
$900 to $1,200— .............................
$1,200 and over................................

1 A gainful worker is defined as a person having had some gainful employment in business or industry or
domestic service, at any time during the year. (Some families included persons in domestic service as
subsidiary earners.)
2Including net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
3 Less business losses and expenses not deductible from earnings of the year covered by the schedule.




88

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OE

THE

SO U TH

Size and composition of family.
The average number of persons per family among the Negroes was
about the same as or a little larger than among the white group in
each of the cities studied. Among the Negro families, it ranged from
3.51 in Memphis to 4.05 in Norfolk, which is larger than the median
size of all Negro families of two persons or more in these cities as
shown in the census of 1930 of 2.79 and 3.18 persons, respectively.
The average size of family would have been somewhat larger in
all the cities except Norfolk, if the investigation had been extended to
families on relief, among whom it varied from a maximum of 3.4 in
Norfolk to 4.4 in Shelby County (Memphis).
When the families are sorted by income, the number of persons
over 16 years of age tended to increase with rises in income, as shown
in table 5 of the Tabular Summary. Family size averaged about 3 per
family by the time the $1,200 income level was reached except in M o ­
bile, where there were 3.16 persons in the $900 and over income group.
The change in the number of children under 16 years of age with
increase in family income is very irregular. About half the families
were composed entirely of adults, and of these a large proportion were
husband and wife only.
Current Expenditures o f Each C ity Group as a Whole 4

Negro families in these nine Southern cities allotted relatively higher
proportions of their total expenditures to food and to housing, fuel,
light, and refrigeration, than did white families of comparable income.
Minor exceptions occur in the case of food in Baltimore and housing
in Birmingham, Richmond, and M obile. T o the most important
item, food, from 32 cents of each dollar in Richmond to 39 cents in
Norfolk was allotted, and to housing from 19 cents in Birmingham to
34 cents in Baltimore. Except in Birmingham, Memphis, and Nor­
folk, expenditures for clothing required a relatively smaller proportion
of the total family budget than among white families, ranging from
8.6 in Baltimore to 13.5 in Birmingham. These three items together
required between two-thirds and three-fourths of the total family
expenditures, which varied between $760 in Jackson and $970 in
Baltimore.
As a result of the relatively higher proportions allotted by Negro
than by white families to the three major items of family expenditures,
there occurs a somewhat different distribution of funds among the
minor items. The percentages allotted transportation and recreation,
which rank fourth and fifth in importance, are generally less than for
white families, although in Birmingham and Richmond recreation
was slightly higher for the Negroes. Transportation expenditures
accounted for about 6 cents out of every dollar spent and recreation
* Current expenditures are defined on p. 632.




IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

MONEY

89

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

about 5 cents. Expenditures for furnishings and equipment and for
household operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration were
slightly smaller than for white families. The amounts paid out for
medical care ranged from 2 percent in Baltimore to 5.8 percent in
Jackson; except in Jackson, M obile, and Richmond these percentages
were lower than average proportion spent for medical care by the
white families. On the contrary, the proportion of the Negroes’
total expenditures allotted to personal care was, with exception of
Baltimore and New Orleans, slightly higher, varying from 1.8 in
Baltimore to 2.6 in Jackson.
T

able

3 1 .— E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Item

Balti­
more

Bir­
ming­
ham

Jackson

Louis­
ville

Mem­
phis

$973

$806

$761

$920

$807

100.0
34.9
8.6
24.9

100.0
33.6
13.5
11.9

100.0
32.0
12.3
14.6

100.0
37.7
9.3
14.7

9.4

7.2

8.3

3.2

3.8

3.2

3.2

4.7

0.8
4.9
1.8
2.0
4.4
0.1
0.1
1.0
0.7
0)

Average annual current expen­
ditures for all items__________
Percentage of total annual cur­
rent expenditures for—
All items.............................. .
F o o d ..............................
Clothing......................... .
Housing____ __________
Fuel, light, and refrig­
eration___________
Other household opera­
tion_________________
Furnishings and equip­
ment______ ___ . . .
Automobile and motor­
cycle, purchase, oper­
ation, and mainte­
nance________________
Other transportation___
Personal care__________
Medical care______ ____
Recreation_____________
Education______ ____
Vocation______________
Community welfare___
Gifts and contributions
to persons outside
economic family_____
Other items____________

New
Or­
leans

Nor­
folk

$772

$815

$918

$919

100.0
35.9
10.9
15.1

100.0
35.7
11.1
12.3

100.0
38.2
9.8
19.2

100.0
38.5
10.2
14.5

100.0
31.7
11.0
12.8

10.0

9.7

7.4

7.6

9.6

11.3

3.6

3.2

3.4

2.8

3.3

3.9

4.2

3.6

4.2

3.8

8.2

5.3

4.4

3.6
2.9
2.4
4.5
6.3
0.7
0.5
1.6

6.2
0.9
2.6
5.8
5.4
0.7
0.1
1.7

3.7
3.2
2.1
3.9
4.2
0.2
0.1
1.7

1.6
3.7
2.5
4.3
4.6
0.4
0.1
1.5

4.3
2.1
2.3
5.6
5.7
0. 5
0.1
1.7

1.5
3.2
2.2
4.2
4.9
0.2
0.2
1.1

1.4
3.1
2.0
3.2
4.8
0.4
0.2
1.7

1.8
3.0
2.5
6.4
5.7
0.4
0)
1.4

2.2
0.6

1.2
0.8

2.0
(0

1.6
0.7

2.3
1.7

1.5
0.2

1.5
0.3

2.6
1.0

Mo­
bile

Rich­
mond

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

Distribution o f Expenditures at Successive Income L evels 5

For the Negro families in these nine Southern cities, as incomes
increased the percentage spent for food and housing (including fuel,
light, and refrigeration) declined. Expenditures for clothing, house­
hold operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration, transportation,
and furnishings and equipment, on the contrary, tended to increase
with a rise in income level. The rise in the expenditures for clothing
was due not only to the fact that it is one of the most elastic items in.
the family budget, but also to the larger number of persons to be
clothed at the higher income levels. The dollar expenditures for
transportation showed the most striking changes from low to high
income levels, increasing threefold or more in all cities except Mem* See Tabular Summary, table 6.




90

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

Fig. 6

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY EXPENDITURES OF WAGE
EARNERS AND LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS
AT TWO DIFFERENT ECONOMIC LEVELS

LOUISVILLE, 1935-1936
NEGRO FAMILIES
ITEM

FOOD

HOUSING
INCLUDING FUEL,
LIGHT AND
REFRIGERATION

CLOTHING

MEDICALCARE

TRANSPORTA­
TION OTHER
THAN AUTOMOBILE

HOUSEHOLD
OPERATION

RECREATION
COMMUNITY
W
ELFARE,GIFTSl
CONTRIBUTIONS
FURNISHINGS
& EQUIPMENT
EDUCATION,
VOCATION a
MISC.
PERSONAL
CARE
AUTOMOBILE

U.S. BUREAU OF IABOR STATISTICS




PERCENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES

IN C O M E

LEVEL,

AND

MONEY

91

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

phis, where there was about a 50 percent rise. Except in Jackson
and Louisville, where the movement was irregular, outlays for recrea­
tion also increased.
For the other groups of items covered by current family expendi­
tures, no consistent movement from one income level to another
appeared, largely because such expenditures are not solely functions
of income, but are very much affected by the size and composition of
the families. In general, the percentages spent for personal care at
each income level fluctuated around the average for all families, as
did those for community welfare. Among the Negro families studied,
the percentages for medical care tended to increase with income.
Expenditures for vocation and education were negligible at every
level.
From table 32 it is apparent that the plane of living of the Negro
families studied as determined from income and the size and com po­
sition of family combined is similar to that found for the white
families. The increases in the unit expenditures by the Negro groups
at each income level were very irregular, as the number of persons
per family changed so widely.
T

able

3 2 .— Average unit expenditure at successive in com e levels , 1 yea r d uring the
period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Income group

Average Average
Average expendi­ amount
unit
spent for
clothing ture for all items
other
expendi­ items per per ex­
pendi­
ture
person
ture unit

Number
of
families

Average
expendi­
ture per
family

Average
unit
food
expendi­
ture

8
36
42
15
6

$523
765
1,011
1,243
1,863

$102
92
107
115
174

$13
20
28
36
61

$97
125
146
158
254

$152
237
281
310
505

22
52
16
11

547
749
1,000
1,312

77
75
98
140

20
33
52
63

73
87
193
244

171
195
353
449

20
54
20

510
711
962
1,381

62
85
78
89

17
36
32
41

72
131
109
166

153
254
'221
297

723
962
1,316
1,535

102

22
32
37
54

107
153
107
191

234
310
241
377

B A LTIM O RE

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600_______ ______ ___________
$600 to $900................................ ........... .
$900 to $1,200..... .......................................
$1,200 to $1,500........................................ .
$1,500 and over.—....................................
B IR M IN G H AM

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600_______ _______ __________
$600 to $900-.......................................
$900 to $1,200......................................... .
$1,200 and over.......................... ..............
JACKSON

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600.........................................
$600 to $900-............................................
$900 to $1,200................................. ........
$1,200 and over....................................... .

6

LOUISVILLE

Families with annual net income of—
$600 to $ 9 0 0 ............................................
$900 to $1,200............................................
$1,200 to $1,500..........................................
$1,500 and over.........................................




37
24
8

5

123
94
129

92

TW ELVE

T able 32. —

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

A verage unit expenditure at successive in com e levels , 1 yea r during the
period 1 9 8 ^ - 8 6 — Continued

Income group

Average Average
Average expendi­ amount
unit
spent for
clothing ture for all items
other
expendi­ items per per ex­
ture
pendi­
person
ture unit

Number
of
families

Average
expendi­
ture per
family

Average
unit
food
expendi­
ture

15
53
19
7

$565
748
1,022
1,231

$77
97
95
116

$21
31
35
51

$75
123
130
176

$172
253
261
345

28
48
18

570
722
1,207

79
86
99

18
30
38

88
109
137

184
223
275

15
36
25
7

561
713
991
1,272

74
88
104
125

18
23
33
43

96
94
121
179

188
206
259
348

11
47
31
15
5

523
762
995
1,299
1,607

90
95
112
110
125

17
21
34
40
65

82
98
136
136
144

192
216
283
288
335

11
41
33
11

517
818
1,014
1,414

77
84
104
94

26
27
38
48

99
119
151
181

204
231
295
326

M EM PHIS

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600-..__________________ ____
$600 to $900-........................................$900 to $1,200______ ____ ________ ____
$1,200 and over........................ ...............
M OBILE

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600___ ____ ____________ ____
$600 to $900___ ____ ______ ____ _____
$900 and o v e r ........................................
N E W O RLEANS

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600_____ ____________________
$600 to $900______ _____ _____________
$900 to $1,200.............................................
$1,200 and over.................................... .
N O R FOLK

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600__________________________
$600 to $900____ ________ ____________
$900 to $1,200....... .............. ......................
$1,200 to $1,500_______________________
$1,500 and over______________________
RICHM OND

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600_________________ ________
$600 to $900__________________________
$900 to $1.200-_________ _____________
$1,200 and over_____________________ _

Order o f Expenditures at Different Economic L ev els 6

Since the incomes and the number, age, sex, and occupation of the
persons dependent on the funds of the Negro families varied quite as
much as among the white families, the data secured from the former
were also analyzed by economic level.7 The tendencies noted for
white families, i. e., increase in income and decrease in family size
with rise in economic level, obtain for the Negro families in all cities.
W ith a rise in economic level, there appeared a striking decline in
the percentage of expenditure allotted to food and a less extreme
decrease in that for housing (including fuel, light, and refrigeration).
The proportion of each dollar which was spent for clothing tended to
increase, although in some cities the movement was extremely irregular.
The general tendency for the other groups of items covered by cur­
rent family expenditures was also to increase in relative importance
with improvement in the economic status of the family.
6 See Tabular Summary, table 3.
7 For a description of the methods of computing and the meaning of economic level, see p. 688.




93

INCOME LEVEL AND MONEY DISBURSEMENTS

Interesting contrasts to the figures given in table 32 are presented
in table 33, which shows the changes in unit expenditures when
families are classified by economic level. Whereas the average unit
expenditure for all items increased threefold from the lowest to the
highest economic level, it increased only twofold from the lowest to the
highest income level.
T a b l e 33 . — A verage am ount spent

per expenditure unit at successive econom ic
levels , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 8 4 - 3 6

[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Economic level

Number
of fami­
lies

Average
Average Average Average Average amount
expendi­
total ex­ unit food
unit
spent for
ture for
pendi­
all items
expendi­ clothing
other
ture per
expendi­ items per per ex­
ture
family
ture
pendi­
person
ture unit

BA LTIM ORE

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
$100 to $200_______ ________ _________
$200 to $300_____ ____________________
$300 to $400__________________________
$400 to $500__________________________
$500 to $600__________________________
$600 and over________________________

24
28
21
18
9
7

$850
901
894
1,014
1,225
1,470

$64
101
129
156
171
218

$15
23
33
35
63
67

$74
121
172
235
317
400

$155
245
334
428
552
687

38
27
17
19

671
738
769
1, 212

58
94
107
151

26
36
44
62

58
111
173
292

141
244
329
516

28
39
22
11

678
748
737
1, 076

56
83
111
129

21
32
46
60

61
125
175
286

138
240
333
476

14
22
18
15
5

872
903
895
923
1,197

68
104
138
160
178

16
33
34
40
46

65
100
176
234
317

151
240
348
435
544

24
30
22
18

730
778
797
977

64
95
132
134

19
33
35
58

67
115
169
260

151
236
338
452

31
32
19
12

666
780
791
982

63
96
119
124

22
31
31
45

63
116
183
209

149
242
334
382

B IR M IN G H AM

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200__________ _______________
$200 to $300____ _____________________
$300 to $400_____ ____________________
$400 and over_________ ______________
JACKSON

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200__________________________
$200 to $300__________________________
$300 to $400__________________________
$400 and over________________________
LOUISVILLE

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200__________________________
$200 to $300__________________________
$300 to $400__________________________
$400 to $500__________________________
$500 and over............. ............... ........
M EM PHIS

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
$100 to $200........ ........................... ..........
$200 to $300........ ..................................
$300 to $400............................. ................
$400 and over________________________
M O BILE

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..__________ ______________
$200 to $300............................... ..............
$300 to $400......................... ....................
$400 and over............... .......... .......... .......




94
T

able

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
3 3 .— A verage am ount spent per expenditure u n it at successive econom ic
levels , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 — Continued

Economic level

Number
of fami­
lies

Average
Average Average Average Average amount
expendi­
total ex­ unit food
unit
spent for
pendi­
clothing ture for all items
other
ture per expendi­ expendi­ items per per ex­
ture
family
ture
pendi­
person
ture unit

N E W OR LEAN S

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..... ..................... ......... ..........
$200 to $300..............................................$300 to $400._________ _______________
$400 to $500.___________ _____________
$500 and over_________ ____ _________

27
22
18
9
7

$740
757
869
898
1,060

$63
92
130
165
201

$19
28
35
40
72

$61
113
164
248
281

$143
234
328
454

29
30
22
17
11

801
807
978
1, 039
1,210

68
104
135
146
203

16
27
43
49
69

54
107
157
238
302

139
238
337
435
579

25
23
24
12
12

842
861
877
1,006
1,195

65
93
113
124
159

21
31
41
58
55

66
118
185
255
381

152
242
340
437
595

552

NO RFOLK

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
Under $200................................................
$200 to $300______ __________ ______ $300 to $400__________________________
$400 to $500__________________________
$500 and over________________________
RICHM OND

Families with annual unit expenditure
of—
$100 to $200...................... ........................
$200 to $300______ _______ _______ ___
$300 to $400____ _____________________
$400 to $500__________________ _____ $500 and over............................... ..........

Order o f Expenditures at T w o Economic Levels

A comparison of the rank order of the different group items of
expenditure at the lowest and at the highest economic levels among
the Negro families, as shown in table 34,8 reveals an expenditure
pattern similar to that discovered among the white families. The
largest item, food, was first at both levels in all cities except Baltimore,
where average expenditures for housing by Negro families at given
income levels were considerably higher than in any other city in the
region. Housing expenditures (including fuel, light, and refrigeration)
ranked first at the lowest economic level in Baltimore, but held second
place at both levels in all other cities. Clothing was always the third
most important item except at the highest economic level in Jackson,
Mobile, and New Orleans, where it ranked fourth.
The greatest shift in rank order occurred in increased expenditures
for automobile transportation in every city except Norfolk, where
they dropped from eleventh to twelfth. The maximum gain occurred
in Mobile, where they moved from fourteenth place at the lowest
economic level to third at the highest. Gifts and contributions to
* In comparing this table with the similar figures shown for white families, it should be remembered that
variations in economic status are greater for the white than for the Negro group. The highest economic level
at which any considerable number of white families were found was that at which $600-$900 was spent for
expenditure unit, while for Negroes there were very few families spending more than $400-$500 per expendi­
ture unit.




IN C O M E

LEVEE AND

M ONEY

95

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

persons outside the economic family rose from relative obscurity,
i. e., around twelfth to fourteenth place, at the lowest level, to average
about ninth at the highest. Except in Baltimore, Birmingham, and
Jackson, expenditures for furnishings and equipment were one to four
ranks more important at the higher economic level. On the other
hand, outlays for household operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration dropped to eighth place in all cities except Baltimore,
where they rose to sixth. In general, recreation tended to maintain
a rank close to fifth at both levels. Personal care expenditures like­
wise were relatively constant at about ninth to eleventh place.
Since the expenditures for medical care throughout the group were
so small as not to provide for adequate health services, but were made
primarily for emergencies, their movement was irregular between
ranks and among the various cities.
T able 34. — Expenditures in rank order at two different economic levels, 1 year
during the period 1934~36
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

o
o
o

$400 to 500

o

$100 to 200

$100 to 200

&

$100 to 200

$400 to 500

$100 to 200

$400 to 500

$100 to 200

o
8

!

$100 to 200

St

$100 to 200

o
g

$400 to 500

$100 to 200

$100 to 200

Expenditure item

$400 to 500

Families with annual unit expenditure of-

Balti­
more

Food---------- ------- ---------------Clothing___________________
Housing, including fuel,
light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation..
Furnishings and equipment Automobile and motorcycle
purchase, operation, and
maintenance. .. _______
Other transportation_______
Personal care .................. .
Medical care.............. ..........
Recreation________ ______
Education............. ........... .
Vocation____ _ _. ________
Community welfare____ _
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside the eco­
nomic family____________
Other items_______________

Bir­
ming­ Jackham 1 son 1

2

1.5

1

1 1

3

3

3

3

3

2

2
8
6

2

1
1.5
7.5 6
6
7
11
4
9
7.5
5
12
13
10

7

5

10

10

4

8

7
6

4 8.5
10 12. 5
9 11 8.5
6
9 5
8
4 5 4
5
14
13 13 11
13 15 15
13
11.5 1 12 10
1

9

Louis­
ville

1 1
4 3

Mem­
phis

1

1

3

3

2 2
2
6.5 8
9
6

8
7

3 12
12 5
10 10
5 4
6 6.5
13 13
14 14.5
11 11

7
9
10

Mo­
bile

1

1
3

3

2

2

2

8

8

7
6

6.5 4

12
5
9
4 . 5 6.5
4.5 4
14.5 11
13 13.5
12 10

9.5
9.5
11
5.5
5.5
14
15
13

14.5 11.5 15 7 14
9 8 11 13.5 7
14.5 15
13 14 12.5 15 14.5 14.5 15 12

New
Or­
leans
1 1
4 3

2 2
8 6.5
10 9

3 12.5
12 4
11 8
5
5 6.5
4
7 5
12.5 14 11
15
15 14
10.5 9 10

14
9
8

Nor­
folk

Rich­
mond

1 1

i 1

1

4

3

3

3

2

2
4
6

2 2

2

8

8
6

8

5

3

6

4 7

12 11
7 9
10 8
6 8
6 4
3 5
5 5
15 12.5 14 12.5
13 14.5 13 15
12 10
11 10
7 11
9 7
10 9

9
10.5
10.5
4
5
14
15
13

12.5 13 12.5 11 12.5 9 12.5 7
14 14.5 15 14 12
10.5 6 15

i $400 and over instead of $400 to $500.

Although food expenditures ranked either first or second at both
levels in each city, the food consumption at the two levels was not
similar, due to the difference in actual dollars spent and in the size of
the families at the contrasted planes of living. As in the case of the
white families studied, the number of expenditure units 9 per Negro
8
Food expenditure units are computed from scales based on the estimated cost of customary food con­
sumption during the period of the survey. They may be used as a convenient common denominator in
studying differences in total food expenditures at different economic levels.




96

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO UTH

family decreased markedly from the lowest to the highest economic
level. When total food expenditures are divided by the number of
food expenditure units, the result gives striking evidence of the change
in food consumption from one level to another. (See table *32.)

Changes in Assets and Liabilities
As many as 74.3 percent of the Negro families studied in Louisville,
but only 50.6 percent of those in New Orleans, reported net surpluses
for the year covered by the schedule. The largest percentage having a
deficit, 39.6, occurred in Richmond, and the smallest, 24.3, in Louis­
ville. These families who were able to meet all the demands for
family living only by drawing on previously accumulated assets or by
using credit, averaged deficits ranging from $47 in New Orleans up to
$126 in Memphis.1 (For a definition of surplus and deficit, see p. 633.)
0
A small proportion of the families reported incomes just balancing
current expenditures. When all families in each sample are consid­
ered together, there results a net surplus amounting to between $53
and $11 in all cities but M obile, where there was a net deficit of $4.
When white families were classified b y consumption level (shown in
detail in the Tabular Summary, table 4) there was found a general
tendency for the figures on the net change in assets and liabilities to
show an average surplus for all families at the lowest levels and an
average deficit for all families at the higher. While this is not so
regularly true of the Negroes in the South, in some cities there is a
sharp decline in the amount of the surplus with progression to a
higher consumption level, and in M obile and Richmond the pattern
characteristic of the white families is clearly followed. Accumulated
reserves or the ability to command credit are important factors in
placing a family in a higher spending category in any given year.
An analysis of the change in assets and liabilities, as shown in table
35, indicates that reductions in assets and increases in liabilities tended
to grow from low to high economic levels. The rising tide of install­
ment buying stimulated by the depression and easing of credit in the
latter part of 1933 was a factor in the increase in liabilities of these
Negro families. In most cities, as the expenditure level of families
rose, increases in amounts due on goods purchased on the installment
plan assumed a larger proportion of the total increase in liabilities.
For example, in Memphis, increases in sums owed for goods purchased
on the installment plan amounted to 18 percent of the increase in all
liabilities at the low level and 54 percent at the high. A comparison
1
0
The figures just cited have been computed from the families’ own statement about changes in their assets
and liabilities, and do not represent a balancing difference between reported incomes and reported current
expenditures. (See appendixA, p- 634.) Most families were not able to present a statement of total
receipts and total disbursements which balanced exactly. No schedule was accepted for use from a family
which could not supply a statement of total receipts and total disbursements which balanced within 6
percent.




in c o m e

Le v e l

and

m oney

97

Di s b u r s e m e n t s

of the average increase in such liabilities with the decreases reported
by families who had smaller amounts outstanding on goods purchased
by this plan at the end of the year than at the beginning showed that
in all cities total installment obligations incurred during the year
were considerably larger than those paid off.
T

35.— Percentage of fam ilies having surplus and deficit, and net change in
assets and liabilities during the schedule year at successive economic levels, 1 year
during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6

able

[Negro families of waee earners and clerical workers]
Average amount of—

City and economic level

Num­
ber of
families

of families
having

Net change in assets and
liabilities for all fami­
lies

Surplus
per
family
having
surplus

Deficit
per
family
having
deficit

Net
sur­
plus

Baltimore, all families______________
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200____________ ____
$200 to $400_________
$400 and ov e r____ _________
Birmingham, all families. _ _ _ ____
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200_____ _________ .
$200 to $400___ ____ ________
$400 and o v e r.___________
Jackson, all families____ ____ ______
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200_________________
$200 to $400...... .........................
$400 and over_____________
Louisville, all families_______ ______
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200____ ____ _______
$200 to $400_________________
$400 and over_______________
Memphis, all families__________ . . .
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200. ___________
$200 to $400.............................
$400 and over_______________
Mobile, all families. ________ . . .
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200...____ _______
$200 to $400..............................
___________
$400 and over
New Orleans, all families________
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200_______ _________
$200 to $400.________ _______
$400 and over__________ ____
Norfolk, all families_________ . . . ..
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200 ............... ..............
$200 to $400 _____ ________
$400 and over...____ _______
Richmond, all families ______ _____
Families with annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Under $200 ________________
$200 to $400 ________________
$400 and over____________




Net
deficit

Per
fam­
ily

Per ex­
pendi­
ture
unit

Per
gainful
worker

107

72.9

25.2

+$31

+$9

+$19

$67

$70

24
49
34
101

75.0
71.4
73.5
61.4

20.8
28.6
23.5
34.7

+26
+23
+47
+25

+5
+7
+21
+7

+17
+14
+29
+16

50
51
103
90

55
44
122
88

38
44
19
100

63.2
59.1
63.2
69.0

36.8
34.1
31.6
30.0

+ 14
+31
+31
+26

+3
+11
+ 13
+8

+9
+19
+18
+16

49
100
150
72

46
81
201
78

28
61
11
74

71.4
68.9
63.6
74.3

28.6
29.5
36.4
24.3

+40
+ 17
+40
+53

+8
+6
+18
+16

+19
+11
+34
+37

69
58
165
96

31
75
179
76

14
40
20
94

71.4
82.5
60.0
73.4

21.4
17.5
40.0
24.5

+81
+52
+36
+16

+14
+16
+17
+5

+54
+37
+26
+13

130
86
97
64

55
111
53
126

24
62
18
94

50.0
82.7
77.8
61.7

45.8
15.4
22.2
36.2

-8
+35
-8
—4

-2
+12
-4
-1

-6
+28
-7
-2

41
58
98
52

63
87
380
100

31
51
12
83

64.5
64.7
41.7
50.6

32.3
35.3
50.0
25.3

+14
-4
-5 0
+27

+3
-1
-1 9
+8

+8
-2
-2 9
+19

46
51
92
77

49
102
176
47

27
40
16
109

40.7
57.5
50.0
66.1

22.2
30.0
18.8
31.2

+32
+19
+38
+25

+6
+6
+19
+7

+20
+14
+32
+17

88
61
108
86

17
52
86
102

29
52
28
96

75.9
63.5
60.7
59.4

24.1
30.8
39.3
39.6

+57
+17
+7
+11

+10
+5
+3
+3

+38
+11
+5
+6

92
73
102
88

54
97
140
105

25
47
24

48.0
63.8
62.5

52.0
36.2
33.3

+26
+11
-7

+5
+4
-3

+15
+6
-4

122
73
90

62
97
191

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

98
T

able

36.— Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule year at successive
economic levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Average de­
Average in­
creases in
creases in
amounts due
amounts due
Num­ Average Average on goods pur­ Average Average on goods pur­
ber of increase decrease chased on in­ decrease increase chased on in­
City and economic level fam­
in li­
stallment plan 1
in
in
in li­
stallment plan1
assets1 abilities 1
assets1 abilities1
ilies
Auto­
mobiles
Baltimore, all families...
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..........
$200 to $400_____
$400 and over___
Birmingham, all families.
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..........
$200 to $400_____
$400 and over___
Jackson, all families_____
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200...........
$200 to $400..........
$400 and over___
Louisville, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..........
$200 to $400..........
$400 and over___
Memphis, all families___
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..........
$200 to $400_____
$400 and over___
Mobile, all families_____
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200.........
$200 to $400_____
$400 and over___
New Orleans, all families.
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $2C0______
$200 to $400_____
$400 and over___
Norfolk, all families_____
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200______
$200 to $400..........
$400 and over___
Richmond, all families..
Families with annual
unit expenditure
of—
Under $200..........
$200 to $400______
$400 and over___

Other
goods

Auto­ Other
mobiles goods

107

$56

$23

$0

$5

$8

$38

$0

$30

24
49
34
101

43
44
81
43

7
15
44
35

0
0
0
2

4
2
9
13

2
6
16
9

22
29
63
45

0
0
0
5

15
19
56
16

38
44
19
100

29
44
68
50

17
32
76
28

0
2
3
5

12
13
17
5

2
5
30
8

31
40
82
44

0
2
20
7

15
15
20
13

28
61
11
74

46
35
141
58

24
20
79
38

3
7
0
0

4
4
15
11

4
47
10

29
34
134
33

1
6
29
2

7
11
42
13

14
40
20
94

70
61
43
53

46
35
41
23

0
0
0
1

12
9
14
5

12
12
4
22

22
32
44
39

0
3
3
1

6
12
21
13

24
52
18
94

64
39
81
41

14
22
39
20

0
2
0
2

4
6
3
6

7
9
78
21

79
16
50
43

0
2
0
8

14
7
27
13

31
51
12
83

34
45
40
33

19
18
32
15

0
0
16
(2
)

8
4
7
7

7
20
63
2

33
46
58
18

0
3
45
0

27
40
16
109

25
35
42
73

16
11
23
19

0
(2
)

0
1

4
7
12
6

4
3
6

8
23
23
61

0
0
0
2

3
11
21
29

29
52
28
96

71
61
97
62

25
17
16
34

0
0
3
1

2
8
5
11

1
1
22
28

38
60
85
57

0
3
0
0

9
23
62
25

25
47
24

40
58
93

46
25
40

0
2
2

5
14
11

9
22
59

50
49
81

0
0
0

24
30
15

(2
)

(2
)

8
20
(2
)

11

i
Averages computed by dividing the total number of families at each expenditure level into the aggregate
increases or decreases of the families reporting such increases or decreases.
* Less than $0.50.




IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

MONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

99

The most frequent form of savings among the Negro families in the
Southern region (see Tabular Summary, table 4) was the payment of
life-insurance premiums, which were reported by at least 90 percent
of the families in six cities and substantial proportions in the other
three. The average amount of such premiums per family paying
them ranged from $34 in Birmingham to $62 in Norfolk. The second
most frequently reported disposition of funds for other than current
expenses was payment on principal of mortgages and down payment
on owned homes in Baltimore, Jackson, and Louisville; and decrease
in installment payments due on goods other than automobiles in all
other cities except Norfolk, where it was payments on annuities.
On the other side of the balance sheet, the most frequently specified
sources of funds other than family income were net increases in
installment obligations for goods other than automobiles in Baltimore,
Birmingham, Memphis, and New Orleans; and except in Memphis
(where they were replaced by settlement of life insurance policies)
“ other debts,” which include doctors’ , grocers’ , and hospital bills,
were second. In the other five cities, these two items were also most
important, but in reversed order.
N o Negro families in Baltimore purchased automobiles. In the
other cities, of those families which purchased automobiles, a larger
proportion of Negroes than of whites financed them by installment
contracts of which a balance remained unpaid at the end of the year
covered by the schedule. Since a large number of the cars were
purchased second-hand and cost about $300, it is probable that many
families paid for them within the period of the schedule year. In
some cases, the families resorted to small loan companies for the
purpose of financing automobile purchase, but the figures as reported
in this study do not make possible any conclusions as to the proportion
doing so.




100

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SO U TH

Fig. 7

CHANGES IN ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OVER
THE SCHEDULE YEAR AMONG WAGE EARNERS
AND LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS
AT SUCCESSIVE INCOME LEVELS
RICHMOND, 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 5
NEGRO FAMILIES
DOLLARS

DOLLARS

ALL
FA M ILIE S

UNDER
900

900

1200

1200

O VER

AND UNDER

ANNUAL INCOME IN DOLLARS
U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




AND

Chapter 2
Expenditures for Specified Goods
Food
Ann ual Food Expenditure

The increase with economic level1 in the total amount of unit food
expenditure by the Negro families studied was noticeably greater
than that for the white families. Negroes spending between $400
and $500 per expenditure unit for all items paid out from 91 to 162
percent more for food for each adult male equivalent than those with
a total unit expenditure of $100 to $200. In five cities, the increase
was over 130 percent.
Average amounts spent for food per family increased with rise in
consumption level, but declined consistently in proportion to total
current expenditures. The actual dollar expenditures per family for
food prepared at home (including money spent for lunches carried to
work and to school) were much less regular. Outlays for food away
from home showed similar inconsistency. In five cities they increased
with rise in consumption level; in others, they reached their maxi­
mum at the intermediate level, and in Jackson, at the low.
In general, expenditures for meals at work also increased with rise
in plane of living. In Jackson, however, they decreased; in Baltimore
and New Orleans they were highest at the intermediate level; in
M obile no families reported purchases at the high level.
Only eight families reported payments for board at school.

Food expenditures in 1 wee\ of the spring and winter quarters.
Data on the purchase of 194 separate foods by the Negro families
studied are available for one typical week in one quarter for each
city 2 by families divided into three different economic levels. (See
1 Classification by consumption level or economic level is the term used to denote classification of families
by annual expenditure per unit for the total of all items of family expenditure. The unit used for this pur­
pose is the equivalent adult male. Each member of the family, taking into account age, sex, and activity,
is counted as the appropriate decimal equivalent of an adult male. In Tabular Summary, table 8, details of
annual food expenditures are shown by as many economic levels as the number of cases in each city and the
type of data for this table would allow. However, for purposes of discussion in the text, three comparable
levels for all cities are used. For the Negro families they are: Low: under $200 per expenditure unit; inter­
mediate: $200 to $400 per expenditure unit; and high: $400 and over per expenditure unit.
2In most cities, the field work extended over more than one season. The differences between the a\ erages
secured in the several quarters in such instances reflect not only seasonal differences in food purchases, but
also accidental differences in the economic level of the subsamples interviewed in the different quarters. It
was, therefore, decided to publish in full for each city only the estimates for that season in which data were
secured from the largest number of families. Data are for the spring quarter in Baltimore, Jackson, Louis­
ville, Mobile, and Norfolk-Portsmouth; for the winter quarter in Birmingham, New Orleans, and Rich­
mond; and in the winter and spring quarters combined for Memphis.

74390°— 41----- 8




101

102

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OE

THE

SO U TH

Tabular Summary, table 7.) When major food groups are compared,
there appear to be no marked differences due to seasonal variation in
consumption, except that in general, expenditures for green and leafy
vegetables were slightly larger in the cities studied during the spring.
The data show a notable increase in the expenditures for food per
person with rise in economic level. They also show that the types and
quantities of foods purchased are distinctly different at the various
levels.
For all cities, the per capita expenditures and quantities purchased
of meats, poultry, and sea food showed marked increases from the
low to the high economic level. Vegetables and fruits, important
sources of minerals and vitamins, likewise increased in both respects.
T able

37.— Expenditures for food per capita 1 per week
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Average per capita expenditures in 1 week in specified quarter

Spring

Balti­
more
Number of families furnish­
ing data on per capita food
expenditures in 1week____
Total expenditure for—
All foods..
_____
Grain products____
Eggs.------ -------------Milk, cheese, ice
cream____________
Butter and cream __
Other fats__________
Meat, poultry, fish,
and other sea food.
V e g e ta b le s and
fruits____________
Sugar and sweets___
Miscellaneous foods.
Sales tax. _________
Total expenditure for—
All foods...................
Grain products____
Eggs----------------------Milk, cheese, ice
cream____________
Butter and cream...
Other fats. ______
Meat, poultry, fish,
and other sea food.
V e ge ta b les and
fruits____________
Sugar and sweets.. _
Miscellaneous foods.
Sales tax __________

Jackson

Winter

Winter
and
spring

Bir­
Louis­ Mobile Norfolk ming­
ville
ham

New
Rich­
Orleans mond

Mem­
phis

95

46

62

94

75

101

77

86

86

$1.68
.29
.08

$1. 43
.29
.05

$1.73
.28
.09

$1. 52
.33
.05

$1. 69
.28
.08

$1.40
.26
.07

$1.53
.36
.05

$1.53
.20
.08

$1. 66
.26
.09

. 14
.07
.15

. 11
.04
.24

.17
.08
.21

.11
.05
.26

.09
.06
.23

.09
.04
.25

.11
.06
.15

. 10
.06
.17

.12
.08
.28

.48

.24

.41

.30

.45

.28

.33

.45

.31
.06
. 10
0

.24
.10
.10
.02

.30
.08
.11
0

.23
.09
.10
0

.30
.08
. 12
0

.21
.09
.11
0

.26
.08
.13
0

.24
.08
. 15
0

.32
.

.28
.11
.12
0

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

100.0
17.2
4.8

100.0
20.2
3.5

100.0
16.2
5.2

100.0
21. 7
3.3

100.0
16.6
4.7

100.0
18.5
5.0

100.0
23.5
3.3

100.0
13.1
5.2

100.0
15.7
5.4

8.3
4.2
8.9

7.7
2.8
16.8

9.8
4.6
12.1

7.3
3.3
17.1

5.3
3.6
13.6

6.4
2.9
17.9

7.2
3.9
9.8

6.6
3.9
11.1

7.2
4.8
16.9

P ercen t

28.6

16.8

23.7

19.7

26.6

20.0

21.6

29.4

19.3

18.4
3.6
6.0
0

16.8
7.0
7.0
1.4

17.4
4.6
6.4
0

15.1
5.9
6.6
0

17.8
4.7
7.1
0

15.0
6.4
7.9
0

17.0
5.2
8.5
0

15.7
5.2
9.8
0

16.9
6.6
7.2
0

1
Reasons for use of per capita rather than per food-expenditure unit figures for individual food items are
given in footnote 3, p. 47.

Changes in the quantities purchased of starchy foods, such as flour,
macaroni, rice, and other cereals, and average expenditures for such
foods, were irregular. Generally, they increased with rise in economic




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FOE

S P E C IF IE D

GOODS

103

level. Among other groups, most of whom were living on a higher
plane, it has been found that the reverse is true; when economic
resources increase, families vary their diets, and obtain more of their
calories from dairy products and other protective foods. All of these
Negro families were apparently still restricted, in general, to the con­
sumption of the cheapest foods available.
When average expenditures for single items of food are compared,
the differences between the food habits of the Negro families in the
South and those of other groups studied are very evident. Differences
are also apparent among the Southern cities. Milk, the item of
largest expenditure in the food purchases of almost every other group,
is first in Louisville only, dropping to second or third in the other
cities. In Louisville and Norfolk-Portsmouth the Negroes spent 15
and 6.8 cents per capita per week for milk, compared with 25.2 and
22.7 cents among the white families. When pounds of evaporated and
condensed milk are converted into equivalent pounds of fresh milk
and the quantities purchased at the low and high levels in the various
cities compared, it is seen that purchases at the high level were more
than 3 times as large as those at the low level in Louisville, Jackson,
Memphis, and New Orleans, and more than twice as large in Balti­
more, Birmingham, Mobile, and Norfolk.
This rapid expansion in consumption by workers’ families empha­
sizes the fact that means rather than tastes limit their purchases at
lower planes.
White bread was the item first in the amount of expenditure in
only two cities, Baltimore and New Orleans. Its place was taken by
white flour in all others except Louisville. Other items of food which
rank high in amount of expenditure and which point to the differences
in diets of this group are lard, salt side of pork, and fresh fish. In
general, quantity purchased and per capita expenditures increased
markedly between low and high economic levels.
An estimate of the adequacy of the food expenditures of these
Negro families reveals striking difference between those at the low
level and those at the high.3 The prices used in this calculation were
3
For the purpose of this estimate the size of each family was measured in adequate-food-cost units based
on the United States Bureau of Home Economics adequate diet at minimum cost (Stiebeling, H. K., and
Ward, M . M .: Diets at four levels of Nutritive Content and Cost, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Cir­
cular No. 296, Washington, 1933) and average food expenditures per adequate-food-cost unit were also
calculated for each family. These expenditures were compared with the calculated cost of this same diet
for a man at moderate work, which was taken as a unit in the adequate-food-cost scale.
It should be noted, however (cf. Hazel K. Stiebeling and Esther F. Phipard, Diets of Families of Em­
ployed Wage Earners and Clerical Workers in Cities, U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 507,
Washington, January 1939, pp. 78-85), that different selections of foods may produce adequate diets at
somewhat lower costs. Thus the Southern Negroes typically purchased low quantities of milk, tomatoes,
and citrus fruits, but this was to a large extent balanced by the purchase of inexpensive locally grown leafy
green and yellow vegetables such as collards, kale, mustard, and turnip greens. Stiebeling and Phipard
found that an adequate diet composed of the foods typically purchased by Southern Negro families could
be purchased for slightly less at 1935 prices than a similar diet consisting of foods customarily bought by
Southern white families, and both were somewhat less costly than similar diets based on Northern or
Western food consumption habits.




104

TWELVE -CITIES 0'F THE SOUTH

the average prices collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its
food cost indexes.
An estimate of the proportion of the families at each economic level
spending enough to purchase an adequate diet showed striking in­
creases with general improvement in plane of living. (See table 38.)
A t the lowest level, no family in any city was able to do this; at the
high level, the proportions ranged from 42 percent in M obile to 94
percent in New Orleans.
T able 38.— Proportion of fam ilies spending enough to purchase an adequate diet
at m inim um cost,1 1 year during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
City and item

All
families
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

BA LTIM O R E

Families in survey------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase an
adequate diet at minimum cost____________________________________

107

24

49

34

24.3

0

6.1

67.6

B IRM IN G H AM

Families in survey____________________________________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost__________________ _____________

101

38

44

19

15.8

0

6.8

68.4

LOUISVILLE

Families in survey____________ ____________________________ ________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost__________________________________

74

14

40

20

23.0

0

15.0

55.0

M EM PHIS

Families in survey-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost--------------------------- ---------------------- .

94

24

52

18

27.7

0

28.8

61.1

M OBILE

Families in survey______ _____________ ________ _____ __ . . _ _ ___
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost__________ _ __________ . . . ____

94

31

51

12

12.8

0

13.7

41.7

N E W ORLEAN S

Families in survey.. . . . _______________ . . . _ _________ ______ . . _
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost_________ _____ _________ ________

83

27

•0
4

16

30.1

0

25.0

93.8

N O R FO LK -PO R TS M O U TH

Families in survey________ _______
_________________________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost__________ ______________________

109

29

52

28

21.1

0

9.6

64.3

96

25

47

24

20.8

0

10.6

62.5

RICHMOND

Families in survey____________ . . .
.... _
______________________
Percentage spending enough per food expenditure unit to purchase
an adequate diet at minimum cost__________________________________

1 Based on the adequate diet at minimum cost of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home
Economics. The cost of this diet per adequate food cost unit per year during the period of the investiga­
tion was $128.65 in Baltimore, $118.01 in Birmingham, $127.71 in Louisville, $112.53 in Memphis, $113.31 in
Mobile, $107.03 in New Orleans, $128.02 in Norfolk and $118.51 in Richmond. Data are not presented for
Jackson because retail prices are not available for that city.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FOR

S P E C IF IE D

GOODS

105

Housing

Home ownership.
From 10 percent of the Negro families studied in New Orleans to 32
percent in Richmond owned their own homes. Due to the small
numbers in each sample, the relation of home ownership to economic
level appears irregular, though in five cities the proportion increases
with rise in expenditure level of the family. Probably because of the
relatively large family size, from 63 percent of the Negro families in
Richmond to 98 percent in Jackson either owned or rented a house.

Types of dwellings.
The proportions of Negro families living in detached one-family
dwellings, semidetached or row dwellings, two-family houses, or mul­
tiple dwelling units, bears a striking resemblance to the distribution
of white families in the same cities among these four kinds of housing.
The predominant type of dwelling reported by the Negroes was a
detached house for one family. While in Baltimore the figure was only
5 percent, in most cities more than one-half the families lived in this
way. As with the white families, the maximum percentage was re­
ported in Mobile, where the figure was 96. Row or semidetached
houses are the most frequent types of dwelling in Baltimore and in New
Orleans. Sixteen percent or less in each city resided in two-family
dwellings. Small proportions of families reported multiple-dwelling
homes in each city except Jackson, where not a single family lived in
one.

Size of homes.
Families owning homes enjoyed slightly more space than did renters
of houses. The comparative numbers of rooms are an average of
five against four. For the three cities with a sufficient number of
families living in apartments with heat not included in rent to warrant
the computation of separate figures, the average number of rooms per
apartment was about three.
A striking fact shown in table 39 is the consistent downward m ove­
ment in the number of persons per room with rise in economic level.
The relatively high standard of most of these families in regard to the
minimum necessary space is not to be taken as indicating the condi­
tion of all Negro families in these cities, since it must be remembered
that the sample is a cross section only of employed wage earners and
clerical workers who at no time during the schedule year had received
relief.




106
T

able

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SOUTH

.

39.— Average number of persons per room at successive economic levels,
1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Economic level—families with
annual unit expenditure of—
Item

ies
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

BALTIM O RE 12 3

Number of families in survey________________
A verage number of persons per room among—
Renters of houses-------------------------------------

107

24

49

34

.74

1.17

.64

.50

BIRM IN G H AM 1 2

Number of families in survey------------------------Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners____________________________
Renters of houses------------- ------------------------

101

38

44

19

.67
1.27

.98
1.60

.83
.95

.53
.89

JACKSON 12

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners------------------------------------------Renters of houses---------------------- ---------------

100

28

61

11

.86
.99

1.24
1.44

.73
.83

.62
.65

LOUISVILLE i 2

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among-r
Home owners------------------------------------------Renters of houses - _-------- ---------------- ---------

74

14

40

20

.82
.95

1.12
1.52

.87
.93

.40
.62

M EM PHIS 1

Number of families in survey------------------------Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners------------------------------------------Renters of houses________________ ______ _
Renters of unheated apartments. ...........
m o b il e

94

24

52

18

.87
.97
1.08

1.18
1.52
1.46

.89
.86
1. 03

.47
.54
.79

12

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners____________________________
Renters of houses-------------------------------------

94

31

51

12

1.10
1.09

1.27
1.45

1.02
.91

.87
.92

N E W O RLEAN S 12 3

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among—
Renters of houses________________________

83

27

40

16

1.04

1.45

.87

.72

N O RFOLK-PORTSM OU TH *

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners____________________________
Renters of houses_______________ _______ _
Renters of unheated apartments ...............

109

29

52

28

.86
.84
.97

1. 26
1.42
1.50

.63
.75
.94

.60
.43
.58

RICHMOND i

Number of families in survey________________
Average number of persons per room among—
Home owners____________________________
Renters of houses________________________
Renters of unheated apartments_________

96

25

47

24

.74
1.13
1.06

1.21
1. 47
1.94

.65
.85
.99

.52
.96
.84

1 Figures not presented for families living in heated apartments because of small number of families in this
classification.
2 Figures not presented for families living in unheated apartments because of the small number of families
in this classification.
3 Figures not presented for families living in owned homes because of small number of families in this
classification.

G a r d e n sp a c e a n d g a r a g e .

As with the white families, home owners surpassed renters in the
proportion of families having garden space by 2 to 1. Considerably
larger proportions of home owners than renters reported the use of a
garage. For example, in Richmond 19 percent of the home owners
and only 5 percent of the renters were so equipped.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

EOR

S P E C IF IE D

107

GOODS

Facilities.
None of the families in Birmingham and M obile, and none of the
home owners in New Orleans, lived in dwellings with all of the follow­
ing facilities: Inside flush toilets, running hot water, electric lights,
and gas or electricity for cooking. In the other cities, the home
owners fared better than did the renters in respect to having the use
of all four of these facilities. Table 40 shows the percentage of the
families having various facilities such as central heating, telephone,
etc., and confirms the impression that the home owners lived in
relatively more comfortable dwellings than did renters.
In table 9 of the Tabular Summary, the data on housing facilities
are presented in greater detail, including a break-down according to
economic level.
T

able

40. — Housing facilities at the end of the schedule year , 1 year during the
period 198J/.S6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Item

Number of families who
owned principal home at
end of schedule year___ .
Percentage of homes
having—
Central heat_______
Gas or electricity for
cooking. . . . . __
Electric refrigerator.
Running hot waterinside flush toilet.
Sole use of toilet___
Telephone_________
Garage____________
Garden sp ace .____
Play space_________
Each of the follow­
ing items:
I n s i d e flush
toilet,
runn i n g hot
water, electric
lights and gas
or electricity
for cooking___
Number of families who
rented principal home at
end of schedule year___ __
Percentage of renters
having—
Central heat_______
Gas or electricity
for cooking. ____
Electric refrigerator.
Running hot waterinside flush toilet.._
Sole use of toilet........
Telephone................
Garage.......... ............
Garden space______
Play space_________
Each of the follow­
ing items:
I n s i d e fl ush
t oi l e t , run­
ning hot wa­
ter, electric
lights and gas
or electricity
for cooking___




Balti­
more

Bir­
ming­
ham

Jackson

Louis­
ville

Mem­
phis

12

20

31

21

18

Mo­
bile

27

New
Orleans

8

Nor­
folk

26

Rich­
mond

31

91.7

10.0

0

9.5

27.8

0

0

7.7

3.2

83.3
16.7
91.7
91.7
100.0
41.7
8.3
75.0
83.3

10.0
5.0
25.0
85.0
100.0
20.0
45.0
80.0
95.0

25.8
3.2
16.1
22.6
100.0
29.0
48.4
77.4
87.1

57.1
4.8
42.9
57.1
100.0
33.3
42.9
81.0
95.2

16.7
5.6
16.7
77.8
83.3
50.0
44.4
50.0
61.1

7.4
0
7.4
48.1
100.0
14.8
33.3
55.6
88.9

0
0
12.5
50.0
100.0
0
12.5
50.0
62.5

30.8
15.4
26.9
46.2
100.0
11.5
7.7
38.5
61.5

48.4
3.2
35.5
58.1
96.8
12.9
19.4
19.4
54.8

83.3

0

9.7

42.9

5.6

0

0

15.4

32.3

95

81

69

53

76

67

75

83

65

28.4

1.2

0

3.8

30.3

0

0

2.4

4.6

43.2
2.1
47.4
66.3
81.1
1.1
1.1
36.8
53.7

1.2
0
1.2
49.4
72.8
1.2
3.7
48.1
61.4

8.7
0
4.3
21.7
79.7
7.2
14.5
39.1
79.7

54.7
1.9
30.2
52.8
79.2
7.5
20.8
66.0
75.5

2.6
0
6.6
40.8
59.2
10.5
11.8
25.0
15.8

0
0
1.5
28.4
83.6
4.5
9.0
32.8
91.0

25.3
0
16.0
73.3
82.7
4.0
5.3
24.0
46.7

12.0
1.2
8.4
38.6
83.1
3.6
1.2
20.5
44.6

6.2
1.5
12.3
46.2
67.7
13.8
4.6
0
33.8

24.2

0

2.9

28.3

1.3

0

10.7

3.6

6.2

108

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SOUTH

Housing expenditures.
When the Negro families are classified according to economic level,
the tendency noted for white families, i. e. a declining proportion of
total expenditures devoted to housing and fuel, light, and refrigera­
tion combined with increase in economic level, appears distinctly in
all cities except Birmingham, Louisville, and New Orleans. This is
partly due to the relatively large percentage of expenditures necessarily
going to this group of items at the lowest economic level and the
urgency of other needs not met there at all, and partly to the smaller
size of the families at the higher economic levels (for details of housing
expenditures see table 10 in the Tabular Summary).
H o m e o w n ers .— Among home owners, average outlays w~ere very
much less than for white families, ranging from $68 in Jackson to
$121 in Birmingham. (See table 41.) Of the items included in total
current housing expenditures, taxes, interest on mortgages, and
repairs and replacements account for about 80 percent in each of the
cities. Due to the small number of cases, the change with increase
in economic level was extremely irregular.
On the average, these Negro families were able to invest from $18
in M obile to $93 in Memphis in their own homes. Again there is no
consistent direction with improvement in plane of living. The annual
rental values reported by the home owners ranged from $113 in M obile
to $216 in Louisville.
R e n te r s .— As noted above, most of the families not owning their
homes rented houses, with apartment renters in the minority.
M onthly rental rate for houses ranged from $7 in Birmingham to $21
in Baltimore. In general, there is a tendency for the average monthly
rent paid to increase with rise in economic level, as can be seen in
table 10 of the Tabular Summary.
S econ d a ry h o u sin g .— None of the Negro families studied owned a
vacation home. One family in Baltimore and Birmingham and two
in M obile paid rent on a vacation or a trip. One family in Baltimore,
two in M obile and Richmond, and three in Birmingham paid room
rent for children away at school.
F u e l , light , and refrigeration .— Expenditures for fuel, light, and
refrigeration were heaviest in winter and fall, with practically no
expenditures for coal in spring and summer. In table 11 of the
Tabular Summary, detailed information is presented for expenditures
on electricity, anthracite, bituminous coal, coke, briquets, wood, fuel
oil, gas, kerosene, gasoline not used for automobiles, and ice. Since
the actual amount paid for fuel, light, and refrigeration depends to a
large extent on whether a house or an apartment is involved, and on
whether the rent paid the landlord includes heat, data are presented
in that table for families in four separate categories as well as in the
form of averages for all families.




E X P E N D IT T J R E IS

T

able

FOR

S P E C IF IE D

109

GOODS

41.— Housing expenditures, 1 year during the period 1 9 8 4 -8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Item

Home owners for 12 months:
Number of families. . . _
Average current expenditure... _ ______
Average amount invested during year
in owned home _
Average annual rental
value_________ ______
Average imputed income from equity in
owned home _
Renters of houses for 12
months:
Number of families____
Average monthly rental
rate paid_____________
Renters of apartments with
heat included in rent for
12 months:
Number of families____
Average monthly rental
rate paid____
Secondary housing:
Number of families in
survey______
____
Average expenditure for
owned vacation home.
Number of families
spending for rent on
vacation or trip__ __
Average expenditure for
rent on vacation or
trip per family mak­
ing such expenditure. .
Number of families
spending ior rent at
school__________ _ __

Balti­
more

Bir­
ming­
ham

Jackson

Louis­
ville

Mem­ Mobile
phis

20

30

20

18

26

120.90

68. 08

93.94

116.10

New
Or­
leans

78. 29

0)

Nor­
folk

Rich­
mond

24

31

86.21

74.08

0)

81.30

51. 53

73. 56

92.97

18. 45

45.84

55. 64

153.00

151.00

216.00

214.00

113.00

168.00

179.00

32.00

83.00

122.00

98.00

35.00

82.00

105.00

71

71

68

33

46

64

61

51

30

21.13

7. 32

10. 67

11.99

10.95

8.22

13.09

12. 27

12.46

0

0

0

0

0

0

0)

0

0)

0)

0

0

0)

0

107

101

100

74

94

94

83

109

96

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

23.97

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

2

0)

0)
1

3

i Detailed information not presented because of small number of families in this classification.

Other item s o f household op era tion .— Items of household operation
other than fuel, light, and refrigeration include water rent, telephone,
domestic service, laundry sent out, laundry soap and cleaning sup­
plies, and other miscellaneous items. Expenditures for these items
as shown in table 12 of the Tabular Summary increased markedly
from low to high economic levels. Laundry out and telephone showed
a particular gain, as did such expenditures by white families. One
family each in Baltimore, Louisville, Mobile, and Richmond, and
two families in Birmingham employed full-time domestic service.
Part-time domestic help was employed by from one family in M obile
and Louisville to five families in Norfolk, but none in Memphis or
New Orleans.




110

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

0(F

THE

SOUTH

Furnishings and Equipm ent4

Expenditures for furnishings and equipment, which were largely
for suites of furniture, stoves and ranges (not electric), electric
refrigerators, and carpets and rugs, were considerably greater at higher
levels. A t the low level, $23.54 was spent for this group of items,
whereas families at the high spent $58.35. (See Tabular Summary,
table 18.)
The goods purchased at different levels varied not only in kind but
in quantity. A t the low plane the articles purchased by the largest
proportion of families were such fundamentals of household equip­
ment as brooms, brushes, and mops; electric light bulbs; tubs, wash­
boards, and wringers; sheets and other bedding; pots, pans, and
cutlery; and window shades, wire screens, and awnings. Such
articles as suites of furniture, carpets, felt base floor coverings,
curtains and draperies, and cotton turkish towels, on the contrary,
were purchased relatively more frequently at the high level.
Of the various groups of items coming under the general head of
furnishings and equipment, the expenditure for electrical equipment
increased most markedly from low to high planes of living. (See
table 42.)
T able 42. — E x p en d itu res

f o r fu rn ish in g s and eq u ip m en t at different econom ic
levels , 1 yea r dur t g the p eriod 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers in 9 cities combined]
Families with annual unit expendi­
ture of—
J MU
L31
Under $200 $200 to $400
Number of families in survey_____________________ _______________
Total expenditure for furnishings and equipment______________
Furniture_____ ___ ______ ________________________________
Textile furnishings______ _________________________________

Silver, china, and glassw
are.

Electrical equipment____ ________________________________

M
iscellaneous equipm
ent _

. _ .......

240
$23. 54
10.47
5.36
.2*2
1.06
6.43
P ercen t

Total expenditure for furnishings and equipment____ _________
Furniture_________________________________________________
Textile furnishings____ ____________________________________

Silver, china, and glassw
are
_
Electrical equipm
ent
.. .
_
M
iscellaneous equipm
ent

_
_

100.0
44. 5
22.8
.9
4.5
27.3

436
$31. 63
13.12
7.22
.39
1.65
9.25
P ercen t

100.0
41.5
22.8
1.2
5. 2
29.3

$400 and
over
182
$58.35
24.65
11.05
.61
9.78
12.26
P ercen t

100.0
42.3
18.9
1.1
16.7
21.0

4 Because of the high variability characteristic of expenditures for furnishings and equipment (seep. 626),
figures on expenditures for specified items by the Negro families studied have been presented in terms of
averages for the nine cities combined.




EXPEM>ITUBElS FOB SPECIFIED GOODS

111

C lo th in g 6

Total expenditure per family for clothing.
Total expenditures for clothing by Negro families in the South (see
Tabular Summary, table 17) averaged $91 per family. Expenditures
at the low level averaged $82, rising to $88 for the intermediate
group and $110 for the high. The smaller size of family at the
high level made the increase in clothing expenditures even more strik­
ing when they were analyzed on a per person or per clothing-expendi­
ture-unit basis. Thus the average unit clothing expenditures at the
three levels were $20, $33, and $53, respectively.
That the custom of buying clothes ready to wear extends to the
Negroes is indicated by the overwhelming proportion of the total
going to purchase ready-made clothing, dry cleaning, and accessories.
Expenditures for yard goods and findings used for sewing garments
at home averaged $3.45 per family at the low level, $2.82 at the inter­
mediate, and $2.02 at the high. Paid help for sewing was used so
infrequently that the average expenditure per family was only 33
cents.

Gifts of clothing.
Gifts of clothing, if paid for from family funds and exchanged within
the economic family, were not recorded as gifts but simply as clothing
expenses. When, however, such presents were received from persons
outside the family circle, an attempt was made to ascertain their
value. Approximately one-third of the families reported receiving
them. Their value as estimated by the families averaged $4.26,
but as a large proportion could not judge the value of the items
received, they have not been included, and the above figure does not
give a complete account of this item.

Clothing expenditures for men and hoys.
Average clothing expenditures per person increased regularly from
$20 for Negro men and boys 18 years and over at the lowest consump­
tion level to $46 at the high. The limited number of cases at the high
level bars comparison of expenditures at different economic planes for
any but the highest age group.
When the clothing expenditures of the men and boys 18 years of age
and over are summarized according to general type (see table 43),
those for outerwear are found to have received about half of the total
expenditure. There was little change in relative expenditures for
clothes of different types with rise in economic level for any group
8 Throughout, economic or consumption level is defined by amount spent per year per expenditure unit.
For each of the tables showing details of expenditures, as many economic levels have been shown as the
number of cases and type of data for the particular table would allow. Since clothing expenditures are shown
by sex and age groups as well as by economic level, only three such levels are presented for this table. They
are: Under $200, $200 to $400, $400 and over. The age groups shown for each sex in the tabulation of items
of clothing are: 18 years of age and over, 12 through 17 years, 6 through 11 years, 2 through 5 years. Pur­
chases for children under 2 years old are shown without regard to sex.




112

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SO U TH

except footwear, which decreased in proportionate expenditure as the
plane of living rose.
T

able

43 . — D istrib u tio n o f clothing expenditures f o r individuals in fa m ilies at
successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 8 4 - 8 6

[Men and boys in Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers, in 9 cities combined]

Sex and age group, and type of
clothing

All
fam­
ilies

Economic level—Fam­
ilies spending per ex­
penditure unit per
year

Under
$200

$200 to
$400

All
fam­
ilies

$400
and
over

Economic level—Fam­
ilies spending per ex­
penditure unit per
year

Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400
and
over

P ercen t

P ercen t

Men and boys 18 years of age and
over:
Headwear______________________
Outerwear_____________________
Underwear.................................. .
Footwear_____________ _______ _
Miscellaneous items............. ........

P ercen t

P ercen t

$1. 65
15.37
2.36
7. 64
3. 78

$1.03
9. 68
1.51
5.41
2. 54

$1. 74
15. 67
2.41
7.68
3. 68

$2. 38
23. 53
3.63
11.02
5. 90

5.4
49.8
7.7
24.8
12.3

5.1
48.0
7.5
26.8
12.6

5.6
50.3
7.7
24.6
11.8

5.1
50.7
7.8
23.7
12.7

Total............................................

30.80

20.17

31.18

46.46

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

An analysis of the data by low and high economic levels yields an
extraordinary similarity in the clothing-expenditure patterns of these
two different groups. A t neither level is any but an essential item of
apparel important in number of purchases or in the proportionate
expenditure it claims. The only difference is a small improvement
in quantity and quality when a higher plane of living has been reached.
For example, shoes were always purchased by more men than was
any other article, though at the low level those buying them averaged
1.3 pairs at $2.96, while at the high the figures were 1.5 and $4.18.
In each group, cotton “ dress” shirts were second in frequency of pur­
chase, followed in varying order by such things as work shirts and felt
hats.
When clothing budgets are made out by these Negro families,
primary consideration is always given to heavy wool suits. Since,
however, at the low level only 9 percent of the men bought one
during the year scheduled, and at the high 28 percent, they were pur­
chased only at 11- and 4-year intervals. The average prices were
$21 and $23. Lightweight wool suits were purchased by 11.8 percent
at the low plane and 21 percent at the high. After suits, the next
largest proportion of each clothing dollar went for shoes, which in
both groups were followed by shirts. The average cost of the latter
was $0.97 at the low plane and $1.30 at the high.
Despite the pressure of these urgent items, a little money was made
available to care for the clothes. Forty-five percent of the men at
the low level averaged $2.53 for cleaning and repairing, while among
74 percent at the high, $3.62 was so spent.




113

EXPENDITURES F'OR SPECIFIED GOODS

Clothing expenditures for women and girls.
Clothing expense for Negro women and girls was slightly smaller
than that for men and boys except in the age group 12 through 17.
Again analysis by economic level is presented only for women and
girls 18 years and over. Their annual clothing expenditures ranged
from $15 at the lowest of the three levels distinguished to $45 at the
high. Of this money, the proportions spent for outerwear and mis­
cellaneous items also increased with rise in economic plane, while
those devoted to headwear and footwear declined.
Among women and girls living in families with a unit expenditure
of less than $200 for all goods and services, and those with a unit
expenditure of $400 and over, shoes, hose, and felt hats were the articles
most frequently bought, and shoes and hose were the most important
items of proportionate expenditure. Street shoes were purchased by
69 percent of the women at the low level, and 70 percent at the high,
at average prices of $2.38 and $3.19; dress shoes were bought by 19
percent and 36 percent, costing $2.73 and $3.60. Fifty-five percent
of the women at the low level bought 5 pairs of hose apiece and paid
57 cents for each of them. A t the high level they bought 10 pairs
each at 66 cents a pair. For the third most important expenditure
item, the first divergence appears. For the woman with the smallest
unit expenditure, dresses came next, with 24 percent purchasing at an
average cost of $4.26. Those at the highest plane devoted more to
coats, spending $26 for a new one every 8 years.
T able 44.—

D istrib u tio n o f clothing expenditures fo r individuals in fa m ilies
successive econom ic levels , 1 yea r during the period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6

at

|
Women and girls in Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers, in 9 cities combined]

Sex and age group, and type o!
clothing

All
families

Economic level—Fam­
ilies spending per ex­
penditure unit per
year
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

All
fam­
ilies

$400
and
over

Economic level—Fam­
ilies spending per ex­
penditure unit per
year
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400
and
over

W omen and girls 18 years of age and
over:
Headwear______________________
Outerwear_________ ______ __
Underwear_____________________
Footwear_______________________
Miscellaneous items_________ __

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

$1.66
10. 84
3. 40
9. 52
1. 61

$1.01
5. 37
2.03
6. 31
.76

$1. 75
10. 81
3.29
10. 00
1. 60

$2. 48
19.89
6.10
13. 69
3.04

6.1
40.1
12.6
35.2
6.0

6.5
34.7
13.1
40.8
4.9

6.4
39.4
12.0
36.4
5.8

5.5
44.0
13.5
30.3
6.7

T o ta l-........................ .................

27.03

15.48

27.45

45.20

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

These two groups represent the lowest level at which independent
Negro families lived and the highest at which any significant number
were found. The general nature of their clothing expenditures would
seem to indicate that at both these planes of living, the urgency of food
and housing is so great that even clothing is sacrificed to meet their
demands. Apparently it is only when income and expenditure




114

TWELVE CITIES O'F THE SOUTH

levels higher than those appearing for these samples are reached that
variety or abundance can be introduced into the wardrobe.
Recreation

In all cities, expenditures for tobacco, principally in the form of
cigarettes, were larger than for any other item classified under the
general heading of recreation, although as a percentage, they decline
with rise in economic level. The amounts spent per family ranged
from $16 in Louisville to $23 in Jackson (the low and high cities
respectively for tobacco expenditures among the white families).
Second place was taken by paid admissions to movies in Baltimore,
Jackson, Norfolk, and Richmond, and third by newspapers. In the
other cities this order was reversed.
The purchase or rental of books was reported by a maximum of
3 percent of the families in Birmingham and New Orleans. The
proportion of families purchasing magazines was somewhat larger,
ranging from 5 percent in Louisville and Mobile to 18 percent in
Birmingham. Expenditures for recreational equipment, which rose
with improvement in plane of living, ranged from $4 in Baltimore,
LouisTihe, Memphis, and New Orleans to $13 in Birmingham. Here
too it seems to be lack of money rather than lack of interest which
limited the use of leisure time.
The percentage of families owning radios doubled from low to high
economic levels. (See table 45.) Only in Birmingham, Jackson,
Norfolk, and Richmond did any Negro families at the low economic
levels purchase radios during the schedule year. The proportion
making such purchases at the high economic levels ranged from 4
percent in Norfolk to 22 percent in Memphis.
T

able

4 5 . — R a d io ow n ersh ip

and purchase , at successive econom ic levels , 1 year
during the period 1 9 3 4 - 3 6

[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers in 9 cities combined]

Item

Number of families in survey______________________ _____ ____
Percentage of families—
Owning radio _ ____________________ ________________
Purchasing radio___ __________________ ______ ___________
Average amount paid for radio per family purchasing_________




All families

Economic level—families with
annual unit expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

858

240

436

182

32.8
7.3
$53. 46

20.4
2.9
$80. 39

31.9
8.0
$48.74

51.1
11.5
$52.34

EXPENDITURES FOR SPECIFIED GOODS

115

T r ansport at ion

Animal expenditures by Negro families for transportation by trolley,
bus, automobile, train, or other means of conveyance ranged from $38
in New Orleans to $56 in Baltimore. Such expenditures increased
both in dollar value and in proportion of the total with rise in eco­
nomic level. In Baltimore, New Orleans, and Norfolk, only 6 or 8
percent of the families owned an automobile. In the other cities, a
large proportion of expenditures for transportation went for the pur­
chase, maintenance, and operation of cars, reaching a maximum of 87
percent in Jackson, where over a third of the Negro families owned
their own automobiles. Expenditures for automobile operation
increased rapidly with improvement in economic level, with a marked
rise in the proportion of such outlays going to the purchase of gasoline.
Of the amounts spent for all other means of transportation, the
largest portion went to trolley fares, largely used for carrying earners
to work and children to school. The percentage of families using
trolleys was greatest in Birmingham, with 90 percent, and least in
Norfolk, with 28 percent.
One N egro family purchased a new car during the schedule year in
Louisville and in Mobile, but none did so in the other 7 cities. Pur­
chases of second-hand cars ranged from zero in Baltimore to 14 in
Jackson. The average price paid per car purchased ranged from $102
in New Orleans to $300 in Memphis.




T

able

46 . — E x p en d itu res f o r recreation and transportation at two different econom ic levels , 1 yea r d uring the period 1 9 3 4 - 8 6
[Negro families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Families with annual unit expenditure of:

Item

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

34
24
Number of families studied..........................
Recreation expenditures:
Average amount...................................... $26.18 $61. 78
Percentage for:
53.8
54.9
Tobacco.............................................
22.1
15.3
Movies............................ ...................
22.2
Newspapers--------- ----------------------12.0
.2
.4
Other reading.----------------------------Recreational equipment, etc______
6.6
11.6
.8
.1
Plays, concerts, spectator sports.
Percentage of families owning radios... 33.3
73.5
Percentage of families purchasing radios^
0
11.8
Average amount paid for radio per
family purchasing.....................
$0
$23. 63
Transportation expenditures:
Average amount.............................. $32. 40 $96.07
Percentage for—
Automobile purchase, mainte­
17.8
10.0
nance and care...............................
82.2
Other--------- ----------- --------------------- 90.0
Percentage of families owning
automobile.....................................
0
14.7
Expenditure for automobile main­
tenance:
Average amount per family
owning automobile— ........... $0
$116. 42
Percentage for—
Gasoline and oil..............
65.5
0
8.2
Garage rent and parking.
0
Other______ ___________
26.3
0




$400
and
over

Birmingham
38

19

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

Jackson
28

11

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

Louisville

Memphis

14

24

20

18

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

Mobile
31

12

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

New Orleans
27

16

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

Norfolk
29

28

$100
to
$200

$400
and
over

Richmond
25

24

$36. 45 $82.62 $37. 21 $54. 74 $31. 57 $55.99 $33.05 $50. 26 $36. 02 $46. 79 $23. 73 $59. 79 $24. 73 $52. 21 $35.12 $82. 71
50.1
4.4
15.6
.5
29.3
.1
15.8
10.5

36.4
11.5
11.4
1.9
35.4
3.4
57.9
21.1

62.9
11.7
11.6
.2
10.7
2.9
28.6
3.6

$73. 34 $77. 62 $49.84

56.4
6.3
13.3
4.1
18.5
1.4
63.6
0

51.5
11.0
22.9
.4
14.0
.2
21.4
0

$0

$0

37.1
7.3
16.4
0
39. 2
0
50.0
15.0
$28.00

49.4
16.9
24.6
.7
2.3
6.1
12.5
0
$0

36.0
12.2
19.7
2.7
27. 5
1.9
38.9
22.2
$45. 27

37.2
12.0
14.4
.1
35.9
.4
29.0
0
$0

43.1
17.4
14.7
0
23.5
1.3
33.3
8.3
$24.84

44.3
23.8
22.3
.4
8.1
1.1
3.7
0
$0

57.5
6.8
11.0
.7
20.1
3.9
18.8
6.3

51.7
12.2
20.0
.5
15.2
.4
24.1
3.4

50.8
19.0
15.0
1.0
11.4
2.8
57.1
3.6

37.4
7.4
16.4
.5
38.0
.3
16.0
4.0

30.9
12.1
8.2
.6
47.4
.8
41.7
12.5

$74. 72 $20.01 $59.92 $199. 50 $89. 84

$27. 36 $124.18 $25. 51 $141. 50 $41.16 $81. 71 $29. 26 $68. 44 $15.91 $147.16 $29. 49 $59. 98 $29. 27 $57.61 $19. 53 $88. 35
35.7
64.3

69.1
30.9

76.9
23.1

87.8
12. 2

19.0
81.0

66.6
33.4

6.0
94.0

49.8
50.2

20.6
79.4

91.8
8.2

7.1
92.9

39.9
60.1

38.4
61.6

27.2
72.8

34.6
65.4

58.1
41.9

7.9

42.1

17.9

63.6

14.3

40.0

4.1

22.2

9.7

50.0

3.7

18.8

3.4

10.7

8.0

37.5

$87.65 $133.81 $72. 35 $115.88 $54. 67 $78.30 $42. 00 $78. 30 $33. 79 $149. 54 $56. 70 $109. 23 $301.02 $146. 07 $84. 38 $110. 05
61.4
0
38.6

63.9
0
36.1

49.4
0
50.6

71.5
0
28.5

72.6
0
27.4

74.2
0
25.8

47.4
0
52.6

74.1
0
25.9

60.2
0
39.8

55.7
.1
44.2

65.7
0
34.3

67.0
0
33.0

15.9
0
84.1

54.1
0
45.9

54.2
17.2
28.6

61.6
9.0
29.4

TWELVE CITIES O'P THE SOUTH

Baltimore

$100
to
$200

EXPENDITURES FOR SPECIFIED GOODS

117

Personal Care

Family expenditures for personal care, which include services such
as hair cuts, shaves, shampoos, and manicures, as well as purchases of
toilet articles and preparations, ranged from $18 in Baltimore, Mobile,
New Orleans, and Norfolk to $23 in Richmond. Actual dollar expendi­
tures for these items increased one and a half times from low to high
economic levels; expenditure per person increased almost fourfold.
As with white families, haircuts are most frequently purchased,
accounting for between 64 and 84 cents out of each dollar spent for
personal care services. These figures are slightly higher than for
white families. Shampoos and shaves were the next most frequently
reported types.
Medical Care

As their family funds grew, the percentage expenditures for medical
care of the Negroes in these nine Southern cities increased more
regularly than those of other groups, both white and Negro. The
striking feature of this, however, is that except in Norfolk, never less
than 30 percent, and in two cities more than 50 percent, of these
expenditures were invested in accident and health insurance.
It is of course true that there are no data available showing what
medical care was received in return for this insurance. In view of the
extremely recent spread of institutions making possible prepayment
for medical service, it seems unlikely that many of these expenditures
were made for such a purpose. The more usual form of insured
medical aid provides payments at the time of the illness. The sched­
ules used in this investigation do not show this figure separately.
There is, however, an item giving the average amounts received by
all families in pensions and insurance payments of all kinds combined.
In Memphis, where the all-family average payment for accident and
health insurance was $20, the average receipt was $1. In New
Orleans, $18 was paid out and nothing was received. Baltimore
was the only city in which receipts from all pensions and annuities
equaled the amount paid for accident and health insurance. It seems
likely that this situation partly explains the sums actually spent on
medical service.
Medicines and drugs were purchased by a larger proportion of
families than any other form of medical care. The services of general
practitioners were also widely used, and claimed the largest propor­
tionate expenditures of any type of medical service.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-




-9

118

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

Even among the Negro families, the percent reporting clinic fees
is extremely small, ranging from 1 percent in Birmingham, Jackson,
and Louisville to 9 percent in Baltimore. Although it is usual for
clinics to make some nominal charge for all service, there are undoubt­
edly some which do not. Since no information on free medical care
was obtained, it is impossible to say definitely that these figures
accurately represent the amount of clinic care the families received.




Part III.— Mexican Families in Houston




119




Chapter 1
Income Level and M oney Disbursements
Schedules were obtained from 100 Mexican families in Houston.
This sample was chosen at the same time and in the same way as that
for other families studied. It represents a cross section of the families
of employed Mexicans in 1935-36 in this city, as defined for the
purposes of this study. The sample was not intended to be repre­
sentative of the total Mexican population of wage earners and clerical
workers, since the Study excluded families on relief1 and those lacking
specified employment. The same criteria were used for all the samples
covered in the investigation in order that the resulting data would be
on a comparable basis.
Fam ily Incom e 2
As with the other families studied, no M exican family was included
which had an income of less than $500. The actual incomes of
families drawn in the Mexican sample ranged from $504 to $1,797.
This maximum income was received by a family having two earners;
the husband was a skilled stationary engineer in a creamery and the
son an unskilled field laborer at a country club. The average family
income was $924. The median was somewhat lower, $892. Onefourth of the Mexican families studied had incomes of less than $700
and three-fourths had incomes of less than $1,064. These figures
were substantially lower than those for a comparable Mexican sample
studied in Los Angeles (see B. L. S. Bull., No. 639, pt. II).
As would be expected from the eligibility requirements of the Study
(see appendix D , p. 660), the chief source of family income was
earnings. The highest earning reported for any one individual among
the Mexican families was $1,574, received by a semiskilled black­
smith working for a railroad. The relative contributions of supple­
mentary earners to family income were of about the same importance
for the Mexican as for the other white families. However, while the
percentage of income from sources other than earnings tended to
increase with rise in income level for white families, the reverse was
distinctly true for the Mexican families. (See table 47.)
1 An estimate based upon the number of families of “other races” (of which 99.6 percent were Mexican
in October 1933) on relief during the peak month during the present investigation shows that there were
1,500 such families. This number was 39.9 percent of the total Mexican families in Houston in 1930. Both
the number of families on relief and the number of Mexican families in 1930 are for Harris County, since
relief figures were not available for the city of Houston.
2 Details of family income when families are classified by economic level are in Tabular Summary, table
2; and when classified by income, in Tabular Summary, table 5.




121

122
T

able

TW ELVE

47. —

C IT IE S

O'E

THE

SO U TH

Sources of fa m ily income at successive income levels, 1 year during the
'period 1 9 3 4 — 6
3
[Mexican families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Average Percentage of income from—
number
of gainful
Earnings
workers Earnings of sub­
Other
per
of chief
sidiary sources3
family '
earner
earners 2

Number
of
families

Average
net
money
income

All families.______ _____________________

100

$924

1.54

84.4

13.5

2.1

Families with annual net income of—
$500 to $600............... ...............................
$600 to $900 ........... ...............................
$900 to $1,200 ...........................................
$1,200 to $1,500..........................................
$1,500 and over________________ _____

12
38
32
12
6

547
735
1,010
1,304
1,618

1.08
1.39
1. 69
1.67
2. 33

90.7
87.9
85.7
81.5
71.6

3.3
9.0
13.2
17.8
27.8

6.0
3.1
1.1
.7
.6

Income group

1 A gainful worker is defined as a person having had some gainful employment in business or industry, or
domestic service, at any time during the year. (Some families included had persons in domestic service as
subsidiary earners.)
2 Including net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
3 Less business losses and expenses not deductible from earnings of the year covered by the schedule.

The proportions of clerical workers, unskilled, semiskilled, and
skilled wage earners found in the Mexican sample are more similar
to those found for Negro families in the Southern cities than for the
white families other than Mexicans. In the Houston Mexican
sample, 56 percent of the families had an unskilled wage earner as the
chief earner, 30 percent had a semiskilled wage earner, 6 percent a
skilled wage earner, and 8 percent a clerical worker. These propor­
tions correspond very closely to those found in the Mexican group
studied in Los Angeles. They reflect the agricultural background
from which they have come as immigrants, the general limitations of
their schooling, and their very slight opportunity to acquire skill in
trades.

Size and composition of family.
The average number of persons per family, 4.91, was considerably
higher than for white families other than Mexican in Houston, and
exceeded the average size of Negro families in all of the cities studied
in the South.3 It was slightly larger than the average for Mexican
families in Los Angeles. If the investigation had been extended to
families on relief, the average size would have been even larger, since
the average size of the families of ‘ ‘other races” of two or more persons
on relief in the month when relief load reached a peak during the
period of the investigation in Harriss County was 5.3.
The tendency noted among both white and Negro groups for the
average size of family to increase with rise in income level holds true
among these 100 Mexican families. The number of persons 16 years
of age and over increased sharply with rise in income level, but the
number of persons under 16 years of age increased to about 2% persons
* See Tabular Summary, tables 2 and 5.




IN C O M E

LEVEE

AND

MONEY

123

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

in the $900 to $1,200 income group and then declined with the subse­
quent income groups. The group with incomes over $1,800 was
made up largely of mature families, with few young children, where
the wife and the older sons and daughters were free to work.
C u rren t Expenditures o f Each C ity G roup as a W hole 4
The distribution of current expenditures which averaged $954 by
the Mexican families 5 tended to resemble that of the Negroes studied
in the Southern cities, who were living at approximately the same
economic level. A larger portion of each dollar spent was allotted to
food than by white families in any city in the Nation-wide study,
including New York. Thirty-eight cents was spent for this most
important item in the family budget. Expenditures for housing
including fuel, light, and refrigeration received but 18 cents, which is
slightly under that spent by the white families other than Mexican in
Houston. On the other hand, the proportion spent for clothing, 13
percent, was very much higher than for other white families in Houston
and approached the maximum found for Negro families of 13.5 percent
in Birmingham.
Expenditures for all forms of transportation constituted the next
most important item, with automobile purchase, operation, and main­
tenance accounting for 8.0 of the total of 9.4 percent. In this item,
these families depart from the pattern shown by Negro families, since
the latter allotted only around 5 cents to automobile transportation.
Furnishings and equipment took fifth place with about 6 cents out
of every dollar so spent. Recreation accounted for 5 cents, followed
by expenditures for household operation other than fuel, light, and
refrigeration, for which about 3 cents was spent. Medical care ex­
penditures received a relatively smaller porportion of total expenditures
than for either the white or Negro families studied in this region. On
the other hand, personal care expenditures averaged about 2.5 percent,
which is higher than for white families other than Mexican.
T

able

48. — Expenditures for groups of items , 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6
[Mexican families of wage earners and clerical workersl
Item

Average annual current expenditure for
all items........................... __
..
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items_______________________________
Food ____________________________
Clothing.......................................... .
Housing___________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.......... .
Other household operation________
Furnishings and equipment_______
Automobile and motorcycle, pur­
chase, operation, and maintenance.

Item

Houston

$954
100.0
37.9
13.3
12.9
4.8
3.0
5.7

All items—Continued.
Other transportation_______________
Personal care.............. ....................... .
Medical care_______________________
Recreation______________ ______ ___
Education__________ ________ _____
Vocation___________________________
Community welfare__________ _____
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family_____
Other items________________________

8.0

4 Current expenditures are defined on p. 632 of this report.
8See Tabular Summary, tables 3 and 6.




Houston

1.4
2.5
2.5
4.8
.6
.2
.7
1.4
.3

124

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SOUTH

Despite the lower incomes of the Mexican families in Houston, the
general distribution of their expenditures was remarkably similar to
that of the Mexican families studied in Los Angeles. The percent­
ages of the total allocated to food, housing, fuel, light, and refrigera­
tion, other household operation, clothing, personal care and medical
care were almost the same as for the Los Angeles families. The
relatively large food expenditures in both cities are undoubtedly
associated with the large-size families. The much greater proportion
spent for clothing in both cities than by comparable other white families
probably reflects the pleasure in some m easure of adornment frequently
found among Latin peoples. It is confirmed by the findings of an
earlier study of Mexican families in San Diego.6 In analyzing this
difference in the apportionment of expenditures for clothing and
other items, it is well to recall that an average expenditure of but
$127 was used to clothe 5 people. The housing expenditures of
both city groups were lower than those of the other white families
in their respective cities though the expenditures of the Houston
Mexican families were proportionately greater than those of the Los
Angeles Mexicans.
Although the other white families in both Houston and Los Angeles
spent more for transportation than for clothing,7 the Mexican families
in both cities reversed the relative importance of these two items.
The Houston Mexicans spent proportionately more than did the Los
Angeles Mexicans for automobile transportation, 8.0 as compared
with 7.3 percent, and relatively less for other transportation, 1.4 as
against 2.5 percent. On the other hand the Houston Mexican
families devoted a smaller proportion than did the Los Angeles
families, 4.8 as compared with 5.9 percent of their total expenditures,
to items classed under the heading of recreation, including tobacco,
reading matter, movies and other paid admissions and recreational
equipment of various sorts.
Distribution o f Expenditures at Successive Income Levels

The tendency noted for both the other white families and the
Negro families for the percentage spent for food and housing (includ­
ing fuel, light, and refrigeration) to decline with rise in income level
holds true also for the Mexican families. Expenditures for household
operation other than fuel, light, and refrigeration also tended to
decline when expressed as percentages of total expenditure but the
movement was slightly irregular. On the other hand relative expen­
ditures for clothing, furnishings and equipment, transportation, recrea­
tion and gifts and contributions to persons outside the economic
e Heller Committee for Research in Social Economics: How Mexicans Earn and Live. Cost of Living
Studies V, University of California Publications in Economics, vol. 13, 1933. No. 1, pp. 1-114.
i In only 3 of the 42 cities studied in the Nation-wide investigation were average expenditures for all white
families for transportation found to be greater than those for clothing. The third city is San Diego.




IN C O M E

LEVEL

AND

MONEY

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

125

families increased with rise in income level. Of these the greatest
increase occurred in the case of transportation, for which the dollar
expenditures were 10 times as great at the highest income level as at
the lowest.
The percentages allotted to personal care, medical care, and com­
munity welfare tended to remain about the same at all income levels.
(See Tabular Summary, table 6.)
In general these findings coincide with those for Mexican families
studied in Los Angeles. Exceptions occur in the movement in the
two cities of relative expenditures for personal care and for furnish­
ings and equipment. These differences, however, are probably due
only to the variations 8 inherent in small samples and do not represent
any fundamental differences in consumption patterns in the two
cities.
Order o f Family Expenditures at Different Economic Levels

For reasons explained in connection with the analysis of the data
obtained from the other families studied in the South, the data secured
from the Mexican families cooperating in the investigation were also
analyzed by economic level.9 The relationships noted for white
families other than Mexican, i. e., increase in income and decrease in
family size with rise in economic level, also held true for the Mexican
families.
With a rise in economic level there appeared (see Tabular Summary,
table 3) a decline in the percentage of expenditure allotted to food and
to housing (including fuel, light, and refrigeration). Contrary to
the movement noted for other white families the proportion of each
dollar spent for clothing tended to remain about the same for each
economic level. This same relative movement was found among
Mexicans in Los Angeles. The percentage of each dollar allotted to
household operation other than fuel, light and refrigeration, to fur­
nishings and equipment, to transportation other than for automobile,
to personal care and to medical care similarly showed little change
at successive economic levels.
The general tendency for the other groups of items covered by
current family expenditures was to increase in relative importance
improvement in the economic status of the family.
A comparison of the rank order of the different main groups of
expenditure items at the lowest and at the highest economic levels
analyzed Mexican families were found as shown in table 49, reveals the
overwhelming absolute importance of food, housing (including fuel,
light, and refrigeration), and clothing, at both levels. They ranked
* See footnote 11, p. 22.
* For a description of the methods of computing and the meaning of economic level, see pp. 25 to 27 and
appendix G., pp. 688.




126

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

THE

SO U TH

F ig . 8

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY EXPENDITURES OF WAGE
EARNERS AND LOWER-SALARIED CLERICAL WORKERS
AT TWO DIFFERENT ECONOMIC LEVELS
HOUSTON, 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 6
MEXICAN FAMILIES
ITEM

PERCEN T OF TOTAL EXPEN D IT U R ES

O

FOOD

HOUSING
INCLUDING FUEL,
LIGHT AND
REFRIGERATION

CLOTHING

FURNISHINGS
a EQUIPMENT

AUTOMOBILE

RECREATION

HOUSEHOLD
OPERATION

PERSONAL
CARE

MEDICAL CARE

EDUCATION,
VOCATION a
MISC
TRANSPORTA­
TION
OTHER
THAN AUTOMOBILE

COMMUNITY
WELFARE,GIFTS
CONTRIBUTIONS
U. S . B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S




«0

20

30

40

50

IN C O M E

LEVEL

AND

M ONEY

127

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

first, second, and third, respectively, in magnitude of expenditure
among families with the greatest as among families with the least
annual expenditure per equivalent adult. The most striking aspect
of the comparison between expenditures of the Houston Mexican
families at low and high levels is the absence of any tendency to
marked shifts in consumption as economic status increased. Thus
the rank orders at both low and high levels were identical not only for
the three essentials named above, but for seven other categories of
consumption. The only important shifts noted at the high as com ­
pared with the low level were a dropping in relative importance of
personal and of medical care and an increase in relative importance of
transportation other than by automobile and of gifts and contribu­
tions to persons outside the economic family.
T

able

49. — Expenditures in rank order at two different economic levels, 1 year during
the perid 1 9 3 4 -8 6
[Mexican families of wage earners and clerical workers]

Families with
annual unit ex­
penditure of—

Families with
annual unit ex­
penditure of—
Group expenditure item

Group expenditure item
$100$200
Food. ________________________ _
Clothing_______________________
Housing, including, fuel, light,
and refrigeration.
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment
Automobile and motorcycle pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance ________________________
Other transportation____________

$100$200

$400$500

1
3

1
3

2
7
4

2
7
4

5
10

5
8

Personal care____________________
Medical care____________________
Recreation__________ ____ _____ _
Education_______________________
Vocation________ _______________
Community welfare____________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside economic family_______
Other items__ _____ _____ ______

$400$500

8
9
6
11.5
15
11.5

11.5
13
6
10
15
11.5

13
14

9
14

Substantially less general consistency in expenditure patterns at
high as well as low economic levels was found among the Mexican
families studied in Los Angeles, where the spread of families by
economic level was greater than in Houston. Likewise many of the
Negro samples and all of the white samples studied showed greater
shifts in consumption from low to high economic levels. The prin­
cipal explanation for the consistency among the Houston Mexicans is
the small spread between the lowest and the highest economic levels
at which any group of these Mexican workers’ families lived. Even
the highest economic level at which any substantial proportion of
Mexican families in Houston was found was not one calculated to
permit extensive expression of individual tastes, but rather was one at
which little margin was left after the essentials of food, clothing, and
housing were met.
There were of course, differences in the content of consumption at
the two economic levels, due both to the difference in actual dollars
spent and to the size of the family. Thus food consumption was
actually different at the high level, even though food expenditures




128

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO U TH

ranked first at both levels. The amount of unit food expenditure
was notably greater at the high level.
The Mexican families studied in Houston, like these in Los Angeles,
were unable to balance incomes and expenditures and finished the
year with an average neb deficit of $17. (See table 50 and Tabular
Summary, tables 2 and 5.) Their aggregate increases in assets and
decreases in liabilities incurred before the schedule year were more
than offset by decreases in assets and increases in liabilities, chiefly
the latter. (See table 51.)
The same considerations outlined in the discussion of assets and
liabilities for other white and for Negro families pertain to the M exi­
can families. (See pp. 37 and 96.) In comparing the changes in finan­
cial status of the other white and the Mexican families in Houston, the
smaller net incomes and larger size of the latter families should be
remembered. In general, however, the pattern of savings and deficits
was similar to that of the other white families in Houston and curi­
ously enough quite different from the pattern of the Mexican families
studied in Los Angeles.
A little more than half of the families ended the year with an aver­
age surplus amounting to $63. Forty-one percent of the families, on
the other hand finished the year with an average deficit almost twice
as great, $123.
When the families are classified by income (see Tabular Summary,
table 5) a net deficit was found at all but two income levels: Among
the 12 families in the $500 to $600 income group there was a net
surplus of $5, while the 32 families with incomes from $900 to $1,200
showed a net surplus of $8. This compares with a net deficit found
at every income level among the Los Angeles Mexican families.
When the amount of current expenditure is used as the basis of
classification (see Tabular Summary, table 2), however, the effect, as
has been found among other groups of families studied, is to move
the deficit families into the higher spending categories. It is not sur­
prising, therefore, that table 50 shows only the families at the lowest
economic level having an average surplus, whereas the size of the
average deficit is largest at the highest economic level.
In studying the deficit financing of these Mexican families (see
table 51 and Tabular Summary, table 4) it is evident that increases in
new obligations were relatively more important than withdrawals
from past savings or other assets. This was particularly true at the
highest economic level. Increases in installment obligations were the
outstanding means of expenditures from sources other than current
income. “ Other debts’ ’ which include increases in the amounts due
doctors, grocers, hospitals, etc., were the second most frequently
resorted to source.




IN C O M E
T

LEVEL

AND

M ONEY

129

D IS B U R S E M E N T S

50 . — Percentage of fam ilies having surplus and deficit, and net change in
assets and liabilities during the schedule year at successive economic levels, 1 year
during the period 1 9 3 4 -3 6

able

tMexican families of wage earners and clerical workers)

Item

Number of families_______ _ _ _______ __________ ____
Percentage of families having—
Net surplus______________________ _______ ____________
Net deficit__________________ _________ _ ___________ Average amount of—
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families:
Per family__ _
__ ________________
_______
Per expenditure unit __ __ ___ ___ ____ ___
Per gainful worker, _ ____ ___________ __________
Surplus per family having surplus___________ ___ ____
Deficit per family having deficit__________ ___________

All
families

Families with annual unit
expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

100

30

56

14

53.0
41.0

56.7
33.3

53.6
44.6

42.9
42.9

—$17
—4
-11
63
123

+$15
+2
+8
55
48

—$17
-4
-1 2
64
116

—$84
-32
-6 2
85
279

Eleven of the nineteen Mexican families purchasing automobiles
during the schedule year financed them by installment obligations
which had not been completely met at the end of the schedule year.
Whether the remaining eight families financed their purchases through
small loan companies cannot be determined from the data available.
Among the Mexican families studied, as with the other white and
Negro families, the most frequent form of savings was the payment of
life insurance premiums. Eighty-five percent of the Mexican families
reported paying such premiums at an average expenditure of $34 for
each of these 85 families. The tendency was for both the proportion
of families making such payments and the amounts paid to decrease
with rise in economic level. This is in contrast to the general tendency
noted for white families, and among Mexican families in Los Angeles,
and the somewhat less consistent tendency among the Negro families
for the proportion of families buying life insurance and the average
amount paid per family to increase with rise in economic level. Pay­
ments on annuities formed the second most frequently used form of
savings among Mexican families in Houston, in contrast with pay­
ments on principal of mortgage on owned home among the Los
Angeles Mexican families.




130

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T a b l e 5 1 .— Changes in assets and liabilities during the schedule year at successive
economic levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -8 6
[Mexican families of w
apre earners and clerical workers]

All
families

Number of families________________________________________
Average amount of i—
Increase in assets _____________________________________
Decrease in liabilities__________________________________
Decrease in amounts due on goods purchased on installment
plan:
Automobiles___________ _____ _______________ ______
Other goods______________________________________
Decrease in assets_____________________________________
Increase in liabilities
__
_ _
Increase in amounts due on goods purchased on installment
plan:
Automobiles______________________________________
Other goods______________________________________

Families with annual unit
expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

100

30

56

14

$45
10

$36
8

$50
11

$40
12

2
3
16
56

4
3
1
28

3
26
52

0
0
7
129

18
27

6
14

11
32

73
35

0)

1Average computed by dividing the aggregate increases or decreases of the families reporting such in­
creases or decreases by the total number of families at each expenditure level.




Chapter 2
Expenditures for Specified Goods
Food
Annual Food Expenditure.
Average food expenditures per family among the Mexican families
in Houston, as a proportion of total current expenditures, declined
consistently with rise in economic level.1 The actual number of dollars
spent for food prepared at home (including food for lunches prepared
at home and carried to work and to school) on the contrary increased
slightly from $341 at the low to $357 at the high level. (See Tabular
Summary, table 8.)
The increases in dollar expenditures for food bought and eaten away
from home were much greater than those in expenditures for food eaten
at home. M oney spent at restaurants, lunch counters, soda fountains
and bars increased almost sixfold from the lowest to the highest level.
Such expenditure accounted for not quite 1% cents of each food dollar
at the low economic level, but nearly 9 cents at the higher level.
Expenditures for meals at work increased from the low to the high
level even more rapidly than did total expenditures for food away
from home. These general tendencies were similar in direction to
those noted among Mexican families in Los Angeles.
Although total food expenditures were not very different at low
and high economic levels, the food consumption was quite different
owing to the smaller size of families at the high level. Families with
annual unit expenditure of $100 to $200 for all items in the family
budget, had an average annual expenditure for food of $60 per
food-expenditure unit,2 in contrast with $159 for families spending
$400 to $500 per expenditure unit for all items.
1 Classification by consumption level or economic level is the term used to denote classification of families
by annual expenditure per unit for the total of all items of family expenditure. The unit used for this pur­
pose is the equivalent adult male. Each member of the family, taking into account age, sex, and activity,
is counted as the appropriate decimal equivalent of an adult male. For each of the tables showing details
of expenditures as many economic levels have been shown as the number of cases in each city and the types
of the data for each particular table would allow. For annual food expenditures for Mexican families the
levels are as follows: Low, under $200 per expenditure unit; intermediate, $200 to $400 per expenditure unit;
high, $400 and over per expenditure unit.
2 Food-expenditure units are computed from scales based on the cost of estimated customary food con­
sumption of persons of differing age, sex, and occupation. (See appendix Q, pp 688, 689.) They may be
used as a convenient common denominator in studying differences in total food expenditures atd ifferent
economic levels.




131

132

TW ELVE

COTES

OF

THE

SOUTH

Food Expenditures in 1 Wee\ in Spring, Summer, and Fall Quarters.
Data on 194 separate foods purchased and consumed during one
typical week in one of the three quarters, spring, summer, and fall,
show that not only is there a marked increase in the average expendi­
ture for food per capita with rise in economic level among these fami­
lies, but also that the types and quantities of foods are different at the
various levels. The figures on the details of food purchases have been
summarized to show average purchase by families at three different
economic levels.3 (See Tabular Summary, table 7.)
A comparison of the amounts spent for all food per capita per week 4
by families at the three expenditure levels shows an increase of 152
percent from the low to the high level.
The per capita expenditures for meats, poultry, and sea food, and
the quantities purchased of these items increased rapidly with economic
level. The per capita expenditure for this group of foods was approxi­
mately three times as large at the high as at the low level. On the
average, however, the expenditures of the Mexican families were less
than half those of the other white group studied in Houston. Ex­
penditures for any quantities purchased of vegetables and fruits
approximately doubled from low to high level.
The Mexican families used more than three times the quantity of
the starchy foods represented by flour and other cereals than that
used by the other Houston families. Per capita expenditures for total
grain products rose from 22.8 cents at the low level to 48.0 cents at
the high level. Quantity purchases also showed a marked increase
with economic level. The Mexicans used less potatoes per capita, on
the other hand, than did the other group of Houston families.
Expenditures for milk were larger than those for any other single
item, but amounted to only two-thirds of the amount spent by the
other white families studied in Houston. Quantities purchased and
expenditures increased with economic level except in the case of
expenditures for evaporated and condensed milk, which were largest
at the intermediate level.
White flour accounted for the second largest per capita expenditure
for an individual food item. The average quantity purchased was
five times that for the other white families, and the average expendi­
ture approximately four times as large. Quantity purchased and
expenditure were largest at the intermediate level where families were
larger than at the high level.
Butter and lard were replaced by many of the Mexican families at
the two lower levels by vegetable shortening, which was the item of
* For each of the tables showing details of expenditures as many economic levels have been shown as the
number of cases in each city and the type of the data for each particular table would allow. For food expend­
itures during 1 week for the Mexican families the levels are: Under $200, $200 to $400, and $400 and over.
i Reasons for use of per capita rather than per food-exjpenditure unit figures for individual food, items are
given in footnote 3,r .47.
p.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FDR

S P E C IF IE D

GOODS

133

third largest expenditure. A t the high level, expenditures for lard
were larger than those for vegetable shortening. Even at the high
level expenditures for butter, though substantially larger than at the
low level, did not assume the relative importance found among other
white families. Quantities purchased of vegetable shortening and
average expenditures were highest at the intermediate level, due to
the increased use of lard at the high level.
White bread ranked fourth in expenditure. Both expenditures and
quantities purchased increased with economic level, in direct contrast
to the usage evidenced by the other group of families.
The importance of the “ frijole” as an article of Mexican diet is
indicated by the fact that dry beans was the item requiring the fifth
largest expenditure. Expenditure and quantity were largest at the
intermediate level.
It is possible to compare the average food expenditures of the
Mexican families in Houston with annual unit expenditure from $200
to $400 for all items of the family budget with Mexican families in
Los Angeles at the same level. The per capita food expenditure of
the Los Angeles families was one-fourth more than that of the com ­
parable Houston families. The Houston families spent less for total
grain products, but purchased a larger quantity since they bought more
of it in the form of flour and cereals and less in the form of bread and
baked products than did the Los Angeles families. They purchased
twice as much white flour and about eight times as much corn meal
as did the Los Angeles group. Less eggs, milk, and butter were pur­
chased by the Houston families. The Houston families spent 57
cents of every dollar going for fats for vegetable shortening, while the
Los Angeles families spent 38 cents of every “ fat” dollar for lard.
The Houston Mexicans spent a slightly smaller proportion of the food
dollar for meat, poultry, fish, and other seafood than did the Los
Angeles group (14 cents as compared with 16 cents). Total per capita
expenditure for this group of foods was, however, 33 percent smaller
in Houston than in Los Angeles. In the case of vegetables and
fruits, per capita expenditure and quantity purchased were smaller in
Houston. Green and leafy vegetables and citrus fruits were used in
larger quantities in Los Angeles with correspondingly larger expendi­
tures for these items. The dried beans, used extensively by both
groups, were purchased in larger quantities by the Houston families.
An estimate of the proportion of the 100 Houston Mexican families
at each of the three economic levels spending enough for food per
food expenditure unit to buy an adequate diet at minimum c o s t 5
shows a striking progression from the families in the lowest economic
level to those in the highest. Only 20 of the 100 families could be so
8 For method of computation and limitations of this estimate see p. 49
,74390°— 41-------10




134

TW ELVE

CETTE'S

OF

THE

SOUTH

classified. The proportion rises from no families at the lowest level
to 18 percent at the intermediate and 71 percent at the highest level
who spent enough for adequate nutrition if they had selected foods
closely in accordance with nutritional need.
Housing

Housing facilities.
Renters of houses,6 who constituted 74 percent of the Mexican
sample in Houston, averaged about four rooms per dwelling. For
these renters of houses the average number of persons per room was
1.35. The downward movement in the number of persons per room
with rise in plane of living was also true of the Mexicans. For
families with annual unit expenditure of $100 to $200 there were 1.80
persons per room, while for families spending $400 and over the
figure dropped to 0.69. For all of the Houston Mexican families
combined the number of persons per room averaged 1.32. This
figure is considerably higher than the average for families in any
other group studied. The figure is particularly striking, since it
must be remembered that the sample is a cross section only of em­
ployed wage earners and clerical workers who at no time during the
schedule year had received relief.
As with the white families, home owners surpassed renters in the
proportion of families having garden space. Eight out of nine home
owners possessed such space while 73 out of 91 renters did so.
Likewise 8 of the 9 home owners had the use of a garage while only
46 of the 91 renters had the use of garages.
A comparision of the housing facilities of the Mexican group and
the white group other than Mexican studied in Houston shows the
kind of difference which would be expected in view of the generally
lower incomes of the Mexican families. Only one renting and one
home owning Mexican family lived in a dwelling with all of the
following facilities: Running hot water, inside flush toilet, electric
lights and gas or electricity for cooking. From table 9 of the tabular
summary more detailed data are available on the individual facilities
possessed by home owners and renters.

Housing expenditures.7
For families renting houses, the average monthly rental rate was
$11. These monthly rental rates increased with rise in economic level
from $10 at the lowest to $14 at the highest. Two families rented
apartments with heat included in rent and 13 apartments with heat
not included iii rent. Data on the monthly rentals of such families
have not been computed due to the small numbers of cases.
• Since but nine of the families were home owners data on the size of their dwellings have not been pre­
sented separately.
7 See Tabular Summary, table 10.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FOR

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GOODS

135

None of the Mexican families studied owned a vacation home. Five
families paid rent on a vacation or trip at an average expenditure of $12
per family making such trips.
Fuel,

light, and refrigeration.

Expenditures for fuel, light, and refrigeration were practically the
same in all four seasons of the year averaging $14, $10, $11, and $11
for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively. The major part
of these expenditures was for electricity and gas, while wood ac­
counted for $10 out of the total annual expenditure of $46.

Other items of household operation.
Of the items included under the heading of household operation, the
Mexican families spent the major portion for laundry soap and clean­
ing supplies. An average of $4 was paid for laundry sent out. One
family had the services of full-time domestic help and but three
families of part-time domestic help.
Furnishings and Equipm ent

Expenditures for furnishings and equipment, by these families of
Mexican wage earners and clerical workers, showed a marked varia­
tion with economic level. (See Tabular Summary, table 18.) At
the low level expenditures averaged $44 per family, whereas the
average at the high level was $82.
The items purchased by the largest proportion of families at the
low economic level were fundamentals of household equipment,
brooms, brushes, mops, light bulbs, tubs, boards and wringers, bed­
ding, and felt base floor covering. A t the high economic level brooms,
brushes, mops, light bulbs, and tubs, boards and wringers were also
of first importance in number of families purchasing, with turkish
towels, stoves, and pots, pans, and cutlery following. Families at
the high level bought such articles as rugs and carpets, furniture,
towels, and tableware more frequently than did families at the low
level.
Of the various groups of items coming under the general head of
furnishings and equipment, expenditures for silverware, china, and
glassware increased most markedly with rise in economic level.
C loth in g 8

Total expenditure per family for clothing.
The Mexican families studied spent on the average $124 for clothing.
As in the case of the other white and Negro families, all but a very small
* See Tabular Summary, table 17. Throughout, economic or consumption level is defined by amount of
annual unit expenditure. For each of the tables showing details of expenditures as many economic levels
have been shown as the number of cases and type of data for each particular table would allow. For the
Mexican families, clothing expenditures are shown at three levels: Under $200, $200 to $400, and $400 and over
for the groups 18 years of age and over. The data for the age groups 12 through 17 years, 6 through 11, and 2
through 5 years are presented without any attempt at separation of expenditures at different economic levels.




136

TW ELVE

c it ie s

o f

t h e

SOUTH

proportion was spent for ready-made clothing, dry cleaning, and
accessories. Expenditures for yard goods and findings used for
sewing garments at home averaged $4.96 per family at the low level,
$3.55 at the intermediate, and $3.45 at the high level. Paid help for
sewing was used so infrequently that the average expenditure per
family was only 1 cent.
Gifts of clothing paid for from family funds and exchanged within
the economic family were not recorded on the schedule as gifts but
simply as clothing expenditures of the family. An attempt was made
to ascertain the value of gifts received from persons outside the family
circle. Twenty-eight percent of the families reported such gifts.
The value of such gifts averaged $1.52, but as a large proportion of the
families reporting gifts could not estimate the value of the items
received and such values have not been included, the above figure
does not give a complete account of this item.
The most striking difference in the clothing expenditures of these
Mexican families from those of most other family groups studied is in
the relative amounts spent by men and women. Whereas among the
family groups surveyed in most cities, including the Mexican families
studied in Los Angeles, women aged 18 and over almost universally
spent more than men of similar age at each economic level, the reverse
was true in Houston. A t all three economic levels the men spent
substantially more than the women. At the lowr economic level the
figures were $28 and $17, respectively, and at the high level $81 and
$45. In percentage terms the women spent 39 percent less at the
low level and 44 percent less at the high. Evidently the women more
frequently went without hats and made their own or bought very
inexpensive dresses. A smaller proportion of the women’s clothing
dollar was devoted to headwear, outerwear, and miscellaneous items
and a larger proportion to footwear and underwear. (See tables
52 and 53.)
The relationship between men’s and women’s clothing expenditures
in Houston is just the contrary of that found among Mexican families
in Los Angeles,9 and that found among other white families in prac­
tically all the cities in the Nation-wide survey. In these other
groups the women spent more than the men at each economic level.
The difference may be due chiefly to the low incomes of the Houston
Mexicans and the greater opportunity for women to economize on
clothing than for men who must go out to work. The same variation
from what appears to be the usual relationship in the families of
urban wage earners and clerical workers occurs in the data secured
from Negro families in the South. In the case of the Negroes,
» See B. L. S. Bulletin 639, pp. 104-107, 241, and 256. Also Heller Committee for Research in Social
Economics, How Mexicans Earn and Live. Cost of Living Studies V, University of California Publi­
cations in Economics, vol. 13, 1933. No. 1, p. 37.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

FOR

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137

GOODS

however, the difference between the amounts spent by men and women
was smaller, and the level of the men’s clothing expenditure distinctly
lower.

Clothing expenditures for men and hoys.
Average clothing expenditures per person decreased from $44 for
men and boys 18 years and over through each age group to $9 for boys
aged 2 through 5 years.
When the clothing expenditures of the men and boys 18 years of age
and over are summarized (see table 51), it appears that expenditures
for outerwear required half of the total expenditure, increasing with
economic level from 46 percent at the low level to 53 percent at the
high level. The proportion for miscellaneous items also increased with
economic level, while that for headwear and footwear decreased as
the level of expenditure rose.
At the low economic level the annual clothing expenditure for men
and boys 18 years of age and over was $28, and at the high level $81.
Shoes were purchased by the largest number of men at both the low
and the high economic level. At the low level they averaged about
1.3 pairs of street shoes per person purchasing at an average price of
about $2.96 per pair. A t the high level the corresponding figures
increased to 1.8 and about $3.67. Cotton trousers were the item
second most frequently purchased at the low level and cotton shirts
third. A t the high level, cotton dress shirts, cotton undershirts and
handkerchiefs all tied for second place in frequency purchase.
T a b l e 5 2 .— Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fam ilies
successive economic levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 3 ^ -3 6

at

[Men and boys in Mexican families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Average clothing expenditure per person in—

Sex, age group, and
type of clothing

Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Families with annual
unit expenditures of—
All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Men and boys 18years of age and over:
Headwear._________ ___________
Outerwear.......................................
Underwear......................................
Footwear______________________
Miscellaneous items...... ...............

$3.00
22. 56
2.50
9.54
6.73

$2.58
13.17
1.87
7.68
3.06

$3.04
22.67
2.24
9.32
6. 77

$3.73
43.14
4. 85
14. 46
14. 86

6.8
50.9
5.6
21.5
15.2

9.1
46.4
6.6
27.1
10.8

6.9
51.4
5.1
21.2
15.4

4.6
53.3
6.0
17.8
18.3

Total............................................

44.33

28.36

44.04

81.04

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

P ercen t P ercen t P ercen t P ercen t

Shoes were also the item taking the largest share of the men’s cloth­
ing dollar at the low level, but at the high level wool suits represented
the greatest expenditure. Five of the seventeen men at the high level
bought heavy wool suits at an average price of $33 and six purchased




138

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

lightweight wool suits, paying an average of $18 per suit. A t the
low level, cotton shirts were second and cotton trousers of third im­
portance in magnitude of expenditures, while at the high level shoes
were second and cotton shirts third.
Almost half of the men at the low level used cleaning and repairing
services at an average expenditure per man using such services of
$3.32 per year. About three-fourths of the men at the high level
averaged $10.20 for such services.
Expenditures for felt hats averaged over $2 at each economic level
and were larger than corresponding expenditures of white or Negro
men. Accessories, including belts, while small in amount represented
higher expenditures by Mexicans than by white or Negro men.
The limited numbers of boys aged less than 18 bars analysis of their
detailed clothing expenditures.

Clothing expenditures for women and girls.
The low clothing expenditures of women as compared with men has
already been noted. For the lower age groups, total clothing ex­
penditures for girls were very similar to those of boys.
As was true for men, shoes were purchased by a larger proportion
of women aged 18 and over than any other item. This was true at
the high as well as the low economic level. The items purchased by
the next largest numbers of women at the low level were house slippers,
then cotton house dresses, and next rayon bloomers and panties.
Rayon, cotton, and silk hose followed in the order named. At the
high level, there was little difference in the number of women pur­
chasing items ranking second to shoes in terms of number purchasing,
such as rayon panties, felt hats, and house slippers.
In terms of size of expenditure, shoes were the most important item
at the low level. Approximately 25 cents of the clothing dollar at
this level went for shoes. Forty-two women purchased street shoes,
3 purchased dress shoes, and 1 sport shoes, and paid $1.91, $2.67, and
$1 per pair, respectively. Silk and rayon dresses were second in
amount of expenditure. Sixteen women bought such dresses at an
average price of $3.44 per dress. Cotton housedresses were third in
importance of expenditure at the low level, 26 women paying an
average of 93 cents per dress.
At the high level, silk and rayon dresses replaced shoes as the item
of largest expenditure. Ten of the fifteen women bought such dresses
at an average price of $5.24 per dress. Shoes ranked second.
Thirteen women purchased street shoes at an average price of $2.92
per pair, and 2 purchased dress shoes at $3.35. Silk hose were third
in importance of expenditure for this group. Those purchasing
bought on the average 8 pairs and paid 81 cents a pair.




E X P E N D IT U R E S

T

able

FOR

S P E C IF IE D

139

GOODS

53. — Distribution of clothing expenditures for individuals in fam ilies at
successive economic levels, 1 year during the period 1 9 3 4 -8 6
[Women and girls in Mexican families of wage earners and clerical workers]
Average clothing expenditure per person in—
Families with annual
unit expenditure of—

Sex, age group, and type of clothing
All
families

All
families
Under
$200

Women and girls 18 years of age and
over:
Headwear_______ _____ ________
Outerwear_____________________
Underwear............. ......... ..............
Footwear_______________________
Miscellaneous items____________
Total_____ ______ ____ _______

$200 to $400 and
$400
over

Families with annual
unit expenditure of—
Under
$200

$200 to $400 and
$400
over

P ercen t

P ercen t

P ercen t

$1.18
11. 75
3.44
9.06
1. 56

$0.77
7.00
2.09
6.83
.56

$1.20
13.42
3.74
9.69
1.47

$2.43
18.30
6. 25
12.86
5.10

4.4
43.5
12.7
33.6
5.8

4.5
40.6
12.1
39.6
3.2

4.1
45.4
12.7
32.8
5.0

5.4
40.8
13.9
28.6
11.3

26.99

17. 25

29.52

44.94

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

P ercen t

O th e r Groups o f C u rre n t Expenditures

In all probability a large portion of the expenditures for transporta­
tion (see Tabular Summary, table 13) were for recreational purposes,
but it was impossible for the families accurately to prorate their
transportation expenditure between recreational and strictly transportational purposes. For these 100 Mexican families average an­
nual expenditures were $89 and increased fourfold from the annual
expenditure level of families spending $100 to $200 per expenditure
unit to those families spending $400 and over. Eighty-five percent
of average transportation expenditures were for automobile purchase,
operation, and maintenance. This percentage increased with rise in
economic level as did the proportion of families owning automobiles.
On the average 48 percent of these Mexican families owned automo­
biles. N o families reported the purchase of a new car during the
schedule year, but 19 families purchased second-hand cars, for which
an average price of $207 was paid.
The largest proportion of expenditures for all other forms of trans­
portation was for local bus, which averaged about $7 per year per
family. Forty-three percent of the families reported use of local
busses. The next largest expenditure, averaging $3 per year, was for
taxis used by 28 percent of the families.
Average expenditure per person for medical care (see Tabular Sum­
mary, table 14) averaged $5, rising from $3 at the lowest level to $9
for families spending $300 to $400 per expenditure unit per year and
$6 for families spending over $400. These figures are grossly inade­
quate to supply the minimum necessary care for health.1 Medicine
0
and drugs were purchased by 93 percent of the families, accounting
for over a quarter of total expenditures for medical care. About a
“ See footnote 18, p. 73.




140

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

third of the families purchased health and accident insurance at an
average expenditure per family buying such insurance of $15. Both
the proportion of families purchasing this type of insurance and the
average amount paid per family decreased with economic level.
Dollar expenditures for personal care (see Tabular Summary, table
14) remained practically the same at every economic level, averaging
about $24. The personal care services most frequently used were
haircuts, permanent waves, and “ other waves.”
Of the items included under the general heading of recreation (see
Tabular Summary, table 15), the largest proportion of the expenditures
of Mexican families were for movies. Tobacco, which was of the
first importance for the white and Negro families, takes second place
followed by expenditures for newspaper, both delivered at home and
bought on the street.
Forty-one of the one hundred Mexican families studied owned
radios while 21 purchased radios during the schedule year at an
average price of $62 per radio.
Details of other items of expenditure by these Mexican families,
which included education, vocational expense, gifts and contributions
to individuals and to the community welfare, are presented in table
16 of the Tabular Summary.







Part IV .— Tabular Summary

141




143

TABULAE SUMMARY
T

able

1 .— D istrib u tio n o f fa m ilie s b y econ om ic level and in com e level
B AL T IM O R E , M D .— W H IT E FAMILIES

| $100 to $200

| $200 to $300

$400 to $500

$500 to $600

| $600 to $700

j $700 to $800

$800 to $900

$900 to $1,000

| $1,000 to $1,100

$1,100 to $1,200

$1,200 to $1,300

$1,300 to $1,400

$1,400 to $1,500

$1,500 to $1,600

419

0

14

60

92 100

66

40

23

11

7

3

1

1

1

0

0

0

4
45
95
120
67
51
17
9
5
3
2
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
3
5
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
11
19
15
9
4
1
0
0
0
0
0

1
18
26
23
12
7
2
1
1
1
0
0

0
2
19
20
12
9
1
1
2
0
0
0

0
0
3
19
8
3
3
2
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
7
6
5
2
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
1
5
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
3
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
11
22
29
16
13
7
2
0
0
0
0

$1,600 to $1,700

1 Under $100

Families in survey___
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600.._..........
$600-$900..............
$900-$l,200______
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400_____
$2,400-$2,700.........
$2,700-$3,000.........
$3,000-$3,300_____
$3,300-$3,600.........
$3,600-$3,900_____

1 $300 to $400

Income class

All families

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per year

B AL T IM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Families in survey.. . 107
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600....... ....... 8
$600-$900________ 36
$900-$1,200______ 42
$1,200-$1,500....... . 15
4
$1,500-$1,800........
$1,800-$2,100........
1
$2,100-$2,400........
0
1
$2,400-$2,700........

0

24

28

21

18

9

4

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
11
8
2
0
0
0
0

3
10
11
4
0
0
0
0

2
10
7
1
1
0
0
0

0
5
8
4
0
1
0
0

0
0
5
2
2
0
0
0

0
0
3
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

B IR M IN G H A M , A L A.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Families in survey.
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________
$600-$900.... ..........
$900-$1,200........ .
$1,200-$1,500____
$1,500-$1,800....... .
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400.........
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_____
$3,000-$3,300_____
$3,300-$3,600_____
$3,600-$3,900_____

202

0

10

29

49

32

28

21

10

3
21
39
50
41
36
7
2
2
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
6
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
8
9
6
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
5
17
13
8
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2
3
17
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
6
4
8
7
0
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
4
6
6
2
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
1
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

6

8

2

1

1

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1 . 0
1
1
2
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5

BIR M IN G H A M , A L A .- -NEGRO FAMILIES
Families in survey... 101
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600.__.......... 22
$600-$900.............. 52
$900-$l,200______ 16
$1,200-$1,500......... 7
1
$1,500-$1,800........
3
$1,800-$2,100____

3

35

27

17

10

5

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2
1
0
0
0
0

9
26
0
0
0
0

10
9
5
2
1
0

1
12
3
1
0
0

0
4
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
2
0
2

0
0
1
1
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




144

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T a b l e 1. — D istrib u tio n o f fa m ilie s by econom ic level and in com e level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

$600 to $700

$700 to $800

| $800 to $900

$900 to $1,000

$1,000 to $1,100

29

54

51

54

39

19

14

9

6

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
4
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
9
13
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
8
19
15
6
4
0
2
0
0
0

0
4
8
15
13
9
1
1
0
0
0

0
2
13
14
14
9
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
2
12
11
11
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
4
3
9
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
3
3
6
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
1
2
5
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

1

5

1

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

m

0

1

$1,600 to $1,700

$500 to $600

11

$1,300 to $1,400

$200 to $300

$300 to $400

0

o
o

$1,400 to $1,500

$100 to $200

Families in survey.. . 294
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________
3
$600-$900________ 27
$900-$l,200______ 57
$1,200-$1,500_____ 71
$1,500-$1,800_____ 57
$1,800-$2,100_____ 57
$2,100-$2,400_____
8
$2,400-$2,700_____
8
4
$2,700-$3,000_____
1
$3,000-$3,300_____
1
$3,300-$3,600_____

$1,100 to $1,200

Under $100

o

Income class

$1,200 to $1,300

All families

1

Economic level--Families spending per expenditure unit per year

HOUSTON, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N
Families in survey... 258
Annual net income
of—
0
$500-$600________
$600-$900________ 12
$900-$1,200______ 46
$1,200-$1,500_____ 67
$1,500-$1,800_____ 58
$1,800-$2,100_____ 53
$2,100-$2,400_____ 10
4
$2,400-$2,700_____
3
$2,700-$3,000_____
1
$3,000-$3,300_____
3
$3,300-$3,600_____
0
$3,600-$3,900_____
$3,900-$4,200_____
1

0

6

18

44

49

47

36

25

11

12

4

4

1

1

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2
8
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
6
14
11
6
3
2
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
10
19
11
5
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
6
10
18
10
1
0
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
4
5
10
12
2
1
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
2
9
2
9
1
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
7
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAMILIES
Families in survey. __
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600..........—
$600-$900________
$900-$1200_______
$1200-$1500______
$1500-$1800_.........

100

0

30

34

22

6

6

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

o

0

12
38
32
12
6

0
0
0
0
0

5
15
8
0
2

4
10
14
5
1

3
10
5
4
0

0
3
1
0
2

0
0
3
2
1

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0 ;

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

JACKSON, MISS.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Families in survey.. .
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________
$600-$900________
$900-$1200_______
$1200-$1500...........
$1500-$1800_.........
$1800-$2100______
$2100-$2400..........
$2400-$2700______
$2700-$3000______
$3000-$3300______
$3300-$3600______
$3600-$3900........ -

150

0

4

0
17
30
32
24
20
15
5
5
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1

10
0
5
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

25

44

32

16

0
2
8
4
6
3
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
6
14
10
6
3
4
1
0
0
0
0

0
1
3
9
5
5
5
2
1
0
0

0
0
]
3
3
5
2
0
2
6
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




5

1

3

0

1

1

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
3
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0 ! 0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
I
0 1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
n
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

8

i 0

145

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

1 .— D istrib u tio n o f fa m ilie s b y econom ic level and in com e level— Continued
JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAM ILIES

$200 to $300

8
C4O
/3

$400 to $500

$500 to $600

$600 to $700

$800 to $900

$900 to $1,000

$1,000 to $1,100

$1,100 to $1,200

$1,200 to $1,300

$1,300 to $1,400

$1,400 to $1,500

$1,500 to $1,600

100

3

25

39

22

7

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20
54
20
3
1
2

2
0
1
0
0
0

9
10
5
1
0
0

8
23
7
0
1
0

1
17
3
1
0
0

0
2
4
0
0
1

0
2
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

1
o

o
o

8
0

1
4/3

$1,600 to $1,700

$100 to $200

Families in survey.__
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________
$600-$900________
$900-$l, 200______
$1, 200-$l, 500____
$1,500-$!, 800____
$1,800-$2,100____

| Under $100

Income class

All families

Economic level--Families spending per expenditure unit per year

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Families in survey.. . 178
Annual net income
of—
1
$500-$600________
$600-$900________ 19
$900-$l, 200______ 33
$1, 200-$1, 500____ 33
$1, 500-$1,800____ 32
$1,800-$2,100____ 34
$2,100-$2, 400____ 13
5
$2, 400-$2, 700____
3
$2, 700-$3,000____
1
$3,000-$3, 300____
3
$3, 300-$3, 600____
1
$3, 600-$3,900____

0

4

18

37

39

30

17

13

9

2

1

3

1

1

2

0

1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
7
5
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
5
9
7
7
6
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
4
11
10
7
5
0
2
0
0
0
0

0
0
6
4
8
9
3
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
4
4
4
1
1
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
3
2
3
3
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
3
4
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

LOUISVILLE, K Y .—W H IT E FAMILIES
Families in survey.
197
Annual net income
of—
0
$500-$600________
$600-$900________ 33
$900-$l,200______ 59
$1,200-$1,500_____ 51
$1,500-$1,800_____ 29
$1,800-$2,100_____ 17
$2,100-$2,400_____
3
$2,400-$2,700_____
3
$2,700-$3,000_____
1
$3,000-$3,300_____
0
$3,300-$3,600_____
0
$3,600-$3,900_____
1

0

8

40

44

42

27

17

7

8

3

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
10
11
12
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
7
13
18
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
10
14
9
4
4
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
16
4
5
1
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
3
5
6
1
0
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
2
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
4
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

LOUISVILLE, K Y .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Families in survey.
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________
$600-$900________
$900-$1,200______
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_____

74

1

13

22

18

15

4

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2
35
24
8
4
1

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
7
4
2
0
0

1
12
4
4
1
0

1
9
5
1
1
1

0
6
8
1
0
0

0
0
2
0
2
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




146
T

able

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

1. — Distribution of fam ilies by economic level and income level— C on tinu ed
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

Under $100

$100 to $200

$200 to $300

$300 to $400

$400 to $500

$500 to $600

| $600 to $700

$700 to $800

$800 to $900

$900 to $1,000

$1,000 to $1,100

$1,100 to $1,200

$1,200 to $1,300

$1,300 to $1,400

$1,400 to $1,500

$1,500 to $1,600

Families in survey.._
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600_.............
$600-$900_.............
$900-$l,200...........
$1,200-$1,500_........
$1,500-$1,8G0.........
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400_____
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_____

194

0

8

25

40

34

29

25

15

8

3

5

1

0

0

0

1

0

3
22
35
44
37
40
10
1
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
2
4
0
1
0
0
0
0

2
8
7
6
1
1
0
0
0

0
8
7
14
6
4
0
0
1

0
3
7
8
7
8
1
0
0

0
1
4
6
8
7
3
0
0

0
0
4
5
4
9
2
0
1

0
0
1
3
4
4
2
1
0

0
0
1
0
3
3
1
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
3
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$1,600 to $1,700

Income class

| All families

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per year

M EM P H IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Families in survey _. _
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600_.............
$600-$900_.............
$900-$l,200. ..........
$1,200-$1,500_........
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_____

94

0

24

30

22

14

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15
53
19
5
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

9
11
4
0
0
0

6
17
5
2
0
0

0
15
4
2
1
0

0
8
5
1
0
0

0
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

M OBILE, AL A .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Families in survey.
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600_.............
$600-$900...... .........
$900-$l,200...........
$1,200-$1,500........
$1,500-$1,800.........
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400_____
$2,400-$2,700_.......
$2,700-$3,000_____
$3,000~$3,300_.......
$3,300-$3,600____
$3,600-$3,900_____
$3,900-$4,200_.......
$4,200-$4,500.........

146

0

14

30

30

20

21

12

8

8

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

5
24
21
35
24
26
7
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4
7
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
11
7
5
2
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
4
4
10
7
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
5
6
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
2
6
4
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
1
2
2
2
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
1
0
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
4
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

M OBILE , A L A.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Families in survey.. .
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600...............
$600-$900_............
$900-$l,200.......... .
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,600-$1,800_____

94

3

28

32

19

9

2

0

0

1

0

0

0 1 0 j 0
l

0

0

0

28
48
14
2
2

1
2
0
0
0

13
12
2
0
1

10
15
6
1
0

2
14
3
0
0

1
5
1
1
1

1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

147

TABULAE SUMMARY
T

able

1 . — Distribution of fam ilies by economic level and income level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES

$400 to $500

$500 to $600

$600 to $700

$700 to $800

$800 to $900

$1,300 to $1,400

$1,400 to $1,500

$1,500 to $1,600

1

30

66

60

70

38

19

16

12

1

2

1

1

1

0

0

0

14
60
71
60
72
25
7
6
2
1

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5
12
10
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

8
25
20
6
4
3
0
0
0
0

0
10
19
15
8
4
3
1
0
0

0
12
13
19
16
9
0
1
0
0

0
0
8
8
20
0
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
7
5
4
1
0
1
0

0
0
1
3
7
2
0
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
9
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$1,600 to $1,700

| $300 to $400

318

$1,200 to $1,300

| $200 to $300

$1,100 to $1,200

| Under $100

| $100 to $200

Families in survey.
Annual net income of:
$500-$600..............
$600-$900________
$900-$l,200______
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400_____
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_____
$3,000-$3,300.........

$900 to $1,000

Income class

All families

$1,000 to $1,100

Economic level—
-Families spending per expenditure unit per year

N E W ORLEANS, LA.—NEGRO FAMILIES
Families in survey..- 83
Annual net income of:
$500-$600________ 15
$600-$900________ 36
$900-$l,200______ 25
5
$1,200-$1,500_____
2
$1,500-$1,800_.......

1

26

22

18

9

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1
0
0
0
0

6
12
7
1
0

6
12
4
0
0

2
8
6
2
0

0
4
4
1
0

0
0
4
1
2

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

NORFOLK-PORTSM OUTH, V A .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Families in survey. . .
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600_ .............
$600-$900.............
$900-$1.200............
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_____
$2,100-$2,400.........
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_____
$3,000-$3,300_____
$3,300-$3,600_____

162

0

3

23

22

37

26

16

8

12

5

4

4

0

1

1

0

0

0
10
23
40
32
28
20
4
2
1
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
5
10
5
1
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
2
9
2
3
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
7
13
6
5
5
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
3
9
7
5
1
0
0
0

0
1
2
4
4
4
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
3
3
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
4
3
1
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NORFOLK-PORTSM OUTH, V A .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Families in survey. . . 109
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600________ 11
$600-$900.............. 47
$900-$l,200............ 31
$1,200-$1,500_____ 15
2
$1,500-$1,800.........
$1,800-$2,100_____
3

2

27

30

22

17

8

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
2
0
0
0
0

4
13
6
3
0
1

5
16
6
3
0
0

2
7
9
3
1
0

0
8
4
3
1
1

0
1
6
0
0
1

0
0
0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




148
T

able

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO UTH

1 . — Distribution of fam ilies by economic level and income level— C on tinu ed
R IC H M O N D , V A .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

$200 to $300

I $300 to $400

$400 to $500

$500 to $600

$600 to $700

$700 to $800

$800 to $900

$900 to $1,000

$1,000 to $1,100

$1,200 to $1,300

$1,300 to $1,400

$1,400 to $1,500

0

10

24

35

38

28

18

23

7

4

1

3

1

0

0

3
24
29
42
37
24
12
12
4
1
2
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
6
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
6
7
7
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
6
6
9
11
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
6
8
7
7
7
1
2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
2
7
3
7
5
2
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
4
5
2
2
0
3
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
6
9
2
2
1
1
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
1
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

j

$1,500 to $1,600

$100 to $200

192

$1,600 to $1,700

| Under $100

Families in survey.. .
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600..............
$600-$900-_...........
$90G-$1,200-..........
$1,200-$1,500_____
$1,500-$1,800_____
$1,800-$2,100_.......
$2,100-$2,400_____
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_____
$3,000-$3,300_____
$3,300-$3,600_____
$3,600-$3,900_____
$3,900-$4,200_____

$1,100 to $1,200

Income class

All families

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per year

0

0

R IC H M ON D , VA.—N EGRO FAMILIES
Families in survey___ 96
Annual net income
of—
$500-$600__........ . 11
$600-$900........... . 41
$900-$l,200______ 33
7
$1,200-$1,500.........
1
$1,500-$1,800.........
$1,800-$2,100_____ 0
1
$2,100-$2,400_____
1
$2,400-$2,700_____
$2,700-$3,000_........ 0
$3,000-$3,300_____
0
1
$3,300-$3,600_____

0

25

23

24

12

8

3

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4
14
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5
6
8
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

2
13
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
6
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
1
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A , p. 635.




149

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 2. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by econ om ic level
B AL T IM O R E , M D .-W H I T E FAMILIES

Item

Economic level--Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
All
fam­
ilies $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and b y F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey.____ _____ __________
Number of families in which chief earner
is—
Clerical worker. .............................. ........
Skilled wage earner.................................
Semiskilled wage earner_______________
Unskilled wage earner___________ ____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife............................................
Man, wife, and 1 child8
—........................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children8_______
Man, wife, and 5 or more children8___
Man, wife, and children and adults (4
to 6 persons)8___ ____ ______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7
or more persons)8
............................. .
Man, wife, and 1 adu lt..........................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults...............
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults______
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)______________________
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)________ ______ ______
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons not including man and wife)___
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife).

419

14

60

92

100

66

40

23

11

7

6

123
119
134
43

1
3
6
4

9
14
27
10

23
18
35
16

37
29
29
5

23
21
17
5

12
14
11
3

10
7
6
0

3
7
1
0

3
2
2
0

2
4
0
0

87
80
70
5

0
1
3
2

0
0
21
3

7
15
26
0

14
20
13
0

21
24
3
0

15
16
1
0

15
2
2
0

6
2
1
0

6
0
0
0

3
0
0
0

52

0

15

16

11

5

4

1

0

0

0

13
26
27
0

4
0
3
0

6
1
4
0

3
6
8
0

0
8
10
0

0
4
2
0

0
2
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
2
0
0

31

0

4

5

12

4

2

2

0

1

1

6

0

1

3

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

5

2

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

3

1

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

374
5
8
10
5
3
2
9

12
0
0
2
0
0
0
0

54
1
0
2
0
1
0
2

80
1
2
4
0
1
1
3

88
1
2
1
5
1
0
1

58
1
2
1
0
0
1
1

37
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

21
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

66
23
92 100
11
40
14
60
6. 21 5.33 4.09 3. 58 2.99 3.10 2.63 2.95

7
1.95

6
2. 45

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker____ _____ _____ _______________
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United states.............................................
Italy............................................................
Germany.....................................................
Poland.........................................................
Russia_________________ ____ _________
England.......................................................
Ireland.........................................................
Other...................................... .....................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households.. _____ __________
Average number of persons in household.
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers..............................
Boarders only......................... ...................
Lodgers only..................... ........................
Other persons.............................................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total. ..........................................
Under 16 years of age...........................
16 years of age and over........................
Expenditure units________ ___________
Average number of persons in household
not members of economic family...........

419
3.79
68
0
11
6

0
0
0
0

12
0
2
0

12
0
3
0

18
0
1
1

8
0
1
3

11
0
2
2

3
0
0
0

1
0
2
0

2
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

3. 57
1.01
2. 56
3. 28

6. 21
2.64
3. 57
5.62

5.07
2.14
2.93
4. 56

3.91
1.25
2. 66
3.58

3.35
0. 75
2.60
3.05

2.80
0. 53
2. 27
2.64

2. 74
0. 50
2.24
2.59

2.48
0.35
2.13
2.39

2. 72
0.36
2. 36
2.46

1.71
0
1. 71
1.98

2.33
0
2.33
2. 24

0 0.28 0.18 0.23 0.19 0.38 0.16 0. 26

0. 25

0.17

0. 23

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-------11




150

TWELVE CITIES OF TH E SOUTH
T able 2. —

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
B A L T IM O R E , M D .—W H IT E FAM ILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per year

Item

All
fam­
ilies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
to
and
$900 $ 1,000 over

E a rn in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers..............................
Other net rents..........................
Interest and dividends.............
Pensions and insurance an­
nuities—. .......................... .
Gifts from persons outside
economic family___________
Other sources of income...........
Deductions from income
(business losses and ex­
penses)....................................
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities).
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities).
Inheritance................................
Average number ofgainful work­
ers per family.............................
Average amount of—
Net family income....................
Earnings of individuals........
Chief earner.........................
Subsidiary earners.............
Males: 16 years and over.
Under 16 years—
Females: 16yearsand over.
Under 16 years..
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers..........................
Other net rents.......................
Interest and dividends_____
Pensions and insurance an­
nuities___________ _______
Gifts from persons outside
economic family.................
Other sources of income____
Deductions from income
(business losses and ex­
penses)................................
Surplus per family having sur­
plus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities).
Deficit per family having defi­
cit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities ).
Net change in assets and lia­
bilities for all families in
survey._________ __________
Inheritance............................... .

419

100

11

128

25

5

64
31
28

15
8
8

3
0
1
1
0
1

0

25
42

296

1.40

2.21

1.45

1. 36

1.23

1.45

1.71

1.17

$1,437 $1,057 $1, 230 $1, 280 $1,424 $1,461 $1, 672 $1, 807 $2, 205 $1,665 $2,104
1,391 1,049 1,170 1,252 1, 370 1,431 1,606 1, 762 2,162 1,619 1,932
809 1,056 1,070 1,187 1,332 1,410 1, 556 1.777 1.247 1.692
1,218
206
183
196
99
114
372
385
182
173
240
240
1,195
840 1,024 1,055 1,089 1,341 1,504 1,498 1.777 1.247 1.692
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(8
)
264
102
372
281
385
197
146
196
90
197
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
(8
)
27

0
8

10

1

0

29
17
7 . 13

38

10

1

(8
)

(8
)

22
4

1

14
7

43
21

1

35
0

1

25
21

59

0

15

(8
)

200
3

0
-4

+50
5

-10

<*)

-5

(8
)

0

0

-105

128

(8
)
+85

0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.

110

130

148

170

205

390

255

163

98

141
175

-2

(8
)

3Less than $0.50.




7
4
0

118
6

134

10C

146

182

402

336

317

591

+79

+43

+74

+41
0

+43
33

0

0

4

+73 +126 -235 -340
0 80
0
0

TABULAR

T

able

151

SU M M ARY

2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
B ALTIM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expendi­
ture unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$400
to
$500

$300
to
$400

$500
to
$600

$600
and
over

D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d
by F a m ily T y p e i

Families in survey--------------------------------------Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker___________________________
Skilled wage earner______ ______ _________
Semiskilled wage earner__________________
Unskilled wage earner_________ _________ _
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife____________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2__________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
___________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
----------Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons)2
______________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)2_________________________
Man, wi fe, and 1 adult_________ _______ - —
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_____ _____ ___
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)_______________________________
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)__________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons not including man and wife)--------Adult or adults and children (4 or more per­
sons not including man and wife)------------

107

24

28

21

18

9

7

5
5
34
63

1
1
4
18

1
0
13
14

0
0
8
13

0
2
6
10

2
2
1
4

1
0
2
4

30
12
13
4

0
0
8
4

1
2
5
0

7
5
0
0

11
4
0
0

6
1
0
0

5
0
0
0

14

5

7

1

1

0

0

7
8
4
0

6
0
0
0

0
1
3
0

1
3
1
0

0
2
0
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

7

1

4

2

0

0

0

3

0

0

1

0

0

2

3

0

3

0

0

0

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

105

24

26

21

18

9

7

107
4.07

24
6. 48

28
4.37

21
3.02

18
2.90

9
2.83

7
2.57

12
2
14
3

2
0
3
0

5
1
6
1

1
0
2
2

2
1
1
0

2
0
1
0

0
0
1
0

3. 77
1. 25
2. 52
3.45

6.19
3.36
2.83
5.50

3.99
1. 27
2.72
3.68

2. 86
0. 57
2.29
2.68

2.56
0.28
2.28
2.37

2.33
0.11
2. 22
2.22

2.28
0
2.28
2.14

0. 33

0.29

0.47

0.16

0.34

0.53

4 0.29

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker...
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States____________________________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households--------------------------------Average number of persons in household____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers_____________________
Boarders only........ ............................ ..............
Lodgers only------------- ------------------------------Other persons____________________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total____________________________
Under 16 years of age........... ......................
16 years of age and over.............. ................
Expenditure units________________________
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family._____________

* “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




152

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 2.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu d ied , b y econ om ic level— Continued
B AL T IM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAM ILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expendi­
ture unit per year

Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In co m e

Families in survey....... .................................... .
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers___
Other net rents____________________ ____
Interest and dividends_______ ______ ____
Pensions and insurance annuities--------- __
Gifts from persons outside economic family.
Other sources of income__________________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_________________ ____ ___
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)_________ ___________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)-------------------------------Inheritance_______________________________
Average number of gainful workers per
family—............................................................Average amount of—
Net family income...........................................
Earnings of individuals...............................
Chief earner----------^..................................
Subsidiary earners....................................
Males: 16 years and over_____________
Under 16 years......................... .
Females: 16 years and over.....................
Under 16 years_________ ____
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers..
Other net rents------ ------- -------- --------------Interest and dividends______ ____ _____
Pensions and insurance annuities_______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family________________________________
Other sources of income_________________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_________________________
Surplus per family having surplus (net in­
crease in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities).____ ____________ ____ _________
Deficit per family having deficit (net de­
crease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities)--------------------------------- ------- --------Net change in assets and liabilities for all
families in survey_______________________
Inheritance................ ............................ ..........
3Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635




107

24

28

21

18

9

7

53
26
4
1
1
5
2

10
5

16
10
1
1
0
2
1

9
3
0
0
0
0
0

7
4
1
0
0
0
0

8
3
0
0
0
1
1

3
1
1
0
1
0
0
0

1
0

0
2
0

3

0

2

1

0

0

78

18

23

12

14

6

5

27
1

5
0

5
1

9
0

3
0

3
0

2
0

1.60

1.50

1.71

1.48

1.50

1.89

1.71

$990
944
792
152
763
(3
)
181
0
30
5
(3
)
6

$856
827
760
67
744
(3
)
83
0
15
5
0
0

$920
859
695
164
608
0
251
0
44
6
(3)
0

$879
869
801
68
732
0
137
0
10
0
0
0

$1,079
1,041
841
200
831
0
210
0
31
7
0
0

$1,276
1,198
896
302
896
0
302
0
67
0
0
0

$1,488
1,332
1,006
326
1,183
0
149
0
37
25
0
94

3
2

9
0

3
8

0
0

0
0

7
4

0
0

0

0

0

91

99

140

0

(3
)
67

50

(3)

(3)
56

40

70

55

32

51

98

95

200

+31
(3
)

+26
0

+40
1

+1
0

+55
0

+34
0

+43
0

153

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — Description o f fam ilies studied , by economic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , A L A.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e

1

Families in survey______________ _____ Number of families in which chief earner
is—
Clerical worker.............................. ........
Skilled wage earner.................................
Semiskilled wage earner....... ............ .
Unskilled wage earner----- , ....... ..........
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife..........................................
Man, wife, and 1 child 2....... .................
______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2___
Man, wife, and children and adults
-----------------------------(4 to 6 persons)2
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)2--------------------Man, wife, and 1 adult....... ............. .
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_________
Man, wife, and 5 or more a d u lts.___
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)-------- ------- ---------------Adults (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)_____________ . . .
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons not including man and wife) _
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man
and wife)----------------------- ----------------

202

10

29

49

32

28

21

10

5

6

12

75
68
51
8

1
2
3
4

3
14
9
3

8
26
15
0

15
5
11
1

17
7
4
0

10
6
5
0

8
1
1
0

4
1
0
0

2
4
0
0

7
2
3
0

41
33
41
1

0
0
1
0

0
3
9
0

3
5
13
1

1
9
10
0

6
6
7
0

8
6
0
0

6
2
0
0

4
1
0
0

3
0
1
0

10
1
0
0

36

4

8

13

3

5

3

0

0

0

0

6
17
11
0

3
0
0
0

2
2
2
0

1
6
5
0

0
3
4
0

0
3
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

9

1

1

0

2

0

2

2

0

1

0

3

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

199
1
2

9
0
1

29
0
0

49
0
0

31
1
0

27
0
1

21
0
0

10
0
0

5
0
0

6
0
0

12
0
0

32
49
10
29
28
21
10
5
5.83 5.19 4.36 3.90 3.46 3.06 2.33 2.28

6
2.86

12
2.50

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker_______________________________
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States...........................................
Russia. .................. ..................................
Other......................................................
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households___ ____ ________
Average number of persons in household.
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.............................
Boarders only..... .....................................
Lodgers only..... .......................................
Other persons_______________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______ ________________
Under 16 years of age.........................
16 years of age and ov er................
Expenditure units.----------- ---------------Average number of persons in household
not members of economic family_____

202
3. 91
18
13
3
36

2
0
0
3

5
3
0
4

3
2
0
9

5
3
0
4

1
1
2
7

0
3
0
4

0
0
0
0

0
0
1
2

0
0
0
2

2
1
0
1

3. 67
1.08
2. 59
3.40

5. 57
2. 24
3.33
5.12

4.82
1. 76
3.06
4.39

4. 21
1.43
2.78
3.87

3. 59
1.06
2.53
3.35

3. 24
0.85
0.39
3.04

2. 81
0. 52
2.29
2.61

2.33
0. 23
2.10
2.22

2.04
0.13
1.91
2.01

2. 52
0.39
2.13
2.41

2.22
0.10
2.12
2.13

0.26

0. 26 0.42 0.16 0. 35 0. 23 0.27 0

0.26

0.36

0.35

1 “ Children' ’ are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




154

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by econom ic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , A L A .—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per
year

Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
and
to
$900 $1,000 over

E a rn in g s a n d In co m e

Families in survey........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers.............................
Other net rents______________
Interest and dividends_______
Pensions and insurance annui­
ties___________ ____ _______
Gifts from persons outside
economic family___________
Other sources of income______
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)___
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabili­
ties) _______________________
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabili­
ties)_______________ ______
Inheritance__________________
Average number of gainful work­
ers per family__________ _____
Average amount of—
Net family income—........... .
Earnings of individuals____
Chief earner_______ _____
Subsidiary earners. ...........
Males: 16 years and over.
Under 16 years___
Females: 16 years and
over_________
Under 16 years..
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers______________
Other net rents____________
Interest and dividends_____
Pensions and insurance
annuities________________
Gifts from persons outside
economic family...... ..........
Other sources of income____
Deductions from income
(business losses and ex­
penses) __________________
Surplus per family having
surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)..................... ..........
Deficit per family having defi­
cit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabili­
ties) _______________________
Net change in assets and lia­
bilities for all families in
survey______________ ______
Inheritance.................................

202

10

29

49

32

28

21

10

5

6

59

4

11

16

9

7

7

1

2

0

2

36
7
9

2
1
0

8
2
1

5
0
2

8
3
0

5
0
0

5
1
3

0
0
0

1
0
0

0
0
2

2
0
1

14

0

1

3

1

2

3

1

i

2

0

21
26

0
3

6
6

3
6

1
2

4
1

2
3

1
1

l
l

1
1

2
2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

110

7

17

32

12

15

14

5

2

3

3

88
0

2
0

12
0

17
0

18
0

13
0

7
0

6
0

2
0

2
0

9
0

1. 39

1. 59

1.53

1.46

1.32

1.34

1.41

1.16

1.44

0.97

1.19

$1,441
1, 370
1, 241
129
1,243
2

$861 $1,081 $1, 315 $1,395 $1, 602 $1,823 $1,601 $1,614 $1,892 $1,959
789 1,025 1,264 1,326 1,552 1,687 1,512 1,491 1,777 1,891
912 1,140 1, 225 1,394 1,436 1,461 1,351 1,777 1,763
670
119
113
124
158
251
101
51
141
128
0
643
963 1,161 1,187 1, 390 1,404 1,461 1,352 1,777 1,790
2
0
7 (3
0
0
0
0
(3
)
)
(3
)

125
0

146
0

62
0

96
0

139
0

160
0

283
0

51
0

139
0

0
0

101
0

26
3
2

20
9
0

26
4
1

24
0
1

50
4
0

17
0
0

12
13
14

0
0
0

13
0
0

0
0
6

63
0
1

15

0

1

12

1

22

9

35

106

107

0

6
19

0
43

12
12

1
13

5
9

10
1

3
85

26
28

2
2

1
1

2
5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-3

145

51

137

125

156

183

234

138

97

37

114

186

138

77

101

139

218

159

89

311 1,123

396

-2
0

+8
0

+48
0

+46
0

-2 0
0

- 3 +103
0
0

+16
0

(3
)

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




12

-8 6 -356 -269
0
0
0

155

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—N EGRO FAM ILIES

Item

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y F a m i l y T y p e

Economic level—Families spend­
ing per expenditure unit per
year

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

1

Families in survey......... ................................................. ................................ ..
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker............... .......... .......... .............. . ..................... .....................
Skilled wage earner.................... ....................... .. ........ . . .......... ................
Semiskilled wage earner---------- ----------- ------------- ------------- ------------------------------Unskilled wage earner_____________________________ _________________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife.- --------------------------------------------------------- .......................... - ................
Man, wife, and 1 child ________________ - -----------------------------------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2_______ _____________ _______ __________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children2________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons)2_______
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more persons)2___
Man, wife, and 1 adult
------------------------------------- -------------------------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults. .................................. .............................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_______________ _______________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife)___ . . .
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and wife)
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife) ____________________ _______________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)--------------- ------------- ------------------------------- ----------------------------3

101

38

27

17

19

2
8
41
50

0
3
17
18

0
4
10
13

0
1
6
10

2
0
8
9

25
9
13
6
15
4
17
5
1
2
0

0
0
11
5
11
4
4
1
0
0
0

6
3
1

8
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0

11
0
0
0
0
0
6
1
0

1

4
0
7
3
1
0
0

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

2

1

0

0

1

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker._ _ _______________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States...................... ........................ ............................................

0

0

0

0

0

101

38

27

17

19

101
3.92

38
5.49

27
3.37

17
2.64

19
2.69

3
4
3
11

0
1
1
3

0
1
0
1

1
1
1
4

2
1
1
3

3.82
1.23
2.59
3.44

5.41
2.63
2. 78
4.77

3.33
0.60
2.73
3.03

2.49
0.45
2.04
2.34

2.54
0.02
2. 52
2.37

0.15

0.14

0.05

0.18

0.25

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households____________ . _________ ___________ .
Average number of persons in household____________ ____ ___
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____________________________________ .
Boarders only_______________________ ____________________
Lodgers only---- ------- --------------------------------------------------------Other persons______________________________ ______ _____ _
■Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total. . -------------------- ---------------- -----------------------Under 16 years of a g e ...----------------------- --------------------------16 years of age and over.................... ......................... ..............
Expenditure units__________________________________ ______
Average number of persons in household not members of
economic family------------------------------------ --------------------------

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




156

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 2.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , AL A .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—Families spend­
ing per expenditure unit per
year
Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey...................................................... ......................
Number of families having—.
Earnings of subsidiary earners________ ______ _________ ___
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers..................................
Other net rents............... ............................ ...................................
Interest and dividends--------------------------- -------- ------------------Pensions and insurance annuities............... ................................
Gifts from persons outside economic family..............................
Other sources of income___ ______ _______ ____ _____ _____ _
Deductions from income (business losses and expenses)____
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in liabilities) _
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in liabilities).
Inheritance............................................................ ........................
Average number of gainful workers per family............ ...............
Average amount of—
Net family income__________ _____________________ _______ _
Earnings of individuals_______ ____ _____________________
Chief earner___________________________________ _____
Subsidiary earners------- ---------------------------------------------Males: 16 years and over _________________ ___________
Under 16 years__________________ ______ _______
Females: 16 years and over------------------------------- ----------Under 16 years----------------------------------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers__________________
Other net rents_______ ______ ___________________________
Interest and dividends.................................. ......... .................
Pensions and insurance annuities............... ............................
Gifts from persons outside economic family________ _____
Other sources of income— _____________________________
Deductions from income (business losses and expenses)_
_
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)----------------------------------------Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities}............................................. _
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families in
survey----------------------- ------------------- ---------------- --------------Inheritance........................................... ....................................... .
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




101

38

27

17

19

50
9
2
0
10
9
6
5
62
35
0
1.60

16
2
0
0
1
3
0
0
24
14
0
1.55

17
1
0
0
2
0
2
1
17
7
0
1.81

5
2
0
0
3
3
1
1
9
8
0
1.29

12
4
2
0
4
3
3
3
12
6
0
1.68

$828
804
722
82
745
0
59
0
16
2
0
4
3
1
-2

$678
667
628
39
648
0
19
0
8
0
0
(«)
3
0
0

$759
755
646
109
705
0
50
0
3
0
0
1
0
(3
)
(3
)

$808
787
762
25
762
0
25
0
14
0
0
12
5
(3
)
-1 0

$1, 235
1,161
981
180
981
0
180
0
50
10
0
8
4
6
-4

90

49

95

108

150

88

46

114

52

201

+25
0

+14
0

+30
0

+32
0

+31
0

157

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

Item

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per
year
All
fam­
ilies $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 over

D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_____ _________
Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker________ _______
Skilled wage earner...... ................
Semiskilled wage earner...............
Unskilled wage earner.................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife................................
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2__
Man, wife, and 5 or more chil­
dren 2___ ____ _______________
Man, wife, and children and
adults (4 to 6 persons) 2__........
Man, wife, and children and
adults (7 or more persons) 2___
Man, wife, and 1 adult................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults____
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults.
Adults (2 or 3 persons not in­
cluding man and wife)_______
Adults (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)_____
Adult or adults and children
(2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)_______________
Adult or adults and children
(4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife).....................

294

11

29

54

51

54

39

19

14

9

6

8

138
71
69
16

1
2
7
1

8
7
11
3

18
17
14
5

27
10
9
5

31
10
12
1

19
12
7
1

10
7
2
0

8
4
2
0

7
0
2
0

3
2
1
0

6
0
2
0

78
68
58

0
0
5

1
4
11

2
11
18

7
13
12

18
15
9

13
13
3

8
7
0

9
3
0

7
1
0

5
1
0

8
0
0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

27

1

8

9

7

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

4
26
8
1

3
0
0
0

0
0
2
0

1
7
0
0

0
5
2
0

0
6
1
1

0
4
1
0

0
2
2
0

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

10

0

0

3

1

3

2

0

1

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

1

2

3

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

288
3
1
1
1

11
0
0
0
0

29
0
0
0
0

53
1
0
0
0

50
1
0
0
0

52
0
1
1
0

37
1
0
0
1

19
0
0
0
0

14
0
0
0
0

9
0
0
0
0

6
0
0
0
0

8
0
0
0
0

11

29

54

51

54

39

19

14

9

6

8

6.00 4.52 3.99 3.51 3.06 2.84 2.90 2.63

2.23

2.16

1. 98

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e ­
m aker

Number of families having no
homemaker____________________
Number of families having home­
maker born in—
United States....................... ........
Germany.........................................
Poland.............................................
England........................ .................
Other................................................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______ ____
Average number of persons in
household______________ _____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers....................
Boarders only.................................
Lodgers only........... _.....................
Other persons.................................
Average size of economic family
in—
Persons, total..................................
Under 16 years of age................
16 years of age and over............
Expenditure units.........................
Average number of persons in
household not members of
economic family.........................

294
3.44
23
3
14
0

0
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

5
1
5
0

4
1
2
0

6
0
2
0

2
0
2
0

3
0
1
0

2
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

3. 31
0, 96
2. 35
3.07

5. 91
3.00
2.91
5. 25

4.50
1.97
2. 53
4.14

3.84
1.38
2.46
3.51

3.41
1.02
2. 39
3.16

2.92
0. 62
2. 30
2.72

2.76
0. 53
2.23
2.60

2.62
0.34
2.28
2.44

2. 31
0.24
2.07
2.23

2.23
0.12
2.11
2.18

2.17
0.17
2.00
2.11

2.00
0
2.00
2.05

0.15

0.09 0.05 0.17 0.12 0.18 0.09 0.31 0.34

0

0

0

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




158

TW ELVE
T

able 2

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

. — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s studied, b y econ om ic level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

Item

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
All
fam­
ilies $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey________ _______ 294
Number of families having—
93
Earnings of subsidiary earners.—
Net earnings from boarders and
38
lodgers. ........................................
Other net rents______________ _
7
Interest and dividends_________
5
Pensions and insurance annui9
ties______________ ___________
Gifts from persons outside economic family..............................
21
Other sources of income________
7
Deductions from income (business losses and expenses)_____
13
Surplus (net increase in assets
158
and/or decrease in liabilities)__
Deficit (net decrease in assets
112
and/or increase in liabilities)...
3
Inheritance________
_________
Average number of gainful workers
per family_______________ _____ 1.36
Average amount of—
Net family income. ......................
Earnings of individuals______
Chief earner________________
Subsidiary earners_________
Males: 16 years and over___
Under 16 years_____
Females: 16 years and over..
Under 16 years___
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers— ..................
Other net rents_____________
Interest and dividends_______
Pensions and insurance annui­
ties.......... ........ ............ ........ ...
Gifts from persons outside
economic family........... ........
Other sources of income______
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)___
Surplus per family having sur­
plus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liab ilities) __
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabliities)________
Net change in assets and liabili­
ties for all families in survey..
Inheritance.....................................

D o l.

1,475
1,435
1,265
170
1,208
(3)
227
0
20
4
1
9
7
5

11

29

54

51

54

39

19

14

9

6

6

9

14

14

18

11

3

7

2

1

8

1
0
0

2
0
0

10
2
0

7
2
1

8
1
1

4
0
2

4
1
1

2
0
0

0
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
0

1

1

2

1

2

0

0

0

0

1

1

3
1

2
0

3
2

3
2

3
0

3
0

1
0

3
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

0

2

5

3

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

3

17

34

36

30

18

11

6

2

0

1

5
0

8
0

13
1

14
0

21
0

19
2

7
0

7
0

5
0

6
0

7
0

1.64 1.34 1.33 1.35 1.37 1.31 1.16 1.50
D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

853 1,032 1,259
827 1,011 1, 229
723 937 1,113
104
74 116
592 911 1,045
14
4
0
221 100 180
0
0
0

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

(8
)
14
1

-6

0

155

99

174

71

+17
2

-5
0

8 Less than $0.50.

24
5
0

13
2
1

29
2
1

5

2

7
0

8
6

6
9

8
0
0

-1

-1 8

D o l.

D o l.

-1

1.22
D o l.

1,452 1,482 1, 647 1,803 1,872
1,420 1,446 1, 615 1,741 1,786
1,296 1,256 1,440 1,648 1,434
124 190 175
93 352
1, 286 1,181 1, 362 1,542 1,345
0
0
0
0
0
134 265 253 199 441
0
0
0
0
0

7

11
0
0

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




8

29
0
0

1.17
D o l.

2.00
D o l.

1,836
1,836
1,629
207
1,600
0
236
0

1, 769
1, 691
1, 543
148
1,543
0
148
0

2,529
2,376
1,418
958
1,418
0
958
0

0
0
0

0
61
0

0
0
0

20
0
3

39
16
1

14

0

0

0

0

9

153

1
0

9
0

6
0

37
21

0
0

0
42

0
0

-1 1

0

0

-1

0

-3 4

0

93

115

169

189

237

122

182

50

0

169

170

117

132

163

135

185

137

3 58

204

441

+ 8 +44 +83 +42 +44
2
0
0
0
15

+ 2 +10 -188 -204 -365
0
0
0
0
0

159

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued

HOUSTON, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

D istr ib u tio n
by
O c c u p a tio n
of
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 over

C h ie f

1

Families in survey_____________________
Number of families in which chief earner
is—
Clerical worker.................................... .
Skilled wage earner..............................
Semiskilled wage earner.............. .........
Unskilled wage earner_______________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_______________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2_ ----------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2 -----Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2.__
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)2
____________________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)2 ...........................
Man, wife, and 1 adult— ....................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults.................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_____
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)-------- ---------------------Adults (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)-------------------------Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons not including man and wife) _
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man and
wife)......... .......... ................... ................

258

6

18

44

49

47

36

25

11

12

10

106
58
70
24

2
2
1
1

1
5
10
2

12
6
17
9

17
11
14
7

21
9
14
3

19
9
6
2

15
7
3
0

6
2
3
0

8
3
1
0

5
4
1
0

64
61
54
0

0
0
3
0

0
1
10
0

4
8
11
0

3
16
19
0

10
14
6
0

9
12
5
0

12
6
0
0

8
1
0
0

9
2
0
0

9
1
0
0

27

0

4

8

5

5

2

1

1

1

0

5
19
12
0

2
0
0
0

0
0
1
0

2
2
3
0

1
4
0
0

0
5
5
0

0
4
2
0

0
4
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

6

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

3

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

5

1

1

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

250
3
1
1
3

6
0
0
0
0

17
0
0
1
0

41
1
0
0
2

48
1
0
0
0

45
1
0
0
1

35
0
1
0
0

25
0
0
0
0

11
0
0
0
0

12
0
0
0
0

10
0
0
0
0

25
11
44
49
36
6
47
18
5.98 4.65 4.37 3.67 3.18 3.11 2. 74 2.42

12
2.42

10
2.14

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker______ ____ _____ _______ _____
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States..........................................
Italy..................... ................................... .
Canada (not French)------------------------Ireland.......................................................
Other.................................... ....................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_________ _______
Average number uf persons in household.
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers________________
Boarders only_______________________
Lodgers only..... .......................................
Other persons..... ................................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total...........................................
Under 16 years of age..........................
16 years of age and over......................
Expenditure units...................................
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic family.

258
3.49
43
1
11
78

0
0
0
1

3
0
0
3

10
0
1
15

7
0
0
11

7
0
2
15

6
1
6
12

7
0
0
8

0
0
1
3

1
0
1
4

2
0
0
6

3. 40
0.99
2.41
3.15

6.16
3. 55
2. 61
5. 41

4.53
2.11
2. 42
4.03

4. 23
1. 50
2.73
3.84

3.62
1.34
2.28
3.34

3.14
0. 65
2.49
2.95

2.97
0. 58
2. 39
2.81

2. 60
0. 26
2.34
2.53

2.36
0. 20
2.16
2.26

2.36
0. 31
2.05
2.24

2.11
0.11
2.00
2.06

0.17

0.02 0.19 0.22 0.12 0.13 0.28 0.19 0.17

0.17

0.15

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




160

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 2. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died, b y econ om ic level— Continued

HOUSTON, T E X —W H IT E FAM ILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N —Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per
year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$800 $900 $1,000
to
and
to
$900 $1,000 over

$700
to
$800

E a rn in g s and In c o m e

Families in survey--------- ---------Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers................... ..........
Other net rents______________
Interest and dividends_______
Pensions and insurance annu­
ities_________ ______ ______
Gifts from persons outside
economic family___________
Other sources of income______
Deductions
from income
(business losses and ex­
penses) ____________________
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabili­
ties) _______________________
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities).
Inheritance______________ . . .
Average number of gainful
workers per family-----------------

258

6

18

44

49

47

36

25

11

12

10

101

4

5

18

13

21

21

11

3

2

3

51
17
17

0
0
0

2
2
1

11
3
1

7
3
4

8
3
2

12
0
4

6
0
1

1
1
1

2
3
2

2
2
1

7

0

0

0

3

1

2

1

0

0

0

40
35

1
1

3
2

9
5

8
4

6
5

7
5

5
6

1
2

0
2

0
3

68

1

5

12

13

10

10

7

3

3

4

149

4

17

24

28

35

18

11

6

4

108
4

2
0

1
1

19
0

21
2

12
0

18
0

14
0

5
0

8
1

8
0

1.52

2.00

1.61

1.64

1.31

1.57

1. 72

1.48

1. 27

1.17

1.30

Average amount of—
Net family income. ........... ....... $1, 567
Earnings of individuals____ 1, 525
Chief earner........ ................ 1,358
Subsidiary earners...........
167
Males: 16 years and over.. 1,344
Under 16 years----2
Females: 16 years and
over.......... .......
179
Under 16 years. _ (3
)
Net earnings from boarders
and lodgers........................
19
Other net rents......................
6
Interest and dividends-------5
Pensions and insurance an­
nuities.................. ................
13
Gifts from persons outside
economic family_________
8
Other sources of income........
6
Deductions from income
(business losses and ex­
penses).................................
-1 5
Surplus per family having
surplus (net increase in as­
sets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities).....................................
182
Deficit per family having def­
icit (net decrease in assets
222
and/or increase in liabilities).
Net change in assets and lia­
bilities for all families in
survey.....................................
+12
Inheritance............. ..................
7

$851 $1,167 $1,355 $1,468 $1,669 $1,769 $1,746
851 1,135 1,328 1,400 1,621 1, 739 1,706
689 1,069 1,140 1,330 1,423 1,497 1,465
241
162
66
198
242
70
188
527
981 1,108 1, 261 1,495 1,524 1,493
12
2
6
3
0
0 (3
)
318
0

142
0

0
0
0

26
4
1

0

0

0

1

4
3

12
2
-1 4

-1 2

(3
)
-1

139
0

124
0

212
0

18
9

14
4
7

21
8
1

29
0
8

32

3

9
14

17
6

(3
)

-8

213
0

333
0

77
0

203
0

8
0

18
13
16

23
5
20

18
23
24

22

30

0

0

0

5
5

5
9

2
6

0
2

0
4

-3 9

-1 2

-2 0

-1 3

(*)

-5

10

190

174

211

185

174

169

166

127

365

52

2

114

202

147

208

258

343

398

424

-1 1 +179
0
17

+46
0

+34 +100
6
0

-1 7
0

-7 0
0

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




-6

220
(8
)

$1,807 $1,735 $2,017
1, 772 1,698 1,953
1, 565 1, 621 1,750
207
203
77
1,439 1,621 1,750
0
0
0

- 6 5 -223 -266
0
0
100

161

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 2.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econom ic level— Continued
HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100 to $200 to $300 to $400 to
$200
$300
$400
$500

$500
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d by
F a m ily T y p e i

Families in survey__________________________________
Number of families in which chiet earner is—
Clerical worker_________ _________________________
Skilled wage earner...... ..................... ................... ........
Semiskilled wage earner____ ____ _________________
Unskilled wage earner______________ _____________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife............................ ...................................
Man, wife, and 1 child________ _____ _______ _____
Man, wife,’ and 2 to 4 children..... ................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children......... ................. . .
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons)
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)_____ _________ _____ ____ _________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult_______________________ ____
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults______________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults____________ _____
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)_____ _________ _____ ______________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)________________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)...........................................

100

30

34

22

6

8

8
6
30
56

2
0
10
18

4
1
13
16

2
1
2
17

0
1
2
3

0
3
3
2

13
10
17
6
13

0
1
6
4
2

1
5
6
2
9

5
4
4
0
2

2
0
0
0
0

5
0
1
0
0

15

11
0
1
0
0

4

1
1
0
0

0
2
2
0
3

0
1
2
0
1

0
0
1
0
1

4

7
0
5
3

2

1

0

0

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

5

3

2

0

0

0

4

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker__________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States____ ________ ______________ _______ _
Mexico....... ...................................... ........ .......................
Other................................................................................

1

1

1

0

1

34
61
1

7
22
0

13
20
0

9
12
0

2
3
1

3

4. 98

100

30
7.06

34
5.13

22
3.36

6
2.90

8
2.60

5
0
7
8

0
0
2
2

2
0
3
4

3
0
1
2

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

4. 91
2.04
2.87
4.34

7.06
3.72
3.34
6.14

4.99
2.15
2.84
4.38

3.21
0. 76
2.45
2.94

2.83
0
2.83
2.65

2.66
0.28
2.38
2.53

0.13

0.10

0.17

0.18

0.15

0

4

0

C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households....................... ..............................
Average number of persons in household.. _______
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers. ______________________ ____
Boarders only____ ____ __________________ ______
Lodgers only___ ____ ________ ____________________
Other persons____________ _______________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_________ . . . ______________ ________
Under 16 years of age______________________ ____
16 years of age and over________ ________________
Expenditure units____________ _ _______ ____ ___
Average number of persons in household not members
of economic family______________ _______ ________ _
i

“ Children" are defined as persons under 16 years of age.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




“ Adults" are persons 16 years of age and over.

162

TW ELVE

T

able

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

2 .— Description of fam ilies studied , by economic level— C on tinu ed
HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAM ILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100 to $200 to $300 to $400 to
$200
$300
$400
$500

$500
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey.............................................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.....................................
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers_____ _____
Other net rents..... ................... .......... ................... .........
Interest and dividends............. ...................................
Pensions and insurance annuities__________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family-----------Other sources of income___________________________
Deductions from income (business losses and
expenses)---------------- ------- ----------------------- . . . . .
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities).... ..................... .......... ................... ..............
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities).......................................................................
Inheritance......................................................................
Average number of gainful workers per family............
Average amount of—
Net family income................................................... .......
Earnings of individuals............ .............................. .
Chief earner...............................................................
Subsidiary earners........ ..................................... .
Males: 16 years and over................................. .......
Under 16 years........................................ .
Females: 16 years and over....................................
Under 16 years___________ __________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers..................
Other net rents__________________ ______________
Interest and dividends................. ..............................
Pensions and insurance annuities________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family--------Other sources of income____________________ ____
Deductions from income (business losses and
expenses)__________________________ ____ _____
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities).................. .......
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)........ .......... .......
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey..................... .............. ...................................
Inheritance___ __ ______________ _______ _________
8

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




100
39
12
3
1
0
4
6

30

34

22

6

8

16 3
0
0
0
2
1

11
5
1
0
0
2
4

8
3
1
1
0
0
0

2
1
1
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0
0
1

5

2

1

2

0

0

53

17

19

11

2

4

41
0
1. 54

10
0
1.87

14
0
1.44

11
0
1.36

2
0
1.33

4
0
1.38

$924
905
780
125
800
1
104
(3
)
9
4
(3
)
0
6
2

$839
816
638
178
674
5
136
1
8
0
0
0
17
1

$935
921
816
105
800
0
121
(3
)
7
4
0
0
2
3

$851
835
742
93
763
3
72
0
14
7
(3
)
0
0
0

$1,141
1,108
1,052
56
1,108
0
0
0
15
18
0
0
0
0

$1,212
1,209
1,056
153
1,129
0
80
0
0
0
0
0
0
3

-2

-3

63

55

-2
88

-5
22

0

0

40

107

123

48

94

143

73

382

-1 7
0

+15
0

+11
0

-6 0
0

-1 1
0

-138
0

163

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 • Description o f fam ilies studied , by economic level— C on tinu ed
—
JACKSON, M IS S —W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$300

$300
to
$403

$500
to
$600

$400
to
$500

$700
to
$800

$600
to
$700

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey---------- -----------------Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker___________________
Skilled wage earner. ..........................
Semiskilled wage earner....................
Unskilled wage earner______ ______
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife------ ------------------------Man, wife, and 1 child--...................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children.........
Man, wife, and 5 or more children .
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)--------------------------Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)______________
Man, wife, and 1 adult......................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults...........
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife) _ _______________
Adults (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)_________
Adult or adults and children (2 or
3 persons not including man and
wife)-------- ------- --------------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man
and w ife )-.----------- ---------------------

150

14

25

44

32

16

8

5

6

70
40
32
8

5
2
5
2

11
6
6
2

21
11
11
1

16
8
6
2

9
5
2
0

2
5
1
0

2
1
1
1

4
2
0
0

31
38
18
2

0
3
4
1

1
6
4
1

10
12
6
0

5
10
2
0

4
3
2
0

5
2
0
0

1
1
0
0

5
1
0
0

13

1

3

4

4

1

0

0

0

4
12
14
1

1
0
2
1

3
0
5
0

0
3
3
0

0
5
3
0

0
2
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0

10

0

0

4

2

3

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

4

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

149

14

25

44

32

15

8

5

6

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

1
Number of fami ies having no home­
maker—
Number of families having home­
maker born in—
United States......................................
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households-------- ------------Average number of persons in house­
hold............... ................ .................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers-----------------—
Boarders only------ ------------------------Lodgers only----------------------- ---------Other persons----- -------- -----------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total-------- -----------------------Under 16 years of age_______ ____
16 years of age and over. - ........ .
Expenditure units------------------ .
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic
family..... ..........................................

150

14

25

44

32

16

8

5

6

3.99

5. 31

4.75

3.72

3.95

3.91

2.54

3.49

2.63

10
5
10
70

1
0
0
2

1
0
1
9

4
2
3
22

2
0
2
19

2
3
1
8

0
0
1
2

0
0
1
4

0
0
1
4

3.55
0.93
2.62
3.37

5.31
2.13
3.18
4.85

4.44
1.35
3.09
4.13

3.28
0.96
2. 32
3.09

3.41
0.61
2.80
3.29

2.98
0.68
2.30
2.95

2.40
0.27
2.13
2.30

2.82
0.20
2.62
2.81

2.09
0.09
2.00
2.11

0.48

0.03

0.34

0.47

0.57

0.97

0.20

0.79

0.60

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

164

TW ELVE

T

able

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

2 — Description o f fam ilies studied , by economic level— C on tin u ed
JACKSON, MISS.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey.................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of sub sidiary earners. _.
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers.................... .................... .
Other net rents....................... ............
Interest and dividends____________
Pensions and insurances annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___________________________
Other sources of income. __ _______
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)_____
Inheritance _________ ____________
Average number of gainful workers
per family.........................................

150

14

25

44

32

16

8

5

6

67

7

14

12

17

9

1

3

4

24
10
6
10

1
0
0
0

2
1
2
3

8
4
1
4

4
2
3
1

6
1
0
1

1
0
0
0

1
1
0
1

1
1
0
0

12
14

2
5

2
2

3
2

5
2

0
1

0
1

0
1

0
0
1

16

3

1

3

6

0

1

1

78

7

18

22

19

7

2

2

1

69
3

6
0

6
1

21
1

13
1

9
0

6
0

3
0

5
0

1. 59

1.79

1.92

1.30

1.69

1.69

1.13

1.80

1. 67

Average amount of—
Net family income.................. .......... $1, 541
Earnings of individuals................
1,490
Chief earners_______ __________
1,228
Subsidiary earners........ ............ .
262
Males: 16 years and over--------1, 216
Under 16 years...... ........
(3
)
Females: 16 years and over.......
274
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers______________ _________
19
Other net rents. ............................
5
Interest and dividends__________
1
Pensions and insurance annuities.
17
Gifts from persons outside
economic family--------------- ------5
Other sources of income_________
9
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
-5
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)._ ________
162
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)__________ _
162
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey_________
+9
2
Inheritance. ........................................
3 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




$987 $1, 434 $1,326 $1, 783 $1,841 $1, 553 $2,182 $2,197
970 1,379 1, 280 1, 720 1,764 1,515 2,153 2,171
756 1,051 1,200 1,335 1,387 1,430 1, 540 1,741
214
385
328
80
377
85
613
430
781 1,140 1,125 1,381 1,246 1, 515 1,369 1, 741
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
155
189
235
339
784
518
0
430
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

11
1
2
36

15
9
(3
)
23

18
7
1
11

68
1
0
5

15
0
0
0

10
4
0
36

8
19
0
0

11
17

2
4

3
1

11
19

0
3

0
24

0
17

0
0

-1 2
27

-1

-5

-4

132

186

169

0
238

-1
152

118

98

118

124

169

263

-3 7
0

+71
2

+36
2

+50
6

+9
0

-159
0

-3 8

-1

56

658

287

370

-150 -199
0
0

165

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2*— D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All fam­
ilies

$200 to
$300

Under
$200

D istr ib u tio n b y

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y
F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey____________ ______________ _____
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker_____ __________ _________________
Skilled wage earner,...................................................
Semiskilled wage earner_____ _____ ______ ______
Unskilled wage earner............... .................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife....................... ........................................
Man, wife, and 1 child........................................... .
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children...... ............................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children_____ _________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons).
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)____________________ ____________ _____
Man, wife, and 1 adult.............. ...............................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults,................................. .
Man, wife, and 6 or more adults___ ____ ________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and
wife)______________ ______ _ ________________
Adults (4 or more persons, not including man and
wife)_________________________________ ______
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons, not
including man and wife)_______________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons,
not including man and wife)___________________

100

28

39

22

11

4
2
31
63

0
1
9
18

1
1
9
28

0
0
8
14

3
0
5
3

33
17
19
1
8

0
1
14
1
4

8
11
4
0
3

16
4
0
0
1

9
1
1
0
0

4
6
4
0

3
1
1
0

1
5
3
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

3

3

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker..............
Number of families having homemaker born in
United States.............. ............................ ....................

0

0

0

0

0

100

28

39

22

11

100
3.76

28
5.52

39
3.48

22
2.57

11
2.65

3
1
8
16

0
0
1

2

2
1
3
7

0
0
3
5

1
0
1

3.63
1.09
2.54
3.33

5.51
2.48
3.03
4.91

3.35
0.78
2. 57
3.12

2. 36
0.23
2.13
2.21

2.40
0.40
2.00

0.14

0.04

0.13

0.21

0.29

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households............................. .......................
Average number of persons in household______ ____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers_________ ____ _____________
Boarders only................................ ...........................
Lodgers only............................... .................................
Other persons......... ......... ................. ..........................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total........................... ....................................
Under 16 years of age...............................................
16 years of age and over...................................... .
Expenditure units. . . ___________ _______ _______
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family..................................... ........
i

“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.

74390*— 41-------12




2

2.26

“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

166

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 2.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAMILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

E a r n in g s an d In c o m e

Families in survey..___________ ___________________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners................. ..................
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers...................
Other net rents. ___________ ______ ______________
Interest and dividends__________ ________ _______
Pensions and insurance annuities________ _______
Gifts from persons outside economic family______
Other sources of income____ _________ ___________
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)_____________________ ________ _________
Surplus (.net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)______________________ ______________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities).................................... .............................. .
Inheritance____ ________________________ ______
Average number of gainful workers per family..........
Average amount ofNet family incom e._____ _____ _________________
Earnings of individuals.......................................... .
Chief earner________ _____ __________________
Subsidiary earners..............................................
Males: 16 years and over_____________________
Under 16 years........................................ .
Females: 16 years and over________ _________
Under 16 years....... ...........................
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers________
Other net rents........................ ............ .....................
Interest and dividends...........................................
Pensions and insurance annuities.. __ _____
Gifts from persons outside economic family____
Other sources of income..______. . . ____________
Deductions from income (business losses and
expenses) __ _________ ________ ____________
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities)____________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)___ _________
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey. ______________ ____________________
Inheritance___________ __________ _____ _____ ___
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p 635.




100

28

39

22

11

50
11
2
1
13
5
3

20
1
0
0
2
2
0

20
6
2
1
5
1
2

8
3
0
0
3
1
1

2
1
0
0
3
1
0

5

0

3

0

2

69

20

25

17

7

30
0
1.66

8
0
2.07

14
0
1.67

4
0
1.36

4
0
1.18

$784
766
680
86
693
0
72
1
8
2
(3
)
7
(*)

$719
715
582
133
620
0
93
2
3
0
0
1
(3
)
0

$750
722
620
102
627
0
95
0
8
4
(3
)
13
1

2

$760
744
711
33
711
0
33
0
8
0
0
1
1
6

$1,119
1,092
1,077
15
1,077
0
15
0
16
0
0
16
1
0

0

-6

60

55

165

2

-1
72

0
69

(3
)

78

31

76

74

179

+26
0

+40
0

+11
0

+29

+40
0

0

167

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

.

2 — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by econ om ic level— Continued
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level--Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$500
to
$600

$400
to
$500

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,200
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey___________________
Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker.......................................
Skilled wage earner............ .............. .............
Semiskilled wage earner_______ ________
Unskilled wage earner______ _________
Number of families composed of—
Man and w ife ... ________ _____________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2_______ _______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 1_____
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
__
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons) 2__ _______________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons) 2
________ _____
Man, wife, and 1 adult_____________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults . . .
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)__________ ______ . .
Adults (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)______ ________ ___
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons not including man and
wife)_______ ________________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man
and wife)......................................................

178

22

37

39

30

17

13

9

6

5

80
50
44
4

5
4
13
0

16
12
7
2

12
12
14
1

19
6
5
0

8
6
3
0

9
4
0
0

5
3
1
0

2
2
1
1

4
1
0
0

37
47
37
2

0
1
9
1

0
8
12
1

8
14
8
0

7
13
6
0

4
7
0
0

6
2
2
0

3
2
0
0

5
0
0
0

4
0
0
0

23

3

10

6

3

1

0

0

0

0

3
5
7
0

2
1
1
0

1
1
1
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
2
2
0

0
0
2
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

12

1

2

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

174
1
2

22
0
0

36
0
0

39
0
0

28
0
2

17
0
0

13
0
0

8
1
0

6
0
0

5
0
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker_____________________________________________
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States............................ .. ........ ..
England_____________ _______ ______________
O ther..................... .. ........ ............. ............
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households________________
Average number of persons in house­
hold________________________________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers_______________
Boarders only______________________
Lodgers on ly..________ _ __________
Other persons______________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______________________
Under 16 years of age______ _____ _
16 years of age and over___________
Expenditure units__________________
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic family.

178

22

37

39

30

17

13

9

6

5

3. 65

4. 70

4. 51

3.49

3.32

3. 24

3.21

2. 53

2.30

2.31

22
2
5
41

0
0
0
6

3
0
2
5

3
0
2
7

6
1
0
9

2
0
1
4

5
0
0
2

2
0
0
3

0
0
0
4

1
1
0
1

3.54
1.13
2.41
3.29

4. 76
1.89
2.87
4.34

4.47
1.84
2. 63
4.06

3.41
1.14
2. 27
3.14

3.14
0.97
2.17
2.96

3.02
0.52
2. 50
2.81

2.86
0. 48
2. 38
2.79

2. 29
0. 22
2. 07
2. 26

2.17
0
2.17
2.17

2.03
0
2.03
2.07

0.18

0.03

0.08

0.14

0.24

0.33

0.41

0.29

0. 24

0.30

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




168

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

.

2 — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
JACKSONVILLE, F L A .-W H IT E FAMILIES-Continued
Economic level--Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,200
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey........... .........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners---------Net
earnings from boarders and
lodgers____ _______ ______ - ............
Other net rents........... ...........................
Interest and dividends.........................
Pensions and insurance annuities----Gifts from persons outside economic
family____________________________
Other sources of income............ ..........
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)..........................
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)________ ____
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)......... ..............
Inheritance-------------------------------------Average number of gainful workers per
family............. .........................................

178

22

37

39

30

17

13

9

6

5

67

10

15

15

6

5

6

4

2

4

26
7
9
7

0
0
1
2

4
3
1
0

4
1
3
2

6
0
2
0

3
0
0
1

5
0
0
2

2
1
1
0

0
1
1
0

2
1
0
0

16
8

4
2

4
2

5
1

2
2

0
1

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
0
0

8

0

1

2

2

2

0

0

1

110

15

22

23

21

11

8

7

2

1

64
0

7
0

14
0

15
0

7
0

6
0

5
0

2
0

4
0

4
0

1.60

1.77

1.68

1.41

1.20

1.41

1.62

1.44

1.33

1.80

$1,903 $2,050
1,852 1,876
1,616 1,472
236
404
1,706 1, 541
0
0
146
335
0
0

$1, 912
1,890
1,668
222
1, 495
0
395
0

Average amount of—
Net family income........... . ................. - $1,566
Earnings of individuals.................... 1, 618
Chief earner.................................... 1,320
Subsidiary earners.........................
198
Males: 16 years and over----------- 1,302
Under 16 years__________
(3)
Females: 16 years and over..........
216
Under 16 y e a r s .......... (3)
Net earnings from boarders and
20
lodgers__________ ________ _____
Other net rents......................- ..........
6
1
Interest and dividends....................
Pensions and insurance annuities..
11
Gifts from persons outside economi c family_______ _______ ____
7
Other sources of income__________
4
Deductions from income (business
-1
losses and expenses)____________
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
149
crease in liabilities)__________ ____
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase
164
in liabilities)_____________________
Net change in assets and liabilities)
+33
for all families in survey...................
0
Inheritance.................................. ..........
* Less than $0.60.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




$997 $1,370 $1,391 $1,626
954 1,343 1,356 1,580
869 1,203 1,189 1,457
85
140
167
123
743 1,289 1,184 1,426
4
0
0
(3
)
211
172
154
50
0
0 (3)
0
0
0
(3)
14

10
5
1
0

9
12
2
6

25
4

7
4

9

0
78

(8)
103

00

$2,181 $2,804
2,154 2,725
1,851 1,712
303 1,013
1,584 1, 352
0
0
570 1,373
0
0

0

43
0
0
4

65
0
0
109

11
10
1
0

0
29
2
0

34
43
0
0

2
12

0
8

0
0

0
0

0
0

2
0

33
0
(3)

-3

-1

-4

146

155

236

-4

0
207

165

93

80

141

153

163

294

375

+24
0

+31
0

+32
0

+73
0

+95
0

+14
0

+45
0

0

410

96

326

259

-8 1 -188
0
0

169

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 , — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ief
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey............. ........ ..........
Number of families in which chief
earner is —
Clerical worker.................... ..............
Skilled wage earner............. .............
Semiskilled wage earner................ .
Unskilled wage earner.. .................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife------ ------------------------Man, wife, and 1 child 2....... .............
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2___
Man, wife, and 5 or more children2
.
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)2........ ........ ........ .
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)2____________
Man, wife, and 1 adult................... .
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_______
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults—
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including
man and wife)---------------------------Adults (4 or more persons, not in­
cluding man and wife). ............. —
Adult or adults and children (2 or
3 persons, not including man and
wife)------------------------------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons, not including man
and wife)...........................................

197

8

40

44

42

27

17

7

12

48
58
60
31

1
1
3
3

4
8
16
12

8
16
16
4

14
9
14
5

6
12
5
4

6
8
2
1

3
1
3
0

6
3
1
2

43
44
34
0

0
1
2
0

1
1
12
0

3
10
13
0

12
18
4
0

10
6
2
0

5
5
0
0

3
3
1
0

9
0
0
0

25

3

10

6

3

1

2

0

0

10
11
9
0

1
0
1
0

8
2
4
0

1
3
4
0

0
0
0
0

0
3
0
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

15

0

0

3

2

5

3

0

2

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

3

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

196
1

8
0

40
0

44
0

42
0

26
1

17
0

7
0

12
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker— ........................... ........ .........
Number of families having home­
maker born in:
United States_____________________
Italy............... - .....................................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households.........................
Average number of persons in house­
hold_________ ____________ _______
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers............. ............
Boarders only.....................................
Lodgers only........................................
Other persons-------------------------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_______ _____________
TTndftr 16 yfln/rs r»f avf* .
_
16 years of age and over_ ______
Expenditure units___ ____________
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic
family................................................... .

197

8

40

44

42

27

17

7

12

3.75

5.63

5.26

4.06

3.10

2.97

3.02

2.67

2.13

38
3
1
2

0
0
0
0

9
2
0
0

9
0
0
1

8
0
1
0

8
1
0
0

4
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1

3.57
1.08
2.49
3.24

5.68
2. 56
3.12
5.01

5.05
1.95
3.10
4.54

3.84
1.28
2. 56
3.45

2.93
0.81
2.12
2.66

2.64
0.42
2.22
2.47

2.82
0.38
2.44
2.67

2.71
0. 71
2.00
2.49

2.09
0.01
2.08
2.02

0.20

0

0.20

0.26

0.17

0.34

0.23

0

0.04

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table in appendix A, p. 635.




170

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—W H IT E FAMILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$$800
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In c o m e

Families in survey................... .............
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers...............................................
Other net rents____________________
Interest and dividends____________
Gifts from persons outside econom­
ic family________________________
Other sources of income___________
Deduction from income (business
losses and expenses)...................... .
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)....... .
Inheritance_______________________
Average number of gainful workers
per family........................................... . .

197

8

40

44

42

27

17

7

51

3

24

11

3

3

4

0

3

39
4
12
6

0
0
0
1

10
1
2
1

8
0
3
0

10
1
0
0

7
1
2
1

4
1
2
2

0
0
1
0

0
0
2
1

13
5

1
0

3
1

2
0

3
1

3
1

1
2

0
0

0
0
2

10

0

2

1

2

1

2

0

128

7

26

30

33

16

8

3

5

67
3

1
0

14
0

13
1

9
2

11
0

9
0

4
0

6
0

1.31

1. 50

1. 72

1.30

1.07

1.15

1.29

1.00

1. 25

Average amount of—
Net family income____________
. $1, 308
. 1,258
Earnings of individuals--------Chief earner----------------------. 1,159
99
Subsidiary earners________
Males: 16 years and over...
. 1,117
Under 16 years____
• (3
)
141
Females: 16 years and over.
Under 16 years.. .
(3
)
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers__________ ____
33
2
Other net rents__________ _
Interest and dividends____
3
Pensions and insurance annuities.
1i
Gifts from persons outside eco­
4
nomic family_________________
2
Other sources of income_________
Deductions from income (busi­
-5
ness losses and expenses)_____
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities______________
130
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)_____________
150
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey___
. +33
Inheritance.............................. .
2
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




12

$968 $1,185 $1,242 $1,222 $1,337 $1,621 $1,774 $1, 720
957 1,136 1,193 1,190 1,241 1,543 1,714 1,705
846
916 1,095 1,174 1,201 1, 368 1, 714 1,650
111
220
98
16
40
175
0
55
842
944 1,052 1,091 1,085 1,369 1, 714 1,564
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
111
191
141
99
156
174
141
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9

35
3
(3
)
6

46
0
3
0

26
1
0
0

60
4
2
16

25
5
1
37

0
0
60
0

0
0
3
69

2
0

4
2

1
0

5
1

15
(3
)

(3
)
18

0
0

0
0

0

-5 7

255

308

0

-1

-1

-1

-1

-8

87

124

114

130

118

104

22

71

124

118

123

212

245

355

+74
0

+56
0

+41
2

+77
9

+20
0

-6 3
0

-3 1
0

-4 9
0

171

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y —NEGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
All
fami­
lies

Itom

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

Under
$200

$300
to
$400

$200
to
$300

$400
to
$500

$500
and
over

by

74

14

22

18

15

5

0
11
17
46

0
1
2
11

0
3
5
14

0
3
5
10

0
1
4
10

0
3
1
1

22
10
12
3
4

0
0
4
2
2

0
4
6
1
1

9
3
2
0
1

10
2
0
0
0

3
1
0
0
0

6
6
5
0
4

4
0
1
0
0

2
3
3
0
1

0
1
1
0
1

0
1
0
0
2

0
1
0
0
0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

Families in survey........ ........ . . . ........ ........ ................. .
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker.......... ........................................ ........ . .
Skilled wage earner___________ ___________________
Semiskilled wage earner__________________________
Unskilled wage earner____________________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife __________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child______ ______ ______________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children____________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children_________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) __
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)_____________ ___________ _____ ___________
Man, wife, and 1 adult............................................. .
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults______________________
Man, wife, and 6 or more adults__________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife) __
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)_______________ _________________ ____ _____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not in­
cluding man and w ife)..________ _______________
Adult or adults, and children (4 or more persons not
including man and wife).............................................

0

0

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

0

0

0

0

0

0

74

14

22

18

15

5

74
3. 93

14
6.81

22
4.39

18
2.90

15
2.25

5
2.54

5
0
3
1

2
0
0
0

2
0
1
0

1
0
1
1

0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0

3. 83
1.29
2.54
3.42

6.68
3.47
3. 21
5.78

4. 27
1.54
2. 73
3.77

2.78
0. 56
2. 22
2.57

2. 27
0.13
2.14
2.12

2.37
0.17
2.20
2.20

0.10

0.14

0.15

0.13

0

0.20

Number of families having no homemaker................. .
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States........ ..................................................... .
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households.................................................. .
Average number of persons in household____________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers......................................................
Boarders only______________ ______________________
Lodgers only______________ _______________________
Other persons..................... .........................................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_____ _______ _______________________
Under 16 years of age..... ...........................................
16 years of age and over_______ _________________
Expenditure units_____ ____________ ________ . .
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family___________________ _____
i

“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

172

TW ELVE

T

able

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

2 . — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued

Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey............................................................
Number of families having—
E amines of subsidiary earners_____________________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers____________
Other net rents.............................. ................................
Interest and dividends_____ ______________________
Pensions and insurance annuities---------------------- Gifts from persons outside economic family________
Other sources of income________ __________ ____ _
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)_____ ____ _____ ____ _____ ______________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)___________________ ________ __________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)____ ________ _________________________
Inheritance_______________ _________________ ____
Average number of gainful workers per family________
Average amount of—
Net family income........ ..................................................
Earnings of individuals_______ __________ ______
Chief earner------------ ---------- -----------------------------Subsidiary earners_______________________________
Males: 16 years and over........... ..........................
Under 16 years_________ ______________
Females- 16 years and over_________ __________
Under 16 years... -------------------- ------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.................
Other net rents________________________________
Interest and dividends------------------------- ------------Pensions and insurance annuities_______________
Gifts from persons outside economic family_______
Other sources of income_______ _____ ________ _
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses).................. ................................................... .
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities)--------- ------------Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)________ ______
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families in
survey______ ____________________ _____ ________
Inheritance_______________________________________
» Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635




74

14

22

18

15

5

26
8
1
0
3
1
1

5
2
0
0
1
1
0

8
3
1
0
0
0
1

5
2
0
0
1
0
0

6
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
1
0
0
1
0
0

3

0

1

0

2

0

55

10

17

16

8

4

18
0
1.42

3
0
1.50

5
0
1. 50

2
0
1.28

7
0
1.40

1
0
1.40

$969
948
879
69
869
1
78
0
12
1
0
6
(3
)
2

$938
912
852
60
861
0
51
0
22
0
0
3
1
0

$940
920
845
75
851
4
65
0
13
2
0
0
0
5

$954
927
880
47
858
0
69
0
7
0
0
20
0
0

$933
934
829
105
788
0
146
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$1,322
1,288
1, 256
32
1, 256
0
32
0
32
0
0
2
0
0

0

(3
)
97

130

0

(8
)
90

82

-1
82

0
126

76

55

138

42

59

22

+53
0

+81
0

+38
0

+68
0

+16
0

+96
0

173

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 2. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econom ic level— Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N —W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

D istr ib u tio n
by
O c c u p a tio n
oj
C h ic j
E a rn e r and b y F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_______________ ___
Number of families in which chief earn­
er is—
Clerical worker____ ____ _____ _____
Skilled wage earner.............................
Semiskilled wage earner..................
Unskilled wage earner_______ ______
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife2............. .........................
Man, wife, and 1 child___________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children _____
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2 __
_
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons) 2__________________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons) 2.........................
Man, wife, and 1 adult_____ _______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults...............
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults........
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including
man and w ife).................. ...............
Adults (4 or more persons, not includ­
ing man and wife) _______________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons, not including man and
wife)_____ _________ _____ _______
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons, not including man
and wife).............................................

2

194

8

25

40

34

29

25

15

8

10

79
53
56
6

1
2
4
1

8
7
8
2

15
8
16
1

16
6
11
1

13
9
6
1

13
8
4
0

8
5
2
0

1
5
2
0

4
3
3
0

52
44
39
2

0
0
3
1

2
5
6
0

5
6
17
1

6
8
7
0

6
9
5
0

8
9
1
0

11
3
0
0

5
3
0
0

9
1
0
0

14

1

4

6

1

1

1

0

0

0

9
21
8
0

3
0
0
0

5
0
2
0

1
4
0
0

0
5
5
0

0
6
1
0

0
5
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

2

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

193
1

8
0

25
0

39
1

34
0

• 29
0

25
0

15
0

8
0

10
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker_____ _______ ______________
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States........................................
Other_______________ _____________ _
C o m p o sitio n of H o u se h o ld

Number of households. _______________
Average number of persons in house­
hold.._____ _______ ________________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers_______________
Boarders only........ ................... ............
Lodgers only.........................................
Other persons_______ _____ ________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______________________
Under 16 years of age.......................
16 years of age and over...................
Expenditure units____________ _____
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic
family...................................................

194

8

25

40

34

29

25

15

8

10

3.74

6.46

4.78

4.33

3.66

3.30

2.93

2.74

2.30

2.49

12
5
13
1

0
0
0
0

0
2
1
0

3
0
2
0

2
0
1
1

1
2
4
0

1
0
0
0

4
1
3
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
2
0

3.53
1.11
2. 42
3.25

6.46
3. 71
2. 75
5.65

4.58
1.84
2. 74
4.14

4.16
1.80
2.36
3.75

3.50
0.88
2.62
3.25

3.04
0. 69
2. 35
2.86

2.86
0.48
2.38
2.72

2.24
0. 21
2.03
2.15

2. 31
0.31
2.00
2.22

2.09
0.09
2.00
2.08

0.21

0

0.20

0.18

0.15

0.26

0.08

0.50

0

0.40

1

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




174

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level—

Continued

M E M P H IS, T E N N .—W H IT E FAMILIES—Continued
Economic level- Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In co m e

Families in survey....................... ............
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners______
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.............. .................... ................
Other net rents.^___________________
Interest and dividends ____________
Pensions and insurance annuities___
Gifts from persons outside economic
family.................................................
Other sources of income - ........... ........
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)______________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)____________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)_____________
Inheritance... -------------------------------Average number of gainful workers per
family................................................. .
Average amount of—
Net family income..................... ........ .
Earnings of individuals................
Chief earner___________ _______ _
Subsidiary earners.........................
Males: 16 years and over----------Under 16 years__________
Females: 16 years and over_____
Under 16 y e a r s ...___
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers. ----------- ---------- ------------Other net rents......... ................... .
Interest and dividends __________
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family........... ...................... ...........
Other sources of income. .........
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses) ......................
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities______________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)......................... ................
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey.................
Inheritance"............. ........ ....................

194

8

25

40

34

29

25

15

8

31

1

4

4

9

3

5

4

0

1

34
14
11
5

0
1
0
0

3
1
0
0

5
2
1
2

5
1
1
1

7
3
3
0

3
2
2
0

7
2
2
1

0
1
2
1

4
1
0
0

12
9

0
0

2
2

2
3

3
1

1
0

1
2

1
1

1
0

1
0
0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

112

5

14

25

22

17

13

8

5

3

71
0

2
0

6
0

12
0

11
0

11
0

12
0

7
0

3
0

7
0

1.18

1.25

1.12

1.12

1.26

1.10

1.28

1.27

1.00

1.10

$1,459
1,394
1,319
75
1,352
(3
)
42
0

$990 $1,026 $1,323 $1,474 $1, 582 $1,686 $1,773 $1,730 $1,795
985 1,275 1,410 1,506 1,630 1,648 1,669 1,668
965
937 1,200 1,330 1,449 1,524 1, 501 1,669 1,604
900
80
75
57
106
65
48
147
0
64
945
953 1,240 1,367 1,499 1,579 1,502 1,669 1,604
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
43
7
20
29
51
35
146
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

39
12
3

4

0
25
0
0

29
2
0
0

29
5
2
4

41
6
2
9

58
14
3
0

27
17
6
0

74
38
6
2

0
18
4
33

86
16
0
0

3
4

0
0

2
8

1
7

6
1

1
0

1
5

1
6

6
0

25
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

166

127

151

223

233

167

451

207

111

203

62

67

70

144

204

190

123

529

640

+41
0

+88
0

+55
0

+73
0

+97
0

+59
0

* Less than $0.60.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




10

- 4 +183
0
0

-6 9 -415
0
0

175

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

3 .— D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level—

Continued

M EM P H IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
All fami­
lies

Item

$100 to
$200

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

by

Families in survey.................... ............................ .............. .
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker........................... .......................... ..............
Skilled wage earner------ ----------------- -----------------------------Semiskilled wage earner--------- ------------------------------------Unskilled wage earner .......................... ..........................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife------- ----------------- ----------------- --------------------Man, wife, and 1 child 2____________ __________ ____
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
.................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 per­
sons)2
---------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------------------------- Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)2_____i -----------------------------------------------------------Man, wife, and 1 adult— ............................................... Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults........ ............ ......... .......
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife) Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)---------------- -----------------------------------------------Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)----------------------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)..................................

94

24

30

22

18

2
3
29
60

0

1
11
12

1
1
7
21

0
1
6
15

1
0
5
12

34
12
14
2

0
11
2

5
8
2
0

15
3
1
0

14
1
0

13

3

7

2

1

5
8
6
0
0

4
1
3
0
0

1
4
3
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
2
0
0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States------------------------------------------------------

0

0

0

0

0

94

24

30

22

18

94
3.64

24
5.50

30
3.73

22
2.58

18
2.32

4
2
3

1
0

2
1

0

1
0

2
0

3. 51
1.02
2.49
3.25

5.42
2.46
2.96
4.83

3.42
0.89
2. 53
3.29

2.54
0.35
2.36

0.11
2.15
2.16

0.10

0.08

0.21

0.04

0.08

C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households-------------------------------------------Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers---------- ----------. . . ------------Boarders only---------------- ------------------------------------Lodgers only.------------------------------ ------------------. . .
Other persons___________________________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total--------------------- ---------- ---------- -----------Under 16 years of age__________________________
16 years of age and over________________________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family..-------------------------------------

1

0

0
0
0

1
0
0

2.19

2.28

1“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




176

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued

Item

AD fami­
lies

Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
$100 to
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey—.................... . .................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners------------------- ------- —
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers__________
Other net rents..........................- ---------------------------Interest and dividends----------------------------------------Pensions and insurance annuities----------------- ------Gifts from persons outside economic family---------Other sources of income---------------------------------------Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)---------------- ------------------------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)---------- ---------------------------------------------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)------------------ --------------------------------------Inheritance_________________
_________ _____ —
Average number of gainful workers per family_____
Average amount of—
Net family income-------------------- - ..............................
Earnings of individuals..---------------------------------Chief earner_________________________________
Subsidiary earners----------------------------------------Males: 16 ye'ars and over---------- ------- ------------Under 16 years......... ...............................
Females: 16 years and over.-------- -----------------Under 16 years--------------------------- Net earnings from boarders and lodgers________
Other net rents________________________________
Interest and dividends--------------------- ------- -------Pensions and insurance annuities_______ ______
Gifts from persons outside economic family____
Other sources of income--------------- __ -------------Deductions from income (business losses and
expenses).
-------------- ---------------------------------Surplus per family having surplus (net increase
in assets and/or decrease in liabilities)__________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)-------------------Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey............................................ .................... .
Inheritance........................ .................. ............. .........
8

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




94

24

30

22

18

19
7
2
1
2
6
1

6
1
0
1
1
1
0

7
4
0
0
0
3
0

4
1
0
0
1
2
0

2
1
2
0
0
0
1

2

0

2

0

0

69

12

24

19

14

23
1
1.22

11
0
1.29

5
1
1. 27

3
0
1.18

4
0
1.11

$821
804
763
41
785
0
18
1
9
3
(3
)
1
4
1

$711
698
656
42
689
0
4
5
10
0
1
1
1
0

$804
785
735
50
756
0
29
0
15
0
0
0
7
0

861
848
810
38
838
0
10
0
6
0
0
1
6
0

$947
924
895
29
895
0
29
0
2
14
0
0
0
7

-1
64

0
41

-3
52

0

0

67

98

126

63

75

107

380

"f 16
2

-8
0

+29
7

+43
0

-8
0

177

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 , — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$300
to
$400

$200
to
$300

$500
to
$600

$400
to
$500

$600
to
$700

$800
and
over

$700
to
$800

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e i

Families in survey_______ __________
Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker___________________
Skilled wage earner.......................
Semiskilled wage'fearner_____ _____
Unskilled wage earner______ _____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
_________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2. _
Man, wife, and 5 or more chil­
dren 2_____________ _____ _____
Man, wife, and children and
adults (4 to 6 persons)2________
Man, wife, and children and
adults (7 or more persons)2____
Man, wife, and 1 adult__________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_____
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults..
Adults (2 or 3 persons not includ­
ing man and wife)_____________
Adults (4 or more persons not
including man and wife) _..........
Adult or adults and children (2 or
3 persons not including man
man and wife)____ __________
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including
man and wife)_______ _____ _

146

14

30

30

20

21

12

8

11

51
42
47
6

1
2
8
3

8
8
14
0

9
7
13
1

8
5
7
0

9
9
2
1

8
2
1
1

3
4
1
0

5
5
1
0

24
21
31

0
0
7

1
1
6

1
3
10

1
4
6

4
9
2

5
3
0

2
1
0

10
0
0

3

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

26

3

9

10

0

1

2

1

0

8
10
3
0

3
0
0
0

3
1
2
0

1
0
0
0

0
4
1
0

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
3
0
0

0
1
0
0

9

0

1

2

2

2

1

1

0

9

0

3

2

2

2

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

144
1
1

14
0
0

29
1
0

30
0
0

19
0
1

21
0
0

12
0
0

8
0
0

11
0
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker_____________ ____ _________
Number of families having home­
maker born in—
United States.....................................
Germany..............................................
Sweden......................................... .......
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______________
Average number of persons in house­
hold-________________________ ____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers......................
Boarders only_____________________
Lodgers only...................................... .
Other persons_____________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______________ ______
Under 16 years of age....................
16 years of age and over...............
Expenditure units_________ ______
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic
family................................ ..................

1
4

30

30

20

21

12

8

11

4.16

6.18

5.05

4.78

3.53

3.16

3.13

3.39

2.16

16
1
3
29

1
1
0
2

4
0
0
5

3
0
0
8

3
0
1
3

1
0
0
3

1
0
0
4

1
0
2
2

2
0
0
2

4.03
1.28
2. 75
3.72

6.14
2. 96
3.18
5.48

4.95
1.72
3.23
4.51

4.67
1.74
2. 93
4.31

3.40
0. 75
2. 65
3.16

3.13
0.91
2.22
2.92

2.88
0.43
2.45
2.79

2. 94
0.26
2.68
2.84

2.02
0
2.02
1.96

0.18

0.05

0.15

0.17

0.27

0.04

0.26

0.50

0.22

146

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




178

TW ELVE

T

able

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
M O BILE, A L A .—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$600
to
$700

$500
to
$600

$700
to
$800

$800
and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers. ........................................ .
Other net rents------ ------- ---------------Interest and dividends........ .......... .
Pensions and insurance annuities
Gifts from persons outside economic
family--------------------- ---------------Other sources of income----------------Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)........................
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)------Inheritance_____ ______ _____ __
Average number of gainful workers
per family............................................

146

14

30

30

20

21

12

8

11

44

7

12

12

4

3

1

3

2

15
7
5
8

2
0
0
0

4
0
0
1

1
5
1
1

4
0
1
1

1
0
2
3

0
1
0
1

2
1
1
1

1
0
0
0

19
5

4
0

5
0

3
2

3
0

1
1

2
2

0
0

1
0

17

2

2

2

0

3

4

3

1

84

7

17

18

14

14

6

3

5

61
0

7
0

13
0

11
0

6
0

7
0

6
0

5
0

6
0

1.41

1. 52

1. 57

1. 56

1.31

1. 22

1.18

1. 47

1.13

Average amount of—
Net family income............................. $1,417
Earnings of individuals.............. .
1, 384
1,242
Chief earner....... .............. ............
142
Subsidiary earners........ ..............
Males: 16 years and over...........
1,231
Under 16 years________
(3
)
153
Females: 16 years and over.......
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers............. .........................
11
Other net rents__________________
4
Interest and dividends__________
2
Pensions and insurance annui­
ties____________________________
7
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family___ ____ _________
8
Other sources of income_________
7
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
-6
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)....... ......... .
151
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)______________
143
Net change in assets and liabilities
+27
for all families in survey.................
Inheritance......................... .................
0
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 335.




$790 $1,105 $1,492 $1,483 $1,646 $1,609 $1,963 $1, 715
786 1,078 1,461 1,418 1,606 1, 556 1,928 1, 716
718
927 1,272 1,311 1,469 1.444 1,582 1,670
151
68
189
107
137
112
346
46
875 1,288 1, 216 1, 513 1,432 1,638 1,676
720
0 (3
0
0
0
0
0
(3
)
)
66
203
173
202
93
124
290
40
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0

14
0
0

0

1

7
0

15
0

-6
51

5
13
1

38
0
4

4
0
6

5
8

-3

-1

130

134

8
0
0
197

(3
)

19
8
12

3
0
0

27

15

(3
)

0
16
0
1

8

0

7

19
56

0
0

2
0

-3 9

-1 2

116

157

-4
192

-6
225

100

69

121

44

122

333

255

237

-2 4
0

+44
0

+36
0

+125
0

+87
0

-109
0

-100
0

-2 7
0

179

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—N EGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
All
families

Item

$200 to
$300

Under
$200

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

$400 and
over

$300 to
$400

by

Families in survey...........................................................
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker............. ................................................
Skilled wage earner......................................................
Semiskilled wage earner.............................................
Unskilled wage earner______ _________ ________ _
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2.......... ...................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2_____________ ____
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) 2.
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)2
.................... ................................................
Man, wife, and 1 adult..............................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults......................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults....... ................... .......
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and
wife)__________________________________ ____ _
Adults (4 or more persons, not including man and
wife)____________ ______
_______________ ____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons, not
including man and wife)...... ........ . _ __________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons,
not including man and wife).............................. .

94

31

32

19

12

0
2
36
56

0
0
11
20

0
1
14
17

0
0
7
12

0
1
4
7

22
13
15
0
8

0
4
10
0
5

4
6
4
0
3

9
3
0
0
0

9
0
1
0
0

7
12
7
0

5
0
2
0

2
5
5
0

0
7
0
0

0
0
0
0

3

0

3

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

5

0

0

1

D istr ib u tio n o f N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker...................
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States.................................................................

0

0

0

0

0

94

31

32

19

12

94
3.79

31
5.01

32
3. 62

19
2.56

12
3.01

3
5
4
7

1
1
0
2

1
2
1
2

0
1
3
1

1
1
0
2

3.70
1.09
2. 61
3.38

5.01
2.12
2.89
4.48

3.51
0.84
2. 67
3.22

2.50
0.15
2.35
2.37

2.75
0. 59
2.16
2.57

0.13

0.06

0.17

0.09

0.29

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households................. ........... ...................
Average number of persons in household. ....................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.................................................
Boarders o n ly ................................. ............................
Lodgers only. ............................................. .................
Other persons------ -----------------------------------------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total........................... ................................... .
Under 16 years of age__________ ______ ________
16 years of age and over________ ____ __________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family.._____ __________________

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
* Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




180

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 ,— D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA —NEGRO FAM ILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
families
Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

E a rn in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey. _______________________________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners. _ ________________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgars
Other net rents
_____ _________________________
Pensions and insurance annuities________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family______
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses) . _ ______________________________ ____
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities) _ _
.
_ ____________ __________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)_____________________________________
Inheritance
.
. . . . _______ ____________
Average number of gainful workers per family_______
Average amount of—
Net family income_______________________________
Earnings of individuals________________________
Chief earner_________________________________
Subsidiary earners___________________________
Males: 16 years and over_____________________
Under 16 vears_______________________
Females: 16 years and over___________________
Under 16 years. _ _____ ____________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers________
Other net rents________________________________
Interest and dividends. _ ______________________
Pensions and insurance annuities______________
Gifts from parsons ontsida p.nonomic family
Other sources of income____ . .. ____________
Deductions from income (business losses and
expenses)____ __ __________________ ____ ___
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities) ____________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)______________
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey _ ____________________________________
rnharitanaa

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




94

31

32

19

12

53
8
0
1
3
7
7

16
1
0
1
1
4
6

20
3
0
o
1
2
1

9
2
0
o
1
0
o

8
2
0
o
o
1
o
o

3

0

2

1

58

20

20

13

5

34
0
1.76

10
0
1.83

12
0
1.86

6
0
1.48

6
0
1. 73

$759
746
643
103
653
(3
)
93
(3
)
6
0
(3
)
2
1
5

$673
652
560
92
583
(3
)
69
(3
)
5
0
(3
)
(3
)
2
14

$760
756
643
113
659
0
97
0
5
0
0
(3
)
(3
)
(3)

$799
787
710
77
692
0
95
0
5
0
0
9
0
0

$915
897
755
142
755
0
142
0
17
0
o
0
1
0

—1

0

—1

—2

0

52

46

48

55

92

100

49

109

89

176

—4
0

+14
0

—11
0

+9
0

—50
0

181

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, L A .-W H I T E FAM ILIES
Economic level— Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

Un
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey___________________
Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker.....................................
Skilled wage earner........................ .
Semiskilled wage earner...................
Unskilled wage earner________ _____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife-------------------- ------------Man, wife, and 1 child 2------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
-------Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
__
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)2__________________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons)2..................... - Man, wife, and 1 adult--------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults...... ........
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including
man and wife)___________ ______ __
Adults (4 or more persons, not includ­
ing man and wife)_________ ______
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons not including man and
wife)_____________________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man
and wife)............................................

318

31

66

60

70

38

19

16

12

6

126
73
84
35

4
7
13
7

20
10
23
13

19
19
14
8

34
13
19
4

17
13
6
2

9
6
4
0

8
4
4
0

11
1
0
0

4
0
1
1

48
53
49
4

0
0
8
4

0
9
14
0

2
16
7
0

10
12
14
0

6
9
4
0

8
4
2
0

8
2
0
0

8
1
0
0

6
0
0
0

43

5

13

11

9

3

1

1

0

0

18
26
22
1

9
0
2
0

7
5
2
1

2
3
7
0

0
4
5
0

0
9
3
0

0
1
2
0

0
2
1
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

30

1

6

6

9

4

1

2

1

0

12

1

4

2

5

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

1

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

7

1

4

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

308
4
1
1
1

28
1
1
0
0

64
1
0
1
0

59
1
0
0
0

68
0
0
0
0

37
0
U
0
1

19
0
0
0
0

15
1
0
0
0

12
0
0
0
0

6
0
0
0
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker-------------------------- ------------------Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States.........................................
Italy.........................................................
England.................................................
Mexico_______________________ _____
Other.....................................................
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households________________
Average number of persons in house­
hold......... ........ ................. .....................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers_______________
Boarders only................... ..................
Lodgers only.......................... ................
Other persons................. ........ ..............
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total................... .....................
Under 16 years of age............... .......
16 years of age and over—............... Expenditure units ________________
Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic family.

318

31

66

60

70

38

19

16

12

6

3.98

6. 26

4.63

4.05

3.49

3.36

3.06

2.89

2.7C

2.26

20
13
7
5

0
0
0
0

0
2
2
0

6
2
0
0

6
2
0
3

4
5
2
0

0
1
l
1

2
0
1
1

2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

3.80
1.03
2. 77
3.51

6.26
2.89
3. 37
5.58

4. 54
1.46
3.08
4.09

3.90
0.92
2.98
3.63

3. 35
0. 74
2. 61
3.10

3.07
0.53
2.54
2.88

2.89
0.58
2.31
2.69

2.54
0.25
2.29
2.42

2.23
0.10
2.13
2.16

1.85
0
1.85
1.83

0.18

0

0.09

0.15

0.16

0.30

0.17

0.36

0.47

0.41

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-




-13

182

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, L A —W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level— Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In c o m e

Families in survey...................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners...........
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers................................. . ..............
Other net rents......................................
Interest and dividends..................... .
Pensions and insurance annuities----Gifts from persons outside economic
family______________ _____________
Other sources of income................. . . .
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses).. -------- ---------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)-------------------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)........................
Inheritance........................... ................
Average number of gainful workers per
family...... ..................................... .........
Average amount of—
Net family income...............................
Earnings of individuals_____ _____
Chief earner.....................................
Subsidiary earners.........................
Males: 16 years and over..............
Under 16 years..................
Females: 16 years and over..........
Under 16 years_______
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers........ .....................................
Other net rents..................................
Interest and dividends. ...................
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family.................... ..........................
Other sources of income...................
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)------- -----------Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)...........................
Deficit per- family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)........................ .
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey............. .
Inheritance.............................................

318

31

66

60

70

38

19

16

12

6

83

8

17

17

20

9

4

3

3

2

39
19
12
6

0
0
0
1

6
4
1
1

7
4
4
0

6
7
3
1

10
3
2
2

2
0
1
1

4
1
1
0

3
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

35
13

1
1

6
2

8
3

6
1

5
4

3
1

2
1

3
0

1
0
0

4

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

180

12

35

40

41

26

7

7

8

4

100
3

12
0

14
0

17
0

22
1

11
0

9
1

9
0

4
0

2
1

1.33

1.28

1. 32

1.48

1. 33

1.31

1.31

1.17

1.26

1.26

$1,302
1,248
1,106
142
1,067
(3
)
181
0

$862
854
805
49
771
0
83
0

$992 $1,277 $1,377 $1,548 $1, 570 $1,727 $1,799 $1.791
964 1,235 1,335 1,435 1,474 1,625 1,692 1, 753
866 1,028 1,184 1,288 1,332 1,476 1,525 1,468
142
207
151
147
98
149
167
285
757 1,047 1,155 1,271 1,286 1,375 1,544 1,408
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(3
)
180
164
207
188
188
250
148
345
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

21
10
1
8

0
0
0
2

13
6
1
3

9
5

3
3

3
2

0

0

79

72

(3
)
110

19
15
1
3

(3
)
126

25
0
(3
)
67

65
24
(3
)
0

74
0
0
0

28
0
0
0

4

0

17
1

28
23
4
18
15
27

3
1

9
4

33
0

10
0

-2

0

0

0

0

123

85

244

100

71

186

287

251

204

497

+30 -104
0
16

-3 5
0

(3
)
(3
)
116

149

63

70

124

108

+15
4

+6
0

+23
0

+49
0

+34
2

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




15
9
(3
)

- 1 -118
0
143

183

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu d ied , b y econ om ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fam­
ilies

$300
to
$400

$200
to
$300

Under
$200

$400
to
$500

$500
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y
F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_____________________ ____________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker....... . . . ............ . . . .......... . ............ ........
Skilled wage earner...... ...................................... .........
Semiskilled wage earner........ .......................... ..............
Unskilled wage earner............... .....................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife________________ ________ ____ ______
Man, wife, and 1 child2----------------------- -----------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
_.................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2-----------------------Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons)2.
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)2_________________ _________ _______ _____
Man, wife, and 1 adult...... ............ ................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults....... ................. ................
Man, wife, ana 5 or more adults ______ _________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons, not including man and
wife)____ _______________________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons, n t in­
cluding man and wife)------------------ ------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons, not
including man and wife)........ ..................................

83

27

22

18

9

7

4
5
35
39

3
1
14
9

0
2
9
11

0
1
7
10

1
0
5
3

C
1
C
f

19
18
9
3
11

0
3
3
3
7

2
8
6
0
2

6
5
0
0
2

7
2
0
0
0

4
C
(
(
(

5
5
3
0
5

5
0
3
0
0

0
2
0
0
2

0
2
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

C
1
c
(
(

1

0

0

1

0

2

1

0

1

0

(

2

2

0

0

0

(

(

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker___________
Number of families having homemaker born in
United States.................................................................

0

0

0

0

0

83

27

22

18

9

83
3.94

27
5.85

22
3.62

18
2.87

9
2.10

2
0
8
0

0
0
1
0

1
0
2
0

1
0
3
0

0
0
0
0

(
(

3.84
1.30
2.54
3.50

5.81
2.66
3.15
5.17

3.56
1.19
2. 37
3.23

2.76
0.46
2.30
2.65

2.10
0.15
1.95
1.98

2.01
0
2.01
1.9:

0.12

0.04

0.13

0.11

0

0.4!

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_____________________ ________
Average number of persons in household......................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers______________________________
Boarders only----------- ------- ------- -----------------------------Lodgers only............................... ........... ......... ..............
Other persons----------- ------- ---------------------- ---------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total________________________ ______ _____
Under 16 years of age.................... ....................... .......
16 years of age and over.........................................
Expenditure units________________________________
Average number of persons in household not members
of economic family.. -------------- ------------- . . . -------

2.55

<

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




184

TW ELVE

T

able 2 .—

C IT IE S

OF

TH E

SOUTH

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu d ied , b y econ om ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, L A —NEGRO FAMILIES— Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fam­
ilies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
and
over

E a rn in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey_____________ ________ _________ —
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------------------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers. .......... ........
Other net rents______________ ________ ______ ____
Interest and dividends________________ __________ _
Pensions and insurance annuities_________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family________
Other sources of income-----------------------------------------Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)------------------------------------ --------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_______________________________________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities) _______________________________________
Inheritance---------- ------- ------------------------- ---------------Average number of gainful workers per family_______
Average amount of—
Net family income------------------------------------------------Earnings of individuals_______ _________________
Chief earner ___ _____________________________
Subsidiary earners.-------------- -------------------------Males: 16 years and over........................................
Under 16 years--------------- ---------------------Females: 16 years and over....................................
Under 16 years........................... ............
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers_________
Other net rents______ __________________________
Interest and dividends...____ ___________________
Pensions and insurance annuities_______________
Gifts from persons outside economic family______
Other sources of in co m e.______ ________________
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)_______________________________________
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities)______________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in as­
sets and/or increase in liabilities)_ _____________
_
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families in
survey_____ ____________________________________
Inheritance------------- ---------------------------- ----------------3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




83

27

22

18

9

7

28
10
2
1
0
2
1

12
1
1
1
0
2
1

4
3
0
0
0
0
0

9
4
1
0
0
0
0

3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

2

0

0

1

1

42

11

12

11

4

4

21
0
1.41

6
0
1.61

9
0
1.23

3
0
1. 54

3
0
1. 34

0
0
.94

$841
830
741
89
723
4
103
(3
)
10
1
(3
)
0
1
0

$770
763
628
135
590
0
173
(3
)
2
2
(3
)
0
3
0

$762
751
690
61
697
0
54
0
11
0
0
0
0
0

$882
876
760
116
732
11
133
0
8
(3
)
0
0
0
0

$944
945
910
35
910
0
35
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$1,100
1,045
1,045
0
1,045
0
0
0
55
0
0
0
0
0

-1
77

0

0

88

73

-2
47

-1

0

128

88

47

17

47

65

86

0

+27
0

+32
0

+20
0

+18
0

+28
0

+50
0

185

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able 2 ,—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
NORFOLK-PORTSM OUTH, VA.— W H ITE FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year

Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 over

D is tr ib u tio n bp O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e i

Families in survey___________________
Number of families in which chief earn­
er is—
Clerical worker______ ______ _______
Skilled wage earner_______________
Semiskilled wage earner____ _______
Unskilled wage earner_____________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_______ _____ ________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2_________ __
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2 ____
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2__
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons) 2__________________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons) 2_.................... .
Man, wife, and 1 adult...... .......... .......
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)......... ................. ........
Adults (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)_________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons not including man and wife).
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons not including man
and wife)________ ________________

162

26

22

37

26

16

8

12

5

10

46
67
36
13

4
9
7
6

4
8
6
4

10
17
7
3

7
13
6
0

7
6
3
0

4
4
0
0

6
4
2
0

2
2
1
0

2
4
4
0

36
33
38
3

0
3
10
2

1
1
10
0

2
10
11
1

1
8
7
0

8
5
0
0

3
3
0
0

9
1
0
0

5
0
0
0

7
2
0
0

22

3

7

7

3

2

0

0

0

0

3
1
1
0

0
2
0
0

0
1
1
0

0
3
2
0

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

3
12
4
0
3

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

155
2
1
1
3

25
0
0
0
1

20
0
0
1
1

36
1
0
0
0

25
1
0
0
0

15
0
1
0
0

8
0
0
0
0

11
0
0
0
1

5
0
0
0
0

10
0
0
0
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker_________ ____ _________
Number of families having homemaker
born in—
United States______ ____ ______ ___
---------------------------Russia-----------Canada (not French)_____ _______
Ireland_____ ___________ _____ _____
Other---------------- ------------------------ ___
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households-------- ------- --------Average number of persons in house­
hold________________________________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers___ ___________
Boarders only_____________ ______
Lodgers only_________ _
____
Other persons______ _____
_______
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______________________
Under 16 years of age______ _____ _
16 years of age and over___________
Expenditure units-------------- ------------Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic family.

162

26

22

37

26

16

8

12

5

10

3.82

5.15

4.95

4.06

3. 57

2.74

2.67

2.68

1. 99

2.78

27
4
3
2

2
0
0
0

5
1
1
0

7
0
1
0

2
2
0
0

3
0
0
1

1
0
1
1

4
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

3
1
0
0

3.63
1.24
2. 39
3.33

5.08
2.44
2. 64
4.54

4.66
1.82
2.84
4.24

3.83
1.56
2. 27
3. 49

3. 43
1.00
2. 43
3.18

2. 61
0.42
2.19
2.40

2. 50
0.38
2.12
2.38

2.27
0.10
2.17
2. 21

2. 00
0
2.00
1.93

2. 30
0.20
2.10
2. 22

0.23

0.08

0. 36

0.23

0.16

0. 22

0. 25

0.48

0

0. 50

1“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.

Bull. No. 357, 1924.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




186

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level — Continued
N O R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , VA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 over

E a rn in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey....................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners______
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers............................ ...........................
Other net rents........... ..........................
Interest and dividends..._________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___________________ ________
Other sources of income........ ............ .
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)........ ...............
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_____________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)_____________
Inheritance________________ _______
Average number of gainfulworkers per
family......................................................
Average amount of—
Net family income..............................
Earnings of individuals................ .
Chief earner_________ ______ ___
Subsidiary earners......... ............ .
Males: 16 years and over............
Under 16 years__________
Females: 16 years and over..........
Under 16 years............
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers.................... ........................
Other net rents......... ........................
Interest and dividends___________
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic fa m ily ._____ _____ _____
0 ther sources of income.. ________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)____________
Surplus per family having surplus
(net *increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)_______ ________
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)____ __________
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey..................
Inheritance............................................

162

26

22

37

26

16

8

12

5

10

20

7

3

5

1

0

2

2

0

0

26
15
3
3

2
0
0
0

7
1
0
0

6
5
2
1

1
3
1
0

3
1
0
0

2
1
0
0

2
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

3
2
0
2

4
4

1
1

1
0

0
1

0
1

2
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

8

0

1

3

2

0

0

2

0

0

102

17

15

26

16

10

4

6

2

6

58
0

9
0

7
0

10
0

10
0

6
0

4
0

6
0

2
0

4
0

1.12

1.27

1.18

1.14

1.04

1.00

1.25

1.08

1.00

1.00

$1,614 $1,151 $1,483 $1, 567 $1, 779 $1, 503 $1, 646 $1,918 $1, 786 $2,525
1, 541 1,132 1,430 1,492 1, 750 1,471 1,592 1,905 1,724 2,023
1, 507 1,056 1,401 1,464 1,745 1,471 1,446 1,863 1, 724 2,023
29
34
76
28
5
0
146
42
0
0
1, 464 1,075 1.426 1, 344 1,618 1,471 1,372 1,893 1, 724 2,023
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
77
57
148
132
0
220
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
16
1
20
1
12
-2
173

0
144

23
38
2
9

10
5
2
0

20
8
0
0

48
6
0
0

9
15
0
0

0
62
0
0

65
26
0
287

1
0

(*)
(3
)

46
7
0
0

0
4

0
18

4
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
124

0

0

-1 1

0

0

187

124

285

62

215

-1

-1

-6

142

159

215

205

67

179

193

125

350

282

187

186

537

+35
0

+71
0

+40
0

+60
0

+84
0

-1 4
0

-7 9
0

+49
0

-5 0
0

-8 6
0

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




19
0
0
0

187

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 2. —

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
NO R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , VA —N EG R O FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

$200
to
$300

Under
$200

$300
to
$400

$500
and
over

$400
to
$500

by

Families in survey---------- -------- ------------------------------Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker________________ ____ _____________
Skilled wage earner........ ............................................ .
Semiskilled wage earner........... ............................ ........
Unskilled wage earner................................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife... . . . ----- ---------------- ---------------------Man, wife, and 1 child------------------------------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children..................... ................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children--------- -------------Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons)._
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)___________________________________ ____
Man, wife, and 1 adult.__ ........... .......... .....................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults______________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults----------------------------Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)-------------------- ------------------- -----------------------Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)----__ _ ---------- ------- —
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)------- -------- ---------------

109

29

30

22

17

11

2
9
42
56

1
1
12
15

0
4
10
16

0
2
10
10

1
0
6
10

0
2
4
5

30
17
17
4
12

0
2
5
2
6

6
3
9
1
3

5
7
3
1
1

9
5
0
0
1

10
0
0
0
1

13
7
3
0
4

12
0
0
0
1

1
4
1
0
1

0
3
2
0
0

0
0
0
0
2

0
0
0
0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker___________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States........................... ............ ..........................
C o m p o sitio n

0

0

0

0

0

0

109

29

30

22

17

11

109
4.19

29
6.70

30
3.82

22
3.42

17
2.58

11
2.58

10
1
5
2

5
0
0
0

1
0
1
0

3
1
1
1

0
0
1
0

1
0
2
1

4.05
1.49
2. 56
3.64

6.54
3. 33
3. 21
5.76

3.77
1.30
2. 47
3. 39

3.22
0.89
2.33
2.90

2. 53
0.35
2.18
2.39

2.20
0.09
2.11
2.09

0.45

0.19

0.06

1.63

0.06

0.38

o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______________________________
Average number of persons in household.....................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers-------------------------------- ------------Boarders only---------------------------------------------- ---------Lodgers only.............. .......... ...........................................
Other persons_________ . . . -------- ------------- ------- Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total____________________ ______________ —
Under 16 years of age--------- --------------------------------16 years of age and over_________________________
Expenditure units---------- --------------------------------------Average number of persons in household not members
of economic family. _ _____________________________

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

188

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 2.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued

NO R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , VA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200
to
$300

$400
to
$500

$300
to
$400

$500
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey---------------------------- -----------------------Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------------------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers___________
Other net rents------------------------------------ -----------------Interest and dividends...................................................
Pensions and insurance annuities......................... .......
Gifts from persons outside economic family..............
Other sources of income----------------------------------------Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)— -------- ------------- -------------------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_____________________ ______ __________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)---------------------------------------------------------Inheritance-----------------------------------------------------------Average number of gainful workers per family_____
Average amount of—
Net family income............................................ ..........
E arnings of individuals_____ ____________
____
Chief earner_____ ___________ _________________
Subsidiary earners.___________ _______________
Males: 16 years and over__________ ___________
Under 16 years. ............... ........... ........... .
Females: 16 years and over....... ...........................
Under 16 years________________ _____
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers_________
Other net rents_________________________________
Interest and dividends........... ...................................
Pensions and insurance annuities-----------------------Gifts from persons outside economic family______
Other sources of income_____ _________________
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)----------------------------------------------------------- Surplus per family having surplus (net increase
in assets and/or decrease in liabilities)___________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)__________ . . .
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey_______________________________________
Inheritance_____ _________________________________
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




109

29

30

22

17

11

46
12
0
0
3
4
4

13
4
0
0
1
4
0

11
1
0
0
2
0
0

10
4
0
0
0
0
1

7
1
0
0
0
0
1

5
2
0
0
0
0
2

3

1

1

0

0

1

72

22

19

14

12

5

34
0
1.50

7
0
1. 52

8
0
1. 50

8
0
1.54

5
0
1.41

6
0
1.45

$939
921
823
98
842
(3
)
79
0
10
0
0
2
1
6

$854
832
752
80
797
00
35
0
14
0
0
3
5
0

$824
821
704
117
723
0
98
0
1
0
0
3
0
0

$988
977
885
92
885
0
92
0
10
0
0
0
0
1

$1,082
1,062
977
85
992
0
70
0
12
0
0
0
0
8

$1,156
1,097
975
122
970
0
127
0
20
0
0
0
0
41

-1

-1

-2

0

0

86

92

76

70

115

70

102

54

104

90

144

137

+25
0

+57
0

+20
0

+12
0

+39
0

-4 3
0

00

189

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e 2 . — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , VA.— W HITE FAMILIES

Economic level--Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
All
fami­
lies

Item

$200
to
$300

$100
to
$200

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
E a rn er and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey___________________
Number of families in which chief
earner is—
Clerical worker............................. .......
Skilled wage earner......................... .
Semiskilled wage earner....................
Unskilled wage earner______________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife. __ ----------- ---------------Man, wife, and 1 child 2
____________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children ------Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2.. .
Man, wife, and children and adults
(4 to 6 persons)2__________________
Man, wife, and children and adults
(7 or more persons) ______________
Man, wife, and 1 adult........ ................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults........... .
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults. __
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including
man and wife)----------- ---------------Adults (4 or more persons, not in­
cluding man and wife)____________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3
persons, not including man and
wife)____________ _______ ________
Adult or adults and children (4 or
more persons, not including man
and wife)......................... ...................

2

2

192

10

24

35

38

28

18

23

7

9

67
56
63
6

0
2
7
1

1
8
14
1

10
6
18
1

14
9
12
3

11
11
6
0

8
8
2
0

12
8
3
0

4
2
1
0

7
2
0
0

42
30
41
1

0
1
2
0

1
0
11
0

0
4
11
1

4
15
9
0

5
6
7
0

8
2
1
0

14
1
0
0

4
0
0
0

6
1
0
0

23

1

6

8

6

1

0

1

0

0

11
17
10
0

4
1
0
0

4
0
1
0

2
2
3
0

0
0
2
0

1
3
1
0

0
3
2
0

0
5
1
0

0
1
0
0

0
2
0
0

10

0

0

2

2

1

2

1

2

0

3

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

190
1
1

9
0
1

24
0
0

34
1
0

38
0
0

28
0
0

18
0
0

23
0
0

7
0
0

9
0
0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no home­
maker---------------------- -------------------Number of families having home­
maker born in—
United States______________________
Italy.______ ______________ ____ ____
Other____________________________ .
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households--------- --------------Average number of persons in house­
hold___________________________ — .
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers______ ____ ___
Boarders only_____________ ____ ___
Lodgers o n ly .......................................
Other persons------------- --------------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total___ _________________
Under 16 years of age....................
16 years of age and over................ .
Expenditure units---------------------------Average number of persons in house­
hold not members of economic
family------------------------------- -------------

10

24

35

38

28

18

23

7

9

4.06

6. 77

5.05

4. 77

3.84

4.01

3.47

2.84

2.54

2.27

29
15
8
20

4
0
0
0

1
0
1
1

6
2
0
4

4
2
1
2

6
7
3
4

4
3
0
2

3
1
3
4

1
0
0
0

0
0
0
3

3.79
1.14
2. 65
3. 55

6.73
3.14
3.59
6.05

4.99
2. 40
2.59
4.59

4.59
1.63
2.96
4.21

3.61
1.10
2. 51
3.39

3.53
0. 87
2.66
3.31

2.89
0.29
2.60
2.80

2.38
0.06
2.32
2.34

2.54
(4)
2.54
2.52

2.23
0.08
2.15
2.22

0. 33

0.24

0.11

0. 21

0.24

0. 61

0.59

0.47

0.06

0. 21

192

1“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
Families of these types are included in the 1917-19 study, ‘ ‘ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
4 Less than 0.005 person.

2

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




190

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econom ic level— Continued
R IC H M O N D , VA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level--Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E a r n in g s and In co m e

Families in survey---------- . . . ----------- Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners... __
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers_____ ____________________
Other net rents------------------ ---------Interest and dividends_____________
Pensions and insurance annuities----Gifts from persons outside economic
family____________________________
Other sources of income____________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_____________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities). . . ------------Inheritance--------------- -------------------Average number of gainful workers
per family.................. ...........................

192

10

24

35

38

28

18

23

7

84

3

11

12

14

13

12

9

5

5

49
14
10
4

4
0
1
0

3
1
0
0

8
0
4
0

6
1
0
0

14
5
1
1

6
4
0
2

7
3
1
0

1
0
0
0

0
0
3
1

21
15

1
0

0
2

6
2

2
5

3
1

5
1

3
1

0
1

1
2

3

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

114

6

13

20

25

17

12

13

3

4

75
0

4
0

11
0

15
0

12
0

11
0

6
0

8
0

4
0

5
0

1.59

1.79

1. 51

1.64

1.58

1.56

1.79

1.41

1.76

1.52

Average amount of—
Net family income........... ................. . $1, 585
Earnings of individuals___________ 1, 521
1,265
Chief earner.................. ............ .
Subsidiary earners......... ................
256
Males: 16 years and over.............. 1,262
1
Under 16 years..................
Females: 16 years and over..........
258
0
Under 16 years_______
Net earnings from boarders and
35
lodgers---------- ---------------------------10
Other net rents. ..............._........
2
Interest and dividends___________
Pensions and insurance annuities..
3
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family___________________
7
7
Other sources of income__________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)____________
(3
)
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
183
crease in liabilities)_______________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
183
liabilities)________________________
Net change in assets and liabilities
+37
for all families in survey...................
0
Inheritance.............................................
8 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




9

$921 $1,150 $1,409 $1,489 $1,853 $1,893 $1, 749 $2,079 $2,310
898 1,123 1,358 1,449 1,749 1,761 1,675 2,060 2,200
816 1,013 1,179 1,171 1,478 1,365 1,440 1,482 1,683
82
110
179
235
271
396
278
578
517
746 1,034 1,162 1,176 1,502 1,438 1,394 1,334 1,683
5
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
189
273
323
281
147
89
247
726
517
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
19
0
1
0

9
11
0
0

32
0
2
0

25
3
0
0

64
29
(3
)
3

72
35
0
9

47
4
2
0

18
0
0
0

0
0
39
46

3
0

0
7

12
5

6
6

2
7

14
5

13
8

0
1

1
24

0

0

0

0

0

0

57

111

133

192

318

49

108

128

+15
0

+11
0

+22
0

-1

-3

163

214

261

262

198

60

261

412

242

315

+45 +112
0
0

+87
0

+5
0

-5 6
0

-3 4
0

(3
)

191

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

.

2 — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y econ om ic level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , VA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
All fami­
lies

Item

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

by

Families in survey______ ___________________ _____ _
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical w o r k e r _____ ________________ ________
Skilled wage earner......................................................
Semiskilled wage earner..... ........................................
Unskilled wage earner.................................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___________________ . ______________
Man, wife, and 1 child.................. ..............................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children...... ............................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children__________ ____
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons).
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons).....................................................................
Man, wife, and 1 adult................................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults............ ..........................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults................................
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and wife) _
Adults (4 or more persons, not including man and
wife)____ ____________________ _______ _________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons, not
including man and wife)----------------------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons,
not including man and wife)______________ ____

96

25

23

24

24

2
1
58
35

0
0
19
6

0
0
13
10

1
0
12
11

1
1
14
8

27
9
12
3
11

0
0
8
3
4

4
1
4
0
5

6
6
0
0
2

17
2
0
0
0

7
10
4
0
5

5
0
0
0
0

1
1
4
0
1

0
6
0
0
3

1
3
0
0
1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

6

4

2

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

0

0

0

0

0

96

25

23

24

24

96
4.03

25
6.53

23
4.13

24
2.88

24
2.44

2
3
10
1

0
0
4
0

1
1
2
0

1
2
2
0

0
0
2
1

3.85
1.28
2. 57
3.48

6.29
3.35
2.94
5.55

3.97
1.23
2.74
3.56

2.75
0.29
2.46
2.58

2.29
0.11
2.18
2.16

0.20

0.24

0.19

0.19

0.16

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in
United States........... ............................ ........................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households-------------------------------------------Average number of persons in household....................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers...................................................
Boarders only................................................................
Lodgers only.................................................................
Other persons..... ............................. ............................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total........... .....................................................
Under 16 years of age................................................
16 years of age and over...........................................
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family...... ............................ ............

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
over.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and

192

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

2 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by econom ic level— Continued
R ICH M ON D , VA .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level— Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey________________ _______ ________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners___________________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers. _____ . . .
Other net rents__________________________________
Interest and dividends___________________________
Pensions and insurance annuities________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family____ _
Other sources of income______________________
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses). . . -------- ------- --------------------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)---------- ------------------------ -------------------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)_____________________________ _______
Inheritance------------------- ---------------------- ------------Average number of gainful workers per family..........
Average amount of—
Net family income----------------------------------------------Earnings of individuals________________________
Chief earner___ _____ _______ _______________
Subsidiary earners. _ ________________ ______
Males: 16 years and over_____________________
Under 16 years____ ____ _____________
Females: 16 years and over____ _____________
Under 16 years_____________________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers________
Other net rents____ ___________________________
Interest and dividends .................................... .......
Pensions and insurance annuities______________
Gifts from persons outside economic family____
Other sources of income.. _________ _____ ____
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)____ _____________________ ____ ______
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities) . . . ___ ____
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)_____________
Net change in assets and liabilities for all families
in survey______________________________________
Inheritance............................................................. .......
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 635.




96

25

23

24

24

61
15
2
0
19
10
7

16
4
0
0
4
7
1

17
4
0
0
4
2
3

13
5
0
0
5
0
1

15
2
2
0
6
1
2

2

0

0

0

2

57

12

17

13

15

38
1
1.77

13
1
1. 77

6
0
1.96

11
0
1.66

8
0
1. 69

$929
877
700
177
701
1
175
0
15
1
0
6
6
24

$856
781
657
124
610
3
168
0
14
0
0
3
17
41

$902
820
612
208
702
0
118
0
24
0
0
4
5
49

$860
827
688
139
630
0
197
0
18
0
0
14
0
1

$1,097
1,076
840
236
864
0
212
0
5
5
0
4
3
4

0

0

0

88

122

89

52

90

105

62

112

89

191

+11
(3
)

+26
1

+37
0

-1 3
0

-7
0

(3
)

(3
)

193

TABULAR SU M M ARY
T

able

3. — E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , b y econom ic level
BALTIM O RE . M D .—W H IT E FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per
year

Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_____________
Average family size:
Persons______________________
Expenditure units__ _ _______
Food expenditure units______
Clothing expenditure units, __

419

14

60

92

100

66

40

23

11

7

6

3.57
3.28
3.07
2.86

6. 21
5. 62
5.25
4. 85

5.07
4.56
4.25
3.77

3. 91
3. 58
3.34
3.16

3.35
3.05
2.86
2.66

2.80
2. 64
2.46
2. 27

2.74
2.59
2.43
2. 30

2.48
2.39
2.28
2.28

2.72
2.46
2.36
2. 25

1.71
1.98
1.85
2.16

2.33
2.24
2.20
1.95

Average annual current expendi­
ture for—
All items..................................... $1,402
Food_____________ ________
500
Clothing___________________
147
Housing, _ ________________
231
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.
103
Other household operation,_
55
Furnishings and equipment.
60
Automobile and motorcy­
cle-purchase, operation,
and maintenance_________
60
54
Other transportation_______
Personal care______________
26
47
Medical care______ ________
Recreation,_____ __________
75
Education................. ...........
5
Vocation_________________ _
3
Community welfare_______
17
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside the eco­
18
nomic family.......................
1
Other items________________
Percentage of total annual cur­
rent expenditure for—
All items____________________ 100.0
35.6
Food___________________
Clothing___________ ____
10.5
Housing,____________ _ ___ 16.4
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.
7.3
3.9
Other household operation, _
4.3
Furnishings and equipment.
Automobile and motorcy­
cle—purchase, operation,
4.3
and maintenance_________
Other transportation_______
3.9
1.9
Personal care______________
Medical care_______________
3.4
Recreation_________________
5.3
.4
Education____ ____________
Vocation__________________
.2
Community welfare.........
1.2
Gifts and contributions to
persons outside the eco­
nomic family_____ ______
1.3
.1
Other items_____ _____ ____

$970 $1,160 $1, 246 $1, 360 $1,434 $1, 668 $1, 759 $2,102 $1,870 $2, 563
422
494
483
496
541
491
509
550
436
762
93
141
137
141
181
110
212
207
181
303
177
206
228
252
269
201
266
265
303
301
83
112
105
97
108
96
109
143
78
110
32
23
39
55
75
57
81
139
75
181
8
28
45
46
83
68
284
98
154
110
4
50
20
18
49
4
4
13

17
38
22
37
54
5
2
17

24
49
25
35
66
4
2
13

35
63
26
48
73
4
2
16

68
49
27
40
80
4
2
16

105
61
29
69
97
15
5
17

1
1

8
1

10
0

18
1

25
3

20
4

267
73
35
84
109
0
11
25

245
63
37
43
113
0
3
16

221
54
34
247
107
0
8
39

44

42
1

31
0

37
3

0)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
43.5 41.6 39.7 36.5 34.3 32.5 28.9 26.2 23.3 29.8
9.4 11.0 10.4
9.6
9.8 10.9 11.8 10.1
9.7 11.8
18.2 17.3 16.6 16.8 17.6 16.1 15.1 14.3 14.1 11.8
6.2
4.2
7.9
4.3
8.5
7.8
6.7
6.7
6.8
9.0
3.1
2.4
2.8
4.5
4.6
4.0
6.6
4.0
7.1
4.0
2.4
4.1
5.2 15.1
3.6
3.4
5.8
5.6
.8
6.0
.4
5.2
2.1
1.9
5.1
.4
.4
1.3

1.5
3.3
1.9
3.2
4.7
.4
.2
1.5

1.9
3.9
2.0
2.8
5.3
.3
.2
1.0

2.6
4.6
1.9
3.5
5.4
.3
.1
1.2

4.7
3.4
1.9
2.8
5.6
.3
.1
1.1

6.3
3.7
1.7
4.1
5.8
.9
.3
1.0

8.6
3.7
1.6
3.0
5.5
.8
.3
1.8

12.7
3.5
1.7
4.0
5.2
0
.5
1.2

13.1
3.4
2.0
2.3
6.0
0
.2
.9

8.6
2.1
1.3
9.7
4.2
0
.3
1.5

.1
.1

.7
.1

.8
0

1.3
.1

1.7
.2

1.2
.2

2.5
(J
)

2.0
(2
)

1.7
0

1.4
.1

1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




152
65
28
53
96
14
5
32

194

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T able 3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
B AL T IM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level-—Families spending per expendi­
i
ture unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey....... .......................................
Average family size:
Persons___________________ ______________
Expenditure units-------- ------- -------- -----------Food expenditure units..................... ...........
Clothing expenditure units...... ............ .........
Average annual current expenditure for—
All item s...-------------- ------------------------------Food........ ........ .................... ............ ........ .
Clothing................................... ................
Housing----------------------------- ------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration................... .
Other household operation._____ _______
Furnishings and equipment.. -------------Automobile and motorcycle—purchase,
operation, and maintenance........ ..........
Other transportation...................................
Personal care________________ _______
Medical care..................... —.......... ........... .
Recreation................... .................................
Education________ _______ _____________
Vocation__________ ______ ___ _________
Community welfare____________________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family_____________
Other items_______ ____________________
Percentage of total annual current expendi­
ture for—
All item s............... .......... .......... ................
Food........ ................... ............................... .
Clothing. ...................... .................... ..........
Housing------------------------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration......................
Other household operation_____________
Furnishings and equipment____________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase,
operation, and maintenance__________
Other transportation________ ____ _____
Personal care......... .............. .................... .
Medical care__________________ _______ _
Recreation_________ _____ _____________
Education______ ______ _______________
Vocation_________ _____ _________ ______
Community welfare____________________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family______________
Other items______________ _____________
1 Less than $0.50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




107

24

28

21

18

9

7

3.77
3.45
3.17
3.00

6.19
5.50
5.05
4.34

3.99
3.68
3.37
3.32

2.86
2.68
2.50
2.43

2.56
2.37
2.14
2.28

2.33
2.22
2.09
2.05

2.28
2.14
1. 92
1.91

$973
339
84
242
91
31
31

$850
324
67
247
79
15
20

$901
340
78
237
82
33
8

$894
323
80
210
95
32
33

$1,014
333
79
240
93
28
26

$1,225
358
129
238
109
48
77

$1,470
419
138
349
127
59
111

8
48
18
19
43
1
1
10

3
29
14
15
26
2
1
8

0
34
18
17
40
1
0
9

10
36
15
16
34

16
68
23
24
59
3
11

23
79
24
23
67
1
2
12

13
107
24
30
62
0
(*)
21

4
0

11
0

35
0

0)

7

4

0)

0
6

0)

10

0)

0)
0)

0)

100.0
34.9
8.6
24.9
9.4
3.2
3.2

100.0
38.1
7.9
29.0
9.3
1.8
2.4

100.0
37.7
8.7
26.3
9.1
3.7
.9

100.0
36.2
8.9
23.5
10.6
3.6
3.7

100.0
32.8
7.8
23.6
9.1
2.8
2.6

100.0
29.2
10.5
19.4
8.8
3.9
6.3

100.0
28.5
9.4
23.8
8.6
4.0
7.6

.8
4.9
1.8
2.0
4.4
.1
.1
1.0

.4
3.4
1.6
1.8
3.1
.2
.1
.9

0
3.8
2.0
1.9
4.4
.1
0
1.0

1.1
4.0
1.7
1.8
3.8
(2
)
0
.7

1.6
6.7
2.3
2.4
5.8
(2
)
.3
1.1

1.9
6.4
2.0
1.9
5.5
.1
.2
1.0

.9
7.3
1.6
2.0
4.2
0
(2
)
1.4

.4

.4
0

1.1
0

2.9
0

(2
)

.7
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

.7

195

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 3. —

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure
unit per year

Item

All
fami­
lies

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f I tem s

Families in survey....................................
Average family size:
Persons.................. ...................................
Expenditure units...... ...........................
Food expenditure units...... ...................
Clothing expenditure units...................

202

10

29

49

32

28

21

10

5

6

12

3.67
3.40
3.25
2.90

5. 57
5.12
4.87
4.34

4.82
4.39
4.20
3.54

4.21
3.87
3.68
3.26

3. 59
3.35
3.17
2.76

3.24
3.04
2.89
2.66

2.81
2.61
2.61
2. 46

2. 33
2.22
2.10
2.06

2.04
2.01
1.97
1.92

2.52
2.41
2. 34
1.92

2.22
2.13
2.01
2.03

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items........................ ....................... . $1,462 $865 $1,047 $1,281 $1,441 $1,621 $1,715 $1,622 $1,728 $2,277 $2, 277
Food......................... ...........................
682
447
357 384 452 450 469 461 444 395
488
Clothing....... ........................................
176
166
102 114 157 145 198 205 189 184
254
Housing-------------- --------------------------183
389
100 125 141 201 208 206 177 322
262
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.......... .
97
94
89
74
122
68
89
99 100 109
106
Other household operation_________
203
97
29
52
66 102 124 139 115 154
142
Furnishings and equipment_______
79
92 139
65
52
33
119
5
60
83
134
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
79 101 143 170
125
nance...................... ............................
105
26
74
96
20
441
Other transportation.......................
32
31
25
66
29
27
26
29
30
20
21
34
42
32
44
41
43
Personal care.......................................
35
37
28
28
44
92
Medical care— ............................ .
72 108
73
68 166
156
77
34
41
46
Recreation.............................. ........ ....
75
88 106 105
84
83
54
62
68
108
155
Education________ _________ ______
5
9
4
4
8
13
1
7
7
8
11
Vocation__________________________
12
7
3
7
3
23
1
6
6
0
10
Community welfare_______________
21
23
25
37
45
19
6
16
20
54
10
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family______
54
21
12
25
20
67
31
91
28
7
8
12
3
11
9
26
1
6
10
21
Other items-----------------------------------16
17
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items...... ............................. .............. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
30.5 41.3 36.6 35.2 31.2
F o o d ...................... .............................
Clothing._________ ________________
11.4 11.8 10.8 12.3 10.1
Housing__________________ _____ _
12.5 11.6 11.9 11.0 13.9
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.............
6.6
7.9 8.5 7.7 6.9
Other household operation-------------6.6
3.4 5.0 5.2 7.1
Furnishings and equipment-----------4.4
.6 5.0 2.6 4.2
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
7.2
2.3 2.5 5.8 5.5
nance............... ...................................
Other transportation....................... .
3.1 2.5 2.3 2.1
2.0
2.4
3.2 2.7 2.5 2.4
Personal care........ ..................... ..........
5.3
3.9 3.9 5.6 7.5
Medical care________ _____ ________
Recreation____ _____ ______________
5.7
6.2 5.9 5.3 5.2
Education_________ _______________
1.3
.3
.6
.7 1.0
Vocation__________________ ______ _
.2
.5
.1
.6
'.5
Community welfare_______________
.7 1.0 1.2 1.5
1.6
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family.........
1.9
.8
.8
.9 1.7
.2
.8
1.8 1.6
.9
Other items_______________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




100.0
29.0
12.2
12.9
6.7
7.6
5.1

100.0
26.8
12.0
12.0
5.5
8.1
4.6

100.0
27.3
11.6
10.9
5.5
7.1
5.7

100.0 100.0 100.0
22.9 29.9 21.4
10.6
7.7 11.2
18.6 17.1 11.5
4.3
5.4
4.7
6.2
8.9
8.9
5.2
5.9
8.0

6.2
2.0
2.6
5.7
5.4
.6
.7
1.5

8.3 10.5
1.8 1.5
2.2 2.7
4.3 4.2
6.2 6.5
.2
.1
.4
.2
2.2 2.8

5.6
1.2
2.4
9.6
4.9
.4
.0
1.1

5.5
2.9
1.9
6.9
4.7
.2
1.0
.9

19.4
.9
1.9
2.0
6.8
.4
.4
2.4

1.2
.6

3.9
1.5

1.2
.3

1.4
.4

4.0
.9

3.3
.1

196

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T able 3. —

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, b y econom ic level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—N EGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
families
Under
$200

$200
to $300

$300
to $400

$400
and over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey................................... ......................
Average family size:
Persons_________ _________ __________ ___________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Food expenditure units___ ____ _____ ___________
Clothing expenditure units---------------------------------Average annual current expenditure for—
All items_________________________________ _____
Food______________________________________
Clothing—_____ _______________________________
Housing______________ ______________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration..................... ............
Other household operation_____________________
Furnishings and equipment___________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance_______________________
Other transportation__________________________
Personal care.............................................. ........ .......
Medical care_________________ _______________
Recreation____________________ ______________
Education___________________________ _____ ___
Vocation______ ___________________ __________
Community welfare________ __
_ __________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family............... ..................... ................
Other items................................................................
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items______________________
_____________
Food.......... ................................. .......................... . .
Clothing_____________________ _____ __________
Housing_______________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___________________
Other household operation_____________________
Furnishings and equipment________ _________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance. _ _______________ . . .
Other transportation__________________________
Personal care____________ _______ ____ ______
Medical care—_____ ___________________________
Recreation...__________ _______________________
Education___ ______________ __________________
Vocation__________________ ______________ _
Community welfare___________ _____ _________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family____ _______ _____ __________
Other items____________________________ _
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




101

38

27

17

19

3.82
3.44
3.21
3.03

5.41
4.77
4. 44
3.86

3.33
3.03
2.82
2.91

2.49
2.34
2.26
2.16

2.54
2. 35
2.14
2.37

$806
270
109
96
58
31
38

$671
259
99
80
45
22
32

$738
265
105
81
60
24
22

$769
242
96
93
62
37
37

$1, 212
324
146
153
79
54
74

29
23
19
36
51
6
4
13

10
18
15
31
36
4
4
9

14
26
19
33
45
2
8
11

33
16
18
41
57
2
2
15

86
38
26
47
83
20
1
21

18
5

3
4

15
8

10
8

58
2

100.0
33.6
13.5
11.9
7.2
3.8
4. 7

100.0
38.6
14.8
11.9
6.7
3.3
4.8

100.0
35.9
14.2
10.9
8.1
3.3
3.0

100.0
31.4
12. f
12.1
8.1
4.8
4.8

100.0
26.8
12.0
12.6
6.5
4.5
6.1

3.6
2.9
2.4
4.5
6.3
.7
.5
1.6

1.5
2.7
2.2
4.6
5.4
.6
.6
1.3

1.9
3.5
2.6
4.5
6.1
.3
1.1
1.5

4.3
2.1
2.3
5.3
7.4
.3
.3
2.0

7.1
3.1
2.1
3.9
6.8
1.7
.1
1.7

2.2
.6

.4
.6

2.0
1.1

1.3
1.0

4.8
.2

197

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 3. —

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, b y econom ic level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

Item

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit per
year
All
fam­
ilies $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey........................~
Average family size:
Persons___________________ ____
Expenditure units______________
Food expenditure units------------Clothing expenditure units--------

294

11

29

54

51

54

39

19

14

9

6

8

3.31
3.07
2. 83
2.72

5. 91
5. 25
4. 99
4. 28

4. 50
4.14
3. 68
3.30

3.84
3. 51
3. 27
2.96

3. 41
3.16
2. 92
2.77

2.92
2. 72
2.46
2.53

2. 76
2.60
2.43
2.38

2. 62
2.44
2.25
2.18

2.31
2.23
2.07
2.23

2. 23
2.18
2.10
2.18

2.17
2.11
1.99
2.07

2.00
2.05
1.90
2.58

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o l.

D o t.

D o t.

D o l.

Average annual current expenditure for—
D o l.
All items.---------------------------------- 1,458
443
Food-------------------------------------172
Clothing. ____ _ . . . . . . . . .
212
Housing__________ __________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration__
85
Other household operation___
73
Furnishings and equipment.. .
76
Automobile and motorcyclepurchase, operation, and
maintenance........ ...................
148
Other transportation........... .
25
32
Personal care........................ .
Medical care_________________
58
Recreation___________________
71
Education------------- ------------- 10
Vocation_____________________
3
Community welfare__________
22
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family--------------------------------23
0 ther items.............. ..............
5
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items......... ............... ........... .
Food........... .................................
Clothing_____________________
Housing_____________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration
Other household operation-----Furnishings and equipment. _.
Automobile and motorcycle—
purchase, operation, and
maintenance_______________
Other transportation-------------Personal care__________ ____ _
Medical care........ ..................... .
Recreation____________ _______
Education-----------------------------Vocation_____________________
Community welfare__________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family........................................
Other item s...............................

32
22
21
39
43
16
3
9

65
25
24
49
48
7
4
18

120
24
28
60
64
12
4
23

122
30
34
51
70
11
4
22

184
27
41
69
80
16
3
21

216
17
40
95
87
4
7
24

192
22
52
64
123
1
1
23

418
29
43
85
no

2
1

10
8

14
10

26
9

21
2

25
1

23
1

44
1

100.0 100.0
30.6 29.0
12.4 11.9
14.8 14.5
6.0 5.2
5. 5 5.5
5.2 5.3

100.0
25.7
11.9
16.8
5.2
5.6
6.3

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
30.4 46.2 35.1 35.1 31.9
9.9 10.5 10.8 11.6
11.8
14.5 15.7 15.8 15.2 14.0
7.7 7.7 7.1 6.4
5.8
3.6 3.9 4.8 4.9
5.0
5.2
4.7 7.2 5.1 4.1
10.2
1.7
2.2
4.0
4.9
.7
.2
1.5

1.1
2.2
1.8
2.3
2.6
.9
.1
.9

1.6
.3

.2!
.1.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




D o l.

10
19
16
20
23
8
1
8

2Less than 0.05 percent.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-------14

D o l.

D o l.

873 1,032 1, 214 1, 371 1,442 1. 633 1,797 1,842 2,021 2,182 2,736
499
403 363 427 438 442 474 460 511
490
540
261
86 108 132 159 179 195 214 240
206
404
295
205
137 164 185 192 214 237 302 267
281
86
86
85
93
95
80
88
91
63
67
88
79
31
58
89 100 113
99
40
90
67
105
62
74
75
86 114 100
80
159
94
41
57

3.1
2.1
2.0
3.8
4.2
1.6
.3
.9'

5.4 8.7
2.1 1.8
2.0 2.0I
4.0 4. 4:
4.0i 4.7’
.6.
.9i
.3i
.3i
1.5i 1.7’

8.4
2.1
2.4
3.5
4.9'
.8;
.3
1.5i

11.2
1.7
2.5
4.2
4.9
i.oi
.2:
1.3;

l.C1 1.2! 1.91 1.5i
.81 .81 .7r .1

1.5i
.1

2
35

471
26
44
64
156
1
7
58

707
28
54
102
178
17
4
66

37
0

38
8

92
1

i

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
27.7 24.3 22.9 19.8
13.0 10.2 12.0 14.8
14.5 14.6
9.4 10.3
4.4
2.3
4.8
4.5
4.1
4.9
3.8
6.1
3.4
5.4
7.3
4.0

12.0 10.4 20.7
1.4
.9 1.2
2.2 2.8
2.1
4.2
5.3 3.5
5.4
4.8. 6.7
.1
.2!
.1
.4
.1
.1
1.3; 1.2l
1.7
1.3i
.1

2.4
.1

1.81
0

21.6
1.2
2.0
2.9
7.1
(2
)
.3
2.7

25.9
1.0
2.0
3.7
6.5
.6
.1
2.4

1.7
.4

3.4
(2
)

198

TWELVE CITIES 0'F THE SOUTH

T able 3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued

HOUSTON, T E X .—W H IT E FAMILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure
unit per year
Item

All
fam­
ilies

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$200 $300 $400 $500 $600 $700 $800 $900 $1,000 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey................................. .
Average family size:
Persons-------------------------- ---------- ..........
Expenditure units...... .......... .................
Food expenditure units...... ...................
Clothing expenditure units--.............

258

6

18

44

49

47

36

25

11

12

10

3.40
3.15
2.88
2.81

6.16
5.41
4.92
4.50

4.53
4.03
3. 73
3.32

4.23
3.84
3.50
3.18

3.62
3.24
3.05
2.88

3.14
2.95
2.68
2.72

2.97
2.81
2.56
2.72

2.60
2.53
2.39
2. 47

2.36
2.26
2.07
2.26

2.36
2.24
2.03
2.09

2.11
2.06
1.99
2.04

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

D o t.

Average annual current expenditure
D o t.
for—
All items.......... ............................ - .......... 1, 572
443
Food ............................. .....................
167
Clothing------------------------- --------------227
Housing-------------- --------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration----------78
80
Other household operation_________
Furnishings and equipment-----------95
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and maintenance174
28
other transportation----------------------38
Personal care---------------- --------------79
Medical care.................. - .....................
90
Recreation.............................................
7
Education-------- ------- - ------- ------6
Vocation__________________________
19
Community welfare-----------------------Gifts and contributions to persons
30
outside the economic family--------11
Other items--------- ---------------------------




D o t.

58
36
19
25
20
6
0
12

47
27
29
28
53
7
3
13

101
32
33
64
58
8
6
18

158
24
35
84
80
6
6
18

166
25
40
77
97
10
5
20

225
24
42
78
127
7
3
24

205
34
52
91
104
4
11
24

246
41
37
90
111
15
9
14

313
33
46
160
147
2
6
15

411
16
50
117
97
7
29
15

2
5

10
14

17
20

19
5

33
11

33
4

49
5

26
11

63
14

81
31

100.0
27.5
11.2
15.7
5.1
5.5
4.4

100.0
26.6
11.7
13.6
4.8
5.6
6.2

100.0
25.9
12.0
14.9
4.1
5.5
6.5

Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All item s--............................. ............. . 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Food ..................................................... 28.2 40.5 39.5 32.6 30.4
10.6
6.2 11.1 9.8 9.6
Clothing.................................................
14.5 19.9 12.5 14.0 15.1
Housing................. ................................
5.0
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.............
5.4 6.9 6.2 5.0
Other household operation-------------5.1
2.9 4.2 4.7 3.9
Furnishings and equipment________
6.0
3.3 3.2 5.8 5.7
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and maintenance- 11.1
6.9 4.6 7.6 11.0
1.8
Other transportation_______________
4.3 2.6 2.4 1.7
2.4
Personal care ......................................
2.3 2.8 2.5 2.4
5.0
Medical care_............................... ........
3.0 2.7 4.8 5.9
Recreation----------------- ----------------5.7
2.4 5.2 4.4 5.6
.4
.4
Education_______ _________________
.7
.7
.6
.4
0
Vocation.............. ..................................
.4
.3
.5
1.2
Community welfare. ............. ...........
1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family--------1.9
.2 1.0 1.3 1.3
.7
.3
Other items................ ................... ... .6 1.4 1.5
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.

D o t.

839 1,023 1,327 1,434 1, 578 1,795 1,856 1,895 2,071 2,301
340 404 433 435 433 477 479 456
471
453
52 113 130 138 176 209 222 218
174
238
167 128 186 216 248 244 276 316
247
273
72
82
81
45
71
86
75
77
82
84
24
56 . 87 101 103 113
43
62
117
145
82
69 111 120 117
28
77
33
181
254

100.0 100.0 100.0
24.0 22.8 19.7
11.5
8.4 10.3
16.6 11.9 11.9
4.0
4.0
3.7
6.0
5.6
6.3
6.2
8.7 11.0

10.5 12.6 11.0 12.9
1.6 1.3 1.8 2.2
2.5 2.3 2.8 2.0
4.9 4.3 4.9 4.7
6.1 7.1 5.6 5.9
.6
.4
.2
.8
.3
.2
.6
.5
1.3 1.3 1.3
.7
2.1
.7

1.8
.2

2.6
.3

1.4
.6

15.2
1.6
2.2
7.7
7.1
.1
.3
.7

17.8
.7
-2.2
5.1
4.2
.3
1.3
.7

3.0
.7

3.5
1.3

199

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 3. —

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item sy by econom ic level— Continued
HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
families
$100 to $200 to $300 to $400 to $500 and
$200
$300
$400
$500
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey..............................................................
Average family size:
Persons............... ...........................................................
Expenditure units........ .................................................
Food expenditure units....................... ........... ......... .
Clothing expenditure units...... ................... .................
Average annual current expenditure for—
All item s.................................. ........ ....................... .
F ood.............................„................................... ..........
Clothing........... ............................................. ..............
Housing_________________ ________ _____________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration............ ........................
Other household operation........................ ................
Furnishings and equipment____ ________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance___ ____________ _____________
Other transportation________ _________ _________
Personal care....................................... ........................
Medical care........................... .................. ...............
Recreation.............................................. ........ ............
Education. ............. ........ ...........................................
Vocation_______________ ______ ______ _____ ____
Community welfare_______ ____ _________ ____ __
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family______________________________
Other items.____ ______________ ______ _________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items.......................................................................
Food...............................................................................
Clothing........................................................................
Housing................................... .....................................
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.......................... ..........
Other household operation.......................................
Furnishings and equipment........... ..........................
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance...................... .................... .........
Other transportation..................................................
Personal care................ ...............................................
Medical care...... .........................................................
Recreation...................................... ...........................
Education. ................................................................
Vocation............................... ........................................
Community welfare________ ____ _____ _________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family............................................. ..........
Other items................................................................. .
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




8

100

30

34

22

4.91
4. 34
4. 04
3.71

7.06
6.14
5. 74
5.18

4.99
4.38
4. 07
3.63

3. 21
3.94
2. 74
2. 61

2.83
2.65
2.40
2.48

2. 66
2. 53
2. 37
2.45

$954
361
127
123
46
29
54

$833
346
115
115
42
26
44

$943
378
123
114
49
24
53

$928
334

$1,161
381
150
187
41
44
95

$1,374
398
186
144
64
41
73

76
13
24
24
46

39

65
10
23
25
45
7

81
13
25
30
51

2

2

7

1
6

8

1
5

63
36
21
7
59
25
0

21

258
15
33
26
88
1
6
7

13
3

5

13
4

16
2

28
3

27
7

100.0

37.9
13.3
12.9
4.8
3.0
5.7

100.0
41.6
13.8
13.8
5.1
3.1
5.3

100.0

100.0
36.0
13.2
13.1
4.6
3.4
5.4

100.0
32.8
12.9
16.1
3.5
3.8
8.2

100.0
28.9
13.5
10.5
4.7
3.0
5.3

8.0
1.4
2.5
2.5
4.8
.6
.2
.7

4.7
1.4
2.9
. 2.4
3.6
.7
.1
.7

6.9
1.1
2.4
2.7
4.8
.7
.2
.8

8.8
1.4
2. 7
3.2
5. 5
.2
. 1
.5

1.4

1.7
.2

6

1.4
.3

12

24
20

30

6

2

.6

.2

40.1
13.1
12.1
5.2
2.5
5.6

.4

122
121

43
32
50

2

5.4
3.1
1.8
.6
5.1
2.2
1.8

18.8
1.1
2.4
1.9
6.4
.1
.4
.5

2. 4
.3

2.0
.5

0

200

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

O'F

TH E

SO U TH

T able 3.— Expenditures for groups of items , by economic level— C on tinu ed
JACKSON, MISS.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under $300 to $400 to $500 to $600 to $700 to $800 to $900
and
$300
$400
$500
$900
$600
$700
$800
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey__________________
Average family size:
Persons........................... ........ ............
Expenditure units------------------------Food expenditure units___________
Clothing expenditure units_______

150

14

25

44

32

16

8

5

6

3.55
3.37
3.25
3.04

5.31
4.85
4.48
4. 21

4.44
4.13
3.98
3. 64

3.28
3. 09
2.96
2. 74

3.41
3. 29
3.20
3.00

2.98
2.95
2.98
2. 81

2.40
2.30
2.20
2.15

2.82
2. 81
2.86
2.77

2.09
2.11
2.14
2.31

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items.................. ................. .......... $1, 537
424
Food____________________________
Clothing____ _____________ _____
210
Housing________________________
227
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.........
71
106
Other household operation______
60
Furnishings and equipment_____
Automobile and motorcycle—
purchase, operation, and main­
145
tenance_______ _______________
Other transportation_____ ____
21
37
Personal care...................................
Medical care_________ ________
77
Recreation__________ ____ ______
87
Education. ...................... ................
8
Vocation..________ ____ _______ _
4
Community welfare_____________
19
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
28
ily........ ..........................................
13
Other items............... ........... .........
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items___________________ ______
Food—.......................................... .
Clothing____ ____ _____ ________
Housing------------------------------ ------Fuel, light, and refrigeration_____
Other household operation______
Furnishings and equipment __ _.
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance___________ ____________
Other transportation____________
Personal care—______ _________ _
Medical care__________ ____ _
Recreation_______________ ____
Education. ............................... .......
Vocation________________________
Community welfare_____ _______
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily................. ............................ .
Other items.................... .................

73
16
29
64
55
11
0
11

77
27
36
61
74
6
1
13

97
19
32
55
73
8
4
16

149
28
42
99
98
12
5
28

153
25
41
103
98
6
4
26

5
35

13
15

26
9

25
11

47
9

100.0
27.6
13.7
14.8
4.6
6.9
3.9

100.0
31.3
12.2
13.7
5.6
4.6
3.4

100.0
33.0
14.7
14.0
4.9
6.6
3.1

100.0
28.9
13.5
16.3
5.2
6.3
3.5

100.0
27.7
13.8
13.5
4.8
8.1
3.7

100.0
25.1
13.3
15.9
3.9
8.3
5.7

100.0
24.9
14.2
15.5
3.6
5.0
3.3

9.4
1.4
2.4
5.0
5.7
.5
.3
1.2

7.1
1.6
2.8
6.2
5.4
1.1
0
1.1

5.6
2.0
2.6
4.5
5.4
.4
.1
1.0

7.5
1.5
2.5
4.3
5.7
.6
.3
1.2

8.5
1.6
2.4
5.7
5.6
.7
.3
1.6

8.3
1.4
2.2
5.6
5.3
.3
.2
1.4

17.7
.5
2.1
3.5
8.0
.1
.5
.5

19.4
.5
1.8
3.9
4.6
.1
.2
1.6

17.4
.3
1.9
6.8
6.8
0
.2
1.0

1.8
.8

.5
3.4

1.0
1.1

2.0
.7

1.4
.6

2.6
.5

.6

6.2
1.2

2.4
.1

1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




$1,027 $1,366 $1,290 $1, 750 $1,835 $1, 722 $2,328 $2, 370
322
374
451
453
460
486
465
430
202
126
242
174
262
243
246
347
141
210
236
292
345
191
267
319
57
67
67
84
62
81
72
75
47
90
81
141
152
87
157
164
42
45
35
106
64
104
56
130
305
8
36
60
138
1
8
8

450
11
43
91
107
3
5
38

414
8
44
161
161
0
4
24

10

145
27

56
2

(0

(?)

100.0 100.0
20.0 19.1
11.3 14.6
13.7 14.6
3.4
3.2
6.9
6.7
5.6
4.5

TABULAR
T

able

201

SUM M ARY

3 . — E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s, b y econom ic level—

Continued

JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
families
$200
to $300

Under
$200

$300
to $400

$400
and over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey...................................... ... ............ .
Average family size:
Persons________ ____________ ______ _____________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Food expenditure units ______ _______ ____ ____
Clothing expenditure units______________________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items............ ....................................... .....................
Food_______ _____________ _______ ____________
Clothing_____ _____ ________ ____ ______ ______
Housing.----------------------------------- ---------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration______ ______ _____
Other household operation.............................. .......
Furnishings and equipment___________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance.-----------------------------------------Other transportation_______________ __________
Personal care................................................... ..........
Medical care....................... ................... ...............
Recreation............................................. .....................
Education...................................................................
Vocation.............. .................... ............. .................
Community welfare___________________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family................. ...................................
Other items........................................ .......................
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items____ ______________ ____________________
Food_____ ________ _____ _____________________
Clothing----------- -----------------------------------------------Housing_______________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration..................................
Other household operation.----------- ------------------Furnishings and equipment____________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance.______ _______________
Other transportation----------------------------------------Personal care---------------------- -----------------------------Medical care----------------- -----------------------------------Recreation_________ ___________ . . ----------------Education.__________________ ________________
Vocation_________________________________ ____
Community welfare__________________
______
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family--------------------------------------------Other items.................. .................................. ..........
i Less than $0.60.
8 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




100

28

39

22

11

3.63
3.3
3.08
2.98

5.51
4.91
4. 55
4.18

3. 35
3.12
2.87
2.88

2. 36
2.21
2.06
2.10

2.40
2.26
2.09
2.00

$761
244
94
111
63
24
32

$678
255
87
98
56
23
24

$748
238
92
112
63
22
38

$737
229
96
117
67
23
25

$1,076
270
.120
132
72
36
47

47
7
20

20
6
20
28
37
8

42
6
19

52
7
21
30
34
1
1
15

124
17
23
110
55
8
5
22

44
41
5
1
13

0)

9

44
43
3
1
12

9
6

1
6

4
9

17
2

34
1

100.0
32.0
12.3
14.6
8.3
3.2
4.2

100.0
37.7
12.8
14.5
8.3
3.4
3.5

100.0
31.9
12.4
15.0
8.4
2.9
5.1

100.0
31.1
13.1
15.9
9.1
3.1
3.4

100.0
25.1
11.2
12.3
6.7
3.3
4.4

6.2
.9
2.6
5.8
5.4
.7
.1
1.7

2.9
.9
2.9
4.1
5.5
1.2
1.3

5.6
.8
2.5
5.9
5.7
.4
.1
1.6

7.1
.9
2.8
4.1
4.6
.1
.1
2.0

11.5
1.6
2.1
10.2
5.1
.7
.5
2.0

.1
.9

.5
1.2

2.3
.3

3.2
.1

1.2
.8

(2
)

202

TWELVE OIEBS OF THE SOUTH
T

able

3 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, by econ om ic level— Continued
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,200
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey..................... .............
Average family size:
Persons.................. ........ ........................
Expenditure units. ........... ..................
Food expenditure units..----------------Clothing expenditure units...... ..........

178

22

37

39

30

17

13

9

6

5

3.54
3.29
3.08
2.89

4. 76
4.34
4.06
3.70

4.47
4.06
3. 74
3.34

3. 41
3.14
2.90
2.77

3.14
2.96
2.84
2.59

3.02
2.81
2.59
2.60

2.86
2.79
2.67
2.62

2.29
2.26
2.21
2.20

2.17
2.17
2.19
2.18

2.03
2.07
2.17
2.38

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items................................... .............. $1, 554
469
Food................. ..................................
Clothing..............................................
166
202
Housing..----------------------------- ------Fuel, light, and refrigeration--------92
Otheir household operation— ----107
Furnishings and equipment---------68
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
147
nance--------------------------- ------------Other transportation............ ............
30
Personal care......... ...........................
36
64
Medical care.......................................
Recreation____________ ____ _____
100
Education...........................................
8
Vocation--------------------------------------3
Community welfare---------------------20
Gifts and contributions to persons
30
outside the economic family____
12
Other items---------------------------------Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items______________________ ____ 100.0
30.2
F ood............... ...................... ............
10.7
Clothing_________________________
13.0
Housing------------ ------------ ------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration______
5.9
Other household operation .............
6.9
Furnishings and equipment______
4.4
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
9.5
nance__________________________
Other transportation.........................
1.9
2.3
Personal care_____________________
4.1
Medical care_____________________
Recreation...........................................
6.4
.5
Education________ _______________
.2
Vocation.......... ...................................
Community welfare---------------------1.3
Gifts and contributions to persons
1.9
outside the economic family........
.8
Other items........................................
1 Less than $0.50.
8 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




$977 $1,365 $1, 378 $1, 590 $1,802 $2,060 $1,915 $2,309 $3,006
487
454
474
381
491
533
471
530
571
171
91
133
243
136
237
219
220
358
238
169
169
245
236
227
176
236
250
82
99
110
60
119
114
85
115
132
82
135
118
59
144
83
123
176
298
56
60
54
29
57
105
85
175
243
33
17
23
36
52
11
2
7

101
34
36
47
85
7
4
16

115
24
33
67
97
3
4
20

118
26
38
71
87
10
2
18

162
38
40
108
121
10
6
29

205
61
45
77
151
18
2
29

196
41
44
77
171
6
3
20

554
27
39
37
57
0
14
65

618
16
72
57
250
12
0)
13

3
4

11
16

29
6

24
10

31
13

85
34

49
28

59
5

111
5

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
39.1 34.5 32.9 30.7 26.4 25.8 25.7 22.9 19.0
9.3 10 0
9.7 10.8 13.5 11.5 11.4
9.5 11.9
17.3 12.9 12.2 15.0 13.6 11.4 11.9 10.2
8.3
6.2
6.1
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.0
5.8
5.0
4.4
6.0
6.0
8.5
6.5
6.0
6.1
7.5
7.6
9.9
4.4
3.0
3.5
3.0
5.1
4.2
4.4
7.6
8.1
3.4
1.7
2.4
3.7
5.3
1.1
.2
.7

7.4
2.5
2.6
3.4
6.2
.5
.3
1.2

8.3
1.7
2.4
4.9
7.0
.2
.3
1.5

7.4
1.6
2.4
4.5
5.5
.6
.1
1.1

9.0
2.1
2.2
6.0
6.7
.6
.3
1.6

10.0
3.0
2.2
3.7
7.3
.9
.1
1.4

10.2
2.1
2.3
4.0
8.9
.3
.2
1.0

24.0
1.2
1.7
1.6
2.5
0
.6
2.8

20.6
.5
2.4
1.9
8.3
.4
(’)
.4

.3
.4

.8
1.2

2.1
.4

1.5
.6

1.7
.7

4.1
1.7

2.6
1.5

2.6
.2

3.7
.2

203

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

3 . — Expenditures for groups of items, by economic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey..............................
Average family size:
Persons______________ ___________ _
Expenditure units_______________ _
Food expenditure units....................
Clothing expenditure units________

197

8

40

44

42

27

17

7

12

3. 57
3.24
3.02
2.79

5.68
5.01
4.66
4.18

5.05
4.54
4.26
3.82

3. 84
3. 45
3.20
2.92

2.93
2. 66
2.42
2.39

2. 64
2. 47
2.34
2.08

2.82
2.67
2.48
2.41

2. 71
2.49
2.30
2.08

2.09
2.02
1.93
1.84

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items.................................... .......... $1, 289
465
Food................................... ......... .
129
Clothing........... ...............................
181
Housing________________________
94
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
Other household operation______
50
Furnishings and equipment_____
66
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and main­
tenance____________ _____ ____
65
Other transportation............... .......
35
Personal care....... ............................
26
Medical care............................... .
56
62
Recreation...................................... .
Education.........................................
5
4
Vocation_______________ _______ _
Community welfare.....................
18
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family___
28
5
Other items........................ ...........
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items...............................................
Food............................................ .
Clothing..____ ________ ________
Housing________________ _______
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
Other household operation..___
Furnishings and equipment_____
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance_________________________
Other transportation____________
Personal care_________ _________
Medical care_________ ____ _____
Recreation______________________
Education__________ ___________
Vocation________________________
Community welfare______ ______
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily-------- ---------------------------------Other items...................................

22
36
22
40
51
7
2
15

43
35
27
47
53
6
3
21

3
11
0 0)

14
7

30
24
21
26
31
3
2
7

47
36
28
44
57
5
4
14

56
34
24
84
59
5
4
28

116
44
30
94
98
1
4
22

240
30
34
68
120
6
6
17

224
31
30
76
85
0
9
18

17

20
1

100
32

37
0

99
0

0)

100.0
36.1
10.0
14.1
7.3
3.9
5.1

100.0
47.8
9.1
11.1
9.2
3.4
3.3

100.0
43.1
9.8
12.3
8.4
2.9
5.4

100.0
39.4
10.3
13.1
7.8
3.9
4.3

100.0
35.4
10.4
16.0
7.0
3.8
5.8

100.0
33.4
10.2
15.3
7.4
3.7
6.0

100.0
27.9
10.0
12.9
6.3
4.5
6.5

5.0
2.7
2.0
4.3
4.8
.4
.3
1.4

3.3
2.6
2.3
2.9
3.4
.3
.2
.8

1.9
3.2
1.9
3.5
4.5
.6
.2
1.3

3.6
2.9
2.2
3.9
4.4
.5
.2
1.7

4.0
3.1
2.4
3.8
4.9
.4
.3
1.2

4.3
2.6
1.8
6.4
4.5
.4
.3
2.1

6.8
2.6
1.8
5.5
5.8
.1
.2
1.3

13.3
1.7
1.9
3.8
6.7
.3
.3
•9

12.5
1.7
1.7
4.2
4.7
0
.5
1.0

2.2
.4

.3
0

1.0
(2
)

1.2
.6

1.5
(2
)

1.5
.1

5.9
1.9

2.1
0

5.5
0

1 Less than $0.50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




$906 $1,135 $1, 211 $1,172 $1,317 $1, 701 $1,802 $1,799
433
489
477
441
416
476
559
517
82
125
122
134
111
170
183
155
100
140
159
188
220
201
243
296
83
95
95
82
98
107
105
102
31
33
44
47
49
77
85
92
52
30
110
61
68
79
69
65

100.0 100.0
31.0 28.7
10.2
8.6
13.5 16.5
5.8
5.7
5.1
4.7
3.6
3.8

204
T

TWELVE CITIES OP THE SOUTH
able

3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econ om ic level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200 to $300 to $400 to
$300
$400
$500

$500
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey.............................................................
Average family size:
Persons................... ........................ .................................
Expenditure units______________________ ___ _____
Food expenditure units_______________ __________ _
Clothing expenditure units________ ________ ______
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items....... ....................... ............................................
Food............. .......................................................... .......
Clothing-------------- ---------------------- ------------- ---------Housing......... ....................................... .................. .
Fuel, light, and refrigeration....... ........................ .
Other household operation________________ _____
Furnishings and equipment—
____ __________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance______________________________
Other transportation____________________________
Personal care___________________________________
Medical care___ ____ ___________________________
Recreation______ _____ _________________________
Education________________________________ ____ _
Vocation___________ ______ _________ ___________
Community welfare___ _____ _________ _______
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family____________________ _________
Other items ______ _______ ______ ____ _________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items____ ____ ________________________ _______
Food....................... .................. ................ .................
Clothing________________________ _ ____________
_________
Housing..____ ___ ____________ _____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration________ __________
Other household operation_______ ____ _________
Furnishings and equipment— ________________ _
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance______________________________
Other transportation__________________ ________
. Personal care______ ____ __________ ____ ______ _
Medical care______________________ ________ ___
Recreation________ ____ ____________ ___________
Education...................................... ........... .................
Vocation_______________ ______ _________________
Community welfare___________________ _________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the eco­
nomic family___ ______ _______________________
Other items.________ _____ _____________________
1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




74

14

22

18

15

5

3.83
3.42
3.19
2.86

6.68
5.78
5.41
4.50

4.27
3.77
3. 52
3.20

2.78
2.57
2.40
2.20

2. 27
2.12
1.98
1.92

2.37
2.20
1.98
2.03

$920
347
86
135
92
33
33

$872
366
73
120
88
32
22

$903
367
107
123
87
31
37

$895
331
74
146
96
32
33

$923
316
76
127
95
37
39

$1,197
352
93
207
89
60
28

34
29
19
36
39
2
1
16

8
33
16
36
32
6
0
15

8
27
22
21
36
2
0
19

61
29
18
21
32
2
13

38
31
22
56
56
0
2
13

104
15
17
100
55
0
0
21

18

25
0

16

6
1

15
0'

56
0
100.0
29.4
7.8
17.2
7.4
5.0
2.3

0)

0)

0)

100.0
37.7
9.3
14.7
10.0
3.6
3.6

100.0
41.9
8.4
13.8
10.1
3.7
2.5

100.0
40.7
11.9
13.6
9.6
3.4
4.1

100.0
37.0
8.3
16.3
10.7
3.6
3.7

100.0
34.2
8.2!
13.8
10.3
4.0»
4.2i

3.7
3.2
2.1
3.9
4.2
.2
.1
1.7

.9
3.8
1.8
4.1
3.7
.7
0
1.7

.9
3.0
2.4
2.3
4.0
.2
0
2.1

6.8
3.2
2.0
2.3
3.6
(2
)
.2
1.5

4.1
3.4
2.4
6.1
6.1
0
.2
1.4

8.7
1.3
1.4
8.4
4.6
0
0
1.8

2.9
1.8
0
. (2
)

.7
.1

1.6
0

4.7
0

2.0
(2
)

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

205

3 . — Expenditures for groups of item s , by economic level— Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—W H IT E FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expendi­
ture unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey—............................. .
Average family size:
Persons..................................... .............
Expenditure units__________________
Food expenditure units.—........... .......
Clothing expenditure units................

194

8

25

40

34

29

25

15

8

10

3.63
3.25
3.07
2.74

6.46
5. 65
5.30
4. 30

4.58
4.14
3. 88
3.42

4.16
3.75
3. 51
3.03

3. 50
3.25
3.10
2.77

3.04
2.86
2. 66
2.45

2. 86
2.72
2. 62
2.48

2.24
2.15
1.99
2.03

2.31
2.22
2.15
1.81

2.09
2.08
2.11
1.85

$915
378
92
128
89
32
23

$974 $1,267 $1,391 $1,528 $1,710 $1,601 $1,844 $2, 242
346
430
416
416
416
410
468
401
134
163
157
119
177
154
190
196
140
176
206
246
294
220
229
298
114
114
93
111
120
140
76
115
40
85
71
106
96
109
147
109
64
110
35
59
146
89
168
115

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items_______ ___________________ $1, 434
F o o d ...-------- ---------------------- -------409
Clothing_________________________
153
Housing----------- ---------------------------205
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______
111
Other household operation_______
85
Furnishings and equipment.. . . .
85
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance. _ ______ ______________
119
Other transportation_____________
22
Personal care__________________
32
Medical care_____________________
83
Recreation_______________ _______
68
Education____ ___ _____ _________
6
Vocation. ________ ________ _____
8
22
Community welfare.______ . . .
Gifts and contributions to persons
22
outside the economic family____
Other items______________________
4
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items-----------------------------------------Food----------------------- --------------------Clothing. _______________________
Housing_____________ __________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration--------Other household operation_______
Furnishings and equipment______
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
________ . . .
nance_______ _
Other transportation_____________
Personal care____ ______________
Medical care_________________ . . .
Recreation_______________________
Education_______ _____ __________
Vocation------------- ---------- --------------Community welfare______________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family------Other items_____________________

100.0
28.6
10.7
14.3
7.8
5.9
5.9

34
23
24
37
42
4
3
16

67
23
30
63
59
10
9
13

106
28
32
58
61
5
6
19

140
21
28
94
66
8
10
21

130
29
46
108
102
6
7
35

157
14
34
75
81
0
7
44

219
17
38
145
97
0
18
21

415
19
41
251
104
0
13
24

5
14

9
9

18
3

21
4

19
2

20
0

38
0

73
0

44
6

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
41.4 35.6 32.8 30.9 27.2 24.3 25.6 25.3 17.9
10.1 12.2 10.6 11.3 10.7 11.1 11.1
8.4
8.7
14.0 14.4 13.8 14.8 14.4 14.4 14.3 15.9 13.3
7.5
9.5
8.8
8.2
4.1
9.7
8.7
5.1
7.0
6.4
3.5
4.1
5.6
6.1
6.3
6.6
6.6
5.9
4.2
7.2
7.5
5.6
6.2
2.5
3.6
5.1
8.5

8.3
1.5
2.2
5.8
4.7
.4
.6
1.5

3.8
.7
2.2
5.9
3.2
.5
0
.5

3.5
2.4
2.5
3.8
4.3
.4
.3
1.6

5.3
1.8
2.4
5.0
4.7
.8
.7
1.0

7.6
2.0
2.3
4.2
4.4
.4
.4
1.4

9.1
1.4
1.8
6.2
4.3
.5
.7
1.4

7.6
1.7
2.7
6.3
6.0
.4
.4
2.0

9.8
.9
2.1
4.7
5.1
0
.4
2.7

11.9
.9
2.1
7.9
5.3
0
1.0
1.1

18.5
.8
1.8
11.2
4.6
0
.6
1.1

1.5
.3

.5
1.5

.9
.9

1.4
.2

1.5
.3

1.2
.1

1.2
0

2.4
0

4.0
0

2.0
.3

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




35
6
20
54
29
5
0
5

206
T

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH
able

3 .— E x p en d itu res f o r gro u p s o f item s , by econ om ic level—Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All fam­
ilies
$100 to
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey............................................................
Average family size:
Persons_______________________ _______ —..............Expenditure units.......................................................
Food expenditure units................. .......... .............. .
Clothing expenditure units---------------- ---------------- Average annual current expenditure for—
All items ........................................ ............ .................
Food.......... .................................................................
Clothing......... .......................................................... .
Housing_________________ _________ __________ _
Fuel, light, and refrigeration. .................................
Other household operation-------------------------------Furnishings and equipment-----------------------------Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion. and maintenance........... ..............................
Other transportation_________ ______ _____ ___
Personal care__________________________________
Medical care_____________________ _______ _____
Recreation------------ ------- ---------------------- ---------Education.................................... ............. .............
Vocation--------- ---------------- ----------------- --------------Community welfare---------- ------------------------ ------Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family__________ _______ __________
Other items_______________________ ___________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
Ail items------- ---------- ------- -----------------------------------F o o d .......................... ...............................................
Clothing...----------------------------------------- ------------Housing____________________ ________ _________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration. ........... ...................
Other household operation....................... .............
Furnishings and equipment___________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance_______________________
Other transportation________ _______ __________
Personal care___________ _______ _______ _______
Medical care------ ---------- --------------------------- --------Recreation.................. ............. ............. ...................
Education................................................... .............
Vocation_______________________ _________ ____
Community welfare___________________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family____ ___________ ____________
Other iems................... ................................ ............
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




94

24

30

22

18

3.51
3.25
ao6
2.76

5.42
4.83
4. 55
3.88

3.42
3.29
3.09
2.85

2.54
2. 36
2.23
2.03

2.26
2.16
2.04
2.02

$807
289
88
122
78
26
34

$730
291
75
119
70
24
26

$778
293
93
115
76
23
25

$797
295
72
128
80
24
33

$977
273
117
129
87
38
62

13
30
20
35
37
3
1
12

2
28
20
26
33
4
1
10

15
25
17
32
36
5
1
12

6
35
19
38
34
2
1
13

34
34
26
50
50
2
1
16

13
6

1
0

9
1

8
9

40
18

100.0
35.9
10.9
15.1
9.7
3.2
4.2

100.0
39.9
10.3
16.3
9.6
3.3
3.6

100.0
37.7
12.0
14.8
9.8
3.0
3.2

100.0
37.0
9.0
16.1
10.0
3.0
4.1

100.0
28.0
12.0
13.2
8.9
3.9
6.3

1.6
3.7
2.5
4.3
4.6
.4
.1
1.5

.3
3.8
2.7
3.6
4.5
.5
.1
1.4

1.9
3.2
2.2
4.1
4.6
.6
.1
1.5

.8
4.4
2.4
4.8
4.3
.3
.1
1.6

3.5
3.5
2.7
5.1
5.1
.2
.1
1.6

1.6
.7

.1
0

1.2
.1

1.0
1.1

4.1
1.8

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

207

3 . — Expenditures for groups of items , by economic level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—W H IT E FAMILIES

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year
$100
to
$200

$300
to
$400

$200
to
$300

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey__________________
Average family size:
Persons............. ...................................
Expenditure units..............................
Food expenditure units.................
Clothing expenditure units...............

146

14

30

30

20

21

12

8

11

4.03
3.72
3.51
3.19

6.14
5.48
5.14
4.44

4.95
4.51
4.30
3.82

4.67
4.31
4.06
3.65

3.40
3.16
2.97
2.71

3.13
2.92
2.70
2. 53

2.88
2.79
2.66
2.48

2.94
2.84
2.72
2.62

2.02
1.96
1.82
1.92

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items..-.......................................... $1, 403
Food.................................................
430
Clothing...................... ....................
16S
Housing-..........................................
183
Fuel, light, and refrigeration........
101
Other household operation______
86
Furnishings and equipment_____
66
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance___ _____________________
108
Other transportation____________
26
Personal care___.................... ..........
32
Medical care___.............................
62
Recreation. ......................................
80
Education.........................................
9
Vocation.. ............. ........................
4
Community welfare_____________
21
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily...................................................
18
9
Other items.....................................
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items..............................................
F o o d -................................ .............
Clothing........................ .................
Housing____________ ___________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
Other household operation______
Furnishings and equipment..
Automobile and motorcycle—
purchase, operation, and main­
tenance____ __________________
Other transportation-....................
Personal care.............. .....................
Medical care............... .....................
Recreation. _____________________
Education............ ............................
Vocation.................... .......................
Community welfare________ ____
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily............... ..................... ..............
Other items ....................................

$831 $1, 076 $1,455 $1,361 $1, 575 $1, 755 $2,072 $1, 749
342
454
425
450
431
417
528
407
124
167
184
212
93
191
274
165
184
99
131
163
206
275
261
286
63
97
102
103
108
119
122
104
81
31
55
76
107
169
150
104
28
81
68
20
48
106
133
137
35
23
20
24
40
10
3
9

56
19
22
46
55
10
2
16

112
37
33
64
85
14
4
21

95
22
31
61
73
7
3
20

148
18
43
80
84
6
8
27

98
44
43
80
99
11
11
29

194
23
48
134
122
0
6
51

231
19
32
41
134
0
1
14

11

3
3

7
11

15
6

34
24

23
5

21
5

72
2

100.0
30.7
12.0
13.0
7.2
6.1
4.7

100.0
41.1
11.2
11.9
7.6
3.7
3.4

100.0
38.7
11.5
12.2
9.0
5.1
1.9

100.0
31.2
13.1
11.2
7.0
5.2
5.6

100.0
31.2
12.2
13.5
7.6
6.0
5.0

100.0
28.6
11.7
13.1
6.9
6.8
3.0

100.0
24.5
12.1
15.7
6.8
9.6
6.0

7.7
1.9
2.3
4.4
5.7
.6
.3
1.5

4.2
2.8
2.4
2.9
4.8
1.2
.4
1.1

5.2
1.8
2.0
4.3
5.1
.9
.2
1.5

7.7
2.5
2.3
4.4
5.8
1.0
.3
1.4

7.0
1.6
2.3
4.5
5.4
.5
.2
1.5

9.4
1.1
2.7
5.1
5.3
.4
.5
1.7

5.6
2.5
2.5
4.6
5.6
.6
.6
1.7

1.3
.6

(*)
1.3

.3
.3

.5
.8

1.1
.4

2.2
1.5

1.3
.3

0)

100.0 100.0
25.5 23.3
13.2
9.4
12.6 16.4
5.9
5.9
7.2
5.9
6.4
7.8
9.4
1.1
2.3
6.5
5.9
0
.3
2.5
1.0
.2
1

1 Less than $0.50.
*Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




13.3
1.1
1.8
2.3
7.7
0
.1
.8
4.1
.1

208
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
able

3.— Expenditures for groups of items , by economic level— Continued
M O BILE, A L A.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All fam­
ilies
Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f I tem s

Families in survey--------------------------------------------------Average family size:
Persons---------------------------------------------------------------Expenditure u n i t s -----------------------------------------Food expenditure units---------------------------------------Clothing expenditure units______________________
Average annual current expenditure for—
Allitem s------------------- ------------------------------- --------Food------------------------- ----------- --------------------------Clothing______________________________________
H ousing--------- ------- ---------------------- ---------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration___________________
Other household operation_________ __________
Furnishings and equipment_______ ______
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance_______________________
Other transportation_________
_ __________
Personal care._
--------------------------------------------Medical care________________________ __________
Recreation ______ _________________ ____ _____ _
Education____ ________________________________
Vocation.___ _ _ ___________________ ______
Community welfare............................ .....................
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family___________ _____ _______ _
Other items_______________________________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items_______________________________ ____
Food_________________ ______ ___________ _____
Clothing------ -------- ___ ----------------------------Housing... ------------------------ ---------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration___________________
Other household operation__________ ____ _
Furnishings and equipment______________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance_______ _____ ______ __
Other transportation— ____ ___________________
Personal care.. _______________________________
Medical care-----------------------------------------------------Recreation____________________________________
Education______ ___________
______ _________
Vocation __ _ _______ _______________ _______
Community welfare_____ __ ___
_ _____ _
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
__________ _
economic family____ ________
Other items.___________ _____ ____ ____________
i Less than $0.50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A , p. 636.




94

31

32

19

12

3. 70
3.38
3.16
2.97

5. 01
4.48
4. 20
3.76

3. 51
3.22
2.96
2.89

2. 50
2. 37
2.23
2.24

2.75
2.57
2.44
2.32

$772
276
86
95
57
26
29

$666
265
84
87
54
22
25

$780
283
91
94
58
27
32

$791
265
69
114
55
28
36

$982
302
105
87
64
29
19

33
16
18
43
44
4
1
13

3
13
16
28
36
6
1
10

27
21
20
40
42
3
12

24
16
19
56
59
1
0
11

135
12
17
66
47
8
2
22

18
13

6
10

27
3

30
8

10
57

100.0
35.7
11.1
12.3
7.4
3.4
3.8

100.0
39.7
12.6
13.0
8.1
3.3
3.8

100.0
36.2
11.7
12.0
7.4
3.5
4.1

100.0
33.5
8.7
14.4
7.0
3.5
4.6

100.0
30.8
10. 7
8.9
6.5
3.0
1.9

4.3
2.1
2.3
5.6
5.7
.5
.1
1.7

.5
2.0
2.4
4.2
5.4
.9
.2
1.5

3.5
2.7
2.6
5.1
5.4
.4
1.5

3.0
2.0
2.4
7.1
7.5
.1
0
1.4

13.8
1.2
1.7
6.7
4.8
.8
.2
2.2

2.3
1.7

.9
1.5

3.5
.4

3.8
1.0

1.0
5.8

0)

(2
)

209

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , by econom ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year

Item

All
fami­
lies

Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey_____________ _____
Average family size:
Persons_________ ______ ___________
Expenditure units............. .................
Food expenditure units.................. .
Clothing expenditure units_________

318

31

66

60

70

38

19

16

12

6

3.80
3. 51
3.32
3. 01

6.26
5. 58
5.36
4.34

4. 54
4.09
3.88
3. 40

3.90
3.63
3. 44
3. 22

3.35
3.10
2. 92
2.69

3. 07
2.88
2. 72
2.63

2.89
2.69
2.48
2.41

2.54
2. 42
2.31
2.20

2.23
2.16
2.02
2.12

1. 85
1.83
1.74
1.90

$861
413
72
165
57
34
8

$980 $1, 225 $1,350 $1,524 $1, 702 $1, 758 $1,801 $2,077
458
501
452
527
626
421
516
518
241
139
203
92
138
177
173
197
185
298
231
226
222
267
299
169
112
90
98
86
91
86
107
70
74
142
64
47
78
31
115
89
110
30
47
127
67
47
59
16

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items_______ ___________________ $1, 294
Food___ _______ _________________
462
Clothing_________________________
137
Housing----------------------------- ------207
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______
83
Other household operation________
58
Furnishings and equipment______
42
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance --------------------------------------60
Other transportation_____________
39
Personal care___________________
31
Medical care_____________________
55
Recreation_______ _____ _________
73
Education_________ _____________
4
Vocation. ______________________
3
Community welfare______________
15
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family. __ _
19
Other items______________________
6
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items-------------------- --------------------- 100.0
Food----- ---------- ---------------------------35.7
Clothing_________________________
10.6
Housing____________ ____ ______
16.0
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_____
6.4
Other household operation________
4.5
Furnishings and equipment______
3.2
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance______________________ . . .
4.6
Other transportation........................
3.0
Personal care______ ______ _______
2.4
Medical care.......................................
4.3
Recreation_______________________
5.6
Education........................... ............. .
.3
Vocation........................ .....................
.2
Community welfare______________
1. 2
Gifts and contributions to persons
1.5
outside the economic family____
.5
Other items-------------- ------------------1 Less than $0.50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




17
33
25
40
43
2
3
12

1
0

49
35
30
45
79
7
4
16

60
42
31
65
83
4
3
17

104
46
32
52
90
3
4
16

96
55
48
131
81
5
7
15

6

6
21
20
20
32
4
2
6

12
3

21
6

35
27

23
10

0)

142
35
42
68
110
12
2
18

126
45
42
83
125
2
7
20

189
102
54
79
117
0
0)
28

51

48
3

34
1

0)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
48.0 43.0 37.4 33.5 32.9 30.3 29.9 28.8 30.2
9.6 11.7
9.4 11.4 10.2 11.6 11.6 11.5
8.4
19.2 17.2 15.2 17.2 14.8 13.0 15.2 16.6 14.4
6.2
7.0
6.4
5.3
4.7
7.1
5.9
6.1
6.7
6.9
3.8
3.2
4.7
4.9
4.9
4.6
6. 5
3.9
3.2
6.1
2.4
3.1
3.4
3.5
7.5
1.6
.9
.7
2.4
2.3
2.3
3.7
.5
.2
.7

1.7
3.4
2.6
4.1
4.4
.2
.3
1.2

4.0
2.9
2.4
3.7
6.4
.6
.3
1.3

4.4
3.1
2.3
4.8
6.1
.3
.2
1.3

6.8
3.0
2.1
3.4
5.9
.2
.3
1.0

5.6
3.2
2.8
7.7
4.8
.3
.4
.9

8.1
2.0
2.4
3.9
6.3
.7
.1
1.0

7.0
2.5
2.3
4.6
6.9
.1
.4
1.1

9.1
4.9
2.6
3.8
5.6
0
(2
)
1.3

.1
0

.6
(2
)

1.0
.2

1.6
.4

2.3
1.8

1.4
.6

2.9
(2
)

2.7
.2

1.6
(2
)

210

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T able 3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—NEGRO FAMILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200 to $300 to $400 to
$300
$400
$500

$500
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey............................................ - ................
Average family size:
Persons................. ............................................................
Expenditure units.............................. ............ ................
Food expenditure units........ ............ .......................... Clothing expenditure units..........................................
Average annual expenditure for—
All items..................................................... - ...................
Food— ......................... .............................. - ................
Clothing....................................................................—
Housing.........................................................................
Fuel, light, and refrigeration......................................
Other household operation...... ..................................
Furnishings and equipment-------------------------------Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance................. ................. .......
Other transportation........................................... ......
Personal care......................................................... .......
Medical care................................................... - .......... .
Recreation................................................... .................
Education— ...................................................... .......
Vocation----------------- ------- ----------- -------------- --------Community welfare----------------------------------- --------Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family................ ..................... .................
Other items-------------------------------------------------------Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items................ ....................................... .................
Food................................- ..................................... .......
Clothing...................................................................... .
Housing............................. ................................ ..........
Fuel, light, and refrigeration................. ..................
Other household operation........................................
Furnishings and equipment________ ____ _____ __
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, operation,
and maintenance -------------- - -------------------------Other transportation.................. .................. ......... .
Personal care_________________________ ___ _____
Medical care_________________ ________ _________
Recreation__________________ _______ ___________
Education------------------------- ------------------- ------------Vocation............ ...................................... ........ ..........
Community welfare_______________ ____________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family..... ................. ...............................
Other items.............................. ..................................
i
Less than $0.50.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




83

27

22

18

9

7

3.84
3.50
3.31
2.93

5.81
5.17
4.89
4.23

3.56
3.23
3.01
2.72

2.76
2.65
2. 57
2.37

2.10
1.98
1.89
1.66

2.06
1.92
1.85
1.54

$815
311
80
156
62
23
26

$740
308
80
160
53
20
15

$757
278
75
135
61
23
36

$869
333
83
155
59
21
21

$898
311
66
156
72
25
52

$1,060
371
111
207
101
40
10

12
26
18
34
40
2
2
9

2
27
17
20
24
3
1
8

9
19
15
38
38
2
8

19
25
20
44
50
2
2
12

30
21
18
45
68
0
7
9

16
56
24
37
49
8
0
12

2

19
1

19
4

12
6

18
0

100.0
38.2
9.8
19.2
7.6
2.8
3.2

100.0
41.7
10.8
21.6
7.2
2.7
2.0

100.0
36.7
9.9
17.8
8.1
3.0
4.8

100.0
38.3
9.5
17.8
6.8
2.4
2.4

100.0
34.7
7.3
17.4
8.0
2.8
5.8

100.0
35.0
10.5
19.5
9.5
3.8
.9

1.5
3.2
2.2
4.2
4.9
.2
.2
1.1

.3
3.6
2.3
2.7
3.2
.4
.1
1.1

1.2
2.5
2.0
5.0
5.0
(2
)
.3
1.1

2.2
2.9
2.3
5.1
5.8
.2
.2
1.4

3.3
2.3
2.0
5.0
7.6
0
.8
1.0

1.5
5.3
2.3
3.5
4.6
.8
0
1.1

.3

2.5
.1

2.2
.5

1.3
.7

1.7
0

12
2

1.5
.2

(0

(2
)

0)

211

TABULAR SUMM ARY
T able 3*—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y econ om ic level— Continued
NOR FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , VA .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year

Item

All
fami­
lies Under $300
to
$300 $400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800 $900 $1,000
to
to
and
$900 $1,000 over

E x p e n d i t u r e s fo r G r o u p s o f I t e m s

Families in survey....................................
Average family size:
Persons....... .......... ..................................
Expenditure units__________________
Food expenditure units— ...................
Clothing expenditure units.................

162

26

22

37

26

16

8

12

5

10

3.63
3.33
3.11
2.78

5.08
4. 54
4.27
3.74

4. 66
4.24
3.97
3.47

3.83
3.49
3.18
2.92

3.43
3.18
2. 95
2.64

2.61
2.40
2.24
2.10

2.50
2.38
2.22
2.13

2.27
2.21
2.17
1.98

2.00
1.93
1. 81
1.82

2.30
2.22
2.24
1.68

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items...... .......................................... $1, 569 $1,074 $1,471 $1,509 $1, 696 $1,494 $1,728 $1,840 $1,812 $2, 537
511
436
558
516
503
495
487
543
558
Food________________________ ____
591
146
115
Clothing................................. ............
167
125
128
157
140
138
143
223
234
157
212
289
215
284
247
Housing______ ____________ ____
220
320
315
124
107
115
129
107
152
Fuel, light, and refrigeration............
137
125
72
182
81
38
142
Other household operation..... ........
58
66
90
73
114
61
207
88
29
61
51
111
205
Furnishings and equipment---------67
101
123
201
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
94
12
54
88
120
159
nance...------ -----------------------------68
130
162
295
32
25
25
23
38
47
56
19
Other transportation_____________
24
50
29
32
20
28
29
34
31
Personal care.............................. .......
25
41
26
64
30
52
64
88
61
48
70
112
Medical care................... ................
108
90
67
75
77
96
103
91
Recreation..................... ....................
80
89
200
9
5
4
11
8
20
6
13 0)
Education...........................................
4
4
2
2
Vocation_____________ _______ ___
1
1
7
7
8
5
14
30
22
24
36
29
29
40
27
Community welfare.................... .
25
44
Gifts and contributions to persons
24
32
8
19
19
7
27
40
outside the economic family........
93
61
9
2
22
1
39
3
15
0
0
Other items______________________
1
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items..........- .................................. .
F o o d ......................... ........................
Clothing.................................... ........
Housing_________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration............
Other household operation________
Furnishings and equipment______
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance__________________________
Other transportation......................
Personal care_____ ______ ________
Medical care..................... .................
Recreation________ ____ _________
Education...........................................
Vocation......... ...................................
Community welfare................ .......
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family____
Other items________ _______ _____

100.0
32.6
9.3
14.9
7.9
5.2
5.6
6.0
2.0
1.8
4.1
5-7
.6
.3
1.9

1.1
2.3
1.9
2.8
6.2
.5
.1
2.0

3.7
1.6
1.8
3.5
5.1
.7
.1
2.7

4.5
2. 5
2.1
4.2
5.1
.5
.1
1.6

7.1
1.5
1.9
5.2
5.7
1.2
.4
2.1

5.9
3.1
1.9
4.1
6.9
.3
.1
1.9

9.2
3.2
1.7
2.8
4.6
.3
.4
1.6

7.1
1.0
1.8
3.8
4.9
.7
.4
1.6

8.9
1.3
1.4
6.2
4.9
(2
)
.3
1.4

11.6
2.0
.6
4.3
7.9
.2
.6
1.7

1.5
.6

.7
.2

.5
1.5

1.3
.2

1.9
.1

1.8
2.6

2.3
.9

1.0
0

5.1
0

2.4
(2
)

1 Less than $0.60.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
40.7 37.9 34.2 29.6 33.1 28.2 29.6 30.7 23.3
8.4
10.7
8.7 10.4
9.8
8.1
7.5
7.9
8.8
14.6 14.4 14.6 17.0 14.4 16.5 13.4 17.7 12.4
7.2
10.0
9.3
7.6
7.6
7.2
8.3
4.0
7.2
3.5
3.9
4.4
5.3
4.9
3.4
6.6
7.7
8.1
3.6
3.4
6.4 11.2
2.7
4.6
6.7
6.8
7.9

212
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
able

3 . — E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
NO R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , VA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$200

$200 to
$300

$300 to
$400

$400 to
$500

$500
and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_________________ _____ __________
Average family size:
Persons-------- --------------------------------------------------------Expenditure units------- ---------- ------------------------------Food expenditure units_______ ______ ____________
Clothing expenditure units__________________ ____
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items. ____ __________________ ______________
Food..._________ _______________________________
Clothing________________________________________
Housing______________ ______ ____________ ____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____________________
Other household operation_____ __ _____________
Furnishings and equipment_________ ____ . . .
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance________ _______________
Other transportation____________________________
Personal care___________ _____________ _______
Medical care____________________________________
Recreation______________________________________
Education______________________________________
Vocation________________________________________
Community welfare.„ ______ ______________ . . .
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family_______ . . ___________________
Other items____________________ _____ __________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items_______ ______________ _____________ ____
Food____________________________ ______________
Clothing________________ ______________________
Housing________________ ._ ______________ ____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_______ ________ ___
Other household operation________ ________ ____
Furnishings and equipment_______ ________ ____
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance__________________
___
Other transportation_____ ____ _____ _____ . . . _
Personal care________________________ ______ __
Medical care____________________
_________
Recreation______________________________________
____________
Education____________ ____ _____
Vocation______________________ _______________
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family______________________________
Other items_________________ ____ ______________
i
3

Less than $0.50.
Less than 0.05 percent.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




109

29

30

22

17

11

4.05
3.64
3. 41
3.10

6.54
5. 76
5. 47
4.63

3. 77
3.39
3.12
2. 92

3. 22
2. 90
2. 66
2.63

2.53
2. 39
2.26
2.15

2.20
2.09
2.03
1.94

$918
353
94
133
88
30
49

$801
371
74
118
77
26
20

$807
323
79
125
78
24
38

$978
359
113
156
96
28
35

$1, 039
331
105
136
107
38
78

$1, 210
412
133
139
96
48
138

13
28
18
29
44
4
2
16

11
18
16
17
25
8

12
19
15
26
44
3

12
36
21
31
59
2
3
16

10
47
23
51
53
2
6
22

25
34
22
33
51
0
0
22

14
3

0)

12

0)

13
8

0)

0)

11
0

30
0

29
28

100.0
38.5
10.2
14.5
9.6
3.3
5.3

100.0
46.4
9.2
14.8
9.6
3.2
2.5

100. 0
40.0
9.8
15.4
9.6
3.0
4.7

100.0
36.7
11.6
16.0
9.8
2.9
3.6

100.0
31.8
10.1
13.1
10.3
3.7
7.5

100.0
34.1
11.0
11.5
7.9
4.0
11.4

1.4
3.1
2.0
3.2
4.8
.4
.2
1.7

1.4
2.2
2.0
2.1
3.1
1.0
1.5

1.5
2.4
1.9
3.2
5.5
.4
(2
)
1.6

1.2
3.7
2.1
3.2
6.0
.2
.3
1.6

1.0
4.5
2.2
4.9
5.1
.2
.6
2.1

2.1
2.8
1.8
2.7
4.2
0
0
1.8

1.0
(2
)

1.0
C)
2

1.1
0

2.9
0

2.4
2.3

1.5
.3

8

(?)

213

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 3. —

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , V A —W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per expenditure unit
per year

Item

All
fami­
lies

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
to
$800

$800
to
$900

$900
and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey----------------------------Average family size:
Persons____________________________
Expenditure units---------------------------Food expenditure units.......................
Clothing expenditure units_________

192

10

24

35

38

28

18

23

7

9

3.79
3. 55
3.33
3.16

6. 73
6.05
5.58
5.12

4.99
4.59
4.38
3.82

4.59
4.21
3. 97
3.55

3. 61
3.39
3.10
3.00

3.53
3.31
3.09
3.00

2.89
2.80
2.69
2.56

2.38
2.34
2. 25
2.38

2.54
2.52
2.35
2.72

2.23
2.22
2.13
2.42

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items......................................... ....... $1, 556
Food........ .................... ......................
456
Clothing___________ ______ ______
175
Housing---------------------------------------255
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_____
118
Other household operation________
79
Furnishings and equipment........ .
62
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
101
nance___________ ____ _________
Other transportation_____________
34
32
Personal care...... .......... ................
Medical care_____________________
83
Recreation________ _____ ________
78
Education________________________
10
Vocation___ _____ _______________
2
Community welfare._______ ____
27
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family........
30
14
Other items_________ ______ _____
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items....................................... ........ 100.0
Food.
_______________ ____
29.4
Clothing........ ....................................
11.2
Housing___________ ____________
16.4
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______
7.6
Other household operation________
5.1
Furnishings and e q u ip m e n t -. _
4.0
Automobile and motorcycle—pur­
chase, operation, and mainte­
nance________ _________________
6.5
Other transportation........................
2.2
Personal care______________ ____
2.1
Medical care....................... ..............
5.3
Recreation______ ______ ________
5.0
Education.........................................
.6
Vocation_____ ___________________
.1
Community welfare______________
1.7
Gifts and contributions to persons
1.9
outside the economic family........
.9
Other items_______________ ____
1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-------15




$936 $1,151 $1, 397 $1,452 $1, 757 $1,797 $1, 739 $2,122 $2, 355
421
496
441
437
451
507
443
390
467
119
158
189
175
159
228
279
282
83
207
214
260
306
296
406
166
225
419
96
116
132
110
144
139
119
91
107
40
51
62
102
118
100
135
22
165
51
80
56
68
98
28
47
177
8
16
9
14
44
36
10
1
4

43
24
26
54
39
5
1
13

44
45
31
70
59
5
1
25

132
29
32
62
75
7
1
16

86
39
38
114
81
7
2
46

141
32
35
115
117
11
6
36

112
35
33
108
98
31
1
39

210
57
47
114
115
8
3
45

302
42
43
94
132
3
8
31

26

4
1

20
7

23
19

36
13

47
33

42
30

30
0

95
4

0)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
41.6 39.2 35.5 28.9 28.9 24.6 25.2 20.9 19.9
8.9 10.4 11.4 10.8 13.0 10.5 10.1 13.1 12.0
17.7 18.0 15.3 15.5 14.8 17.1 17.0 19.2 17.8
8.2
6.2
3.9
11.4
8.3
8.5
7.6
7.7
6.7
6. 4
7.0
2.4
3.5
3.7
5.7
5.7
6.8
4.3
2.4
3.2
2.6
4.6
7.5
3.7
5. 5
3.9
.9
1.7
1.0
1.5
4. 7
3.8
1.1
.1
.4

3.7
2.1
2.3
4.7
3.4
.4
.1
1.1

3.1
3.2
2.2
5.0
4.2
.4
.1
1.8

9.1
2.0
2.2
4.3
5.2
.5
.1
1.1

4.9
2.2
2.2
6.5
4.6
.4
.1
2.6

7.9
1.8
1.9
6.4
6.5
.6
.3
2.0

6.4
2.0
1.9
6.2
5.6
1.8
.1
2.2

9.9
2.7
2.2
5.4
5.4
.4
.1
2.1

12.8
1.8
1.8
4.0
5.6
.1
.3
1. 3

2.8
(2
)

.3
.1

1.4
.5

1.6
1.3

2.0
.7

2.6
1.8

2.4
1.7

1.4
0

4.0
.2

214

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T able 3.—

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y econom ic level— Continued
R ICH M ON D , V A —NEGRO FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

$100 to $200 to $300 to $400 to $500 and
$200
$300
$400
$500
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey.......................................... ..................
Average family size:
Persons................. ................... - .............................. ........
Expenditure units________________ ______________
Food expenditure units___________________________
Clothing expenditure units________________________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items----------------------------------- ------------------- --------Food___________________________________________
Clothing______________ _________________________
Housing--------------------------------- ---------- -----------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration... .................................
Other household operation_________ ____ _______
Furnishings and equipment_____________________
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance________________________
Other transportation_________ ____ __________
Personal care-----------------------------------------------------Medical care.--____________ ______ _____________
Recreation_____________ ____ ___________________
Education.......... .................. .................... .................
Vocation.......................... .......... ............................ .
Community welfare____________________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family______________________________
Other items_____________________________________
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items__________________________ . . . __________
Food___________________________________________
Clothing.............................. .......... ..................... ........
Housing____________________ ___________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____________________
Other household operation______________________
Furnishings and equipment______________ ____
Automobile and motorcycle—purchase, opera­
tion, and maintenance________________________
Other transportation____ _______ _______________
Personal care______________________ ____________
Medical care............. ............................ ............ ..........
Recreation________ ___________ _________________
Education__________ _____ _______ _____________
Vocation_____________ _________ ________ ____
Community welfare_______ _____________________
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the
economic family______________ _____________ _
Other items__________ ________ ________ _______ _
1 Less than $0.50.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




96

25

23

24

12

12

3.85
3.48
3.18
3.03

6.29
5. 55
5.14
4.48

3.97
3.56
3. 22
3.03

2. 75
2. 58
2. 39
2.41

2.44
2.30
2.06
2.23

2.14
2.01
1.69
2.06

$919
291
101
118
104
36
40

$842
334
92
127
103
28
24

$861
298
93
121
101
35
39

$877
269
100
122
95
37
43

$1,006
256
129
104
108
39
53

$1,195
268
112
102
123
48
58

17
28
23
59
52
4

7
13
21
41
35
4
0
9

8
25
22
38
46
7
0
13

2
39
21
67
43
2
0
12

30
26
26
77
68
2
1
16

73
48
30
106
97
3
1
22

0)

13
24
9

15

0)

0)

24
1

50
21

53
51

100.0
31.7
11.0
12.9
11.3
3.9
4.4

100.0
39.6
10.9
15.1
12.2
3.3
2.9

100.0
34.7
10.8
14.1
11.7
4.1
4.5

100.0
30.7
11.4
14.0
10.9
4.2
4.9

100.0
25.4
12.8
10.3
10.7
3.9
5.3

100.0
22.4
9.4
8.5
10.3
4.0
4.9

1.8
3.0
2.5
6.4
5.7
.4
(2
)
1.4

.8
1.5
2.5
4.9
4.2
.5
0
1.1

.9
2.9
2.6
4.4
5.3
.8
0
1.5

.2
4.4
2.4
7.6
4.9
.2
0
1.4

3.0
2.6
2.6
7.6
6.8
.2
.1
1.6

6.1
4.0
2.5
8.9
8.1
.3
.1
1.8

.5

1.7
(2
)

2.7
.1

5.0
2.1

4.4
4.3

2.6
1.0

4

(2
)

215

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 4. —Disposition of
expenditure, and funds

money received during schedule year not used fo r current
made available for fam ily use from sources other than
fam ily income in schedule yeary by economic level
B AL T IM O R E , M D .—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$300

$400
to
$500

$300
to
$400

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e S c h e d u l e
Y e a r N o t U sed fo r C u rren t F a m ily E x p en d itu r e

Families in survey____ _______________ ___________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
On hand. __________________________________
In checking account_________________________
In savings account________________________
Investment in:
Improvements in own home. _______________
Other real estate (including real estate
mortgages) _______________________________
Building and loan shares_________________ _
Stocks and bonds___________________________
Other property______________________________
Payment of premiums for insurance policies:
Life insurance_____ - _______________________
Annuities _____ _ _________________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others_________
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and down
payment on own home___ _______ __________
Payment on principal of other mortgages______
Payment of debts to—
Banks______________________________________
Insurance companies_____________________
Small-loan companies_______________________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles______________________________
Other goods_______________________________
Individuals_________________________________
Other_______________________________________

419

74

92

100

66

40

47

11
2
39

1
0
2

0
0
4

4
1
11

3
1
7

2
0
5

1
0
10

21

3

4

2

3

5

4

3
1
0
1

0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0

0
1
0
1

399
50
1

70
5
0

89
7
0

97
16
0

64
10
0

37
3
0

42
9
1

64
0

14
0

9
0

14
0

12
0

7
0

g
0

1
1
9

0
0
3

1
1
2

0
0
1

0
0
0

0
o
1

o
o
2

3
47
1
6

1
5
0
0

0
11
1
1

0
13
0
1

2
7
0
1

0
1
0
0

0
10
0
3

Average amount of funds disposed in:
Increase in assets and/or decrease in liabilities. ._ $162. 74 $136. 67 $128. 44 $149. 52 $161. 37 $180.93 $285. 70
Increase in assets________________________________ 119. 68 104. 42 92. 51 115. 44 115.12 145. 39 190. 61
Increase in cash:
0
2. 29
On hand
_______________________________
3.03
3.48
6.25
2.02
1.08
In checking account_________________________
0
.25
. 56
0
0
3.18
0
In savings account__________________________
9.19
8. 74
9. 71 18.16 21.45 40.10
15.26
Investment in:
Improvements in own h o m e ._________ _____
7.74 10. 29 11.80 15.21
7.74
6. 35
1.47
Other real estate (including real estate mort­
0
.67
0
0
0
3. 92
gages)___ _________________________________
1.36
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares_________
___
. 12
1.11
0
Stocks and bonds___________________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
Other property_____________________________
0
0
0
0
0
3.10
27. 66
Payment of premiums for insurance policies:
83.66
85. 41 77.29 87.29 70.85 99.49 90.19
Life insurance___________________ __________
6.04
2. 39
3.65
7.42
Annuties__________________ _______ _________
9.16
2.48 12.19
Tnnrp.asft in o u t s t a n d in g lo a n s t o o th e r s .
__
.24
0
0
0
0
0
2.13
Decrease in liabilities______________ ________ ____
43.06
32.25 35.93 34.08 46.25 35. 54 95.09
Payment on principal of mortgages and down
payment on own home.. _______ ___________
27.68
25.67 15.03 23.09 31. 23 32.46 56. 33
Payment on principal of other mortgages______
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Payment of debts to—
1.43
0
6. 52
0
0
0
Banks_____ _________________________________
0
0
0
0
Insurance companies________ __________ ____
. 12
0
.54
0
Small-loan companies_______________________
1. 54
1.20
5.53
2.03
1.24
0
.08
Firms selling on installment plan:
.50
0
0
0
0
.90
2.17
Automobiles______________________________
8.04
9.81
3.00 26.81
Other goods______________ ________________
3.65
9.68 11.41
0
.22
.05
0
0
0
0
Individuals_________________________________
Other
4.34
1.44
6.42
1.93
0
.1 1

1°

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 636.




216
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r } b y econom ic level— Continued

able

B AL T IM O R E , M D .—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Economic level—Families spending per
expenditure unit per year
Item

All
fami­
lies

Under
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$500

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$700

$700
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m i l y U se F r o m S o u r c e s
O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in S c h e d u le Y e a r

Families in survey______________ . . . ...... ........ .......
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand__________________________ _________
In checking account________________ ________
In savings account_______________________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mortgages)—
Building and loan shares____________________
Stocks and bonds
______ _________________
Goods and chattels_____ ____________________
Other property________ _____________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender___________________________________
Settlement---------------------- --------------- ------------Receipts from outstanding loans to others_____
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home....... ..............
Increase in other mortgages___ _____ __________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks__________________________ _
Payable to insurance companies_____________
Payable to small-loan companies _
----------Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles_____________________________
Other goods______ ______________________
Payable to individuals______________________
Other debts____ ____________________________
Inheritance________________________________ ____

419

74

92

100

66

40

47

20
1
50

3
0
9

3
0
8

6
1
11

3
0
7

2
0
5

3
0
10

2
2
2
3
0

1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
1
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
1
2
0
0

15
11
1

8
0
0

3
1
0

2
3
0

1
3
0

0
3
1

1
1
0

4
0

0
0

1
0

2
0

0
0

0
0

1
0

3
4
18

0
0
4

1
1
2

0
1
7

1
1
3

0
1
1

1
0
1

14
142
21
35
6

2
17
5
12
0

2
27
3
11
0

1
31
4
3
3

4
28
3
3
0

2
16
1
2
2

3
13
5
4
1

Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in liabilities___ $112. 56 $57. 25 $85.71 $75. 42 $120.08 $138.33 $298.69
Decrease in assets-_______ ______________________
48.60
25.22 21.08 30. 73 43.95 66. 72 16.36
Reduction in cash:
6.58
3.44
4.34
On hand------------------------------- ---------- ------------5.75
2.58
8.75 21.45
In checking account_______ _________________
1.18
0
0
4. 95
0
0
0
In savings account__________________________
23. 22
10.24
9. 73 16.99 18. 77 26. 25 87.01
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mortgages) _
1. 45
6.82
0
1.56
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____ ________ _____ _
.80
0
0
0
2.06
0
4.26
Stocks and bonds.—-------- -----------------------------5.16
0
0
0
0
0
45.96
Goods and chattels---------------------------------------.18
.14
0
0
0
1.62
0
Other property..................... ................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
2.85
4. 72
Surrender__________ ________ ______ ________
4.02
1.37
2.04
0
4. 36
7.08
Settlement__________________________________
2. 99
0
1.67 16.80 29.10
5. 32
Receipts from outstanding loans to others_____
.10
0
0
0
0
1.00
0
Increase in liabilities---------- ------------------- ------------63.96
32.03 64.63 44.69 76.13 71.61 130. 33
Increase in mortgages on own home.....................
5. 37
0
0
9. 77
6.29
0
15.37
Increase in other mortgages....................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
.35
Payable to banks..................................................
1.08
0
0
4.83
0
2.13
Payable to insurance companies...... .................
.67
0
1.00
.82
.09
2.50
0
Payable to small-loan companies____________
3.40
3.50
.69
6.78
3.86
2.25
1.68
Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
6.02
Automobiles_________ ___ ____ ____ ____
3.30
.77
2.16
7.87 14. 39 17.93
Other goods_______________________________
33. 35
15.00 35.23 22.60 50.65 44.17 47.90
Payable to individuals. _______ ___________
6.92
3.44
3.84
1.88
2.42
2.50 38.94
7.15
Other debts.......... .......... ................. ............. .......
9. 32 13.73
.88
6.41
5.80
6.38
5.25
0
Inheritance....... .................................. .................... .
3.95
0
0
33.12 10. 21
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




217

TABULAR SUMMARY

T a b l e 4 . — D is p o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i l y u se fr o m sources other than
f a m i l y in co m e in schedule y e a r, b y econom ic level— Continued

Item

Baltimore, M d.—Negro
families
Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
$100
$200
$400
lies
to
to
and
$200
$400
over

Birmingham, Ala.—White
families
Econom ic le v e l—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S ch ed u le Y e a r N o t U se d f o r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p en d itu r e

Families in survey________________________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
On hand________________ ___________
In checking account......... ................... .
In savings account...... ..........................
Investment in—
Improvements in own home________
Other real estate (including real
estate mortgages)_________________
Building and loan shares____________
Stocks and bonds___________ ____
Other property____ _________ ____
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance_______________________
Annuities___________________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home_____
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages........................... ..............................
Payment of debts to—
Banks______________________________
Insurance companies________________
Small-loan companies___ ___________
Firms selling on installment plan
Automobiles______________________
Other goods________ ____ _________
Individuals___ ______ ______________
Other_______________________________

107

24

49

34

202

88

60

54

0
0
1

0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

4
1
19

1
0
4

2
1
8

1
0
7

2

0

0

2

9

6

1

2

0
0
1
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

4
0
3
4

2
0
0
1

1
0
0
0

1
0
3
3

99
6
0

21
1
0

47
0
0

31
5
0

176
7
2

75
1
0

53
3
1

48
3
1

10

0

4

6

26

9

11

6

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0
0
3

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
2

3
2
3

1
0
1

2
1
2

0
1
0

0
9
1
4

0
3
0
2

0
2
0
0

0
4
1
2

10
58
8
32

2
23
5
20

6
17
2
10

2
18
1
2

*

Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities________________________ ___ $78.13 $50.17 $59.02 $125. 39 $177. 89 $136.15 $172. 92 $251. 43
55.57 42.88 43.89 81. 36 118. 08 86.24 95. 58 194. 94
Increase in assets________________________
Increase in cash:
.57
.32
1. 07
On hand...... ...........................................
0
0
0
0
.43
.0.2
In checking account_________________
0
.07
0
0
0
0
0
.12
In savings account__________________
.54
0
20. 37
3.88
8.98 59.88
0
Investment in—
6.62
Improvements in own home_________
20.84
9.06 17.92
.48
0
0
4.14
Other real estate (including real
estate mortgages)_________________
0
0
0
0
3.25
4.87
3.49
.36
Building and loan shares___________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.12
.54
Stocks and bonds___________________
0
0
2.10
0
0
7.86
Other property________________
_
0
0
1.32
0
6.13
0
0
20.76
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
45.96 39. 61 43.89 53. 42
74. 33 57.25 78.30 97.74
Life insurance........................................
Annuities__________________ ________
2.75
2.19
1.06
0
7.10
1.17
.68
2.09
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
1.08
0
2.13
0
0
0
0
1.68
Decrease in liabilities ____ ____________
22. 56
7.29 15.13 44.03
59.81 49.91 77.34 56.49
Payment on principal of mortgages and
11.64 22.64
down payment on own home________
12.52
0
16.94 12.59 17. 69 23.20
Payment on principal of other mort­
.49
1.06
.04
0
0
0
. 14
0
gages................ .........................................
Payment of debts to—
0
0
.43
1.16
Banks................. ....................................
0
0
.20
0
0
.65
Insurance companies............................
0
0
0
.20
0
.02
2.13
.24
6. 35
1. 34
Small-loan companies____ __________
0
.77
3.40
0
Firms selling on installment plan
0
0
0
8. 42
2.84 20. 10
Automobiles______________________
0
4.54
2.19
9. 45
5. 01
18.29 15.07 20. 97 20. 57
Other goods------ ---------------------------4.46
.93
0
0
2.94
4.13
1. 97
Individuals_________________________
5. 35
6.28
2.83
0
2. 65
10.02 16. 47
Other________ ____ ____ _
________
1.48
7.88
1.88
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




2 18
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Item

Birmingham, Ala.—White
fa milies—Continued
Econom ic le v e l—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

Baltimore, M d -N e g ro
families—Continued
Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
$400
$100
$200
lies
to
to
and
$200
$400
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey------------------------------------Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand_______ _________ ______
In checking account-____ ___________
In savings account........ ........................
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)________________________
Building and loan shares_____ ______
Stocks and bonds_______ _____ ____
Goods and chattels......... .......................
Other property-----------------------------Insurance policies:
Surrender___________________ ______ _
Settlement---------------------------------------Receipts from outstanding loans to
others_______________________________
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages __________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks----- -------------------Payable to insurance companies____
Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles---------------------------------Other goods__________ ____ _______
Payable to individuals _____ ______
Other debts_________ ____ _________
Inheritance---------------------------------------------

107

24

49

34

202

88

60

54

1
0
6

0
0
0

0
0
1

1
0
5

8
5
26

4
1
6

3
1
8

1
3
12

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
1
2
16
0

0
0
0
5
0

0
0
1
8
0

0
1
1
3
0

4
2

1
1

2
0

1
1

8
1

5
0

0
0

3
1

0

0

0

0

3

0

2

1

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

7
0

2
0

3
0

2
0

0
2
3

0
0
0

0
1
2

0
1
1

4
16
15

2
3
6

1
7
4

1
6
5

0
37
0
13
1

0
8
0
3
0

0
15
0
8
1

0
14
0
2
0

15
74
10
115
0

3
28
7
57
0

3
29
2
30
0

9
17
1
28
0

Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities____ _____________ _______ ____
$46. 70 $24. 48 $35. 55 $78. 43 $180.14 $93.50 $185.07 $315.82
Decrease in assets___ ____________ ____ _
8.44
2.50
57.14 27.39 35.56 129.60
6.24 15. 79
Reduction in cash:
On hand_____________ ____ _________
0
0
2.22
3.81
.75
2.35
.91
1.08
In checking account_______ _________
0
0
0
0
5. 32
9.26
2.10
2. 47
In savings account____________________
2.73
0
19.16
.08
8. 47
4.36 16.87 45.84
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)________________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
0
0
12.80
0
0
47.88
Stocks and bonds.......... ................... .
.09
0
.20
0
0
1.83
2. 40
4.19
Goods and chattels__________________
0
0
0
0
5. 61
3.47
9.91
4. 31
Other property..._____ _____________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender___ _____ ______ _____ ___
3.29
2.08
5.96
.29
4.01
6.49
0
4. 42
Settlement______________ _______
1.58
.42
0
4. 61
4.68
0
0
17.25
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others_______________________ _______
0
0
0
0
1.58
0
3. 37
2.16
Increase in liabilities______ _____________
38.26 21.98 29. 31 62.64 123.00 66.11 149. 51 186. 22
Increase in mortgages on own home___
0
0
0
0
16. 37 10.17 17. 39 25. 35
Increase in other mortgages___________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks___________________
0
0
0
0
1.84
1.85
2.91
.65
Payable to insurance companies_____
.46
0
.12
12. 26
1.26
2.54 14.94 25.11
Payable to small-loan companies____
3.97
0
7.96
7. 57
2.42 12.06 10.97
1.03
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles______________________
0
0
0
0
15.86
2. 30 11.41 42.91
Other goods........... ..............................
29.78 14.59 18.88 56.20
26.83 14.46 33.94 39.06
Payable to individuals______________
0
0
0
0
3.56
3.90
5. 30
1.08
Other debts____________ ____________
4.05
7.39
2. 37
4.15
38. 71 28.47 51.56 41.09
Inheritance____ ________________________
.23
0
.51
0
0
0
0
0
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




219

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 4.—

D is p o s itio n o f m o n e y received d u rin g schedule yea r not u sed f o r current
exp en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule y e a r , by econom ic level— Continued
Birmingham, Ala - -Negro
families

Item

All
fam­
ilies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under $200
to
$200
$400

$400
and
over

Dallas, Tex.—White families

All
fam­
ilies

Econom ic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S ch ed u le Y e a r N o t U s e d f o r C u r r e n t F a m ­
ily E x p e n d itu r e

44
294
19
94
105
101
38
96
Families in survey_____ __________________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
1
1
2
2
2
1
0
6
On hand__________ _________________
0
1
0
10
5
4
In checking account_________________
0
0
1
21
9
8
In savings account__________________
10
1
9
3
Investment in—
1
1
3
12
Improvements in own home...........
3
0
2
8
Other real estate (including real
0
1
1
3
1
0
1
estate mortgages)--------------------------5
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
1
1
1
0
Stocks and bonds___________________
1
0
0
2
1
2
1
0
0
3
Other property--------------------------------1
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
33
72
Life insurance------------ ---------- -----------84
29
22
219
82
65
8
1
3
4
1
3
2
6
Annuities___________________________
1
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
3
0
1
2
2
1
0
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home________
24
11
1
4
4
9
51
16
Payment on principal of other mort­
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
gages_______________________________
Payment of debts to—
1
0
1
0
Banks_________ ____________ _______
0
0
0
0
1
Insurance companies________________
0
0
0
0
3
1
1
Small-loan c o m p a n i e s __________
1
1
1
2
2
0
4
3
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles______________________
1
1
11
1
9
1
2
0
14
Other goods..........................................
16
5
11
32
32
7
11
2
Individuals________ ________ _______
4
1
1
2
3
1
0
Other______________________ ______
6
3
12
4
2
7
2
2
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities.-________ ___________________
$77.96 $46. 84 $76.45 $143. 67 $141.15 $88. 34 $171. 05 $160.35
Increase in assets--------------------- -------------42.93 29. 38 43.97 67. 57
92. 79 46.19 100. 80 130.05
Increase in cash:
.26
On hand___________ ________ ______ _
2.74
.03
1.66
11.14
.60
1.60
0
In checking account_________________
0
0
0
0
6. 52
.80 12.39
5.68
In savings account__________________
6. 73
1.13
12.34
.28 14.70
.81 17. 30 18. 26
Investment in—
Improvements in own home________
1.32
1.84
12. 94
0
2.77
1.81 11.81 25.19
Other real estate (including real
estate mortgages)___ ____________
0
2.25
1.05 17.39
6.84
.98
0
2.66
Building and loan shares____ ____ _
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds___________________
.54
.33
0
.76
0
.74
0
1.68
Other property_______ ________ ____
.02
0
.05
2.47
1.39
0
0
1.58
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance-....................................
27.92 27.34 22.88 40.81
49.62 37. 73 50.95 59. 93
Annuities_____________________ _____
2.41
1.17
. 10
9.88
1.36
.46
.34
3.08
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
.48
0
.29
1.84
.44
.95
0
.32
Decrease in liabilities___________________
35.03 17.46 32. 48 76.10
48.36 42.15 70. 25 30.30
Payment on principal of mortgages
and down payment on own home___
14. 78
3.45 12.51 42.69
28. 72 27.10 39.10 18.84
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages—
1.07
0
0
5.68
0
0
0
0
Payment of debts to—
Banks______ _______________________
0
0
0
0
.30
.11
0
0
Insurance companies____ ____ ______
0
0
0
0
.05
.33
.32
.66
Small-loan companies_______________
.34
0
.61
.39
.74
.64
.48
1.13
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles________ _____________
1.64
0
2. 30
6. 26
3.4b
3.19 13.46
1.33
Other goods_________ _____________
13.37 12.16 13.03 16.56
8. 77
8.41 12.11
5.44
.84
Individuals_______ _________________
.57
.59
1.99
.57
0
.68
1. 01
Other______ ________________________
2.99
1.28
3.44
5.39
2.86
2.49
4. 07
1.89
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




220
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4.— D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received d uring schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly u se fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule ye a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Birmingham, A la —Negro
families—Continued

Item

Dallas, Tex.—White families—
Continued

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

All
fam­
ilies

Under
$200

$200
to
$400

Econom ic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

All
fam­
ilies

$400
and
over

Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th e r T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e i n
S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey----------- ---------------------Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand----- ---------------------------------In checking account-------------------------In savings account__________________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)________________________
Building and loan shares------ -----------Stocks and bonds_____________ _____
Goods and chattels---------------------------Other property______________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender____________________ _____ _
Settlement-------------- ------------------------Receipts from outstanding loans to
others------ ---------------------------------- --Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home----Increase in other mortgages---------------Increase in debts:
Payable to banks
. . _ ------------Payable to insurance companies-------Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
____
Automobiles____ ________
Other goods------ ------------- --------------Payable to individuals.-------------------------------Other debts___ _
Inheritance __ ________
-------------

101

38

44

19

294

94

105

95

2
0
4

1
0
0

1
0
1

0
0
3

6
17
25

1
2
6

0
7
6

5
8
13

0
0
0
6
0

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
3
0

1
0
3
6
0

1
0
0
1
0

1
0
1
2
0

0
0
2
3
0

1
1

0
0

0
1

1
0

3
0

1
0

1
0

1
0

2

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

2
0

0
0

1
0

1
0

3
1

0
0

1
0

2
1

0
2
1

0
1
0

0
0
1

0
1
0

9
5
9

1
0
2

3
3
3

5
2
4

4
48
4
34
0

0
20
1
15
0

1
18
1
14
0

3
10
2
5
0

42
75
4
36
3

5
21
2
13
1

14
25
0
13
0

23
29
2
10
2

Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities------ --- -------------------------- $53. 23 $33.09 $45.06 $112.63 $123.98 $61. 35 $109. 55 $201. 96
36.06 16.67 22.62 70.11
8.72
2.13
5.10 30.44
Decrease in assets.. ------------------------------Reduction in cash:
2.41
2.45
0
2.39
1.81
1.99
0
5.10
On hand------------------------------------------10.64
3. 72
In checking account-------------------------6.69 21.86
0
0
0
0
.37 15. 61
15. 77
In savings account________ _____ _ .
3.09
7. 55
8.52 31.93
0
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
2. 21
0
0
0
6.19
0
0
0
mortgages)________________________
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.05
.41
0
0
0
0
5.89
Stocks and bonds___ _ __________ _
0
.44
2.10
.14
.76
9.15
.24
1.48
Goods and chattels__________________
3.88
Other property---------------------------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
.69
0
0
3.69
.76
.26
Surrender............................. ...................
1.45
.57
.53
1.23
0
0
0
0
Settlement_________ ______________
0
0
Receipts from outstanding loans to
.74
2.31
0
.29
1.99
.50
0
0
others________________ ____
_______
44.51 30.96 39.96 82.19
87.92 44.68 86.93 131.85
ncrease in liabilities----- -------- ---------5. 25
8.74
Increase in mortgages on own home___
3.23 23.74
0
6.60
5.87
0
2.99
Increase in other mortgages ---------------0
9.26
0
0
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
2.24
4.19
2.13
8.39
0
0
0
0
Payable to banks __________________
.09
.66
6.49
0
16.37
1.98
.16
0
Payable to insurance companies____
1.08
2.37
1.10
0
2.20
3.05
Payable to small-loan companies. __
.48
0
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
2.13 19.91
27. 78
3.91 24.94 54. 56
4.67
0
Automobiles. ________i ................... .
26.11 18.64 23.79 36.05
15.82 14.72 14.99 19.97
Other goods--------- ------------------------2. 21
.14
9.02
1.34
1.97
0
2.16
1.08
Payable to individuals______________
11.57 16.95
7.80 10. 43
15.35 15.07 .18. 37
8.89
Other debts_________________________
0
6.00
2.28
1.06
0
0
0
0
Inheritance
_____ ___________________
Notes od this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




221

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received durinp schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re, and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
fa m i ly in co m e in schedule ye a r , by econom ic level— Continued

able

Houston, Tex.—White
families, other than
Mexican

Item

Houston, Tex.—Mexican
families

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year—
fami­
lies
Un­ $400 $600
ana
der
to
$400 $600 over

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—Fami­
lies spending per ex­
penditure unit per
year—
$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S c h ed u le Y e a r N o t U s e d f o r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p en d itu r e

258
Families in survey______ __________________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
10
On hand ---------------------------------------5
In checking account________________
34
In savings "account_________________
Investment in—
22
Improvements in own home______ .
Other real estate (including real es­
8
tate mortgages)___________________
1
Building and loan shares........ ___ . . .
7
Stocks and bonds____________ _____
11
Other property. . . . ______________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
230
Life insurance______________________
12
Annuities ____________ _______
Increase in outstanding loans to others __
7
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
52
down payment on own home ________
Payment on principal of other mortgages.
9
Payment of debts to—
5
Banks_______________________________
3
Insurance companies____________ ____
5
Small-loan companies _________ _____
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles_________
_____ __ ._
26
77
Other goods________________ ______ _
Individuals—_____ ____________ . . . ._
10
46
Other ---------------------------------- . . . . . .
Average amount of funds disposed in—
D o t.
Increase in assets and/or decrease in liabili­
ties _____________________________________ 238. 73
Increase in assets____________ ______ _____ 131.13
Increase in cash:
2. 46
On hand . _____________ _ __
In checking account_______ ____ ___
3. 43
18. 01
In savings account ________________
Investment in—
5. 95
Improvements in own home________
Other real estate (including real es­
tate mortgages)----------------------------- 10. 07
.23
Building and loan shares............... .
3. 41
Stocks and bonds__________________
24. 25
Other property. _______ ____________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
57. 30
Life insurance___ ______ ___________
1.10
Annuities___________ ____________
Increase in outstanding loans to others _ 4. 92
Decrease in liabilities______ . . .
. . . _ 107. 60
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home— ______ 38. 70
5. 05
Payment on principal of other mortgages.
Payment of debts to—
1.41
Banks___ ___ ___________ ____ _____
.89
Insurance companies_________________
.88
Small-loan companies________________
Firms selling on installment plan:
23.15
Automobiles______________________
Other goods________________________ 23. 72
3. 66
Individuals_____. . . ______ __________
Other. ____ _
_______ __________ 10.14
Notes on ttiis table are in appendix A, p. 637.




68

96

94

100

30

34

22

14

2
0
6

3
4
15

5
1
13

3
0
3

1
0
1

1
0
1

0
0
0

1
0
1

4

9

9

4

1

1

0

2

1
1
0
2

4
0
0
1

3
0
7
8

2
0
0
5

0
0
0
0

2
0
0
3

0
0
0
1

0
0
0
1

59
2
1

87
4
3

84
6
3

85
11
3

23
3
1

31
2
0

22
5
0

9
1
2

16
3

19
4

17
2

2
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

2
0

0
2
2

2
1
2

3
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

4
24
3
15

10
28
4
19

12
25
3
12

2
7
1
5

1
3
1
1

1
1
0
2

0
3
0
2

0
0
0
0

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

190. 40 205. 06 308. 06
96.02 99.63 188. 71

D o l.

1.18 1.98 3.88
.53
8. 70
0
15. 66 22. 77 14.84

2.18
0
2.64

1.74

3.53 11.47

5.23

11. 76
.88
0
.97

5. 23 13. 78
0
0
9. 36
0
.03 65. 84

2. 86
0
0
.22

56. 05 54. 55 61.01
.43 1. 31 1.37
7.35 1.53 6.63
94. 38 105. 43 119.35
35.15 31. 85 48. 27
4.10 8. 40 2.32
0
2.28
.71

1. 04
.78
1. 51

2.81
0
.35

10. 75 21.97 33.32
25. 57 26. 37 19. 68
5. 47 3.28 2. 72
10. 35 10. 23 9. 88

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

54.70 44.46 77. 45 34. 70 52. 85
44. 58 36.23 65.60 26.16 40.48
2.93
0
1.00

.88
0
5.29

0
0
0

.50 14. 71

0

0
0
0
0

8.43
0
0
.44

0
0
0
.23

7.14
0
3.86
.57
0
0
0
18

28.77 30.90 35.34 23, 43 16.64
.70
.31
.97
.51 2.50
1.71
.20 0
0
11. 78
10.12 8.23 11. 86 8.54 12.37
1. 73
1.03

0
0

0
3.02

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

1. 62
2. 82
. 10
2. 82

4.49
3.08
.33
.33

.79
1.06
0
6.99

0
7.00
0
1. 54

0
0
0
0

12.37
0

222
T

TWELVE OTOES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not u sed f o r current
exp en d itu re , and f u n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule y e a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Houston, Tex.—White
families, other than
Mexican—Continued

Item

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
fami­ unit per year—
lies
Un­ $400 $600
to
der
and
$400 $600 over

Houston, Tex.—Mexican
families—Continued

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—Fami­
lies spending per ex­
penditure unit
per
year—
$100
to
$200

$200
to
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in S c h ed ­
u le Y e a r

Families in survey_____________ ___________
258
94
30
96
100
68
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand_________________ ___________
4
5
0
10
3
2
In checking account_____ ____________
1
8
1
7
0
0
In savings account___________________
2
43
14
18
0
11
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mort2
gages)---------------------------------------------1
1
0
0
0
Building and loan shares_____________
1
1
0
0
0
0
4
Stocks and bonds_______ ____________
4
0
0
0
0
8
3
Goods and chattels___________________
8
0
20
4
Other property..........................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender____ __________ ____________
2
6
4
0
0
0
2
Settlement. _________________________
1
3
1
0
1
Receipts from outstanding loans to others.
13
6
1
4
0
3
Increase in liabilities:
4
Increase in mortgages on own home____
1
1
3
0
0
4
2
Increase in other mortgages_____________
1
0
0
1
Increase in debts:
5
1
4
Payable to banks___ _________________
0
0
0
14
Payable to insurance companies______
9
3
0
0
2
Payable to small-loan companies____
14
5
6
4
1
3
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
41
21
Automobiles _ _ __________________
14
11
2
6
113
44
Other goods.. _____________________
48
14
40
29
25
2
1
Payable to individuals. ........ .......... .
8
11
6
162
Other debts__________________________
64
34
9
66
32
Inheritance____ _ _______________________
4
2
1
0
0
1
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in liabili­
D o l.
D o l.
D o l.
D o l.
D o l.
D o l.
ties_____ ________________ _____________ 226. 58 114. 42 138. 63 397. 59 71.51 29. 35
Decrease in assets _ _____________________ 87.91 30. 30 41.62 .176. 90 15.71
.92
Reduction in cash:
On hand ____________________________
2. 69 1.91 1.81 4.15
6.00 0
In checking account_________________
2.74 0
.24 7.28
6.15 0
In savings account___________________
32.18 22.04 20.20 51.76
1.62 0
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mort­
gages)—
4.31 0
1.17 10.64
0
0
Building and loan shares......................
2.04 0
5. 61
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds____________________
18. 22 0
0
50.00
0
0
4.02 1.29 3.16 6.87
Goods and chattels.......................... ........
.36 0
Other property.....................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender___ _____ __________________
1.70 0
2.24 2. 39
0
0
Settlement___________________________
.30
.53
.98
.92
.41 0
Receipts from outstanding loans to others. 19. 71 4.65 12.80 37. 67
.60 0
Increase in liabilities____________ _______ 138. 67 84.12 97.01 220. 69 55.80 28.43
Increase in mortgages on own home.........
3.68 0
5.56 4.43
.66 0
Increase in other mortgages.......................
7.13 10.88 2.08 9.58
0
0
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_____________________
1.36 0
.52 3.20
0
0
Payable to insurance companies______
5.30 1.03
.97 12.80
0
0
Payable to small-loan companies_____
2.47 1.95 1.42 3.92
1.74 2.04
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
Automobiles ......................................... 37.49 12.39 24.13 69.30 17.98 6.17
Other goods. ....................................... 39.59 25.39 34.28 55.28 26. 73 13. 92
Payable to individuals_________ ____ _ 13. 93 5. 72 8.82 25.10
.27
.50
Other debts___ ____ _________________
27. 72 26.76 19. 23 37.08
8.42 5.80
Inheritance____ __________ ________ _
6. 93 4.41 2.99 12.77
0
0
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




34

22

14

2
0
1

1
1
1

1
0
0

0
0
0
3
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0

0
1
1

0
0
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
2

3
18
0
12
0

3
8
1
7
0

3
8
0
6
0

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

66.84 95.12 136. 21
19. 94 35.05 6.78
13.68 1.82
27.96
0
3.88 1.36
0
0
0
1.06
0

0
0
0
0
0

6.78
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1.32 1.18 0
2. 73 0
0
46. 90 60.07 129.43
1.95 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
3.07

0
0
3.25

5.12 19.10 72.78
32.84 29.81 34.54
0
.54 0
6.99 7.55 18.86
0
0
0

223

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule y e a r , by econom ic level— Continued

able

Jackson, Miss.—White
families

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Jackson, Miss.—Negro
families

All
fami­
lies

Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S c h e d u le Y e a r N o t X Jused f o r C u r r e n t F a m ­
ily E x p e n d itu r e

39
35
100
61
Families in survey________________________
76
28
11
150
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
0
1
1
2
On hand___________ ____ ___________
2
3
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
In checking account_________________
1
2
4
9
7
5
1
In savings account___________ . . . __
15
Investment in—
2
0
4
2
3
7
Improvements in own home_____ ___
5
1
Other real estate (including real es1
2
1
0
1
tate mortgages) __________________
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares...... ...............
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds______ ____ _______
1
0
0
Other property________ ____________
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
32
134
24
33
69
91
57
10
Life insurance...______ _______ ____ _
4
2
2
2
3
0
0
9
Annuities- _________________________
0
0
0
3
0
0
Increase in outstanding loans to others..
3
0
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
4
15
3
down payment on own home________
21
11
6
5
7
Payment on principal of other mort­
0
3
0
1
1
3
0
0
gages--------------------- ------- ------------------Payment of debts to—
3
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
Banks______________________________
2
0
1
2
0
0
0
Insurance companies________________
5
2
1
0
2
0
Small-loan companies.. ____________
3
1
5
Firms selling on installment plan:
4
0
1
3
6
1
8
1
Automobiles-_ ___________________
2
8
14
9
13
6
6
Other g o o d s .____ _______________
30
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
Individuals_____ ______ ____________
2
9
5
8
6
10
1
Other. _____________________________
23
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities. _ ________________ ___________ $167. 41 $125.87 $172. 44 $202.82 $77. 62 $69.81 $55.41 $220. 59
49.88 45.87 35. 26 141.14
Increase in assets_______________________
90.21 77. 27 87. 57 110. 35
Increase in cash:
0
.21
1. 45
0
.66
.71
.29
On hand________ ____ _______ ______
.50
0
0
0
0
0
1.43
0
In checking account________ ____ ___
.33
2. 73
6. 35
1. 65
2. 24
1.18
In savings account.. _______________
13.13
5. 26 20. 29
Investment in—
8. 76
2. 37
1. 49
2. 24
1. 78
0
Improvements in own home_____ _.
1. 36
.87
Other real estate (including real es­
9.40
0 •
2. 30 72.73
0
.79
0
tate mortgages)___________ ____ _
.40
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
2.73
0
. 14
.30
0
.03
0
0
Stocks and bonds___ _______________
0
0
0
0
0
.86
7.10 25. 64
Other property--------------- ------- ---------Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
34.40 41.85 30.08 39.38
Life insurance_____________________ _
60. 49 44. 56 55. 55 88.95
13.36
1.47
0
0
.93 12. 77
.94
3.70
Annuities- _________ _____ _________
0
0
0
0
0
0
6. 25
Increase in outstanding loans to others..
3.17
27.74 23.94 20.15 79.45
Decrease in liabilities___________________
77. 20 48. 60 84.87 92. 47
Payment on principal of mortgages and
13.79 15.76
4. 53 60.13
23. 31 15.94 17. 24 44.72
down payment on own home________
Payment on principal of other mort­
0
.16
.10
0
0
11.89
0
6.02
gages......... ................................................
Payment of debts to—
0
0
0
0
0
1.91
1. 33
3.08
Banks.......................................................
2. 42
0
0
3. 87
0
0
2. 55
.10
Insurance companies ............. .............
.60
.66
0
.71
3. 36
8.18
2. 44
0
Small-loan companies...........................
Firms selling on installment plan:
6.77
0
4.99
3.07
2.81 28.02
9.26
17.09
Automobiles______________________
4.39 14. 73
5.43
4.04
9. 51 18. 74
12. 62 13.19
Other goods......................................
0
1.43
0
0
0
0
.33
Individuals................................. ...........
4.59
2.83
.36J 3.64
8. 821 15.90
7 05
10. 01
Other.. . ___________________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




0

224
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4. — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r fa m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule yea r, by econom ic level— Continued

able

Jackson, Miss.—White
families— Continued

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Jackson, Miss.—Negro
families—Continued

All
fami­
lies

Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a i l a b l e fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O t h e r T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S ch ed u le Y e a r

____ _________
150
39
76
35
Families in survey______
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
1
1
On hand___ ________________________
0
0
1
In checking account_______________ _
0
0
1
In savings account__________________
26
4
9
13
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
1
1
mortgages)___________ ___________
0
0
Building and loan shares___________
3
0
1
2
Stocks and bonds___________________
3
0
3
0
Goods and chattels__________________
14
2
10
2
Other property_____________________
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender______________ ____________
4
0
3
1
Settlement________ _____ ___________
1
3
1
1
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others_______ __________
________
4
1
0
3
Increase in liabilities:
2
Increase in mortgages on own home___
6
1
3
0
Increase in other mortgages- _____ _
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
5
Payable to banks __________________
2
0
3
Payable to insurance companies_____
9
2
4
3
Payable to small-loan companies____
15
5
3
7
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
16
2
9
Automobiles_____ ___________
___
5
52
26
15
Other goods____________ _______
11
Payable to individuals______________
14
1
11
2
Other debts________ ______ ________
15
60
17
28
1
3
2
Inheritance ___________ ______________
0
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities. . ____________________________ $158. 04 $93. 29 $130. 30 $290. 46
Decrease in asset,s._ ____________________
60.61 41. 05 57.06 90.08
Reduction in cash:
On hand. _ _ _ _ _ _________________
.30
0
0
1.15
In checking account_________________
0
2.86
.67
0
In savings account__________________
25.88
4. 36 13. 36 77.05
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages).
_______ __________
.17
.64
0
0
Building and loan shares___________
.71
.97
.94
0
Stocks and bonds_________ ________
7. 36
14.52
0
0
Goods and chattels_____ __ ________
5.16
.28
6.86
6.88
Other property______________________
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender...... .......................................
1.64
2.97
.57
0
Settlement_________ _____________
14.42 34.62 10.53
.37
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others. ______________
___ ________
4. 30
0
7.83
1.43
Increase in liabilities. ___ _____________
97.43 52.24 73.24 200.38
Increase in mortgages on own home___
7.74 10.00
3. 51 14.41
Increase in other mortgages __ ______
0
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
Payable to b a n k s_____ _ __
____
1.37
1. 24
3.19
0
Payable to insurance companies_____
5.19
5.29
7.26
4.20
Payable to small-loan companies. __
6.89
3.72
5.76 12.86
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles____ _______________
26.19
4.56 14. 55 75. 58
Other goods......
.............................
23.30
9.27 20.94 44.06
Payable to individuals______________
8.24
. 15
5.79 22. 59
Other debts____ ____ _
__ ____
18. 51 19.25 17.25 20.43
Inheritance ______ _ _______ _ _ __ __
2. 33
3. 95
1.28
0
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




100

28

61

11

0
0
7

0
0
0

0
0
4

0
0
3

0
0
0
3
1

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
1
1

1
1

0
1

1
0

0
0

1

0

1

0

1
1

0
0

1
0

0
1

0
0
13

0
0
6

0
0
6

0
0
1

10
34
6
42
0

2
10
2
12
0

5
18
4
26
0

3
6
0
4
0

$51. 65 $29. 55 $38.50 $180. 67
7. 97
.41
4. 37 47.09
0
0
7. 34

0
0
0

0
0
3.77

0
0
45. 77

0
0
0
.18
.12

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
.24
0

0
0
0
.23
1.09

.10
.11

0
.41

.16
0

0
0

. 12
43. 68
1.16
4.00

0
29.14
0
0

0
0
5.40

0
0
10. 05

0
0
3.29

0
0
5. 27

7. 24
13. 47
1.29
11.12
O

.96
6. 96
1.78
9. 39
0

6.11
11.24
1. 30
10.29
0

29.45
42. 41
0
20.09
0

.20
0
34.13 133. 58
1.90
0
0
36. 36

225

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 4.—

D isp o sitio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule y e a r , by econom ic level— Continued

Item

Jacksonville, Fla.—White
families
Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies Under $400
$600
to
and
$400
$600
over

Louisville, Ky.—White fam­
ilies
Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S c h ed u le Y e a r N o t U se d fo r C u r r e n t F a m ­
ily E x p e n d itu r e

Families in survey____ ___________________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
On hand___________ ________ _______
In checking account____ ____ _____ .
In savings account_________ ______
Investment in—
Improvements in own home_________
Other real estate (including real es­
tate mortgages)___ _ ____________
Building and loan shares,....................
Stocks and bonds___________________
Other property_____________________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance___ _____ _______ _____
A nnu ities..______ _____ _________ .
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own hom e___ . . .
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages—
Payment of debts to—
Banks_________ ____________________
Insurance companies________ ______
Small-loan companies___ ___________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles____ _________________
Other goods_______________________
Individuals____________________ _______
Other_______________________________

178

59

69

50

197

92

69

36

1
0
23

0
0
3

1
0
11

0
0
9

2
3
22

1
1
8

0
1
10

1
1
4

10

2

5

3

8

3

1

4

4
0
2
10

0
0
1
6

0
0
0
2

4
0
1
2

2
2
2
4

0
1
0
1

2
1
1
3

0
0
1
0

161
15
5

54
6
3

61
3
1

46
6
1

187
9
5

90
0
2

65
4
2

32
5
1

19

7

6

6

31

16

10

5

5

0

1

4

1

0

1

0

0
0
10

0
0
4

0
0
5

0
0
1

3
4
3

3
0
1

0
2
1

0
2
1

12
33
3
24

0
12
0
9

8
11
2
10

4
10
1
5

4
32
4
38

2
16
0
18

1
10
4
11

1
6
0
9

Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in liabil­
ities_______________________ __ __ _______ $206.19 $178. 68 $202. 33 $243. 96 $157.04 $134.18 $148.16 $232. 51
Increase in assets____________ . . . _____
146.15 143. 63 131.99 168. 64 106. 70 97.30 100. 74 142.11
Increase in cash:
.15
.28
0
.72
0
.16
0
.42
On hand_________ _______________________
.51
.49
.36
0
In checking account______________________
0
0
0
.83
14.24 11. 37 15.87 18. 46
28.83 25. 61 19. 44 45. 58
In savings account________________________
Investment in—
2.03 39. 36
8. 70
.68 41. 04
18. 05
7. 54
2.06
Improvements in own home... _______
Other real estate (including real es­
2. 03
0
5.80
0
9.78
0
0
34.80
tate mortgages)_____ _________________
0
0
2.10
1.13
4.49
0
0
0
Building and loan shares. ___________
2. 71
1. 30
.13
0
.14
.42
1. 26
0
Stocks and bonds______ ___________ . . .
5.08
2. 72 10.87
0
Other property________________________
10.00 25.11
.12
5.80
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
70. 67 79.12 59. 77 69.94
64. 51 57.87 69. 46 65. 52
Life insurance..._____ ________________
2. 39
2.18
2. 57
0
8. 92
5. 77
8. 72
6. 70
Annuities.___ . . . _ _ ______________
.70
.25
.58
2.08
.32
1.40
Increase in outstanding loans to others___
7. 67 21.58
50. 34 36.88 47.42 90.40
Decrease in liabilities__________ _______
60.04 35.05 70. 34 75. 32
Payment on principal of mortgages and
21. 32 12. 58 19.08 47.94
19.60 17. 03 22.84 18.16
down payment on own home— ______
Payment on principal of other mort.04
.13
.14 11.60
0
0
3. 31
0
gages___........................... ................... ................ ..
Payment of debts to—
1. 55
3. 32
0
0
0
0
0
0
Banks ___ __________ _________________ ___
1.84
0
2.20
5.86
0
0
0
0
Insurance companies____________________
2. 09
.09
1.86
7. 67
4.10
3.63
6.20
1. 76
Small-loan companies______ _____ ______
Firms selling on installment plan:
2. 92
.64
2.06
5. 26
12. 90
0
20. 42 17. 76
Automobiles________________________
9.88 10.84
8.06 10.89
12. 30
6.80 14.19 16.16
Other goods_________________________
1. 96
0
5. 61
0
1.20
0
1. 80
1.80
Individuals_________________________
4. 75
8. 74
5. 22 17.40
7.59
8. 08
7.99
Other_______________________________
6. 63
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




226

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

T able 4.—

D isp o s itio n o f m o n ey received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure , and fu n d s m ade available fo r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r , by econom ic level— Continued

rtem

Jacksonville, Fla.—White
families—Continued
Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

Louisville, Ky.—White fam­
ilies—Continued
Economic
level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m ily U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th e r T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e i n
S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey... ______________ ____
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand___ _____ __________________
In checking account_________________
In savings account. . . _____________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages) _______________________
Building and loan shares.__________
Stocks and bonds___ _______________
Goods and chattels... ______________
Other property________ ____ _______
Insurance policies:
Surrender -------- --------------------------- .
Settlement___________________ . . .
Reductions in outstanding loans to
others._ ____________________________
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home----Increase in other mortgages___________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_________ _________
Payable to insurance companies_____
Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
Automobiles____ _________________
Other goods______________ ____ ___
Payable to individuals.................. .......
Other debts______ ________ ____ ___
Inheritance---------------------------------------------

178

59

69

50

197

92

69

36

3
0
31

0
0
6

3
0
11

0
0
14

10
5
19

4
3
5

3
2
6

3
0
8

1
0
2
14
0

0
0
0
5
0

1
0
0
6
0

0
0
2
3
0

1
0
0
4
0

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
2
0

1
0
0
1
0

2
5

1
4

1
1

0
0

13
6

8
3

1
3

4
0

5

0

2

3

1

1

0

0

3
1

2
0

1
0

0
1

3
0

0
0

0
0

3
0

6
4
16

2
0
6

3
4
2

1
0
8

5
5
9

1
4
4

3
0
2

1
1
3

22
63
8
53
0

7
22
4
16
0

7
27
2
25
0

8
14
2
12
0

9
61
10
68
3

4
27
6
37
1

2
21
1
20
2

3
13
3
11
0

Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities.. ________ . . . -------------------- $173.33 $150. 79 $152. 66 $228. 44 $123. 94 $83. 77 $93. 60 $284. 79
49.47 21.26 31.62 155. 81
Decrease in assets
____ . . . ___________
67.96 85. 01 36. 99 90.61
Reduction in cash:
2. 61
1.01
0
0
On hand. __________________________
5.16
1.71
4.13 15.97
In checking account_____________ . . .
0
0
0
0
1.70
1.79
2.46
0
In savings account_________ _______
42. 48 44.18 25.07 64. 50
27. 71
3.77 12. 83 117.40
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
.22
0
.58
0
mortgages) -------------- ------------------2. 54
0
0
13.89
0
0
Building and loan shares___________
0
0
0
0
0
0
4.11
0
Stocks and bonds __________________
0
14. 64
0
0
0
0
2. 86
Goods and chattels____ ___________
3. 51
.96
1.88
3.11
.65
1.52
.69
Other property------------------ --------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
.76
Surrender___________________ ____ _
.59
1.45
0
5.41
7.43
1.45
7.86
1.16
Settlement________ _________ ____ _
13.16 38.36
0
5.96
5.85
9.23
0
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others_______________________________
3. 36
0
2.61
8. 36
.03
.06
0
0
105. 37 65.78 115.67 137. 83
Increase in liabilities._______ _____ _____
74.47 62. 51 61.98 128.98
18. 58
Increase in mortgages on own home___
5.20 43.48
0
0
7.88
0
43.12
Increase in other mortgages___________
2.81
0
0
10.00
0
0
0
0
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_________________ _
3.12
2.08
5. 60
.92
2.40
.18
5.16
2.78
Payable to insurance companies_____
1.38
0
0
3.55
4. 57
9.24
0
1.39
Payable to small-loan companies____
9.86
10.98
.86 26.24
4.26
2.02
6.01
6.61
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles..................................... .
24.80 16.22 15.23 48.15
6.98
3.98
3.96 20.45
Other goods_________ ____ ________
23. 29 21.47 20. 55 29. 21
27. 55 25.64 27.21 33.09
1.46
Payable to individuals______________
4.36
2. 39 10. 50
2. 86
2. 92
3.04
2. 36
Other debts___________________ _____
16. 05
9.49 24.01 12. 81
17.97 18. 53 16.60 19.18
Inheritance... ____ __________________
0
0
0
0
2. 32
1.09
5.19
0
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




TABULAR SUMMARY
T

227

4.— D isp o s itio n o f m o n ey received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r , by econom ic level— Continued

able

Louisville, Ky.—Negro
families

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$200

D isp o sitio n
S c h ed u le

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Memphis, Tenn.—White
families

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
Year
N ot
U sed fo r
C u rren t

F a m ily E x p e n d itu r e

74
14
40
20
194
73
Families in survey_______________________
63
58
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
3
0
2
1
On hand. __________________________
3
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
In checking account_______ _________
2
1
0
0
1
1
15
In savings account.. _______ _______
6
8
Investiment in—
1
1
Improvements in own home______
0
0
20
9
9
2
Other real estate (including real es0
0
0
0
2
5
0
tate mortgages) _________ _______
3
1
0
1
Building and loan shares----------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
Stocks and bonds___________________
2
1
0
1
0
2
1
1
Other property--------- -----------------------0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
12
70
39
19
52
157
54
Life insurance---------------------------- ___
51
0
0
0
0
9
0
5
Annuities.. ________ ______ _______
4
1
0
1
0
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
0
0
0
0
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
2
16
10
4
29
11
9
down payment on own home--------- _
9
Payment on principal of other mort­
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
gages—
1
Payment of debts to—
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
Banks_____________ ________________
1
0
0
0
0
3
1
Insurance companies. _ -------------------2
0
3
0
3
1
0
7
5
Small-loan companies.. _______ ____
1
Firms selling on installment plan—
0
0
0
1
0
8
3
Automobiles.. _________ ________
4
2
9
4
3
8
Other goods. ________ ___________
18
6
4
1
0
1
1
0
4
6
1
Individuals-. . _______ __________
1
10
3
5
4
6
0
Other... __________________________
1
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities. . _________ ________ _ -------- $96 41 $115. 37 $95.80 $84. 33 $178.10 $119. 63 $209.14 $218. 20
57.97 69.84 61. 26 43.09 126. 73 78.64 146. 29 165.99
Increase in assets----------------------------------Increase in cash:
.62
0
.65
1.00
2.74
1. 62
On hand. . ________________________
1. 56
0
0
0
3. 50
0
0
0
1. 59
In checking account_________________
9. 97
.70
0
0
2. 60
17.84
1. 37 23.81 32.07
In savings account________________ .
Investment in—
.24
1.29
Improvements in own home_________
0
0
9.98
8.12 18. 94
2.59
Other real estate (including real es­
0
0
0
3. 30
3.15
0
tate mortgages) ------------------0
7.07
. 14
0
.25
0
0
Building and loan shares
__ ______
0
0
0
0
0
0
.84
.74
0
0
Stocks and bonds ______________ _
2.02
0
0
0
.72
1.10
.95
0
Other property------ --------------------------0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
56. 00 68. 55 59. 86 39.49
83.93 62.16 94.42 99. 95
Life insurance_______________________
0
0
4. 22 12. 32
0
0
5.06
0
Annuities- -------------- -----------------------.27
0
.50
0
0
0
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
0
0
38. 44 45. 53 34. 54 41.24
51. 37 40.99 62.85 52. 21
Decrease in liabilities___________________
Payment on principal of mortgages
22.18 32.14 20. 23 19.10
31. 75 26. 36 37.29 32. 52
and down payment on own home___
Payment on principal of other mort­
0
0
0
.98
0
.79
2.41
0
gages-----------------------------------------------Payment of debts to—
.49
.82
0
0
0
0
0
.59
Banks------------------------ ---------------------0
0
0
0
.35
.26
.78
0
Insurance companies. ______________
1. 32
2. 43
0
2.06
4.10
1. 35
.52
0
Small-loan companies._____ ________
Firms selling on installment plan:
0
0
0
0
6. 46
3.70
6.16 10.26
Automobiles______________________
5. 66
4. 27
7. 61
11.05 12. 37
9.01 14. 20
5. 31
Other goods_______________________
4. 80
.34
1.30
0
0
3.11
8.87
.34
Individuals__________ ___________
2. 59
1. 02
2. 87
3. 14
.51 1 1.14
0
.26
Other. __________ ________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




228
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
ex pen d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r fa m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule yea r, b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Memphis, Tenn.—White
families— Continued

Louisville, Ky.—Negro
families—C ontinued

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
$200
$400
Under
to
and
$200
$400
over

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per
expenditure
unit per year
$600
$400
Under
and
to
$400
$600
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a i l a b l e fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey________________________
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand.. . . ___________________
In checking account______ __________
In savings a c c o u n t ._____ _________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages) ------ ----- -------------Building and loan shares____ _____ _
Stocks and bonds_____________ _. .
Goods and chattels__________________
Other property________________ ____
Insurance policies:
Surrender. _________________________
Settlement______________________ . . .
Reductions in outstanding loans to
others_____________________ _______
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages_________ _
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks___________ _____ _
Payable to insurance companies_____
Payable to small-loan companies..
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan.
Automobiles______________ _______
Other goods. ______________ ____ _
Payable to individuals___________ _
Other debts________________________
Inheritance___________________________ .
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities_________ ____________________
Decrease in assets_______________________
Reduction in cash:
On hand __________ _______ ________
In checking account_______________ .
In savings account_______________ ._
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
m ortgages)...___ _________ _ . . .
Building and loan shares____ ______
Stocks and bonds___________________
Goods and chattels...____ _______ _
Other property_____________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender________________________ __
Settlement____________ ____________
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others... __________ ____ _________ _
Increase in liabilities____ _____________
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages................. .
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks __________________
Payable to insurance companies_____
Payable to small-loan companies. . . .
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles.......................................
Other goods----------------------------------Payable to individuals---------------------Other debts_________________________
Inheritance _. ______ _________________

74

40

20

194

73

63

58

0
0
2

0
0
0

0
0
2

0
0
0

4
6
16

1
1
2

0
2
7

3
3
7

0
0
0
3
0

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1
0

1
1
1
9
1

0
0
0
4
0

1
1
1
3
1

0
0
0
2
0

4
1

1
0

3
0

0
1

9
2

3
2

4
0

2
0

2

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

2
0

0
0

1
0

1
0

0
1
3

0
0
1

0
1
2

0
0
0

10
8
13

2
2
6

3
3
5

5
3
2

2
19
6
20
0

0
2
1
3
0

1
10
2
8
0

1
7
3
9
0

17
63
2
38
0

2
22
2
11
0

6
22
0
12
0

9
19
0
15
0

$43.17 $34. 30 $43. 91 $47.95 $137. 00 $50. 96 $129.43 $253. 50
4. 25
35. 48 16.14 29. 89 65. 86
10.00 12. 43 12. 03

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




14

0
0
1.86

0
0
0

0
0
3. 45

0
0
0

3. 02
6.19
15. 25

1.51
.34
1.58

0
9. 52
12. 75

8.19
9.91
35.20

0
0
0
1.49
0

0
0
0
4.29
0

0
0
0
.62
0

0
0
0
1.25
0

.52
.46
.21
3. 44
.13

0
0
0
2. 05
0

1.59
1. 43
.63
1.41
.40

0
0
0
7. 39
0

5. 55
.81

8.14
0

7.42
0

0
3.00

5.19
.92

7. 81
2.44

2.16
0

5.17
0

.29
33.17
0
0

0
21.87
0
0

.54
31.88
0
0

0
43.70
0
0

.15
101. 52
1.05
0

.41
34. 82
0
0

0
.68
3. 61

0
0
4.29

0
1. 25
5.19

4.69
8.92
7. 81

1. 96
1.85
5.48

2. 02
13.02
9. 38

11.03
13. 36
9.05

2.50
13. 49
3. 30
9. 59
0

0
5.59
3. 57
8. 42
0

3. 22
12. 47
1. 79
7.96
0

22.79
31.93
1.37
22. 96
0

1.85
13. 30
3. 63
6. 75
0

31.02
30.38
0
12.16
0

40. 21
57.06
0
55.10
0

0
0
0
2. 81
21. 07
6.15
13.67
0

0
0
99. 54 187. 64
1. 56
1.83
0
0

TABULAR

T

229

SUM M ARY

4.— D isp o s itio n o f m o n ey received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly u se f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule ye a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Item

Memphis, Tenn.—Negro
families
Economic le v e l—
Families spending
All
per expenditure
fami­
unit per year
lies
$100
$200
$400
to
to
and
$200
$400
over

Mobile, Ala.—White
families
Economic level—
Families spending
All
per expenditure
fami­
unit per year
lies
$600
Under $400
to
and
$400
$600
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S c h ed u le Y e a r N o t U s e d fo r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p en d itu r e

Families in survey________________________
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
On hand___________ ______ _________
In checking account_________________
In savings account__________________
Investment in—
Improvements in own home________
Other real estate (including real
estate mortgages) _ _______________
Building and loan shares_____ _ _ _
Stocks and bonds____________
Other property_____________________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance_______________________
Annuities. . . . ____ . . . ________ . . .
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home_______
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages------------ -------------- -----------------Payment of debts to—
Banks. ________
________________
Insurance companies ______________
Small-loan companies... __ ________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles_______________ ______
Other goods_________________ _
Individuals_____________________ . . .
Other. _____________________________

94

24

52

18

146

74

41

31

0
0
3

0
0
0

0
0
2

0
0
1

1
4
16

0
0
3

1
2
10

0
2
3

5

1

1

3

7

2

5

0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
2
2

0
0
0
1

1
0
2
1

0
0
0
0

90
1
0

22
0
0

51
0
0

17
1
0

133
15
1

68
5
1

38
4
0

27
6
0

7

2

2

3

16

7

7

2

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1
0
3

0
0
0

0
0
3

1
0
0

1
0
3

0
0
0

0
0
1

1
0
2

1
8
4
1

0
1
0
1

1
5
4
0

0
2
0
0

4
26
4
45

1
6
1
23

2
9
1
15

1
11
2
7

Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities________________________________ $76. 36 $78.17 $60. 44 $120.04 $185.06 $123.18 $308. 59 $169.36
97.24 72.26 137. 34 103.83
Increase in assets______ _______ _________
53. 21 63.93 38. 79 80. 64
Increase in cash:
.21
.75
On hand. _ _ ______________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
In checking account________________
2.11
0
2.29
6.90
0
0
0
0
11.13
1.56 25.89 14. 45
In savings account__________________
1. 59
2. 40
1.39
0
Investment in—
Improvements in own home. _____
10.09 27.08
.49 15.17
5. 69
2.13 16. 41
0
Other real estate (including real
.84
0
3.00
0
estate mortgages). _ _________ ____
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares______ __ . . .
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.14
4. 06
Stocks and bonds . . .
________ _
0
0
0
0
0
0
.41
Other property. _______
___ ___
0
0
0
0
.67
1.65
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
40.85 36.85 35.90 60. 50
69. 32 61. 91 80. 93 71.64
Life insurance_________ _______ _____
Annuities.. ____ _ _ _ __________
4. 45
2.93
2. 36 10. 84
.68
0
0
3. 58
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
1.68
3. 32
0
0
0
0
0
0
Decrease in liabilities. _. . . . ____ ____
87.82 50. 92 171. 25 65. 53
23.15 14. 24 21.65 39. 40
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home_______
5. 50
3. 07 23. 51
36.80 15.42 95. 58 10. 07
7. 60
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages----------------------- ---------- --------------.96
0
1.73
1.13
0
0
5. 33
0
Payment of debts to—
2. 55
0
0
Banks..................... ................................ .
.51
0
2. 38
13. 33
0
Insurance companies. ........................ .
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2. 34
.83
Small-loan companies____ __ ______
0
1.50
1.91
0
4.23
0
Firms selling on installment plan:
.85
1. 54
5.94
4. 44
Automobiles_____________ _______
0
0
7.31
4.59
6. 26 16. 75 21.63
4.75
4.29
5. 72
2. 56
12. 47
Other goods____ _ ______ _ _ . . .
Individuals.. . . . _____ _ ________
2.96
5.36
1.78
o
0
1.26
1.50
3. 42
Other_____________ . . . ____________ !
1. 141 4.45
0
0
28. 36 20. 67 51.33 16. 35
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.
74390°— 41------- 16




230
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule ye a r , by econom ic level— Continued

able

Item

Memphis, Tenn— Negro
families—Continued
Economic le v e l—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
$400
lies Under $200
to
and
$200
over
$400

Mobile, Ala.—White
families—Continued
Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
lies
$400
$600
Under
to
and
$400
$600
over

F u n d s M a d e A ia ila b le fo r F a m ily U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O t h e r T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S c h ed u le Y e a r

94

Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities___ . . . i ---------------------------------Decrease in assets.. ------------------------------Reduction in cash:
On hand____________________________
In checking account-------------------------In savings account................................
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages).. ----------- --------------------Building and loan shares____________
Stocks and bonds-----------------------------Goods and chattels--------------------------Other property............ ........................
Insurance policies:
Surrender........... ................................... .
Settlement---------------------------------------Receipts from outstanding loans to
others____________ ____ ____ ______
______
Increase in liabilities______ _
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages___________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks___________________
Payable to insurance companies_____
Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles_______________ ______
Other goods-------------- ------- - ..............
Payable to individuals. ........................
Other debts_____________ __________ _
Inheritance----- -------------------------------------

52

18

146

74

41

31

0
0
0

0
0
0

1
0
1

2
4
17

2
0
8

0
1
4

0
3
5

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
2
12
5

1
0
0
8
1

0
0
1
3
1

0
0
1
1
3

2
9

0
3

2
3

0
3

3
3

2
1

1
1

0
1

0

0

0

0

2

1

1

0

4
0

2
0

1
0

1
0

13
1

5
0

5
0

3
1

0
2
5

0
1
2

0
1
1

0
0
2

5
3
8

2
2
7

1
1
0

2
0
1

1
24
3
7

0
6
2
1
0

1
12
1
5
1

0
6
0
1
0

10
61
17
59
0

3
32
9
28
0

4
10
4
18
0

3
19
4
13
0

1

$60. 61 $86.45 $25.31 $128.17 $157. 72 $95. 30 $202.90 $246.85
21. 76
7. 33
52. 34 21. 91 101.00 60. 55
8.83 78. 33

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




24

1
0
1

Families in survey________________________
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand.........._ ... ..................................
In checking account........... ................. In savings account________ _______ __
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)----------- - ------------------Building and loan shares __............. .
Stocks and bonds. _ ---------------------Goods and chattels__________________
Other property........................... ..........
Insurance policies:
Surrender........... .......... ........................
Settlement------------------------------------Reductions in outstanding loans to
others______________________________
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home----Increase in other mortgages.....................
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks______________ ____
Payable to insurance companies-------Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles______________ ____
Other goods. . .
---------------------Payable to individuals______________
Other debts----------------------------------—
Inheritance _ ....................... .......................

2.13
0
.53

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
.78
0

0
0
0
3.04
0

0
0
0
0
0

.95
17.37

0
4.29

1.71
7.12

0
38.85
16. 34
0

0
79.12
53.38
0

0
.69
4.12
1.33
12,68
1.95
1.74
2.13

1. 01
2.13
26.85

1.99
0
11.28

0
1. 50
58. 02

0
8.05
22.78

.70
0
8.87
4.82
1.42

1.39
0
0
4. 27
.02

0
0
23. 54
2. 74
.28

0
0
10. 63
8.88
6. 25

0
64.44

1.77
3.81

1.74
1.20

3.17
8.39

0
3.96

0
16. 48
2. 52
0

0
49.84
6.91
0

.96
105. 38
23.9S
2.67

0
2.08
1.75

0
.29
1.35

0
0
15.28

1.85
2. 33
2.80

.63
1.62
4.48

1.50
5.37
0

5.19
0
2.50

0
14. 03
7.46
.42
0

2.40
7.16
.08
2.68
3.85

0
26.82
0
.83
0

10.02
30.36
6.04
25.39
0

7.82
23.08
4.09
19.47
0

12.71
14.28
10.22
24.94
0

11.72
69.00
5.16
40.08
0

11.11
0
2.78
0
0
0
0
0

.02
3. 36
0
73. 39 101. 90 186.30
12.20 32.88 40.07
0
0
12.58

231

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r} by econom ic level— Continued

able

Mobile, A la —Negro
families
Economic level—
Families spend­
ing per expendi­
All
ture unit per
fami­
year
lies
Un­ $200 $400
to
der
and
$200 $400 over

Item

D isp o sitio n

of M on ey

R ec eiv e d

D u r in g

New Orleans, La.—White
families

All
fami­
lies

Economic level— Fami­
lies spending per ex­
penditure unit per year
Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

th e

S c h ed u le Y e a r N o t U se d f o r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p e n d itu r e

Families in survey ..
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
On hand__________________ __________
In checking account__________________
In savings account—. ......... .......... ..........
Investment in—
Improvements in own home____ _____
Other real estate (including real estate
mortgages)_____________ _____ _____
Building and loan shares........ ................
Stocks and bonds......... ...........................
Other property._ ____________________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance________________________
Annuities_______ ______ _____________
Increase in outstanding loans to others...
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home_________
Payment on principal of other mort­
gages—
Payment of debts to—
Banks_________ _________ _____ _____
Insurance companies.......... ............ ........
Small-loan companies_________________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles_________________ _____
Other goods________________________
Individuals.. ............. .......................... .
Other_________ ____ ________ ________
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities_________________________________
Increase in assets...................................... .......
Increase in cash:
On hand________________ _____ ______
In checking account__________________
In savings account___________ _______
Investment in—
Improvements in own home__________
Other real estate including real estate
mortgages..
_______ ____________
Building and loan shares.....................
Stocks and b o n d s . _________________
Other property_______________________
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
Life insurance______________ _________
Annuities____________________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others.__
Decrease in liabilities. ____ ___________
Payment on principal of mortgages and
down payment on own home.________
Payment on principal of other mortgages..
Payment of debts to—
Banks......... ........ ....................... ...........
Insurance companies_________________
Small-loan companies................ ...........
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles_______________________
Other goods. ........................................
Individuals....... ................................. .......
Other________________________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




94

31

51

12

318

97

60

108

53

1
0
6

0
0
1

1
0
3

0
0
2

18
9
15

3
0
1

5
2
4

8
4
5

2
3
5

2

0

1

1

12

1

2

7

2

1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

2
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
1
0

1
0
0
0

79
3
2

26
0
0

44
2
1

9
1
1

219
10
4

58
0
0

43
2
1

80
6
2

38
2
1
4

7

3

3

1

26

3

8

11

0

0

0

0

7

0

2

4

1

0
0
4

0
0
2

0
0
2

0
0
0

0
0
13

0
0
1

0
0
5

0
0
6

0
0
1

2
19
1
9

0
8
0
2

0
8
1
5

2
3
0
2

3
19
2
16

1
4
0
3

1
3
1
5

1
8
1
4

0
4
0
4

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

60. 62 63. 54 62.14 71. 76
40. 63 34. 29 44. 60 40. 22
.60
0
2. 01

0
0
.11

1.11
0
2. 72

.20

0

.11

.78
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1.44
0
0
0

D o l.

0
0
3. 94

4.40
3.04
7. 37

1.12

3.98

0
0
0
0

.75
0
.02
0

36.12 34.18 38.10 32. 71
.72 0
.79 2. 26
.33
.20 0
. 19
19.89 19. 25 17. 54 31.54

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

95. 30 49.11 112.08 120.86 108.80
74.07 40.12 81. 71 94.09 86.75
.67
0
.76
.35
0
0
0
0

8.41
6.80
6.09

7.30
.77
3.43 3.58
8.20 19.23

1.50

8. 55

4.13

0
0
0
0

2.05
0
.07
0

.31
0
0
0

48. 38 38. 34 56.27 48.98 56.58
2. 02 0
1. 90 3.85 2.09
4.11 0
.74 11.66
.06
21.23 8. 99 30.37 26. 77 22.05

6.10
0

6.23
0

6.27
0

5.06
0

8. 25
1.62

2.72 14.11
0
2.20

9. 73
3.35

8.73
.41

0
0
1. 44

0
0
2.19

0
0
1. 33

0
0
0

0
0
2.91

0
0
.08

0
0
4.05

0
0
5.79

0
0
.93

2.04
5.83
.24
4.24

0
7.87
0
2. 96

0
16.01
4.41 6. 59
.44 0
5. 09 3.88

1.69
3. 55
.44
2. 77

2.79
1.44
0
1.96

1.74
4.94
1. 62
1. 71

1.50
4.50
.41
1.49

0
3.91
0
8.07

232
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 . — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
ex pen d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r fa m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in co m e in schedule ye a r } by econom ic level— Continued

able

Mobile, Ala.—Negro
families—Continued
Economic level—
Families spend­
ing per expendi­
All
ture unit per
fami­
year
lies
Un­ $200 $400
der
to
and
$200 $400 over

New Orleans, La.—White
families— Continued

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—-Families spending per expenditure unit per year
Un­
der
$300

$300
to
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a i l a b l e f o r F a m i l y XJse F r o m
S ou rces
O th er
Than
F a m ily
In co m e
in
S ch ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey_____________ _________
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand__________________ ____ _____
In checking account________________
In savings account____________ ___
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mortgages)---------------------------------------------Building and loan shares_____________
Stocks and bonds__________________ _
Goods and chattels_____________ _____
Other property____ _____ ____________
Insurance policies:
Surrender__________________________ .
Settlement_____ ______ ______________
Reductions in outstanding loans to
others__________________
__________
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home_____
Increase in other mortgages_____________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_____ ______ _______
Payable to insurance companies. . . __
Payable to small-loan companies._
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
Automobiles_______________________
Other goods.. _____________________
Payable to individuals........ ................
Other debts_____________ ____ _______
Inheritance____________________________ _
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities___
_ ___ ____ _______________
Decrease in assets_______________________
Reduction in cash:
On hand ________ __________ _______
In checking account________ _____
__
In savings account________________ _ .
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mort­
gages) —
Building and loan shares.____ _______
Stocks and bonds____________________
Goods and chattels__________ _______
Other property_____________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender____________________________
Settlement_____________ ____________
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others________________________________
Increase in liabilities____________
____ _
Increase in mortgages on own home_____
Increase in other mortgages_____________
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_____________ _______
Payable to insurance companies.____
Payable to small-loan companies_____
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
Automobiles. .......................................
Other goods____________ _________
Payable to individuals_________ _____
Other debts____________ _____________
Inheritance______________________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




94

31

51

12

318

97

60

108

53

2
1
5

0
0
0

2
1
3

0
0
2

12
4
18

4
0
0

3
0
1

2
2
9

3
2
8

1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
5
0

0
0
0
4
0

1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
7

0
3

0
2

0
2

19
5

4
2

4
2

7
0

4
1

0

0

0

0

5

1

0

0

4

4
0

2
0

2
0

0
0

2
1

0
1

0
0

2
0

0
0

0
2
4

0
0
1

0
2
3

0
0
0

5
6
30

0
2
5

0
1
6

4
2
11

1
1
8

4
32
5
37
0

0
10
3
17
0

2
21
1
16
0

2
1
1
4
0

8
65
19
68
3

0
10
8
21
0

1
15
2
13
0

2
25
7
20
1

5
15
2
14
2

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

64. 26 39. 69 65. 80 121.32
21.14 6.67 20.11 62.96
2.10
1.20
3.29

0
0
0

3.88
2. 22
5.03

0
0
4. 37

2. 40
0
.96
0
.02

0
0
0
0
0

4. 43
0
1. 77
0
.04

0
0
0
0
0

0
6. 67

0
0
2.74 58. 59

0
11.17

0
0
0
0
43.12 33.02 45. 69 58. 36
8. 69 8. 67 10. 75 0
0
0
0
0
0
.12
1.64

0
0
1. 51

0
.23
2.10

0
0
0

7. 50 0
3. 35 44.54
13.25 7.80 19.58
.44
.94 1.22
.66 1. 41
10.98 13.82 9.02 11.97
0
0
0
0

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

D o l.

79. 86 31.28 63.26 88. 32 170.46
29.28 7.02 28.04 25. 34 79. 51
2.91
1. 75
14.18

2.26
0
0

2.05
.63 9. 71
0
3.70 2.98
8. 09 14.74 45.89

.15
.42
.12
.42
0

0
0
0
1.30
0

.80
0
0
0
0

0
0
.34
.08
0

0
2. 53
0
0
0

6. 52
1. 52

2. 46 14.89
.56 2. 21

5.85
0

5.83
5.62

1.29
.44 0
0
6. 95
50.58 24. 26 35. 22 62.98 90.95
1.84 0
5. 41 0
0
.02
.07 0
0
0
.75
1.97
7. 33

0
0
.53
.80
1.35 11.96

1.54 1.39
2. 57 4. 50
7.83 12.05

6. 43 0
.59 5. 72 26. 27
11. 68 2.54 11. 42 15.28 21.39
4.49 4. 62
.59 5.14 7. 35
16.07 14.88 10.13 19. 49 18.00
4. 21 0
0
1.59 22.02

233

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

,

4 — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received d uring schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure, and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i l y use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule yea r, by econom ic level— Continued

able

New Orleans, La.—Negro
families

Item

All
families

Economic le v e l —
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Un­
der
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Norfolk-Portsmouth, Va.—
White families

All
families

Economic l e v e l —
Families spending
per exp end iture
unit per year
Un­
der
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S ch ed u le Y e a r N o t U s e d f o r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p e n d itu r e

83
40
16
________ _
27
162
48
63
Families in survey___ __ __
51
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
2
2
2
3
6
4
1
On hand_______ ____________________
0
0
4
In checking account_________ _______
0
0
8
0
0
4
1
2
In savings account________ ________
3
0
33
3
16
14
Investment in—
1
Improvements in own home..............
0
0
5
0
0
0
4
Other real estate (including real es2
tate mortgages)____ ___________ __
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
Stocks and bonds______________ _ _
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
Other property_____ ___ ________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
58
49
14
25
10
145
43
Life insurance___ ____ ______ __ _ __
44
3
0
6
13
Annuities___________________________
3
29
0
10
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
5
2
2
8
10
down payment on own home___
1
26
8
Payment on principal of other mort­
2
1
1
0
gages—
0
0
0
0
Payment of debts to:
1
0
1
Banks _____________________________
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance companies_______ _____
0
1
2
1
1
4
4
3
Small-loan companies___________ . . .
0
Firms selling on installment plan:
1
3
3
0
Automobiles_______ ____ _________
1
0
0
0
8
3
2
16
4
8
3
4
Other goods___________________ . . .
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Individuals_________________________
0
2
Other.. _____ ________________ _ ..
2
1
1
7
3
0
2
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities.. _____ ____________ _________
$47. 67 $40. 29 $45. 81 $64. 78 $196. 49 $133. 95 $235. 40 $207. 34
Increase in assets.__ ___________________
32.85 24.68 34. 81 41.72 141. 65 87. 93 156. 61 173. 75
Increase in cash:
8.23
3. 64
5. 70 17.04
1. 67
On hand___ ______________ _______
4.72
.15
0
0
7.85
0
13. 34
8.47
In checking account________________
0
0
0
In savings account________ _________
.83
.12
24. 27
3. 54 34.03 31. 74
1. 65
0
Investment in—
1. 59 24. 53
0
0
8. 34
0
Improvements in own home_________
0
0
Other real estate (including real es­
4.14
0
.71 12. 25
tate mortgages)______________ . . .
0
0
0
0
.46
0
0
Building and loan shares. ______________
0
0
1. 47
0
0
0
2. 06
Stocks and bonds. . . __________ ____
0
0
.65
0
0
0
Other property______________ ______
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
79.97 61.23 92. 23 82.47
25. 57 24.41 24. 93 29.13
Life insurance_____________________ _
Annuities___ __ . . . ____ __ ____ ______
1.73
0
0
8.95
10.12
5.60 13.04 10. 76
.52
0
0
Increase in outstanding loans to others.
0
0
0
0
.15
14.82 15. 61 11.00 23.06
54.84 46.02 78.79 33. 59
Decrease in liabilities___________ __________ . i
Payment on principal of mortgages and ’
3. 32
5. 67
4. 53
41.01 25.83 63. 21 27.88
down payment on own home_____ _
6. 52
Payment on principal of other mort­
1.80
2.86
0
4. 53
0
0
0
0
gages-------------------------------------Payment of debts to—
0
.35
0
.90
0
0
0
0
Banks_______________ ______________
.64
1. 33
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance companies______________
.33
1. 59
1. 75
0
1.27
1.82
1. 51
1.15
Small-loan companies... ______ . . .
Firms selling on installment plan:
.07
.14
3.08 10. 41
0
0
0
0
Automobiles. __________ ___________
6.80
3. 62
6. 67 12. 49
6.34
5.02
9.08
4,21
Other goods....... .............. ......... _ i _
1. 57
0
.61
0
0
0
0
Individuals... _________________ . . .
o
.92!
| 2.28
.37
0
1 2.30i
| 3.17
2.28
1.50
Other.. _ __________________ _______
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637




234
T

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

4 .— D isp o sitio n o f m o n ey received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure, and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly u se f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule yea r, b y econom ic level — Continued

able

Item

Norfolk-Portsmouth, Va.—
White families—Continued
Economic l e v e l —
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
Un­
lies
$400
$600
der
to
and
$400
$600
over

New Orleans, La.—Negro
families—Continued
Economic le v e l —
Families spending
per expenditure
All
unit per year
fami­
$400
Un­
$200
lies
and
der
to
$400
over
$200

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m i l y U se F r o m
S o u r c e s O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S ch ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey________________________
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand.. __ ______________________
In checking account____ ____________
In savings account__________________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)________________________
Building and loan shares.....................
Stocks and bonds_________ ______
Goods and chattels____ _____ _______
Other property..................................
Insurance policies:
Surrender. .............................................
Settlement______ _________________
Reductions in outstanding loans to
others______ _______________________
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages.................
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks_______ ___________
Payable to insurance companies_____
Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles__________ ____ ______
Other goods.._ _ _______________
Payable to individuals........ .................
Other debts_____________ ___________
Inheritance___________ _______ _________
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities______ _________________________
Decrease in assets______________ ____ ___
Reduction in cash:
On hand____________________________
In checking account_________ _______
In savings account__________________
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)________________________
Building and loan shares.....................
Stocks and bonds...................................
Goods and chattels_____________ ____
Other property.......................................
Insurance policies:
Surrender.................................................
Settlement____ ______ _____________
Receipts from outstanding loans to
others_______ , ______________________
Increase in liabilities___ _____ __________
Increase in mortgages on own home___
Increase in other mortgages....................
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks.,.......................... .
Payable to insurance comapnies.........
Payable to small-loan companies____
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan:
Automobiles. ........................ .............
Other goods_________ _____________
Payable to individuals______________
Other debts_________________________
Inheritance_______ _______________ ____ _

83

40

16

162

48

63

51

1
0
5

0
0
2

1
0
2

0
0
1

1
3
12

1
0
1

0
2
5

0
1
6

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0

1
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

2
4

0
1

2
0

0
3

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

5
0

1
0

2
0

2
0

0
0
4

0
0
1

0
0
2

0
0
1

10
5
14

2
0
5

5
5
4

3
0
5

0
19
2
7
0

0
3
1
2
0

0
12
1
4
0

0
4
0
1
0

18
58
11
62
0

1
15
4
20
0

8
27
4
27
0

9
16
3
15
0

$20.72
2.49

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




27

$8.42 $26.62 $26. 77 $161.03 $77. 22 $165. 50 $234.43
3.67
3.42
38.15 13. 75 36.13 63.63
.23

.79
0
1.37

0
0
.23

1.65
0
1.33

0
0
3. 42

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

.33
0

0
0

.69
0

1. 85
15.74
7. 73

6.25
0
1.04

0
0
0
0
0

3. 36
0
0
.09
.37

0
0
0
0
1. 25

0
0
0
0
0

10. 69
0
0
.29
0

0
0

.72
8.23

0
5. 21

1.84
0

0
21.25

0
24.60
9.69

0
19. 61
11.59

0
18.23
0
.79

0
8.19
0
0

0
22.95
0
1.65

0
23. 35
0
0

.06
122.88
14.45
0

0
0
3.11

0
0
3.05

0
0
4.17

0
0
.55

10.61
4.23
6.61

2.08
0
4.79

8.39
10.89
2.81

21.37
0
13.01

0
10.56
1.69
2.08
0

0
2.83
.10
2.21
0

0
11.48
3.43
2.22
0

0
21.29
0
1.51
0

17.96
40. 77
5. 71
22.54
0

1.15
26. 71
2.10
24. 73
0

14.28
43.00
11.03
26.96
0

38.33
51.26
2.55
15.00
0

0
0
.20
63.47 129. 37 170.80
1.91 12.01 29.28
0
0
0

235

TABULAR SUM M ARY
T

4. — D isp o s itio n o f m o n ey received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expenditure , and fu n d s m ade available f o r fa m i ly use f r o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule y e a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

able

Norfolk-Portsmouth, Va.—
Negro families

Item

All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Richmond, Va.—White
families

AH
fami­
lies

Econom ic le v e l—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e i v e d D u r i n g th e
S c h ed u le Y e a r N o t U se d f o r C u r r e n t F a m i l y
E x p e n d itu r e

29
52
28
192
109
69
Families in survey_______ ________________
66
57
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
0
0
0
8
0
0
4
On hand___________________ _____
4
1
0
0
1
4
1
In checking account___ ____ ________
1
2
1
1
3
15
1
5
In savings account__________________
6
8
Investment in—
0
0
0
8
2
2
Improvements in own home_________
0
4
Other real estate (including real es1
0
0
0
1
0
tate mortgages)_____________ _____
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds___________________
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
1
Other property_____________________
0
1
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
185
99
26
47
26
67
62
Life insurance.______ _______________
56
4
9
8
5
17
3
3
Annuities__________ _______________
3
4
0
1
1
Increase in outstanding loans to others. _
0
0
2
0
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and
4
19
6
3
13
5
9
down payment on own home_________
5
Payment on principal of other mort­
4
0
0
2
0
1
0
gages—
1
Payment of debts to—
0
0
0
6
0
2
0
4
Banks_________________ __________ _
2
0
0
0
1
1
0
Insurance companies...... ......................
0
1
4
0
5
4
1
3
Small-loan companies_______ _______
0
Firms selling on installment plan:
1
8
1
4
1
0
0
Automobiles........ ............. .................
3
4
5
33
14
14
16
7
5
Other goods_______ ______ ________
2
2
1
1
9
4
0
3
Individuals_______ ____ ________ ___
2
21
5
3
0
7
9
Other________________________ ______
5
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
$91.88 $95. 73 $78.17 $113. 28 $196. 61 $137. 25 $201.98 $262.28
bilities_____ _____ __________________
72. 92
70. 74 61.25 96.83 129. 61 99.70 110.11 188.42
Increase in assets.._____ ______ ____ _
Increase in cash:
1. 59
2.19
0
0
0
0
2.83
On hand__________________ _____ ___
0
1.29
.16
1.23
2. 74
7.14
In checking account......................... .
1.83
0
0
.21 22.64
15.30
1.98 14. 73 32.09
In savings account__________________
8.91 11.24
Investment in—
8.79
3.10
5.28 19.73
Improvements in own hom e________
0
0
0
0
Other real estate (including real0
0
0
0
0
0
1. 52
estate mortgages)_____ ________ _
.73
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares____________
0
0
5.59
0
0
18.83
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds_______ _______ ___
0
2.31
1.63
0
5.80
Other property______________________
0
0
0
0
Payment of premiums for insurance
policies:
92.69 90.26 85.33 104.17
Life insurance_______________________
56.18 55.10 55.18 59.14
1.12
.92
1.61
.77
5. 27
4.40
4. 34
7.91
Annuities_______________ _________
.93
.96
.43
Increase in outstanding loans to others __
0
0
0
0
1.46
67.00 37.55 91.87 73.86
18.96 24.99 16.92 16.45
Decrease in liabilities___________________
Payment on principal of mortgages and
7. 21
down payment on own home________
20.41
8.01 32.43 21.51
10.60 20.04
7.16
Payment on principal of other mort­
.96
2.40
2.99
3.48
0
0
0
gages----------------------- ---------------- --------0
Payment of debts to—
0
6.35 14.04
0
0
6.35
0
0
Banks___________________ ________
.34
.50
.47
0
Insurance companies...........................
0
0
0
0
.74
.56
0
1. 57
.50
4.06
0
Small-loan companies_______________
1.78
Firms selling on installment plan:
1.44 13.43
7.74
.83
0
0
3.21
7.43
Automobiles_____ _______ ________
5.81
2.00
8.15
5. 39
18.07 17.17 21.28 15.43
Other goods___ _____ ______ ____ _
2.82
.44
0
.58
.64
3.92
.87
3.72
Individuals.......... ............. ............. .......
0
7.61 1 5.05
9.99
7.94
.54
1.17
.47
Other_______________________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




236
T able

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

.

4 — D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
expen ditu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than
f a m i ly in com e in schedule ye a r , b y econom ic level— Continued

Norfolk-Portsmouth, Va.—
Negro families—Continued |
Item
All
fami­
lies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under
$200

$200
to
$400

$400
and
over

Richmond, Va.—White
families—Continued

All
fami­
lies

E conom ic le v e l—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Under
$400

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a ila b le fo r F a m ily U s e F r o m
S o u r c e s O th er T h a n F a m i l y I n c o m e in
S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey________________________
29
52
109
192
28
69
66
57
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand........................................... .......
1
0
1
0
3
1
1
1
In checking account_________ _______
1
1
2
0
4
1
2
1
In savings account............. ..................
0
1
0
1
27
8
6
13
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
0
mortgages) ----------------------------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares........... ..........
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds..................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Goods and chattels___________ ____ _
0
0
0
11
0
1
5
5
Other property.....................................
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
Surrender___________________________
1
0
0
1
14
8
3
3
2
0
0
2
5
Settlement...........................................
1
1
3
Reductions in outstanding loans to
others.. ____________________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Increase in liabilities:
1
Increase in mortgages on own home___
2
1
0
4
3
0
1
Increase in other mortgages___________
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
Increase in debts:
1
0
1
Payable to banks......................... ........
0
10
3
3
4
0
Payable to insurance companies_____
0
0
0
10
1
6
3
Payable to small-loan companies_____
3
9
3
3
6
2
3
1
Payable to firms selling on installment
plan:
1
Automobiles............................... .......
0
1
0
12
3
4
5
7
21
Other goods........... .......... ..................
12
56
40
16
26
14
2
7
Payable to individuals_____ ________
9
0
9
6
2
1
25
Other debts______ ____ _____ _______
15
95
8
48
43
28
24
0
0
0
Inheritances____________________________
0
0
0
0
0
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities.......................................................... $67.04 $39.24 $61. 29 $106.49 $159.06 $117.20 $128. 65 $245.00
Decrease in assets_______________________
.97
1.16 21.93
6.44
52.62 27.15 28.40 111. 52
Reduction in cash:
On hand___________________ ________
0
.58
0
.59
1.05
.28
.50
.12
.97
0
In checking account_________ ______ _
.53
.58
3.44
1.00
.30 10.03
0
In savings account__________________
0
.17
.68
25.88
6.09 10.76 67.35
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate
mortgages)_________________ ____
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Building and loan shares......................
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Stocks and bonds___________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Goods and chattels__________________
0
0
0
0
2.10
1.92
2.01
2.44
Other property__ _____ _____________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance policies:
1.65
Surrender___________________________
0
0
6.43
5.72 10.39
3.80
2.30
0
14.82
0
14.89
Settlement___________________ . .
3.81
6.70 11.03 29.28
Receipts from outstanding loans to
0
0
0
0
0
others.. ...... ................... .......................
0
0
0
Increase in liabilities. __________ __ . . .
60.60 38.27 60.13 84. 56 106.44 90.05 100.25 133.48
5.15
0
4. 72
Increase in mortgages on own home___
1.46
.20
7.16
0
7. 24
Increase in other mortgages...................
0
0
0
0
2. 75
0
0
9.28
Increase in debts:
0
0
2.32
.60
8. 21
2.17
5. 52 18.63
Payable to banks_____ _____________
0
0
0
Payable to insurance companies ___
0
6. 25
.34 11.14
7.7.5
2.65 13.82
Payable to small-loan companies____
5.66
3.16
2.89
2.02
4.44
2.14
Payable to firms selling on install­
ment plan;
1.62
0
3.39
0
15. 32
7.27 14. 62 25.88
Automobiles______________________
29.40
9.34 23.05 61.94
22. 36 14. 52 31.11 21.72
Other goods___________ ___________
2. 57
.83
4.93
0
4. 67
4.24
5.99
Payable to individuals______ _______
3. 65
6.48
39. 27 52. 33 27. 43 37.19
19.29 19.79 25.91
Other debts_________________________
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Inheritance_______________ ____________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




237

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 4 . —

D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule ye a r not used f o r current
ex p en d itu re , and fu n d s m ade available f o r f a m i ly use fr o m sources other than fa m i ly
in com e in schedule y e a r , b y econ om ic level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , VA .—NEGRO FAM ILIES

Item

All fami­
lies

Economic level— F a m ilies
spending per expenditure
unit per year
$100 to
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

D i s p o s i t i o n o f M o n e y R e c e iv e d D u r i n g th e S c h e d u le Y e a r N o t U s e d
fo r C u rren t F a m ily E x p en d itu r e

Families in survey______ _____________________________ ______
Number of families disposing of funds in—
Increase in assets:
Increase in cash:
In checking account____________ ____ ____
__________
In savings accounts ____________ ___ ____
_ _ _ __
Investment in—
Improvemens in own home______ __________ ________
Other real estate (including real estate mortgages) _____
Building and loan shares____________________ _________
Stocks and bonds____________________________________
Other property______________________ _________________
Payment of premiums for insurance policies:
Life insurance_____ ____________________________________
Annuities_________________ _______ ___________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others___________________
Decrease in liabilities:
Payment on principal of mortgages and down payment
on own home_____ ___________
__ ________________
Payment on principal of other mortgages_________________
Payment of debts to—
Banks
_______________________________________
Insurance companies_____________ ____________________
Small-loan companies. __ __________________________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles________ ;________________________________
Other goods__________________________________________
Individuals____________________________________________
Other
____________________________________________
Average amount of funds disposed in—
Increase in assets and/or decrease in liabilities. ____________
Increase in assets___________ _______________________________
Increase in cash:
On hand
_ _________________________________________
In checking account____________________________________
In savings account_____________________________________
Investment in—
Improvements in own h o m e . . . . ____________________
Other real estate (including real estate mortgages)______
Building and loan shares_____
__________ ___ _____
Stocks and bonds . . . __ ________ ______ __ ________ _
Other property______ _____________ . . . _____________
Payment of premiums for insurance policies:
Life insurance____ _______ _______ _____________________
Annuities. ____
_____ ______ _ ___________________
Increase in outstanding loans to others___________________
Decrease in liabilities. _____________ _________ ___________ _
Payment on principal of mortgages and down payment
on own home ______ ______ ____________ _____________
Payment on principal of other mortgages_________________
Payment of debts to—
Banks
_ __ ______________________________________
Insurance companies___________________________________
Small-loan companies__________________________________
Firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles _
_________ ______ _________________
Other goods______ ___________ _______________________
Individuals
_
____________________________________
Other
___________________________ ________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




96

25

47

24

1
1
9

0
0
1

1
0
3

0
1
5

1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0

92
9
1

24
1
1

46
2
0

22
6
0

7
0

3
0

2
0

2
0

0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
0

2
25
1
3

0
5
0
1

1
14
0
1

1
6
1

$96.17
62.19

$85. 58
39. 66

$82. 83
58. 21

$133.35
93.47

1.01
.66
10. 77

0
0
.20

2.06
0
3.86

0
2.64
35.31

0
0
0
0
0

0
.90
0
0
0

1.13
0
0
0
0

.28
.44
0
0
0
46. 52
2.48
.03
33.98

38.94
.39
.13
45.92

50. 74
.65
0
24.62

46.14
8.25
0
39. 88

17.68
0

40.18
0

7.46
0

14. 27
0

0
0
.44
1.15
11.14
. 13
3.44

0
0
0
0
5. 35
0
.39

0
0
.90
1.54
14.33
0
.39

0
0
0
1. 58
10.93
.50
12.60

238

TWELVE CUTES OF THE SOUTH

T able 4.—

D isp o s itio n o f m o n e y received during schedule yea r not used f o r current
exp en d itu re , and f u n d s m ade available f o r f a m i l y use fr o m sources other than f a m i l y
in com e in schedule yea r, b y econom ic level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , VA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued

Item

All fami­
lies

Economic level— F a m ilies
spending per expenditure
unit per year
$100 to
$200

$200 to
$400

$400 and
over

F u n d s M a d e A v a i l a b l e fo r F a m i l y U s e F r o m S o u r c e s O t h e r T h a n
F a m i l y I n c o m e in S c h ed u le Y e a r

Families in survey___________________________________________
Number of families receiving funds from—
Decrease in assets:
Reduction in cash:
On hand................. ....................................................................
In checking account................................................................
In savings account...................................................................
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mortgages)____________
Building and loan shares................. ............ ........ ................
Stocks and bonds.....................................................................
Goods and chattels...... ........ .................. ......... ......... ..........
Other property........................................................... .......
Insurance policies:
Surrender____________________ __________ ______________
Settlement______________________________ ______ _______
Reductions in outstanding loans to others.........................
Increase in liabilities:
Increase in mortgages on own home----------------------------------Increase in other mortgages............. ........................... ..............
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks------ ------------------------------------ ------------Payable to insurance companies. ______ ______ _______
Payable to small-loan companies ------------------------- --------Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles------- ------- ---------------------- ------- -----------------Other goods..........................................................................
Payable to individuals--------------------------------------------------Other debts-------- ---------- ------------- ---------------------------------Inheritance.......................................................................................
Average amount of funds received from—
Decrease in assets and/or increase in liabilities________ ____ _
Decrease in assets------------------------- ------------------------- ------------Reduction in cash:
On hand................. ....................................................................
In checking account.................................................................
In savings account..................................... .............................
Sale of property:
Real estate (including real estate mortgages)......................
Building and loan shares----------------------------------------Stocks and bonds....... ............................ ..................... ............
Goods and chattels................................................... ...............
Other property.______ _________________________________
Insurance policies:
Surrender............................................................................ ...
Settlement... .................... ........ ........................... ...............
Receipts from outstanding loans to others. ............. ......... .
Increase in liabilities............ ........ ......... ........................... ..........
Increase in mortgages on own home_______________ ______
Increase in other mortgages.................................................. .
Increase in debts:
Payable to banks....................................................................
Payable to insurance companies........................... ......... .
Payable to small-loan companies................... .......................
Payable to firms selling on installment plan:
Automobiles.............. ............................................................
Other goods............................................................................
Payable to individuals............................ .............................
Other debts................................................................................
Inheritance........................................................................................
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 637.




96

25

47

24

3
1
7

1
0
1

1
0
5

1
1
1

1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0

0
4
0

0
0
0

0
1
0

0
3
0

2
0

1
0

1
0

0
0

2
6
5

0
1
2

1
4
2

1
1
1

0
40
7
44
1

0
10
2
11
1

0
20
2
19
0

0
10
3
14
0

$85.45
27.96

$59.02
8.95

$71. 25
21.97

$140. 77
59.47

5.58
.76
6.41

8.47
0
.48

5.92
0
12.45

1.92
3.03
.74

7. 56
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

30.24
0
0
0
0

0
7.65
0
57.49
2.17
0

0
0
0
50.07
5.44
0

0
3.60
0
49.28
1.54
0

0
23.54
0
81.30
0
0

3.03
.26
3.81

0
.15
2.46

1.61
.24
4.46

8.96
.42
3.94

0
24.54
2.18
21.50
.32

0
24.15
1.67
16.20
1.21

0
29.69
.69
11.05
0

0
14.88
5.64
47.46
0

239

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu d ied , b y in com e level

B AL T IM O R E , M D .-W H I T E FAMILIES
Income level-—Families with annual net
income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2, 700 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o j C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey__________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker................................................ .
Skilled wage earner..........................................
Semiskilled wage earner............. .................. .
Unskilled wage earner.....................................
Number of families composed of—
____ _______
Man and wife___________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
___________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2___________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2........ .
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to
6 persons)2_________________________ ____
Man, wife, and children and adults (7
or more persons)2
......... ..................................
Man, wife, and 1 adult....................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_____ _____ ___
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults__________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man
and wife)____________________ ______ . . .
Adults (4 or more persons, not including
man and wife)_____________ _______ ____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife)_____ ______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)____

419

49

95

120

67

51

17

9

11

123
119
134
43

10
6
23
10

23
18
39
15

34
29
46
11

18
28
18
3

24
24
1
2

7
4
4
2

3
4
2
0

4
6
1
0

87
80
70
5

12
6
4
0

27
20
20
1

26
30
22
2

11
15
13
2

10
7
8
0

1
1
2
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

52

2

6

10

10

11

4

6

3

13
26
27
0

0
1
3
0

1
4
4
0

1
10
6
0

5
3
4
0

4
1
6
0

1
1
2
0

0
1
1
0

1
5
1
0

31

14

5

7

2

1

2

0

0

6

0

3

1

0

0

2

0

0

12

6

3

3

0

0

0

0

0

10

1

1

2

2

3

1

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

374
5
8
10
5
3
2
9

45
0
1
0
1
0
0
2

83
3
3
1
1
0
1
3

109
1
1
3
1
1
0
4

63
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
•

41
1
0
4
2
1
0
0

14
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

419
3. 79

49
3.00

95
3. 43

120
3.63

67
4. 22

51
4. 33

17
4. 57

9
4.54

11
4.80

68
0
11
6

8
0
1
0

14
0
2
1

25
0
4
2

8
0
2
1

7
0
2
1

2
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

3
0
0
1

3. 57
1.01
2. 56
3.28

2.81
0. 55
2. 26
2. 59

3.24
0.90
2. 34
2.94

3. 36
0.99
2.37
3.10

4. 01
1.48
2. 53
3.61

4.14
1.14
3.00
3.83

4. 53
1. 06
3. 47
4.26

4. 45
0.78
3. 67
4.28

4.46
0.82
3.64
4.30

0.23

0.19

0.20

0.28

0.22

0.22

0.06

0.11

0.36

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity oj H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker.. .
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States............... .......... ............ ............
Italy.................. ............................ .....................
Germany.............................................. ..............
Poland......... ........................................... ..........
Russia.----------------------------------------------------England----- ---------- ----------- -----------------------Ireland________________________ ____ _____
Other------------------ ---------------- --------------------C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______________________
Average number of persons in household____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers------------ -------------------Boarders only_________________ _____ _____
Lodgers only------------------------------------------Other persons---------- _ ............. ...................
Average size of economic f amily in—
Persons, total............... ............ ........................
Under 16 years of age..................................
16 years of age and over...............................
Expenditure units________________________
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family..........................

1 “ Children” a^e defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




240

TWELVE OITEES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
BALTIM O RE , M D .—W H IT E F A M I LIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey_______ _______ . . .
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers_________________________
Other net rents-----------------------------Interest and dividends. . ____ _____
Fensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family__________________________
Other sources of income___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses).................. .
Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities)_________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities)_________
Inheritance------------------- ------- --------Average number of gainful workers
per family------------------------ -----------Average amount of—
Net family income........................... .
Earnings of individuals.................
Chief earner___________________
Subsidiary earners........ ............ .
Males: 16 years and over..........
Under 16 years...... ........
Females: 16 years and over.......
Under 16 years______
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers _. ____________ ______
Other net rents_________________
Interest and dividends____ _____
Pensions and insurance annuities.
Gifts from persons outside econoomic family. _________________
Other sources of income_______ _
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)_____ _•___
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)__________ . . .
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey.............. .
Inheritance------- ------------------- --------3

419

49

95

120

67

51

17

9

11

128

7

19

32

17

22

16

8

7

64
31
28
10

8
2
5
0

14
3
3
3

23
13
5
3

8
8
7
0

7
3
4
2

1
1
2
0

1
0
0
1

2
1
2
1

20
7

2
1

4
2

4
1

5
0

4
0

1
3

0
0

0
0

25

2

6

6

7

2

0

0

2

296

34

64

76

49

40

15

7

11

118
6

15
2

30
0

42
1

17
2

10
0

2
1

2
0

0
0

1.40

1.16

1.24

1.31

1.39

1. 63

2.24

2.33

1.91

$1,437
1,391
1, 218
173
1,195
(8
)
196
(*)
27
10
1
6

17
5
1
0

3
3

1
2

-4
141

-3
44

9

35
14
1
(3
)

15
12
1
0

21
14
2
2

17
(3
)
1
0

28
0
0
40

61
15
6
109

2
1

1
2

2
0

18
0

1
44

0
0

0
0

0

0

256

212

30
4
(3
)

-1
83

-5
116

-1 2
164

-2
221

-8
349

175

150

140

183

161

299

105

274

0

+50
5

-1 5
7

+11
0

+10
4

+79
8

+115
0

+214
47

+104
0

+349
0

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




$765 $1,057 $1,349 $1, 625 $1,933 $2, 252 $2,483 $3,070
742 1,012 1,301 1,607 1,878 2,189 2,415 2,887
723
952 1,189 1,472 1,580 1,387 1,706 2,133
60
112
135
298
802
19
754
709
448
879 1,152 1,457 1,699 1, 723 1,759 2,487
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
133
147
294
149
179
465
656
400
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

241

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
B AL T IM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net
income of—
Item

All
families
$500 to $600 to $900 to
$600
$900
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y F a m ­
ily T y p e 1
Families in survey------------------------------------- --------------Number of families in which chief earner is Clerical worker-----------------------------------------Skilled wage earner------------- ---------------------------------Semiskilled wage earner-------------- --------------------------Unskilled wage earner_____________________ ______
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife-------------------------------------- - .......... ........
Man, wife, and 1 child 2-------------------------- ------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2---------------- ---------Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2_____
- __
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons)2—
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)2______________________ ____ _______________
Man, wife, and 1 a d u lt---------- ---------------- ------- -----Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults-------------------------- ___
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults----------------------------Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)____________________________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not in­
cluding man and wife.. ---------------- ------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)_____ ______________

107

8

36

42

15

6

5
5
34
63

0
0
5
3

0
0
14
22

4
2
9
27

0
2
5
8

1
1
1
3

• 30
12
13
4
14

2
0
2
0
0

11
4
6
1
4

13
5
5
2
6

3
2
0
1
3

1
1
0
0
1

7
8
4
0
7

0
0
0
0
3

2
1
1
0
2

3
3
2
0
1

1
3
1
0
1

1
1
0
0
0

3

0

1

1

0

1

3

1

2

0

0

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker------ ------Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States----------------------- ------- ----- -------------

2

0

1

1

0

0

105

8

35

41

15

6

107
4.07

8
2.89

36
3. 69

42
4. 38

15
4. 75

6
4. 32

12
2
14
3

1
0
0
0

2
1
4
2

5
1
8
1

4
0
1
0

0
0
1
0

3.77
1. 25
2. 52
3.45

2.76
0. 75
2.01
2.44

3. 51
1.20
2.31
3.23

3.90
1.36
2. 54
3.60

4.37
1.33
3.04
4. 01

4.33
1. 33
3.00
3. 69

0.33

0.13

0.18

0.52

0. 41

0.03

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households------- --------------------------------------Average number of persons in household____________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers—_ -------------------------------------- Boarders only. __ _ ----------------------- _ ----------------Lodgers only----- ------------------------------------------------Other persons----- --------- ----------- --------------------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total.. ------------------- —........ ........................
Under 16 years of age---- ------------- -----------------------16 years of age and over_________________________
Expenditure units------- ---------- ------------------ ---------Average number of persons in household not members
of economic family—
------------------------------------------

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




242

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5. —

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
BA L T IM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All fami­
lies

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500
and over

E a rn in g s a n d In co m e

Families in survey. . __________ ______
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents_________ _ _________
Interest and dividends______ _____ ___
Pensions and insurance annuities..........
Gifts from persons outside economic
family______________ _________ _____
Other sources of income. _. ___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_________________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)___ ____ ______
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)_________________
Inheritance_________________ ________
Average number of gainful workers per
family__________________ _____ _______
Average amount of—
Net family income.............................. .......
Earnings of individuals___ ____ _____
Chief earner________ _____ _______ _
Subsidiary earners_________________
Males: 16 years and o v e r................ .
U nder 16 years. . . _________
Females: 16 years and over_________
Under 16 years........ ...........
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers. . ___________________ ____
Other net rents_____________ _____
Interest and dividends______________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___________ _______ _ _____
Other sources of income___ . . . ______
Deductions from income (business
more losses and expenses)_________
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_____________ _____ _______
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)____________ _____________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey____________ ____
Inheritance------------------------------ ------- --3

107

36

42

15

6

4
0
0
0
0

12
6
0
1
0

20
14
3
0
0

12
5
1
0
1

5
1
0
0
0

5
2

0
0

2
0

1
0

2
2

0
0

.

3

1

0

0

1

1

78

7

23

33

12

3

27
1

1
0

12
1

9
0

3
0

2
0

1.50

1.36

1. 62

1.87

2.33

$990
944
792
152
763
(3
)
181
0

$539
539
487
52
215
0
324
0

$758
743
679
64
617
0
126
0

$1,028
968
838
130
829
0
139
0

$1,338
1,204
943
261
971
(3
)
233
0

$1,890
1,884
1,187
697
1,394
0
490
0

30
5

13
0
0
0

47
11

6

0
0
0
0

0

51
8
0
44

6
0
0
0

3
2

0
0

2
0

2
0

15
16

0
0

0

0

37

65

1.60

(3
)

(3
)

(3
)
67

21

(3
)

(3
)

(3
)
134

162

70

18

42

94

63

161

+31
(3
)

+16
0

+10
1

+31
0

+95
0

+27
0

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




8

53
26
4
1
1

243

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s studied, by in com e level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—families with annual net income
of—

Item

D istr ib u tio n

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey___________ ____________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker_________ ____ _______ ___
Skilled wage earner____________ ____ ____
Semiskilled wage earner...................... ........
Unskilled wage earner________ ____ _____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife._________________ ____ ___
Man, wife, and 1 child2__________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2__________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons)2______________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons) 2______________ ______ _
Man, wife, and 1 adult....................... ..........
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults........ ............ .
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults...... ..........
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)_____ ____ _____ ______ ____
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)_________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons not including man and wife)______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)..

202

24

39

50

41

36

7

5

75
68
51
8

2
6
9
7

6
17
16
0

17
21
11
1

20
12
9
0

21
9
6
0

5
2
0
0

4
1
0
0

41
33
41
1

3
6
3
0

8
3
6
0

8
10
16
0

10
5
10
0

10
7
6
1

2
2
0
0

0
0
0
0

36

4

8

8

8

6

0

2

6
17
11
0

1
2
0
0

2
7
3
0

1
1
3
0

1
3
3
0

0
1
2
0

0
3
0
0

1
0
0
0
0

9

4

0

2

0

3

0

3

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

199
1
2

23
0
1

39
0
0

49
1
0

40
0
1

36
0
0

7
0
0

5
0
0

202
3. 91

24
3.96

39
3. 91

50
4.09

41
3.86

36
3.56

7
3.37

5
5.64

18
13
3
36

3
2
0
3

3
4
1
7

6
3
1
8

2
2
0
8

2
0
1
8

1
2
0
1

1
0
0
1

3. 67
1.08
2. 59
3.40

3.58
1.06
2. 52
3.33

3.68
1.08
2.60
3.39

3. 78
1.27
2. 51
3.47

3. 73
0. 97
2.76
3.49

3.39
1.06
2.33
3. 20

2.98
0. 32
2. 66
2.84

5.41
1.45
3.96
4.73

0.26

0.42

0.26

0.31

0.17

0.19

0.42

0.28

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker. _
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States.___________ _______________
Russia......... .................. ........ ............. ..........
Other............................... ............ .................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_____ _____________ _
Average number of persons in household___
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.......... .................. . . .
Boarders only______________ _________ _
Lodgers only______________ _____________
Other persons______________________ ____
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total. _. ________________________
Under 16 years of age........ ...................... .
16 years of age and over________________
Expenditure units______ _______________
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family_____________

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L.S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




244

TWELVE CITTES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s studied, b y in com e level— Continued

B IR M IN G H A M , A L A.—W H IT E FAM ILIES— Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
families

$500
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
to
$2,400

$2,400
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey...... ...........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers_________________________
Other net rents___________________
Interest and dividends___________
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___________ ______________
Other sources of income____ ______
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)___ ________
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)____
Inheritance_______________________
Average number of gainful workers
per f a m i l y . ........................... .......
Average amount of—

202

24

39

50

41

36

7

5

59

7

11

12

13

8

3

5

36
7
9
14

6
0
1
0

9
1
0
2

11
2
1
3

4
2
2
4

3
1
3
4

2
1
2
0

1
0
0
1

21
26

1
5

4
5

3
4

7
6

6
4

0
1

0
1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

110

12

18

26

25

21

4

4

88
0

10
0

20
0

23
0

16
0

15
0

3
0

1
0

1. 39

1.32

1.31

1.31

1.43

1. 29

1.69

2.98

Net family income_______________ $1,441
Earnings of individuals_________
1,370
1,241
Chief earner. __ _____________
Subsidiary earners______ ____
129
Males: 16 years and over....... .
1,243
Under 16 years________
2
Females: 16 years and over___
125
Under 16 years--------0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers_______________________
26
Other net rents_________________
3
2
Interest and dividends__________
Pensions and insurance annuities.
15
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family_________________
6
Other sources of income_________
19
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
(3
)
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)________ ____
145
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities) _ ___ _______
186
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey................
-2
Inheritance
0

$748
683
631
52
541
0
142
0

$1,044
989
929
60
942
2
45
0

$1,320
1,255
1,193
62
1,194
2
59
0

$1, 639
1,579
1,446
133
1,474
1
104
0

$1,892
1,822
1,670
152
1,675
2
145
0

$2, 211
2,099
1,697
402
1,957
0
142
0

$3,131
2,804
1,634
1,170
1,446
22
1,336
0

38
0
1
0

24
(3
)
0
16

32
2
1
10

16
3
1
17

16
3
8
32

69
40
3
0

26
0
0
9

1
25

5
10

11
9

7
16

6
5

0
6

0
292

0

0

0

0

0

44

64

106

180

216

80

111

139

328

265

286

35

-1 1
0

-2 7
0

-9
0

-1 8
0

+16
0

+45
0

+243
0

3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638,




-6
294

0
313

245

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—NEGRO FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
All
families

Item

$500 to
$600

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
F a m ily T y p e 1

and

$900 to
$1,200

$600 to
$900

$1,200
and over

by

Families in survey__________________________ ____
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical w o r k e r ._____________________ ______
Skilled wage earner. ___________________________
Semiskilled wage earner____________ _____________
Unskilled wage earner_______ ______ ____________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_______ _______________________ . . .
Man, wife, and 1 child 2__ ______________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2__________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2.__ __________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 per­
sons) 2________________________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)2 ____ . . . _________________________ .
Man, wife, and 1 adult. ................ ................... ........
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults__________ ______ ___
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and
________________
wife)_______________________
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)__________________________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)_______________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)____________ _____

101

22

52

16

11

2
8
41
50

0
3
4
15

0
2
24
26

0
3
8
5

2
0
5
4

25
9
13
6

7
1
3
1

10
6
9
5

6
1
1
0

2
1
0
0

15

4

8

3

0

4
17
5
1

1

1

0
0

2
7
1
1

2
2
0

0
5
2
0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

1

3

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in
United States___________________________________

0

0

0

0

0

101

22

52

16

11

101
3. 92

22

52
4. 43

16

3. 60

3. 33

11
3. 01

3
2
6

1
0

0
1
3.09
0.10
2. 99
2. 92
0. 09

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_________________ __________ _
Average number of persons in household.................. .
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers________________________ _ .
Boarders only_________ _____ _______ ___________
Lodgers only____________________________________
Other persons___________________________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total. _____ _____________________________
Under 16 years of age__________________ _______
16 years of age and over______________
____ _
Expenditure units__ . . . ____________________ _
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family. _______ ___________ _____

3

1

2

11

0
0
0
1

3. 82
1. 23
2. 59
3.44

3. 60
1.16
2. 44
3.19

4. 28
1.72

3. 85

3.12
0. 52
2. 60
2.83

0.15

0.01

0.19

0. 25

4

3

2. 56

3

0
1

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.

74390°— 41------ 17




246

TWELVE OFTTES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5«—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , ALA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All fami­
lies
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E a r n in g s and In c o m e

Families in survey____ _________ ________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents___________ ______ _____
Interest and dividends_________________
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_______________________________
Other sources of income________________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)________________________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)...................... .......
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)........ .......... ..........
Average number of gainful workers per
family____ ______ _____________________
Average amount of—
Net family income_____________________
Earnings of individuals..........................
Chief earner_______________ _______
Subsidiary earners..............................
Males: 16 years and over..... ..............
Under 16 years.......................
Females: 16 years and over________
Under 16 years___________
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers...................................................
Other net rents........ ................................
Interest and dividends_______________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_____________ ___________ ___
Other sources of income______________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)________________
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities) __ _____ ___________________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)___________________________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey...................... .........
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 628




101

22

52

16

11

50
9
2
0
10

11
0
0
0
1

23
5
0
0
5

11
3
1
0
3

5
1
1
0
1

9
6

1
1

4
2

4
2

0
1

5

0

2

2

1

62

14

31

8

9

35

6

21

7

1

1.60

1.59

1.54

1.88

1.55

$828
804
722
82
745
0
59
0

$548
547
501
46
509
0
38
0

$752
734
698
36
713
0
21
0

$995
915
723
192
755
0
160
0

$1,492
1,482
1,273
209
1,352
0
130
0

16
2
0
4

0
0
0
1

12
0
0
6

56
9
0
6

4
5
0
1

3

6
7

3
1
-2
90

(3
)
(3
)

(3
)
0
35

-3
59

88

70

61

+25

+3

+11

-4
118
149
-6

0
(3
)
(*)
254
325
+178

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5. —

247

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level— Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­
lies

Item

D istr ib u tio n

b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

$500 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E a rn er

Families in survey__________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker______ ____ _______________
Skilled wage earner..........................................
Semiskilled wage earner...................................
Unskilled wage earner..____ ______________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife........... ........................................
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
......... ........................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2.....................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2_______
Man, wife, apd children and adults (4 to 6
persons)2
__________ _____________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)2
.......... .................................
Man, wife, and 1 adult____ _______________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults..... ................... .
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults..................
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)_______________________________
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and w ife )...____ __________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife)____________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)____

294

30

57

71

57

57

8

8

6

138
71
69
16

4
3
18
5

22
11
19
5

32
18
18
3

28
21
6
2

37
11
8
1

5
3
0
0

5
3
0
0

5
1
0
0

78
68
58
0

6
7
7
0

18
12
10
0

19
15
17
0

14
14
15
0

14
16
9
0

3
3
0
0

3
0
0
0

1
1
0
0

27

1

5

6

7

5

1

2

0

4
26
8
1

0
1
0
0

1
6
2
0

2
4
0
0

0
5
0
0

1
8
3
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
3
0

0
1
0
1

10

2

2

6

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

8

3

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

288
3
1
1
1

30
0
0
0
0

56
0
0
1
0

69
2
0
0
0

56
0
0
0
1

56
1
0
0
0

8
0
0
0
0

8
0
0
0
0

5
0
1
0
0

294
3.44

30
3.34

57
3.42

71
3. 39

57
3.46

57
3.44

8
2.97

8
3.97

6
4.15

23
3
14
0

4
2
2
0

4
0
4
0

4
0
2
0

2
0
5
0

4
1
1
0

1
0
0
0

3
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

3. 31
0.96
2.35
3.07

3.15
1.13
2.02
2.86

3.27
0.92
2.35
3.05

3.34
1.04
2. 30
3.10

3.34
1.10
2.24
3.07

3.35
0.94
2.41
3.07

2.75
0.50
2.25
2.60

3.87
0.25
3.62
3.76

3.84
0.17
3.67
3.80

0.15

0.22

0.16

0.08

0.14

0.14

0.25

0.30

0.33

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker. __
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States.............................................. .
Germany_____ ___________________________
Poland.......... .....................................................
England.......................................... ...................
Other........................................ : .........................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______________________
Average number of persons in household____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers............................... ........
Boarders only............. ........ ................. ............
Lodgers only.......................... .........................
Other persons________ ^____________ ______
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_________________ _________
Under 16 years of age.............. ....................
16 years of age and over................................
Expenditure units________________________
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family.......... ................

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




248

t w e l v e

T

able

crrrE S

o f

t h e

s o u t h

5. — D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES— Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E a rn in g s and In c o m e

Families in s u r v e y ...... ...............
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners —
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers__________________________
Other net rents
_______ ______
Interest and dividends____________
Pension^ and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic family . . . ____________ _
Other sources of income_______ . . .
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses) _ .
_ .
Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities) _______
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities) ______ __
Inheritance___ _________ . . . ____
Average number of gainful workers
per fam ily__________ _______ _____

294

30

57

71

57

57

8

8

6

93

7

17

23

11

18

5

7

5

38
7
5
9

8
0
0
2

8
0
1
0

5
2
0
3

6
2
0
1

6
2
2
2

1
0
2
0

3
1
0
0

1
0
0
1

21
7

4
1

6
2

4
2

1
1

4
1

1
0

1
0

0
0

13

1

3

2

3

3

0

0

1

158

15

29

38

34

28

6

4

4

112
3

9
0

20
1

28
0

20
2

27
0

2
0

4
0

2
0

1.36

1.23

1.33

1. 34

1.19

1.37

1. 62

2.50

2.17

Average amount of—
Net family income_____ _____ ____ $1,475
Earnings of individuals............... 1,435
Chief earner _____ ___________ 1,265
Subsidiary earners____________
170
Males: 16 years and over--------- 1,208
Under 16 years________
(3
)
Females: 16 years and over____
227
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers......... ..................... ............
20
Other net rents
____ _________
4
Interest and dividends----- --._
1
Pensions and insurance annui­
9
ties _____ _______ ____
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family _. ___________ _
7
5
Other sources of income____ ____
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
-6
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)_______ _____
155
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)______________
174
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey_________
+17
2
Inheritance...........................................
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 688.




$759 $1,040 $1, 331 $1,618 $1,915 $2,223 $2, 507 $2,926
697 1,014 1,310 1, 589 1,880 2,156 2,397 2,704
666
928 1,196 1,481 1, 666 1,636 1,561 1,547
31
86
114
108
214
520
836 1,157
499
839 1,142 1,465 1, 686 1,440 1,722 1,046
2
0
0
4
0
0
0
(3)
124
198
190
173
168
716
675 1, 658
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29
0
0

18
0
1

11
3
0

15
8
0

22

0

6

2

3

11
(3
)

3
5

5
6

I
4

14
5
-1 6
259

(3
)
49

-1
94

-1 0
118

-1
165

21
6
2

51
23
0

52
0
0

0

0

204

15
0

36
0

0
0

0

0

-3 4

270

212

298

43
0
9

197

120

156

162

210

330

263

146

-3 5
0

+6
2

+2
0

+42
10

+28
0

+120
0

-2 6
0

+150
0

TABULAR

249

SU M M AR Y

T able 5. — Description of fam ilies studied , by income level— C on tinu ed
HOUSTON, T E X —W H IT E FAMILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N
Income level—-Families with annual net income of—
Item

4 11
All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker__________________________
Skilled wage earner______ _____ _________
Semiskilled wage earner_________________
Unskilled wage earner___________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and w ife_____________ ____________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
______ ___________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children2 _______
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
_____
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons) 2 __ _______
______ _______
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons) 2________________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult—
. . . _______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults.__________ _
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife) _____ _______
_______ . . .
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)_________ ________ ____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons not including man and wife__ _
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)___

258

12

46

67

58

53

10

12

106
58
70
24

1
1
7
3

15
7
17
7

21
14
23
9

24
16
16
2

33
14
4
2

4
4
2
0

8
2
1
1

64
61
54
0

4
1
2
0

10
16
9
0

19
13
16
0

17
16
12
0

12
14
11
0

1
0
3
0

1
1
1
0

27

0

2

10

5

5

3

2

5
19
12
0

0
0
1
0

1
3
1
0

2
5
1
0

0
4
3
0

2
5
2
0

0
2
1
0

0
0
3
0
1

6

1

2

1

0

1

0

3

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

5

1

2

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

250
3
1
1
3

11
0
0
1
0

46
0
0
0
0

63
2
0
0
2

57
1
0
0
0

51
0
1
0
1

10
0
0
0
0

12
0
0
0
0

258
3. 49

12
3. 29

46
3. 48

67
3. 57

58
3.23

53
3. 40

10
4.18

12
4. 65

43
1
11
78

4
0
0
3

8
0
2
14

12
0
0
13

7
1
3
23

7
0
5
20

4
0
1
4

1
0
0
1

3. 40
0. 99
2. 41
3.15

3.04
0. 77
2. 27
2.80

3.63
1.25
2. 38
3.05

3.36
1.05
2.31
3.08

3.14
0. 74
2. 40
3.03

3. 31
1.00
2.31
3.09

4. 08
1.30
2. 78
3. 76

4.81
0. 86
3. 95
4. 61

0.17

0.22

0.22

0.26

0.17

0.20

0.30

0.04

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker._
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States----------------------- ------------- -----Italy------------------------------ ---------------------Canada (not French)___________________
Ireland________________________________ _
Other___ ___________ ____________________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households. ____ __ ____ ____
Average number of persons in household___
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____________________
Boarders only___________________________
Lodgers only____________________________
Other persons____ ______________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total______ _____________ _____
Under 16 years of age_______ ______
16 years of age and over.. -------------------Expenditure units___ ______ __
_______
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family_____________

1 “ Children’' are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L S.
Bull. No 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, page 638.




TWELVE CITIES OP THE SOUTH

250

T able 5. — Description of fam ilies studied , by income level— C on tinu ed
HOUSTON, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N —Continued
Income level--Families with annual net income of—
Item

fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
to
$2,400

$2,400
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In c o m e

Families in survey______ ___________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers................ ..............................
Other net rents...... ............ . ..........
Interest and dividends------------------Pensions and insurance annuities __
Gifts from persons outside economic family__________ ________
Other sources of income--------- ------Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses).------ -----------Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities)________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities)..............
Inheritance........ ........ .................... .
Average number of gainful workers
per family----------------------- -------------

258

12

46

67

58

53

10

12

101

6

13

21

22

23

6

10

51
17
17
7

4
0
0
0

9
1
2
0

11
3
1
2

10
6
6
0

12
6
3
2

4
0
4
1

1
1
1
2

40
35

3
2

5
1

17
9

4
9

8
10

2
1

1
?

68

2

7

20

18

10

6

5

149

6

24

35

37

29

8

10

108
4

5
1

22
1

32
1

21
1

24
0

2
0

2
0

1.52

1.75

1.35

1.34

1.47

1.53

1.80

2.83

$738
721
632
89
485
(3
)
236
0

$1,068
1,046
984
62
868
6
172
0

$1,357
1,315
1,241
74
1,244
(3
)
71
0

$1,642
1,613
1,520
93
1,523
a
90
0

$1,929
1,876
1, 717
159
1,687
5
184
(3
)

$2,243
2,058
1,622
436
1,768
0
290
0

$2,979
2,930
1,583
1,347
1,842
0
1,088
0

12
0
0
0

19
1
1
0

20
1
4
8

16
8
1
0

18
12
8
17

47
0
56
103

8
20
1
68

1
4

2
1

15
5

9
6

6
7

15
2

6
44

-1 1

-1 1

-1 5

-3 8

—98

146

192

216

232

396

Average amount of—
Net family income............................. $1, 567
Earnings of individuals............... . 1,525
Chief earner.................................
1,358
Subsidiary earners...... ............ .
167
Males: 16 years and over______
1,344
Under 16 years..............
2
Females: 16 years and over____
179
Under 16 years______
(3
)
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers-----------------------------------19
Other net rents____________ ____
6
Interest and dividends............ .
5
Pensions and insurance annuities.
13
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family_________________
8
Other sources of income_________
6
Deductions *rom income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
-1 5
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities) __________
182
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities) .....................
222
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey. .............
+12
Inheritance........................ .................
7
1 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




(3
)
71

-2
98

48

191

218

220

284

369

161

+16
25

-4 0
5

-2 8
18

+43
1

-1 0
0

+112
0

+303
0

251

TABULAR SU M M AR Y

T able 5.— Description of fam ilies studied , by income level— C on tinu ed
HOUSTON, T E X —M E X IC A N FAM ILIES
Income level— Families with annual net
income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d by
F a m ily T y p e 1

100

12

38

32

12

6

8
6
30
66

0
0
4
8

5
0
8
25

3
2
9
18

0
2
5
5

0
2
4
0

13
10
17
6
13

2
3
3
1
0

6
6
6
2
3

4
2
5
2
6

1
0
3
1
3

0
0
0
0
1

15
4
7
0
5

0
0
0
0
2

4
2
2
0
2

8
2
1
0
0

2
0
1
0
1

1
0
3
0
0

3

Families in survey____________________ ____________ .
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker------------------ ---------- ------------------------Skilled wage earner..................................................... . .
Semiskilled wage earner............................................
Unskilled wage earner............................................... ..
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife-------------------------------------------------------Man, wife, and 1 child------------------------------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children--------------- ------- --------Man, wife, and 5 or more children.............................
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons). .
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
sons)----------------------------- ------- ------------------- ------Man, wife, and 1 adult............... ................. .................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults. .......................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults__________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife) ..
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and

0

2

1

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

5

0

3

1

0

1

Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not in­
cluding man and wife)----- ---------- -----------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)................................. .........
D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker. .................
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States.......................................... ........ .......... —
Mexico........... ................. ............................... .................
Other........................... ............ ...................... .................

4

0

3

0

1

0

34
61
1

3
9
0

13
21
1

12
20
0

5
6
0

1
5
0

100
4.98

12
3.46

38
4.51

32
5.70

12
5.38

6
6.40

5
0
7
8

0
0
0
0

3
0
4
4

0
0
3
3

2
0
0
1

0
0
0
0

4.91
2.04
2.87
4.34

3. 51
1. 51
2.00
3.02

4.34
1. 66
2.68
3.85

5.62
2. 62
3.00
4.93

5.33
2.41
2.92
4.72

6.67
1.67
5.00
6.18

0- 13

0

0. 21

0.14

0.10

0

C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households..................... ..................................
Average number of persons in household____________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers.................... .................................
Boarders only____________________ ______ _________
Lodgers only........................................ ......... .................
Other persons----------- ------- ------- ---------—...................
Average size of economic family i n Persons, total_________________________ _____ _____
Under 16 years of age......... .......................................
16 years of age and over........... ..........................
Expenditure units.............. ........................................ .
Average number of persons in household not me mbers
of economic family------------ ------- -----------------------------i

“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

252

TWELVE OITtES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5.— Description of fam ilies studied, by income level— C on tinu ed
HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAM ILIES— Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In c o m e

100

Average amount of—
Net family income____________________
Earnings of individuals------------------Chief earner ............... — .......... .
Subsidiary earners........................... .
Males: 16 years and over---------------Under 16 years ___________
Females: 16 years and o v e r............
Under 16 years---------------Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers._ _ _______________________
Other net rents_____________________
Interest and dividends______________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_________________ _________ _
Other sources of income-------------------Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses). . _________ __
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)... ______________________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)_____ _ _____________ . . .
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey___ ____ ______
Inheritance. _____ ___________________
3

38

32

12

6

1
4
0
0
0

12
4
1
1
0

13
3
1
0
0

7
1
0
0
0

6
0
1
0
0

4
6

0
0

4
0

0
2

0
3

0
1

5

0

2

1

0

2

53

7

19

16

7

4

41
0

4
0

16
0

14
0

5
0

2
0

1.54

1.08

1.39

1. 69

1.67

2.33

$924
905
780
125
800
1
104

$547
514
496
18
380
0
134
0

$735
712
646
66
642
(3
)
70
0

$1,010
999
866
133
862
(3
)
136
1

$1,304
1,296
1,064
232
1,190
(3
)
106
0

$1,618
1, 608
1,159
449
1,510
4
93
1

6
4
0

9
4
0
0

15
0

0
1

(*)

9
4

Less than $0.50.

0

33
0
0
0

6
2

r3
)

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




12

39
12
3
1
0

Families in survey___________ __________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents_______________________
Interest and dividends________________
Pensions and insurance annuities . . .
Gifts from persons outside economic
family______________________________
Other sources of i n c o m e . ------------- _
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)----- --------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_______________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)---------------------------Inheritance
. . ----------------- ------------Average number of gainful workers per
family-------------------------------------------------

0
0

_2

0

63

21

(3
)

-2
36

0
0
0

0
18
G
0

0
8

0
4

0

-1 2

94

106

69

-3

(3
)

123

23

134

90

151

394

-1 7
0

+5
0

-3 8
0

+8
0

-2
0

-8 5
0

253

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by in com e level— Continued
JACKSON, M IS S —W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
All
fam­
ilies

Item

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f
and by F a m ily T y p e

C h ief E a rn e r
1

Families in survey._______ ______________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker___________________________
Skilled wage earner_______________________
Semiskilled wage earner______ __________ __
Unskilled wage earner______________ _____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife. _ _ _ _ ____________________
Man, wife, and 1 child.. ________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children _______ . . .
Man, wife, and 5 or more children..._____
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons)________________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)_ . . . ____________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult___________ ____ ___
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults______________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults _________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man
and wife) ----------------- ---------------------. . .
Adults (4 or more persons, not including
man and wife) ____________ ____ _______
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons, not including man and wife)_______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons, not including man and wife)____
Distribution b y

$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

150

17

30

32

24

20

15

5

7

70
40
32
8

4
4
6
3

17
4
8
1

18
8
5
1

7
11
3
3

13
4
3
0

4
5
6
0

3
2
0
0

4
2
1
0

31
38
18
2

6
4
2
1

8
12
4
0

11
10
4
0

1
7
2
1

3
3
1
0

0
1
4
0

1
0
0
0

1
1
1
0

13

0

2

1

2

2

5

1

0

4
12
14
1

0
0
1
0

0
1
1
1

0
3
0
0

1
4
4
0

1
2
3
0

1
2
1
0

1
0
2
0

0
0
2
0

10

2

0

2

2

3

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

4

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker. _ _
Number of families having homemaker
born in United States__________ ________

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

149

17

30

32

24

20

14

5

7

Number of households____________ _________
150
Average number of persons in household____ 3. 99
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers. . ----------------------------------- _ _
10
Boarders only___________________________
5
10
Lodgers only--------------------------------------------------------------------Other persons___________ _______________
70
Average size of economic family—
3. 55
Persons, total............. .......... ..................... ._ .
Under 16 years of age____________________ 0. 93
16 years of age and over_________________ 2. 62
Expenditure units. _ _____________ ______ 3.37
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family _____ _______ 0.48

17
3. 32

30
3. 53

32
3.41

24
4.03

20
4.68

15
5. 32

5
5.16

7
4.70

1
0
1
3

2
2
1
14

1
1
4
18

2
0
2
5

3
1
2
14

1
0
0
8

0
0
0
1

0
1
0
7

3.15
0.94
2. 21
2.87

3. 27
1.01
2.26
3. 03

2.86
0. 70
2.16
2.76

3. 73
1.03
2. 70
3.48

3. 71
0. 78
2. 93
3.60

4.97
1.66
3. 31
4.67

4.98
0.60
4. 38
4.86

3. 73
0.43
3. 30
3.83

0.20

0. 30

0. 57

0.32

1. 02

0. 41

0.20

1.02

0

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

1 Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




254

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s studied, b y in com e level— Continued
JACKSON, MISS.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fam­
ilies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2 400 $2,700 over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey.--____ __________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.........
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers.. _________ _________ —
Other net rents______________ ____
Interest and dividends......................
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_________________ _____ _
Other sources of income...... ..............
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)_____
Inheritance..-------------------------------Average number of gainful workers
per family________________________

150

17

30

32

24

20

15

5

7

67

5

8

11

10

13

9

5

6

24
10
6
10

2
1
0
0

5
1
0
1

5
3
3
1

4
2
1
2

6
2
1
0

1
0
0
3

0
1
1
1

1
0
0
2

12
14

1
2

3
6

5
2

0
0

1
1

1
3

0
0

1
0

16

3

2

1

4

1

3

1

1

78

10

12

16

15

8

7

3

7

69
3

6
1

17
2

16
0

9
0

11
0

8
0

2
0

0
0

1.59

1.29

1.30

1.34

1.46

1. 95

1. 87

2.80

2.71

Average amount of—
Net family income________________ $1, 541
Earnings of individuals_________ 1,490
Chief earner__________________ 1,228
Subsidiary earners......................
262
Males: 16 years and over........... 1,216
Under 16 years________
(3
)
Females: 16 years and over.......
274
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers..---------------------------------19
Other net rents--------------------------5
Interest and dividends__________
1
Pensions and insurance annuities _
17
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family___________ ____ __
5
Other sources of income_________
9
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)........ .
-5
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
162
crease in liabilities)____________ _
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)______________
162
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey......... .......
+9
2
Inheritance-----------------------------------3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




$761 $1,043 $1,327 $1, 636 $1,929 $2,208 $2,492 $2,983
754 1,018 1,269 1,566 1,865 2,119 2,474 2,925
714
958 1,141 1,417 1,405 1,703 1,440 1,701
40
60
149
416 1,034 1, 224
460
128
923 1,051 1,373 1,500 1,809 1,778 1, 684
608
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
189
365
146
310
95
218
696 1,241
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
1
0
0

10
(3
)
0
6

19
13
1
10

30
1
(3
)
42

44
13
3
0

11
0
0
46

0
4
(3)
15

2
0
0
37

7
3

3
8

9
6

0
0

2
2

3
54

0
0

21
0

-1 2
36

-2
47

(3
)

-3

116

175

(3)
241

-2 5

-1

-2

278

235

373

117

114

153

282

198

81

376

0

-2 0
6

-4 6
8

-1 9
0

+4
0

-1 3
0

+87
0

-9
0

+373
0

255

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
JACKSON, M IS S —NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
All
families

Item

$500 to
$600

D istr ib u tio n

by

O c c u p a tio n

o f C h ie f E a r n e r

F a m ily T y p e

and

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200
and over

by

1

Families in survey______________________ _________ _
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker---------------------------------------------------Skilled wage e a r n e r .----------------- -----------------------Semiskilled wage earner_________________________
Unskilled wage earner-----------------------------------------Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child........... ................... .................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children___ _____ _________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children-----------------------Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons).
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons).............. ....................................... ..............
Man, wife, and 1 adult.............. .............................. .
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults...... ...............................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife) _
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)_________________________________ ____ ___
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)----------------------------------Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)...................................

100

20

54

20

6

4
2
31
63

0
0
4
16

2
0
15
37

0
2
8
10

2
0
4
0

33
17
19
1
8

7
2
6
0
1

21
12
8
0
3

3
3
4
1
4

2
0
1
0
0

4
6
4
0
1

1
1
1
0
0

0
5
2
0
1

1
0
1
0
0

2
0
0
0
0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

1

2

3

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a ti v i t y o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States......... ............ ............ ............ ..................

0

0

0

0

0

100

20

54

20

6

100
3.76

20
3.78

54
3.18

20
4.85

6
5.25

3
1
8
16

0
1
2
2

2
0
5
10

0
0
1
2

1
0
0
2

3.63
1.09
2.64
3. 33

3. 73
1. 34
2. 39
3. 33

3.02
0.72
2.30
2.80

4.79
1.79
3.00
4.35

4.98
1.31
3. 67
4.65

0.14

0.11

o. 16

0. 07

0. 31

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households____________________ ____ ___
Average number of persons in household....................
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers. ........................ ........................
Boarders only___________________________________
Lodgers only--------------------------------------------- ---------Other persons_______________________________ ___
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_____________________________ _____ _
Under 16 years of age____ _____________________
16 years of age and over______________________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family____ _____________________

1“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 year<* of age and over.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




256

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5. —

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu d ied , by in co m e level— Continued
JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net
income of—

Item

All families
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In co m e

100

Average amount of—
Net family income...................................
Earnings of individuals.............. ........
Chief earner...................... ...................
Subsidiary earners............................
Males'. 16 years and over....................
Under 16 years. ......................
Females: 16 years and over.......... .
Under 16 years__________
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers. __ _ ______________________
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends_____ ________
Pensions and insurance annuities.. . .
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___ _____ ___________________
Other sources of income_____________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________ __
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)__________________________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)______________ ____________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey..............................
Inheritance___________ ____ ___________
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




54

20

6

15
3
0
0
1

19
6
2
1
9

13
1
0
0
1

3
1
0
0
2

5
3

Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners............. . .
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents............. ..............................
Interest and dividends_________________
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family______________ ____ ___________
Other sources of income______________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)________________ _______
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)___________ . . .
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)________________
Inheritance. __________________________
Average number of gainful workers per
family____ _____ ___________ _________ _

20

50
11
2
1
13

Families in survey............................... ..........

1
1

3
1

1
1

0
0

5

2

2

0

1

69

14

36

14

5

30
0

5
0

18
0

6
0

1
0

1. 66

1.90

1.41

2.00

1.83

$784
766
680
86
693
0
72
1

$541
534
444
90
431
0
103
0

$710
698
664
34
657
0
40
1

$983
956
749
207
823
0
133
0

$1, 593
1,511
1,372
139
1,454
0
57
0

8
2

6
0
0

6
3

9
0
0
11

26
0
0
64

7

0
0

(3
)

7
2
-1
72

(3
)
(3
)

1

(3)

2
1
1
-1

(3)
55

53

(3
)

0

-8

74

245

78

30

86

93

61

+26
0

+31
0

+7
0

+24
0

+194
0

257

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.- —D escrip tio n

o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500 $900 $1, 200 $1, 500 $1, 800 $2,100 $2,400 $2, 700
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1, 200 $1, 500 $1,800 $2,100 $2, 400 $2, 700 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d
by F a m ily T y p e *

178

20

33

33

32

34

13

5

8

80
50
44
4

6
4
9
1

12
7
14
0

16
9
7
1

17
8
6
1

16
14
4
0

5
5
2
1

2
1
2
0

6
2
0
0

37
47
37
2

3
5
4
0

9
12
8
0

6
12

7
10
9
0

5
4
8
1

3
4
3
0

2
0
0
0

2
0
0
0

23

0

3

4

3

9

1

2

1

3
5
7
0

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

0
0
1
0

2
2
0
0

0
1
1
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
3
0

12

3

0

2

2

3

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

174
1
2

20
0
0

32
0
1

32
0
0

30
1
1

34
0
0

13
0
0

5
0
0

8
0
0

178
Number of households______________ _______
Average number of persons in household____ 3. 65
Number of households with—
22
Boarders and lodgers----------------- ------- --------2
Boarders only-------------------------------------------5
Lodgers only---------------------------------------------Other persons_______ _________ __________
40
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_____ . . . ___________________ 3. 54
1.13
Under 16 years of age___________________
16 years of age and over_________________ 2. 41
Expenditure units_______ . . . .
3. 29
Average number of persons in household not
0.18
members of economic family_______ ______

20
3.18

33
3. 22

33
3. 72

32
3. 47

34
4.23

13
3.96

5
4. 07

8
4. 06

0
0
0

4
0
1
7

2
0
0
6

6
0
1
11

4
1
1
4

0
0
1
0

2
0
0

3

4
1
1
6

3.17
0.92
2. 25
2. 91

3.15
1. 05
2.10
2.89

3. 61
1.19
2. 42
3. 31

3. 48
1.20
2. 28
3.22

4.04
1.52
2. 52
3. 76

3. 55
0. 92
2. 63
3.41

3. 87
0.80
3. 07
3.76

3. 57
0. 24

0. 02

0.11

0.17

0.10

0.24

0. 45

0. 25

0. 58

Families in survey _______ . . . _____ _ _ _
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker_____________ ____________
Skilled wage earner. ............................... ........
Semiskilled wage earner. ...............................
Unskilled wage earner__________ ____ _____
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_______ ______ _____________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2 . .
.
____________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2. . . _ _
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2. ______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons)2
_____ _
________ _____ _ . .
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)2__________________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult____ _______________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_________ _____
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults___________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man
and wife)_______________________________
Adults (4 or more persons, not including
man and wife)__________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons,
not including man and wife)............... ........
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons, not including man and wife)___ _

5
1

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker____
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United S t a t e s ._________ ________________
England__________________________ _______
Other. ___________________________________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

3

3. 33

3. 52

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are pprsons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




258

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5. —

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
JACKSONVILLE, F L A —W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fami­
nes

$500
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E a rn in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey........ ........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers............. .................................
Other net rents__________________ _
Interest and dividends............... .......
Pensions and insurance annuities...
Gifts from persons outside economic
family ...............................................
Other sources of income___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities)_________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities)..............
Inheritance_______________________
Average number of gainful workers
per family..........................................
Average amount of—
Net family income________________
Earnings of individuals.................
Chief earner........... ........ ............
Subsidiary earners......................
Males: 16 years and over............
Under 16 years..... ...........
Females: 16 years and over____
Under 16 years______
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers........... .............................. .
Other net rents__________________
Interest and dividends______ __
Pensions and insurance annuities
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family__________________
Other sources of income_____
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)_______
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)______________
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities).........................
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey............. .
Inheritance._______ ____ _________
3

178

20

33

33

32

34

13

5

8

67

6

13

8

11

11

5

5

8

26
7
9
7

0
0
0
0

4
0
1
2

4
1
2
1

2
2
3
2

7
2
2
1

6
1
1
0

1
1
0
0

2
0
0
1

16
8

4
3

4
1

3
1

2
2

2
1

1
0

0
0

0

8

0

2

2

0

1

1

2

0
0

110

6

23

23

21

21

10

3

3

64
0

12
0

9
0

10
0

11
0

12
0

3
0

2
0

5
0

1.50

1.45

1.42

1.30

1.41

1.47

1.69

2.20

2.50

$1,566
1,518
1,320
198
1,302
(3
)
216
(3
)
20
6
1
11

0
0
0
0

7
4

13
5

-1

0

149

68

164

76

+33
0

-2 5
0

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 138.




$751 $1,056 $1,345 $1,626 $1,924 $2,233 $2,528 $3,189
733 1,030 1, 287 1,577 1,896 2,120 2,457 3,049
676
944 1,24° 1,400 1,742 1,830 1,591 1,657
57
86
177
154
38
290
866 1,392
869 1,218 1,401 1,762
515
,949 1,873 1,639
4
0
0
0
0
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
134
218
157
69
176
171
584 1,410
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(3
)
10
0
(3
)

9
8

(3
)
-1
67
142
+8
0

18
2
1
16

12
18
2
8

13
4
2
2

96
17
1
0

57
35
0
0

30
0
0
110

16
7

1
8

3
4

1
0

0
0

0
0

-2

-2 1

0

314

259

187

-2
119
175
+30
0

0
167
151
+58

(3
)
175
184
+43

0

340
+163

0

302
+35

0

0

213
-6 3
0

259

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—W H IT E F AM ILIES
Income level— Families with annual net income
of—
All
fami­
lies

Item

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n
and by F a m ily T y p e !

of

$600 to $900 to
$900
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

C h ie f E a rn e r

Families in survey_________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical w o r k e r ._____ ____________ ____ _
Skilled wage earner_______________________
Semiskilled wage earner___ ____ _________
Unskilled wage earner----------------------- ------Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___ _____ _______ _____
Man, wife, and 1 child 2 . _. ____________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2 ................
_______
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons)2______________________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)2
__________________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult__________ ______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults ____________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults____ ___
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)_______________ _ . . . . ______
Adults f4 or more persons not including
man and w ife)___________________ ___
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife) __________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)____

197

33

59

51

29

17

8

48
58
60
31

5
3
15
10

16
16
16
11

9
18
19
5

8
12
7
2

9
4
2
2

1
5
1
1

43
44
34
0

10
5
5
0

18
16
8
0

5
13
12
0

6
7
4
0

3
2
4
0

1
1
1
0

"5

5

4

8

3

1

4

10
11
9
0

0
2
1
0

0
2
3
0

3
2
3
0

2
3
2
0

5
1
0
0

0
1
0
0

15

2

8

3

2

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

196
1

33
0

59
0

50
1

29
0

17
0

8
0

197
3. 75

33
3. 21

59
3.28

51
4.10

29
3. 65

17
5.35

8
4.37

38
3
1
2

5
0
0
0

12
2
0
0

10
1
0
0

3
0
0
1

5
0
1
1

3
0
0
0

3. 57
1.08
2.49
3. 24

3.09
0.82
2.27
2.81

3.07
0. 76
2.31
2.78

3.87
1.33
2. 54
3.51

3.54
1.01
2.53
3.22

5.06
2.04
3.02
4.60

4.12
1.00
3.12
3.88

0.20

0.12

0.23

0.22

0.13

0.30

0.30

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker.__
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States.............................. ..................
Italy...................................................................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households______ _______ _____
Average number of persons in household____
Number o households with—
Boarders and lodgers...... ..................... ..........
Boarders o n ly ....................... .......................
Lodgers only...... ................................... .........
Other persons -------------------- ----------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total. .........................................
Under 16 years of age_______ ______ ____
16 years of age and over--------------- ---------Expenditure units_____ ________
______
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic fam ily______ ______

1 “ Children" are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults" are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,"
B. L. S. Bull No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




260

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

5 . — D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .-W H I T E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—
item

All
fami­
lies

$600 to $900 to
$900
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey_________________________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_______ ____
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers___
Other net rents._ _ __________ . . . ____ __
Interest and dividends-----------------------Pensions and insurance annuities.. ______
Gifts from persons outside economic family.
Other sources of income_____ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_______ . . . ._ __________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)_____________________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities). . .
______ _____ _
Inheritance.________ _____________________
Average number of gainful workers per
family_____ _ ____________________ . . . .

197

33

59

51

29

17

b

51
39
4
12
6
13
5

6
5
0
0
1
3
0

12
15
2
3
1
4
2

16
9
1
3
1
3
0

8
3
0
4
2
0
2

6
5
1
0
0
1
0

3
2
0
2
l
2
1

10

0

5

2

2

1

0

128

20

38

34

18

12

6

67
3

13
0

21
1

17
2

10
0

4
0

2
0

1.31

1.18

1.20

1.35

1.34

1.65

1.50

$781
763
743
20
631
0
132
0
13
0
0
2

$1,057
1,012
969
43
838
1
173
(3
)
31
3
1
4

$1, 340
1, 292
1,160
132
1,143
0
149
0
36
2
(3
)
6

$1, 650
1, 624
1,518
106
1, 547
0
77
0
19
0
5
25

$1, 944
1,865
1, 611
254
1,682
0
183
0
71
7
0
0

$2, 545
2, 263
2, 005
258
2, 245
0
18
0
84
0
54
104

3
0

8
2

4
0

0
1

1
0

4
36

Average amount of—
Net family income........................................... $1, 308
Earnings of individuals_____ ___________
1,258
Chief earner________________ _____ ___
1, 159
Subsidiary earners____________________
99
Males: 16 years and over_____________
1,117
Under 16 years___________ ___
(3
)
Females: 16 years and over___________
141
Under 16 years____________
(3
)
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers..
33
Other net rents.__ . . . _ ______ ____ _
2
Interest and dividends____. . . . . . _____
3
Pensions and insurance annuities.
...
11
Gifts from persons outside economic
_
_____________
family____ _ ____ _
4
Other sources of income ___ _______ __
2
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_______________ . _
._
-5
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in lia­
bilities)
_ _ _____ __ . . . __
130
Deficit per family having deficit (net de­
crease in assets and/or increase in liabili­
ties). ._ _ . . . . _____________ _____
150
Net change in assets and liabilities for all
families in survey______________________
+33
Inheritance______ ______ ____________ ____
2
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




0

-4

(3
)

-2 4

(3)

0

58

84

97

166

145

131

222

327

-3
0

-5
3

+38
6

+72
0

+86
0

+176
0

130

189

196

343

261

TABULAR SUMMARY

T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by in co m e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y — NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
Item

All fami­
lies

$500 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500
and over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y
F a m ily T y p e 1

74

37

24

8

5

0
11
17
46

0
2
8
27

0
2
7
15

0
2
2
4

0
5
0
0

22
10
12
3
4

15
4
7
0
3

7
4
5
1
0

0
1
0
1
0

0
1
0
1
1

6
6
5
0

3
3
0
0

0
1
2
0

3
1
2
0

0
1
1
0

4

2

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

Families in survey-------------------------------------------------Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker__________________________________
Skilled wage earner______________________________
Semiskilled wage earner_________________________
Unskilled wage earner___________________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife___________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child___________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children___________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children_______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) _
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)_______________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult__________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults_____________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults--------------------------Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and
wife)----------------------------------------------------------------Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)__________________________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)_______________________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)___________________

0

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

0

0

0

0

0

74

37

24

8

5

74
3. 93

37
3. 60

24
3.45

8
6. 37

5
4. 77

5
0
3
1

3
0
2
0

0
0
0
1

2
0
0
0

0
0
1
0

3. 83
1. 29
2. 54
3.42

3. 47
1.15
2. 32
3. 09

3.46
1.04
2.42
3.10

6.13
2. 37
3. 76
5.46

4. 57
1. 77
2. 80
4.07

0.10

0.13

0. 01

0. 25

0.20

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in United
States___________________________________________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_____________________________
Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____________________________
Boarders only_____________________ _____________
Lodgers only____________________________________
Other persons______________________ ____ _______
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total____________________________________
Under 16 years of age---------------- -----------------------16 years of age and over________________________
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family----------- ------------- ---------------

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.

7 4 3 9 0 °— 41-------18




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

262

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued

All families

Income level—Families with annual net
income of—
$500 to $900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500 and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In co m e

74

Average amount of—
Net family income-------------------------------Earnings of individuals______________
Chief earner_______________________
Subsidiary earners...............................
Males: 16 years and over....................
Under 16 years.......................
Females: 16 years and over...............
Under 16 years___________
Net earnings from boarders and lodg­
e rs........................ ...............................
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends................. ........
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family................................... ................
Other sources of income........................
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)-----------------------Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)___________________________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)___________________________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey ______ ______
Inheritance...................... ............................
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




37

24

8

5

26
8
1
0
3

11
5
0
0
0

9
0
0
0
1

5

2
1
0
0

1
1
0
0
2

1
1

Families in survey...................................... .
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners.............
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents...........................................
Interest and dividends..............................
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family.........................................................
Other sources of income..______ _______
D eductions from income (business losses
and expenses)------ -----------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)-----------------------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities) .................................
Inheritance_____ ______________________
Average number of gainful workers per
family_____ __________________ ____ —

1
1

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

3

2

0

28

18

4

5

18
0

8
0

6
0

4
0

0
0

1.42

1.30

1. 42

2.13

1.20

$969
948
879
69
869
1
78
0

$762
750
712
38
701
0
49
0

$1,016
1,014
913
101
887
0
127
0

$1,329
1,280
1,134
146
1,167
12
101
0

$1,666
1,560
1,546
14
1,544
0
16
0

12
1
0
6
0

1

55

10
0
0
0

0
0
0
2

44
5
0
0

32
0
0
74

3

0
0

0
0

0
0

0

0

171

164

2

0

-1

(3
)
97

76

0
94

76

63

67

116

0

+53
0

+44
0

+54
0

+27
P

+164
0

263

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

5 . — Description of fam ilies studied , by income level— C on tinu ed
M EM P H IS, T E N N .— W H ITE FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—
Item

All
fami
lies

$900
to
$1,200

$500
to
$900

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker...................................... ..........
Skilled wage earner. .......................................
Semiskilled wage earner___________ ____ . .
Unskilled wage earner ...................................
Number of families composed of—
Man anf wife____ _______________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2........ ............ ...........
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
....................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2
_______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to
6 persons)2-------------------------------------------Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)2.............................................
Man, wife, and 1 adult___________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults............. ............
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_______ _.
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)____ _______ _____ ____________
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)_______________________ . .
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife.____ _______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)........

194

25

35

44

37

40

13

79
53
56
6

6
3
12
4

9
12
12
2

23
6
15
0

15
12
10
0

20
14
6
0

6
6
1
0

52
44
39
2

11
8
5
0

9
8
5
1

9
11
10
0

12
4
10
0

7
11
8
1

4
2
1
0

14

0

3

4

4

1

2

9
21
8
0

0
0
0
0

2
4
3
0

4
5
1
0

1
4
0
0

1
7
3
0

1
1
1
0

2

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

193
1

25
0

35
0

43
1

37
0

40
0

13
0

194
3. 74

25
3.05

35
3.66

44
3.95

37
3.61

40
3.87

13
4.24

12
5
13
1

0
1
0
0

0
0
2
0

5
1
3
0

2
2
2
1

4
0
4
0

1
1
2
0

3.53
1.11
2.42
3.25

2.97
0.92
2.05
2.69

3.58
1.03
2. 55
3.27

3.71
1.32
2.39
3.42

3.45
1.24
2.21
3.18

3.60
1.08
2.52
2.35

3.76
0.76
3.00
3.62

0.21

0.08

0.08

0.24

0.15

0. 27

0.49

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker...
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States...................................................
Other..................................................................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households........... ............................
Average number of persons in household____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers............ ..........................
Boarders only____________________________
Lodgers only.......... .................... ....................
Other persons..................................................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total____________________________
Under 16 years of age........ ........................ .
16 years of age and over.................... ..........
Expenditure units-------- ---------------------------Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family_________ _____

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults are persons 16 years of age and over.
» Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




264

TWELVE OriTBS OF TH E SOOTH

T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In co m e

Families in survey___________________ _____
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers----Other net rents-------- ------------- ---------- - ........
Interest and dividends - — ......................
Pensions and insurance annuities-------------Gifts from persons outside economic family....................... ............ ................................
Other sources of income.._----------------Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_______________ _____ ____
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)-------------------------------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities).................- ................—
Inheritance--------- — ---------------------------Average number of gainful workers per fam­
ily— - ............................................................

194

25

35

44

37

40

13

31
34
14
11
5

1
1
1
0
0

4
4
2
0
1

10
9
2
2
0

2
7
5
5
0

7
8
2
3
2

7
5
2
1
2

12
9

2
1

2
2

3
3

4
0

1
2

0
1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

112

10

16

22

25

29

10

71
0

10
0

16
0

20
0

12
0

10
0

3
0

1.18

1.04

1.14

1.20

1.11

1.12

1.77

$749
734
731
3
730
0
4
0
5
1
0
0

$1, 072
1,027
991
36
1, 010
0
17
0
25
11
0
4

$1,345
1,269
1, 205
64
1,230
2
37
0
65
2
1
0

$1, 628
1, 570
1,549
21
1,549
0
21
0
24
24
6
0

$1,915
1,844
1,759
85
1,791
0
53
0
36
10
6
8

$2,381
2,207
1, 723
484
1,976
0
231
0
107
40
3
22

3
6

1
4

3
5

4
0

6
5

0
2

0

0

0

0

62

83

143

211

55

195

231

232

258

246

+3
0

-5 1
0

-3 4
0

+67
0

+114
0

+319
0

Average amount of—
$1, 459
Net family income— ............................... .
1,394
Earnings of individuals......... .....................
1,3 9
Chief earner---------------------------------------75
Subsidiary earners-----------------------------Males: 16 years and over--------------------- 1, 352
Under 16 years............. .............
(3
)
42
Females: 16 years and over...................
0
Under 16 years--------------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers..
39
12
------------------------------Other net rents.
3
Interest and dividends---------------- ------Pensions and insurance annuities—. . _
4
Gifts from persons outside .economic
family......... ...........................................
3
Other sources of income------------------------4
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)__________ ____ ________
(3
)
Surplus per family having surplus (net in­
crease in assets and/or decrease in liabili­
203
ties). -------------- . -------------- -----------------Deficit per family having deficit (net de­
crease in assets and/or increase in liabili­
203
ties) ------------------------------------------- ---------Net change in assets and liabilities for all
families in survey______________________
+41
0
Inheritance......... ................. ............................
3 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




(3
)
246

0
488

265

TABULAR SU M M ARY

T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
M EM PH IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
Item

All
families
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r an d
by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey_______________ ________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker..................... ........ ............ .................
Skilled wage earner................................................ _
Semiskilled wage earner...................................... .......
Unskilled wage earner........... ..................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife______________________ ____ _______
Man, wife, and 1 child 2
......... ..................... ................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
----- ---------------------Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2 ___________ _
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 per­
sons) 2
_____________________________
_______
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)2
________________ ________ ____________
Man, wife, and 1 adult....... ..................... ..................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults___ _____ ___________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_____ ____ ______
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and
wife)------------ --------------------------- ---------------------Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)----------------------------------------------------------------Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons, not
including man and w ife)_________________ ____
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons,
not including man and wife)...... ..................... .......

94

15

53

19

7

2
3
29
60

0
0
8
7

1
3
15
34

0
0
2
17

1
0
4
2

34
12
14
2

5
1
6
0

23
8
5
2

5
1
2
0

1
2
1
0

13

1

8

2

2

5
8
6
0

0
1
1
0

1
4
2
0

4
3
2
0

0
0
1
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker. _ ______
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States......... .......................................................

0

0

0

0

0

94

15

53

19

7

94
3. 64

15
3.60

53
3. 35

19
4. 36

7
4.04

4
2
3
0

0
0
0
0

2
2
2
0

1
0
1
0

1
0
0
0

3.51
1.02
2.49
3.25

3. 60
1.20
2.40
3.29

3.26
0.93
2.33
2. 96

4.26
1.21
3.05
3.91

3.90
0.90
3.00
3.57

0.10

0

0.14

0.10

0.14

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households____________________ ______
Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____________________________
Boarders only___________________________________
Lodgers only............................................ .......... ..........
Other persons................. ................... ........................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total__________ ________ ____ _____ _____
Under 16 years of age___________ ____ _________
16 years of age and over-------- ------- --------------------Expenditure units_______ ______ ________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family___________ __________ ____

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. S.
Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




266

TWELVE CITIES OF TH E SOUTH

T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
M EM PH IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAMILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net
income of—

Item

All
families

$600 to
$900

$500 to
$600

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E a rn in g s and In co m e

Families in survey_______________________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents............... ................... ........
Interest and dividends_________________
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_______________ _____ _________
Other sources of income________ ______ _
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)-----------------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)____ _____ _____
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)..............................
Inheritance.......... ......................................
Average number of gainful workers per
family----------------------------------- -------------Average amount of—
Net family income............. ..................... .
Earnings of individuals.........................
Chief earner___ . . . ____ ____ _____
Subsidiary earners........... ................. .
Males: 16 years and over.................
Under 16 years_______ _____
Females: 16 years and over________
Under 16 years..................
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers.................. .................................
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends_______________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_____________________________
Other sources of income____ _________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)________________
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)______________________ _ _
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)___________________________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey...............................
Inheritance..................................................
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




94

15

53

19

7

19
7
2
1
2

0
0
0
0
1

11
5
2
0
1

5
1
0
1
0

3
1
0
0
0

6
1

1
0

3
0

2
0

0
1

2

0

1

1

0

69

9

41

12

7

23
1

5
0

11
1

7
0

0
0

1.22

1.13

1.17

1.37

1.43

$821
804
763
41
785
0
18
1

$553
549
549
0
543
0
6
0

$741
725
701
24
710
0
12
3

$1,018
999
911
88
962
0
37
0

$1,468
1,431
1, 297
134
1,395
0
36
0

9
3
1

0
0
0
2

9
5
0

13
0
1
0

20
0
0
0

4
1

2
0

3
0

8
0

0
17

(3
)

-1
64

0

(3
)

-1

-3

0

28

40

84

126

45

154

140

0

+16
2

+2
0

-1
4

+1
0

+211
0

211

267

TABULAR SU M M ARY

T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilies stu died , by in com e level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—
-Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

146

5

2-

21

35

24

26

11

51
42
47
6

0
2
2
1

7
5
11
1

6
4
8
3

8
13
13
1

10
7
7
0

16
7
3
0

4
4
3
0

24
21
31
3

1
0
4
0

4
2
5
1

3
4
4
0

7
6
6
1

4
7
5
1

5
2
7
0

0
0
0
0

26

0

4

4

7

4

G

1

8
10
3
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
2
1
0

4
2
0
0

0
1
0
0

!
1
1
0

2
4
1
0

9

0

3

3

1

1

0

1

9

0

2

0

1

1

3

2

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey____________ _______ ____
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker____________ ____ ________
Skilled wage e a r n e r .________ _________
Semiskilled wage earner ________ ________
Unskilled wage earner___ _______________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife____ _______ _______ ______ _
Man, wife, and 1 child 8
___________ _____
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 8__________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 8 _____
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to
6 persons) 8____ ______
______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)8.......... ..................... ............
Man, wife, and 1 adult_________________ _
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults............... ........
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults.......... . . .
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man
and wife)___________ _____ ________ ___
Adults (4 or more persons, not including
man and wife)_________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 per­
sons, not including man and wife)_____
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons, not including man and wife). . .

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

144
1
1

5
0
0

24
0
0

21
0
0

33
1
1

24
0
0

26
0
0

11
0
0

146
4.16

5
4.17

24
3.94

21
3.80

35
4.21

24
3.97

26
4.24

11
5.35

16
1
3
29

0
0
0
0

1
1
0
4

2
0
0
6

4
0
1
7

4
0
1
4

3
0
0
4

2
0
1
4

4.03
1.28
2. 75
3.72

4.17
2. 21
1. 96
3.52

3.89
1.44
2. 45
3.55

3.64
0.90
2.74
3.40

4.07
1.42
2. 65
3. 70

3.84
1. 35
2.49
3.58

4.12
1.24
2.88
3.84

5.13
0. 73
4.40
4.90

0.18

0

0.06

0.26

0.22

0.17

0.15

0. 31

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker..
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States............................................. .
Germany...................................................... .
Sweden__________________________________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_____________________
Average number of persons in household___
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers......................... ............
Boarders only___________ _____ _________
Lodgers only.............. ................... ......... .......
Other persons___________________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total.................................................
Under 16 years of age................................
16 years of age and over...... .......................
Expenditure units____ __________________
Average number of persons in household
not members of economic family_________

1
“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
8 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




268

TWELVE CITIES OF TH E SOUTH

T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by in com e level— Continued
M OBILE, A L A .—W H IT E

FAM ILIES—Continued

Income level--Families with annual net income of—
All
fami­
lies

Item

E a rn in g s a n d

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

146

5

24

21

35

24

26

44

0

6

6

13

5

5

9

15
7
5
8

0
0
0
0

2
2
0
0

2
0
1
0

3
3
1
5

4
1
1
0

1
0
2
1

3
1
0
2

19
5

0
0

5
0

6
1

3
1

1
1

3
2

1
0
3

11

17

1

5

0

2

2

4

84

1

8

11

21

19

17

7

61
0

4
0

16
0

9
0

14
0

5
0

9
0

4
0

1.41

.98

1.24

1.39

1. 45

1. 23

1. 34

2.39

$531
534
534
0
534
0
0
0

$738
736
712
24
577
(3
)
159
0

$1,056
997
914
83
852
0
145
0

$1,320
1,279
1,160
119
1,193
(3
)
86
0

$1, 652
1,629
1,530
99
1,472
0
157
0

$1, 938
1,894
1,796
98
1,817
(3
)
77
0

$2, 575
2, 535
1,680
855
1,918
0
617
0

0
0
0
0

2
16
0
0

25
0
2
0

12
5
3
14

15
2
4
0

4
0
4
3

16
3
0
33

0
0

6
0

26
6

5
4

5

10
26

1
0

-2 2

0

-2

-3

-3

50

78

110

156

282

Average amount of—
Net family income________________ $1,417
1,384
Earnings of individuals_________
1,242
Chief earner__________________
142
Subsidiary earners____________
1,231
Males: 16 years and over______
Under 16 years.. ____
(3
)
153
Females: 16 years and over____
0
Under 16 years____ __
Net earnings from boarders and
11
lodgers_______________________
4
Other net rents____ _________
2
Interest and dividends__________
7
Pensions and insurance annuities.
Gifts from persons outside eco­
8
nomic family________________
7
Other sources of income_____ . . .
Deductions from income (busi­
-6
ness losses and expenses)______
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or
151
decrease in liabilities). . ___ . . .
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or
143
increase in liabilities). . . ______
Net change in assets and liabilities
+27
for all families in survey________
0
Inheritance______ _______________
Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




$600
to
$900

In com e

Families in survey___________ _____ _
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers________________________ _
Other net rents_________ ________ _
Interest and dividends___ _______
Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic family___________________
Other sources of income___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)____________
Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)____
Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)___
Inheritance-------------------------- --------Average number of gainful workers
per family........ ............................ .

3

$500
to
$600

-3
43

(3
)

-1 3
191

32

100

67

168

185

234

24S

-1 7
0

-5 0
0

+12
0

-1
0

+85
0

+103
0

+31
0

269

TABULAR SU M M ARY

T able 5. —

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with
annual net income of—
All fami­
lies

Item

$500 to
$600
D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y F a m i l y T y p e

$600 to
$900

$900 and
over

1

Families in survey________________________ ________ ____ ____
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker........... .......... ............. ..................................... .
Skilled wage earner________________________________________
Semiskilled wage earner_____ ______ _______________________
Unskilled wage earner______________________________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife-------------------- ------- -----------------------------------------Man, wife, and 1 child 2-------- ------- --------------------------------------Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2............................................... .
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2______________ ________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) 2____ __
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more persons) 2___
Man, wife, and 1 adult____________ _________ ______ _______
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults-------- ---------------------------------------Man, wife, and 5 or more adults. __________________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons, not including man and wife)________
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and wife)____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not including
man and wife)--------------- -------------- ----------------- . . . . . .
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not includ­
ing man and wife)_______________________________________

94

28

48

18

0
2
36
56

0
0
12
16

0
1
19
28

0
1
5
12

22
13
15
0
8
7
12
7
0
3
1

7
6
6
0
2
1
2
1
0
1
0

12
7
6
0
5
2
7
5
0
2
0

3
0
3
0
1
4
3
1
0
0
1

0

0

0

0

6

2

2

2

0
94

0
28

0
48

0
18

94
3.79

28
3.33

48
3.64

18
4.90

3
5
4
7

0
0
0
1

2
3
3
3

1
2
1
3

3.70
1.09
2. 61
3.38

3.37
1.06
2. 31
3.09

3.50
0.91
2. 59
3.24

4. 76
1.60
3.16
4.39

0.13

0.01

0.17

0.22

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker___ ______ _____ . . .
Number of families having homemaker born in United States..
C o m p o s itio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households--------------------------------- ------- ------- ------- Average number of persons in household................ ................... .
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers-------- ------------------------------------------- ------Boarders only---------- -----------------------------------------------------------Lodgers only. _ __________________ _______________ ____ ___
Other persons----- ----------------------------- ---------- --------------------Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total---------- ---------------------------------------------------------Under 16 years of age---------------------------- ---------------------------16 years of age and over— ................................. .........................
Expenditure units__________________________________________
Average number of persons in household not members of
economic family____________________________________________

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




270

TWELVE COTES OF TH E SOUTH

T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
M O BILE, ALA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
Item

All fami­
lies
$500 to $600 $600 to $900

$900 and
over

E a r n in g s an d In c o m e

Families in survey...................... .........................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners—.....................................
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers_____________
Other net rents........... .......................................................
Interest and dividends..............- .............. .......................
Pensions and insurance annuities— ______ _________
Gifts from persons outside economic family.................
Other sources of income______________ ____________ _
Deductions from income (business losses and expenses)_____ _________________ _______ —........ ........
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_____________________ ____ ____ 1-----------Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or increase in lia­
bilities) ____________________ ____ ________________
Inheritance......................................... - ..................... ........
Average number of gainful workers per family.... ..........
Average amount of—
Net family income__________________ _______ ______
Earnings of individuals........—.....................................
Chief earner__________________ ________________ _
Subsidiary earners......... ............................................
Males: 16 years and over...... ...................................
Under 16 years.____________ ______ ____
Females: 16 years and over.....................................
Under 16 years........ ..................................
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers....................
Other net rents___________________________________
Interest and dividends................... .............................
Pensions and insurance annuities_________________
Gifts from persons outside economic family.............
Other sources of income______ __________________
Deductions from income (business losses and ex­
penses)________________________________________
Surplus per family having surplus (net increase in
assets and/or decrease in liabilities)____ __________
Deficit per family having deficit (net decrease in
assets and/or increase in liabilities)_______________
Net change in assets and liabilities or all families in
survey................ .............................................................
Inheritance..........................................................................
8

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




94

28

48

18

53
8
0
1
3
7
7

15
0
0
0
1
0
1

24
6
0
1
2
4
6

14
2
0
0
Q
3
0

3

0

2

1

58

16

32

10

34
0
1.76

12
0
1.60

15
0
1.62

7
0
2.40

$759
746
643
103
653
(*)
93
(*)
6
0
(*)
2
1
5

$556
556
515
41
505
(*)
51
(*)
0
0
0
(*)
0
0)

$733
714
645
69
625
0
89
0
7
0
(*)
4
1
9

$1,139
1,124
836
288
955
0
169
0
14
0
0
0
1
0

-1

0

-2

(»)

52

32

55

78

100

54

72

237

-4
0

-5
0

+14
0

-4 9
0

TABULAR

271

SUM M ARY

T a b l e 5 . — D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , by in com e level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

Distribution By Occupation of Chief Earner
and by Family T ype1
Families in survey............_..................................
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker___________________ _______
Skilled wage earner....... ..................................
Semiskilled wgae earner...................................
Unskilled wage earner.....................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_____________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child 3____ ________ _____
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 8.....................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 8.............
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons) 8.......... - ________ _______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons)8
........................... ..................
Man, wife, and 1 adult...................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults..........................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults................ .
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)............................... ........................
Adults (4 or more persons not including man
and wife).....................................................
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife)_____________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)........

318

14

60

71

60

72

25

7

9

126
73
84
35

1
2
7
4

13
12
26
9

26
14
16
15

27
13
17
3

34
23
13
2

14
6
3
2

6
0
1
0

5
3
1
0

48
53
49
4

0
0
2
0

8
12
12
0

10
17
10
4

9
11
8
0

14
12
15
0

5
1
2
0

1
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

43

1

4

9

10

8

9

1

1

18
26
22
1

1
3
1
0

3
4
0
0

1
2
3
0

5
7
4
0

4
7
7
0

1
1
2
1

1
1
3
0

2
1
2
0

30

5

10

11

2

2

0

0

0

12

0

2

3

1

3

1

0

2

5

1

1

1

2

0

0

0

0

7

0

4

0

1

0

2

0

0

3

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

308
4
1
1
1

12
1
0
0
0

57
0
1
1
0

71
0
0
0
0

57
2
0
0
0

71
0
0
0
1

25
0
0
0
0

7
0
0
0
0

8
1
0
0
0

318
3.98

14
3.42

60
3.63

71
3.90

60
3.96

72

25
4.60

7
4.87

9
4.90

20
13
7
5

0
0
0
0

0
0
2
1

6
2
1
0

4
4

0
2

5
6
3
1

3
1
0
1

1
0
1
0

1
0
0
0

3.80
1.03
2.77
3.51

3.42
0.70
2.72
3.23

3.59
1.11
2.48
2.24

3.73
1.19
2.54
3.40

3.78
1.02
2.76
3.50

3.77
1.01
2.76
3.46

4. 39
0.96
3.43
4.12

4.41
0.49
3.92
4.23

4.86
0.72
4.14
4.65

0.18

0

0.04

0.17

0.17

0.27

0.26

0.47

0.04

Distribution by Nativity of Homemaker
Number of families having no homemaker___
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States.....................................................
Italy............. ......................................................
England.......... ..................................................
Mexico____________________ ______________
Other...................................................................
Composition of Household
Number of households.........................................
Average number of persons in household____
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers............. ..........................
Boarders only.....................................................
Lodgers only......................................................
Other persons....................................................
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total-...................................................
Under 16 years of age....................................
16 years of age and over..............—.............
Expenditure units.........................................
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family.......... ...............

4 .0 4

1
“ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
8Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “Cost of Living in the United States,” B. L. 8.
Bull. No. 367,1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




272

TWELVE COTES OF TH E SOUTH

T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

318

14

60

71

60

72

25

7

9

83

5

8

10

19

14

11

7

9

39
19
12
6

0
0
0
0

4
2
0
1

10
4
3
1

6
5
3
3

13
5
3
0

4
3
1
0

1
0
1
1

1
0
1
0

35
13

0
0

4
1

9
7

8
2

9
2

3
0

1
1

1
0
0

E a rn in g s and In c o m e

Families in survey.................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_____
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers.................. ................... ........
Other net rents___________________
Interest and dividends____________
Pensions and insurance annuities...
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_____________________ ____
Other sources of income___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)-------------- __
Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities)_________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities)............. .
Inheritance_____ ___________ _ ._
Average number of gainful workers
per family...................................... . . .
Average amount of—
Net family income________ ______ _
Earnings of individuals_________
Chief earner________________
Subsidiary earners______ ____
Males: 16 years and over..........
Under 16 years._______
Females: 16 years and over.......
Under 16 years______
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers------------------------------------Other net rents__________________
Interest and dividends___ ____ _
Pensions and insurance annuities .
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family____________ _____
Other sources of income_____ . . .
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)___ .
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_________
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
crease in liabilities)___________ . .
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey_________
Inheritance..........................................
3

4

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

180

5

29

44

33

45

16

3

5

100
3

6
0

19
0

16
0

23
0

23
1

7
2

3
0

3
0

1.33

1.32

1.14

1.13

1.37

1.29

1.73

2. 36

2. 43

$1, 302
1,248
1,106
142
1, 067
(3
)
181
0

$532
532
474
58
350
0
182
0

$778 $1, 038 $1,332 $1, 671 $1, 885 $2,094 $2, 656
764
997 1,259 1,601 1,822 1, 823 2,638
958 1,128 1,487 1, 505 1,026 1,470
737
131
317
797 1,168
27
39
114
588
867 1,115 1,511 1,543 1,153 1, 679
0
0
0
0
0
0
(3
)
130
144
90
279
670
176
959
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

21
10
1
8

0
0
0
0

5
1
0
3

20
10
(3
)
(3
)

23
18
(3
)
16

31
14
3
0

44
16
1
0

34
0
8
183

8
0
1
0

9
5

0
0

4
1

8
3

7
9

15
8

2
0

44
4

9
0

0

0

0

12

43

88

110

(3
)
110

-1

(3
)

-2

139

172

150

0
309

149

94

85

73

160

209

277

156

222

+15
4

-3 6
0

-6
0

+39
0

-1
0

+20
4

+33
41

-3
0

+98
0

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




(3
)

273

TABULAR SU M M ARY

T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilies stu died , by in com e level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA .—N EGR O FAM ILIES
Income level—
Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
families
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200
and over

D istr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d by
F a m ily T y p e i

Families in survey________________________ ____ ___
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker__________________________________
Skilled wage earner____ ___________ _____________
Semiskilled wage earner_________________________
Unskilled wage earner_______ ___________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife____________
____ _____________
Man wife, and 1 child 2
__________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2
.__............................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 per­
sons)2
___________ _____________ _____ _____ . . .
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
______________________________________
persons)2
Man, wife, and 1 adult__________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults.......................... ............
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults_________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and
wife)_________ ____ ____________
_ ________ .
Adults (4 or more persons not including man
and wife)_____________________________ ___ ___
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)_______ . . . _____ ____
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)_________ _______

83

15

36

25

7

4
5
35
39

0
1
7
7

1
2
18
15

3
1
5
16

0
1

19
18
9
3

3
7
0
0

8
7
5
2

6
3
4
1

2
1
C
c

11

2

4

4

1

5
5
3
0

1
0
0
0

1
2
2
0

2
2
1
0

1
1
c
c
c

5

1

5

1

2

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

0

c

2

0

2

0

c

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States._ ----- ------------- ------------------------------

0

0

0

0

c

83

15

36

25

7

83
3.94

15
3.42

36
3.85

25
4.23

7
4 .4c

2
0
8
0

1
0
2
0

1
0
2
0

0
0
2
0

C
(

3.84
1.30
2. 54
3. 50

3. 22
0. 97
2. 25
2. 98

3. 79
1.44
2. 35
3. 46

4.24
1.44
2.80
3.82

3.96
0. 71
3. 21
3.66

0.12

0. 20

0.06

0.04

0.47

C o m p o s i t i o n o f h o u seh o ld

Number of households_____________________________
Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers--------- ---------------------------------Boarders only_________________________ _________
Lodgers only------ ------------------------------- ------- ---------Other persons_____________
__________ ______
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total_______________________ ____ _______
Under 16 years of age__________________________
16 years of age and over_________ ________ _____
Expenditure units_______________________________
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family__________________________

C

1 “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




274

TWELVE CITIES OF TH E SOUTH

T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued

N E W ORLEANS, L A —NEGRO FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net
income of—
Item

All
families
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey..........................................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners____ ____
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents----------------- ------- ----------Interest and dividends-------------------------Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family................. ......... .................. ........
Other sources of income________________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)-------------------------Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities).................... .........
Deficit (net increase in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)------- ---------------Inheritance______________ _____ _____
Average number of gainful workers per
family..........................................................
Average amount of—
Net family income......................................
Earnings of individuals..........................
Chief earner.......... ................................
Subsidiary earners......................... .
Males: 16 years and over....................
Under 16 years_____ ______
Females: 16 years and over...............
Under 16 years....................
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers................................................ .
Other net rents______________________
Interest and dividends----------------------Pensions and insurance annuities___
Gifts from persons outside economic
family................................................. .
Other sources of income____________ .
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)............. .............
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)_______ __________ ____ ___
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)-----------------------------------------Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey............................. .
Inheritance............. ................................... .
s Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




83

15

36

25

7

28
10
2
1
0

4
3
0
0
0

9
3
1
1
0

12
2
1
0
0

3
2
0
0
0

2
0

1
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

2

0

0

2

0

42

5

14

17

6

21
0

6
0

12
0

2
0

1
0

1.41

1.37

1.25

1.64

1.48

$841
830
741
89
723
4
103
(3
)

$552
540
500
40
442
0
98
(*)

$720
711
668
43
638
6
67
0

$1,044
1,043
880
163
877
0
166
0

$1,346
1,292
1,123
169
1,205
0
87
0

10
1

3

0

11
0
0
0

0

0
0

54
0
0
0

1
0

1
0

2
0

0
0

0

0

31

90

(3
)

-1
77

5
2
(»)

(3
)

-2
73

0
0
94

47

36

49

54

72

+27
0

-4
0

+19
0

+45
0

+70
0

275

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D esc rip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level—Continued

N O R FO L K -PO R TSM O U T H , VA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net
income of—
All
fami­
lies

Item

$600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

Distribution by Occupation of Chief Earner and by
Family Type 1
Families in survey__________________ ______________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker............... .......... ......... ........................
Skilled wage earner...... .............................................. Semiskilled wage earner..............................................
Unskilled wape earner............. ...................................
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife8 . . ........... ..............................................
.
Man, wife, and 1 child8
...............................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children*................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more children8______________
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) 8
_
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more per­
____________________________________ ____
sons) 8
Man, wife, and 1 adult................................................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults.......................................
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults__________ ______
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife).______ _____ __________ ____ ___ ____ ____
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife).........................................
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)..................................

162

10

23

40

32

28

20

9

46
67
36
13

3
0
3
4

4
7
8
4

8
20
9
3

16
12
3
1

11
8
8
1

4
14
2
0

0
6
3
0

36
33
38
3
22

2
3
4
0
0

3
6
4
0
2

8
11
11
2
3

11
7
6
0
3

5
4
7
1
6

5
1
6
0
5

2
1
0
0
3

3
12
4
0
3

0
1
0
0
0

0
2
1
0
0

1
0
1
0
1

1
3
0
0
1

1
2
0
0
1

0
1
2
0
0

0
3
0
0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

5

0

3

1

0

1

0

0

.

Distribution by Nativity of Homemaker
Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States............................................ ........ ..........
Russia......................... ................... ................................
Canada (not French)____ _____________ _________
Ireland................... ............. .................... ....................
Other...............................................................................

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

155
2
1
1
3

10
0
0
0
0

23
0
0
0
0

36
0
1
1
2

29
2
0
0
1

28
0
0
0
0

20
0
0
0
0

9
0
0
0
0

162
3.82

10
3.48

23
3.67

40
3.97

32
3. 30

28
4.17

20
4.30

9
3.88

27
4
3
2

1
0
0
1

2
0
0
0

8
1
1
0

4
1
0
1

4
0
0
0

6
0
2
0

2
2
0
0

3.63
1.24
2. 39
3.33

3.38
1.28
2.10
3.02

3. 56
1.15
2.41
3. 27

3. 77
1. 62
2.15
3. 38

3.10
0. 72
2. 38
2.89

4.02
1.47
2. 55
3. 69

3.87
1.25
2. 62
3. 62

3.56
0.78
2. 78
3.38

Average number of persons in household not mem
bers of economic family............... ................................ 0.23

0.10

0.13

0. 24

0. 22

0.19

0. 46

0.41

Composition of Household
Number of households____________________ _____ _
Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers..... ..................... ........................
Boarders only................................ ............................ .
Lodgers only....................... ..........................................
Other persons............................................................ .
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total................ ................................. ........... .
Under 16 years of age...............................................
16 years of age and over..........................................

Expenditure units

__

* Children are defined as persons under 16 years of age. Adults are persons 16 years of age and over.
8 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

276
T able 5•
—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died, b y in com e level— Continued

NOR FOLK -POR TSM OUTH , VA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level--Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
to
$2,400

$2,400
and
over

E a rn in g s an d In co m e

Families in survey_________ ________
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners........
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers------------------------------ -------Other net rents___________________
Interest and dividends-----------------Pensions and insurance annuities..
Gifts from persons outside economic family________________________
Other sources of income___________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_____________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/
or decrease in liabilities)____ . . .
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/
or increase in liabilities)_________
Inheritance.. . . . _ - ___ ________
Average number of gainful workers
per family________________________

162

10

23

40

32

28

20

20

0

7

1

3

5

3

1

26
15
3
3

1
0
0
0

2
1
1
1

8
4
0
0

3
4
2
0

3
2
0
0

5
3
0
0

4
1
0
2

4
4

1
0

1
1

0
0

0
0

2
1

0
1

0
1

8

1

0

2

3

1

1

0

102

9

10

23

22

17

13

8

58
0

1
0

13
0

16
0

9
0

11
0

7
0

1
0

1.12

1.00

1.35

1.05

1.06

1.14

1.15

1.11

$785
763
763
0
763
0
0
0

$1,057
1,028
951
77
892
0
136
0

$1,344
1,294
1,280
14
1,208
0
86
0

$1,620
1, 584
1,558
26
1,543
0
41
0

$1,917
1,873
1,832
41
1,724
0
149
0

$2,199
2,130
2,088
42
2,114
0
16
0

$2,876
2,320
2,280
40
2,320
0
0
0

19
0
0
0

9
2
3
15

35
18
0
0

6
34
2
0

19
7
0
0

36
25
0
0

92
7
0
319

0
0

0
0

1
17

0
8

0
138

Average amount of—
Net family income___________ ____ $1,614
Earnings of individuals........... .
1, 541
Chief earner...____ __________
1, 507
Subsidiary earners-------- ---------34
1,464
Males: 16 years and over______
Under 16 years________
0
Females: 16 years and over___
77
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers... __ ________________
25
16
Other net rents__________ ______
1
Interest and dividends__________
Pensions and insurance annuities.
20
Gifts from persons outside eco­
1
nomic family____ __________ _
Other sources of income_____ . .
12
Deductions from income (busi­
-2
ness losses and expenses)______
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities). . . _____ . . .
173
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or in­
205
crease in liabilities)________ ____
Net change in assets and liabilities
+35
for all families in survey______ _
0
Inheritance_________ _____ _______
* Less than $0.60.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




9

5
0
-2
33

(3
)
(3
)
0
110

-3

-6

122

153

(3
)
239

(3
)
220

0
393

361

120

213

192

285

213

216

-6
0

-2 0
0

-1 5
0

+51
0

+33
0

+68
0

+325
0

277

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued

NO R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH . VA .—NEQRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900
to
•$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d
by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey__________________________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker___________________________________
Skilled wage earner________________ _____________
Semiskilled wage earner_______ __________________
Unskilled wage earner.. ________ ________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife____________________________________
Man, wife, and 1 child__________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children________________ . . .
Man, wife, and 5 or more children________ _______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons) _.
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)___________________ _____ ______________
Man, wife, and 1 adult __ _______________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults... __________________
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults__________________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife)..
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
w ife)__________________________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)________________ _______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons not
including man and wife)________________________

109

11

47

31

15

5

2
9
42
56

0
0
4
7

0
3
16
28

0
4
13
14

1
2
6
6

1
0
3
1

30
17
17
4
12

6
1
1
0
1

13
6
8
2
5

8
6
6
0
4

3
3
2
1
0

0
1
0
1
2

13
7
3
0
4

1
1
0
0
0

4
4
0
0
3

3
2
2
0
0

4
0
1
0
1

1
0
0
0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

0

0

0

0

0

0

109

11

47

31

15

5

109
4.19

11
3.64

47
4.01

31
3.89

15
5.19

5
5.89

10
1
5
2

4
0
2
0

3
1
1
0

1
0
1
1

2
0
0
0

0
0
1
1

4.05
1. 49
2. 56
3.64

3.13
0. 90
2. 23
2.73

3.95
1.50
2. 45
3. 53

3.80
1. 25
2. 55
3. 51

5.06
2.06
3.00
4. 51

5. 45
2.40
3.05
4.80

0. 45 1

0.54

0. 75

0. 09

0.13

0.44

Number of families having no homemaker ________
Number of families having homemaker born in—
United States__________________
_______________
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households____ _____________________ . . .
Average number of persons in household____________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____ _____ ____________ ______
Boarders only____________________________________
Lodgers only---------------------------------------------------------Other persons . ______
. . . _ _________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total--------------------------------------------------------Under 16 years of age-----------------------------------------16 years of age and over--------------------------------------Expenditure units. _ . . . ________ ____ _____ . . .
Average number of persons in household not members
of economic families___ . . . _____ _____ _________ .

* “ Children" are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.

74 a 9 0 ° — 41-




-19

“ Adults" are persons 16 years of age and over.

278

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in com e level— Continued

N O R FO LK -PO R TSM O U TH , V A —NEGRO FAMILIES-Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—
Item

All
families

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500
and over

E a rn in g s a n d In co m e

Families in survey.............. ........................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners........... .
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.
Other net rents............................. ............
Interest and dividends________________
Pensions and insurance annuities______
Gifts from persons outside economic
family--------------- ------- -----------------------Other sources of income_______________
Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)_______ _________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)_______________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)_______________
Inheritance- ___________ ____ _______
Average number of gainful workers per
family. ............. .........................................
Average amount of—
Net family income........ .........................
Earnings of individuals...... ...............
Chief earner........... ..............................
Subsidiary earners.......... ...................
Males: 16 years and over...................
Under 16 y e a rs....................
Females: 16 years and over...............
Under 16 years__________
Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers...................................................
Other net rents________ ____________
Interest and dividends............... ..........
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family________________ _____ _____
Other sources of income...... .......... .......
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)_______________
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)__________ ____ ___________
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)___________________________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey.............................
Inheritance..................................................

109

47

31

15

5

4
3
0
0
1

18
5
0
0
2

15
2
0
0
0

8
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

4
4

1
0

1
1

1
2

1
0

0
1

3

2

0

0

1

0

72

7

31

22

10

2

34
0

4
0

13
0

9
0

5
0

3
0

1.50

1.45

1.42

1.55

1.73

1.20

$939
921
823
98
842
(*)
79
0

$540
526
495
31
495
0
31
0

$760
744
667
77
668
0
76
0

$1,019
1,003
893
110
903
(3
)
100
0

$1,327
1, 311
1,098
213
1,205
0
106
0

$1,836
1, 764
1,754
10
1,764
0
0
0

10
0
0
2

13
0
0
2

9
0
0
3

8
0
0
0

12
0
0
0

21
0
0
0

1
6

3
0

1
3

1
7

5
0

0
51

0

0

-1

51

69

116

* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




11

46
12
0
0
3

-1
86

-4
67

0
726

102

67

117

64

153

117

+25
0

+18
0

+1
0

+30
0

+27
0

+220
0

279

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
R ICH M ON D , V A .—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

D istr ib u tio n

All
fami­
lies

$500 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r
and by F a m ily T y p e 1

Families in survey___ ______________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker___________________________
Skilled wage earner..........................................
Semiskilled wage earner................ ........... .
Unskilled wage earner____________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife________________ ____________
Man, wife, and 1 child 2......... ........................
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children 2___________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children 2_______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6
persons) 2___ _____ _____________________
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or
more persons) 2
__________________________
Man, wife, and 1 adult____ ______ ________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults— ____ _______
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults__________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man
and wife)______________________ ____ ___
Adults (4 or more persons not including
man and wife)____ _____________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons
not including man and wife)____________
Adult or adults and children (4 or more
persons not including man and wife)____

192

27

29

42

37

24

12

12

9

67
56
63
6

3
3
21
0

4
9
13
3

12
11
17
2

16
15
6
0

16
4
4
0

6
5
1
0

4
6
1
1

6
3
0
0

42
30
41
1

5
8
6
0

3
8
7
0

14
9
8
0

10
2
9
0

5
1
6
1

2
1
1
0

2
0
4
0

1
1
0
0

23

3

3

4

6

4

2

1

0

11
17
10
0

1
1
0
0

2
3
1
0

2
0
1
0

1
5
3
0

0
3
2
0

1
2
0
0

2
1
1
0

2
2
2
0

10

1

2

4

0

!

1

1

0

3

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

190
1
1

27
0
0

28
0
1

42
0
0

36
1
0

24
0
0

12
0
0

12
0
0

9
0
0

192
4.06

27
3.74

29
3. 77

42
3.62

37
4.24

24
4.32

12
4.27

12
4.66

9
5.34

29
15
8
20

5
0
1
1

1
1
1
1

5
4
3
4

7
2
1
5

6
2
1
3

3
1
1
2

1
3
0
2

1
2
0
2

3.79
1.14
2.65
3.55

3.68
1.39
2.29
3.33

3.61
1.08
2.53
3.34

3.40
1.10
2.30
3.18

3.93
1.22
2. 71
3.72

3.87
1.04
2.83
3.66

3.87
1.08
2.79
3.63

4.40
1.34
3.06
4.21

4.84
.62
4. 22
4.65

0.33

0.15

0.20

0.29

0.32

0.45

0.49

0.51

0.53

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker___
Number of families having homemaker born
in—
United States............................................. .......
Italy...................................................... .............
Other.......... ......................................................
C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households____________ _____ ___
Average number of persons in household........
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers______________________
Boarders only____________________________
Lodgers only.......................................... .........
Other persons________________ ____________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total____ _____ ___ ____ _________
Under 16 years of age....... ...........................
16 years of age and over_________________
Expenditure units________________ _______
Average number of persons in household not
members of economic family.......................

* “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age. “ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.
2 Families of these types were included in the 1917-19 study, “ Cost of Living in the United States,”
B. L. S. Bull. No. 357, 1924.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




280

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

5•— D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilies stu died , b y in com e level— Continued
R ICH M ON D , VA.—W H IT E FAM ILIES—Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

2 0
,19

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $
$2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 ovei

E a r n in g s a n d In c o m e

Families in survey-------- ------------------Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners-----Net earnings from boarders and
lodgers__________________________
Other net rents------- ------------- --------Interest and dividends------------------Pensions and insurance annuities _ _
Gifts from persons outside economic
family___________________ . .
Other sources of income.-------- --- .
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)-------------------Surplus (net increase in assets
and/or decrease in liabilities)------Deficit (net decrease in assets
and/or increase in liabilities)------Inheritance---------------------------- ------Average number of gainful workers
per family_________________________

192

27

29

42

37

24

12

12

9

84

4

11

16

14

13

8

9

9

49
14
10
4

6
0
1
0

4
0
1
0

12
3
1
1

10
4
3
0

8
3
1
0

3
1
1
0

3
2
2
2

3
1
0
1

21
15

1
3

4
1

4
3

4
1

6
3

0
2

1
1

1
1

3

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

114

14

12

20

27

16

9

10

6

75
0

13
0

17
0

19
0

10
0

8
0

3
0

2
0

3
0

1. 59

1.16

1. 52

1. 55

1.40

1.67

1.69

2.28

2.99

Average amount of—
Net family income________________ $1, 585
Earnings of individuals................. 1, 521
_______ 1, 265
Chief earner________
256
Subsidiary earners____________
Males: 16 years and over---------- 1,262
1
Under 16 years________
Females: 16 years and over____
258
Under 16 years______
0
Net earnings from boarders and
35
lodgers------- -------------------------Other net rents____________ ____
10
2
Interest and dividends----- ------Pensions and insurance annuities.
3
Gifts from persons outside eco­
nomic family... ---------------------7
Other sources of income. _. . . . .
7
Deductions from income (busi­
ness losses and expenses)______
(3
)
Surplus per family having surplus
(net increase in assets and/or de­
crease in liabilities)____________
183
Deficit per family having deficit
(net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)____________
183
Net change in assets and liabilities
for all families in survey_________
+37
Inheritance____ ____ _____________
0
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A , p. . 638.




$750 $1, 111 $1, 347 $1, 658 $1, 977 $2, 214 $2,540 $3, 270
722 1,078 1,284 1,581 1,922 2,078 2,475 3,117
944 1,170 1,445 1,631 1, 670 1,632 1, 657
710
134
12
136
114
291
843 1,460
408
918 1,154 1,395 1, 646 1, 621 1,786 1,908
659
2
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
63
158
124
186
276
689 1,209
457
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
1
0

25
0
(3
)

0

52
13
2
0

31
10
5
0

50
52
17
0

40
5
1
9

66
12
0
54

7
4

0
17

2
8

11
12

0

0

240

346

7
9

(3
)

6
11

9
1

0

(3
)

0

0

118

165

45

8

34
9
1
2

69

-2
262

-2
446

162

188

86

413

191

100

88

176

-5 5
0

-8 1
0

+17
0

+9
0

+99
0

+156
0

+275
0

+239
0

281

TABULAR SUMMARY
T able 5.—

D escrip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
RICH M ON D , VA .—NEGRO FAM ILIES

Item

All
families

Income level— Families with annual net
income of—
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1200

$1200 and
over

D is tr ib u tio n b y O c c u p a tio n o f C h ie f E a r n e r a n d b y
F a m ily T y p e *

Families in survey_____________ _________________
Number of families in which chief earner is—
Clerical worker__________ _______ _______________
Skilled wage earner_______ ________ _____________
Semiskilled wage earner_______ _________________
Unskilled wage earner... ____ ________________
Number of families composed of—
Man and wife_______ ____________ _____ ______
Man, wife, and 1 child__________________________
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 children___ _______________
Man, wife, and 5 or more children_______ ______
Man, wife, and children and adults (4 to 6 persons).
Man, wife, and children and adults (7 or more
persons)____________________ ____________ _____
Man, wife, and 1 adult....................................... ........
Man, wife, and 2 to 4 adults. ...................... ............
Man, wife, and 5 or more adults. _ ______________
Adults (2 or 3 persons not including man and wife).
Adults (4 or more persons not including man and
wife)_________________ ________________________
Adult or adults and children (2 or 3 persons not
including man and wife)_______ ______ _______
Adult or adults and children (4 or more persons
not including man and wife)___________________

96

11

41

33

11

2
1
58
35

0
0
10
1

1
0
29
11

0
1
14
18

1
0
5
5

27
9
12
3
11

6
0
1
0
0

11
4
6
1
5

9
4
2
2
5

1
1
3
0
1

7
10
4
0
5

0
0
0
0
1

3
3
1
0
4

2
5
2
0
0

2
2
1
0
0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

6

2

2

2

0

D istr ib u tio n b y N a tiv ity o f H o m e m a k e r

Number of families having no homemaker_________
Number of families having homemaker born in
United States________ ____ _______ ______________

0

0

0

0

0

96

11

41

33

11

96
4.03

11
2.87

41
4.06

33
4.09

11
4.90
0
0
1
1

C o m p o sitio n o f H o u se h o ld

Number of households_____________________________
Average number of persons in household___________
Number of households with—
Boarders and lodgers____________________________
Boarders only------------------ _ ___ . . . _. . . . _ _
Lodgers only--------------------- _ _ ______________ _
Other persons___________________________________
Average size of economic family in—
Persons, total.. ____________________ ____ _______
Under 16 years of a g e ..______ _________________
16 years of age and over________ ____________
.
Expenditure units. __________________________ _.
Average number of persons in household not mem­
bers of economic family........... .......... ........................

2
3
10
1

1
1
0
0

0
1
4
0

j
1
5
0

3.85
1.28
2. 57
3.48

2.75
0.88
1.87
2. 54

3. 93
1.32
2.61
3. 54

3.80
1.19
2. 61
3.44

4.79
1.78
3.01
4.34

0.20

0.12

0.14

0.32

0.11

i “ Children” are defined as persons under 16 years of age.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




“ Adults” are persons 16 years of age and over.

282

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T able 5.—

D e sc r ip tio n o f fa m ilie s stu died , b y in co m e level— Continued
R IC H M ON D , VA .—NEGRO FAM ILIES— Continued
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All families
$500 to $600 $600 to $900 $900 to $1200 $1200 and
over

E a r n in g s a n d In co m e

Families in survey........... ..............................
Number of families having—
Earnings of subsidiary earners_________
Net earnings from boarders and lodgers.Other net rents...........................................
Interest and dividends...............................
Pensions and insurance annuities...........
Gifts from persons outside economic
family__________________ ____________
Other sources of income------------ ------- Deductions from income (business losses
and expenses)___ ____________________
Surplus (net increase in assets and/or
decrease in liabilities)________________
Deficit (net decrease in assets and/or
increase in liabilities)..............................
Inheritance_________ _______ ___ _____ _
Average number of gainful workers per
family___________________________ _____
Average amount of—
Net family income.................................... .
Earnings of individuals............. ............
Chief earner_______________________
Subsidiary earners...............................
Males: 16 years and over.................. .
Under 16 years........................
Females: 16 years and over. ......... .
Under 16 years----------------Net earnings from boarders and lodgers
Other net rents_______ ____ _______ _
Interest and dividends.. __ _________
Pensions and insurance annuities____
Gifts from persons outside economic
family_________________ _____ _____
Other sources of income______________
Deductions from income (business
losses and expenses)____ ___________
Surplus per family having surplus (net
increase in assets and/or decrease in
liabilities)____________________ ______
Deficit per family having deficit (net
decrease in assets and/or increase in
liabilities)______________ ___________
Net change in assets and liabilities for
all families in survey_________________
Inheritance...................................................
3

Less than $0.50.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




96

11

41

33

11

61
15
2
0
19

6
1
0
0
0

25
5
0
0
10

23
8
2
0
6

7
1
0
0
3

10
7

4
0

4
1

2
3

0
3
0

2

0

0

2

57

9

18

23

7

38
1

2
0

22
1

10
0

4
0

1.77

1.54

1.74

1.80

2.04

$929
877
700
177
701
1
175
0
15
1
0
6

$553
522
484
38
319
0
203
0
19
0
0
0

$766
743
614
129
582
(3
)
161
0
9
0
0
6

$1,034
975
799
176
824
2
149
0
26
5
0
7

$1,596
1,421
936
485
1,149
0
272
0
4
0
0
12

6
24

12
0

7
1

6
15

0
159

0

0

46

47

(3
)
88

0

(3
)
66

316

105

41

117

95

92

+11
(3
)

+30
0

-4 2
1

+17
0

+168
0

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

283

6. — E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , b y in com e level
B A L T IM O R E , M D .-W H I T E FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fam­
ilies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey...............................
Average family size:
Persons___________________________
Expenditure units________________
Food expenditure units_________
Clothing expenditure units...............

419

49

95

120

67

51

17

9

11

3.57
3.28
3. 07
2.86

2.81
2. 59
2.41
2.20

3.24
2.94
2. 72
2.54

3. 36
3.10
2.89
2.67

4. 01
3. 61
3. 35
3.09

4.14
3.83
3.59
3.41

4. 53
4.26
4.09
3.90

4. 45
4.28
4.09
4. 21

4.46
4.30
4. 36
3.85

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items........................................... $1, 402
Food............................................. .
500
Clothing______________ _____ ___
147
Housing.____ ____________ ______
231
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
103
Other household operation...........
55
Furnishings and equipment_____
60
Transportation- ....................... .......
114
Personal care........................... ........
26
Medical care........................ ..........
47
Recreation____ _________________
75
Education______ ____ _____ ____
5
Vocation__________ _________ _
3
Community welfare......................
17
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family___
18
Other items.. . ...........................
1
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items........................ .......... .......... 100.0
F ood..._____ ________ ____ _____
35.6
Clothing_____ __________ ____ _
10.5
Housing_____________ ____ _____
16.4
Fuel, light, and refrigeration____
7.3
Other household operation______
3.9
Furnishings and equipment_____
4.3
Transportation__________________
8.2
Personal care____________________
1.9
Medical care____________ ______
3.4
Recreation______________________
5.3
Education..-------------------------------.4
Vocation________________________
.2
Community welfare_____ _______
1.2
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family___
1.3
.1
Other items.______ _____________
i Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A , p. 638.




$799 $1,053 $1, 352 $1, 568 $1,841 $2,092 $2, 399 $2, 743
307
475
558
400
618
833
725
967
53
98
129
184
271
362
209
269
195
203
236
237
280
273
228
291
98
71
83
115
136
134
150
173
33
46
32
58
75
114
139
186
15
72
83
117
40
78
69
61
35
122
65
109
322
189
191
249
15
24
31
20
35
40
40
55
20
33
47
53
66
72
69
118
76
37
56
78
96
135
102
163
2
1
2
8
18
2
10
30
4
2
1
1
4
3
0
21
14
10
11
34
23
19
27
44
6
0

8
1

19
1

16
4

28
0

49
4

43
1

33
1

100.0
38.5
6.6
24.4
8.9
4.1
1.9
4.4
1.9
2.5
4.6
.1
.1
1.2

100.0
38.0
9.3
19.3
7.9
3.0
3.8
6.2
1.9
3.1
5.3
.2
.1
1.0

100.0
35.2
9.5
17.5
7.2
3.4
5.3
8.1
1.8
3.5
5.6
.1
.3
1.0

100.0
35.6
11.7
15.1
7.3
3.7
5.3
7.8
2.0
3.4
5.0
.5
.1
1.2

100.0
33.5
11.4
15.2
7.4
4.1
3.7
10.3
1.9
3.6
5.2
.5
.2
1.5

100.0
34.7
13.0
10.9
6.4
5.5
2.9
9.1
1.9
3.4
6.5
1.4
.2
1.6

100.0
34.7
11.2
11.3
6.3
5.8
4.9
13.4
1.7
2.9
4.3
.7
0
1.0

100.0
35.3
13.2
10.6
6.3
6.8
2.8
9.1
2.0
4.3
5.9
.1
.8
1.6

.8
0

.8
.1

1.4
.1

1.0
.3

1.5
0

2.3
.2

1.8
0)

1.2
0)

284

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH
T

able

6. — E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
B ALTIM O R E , M D .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of
Item

All
fam­
ilies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_______ ______ _______
Average family size:
Persons............. .............................. ............
Expenditure units____________________
Food expenditure units................ ..........
Clothing expenditure units____________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items_________________________ . . .
Food_____ ____ _____ _______________
Clothing____________________________
Housing_______ ____________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration________
Other household operation__________
Furnishings and equipment_________
Transportation_____ _______________
Persona] care____ ______ _____ ______
Medical care_______ ____ ___________
Recreation_____________________ ____
Education____ _____ _______________
Vocation___________________________
Community welfare_________ _______
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family_______
Other items_________________________
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items— _______ ___________________
Food............................... ............. ..........
Clothing___ ____ ___________________
Housing_________ _________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration________
Other household operation.. _______
Furnishings and equipment_______ _
Transportation_______ _____________
Personal care_______________________
Medical care...... ................................
Recreation............... ..................... ..........
Education.____ _______ ____________
Vocation___________________________
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family_______
Other items________________ _____ _

107

8

36

42

15

6

3. 77
3.45
3.17
3.00

2.76
2.44
2. 20
2.38

3. 51
3.23
2. 97
2. 70

3. 90
3.60
3. 32
3.12

4.37
4. 01
3. 72
3.49

4.33
3. 69
3.14
3. 57

$973
339
84
242
91
31
31
56
18
19
43
1
1
10

$523
224
30
148
58
11
5
14
9
12
6
(2
)
0
5

$765
274
53
212
72
22
19
41
14
14
32
1
0
8

$1,011
355
88
263
95
30
31
50
19
22
39
1
1
9

$1, 243
427
124
261
124
46
41
85
26
19
61
2
2
15

$1,863
546
217
352
146
80
113
163
32
33
133
1
2
17

7

1
0

(2
)

100.0
34.9
8.6
24.9
9.4
3.2
3.2
5.7
1.8
2.0
4.4
.1
.1
1.0

100.0
42.8
5.7
28.3
11.1
2.1
1.0
2.7
1.7
2.3
1.1
0)
0
1.0

.7

.2
0

0)

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




3

8

(2
)

(2
)

10
0

28
0

100.0
35.9
6.9
27.7
9.4
2.9
2.5
5.4
1.8
1.8
4.2
.1
0
1.0

100.0
35.1
8.7
26.0
9.4
3.0
3.1
4.9
1.9
2.2
3.8
.1
.1
.9

100.0
34.3
10.0
21.0
10.0
3.7
3.3
6.8
2.1
1.5
4.9
.2
.2
1.2

100.0
29.3
11.6
18.9
7.8
4.3
6.1
8.8
1.7
1.8
7.1
.1
.1
.9

.8

.8
0

1.5
0

.4
(0

0)

285

TABULAR SUM M ARY
T a b l e 6 . — E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , A L A —W H IT E FAM ILIES

Income level--Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$900
to
$1, 200

$500
to
$900

$1,200
to
$1, 500

$1, 500
to
$1, 800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
to
$2,400

$2, 400
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey—...........................
Average family size:
Persons..------------------------------------Expenditure units.—........... .........
Food expenditure units__________
Clothing expenditure units----------

202

24

39

50

41

36

7

5

3.67
3.40
3. 25
2.90

3.58
3.33
3. 34
2.88

3. 68
3.39
3.23
2. 84

3.78
3.47
3.28
2.84

3. 73
3.49
3.61
3.00

3.39
3.20
2. 76
2. 70

2.98
2.84
2.30
2.64

5.41
4.73
4. 77
4.98

$769
276
78
120
69
35
12
51
23
38
38
6
3
5

$1,080
364
130
120
81
56
65
70
29
63
56
11
4
10

$1,350
430
141
193
96
87
66
103
30
72
82
5
5
21

$1, 676
512
191
211
110
114
68
166
41
74
96
6
6
27

$1,910
541
196
213
110
149
93
198
41
130
110
10
12
38

$2,179
559
302
243
123
167
76
364
43
52
126
7
14
27

$2,856
732
499
353
139
186
40
302
90
110
152
27
16
74

9
6

11
10

14
5

43
11

52
17

70
6

26
110

100.0
30.5
11.4
12.5
6.6
6.6
4.4
9.2
2.4
5.3
5.7
.6
.5
1.6

100.0
35.8
10.1
15.6
9.0
4.6
1.6
6.6
3.0
4.9
4.9
.8
.4
.7

100.0
33.8
12.0
11.1
7.5
5.2
6.0
6.5
2.7
5.8
5.2
1.0
.4
9

100.0
31.9
10.4
14.3
7.1
6.4
4.9
7.6
2.2
5.3
6.1
.4
.4
1.6

100.0
30.5
11.4
12.5
6.6
6.8
4.1
9.9
2.4
4.4
5.7
.4
.4
1.6

100.0
28.3
10.3
11.1
5.8
7.8
4.9
10.4
2.1
6.8
5.8
.5
.6
2.0

100.0
25.6
13.9
11.2
5.6
7.7
3.5
16.7
2.0
2.4
5.8
.3
.6
1.2

100.0
25.6
17.4
12.3
4.9
6.5
1.4
10.6
3.2
3.9
5.3
.9
.6
2.6

1.9
.8

1.2
.8

1.0
.9

1.0
.4

2.6
.7

2.7
.9

3.2
.3

.9
3.9

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All item s.._______ ___________
_ $1,462
447
Food------------------------------------- .
166
Clothing____ —
----------------Housing-----------------------------------183
97
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
97
Other household operation----Furnishings and equipment-----65
134
Transportation________________
35
Personal care---------------------- —
77
Medical care________ _______ _
83
Recreation..................... ................
8
Education-------------------------------7
Vocation____________________ .
23
Community welfare __________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family----- -----------------------------28
12
Other items....................................
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items________________________
Food..... ............................... ........ .
Clothing____________ _______
Housing----------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment____
Transportation________________
Personal care. _ _______________
Medical care___________________
Recreation_____________________
Education_________________ _
Vocation_____ _______________
Community welfare_____ _____
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family_______________________
Other items..................................

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




286

TW ELVE
T

able

6.—

C IT I E S

OF T H E

SO UTH

E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , by in com e level— Continued
B IR M IN G H A M , A L A —NEGRO FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All families
$500 to
$600

jE x p e n d i t u r e s

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey__________ ____________
Average family size:
Persons----------------- ----------------------------- Expenditure units. ____________________
Food expenditure units________________
Clothing expenditure units............... .......
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items. _________ _________________
Food___ _______ _______ ____________
Clothing__________ ____ ___ _________
Housing_____________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration-------------Other household operation----------------Furnishings and equipment........ ........
Transportation.____ _____ __________
Personal care.......... .................................
Medical care______ __________________
Recreation_______ _________ _________
Education............. ................. .................
Vocation______ _____________________
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family.............
Other items_____ ______ ____ ________
Percent of total annual current expendi­
ture for—
All items__________ ____ ______________
Food............................................ ............
Clothing----------------------------- --------------Housing-------- -----------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration............
Household operation-------- ---------------Furnishings and equipment_________
Transportation...................... ......... .......
Personal care..........................................
Medical care— ______ _______________
Recreation_________________________ _
Education______ ___________ ____ ___
Vocation__________________ _______ .
Community welfare ________ _______
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family. ...........
Other items___________ _______ _____
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




101

22

52

16

11

3.82
3.44
3.21
3.03

3.60
3.19
2.96
2.84

4.28
3.85
3.61
3.22

3.12
2.83
2.53
2.91

3.09
2.92
2.77
2. 73

$806
270
109
96
58
31
38
52
19
36
51
6
4
13

$547
228
56
81
44
18
21
14
11
31
28
1
2
6

$749
270
106
85
55
28
35
34
18
34
45
3
4
12

$1,000
247
151
115
70
43
56
117
23
47
70
2
1
15

$1,312
387
171
151
84
50
59
121
30
41
94
35
15
27

18
5

5
1

12
8

38
5

42
5

100.0
33.6
13.5
11.9
7.2
3.8
4.7
6.5
2.4
4.5
6.3
.7
.5
1.6

100.0
41.7
10.2
14.8
8.0
3.3
3.8
2.6
2.0
5.7
5.1
.2
.4
1.1

100.0
36.1
14.2
11.4
7.3
3.7
4.7
4.5
2.4
4.5
6.0
.4
.5
1.6

100.0
24.7
15.1
11.5
7.0
4.3
5.6
11.7
2.3
4.7
7.0
.2
.1
1.5

100.0
29.5
13.0
11.5
6.4
3.8
4.5
9.2
2.3
3.1
7.2
2.7
1.1
2.1

2.2
.6

.9
.2

1.6
1.1

3.8
.5

3.2
.4

287

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

.

6—

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
DALLAS, T E X —W H IT E FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
A ll

Item

fami­
lies

?500
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey...............................
Average family size:
Persons................. ................... ..........
Expenditure units....... .....................
Food expenditure units. ..............
Clothing expenditure units______

294

30

57

71

57

57

8

8

6

3.31
3.07
2.83
2.72

3.15
2.86
2. 66
2. 40

3. 27
3.05
2. 76
2. 61

3.34
3.10
2.89
2.73

3.34
3.07
2.80
2. 68

3.35
3.07
2.84
2. 75

2. 75
2.60
2. 51
2. 52

3.87
3. 76
3.56
3. 74

3.84
3.80
3.48
4. 22

$797 $1,044 $1,338 $1,590 $1,871 $2,081 $2, 571
299
355
471
532
597
611
423
65
189
232
294
389
108
140
259
224
234
171
176
216
207
74
99
92
87
56
84
101
117
155
30
43
67
81
96
25
91
92
90
84
128
53
259
292
82
452
70
136
203
35
44
47
15
27
58
23
74
129
97
22
35
59
64
50
59
68
108
108
128
29
19
19
21
14
1
4
8
5
2
2
4
1
3
(?)
26
43
12
110
6
14
28

$2,780
712
514
274
128
181
75
370
91
110
195
1
31
38

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items......................................... $1, 458
443
F o o d .............................. ................
Clothing_____________________ .
172
Housing_______________________
212
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
85
Other household operation___
73
Furnishings and <quipm nt____
76
Transportation..____ __________
173
32
Personal care___________________
Medical care___________________
58
71
Recreation_________ ____ ______
Education................. .......... ........ .
10
Vocation_____ _______ _______
3
Community welfare.. ________
22
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily------------------- ---------------- . .
23
5
Other items____________________
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items_________________________
Food___________________________
Clothing______________ ______
Housing_______________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment___
Transportation .................. ..........
Personal care__________________
Medical care___________________
Recreation____ ________________
Education....... .................... ..........
Vocation_______________________
Community welfare____________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily........ ............ ................. ..........
Other items....................................

5
1

24
5

15
3

26
10

27
6

31
1

86
0)

54
6

100.0
30.4
11.8
14.5
5.8
5.0
5.2
11.9
2.2
4.0
4.9
.7
.2
1.5

100.0
37.5
8.2
21.4
7.0
3.8
3.1
8.8
1.9
2.8
3.6
.1
.3
.8

100.0
34.0
10.3
16.8
7.1
4.1
5.1
7.9
2.2
3.4
4.8
.4
0)
1.1

100.0
31.7
10.5
16.1
6.3
50
6.3
10.2
2.0
4.4
4.4
.6
.2
1.0

100.0
29.6
11.9
13.0
6.2
5.1
5.7
12.8
2.2
4.
4.3
.9
.3
1.8

10\0
28.5
12.4
13.
4.9
5.1
4.9
13.8
2.4
4.0
5.8
1.0
.3
1.4

100.0
28.7
14.1
10.8
4.2
5.6
4.3
14.0
2.3
6.2
5.2
.9
.1
2.1

100.0
23.8
15.1
9.1
3.9
6.0
5.0
17.6
2.3
3.8
5.0
.8
0)
4.3

100.0
25.6
18.5
9.9
4.6
6.5
2.7
13.3
3.3
4.0
7.0
0)
1.1
1.4

1.6
.3

.6
.1

2.3
.5

1.1
.2

1.6
.6

1.4
.3

1.5
0)

3.3
0)

1.9
.2

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
Less than $0.50.

2

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




288

TW ELVE
T

able

.

6—

C IT IE S

OF T H E

SO U TH

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued

HOUSTON, T E X .—W H IT E FAM ILIES, OTHER T H A N M E X IC A N
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $3,000
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $3,000 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_________________
Average family size:
Persons.. ............. ............................
Expenditure units....... .......... ..........
Food expenditure units..................
Clothing expenditure units______

258

12

46

67

58

53

10

7

5

3. 40
3.15
2. 88
2.81

3.04
2.80
2. 60
2. 35

3. 63
3. 05
2. 78
2.73

3. 36
3.08
2.81
2. 65

3.14
3. 03
2.80
2.74

3. 31
3.09
2.79
2.78

4.08
3. 76
3. 53
3.23

4.18
4.07
3.58
4. 26

5. 68
5. 37
5.30
5.08

$743 $1,122 $1,405 $1,620 $1,954 $2,135 $2, 333
364
400
438
652
517
595
261
108
138
171
198
230
358
63
184
202
246
269
144
316
277
63
72
82
88
96
101
57
42
64
32
88
99
131
180
65
95
93
144
90
75
8
124
182
280
229
235
52
215
28
44
35
38
41
87
25
36
103
82
77
77
32
187
66
83
144
79
109
192
44
3
4
12
6
20
1
(2
)
5
4
7
7
13
3
7
11
15
19
26
27
37
5

$3,168
844
579
263
130
243
97
328
86
215
187
37
30
45

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All item s_______ ________________ $1, 572
Food___________________________
443
Clothing_______________________
167
Housing___ ___ _______ __ . . .
227
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
78
Other household operation_____
80
Furnishings and equipment____
95
Transportation_________________
202
Personal care___________________
38
Medical care----------------------------79
Recreation___ ____ ____________
90
Education.................... .................
7
Vocation_______________________
6
Community welfare____________
19
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily................. ................... ............
30
11
Other items____ ______ ________
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items_________________________ 100.0
Food______ ____ ______________
28.2
Clothing________________ ______
10.6
Housing______ . . . _____ . . .
14.5
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
5.0
Other household operation.. _ .
5.1
Furnishings and equipment __ _
6.0
Transportation________________
12.9
Personal care___________________
2.4
Medical care___________________
5.0
Recreation..-------- --------------------5.7
Education............ .......... ........ .......
.4
Vocation______________ ____ ___
.4
Community welfare____________
1.2
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
1.9
ily.......... ................... ...................
Other items._____ _____________
.7
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




9
3

13
10

30
8

25
12

51
13

51
7

24
2

23
61

100.0
35.1
8.5
19.4
7.7
4.3
1.1
7.0
3.4
4.3
5.9
.1
.9
.7

100.0
32.4
9.6
16.4
5.6
3.7
5.8
11.1
2.5
3.2
5.9
.3
.4
1.0

100.0
28.4
9.8
14.4
5.1
4.6
6.8
12.9
2.5
5.5
5.6
.3
.3
1.1

100.0
27.1
10.6
15.2
5.1
5.4
5.7
14.2
2.3
4.8
5.1
.7
.4
1.2

100.0
26.4
10.1
13.7
4.5
5.1
7.4
14.3
2.3
5.3
5.6
.3
.4
1.3

100.0
30.6
10.8
14.9
4.5
6.1
4.2
11.0
1.9
3.8
6.7
.9
.6
1.3

100.0
25.6
15.4
11.9
4.3
7.7
3.2
9.2
3.7
8.0
8.2
(0
.1
1.6

100.0
26.6
18.3
8.3
4.1
7.7
3.1
10.4
2.7
6.8
5.9
1.2
.9
1.4

1.2
.4

1.2
.9

2.1
.6

1.5
.7

2.6
.7

2.4
.3

1.0
.1

.7
1.9

289

TABULAR SU M M ARY
T

able

6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
HOUSTON, T E X .—M E X IC A N FAM ILIES
Income level— Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
families

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500
and over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

100

Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items_____________________________
Food......... ........ ..................................... .
Clothing_____________________ _____ _
Housing.___________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration________
Other household operation.. _______
Furnishings and equipment_________
Transportation_____________________
Personal care___________ __________
Medical care_________ _____________
Recreation___________
__________
Education____ _ _________________
Vocation ________ ____________ . . .
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family_______
Other item s_________________ ______

32

12

6

4.34
3.85
3.60
3.24

5. 62
4.93
4.58
4.20

5 33
4.72
4.40
3.90

6.67
6.18
5.86
5.89

$548
225
62
96
38
23
24
19
15
15
25
1
(2
)
3

$790
304
99
112
36
23
49
57
22
24
37
3
1
7

$1,019
389
140
136
52
26
44
95
24
25
52
10
4
9

$1, 337
456
193
129
60
42
92
164
40
27
78
4
1
9

$1.711
653
236
155
69
66
117
254
30
22
51
27
0
10

2

14
2

9
4

36
6

13
8

100.0
41.1
11.3
17.5
6.9
4.2

100.0
38.4
12.5
14.2
4.6
2.9
6.2
7.2
2.8
3.0
4.7

100.0
38.1
13.7
13.3
5.1
2.6
4.3
9.3
2.4
2.5
5.1
1.0
.9

100.0
34.2
14.4
9.6
4.5
3.1
6. 9
12.3
3.0
2.0
5.8
.3
.1
.7

100.0
38.1
13.7
9.1
4.0
3.9
6.8
14.8
1.8
1.3
3.0
1.6
0
.6

.9

2.7

.8
.5

13
3

100.0
37.9
13.3
12.9
4.8
3.0
5.7
9.4
2.5
2.5
4.8
.6
.2
.7

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50 average per family.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




38

3. 51
3.02
2. 76
2.58

$954
361
127
123
46
29
54
89
24
24
46
6
2
7

Average annual current expenditure for—
All items.._____ _____ ________________
Food______________ ______ _______
Clothing____________________________
Housing------------------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration________
Other household operation_____ ____
Furnishings and equipment_________
Transportation_____________________
Personal care_______________ ______
Medical care________________________
Recreation__________ _________ ____
Education__________________________
Vocation______ _ _______ __________
Community welfare_________ ______
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family_____ _
Other items_________ ____ __________

12

4. 90
4.34
4.04
3.71

Families in survey____ ____ ____________
Average family size:
Persons.._____ ___________ __________
Expenditure units____________________
Food expenditure units. ___ _________
Clothing expenditure units___________

1.4
.3

(2
)

4.4
3.5
2.7
2.7
4.6
.2

0)

.5

.4
0)

.4
.1
.9

1.8
.3

.4

.4

.4

290

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

6 . — Expenditures for groups of items , by income level— C on tinu ed
JACKSON, MISS.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey.............................
Average family size:
Persons__________________ ____ _
Expenditure units.._____ ________
Food expenditure units__________
Clothing expenditure units______

150

17

30

32

24

20

15

5

7

3.55
3.37
3. 25
3.04

3.15
2.87
2.67
2.51

3. 27
3.03
2.84
2.69

2.86
2.76
2.70
2.50

3.73
3.48
3.31
3.06

3. 71
3.60
3.58
3.34

4. 97
4.67
4.56
4. 01

4. 98
4.86
4.64
4,92

3. 73
3.83
3.94
4.05

$790 $1,110 $1, 354 $1, 631 $1,930 $2,130 $2,443
336
482
621
249
374
440
628
165
265
98
137
230
280
434
199
294
161
205
257
220
245
46
52
91
63
84
92
86
33
59
169
105
153
100
124
49
23
45
49
83
104
35
98
152
249
188
189
40
480
26
31
38
42
18
59
63
31
55
76
65
113
120
135
54
122
61
78
84
118
123
4
5
13
19
3
6
12
1
0
2
2
4
17
6
29
23
8
10
18
26
28

$2,610
672
460
339
82
213
156
200
66
90
151
9
3
28

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All item s................ ........................ . $1, 537
424
Food..... .......................... ............. .
Clothing_______ ________ ______
210
Housing__________________ ____
227
71
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
106
60
Furnishings and equipment-----166
Transportation________________
37
Personal care..______ __________
77
Medical care.................. ................
Recreation____ ________ ____ _
87
Education_____________ ____ _
8
4
Vocation____ _________ _____ _
Community welfare____________
19
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
28
family______________ ________
13
Other items................................ .
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items......................... .................
Food_______ ____ ______________
Clothing_______________________
Housing_______________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment____
Transportation______________ .
Personal care__________________
Medical care____________ ______
Recreation________________ . . .
Education________________ _
Vocation____________ ____ ___ _
Community welfare____________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family____________ __________
Other items____ _______ _______

3
22

12
12

20
5

31
10

26
20

67
7

36
8

112
29

100.0
27.6
13.7
14.8
4.6
6.9
3.9
10.8
2.4
5.0
5.7
.5
.3
1.2

100.0
31.5
12.4
20.4
5.8
4.2
2.9
5.1
2.3
3.9
6.8
.4
.1
1.0

100.0
30.3
12.3
17.9
4.7
5.3
4.4
8.8
2.3
5.0
5.5
.4
0
.9

100.0
27.6
12.2
16.2
4.7
7.4
3.3
11.2
2.3
5.6
5.8
.4
.1
1.3

100.0
26.9
14.1
12.6
5.2
6.4
3.0
15.3
2.3
4.0
5.2
.8
.1
1.6

100.0
25.0
13.7
15.3
4.7
8.8
4.3
9.7
2.2
5.9
6.1
.3
.2
1.5

100.0
29.2
13.1
12.1
4.3
7.2
4.9
8.9
2.8
5.6
5.7
.9
.8
1.1

100. C
25.8
17.8
10.0
3.5
5.1
1.4
19.7
2.6
5.5
5.0
.5
.2
1.1

100.0
25.8
17.6
13.0
3.1
8.2
6.0
7.7
2.5
3.4
5.8
.3
.1
1.1

1.8
.8

.4
2.8

1.1
1.1

1.5
.4

1.9
.6

1.3
1.0

3.1
.3

1.5
.3

4.3
1.1

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




291

TABULAR SU M M ARY
T

able

6 . — Expenditures for groups of items , by income level— C on tinu ed
JACKSON, MISS.—NEGRO FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—
Item

All families
$500 to $600 $600 to $900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey.........................................
Average family size:
Persons_____________________ _________ _
Expenditure units...... ............ ........... .......
Food expenditure units..................... .......
Clothing expenditure units_____ ______
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items............ ............ .......... ........... .......
Food................................... .......................
Clothing-.................. .......... ............ ........
Housing........ ........ ..................... ..............
Fuel, light, and refrigeration................
Other household operation___________
Furnishings and equipment__________
Transportation____ _________ _______
Personal care................... ......... ..............
Medical care...................... .......................
Recreation___________________________
Education____ _________________ ____
Vocation___________ ____ ___________
Community welfare._____ __________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___________
Other items......... ................................ .
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items................................................ .......
Food..... ........................ ............. ..............
Clothing....................................................
Housing_____ ________ ______________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.......... .......
Other household operation___________
Furnishings and equipment--------------Transportation........................ ................
Personal care_____ __________________
Medical care_________________________
Recreation____ ______________________
Education________ _________ ____ ___
Vocation------------ ------------------------------Community welfare_______ _________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family............. .......
Other items...............................................
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




100

20

54

20

6

3.63
3.33
3.08
2.98

3.73
3.33
3.02
3.09

3.02
2.80
2.62
2.51

4.79
4.35
4.05
3.84

4.98
4. 65
4. 39
3.90

$761
244
94
111
63
24
32
54
20
44
41
5
1
13

$510
187
53
99
43
18
21
18
13
15
27
3
0
8

$711
223
91
110
64
22
26
49
20
40
37
3
1
12

$962
314
124
133
70
29
49
70
24
43
58
8
3
18

$1,381
391
161
97
91
45
67
163
38
176
62
17
2
20

9
6

2
3

8
5

9
10

47
4

100.0
32.0
12.3
14.6
8.3
3.2
4.2
7.1
2.6
5.8
5.4
.7
.1
1.7

100.0
36.7
10.4
19.4
8.4
3.5
4.1
3.5
2.6
2.9
5.3
.6
.0
1.6

100.0
31.4
12.8
15.5
9.0
3.1
3.7
6.9
2.8
5.6
5.2
.4
.1
1.7

100.0
32.7
12.9
13.8
7.3
3.0
5.1
7.3
2.5
4.5
6.0
.8
.3
1.9

100.0
28.3
11.7
7.0
6.6
3.3
4.9
11.8
2.8
12.7
4.5
1.2
.1
1.4

1.2
.8

.4
.6

1.1
.7

.9
1.0

3.4
.3

292

TWELVE 'CITIES OF TH E SOTJTH
T

able

6. — Expenditures for groups of items, by income level— C on tinu ed
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with animal net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500 to $900 to $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
and
$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800
$2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f I te m s

Families in s u r v e y .................. ........
Average family size:
Persons-------- ------------------- -----------Expenditure units____----------------•
Food expenditure units---------------Clothing expenditure unit_______

178

20

33

33

32

34

13

5

8

3. 54
3.29
3.08
2. 89

3.17
2.91
2. 67
2. 67

3.15
2.89
2. 66
2. 55

3. 61
3.31
3.07
2. 76

3.48
3.22
2.94
2.86

4. 04
3.76
3. 57
3.22

3. 55
3.41
3. 39
2.83

3. 87
3.76
3.68
3. 62

3. 57
3. 52
3. 52
3.65

$793 $1,062 $1,334 $1,592 $1,905 $2,116 $2, 524
301
364
584
604
35
470
594
72
126
172
216
210
97
294
156
162
190
220
210
238
275
111
136
68
89
93
48
107
64
89
17
47
118
174
115
30
90
101
53
43
63
255
44
91
249
128
200
203
454
20
31
36
45
25
47
63
62
55
18
91
45
41
95
44
66
104
104
151
85
208
2
2
9
9
13
7
7
1
1
4
3
3
8
1
22
19
30
3
8
27
25

$3, 266
679
469
310
153
276
83
575
84
134
262
21
8
67

Average annual current expenditure
for—
All items..---------------------------------- $1, 554
469
Food__________________________
Clothing________________ ____
166
_______
202
Housing_____________
92
Fuel, light, and refrigeration------Other household operation______
107
Furnishings and equipment-----68
Transportation________________
177
36
Personal care__________________
64
Medical care___________________
Recreation. .................... ..............
100
Education------- -------- ---------------8
3
Vocation. -------------------------------Community welfare___________
20
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
30
ily----------------------------------------12
Other item s-------- -------------------Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items......... ................... ............... 100.0
30.2
F ood.................. ......... ................
Clothing_______________ _______
10.7
Housing-----------------------------13.0
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
5.9
Other household operation_____
6.9
Furnishings and equipment____
4.4
11.4
Transportation....... ..................
2.3
Personal care__________________
4.1
Medical care___________________
Recreation-------------------------------6.4
Education--------------------------------.5
Vocation. ______ _______________
.2
Community welfare___________
1.3
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily—
1.9
Other item s_____ _____________
.8

4
3

9
5

11
14

32
5

58
22

39
26

26
0

114
31

100.0
37.9
9.1
19.7
6.1
5.9
3.8
5.5
2.5
2.3
5.5
.3
.1
.4

100.0
34.2
9.1
15.3
6.4
6.0
5.0
8.6
2.4
4.2
6.2
.2
.3
.8

100.0
32.7
9.4
14.2
6.7
6.7
3.2
9.6
2.3
4.6
6.4
.7
.2
1.4

100.0
29.5
10.8
13.2
5.8
7.2
4.0
12.5
2.3
3.5
6.5
.6
.1
1.7

100.0
30.6
11.3
11.5
5.8
6.2
4.7
10.7
2.4
5.0
5.5
.7
.2
1.2

100.0
28.6
9.9
11.3
6.4
8.5
4.8
11.8
2.2
4.3
7.1
.3
.4
1.4

100.0
23.6
11.7
10.9
4.2
6.9
10.1
18.0
2.5
1.6
8.2
.3
C)
1
1.0

100.0
20.8
14.4
9.5
4.7
8.5
2.5
17.6
2.6
4.1
8.0
.6
.2
2.1

.5
.4

.8
.5

.8
1.0

2.0
.3

3.0
1.2

1.8
1.2

1.0
.0

3.5
.9

1Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




TABULAR

T

able

6.—

293

SUM M ARY

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s} by in com e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .— W H ITE FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$600 to $900 to
$1,200
$900

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s of Item s

Families in survey. ...........................................
Average family size:
Persons__________________ ________ ______
Expenditure units_________________ ______
Food expenditure units........................... .......
Clothing expenditure u n its______________

197

33

59

51

29

17

8

3.57
3.24
3. 02
2.79

3.09
2. 81
2.61
2.42

3.07
2. 78
2. 56
2.43

3.87
3.51
3. 30
3.01

3.54
3. 22
3. 01
2.64

5.06
4. 60
4. 27
4.01

4.12
3.88
3. 73
3. 44

$793
318
63
114
73
27
52
56
16
21
34
2
3
8

$1,071
384
93
162
88
46
47
73
23
52
48
3
2
18

$1,324
505
149
174
98
48
60
93
28
52
64
8
3
20

$1,582
513
147
233
100
68
95
147
30
78
66
1
4
28

$1,863
670
206
251
120
60
97
167
37
86
109
7
6
23

$2,426
805
302
311
120
94
137
219
47
104
141
25
18
18

6
0

17
15

22
(2
)

71
1

24
0

85
0

100.0
36.1
10.0
14.1
7.3
3.9
5. 1
7.7
2.0
4.3
4.8
.4
.3
1.4

100.0
40.1
7.9
14.3
9.2
3.4
6.6
7. 1
2.0
2.6
4.3
.3
.4
1.0

100.0
35.8
8.7
15.1
8.2
4.3
4.4
6.8
2.1
4.9
4.5
.3
.2
1.7

100.0
38.2
11.3
13.2
7 .4
3.6
4.5
7.0
2.1
3.9
4.8
.6
.2
1.5

100.0
32.4
9.3
14.7
6.3
4.3
6.0
9.3
1.9
4.9
4.1
.1
.3
1.8

100.0
35.9
11.1
13.5
6.4
3.2
5. 2
9.0
2.0
4,6
5.9
.1
.3
1. 2

100.0
33. 2
12. 5
12.9
5.0
3.9
5.6
9.0
1.9
4.3
5.8
1.0
.7
.7

2.2
.4

.8
0

1.6
1.4

1.7
0)

4.5
1

1.3
0

3.5
0

Average annual current expenditure for—
All items_______ ________ ____ ___________ $1, 289
Food___ _____ _____________
_________
465
Clothing__________________________ ____
129
Housing____ _______ ___________. . . ____
181
94
Fuel, light, and refrigerate o n ___________
50
Other household operation_____________
66
Furnishings and equipment____________
Transportation___________ ____ _______
100
Personal care____ _____ ________________
26
Medical care............................... ........... .
56
Recreation________ ____________ _____
62
Education....... .......................................
5
Vocation____________ ________ _________
4
Community welfare. . . ________________
18
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___________ __
28
5
Other items_____________ ____ _________
Percentage of total annual current expendi­
ture for—
All items_______ _____ ________ __________
Food
_____ __________________________
Clothing__________ _____________ ______
Housing------------ ------------------------- --------Fuel, light, and refrigeration____________
Other household operation_________ ___
Furnishings and equipment________ . . .
Transportation_________________________
Personal care___________________________
Medical care______ _____________ _____ _
Recreation. __________________ _______ _
Education_____________________________
Vocation_____ ______ ______ ___________
Community welfare______ __ __ ______
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family_____________
Other items_____ _______ _____ ________
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
3
Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.

74390'

-41--------20




294

TW ELVE

T

able

6. —

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s, by in com e level— Continued
LOUISVILLE, K Y .—NEGRO FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net in­
come of—

Item

All families
$500 to $900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500 and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

74

Average annual current expenditure for—
All items _____________________________
Food-----------------------------------------------Clothing______________________ _____
Housing_______________________ _____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________
Other household operation----------------Furnishings and equipment--------------Transportation______________________
Personal care________________________
Medical care_________________________
Recreation------------ ------------- --------------Education................................................
Vocation____________________________
Community welfare_____ ______ ____
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family____
Other items__________________ ____
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items---------- ------- ---------------- -----------Food___________________________ ____
Clothing____ ______ _________________
Housing................ ........... ........ .............
Fuel, light, and refrigeration------------Other household operation.__________
Furnishings and equipment__________
Transportation______________________
Personal care________________________
Medical care_________________________
Recreation__________________________
Education........... .......... ............ ..............
Vocation_________________ _________
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family..... ........
Other items_________________ _______
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
3 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




37

24

8

5

3.83
3.42
3.19
2. 86

3.47
3.09
2.88
2.64

3.46
3.10
2. 88
2. 53

6.13
5.46
5.22
4. 57

4.57
4.07
3.74
3.38

$920
347
86
135
92
33
33
63
19
36
39
2
1
16

Families in survey----------------------------------Average family size:
Persons-------------------------- ---------------- ----Expenditure units_____________________
Food exDenditure units------------------------Clothing expenditure units______ - ---

$723
293
58
121
77
22
20
39
15
29
28
1
1
10

$962
353
80
125
99
37
43
74
21
42
50
1
1
15

$1,316
492
168
169
125
48
53
44
30
42
51
10
0
34

$1, 535
481
183
222
126
72
49
207
24
58
56
4
0
32

9

20
1

50
0

21
0

100.0
40.6
8.0
16.7
10.7
3.0
2.8
5.4
2.1
4.0
3.9
.1
.1
1.4

100.0
36.6
8.3
13.0
10.3
3.8
4.5
7.7
2.2
4.4
5.2
.1
.1
1.6

100.0
37.4
12.8
12.8
9.5
3.6
4.0
3.3
2.3
3.2
3.9
.8
0
2.6

100.0
31.3
11.9
14.4
8.2
4.7
3.2
13.5
1.6
3.8
3.6
.3
0
2.1

1.2

2.1
.1

3.8
0

1.4
0

18
(2
)

(2
)

100.0
37.9
9.3
14.7
10.0
3.6
3.6
6.9
2.1
3.9
4.2
.2
.1
1.7
2.0
0)

0)

295

TABULAR SU M M ARY
T

able

6.—

E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
M EM PHIS, T E N N .— W HITE FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—

Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_________________________
Average family size:
Persons__________ _____ ____________ ____
Expenditure units--------------- ------------- ------Food expenditure units___________________
Clothing expenditure units_______________

194

25

35

44

37

40

13

3. 63
3.25
3. 07
2. 74

2.97
2.69
2.48
2.31

3.58
3.27
3.06
2.76

3. 71
3.42
3. 25
2.90

3.45
3.18
2.98
2.63

3.60
3.35
3.17
2.78

3. 76
3.62
3.57
3.19

$756
262
69
136
64
28
35
45
20
36
41
1
1
8

$1,139
340
122
177
97
49
62
116
25
69
41
2
1
18

$1, 403
404
145
193
119
88
87
106
32
106
67
7
8
20

$1, 573
451
169
221
120
99
103
158
33
76
73
4
12
20

$1,809
482
204
254
122
110
108
234
38
85
92
7
8
28

$2,062
547
223
259
153
159
110
177
57
145
112
20
23
48

4
6

16
4

20
1

32
2

30
7

29
0

100.0
28.6
10.7
14.3
7.8
5.9
5.9
9.8
2.2
5.8
4.7
.4
.6
1.5

100.0
34.7
9.1
18.0
8.5
3.7
4.6
6.0
2.6
4.8
5.4
.1
.1
1.1

100.0
29.8
10.7
15.5
8.5
4.3
5.4
10.2
2.2
6.1
3.6
.2
.1
1.6

100.0
28.7
10.3
13.7
8.5
6.3
6.2
7.6
2.3
7.6
4.8
.5
.6
1.4

100.0
28.7
10.8
14.1
7.6
6.3
6.5
10.0
2.1
4.8
4.6
.3
.8
1.3

100.0
26.7
11.3
14.0
6.7
6.1
6.0
12.9
2.1
4.7
5.1
.4
.4
1.5

100.0
26.6
10.8
12.6
7.4
7.7
5.3
8.6
2.8
7.0
5.4
1.0
1.1
2.3

1.5
.3

.5
.8

1.4
.4

1.4
.1

2.0
.1

1.7
.4

1.4
0

Average annual current expenditure for—
All i t e m s ______ _________________ ______ $1,434
409
Food_______________ ___________________
153
Clothing_______________________________
205
Housing--------- --------------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration___________
111
85
Other household operation_____________
85
Furnishings and equipment____________
141
Transportation. _____ __________________
32
Personal care----------------------------------------83
Medical care___ ____ ___________________
68
Recreation__ ________ __________________
6
Education_____________________________
8
Vocation_______________________________
22
Community welfare. _______ _________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
22
side the economic family--------------------4
Other items____________________________
Percentage of total annual current expendi­
ture for—
All items..........................................................
Food____ ______ _________ _____________
Clothing_____ ____ ____ ______ _______
Housing___________ ____________ ______
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________ _
Other household operation..____ _______
Furnishings and equipment____________
Transportation_________________________
Personal care...____ ___________________
Medical care_____________ ______ ____ Recreation_________ __________________
Education--------- ------- ---------------------------Vocation_________________________ ____ _
Community welfare____________________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family______________
Other items____________________________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638




296

TW ELVE

T

able

6. —

COTES

OF

THE

SO U TH

E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
M EM P H IS, T E N N .—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income
of—

Item

All families
$500 to $600 $600 to $900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f I te m s

Families in survey___ _________ _________
Average family size:
Persons________________
---------------Expenditure units_______ _____
_____
Food expenditure units. -------- -----------Clothing expenditure units____________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items_________ _________ ______ _ ..
Food________________________________
Clothing...---------------------------------------Housing_______________ ____ ________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________
Other household operation.-------------Furnishings and equipment.................
Transportation........ ............................. .
Personal care............... ...........................
Medical care.............. ............. .......... . .
Recreation................................................
Education...... ........ .......................... .......
Vocation--------------------- ---------------------Community welfare................... ............
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___________
Other items________________ ______ _
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items____ _________________________
Food_______ ________________________
Clothing-------------------------------------------Housing_____________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______ .
Other household operation____ ______
Furnishings and equipment............. .
Transportation.................... ......... .......
Personal care______________________ _
Medical care_______ ____ ___ ______
Recreation________________ _________
Education___________________________
Vocation_________________________ _
Community welfare_______ ________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___________
Other items______________ __________
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




94

15

53

19

7

3. 51
3. 25
3.06
2. 76

3. 60
3. 29
3.10
2. 81

3. 26
2.96
2. 78
2.49

4. 26
3.91
3.69
3. 37

3.04
3. 57
3. 36
2.99

$807
289
88
122
78
26
34
43
20
35
37
3
1
12

$565
238
58
97
50
11
14
25
14
22
23
2
1
8

$748
269
78
113
76
20
30
40
18
31
33
2
1
11

$1, 022
350
118
154
91
39
55
55
27
48
56
5
2
14

$1, 231
391
152
156
115
73
50
75
26
58
55
13
3
30

13
6

1
1

16
10

7
1

34
0

100.0
35.9
10.9
15.1
9.7
3.2
4.2
5.3
2.5
4.3
4.6

100.0
42.1
10.2
17.1
8.8
2.0
2.5

100.0
34.2
11.5
15.1
8.9
3.8
5.4
5.4
2.6
4.7
5.5
.5
.2
1.4

100.0
31.7
12.4
12.7
9.3
5.9
4.1
6.1
2.1
4.7
4.5
1.1
.2
2.4

.7
.1

2.8
0

* .4

.4

.1
1.5

.2
1.4

100.0
36.0
10.4
15. 2
10.2
2.7
4.0
5.3
2.4
4.1
4.4
.3
.1
1.5

1.6
.7

.2
.2

2.1
1.3

4.4

2.5
3.9
4.1

TABULAR

T

able

297

SU M M ARY

6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
M OBILE, A L A —W H IT E FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r

All fam­
ilies

$500 to $600 to $900 to
$600
$900
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
and
over

G ro u p s o f Item s

Families in survey_________________
Average family size:
Persons.................................. ............
Expenditure units. ......................
Food expenditure units__________
Clothing expenditure units______

146

5

24

21

35

24

26

11

4.03
3.72
3.51
3.19

4.17
3. 52
3. 21
2,59

3.89
3. 55
3.35
2. 97

3. 64
3.40
3.19
3.11

4.07
3. 70
3.50
3.11

3.84
3.58
3.43
3.04

4.12
3.84
3. 62
3.23

5.13
4.90
4. 58
4.48

$564
248
46
96
40
21
16
36
9
9
32
2
4
3

$806
318
78
94
75
39
24
52
20
39
42
5
2
12

$1,058
343
121
145
88
64
34
88
28
47
61
7
2
18

$1, 341
411
160
164
103
81
90
111
29
63
74
6
2
18

$1, 566
475
206
204
98
96
70
138
37
71
101
8
5
23

$1,850
520
209
264
129
120
71
222
40
75
95
19
9
26

$2, 532
669
355
314
144
180
145
300
59
106
156
9
9
53

2

2
4

9
3

13
16

27
7

39
12

20
13

100.0
43.9
8.2
17.0
7.1
3.7
2.8
6.4
1.6
1.6
5.7
.4
.7
.5

100.0
39.5
9.7
11.7
9.3
4.8
3.0
6.5
2. 5
4.8
5.2
.6
.2
1.5

100.0
32.5
11.4
13.7
8.3
6.0
3.2
8.3
2.6
4.4
5.8
.7
.2
1.7

100.0
30.7
11.9
12.3
7.7
6.0
6.7
8.3
2.2
4.7
5. 5
.4
.1
1.3

100.0
30.4
13.2
13.0
6.3
6.1
4.5
8.8
2.4
4.5
6.4
.5
.3
1.5

100.0
28.1
11.3
14.3
7.0
6.5
3.8
12.0
2.2
4.1
5.1
1.0
.5
1.4

100.0
26.4
14.0
12.4
5.7
7.1
5.7
11.8
2.3
4.2
6.2
.4
.4
2.1

.2
.5

.9
.3

1.0
1.2

1.7
.4

2.1
.6

.8
.5

Average annual current expendi­
ture for—
All items____________ ______ ____ $1,403
Food .......... ............................ .......
430
Clothing____ __________________
198
Housing_____ _______________
183
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
101
Other household operation_____
86
Furnishings and equipment____
66
134
Transportation. ................. .........
Personal care.............................
32
62
Medical care.________ _________
Recreation_____________________
80
Education-------------------------------9
Vocation__________ ______ _____
4
Community welfare............ .......
21
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family.................................... ...
18
9
Other items____________ ______
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items______________ ________
Food........................................ . . .
Clothing-------------------------- ----Housing____________ . ____ _
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment.......
Transportation________________
Personal care_____________ _ ._
Medical care_____ ______ ______
Recreation--------------------------- Education___________ ____ ____
Vocation----------------------------------Community welfare....................
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family__________ _____ ______
Other items____________________

100.0
30.7
12.0
13.0
7.2
6.1
4.7
9.6
2.3
4.4
5.7
.6
.3
1.5
1.3
.6

1Less than 0.05 percent.
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




(2
)

(0

.4

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

298
T

able

6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
M OBILE, ALA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual
net income of—
Item

All families
$500 to $600 $600 to $900

$900 and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey______________________ ____________
Average family size:
Persons. __________________________________ ______
Expenditure units___________ _____________________
Food expenditure units....... .......................................
Clothing expenditure units_________________________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items_________________ _______________ ________
F o o d ...__________ _______________________________
Clothing_________________________________________
Housing_________________________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration______________________
Other household operation_______________ ______
Furnishings and equipment______________________
Transportation.__ . . . _______ __________________
Personal c a r e .._____ ____ _______ _______________
Medical c a re .________ __________________________
Recreation_______________________________________
Education_______________________________________
Vocation_________________________________________
Community welfare_________________________ ____
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the eco­
nomic family______________ ______ _____________
Other items____________ ___________________ _____
Percentage of total annual current expenditure for—
All items________ ____ _____________________________
Food_____ ___________ ___________________________
Clothing________________ ______________________
Housing_____ _____ _____ ____________
_____
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________ _ ________
Other household operation______________ ________
Furnishings and equipment______________________
Transportation________________ ______ ______ ____
Personal care.______ __________ _______ __________
Medical care----- ------------------------- ------------------------Recreation____________________ __ ______________
Education____________________________ __________
Vocation________ _______________________________
Community welfare _________
_____________ _
Gifts and contributions to persons outside the eco­
nomic family___________________________________
Other items_______ _________ _____ _______________
1Less than 0.05 percent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




94

28

48

18

3.70
3.38
3.16
2.97

3.37
3,09
2.86
2.62

3.50
3.24
2.96
2.94

4.76
4.39
4.14
3.77

$772
276
86
95
57
26
29
49
18
43
44
4
1
13

$570
227
47
87
52
17
12
10
14
35
28
2
1
8

$722
254
88
92
51
22
34
43
18
40
42
3
0)
11

$1,209
411
142
115
81
48
41
122
27
61
73
10
(l)
24

18
13

15
15

17
7

26
26

100.0
35.7
11.1
12.3
7.4
3.4
3.8
6.4
2.3
5.6
5.7
.5
.1
1.7

100.0
39.8
8.2
15.3
9.1
3.0
2.1
1.8
2.5
6.1
4.9
.4
.2
1.4

100.0
35.2
12.2
12.7
7.1
3.0
4.7
6.0
2.5
5.5
5.8
.4
0)
1.5

100.0
34.0
11.8
9.5
6.7
4.0
3.4
10.1
2.2
5.1
6.0
.8

2.3
1.7

2.6
2.6

2.4
1.0

0)

2.0
2.2
2.2

TABULAR SUMMARY
T

able

299

6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
N E W ORLEANS, LA.—W H IT E FAMILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$600

$600
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 over

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Ite m s

Families in survey._ ..........................
Average family size:
Persons______________ _____ _____
Expenditure units.______________
Food expenditure units---------------Clothing expenditure units----------Average annual expenditure for—
All items..----------------------------------Food------ ------------- --------------------Clothing -------------------------------Housing--------------- --------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation. ___
Furnishings and equipment-----Transportation-------------------------Personal care.--------------------------Medical care----- ------- ---------------Recreation_____________________
Education.......... .........................
Vocation_________ _____ ______
Community welfare-----------------Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily—
Other items....................................
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items_____________ ___________
Food...-------------- ---------------------Clothing----------------------------------Housing------------- ---------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration----Other household operation_____
Furn ishings and equipment____
Transportation_________________
Personal care----------------------------Medical care..............................
Recreation...................... ..............
Education------------- ------------------Vocation______________________
Community welfare____________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
ily.................................................
Other items...... ................. ............

318

14

60

71

60

72

25

7

9

3.80
3.51
3.32
3. 01

3.42
3.23
3.09
3. 82

3.59
3.24
3.07
2.71

3.73
3.40
3.20
2.81

3.78
3.50
3.31
3. 04

3.77
3.46
3. 26
2.95

4.39
4.12
3.96
3. 65

4.41
4.23
4. 02
4. 26

4.86
4.65
4.45
4. 56

1,294
462
137
207
83
58
42
99
31
55
73
4
3
15

579
262
38
131
29
20
10
30
14
18
22
2
(2
)

792
328
72
169
53
23
10
38
18
33
34
1
1
7

1,007
393
92
182
74
39
24
60
24
29
58
3
2
12

1,337
480
143
216
92
61
47
85
34
50
82
6
6
12

1, 661
528
176
247
101
85
64
168
37
84
104
3
6
21

1,888
657
226
224
106
101
94
162
41
91
94
18
5
21

2,135
731
276
277
125
113
61
133
59
149
125
4
1
34

2,516
805
375
302
128
106
70
263
84
86
142
9
1
32

15

18
5

27
10

33
15

47
0

54
59

19
6

100.0
35.7
10.6
16.0
6.4
4.5
3.2
7.6
2.4
4.3
5.6
.3
.2
1.2
1.5
.5

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




3

0

5
0

100.0
45.3
6.6
32.6
5.0
3.5
1.7
5.2
2.4
3.1
3.8
.3
0)
.5

100.0
41.4
9.1
21.3
6.7
2.9
1.3
4.8
2.3
4.2
4.3
.1
.1
.9

100.0
39.0
9.1
18.0
7.3
3.9
2.4
6.0
2.4
2.9
5.8
.3
.2
1.2

100.0
36.0
10.7
16.2
6.9
4.6
3.5
6.4
2.5
3.7
6.1
.4
.4
.9

100.0
31.7
10.6
14.8
6.1
5.1
3.9
10.1
2.2
5.1
6.3
.2
.4
1.3

100.0
34.8
11.9
11.8
5.6
5.4
5.0
8.6
2.2
4.8
5.0
1.0
.3
1.1

100.0
34.2
12.9
12.9
5.9
5.3
2.9
6.2
2.8
7.0
5.9
.2
(2
)
1.6

100.0
32.1
14.9
12.0
5.1
4.2
2.8
10.5
3.3
3.4
5.6
.4
(2
)
1.3

.6
0

1.5
0)

1.3
.4

1.6
.6

1.7
.8

2.2
0

2.1
2.3

(2
)

0)
0

(2
)

TWELVE CITIES OF THE SOUTH

300
T

able

6 . — E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
NEW' ORLEANS, LA.—NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Familes with annual net income
of—
Item

All families
$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey____________ ________
Average family size:
Persons---------------------------------------------Expenditure units________ ____ _______
Food expenditure units________________
Clothing expenditure units____ _______
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items--------- ----------------------------------Food___________ ___________________
Clothing_____________________________
Housing_____________________________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________
Other household operation___________
Furnishings and equipment__________
Transportation_________ ____ _______
Personal care________________ _____
Medical care.................... ........................
Recreation............. .......... ................. .......
Education_________ _________ _____ _
Vocation___________________ ________
Community welfare. _ ______________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___________
Other items__________________________
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items......................................................
Food
............................................. .......
Clothing...................... .............................
Housing.. _________________ ________
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.................
Other household operation___________
Furnishings and equipment__________
Transportation______________________
Personal care____ ___________________
Medical care_________________________
Recreation______ ______ _____________
Education............................................. .
Vocation________________ _________ .
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons out­
side the economic family___ ______
Other items_______ . ______________
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
* Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




83

15

36

25

7

3.84
3. 50
3.31
2.93

3.22
2. 98
2. 80
2.57

3. 79
3.46
3. 30
2. 82

4. 24
3. 82
3. 58
3.25

3.96
3. 66
3.45
3.09

$815
311
80
156
62
23
26
38
18
34
40
2
2
9

$561
206
45
129
49
15
15
20
13
28
21
(2
)
1
5

$713
289
66
141
56
20
26
15
15
29
33
2
2
8

$991
372
108
179
75
28
23
55
22
42
56
2
2
10

$1, 272
431
133
207
80
42
55
135
29
45
60
8
3
21

14

10
1

12
5

23
0

100.0
36.7
8.0
23.0
8.7
2.7
2.7
3.6
2.3
5.0
3.7
0)
.2
.9

100.0
40.5
9.3
19.8
7. 9
2.8
3.6
2.1
2.1
4.1
4.6
.3
.3
1.1

100.0
37.6
10.9
18. 1
7.6
2.8
2.3
5.5
2.2
4.2
5.7
.2
.2
1.0

100.0
33.9
10.5
16.3
6.3
3.3
4.3
10.6
2.3
3.5
4.7
.6
.2
1.7

2.5

1.4
.1

1.2

1.8
0

12
2

100.0
38.2
9.8
19.2
7.6
2.8
3.2
4.7
2.2
4.2
4.9
.2
.2
1.1
1.5
.2

(2
)

0)

.5

TABULAR SUMMARY

301

T a b l e 6 . — E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item sf b y in com e level— Continued
NORFOLK—PORTSMOUTH, V A .— W H ITE FAMILIES
Income level--Families with annual net income of—
Item

E x p e n d itu r e s fo r

All
fami­
lies

$600
to
$900

$900
to
$1,200

$1,200
to
$1,500

$1,500
to
$1,800

$1,800
to
$2,100

$2,100
to
$2,400

$2,400
and
over

G ro u p s o f Item s

Families in survey________________
Average family size:
Persons_________ _______ ________
Expenditure units_______________
Food expenditure units___ _ __ _
Clothing expenditure units______

162

10

23

40

32

28

20

9

3.63
3.33
3.11
2. 78

3.38
3. 02
2. 76
2. 53

3. 56
3. 27
3.02
2. 85

3.77
3.38
3.15
2. 72

3.10
2.89
2. 71
2. 51

4.02
3.69
3.42
3.10

3.87
3.62
3.43
3. 02

3.56
3.38
3.34
2.58

$797
308
62
146
82
26
18
32
15
21
52
2
(2
)
12

$1,073
388
91
165
97
46
40
62
24
37
74
2
0
15

$1,363
501
131
214
124
50
85
73
22
46
71
6
3
21

$1, 570
495
146
267
120
82
90
139
26
46
82
10
4
31

$1,866
579
190
256
130
105
106
161
35
109
93
8
4
41

$2,114
621
206
300
152
126
150
209
42
71
137
10
15
37

$2,490
695
176
259
178
199
110
291
47
178
168
49
3
75

5
16

19
13

13
3

22
10

32
17

38
(2
)

61
1

100.0
32.6
9.3
14.9
7.9
5.2
5.6
8.0
1.8
4.1
5.7
.6
.3
1.9

100.0
38.6
7.8
18.3
10.3
3.3
2.3
4.0
1.9
2.6
6.5
.3
0)
1.5

100.0
36.2
8.5
15.4
9.0
4.3
3.7
5.8
2.2
3.4
6.9
.2
0
1.4

100.0
36.8
9.6
15.7
9.1
3.7
6.2
5.4
1.6
3.4
5.2
.4
.2
1.5

100.0
31.6
9.3
17.0
7.6
5.2
5.7
8.9
1.7
2.9
5.2
.6
.3
2.0

100.0
31.1
10.2
13.7
7.0
5.6
5.7
8.6
1.9
5.8
5.0
.4
.2
2.2

100.0
29.3
9.7
14.1
7.2
6.0
7.1
9.9
2.0
3.4
6.5
.5
.7
1.8

100.0
28.0
7.1
10.4
7.1
8.0
4.4
11.7
1.9
7.1
6.8
2.0
.1
3.0

1.5
.6

.6
2.0

1.8
1.2

1.0
.2

1.4
.6

1.7
.9

1.8
0)

Average annual expenditure for—
All items______ , ________________ $1, 569
_
511
F ood.......................... ...................
Clothing__________ ____________
146
Housing______________ _______
234
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
124
Other household operation_____
81
Furnishings and equipment____
88
Transportation______________ .
126
Personal care__________________
29
64
Medical care_____ _____ _______
Recreation____________ _____ _
90
Education_____________ ____ _
9
Vocation______________________
4
Community welfare___________
30
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
24
family____________________ .
Other items___________________
9
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items______________ _______
Food__________________________
Clothing_______________________
Housing_______________ ____ _
Fuel, light, and refrigeration___
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment___
Transportation________________
Personal care..____ ___ _______
Medical care________ __________
Recreation_____ _______________
Education_______________ _ __
Vocation______________ _______
Community welfare___________
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic
family.______________________
Other items.._____ ____ _______
i Less than 0.05 percent,
aLess than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




2.4
0)

302

TWELVE COTES OF THE SOUTH
T

able

6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou p s o f item s, b y in com e level— Continued
NOR FOLK —PORTSM OUTH, VA — NEGRO FAM ILIES
Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All fami­
lies

$500 to
$600

$600 to
$900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 to
$1,500

$1,500
and over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

109

Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All item s............................ .......................
Food........................................................
Clothing.................................................Housing------- -----------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration— ..........
Other household operation-------- ------Furnishings and equipment—..........—
Transportation-........... - --------------------Personal care.................. ............ ............
Medical care.....................—------- --------Recreation__________________________
Education__________________________
Vocation----------- ------- -----------------------Community welfare..............................
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family.............
Other items............................................

31

15

5

3.95
3.53
3.30.
2.98

3.80
3.51
3.32
3.14

5.06
4. 51
4.17
3.83

5.45
4.80
4.65
3.72

$523
228
37
87
70
15
14
16
10
12
24
1
0
7

$762
312
64
136
71
22
34
26
15
26
32
2

$995
372
108
142
99
28
54
49
19
28
53
6
4
17

$1, 299
459
152
135
116
51
93
83
30
42
69
5
0
25

$1,607
582
240
135
132
86
100
55
29
63
71
2
9
37

14
3

2

39

14
52

100.0
35.4
11.7
10.4
8.9
3.9
7.2
6.4
2.3
3.2
5.3
.4
0
1.9

100.0
36.3
14.9
8.4
8.2
5.4
6 2
3.4
1.8
3.9
4.4
.1
.6
2.3

3.0

.9
3.2

100.0
38.5
10.2
14.5
9.6
3.3
5.3
4.5
2.0
3.2
4.8
.4
.2
1.7

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




47

3.13
2.73
2.52
2. 21

$918
353
94
133
88
30
49
41
18
29
44
4
2
16

Average annual current expenditure for—
All items........................- ------- ---------------Food........... ............................ .................
Clothing............................. - ............ .......
Housing....... ................. ................... .......
Fuel, light, and refrigeration................
Other household operation...................
Furnishings and equipment--------------Transportation.............................. .........
Personal care...................................... .
Medical care........................................
Recreation............. ............................... .
Education........ .......................................
Vocation............... ...................................
Community welfare----------- --------------Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family.........
Other items....................... .......... ..........

11

4.05
3.64
3.41
3.10

Families in survey.............................. ..........
Average family size:
Persons................. ..................................... Expenditure units..................... - ........ .
Food expenditure units................. ..........
Clothing expenditure units.......... ..........

1.5
.3

Q)

12
10

14
2

(2
)

<)
2

100.0
43.5
7.1
16.6
13.4
2.9
2.7
3.1
1.9
2.3
4.6
.2
0
1.3

100.0
40.9
8.4
17.8
9.3
2.9
3.5
3.4
2.0
3.4
4.2
.3
0)
1.6

100.0
37.4
10.9
14.3
10.0
2.8
5.4
4.9
1.9
2.8
5.3
.6
.4
1.7

1.3

1.4
.2

.4
0)

(0

(2
)

0)

303

TABULAR SUMMARY
T a b l e 6 .— E x p en d itu res f o r grou ps o f item s , b y in com e level— Continued
RICH M ON D , VA.—W H IT E FAMILIES

Income level—Families with annual net income of—
Item

All
fami­
lies

$500
to
$900

$900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
$1,200 $1,500 $1,800 $2,100 $2,400 $2,700 over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey...............................
Average family size:
Persons...............................................
Expenditure units. ........................ Food expenditure units ................. .
Clothing expenditure units............

192

27

29

42

37

24

12

12

9

3.79
3.55
3.33
3.16

3.68
3.33
3. 01
2.83

3.61
3.34
3.12
2.91

3.40
3.18
2.97
2.79

3.93
3.72
3.56
3.26

3.87
3.66
3. 51
3.24

3.87
3.63
3.43
3.33

4.40
4. 21
4.04
4.12

4.84
4.65
4.45
4.54

$817 $1,200 $1, 331 $1, 669 $1,880 $2,048 $2,274
294
372
406
467
532
621
592
62
125
120
219
186
243
336
159
222
230
292
343
264
298
114
78
99
125
136
123
152
31
52
62
75
129
107
102
21
70
54
65
58
115
59
69
68
159
229
97
241
178
21
14
27
36
40
45
55
33
77
101
72
79
76
108
39
49
60
82
94
107
161
5
13
4
6
16
10
18
1
1
4
1
3
2
(2
)
5
17
22
32
35
45
46

$2,990
798
446
408
183
235
121
188
67
195
148
3
8
64

Average annual current expenditur
for—
All items.................................. ......... $1, 556
456
Food-------- --------------------------------175
Clothing........................ .................
H ousin g....................— ---------255
Fuel, light, and refrigeration.......
118
Other household operation..........
79
Furnishings and equipment____
62
135
Transportation......... ........... ........
Personal care................................ .
32
83
Medical care..................................
78
Recreation-------------------------------10
Education— .................................
?
Vocation............- ........................ .
27
Community welfare.. ..................
Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
30
il y ---............................................
14
Other items....................................
Percentage of total annual current
expenditure for—
All items............................ ........ ....... 100.0
29.4
Food............................. .................
11.2
Clothing...................... ...................
16.4
Housing-----------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration-----7.6
5.1
Other household operation_____
Furnishings and equipment____
4.0
8.7
Transportation..............................
2.1
Personal care..................... ............
Medical care-------- --------------------5.3
Recreation..----------------------------5.0
.6
Education--------------------------------Vocation_______________________
.1
1.7
Community welfare------------------Gifts and contributions to per­
sons outside the economic fam­
1.9
ily................................. ........ -.9
Other items._______ ___________
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




5
2

12
7

25
1

33
26

27
52

39
1

70
6

120
6

100.0
36.0
7.6
19.5
9.6
3.8
2.6
8.3
1.7
4.0
4.8
.6
.1
.6

100.0
31.0
10.0
18.5
8.2
4.3
5.8
5.8
1.8
6.4
4.1
1.1
0)
1.4

100.0
30.5
9.3
17.2
8.5
4.7
4.1
7.3
2.0
7.6
4.5
.5
.1
1.7

100.0
27.9
11.1
17.5
7.5
4.5
3.9
9.5
2.2
4.3
4.9
1.0
.2
1.9

100.0
28.4
11.6
14.0
7.2
5.7
3.1
12.2
2.1
4.2
5.0
.2
.2
1.9

100.0
29 0
11.9
16.8
6.0
6.3
5.6
8.7
2.2
3.7
5.2
.5
0)
2.2

100.0
27.3
14.7
13.1
6.7
4.5
2.6
10.6
2.4
4.7
7.1
.8
.1
2.0

100.0
26.7
15.0
13.7
6.1
7.9
4.0
6.3
2.2
6.5
4.9
.1
.3
2.1

.6
.2

1.0
.6

1.9
.1

2.0
1.6

1.4
2.8

1.9
0)

3.1
.3

4.0
.2

304

TWELVE CITIES OE THE SOUTH
T

able

6 . — E x p en d itu res f o r groups o f item s , by in com e level— Continued
R ICH M ON D , V A —NEGRO FAMILIES

Item

All
families

Income level—Families with aiyiual net income
of—
$500 to $600 $600 to $900

$900 to
$1,200

$1,200 and
over

E x p en d itu r e s fo r G r o u p s o f Item s

Families in survey................ .................... .
Average family size:
Persons____________ _____ _________ ___
Expenditure units----- --------------------------Food expenditure units________________
Clothing expenditure units____________
Average annual current expenditure for—
All items, ........................... ......... ..............
Food, ............................................. .......
Clothing—. ................. ................... ........
Housing. -------- ---------------- ------- --------Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________
Other household operation----------------Furnishings and equipment--------------Transportation. _____________________
Personal care_ _______ _____________
_
Medical care________ ________________
Recreation__________________________
Education..................................... ..........
Vocation___________ ________ _______
Community welfare________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family-----------Other items________ ____ __________
Percentage of total annual current ex­
penditure for—
All items_________________________ ____
Food ...................................... .................
Clothing____ ____ ______ ____________
Housing--------------------------------------------Fuel, light, and refrigeration_________
Other household operation----------------Furnishings and equipment--------------Transportation____________ ____ ____
Personal care____ ______ ____________
Medical care____ _________ __________
Recreation______ _____ _______ ______
Education__________ _____ _____ ____
Vocation. ...............................................
Community welfare_________________
Gifts and contributions to persons
outside the economic family-----------Other items.............................................
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Less than $0.50.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




96

11

41

33

11

3.85
3.48
3.18
3.03

2.75
2.54
2.44
2.08

3.93
3.54
3. 20
3.09

3.80
3.44
3.13
3.08

4. 79
4.34
3.96
3.62

$919
291
101
118
104
36
40
45
23
59
52
4
(2
)
13

$517
189
55
83
74
20
13
9
14
24
19
1
0
7

$818
268
82
121
100
30
32
32
21
57
39
2
0
11

$1,014
325
116
124
111
42
43
58
25
69
55
6
0
15

$1, 414
373
173
126
121
58
91
94
35
76
121
8
2
23

9

21
2

16
9

69
44

100.0
36.6
10.6
16.1
14.3
3.9
2.5
1.7
2.7
4.6
3.7
.2
0
1.4

100.0
32.8
10.0
14.8
12.2
3.7
3.9
3.9
2.6
7.0
4.8
.2
0
1.3

100.0
32.1
11.4
12.2
11.0
4.1
4.2
5.7
2.5
6.8
5.4
.6
0
1.5

100.0
26.4
12.2
8.9
8.6
4.1
6.4
6.6
2.5
5.4
8.6
.6
.1
1.6

1.7

2.6
.2

1.6
.9

4.9
3.1

24
9

100.0
31.7
11.0
12.8
11.3
3.9
4.4
4.9
2.5
6.4
5.7
.4
0)
1.4
2.6
1.0

(2
)

0)

305

TABULAR SUMMARY

T able 7.— Food used at home and purchased for consumption at home during 1 week
in spring quarter, by economic level
BALTIM O RE , M D .—W H IT E FAM ILIES

All famiilies

Item

Economic level—Families spending
per expenditure unit per year
Under $400

$600 and
over

314

123

128

63

3.73

4.67

3.32

2.73

3.19

Number of families surveyed in spring quarter..... ............
Average number of equivalent full-time persons per
family in 1 week___________ ____ _____________________
Average number of food expenditure units per family
in 1 week__________________ ________________________

3.95

2.87

2. 36

Number of families
using in 1 week

Item

$400 to
$600

Average quantity pur­
chased per person in 1
week

Economic
level—Families spending
per expendi­
All ture unit per
famyear
ilies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

All
fam­
ilies

Un- $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

Un­
der
$400

$400
to
$600

Lb.

Lb.

Economic
level—Families
spending per
expenditure
All
fam­ unit per year
ilies

$600
and
over

Lb.

Average expenditure
per person in 1 week

Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

F o o d U s e d at H o m e a n d P u r c h a s e d
f o r C o n s u m p t i o n at H o m e in 1
W eek

N o.

N o.

N o.

Total___________________ ________
Grain products, total__________
Bread and other baked goods,
total_____________________
303 117 124
Bread: White_____________
G raham , whole
4
wheat____________
5
1
44 16 17
Rye.__-------- ----------Crackers____ ____ _________
76 28 34
30
Plain rolls_________________
7 13
Sweet rolls.------ ----------------45 21 19
Cookies___________________
27
7 10
Cakes_____________________
87 35 26
Pies_______________________
40 18 13
Other_____________________
Ready-to-eat cereals_________
116 43 55
Flour and other cereals, total..
Flour: White______________
139 55 56
Graham____________
0
0
0
Other______________
5
13
5
Corn meal_____ ___________
2
2
7
Hominy___________________
15
5
6
Cornstarch________________
15
7
6
72 31 29
Rice__________ _____ ______
84 36 27
Rolled oats____ ___________
Wheat cereal______________
40 15 19
2
5
Tapioca___________________
2
Sago--------- ------- ----------------1
1
0
M a c a ro n i, sp a g h e tti,
131 58 46
noodles__________________
0
Other grain products______
0
0
292 114 116
Eggs----------------------------------------Milk, cheese, ice cream, total...
285 106 116
Milk: Fresh, whole—bottled1
0
loose___
1
0
0
0
Skimmed______
Buttermilk and
4
4
other. ............
10
1
0
1
Skimmed,dried----------Evaporated and con­
167 81 59
densed....................
131 49 59
Cheese: American....................
9
5
19
Cottage............... ........
51 17 20
Other______________
51 11 20
Ice cream___________________ .1
i Less than 0.05 cent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




N o.

Lb.

a .

C t.

C t.

C t.

4.298 4.084 4. 312 4.981
62

260.0 203.4 283.9 379. 2
41. 4 38.4 41.6 51.0

3. 044 3.025 2.966 3.302
2.418 2.443 2.401 2. 377

32.0 30.7 31.5 38.3
23.0 22.9 22.9 23.5

0
11
14
10
5
10
26
9

0
.010 .016 .006
.145 .149 .104 .236
.064 .045 .083 .078
.055 .053 .032 .116
.081 .089 .076 .067
.023 .015 .019 .063
. 108 .081 .097 .225
.100 .105 .087 .118
.040 .029 .061 .022
18
.095 .074 .116 .110
1.159 .985 1. 230 1. 569
28
.717 .579 .821 .921
0 0
0
0
0
3
.016 .008 .014 .046
.012 .005 .009 .041
3
4
.022 .015 .022 .047
2
.013 .015 .011 .012
12
.078 .074 .081 .084
21
.111 .109 .093 .162
6
.038 .032 .040 .051
.003 .003 .004 .003
1
0
0
.001 .003 0
27
0
62

.142
0
.638
3.454
2.894
0
0

.135
0
.775
4. 770
4.150
.018
0

.202
0
1.032
5.929
5.154
0
0

.2
.1
1.4 1.4
.6
.9
.7
.7
1.5 1.6
.2
.4
2.4 1.7
1.0 1.0
.4
.6
1.7 1.4
7.7 6.3
3.5 2.8
0
0
.2
.1
.1 0)
.1
.2
.1
.1
.5
.6
.8
.8
.4
.6
(0
0)
0)
0)

0
0)
1.1 2.1
1.2 1.3
.5 1.3
1.3 1.3
.4 1.4
2.1 5.4
.9 1.6
.4
1.1
2.1 1.9
8.0 10.8
4.0 4.6
0
0
.1
.5
.4
0)
.1
.3
.1
.1
.6
.6
.7 1.2
.7
.8
.1 0)
0
0

1.6 1.5 1.6 2.3
0
0
0
0
13.8 11.5 14.6 19.6
28.9 22.7 32.0 41.2
20.6 16.0 23.3 29.0
.1 0
0
0)
0
0
0
0

63
0
0

.148
0
.746
4.293
3. 681
.006
0

2
0

.041
.001

.036 .054 .025
.002 0
0

.4
0)

.3
0)

.6
0

.1
0

27
23
5
14
20

.398
.070
.014
.023
.059

.409
.055
.014
.017
.027

.437
.092
.020
.058
.143

3.5
1.9
.2
.9
1.4

3.6
1.5
.2
.6
.5

3.2
2.2
.1
.9
1.6

3.6
2.3
.4
2.0
3.8

.369
.082
.011
.018
.068

306
T

able

TW ELVE

C IT I E S

OF T H E

SO U TH

7. — Food used at home and purchased for consumption at home during 1 week
in spring quarter, by economic level— C on tinu ed
B AL T IM O R E , M D .—W H IT E F AM ILIES—Continued

Number of families
using in 1 week
Economic
level—Fami­
lies spending
per expendi­
All ture unit per
fam­
year
ilies
Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

Item

F o o d U se d at H o m e a n d P u rc h a sed
f o r C o n s u m p ti o n a t H o m e in
1 W e e k — Continued

Fats, total_______________________
* Butter........................... .................
Cream_________________________
Other table fats........... .................
Lard................................................
Vegetable shortening...................
Table or cooking oils_________ .
Mayonnaise and other salad
dressing_____________________
Bacon, smoked..______ ________
Salt side of pork_______________
Meat, poultry, fish and other sea
food, total___________________
Beef:
Fresh: Steak, porterhouse, sir­
loin..................
top round______
other............. .......
Roast, rib................... .
chuck.......... ........
other___________
Boiling, chuck..............
plate.................
other.................
Canned....................... ........ .......
Corned........ ........................ . _
Dried...........................................
Other_____ _______ _______ _
Veal: Fresh, steak, chops______
roast_______ ____ _
stew______________
Lamb: Fresh, chops..................
roast____________
stew____________
Pork: Fresh, chops____ _______
loin roast..... ........ .
other____________
Smoked ham, slices_____
h a l f or
whole___
picnic........
Pork sausage......... ............
Other pork_______ ______
Miscellaneous meats, total..........
Other fresh meat_____________
Bologna, frankfurters...............
Cooked: Ham...........................
Tongue.......................
Liver........................ ...................
Other meat products................
Poultry: Chicken, broiling.........
roast..............
stew...............
Turkey..........................
Other................... ..........
Fish and other sea food, total.. .
Fish: Fresh...............................
Canned.............................
Cured...................... .........
Oysters______________ _______
Other sea food_______________
1

N o.

N o.

N o.

57
7
0
30
13
4

103
155
12

27
32
2

36
54
7

40
69
3

All
fam­
ilies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year
Un­
der
$400

Lb.

$400
to
$600

$600
and
over

Lb.

Lb.

Lb.

0.923 0.803 0.987 1.181
.328 .263 .375 .426
.012 .006 .015 .027
.046 .059 .048 0
.256 .248 .266 .260
.050 .029 .053 .114
.028 .031 .026 .023
.066
.121
.016

.045
.100
.022

.064
.134
.006

Average expenditure
per person in 1 week
Economic
level—Families
spending per
expenditure
All
fam­ unit per year
ilies
Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

C t.

C t.

C t.

C t.

26.2 20.2 27.7 34.0
12.0 9.3 13.9 16.8
1.7
.2
.6 1.0
.8
.9
.8 0
3.8 3.6 3.9 3.8
1.0
.5 1.0 2.2
.7
.8
.8
.4

.138
.170
.023

2,745 2,179 2,970 4,086

1.7
4.2
.3

1.2
3.2
.5

1.8
4.8
.1

3.4
5.8
.6

68.8 49.9 77.6 107.8

110
92
33
59
55
10
41
10
8
11
7
24
0
81
18
6
43
19
4
132
28
13
21

32
38
16
15
27
5
20
2
4
7
2
5
0
27
8
4
9
1
4
52
9
6
8

51
38
8
30
19
4
19
6
2
3
2
11
0
33
7
1
23
11
0
57
13
5
5

.167 .106 .205 .276
27
.128 .113 .144 .139
16
.053 .053 .024 .128
9
.204 .121 .275 .308
14
.188 .210 . 154 .198
9
.032 .030 .040 .014
1
2
.074 .070 .101 .020
2
.017 .009 .030 .014
2
.013 .017 .005 .017
1 .009 .013 .004 .006
.007 .002 .012 .010
3
8
.008 .002 .010 .026
0
0 0
0
0
21
.098 .072 .110 .157
.067 .055 .080 .073
3
.008 .011 0
1
.017
.049 .023 .076 .070
11
.065 .007 .100 .175
7
.008 .016 0
0
0
23
.158 .131 .191 .169
.083 .053 .105 .128
6
2
.037 .052 .022 .026
.032 .032 .010 .085
8

5.1
3.6
1.1
5.3
3.7
.7
1.5
.3
.2
.1
.2
.4
0
2.8
1.4
.1
1.6
1.7
.1
4.7
2.2
.9
1.0

28
18
77
12

10
9
25
5

10
7
36
3

8
2
16
4

6
171
133
13
44
15
26
21
13
0
4

0
71
50
1
20
4
3
3
2
0
0

0
66
53
9
13
4
15
11
4
0
2

0
34
30
3
11
7
8
7
7
0
2

161
32
5
21
20

70
10
3
5
6

61
15
1
9
6

30
7
1
7
8

3.1 2.4 3.2 5.2
1.4 1.3 1.5 1.0
2.4 1.7 3.2 2.4
.6
.5
.5 1.2
9. 2 7 9 9.1 13.2
0
0
0
0
3.7 3.6 3.7 4.4
3.8 3.2 4.0 5.1
.3 0)
.4
.7
1.0
.9
.8 1.6
.4
.2
.2 1.4
2.2
.4 3.7 4.4
2.2
.6 3.4 4.3
1.3
.4 1.0 5.0
0
0
0
0
.4 0
.7
.7
7.3 5.9 6.8 12.6
5.2 4.7 5.0 7.4
.6
.3
.7 1.1
.1
.1 (0
.1
.8
.4 . 7 2.2
.6
.4
.4 1.8

Less than 0:05 cent.

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638-




N o.

268 102 109
20
3 10
31 19 12
208 92 86
43 14 16
14
6
4

Average quantity pur­
chased per person in 1
week

.120 .091 .128 .201
.065 .067 .067 .055
.088 .068 .116 .086
.023 .021 .016 .046
.270 .250 .255 .370
0
0
0
0
.139 .139 .133 .154
.068 .057 .072 .096
.007 (*)
.012 .016
.043 .045 .030 .069
.013 .009 .008 .035
.078 .020 .124 .159
.070 .021 .108 .141
.044 .014 .035 .166
0
0
0
0
.013 0
.026 .023
.469 .429 .397 .783
.356 .358 .317 .445
.027 .016 .035 .046
.007 .010 .002 .009
.051 .022 .027 .210
.028 .023 .016 .073
* Less than 0.0005 pound.

3.0
3.0
1.1
3.0
4.2
.6
1.3
.1
.2
.2
.1
.1
0
2.0
1.1
.2
.8
.2
.2
3.7
1.5
1.3
.9

6.3
4.3
.6
7.2
2.8
.9
2.1
.6
.1
.1
.2
.6
0
3.0
1.5
0
2.4
2.6
0
5.7
2.6
.5
.4

8.9
4.1
2.7
8.4
4.0
.4
.4
.2
.4
.1
.5
1.2
0
5.0
1.8
.3
2.5
4.4
0
5.4
3.6
.6
2.9

307

TABULAR SUMMARY

T able 7.— Food used at home and purchased for consumption at home during 1 week
in spring quarter, by economic level— C ontinued
BALTIM O RE , M D .— W H ITE FAM ILIES—Continued
Number of families
using in 1 week
Item

F o o d U sed at H o m e an d P u rch a sed
fo r C o n s u m p tio n at H o m e in 1
W e e k —Continued

Vegetables and fruits, total______
Potatoes_________ _____________
Sweetpotatoes, yams___________
Dried legumes and nuts, total __
Dried corn__________________
Beans: Dry_________________
Canned, dried________
Baked, hot canned___
Peas: Black-eyed____ _______
Other................................
Nuts: Shelled................ ..........
In shell_______________
Peanut butter-----------------------Other dried legumes and nuts
Tomatoes: Fresh_____________ _
Canned.......................
Juice...........................
Sauce, paste............ .
Green and leafy vegetables, total.
Brussels sprouts........ ............. .
Cabbage_____________________
Sauerkraut_____________ ___
Collards......................................
Kale.. .........................................
Lettuce_______ _______ _____ _
Spinach: Fresh.......... .............. .
Canned ................. .
Other leafy vegetables...........
Asparagus: F resh....................
Canned........... .......
Lima beans: Fresh..............
Canned_________
Beans, snap (string): Fresh__
Canned.
Broccoli...____ ______________
Peas: Fresh______ ___________
Canned_______________
Peppers________ ____________
Okra________________________
Yellow vegetables, total______
Carrots___ _________ _______
Winter squash and pumpkin.
Other vegetables, total_______ _
Beets: Fresh_________________
Canned_______ ____ _
Cauliflower.................................
Celery___ ____ _______ ______
Com: On ear_____ __________
Canned_______________
Cucumber________ __________
Eggplant.....................................
Onions: Mature............. .........
Spring..........................
Parsnips.................................... .
Summer squash.........................
White turnips...........................
Yellow turnips, rutabaga........
Other vegetables........................
Pickles and olives____________
Citrus fruits, total_______ _____
Lemons.....................................
Oranges____________ ____ ___
Grapefruit: Fresh.....................
Canned__________

Average quantity pur­
chased per person in 1
week

Economic
level—Fami­
lies spending
All per expendi­
fam­ ture unit per
year
ilies
Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

All
fam­
ilies

N o.

N o.

N o.

Un­
der
$400

Lb.

Lb.

All
fam­
ilies

$600
and
over

Lb.

Lb.

$400
to
$600

292 119 118
8 19
40

55
13

0
65
26
2
5
5
1
2
20

0
34
12
2
4
3
0
0
12

0
26
12
0
1
1
0
1
7

0
5
2
0
0
1
1
1
1

122
153
23
22

36
70
5
13

51
58
9
4

35
25
9
5

13
129
53
0
20
194
122
12
1
65
18
19
15
90
26
4
55
119
14
1

3
58
29
0
8
66
43
4
1
20
5
10
6
30
6
0
13
51
4
0

7
50
17
0
10
80
54
7
0
32
9
3
7
40
12
2
29
49
3
1

3
21
7
0
2
48
25
1
0
13
4
6
2
20
8
2
13
19
7
0

142
0

46
0

63
0

33

33
15
16
142
1
119
30
8
217
18
3
0
9
5
19

15
6
4
36
0
46
9
2
87
5
2
0
5
3
6

10
7
6
66
1
45
12
3
83
10
0
0
4
1
10

8
2
6
40
0
28
9
3
47
3
1
0
0
1
3

9. 850
2.975
.123
. 142
0
.076
.031
.002
.004
.005
(2
)
.002
.021
. 001
.222
.327
.055
.019
1.677
.032
.482
. 109
0
.025
. 182
.150
.015
(2
)
.075
.018
.022
.017
.171
.050
.006
.122
.190
.009
.002
. 185
.185
0
1.029
.043
.019
.015
.145
.005
.176
.046
.016
.475
.027
.007
0
.021
.019
.015

65
235
78
6

20
84
16
0

26
97
38
3

19
54
24
3

1.110 .713 1.275
.085 .062 .092
.787 .550 .865
.231 .101 .308
.010
.007 0

1 Less than 0.05 cent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. —




N o.

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

Average expenditure
per person in 1 week
Economic
level— Families
spending per
expenditure
unit per year
Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

C t.

8. 240 10.622 13.319
2.836 3.110 3. ]08
.047 .148 .316
. 157 . 141 .090
0
0
0
.092 .075 .023
.029 .039 .017
.005 0
0
.007 .001 0
.007 .002 .006
0
.003
0
.003 .006
0
.017 .019 .035
0
.002 0
. 146 .258 .390
.346 .281 .375
.021 .052 .174
.025 .012 .015
1.455 1.810 2.101
.021 .045 .041
.492 .477 .463
.115 .089 .138
0
0
0
.030 .025 .009
.142 .196 .281
.104 .184 .223
.012 .025 .003
.001 0
0
.052 .086 .128
.007 .028 .028
.026 .004 .056
.018 .017 .014
.142 .183 .240
.032 .045 .123
.009 .016
0
.076 .166 .161
. 179 .219 .152
.006 .007 .025
.005 0
0
. 122 .233 .276
.122 .233 .276
0
0
0
.811 1.094 1.582
.041 .030 .082
.020 .020 .014
.007 .016 .041
.075 .176 .297
.014 0
0
.146 .192 .236
.032 .042 .098
.008 .011 .055
.401 .494 .675
.012 .047 .026
.008 0
.017
0
0
0
.025 .025 0
.027 .003 .029
.009 .024 .012

C t.

54.4 40.7
7.8 7.3
.4
.2
1.1 1.4
0
0
.6
.7
.2
.2
(0
0)
.1
0)
.1
C)
1
0
(l)
0
C)
1
.3
.3
(l)
0
2.3 1.2
2.3 2.4
.2
.5
.3
.2
12. 8 9. 9
.1
.2
1.6 1.6
.7
.6
0
0
.2
.2
2.1 1.5
1.5 1.0
1
1
C)
1
C)
1
.8
1.3
.1
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
1.2 1.0
.4
.2
.1 0
.4
.8
1.9 1.7
.1
.1
0
0)
.6
1.1
.6
1.1
0
0
7.3 4.9
.2
.3
.2
.2
.1
.3
1.4
.6
.1 0
1.7 1.4
.2
.4
.1
.1
1.8 1.4
.1
.1
0)
0)
0
0
.i
.1
.i
.1
.i
.1
.6
.3
2.032
7.7 4.6
.144
.4
.7
1.390
5.7 3.7
.477
1.2
.5
.021
.1 0

2 Less than 0.0005 pound.

C t.

C t.

61. 5
8.3
.5
1.2
0
.6
.3
.0
0)
0)
0
0)
.3
(i)
2.8
2.1
.5
.2
14.8
.2
1.5
.5
0
.3
2.3
1.9
.2
0
1.7
.5
.1
.2
1. 4
.4
.1
1.2
2.2
.1
0)
1.4
1.4
0
8.2
.2
.2
.3
1.7
.1
1.9
.4
.1
2.0
.3
0
0
.1
0)
.2
.7
9.0
.8
6.5
1.6
.1

83.6
8.1
1.0
1.2
0
.2
.1
.0
0
0)
.1
.2
.6
0
4.8
2.4
1.5
.3
17. 6
.4
1.6
.6
0
.1
3.4
3.2
0)
0
2.1
.5
.5
.1
1.8
1.0
.2
1.2
1.6
.3
0
1.8
1.8
0
12. 2
.5
.1
.8
2.8
0
2.4
.7
.2
2.8
.1
.1
0
0
.1
.1
1.5
14.6
1.5
10.4
2.4
.3

308
T

able

TW ELVE

C IT IE S

OF

THE

SO U TH

7 . - - F o o d used at hom e and purchased f o r con su m p tion at hom e during 1 week
in sp rin g quarter , b y econom ic level— Continued

BALTIMORE, MD.—WHITE FAMILIES—Continued
Number of families
using in 1 week

Item

Average quantity pur­
chased per person in 1
week

Average expenditure
per person in 1 week

Economic
level—Fami­
lies spending
per expendi­
All ture unit per
fam­
year
ilies

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

Economic
level—Families
spending per
expenditure
All
fam­ unit per year
ilies

All
fam­
ilies

Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

Un­
der
$480

$400
to
$600

Un­ $400 $600
der to and
$400 $600 over

$600
and
over

F o o d U sed at H o m e a n d P u rch a sed
fo r C o n s u m p t i o n at H o m e i n 1
W e e k — Continued
N o.

N o.

N o.

Other fruits, total_______________
216 84 88
Apples: Fresh_________________
1
5
3
Canned______________
1
0
0
Apricots: Fresh_______________
1
1
0
Canned___________ —
185 73 82
Bananas
________________ .
47 16 19
Berries: Fresh__________________
0
0
0
Canned________________
2
1
5
Cherries: Fresh_______________
2
4
0
Canned______________
2
1
0
Grapes: Fresh______ __________
1
1
0
Canned___ ____ ______
6
1
1
Peaches: Fresh________ _____
71 22 31
Canned______________
4
0
1
Pears: Fresh____ _____ ________
6
1
2
Canned_________________
4
0
1
Pineapples: Fresh_____________
37 13 17
Canned_____ _____
1
0
0
Melons________________________
0
1
0
Plums: Fresh____ ________ ____
4
1
1
Canned________________
4
2
0
Other fruit... _________________
Cider_______________________ _
0
0
0
4
1
1
__
.
Grape juice_________
1
4
6
Other fruit juices_______________
2
2
6
Dried: Apricots_________ ____
0
3
Peaches_________ ______
3
34
Prunes____________ —_
9 16
4
4
15
Raisins_________ ______
Dates_______ __________
0
0
0
Figs___________________
0
0
0
Other__________________
1
0
0
Sugars and sweets, total .................
_ ___ ________
Sugars: White_
267 109 111
Brown__________ ______
6
3
3
Other sweets: Candy.............. .
43 18 17
Jellies__________
33 10 16
Molasses, sirups40 18 15
Other sweets____
Miscellaneous, total________ ____
Gelatine____________________ __
23 10 10
Packaged dessert mixtures_____
57 19 27
Tea_______ _____ ______________
129 51 57
Coffee........ .......... .
. . . ______
282 113 113
Cocoa________ _______________
19
8
8
Chocolate______________________
12
4
6
Vinegar_______ ____ _
_______
Salt___________________________
Baking powder, yeast, soda____
Spices and extracts_____________
Catsups, sauces________________
Tomato soup........................ ........
35 13 15
Other soups____________ ______
8
4
3
Cod-liver o i l.................. ............
4
16
6
Proprietary foods______________
5
1
4
Other foods____________________
4
2
0
Soft drinks consumed at home..
51 12 23
Other drinks consumed at home.
25
4
9
Sales tax on food _______ _________
1 Less than 0.05 cent.
Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.




N o.

Lb.

Lb.

Lb.

Lb.

1.986
.804
.005
.005
.001
.709
.092
0
.003
.008
.002
.001
.012
. 144
.006
.014
.010
.071
.001
.002
.013
.006
0
.003
.007
.005
.003
.044
.014
0
0
.001
1. 301
1. 163
.012
.045
.032
.048
.001

1.561
.679
.002
0
0
.602
.067
0
.003
0
.003
.002
.004
.079
0
.008
0
.060
0
0
.004
.003
0
.001
.003
.003
.0
.028
.010
0
0
0
1.111
1.003
.009
.037
.026
.036
0

2.208
.863
.005
0
.004
.842
.110
0
.002
.008
0
0
.004
.173
.003
.008
.004
.076
0
0
.004
.009
0
.002
.013
.005
.009
.052
.012
0
0
0
1.479
1.309
.021
.048
.039
.060
.002

2.860
1.077
.014
.035
0
.738
.135
0
.009
.032
.006
0
.055
.290
.035
.046
.057
.096
.010
.012
.058
.009
0
.012
.003
.012
0
.076
.037
0
0
.006
1.483
1.333
0
.061
.035
.054
0

3
11
21
56
3
2

.013
.021
.035
.332
.013
.005

.007
.014
.029
.283
.012
.004

.022
.024
.042
.361
.015
.005

.013
.031
.039
.421
.016
.009

7
1
6
0
2
16
12

.041 .034
.011 .010
.011 .009
.005 .002
.003 0
.230 .072
.098 .018

44
1
1
0
30
12
0
2
2
1
0
4
18
3
3
3
7
1
1
2
2
0
2
1
2
0
9
7
0
0
1
47
0
8
7
7

.042 .064
.009 .021
.008 .036
.010 0
.006 .006
.270 .656
.094 .373

a .

10.9
3.5
0)
0)
0)
2.7
1.0
0
.1
.1
C)
1
0)
.1
1.3
.1
.1
.1
.8
(0
0)
.1
.1
0
.1
.1
.1
0)
.4
.1
0
0
(0
8.1
5.9
.1
1.0
.6
.5
(!)
18.4

C t.

7.7
2.7
0)
0
0
2.3
.7
0
.1
0
0)
0)
0)
.7
0
.1
0
.6
0
0
0)
1
0
0)
0)
.1
0
.2
.1
0
0’
0
6.7
5.0
.1
.8
.4
.4
0
13.3
.4
.2
.6
.4
2.0 1.6
7. 6 6.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.4
.3
.5
.4
.4
.5
.1
.3
.7
.6
.6
.5
.2
.1
1.1 1.0
.2
.1
.1 0
1.4
.5
.4
1.6

C t.

C t.

12.5 18.1
3.9 4.9
.1
.1
0
.1
0
0)
3.3 2.9
1.3 1.5
0
0
.2
0)
.1
.3
0
.1
0
0
.5
0)
1.6 •2.7
.1
.3
.1
.4
.4
0)
.9 1.0
0
.1
0
.1
.4
0)
.1
.2
0
0
.2
.2
.1
.1
.3
.1 0
.5
.8
.1
.4
0
0
0
0
0
.1
8.9 9.8
6.6 6.9
.1 0
1.0 1.6
.6
.8
.6
.5
0)
0
20.0 32. 2
.5
.5
.8 1.0
2.4 2.2
8.3 10.6
.3
.2
.1
.4
.4
.8
.6
.6
.4
.9
.2
.3
.7 1.0
.6
.9
.2
.4
.7 2.3
.4 0
.2
.2
1.8 3.9
1.4 6.0

309

TABULAR SU M M ARY
T

able

7 . — F o o d used at hom e and 'purchased f o r c on su m p tion at hom e d uring 1 week
in sp rin g quarter , b y econom ic level— Continued
BALTIM ORE, M D .—NEGRO FAMILIES

All fami­
lies

Item

Economic level— Families spending
per expenditure unit per year
$100 to $200 $200 to $400

95

Item

Economic
level—Families spending
per expendiAll ture unit per
year
families
$100 $200 $400
to to and
$200 $400 over

22

43

30

3.92

6.09

3.72

2.60

3.34

Number of families surveyed in spring quarter__________
Average number of equivalent full-time persons per
family in 1 w e e k ..__________________________________
Average number of food expenditure units per family in
1 week
. ______________________________________
Number of families
using in 1 week

$400 and
over

5.04

3.15

2.73

Average quantity pur­
chased perpers on in 1
week

All
families

Economic level—
Families spending
per expenditure
unit per year

$100
to
$200

$200
to
$400

Lb.

Lb.

Economic
level—Fami­
lies spending
per expendi­
ture unit per
year

All
fam­
ilies

$400
and
over

Lb.

Average expenditure
per person in 1 week

$100 $200 $400
to
to and
$200 $400 over

F o o d JJied a t H o m e a n d P u r c h a s e d
fo r C o n s u m p tio n at H o m e in 1
W eek
N o. N o.

N o.

T otal..--------------------------------------Grain products, total__________
Bread and other baked goods,
total______________ ______
Bread: White_____________
G ra h a m , w h ole
wheat___________
Rye............................
Crackers_____ _____________
Plain rolls................... ......... .
Sweet rolls..............................
Cookies.................... ...............
Cakes...................................
Pies.......... ................. .............
Other................................ ......
Ready-to-eat cereals_________
Flour: White______________
Graham. _____ _____
Other........ .................
Corn meal--...........................
Hominy_________ ____ ____
Cornstarch............................ .
Rice.........................................
Rolled oats............................ .
Wheat cereal______________
Tapioca__________________ _
Sago______________________
Macaroni, spaghetti, noo­
dles________________1____
Other grain products.......... .
Eggs---------------------------------------Milk, cheese, ice cream, total...
Milk: Fresh, whole—bottled..
loose___
skimmed______
buttermilk and
other________
Skimmed, dried______
Evaporated and con­
densed. _...........
Cheese: American........
Cottage______
O ther.............
Ice cream_____________
1 Less than 0.05 cent.

C t.

C t.

C t.

C t.

4. 214 3. 587 4.378 4. 969
74

14

35

0
5
9
0
4
4
5
3

0
1
1
0
0
2
1
1

0
3
5
0
2
1
3
2

25

168.4 100.7 178.8 270.8
28.8 21.1 29.8 40. 2

1. 930 1.600 1.746 2.880
1.741 1. 338 1.624 2. 672

16.8 11.9 15.4 27. 7
14.9 10.4 14.0 24.5

17

4

7

77
2
1
41
12
3
36
23
8
0
0

18
1
0
12
5
1
10
5
1
0
0

40
1
21
3
1
17
12
5
0
0

0 0
1
.089
3
.009
0 0
2
.019
1
.011
.014
1
.028
0
.019
.029
6
2. 245
19 1. 572
0
.013
.004
8
.253
4
.060
1
.010
9
. 163
.075
6
2
.024
0 0
0 0

25
0
82

6
0
18

13
0
38

6
0
26

59
0
0

13
0
0

26
0
0

20
0
0

0i
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

61
33;
1
2:
9i

13
8
0
o
l

29
16
0
1
5

19
9
1
1
3

Notes on this table are in appendix A, p. 638.
7 4 3 9 0 °— 4 1 ------- 21




Lb.

N o.

.071
0
.490
1.923
1.492
0
0

0
. 186
.002
0
0
.015
.007
.052
0
.024
1.963
1. 362
0
0
.250
.082
.015
.123
.045
.005
0
0

0
.045
.019
0
.012
.006
.019
»021
0
.044
2.588
1.826
.031
.009
.272
.047
.005
.194
.096
.040
0
0

0
.010
.016
0
.064
.013
.013
0
.092
.054
2.035
1.413
0
0
.318
.051
.013
. 167
.085
.027
0
0

0
0
0
0
.4
.3
.6
.2
.2 0)
.2
.3
0
0
0
0
.2 1.2
.3 0
.2
.3
.1
.2
.4
.3
.2
.3
.2 0
.3
.4
.2 0
0
1.0
.7
.4
.8 1.1
11.3 8.8 13.6 11.4
7.1 5.4 8.3 7.3
.2 0
.1 0
.1 0
0
0)
1.1 1.2 1.1
.8
.4
.3
.2
.3
.1
.1
.3
.1
1.0
.7 1.3 1.1
.8
.6
.3
.7
.4
.4
.3
.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.081
0
.353
1.115
.850
0
0

.068
0
.511
2.106
1. 660
0
0

.061
0
.683
2. 934
2. 251
0
0

.7
0
8.4
13.6
8.5
0
0

.8
.8
.6
0
0
0
5.7 8.7 12.2
7.8 15.2 20.3
4.8 9.5 12.8
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0)

0
0

0
.1

0
0

2.8
1.5
.1
.1
.6;l

1.8
1.1
0
0
.1

2.9
1.8
0
.1
.8

4.2
1.6
.4
.1
1.2

0
0
.003 0

0
0
.006 0

.3