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the Mobility of Tool and Die Makers 1940-1951 a Survey of the Work Experience, Training, and Personal Characteristics of the Workers in a Critical Occupation Bulletin No. 1120 U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R J. T , Secretary BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS E C . Com m issioner M a u r ic e w an i o b in lague THE MOBILITY OF TOOL AND DIE MAKERS 1940 - 1951 A Su rve y off the W o r k E x p e rie n c e , T r a in in g , a n d P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f W o r k e r s in a C r itic a l O c c u p a tio n Bulletin No. 112 0 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Maarice J. Tobin, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Com m issioner the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. For sale by Price 35 cents Letter of Transmittal United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D. C., November 14, 1952. The Secretary of Labor: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the mobility of tool and die makers. This report is the first of a series of pilot studies covering the work experience, mobility, training, and personal characteristics of workers in occupations vital in defense mobilization. It evaluates the findings of the study in terms of their significance for manpower planning in a mobilization period. The study was financed by the Department of the Air Force. It is one of the industrial manpower research studies sponsored by the Air Force under Project SCOOP (Scientific Computation of Optimum Programs) to determine the manpower feasibility of military programs. The research findings are the exclusive responsibility of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and are not necessarily concurred in by the Air Force. The study was conducted in the Bureau's Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics under the supervision of Eichard H. Lewis. The report was prepared by Sol Swerdloff and Abraham Bluestone with the assistance of Chester F. Schimmel. The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance and cooperation received in connection with this study from officials of other government agencies, trade associations, labor unions, and the more than 300 industrial firms from whose pay rolls the workers interviewed were selected. The Bureau wishes to ex press its deep appreciation to the more than 1,700 tool and die makers who gave their time and cooperation in furnishing the essential data from which this report was prepared. Ewan Clague, Commissioner Hon. Maurice J. Tobin Secretary of L - r. - ii CONTENTS Introduction.............. 1 Summary of findings ......... ..................................... . Mobility ........................................................ Training............... Personal characteristics ......... 4 4 9 9 Some manpower implications of the study ............................. 11 Description and methodology of the s t u d y .............. ............ 15 Findings ........................................................... The work of the tool and die m a k e r .............................. Personal characteristics ....... Factors affecting occupational choice .......................... Training........... Mobility ........................ Movement in and out of the occupation........................ Movement between employers ............ Movement between industries ................................ Movement from one geographic area to another ................. Reasons for changing jobs .................................... 22 22 22 24 27 31 32 33 39 39 Appendixes ....... A. Definitions used in this s t u d y .............................. Job description..... ....................................... Job changes per month in the labor force after qualifying as tool and diem a k e r ............ Job changes per man-year worked at given ages ............... B. Statistical test of significance ............. C. Calculation of estimated separation of tool and die makers because of death andretirement, 1951-1961 ....... D. Questionnaires used in the survey ........................... Individual worker interview questionnaire .......... Establishment information questionnaire ................ E. Tables .............. 44 44 Ml k2 Ml 45 b6 47 48 48 52 55 TEXT TABLES 1. 2. Educational level of tool and die makers, by age, February-March 1 9 5 1 ....................................... Nativity of tool and die makers, by age, February-March 1951 •••• iii 24 26 k. 3- 56. 7* 8. 9* 10. 11. Length of apprenticeship of tool and diemakers ................. Distribution of tool and die makers, by number of job changes, 19^ 0 - 1 9 5 1 ...................... ............. - 32 Job changes of tool and die makers, by: Type of job changes, 19^0-1951................................. Age, February-March 1 9 5 1 ........ Age at time of change, 19^-0-1951............................... Educational level, February-March 1 9 5 1 ......................... Industry of employment, February-March1 9 5 1 ............ 33 35 36 38 38 Number of industries in vhich tool and die makers were previously employed, by industry of employment, February-March 1 9 5 1 ....................................... Job changes of tool and die makers, by nature of change and reason for voluntary changes, selected periods, 19^0 - 1 9 5 1 .......................................... ...... 27 10 + to APPENDIX TABLES E-l. E-2. E-3. E -k . E-5. E-6. E-7E-8. E-9. E-10. E-ll. E-12. E-13. E-lto Distribution of tool and die makers in the sample, by industry, February-March 1 9 5 1 ............................. Number of workers and plants from which sample of tool and die makers was taken, February-March 1 9 5 1 ............. Age of tool and die makers, by industry, February-March 1951 ••• Marital and veteran status, and dependents of tool and die makers, February-March 1 9 5 1 ........................... Educational level of tool said die makers, by method of qualification ................................... Nativity of tool and die makers, by city of employment, February-March 1951 ........................... Nativity of tool and die makers, by industry, F ebruary-M arch 1 9 5 1 ....................................... Members of family who worked in the occupation, by age of tool and die makers, February-March 1 9 5 1 ............... Years of experience as tool and die makers, by industry, February-March 1 9 5 1 ....................................... Years of experience in the occupation, by method of qualification, February-March 1 9 5 1 ........................ Work level of tool and die makers, by method of qualification, February-March 1 9 5 1 ........................ Occupations other than tool and die making in which qualified tool and die makers worked, 19^-0-1951........... Number of job changes of tool and die makers, by nature and time of change, 19^0-1951..................... Number of job changes of tool and die makers by exposure to the labor force, 19^-0-1951............................. iv 55 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 6l 6l 62 62 63 E-15. Number of tool and die makers changing jobs, by city of employment, February-March 1951 .................. E-l6. Number of job changes of tool and die makers by marital status at time of change, 19^-0-1951.............. E-1 7 . Job changes involving changes in geographic area, by marital status at time of change, 19kO-1951.............. E-l8. Percent distribution of tool and die makers, by city of employment and geographic area of previous employment, February-March 1 9 5 1 .......................... 63 6k 6k 65 CHARTS 1. 2. More than half the workers did not change jobs ................. Mobility of tool and die makers was affected by age and education....................................... . 3- Automobile workers showed greatest degree of employer attachment ............................................... k. Economic betterment was the main reason given by tool and die makers for changing jobs, 19kO-1951 .................. 5 . Tool and die making jobs are concentrated in the industrial centers of the midwest and northeast ..................... 6. Estimated employment of tool and die makers by industry, 1951 ••• 7* Tool and die makers are an older group than the male labor force as a whole ................... ............... 8. Why workers entered tool and die m a k i n g ....... ................ 9. Motor vehicles industry has highest proportion of apprentice-trained tool and die makers .................. 10. Aircraft industry trained smallest proportion of tool and die makers through apprenticeship ............... 11. Bate of job changes of tool and die makers highest in postwar period ........................................ v k 5 6 8 16 17 23 25 28 29 3k THE MOBILITY OF TOOL AND DIE MAKERS INTRODUCTION For effective mobilization manpower planning it is essential to have a broad knowledge of the Nation's re sources in critical key occupations# When related to estimates of the man power requirements in these occupations under mobilization conditions, such in formation can aid in determining how many new workers must be trained and the possible sources of recruitment of these trainees# Manpower policies de signed to provide for a flow of workers with scarce skills into the essential activities where they are most urgent ly needed should be based on knowledge of the pattern of movement of workers from job to job# Plans for setting up training programs can be guided by data on how the workers in the occupation qualified for their jobs# Possibilities of augmenting the available supply of fully qualified workers can be gaged by the extent to which workers with par tial or related skills have been able to enter the occupation in the past# A thorough understanding of the nature of our resources in key technical and skilled occupations and the balancing of these requirements against the require ments for defense production and essential civilian activities are also vital in setting up policies governing Selective Service deferments or reserve call-ups of workers in these occupa tions# To provide information on these and other points related to the measurement and utilization of the Nation's occupa tional resources, the Bureau of Labor y Statistics has undertaken a series of pilot studies covering the work ex perience, training, personal charac teristics, and occupational, indus trial, and geographic mobility of workers in occupations vital to de fense mobilization. Funds have been provided by the Department of the Air Force# Another basic objective was the exploration of the problems con nected with such surveys and the de velopment of methods which can be applied to similar research on other occupations# This report presents the results of the first of these studies,the mobility of tool and die makers* Future reports will cover foundry molders and coremakers, and electronic technicians# The Bureau of Labor Statistics recently made a study of the occupational mobility of scientists, with funds provided by the Office of Naval Research 1/ The survey of work experience and training of tool and die makers was designed to provide specific answers to questions concerned with the pro vision of an adequate number of these workers in mobilization and the most effective utilization of the avail able supply# To what extent do tool and die makers move from job to job and how freely do they transfer be tween industries? What is the pat tern of their movement from city to city and what are their reasons, for making such geographic shifts in employment? Do young men make more job changes than older workers and Occupational Mobility of Scientists, (Preliminary Report), U. S. De partment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 1952® 1 what kinds of changes do they make? Do single men change jobs more often than married workers? Does the kind of training the individual receives affect h is w illingness and a b ility to make job changes? How many of the tool and die makers were trained by apprenticeship? How did those without apprenticeship qualify for the trade and how long did i t take them? What is the age d is tr i bution of presently employed to o l and die makers and what are the probable lo sses due to death and retirement in the next 5 or 10 years? These questions illu str a te the types of in formation which are provided by the survey and are presented in th is report* The present study is based p ri marily on the analysis of 11-year work h isto ries (lSAO-5 1 ) obtained by per sonal interviews in the spring of 19 5 1 with more than 1,7 0 0 to o l and die makers. In addition to providing a de ta iled record of h is work experience, each worker explained how he learned the trade, answered a number of spe c if ic questions on h is personal history, and gave h is opinion of the occupation. The names and addresses of to o l and die makers to be interviewed were selected from the payrolls of more than 3,00 metalworking plants located in seven large metalworking centers* These plants were so chosen that the selec tion of workers would r e fle c t as far as possible the national distribution of to o l and die maker employment among in dustries* The selected tool and die makers were then interviewed in th eir homes by fie ld representatives of the Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s using a questionnaire form esp ecially designed for the survey* In addition to data obtained from the individual workers, another questionnaire was f ille d out for each plant providing information on the personnel and training p o licies of the firm* Tool and die making was selected as the f ir s t occupation to be studied be cause of it s v ita l importance in a mo b iliza tio n economy* Tool and die makers are highly sk illed craftsmen who make the cutting to o ls used on machine tools to do the actual cut tin g or chipping away of metal, and the jig s,fix tu r e s, and other acces sories which hold the work while i t is being machined* They also make gages and other measuring devices needed for precision work. Some make dies used in forging, stamping, and pressing, and the metal molds used in die casting and p la stic molding* The precision which the work demands requires a high degree of s k ill which is obtained by long training or experience, usually re quiring four years or more* Quali fied to o l and die makers are at the top of the occupational ladder among sk illed craftsmen, and are among the highest paid workers in the metal working field * The estimated 100,000 to o l and die makers employed in th is country in early 1952 had jobs in some 9,000 d ifferen t plants in almost a ll metal working in d u stries. The largest sin gle employer of to o l and die makers was the automobile industry, accounting for more than 17 percent of a ll workers in th is occupation. Tool and die jobbing shops, which are usually small and which make to o ls, d ies, jig s , and fix tu res, and other machine to o l accessories for other companies on individual' order, employ nearly as many to o l and die makers as does the automobile in dustry. Many to o l and die makers work in other machinery plants, in cluding plants making farm machinery and tractors, machine to o ls, and in d u strial machinery and equipment. Other large groups are employed in plants making e le c tr ic a l machinery and equipment, and fabricated metal products, such as hardware and metal stampings. During the present mo b iliza tio n period, as in World War II, the aircra ft industry and Gov ernment ordnance plants are employ ing increasing numbers of these workers. Geographically, the majority 2 of the tool and die makers are employed makers. Other States ranking high in the fiv e Midwestern States of Michi in the employment of these craftsmen gan, Ohio, Indiana, I llin o is , and Wis are New York, Pennsylvania, Con consin. Michigan alone employs onenecticut, New Jersey, Massachu fourth of the Nation's to o l and die se tts , and C alifornia. 234998 0 — 53------2 3 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS Mobility The analysis of the mobility of the workers included in the sur vey was based on their work histories during the period 19k01951- These 11 years included successive periods of tooling-up and wartime production and of post war reconversion and prosperity: a time of favorable employment opportunities for tool and die makers. Interpretation of the re sults presented should be made with this background in mind. Chart 1. More Than Half the Workers Did Not Change Jobs PERCENTAGE OF WORKERS MAKING SPECIFIED NUMBER OF EMPLOYER CHANGES, 1940-1951 P e r c e n t of All Tool an d Die M a k e r s N um be r of Job Ch an ges None UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS P e rc e n t of All Jo b C h a n g e s Chart 2. Mobility of Tool and Die Makers Was Affected by Age and Education Jo b C h a n g e s P e r M a n - Y e a r W o r k e d , 1940-1951 A v e r a a e N u m b e r of Jo b C h a n g e s M a d e D u r in g th e P e r i o d , 1940-1951 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS MOVEMENT BETWEEN MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF THE OCCUPATION EMPLOYERS These workers did not move in or out of the occupation very fre quently. During this 11-year period more than 90 percent of the men worked only as tool and die makers after qualifying in the trade. Half of those who did work in other occupa tions were employed in related machine shop jobs. Although few of the tool and die makers had worked in other occupa tions after qualifying in this trade, many of them had worked for more than one employer. The 733 workers who changed jobs (42.8 percent of the total in the survey) averaged nearly three employer shifts each, but among these tool and die makers there were considerable differences in the amount 5 Chart 3. Automobile Workers Showed Greatest Degree of Employer Attachment PERCENT OF TOOL AND DIE MAKERS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES WHO DID NOT CHANGE JOBS PERCENT OF W O R K E R S In d u s t ry of E m p lo y m e n t F e b .- M a r . 1951 20 40 60 80 T 100 ALL INDUSTRIES Motor vehicles m /m Machinery (except machine tool accessories) Fabricated metal products ,'7 / / / / A //// ^ % yy v m / / / // y /x y / / / / / / v /y /y / / / / / / y < //// a M b Electrical machinery Aircraft Machine tool accessories All other industries T7777777/ y^//// '-y/y yy/'V/y 'y / '//^y ?/////// yyyyy////// 'yyyyy.yyyy/yyyy, y /y y VM / Ml UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS makers who changed Jobs had been laid o ff; in the next 5-1/2 years the number of la y -o ffs had increased four times and constituted twofifth s of a ll Job changes. of movement. More than half of them had changed Jobs only once or tw ice. On the other hand, 229 workers changed employers four or more tim es, and made nearly th ree-fifth s of a ll the employer s h ifts . About two-thirds of the move ment between employers occurred in the second h alf of the 11 years, a period of reconversion and postwar c iv ilia n production. Most of the increase in the amount of movement during the la tte r period was due to a sharp rise in the number of la y -o ffs. Dur ing the f ir s t h alf of the period, the prewar and wartime years, about one out of fiv e of the to o l and die The amount of movement between employers was affected by such fa c tors as age, education, and length of time in the labor force during th is period. I t also varied by the industry and c ity of employment. On the other hand, some other character is tic s of these to o l and die makers did not appear to a ffec t th eir pro pensity to change Jobs. Married workers changed employers about as readily as sin gle workers. Tool 6 and die makers trained by apprentice ship and those qualifying by other methods had the same rate of move ment. Likewise, the foreign-bom to o l and die makers sh ifted pro portionately as much as did those bom in th is country. Younger workers were more mobile than the older workers. A higher proportion had worked for two or more employers, and those who had changed jobs made many more changes. Workers changed jobs more than twice as often when they were under the age of as they did after they were years of age or over. A grouping of to o l and die makers by the number of months they were in the labor force in the period covered by the survey showed differences in m obility. Workers with fewer months in the labor force after qualifying as to o l and die makers made proportionately more moves in relation to the length of th eir work experience. While age differences were an important factor, there were differences even for workers in the same age group. There was a direct relationship between educational le v e l and amount of job changing. Tool and die makers with the fewest years of schooling were le a st mobile, and the average number of changes of eajployer per worker increased as the educational le v e l rose. This was not completely a resu lt of the fact that the younger men went to school longer; even within each age group, the to o l and die makers with more schooling made more job changes. and machinery industries had fewer mobile workers. The percentage of to o l and die makers who had changed employers was sim ilar among the c itie s surveyed with the exceptions of Hartford and Los Angeles, both wartime a ir craft manufacturing centers, where more than h alf the workers had changed employers at le a st once as com pared with an average of h i percent for the other fiv e c it ie s . Among the workers who had changed employ ers, the average number of changes varied from a high of 3.6 each for the workers in Los Angeles to a low of 2.2 each for the workers in Hartford. As part of th eir work h isto r ie s, the to o l and die makers also gave th eir reasons for changing jobs. Two out of three of the changes of em ployer were made voluntarily; of the 733 workers who made employer s h ifts , 605 ( 8 2 .5 percent) had made at le a st one voluntary move. The reason re ported for more than h alf of the voluntary sh ifts was to obtain better jobs, eith er in terms of pay or p o ten tia lity for advancement. The desire to improve working conditions or better job location prompted another large group of voluntary sh ifts Most of the remainder of the changes were made for various personal reasons not apparently connected with the job. Unmarried men moved more often for b etter pay than did married men who appeared to have been more concerned with promotional opportuni tie s and improved working conditions. Between workers in various age groups, there were no apparent marked d iffe r ences in reasons for changing jobs, and those trained by apprenticeship and those trained otherwise gave sim ilar reasons for changes of employ er. The reasons given for job changes which also involved changes in industry, were substantially the same as for a ll employer changes. On the other hand, personal reasons not connected with jobs were given more often than The rate of job movement varied according to the industry in which the to o l and die makers were employed at the time of the survey. Rela tiv e ly more workers in the aircraft and machine tool accessories indus tr ie s had changed jobs than the average, whereas the motor vehicles 7 Chart 4. Economic Betterment Was the Main Reason Given by Tool and Die Makers fo r Changing Jobs, 1940-1951 R E A S O N S G IV E N FOR C H A N G I N G JO B S PERCENT OF AL L V O L U N T A R Y J O B CH A N G E S 100 ▼ More pay, promotional opportunities etc. Wdrking conditions Location of iob Return to former employer Differences with foreman All other reasons UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS a l l, about one-third of the to o l and die makers worked in more than one industry during the 11-year period covered by the survey. As was true of employer s h ifts , a small number of workers did the bulk of sh iftin g between industries. It is usually assumed that a compre hensively trained worker, esp ecia lly one apprentice trained, has greater a b ility to move from one industry to . another than does one who has learned his trade without apprenticeship. The survey showed, however, that nonapprenticed tool and die makers crossed Industry lin es as frequently as those who were trained by that method. any other reason for job changes vhich also involved moving from one geographic area to another. MOVEMENT BETWEEN INDUSTRIES An important conclusion obtained from analysis of the work h isto ries was that those to o l and die makers who changed employers had no strong industry attachments and that they were able to cross industry lin es freely . When a worker changed em ployers there was a b etter than even chance that his new emplqyer was in a d ifferen t industry. In 8 MOVEMENT BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC AREAS The number of tool and die mak ers who moved from one area to another was small; less than 9 per cent of these craftsmen had changed their city 2/ of employment during the 11-year period- Of those who had changed cities, 86 percent had Biade only one or two such moves, although some workers had made as many as six. As might be expected, Los Angeles had the highest p e rc e n tage of tool and die makers who had worked in other areas. Although married tool and die makers changed jobs about as frequently as single workers, they moved much less often from one geographic area to another. In the past, the United States has been able to count on immigra tion of workers trained in their craft in the Old World. She can no longer do this. Foreign-bom tool and die makers (most of whom were trained abroad) are a diminishing source of new workers in this s k ille d o c c u p a tio n . Nearly half of the tool and die makers in the survey who were k-5 years of age or older were foreign-bora, but less than 10 percent of those under k-5 were born in other countries. Training Two out of three of the tool and die makers entered the trade via the apprenticeship route. The propor tion of tool and die makers with apprenticeship training differed among the employing industries. More than four-fifths of those em ployed in the motor vehicles industry at the time of the survey had served apprenticeships as compared with only about one-third in the aircraft industry. The proportion of those trained by apprenticeship was gen erally the same for all age groups. One exception was in the age group that entered the labor market dur ing the depression of the early 1930's in which group a somewhat lower percentage served apprentice ships. The apprenticeship period generally lasted 4 years, threefifths of the tool and die makers reporting this duration of training. 2/ About one-third of the tool and die makers in the survey had not served an apprenticeship. How ever, nearly half of the tool and die makers who entered this trade during the war years were not apprenticed. Most of the men who did not serve apprenticeships "picked up" the trade while working in tool rooms or machine shops, usually as machine tool operators; only about one-fifth of this group learned the trade through some more or less formal on-the-job training other than apprenticeship. In most cases, those tool and die makers not apprenticed reported a longer time to learn the trade than those who qualified through apprenticeship. Personal Characteristics The median age of the tool and die makers in the survey was kk. Less than 1 percent were below the age of 25 and about 5 percent were 65 years of age or older. About one-fourth of the workers were in each of the age groups 25-3^> 35 ~^k> and k-5~5k. The workess in the machine tool accessories and electrical Standard Census Metropolitan Area. jJ See p.19 for further discussion. See pp. 29-30 f o r a d is c u s s io n o f q u a lif ic a tio n p e rio d f o r men who die. n o t se rv e an a p p re n tic e s h ip . 9 machinery industries vere somewhat younger than the average tool and die maker, whereas those in the motor ve hicles and nonelectrical machinery industries vere somewhat older. Relevant to the possible effect of military service calls on the members of the craft are the follow ing facts: of all the tool and die makers interviewed, 91 percent were married; 65.9 percent had dependents other than wives, and about IT per cent were veterans of World War II. Somewhat more than two-fifths of the tool and die makers vere high school graduates and 6 percent had some academic training beyond high Slightly less than a third of the school. On the other hand, nearly workers reported that other members 29 percent of these workers had eight, of their families were in the tool and die making trade- Somewhat more than or fewer years of schooling. The 10 percent’ of the men interviewed younger tool and die makers had more reported that their fathers bad been schooling than the older men; the tool and die makers, and about 15 per proportion finishing high school was cent that their brothers worked in twice as high for those under ^5 as the occupati«n. for those H5 years or older. 10 SOME MANPOWER IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY estimate for the next 10 years is 23,000 replacements. In addition to these losses, an unknown number of workers leave the occupation each year for other fields of work, thus increas ing the replacement requirements. Tool and die makers are of key importance in mobilization production because they make the tools, dies, jigs, and fixtures essential to largescale metalworking activity. They are needed in the first stages of any de fense production program because of their vital importance in the task*of tooling-up for volume production of aircraft, tanks, and other military items. These workers were in short supply during the tooling-up stages of World War II and there have been serious shortages of them in the current mobilization period. Tool and die making is on the Department of Labor's List of Critical Occupations. Therefore, the problems of the tool and die makers' training, recruit ment, mobility, and obligations#for military service are important to Industry and to the responsible Government agencies. One of the most important elements in determining the number of tool and die makers who must be trained is an estimate of the number of -tool and die makers who will be needed to replace those leaving the labor fo^ce because of death or retirement. The data ob tained from the survey, on the age dis tribution of tool and die makers, can be used to make such estimates. By applying specific death and retirement rates k/ to each age group in the tool and die maker labor force, it is esti mated that nearly 11,000 workers will be needed to replace those tool and die makers who can be expected to die or retire in the next 5 years. A similar kj If Selective Service deferment policies in the mobilization period are similar to those of World War II, the tool and die maker occupation will not be particularly vulnerable to losses to the Armed Forces. The age distribution of the workers in the trade is such that a relatively smaller proportion are in the age groups sub ject to Selective Service calls than in the male population as a whole. A very high percentage of the tool and die makers in the survey were married and most of them had dependent children. ^Gnly about 1 percent of the workers interviewed were nonveterans, 26 years of age or younger, and without depend ent children^/ In addition to'defer ments because of age and dependency status, it is likely that many tool and die makers will receive occupation al deferments because of the key importance of their work. The ex perience of World War II points to relatively small losses of tool and die makers to the Armed Forces. A major aspect of manpower planning is to insure a sufficient number of workers to be trained in key occupations to meet mobilization ^requirements, including the expan 's ion of employment and to provide for Tables of Working Life, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1001. See Appendix C, p. ^ 7 . http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/3 234998 0 — 53 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 11 replacement losses. After require ments have been balanced against the prospective supply of workers, special training programs must be set up to •provide the additional skilled workers needed. Survey data on how tool end die makers qualified for the occupa tion can guide the establishment of effective training programs. A major finding of the study was that twothirds of the tool and die makers qualified through apprenticeship. Training authorities agree that, in general, apprenticeship programs offer the best way of learning the trade. The survey results showed that the men who served apprenticeships learned the trade at earlier ages and they required fewer years to qualify than did those workers who qualified by other means. As a result, apprentice ship-trained tool and die makers have longer working lives in the occupa tion. experience. Assuming that there will be a continuous flow of work ers into the occupation who have qualified by means other than apprenticeship, this will repre sent a substantial contribution to the meeting of mobilization re quirements. Because the informal method of qualification is important in meeting manpower requirements, more attention should be given to it and to insuring that the work ers who are gradually learning the trade through this process are given maximum opportunity to im prove their skills as soon as possible. This informal on-thejob training is an important source of new workers, especially when mobilization is actually under way. During World War II many employers filled their tool and die maker needs without expanding apprentice ship programs. Half the workers included In the survey who had qualified in the trade during the war years had not served apprentice ships . Some tool and die making requirements were met by upgrad ing partially trained men and by intensively training inexperienc ed workers. Men with machine shop or tool room experience, usually as machine tool operators, were the men most usually upgraded or selected for training. Instead of utilizing only fully qualified tool and die makers, many plants "broke down" the job and used avail able journeymen as supervisors. The expansion of apprenticeship training programs is, therefore, essential in setting up any long-range programs to provide for additional tool end die makers who will be needed in tooling up for mobilization produc tion.. Because of the long training period required for the tool and die maker apprenticeship, it is important that mobilization requirements be established well in advance and that the expansion of training activities not be delayed until full mobiliza tion Ja Imminent or in effect. In addition to insuring that effective tapprenticeship training programs are set up and carried through to provide for the necessary flow of workers qualifying by this means, it is also important to con sider the large proportion who customarily enter the occupation without serving an apprenticeship. In past periods, a significant part of the training requirements has been met by workers entering the trade through these more in formal methods, e.g., by picking up the trade through machine shop Many of the men who entered tool and die making work during the war never reached the level of fully qualified tool and die makers because they were not given the opportunity to learn all parts of the job. Many were not able to hold jobs in tool and die making work after the war when the short age of tool and die makers became less acute. They were still out side the occupation when the survey 12 was made in early 1951 and there fore were outside the scope of the study. tries in such a way that the essen tial activities are adequately staffed by workers with the re quired skills. This can be accomplished, in part, by direct ing the movement of workers from job to job 'so that they move to the plants where they are most urgently needed for mobilization production. An estimate of present train ing levels can be derived from a special survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in April 1952. It was found that there were about 9 apprentices for every 100 journey men tool and die makers employed in the metalworking industries. Not all these apprentices will finish their training and enter the occupa tion. If apprenticeship training continues at these levels, the number of workers trained will not be sufficient to offset losses to the occupation. However, since it was found that about one of every three tool and die makers interviewed had not been apprenticed, considera tion must also be given to workers entering the trade without such training. If this ratio continues and apprentice training remains at its present levels, the total number of new entrants to the occupation would be enough to re place the tool and die makers- who leave the labor force or the occu pation. However, it would not provide enough new entrants to meet present shortages end allow for future growth. The amount of such movement needed depends upon the way in which defense production is organi zed. To expand production in World War II, most metalworking plants converted their facilities to a war footing and thus were able to use their existing force of tool and die makers on defense work without any change in employer being involved. The extent to which this factor would operate in future mobilization periods depends partly upon how much of the military production will be carried on in new plants rather than in existing plants converted to war production. In the present mobilization period there has been, as yet, only a relatively limited amount of defense conversion, and much of the mili tary output is being produced either in new plants or in reopened World War II plants. Another important implication derived from the survey is that the Nation can no longer, as in the past, count on the immigration of trained workers from other countries. Foreignborn and -trained tool and die makers are a diminishing source of new workers in this skilled occupation, and the prospective flow of immi grants under present conditions indicates that there can be no dependence on this source in the future. One of the main problems facing manpower authorities in a mobiliza tion period is the distribution of the available supply of experienced workers among the employing indus 13 A large proportion— more them two-fifths— of the workers did change jobs in the period covered by the survey and some changed jobs several times. It was concluded that work ers were able to move freely from industry to industry. This is significant from the manpower point of view, because it means that de fense plants located in metalworking centers have a potential pool of experienced workers from which they may be able to recruit additional tool and die makers. The survey also indicated workers’ reasons for changing jobs. Better pay, promo tional opportunities, and improved working conditions were the most frequently mentioned reasons. This throws considerable light on the motivations and inducements which may facilitate such transfers, if desirable, for the most effective utilization of the tool and die maker labor force. Only a limited number of workers moved from one geographic area to another in the 11-year period covered t>y the survey. This has several important implications for manpower planning and policy formulation. For example, the location of new defense plants in areas without concentration of metalworking plants may be affected by the problem of drawing experienced tool and die makers from other areas. Experience of the aircraft plants in Los Angeles during World War II illustrates this point. When increasing numbers of tool and die makers were needed in Los Angeles, particularly in air craft plants, employers Were able to secure only a small percentage of qualified tool and die makers from other areas, and had to rely mainly on training their own workers as quickly as possible or on breaking down the jobs. A large proportion of the small number of workers who did make changes in location gave personal considerations, rather than factors directly connected with their jobs, as the reason for changing the city of their employment. This indicates that the inducements, such as better pay, which lead workers to move from one employer to another in the same area, were not as effective in getting workers to shift to other sections of the country. Study should be given, therefore, to the problems involved in staffing new defense plants outside of the established metal working centers. DESCRIPTION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY The basic objectives of this studyare to provide data needed for manpower planning and to develop techniques for the measurement and evaluation of mo bility as it affects manpower require ments in a mobilization period. A num ber of other studies of mobility have been made in the last two decades, but by and large they have had different emphases and approaches. Most of these studies dealt with a cross section sam ple of the labor force drawn from a particular local area or a number of different localities. Thus, they in cluded workers in a wide variety of oc cupations and skill levels. A few studies 2 / have analyzed the mobility of workers in individual occupations. In general, these studies emphasized the relationship between mobility and unemployment and reemployment. Other authors have studied mobility of workers in relation to wage theory. 6/ At the same time this survey of tool and die makers was being made, the United States Bureau of the Census and six university research centers began a study of mobility in six cities, / also 2 '2J under the sponsorship of the United States Department of the Air Force. The objectives of this project were similar to the objectives of this study of tool and die makers and the studies were made specifically to obtain information for manpower planning. In these sur veys, samples were taken in each of the six cities of the labor force,including workers in all occupational groups. Of all the individuals included in the six-city sample, 2,578 who were skilled workers at any time during the period 19^0-51 were selected and their work histories were separately analyzed. 8/ The results of the six-city study can be related more closely to the findings of the Bureau of Labor Statistics mo bility studies than any of the other mobility studies which have been mentioned. SCOPE OF SURVEY This report on the mobility of tool and die makers is based on infor- For example, The Mobility of Weavers in Three Textile Centers, Gladys L. Palmer, Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 19^1, vol. LV, pp. ^60-^87 j Ten Years of Work Experience of Philadelphia Machinists, September 1938, and Ten Years of Work Experience of Philadelphia Weavers and Loom Fixers, July 1938, Work Progress Administration, National Besearch Project and Industrial Besearch Department, University of Pennsylvania. 6/ For example, the Structure of Labor Markets, by Lloyd G. Beynolds. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1951* The Mobility of Workers in Six Cities, 19^0-19^9* Survey of Occupational Mobility conducted by cooperating university research centers and the Social Science Besearch Council for the U. S. Department of the Air Force and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. 8/ Patterns of Mobility of Skilled Workers and Factors Affecting Their Occupational Choice, Six Cities, 19^0-1951, Industrial Belations Section, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., February 1, 1952. jJ 15 ration obtained from 1,712 journeyman tool and die makers. These workers were selected from the payrolls of 315 metalworking plants. At the time of the survey, the spring of 1951, these plants employed 13,500 of the estimated 100,000 tool and die makers in the country. For budgetary reasons, the survey was limited to a few localities. The plants in the sample were located in seven cities containing large con centrations of metalworking industries. Four of the seven were in the Midwest (Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Detroit) where the greatest concentra tions of these industries are found. To give some representation to the other regions, the remaining cities selected for study were Hartford, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. 16 THE SAMPLE Selection of individual plants and of the sampling ratio within each plant was fixed so as to obtain a sample of tool and die makers whose industry attachment at the time of the survey would be similar to the national distribution of employment in the occupa tion by industry. (See Appendix tables E-l and E-2, pp. 55 for industrial dis tribution of the 1,712 tool and die makers and for employment in the plants from which the sample was drawn.) The sample was not, however, designed to give a representative geographic distri bution of tool and die makers or even Chart 6. Estimated Employment of Tool and Die Makers By Industry, 1951 0 Number of Tool and Die Makers 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 1 --------------------------1 -------------------------- 1 ---------------------------1 --- MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT MACHINE TOOL ACCESSORIES MACHINERY ( Except Machine Tool Accessories ) FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS ELECTRICAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS necessarily to represent the industrial distribution of tool and die makers within the seven cities covered. All of the tool and die makers included in the survey were male. The sample was drawn from journeyman tool and die makers, in cluding those working as foremen or leadmen. It included persons working as tool makers, die makers, combination tool and die makers, gage makers, and ‘ig and j fixture builders. Apprentices and other trainees were excluded. (See appendix A, p. for the job description used in collecting the data). working plants. The field agents checked the employers' job descriptions for these workers against standard job descrip tions and their wage rates against the "going" wage for tool and die makers in that area. When each individual was interviewed, he gave his current job duties. This method of sample selection and screening permitted the elimination of apprentices, trainees, and other persons who were not qualified tool and die makers, but whose names might have been inadvertently obtained from the em ployers' payroll. It insured a more precise occupational classification than The sample was selected in such a is possible in a household enumeration way that only qualified workers in this survey, in which the occupational classi occupation were included. The names of fication is made on the basis of state tool and die makers were obtained by ments of individual workers or members field agents of the Bureau of Labor of the household and can be verified Statistics from payroll records of metal only indirectly. bb 17 from employer to employer, job changes from industry to industry, and movement from one geographical area to another. Because this was a study of one skilled occupation, the work history of the individuals before they qualified as tool and die makers was not considered in the measurement of mobility. DATA COLLECTION METHODS Each tool and die maker was inter viewed in his home by a Bureau field agent who used a specially designed questionnaire. 9/ Every worker re ported his complete work history from January 19k0 through January 1951. In Occupational movement was defined cluded in the work history was the as a shift from one job classification to another; that is, from tool and reason for changing Jobs. A complete die maxing to some other occupation or record of training also was obtained .vice versa, regardless of whether c r a for each worker, including the method, not a change of employer was involved. length, industry, and location of his training. The schedule also included Employer changes were defined as a questions relating to entry into the job transfer from one establishment to occupation and influences leading to another. When a worker left his job the selection of the trade. Data ob to enter military service, it was not tained on personal, characteristics of the worker included age, marital status, considered a change or 'move; if he re turned to the same job immediately number of dependents, and place of after his military service. birth. Finally, the worker was asked for his opinion of the trade as a career for young persons. In general, movement from one broad industry group to another (i.e*, 2-digit group in the Standard Indus At the same time that the names of trial Classification system) was con individual workers were obtained from the employers, a special questionnaire sidered an industry shift. There were was prepared for each of the 315 plants exceptions to this, however. The ma from which the sample was taken. This chine tool accessories industry was questionnaire called for data on considered separate from the machinery personnel and training practices, both industry group because the tool and die in 1951 and during World War II, and jobbing shops, which form a major part for facts on production methods and job of the machine tool accessories indus organization as they affected tool and try, employ many tool and die makers die maker employment and utilization. and have a somewhat different method of These data provided background informa operation. Similarly, the aircraft and tion with which to evaluate and assess the automobile industries were con the training experience and work sidered separate from the remainder of histories of the individual workers, the transportation equipment group. A and permitted some checks on the tabulation of job changes involving accuracy of worker responses. changes in industry using a k-digit SIC system breakdown was made to determine whether any great amount of inter-industry movement had been elim DEFINITIONS (See also inated by the broad classification explained above. It was found that Appendix A) the k-digit system resulted in a gain of only a few percent in the number of industry changes made. It was felt Four types of mobility were measured in this study: movement in that this small gain in detail did not and out of tool and die making, shifts justify the unwieldly number of indus2/ See Appendix D, pp. k8-51 for a copy of the questionnaire form. 18 tries it would have been necessary to deal with. Geographic moves were defined as change of employment from one city (standard census metropolitan area) to another. Bureau of the Census standard metropolitan areas were selected because it was believed that they correspond roughly to the local labor markets the area within which it is customary for workers to commute to plants located in the central city or its suburbs. , MEASURING MOBILITY The mobility 'of the workers in the survey was measured in two ways: the proportion of the men interviewed who made any moves, and the average number of job changes made per worker. The interpretation, of worker mobility, .however, requires a more precise frame of reference than is obtained by these standards alone. Rate of movement must be measured against potential for movement; that is, the number.of moves as related to ex posure to the labor force during the period of the survey. Thus, three job changes made by a worker who was in the labor force the entire 11-year period would show much less mobility than three job changes for a person who was in the labor force only two years. 10/ Manpower planning requires infor mation not only on the amount of move ment and factors affecting it, but also on the range of movement. It is impor tant to determine in what other occupa tions, industries, and areas the individuals had worked before the jobs they held at the time of the survey, and whether there was any pattern of movement. For example, did tool and die makers move only between particular industries or were they able to move freely between industries? This was determined by comparing the worker's location or industry at the time of the survey with other areas and industries in which he worked or received training. Essential in a study of mobility which is primarily concerned with ob taining information for manpower planning is a consideration of worker motivation for changing jobs. Inasmuch as manpower policy in past mobilization periods has been predicated on the absence of compulsory manpower controls, getting workers to the most necessary jobs can be done only by offering in ducements to workers to change jobs. Thus, on the questionnaire, each tool and die maker was asked to give his In relating age to mobility two measurements were used. First, the workers were grouped by their ages at the time of the survey and differences were observed in the average number of job changes per person for each group. It was felt that this technique was inadequate. Inasmuch as this survey covered an 11-year period, a grouping by ages attained in 1951 indicated the experience of each age group over that time span but did not describe 10/ For 11/ the mobility behavior characteristic of particular ages, nor did it recognize that certain "ages" were not in the labor force as many years as others. A second technique was therefore devised. This consisted of grouping the job movements, not by the age of each worker in 1951# but by the ages at which the moves were made. It was thus determined that more move ment occurred at some ages than at others. To allow for the unequal representation of ages in the labor force during the 11 years, the number of job moves made at each age was re lated to the number of years worked at that age. Thus, the mobility behavior of workers at specified agesy with potential for movement considered was obtained. 11/ explanation, see Appendix A, p. For explanation, see Appendix A, p. 234998 0 — 53------4 IQ bk. b$. reason for changing jobs (see question naire, question 20, appendix D, p. 50), CLASSIFYING REASONS FOR CHANGING JOBS The reasons given by the tool and die makers were divided into two broad groups: job changes made as a result of the worker's individual choice (voluntary shifts), and job changes made as a result of factors over which the worker had no control (involuntary shifts). There were two principal groups of involuntary reasons: loss of job due to lay-off because of lack of work, shut-down of the firm,etc; and loss of job due to discharge because of unsatisfactory work performance or for disciplinary reasons. The few cases where workers reported they left their jobs because their health did not permit them to remain in their positions were also included in the group of involuntary reasons. safety devices, kind of equipment in the plant, etc.), or because of ob jectionable or undesirable hours of employment. (A number of persons moved because they wanted to work on different shifts.) Another category was "location of the job" which in cluded job changes made because the plant was too far from home or because of transportation difficulties. A number of tool and die makers re ported "differences with foremen" as their reason for changing jobs. The miscellaneous group, "other reasons," included all vague replies such as "fed up," "just quit," "wanted a change," "tired of working there," as well as a variety of other spe cific explanations too scattered to be classified separately. These in cluded such reasons as "wanted to enter defense work," "to visit friends in Chicago," "to help in family business," and others. LIMITATIONS OF DATA Reasons given for changing jobs voluntarily were classified according to the worker's motivation* One classification was "better pay," This group included job changes to obtain higher base wage rates and those made to obtain higher take-home pay because of longer workweek. Many workers moved from one employer to another to get "better jobs," This term included moves made to gain experience, promo tion, or the opportunity for promotion. The first two categories are closely related, because promotion may include a raise in pay, "Working conditions" was the third principal group of reasons for shifting. Under this heading were placed job changes which were made because of the physical surroundings of the job (lighting, ventiliation, One of the problems in studies based on interviews is the accuracy of responses made by individuals.Re search on the reliability of worker response indicates that work his tories obtained by personal interview are, by and large, reliable. 12/ In addition, the questionnaire used in this survey afforded the opportunity to make some internal checks of con sistency of the workers' answers. For instance, the date of birth and the year in which schooling was com pleted were checked against the year of first job. Answers given to the questions on training were compared with the information reported for the work history. An indirect check on the repre- 12/ See, for example, the Reliability of Response in Labor Market In quires, by Gladys L. Palmer. Technical Paper No. 22. U. S. Bureau of the Budget, Division of Statistical Standards, July 19^2; and Validity of Work Histories Obtained by Interviews, by Elizabeth Keating and C. Harold Stone. Industrial Relations Center, University of Minnesota. 20 sentative nature of the sample was made by comparing the age distribution of the sample with information ob tained from the employer questionnaire (see appendix D, pp. 52-5^ for copy of questionnaire). The 315 metalworking plants reported the number of tool and die makers they employed who were 55 years of age or older. The proportion of the sample 55 years or older and the proportion of the 13*500 tool and ‘ die makers as reported by the employees were similar. The tabulations on which the findings were based were tested for statistical significance. 13/ Although the sample of 1,712 tool and die makers represents one of the largest numbers of workers in a single occupation ever studied so intensively and consequently offers an opportunity for detailed analysis, some of the tabulations resulted in very small groupings. No conclusions were based on cells where the number of workers was very small lk/ even though the differences may have appeared to be statistically significant. Aside from the statistical limita tions of the data, it should be noted that the conclusions offered are re stricted in their significance because the survey covered only tool and die makers employed in this occupation at the time of the survey. Those tool and,die makers working outside the occupation for any reason and those unemployed or temporarily out of the labor force could not have been in cluded in the sample. If the work experience or personal characteristics of these workers should be signif icantly different from those tool and die makers in the survey, then their exclusion may alter the conclusions of the survey. However, it is unlikely that any great number of fully qualified tool and die makers who might be expected to return to the 12/ iV trade were working in other occupations in February-March 1951* Tool and die 'makers had been in short supply for the entire period following the out break of Korean hostilities* Em ployers had been intensively re cruiting these skilled workers, and newspapers in metalworking centers carried large "help wanted" ads for these workers. The United States Em ployment Service reported about 1,000 clearance orders in March 1951. Any journeyman, who in I95O -51 was working at a lower-skilled occupation in the metalworking field or who was working outside the metalworking trades, could easily have obtained a tool and die making job. It would seem, therefore, that those men who, in early 1951, were still not in tool and die maklmg had either left the occupation permanently for other work or were not able to .meet the requirements of employers, even though these requirements had already been lowered because of the shortage of skilled workers. This was probably the case with some men who had had experience in the occupation during the war when jobs were broken down. Although persistent shortages of qualified workers may eventually lead employers to hire and retrain some of these men, it does not seem justified at the present time to consider them members of this skilled occupation. In addition, there is no reason to believe that any great number of experienced tool and die makers who had advanced to higher rated jobs (such as tool designer) would return to the trade in the future. It should also be noted that the definition of the occupation •used in this study included workers in the lower supervisory levels— leadmen and foremen. When the above circum stances are considered, it seems certain that few tool and die makers were missed because of the sampling methods used in the survey. Chi-square test of significance. See appendix B, p l . . .j6 In general, a lower limit of 50 cases in a cell was set. 21 FINDINGS The Work of the Tool and Die Makers The tool and die maker makes tools, dies, jigs, and fixtures by machiniqg the metal with various machine tools and by using hand tools and measuring instruments. The "all-round man" is able to plan and carry through all operations concerned with turning out a finished product. He must have *a sound knowledge of the working prop e r t i e s of metals. He works from blueprints, rough sketches, or even oral instructions. In some plants tool and die makers do some of the actual tool or die designing. In the making of a product, the tool and die maker plans the sequence of the cutting and finishing opera tions. He sets up and operates the various machine tools needed in the ma chining operations and selects the appropriate cutting tools. After the machining operations, he chips, files, and shapes the surfaces of the machined parts by hand, finishing them to very close tolerances, and fits and assembles the finished parts. He in spects and checks the work for con formity with original specifications and, whenever necessary, makes altera tions. Tool and die making is pre cision work. Persons in this trade must have a great deal of mechanical ability and a liking for painstaking work* No great physical strength, how ever, is needed. Personal Characteristics Tool and die makers are sanewhat older than the male civilian labor force as a whole. (Chart 7) The median age of the tool and die makers interviewed was 44. This is about the same median age as for all craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers in the six-city mobility study. 13/ Because this occupation requires a long training period and because many of the workers who have entered the occupa tion in the last few years were veterans and therefore older than the usual apprentices, only a small number of tool and die makers were below the age of 25 (less than 1 percent). 15/ Slightly less than 20 percent were between the ages of 55 and 64, and about 5 percent were 65 years or older. About one-quarter of the workers were in each of the age groups 25-34, 35-^, and 45 -54. Six persons who were years or older were in cluded in the survey. The machine tool accessories and electrical ma chinery industries were found to have somewhat younger than average tool and die makers, whereas those employed in the motor vehicles and nonelectrical machinery industries were somewhat older (Table E -3 ) . JO The Mobility of Workers in Six Cities, oj^ cit., p. 8. 22 Chart 7. Tool and Die Makers Are an Older Group Than the Male Labor Force as a Whole PE RCE N T OF W O R K E R S IN EACH A G E G R O U P U. S. M a le L a b o r F o r c e Tool a n d Die M a k e r s 1 4 -1 9 2 0 -2 4 2 5 -3 4 45 -5 4 35-44 55 -6 4 AG E G R O U P S So u rc e : I n f o r m a t i o n on U. S. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR m ale l a b o r f o r c e f r o m U. S. B u r e a u of the C e n s u s . BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS There was a wide range of educational attainment among these workers. About two-fifths of them had completed high school (table 1). Six percent had some additional academic training beyond high school, whereas a total of about 29 percent of all the tool and die makers in the survey had eight or fewer years of schooling. The younger workers had more schooling than the older men. The percentage of tool and makers who had completed high school was twice as high for those under as for those ^5 years or older. There were no important differences in the educational back ground of those tool and die makers who had served apprenticeships and those who had not (table E-5)• About nine-tenths of the tool and die makers were married and 7 out of 10 had dependents other than their wives (table E-1 *). The percent of tool and die makers who were veterans was considerably smaller than of all males in the United States*. Of these workers, 17*^ percent re ported themselves as veterans of World War II, compared with about one-third of the employed male per sons in the United States who are veterans. Not only was the percen tage of the workers in the survey who served in the armed forces small, but half of them became tool and die makers after they returned from military service. 65 and O ver b5 23 Table 1 — Educational Level of tool and die makers,by age, February-March 1951 Highest school grade completed 3 CJ V Age group 9th through 3 Total edu cation not re ported Total 1-4 Total workers... 22 Total percent.•• 1.3 9 10 11 12 Some college edu cation 490 1,088 117 202 166 603 100 12 28.6 63.5 6#8 11.8 9.7 35.2 5.9 .7 22.2 15.9 12.6 12.3 10.9 9.8 7.4 4.5 3.3 2.4 55.6 51.6 59.5 ✓/ *✓ 47.2 31.7 21.2 22.2 15.6 22.3 16.9 22.2 9.0 7.7 9.2 4.8 4.6 2.3 5.5 1.6 2.4 5-8 Percent 20 25 30 35 ho 45 50 55 60 65 — 2f« L . ...... - 29....... - 3li.... . - 39...... _ )) , J...... - 4 9 ...... - 54...... - 59...... — 6t|..... t< and over... - -r, ^_lr i .w < T —— 3.8 4.9 ___ 8.3 1.0 20.6 1.0 38.5 2.8 50.9 3.0 55.8 1.6 55.5 4.3 56.7 77.8 87.2 86.2 82.0 73.6 55.4 43.1 35.2 38.8 34.9 Tr 6.1 4.6 8.4 12.5 8.3 5.6 5.0 5.8 6.0 13.6 9.5 13.6 18.5 16.1 7.9 10.1 7.4 9.6 -----1#2 .5 .9 .5 2.5 1.2 Factors Affecting Occupational Choice Each worker was asked to identify the influences leading him to this occupation. About threequarters of them explained fairly definitely why they entered the trade. (Chart 8). The answers given by the remaining workers indicated that they had just drifted into tool and die making. Of the 1,287 who could give definite reasons, 621 said they became tool and die makers because they were mechanically in clined and had looked for an occupa tion in which they could use their aptitudes. Three hundred and eightyfour reported entering the occupation because of the advice or example of their families or friends— "My father wanted me to learn the trade and got me into the apprenticeship program." * . s trade has always been in my 1 family so I took it up, too." About 70 percent of those whose fathers were in metalworking trades reported that members of their families had influenced them to entor this occupation. Two hundred and eighty-two reported entering the trade because they expected it to provide them a good income at once or in the immediate future— "I started off doing machinist work but after a while I saw I couldn't make much more. The influences which led tool and die makers to enter the trade did not seem to be connected in any definite way to age or educational level. One-third of the tool and die makers reported other members of their family in the trade. Somewhat more than 10 percent of the workers re ported that their fathers were tool and die makers and about 15 percent reported that their brothers were tool Chart 8. W hy W orkers Entered Tool and Die Making PERCENT OF W O R K E R S G I V I N G SP E C IF IC FOR ENTERIN G TRADE 20 40 M e c h a n i c a ll y in clin ed In f lu e n c e d by f a m i l y or f r i e n d s Economic Considerations O p p o r t u n ity o f f e r e d for a p p r e n t ic e s h i p or o th er tra in ing M iscellaneous reasons No Sp ecific r e a s o n g iv e n fo r e n te rin g o c c u p a tio n UNITED SJATES^ DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS More than half the tool and die makers began their working lives in the metalworking field. About twofifths of the workers who had not served apprenticeships began their working careers in metalworking jobs, most of them as machine tool opera tors. On the other hand, more than two-thirds of the 1,135 tool and die makers who had served apprenticeships, had smarted their working lives in the metalworking field. Five hundred and ninety-nine of the workers reported that after leaving school, their first job was that of an apprentice. Tool and die makers whose fathers' usual or longest job was in metal working had more often started their working lives in metalworking occupa tions than had those whose fathers worked in other fields. and die makers (table E-8). Many had fathers and brothers or fathers and other relatives in the trade. The proportion whose fathers also were in the trade or in related metalworking occupations was highest for the tool and die makers in the youngest age groups. Somewhat more than onefourth of the tool and die makers under years of age had fathers whose usual or longest job was either tool and die maker, machinist, or maintenance mechanic. Only about onesixth of the tool and die makers U5 years of age or older had fathers who worked in these occupations. This finding is not unexpected because all the metalworking trades experienced rapid growth since the turn of the century. 25 Table 2.— Nativity of tool and die makers, by age, February-March 1951 Nativity Total Age group i mak:ers Nunber Nativ< b o m Percent Number Percent Foreign bora Number Percent All age groups... 1,712 100.0 1,247 72.8 465 27.2 - 24........... . - 29............ - 34............ - 39............ - W .......... . 45 - 4 9 ............ 5 0 - 5 4 ............ 55 - 59............ 60 - 61+....... 65 and over...... . 9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 9 132 325 250 184 193 216 199 121 83 123 305 231 146 104 118 102 65 44 100.0 93.2 93.8 92J+ 79.3 53.9 54.6 51.3 53.7 53.0 9 20 19 38 89 98 97 56 39 6.8 6.2 7.6 20.7 46.1 45.4 48.7 46.3 47.0 20 25 30 35 ko side the United States; Chicago followed with 30.^ percent (table E-6 ). The lowest percentages were in Hartford and Los Angeles where less than one-sixth of each city's total were born abroad. The distri bution of. foreign-born tool and die makers by industry followed the city pattern, with the highest proportion in the motor vehicles and machine tool accessories industries, both of which are concentrated in Detroit (table E-7); and the lowest propor tion in the aircraft industry, which in this study was represented by tool and die makers in Los Angeles and Hartford. More than one-fourth of the tool and die makers were foreign-born. Foreign-born tool and die makers, many of whom were trained in their native country, are a diminishing source of new workers in this skilled occupation (table 2 ). Nearly half the tool and die makers who were years of age or older were born outside this country, whereas less than 10 percent of those under were foreign-born. The pro portion of foreign-born tool and die makers differed among the industries and cities of employment. Detroit had the highest proportion, with 36.3 percent of them having been born out h5 26 centage for those 1 5 years of age or * older was twice as high. Because the importance of foreign-born tool and die makers is also decreasing, it appears that the supply of new workers to this occupation in recent years has been coming principally from the cities and towns of the United States. About one-sixth of all the tool and die makers were raised on farms. As can be expected from the general shift of the United States population to the cities, the proportion of tool and die makers with farm backgrounds has been decreasing. Of the tool and die makers under 1*5, about 11 percent were raised on farms, whereas the per Training learned the trade in the aircraft in dustry. The principal way in which tool and die makers have learned the trade has been through apprenticeship. An apprentice is a worker who learns, according to a written or oral agree ment, a recognized skilled trade re quiring two or more years of work experience on the job through employ ment, supplemented by appropriate re lated trade instruction. About two-thirds of the men inter viewed (1,135) had served apprentice ships, and 577 had become qualified tool and die makers by other means. The proportion of workers trained by apprenticeships varied by industry (chart 9). More than four-fifths of the tool and die makers who were working in the motor vehicles industry at the time of the survey had been apprentices. The lowest proportion trained by apprenticeships was in the aircraft industry, in which only onethird (33.B#):of the tool and die makers had been apprenticed. This is partially explained by the rapid growth of the industry and by its location away from other metalworking centers. Much the same picture appears when the tool and die makers are grouped by the industry in which they first qualified for their craft. Again the motor vehicles industry was highest and the aircraft industry lowest (chart 10). Almost 85 percent of the workers who qualified for the trade while employed in the motor vehicles industry had served appren ticeships, as compared with less than 25 percent of the workers who had 07 The proportion of those trained through apprenticeship was the same for the various age groups. An ex ception was the age group 35-50 in which the proportion who had served apprenticeships was lower. In all probability, this exception was due to the relatively little training offered during the depression years when these men entered the labor market. They were able to get into the trade during the war years, when there was greater opportunity to enter through means other than apprenticeship. Table 3.— Length of apprenticeship of tool and die makers Workers Tears Number All apprentice ship periods.... 2 years or less...... 3 years........... .. I years.............. t 5 years or more****** Apprenticeship period not reported....... Percent 1,135 100.0 78 222 699 128 6.3 19.6 61.6 11.5 8 .7 Chart 9. Motor Vehicles Industry Has Highest Proportion of Apprentice-Trained Tool and Die Makers PERCENT OF WORKERS EMPLOYED IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES' TRAINED BY APPRENTICESHIP AND OTHER MEANS I n d u s t r y of E m p l o y m e n t WWWj W o rkers Who Served A p p re n tic esh ip IV /7 J ^i/./<A W o r k e r s W h o Did Not Serve A p p r e n t i c e s h i p UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Not all the apprentices had been trained as tool and die makers. Fifteen percent had had a machinist apprenticeship and had "worked up" to tool and die making. The proportion was especially high among the older workers. The apprenticeship period usually lasted k years, about three-fifths of the workers reporting this length of training. Slightly more than 11 per cent (128) reported a 5-year training period. More than twenty-five per cent reported learning the trade in three or fewer years (table 3)• Some of those men had been able to qualify in shorter periods because they were given credit for previous experience in machine shop work or for vocational school training. In other cases, the workers were able to secure tool and die making jobs without completing their apprenticeships. Many tool and die makers in the survey had not been trained through apprenticeship. For the group as a whole, about one-third were not apprenticed. However, during World War II almost half the tool and die makers who entered the trade had not 28 Chart 10. Aircraft Industry Trained Smallest Proportion of Tool and Die Makers Through Apprenticeship PERCENT OF WORKERS QUALIFYING IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES THROUGH APPRENTICESHIP AND OTHER MEANS I n d u s t r y of Q ualifica tio n ALL INDUSTRIES Aircraft Electrical machinery Machine tool accessories Fabricated metal products Machinery (except machine tool accessories) Motor vehicles All other industries fiSgSgg nW W I W orkers W ho Served A p p re n ticesh ip Y 7 X W ? rkers 77 Y/ / ' i Serve w h o Did N ot A p p re n ticesh ip UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS served apprenticeships, because many plants producing essential military and civilian equipment could not ob tain enough journeymen tool and die makers, and there was not sufficient time to train new workers through apprenticeship. Tool and die maker requirements were met by upgrading partially trained men, or by inten sively training untrained workers, as well as by "breaking down the job" and using the available tool and die makers as supervisors. Of the tool and die makers who had not qualified by apprenticeship, about 20 percent had some other moreor-less formal on-the-job training by which they had progressively learned the different parts of the trade in cluding the operation of various kinds of machine tools. These training pro grams were generally not covered by any formal oral or written agreement as to the length or scope of the training, but there was a definite agreement for the employee to learn 29 the trade while working* The majority of the men who did not serve appren ticeships had learned the trade either by "just picking it up" while working in tool rooms or machine shops, or had been upgraded from less skilled machine shop occupations. It is difficult to determine when this "learning" process began for these workers. Many of them had been in ma chine shop work for a long time before they had an opportunity to get into tool and die making. In many cases these men learned to operate machine tools on production lines and became familiar with tool and die making in the tool rooms of the plants in which they were working. Thus, when tool and die makers were needed, these workers were selected for immediate transfer or were moved into the occupation after a short training period. For purposes of this study, all time spent in machine shop or tool room work before the individual’s first job as a qualified tool and die maker was counted as his qualifying or training period. On this basis more than half the men who had "just picked up the trade" required 5 years or more before they became qualified tool and die makers; and of this number 87, or 15 percent, required 10 years or more from the time they started in re lated work until the time they got their first tool and die making job. One-sixth reported 4 years of machine shop or tool room experience before qualifying as tool and die makers and about the same proportion qualified in 3 years or less. Ten percent of all the men who had not served appren ticeships had gained some knowledge of the trade by previous attendance at trade schools or vocational schools. In general, the workers included in this survey had had considerable experience in tool and die making. About 20 percent of the tool and die makers in the survey reported 30 years or more experience in the trade and nearly half reported 15 years or more (table E-9). In contrast, less than one-seventh reported fewer than 5 years of experience. There were differences in the experience level of the tool and die makers employed in the various industries. Twothirds of those employed in the motor vehicles industry had 15 years or more experience, whereas less than one-fourth in the aircraft industry had been active in the trade this long, reflecting in part the recent rapid growth of the aircraft indus try. Apprentice-trained tool and die makers had more experience in the occupation .than did those who qualified by other means (table E-10), although the age levels of the two groups were not different. About 55 percent of these tool and die makers who had been apprenticed had 15 years or more experience in the trade, as compared with one-third of the workers who qualified by other means. In large part this reflects the fadt that apprenticed workers entered training at earlier ages and qualified in fewer years than did the men who were not apprenticed. Included among the 1,712 tool and die makers in the survey were 2011workers (about 12 percent) who were in supervisory tool and die making positions (leadmen and foremen). The work histories of these tool and die makers differed somewhat from those of the other 1,500 workers. Half the leadmen had 20 years or more experience in the trade, compared with about 37 percent of the re maining workers. The supervisory workers had had more experience in the trade even though their median age was lower. This can be partially explained by the fact that a higher proportion of these men were apprenticed and in general, those tool and die makers who were appren ticed had longer experience as tool and die makers in relation to their ages than did those who qualified by other means* Apparently, an apprenticeship gives a tool and die maker a somewhat better chance to 30 reach the supervisory level. Less than 10 percent of those who had not served apprenticeships were in the supervisory group whereas about 13 percent who had served apprentice ships were supervisors at the time of the survey (table E-H). Mobility The findings in regard to mobility should be interpreted in the light of the particular economic conditions which affected tool and die makers during the years covered by the sur vey, 19^0-51. In general, this 11year period was one of favorable em ployment opportunities for tool and die makers. Tool and die making was the first occupation to be declared critical and to be subjected to wage controls during the defense and war production period of 19^1-^2. Tool and die makers remained in short supply throughout the war and were also urgently needed in the postwar reconversion period. Demands for these skilled workers continued strong during 19^7 und 19^8 because of high levels of metalworking activity. The outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June 1950 once again emphasized the importance of this occupation in tooling-up for defense production. The high level of tool and die maker employment prevailing during the period covered by the survey probably influenced the amount and character of job movement by tool and die makers. Few were laid off. In fact, employers were exerting every influence to re tain their staffs during most of the period. On the other hand, the wide availability of jobs offered both the inducement and the opportunity for tool and die makers to change jobs for higher pay or better promotional opportunities or just to change when working conditions, personal rela tions, or plant location were not entirely to their liking. Tool and die makers can find jobs in many places. They are employed in more than 9,000 plants throughout the country. They work in a large variety of metalworking industries and they are employed also in such nonmetalworking fields as the fabricated plastic products industry which employs die makers to make the metal molds. During World War II and also since the outbreak of hostilities in Korea government ordnance plants have employed a substantial number of these workers. Although the bulk of tool and die makers are employed in the midwe stern and northeastern sec/tions of the country where the metal working industries are concentrated, bool and die makers axe scattered throughout the Nation and there are some in every State. The nature of the occupation itself influences the mobility of these workers. Qualified tool and die •makers are at the top of the occupa tional ladder of skilled craftsmen and are among the highest paid workers in the metalworking field. Thus, mem bers of this occupation axe not afforded much opportunity for trans fer on the same skill level, and because the period covered by the sur vey was primarily one of full employ ment, not many tool and die makers would be expected to be working below their highest skill level. In general, tool and die makers are limited in their occupational 31 movement. They can move downward to other machine shop jobs requiring less skill such as machinists or machine tool operators. They can be promoted to supervisory jobs in tool rooms. A small number become tool or die designers, and hence are no longer members of the occupation. Some workers establish small tool and die shops of their own. MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF THE OCCUPATION The work histories of the tool and die makers in the survey showed very little movement in and out of the occupation. During the 11-year period, more than percent of them worked only as tool and die makers after be coming qualified journeymen. Only l68 had worked outside the occupation, and th e s e w o rk ers had done so o n ly 209 SO each. Even when the tool and die makers did move out of the occupation, they tended to work in closely re lated jobs. About half the jobs which these men held outside the occupation were either as machinists, machinery repairmen, or machine tool operators (table E-12). It should be noted again that the analysis of the work histories of these men began only after they became qualified journey men and that the occupational movement involving a skill progression up to tool and die maker has been considered in this study as part of the training experience for the trade but has been excluded from the measurement of mobility of fully qualified members of this craft. As previously stated, men who had worked as tool and die makers during the 11 -year period but were working in some other occupation when the study was taken were not in cluded in the study. Thus, this sur vey does not fully reflect shifts to other occupations. tim e s , o r an av erag e o f 1 .3 tim es Table 4«— Distribution of tool and die makers, by number of job changes, 1940-51 Number of changes made Number Number of changes Total tool and die makers making specified number of job changes Percent Number 2,127 Tool and die makers.......... 1,712 100.0 No change............................ One change...................... . Two changes............. ........... Three changes....................... . Four changes...... ................. . Five changes............. .......... . Six or more changes........... . 979 57.2 •m m m r mmmm m m mn 216 12.6 216 386 193 95 83 62 84 32 11.3 5.5 4.8 3.6 5.0 285 332 1 Percent 100.0 ________ 10.2 18.1 13*4 310 15.6 14.6 598 28.1 Nearly three-fifths (979 of the MOVEMENT BETWEEN EMPLOYERS 1,712 workers in the survey) had In terms of manpower mobilization planning, the importance of mobility lies primarily in the amount of move ment of workers to the plants and in dustries where they are most needed in a mobilization period. After the general level of movement has been determined, there must also be estab lished the extent to which those workers who do change employers are also willing and able to move across industry lines and from one geogra phic area to another. All of the industry and geogra phic shifts made by the workers in cluded in this study, as well as most of the moves in and out of the occupa tion, involved changes of employer (table 5). Measurement of movement between employers was, therefore* a comprehensive measurement of all move ment made by these tool and die makers and offered the broadest basis for analysis. Thus, movement between employers was the principal criterion of mobility in this study. Table 5.~Job changes of tool and die makers by type of job change, 1940-51 Type of job change Workers Number Percent All changes.•• 2,127 100*0 Employer only..... Employer and industry........ Employer and location.. Employer, industry, and location..... 700 32.9 1,177 55.3 62 2.9 188 8.9 33 worked for only one employer (table k). The 733 tool and die makers who had changed employers one or more times made 2,127 moves, or an average of 2.9 per person. Even among those who made employer changes there were considerable differences in the amount of movement. More than half of those who had shifted made only one or two moves. Three-fifths of the movement between employers was made by the 229 workers (about oneseventh of the total number of workers in the survey) who made four or more shifts each. Of the 733 tool and die makers who had made employer shifts 605 or 82.5 percent had made at least one voluntary move. About two-thirds (1 ,258 ) of the 2,127 moves between employers'were voluntary. Manpower planning officials are concerned with the adequacy of voluntary movement as a means of helping to insure that the needs of defense production plants for skilled workers are filled, although they are aware that excessive movement may hamper production. Thus, the emphasis of this study should be placed upon voluntary move ment. Some idea of the amount of voluntary movement which was found in this study may be obtained by esti mating the number of voluntary job changes which might be made in a single year. If the frequency of voluntary movement between employers of the estimated 100,000 tool and die makers now employed was the same as was found for the 1,712 tool and die makers in the sample during the 11 years covered by the survey, it is estimated that about 9,000 voluntary employer shifts would be made annually by the tool and die makers in the country. Most of the Job changes would involve a change of industry, but less than 12 percent of the shifts would involve a change of em ployment from one labor market to Chart 11. Rate of Job Changes of Tool and Die Makers Higher in Post-War Period Num ber of Job Changes 1600 r N U M B E R A N D C H A R A C T ER OF J O B C H A N G E S, W A R -T IM E A N D ' P O S T -W A R PE R IO D 1400 ► 1200 > 1000 Reason for C h a n g in g N ot Reported ► In vo lu n ta ry Job C h an ge s 800 > 600 ► 400 - 200 V o lu n ta r y Job C h an ge s ► ol Job C h a n g e s M a d e Prior to June 30, 1945 Job C h an ge s M a d e after June 30, 1945 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS euaother. 16/ It should he borne in mind that 9,000 job changes does not mean that 9>000 different tool and die makers would change employers, since a small number of men might change jobs more than once during a given year. It was found, however, that the ratio of voluntary to involuntary movement was about the same for all workers no matter how they were grouped, except in a few specific cases which are noted in the following analysis. Consequently, most of the tabulations are presented in terms of total movement. The conclusions based upon these tables, however, are the same as if the data were for voluntary movement only. As noted earlier, the 11 years of the survey covered changing economic conditions. For analytical purposes 16/ See pp. 3944.1 the period was divided into two parts-before and after June 30 > 19^5• The first part roughly corresponded to the tooling-up and war production period, the second to the postwar con version and prosperity period. A comparison of the two periods shows considerable differences (chart 11). About twice as much movement occurred in the second of the two periods; 722 moves were made before June 3®> 19**-5> and 1,^05 were made after that date. Also, the nature of the movement differed. During the first 5 l/2 years only one-fifth of the total moves were involuntary. The propor tion of involuntary moves was twice as great after June 30, 19^5* The number of voluntary moves in the later period was about 50 percent more than in the first period. On the other hand, the number of involun tary moves was four times as great as the first 5 l/2 years. The difference in the amount of voluntary movement between the two periods can be partly accounted for by the 63 voluntary v moves made in the later period to re turn to former employers from whom the workers had previously been laid off. The amount of movement between employers was affected by such fac tors as age, education, and length of time in the labor force during this period. It also varied by in dustry and city of employment. On the other hand, such other characteristics as marital, status, method of training, and nativity of these tool and die makers did not appear to affect the amount of move ment. Older workers did not change jobs as often as the younger men. A higher proportion had worked for only one employer (table 6). Of the k03 workers who were 55 years of age or older at the time of the survey, 289 (71.7 percent) had worked for only one employer during this period. On the other hand, 52*7 percent of those for discussion of interindustry and geographic movement 3b workers under 55 had worked for only To measure this, the number of moves one employer. In addition, those in made by workers when they were at the higher ages who did change jobs given ages was related to the number made fewer shifts per person than of years worked by all the workers in those in the younger age groups. It the survey at those same agesC~ should be noted, however, that the (table 7). It was found that rela above comparisons do not give a pre tively more movement occurred at cise measurement of the effect of age lower ages and that the rate of upon mobility, because they are a com movement diminished as the workers parison of groupings of workers by age grew older. For example, almost at the time of the survey. Such a four times as many moves relative to grouping gives only the experience of the number of man-years worked at the workers in each age group. It does given ages were made by workers when not describe the mobility behavior they were between the ages of 20-29 characteristic of particular ages* years as were made by workers when Table 6.— Job changes of tool and die makers, by age, February-March 1950 Average number of job changes made by— Age group Total tool and die makers make i s who ' changedL emplqyers one• or more <i t .mes Number All age groups... PO „ 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 ___ - 29............. - 34............. - 3 9 ............. - 4 4 ..... ...... . - 4 9 ........ . - 54............. - 59............. - 64............. and over.......... 1,712 Total number of job changes Percent Tool and die All makers tool who and changed die employ makers i ers one or more times 733 42.8 2,127 1.2 2.9 53 162 122 84 100 98 64 33 17 40.2 146 497 382 279 299 251 160 78 35 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 .8 .6 .4 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.1 9 132 325 250 184 193 216 199 121 83 49.5 48.8 45.7 51.8 45.4 32.2 27.3 20.5 35 years they were 55 of age or older. The foregoing analysis confirms the thesis that as workers grow older they tend to become less mobile. Among the probable factors responsible are seniority, pension rights, and a greater desire for stability. A grouping of tool and die makers by the number of months they were in the labor force in the period covered by the survey showed differences in mobility. Workers with fewer months in the labor force after qualifying as tool and die makers made proportionate ly more job changes in relation to the length of their work experience (table E-l4). While age differences were an important factor, there were differences even for workers in the same age group. The relationship between months in the labor force and degree of mobility tends to substan tiate the belief that when workers enter the labor market, either as new workers, or as in this case, as new journeymen, they look for "good" jobs. In this search they move from job to job until they find one that satisfies their requirements, and once they ob tain such a position, they are likely to remain there, lj/ The amount of movement varied with the number of years of schooling. To a considerable extent, the educational level is also related to age. It was found, however, that when years of schooling were standardized by age, the influence of education on mobility persisted. There was a high correla tion between the average number of moves per person and educational level; Table 7.— Job changes of tool and die the average number of job changes in makers by age at time of change, creased with the number of years of 192+0-51 schooling (table 8). Those tool and die makers who had not gone beyond the eighth grade averaged less than one job Total Average change per worker; those who had partial Total man-years changes or complete high school education had Age job worked per manmade an average of 1.3 changes. Men changes year 192+0-51 with some college training had the worked highest rate of movement, averaging nearly two job changes each. y All ages 2,127 20-22+.... 25-29.... 30-32+.... 35-39.... 2+0-2+2+.... 1+5-49.... 50—52+.... 55-59.... 60 or more 1/ 145 2+53 2+51 308 262 259 12+1 75 33 li+,987 719 2,12+3 2,218 1,872+ 1,978 2,173 1,859 1,182+ 839 .12+2 •202 •211 •203 .1&+ .132 .112+ .076 .063 .039 Excludes period before qualifying tool and die maker. 17/ The rate of movement between employers varied when the tool and die makers were grouped by industry of employment at the time of the survey. Slightly more than a quarter of the workers employed in the machinery and motor vehicles in dustry had changed employers; in com parison, more than half the workers employed in the aircraft industry and about two-thirds of those work ing in the machine tool accessories industry had changed jobs during the as period (table 9)» Although the average age of the workers differed by industry and was to some extent a For example, see Reynolds, Lloyd G., op. cit, p. 111. 36 factor, the interindustry differences in mobility still appeared when age was held constant* These differences may be partially explained by the nature of the industries, particularly their re cent growth and the degree to which em ployment has fluctuated* For example, only about half the tool and die makers employed in the machine tool accessor ies industry had qualified as tool and die makers in that industry* Thus, the other 50 percent would necessarily have made at least one job (and industry) move in order to be employed in a machine tool accessories plant* (Some of these men may have come into the in dustry before 19^0 hence, this move ment into the industry would not have been counted in this study*) ; Differences in mobility appeared also among the various cities in the survey* These closely followed the pat tern of interindustry variations* The highest proportion of workers who had changed employers was found in Hartford and Los Angeles, both wartime aircraft production centers where more than half the workers had changed employers at least once (table E-15)* In Detroit, the workers for example, had made about the same average number of moves as had all the workers in the survey* This city had concentrations of tool and die maker employment in both the industry with the highest rate of movement (machine tool accessories) and in the industry with the lowest rate (motor vehicles)* The average number of moves for those workers who did change em ployers varied among the cities* The average number of shifts per worker was highest in Los Angeles, where the mobile workers made an average of 3*6 moves each* Although more than half the workers in Hartford had changed employ ers, most of them had made only one or two shifts* Thus, in this city the average number of shifts per worker who changed employers at least once was the lowest for all seven cities* This probably can be at tributed to the fact that there are relatively fewer employers of tool and die makers in Hartford as com pared to some of the other cities in the survey* Because of this, the number of alternative employment op portunities for tool and die makers in that city was limited. 1 The effects of several other factors upon mobility were investi gated. Persons trained by appren ticeship and those trained by other methods showed no appreciable differ ences in the rate of movement* The percentage of men who had changed em ployers at least once was about the same for each group and the number of moves per person was also the same* Among the tool and die makers includ ed In this study, married men changed employers just as frequently as men who were not married (table E-l6)* The effect of marital status on mo bility was measured by observing the number of job changes which were made by men married at the time they moved and the number of job changes made by men unmarried at the time they changed employers, relative to the number of man-years worked by married men and unmarried men* Foreign-bora tool and die makers moved proportionately as much as native-born tool and die makers,and about the same percentage of each group had changed employers one or more times* The tool and die makers who recommended this trade as a career for young people had moved relatively as much as those who did not make this recommendation* Table 8.— Job changes of tool and die rakers, by educational level* Feb ruary-March 1951 All educational levels.... 1 - Total number of job changes Average number of job changes 1,712 2,127 1.2 22 464 1,1+62 Total tool and die makers Highest school grade completed 4 ........................................................... 5 - 8 ........................... 9 - 12....... . ........................... .9 1.3 1.3 14 100 12 Total with some college education Education not reported...*...... .4 8 490 1,088 179 1.2 Table 9.— Job changes of tool and die makers, by industry of enployment, Feb ruary-March 1951 Tool and die makers uho changed employers one or more times Industry All industries.... Fabricated metal products............. Machinery (except ma chine tool accessories) Machine tool accessories Electrical machinery. •• • Motor vehicles......... Aircraft and parts..... All other........... . Total tool and die makers Number Percent Number of changes made Average number of changes made 1,712 733 1+2.8 2,127 2.9 159 56 35.2 170 3.0 284 116 ++ 260 358 151 51+ 81 282 104 99 83 28 28.5 63.2 40.0 27.7 55.0 51.9 235 861 272 239 262 88 2.9 3.1 2.6 2.4 3.2 3.1 58 MOVEMENT BETWEEN INDUSTRIES Even though the tool and die makers em ployed in some industries had moved less than those in others, it appeared that all tool and die makers could cross industry lines freely. Each of the industries had drawn some tool and die makers from each of the other indus tries included in the survey. In fact, in every industry studied at least onethird of the workers had not qualified as tool and die makers in the industry in which they were working at the time of the survey. With one exception, no pattern of movement from one industry to another Was evident. This excep tion wan due primarily to the geogra phic concentration of particular indus tries. The automobile and machine tool accessories industries, both of which have large concentrations in Detroit, showed a higher than average interchange of tool and die makers. Although less than half the tool and die makers made no Job changes, those who did move had no strong in dustry attachments. Of the 733 workers who changed employers, 553 had worked in more than one industry and of the 2,127 job changes nearly two-thirds involved a change in in dustry. In all, about one-third of the tool and die makers in the survey worked in more than one industry during the period covered by the sur vey. A small number of workers accounted for the bulk of the movement between industries. Slightly more than 10 percent of the tool and die makers had made almost three-fifths of the industry moves. The tool and die makers employed in some industries at the time of the survey had made more industry shifts than those employed in other indus tries. For example, about 16 percent of the tool and die makers employed in the motor vehicles industry when they were interviewed had worked in at least one other industry, whereas ^3 percent of those employed in the ma chine tool accessories plants had been employed in other industries (table 10)i The effect of various factors on movement between Industries was the same as in the case of employer changes. In particular, it should be noted that apprentice-trained workers showed about the same rate of industry shifting as did workers who qualified by other means. MOVEMENT FROM ONE GEOGRAPHIC AREA TO ANOTHER There was relatively little move ment from one geographic area to another by the tool and die makers in the survey. Only 1^3 (8 percent) of the 1,712 men reported changing their cities of employment 18/ during the 11 years, and these men made only 250 such shifts in Job location or an average of 1.7 moves each. Nearly half of those who had changed their cities of employment moved only once, and five-sixths had made only 1 or 2 locational moves. .k 18/ Two-thirds of the movement between geographic areas occurred in the second half of this U-year period, as was true for movement between employers. The proportion of moves between geographic areas which "City of employment" refers to Census standard metropolitan areas. 39 Table 10.— Number of industries in which tool and die makers were previously employed, by industry of employment, Februaiy-March 1951 Industry of employment at time of survey, FebruaryMarch 1951 Total tool and di s makers Nuntoer Percent Fabricated metal products......... Machinery (except machine tool accessories)...... Machine tool accessories..... . Electrical machinery Motor vehicles..... Aircraft and parts.. All other...... . None One Two Three Four or more Perceri t All industries.. All industries.• Number of industries previoiisly worked in 1,712 100.0 67.7 18.3 10.0 2.7 1.3 159 100.0 68.6 18.8 4.4 3.8 4.4 284 100.0 74*3 13.4 10.2 1.8 .3 57.4 25.1 20.9 12.0 17.9 14.8 13.7 8.8 3*6 17.3 3.4 4*6 .6 2.0 7.4 .4 1.9 .3 2.0 7.4 kk6 260 358 151 5k 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 63.8 83.5 60.3 50.0 20.4 which the survey was taken came from the surrounding regions 19/ (table E-l8). The one exception was found in Los Angeles. Forty-five of the 160 tool and die makers interviewed in Los Angeles had moved into the city during the 11 years covered by the survey* 20/ More than half of these k5 workers had come from the in dustrial centers of the Midwest, and only 6 had come from any of the Pacific Coast States. The relative geographic immobility of these followed losses of jobs increased in the second half of the period, un doubtedly because of the increased importance of involuntary employer shifts during the second half of the period. In the earlier period, 19 percent of the geographic changes followed losses of jobs whereas in the later period 28 percent followed job losses. Most of the workers who moved into the seven metropolitan areas in 19/ "Region," as used in this study, corresponds to standard Census geographic divisions such'as Hew England and Middle Atlantic. 20/ These U 5 men were already qualified tool and die makers when they moved to Los Angeles. In addition, a few workers moved to Los Angeles during this period from other cities and qualified as tool and die makers through their first job in Los Angeles. i+0 workers is shown by the fact that less than 5 percent of the tool and die makers trained in this country were working outside the region where they were trained. with more schooling changed their city of employment relatively more often. However, although marital status did not affect the rate of movement between employers, un married tool and die makers changed cities of employment proportionately twice as often as did the married workers (table E-17). As was true of job changes which involved only changes of em ployer, younger workers and workers Table 11.— -Job changes of tool and die makers, by nature of change and reason for voluntary changes, selected periods, 1940-51 Period of change Entire period 1940-51 Job changes Before June 30, 1945 After June 30, 1945 1 Number Percent Number Percent 100.0 1,405 100.0 53.4 38.8 7.8 100.0 Number All job changes....* 2,127 100.0 722 Voluntary............. Involuntary............ Season not reported.... 1,258 59.1 31.7 9.2 507 130 70.2 675 194 18.0 85 11.8 751 545 109 Voluntary changes.... 1,258 100.0 507 100.0 751 Better nav..... . Better 1ob............. Working conditions +.* *. Location*............ Return to former emnlover............. Differences with foreman*............. Other*♦***♦**---*-*-**♦ 27.5 24.9 11.6 5.1 30.0 27.6 25.8 23.0 12.8 6.1 10.8 4.4 8.4 5.0 3.3 22.6 4i Percent 3.4 20.1 3.3 24.3 Reasons for Changing Jobs This discussion has centered, so fax, on the extent and magnitude of mobility, the proportion of workers who changed jobs, and the number of job changes* Those groups of workers who changed jobs most frequently have also been identified* In manpower planning it is necessary to know not only how much movement might be expected and which workers would be most likely to change jobs, but also what inducements would cause workers to change jobs if such movement should be desirable in a mobilization period. The tool and die makers inter viewed were asked to give their reasons for changing jobs. The in formation called for the entire ex planation for changing employers including both the reason for leaving a particular job and for taking the next one. The reasons given were divided into two broad groups: job changes made as a re sult of the worker's own choice and job changes made as a result of factors over which the worker had no control. Of the 2, 127 job changes 1,258 were voluntary, and 675 were involuntary. In 19^ cases the workers either gave no reason or the reason was so vague as to be unclassifiable (table 11). Of the changes made voluntarily, 2 7.5 percent were due to the desire for higher pay, including a higher wage rate or higher take-home pay because of a longer workweek. This was the most frequently given reason. The next largest category ac counted for almost 25 percent of all the voluntary job changes, and covered a variety of responses which could be summed up as a desire to get a "better job." This included such reasons as "to gain experience," "to get a pro motion, " or "to take a job which would lead to promotion." The desire to improve working conditions accounted for 12 percent more of the voluntary changes made. Included in this group were changes made to secure different work shifts, more desirable hours of work, or better physical conditions in the tool room or shop. Five percent of the job changes were made because of plant location or transportation difficulties. In another five percent of the changes, the workers left jobs to return to plants where they had formerly worked and from which, in most cases, they had been laid off. More than three percent of the job changes were made because of "differences" with super visors. In about 23 percent more of the voluntary job changes, vague reasons or reasons not related to a particular job were given. These included such comments as "dissatisfied," "wanted a change," "entered defense work," "quit to help out family business," and "wanted to live in California." A large group said they "just quit" and were unable or unwilling to give more specific reasons, indicating that they "just got tired of working at that job." The above enumeration of reasons for changing jobs suggest the impor tant conclusion that most of the voluntary movement of tool and die makers was for specific and rational reasons calculated to Improve the worker'8 job situation. About one-third (675 ) of all the job changes were involuntary, resulting from factors over which the worker had no control, All but a small number of these job changes were the result of lay-offs. The remainder were due to the worker's being discharged by the employer for one reason or another or because the worker's health did not permit him to continue on the .job. The reasons for voluntary job changes made before June 30# 19^5 were compared with those given after that date. The distribution of reasons was about the same, except that after June 30# 19*+5, 8.U percent of the voluntary Job changes were made to return to former employers. This reason was not given for any job changes occurring in the earlier period. Thus, it appears that although the amount of voluntary job changing did vary, the reasons for this movement were about the same both in the wartime and postwar periods. > In general, the importance of the reasons for changing jobs was similar for the various groups of tool and die makers. There were no significant differences in distri bution of reasons between appren tice-trained men and those who qualified by other methods, between younger men and older workers, between experienced workers and. relatively new workers, or between native-born and foreign-bora men. There was one exception— marital status. Married men were apparently more concerned than un married men with working conditions and with ’ "better jobs" in terms of opportunity for promotion or experi ence, and had changed jobs relatively more often to return to former ememployers. On the other hand, un married men moved more often for better immediate pay#for a different working location, or because of differences with their supervisors. The distribution of reasons for making industry changes was the same as the reasons for changing employers. The reasons for job changes involving movements between geographic areas, however, were considerably different. Of the 250 geographic changes, 5 + * occurred after the worker was laid off or discharged. The geographic changes which did not follow lay-off or dis charge were grouped by the reasons given for making the job change. More than two-fifths were made for personal reasons not apparently related to the job; three-eighths were for better pay, better jobs, and more desirable work ing conditions. (This compares with more than 60 percent of all voluntary changes of employers in which these reasons were given). APPENDIXES Appendix A: 1. Definitions Used in This Survey Joh description of tool and die maker (Die maker] jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker) Constructs and repairs machine shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work in volves most of the following: planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings or other oral or written specifications; using a variety of tool and die maker's hand tools and precision measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of com mon metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training in machine shop and tool room practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva lent training and experience. 2. Job changes per month in the labor force after qualifying as tool and die maker A test was devised to measure the relationship between exposure to the labor force and mobility. In essence, this consisted of dividing the number of months each worker had spent in the civilian labor force as a tool and die maker by the number of job changes he made. The result is the changes per month in the labor force, (in actual computation the data were grouped as shown in table E-lk, and man-years rather than manmonths were used). The amount of movement for each grouping of tool and die makers was determined. For example, it was found that those tool and die makers who were in the labor force 5 years or less made an average of about one more every 5 years. On the other hand, those who were in the labor force as tool and die makers the entire 11 years made on the average about one move every 9 years. Thus, the figures shown have an advantage over a simple tabulation of the number of changes made by men in each grouping, inasmuch as they relate the amount of movement to the potential for movement. 3* Job changes per man-years worked at Riven ages Although a grouping of workers by their ages at the time of the survey and by the number of job changes they made during the 11 -year period covered by the survey gives an approximation of the effect of age on mobility, it has certain weaknesses. The first of these is that it tends to give the impression that the older workers moved more often than was actually the case. This impression is given because the older workers in general were in the labor force longer during the period covered by the survey than were the younger workers. Thus, if the mobility rates of the various age groups were equal, the older workers would have made more moves. The second weakness is that a grouping of workers by ages attained at the time of interview does not recognize that the job changes were made in the past and therefore were made at lower ages; in some cases as many as 11 years lower than the ages at the time of the survey. A better measure of the effect of age on the rate of movement is the average number of man-years worked at specified ages. To isolate the effect of age, the movements of workers were grouped by the ages at which the movement occurred. Thus, of the 2,127 job changes, IU5 were made by workers who were 20-2^ years old when they moved, ^53 by workers who were 25-29 when they moved, and so forth. Following this, the man-years worked at given ages were com puted. For example, a worker who qualified as a tool and die maker before and who was 25 years of age on January 1, 19^0* would have worked five man-years in the age group 25-29, five man-years in the age group 3O-3H, and one man-year in the age group 35*39* After the manyears were accumulated for each age group, they were divided by the number of moves made at those ages. The result, moves per man-year worked at specified ages, describes the mobility characteristic of a particular age. 19kQ, U5 Appendix B: S ta tistic a l Test of Significance The following form of the Chi-square formula was used to test the significant differences of the data in this study: where fQ = observed frequency and ft s hypothetical frequency The value of Pr0.05 was used to define the level of significance. k6 Calculation of estimated separations of tool and die makers because of retirement and death, 1951-61 Five-year pe:riod, Ten-year period, 1951-61 1951-56 Age Estimated employment 1951 (1) All age groups..., k 3k 20 - 2 .............. 25 - 29.............. 30 .............. 35 - 39.............. 2+0 — i+U.............. 1+5 - 1+9.............. 50-5 1+ .............. 55 - 59.............. 6 0 - 6 1 + .............. ....................... 7i _ f .............. 75 and over......... . Appendix Cs 7h Separation ratei/ per 1,000 in the labor force (estimated) (2) Number of separations (estimated) (1) X (2) Separation ratei/ per 1,000 in the labor force (estimated) (3) 100,000 107.6 11.3 12.6 20.7 32.5 1+7.9 75.6 106.7 160.5 351+.7 501.8 5U+.5 1,000.0 (1+) 10,758 500 7,700 19,000 li+,600 6 97 393 1+75 513 851+ 1,31+1+ 10,700 11,300 12,600 11,600 7,100 5.600 900 1+00 Number of separations (estimated) (1) x (1+) (5) 229.1+ 22,939 23.8 12 251+ 998 1,152 1,283 1,968 3,150 5,316 i+,817 33.0 52.5 78.9 119.9 171+.2 250.0 1+58.3 678.5 1,862 2,518 1,806 Ji90 1+00 i+,900 — -------811+.1 — 3,989 1/ Based on separation rate for total males adapted from abridged table of working life for 1947, in '•Tables of Working life," Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1001. No. 2208 A p p e n d ix D: Q u e s t io n n a ir e s u se d i n th e s t u d y Date of interview__________ bls UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF Budget Bureau No. 44-5047.1 Approval expires 6-30-51 L A B OR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Wa s h i n g t o n 25. d . c . Confidential Confidential OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY OF TOOL AND DIE MAKERS 1. Name 2. Address 3. Marital status 4. Number of d e p e n d e n t s ______ 5. Soc. Sec. No. ( G I V E O A T E S FOR OT HE R THAN Es t a bl i s hme nt I d e n t 1f 1 rati on*' l ,Firm name i ,City S I N G L E ) Year of b i r t h ____________________ 6. S t a t e , or f o r e i g n c o u n t r y ) ___________________________________ 7. 8. 11. Year c o m p l e t e d ________ F i r s t f u l l - t i m e j o b : 9. P l a c e of b i r t h ( C i t y or c o u n ty and E d u c a ti o n : Y e a r ______ 10. H ig hes t grade completed O c c u p a t i o n _________________________ I n d u s t r y ( or p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t ) _______________________________________________________________________________ How di d you l e a r n to be a t o o l a n d / o r d ie maker? (For th os e who s er v ed any a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , complete ques t i o n 12; f o r th os e who d id n o t , complete a p p l i c a b l e q u e s t i o n s under 1 3 .) 12. Served a p p r e n t i c e s h i p ________________ a. What o c c u p a t i o n . b. Firm name________ c. 13. I n d u s t r y ________ Did not s e r v e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p ________________________ S p e c i f y in which of the f o l l o w i n g ways you q u a l i f i e d t o be a t o o l a n d / o r d ie maker: a. (o r p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t More or l e s s formal o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g ( o t h e r t h an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , e . g . , l e a r n e r or t r a i n e e ; g iv e d e t a i l s ) : b. Upgraded from m a c h in is t or s i m i l a r jo b with a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g in p l a n t . (Give d e t a i l s i n c l u d ing o c c u p a t i o n from whirh " ft(Trarto( l ) : ) d. L o c a t io n e. Number of yea rs s e r v e d ______________________ f. Did you complete a p p r e n t i c e s h i p ______________ g. Date c o m p l e t e d ____________________ h. I f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p was not com pl et ed, r e l a t e s t e p s take n to q u a l i f y as a t o o l a n d / o r d i e maker: (c i t y i. or f o re ign c o u n t r y ) I f a p p r e n t i c e d in an o c c u p a t i o n o t h e r th an to o l a n d /o r d ie maker, r e l a t e s t e p s ta ke n to q u a l i f y as t o o l a n d / o r d ie maker: c. Picked up t o o l a n d / o r d i e t r a d e wh ile working as a machine t o o l o p e r a t o r , m a c h i n i s t , e t c . (gi ve d e t a i l s ) : ________________________________________________ d. Other e. Number o f y ea rs to q u a l i f y as a t o o l a n d / o r d ie maker ____________________ ( Turn to pag e 4 ) U8 - 217. Work h i s t o r y , 1940 to 1950. ( L i s t p r e s e n t jo b f i r s t and e n t e r l e n g t h o f t i n e in ea ch o c c u p a t i o n on a sep< d a t e , i n c l u d i n g p e r i o d s in sal 11 t a r y s e r v i c e and th e p e r i o d s o f unemployment.) a. Employment i or i i unemployment i From | To Mo. Yr. t Mo. Yr. i______ b. Firm name, C i t y and S t a t e 18. Longest jo b w it h one fi rm in any p e r i o d : 19. Number of weeks out of work i n 1949 ______________ i i i i i i Notes: Give r e a s o n s f o r each p e r i o d (Use where a d d i t i o n a l sp ac e i s needed f o r work h i s t o r y ) U9 c. Industry (or p rin c ip a l product) - 3 - i r a t e l i n e even though th e e n p lo y n e nt was in th e sane f i r n or p l a n t ; ac co u n t f o r a l l months, J a n u a r y 1940 to d. e. Occu pa tio n (Job t i t l e a n d / o r b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of d u t i e s ) R en ark s: ( E x p la in re a s o n f o r cha ng in g e n p lo y n e nt or s t e p s r e s u l t i n g in cha nging o c c u p a t i o n ) I n d i c a t e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t jo b only LABOR 50 - D. C. (BLS 51- 2059) - 4 - 14. F i r s t job as a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d t o o l a n d / o r d i e m a k e r __________ _ (year) 15. Number of y ears e x p e r i e n c e working as a t o o l a n d / o r d ie maker (Exclude p e r i o d s when not working as t o o l a n d / o r d i e maker) 16. T e c h n ic a l s c h o o l i n g o t h e r th a n t h a t ta k e n as p,art o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p : Name of scho ol Name of c o u r s e s (COMPLETE PAGES 2 AND 3 BEFORE Mo. FILLING IN From Yr. Mo. To Y r. REMARKS) 2 0 . Remarks: Inc lu d e r e s p o n d e n t ' s s t a t e m e n t as to what i n f l u e n c e s led to th e s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s tr a d e and h is o p in io n about th e t r a d e as a c a r e e r f o r young p e o p l e . Also s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e : 1. Whether t h e r e a r e o t h e r members o f h i s r e s p o n d e n t ' s immediate f a m il y in t h i s t r a d e , 2 th e oc c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y of h is f a t h e r ' s lo n g e s t or u su al j o b , and 3. whether re s p o n d e n t was r a i s e d on a farm. Field Representative: 51 BLS No. 2209 Budget Bureau No. 44-5046.1 Approval expires 6-30-51 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF L AB OR BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T I S T I C S WASHINGTON 2 5 . D. C. OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY OF TOOL AND DIE MAKERS ESTABLISHMENT INFORMATION C o n fid e n tia l 1. Firm name 2. Plant a ddress 3. C i t y and S tate . 5. Names an d titl e s of o fficials i n t e r v i e w e d 6. P r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ s _ 7. Emp l o y m e n t : C o n fid e n tia l (IDENTIFY (STREET and n u m b e r PLANT) ) 4. Date Industry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. T o t a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ b. N u m b e r of p r o d u c t i o n (plant) w o r k e r s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , l c. N u m b e r of wo r k e r s in tool and/or die d e p a r t m e n t_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d. N u m b e r of fu lly q u a l i f i e d tool and/or die makers in tool and/or die d e p a r t m e n t ___ e. N u m b e r of fully q u a l i f i e d tool and/or die makers in p l a _ t _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n_ f. N u m b e r of fu lly q u a l i f i e d tool and/ o r die makers in plant over 55 years of a___ ge g. S p e c i f y pa y pe r i o d a p p l y i n g to e m p l o y m e n t data _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8. What is the p r i n c i p a l use of the tool a n d/or die d e p a r t m e n t (indicate propor t i o n s , possible, b. or o rder of importance): if a. M a k i n g tools and/or dies for sale_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ M a k i n g tools and/ o r dies for own use in p r o d u c t i _ n _ _ _ _ _ _c. R e c o n d i t i o n i n g and o_ repair of tools a n d/or d i e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d. O ther ( s p e c i f y ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9. Wh at is the job o r g a n i z a t i o n in tool and/or die room (indicate proportions, if possible or order of, importance): a. A tool and/or die maker pr o d u c e s a c o mplete u n_ _ _ _ _ _ _ it b. Q u a l i f i e d tool and/or die ma k e r a c ting as lead man s u p e r v i s e s crew producing tfomplete u n i t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _c. Tool and/ o r die maker in charge of job, routes o p e r a t i o n s through ma c h i n e o p e r a t o r s and other s p e c i a l i s t s and fits and a s s e m b l e s final product d. Jobs b r o k e n down so that foreman s u p e r v i s e s w orkers other than fully q u a l i f i e d tool and/or die m a k e r s who r e p e t i t i v e l y pe r f o r m a separate o p e r a t i o n such as m a c h i n i n g on a t u r r e t - l a t h e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e. Some other a r r a n g e m e n t ( s p e c i f y )_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 52 10. Usual s ources of o b t a i n i n g tool and/ o r die ma k e r s for plant (indicate proportion, if possible, or order of importance): a. H i r i n g e x p e r i e n c e d tool and/or die makers from outs i d e the p l a n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ b. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p p r o g r a m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c. O n - t h e - j o b _ _ tr a i n i n g in tool and/ o r die making, other than a p p r e n t i c e s h i p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ If c, what is the aver a g e length of time r e q u i r e d to q u a l i f y ?_ _ _ _ _ d. U p g r a d i n g other machine _ shop or rela t e d w o r kers from within the p l a n t_?_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ From what o c c u p a t i o n s are such pe o p l e d r a w n ?_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ e. H i r i n g ma c h i n e shop or re l a t e d w o r kers from outs i d e the p lant to be trai n e d or u p - g r a d e d for tool an d / o r die maker j o b_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s 11. Apprenticeship: f. O t h e r ( s p e c i f y_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ) a. Is there an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p pr o g r a m for tool and/ o r die makers in the p l a n t ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ b. If "yes", is the p r o g r a m r e g i s t e r e d (with Federal C o m m i t t e e on A p p r e n t i c e s h i p or St a t e A p p r e n t i c e s h i p C o u n c i l ) ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ c. N u m b e r of tool a n d/or die m aker a p p r e n t i c e s now in t r a i n i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ng d. Num b e r of tool and/ o r die m a kers c o m p l e t i n g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p in the plant in: 1947 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1948 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1949 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1950 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e. N u m b e r still w o r k i n g in the plant of those who c o m p l e t e d a p p r e n t i c e s h i p in: 1947 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12. 1948 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1949 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1950 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ In t e m p o r a r y slack pe r i o d s in the tool and/ o r die room, are tool and/or die makers usually— a. Laid o f f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? or, b. G i v e n o ther w o r k_?_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ If the latter, what o c c u p a t i o n or type of work is u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13% In the past when it was n e c e s s a r y to increase p r o d u c t i o n of tools and dies sharply, how were the a d d i t i o n a l m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s met, aside from i n c r e a s i n g hours of work? (Indicate p r o p o r t i o n if possible, or order of i m portance): e x p e r i e n c e d tool a n d / o r die m a k e r s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? ap p r e n t i c e s ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. H i r i n g b. I n c r e a s i n g the n u m b e r of c. U t i l i z i n g less s k i l l e d work e r s s u p e r v i s e d by the sk i l l e d men a l ready e m p l o y e d ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d. I n t e nsive t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m for tool and/ or die ma k e r s o t her than a p p r e n t i c e s h i p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e. O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? _ f. Were tool and die mak e r s o b t a i n e d from the local labor mark e t ? g. If not, where did they come from? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ In d icate p e r i o d a p p l i c a b l e to quest i o n 1 3._______ ) ( y e a r 53 In the event of a future sharp in c r e a s e in tool and die r e q u i r e m e n t s to meet defense p r o d u c t i o n schedules, w o u l d the m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s *be met, m a nner as indi c a t e d above? in g eneral in the same (E x p l a i n_)_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ If not, how w ould the a d d i t i o n a l m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s be met? Note s: (Use this space for c o m p l e t i n g answers) Remarks: Field representative: LABOR - D. C. (BLS 51-2060) Appendix E> Tables Table E -l.—D istribution of tool and die makers in the sample, by industry, February-March 1951 Tool and die makers in the sample Industry Number Percent All industries....... ................... 1,712 100.0 Fabricated metal products................ ........ Machinery (except machine tool accessories)....... Machine tool accessories................ .......... Electrical machinery......... .................... • Motor vehicles...... .............. ............ . Aircraft and p a r t s . ..... . o th e r ....... ............... t . 159 284 A ll kk6 260 558 151 5k 9.3 16.5 26.1 15.2 20.9 8.8 3.2 Table E-2.— Number of workers and plants from which sample of tool and die makers was taken, by industry, February-March 1951 Employment in plants of sample Industry Number of plants Total workers Total production workers Total tool and die makers Total.......... 315 649,381+ 1+97,31+8 13,551 Fabricated metal products. Machinery (except machine tool accessories)..... Machine tool accessories*. Electrical machinery..... Motor vehicles....... Aircraft and parts....... Railroad equipment....... Instruments and related products.............. . Government installations•• 36 18,614+ 16,270 717 87 79 33 58 15 3 95,533 7,598 86,165 306,597 107,703 9,1+72 75,126 6,1+77 58,214 255,092 65,200 6,828 1,689 1,493 1,381 5,666 2,387 87 2 2 2,206 15,666 1,210 12,931 63 68 55 Table E-3.—Age of tool and die makers, by industry, February-March 1951 Industiy of employment Age group All in dus tries Total Fabri Machinery Machine cated (except tool ac metal machine tool ac pro cessories ducts cessories) Electri cal ma chinery Motor vehicles Aircraft and parts All other industries Percent 20-24 years....... 25-29 years....... 30-34 years....... 35-39 years....... i 0 i+ years*...... + —Ai 45-49 years....... 50-54 years*...... 55-59 years....... 60—6£ years....... + 65 and over..... . • Total...... Median age*....... Total number of workers....... .. .6 8.2 17.6 I8.3 __________________ 14.3 8.3 4*3 2.5 1.2 7*3 22.2 19*6 11.9 10.8 10.8 6.5 6.2 3.5 .3 5.3 13.1 12.3 9.5 11.2 13.1 16.5 10.6 8.1 5.3 17.9 21.2 11.9 18.5 8.6 10.6 3.3 2.7 9.3 27.8 16.7 13.0 3.7 3.7 18.5 3.7 3.6 .7 10.5 23*3 10.7 11*3 12.6 11.6 7.1 4.9 10.7 9.4 12.6 13*2 5*7 3.7 .4 7*4 16.1 9.5 11.3 7*7 14.8 13.7 11.3 7.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 44 43 48 41 40 49 42 39 1,712 159 284 446 260 358 151 54 ♦5 7.7 19.0 14.6 13.0 10.1 13.0 Table £-4.—Marital and veteran statu s, and dependents^of tool and die makers, February-March 1951 Marital and dependency status Veteran status Total tool and die makers All workers 1,712 Married............ With dependents#.. Without dependents 1,558 Not married........ With dependents... Without dependents Veterans 1/ Nonveterans 299 1,413 261+ 1 ,0 7 k 219 45 1,294 855 439 154 54 100 35 119 43 76 11 24 Other than wives. Table £-5•— Educational level of tool and die makers by method of qualification Method of qualification Highest school grade completed Total tool and die makers Number All educational levels.......... 1 - 4 ............... 5 - 8 ............... 9 - 12.............. Total with some college education... Education not reported Apprenticeship Percent Number Percent Other than apprenticeship Number, Percent 1,712 100.0 1,135 100.0 577 100.0 22 490 1,088 1.3 28.6 63.6 10 326 726 .9 28.7 64.0 12 164 362 2.1 28.4 62.8 100 12 5.8 .7 64 9 5.6 .8 36 3 6.2 .5 57 Table B-6 .— Nativity of tool and die makers, by city of employment, February-March 1951 Nativity City of employment Total tool and die makers Native born Number Percent Foreign born Number Percent Number Percent All cities.... 1,712 100.0 1,21*7 72.8 1*65 27.2 Chicago, 111........ Cincinnati, Ohio.... Cleveland, Ohio..... Detroit, Midi....... Hartford, Conn...... Los Angeles, Calif•• Philadelphia, Pa.... 519 35 219 650 127 160 20l* 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 222 25 17/ ii* ii 106 135 169 69.6 75.8 80.1* 63.7 83.5 8*i i.* 82.8 97 8 13 * 236 21 25 35 30.1* 2t*.2 19.6 36.3 16.5 15.6 17.2 Table E-7.— Nativity of tool and die makers, by industry, February-March 1951 Nativity Total tool and die makers Industry Native born Number All industries.•• Fabricated metal products.......... Machinery (except machine tool accessories)...... Machine tool accessories..••*.• Electrical machinery Motor vehicles..... Aircraft and parts•• All other..... . Percent Foreign born Number Percent Number Percent 1,712 100.0 1,21*7 72.8 1*65 27.2 159 100.0 120 75.5 39 2l*.5 281* 100.0 211 74.3 73 25.7 116 ** 260 358 151 5* 1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100 J O 297 201* 236 132 1*7 66.6 78.5 65.9 87.1* 87.0 H*9 56 122 19 7 33.1* 21.5 3l*.l 12.6 13.0 58 Table E - 8 . — Members of family who worked in the occupation, by age of tool and die makers, February-March 1951 Members of family in the occupation Total tool and die makers Age group Fathers only Number Percent Fathers and others Brothers only Brothers and relatives other than fathers Other relatives only No relatives in trade Percent All age groups.« . 1,712 100.0 O 132 325 25a 181+ 193 216 199 121 83 100.0 JL W # V 100.0 100.0 100.0 PO - P J i........................ ................... 25 - 29............ 3 0 - 3 4 ............ 35 - 39............ ho - 1+2;.......... ... 1 5 - 1+9............ + 50-51+............ 55 - 59............ 60 - 61+............ 65 and over.......... 100+0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 7.2 3.5 r *•-*“ ui 11.1; 6.1; 10.9 5.7 3.2 1+.5 1.7 1.2 1.2 6.7 .8 .9 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.9 .5 .8 1.2 7.6 1+.3 1.+ +1 2.7 6.2 6.9 10.6 13.2 13.3 2 2 .2 *1 11+j + 11.8 5.3 1+.0 6.0 3.3 1.6 3.2 2.5 1.7 2.1+ 12.1 13.5 9.2 13.0 13.5 10.6 10.6 u+.o 7.2 69.6 66*7 59.8 65.9 72.8 68.5 71.1+ 71+.2 71.3 68.6 71+.7 Total tool and die makers H -P Pi Years of experience Industry Number Percent Less than 5 59 10m 1519 20- 2k 2529 ence not reported Table E-9.— Years of experience as tool and die makers, by industry, Febraary-March 1951 30- 3k 35- ko .is o U > a 0 « 8 © U C m 0 -g 39 or Is more © c ► © 4 Percent All industiles............ Fabricated metal products...... . Machinery (except machine tool accessories).................. Machine tool accessories........ Electrical machinery...... . Motor vehicles................. Aircraft and parts........... All other industries.......... . 1,712 100.0 14.7 22.8 15.1 9.2 8.7 9.9 10.0 5.1 k»3 .2 159 100.0 18.2 21.5 19.5 7.5 7.5 6.3 10.1 3.8 5.0 .6 28k lb6 i. 260 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1C0.0 100.0 10.9 liwl 22.7 8.7 19.9 16.7 22.6 21.8 12.0 17.7 10.6 9.6 6.5 12.3 6.0 5.6 7.7 12.1 6.2 9.5 3.3 11.1 8.5 10.3 8.8 15.8 l j J 5.6 l-i 7.6 k .9 8.1 5 ok 12.8 7.3 6*6 1.3 3.7 7.7 ,rm . 358 151 5k 2k.2 ik .o m.2 12.6 17.2 kO.h 35.1 11.1 k*o 5.6 7 .k l.k 3.5 7.0 1.3 3.7 .5 •k omoommmm — Table E-10.— Years of experifence in the occupation, by method of qaalification, February-March 1951 Method of qualification Total tool and die makers Years of experienc e Apprenticeship Other than apprenticeship Number Less than 5 ........ 5 - 9 ............. io - ll*............................ 15 - 19........... 20 - 2i*........... 25 - 29........... 30 - 31*........... 35 - 39........... i O or more.......... l Experience not reported.... . Number Percent Number Percent 1,712 All experience levels........ Fercent 100.0 1,135 100.0 577 100.0 252 388 258 158 11*9 169 172 88 7* 1 11**7 22.8 15.1 9.2 9.7 9.9 10.0 5.1 1*.3 156 197 151* 116 96 191 101* 6h 13.7 17.1* 13.6 10.2 9.3 11.8 12.2 6.1 5.6 13 * 35 3* 1 19 10 16.6 33.1 18.0 7.3 7.5 6.1 5.9 3.3 1.7 1 * .2 1 .1 3 .5 106 131* 138 69 U2. Table E-ll.— Work level of tool and die makers, by method of qualification, February-March 1951 Method of qulalification Total m tool c d die maleers Apprent.iceship Work level Number Other than apprenti ceship Percent Number Percent Number Percent All work levels.. 1*712 100.0 1,135 66.3 577 33.7 Foremen and leadmen. 201* 100.0 11*7 72.1 57 27.9 All other work levels .......... . 1,508 100.0 988 65.5 520 3* 5 1. 61 Table E-12.— Occupations other than tool and die making in -which qualified tool and die makers worked, 1940-5li/ Nunber of jobs held Occupation All occupations................................ . 209 Machinist or machine repairman*.......... Machine tool o p e r a t o r . ..... . Lay-out or set up man. Self-enployed ................. ..... ........................ . All other occupations 1/ 52 13 28 3 113 Excludes work history before qualifying as tool and die maker. Table E-13.— Number of job changes of tool and die makers, by nature and time of change, 1940-51 Time of change Nature of change Total job changes 1940-51 Before June 30, 1945 After June 30, 1945 Number Percent Number Percent Total........ 2,127 100.0 722 100.0 1,405 100.0 Voluntary..... . Involuntary...... No reason given... 1,258 675 194 59.2 31.7 9.1 507 130 70.2 18.0 11.8 751 545 109 53.4 38.8 7.8 85 62 Number 1 Percent Table Months in the labor force after qualify ing as tool and die maker Number of job changes of tool and die makers, by exposure to the labor force 1940-51 Number of manyears in labor force as a tool and die maker Average number of changes made per man-year in the labor force Total tool and die makers Total job changes, 1940-51 All periods. 1,712 2,127 14,987 .342 0-30 months.... 107 178 171 264 35 139 233 494 129 691 955 2,267 .271 .201 .243 .217 992 1,226 10,945 .112 31-60 months... 61-90 months... 91-120 months.. 121 months and over..... 1/ y Excludes periods before qualifying as tool and die maker. Table E-15.— Number of tool and die makers changing jobs, by city of employment, February-March 1951 Tool and die makers who made one or more job chaages Total tool and die makers Cities Number Percent 1,712 733 42.7 2,127 2.9 319 33 219 650 127 160 204 136 13 97 268 65 85 69 42.7 39.4 1<4.3 41.3 5l.l 53.2 33.e 403 ,28 294 764 142 310 186 3.0 Number All cities........ Chicago, 111......... Cincinnati, Ohio..... Cleveland, Ohio..... Detroit, Mich....... Hartford, Conn....... Los Angeles, Calif.... Philadelphia, Pa.... Average Number of changes made Number of changes made 63 2.2 3.0 2.9 2.2 3.6 2.7 Table E-16.--Number of job changes of tool and die makers, by marital status at time of change, 191+0-51 Marital status at time of change Number of job changes made by men in specified mari tal status at time of change Number of manyears worked during period by men in specified mari tal status Job changes per man-year made by men in speci fied marital status All tool and die makers...... 2,127 li+,987 .U+19 Married............... Not married........... 1,828 299 12,891* 2,093 .11+17 .11+28 Table E-17*— J t changes involving changes in geographic area, co by marital status at time of change, 191+0-51 Marital status Number of changes Number of man-years worked during period Changes per man-year Total tool and die makers. 250 li+,987 .0166 Married ..................................... Net. married ....................................... . . . 201 19 + 12,891+ 2,093 .0155 .0231+ Table 5-18, — Percent distribution of tool and die makers, by city of employment and geographic area of previous employment, Feb ruary-March 1951 Geographic areas from which tool and die makers moved City of employment at time of survey All cities Chicago, 111..... Cincinnati, Ohio.. Cleveland, Ohio... Detroit, Mich .... Hartford, Conn.... Los Angeles, Calif Philadelphia, Pa.. Total tool and die makers Total Nun*ber 1,712 110 319 33 219 1 11 650 127 160 201* 23 32 18 45 13 Percent 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central IW 9.8 12,6 * 4.9 4.3 4.3 56.6 8.8 88.8 18.2 6.3 5.6 7.7 53.8 3.1 4.4 2 .2 6^.6 South Atlantic East South Central 1 West South Central Mountain 4.3 4.9 11,2 5.6 13.1 2.8 4.3 4.3 15.6 13.3 15.4 2 .2 9.1 8.9 9.1 3.1 51.2 Other coun tries 18.8 5.6 2.8 100.0 53.1 7.7 Pacific 2 .2 15.4 8.9 6,7 O c c u p a t io n a l O u tlo o k of B ureau of P u b l ic a t io n s THE L abor S t a t is t ic s Studies of employment trends and opportunities in the various occupa tion s and professions are made a v a il able by the Occupational Outlook Serv ice of the Bureau of Labor S ta tis tic s . These reports are for use in the vocational guidance of veterans, in a ssistin g defense planners, in coun seling young people in schools, and in guiding others considering the choice of an occupation* Schools concerned with vocational training and employers and trade unions interested in on-thejob training have also found the re ports helpful in planning programs in lin e with prospective employment oppor tu n itie s. Two types of reports are issued, in addition to the Occupational Outlook Handbook: Occupational outlook b u lle tin s describing the long-run outlook for employment in each occupation and giving information on earnings, working conditions, and the training required. Special reports issued from time to time on such subjects as the general em ployment outlook, trends in the various S tates, and occupational m obility. These reports are issued as b u lle tin s of the Bureau of Labor S ta tis tic s . 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