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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS f
CONCILIATION

AND

ARBITRATION

j WHOLE 1 I Q
' * \ NUMBER 1 J z f
SERIES:

No.

MICHIGAN COPPER
DISTRICT STRIKE




FEBRUARY 7, 1914

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1914

3

This publication was printed as Senate Document No. 3S1, Sixtythird Congress, second session, to the extent of a limited number
of copies; in order to supply the public demand it is here reproduced
as Bulletin No. 139 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
D epartm ent of L abor ,
O ffic e o f th e S e c re ta ry ,

Washington, January 29, 1914•
In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of January 29,
1914, I transmit herewith a report in regard to the strike of mine
workers in the Michigan copper district which began on July 23,1913.
This report includes the results of an investigation made under the
direction of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics, together with
reports of the efforts made by Mr. John A. Moffitt and Mr. John
B. Densmore, as mediators in behalf of the Department of Labor
to secure an adjustment of the dispute either by mediation or
arbitration.
Respectfully,
W. B. W i l s o n , Secretary.
Hon. T h o m a s E . M a r s h a l l ,
President of the Senate, Washington, D. C.
8
S ir :







CONTENTS.
Page.

Report of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics in regard to the strike...........
7-166
Introduction....................................................................................................
7-9
Causes of the strike................................................................. ......................
9-11
Wages of mine workers...................................................................................
11-21
Hours of labor..................................................................................................
21-25
The tramming trouble............................................................................. .
26-28
28-34
The one-man drill..... .....................................................................................
Deductions from earnings..............................................................................
34,35
The Western Federation of Miners................................................................
35-38
The vote for a strike.......................................................................................
38-40
Beginning of the strike...................................................................................
40-44
Continuation of the strike..............................................................................
44-49
49-GO
The militia, deputy sheriffs, and imported guards.....................................
Inj unctions against picketing...................... ................................................
60-62
Strike breakers brougli t in............... .............................................................
62-66
Violence during the strike..................................................... ......................
67-75
Arbitration proposals unavailing...................................................................
75-96
Discrimination and adjustment of grievance?.............................................. 96-101
Concessions the companies would make....................................................... 101-103
Underground conditions................................................................................. 103-109
Accidents in and about the mines................................................................ 110-112
Houses occupied by mine workers................................................................ 113-117
Stipulations in leases...................................................................................... 117-122
Living conditions............................................................................................ 123,124
Welfare work................................................................................................... 124-128
The Michigan copper district........................................................................ 128-132
Population of the district............................................................................... 133-136
Appendix I.—Agreement between Western Federation of Miners and
Butte & Superior Copper Co...................................................................... 137,138
Appendix II.—Organization and properties of the Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co. and subsidiary companies...................................................... 139-164
Appendix III.—Capital paid in, dividends, and cost of production of
Lake Superior Mines................................................................................ 165,166
Report of Mr. John B. Densmore, Solicitor of the Department of Labor,
detailed as commissioner of conciliation, on his efforts to secure a settle­
ment of the strike.............................................................................................. 1G7-163
Report of Mr. John A. Moffitt, immigrant inspector, detailed as commissioner
of conciliation of the Department of Labor, on his efforts to secure a settle­
ment of the strike.............................................................................................. 170-183
5







BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WASHINGTON.

WHOLE NO. 139.

SEPTEMBER 7, 1914.

REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF LABOR
STATISTICS IN REGARD TO STRIKE OF MINE
WORKERS IN THE MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT.
U

n it e d

States D e par tm en t o f L abo r ,
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

Washington, November 24,191 S.
Sir : I transmit herewith a report containing the results of an

investigation into the strike of mine workers in the Michigan copper
district, begun on July 23, 1913. The investigation has been carried
on by Mr. Walter B. Palmer of this Bureau, and the text of the report
has been prepared by him.
I .am, very respectfully,
R oyal M eek er ,

Co7nmissioner of Labor Statistics.
Se c r e t a r y

of

L abor,

Washington, I). C.
INTRODUCTION.

This report relates to a strike of mine workers which began on July
23, 1913, in the Michigan copper district. The principal cause of the
strike was dissatisfaction with regard to wages, hours of labor, and
the use of the one-man drill instead of the two-man drill. The
strikers were members of the Western Federation of Miners, which
was established in the district in 1909, and which in 1913 had five
local unions in the district. In these local unions there was a refer­
endum vote, during the first 12 days in July, on the question of asking
for a conference with the mine managers and on the question of declar­
ing a strike if the managers should refuse to grant a conference or
make concessions. The officials of the Western Federation of Miners
state that at that time it had nearly 9,000 members in the district,
and that 98 per cent of the votes cast were in the affirmative on each
of the two propositions.
On July 14 the president and secretary of the district union, com­
posed of "the five local unions, sent a communication to the mine
managers which stated that they hoped “ to sell their labor collect­
ively,an d that they desired to nave a conference with the managers
to discuss “ the possibilities of shortening the#working day, raising
wages, and making some changes in the working conditions.” The
communication stated that, as ordered by a referendum vote, a strike
would be called unless the managers should agree to a conference or
make concessions, and replies were requested by July 21. None of




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the managers replied to tlie communication, because they considered
that by doing so they would recognize the Western Federation of
Miners. At a meeting of the district union on July 22 a strike was
called, to take effect immediately.
Every mine in the district was closed on July 23, except two of the
very small mines. Including the strikers, about 14,500 mine workers
were made idle by the strike. The mines being closed, work was
necessarily stopped in the stamp mills and smelters, which had about
1,500 employees.
During the first two days of the strike there was much rioting,
occasioned by members of the federation attempting to prevent
nonunion men from going to work. Sixteen men employed by one
of the companies were injured and taken to the company’s hospital.
The sheriff of Houghton County called on the governor of Michigan
for troops to quell disorder. The governor ordered troops to the
district and they began to arrive on July 25. Within two days the
whole National Guard of the State, over 2,600 men, had arrived.
They encamped in tents on the property of the various companies.
In addition to the militia, there were during the strike about 1,700
deputy sheriffs, about 450 of whom had been appointed before the
strike began. Many of these deputies were employees of the com­
panies. The sheriff of Houghton County engaged 52 men from the
Waddell-Mahon Corporation of New York to train these deputies.
From this corporation one of the mining companies engaged 32 men
and another company 25 men. Another company secured about
120 men from the Ascher Detective Agency of New York. The
bringing in of these outside guards incensed the strikers more than
anything else that happened during the strike.
The strikers hired halls, held public and private meetings, and had
daily parades at the various mme locations. They were addressed
by officials of the Western Federation of Miners, the United Mine
Workers of America, and the American Federation of Labor. These
organizations raised relief funds for the benefit of the strikers, and
payment of strike benefits began in September.
After the first two days of the strike there was little disorder until
the middle of August, when work was resumed in some of the mines
of one of the companies. Many strikers were arrested for interfering
with men going to work. Some were arrested charged with more
serious crimes, out of cases tried in the circuit court no defendant
was convicted of a more serious offense than assault. A number of
mines were opened in September and October, and some of the com­
panies brought in men to work in the mines who were engaged
through employment agencies in New York, Chicago, and other
places. Some of these men did not go to work when they learned of
the strike, and others quit after working a few days.
A striker was shot in both legs by a corporal because of neglect to
obey an order to halt. A private was waylaid by unknown parties,
and so badly beaten that he was unconscious for hours. In attempt­
ing to arrest a striker for having trespassed on company property,
two deputies and four Waddell-Mahon men shot into a mine workers1
boarding house and killed two and wounded two of the strikers. In
a clash between deputy sheriffs and strikers shots were fired by the




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

9

former. One of these shots entered the brain of a girl, and her re­
covery was considered marvelous. In a fight between a deputy
sheriff and a striker both were killed. A clerk of one of the com­
panies, while passing a group of strikers, was shot at twice, one shot
going through his body. These were the most serious cases of vio­
lence during the strike. No attempt was made by the strikers to
damage property.
Some troops were stationed in Keweenaw County but none in
Ontonagon County. In these counties there was little disorder, and
practically none until October, when some of the mines were re­
opened.
Most of the parades of the strikers were timed to pass the mines
and mine villages at the hour in the morning when men started to
workc On application of the mining companies, the judge of the State
circuit court issued an injunction, which restrained the strikers from
interfering with men who wished to go to work, from picketing in or
about the mines, and from parading on highways over which employ­
ees had to pass to reach their homes or the mines. This injunction
was issued on September 20, but the same judge that had issued it
dissolved it on September 29. On application of the companies, the
State supreme court reinstated and continued the injunction, but
modified it to the extent that peaceful meetings and parading were
not prohibited. After this several hundred strikers and 50 or more
women were arrested for violation of the injunction. Most of them
were arrested while they were on early morning parades. Most of
those arrests were made by the militia. Those arrested were held on
their own recognizance.
The mine managers refused to confer with members of the Western
Federation of Miners, and in reemploying men required them to prom­
ise to have no connection with that organization. Two attempts to
bring about an arbitration of the questions involved in the strike were
made by the governor and one by the United States Department of
Labor. The companies refused all arbitration proposals, because of
their determination not to recognize the Western Federation of
Miners directly or indirectly. In October a committee, appointed
by the Copper Country Commercial Club, made a report, which dis­
cussed the matters in controversy and announced that the mine man­
agers had agreed that they would, by January 1, 1914, arrange that
underground men should work only eight hours per shift. The report
also stated that the mine managers had agreed to give opportunity
for the presentation of all grievances, and to appoint a day or half a
day each week for hearing and adjusting grievances.
CAUSES OF THE STRIKE.

Dissatisfaction regarding wages, hours of labor, and the use of the
one-man drill was the principal cause of the strike of mine workers
which began in the Michigan copper district on July 23, 1913. These
and other grievances are discussed in subsequent sections of this
report.
No definite demands were made by the mine workers before the
strike began, except that the local officers of the Western Federation




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of Miners sent a communication to the mine managers, informing
them that their employees organized into local unions of the federa­
tion desired to hold a conference with them “ for the purpose of dis­
cussing the possibilities of shortening the working day, raising wages,
and making some changes in the working conditions.” The mana­
gers considered that if they should grant such a conference, or even
reply to this communication, it would be giving recognition to the
federation.
The copper-mine workers in Michigan, comparing their earnings
with those of the copper-mine workers in Montana, found that in
Michigan the rate of pay was much less than miners earn in Montana,
where the Western Federation of Miners was strongly organized.
While the average earnings per shift of mine workers in Michigan are
less than the average of such workers in Montana the shift hours are
longer in Michigan. This is true especially of trammers, timber men,
and track layers.
In the Michigan district all underground workers are under ground
from 10 to 11 hours a day or night shift, this including 1 hour for
luncheon. On Saturday in Michigan the miners on day shift work 5§
hours, but there is no night shift, while trammers work 8\ hours, both
day and night shift, including 1 hour for luncheon. The time
stated for all underground workers in Michigan includes the time
required for going to the working places and returning to the surface.
In Montana the Western Federation of Miners has contracts with
the mining companies which stipulate that the time of each shift
shall be 8J hours, including half an hour allowed for luncheon, and
including the time required to go from the surface to the working
places, but not the time required to return to the surface.
The contracts stipulate that the minimum wages or earnings of
underground men, whether engaged in mining, tramming, timbering,
tracklaying, or other work, shall be $3.50 per day, on the basis of the
price of copper being less than 15 cents a pound; and if copper is
selling at 15 and under 17 cents, the minimum shall be $3.75; and if
it is selling at 17 cents or over, the minimum shall be $4.
A copy of one of the Montana contracts appears in the appendix
to this report. The sliding scale of minimum wages is based on the
monthly average price of electrolytic copper, as published in the
Mining and Engineering Journal of New York. According to this
'ournal the average price was below 15 cents a pound in January,
February, and March, 1912; over 15 and under 17 cents in May and
June, 1912; over 17 cents from July to December, inclusive, 1912"; over
15 and under 17 cents in January, 1913; under 15 cents in February
and March, 1913; over 15 and under 17 cents in April and May, 1913;
under 15 cents in June and July, 1913; over 15 and under 17 cents
in August and September, 1913."
In the Michigan copper district the mine workers have never had
any contracts with the mining companies other than such terms as
were fixed by the companies, and the companies have never stipu­
lated in regard to a minimum wage. In some mines in this district
miners on day or night shifts are paid as low as $2.35 per shift, while
trammel's are paid as low as $2.

i




MICHIGAN COPPEB DISTRICT STRIKE.

11

No investigation was made of the earnings of mine workers in
Montana. The minimum wage there is considerably higher than the
average earnings in the Michigan copper district, but the earnings
in the two districts could not be well compared without taking into
account the cost of living in each district, which was not ascertained
in this investigation.
W AGES OF MINE W OBKEBS.

Each of the companies involved in the strike was requested to
state what increases had been made in wages or in contract rates
during recent years, back to 1900, if possible. One of the most
definite statements was made by the Calumet & Ilecla Mining Co.,
which reported that its wages and rates had been changed as fol­
lows: March, 1899, a raise of 10 per cent; January, 1901, a raise of
2\ per cent; May, 1907, a raise of 10 per cent; December, 1907, a
cut of 10 per cent; May, 1912, a raise of 10 per cent. Some of these
changes were made by other companies on or about the months
mentioned. Practically all of the companies in the district increased
wages and contract prices 10 per cent m May, 1912.
Some miners work “ on company account” or monthly basis, but
many work on a contract basis. Contracts were formerly let on the
basis of a cubic* fathom of rock mined, but now they are usually let
on the basis of tons mined. In no mines is the rock, actually weighed,
but the pay of contract miners is figured on the number of tramcar
loads of rock which they blast out and which the trammers push to
the shaft. In each mine the dimensions of the tramcars are the
same, but the load, of course, depends on how fully they are filled
or how much they are heaped. The miners seem to have accepted
without much complaint this method of estimating their produc­
tion, though it is rather surprising that such a crude method has
not caused dissatisfaction.
Most of the mine managers who prefer the’ contract system, or
prefer it if practicable, state that they prefer it because it gives an
efficient miner an opportunity to increase . his earnings above the
regular monthly rate. Many miners also prefer the contract sys­
tem because they can earn more by that system than by the ordinary
monthly rate. All pay rolls that were examined showed that the
average earnings o f the miners and trammers #on contract were
greater than the average earnings of those paid by the month.
However, complaints are heard among certain contract miners
because during some months their earnings would be unusually
low on account of the poor rock mined, or some other run of bacl
luck. Contract rates are some1
*
^ 1 1 the mine captain
(foreman), but more generally
superintendent or
general manager. Monthly wages are always determined by the
management.
The only mine workers that work on contract are miners and
trammers. The following table shows the number of miners and
trammers working on contract and monthly bases in July, 1913, just




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

before the strike began, and shows which system the mine man­
agers prefer, according to their own statements:
Miners CH­

I’ rammers on -

Mine.
Contract
basis.

Ahmcck.................
Allouez...................
Calumet & Hecla.
Copper Range___
Centennial.............
Franklin................
Hancock................
Isle Roy ale............
Lake.......................
La Salle.................
Laurium................
Mass..
Mohawk.................
Oneco.....................
Osceola...................
North Kearsarge.
South Kearsarge..
Quincy..................
Superior.................
Tamarack.............
Winona.................
Houghton.............
Wolverine.............
Total..........
Per cent of total.

Monthly
basis/

Contract
basis.

Monthly
basis.

(•
)

(2)

18
3

79
652
09

26

li

(4)

C
O

(2)

(2
)

<)
•
(3
)

31
126
3
6296

38
14
9

2
2

42
500
16
38
98
71,774
64. 74

(3)

200
32

1
8

»966
35.36

42
29
157
25

(3)
9 218
16.34

86

Contract
basis
or shift
basis pre­
ferred by
manage­
ment.
Contract.
Do.1
Do.
Do.1
Do.1
Do.
Shift.
Contract.1
Do.
Do.
Do.

(5
)

Contract
Shift.
Contract.
D o.1
D o.1
D o.1
Do.1
Do.
D o.1
D o.1
D o.1

»oi,116 }
83.66 i

1 When practicable.
a Not reported.
3 AH on shift basis; number not reported.
« All on contract basis; number not reported.
5 Would have to ba determined by trial.
« North Kearsarge and South Kearsarge included.
* Not including Copper Range and Laurium.
8 Not including Copper Range and Houghton.
• Not including Calumet & Hecla and Copper Range.
1 Not including Calumet & Hecla, Copper Range, La Salle, Laurium, Winona, and Houghton.
0

Of the total number of miners, 2,740, reported on either contract
or monthly basis, 1,774, or 64.74 per cent, were on contract basis,
and 966, or 35.26 per cent, on monthly basis. Of the total number
of trammers, 1,334, reported on either contract or monthly basis,
218, or 16.34 per cent, were on contract basis, and 1,116, or 83.66
per cent, on monthly basis. Until January 1, 1913, a curious custom
prevailed in all of the mines in the Michigan copper range, and it pre­
vails yet in all mines except those of the Calumet & Hecla ana its
subsidiary companies. Miners that work full five and one-half day
shifts or full five-night shifts are paid on the basis of having worked
six shifts. Paying miners on this basis is an old Cornish custom im­
ported into Michigan years ago. On January 1, 1913, this custom
was modified by the Calumet & Hecla and its subsidiary companies,
and these companies have since paid miners on night shifts for only
five shifts a week, though they continue to pay miners on day shifts
on the basis of having worked six shifts a week. On the same date
these companies increased the rate of pay of miners “ on company
account” 25 cents per shift. In analyzing the tables relating to
wages that follow, it is necessary to bear the old Cornish custom in
mind.




13

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

An examination of the pay rolls of the mining companies involved
in the strike of 1913 (except of a few companies having very small
mines) was made by agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and,
from the figures thus secured, the tables which follow were compiled.
These tables relate to the earnings of miners and trammers who to­
gether compose about half of the mine workers and who comprised the
greater number of mine workers that went out on strike. All earnings
shown in these tables are what the employees received after deduc­
tions had been made for materials used in the mines, such as powder,
caps, fuse, and carbide, but not including deductions for medical
attention, aid fund, rent, fuel, etc.
The following table shows the average number and average earn­
ings of miners employed by each compan}r during the 12 months prior
to July, 1913, in which month the strike began:
Average daily earnings of miners, year ending June 30, 1913.
Six months ending
Dec. 31,1912.
Mining company.
Average
number
: of men.

Average
earnings
per day
cr shift.

Six months ending ; Total for year end­
June 30,1913. - ing June 30,1913.

Average
number
of men.

Average
earnings
per day
or shift.
$3.60
3.44
3.59
3.03
3.13
3.56
3.37
3.60
3.55
3.49
3.98
3.26

£31
82
139
92
234
158
129
114
49
37

13.39
3.21
3.40
2.89
2.94
3.25
3.30
3.22
3.57
3.09

Average
number
of men.

Average
earnings
per day
or shift.

1. Calument & Hecla................... ........... ;
2. Osceola.......................................
3. North Kearsarge...................... ........... .
j
4. South Kearsarge......................
5. Isle Itoyale............................................ i
!
6. Ahmeek......................................
7. Tamarack................................... ......... ;
‘
8. Allouez.......................................
9. Superior..................................... •
......... |
10. Centennial................................
!
11. La Salle.....................................
12. Laurium................................... .......... i

No. 13..................................................................
!
No. 14.......................................................
No. 15.................................................................. i
No. 1 6 ...:................................................
i
No. 17.......................................................
No. 18.................................................................. ;
No. 19.......................................................
‘ I
No. 20.......................................................
!
No. 21.......................................................
No. 22.......................................................
No. 23.......................................................
!
No. 24....................................................... ......... !
No. 25....................................................... ......... !
Total, Nos. 13 to 25....................

!

Total, all companies..................
: 5 months; mine idle in May, 1913.

$3.22
2.99
3.26
2.77
2.79
3.01
3.24
2.95
3.58
2.75

9

3.86

754
81
120
85
212
137
123
95
47
34
1
6

7

3.62

2,050

Total, Nos. 1 to 12...................... .........

CS
O
83
158
99
256
178 !
134 1
134 |
!
51 j|
40 i

3.11

1,695

3.48

1,872

3.28

2.69
2.67
2.67
2.75
2.84
2.83
2.71
2.91

281
186
369
634
253
107
114
100

2.70
2.71
2.68
2.79
2.81
2.86
2.57
2.88

301
193
367
652
281
116
113
103

2.69
2.69
2.68
2.77
2.83
2.84
2.64
2.90

43
13
36

2.49
2.98
2.61
2.63

155
48
10
39

12.48
2.66
2.61
2.63

2 57
46
12
38

2 2.48
2.81
2.61
2.63

2,356

2.74

i 2,196

to
O
O

i
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

2 2,279

2 2.74

4,406

2.91

13,891

13.08

2 4,151

2 2.93

320
200 i
!
365 i !
670
308
125
112 ;
106 |

111 months; mine idle in May, 1913.

The average number of miners was found for this table bv dividing
the total number of shifts worked, as shown on the pay rolls, by the
number of shifts that the mine was operated during each six-month
period. In each of the tables that follow a simuar method was
adopted to find the average number of miners and trammers.
The first company shown in the preceding table is the Calumet
Hecla Mining Co., and its subsidiary companies are numbered 2 to




&

14

BULLETIN OF TIIE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

12. Other companies reporting are numbered 13 to 25. The earnings of miners employed during the year by the Calumet & Hecla
and subsidiary companies varied from $2.89 to $3.62 per shift and
averaged $3.28. The earnings of miners employed during the year
by the other companies varied from $2.48 to $2.90 per shift and
averaged $2.74. The general average for all companies during the
year was $2.98.
Miners do not work Saturday afternoons, hence in a month of 30
days without holiday they work only 23 shifts. But under the old
Cornish custom their shift rate is computed by dividing their monthly
rate by 26, because under this custom miners that work 5J-day shifts
a week or 5 night shifts a week are counted as having worked 6 shifts.
In other words, the monthly rate of “ company account” miners is
divided by 26 to arrive at the shift rate, and n a miner is absent 1
day one twenty-sixth of his monthly rate is deducted from his pay;
if ne is absent 2 days, two twenty-sixths of his monthly rate is
deducted. If he works an extra shift on overtime work or in a month
of 31 days, he is paid one twenty-sixth more than his monthly rate.
The shift rate is thus computed from the monthly rate by all comanies except the Calumet & Hecla and its subsidiary companies,
rior to January 1, 1913, the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary com­
panies followed the old Cornish custom, and divided the monthly
rate by 26 to obtain the shift rate, but since then they have divided
the monthly rate by 24 instead of 26. They did this because they
stopped counting night-shift miners, who work 5 shifts a week, as
having worked 6 shifts, though they continued to count day-shift
miners who work 5| shifts a week as working 6 shifts. This, in part,
explains why the average shift rate of miners of the Calumet & Hecla
and subsidiary companies was higher during the first 6 months
of 1913 than it was during the last 6 months of 1912. Another
reason given by the company for this increase is the increased amount
of contract mining, and still another reason assigned is the increased
use of the one-man drill.
It should be understood that there has been no change in the time
that miners work. If they work full time they actually work 23
shifts (counting two half shifts on Saturday forenoons as one shift) in a
month of 30 days without holidays.
In computing the rate per shift for contract miners, their earnings
for the month are divided by the actual number of shifts that they
worked, but with the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies
Saturday half shifts are counted as full shifts, and with the other com­
panies Saturday half shifts are counted as full shifts, and an extra
shift on Saturday night is counted.
The different methods of computing the shift rate should be con­
sidered in comparing the rates shown in the table that are paid by the
Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies with the rates that are
paid by the other companies. The rates for the first 6 months in
1913 can be put on an equal basis only by multiplying the shift rates
of the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies by 24 and dividing
by 26, or by multiplying the shift rates of the other companies, as they
appear in the table, by 26 and dividing them by 24.
If the average shown in the table for miners employed by the
Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies during the first 6 months

?




15

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

in 1913, $3.48 per shift, be multiplied b y 24 and divided by 26, the
result is $3.21 per shift, as compared with $2.78 per shift paid by
other companies on the same basis.
If, however, the earnings per shift are calculated on the time ac­
tually worked—that is, on the basis of 23 shifts—the average shift rate
is increased above that which is shown in the table. Taking the
earnings of miners employed by the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary
companies during the first 6 months of 1913 and multiplying the aver­
age shift rate shown in the table by 24 and dividing by 23, the result
is $3.63 per shift instead of $3.48. Taking the earnings of miners
employed by the other companies during the same period and mul­
tiplying the average shift rate shown in the table by 26 and dividing
by 23, the result is $3.14 per shift instead of $2.78.
The following table shows the average number and average earn­
ings of trammers employed by each company during the 12 months
prior to July, 1913, in which month the strike began.
Average daily earnings o f trammers, year ending June 30, 1013.
Six months ending
Dec. 31,1912.
Mining company.

1. Calumet & Hecla.................................
2. Osceola..................................................
3. North Kearsarge.................................
4. South Kearsarge..................................
5. Isle Royale............................................
6. Ahmeek.................................................
7. Tamarack............................................. i
8. Allouez.................................................. i
9. Superior................................................ i
10. Centennial........................................... |
11. La Salle...............................................
12. Laurium..............................................
!
Total, Nos. 1 to 12.................................!

No. 13.................................................................. 1
No. 14..................................................................
No. 15.................................................................
No. 16..................................................................
No. 17..................................................................
No. 18..................................................................
No. 19..................................................................
No. 20..................................................................
No. 21..................................................................i
No. 22..................................................................
No. 23.................................................................
No. 24..................................................................
No. 25..................................................................

Total for year end­
ing June 30,1913.

Average
earnings
per day
or shift,

Average
number
of men.

Average
earnings
per day
or shift.

Average
number
of men.

CO
O
62
138
95
138
132
111
94
48
20

$2.84
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.55
2.73
2.75
2.68
2.62
2.61
2.53

$2.99
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.57
2.85
2.76
2.73
3.14
2.70
2.46
2.46

570
67
135
91
135
124
103
98
39
28

3

539
71
132
87
131
115
95
103
30
29
„ 2
2

2

2.50

1,447

2.71

1,336

2.80

1,392

2.75

169
77
175
207 !
189
103
68
95

2.31
2.31
2.31
2.51
2.53
2.50
2.20
2.38

135
72
1 143
199
161
94
64
90

2.31
2.32
12.31
2.51
2.55
2.49
2.40
2.38

152
74
2 160
203
175
98
66
92

2.31
2.32
2 2.31
2.51
2.54
2.49
2.30
2.38

55
24
4
36

2.31
2.46
2.36
2.31

3 50
25
3
34

3 2.30
2.27
2.54
2.31

4 53
24
3
35

4 2.30
2.36
2.43
2.31

Average
number
of men.

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

Six months ending
June 30,1913.

Average
earnings
per day
or shift.
$2.91
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.55
2.78
2.75
2.70
2.82
2.66

Total, Nos. 13 to 2 5 ............................

1,202

2.40

5 1,070

5 2.41

«1,135

6 2.40

Total, all companies.............................

2,649

2.57

s 2,406

®2 .63

6 2,527

6 2.59

1 5 months; not including June, 1913.
2 11 months; not including June, 1913.
* 5 months; mine idle in May, 1913.

411 months; mine idle in May, 1913.
Including 2 companies reporting for 5 months.
6 Including 2 companies reporting for 11 months.

As the Cornish custom has never been applied to trammers, a sim­
pler explanation can be made of the table that relates to trammers
than or the table that relates to miners. The rates per shift are fig­
ured on the same basis for all companies. The monthly earnings




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of contract trammers are divided by the actual number of shifts
that they worked, and the monthly wages of “ company account”
trammers are divided by 26 or 27, since they work, when working
full time. 26 shifts in a 30-day month and 27 shifts in a 31-day month,
the Saturday shifts, day or night shifts, being two hours shorter than
the shifts on other days.
As shown by the table, the earnings of trammers employed during
the year by the Calumet & Hecla. and subsidiary companies varied
from $2.50 to $2.91 per shift and averaged $2.75; the earnings of tram­
mers employed during the year by the other companies varied from
$2.30 to $2.54, and averaged $2.40; and the general average for all
companies during the year was $2.59.
From the pay rolls of the various companies agents of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics obtained the monthly rates of all miners and
trammers working on “ company account” during May, 1913, and the
earnings and number of shifts worked by each contract miner and
trammer during that month. From the data thus secured, the rates
per shift were computed, and these rates were classified by amounts,
as appears in the following tables, the first of which relates to miners.
Average earnings per day or shift and average number and per cent of miners earning each
classified amount per day or shift in May, 1913.
A V E R A G E NUM BER.

Mining company.

AyerAver­
age
earn­
age
ings
num­
ber of
per
miners. day or
shift.
719.3
65.9
98.8
79.4
197.3
139.2
108.8
91.0
46.6
31.9

$3.54
3.45
3.69
3.06
3.15
3.72
3.39
3.57
3.68
3.40 :

Total, Nos. 1 to 12........ 1,578.2

Miners earning each classified amount per day or shift.

Under

$2.

3.48 I

No. 1. Calumet & Hecla.
No. 2. Osceola...................
No. 3. North Kearsarge..
No. 4. South Kearsarge..
No. 5. Isle Roy ale...........
No.
No. 7. Tamarack...
No. 8. Allouez.........
No. 9. Superior.......
No. 10. Centennial..
No. 11. L a S a lle ....
No. 12. Laurium ...

No. 1 3
No. 1 4
No.
No.
No. 1 7
No. 1 8
No. 1 9
No. 2 0
No. 21 ........................................
No. 22........................................
No. 2 3
No. 2 4
No. 2 5

0.3

220.

52.3
46.3
40.3

2.45
2.61
2.59
2.50

Total, Nos. 13 to 2 5 .... 2,083.0

2.73

1.3

3.06

1
.6




52.2
86.9
11.6
16.0
.4
.4

0.4

. 4 j 218. I I

2.74
2.67
2.65
2.78
2.90
2.75
2.63
2.85

Total, all companies. . . 3,661.2

$2.50
and
under
$3.
46.5
4.1

251.2
187.8
355.1
624.6
227.1
107.1
94.0
89.1

8
.1

$2 and
under
$2.50.

1.3

1.7

*
‘i.‘o‘

183.
327.
580.
168.
99,

11,

*66.5

70.

$3 and
under
$3.50.

$3.50
and
under

384.7
46.6
57.0
19.3
89.9
61.1
63.8
69.3
33.8

193.6

851.9

282.4

29.0
3.9
22.6
40.1
36.1
5.6
11.9
16.0

2.0

$1.

5.6

15.2
3.9
9.7

21.2

13.5
11.6
1.9
3.2

14 and
under
$1.50.

72.2
3.7
15.3
3.9

8
.2

22.3
4.0

$4.50
and
over.

22.3
5.9

11.2

‘To
20.0

*2.7

11.4
9.8
7.8

134.5

90.4

2
.2

2.5
3.9
11.5
1.9
4.0
2.2

8.9

28.0 i

9.0

.1

12.9

* .*
i5 7
97.)

2
.0
1,778.2

'8 1,9
.2

167.2
1,019.1

310.4 | 143.5

__ ^
91.3

17

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Average earnings per day or shift and average number and per cent of miners earning each
classified amount per day or shift in May, 1913—Concluded.
PER CENT.

Mining company.

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

Calumet & Ileela. Osceola..........................
North Kearsarge...
South Kearsarge...
Isle Roy ale.............
Ahmeek...................
Tamarack...............
Allouez....................
Superior...................
, Centennial.............
La Salle.................
Laurium................

Aver­
Aver­
age
earn­
age
num­
ings
ber of
per
miners. day or
shift.
719.3
65.9
98.8
79.4
197.3
139.2
108.8
91.0
46.6
31.9

Tola!, No;;. 1 to 12........1,578.2
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 3
1 4
1 5

Miners earning each classified amount per day or shift.

Under

*2.

$2.50
and
under
$3.

$2 and
under
$2.50.

6.5

6
.2
0.2

3.48

0)

65.7
44.0
8.3
14.7
.4
.9

0
.2

(*)

|

$3 and
under
$3.50.

$3.50
and
under
$4.

$4 and
under
$4.50.

53.5
70.7
57.7
24.3
45.6
43.9
58.6
76.2
72.5
82.8

26.9
8.5
15.4
4.9
4.9
17.4
12.4
12.7
4.1

10.0
5.6
15.5
4.9
4.2
16.0
3.6

10.0

13.8 i

54.0

87.7
97.9
92.1
93.0
74.3
93.1
12.3
79.3

11.5

.6
5.1
1.8
4.3
2.5

3.1
9.0
11.3

*’i.'o
14.4
10.5

10.8
5.8
6.9

16.7

.8

6.4
6.4
15.9
5.2
12.7
18.0

$4.50
and
over.

251.2
187.8
355.1
624.6
227.1
107.1
94.0
89.1

2.74
2.67
2.65
2.78
2.70
2.75
2.63
2.85

52.3
46.3

24.7

40.3

2.45
2.61
2.59
2.50

39.0

56.1

2.73

4.7

85.4

8
.0

2.7

54.5

5.7

5.0

Total, Nos. 13 to ‘ 5___ 2,083.0
2

8.5 !

1 6

1 7
1 8
10
20...........
21.

...........

22..........................

2 3
2 4
2 5 .,.....................

8
.1

Total, all companies. . . 3,661.2

;i

70.7

2
.1

3.9

75.3
100.0

100.0

0)

0)
8.5 I

3.9

2.5

1 Lcs; than one-tenth of 1 per cent

As appears by the second part of the table, 54 per cent of the
miners m the mines of the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies
earned from $3 to $3.50 per shift, and 85.4 per cent of the miners in
the mines of the other companies earned from $2.50 to $3 per shift.
The average rate per shift for miners was $3.48 in the mines of the
Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies and $2.73 in the mines
of the other companies. It should be understood, however, that
the rate per shift was found by dividing the monthly rates or earn­
ings by 25 in the case of the Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary com­
panies and by 27 in the case of the other companies. As previously
explained, the division is made by 25 for the former companies and
by 27 for the latter companies because May was a month of 31 days.
In a month of 30 days the division is made by 24 and 26, respectively.
To reduce the average shift rate of miners for the Calumet & Hecla
and subsidiary companies to the same basis as the average rate for
the other companies; the average rate of the former, $3.48, must be
multiplied by 25 and divided by 27. This results in $3.22 as com­
pared with the average shift rate of the other companies than the
Calumet & Hecla and subsidiary companies, which is $2.73, figured
on the 27 shift a month basis.
29848°— Bull. 139— 14------ 2




18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Following is a table relating to trammers, similar in form to that
relating to miners:
Average earnings per day or shift and average number and per cent o f trammers earning
each classified amount per day or shift in May, 1913.
A V E R A G E NUM BER .

Mining company.

Trammers earning each classified amount per day or shift.
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
number earn­
$2.50 $3 and $3.50 $4 and
of
$4.53
ings
and
and
tram­ per day U“ t o !undn
e? under under under under
and
| $2.50.
$3.50.
over.
mers. or shift.
$4.50.
$4.
$3.

NOr

No.
No.
No.
No.

502. S
64.6
150.6
99.9
127.8
120.1
75.7
104.7
29.6
23.9

$3.08
2.54
2.54
2.54
2. oo
2.93
2.81
2.68
3.17
2.76

0.2

Total, Nos. 1 to 12....... 1,299.7

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

2.83

.2

32.0

2.31
2.33
2.31
2.53
2.53
2.43 .............
2.38 1
2.38 i

134.0
63.6
140.0
5.2
2.7
5.0
55. 7
72.7

1. Calumet & Hecla........
2. Osceola..........................
3. North Kearsarge.........
4. South Kearsarge.........
5. Isle Royal©...................
6. Ahmeek........................
7. Tamarack.....................
s, AHovi^z..........................
9. Superior........................
10. Centennial..................
11. La Salle.......................
12. Laurium.....................

No. 13.........................................
No. 14.........................................
No. 15.........................................
No. 18.........................................
No. 17.........................................
No. 18.........................................
No. 19.........................................
No. 20.........................................
No. 21.........................................
No. 22.........................................
No. 23.........................................
No. 24.........................................
No. 25.........................................

134.0
68.6
140.0
174.0
133.9
80.3
59.0
72.7
51.9
23.6
2.2
72.7

31.5

.3
.2

51.9 !
23.6
S
72.4 !

2.30
2.23
2.62 .
2.29

Total, Nos. 13 to 25___ 1,012.9

2.64

502.8
64.6
150.6
99.9
127.8
120.1
75.7
104.7
29.6
23.9

$3.08
2.54
2.54
2.54
2.55
2.93
2.81
2.68
3.17
2.76

Total, Nos. 1 to 12........ 1,299.7

2. S3

14.1

0.1

24.7

15.4

1.1

3-6

15.0
17.5
6.1

3.6
.6

179.0

949.2

100.8

120.4

15.2

3.7

*
j

168.8
131.2
75.3
3.3

i
i
................ j ..........

............. 1
..............
2.2
.3

i

!
!

.................
631.8 | 381.1 ................ 1

2.40

Total, all companies. . . 2,312.6

115.7

240.3
64.6
150.6
99.9
127.8
75.1
75.7
89.7
8.3
17.2

.2

663.8 1,330.3

179.0 | 120. 4

15.2 j

3.7

PER CENT.
No. 1. Calumet & Hecla........
No. 2. Osceola............. .
No. 3. North Kearsarge.........
No. 4. South Kearsarge.........
No. 5. Isle Royale...................i!
No*6. Ahmeek.. . . . . . . . . . . . . !
|
No. 7. Tamarack..................... 1
No. 8. Aliouez......................... !
No. 9. Superior........................ |
No. 10. Centennial.................. '
No. 11. L a Salle____ ______ . J
No. 12. L a iir m m ______________ i .................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

(')

.2
.7

51.9
23.6
2.2
72.7

2.30
2.23
2.62
2.29

Total, Nos. 13 to 25___ 1,012.9

2.40

Total, all companies... 2,312.6

2.64

(l)

2.31
2.33
2.31
2.53
2.53
2.48
2.38
2.38




0.3

47.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
62.5
100.0
85.7
28.0
72.0

23.0

20.0

2.8

20.6

12.8

.9

3.0

14.3
59.1
25.5

12.2
2.5

73.0

13.8

9.3

1.2

.3

(l )

!

134.0
68.6
140.0
174.0
133.9
80.3
59.0
72.7

13......................................... :
14.........................................
15......................................... !
16......................................... !
17......................................... 1
18......................................... i
19.........................................
20.........................................
21.........................................
22.........................................
2 3 ........................................
24.........................................
25.........................................

|
!
1
!

|
;
!
!
i

!
i

2.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
3.0
2.0
6.2
94.4
100.0

97.0
98.0
93.8
5.6

i
i

37.6

28.7

57.5

................ i .................
................ I ................. i .................
1.
J
i
i
|
i ............
!
I

100.0
.4

62.4

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent,

1

|

!

100.0
100.0
99.6

0)

I

7.7

5.2

.7

j

.2

19

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

As appears by the second part of this table, 73 per cent of the
trammers in the mines of the Calumet & Hecla, and subsidiary com­
panies earned from $2.50 to $3 per shift and 62.4 per cent of the
trammers in the mines of the other companies earned from $2 to $2.50
per shift.
The average rate per shift of the trammers employed by the Calu­
met & Hecla and subsidiary companies appears as $2.83, and the
average of trammers employed by other companies appears as $2.40,
and both averages are figured on the same basis, that is, by dividing
the monthly wages of ‘ k
company account” trammers by 27 and
dividing the earnings of contract trammers for the month by the
number of shifts that they actually worked.
During the strike many mine workers brought to the headquarters
of the Western Federation of Labor their “ dockets” or |>ay tickets,
which showed how much they had earned during certain months,
how much were the deductions, and how much was the net pay they
received. These tickets were exhibited to prove that the earnings of
mine workers were very low, and many of them were published in the
Miners’ Bulletin, a triweekly paper issued by the federation. Each
docket showed the name of the employee to whom it belonged, the
company for which he worked, and the number of shifts for which he
was paid, but did not show his occupation, and in some cases did not
ive details about the deductions. An agent of the Bureau of Labor
tatistics requested Guv E. Miller, editor of the Miners* Bulletin, to
lend him some of the tickets in order that he might compare them with
the pay rolls. He requested Mr. Miller to pick out some of the lowest
of the tickets, and those that the latter selected were compared with
the pay rolls at the various mine offices. The facts shown by the
tickets supplemented by the facts shown by the pay rolls are pre­
sented in the following table and explanatory footnotes:

f

Name.

Calumet & Hecla mine:
Paul Blojnster........
Osceola mine:
John James...............
Matt Crovatich........
Dominic Bruno........
North Kearsarge mine:
Frank Isaacson........
John James...............
Do........................
Michael Somers........

Louis Yuhias...........
John Sigo...............

Occupation.

Month.

Section laborer,
surface.

July, 1913

1 Shifts
| worked.

Loose inspector... June, 1913
Dryman3............... Jan., 1913
Trammer................ July, 1913

1G !
I
i
24 1
!
27
5

Rollerman..............
Timberman............
Tracklayer.............
Contract miner___
Trammer................
Laborer, surface...

23
14*
16f
21
18
24 1
[

Mar.,
July,
...d o .
Jan..
July,
June,

1913
1912
1912
1913
1913

Earn­
ings.

| Deduc1 tions.

Net
amount
received.

1$4.00

$28.00

2.50
45.50
65.00

63.19
45.38
69.42

56.62
•1.10
32.35
38.00 ]■ ‘ 1.00
35. C
4
96.50
H6.00
46.80
2.50
45.69

55.52

$32.00
63.69
50.88
14.42 ,

69.35
1 29.14
9
40.80
45.19

1 Physician and aid fund, SI; pasture for 3 cows, $3; ona free, others SI,50 per month,
2 Physician and aid fund, $0.50.
3 A cripple and practically a pensioner.
< Physician and aid fund, SI; rent, $4; water, $0.50.
e Physician and aid fund, SI; rent and water, $4.
6 Also drew $14 from aid fund during month on account of sickness.
7 Physician and aid fund, SI; supplies, $0.10.
» Physician and aid fund, SI.
s Physician and aid fund, $1.50; land lease for one year, $5.
i° On referring to pay roll it was found that these earnings were much smaller than during other months
in 1912. During the whole year Somers worked 301 shifts and earned $1,061.92, an average of $3.53 per shift.
The deductions that were made from his earnings during the year were: $16 for physician and aid fund;
$26 for wife in hospital; $0.80 for supplies; $33.65 for coal; total $54.45. Fractured leg in January, 1913,
and drew maximum amount provided by the State compensation law.
1 Physician and aid fund, $1; coal, $5.
1




20

BULLETIN OF TILE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Occupation.

FJoiilh Kearsarge mine:
(ius Warmanen___
Imri Kulik...............
Do......................
Proska Sefetsen___
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Do......................

I)o........... .........

Do......................
Do......................
Do......................
Dominic Bruno.
Anton K rulitz..
Ah meek mine:
John Gregorich..
Mike Miter.
Allouez mine:
Bozo Kasanovieh.. .
Do........................
Herman Lukkonen.
Do...........
Do...........
. athew Aho.
r
Do...........
Do...........
Superior mine:
Joseph Allen........
La Salle mine:
Geo. Rrozovieh..
Wolverine mine:
Anseln Dimonen.
Uno Lehto...........
Waino Lehto..............
John Lukajawie...
Henry Lukajawie.
I) ependent Mossa.
Paul Musso............
Israel Harris.
Do...........

Month.

Shifts
worked.

Earn­
ings.

£45.13
50.07
C . 71
O
50.35
03.45
40.60
10.55
42.30
23.70
52.88
19.05
42.31
59.00
5.70
43.15
5.29

Janitor i ___
Trannner___
____do...........
........do...........
___ do...........
___ do...........
Laborer........
. . . do..........
___ do...........
___ do...........
___ do...........
___ do...........
/Skip tender.
\Timberman.
/Trammer.. .
i Laborer........

June, 1913
Feb., 1913
Mar., 1913
Aug. 1912
Fept., 1912
Oct., 1912
____do.........
Nov., 1912
Dec., 1912
Jan., 1913
Feb., 1913
Apr., 1913
Nov., 1912
___do...........
Feb., 1913
____do.........

241

Trammer.. .
___ do...........

Mav, 1913
Nov., 1910

25

63.45
48.45

Nov. 1912
Feb., 1912
A p r, 1912

23
17

58.49
39.25
47.87

Trammer, contract
___ do......................
Miners* h e lp e r ,
contract.1
0
___ do......................
r___ do......................
\Timberman...........
Miners* h e lp e r ,
contract.
....... do......................
Miners* h e lp e r ,
c o m p a n y *a >
<
count.

June. 1912
July, 1912
....... do.........
Nov., 1912
Feb., 1913
Mar., 1913

10}

20
20
11

25
9
20

26

1J
7
2
1

1

25|
16

2A
0

Deduc­
tions.

Not
amount
received.

$0.50
3 9.00
3 9.00
< 1.50
5 .65
5 .05
2 .50
2.50
2.50
2 .50
2 .50
M.OO

$44.03
41.07
51,71
48 85
62.80
50.50

2 .53

47.94

.50
7 6.59

2

62.95
841.95

8 1.00
• .0
10
«

1.00

«1.0
0
61 0
.0

41.80
23.20
52.38
18.55
41.81
63.70

57.49
938.25
46.87

43.25
1 43.25
2
2.40
46.55

1 3.65
1

n 42.25
1 44.65
3
42.90

34.33
46.95

1*15.11
81.00

19.22
45.95

Lander, Roekhouse May,

1913

53.00

2 .50

52.50

Laborer, surface.. .

July,

1913

44.00

1 1.50
6

42.50

Drill boy w.............
Mucker,
under­
ground.
Laborer, under­
ground.
Miners* helper i°...
Mucker...................
Laborer, under­
ground.

Mar., 1913
May, 1913

17.50
26.90

2 .50
2.50

17.00
26.40

{

June, 191.3

17.55

May, 1913
.do.
July, 1913

41.55
54.80
19.75

....... do.........
Stemmer................. ....... do......... '
Laborer, R o e k ­
Mar., 1913
house.
Laborer, under­
ground.
Stemmer................

1 1C 55
7 .
- .50

41.05
53.80

2 .50
2.70
38.69

6 1.00

821.95

1 15.15
9

23.45

39.45
16.15

1 A cripple and practically a pensioner.
2 Physician and aid fund $0.50.
s Physician and aid fund, $1; rent for boarding house, $8.
Physician and aid fund, $1; supplies, $0.50.
s Physician and aid fund, $0.50: supplies, $0.15.
6 Physician and aid fund $1.
7 Physician and aid fund, $1.50; coal, $5.
« The pay roll shows that this man worked 150 shifts as a contract miner from January to July, inclusive,
1913; earnings, $488.50; average per shift, $3.26; deductions, physician and aid fund, $7; 3 tons of coal,
$15; lamp, $0.50; total deductions, $22.50.
» During the months of March, April, May, and June, 1913, this man worked 72J shifts as a contract tram­
mer and earned $150.24. As his earnings each month were less than those paid trammers on company ac­
count, he was paid at company account rate, a total of $184.05, instead of his actual earnings.
M Bov.
Paid company account rate; contract not finished.
1 Paid company account rate; actually earned $28.75 on contract.
2
13 During the last 5 months of 1912 this employee worked 122$ shifts as a miner’s helper and earned $290.43.
1 Physician and aid fund, SI; overpaid in October, $2.65.
4
15 Physician and aid fund, $1; overpaid in January, $14.11.
1 Physician and aid fund, $1.50.
6
17 Also received $17 sick benefits from aid fund during month.
1 Also received $7 sick benefits from aid fund during month.
8
19 Physician and aid fund, $1; supplies: Building material for home owned by employee, $14.15.
so Physician and aid fund, $1; ground rent for year, $5; assigned to grocery store, $49.60.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

21

In each case the table shows the occupation of the employee, and
the footnotes explain the deductions.
As there has been a shortage of labor in the Michigan copper dis­
trict for several years, the mine workers have steady work tne year
round. In copper mining there is no season of shortened production,
as during some months in coal mining. The only general holidays
in the Michigan district are New Year, July 4, election day, and
Christmas. Miners work only half a day pn Saturday, but other
mine workers work Saturday or Saturday nights, but two hoars less
than on other days. Counting Saturdays us workdays, the number
.of days the various mines were operated in 1912 was as follows:
Tamarack, 311; Lake and Houghton, 310; Calumet & Hecla,
Ahmeek, Allouez, Centennial, Superior, Osceola, North Ivearsarge,
South Kearsarge, Laurium, Oneco, Quincy, Hancock, and Winona,
309; Isle Royale, 308|; Copper Range, 308; Mohawk and Wolverine,
307; Mass, 306; Franklin, 256 (idle in January and July)%
The average number of days that copper mines in the united States
were operated during 1911 was 308;1 the average number of days
that coal mines in the United States were operated during the same
year was 220.2
HOURS OF LABOR.

In the Michigan copper range the nominal hours of labor for under­
ground workers arc 10, or from 7 o’clock in the morning until 5 o’clock
in the afternoon, and for the night shift from 7 p. m. to 5 a. m., not
including 1 hour allowed for luncheon. According to this nominal
schedule, an underground man leaves the surface at 7 o’clock and
returns to the surface at 5 o’clock; that is, he is underground 10
hours, including the luncheon hour and the time required to descend
into the shaft and to ascend to the top. But the man cages in which
men are conveyed have a very limited capacity. Only one man cage
in the district has a capacity for 40 men, and the others have a capac­
ity for only 30 or less. Hence,-there is much delay in carrying men
down and m bringing them up, and in most mines the men are usually
underground 10 hours and 30 minutes, and the mine workers claim
not infrequently 11 hours. According to a statement of the Calumet
& Hecla Mining Co., its underground men are underground 10
hours and 30 minutes, and some other companies report 10 hours
and 20 minutes. Each of the companies was requested to answer
the following inquiries:
Number of hours in each shift?
Does this time include the time allowed for going from the surface to the working
place and returning? How much time is required each way?
Does this include time allowed for eating luncheon? If so, how much time?

The replies of the companies follow:
CALUM ET

&

HECLA

M IN I N G

CO.

The hours per shift are 10 hours and 30 minutes, including one
hour for luncheon, except Saturday, when the number of hours
for miners is 5 hours and 45 minutes, and for trammers and tim1Metal-Mine Accidents in the United States during the Calendar Year 1911, by Albert H. Fay. Tech­
nical Taper 40, Department of the Interior, Bureau ol Mines, p. 21.
2 The Production of Coal in 1912, by Edward W . Parker. Bulletin. U. S. Geological Survey p. 37.




22

BULLETIX OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

bermen 8 hours and 15 minutes. This includes the time allowed
for going from the surface to the working place and returning. In
the case of the Conglomerate^ mine, where all of the blasting is of
necessity done at one time, yiz, at the end of the shift, and where
the depths are so great that it takes considerable time to hoist a
cage load of 30 men, the time required in going down to work, wait­
ing for the cage, and returning to the surface is approximately
1 hour and 45 minutes.
OSCEOLA

C O N S O L ID A T E D

M IN IN G

CO.

The hours per shift are not over 10 hours and 30 minutes—gener­
ally 15 or 20 minutes less. This includes ordinarily one hour for
luncheon. On Saturday the day-shift miners are in the mine until
noon—just five hours; the night-shift miners do not#work at all;
trammers, timbermen, etc., are in the mine eight or eight and onehalf hours on Saturday. This includes the time allowed for going
from the surface to the working place and returning. From the
surface to the working place consumes 15 to 30 minutes, depending
on the depth of the shaft and the distance from the shaft to the work­
ing place. From the time the men quit working to the time they
reach the surface at the end of the shift consumes from 25 to 60
minutes.
IS L E

EOYALE

COPPER

CO.

Miners average 9 hours and 48 minutes per shift; trammers, timbermen, and other underground labor, 9 hours and 55 minutes per shift.
This includes 1 hour for luncheon and the time allowed for going
from the surface to the working place and returning, which averages
from 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the distance. Surface time aver­
ages 9 hours and 40 minutes per shift, not including 1 hour for lunch­
eon, except on Saturday, when the working time is 8 hours.
AHM EEK

M IN IN G

CO.

All underground employees’ weekday shifts, except on Saturday,
are 10 hours and 15 minutes, including 1 hour for luncheon, and
including the time required for going and returning frqm the place of
work to the surface, about 8 minutes each way. The Saturday shift
for miners is 5 hours; for trammers, 8 hours and 15 minutes.
TAM ARACK

M IX IN G

CO.

The hours per shift are 10 hours and 15 minutes, out of which 1
hour is allowed for dinner. This covers the time from leaving the
collar of the shaft to go down into the mine until the return to the
collar at the end of the shiff. About one-half hour is consumed in
going from the collar of the shaft to the working place and the same
in returning from work.




MICHIGAN COPPEB DISTRICT STRIKE.
ALLOUEZ

M IN IN G

23

CO.

The hours per shift are 10 hours and 20 minutes, except on Saturday.
This includes 1 hour allowed for dinner and the time allowed for going
from the surface to the working place and returning, which varies
considerably, depending upon the distance of the working place from
the shaft, from 10 to 20 minutes each way. Men on first trip down
take the first car up. On Saturday the first trip of the day shift goes
down at 6.45 a. m., and the miners are up at 12.10 p. m., and the
trammers, timbermen, etc., at 3.30 p. m. On Saturday night shift no
minors work; trammers go down at 3.35 p. m. and are up at 11.15 p.m.
S U P E R IO R

COPPER

CO.

Men are underground about 10 hours and 20 minutes, 1 hour being
allowed for dinner. This includes the time allowed for going from
the surface to the working place and returning, about 10 minutes
each way,
C E N T E N N IA L

COPPER

M IN IN G

CO.

The hours per shift are 10 hours and 20 minutes, except on Satur­
day. This includes 1 hour allowed for dinner, and the time allowed
for going from the surface to the working place and returning, which
varies considerably, depending upon the distance of the working place
from the shaft, from 10 to 20 minutes each way. Men on first trip
down take the first car up. On Saturday the first trip of the day shirt
goes down at 6.30 to 6.45 a. m., and the miners are up at 12.10 p. m.
and the trammers, timbermen, etc., at 3.30 p. m. On Saturday night
shift no miners work; trammers go down at 3.35 p. m. and are up at
11.30 p. m.
LA

SALLE

COPPER

CO.

The hours per shift are 10, except on Saturday. This includes the
time allowed for going from the surface to the working place and
returning, about 10 minutes each way. This also includes one hour
for luncheon. Men are brought to the surface for luncheon.
L A U R IU M

M IN IN G

CO.

The hours per shift are 10, except on Saturday. This includes the
time allowed for going from the surface to the working place and
returning, about 10 minutes each way. This also includes one hour
for luncheon. Men are brought to the surface for luncheon.
W IN O N A

COPPER

CO.

The nominal underground shift is nine hours, not including one
hour allowed for luncheon, but including most of the time required
for going from the surface to the working place and returning. Only
about 15 minutes is required to hoist and lower all employees each
way.




24

33ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
HOUGHTON

COPPER

CO.

The nominal underground shift is nine hours, not including one
hour allowed for luncheon, but including most of the time required
for going from the surface to the working place and returning. Only
about 15 minutes is required to hoist ana lower all employees each
way.
M ASS

C O N S O L ID A T E D

M IN IN G

CO.

The shifts are nine hours, excluding one hour for luncheon, but
including time for going from the surface to the working place and
returning, about 15 minutes each way.
COPPER

RANGE

C O N S O L ID A T E D

CO .

For the first five days of the week all men start underground at
7 a. m. and start up at 4.45 p. m., having one hour at noon for lunch­
eon. From 15 to 20 minutes are required to descend and ascend.
Men sent down first are taken up first. On Saturdays miners start
down at 7 a. m. and start up at 11.45 a. m. Other underground men
start down at 7 a. m. and up at 3 p. m., at which time the night shift
trammers and laborers start down, and they begin coming up at
10.45 p. m.
Q U IN C Y

M IN IN G

CO.

Men are underground about nine hours. This includes one hour
allowed for luncheon, and includes the time required for going from
the surface to the working place and returning, about one-half hour
each way.
HANCOCK

C O N S O L ID A T E D

M IN IN G

CO.

The shifts are nine hours. This includes one hour for luncheon and
includes the time required for going from the surface to the working
place and returning, about 10 minutes each way.
ONECO

COPPER

M IN IN G

CO.

The shifts are nine hours. This includes one hour for luncheon and
includes the time required for going from the surface to the working
place and returning, about five minutes each way,
LAKE

COPPER

CO.

Shifts axe called 10 hours. This includes time allowed for luncheon,
one hour for miners and half an hour for trammers, and includes the
time required for going from the surface to the working place and
returning. Any working place in the mine can be reached in 15 min­
utes from the time a man leaves the surface.
M OHAW K

M IN IN G

CO.

The hours per shift are 10, including one hour for luncheon and
the time required for going from the surface to the working place
and returning, from 15 to 30 minutes.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.
W O L V E R IN E

COPPER

M IN IN G

25

CO.

The hours per shift are 10 hours and 30 minutes, including one
hour for luncheon and the time required for going from the surface
to the working place and returning, from 15 to 30 minutes.
F R A N K L IN

M IN IN G

CO.

Tiie hours per shift arc nine for underground work. This is exclu­
sive of time allowed for luncheon, but includes the time required for
going from the surface to the working place and returning, from 15
to 30 minutes each way.
The contracts of the Western Federation of Miners with the mining
companies in Montana prescribe that the working time shall be eight
and one-half hours per shift, including the time necessary to go down
into the shaft and half an hour for luncheon, but the men return to the
surface on their own time. As the mines in Montana are not nearly
so deep as the older mines in Michigan, less time is required for going
down or coming up in the former than in the latter.
In a number of States there are laws which provide that the hours
of labor of men working underground shall not exceed eight per day.
The States that have enacted such laws, the years of enactment, and
the general provisions of the statutes now in force are as follows:
In Wyoming, 1890-91, 1909; Colorado, 1905, 1911; Utah, 1896; Mon­
tana, 1905, 1907, 1911; Nevada, 1903; Idaho, 1907, the period of
employment in underground work shall not exceed eight hours.
California, 1909,—The period of employment in underground work
shall not exceed eight hours exclusive of meal time.
Washington, 1909.—It is unlawful to cause any underground
employee to remain at his place for more than 8 hours out of any 24,
exclusive of half an hour for luncheon.
Missouri, 1901.—It is unlawful to work underground laborers more
than 8 hours in 24.
Oregon, 1907.—No person shall permit or require any person to
work in any underground metal mines more than 8 out of 24 hours.
Arizona, 1903, 1912.—The hours of labor of men employed in
underground mines, workings, pit workings, and tunneling shall not
exceed eight, including the time going to and returning from the
place of work; that is, the time between leaving the surface and
returning thereto shall not exceed 8 hours in any 24.
Alaska, 1913.—The hours of labor of men working underground in
mines shall not exceed eight, exclusive of descending or ascending
time, or other time going to or returning from work.
Pennsylvania, 1911.—No hoisting engineer in any anthracite mine
shall be engaged longer than 8 out of 24 hours.
Oklahoma, 1908.—Eight hours shall constitute a day's labor in
underground workings. The United States Supreme Court has
decided that a Federal statute similar in language to the Oklahoma
law did not prevent the making of agreements for working longer
than eight hours.




2G

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
THE TRAM M ING TROUBLE.

For two years or more before the strike of 1913 there was a serious
shortage o f labor in the Michigan copper district. During this time
the number of additional men that were needed was estimated at
from 1,500 to 2,000. There was a greater shortage of trammers than
of any other class of mine workers, and this shortage of trammers fa
a chronic condition. Usually about 29 per cent of the mine workers
are miners, 21 per cent trammers, 28 per cent other underground
workers, and 22 per cent surface workers.
The unskilled work of trammers is much harder labor than the
work of miners, and their pay is considerably lower, as will be seen by
referring to the section of this report which relates to wages. In
addition, trammers work longer hours per week than miners. For
five days a week, Monday to Friday, on either day or night shift, the
hours that miners and trammers are underground are nominally 10,
including an hour allowed for luncheon, but this time is often stretched
into 10J or 11 hours. This lengthening of the time that men are
underground is caused by inefficient means for lowering men into
the mine and bringing them up. The man cages are too small.
There is in all the mines only one cage that carries 40 men, and the
others carry only 30 or less, usually less.
The longer hours that trammers work are on Saturday, when the
miners do not work a night shift and the day shift is only from 5 to
5J hours, but the trammers have both day and night shifts, each
from 7 to
hours.
Before the strike began there was more dissatisfaction among the
trammers than among any other class of mine workers. It is generally
admitted, even by the mine managers, that the trammers have much
the hardest work to do that is done in the mines. Two trammers
have to load and push cars which weigh 1,200 to 3.000 pounds and
which are loaded with from one and a half to two and a half tons of
rock. Two men, or for the heavier loads three, push this weight of
from 4,800 to 8,000 pounds over rough tracks hundreds of feet, often
from 1,000 to 1,500 feet and sometimes farther, and do this many
times a day. This is exhausting, muscle-straining, back-breaking
work, really work for beasts of burden or for mechanical motors. It
is said that trammers break down physically in a few years, and there
are no old men on this kind of work. ‘ Only the young and strong can
stand it.
Tramming is done mostly by the Finns, Croatians, Hungarians,
Italians, and Poles. The work is so hard that Cornish men and other
old miners will not touch it. Trammers, dissatisfied with their long
hours, hard work, and low pay, hold on to their jobs hoping to be
given jobs as miners, but the supply of miners is greater than that
of trammers, and many trammers, after waiting in vain to be put to
work on, drilling machines, get disgusted and leave the mines.
When work was resumed in some of the mines the chief difficulty
was not in getting miners but in getting; enough trammers, and in
many cases miners that were loyal to the companies were required
to do tramming in order that the mines could be operated at ail.




27

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

III very few of the mines in the Michigan copper district is any
tramming done except by hand. In a few mines mechanical motors
are used 011 some levels and in only one are mules used, and even in
most of these mines there is much hand tramming. Some of the
Michigan mine managers who have used mechanical motors admit
that thereby the costs of tramming have been greatly reduced. Why
all of them do not introduce mechanical motors in all mines is hard
to understand, especially as there has been a constant cry about the
scarcity of trammers in the copper district, and this scarcity has
been greater during the two years preceding the strike than ever
before. The only explanation that has been given is that it is im­
practicable to use motors where mining is done at so many places in
the same mine. But it seems practicable to concentrate the mining
on a few levels at a time, instead of working on many levels simul­
taneously, as is done in many#of the Michigan mines. In mines in
this district, as well as mines in other parts of the world, mining is
concentrated on a few levels until they are worked out, and motors
are used to great advantage.
The following table, based on reports from the companies, shows
in which mines motors are used, the number of trammers, the weight
of the cars, and the weight of the load:
Tonnage capacity of
tramcars.

Trammers.
Mine.

Almicek:
Tram...................
Mule.....................
Allouez......................
Baltic..........................
Calumet & Hecla. . .
Centennial.................
Champion..................
Franklin.....................
Hancock:
Hand tramming
Electric...............
Houghton..................
Isle Royale................
Lake............................
La Salle.....................
Laurium.....................
Mass............................
Mohawk.....................
North Kearsarge___
Oneco..........................
Osceola.......................
Quincy.......................
South Kearsarge----Superior.....................
Tamarack..................
Trimountain.............
Winona......................
Wolverine..................

Number
that load
and push
cars.

Number
that load
cars only.

112
No.

(1
)

(g
)
Yes.
No..
<s)
No.

'ios‘

(s
)

268
24

<2
)

<*)

No.......
Y e s ....
No.......
No____
N o ____
N o ____
N o ____
N o ....
N o ____
N o ____
N o ....
N o ____

6

128 !
35

2

57
184
151

2i

€5 ;

Noil.

(3 .
)

n.<L

0

10 !
0

30 i
35 |

N o____
Y es___
N o____

()

76
£9 ;

(0

Weight of
tramcars
empty.

rounds.
1.575
2,027
* 1,575
2,600
1.900
1.575
2,600
2,000
1,800
3,000
2.500
1,360
2,500-3,000
1.700
1.700
2,094
1,317
1.840
1,890
1.840
2,000-3,100
1.840
1.900
2,200
41
2,600
2.500
1,185

Level
full.

Heaped, if
required.

Tons. i
1.75
2.5
2.25
2.7
2.3
2.1
2.7
2




2.25
3

!

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

j
|
|
i
•

2.7
2
2.7
2.7

:
1

1 Mules used instead of motors.
When fitted with door car weighs 1,(565 pounds.
3 Not reported, but motors are known to be used to some extent in some of these mines.
« Average, 1.9 to 2.2.
2

3

2
3
3

1.5
2.5
2.25
42
2.25
2.25
2
1.75
2.15
1.5
2.15
2.5
2.15
2.25
2.5
2.7
2.25
1.8

Tons.
2.3
3

2.65
3
3

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Most of the tramcars used in Michigan copper mines are thoroughly
antiquated. Most of them are old loose-wheel cars, the axles of which
can not properly be kept supplied with grease. These cars also
have their forward wheels but little in front of the middle of the cars.
This arrangement facilitates dumping, but throws the load unevenly
on the four wheels. The two forward wheels carry the greater part
of the weight, and this makes these wheels bind on the tracks, espe­
cially in going around sharp curves. The tracks in many Michigan
mines, following the lode, nave many sharp curves and should be
straightened, even though no copper-bearing rock was dug in making
the drifts straighter.
Cars in a few of the mines have tight wheels; that is, the wheels
are fixed on the axles, and the ends of the axles turn in brass boxes
in which waste can be packed and the oil retained longer. These
wheels and axles are like those on the truck of a railroad car, and are
a great improvement on the old type of loose-wheel car.
In one or two mines still better tramcar trucks are used. The
axles of these cars are provided with roller bearings, which greatly
diminish the labor of pushing them. The expense of equipping all
mines with this type of car would not be great, as these trucks cost
only $24 each, Both tjpes of improved cars last described have
their loads evenly distributed on the four wheels, as each pair of
wheels is the same distance from the end of the car. Both of these
types of cars are dumped by mechanical tipplers.
THE ONE-MAN D R IL L ,

One of the grievances of the miners was in regard to the introduc­
tion of the one-man drill. This machine, invented by a man named
Leyner, and called the water Leyner drill, was introduced in the
various mines during 1907 and succeeding years, mostly in 1911 and
1912. Before this machine was used, two men worked on each drill.
Both men set up or took down the machine, one operated it, and the
other, using a can, poured water in the hole as it was drilled. They
alternated daily in this work, and their earnings were the same,
either on a shift or on a contract basis. Compressed air piped from
the surface furnished power for the machine.
The water Leyner is mechanically an improvement on the old
machine, because a man is not required to pour water in the hole
that is drilled. Water is piped from the surface or from tanks in the
mine, and under pressure is forced through a hole lengthwise in the
drill to the cutting bit. Compressed air piped from the surface
furnishes the power. After the machine is set up one man can easily
operate it.
Many of the miners object to the one-man drill because they con­
sider the work of setting it up or taking it down too heavy for one
man. The two-man drill weighs from 275 to 300 pounds and the oneman drill weighs from 135 to 150 pounds. The machines are sup­
ported by tubular iron posts which are 3^, 4, or 4^ inches in diameter,
4 to 10 feet long, and weigh from 12 to 20 pounds per foot. At the
bottom of the post is a jackscrew which weighs from 75 to 100
pounds, but which is usually detached when the position of the post
is changed. The post and attachments for the one-man machine
weigh practically the same as those for the two-man machine.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

29

The drill is set up after every blast and taken down before every
blast, which means that it is usually set up and taken down every
day. The mining companies admit that setting up or taking down
a one-man drill is heavy work for one man, but they insist that two
men each working on one-man machines near each other can assist
each other in this work. In many cases, however, men have not
worked close enough together to assist each other.
One objection raised against the one-man drill is that where a man
works by himself he may be injured by a falling rock or other acci­
dent, and perhaps rendered unconscious, so that he can not call for
assistance, even if some other miner were near enough to hear his call.
The mining companies claim that under the provisions of a new law
men will hereafter work close enough together to render assistance
to anyone that may be injured. This law, enacted by the Legisla­
ture of Michigan, and approved May 7,1913, provides that no employee
in the copper or iron mmes in the State “ shall be permitted or required
to operate any power or machine drill at a distance of more than 150
feet in the same drift, stope, opening, or working from where another
person or persons are regularly and continuously employed.” Some
of the miners, however, msist that there is danger of a man being so
injured that he could not help himself and could not inform anyone
of his injury, even one no farther than 150 feet away.
While many miners object to the change from the two-man drill
to the one-man drill, others who have become accustomed to the oneman drill prefer it for the reason that at most mines they earn more
with the latter. All of the mining companies insist that the oneman drill is an economic, necessity. By using the one-man drill the
output per miner is largely increased and the mining companies give
the miner the benefit of a part of the saving. A table prepared by
the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. shows the number of tons of rock
mined by miners employed by the company and its subsidiary com­
panies using the one-man drill and the number of tons mined by
such miners using the two-man drill during the calendar year 1912.
According to this statement, the efficiency of miners was increased
33.90 per cent in stoping, 90.60 per cent m drift stoping, and 91.08
per cent in drifting; ana the earnings of miners were increased 7.47
per cent in stoping, 21.31 per cent in drift stoping, and 19.93 per
cent in drifting.1
* These terms are explained under a section of the report headed “ Underground conditions/' page 103.




30

BULLETIN OF THE BTTKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The following table shows the average number of miners in May,
1913, that used each kind of drill, the monthly rates of miners “ on
company account” that used each kind of drill, and whether miners
have the option of using either kind, the data in this table having
been furnisned by the companies:
Year
1-man
drills were
introduced.

Mine.

Ahmeek...........................
Aliouez............................
Baltic...............................
Calumet & Hecla:
Osceola lode.............
Conglomerate lode.
Centennial......................
Champion.......................
Franklin..........................
Hancock..........................
Houghton........................
Lake..
La Salle.................
Laurium...............
Mass......................
Mohawk...............
North Kearsarge.
Oneco....................
Osceola.................
Quincy...... ..........
South Kearsarge.
Superior...............
Tamarack.:.........
Trimountain___
Winona.................
Wolverine............

1912
1912
1909,1911

Number of miners
using—
1-man
drilL
157
95
104

IGOS

2125

1912
1909.1911
1910
1913
1912
1911
1911
1913
1912
1911
1912
1912
(«)
1912
1907
1912
1910.1911
1913
1909.1911
1912
1913

40
108
US
14
<<)
132
31
0)
~
to

<>
4
59
4
84

1 to
, o

2-man
drill.

109

Monthly rate of
miners—
On 1-man
drill.

On 2-man
drill.

$78.00
78.00
1.00-74.G
O

78.00
90.00
78.00
382 71. 00-74.00
26
43
78.00
78.50
65.00
78.00
78.00
65.00
26
19.8
70.00
22
78.00
13
78.00
417
85.80
54
78.00
78.50
125
78.00
116
.00-74.00
124
<3)
78.00
112

(3)
68.00

Have miner?
option of
using either
1-man or
2-mandrill?

£69.00 No.1
71. S
O
No.

03.00

69.00
84.00
71.50

68.00
65.00
68.00
69.00
60.00
0)
0)
61.00
70.00
69.00

N
o.1

No.
No.
No.*
No.
Yes.
Yes.
No.i
No.
No.
No.i
No.i
No.
No.

(4
)

68.00
69.00
79.30
69.00
(l)
73.00
68.00
67.50
70.00

No.
Yes
Yes.
No.i
Yes.
No.
Yes.
(<)

2,623

11-man drills used exclusively.
2In 1 mine; 2 mines are equipped exclusively with 1-man drills.
sNo “ company account;’7 miners working 1-man drills.
<Not reported.
s Not including 14 boys who assisted 43 miners.
£No 1-man drills used.

Miners on contract work as well as those on company account or
shift basis usually earn more using the one-man drill than they do
using the two-man drill, especially after they have gotten used to
the machine.
Each company involved in the strike was requested to furnish
statistics showing the earnings of miners (in each case the same
individual) using the one-man drill and using the two-man drill, or
comparative statistics showing the earnings of miners both before
and after the one-man drill was introduced. In the following table
the statements are summarized so as to show the average earnings
per day of miners using one-man and two-man drills and per cent of
increase in earnings resulting from the use of the one-man drill.
Following the table the statements of the companies in regard to
earnings with the one-man and two-man drills are reproduced in
full. ^




31

MICHIGAN COPPEE DISTRICT STKIKE.

Comparison o f a verage earnings per day o f miners using one-man and two-man drills.

Two-man
drill.

Mining company.

No. 1:
Calumet & Hecla Conglomerate...........................................................
Calumet & Hecla Amygdaloid.............................................................
No. 2. Osceola.................................................................................................
No. 3. North Kearsarge................................................................................ !!
No. 4. South Kearsarge.................................................................................!!
No. 5. IsleRoyaie...........................................................................................
No. 6. Ahmeek............................................................................................... !1
!
No. 7. Tamarack............................................................................................ 1
N o .8. AUouez.............................................................................................. .!
No. 9. Superior............................................................................................... i
No. 10. Centennial.........................................................................................
No. 11. LaSalle..............................................................................................•
No. 12. Laurium............................................................................................ j
No. 13. Baltic..................................................................................................\
No. 14. Trimountain..................................................................................... i
No. 15. Champion..........................................................................................
1
No. 16. Quincy............................................................................................... 1
No. 17.
No. 18.
No. 19.
No. 20.
No. 21.
No. 22.
No. 23.
No. 24.
No. 25.

Mohawk............................................................................................. ;
Wolverine.........................................................................................
Franklin............................................................................................
Winona..............................................................................................
Houghton..........................................................................................
Mass....................................................................................................
Hancock............................................................................................
Oneco...........................................: ....................................................
Lake....................................................................................................
1 Average for a period of 6 months.
2 No statistics available.

S3, es
3.08
13.00
(2)
0
12.69
12.98
3.24
13.02
<2)
12.71
(2)
13.01
12.71
(“)
,
(2)
f
3.04 \
t
3.10
(2
)
12.80
3.13
(2)
2.35
2.61
2.61
3.16

|Per cent of
increase
One-man
1 with onedrill.
j man drill.
i
f 4.02 i
10.14
3.47 I
12. m
13.5S ;
19.33
(2)
(=)
(2)
(*)
13.34
24.16
13.61
21.14
3.83
18.21
13.70
22.52
3.55 .....................
13.52
29.89
3.98
13.26
8.31
*3.23
19.19
(2
)
<2)
(*)
(2> *
3.73
24.34
34.21
4.08
11.18
S.38
3.47
11.94
(2
)
(2)
3.21
12.89
3.45
10.22
(2)
<2)
2.50
6.38
2.61
(<)
3.57
18.93

3Average for a period of 3 months.
4 No one-man drills used.

CALUMET & HECLA MINING CO.

In the Conglomerate mine the average earnings of miners on twoman drill were $3.65; of miners on one-man drill, $4.02. In the
Amygdaloid mine the average earnings of miners on two-man drill
were $3.08; of miners on one-man drill, $3.47.
OSCEOLA CONSOLIDATED MINING CO.

All miners using the two-man drill during the last half of 1912
earned $147,231.80 for 49,038 days, or $3,002 per day. All miners
using the one-man drill during the first half of 1913 earned $62,326.93
for 17,397 days, or $3,582 per day. The increase is 19.33 per cent in
favor of miners using the one-man drill.
ISLE ROYALE COPPER CO.

The earnings of miners on the two-man drill during the last six
months of 1912—34,031 days—were $91,693.43; average per day, $2.69
for 26 days, $2.92 for 24 days (time actually worked). The earnings
of miners on the one-man drill during the first six months of 1913—
ll,259f days—were $37,598.75; average per day, $3.34. Per cent
increase, 14.4.




32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
A H M E E K M IX IN G CO.

The average earnings of miners sloping, drifting, and drift stoping
with the two-man drill for the last six months of 1912 were $2.98 per
day. The average earnings of miners storing, drift stoping, and
drifting with the one-man drill for the first six months of 1913 were
$3.61 per day. The per cent of increase in favor of the one-man drill
is 21.14.
TAMARACK

M IN IN G

CO.

The earnings of miners using the one-man drill 837 shifts were
$3,205.11, an average of $3.83 per shift. The earnings of miners using
the two-man drill 20,773 shifts were $67,269.55, an average of $3.24
per shift. This shows 18.21 per cent increased earnings in favor of the
one-man drill.
ALLOUEZ

M IN IN G

CO.

The average earnings of miners using the two-man drill during the
last six months of 1912 were $3.02 per day. The average earnings of
miners using the one-man drill during the first six months of 1913 were
$3.70 per day.
S U P E R IO R

COPPER

CO.

In 1909 and 1910 when the two-man machine was used exclusively,
$2.54 per shift was company-account pay. On the same shift basis
with the one-man machine, company-account pay was $3.02, but
due to the introduction of the contract system and gradual improve­
ment of the one-man machines, the average of all miners using oneman machines exclusivelv was $3.55 per day for the first six months
in 1913.
C E N T E N N IA L

COPPER

M I N IN G

CO.

The average earnings of miners using the two-man drill during the
last six months of 1912 was $2.71. The average earnings of miners
using the one-man drill during the first six months of 1913 was $3.52.
LA

SALLE

COPPER

CO.

No statistics of comparative earnings on one-man and two-man
drills are available. Tne average daily earnings for work done on
one-man drill in 1913 were $3.98.
L A U R IU M

M IN IN G

CO.

The earnings of miners on two-man machine during the last six
months of 1912 were $3.01 per day. The earnings of miners on
one-man machine during the first six months of 1913 were $3.26 per
day.
COPPER

RANGE

C O N S O L ID A T E D

CO .

In general it has been our custom to pay men working on a com­
pany account basis with the Leyner drill $4 or $5 per month more
than the company account rate on the two-man drill. Earnings on
contract vary considerably even under uniform conditions, and it



MICHIGAN COPPEE DISTRICT STRIKE.

33

would be inaccurate to attribute all of the difference between earnings
of men on Leyners now to the difference in machines.
The pay rolls of the Baltic mine show the earnings of 12 miners
during the six months from January to June, inclusive, 1912, when
they were using two-man drills, and the earnings of the same 12 men
during the three months, April, May, and June, 1913, when they were
using one-man drills. The earnings for these men were as follows,
the first figures in each case being the average for the first period and
the second figures being the average for the second period: Jolm Lasick,
$2.79, $3.15; MikeLassick, $2.79, $3.15; Mike Muhvich, $2.54, $3.24;
Herman Keraven, $2.61, $3.27; John Harmainen, $2.75, $3.37; John
Poak, $2.73,$2.91; Joel Kaugas, $2.89, $2.94; Herman Kaugas, $2.69,
$3.48; Charles Johnson, $2.75, $2.87; Appo Lythenen, $2.42, $3.48;
Carl Stark, $2.74, $3.48; John Raisanen, $2.75, $3.48.
QUINCY MINING CO.

Men Nos. 3981, 3338, 3034, and 3040, in contract No. 12, using
one-man machines in drifting and stoping work, over a period of six
months, averaged $4.08 per day each; same men with two-man
machine earned $3.04 each. Men Nos. 4223 and 4365, in contract
No. 191, averaged $3.78 per day each for aperiod of six months; same
men with double machine earned $3.04. Twenty-one men on stoping
work averaged $3.38 per day each against $3.04 with double machine.
MOHAWK MINING CO.

The average earnings of Thomas Ellis, on a two-man machine
prior to August, 1912, were $3.10 per day. The average earnings of
the same man on a one-man machine from August, 1912, to June,
1913, were $3.47 per day.
WOLVERINE COPPER MINING CO.

The one-man drill has not been in use a sufficient time to enable us
to form a comparison.
FRANKLIN MINING CO.

Following are the average daily earnings of four miners using the
two-man drill from July to December, inclusive, 1912, and the average
daily earnings of the same men using the one-man drill during the
next six months. The figures first given show the average for the
first period and the second figures show the average for the last
period: Peter Horwhat, $3.10, $3; Ben Horwhat, $3.10, $2.78; Mike
Kochin, $2.49, $2.98; Ed Isojarvi, $2.50, $2.78.
WINONA COPPER CO.

For the first six months of 1912 Samuel Phillips and Benjamin
Hocking were drifting on the thirteenth level, south, of No. 4 shaft.
They used an Ingersoll-Rand 3J-inch two-man drill, and made an
average of $3.13 per day during this time. These same men started
29848°—Bull. 139—14——3



34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the firs i Leyner one-man drill and used it in drifting at the same place.
Their average wages for the last six months of 1912 were $3.45 per
shift. The cost of miners’ labor per foot of drifting with the two-man
drill was $4.12; the cost of drifting with the one-man drill was $2.99.
MASS CONSOLIDATED MINING CO.

When two-man drills were used exclusively the wages were $2.25
per man per shift, net. After the one-man drill was introduced, the
wages of men on the few two-man drills in use were increased to $2.35,
while the wages of men on one-man drills were established at $2.50
per shift. A bonus system was introduced for work done by men
using stopers, whereby men were paid a bonus for all drilling over
and above an average of 50 feet per day of drilling per shift during the
month. Under this system the highest wage earned has been $3.15
per shift.
HANCOCK CONSOLIDATED MINING' CO.

The monthly wages are $68 for miners on one-man drills, and the
same for miners on two-man drills.
ONECO COPPER MINING CO.

The wages of miners on two-man drills are $68 per month (26 work­
ing days). Mo one-man drill used.
LAKE COPPER CO.

The daily average earnings of all miners doing drifting and crosscutting on contract from May, 1911, till the strike was as follows:
Men on large machines, $3.16 per day; men on small machines, $3.57
per dav.
DEDUCTIONS FROM E AR N IN G S.

All companies make deductions from the earnings of miners on
contract work for oil used to lubricate the drills, for dynamite, fuse
and caps used in blasting, and for carbide used in acetylene lamps.
Miners that work “ on company account,” or monthly basis, are not
charged for these materials.
One company charges the miner not only for these things, but for
other articles that they use, the price for each being as follows:
Powder (dynamite), $10 a box of 50 pounds; fuse, $10 per 1,000
feet; caps, $2 a box of 100; steel (i. e. the weight of the drills worn
by use), 10 cents a pound; machine oil, 25 cents a gallon; quart oil
can, 35 cents; acetylene lamp, 75 cents; old-fashioned lamp, 25
cents; wrenches, $1 each. Trammers are charged for pick handles,
25 cents each; for shovels, $1 each. This company also charges men
50 cents a month for the use of the dry house, where the men change
their clothing.
All companies make a deduction from the earnings of employees
for medical attention and medicines. The charge is $1 per month for
married men and 50 cents for single men, and married men are entitled
to medical treatment for dependent members of their families. The



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

35

Mas3 Co. and Lake Co. are the only two that make additional charge
for obstetrical cases.
Most of the mining companies deduct 50 cents a month from the
earnings of each employee for a sick-benefit fund, also called an “ aid
fund,” and often callecl a “ club.” From this fund payment is made
to employees who are ill at the rate of $1 for each working day, or $25
per month. Usually payment begins on the sixth day of illness, but
if the patient is ill for 20 days payment per day is made from the
beginning of the illness. The Michigan State law provides that in
case of accident to an employee at work he shall be paid compensa­
tion after 14 days of disability. The employees of some companies
who are injured by accident are paid $1 for each working day, begin­
ning with the sixth day of disability and continuing until compensa­
tion begins on the fifteenth day. Out of the aid fund of several com­
panies the heirs of an employee who dies from an accident^ are paid
$200 or $250. The companies do not contribute to the aid funds,
but on account of the large amounts in the aid-fund treasuries the
Calumet & Hecla, Osceola, Ahrneek, and Isle Royale companies
have made no deductions for this purpose since August, 1912. The
only companies which reported that they had no aid funds were the
Quincy, Franklin, Hancock, and Oneco companies.
The companies that have hospitals charge $7, $10, or $13 a week
for hospital service, including board and the attention of a physician
and nurse. Employees who are accidentally injured, so that hos­
pital treatment is necessary, are not charged for the first three weeks
they are in the hospital, as provided by the Michigan compensation
law, but after three weeks they are charged at the rate of from $20
to $40 a month. The Copper Range Co. reports: “ No deductions
made for hospital service to employees, whether required on account
of disease or accident, but for members of an employee’s family in
the hospital $1 per day is collected.” The Hancock and Oneco com­
panies report: Hospital care is provided gratis by company until
employee s recovery. Same is true of members of" employee's fam­
ily,” The Mass Co. reports: “ Hospital expenses are provided until
such time as patient is discharged by physician.” The Quincy Co.
reports: “ Hospital expenses provided as long as necessary.” The
Osceola Co. reports: “ In frequent cases all hospital charges" are can­
celed by the company when the employee is in poor financial
condition.”
Deductions from earnings are made on pay day for rent of houses
occupied by employees, and for coal, wood, or electric lights that the
company may furnish to them.
THE W ESTEBN FE D E R A T IO N OE MINE B S.

The Western Federation of Miners is the only organization of mine
workers in the metal mines of North America. It was organized at
Butte, Mont., May 19, 1893. The preamble and first article of its
constitution follow:
PREAMBLE.

1. We hold that there is a class struggle in society, and that this struggle is caused
by economic conditions.
2. We affirm the economic condition of the producer to be that he is exploited of
the wealth which he produces, being allowed to retain barely sufficient for his ele­
mentary necessities.



36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3. We hold that the class struggle will continue until the producer is recognized as
the sole master of his product.
4. We assert that the working class, and it alone, can and must achieve its own
emancipation.
5. We hold, finally, that an industrial union and the concerted political action of
all wageworkers is the only method of attaining this end.
6. Therefore we, the wage slaves employed in and around the mines, mills, smelters,
tunnels, open pits, and open cuts have associated in the Western Federation of Miners.
ARTICLE 1.
S e c t io n 1. This organization shall be known as the Western Federation of Miners,
and shall be composed of all persons working in and around mines, mills, smelters,
tunnels, open pits, and open cuts organized into unions paying per capita tax to the
federation.

Sec. 2. The objects of this organization shall be to unite the various persons working
in and around the mines, mills, smelters, tunnels, open pits, and open cuts into one
central body, to practice those virtues that adorn society and remind man of his duty
to his fellow man, the elevation of his position, and the maintenance of the rights of
the workers to increase the wages and improve the conditions of employment of our
members by legislation, conciliation, joint agreements, or strikes.
Sec. 3. Whenever 20 or more persons working as specified in section 1 of this
article shall be found that will be self-supporting, they shall, on application, be granted
a charter. Provided that no charter shall be issued the effect of which is to segre­
gate the crafts engaged in the mining industry.

Following is a copy of the blank which mine workers are required
to sign on application for membership:
W

estern

F e d e r a t io n

of

M in e r s .

APPLICATION BLANK.

Union No......................................................
Name................................................................................ .....................................................
Age................................................................ Complexion................................................
Height........................................................... Color of eyes...............................................
Name and address of nearest relative.................................................................................
Have you ever been a member of organized labor?
When and where?........................ .........................
What organization?.......................................................
Where have you worked during the past five years?
Have you ever taken the place of strikers?....................................................................
Have you ever assisted in putting scab labor in the place of strikers?. / ........................
Have you ever assisted as a deputy sheriff, Pinkerton man, or in any manner assisted
corporations or individuals to oppose the demands of organized labor?....................
Our motto—1 Justice to all .”
1
I hereby voluntarily pledge and obligate myself on my word of honor that the above
is a true and correct statement in answer to the questions asked, and I further promise
to obey all laws and lawful summons of the W. F. of M. that may be now or hereafter
in existence.
............................................................................................. Applicant.
Proposed by........................................................................................................
N. B.—Initiation fee must accompany application.
Applicant.................................................
Rejected....................................... 191----Application made........................ 191___
Initiated....................................... 191___
Elected......................................... 191.......................................................... Union No___
....................................................Secretary.
N. B.—-Secretaries receiving this blank from applicant must have same kept on
file for future reference.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE,

37

Statistics published in the Official Proceedings of the Twentieth
Annual Convention, Western Federation of Miners, show that on
March 31, 1912, the membership was 38,01c.1 The officials claim
that in 1913 the membership was over 45,000. The official organ of
the Western Federation of Miners is The Miners’ Magazine, published
weekly in Denver. Each issue contains a directory of the local unions
of the organization. The issue for August 7, 1913, shows that the
number of local unions was 180. The federation was established in
22 States, and in each of these States and in Alaska, British Columbia,
and Ontario, the number of local unions w as follows:
ras
Alaska, 6; Arizona, 11; British Columbia, 14; California, 10;
Colorado, 18; Idaho, 8; Illinois, 3; Kansas, 6; Kentucky, 1; Mich­
igan, 13; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 16; Montana, 19; Nevada, 21;
New Jersey, 4; New York, 1; NewT
Mexico, 1; Oklahoma, 2; Ontario,
8; Oregon, 1; South Dakota, 3; Texas, 1; Utah, 7; Washington, 3;
Wisconsin, 2.
The Western Federation of Miners was affiliated with the American
Federation of Labor from 1896 to 1898, and the affiliation was re­
newed in 1911. Further details about the history of the Western
Federation of Miners are given in the following extract from the
report of its president, Charles H. Moyer, to the twentieth annual
convention, held in 1912:2
The tenth annual convention of the Western Federation of Miners declared in favor
of a policy of independent political action and a vigorous policy of education along
the lines of political economy. Do sound industrial unionists desire to change this
policy? If not, then I reiterate that the advocates of a change in our policy are not
sincere, but that, while attacking our policy and offering nothing substantial to take
its place, their sole aim is to again change our attitude in the labor movement.
Going back to the inception of our federation, we find that we were organized in
1893, and for three years, or until May, 1896, we were an independent organization—
that is, we held no affiliation with any national organization of labor. In 1896 it
was decided to change our attitude and affiliate with the American Federation of
Labor. This affiliation continued until 1898, when we again changed our position
by discontinuing such affiliation and attached ourselves to what was tlien known as the
Western Labor Union. I shall not go into the history of the Western Labor Union;
suffice to say that our affiliation continued until its dissolution, in 1905, and that it
was formed on the industrial-union plan.
In 1905 our organization, in convention, realizing that the Western Labor Union
had failed, took part in initiating another movement, known as the Industrial Workers
of the World. While the working policy of this organization differed in some respects
from the Western Labor Union, yet the idea of organizing the workers in industries
was identical. The Western Federation of Miners continued to take an active part
in the affairs of this organization until its second annual convention, when develop­
ments in its management were such as to cause a referendum vote to be initiated m
our federation, which resulted in its repudiation, the membership declaring by their
ballot that it should not longer be recognized as a bona fide labor organization; and so,
in 1908, the Western Federation of Miners again changed its attitude, and was without
affiliation until May 9, 1911, when it reaffiliated with the American Federation of
Labor.
During this entire period the miners’ organization adhered strictly to its idea of
industrial organization, yet during that time we, as stated, on seven different occa­
sions changed our attitued in the labor movement. Has this been for the best interest
of the men of the mines? Has our organization prospered because of these various
changes? Have they been a medium for the organizing of the workers of our industry?
Let us in all seriousness ask ourselves, and especially those who are loud in their
denunciation of the present attitude of our union, whether it might not have been
well for the metal miners to have adhered more strictly to a definite position, as has
our sister organization, the United Mine Workers of America?




i Page 173.

2 Pages

l-G.

38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Between 1897 and 1899 there was organized in Michigan what was
known as the Northern Mineral Mine Workers. It had local unions
throughout the iron district of Michigan and the lead districts of
Missouri, and was affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
It went through several strikes which were unsuccessful and reduced
its membership to zero. In 1904 this organization applied to the
Western Federation of Miners to become a part of that organization.
The convention of the Western Federation of Miners held in 1904
accepted the proposition, and took over such locals as had been
established in Michigan and Missouri.
Prior to 1904 the eastern boundary of the Western Federation of
Miners was the Missouri River. The Northern Mineral Mine Workers
had no organization in the copper district of Michigan, but in the same
year, after its amalgamation with the Western Federation of Miners,
local unions were formed in practically all of the mining camps of
Michigan and especially in the copper "district. On account of lack
of interest these locals became extinct in the latter part of 1906 or
early in 1907.
During 1908 communications were sent to the headquarters of the
Western Federation of Mind’s in Denver, asking for organizers to be
sent to the iron and copper mining districts of Michigan. Organizers
were sent and local unions were again organized. In 1913 there were
five local unions in the Michigan copper district. The numbers of
these unions, their names, and the elates when they were organized
are as follows: 203, Copper (Calumet), November 22, 1908; 200,
Hancock Copper, February 14, 1909; 196, South Range, May 22, 1909;
215, Mass City, May 8, 1912; 129, Keweenaw, May 30, 1913.
THE VOTE FOR, A STRIKE.

The Western Federation of Miners was never recognized by any
of the copper-minmg companies in Michigan, The members became
dissatisfied with their working conditions and began in 1912 to agi­
tate the question of making demands on the companies for improved
conditions and of striking, n necessary, to secure the demands. Their
organization, however, was not complete, and for prudential reasons
the general officers of the federation in Denver endeavored to restrain
them from hasty action. President Charles H. Moyer wrote from
Denver to Thomas Strizich, a national organizer at Calumet, Mich.,
on March 25, 1913, as follows:
I was much pleased to hear of the progress being made in the way of organizing in
Michigan and sincerely trust that the men there will realize the importance, in fact
the absolute necessity, of deferring action that may precipitate a conflict with the
employers until they have practically a thorough organization.

The organized copper-mine workers in Michigan insisted that their
working conditions should be remedied, even if a resort to a strike
should be necessary. The provisions in the constitution of the West­
ern Federation of Miners for calling a strike, section 1 of Article VIII,
is as follows:
S e c t io n 1. It shall be unlawful for any union to enter upon a strike unless ordered
^
by two-thirds of the votes cast upon the question; such questions shall be decided
by referendum vote, notice of such referendum to be posted three days in advance,
vote to be by ballot, and polls to be open for not less than eight hours. No call shall
be made for a referendum vote on a strike until after having received the approval
of the executive board of the Western Federation of Miners.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

39

In June, 1913, slips wore issued to all members of the five local
unions of the Western Federation of Miners in the Michigan copper
range, asking them to answer the following questions:
Do you think the union should demand better conditions now?
How many weeks could you support yourself without calling for relief?
Are you a member of a building and loan association? What are your monthly pay­
ments?
If a strike vote is taken, will you put $5 in the union defenso fund?
Name.

A large majority of the answers were in favor of making a demand
for better working conditions #immediately. The officers of the
Western Federation of Miners in Denver were anxious that there
should be no strike in the Michigan copper district untU the mine
workers should be more completely organized, and especially until
more of the surface men and some of the stamp-mill and smelter men
should be organized. They urged that it would be better not to strike
until April, 1914, when it was expected that the membership would
be mucn increased, and when there would be six months of good
weather ahead. The mine workers, however, were so insistent that
immediate measures should be taken to secure better conditions that
the executive board of the Western Federation of Miners reluctantly
consented to a referendum vote being taken on the question of asking
for a joint conference with the employers, or of calling a strike in case
a conference should be refused and no concessions granted. The
executive board consisted of seven members—Charles H. Moyer,
president; C. E. Mahoney, vice president; Ernest Mills, secretarytreasurer; J. C. Lowney, Yanco Terzich, William Davidson, and Guy
E. Miller. At the time that a referendum vote was approved, Presi­
dent Moyer was in Europe, in attendance on an international labor
congress.
Printed ballot slips were issued by the president and secretarytreasurer of district 16, which was composed of the five local unions
of the Western Federation of Miners in the Michigan copper range.
The form of the ballot was as follows:
OFFICIAL BALLOT.

Following the instructions of the convention of the copper district union held on
June 29, we hereby submit the following questions for referendum vote of the members
of the local unions of the Western Federation of Miners in copper district of Michigan.
C. E. H i e t a l a , Secretary-Treasurer.
D a n S u l l i v a n , President.
Shall the miners’ unions, acting through the district union, ask for a conference with
the employers to adjust wages, hours, and working conditions in the copper district
of Michigan?
YES □
NO

□

Shall the executive board of the copper district union, acting in conjunction with
the executive board of the Western Federation of Miners, declare a strike if the mine
operators refuse to grant a conference or concessions?




YES

□

NO

□

40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The polls were opened on Juty 1 and remained open in the hall of
each of the five local unions until noon July 12. Notice of the refer­
endum was given out at the regular weekly meetings of the locals on
Tuesday, and each local appointed men to visit members at the various
mine locations and remind them that a vote was being taken. The
referendum was also advertised in the papers printed in foreign lan­
guages and published in the district. Announcement of the vote
was not made in the three daily papers of Calumet, Houghton, and
Hancock, as those papers are more or less indirectly controlled by
the mining companies. Without doubt all members of the federa­
tion in the district were informed that they had the opportunity of
voting on the two questions.
The statement of the federation officers is that 98 per cent of the
votes cast were in the affirmative on each of the two questions pro­
posed on the ballot. The federation officials claim that at the time
of the strike, on July 23, 1913, there were nearly 9,000 members in
the five local unions in the Michigan copper district. At some of the
mines practically all of the workers, underground and on the surface,
were members. At others, only the underground men and a few or
the surface men were members. At the largest mines, however,
those of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. and its subsidiary com­
panies, where about two-thirds of all the mine workers in the district
were employed, the number of members of the federation was much
smaller m proportion to the total number of employees than at any
other mines in the district. While definite figures are unobtainable,
it is probable that not over half of the men employed underground
by the Calumet & Hecla combination were members, and possibly
the number did not exceed one-third, and of the men employed on
surface work very few were members.
The Calumet & Hecla Co. is much the largest mining corporation
in the district. It has in its employ nearly all of the Comishmen and
Scotchmen that are engaged in mining in the district. Most of these
English-speaking persons occupy favored positions, as mine “ cap­
tains ” (i. e., foremen) and mine bosses. At all of its mines this com­
pany pays its workers higher rates than are paid at any of the other
mines. It is well known that all of the mining companies were
strongly opposed to the Western Federation of Miners, though pre­
vious to the strike no mine workers were discharged on account of
their membership in that organization. The employees of the Cal­
umet & Hecla Co. were better satisfied than were those of any other
company, and therefore a much smaller proportion of them joined
the federation.
BEGINNING OF THE STRIK E.

Before 1913 there/had been but few strikes in the Michigan copper
district and no general strike that involved all of the mines. All of
the mines have been operated on the opon-shop principle.
On July 14,1913, the president and secretary-treasurer of district 16
of the Western Federation of Miners sent a letter to each of the mine
managers, which notified them that the organized mine workers
desired to “ sell their labor collectively/’ and requested that a joint
conference be held to discuss wages, hours of labor, and other working
conditions. It also notified the managers that unless the request
were granted the mine workers were ordered by a referendum vote to



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTBICT SIKIKE.

strike. The letters to all managers were the same in form.
follows:
W

41
A copy

C o p p e r D is t r ic t U n i o n ,
F e d e r a t io n op M in e r s ,

estern

Box 217, Hancock, Mich., July 14, 1913.
To the Calumet < Hecla, Tamarack, Ahmeek, Aliouez, Centennial, Superior, Laurium,
&
Isle Royale, and all other copper mining companies connected with and under the man­
agement of Calumet < Hecla; James MacNauqhton, manager.
&
G e n t l e m e n : Your employees, organized into various unions of the Western Fed­
eration of Miners, have decided by referendum vote to ask that you meet their repre­
sentatives in conference on some day during this month for the purpose of discussing
the possibilities of shortening the working day, raising wages, and making some
changes in the working conditions.
The men working in your mines are dissatisfied with the wages, hours, and other
conditions of employment. Realizing that as individuals they would not have
sufficient strength to correct these evils or to lessen the burden placed upon them,
they have organized into the local unions of the Western Federation of Miners, and
through the local unions they have formed one compact body of the whole copper
district, with an understanding and hope that from now on they may be enabled to
sell their labor collectively with greater advantage for themselves as well as their
employers.
While the men have decided that they must have greater remuneration for their
services and that the working day must be shortened, it is not their or our desire
that we should have a strike, with all the sufferings that it is bound to bring to them,
to the employers, and to the general public. On the other hand, we earnestly hope
that the questions that have arisen between us would be settled amicably, with
fairness and justice to both sides. Should you have the same feeling, we believe
that the friendly relations that have existed between you and your employees in the
past will continue in the future.
However, should you follow the example given by some of the most stupid arid un­
fair mine owners in the past, the men have instructed us by the same referendum vote
to call a strike in all the mines owned and controlled by your company.
We deem it unnecessary to set forth the facts and reasons for the demand for higher
wages, shorter hours, and other things, in this letter, as we intend to do that in the
conference—should you be fair enough to meet us.
We hope you realize that labor has just as much right to organize as capital, and that
at this age these two forces, labor and capital, while their interests are not identical,
must get together and solve the problems that confront them.
We expect to have your answer not later than on the 21st of this month. If you
agree to meet us our representatives will be ready for a conference on any day and at
any place you may choose; provided you do not set the date any later than the 28th of
(his month.
Your failure to answer this will be taken as a proof that you are not willing to meet
us and to have the matters settled peacefully.
Hoping to hear from you soon, we remain.
Respectfully, yours.
D an

S u l l iv a n ,

President Copper District Union of the Western Federation of Miners.
C. E. H i e t a l a ,
Secretary Copper District Union of the Western Federation of Miners.
Address all communications to 0. E. Hietala, box 217, Hancock, Mich.

It will bo noticed that this letter did not mention a minimum
wage, but a circular addressed by the president and secretarytreasurer of district 16 “ To organized labor, its friends and sympa­
thizers/7 and dated Hancock, Mich., August 15, 1913, said:
On the 23d of July, 1913, the greatest strike in the history of American metal miners
began in the copper district of Michigan. Fifteen thousand men in and around the
mines laid down their tools, demanding recognition of the union, an eight-hour day, a
minimum wage of $3 for all underground workers and engineers, with an increase of
35 cents per day for surface employees. Also that two men shall be engaged in the
operation of all mining machines.

A circular issued by Charles H. Moyer, president of the Western
Federation of Miners, and dated August 25, addressed to the officers



42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

and members of all local unions of tliat organization, said that the
strikers asked for aa minimum of $3” per shift.
The letters sent by the president and secretary-treasurer of district
16 to the managers, dated July 14, and asking for replies by July 21,
were registered and sent by special delivery. The letter to the
Quincy Mining Co. was returned unopened. The other companies
made no reply by July 21 or afterwards.
At a meeting of district 16 on July 22 a strike was called imme­
diately, and each of the five local unions in the district was notified.
The strike began in most mines on the morning of July 23, but in
others it did not begin until the beginning of the night shift on that
day. By July 24 all mining work was suspended in all mines in the
Michigan copper range, except two very small mines, those of the
White Pine Copper Co. and the Victoria Copper Mining Co., which
are at the extreme southern end of the range, where the federation
had effected no organization. At the mines that were involved in
the strike the number of employees on July 22, the day before the
strike, was reported as follows:
HOUGHTON COUNTY.

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co..................................................................................
Allouez Mining Co.1
.................................................................................................
Centennial Copper Mining Co.1..............................................................................
Isle Royale Copper Co.1..........................................................................................
La Salle Copper Co.1...............................................................................................
Laurium Mining Co.1
...............................................................................................
Osceola Consolidated Mining Co.1
..........................................................................
Superior Copper Co.1...............................................................................................
Tamarack Mining Co.1............................................................................................
Copper Range Consolidated Co...............................................................................
Quincy Mining Co....................................................................................................
Wolverine Copper Mining Co.2...............................................................................
Franklin Mining Co.................................................................................................
Winona Copper Co.3.................................................................................................
Houghton Copper Co.3.............................................................................................
Hancock Consolidated Mining Co.4...................... .................................................
Oneco Mining Co.1...................................................................................................

4,107
308
113
709
43
25
978
1G
2
543
2,716
1, 800
344
322
293
23
161
25
12,677

K E W E E N A W COUNTY.

Ahmeek Mining Co.1...............................................................................................
Mohawk Mining Co.2...............................................................................................

585
686
1,271

ONTONAGON COUNTY.

Mass Consolidated Mining Co..................................................................................
Lake Copper Co........................................................................................................

176
154
330

Total in tlie three counties........................................................................... 14,278




1Subsidiary to the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.
2 Wolverine Co. and Mohawk Co. have same management.
3 Winona Co. and Houghton Cj . have same management.
* Hancock Co. and Oneco Co. have same management.

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

48

The strike also affected the mines of the Indiana Mining Co., North
Lake Mining Co., South Lake Mining Co., and Algomah Mining Co.,
in Ontonagon County, and the Cliff Mining Co., Gratiot Mining Co.,
and Seneca Mining Co., in Houghton County. These mines are in
the early stages of development and employed about 250 men.
Of the 14,528 employees of these companies on July 22 (including
the 250 employed by these “ prospect” mines) about 11,700 worked
underground, and the remainder on the surface. Underground work
came to a complete standstill, and this caused practically all of the
surface men to be idle. As before stated, the Western Federation of
Miners was not largely organized among the surface men. It was
not at all organized at the stamp mills and smelters located on lakes
several miles from the mines. No employees at the stamp mills and
smelters struck, but these employees, numbering about 1,500, were
also compelled to be idle after the supply of rock on hand had been
stamped and smelted.
Many of the employees of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., the
largest mining company in the district, had not joined the Western
Federation of Miners, and when those who were not members started
to go to work, on the morning of July 23, they w
^ere attacked by the
strikers. The strikers assembled in large crowds at the various
shafts to prevent men going to work, and serious riots occurred in
which the men going to work were struck with rocks and clubs. Many
employees of the company had been sworn in as deputy sheriffs, but
they had no firearms. The strikers overpowered these deputies, took
away their badges, and in some cases beat them. Rioting continued
on July 24. Following is a list of the company’s employees who were
injured sufficiently to be taken to the company’s hospital;
'No. 3718. Andrew Ristvedt; age, 67; sprinkler; 4317 Oak Street:
injured July 23 at Calumet Dry; he had his dinner pail taken away
from him; strain of tendons of right wrist.
No. 10999. Gabriel Popovich; age, 44; timberman; 25 Second
Street, Tamarack; injured July 23 at Hecla No. 6; attacked and
struck over head and left shoulder; scalp wound 1 inch long: con­
tusion of left shoulder; disabled from July 24 to August 7.
No. 750. William J. Thomas; age, 45; captain; 823 Rockland
Street; injured July 23 at Calumet No. 4; struck on head with his
dinner pan; right ear hemorrhagic; lost no time.
No. 2914. Thomas Matthews; age, 49; captain; 277 Rockland
Street; injured July 23 at Calumet No. 2; attacked by strikers and
hit on head behind right ear, swelling behind right ear extending
down on neck; disabled from July 23 to August 27.
No. 6509. Kenneth McLeod; age, 49; watchman; Palace Hotel,
Laurium; injured July 23 at Red Jacket shaft; hit by thrown rock
while resisting attempt of strikers to gain entrance to engine house:
contusion of right eye, fracture of nose, punctured wound about nose
and over right eye; disabled from July 23 to August 26.
No. 6158. Edwin Danbom; age, 31; drill sharpener; 273 Rock­
land Street; injured July 24 at drill shop; two cuts on head from
club or rock, bruised shoulder resulted from kicks, two scalp wounds
2 inches and 1-|inches long, contusion of left shoulder; disabled from
July 24 to August 11.




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

No. 639. JolmT. Hand; age, 41; miner; 524 Florida Street; injured
July 24 at Calumet No. 4; struck by piece of gas pipe; contusion of left
side of chest with fracture of eleventli rib; still disabled September 11.
No. 7921. William T. Richards; age, 66; blaster; 1806 Cemetery
Street; injured July 24; injured by strikers; two scalp wounds and
contusions of back; disabled from July 24 to August 31.
No. 892. Anton Miglia; age, 50; miner; 1607 Laurium Street;
injured July 24 at Calumet No. 4; hit on thumb with a stick; con­
tusion of left thumb; disabled from July 24 to August 1.
No. 7977. John T. Harry; age, 51; miner; 2465 C Street; injured
July 24 by strikers; struck with clubs and rocks; abrasion of left
cheek, contusion of right shoulder; disabled from July 24 to August 4.
No. 2165. Frank Traven; age, 36; lander; 569 Cedar Street; injured
July 24 at No. 16 shaft; beaten, kicked, and trampled on; contusion
of head, chest, back, and legs; disabled from July 24 to August 25.
No. 2989. Simon Trestrial; age, 69; blacksmith; 2367 A Street;
injured July 24 by strikers; scalp wound; disabled from July 24 to
August 11.
No. 13158. Michael Maurin; age, 31; timberman; Elm Street; in­
jured July 24 near Calumet No. 2; was chased by strikers and struck
on head with a stick; scalp wound 1 inch long; disabled from July 24
to August 4.
No. 3002. William Sody; age, 47; machinist; 200 Iiockland Street;
injured July 24 at Calumet No. 2; scalp wound from a stick, two blows
on back from rocks, scalp wound 3 inches long, contusion of back;
lost no time.
No. 1183. J. M. Betzing; age, 46; foreman, RR.; 1514 Hecla Street;
injured July 24 near Calumet No. 2; struck with iron bar above left
elbow and across right shoulder with a board; contusion of left arm
and right shoulder; disabled from July 24 to August 4.
No; 1020. George Unsworth; age, 54; mechanic; 128 Calumet Ave­
nue; injured July 24 near Calumet No. 2; struck b}^ a rock on head
and hit on body with an iron bolt; scalp wound, abrasions of both
knees, contusions of body; disabled from July 24 to August 1.
No. 1886. Jos. Gazvoda; age, 43; deputy; 4034 Oak Street; injured
August 20 on Oak and Tenth Streets; was attacked and struck on
head; scalp wound lb inches long; bruise between shoulders; dis­
abled from August 20 to 26.
CONTINUATION OF THE STRIK E.

In anticipation of the strike some mine workers left the district be­
fore it began, and many others, probably 1,000 in all, left afterwards.
They went to the iron mines in Michigan and Minnesota, some got
employment from the timber companies, and many worked as harvest
hands in Michigan and neighboring States. Some found work in
building county roads in Houghton County.
After the arrival of the troops, on July 25, the strike w very quiet
ras
for tw o weeks. The strikers were overawed by the army of soldiers
T
and by the Waddell men and the large number of deputy sheriffs.
The deputies were provided with heavy “ night sticks” and with re­
volvers. There was, however, no occasion for disorder during these
two weeks, as during that time no effort to resume work was made by
any of the mining companies. The strikers hired halls, held public



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

45

meetings, and paraded daily through the village streets, over county
roads, and over some roads on company property which had long been
regarded as public roads. The paraders included many women, and
children. They carried United States flags^ and the larger parades
were headed by a brass band. The inscriptions on some of the
placards carried in the parades were as follows:
Toiling 6,000 feet below, we want more light, more money.
Western Federation of Miners’ headquarters—Denver.
Calumet & Hecla headquarters—Boston.
Waddell thugs’ headquarters—Sing Sing.

In Calumet and also in Houghton a large rink was rented for special
occasions, when addresses were made by labor leaders. These
included at various times President Charles H. Moyer and Vice
President C. E. Mahoney, of the Western Federation of Miners;
John Mitchell, formerly president of the United Mine Workers of
America; John B. Lennon, treasurer of the American Federation of
Labor; John M. Walker and John L. Lewis, of the mining department
of the American Federation of Labor; Emmett Flood, an organizer of
the American Federation of Labor; and Mrs. Mary Jones, who has
been a prominent character in many strikes and who is affectionately
called Mother Jones.” They addressed audiences of from 4,000 to
6,000 people. At all meetings speeches were made in various lan­
guages.
At the beginning of the strike the mine managers began holding
semiweekly meetings at the Houghton Club in Houghton. They
insisted that they had not formed a mine managers' association, but
they acted together on all matters relating to the strike.
The three daily papers published in English in Houghton County
espoused the views of the mine managers, maintained that labor
conditions in the dictrict were better than in any other mining
district, asserted that no good reason for dissatisfaction existed, and,
taking the cue of the mine managers, roundly condemned the Western
Federation of Miners as a lawless organization. They called the
national officers and organizers of the federation “ Western agi­
tators,” and put all the blame on them for the strike.
Having no local medium for presenting the labor side of the con­
troversy, except a socialistic daily published in the Finnish language,
and some weekly papers printed in other foreign languages, the
Western Federation of Miners started a paper of its own. It was
called the Miners Bulletin, and it was published triweekly and dis­
tributed broadcast free. The first issue was on August 9. The
editor was Guy E. Miller, of the executive board of the federation,
but articles were contributed by various other leaders.
This paper represented the Michigan copper mines as the richest in
the world, but with the worst labor conditions, because of low pay,
long hours, and the depth of the lower levels. It roundly denounced
the Waddell “ gunmen,” the deputy sheriffs, and the “ scabs.
It
criticized the discipline of the troops and the conduct of the soldiers.
It severely criticized Gov. Ferris for sending the troops to the
district, and for not forcing arbitration on the mine managers, for
not coming to the district to investigate the strike personally, and for
not calling an extra session of the legislature to take measures for
settling the strike.



46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A meeting of former employees of tlie Calumet & Hecla Alining Co.
who had been thrown out of work on account of the strike and who
were not members of the federation, was held on August 7 in the
Washington School Building, a public schoolhouse, built by the
company and rented to the township. These nonunion employees
declared that they wished to return to work, and they appointed a
committee to wait on General Manager MacNaughton and inform him
of their wish, but also to ask that the working time be reduced to
eight hours per shift, that the minimum wage be $3.50 for miners
and $3 per shift for trammers and timbermen, with double pay for
Sunday work, and that two men or one man and a boy work on each
drill.
The officials of the Calumet & Hecla Co. and of other mining
companies had always asserted that they would give a hearing to em­
ployees, individually or through committees, and would consider any
grievances they might present. General Manager MacNaughton
received the committee oi nonunion men, but refused to grant any of
the requests they presented. In replv lie said that they asked for
more even than the federation had asked for; and furthermore said
that he could not afford to make any concession at that time, because
if he yielded on any point the federation would claim that it bad
won a victory.
For several days meetings were held in the school building, and
those who attended decided, though their requests for improved con­
ditions had been refused, to go back to work if protection were afforded
them. Registration slips were provided for former Calumet & Hecla
employees to sign. The heading on these slips was as follows:
C a l u m e t , M i c h ., August 8, 1913.
We, tlie undersigned employees, hereby petition the management of the Calumet &
Hecla Mining Co. to resume work at the earliest possible date and to furnish such pro­
tection while working as may be necessary.

During the following week the registration list was kept open, and
by signing it hundreds of employees signified their desire to return to
work without conditions, except that they should receive protection.
The following paragraph is clipped from the Houghton and Calumet
Daily Mining Gazette of August 9, a paper which strongly opposed
the strike and the Western federation of Miners:
It is significant that nearly all of the men signing the list are miners, timbermen,
pump men, shaft men, laborers, and surface employees, and the situation seems to be
narrowing down to a strike of the trammers. If necessary the other employees are
willing to do tramming until trammers can be hired.

A meeting of former employees of the Quincy Mining Co. who
wished to return to work was held on August 8, and they adopted the
following resolutions and presented them to the management:
Resolved, That we as employees are not and have not at any time been in favor of
the present strike, which was caused by outside agitators and organizers from the
Western Federation of Miners, who have been working in this district to stir up dis­
content and who have brought about present conditions.
Resolved, That we ask the Quincy Mining Co. to be allowed to return to work at
once or as soon as possible. Many good employees have been forced to join the West­
ern Federation of Miners under various threats. The strike was started largely against
their will and we believe they will continue to remain loyal employees and should be
permitted to return to work. On the other hand, many men who are members of the
Western Federation of Miners who have sought by threats of violence and bodily
harm to our families and ourselves and damage to our property to prevent our return­




MICHIGAN COPPEB DISTRICT STKIKE.

47

ing to work should not be allowed in the mines, as we do not care to be forced to
work beside such men, who have threatened us and are liable to again stir up strife
and violence.

Within a week work was resumed by several hundred men in the
mines of the Calumet & Hecla Co., bub a large number of these men
were mine bosses, and many of them and also many who had been
miners before the strike were required to do tramming. About the
same time some work was resumed at the mines of the Quincy Mining
Co., and a little later at the mines of the Copper Range Consolidated
Co. These three companies, which are the largest in the district, were
tho first to resume work, but the number of men that returned to work
at the Quincy and the Copper Range mines was small and continued
to be small for a month or more. All men who were taken back to
work were required to quit the Western Federation of Miners if they
belonged to it and were required to promise to have no future con­
nection with that organization.
About the middle of August the employees of the mining companies
and the strikers were paid for the work they had done in July. The
strikers were paid for three weeks* work. About September 1 the five
local unions of the Western Federation of Miners began paying money
to the strikers for the support of themselves and their families.
Before this was done members were required to fill out an inquiry
blank, showing the number of members in the family of each. The
form of the blank follows:
I n q u ir y

B lank.

Nam e.......................................................................................................................... ........
Nationality............................................................................................................................
Residence..............................................................................................................................
Married: Yes [-----]. No [----- ].
Wife’s name......................................................................................................................... .
Are you willing to send children away? Yea [-----]. No [----- ]. If so, how many----Ledger......... ; page............
Names of children or oilier support© 1 relative.;.

'(woman)' (man)

Total

Remarks:...............................................................................................................................

No children of strikers were sent away from the district up to
November 1. The aid given to each member of the federation
depended on the number in his family and on his financial condi­
tion. Single men who were not employed were paid $3 a week and
married men as much as $10. #The money with which strike benefits
were paid came from the national treasury of the Western Federa­
tion of Miners in Denver and from various other sources. The local
unions of the federation in Butte, Mont., levied an assessment of $2
per capita per month on their 8,000 or 9,000 members. The unions
of the United Mine Workers of America in Illinois, the organization
of coal miners, contributed $100,000. On September 29 the execu­



48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tive council of the American Federation of Labor issued an appeal
to all organized labor to support the strike, and called on each local
union to make an appropriation of not less than 5 cents for each of
its members for the benefit of the strikers in the Michigan copper
district. As^ the American Federation of Labor has oyer 2,000,000
members, this appropriation should amount to oyer $100,000. The
appeal of the executive council follows:
W a s h i n g t o n , September 29, 1913.
To all organized labor:
Each new advance in human betterment leaves its furrows of pain and suffering
across human hearts and lives. There is scarcely a worker in all America who does
not know the meaning of a strike, during which the workers and their families have
suffered and endured in order to obtain justice, or who has not felt the terrible fear
for the physical safety of loved ones in tne thick of the contest, or the heartbreaking
pain because of inability to supply even the barest necessities of life for those depend­
ent upon him. To you, members of organized labor, the brave struggle of the copper
miners of Calumet, Mich., will appeal with greatest effect.
After exhausting all other means of securing the just demands which they made
upon their employers, these miners laid aside their tools on July 23 and went out on
strike. They had been working a so-called 10-hour day, which in reality was an
11-hour day, for wages that would not permit American standards of living. Miners
have been "forced to handle individually heavy drilling machines which had formerly
been operated by two men. After considering all matters, the men decided to demand
an 8-hour day, $3 as the minimum wage, and two men to handle drilling machines,
as formerly. All requests for conferences or consideration of these just demands were
ignored and treated with contempt.
Despite the fact that the strike was inaugurated peacefully and has been conducted
by the miners without even the slightest show of violence, seldom has there been
such a d isp la y of arbitrary methods on the part of the mine operators and govern­
mental authorities. The morning after the strike began hundreds of deputies were
sworn in; the employers imported companies of Waddell-Mahon guards; finally State
troops were sent to the mining district that the mine owners might be enabled to
operate their mines and the voice of labor in its appeal for justice might be silenced.
All of this display of force was under the pretense of protecting property (when the
miners did not attack it nor contemplate attacking it); when the miners attempted
to protect and promote human rights they were ridden down in the streets, clubbed,
fired upon.
Though there have been the usual efforts to foment strife and to stir up violence
among the strikers, yet no property lias been destroyed, and the miners have remained
steadfast in their determination to win their rights, and in their determination not
to be forced into lawlessness.
The officials of the miners asked for an injunction restraining the appointment of
additional deputies to serve the mine operators. Their request was refused. The
mine operators asked for an injunction restraining the strikers from picketing, “ molest­
ing,” men going to or from work and from parading in the vicinity of the mines.
That order was granted.
Such are the conditions under which these copper mines are waging their fight for
justice and a life somewhat better worth living. With all the forces of capital and
organized society working against them, they have maintained courage, determina­
tion, and good spirit. There are 16,000 miners engaged in this struggle. A large num­
ber of miners and their families were evicted from their homes, owned by the cor­
porations. The lives, safety, and welfare of something like 50,000 men, women, and
children are bound up with its fate. The strike has now been in progress for over two
months, and still the mine operators maintain stubborn resistance and unreasonable
refusal to consider the demands of the men. The long, hard winter of northern Mich­
igan is approaching, and these brave men, women, and children who are bearing the
brunt of this fight for industrial justice for American workingmen are in need.
Two members of our executive council, John Mitchell and John B Lennon, have
been among these strikers and presented to us unquestionable evidence of the con­
ditions there. After consideration of the conditions, the need and importance of the
issues involved, the executive council makes this appeal to all the members of organ­
ized labor for prompt and generous financial assistance to aid these needy and suffering
fellow workers, then* wives, and children.
We appeal in the name of all labor and common humanity that each local union at
once make an appropriation from its funds of not less than 5 cents for each member




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

49

that each central labor union select a committee to appeal to all workers and friends
to contribute promptly and as generously as possible, and to use every other honor­
able means by which funds may be secured. The men and women and children of
Calumet, Mich., must not be starved into submission. They must and they will
win, if the toilers of our country will but do their duty.
Remember that the splendid solidarity of the workers of America largely aided in
securing the magnificent victory of the anthracite miners a few years ago. The news­
papers have suppressed nearly all reference to the Calumet miners’ strike. In this
appeal we hope to reach the minds, hearts, and the consciences of our fellow workers
and friends and thereby secure their ready response to the call for aid.
Send all contributions to Frank Morrison, secretary American Federation of Labor,
Ouray Building, Washington, D. C., who will return receipt for the same and promptly
forward every dollar to the immediate aid of the struggling miners of Calumet.
Fraternally, yours,
Executive council, American Federation of Labor: Samuel Gompers, pres­
ident; Frank Morrison, secretary; James Duncan, first vice president;
John Mitchell, second vice president; James O’Connell, third vice
president; D. A. Hayes, fourth vice president; Wm. D. Huber, fifth
vice president; Jos. F. Valentine, sixth vice president; John E. Al­
pine, seventh vice president; H. B. Perham, eighth vice president;
John B. Lennon, treasurer.

About August 20 posters were printed and distributed in quan­
tities to labor unions in adjoining States. They were intended to be
displayed in conspicuous places to call attention to the strike and
to warn workingmen not to come to the Michigan copper district.
The form of the poster follows:
St r ik e .

Stay away from the copper mines of Michigan. Fifteen thousand miners are striking
for higher wage?, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
Don’t be a scab.
Wages are low, the labor required excessive, hours long.
No real man will come to the copper district until a settlement is made.
Men hired for Michigan points are hired to scab.
Stay away.
B y order of Western Federation of Miners.

On September 4 the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. fitted up a pow­
erful searchlight on a tall tower, and later the Quincy Mining Co.
followed the example. The reason for installing these great search­
lights was not apparent, as the strikers had shown no disposition to
damage property.
THE M IL IT IA , D E P U T Y SH E R IF F S, A N D IM PORTED G U A R D S.

On the night of July 23-24, James A. Cruse, sheriff of Houghton
County, telegraphed Gov. Woodbridge N. Ferris, asking that 2,000
of the State troops be sent to prevent further disorder. Following
is part of the telegraphic correspondence:
H o u g h t o n , M ic h ., J u ly 24 — 2 a. m .

Gov.

W

o o d b r id g e

N.

F e r r is ,

Alpena, Mich.:
General strike has been called to-day in all the mines in Houghton County, backed
by the Western Federation of Miners. Armed rioters have begun to destroy property
and have threatened the lives of men who want to work. I am unable to handle the
situation, because the territory to be covered is 28 miles long. The strike is on in
20 mines, with 15,000 men idle.
I have taken every means in my power to control the outbreak, but I am convinced
that the situation will become worse and will result in great destruction of property
29848°—Bull. 139—14------4



50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

and possible loss of life unless I receive iiie aid of State troops. I will require about
2,000 men to cover tlie territory, and as Sheriff of Houghton County I ask that you call
out troops to that number and detail them for service here at once."
Ja m e s A . C r u s e ,

Sheriff of Houghton County.
H a r r i s v i l l e , M i c h ., July 24, 1913—4-38 a. m.
A. C r u s e , Sheriff, Calumet, Mich.;
Have ordered troops sent to copper country immediately.
W. X . F e r r i s , Governor.

Ja m e s

L a n s i n g , M i c h ., July 24, 191-1—0 p.m.
A. C r u s e ,
Sheriff of Houghton County, Calumet, Mich.:
Gov. Ferris has ordered troops to go to your county at once. Some have started;
others in the morning.
E . C. A u s t o n , Executive Clerh.
Ja m e s

L a n s i n g , M i c h ., July 24, 1913—11.20 p. m.
A. C r u s e ,
Sheriff Houghton County, Calumet, Mich.:
Wire to-morrow morning, Friday, exact conditions of affairs in detail. I situation
.-3
as grave as first anticipated?
W o o d b r id g e N , F e r k i s , Governor.

Ja m e s

B a y C i t y , M i c i i .. July 25, 1913—12.83 a. m,
A. C r u s e ,
Sheriff Houghton County, Calumet, Mich.
W h a t is th e situation now? Do all in your pow er to a v o id c a llin g troops.
Will
send troops if absolutely necessary. Property and life must be protected. At Bay
City until noon. Arrive Alpena*5 o’clock.
W o o d b r id g e N . F e r r i s , Governor.

Ja m e s

L a n s i n g , M i c h .,
J.

A.

July 25, 1013—1.15 a. m.

Cr u s e ,

Sheriff Houghton County, Mich., Calumet.
Adjoining counties need troops; the sheriffs of respective counties must rppeal to
governor direct. Present calling out of troops applies only to Houghton County.
W o o d b r i d g e X . F e k r i s , G overnor,

Gov. Ferris ordered the whole National Guard of Michigan to the
scene of the strike in Houghton County. The various companies
began to entrain on the evening of July 24 and some arrived oil the
morning of July 25. By July 27 all Had reached their destination.
The armed, force consisted of 2 batteries of artillery, 2 troops of
cavalry, mounted signal corps, 1 company of engineers, and 3 regi­
ments of infantry, each with 12 companies; also 2 ambulance com­
panies and 3 brass bands. The entire force numbered 211 officers
and 2,354 enlisted men, under the command of Brig. Gen. P. L.
Abbey, of Kalamazoo.
The soldiers were distributed to the various mine locations in
Houghton County and encamped in tents on land belonging to the
mining companies. On their arrival the rioting ceased, and there
was no further disorder until some of the mine workers started to
return to work. At some mines the stoppage of the pumps caused



51

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

water to accumulate in the bottoms of the shafts. The strikers,
however, made no effort to damage any of the property of the mining
companies at the beginning of the strike or later. At the beginning
of the strike it was directed by three members of the executive board
of the Western Federation of Miners who were on the ground—Guy
E. Miller, J. C. Lowney, and Yanco Terzich. Vice President C. E.
Mahoney arrived on July 26. The next day a protest against the
presence of the troops was adopted at a meeting of the strikers, and
Mahoney left for Big Kapids where he presented it to Gov. Ferris.
The governor was reported to have said in an interview on July 28:
The mine operators had nothing to do with caiimg the militia. The order was
issued after the authorities informed me they were powerless to control the situa­
tion. I believe the troops are necessary at present to protect lives and property.
I will return to Lansing to-morrow, and at the present time I see no reason why I
should go up to the upper peninsula.

Gov. Ferris never visited the copper country during the strike.
His order for the National Guard to go to the district was in pursuance
of the State military law, which provides that the governor—
may order out any portion of the militia for the service of the State to suppress
riots and to aid civil officers in the execution of the laws of this State or of the United
States.1

Some companies of the National Guard were stationed in the lower
end of Keweenaw County to guard the property of the two mines
there, the Mohawk and the Ahmeek. Alt the rest were stationed at
mines in Houghton County. On July 29 John Hepting, sheriff of
Keweenaw County, asked Gen. Abbey, by telephone, to withdraw the
troops from that county. He said that there were no disturbances in
his county and that he had not requested that soldiers be sent to the
county, but merely that they might be placed near the Houghton
County line to be available if needed. Later on the same day, how­
ever, he signed a paper as follows:
M o h a w k , M ic h ., J u ly 29, 1913.

P. L . A b b e y ,
Commanding Michigan National Guard:
The conditions at Mohawk mine are such that I ask you to protect the people and
property at Mohawk until the Mohawk Mining Co. is satisfied that order is restored.
G en.

Jo h n H

e p t in g ,

Sheriff of Keweenaw County.

Gen. Abbey secured written authority from J. A. Cruse, sheriff of
Houghton County, to make arrests and to use such force as might be
necessary to preserve order in that county. The authorization given
by Sheriff Cruse was similar in form to another written authorization,
which was signed by Sheriff Hepting on August 3, a copy of which
follows:
M i c h ig a n N a t i o n a l G u a r d ,

Calumet, Mich., August 3, 1913.
Brig. Gen. P. L . A b b e y ,
Commanding Michigan National Guard,
Calumet, Mich.
Sir : The governor of the State of Michigan having at my request authorized the
use of the National Guard within the confines of the County of Keweenaw for the
purpose of aiding the civil authorities therein in the preservation of peace and the
execution of the laws of this State, therefore I, as sheriff of said county, do authorize
you as commanding officer of the military forces on such duty to station said forces
1Act 84 of Public Acts of 1909, as amended by act 67 and act 172 of Public Acts of 1911.




52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in any part or portion of my bailiwick as in your discretion seems best, and with the
use of such troops to prevent any violation or violations of the laws of this State, to
break up any unlawful assemblages, to prevent rioting or other unlawful acts being
committed, to make arrests of persons engaged in any breach of the peace or in the
commission of a felony, or aiding or abetting the same, and to use such force as may
be necessary and justifiable in carrying out the authority herein given.
Joh n H

e p t in g ,

Sheriff of Keweenaw County.

Before the strike began Janies A. Cruse, sheriff of Houghton
County, had sworn in about 430 deputy sheriffs, at the request of the
mining companies, nearly all of them employees of the companies.
Some of these had been deputized months before the strike began.
After the strike began he increased the number of deputies until
November 1, when they numbered about 1,700. Many of this addi­
tional force were employees of the companies, but some w men who
~ere
were not so engaged. In a telegram to Sheriff Cruse, Gov. Ferris
warned him that he must observe the statute regarding the appoint­
ment of deputy sheriffs. A copy of the telegram follows:
L a n s i n g , M i c h ., August 7, 1913— 10.15 a. m,
A. C r u s e ,
Sheriff Houghton County, Calumet, Mich.:
In appointing deputies observe section 2596, Compiled Laws 1897, which say3 4 The
‘
people of the State of Michigan enact, that hereafter no sheriff in this State shall ap­
point any undersheriff or deputy sheriff, except the person to be so appointed shall
have been a bona fide resident of the county in which the appointment i3 made for
three months next preceding the time of appointment.’ •

Ja m e s

WOODBRIDGE N . FERRIS,

Governor of Michigan.

The deputy sheriffs appointed by the sheriff were given authority to
carry arms, under section 3, act 274, Public Acts of 1911, which pro­
vides that the prosecuting attorney and the sheriff of a county shall
have power to grant licenses for carrying arms. This section is as
follows:
Sec. 3. The prosecuting attorney and sheriff, in counties in which no regularly
organized police force exists, and in counties where one or more regularly organized
police forces exist, the prosecuting attorney, sheriff, and chief of police of the city
within which such license is sought shall constitute a board, whose duty it shall be
and who shall have power to grant licenses to carry a revolver, pistol, or pocket billy,
and the said board shall meet on the first Monday in each month at the county seat
for the purpose of hearing applications to carry a revolver, pistol, or pocket billy. A
majority of said board shall constitute a quorum.

The employees of the mining companies that were sworn in as
deputy sheriffs were permitted to carry arms under section 4, act 274,
Public xlcts of 1911, which provides that upon payment of $10 by
such a company any of its employees, the number not being
restricted, may obtain a general license for them to bear arms. This
section, which is called a “ blanket license” act, follows:
Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of said board to issue licenses to go armed with a
revolver, pistol, or pocket billy to all peace officers and such other persons who in the
judgment of said board should be permitted to go so armed: Provided, That upon the
payment to said board of the sum of ten dollars, mining companies, banks, trust com­
panies, railroad and express companies may obtain a general license good for any of
their employees actually engaged in guarding any property or the transportation of
moneys or other valuables. Licenses issued to peace officers or to employees of rail­
road and express companies shall permit such persons to go armed anywhere within the
State while in the discharge of their duties.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

53

Following is a copy of a letter from the governor to the sheriff:
State

op

M ic h ig a n , E x e c u t iv e Ch a m b e r ,

Laming, August 9, 1918.
Your letter of August 4 came to Big Rapids and was read to me
over the phone, so that I received it while I was at the executive office. I also
received your telegram with reference to appointing deputies. No doubt Gen. Abbey
has told you that his plan is to withdraw the troops gradually, but solely with reference
to the safety and welfare of the citizens of the strike region.
There is no occasion for my writing a long letter.
Very sincerely, yours,
W o o d b r id g e N . F e r r i s , Governor.
J a m e s A. C r u s e ,
Sheriff Houghton County, Houghton, Mich.
M

y

D e a r Si r :

The strike that began on July 23 had been talked of as a proba­
bility for six months, and for a month before that date it had been
very confidently expected. Two weeks before that date James A.
Waddell, president of the Waddell-Mahon Corporation, of New York,
arrived in Houghton County for the purpose of making a contract
with the county board of supervisors or with the mine managers to
furnish guards. The board of supervisors is composed of 18 men,
one selected by each of the townships in the county and one from
each of the four wards of Hancock City. This board is completely
dominated by the mine managers. A number of its members are
mine managers, and nearly all of the others are connected directly
or indirectly in business relations with the mining companies.
James McNaughton, general manager of the Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co., the largest mining company, is one of the 18 supervisors,
and he is credited with being the controlling spirit in the board of
supervisors, and also among the mine managers. At first he was
opposed to employing men as guards from Waddell, because he felt
that the strike would last but a short time and that the men who
wished to continue at work and the property of the mining companies
could be protected by the local deputies, who were mostly employees
of the companies. After the riots of the first two days of the strike,
however, the board of supervisors decided that the force of local
deputy sheriffs was inadequate to preserve order, and the board
authorized Sheriff James A. Cruse to employ Waddell men. Men in
Waddell's employ left New York on July 25, reached Houghton
County two days later, and w
~ere distributed to various mine loca­
tions in the county. The number of Waddell men employed by the
county was 52. The Waddell men were appointed under section
2590 of the Compiled Laws of 1897, which is as follows:
(2590) S ec . 81. Any sheriff, deputy sheriff, coroner, or constable may require suit­
able aid in the service of process in civil or criminal cases, in preserving the peace,
or in apprehending or securing any person for felony or breach of the peace, when such
officer may have power to perform such duty; and when any such officer snail find re­
sistance made against the execution of any process, or shall have good reason to believe
that such resistance will be made, he may take the power of the county, and proceed
therewith in proper person to execute such process.

Following is a copy of a letter from the sheriff to the governor:
H o u g h t o n , M i c h ., August 10, 1913.
Governor,
Lansing, Mich.
Sir : As sheriff of the county of Houghton, I wish to lay before you to the best of
my knowledge the present situation with regard to the pending strike called by the

Hon.

W

o o d b r id g e




N.

F e r r is ,

54

b u lle tix

or t h e

b u reau

o f la b o r s t a t is t ic s .

Western Federation of Miners and involving a portion of the employees of the various
mining companies of this county.
At the beginning of the strike, which occurred simultaneously at the several mines
and covered a district about 28 miles long, I found myself without sufficient force to
cope with or effectively resist the disorder and violence which accompanied it. My
deputies were attacked. The authority of my office was ignored. It was not until
the arrival of the Michigan National Guard that order was restored, and I believe that it
is the presence of an adequate force alone which results in its continuance at the present
time. I believe upon information coming from various sources to my office that with­
out an adequate force for the maintenance of the public peace violence to person and
property will at once ensue; that the people inclined to violence are lying low for that
chance. It is also my belief, based on similar information, that if the public peace
is maintained and lawlessness and disorder effectively restrained for a while longer
the strike will soon end by the voluntary returning to work on the part of the employees,
a large part of whom have alread y expressed their wish to go to work. With the return
of confidence the number expressing this feeling is increasing daily, and I am informed
that there i3 a growing sentiment among the strikers themselves to the same effect.
Anything to destroy the confidence of the community in the preservation of order and
the protection of life and property will, in my judgment, seriously prolong the present
situation.
The above is the situation as it is viewed by myself from all the information avail­
able to me and from my personal observation." I now desire to state to you fully and
frankly just the position I am in with reference to maintaining order and protecting
life and "property through the authority and forces at my command as sheriff of this
county.
This has been a peaceable community and there has never been any organized force
available for official action. The force" directly attached to my office has consisted of
the few deputies necessary for the ordinary serving of process. I have at present,
under recent appointment throughout the county, about 600 deputies, but they are,
as to nearly the whole number, local men at the several mining properties, employees
of the mining companies, who have been deputized to give them the authority of
officers, but who act merely as watchmen and caretakers of the property. If any
disorder should occur, I could not depend on any sufficient number to respond to a
call from my office for the suppression of violence or riot.
I have found it impossible so far to obtain men in whose efficiency I could havo
confidence who could be organized into a regular force; and while it is my strongest
wish to be able through my office to control any disorder or attempts at disorder that
may arise, I feel that the gravity of the situation and the extent of territory to be
covered make it impossible for me to meet the situation with any force upon which
I could depend.
I have employed, through the Waddell Agency, 52 men from outside the State.
These men are not deputized, and under the law I can not confer upon them the author­
ity of deputy sheriffs; but I am using them as aids and for the purpose of organizing
and instructing deputy sheriffs, and as watchmen in the guarding of property. This
I felt justified in doing because of the impossibility of finding men for the purpose
locally.
Should it happen that I must handle the situation alone while the possibility of
violence and destruction of property continues, I can see no way of meeting the
situation except to employ, on behalf of the county, a body of men from outside to
act as my aids in the suppression of riot, if necessary, and in the protection of life and
property. I should be very unwilling to do anything of this kind, and it would be
only as a last resort in carrying out my sworn duty in the maintenance of the public
eace. Of course, with the aid of the Michigan National Guard, no such step will
e necessary.

E

I feel that a reduction in the number of the troops which I am told is about to take
place, is reasonable, but I also feel that the removal of the entire force is not now justi­
fied and would be followed by a situation of great danger to this community.
I have been and am doing my best to find among residents of the county reliable
men whom I can appoint as deputies. I hope to have a number who can guard en­
dangered property as tlio number of the troops is reduced, but to obtain a sufficient
organized lorce for the suppression of riot, or the enforcement of law and order in the
existing situation, is beyond my power. An insufficient or an unorganized or undisci­
plined force of deputies would, in my judgment, be not only useless but would be a
menace.
My sole and only wish is to do my sworn duty in the preservation of the public
peace, the enforcement of law, and the protection of life and property. I have tried
to make clear to you that with my best efforts I do not feel that I can control the situa­
*




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

55

tion with reference to the peace and order of the county with any local force which
I may be able to get together. I do not feel that I can maintain order, or give proper
legal protection to life and property without the assistance for a time of the Michigan
National Guard. If I should have to maintain order without that assistance while
present conditions continue I should fear an immediate renewal of violence, which
would force upon me the employment of outside armed assistance. For the good
name of the State this should be avoided. The community has thus far depended
solely upon the public authorities of the State and county for protection of property
and the restraining of intimidation and violence. Their growing confidence in that
protection should be preserved.
Yours, respectfully,
Ja m e s A . C r u s e ,

Sheriff o f Houghton County.

Following is a summary of an interview with James MacNaughton,
published in the Detroit Free Press, which appeared in the Hancock
Evening Copper Journal of August 11:
According to an interview published in the Detroit Free Press, James MacNaughton,
general manager of the Calumet & Hecla, declared he would just as soon have “ Lefty
Louie” or “ Gyp the Blood” in his employ as a peace officer as James Waddell, the
strike breaker imported from New York.
He furthermore declared that the Calumet & Hecla had not been concerned in the
engagement of Waddell; that none of its officers knew Waddell was engaged until
after he had arrived; that Waddell had obtained an audience with him under false
pretences and that Waddell had been shown the door the moment his identity was
revealed.
Furthermore, MacNaughton stated that not one cent of Calumet & Hecla money
would go to Waddell and that none of Waddell’s men would be permitted to act a3
T
guards on Calumet & Hecla property.
Mr. MacNaughton, in making the statement, declared that he did not hold one of
the company’s striking employees responsible for the strike.
“ We nave Croatians, Austrians, Hungarians, Italians from northern Italy, Poles,
and other nationalities working for us, and they are industrious, loyal men; but they
do not know our language or our customs, our laws, nor our ideals. They have been
influenced by Western Federation of Miners’ organizers and hired men who have
been here in some cases for years. Constant dropping will wear a stone.
“ We challenge inspection of pay rolls, housing conditions, and our treatment of
men in every particular. But our men, told day after day that they were being mis­
treated, underpaid, or otherwise oppressed, finally were persuaded. We hold nothing
against them, understand just exactly how they were induced to strike. They are
coming back, because they are learning what the union is not doing for them.
“ We will not even evict a single tenant, striker or otherwise, for nonpayment of rent.
The men now idle are not paying their $1 per family per month for medical, surgical,
and hospital attendance, which is continued for all miners and their families, irre­
spective of their union affiliations, whether strikers or not. We do this because we
know that our men have been misled.’’

When the Waddell men had first been brought into the district
the sheriff and prosecuting attorney of Houghton County had issued
authority for them to carry arms under section 3, act 274, Public
Acts of 1911, which is quoted on a previous page. After the shooting
at Painesdale on August 15, in which one striker was killed and four
wounded, one of them fatally, by four Waddell men and two deputy
sheriffs, Prosecuting Attorney Anthony Lucas served notice on Sheriff
James A. Cruse that he withdraw his consent for any of the Waddell
men to carry weapons, but as the board for authorizing the carrying
of weapons is composed of only two, and as Sheriff Cruse did not with­
draw his consent, the Waddell men continued to carry arms while
they remained in the county.
The seven members of the executive board of District Union No. 16
of the Western Federation of Miners petitioned the State circuit court
for an injunction to restrain James A. Cruse, sheriff of Houghton
County, from continuing Waddell-Mahon men in his employ in the



56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

service of process in civil or criminal cases, in preserving the peace,
or in apprehending or securing any person for felony or breach of the
peace. The petition stated that at all times the sheriff could have
secured the services of suitable men who were residents of the county
to serve as deputies, as required hy law; that Waddell-Mahon men
had deliberately and intentionally sought to pick quarrels with peace­
ful and law-abiding citizens; and that these men had been brought
into Houghton County not for the purpose of preserving peace and
protecting the lives and property of citizens, but to harass the strikers
and to break up the strike. The petition further declared that not a
single shot had been fired by a striker since the strike began; that
two of the strikers had been shot in their legs; and that the WaddellMahon men had shot into a house at Painesdale in which there were
15 persons, resulting in the death of two and the wounding of two
others. The statements in the petition were supported by affidavits
signed by a number of the strikers. E. F. Le Gendre, an attorney, filed
an affidavit that James A. Waddell was virtually in charge 'of the
sheriff’s office; that he made that office his headquarters; and that he1
dictated everything the sheriff did with regard to making arrests of,
strikers and serving processes on them. An affidavit was filed from a1
’ustice of the peace which showed that a warrant which was returned
>y a Waddell-Mahon man had to be served a second time by a duly
authorized deputy sheriff. The petition in part follows:

{

Sec. 7. That in addition to this force (militia), which was under the control of the
Sheriff and with which, without doubt, it was in the power and ability of the said sheriff
to serve the process issued by the courts of the county, to maintain peace and preserve
order therein, and to protect [prevent] the destruction of property therein, and to enforce
protection to the citizens of the county, your orator alleges that, in violation of the law,
the said sheriff brought into the county of Houghton numerous so-called strong-arm
men who were in the employ of the so-called Waddel-Mahon corporation in large
numbers, as your orator is informed and believes, and therefore charges the truth
to be in excess of 200; that your orator can not say definitely how many there are of
such men in said county, but alleges that on, to-wit: Tuesday, the 12th day of
August, A. D. 1913, the board of supervisors of the county of Houghton allowed to the
Waddell-Mahon corporation the sum of $6,621, which your orator is informed and
believes represents and; paid for the transportation of said Waddell-Mahon men from
T
the city of New York to Houghton County, with their salaries or compensation for the
eight days immediately preceding the 1st day of August, A. D. 1913, and that in addi­
tion thereto the sum of $803 was allowed by^said board of supervisors for the board and
lodging of said Waddell-Mahon men.
Sec. 8. Your orator alleges, upon information and belief, and charges the truth to be,
that a number if not all of the men of the so-called Waddell-Mahon men employed by
said sheriff were made and are now acting as deputy sheriffs of Houghton County under
appointment by said Sheriff James A. Cruse in violation of the statute in such case
made and provided.
Sec. 9. That the employees of said Waddell-Mahon corporation have been used by
said sheriff for the service of process and in the transportation of prisoners to and
from the jail and in acting as court officers and in making arrests and in transporting
prisoners from the place of arrest to the county jail; that said Waddell-Mahon men
are tall, large, and muscular men of the prize lighter variety; that since they have
been in the said county of Houghton said Waddell-Mahon men have deliberately
tried to incite the citizens of said Houghton County to riot and disturbance; they
have deliberately and intentionally tried to break up and molest the peaceful parades
of the striking employees of the said county of Houghton while walking along the
public highways of said county; that these Waddell-Mahon men have been in prac­
tical control of the sheriff’s office of said county of Houghton and directing the exe­
cution and enforcement of the laws in said county of Houghton; that in transporting
men arrested in said county of Houghton to the county jail the said Waddell-Mahon
men have beaten their prisoners while in automobiles; and that while in the county
jail of said county of Houghton prisoners arrested in connection with said strike have
been unmercifully and cruelly beaten by the said Waddell-Mahon men, all while




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

57

the said prisoners were not obstructing or resisting arrest and while they were behav­
ing as prisoners; that under the direction of, if not by the direct authority of, the
said sheriff the said Waddell-Mahon men have made numerous arrests in said county
of Houghton of men on strike without any cause therefor, and without any evidence
of any offense having been committed by said prisoners; that on many examinations
conducted after the arrest of said prisoners it was found that not a scintilla of evidence
was produced or was in the possession of the said sheriff of said Houghton County or
said Waddell-Mahon men in any way connecting said prisoners with the violation of
any law or the commission of any offense; that many of said strikers have been arrested
for the alleged commission of misdemeanors not in the presence of the said sheriff or
any of his duly authorized deputies, without warrant, contrary to the laws of the
State of Michigan.

A. A. Kerr, attorney for the Western Federation of Miners, quoted
section 2590 of the Compiled Laws of 1897, providing that—
Any sheriff, deputy sheriff, coroner, or constable may require suitable aid in the
service of process m civil or criminal cases, in preserving the peace, etc.

He claimed that the Waddell-Mahon men were virtually acting as
deputy sheriffs, and that this was a violation of section 2596 of the
Compiled Laws of 1897, which provides that no person shall be
appointed deputy sheriff—
except the person to be so appointed shall have been a bona fide resident of the
county in which the appointment is made for three months next preceding the
time of appointment.

Attorney Kerr claimed that the sheriff had gone beyond his author­
ity in calling to his aid persons whom the legislature never intended
should be employed as peace officers. He further claimed that the
records of the Waddell-Mahon men showed that they were not “ suit­
able aid” for the sheriff.
Charles S. Watson, counsel for the sheriff and the Waddell-Mahon
Corporation, claimed that there were allegations in the petition which
were not supported by affidavits. He also argued that the use of
the word “ suitable” in the statute referred not to the moral caliber
of the men but to their number. He insisted that the sheriff had a
perfect right to appoint persons as aids who came from other States.
This petition for an injunction was decided by Judge P. H. O'Brien
on August 23. He decided that under the law persons from outside
the State could not be appointed deputy sheriffs, but that such per­
sons could be appointed as “ aids.” His decision in part follows:
I have come to the conclusion (it may be a little premature) I have no power to
grant this injunction. I would have had the authority to prevent the appointment
of these men as deputy sheriffs, but it appears they are merely training deputy
sheriffs.
The court has no right to pass on the suitability of the officers, but I am inclined
to believe that when a deputy goes beyond his power of duties the court can restrain
him. I have no doubt that if men in the guise of police officers are stirring up riot
and trouble, and that it is probable that these conditions will continue, the court
has a right to enjoin them, even if they were legally appointed. The sheriff under
present conditions has broad power, but men appointed by him should be the ones
to keep the peace, and not to stir up trouble.
I shall expect the sheriff to keep his deputies and others in his employ within the
bounds of their duties. They must not break up peaceful parades. The sheriff
must assist neither the mining companies nor the strikers. This is a time for dis­
cretion, both on the part of the sheriff and the parties involved in the dispute. I
understand the difficulties the sheriff has labored under, and I have confidence in
his good faith. But no one in his office can be employed to break a strike. As long as
we have no arbitration court in which to settle labor disputes, all the officers of the law
can do is to preserve life and property. I regard it as a disgrace to civilization that
no forum has been created for the settlement of these disputes, but as long as no such
forum exists we, as officers of the law, must keep our hands off. I don’t see, without



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BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

passing on this bill, how I can interfere with the sheriff. The law provides a remedy
when the sheriff exceeds his duty, and in this court it will be a real substantial rem­
edy. It ought to be the effort of both parties to this controversy to get together.
We ought to have more Christianity.
There is absolutely no precedent in the courts of this or any other county for such
action as is feeing brought here. As far as I know no such suit has been brought
before. If after more careful study I find the order should be issued, it will be issued.
I may hand down a final ruling and opinion within the coming week.

The intimation by Judge O’Brien that if evidence were brought to
him that the Waddell-Mahon men thereafter stirred up strife and
trouble he would enjoin them, even though they had been legally
appointed as aids, served as a restraint on tnese men, and they did not
serve processes, and for some time were more careful not to incite
persons to violence.
The Waddell men remained in the district for months, and the
county paid to Waddell $5 a day for each of them, and also paid their
traveling expenses and their hotel bills at places in the county where
they were stationed. Receiving $5 a day each for the men, Waddell
paid them $3 a day, making $2 a day on "each man.
Two of the mining companies employed men from Waddell and
themselves paid for these men. In September Waddell w fur­
^as
nishing to the county 52 men, and he furnished to the Copper Range
Consoudated Co. 32 men and to the Quincy Mining Co. 28 men—a
total of 112 in the district. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co, also
employed some Pinkerton men especially as a bodyguard for its
general manager and other officers.
The strikers were much more incensed at the bringing of Waddell
men to the district than they were at the governor for sending soldiers
to the district. They called the Waddell men “ gunmen” and de­
nounced them as “ thugs.” They made a vain appeal to the gov­
ernor to have the Waddell men withdrawn on the ground that these
men were desperate characters, and that to bring men from a distant
State to act as “ aids” to the sheriff was a violation of the law which
rovides that deputy sheriffs should not be appointed unless they
ad been bona fide residents of the county for three months. The
strikers were much more enraged by the employment of these Waddell
men than by any other circumstance that occurred during the whole
T
strike.
At a meeting of the board of supervisors of Houghton County on
August 12, bills were approved which aggregated $9,507, and which
amount was incurred in preserving order during the strike from the
time it began on July 23, to the end of that month. Of this amount
the Waddell-Mahon Corporation of New York received $7,606.38 in
settlement of the salaries of men furnished by that corporation and in
payment of their traveling expenses and hotel bills; $630.50 had
been paid for deputy sheriffs ana $1,270.12 spent for automobile hire.
The supervisors at this meeting adopted resolutions which highly
commended Sheriff James A. Cruse for his action in bringing to the
county men from New York to protect life and property during the
strike. ^ Only one of the supervisors opposed the adoption of these
resolutions. The sheriff was authorized to proceed as before and to
secure and arm such additional deputies as he might consider neces­
sary for the purpose of preserving order.
At a meeting of the board of supervisors on September 9, bills for
August were allowed and ordered paid. These included $10,344.83

E




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

59

for services by Waddell-Mahon men; $4,208.75 for wages of special
deputy sheriffs; $1,504.23 for board of deputies; $27.63 for trans­
portation of deputies; $1,656 for automobile hire for the sheriff and
deputies; and $1,304.33 for revolvers and ammunition, a total of
$19,045.77. The following item is copied from the published pro­
ceedings of the board:
The following amendment was offered by Supervisor Rourke: Moved that all bills
be allowed and ordered paid with the exception of the bills of the Waddeli-Mahon
Corporation and all bills accruing from their employees in Houghton County. There
being no support to the said amendment, the motion was declared of no avail.

The following was published in the local columns of the Houghton
and Calumet Daily Mining Gazette for September 29:
Sheriff Cruse, who returned Friday noon from a conference with Gov. Ferris at
Lansing and thereafter was so busy he could not be seen, mid yesterday that the
conference was an informal affair and resulted in no official action of any sort.
The governor asked for the conference because he thought Sheriff Cruse could tell
him best how the chances are for getting the remaining troops out of the county.
That the chances are not good is evident from the fact that the mounted patrols, the
only guardsmen remaining are prepared for an indefinite stay.
The sheriff says he enjoyed the conference greatly, that he returns with a high
opinion of the governor’s judgment and of the governor personally.
Some of the lower State papers said that the conference resulted in the governor’s
requesting Ihe removal of the Waddell-Mahon men. The sheriff denies this.
The sheriff says that there is much feeling in lower Michigan over the cost of bring­
ing the troops to the copper country, though that some people who look into the situa­
tion calmly consider it was a good investment as it cost little more than twice as much
as one State encampment and gave the men as much experience as half a dozen such
mobilizations.

The board of supervisors of Keweenaw County did not authorize
the employment of Waddell men. On September 1, Sheriff Hep ting
told Maj. A. H. Gansser, commanding a regiment of militia at the Mo­
hawk and Ahmeek mines, that he would not appoint Waddell men
even if he should be ordered by the supervisors to do so. No Waddell
men were employed in Ontonagon County.
A circular, issued by the Waddell-Mahon Corporation, “ an organic
zation that specializes in labor disputes,” and sent to corporations
throughout the country that have large numbers of employees, says:
As an evidence of our ability as strike breakers, we invite your attention to the
labor difficulties now ensuing along the copper range of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan between the Calumet 6c Hecla Copper Co., the Commonwealth Copper
Co., the Quincy Copper Co., et al., and the Western Federation of Miners. In amount
of capital and number of men involved this strike is the most important of the present
year. We point with pardonable pride to the fact that this corporation has been
selected by Sheriff James A. Cruse, of Houghton County—the storm center of tie
strike—to aid him in maintaining the integrity of the law. We are now engaged
in ‘‘ policing” the 1,019 square miles of territory contained in Houghton County.
We are safeguarding the property of the mine owners against intrusion and violence.
We are also protecting the lives and the homes of the 80,098 men, women, and children
of Houghton County against overt acts. The Western Federation of Miners 5 doomed
.3
to inevitable disaster and defeat in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. We make
this prediction at this time, and if you will follow the story of the strike as it appears
in the daily newspapers, and particularly in the Boston News Bureau, the well-known
financial organ, which has a special correspondent on the ground, you will see that
our prediction will be fulfilled aaily. We are sure of defeating the Western Federation
of Miners in this operation because we have met and defeated them before. Last year,
when the agitators of this union sought to paralyze the copper industry of Nevada
and Utah, we were retained by the Utah Copper Co. and the Nevada Consolidated
Copper Co., and broke the great strikes at Bingham Canyon, Utah, and at Ely and
McGill, Nev. We ask yon to watch the progress of the present strike, because we
know it will be a triumph for law and order, a triumph for the mine owners, and will




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

furnisli still another evidence of the succes3 we have always met with in breaking
strikes. We ask you to judge us by results.

On September 29, guards employed through the Ascher Detective
Agency of New York began to arrive in the district. About 30
arrived on that day, 30 on September 30, and 60 on October 1.
They were distributed to the mines of companies subsidiary to the
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. in the upper part of Houghton County.
INJUNCTIONS A G A IN ST PICKETING.

On September 20 Judge P. H. O’Brien, of the State circuit court,
issued an injunction restraining the Western Federation of Miners,
their officers, many of their members who were named, and “ each
and every person affiliated with the said Western Federation of
Miners as a member thereof/’ from committing various acts complained^ of in the bill of complaint filed by the mining companies.
The injunction said the bill stated, among other things, that the
defendants “ are combining and confederating with others to injure
said complainants touching the matters set forth in said bill,” and
that their “ actions and doings in the premises are contrary to law,
equity, and good conscience.” The injunction commanded the
defendants, “ their aiders, abettors, agents, counsellors, and all others”
acting with them to desist and refrain—
From in any manner interfering with, molesting, or disturbing any person or persons
now in the employ of said complainants above mentioned or any of them, and from in
any manner interfering with, molesting, or disturbing any person or persons who may
desire to enter the employment of the said complainants, or any of them, by way of
threats, personal violence, intimidation, or by any means whatsoever, calculated
or intended to prevent, against their will, such persons or any of them from enter­
ing or continuing in the employment of said complainants or any of them, or calcu­
lated or intended to induce, against their will, any employees of said complainants, or
any of them, to leave the employment of said complainants, or any of them, or to desist
or refrain from working for said complainants, or any of them, either temporarily or
permanently.
From “ picketing” in or about or in the vicinity of the mines, works, properties, or
premises or any thereof of the said complainants or any of them, or on or near the high­
ways or ways used by the employees of said complainants or any of them, in passing
to or from their work, or at or near or in the locality of the homes or residences of the
said employees or any of them.^
From in any manner interfering with the free access of the employees of said com­
plainants or any of them from their homes to the premises of said complainants or any
of them, and the free return of said employees to their homes.
From gathering and parading in large numbers or in any numbers at or in the vicin­
ity of the premises of said complainants or any of them, or on the highways or other
ways along and over which the employees of said complainants or any of them pass to
or from their work or about or in the vicinity of the localities of the homes or residences
of the said employees or any of them, during the morning or evening hours when the
employees of said complainants or any of them, are going to or returning from their
work.
From impeding, obstructing, molesting, or disturbing the employees of the said
complainants or any of them by threats, violence, insults, gatherings, parades, or any
form of intimidation whatsoever, or by any acts of any kind calculated or intended
as or for intimidation of the said employees or any of them.
From doing any other act or thing whatsoever in furtherance of any combination or
conspiracy to cause the employees of complainants or any of them, or any other person,
against their will, to desist or refrain from working in the employment of the said
complainants or any of them.
All of which we strictly command you to observe until the further order of this
court in the premises.

Judge O’Brien was severely criticised in the Miners’ Bulletin and
by members of the Western Federation of Miners for issuing this



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

61

injunction. The order that was most criticised was that forbidding
picketing even when no force was used, and this order, it was claimed,
was contrary to judicial decisions elsewhere which permitted peace­
ful picketing during strikes. The injunction, however, was obeyed
by the strikers, and they discontinued picketing parades until
September 29, when on application of the defendants Judge O’Brien
dissolved the injunction. Thereafter there were early morning
picketing parades in various locations throughout the district.
On October 8, on application of the mining companies, the State
supreme court reinstated and continued in force the injunction
which Judge O’Brien had issued on September 20 and had dissolved
on September 29. The supreme court order modified Judge
O’Brien’s injunction to the extent that peaceful meetings and parad­
ing were not prohibited. On the same date the supreme court
issued an order to Judge O’Brien to attend a hearing on November 4
to show cause why a mandamus overruling his writ dissolving the
injunction should not be issued against him. This order of the
supreme court was secured by Allen F. Rees, attorney for the Calumet
& Hecla and subsidiary companies, and acting attorney for the other
companies.
On October 23 Judge P. H. O’Brien issued an order to the deputy
sheriff, undersheriff, and all deputy sheriffs of Houghton County.
The order said that it had been made to appear to the court that the
order of the supreme court, dated October 8, had been • openly dis­
“
regarded and ignored” by the defendants, the Western Federation
of Miners or members thereof; that except in a few instances the
names of the persons who had violated the order could not be identi­
fied or their names learned, and that it had been made to appear to
the court that further violations of the supreme court’s order might
be committed by persons unknown and unidentified. Judge O’Brien
continued:
Therefore, you, the said sheriff of the said county of Houghton, the undersheriff of
said county, and all deputy sheriffs of the said county of Houghton, are hereby di­
rected and' commanded that, with such power and assistance as may be necessary to
use, you, and each of you, do enforce the said writ of injunction and order of the
court in the premises, by preventing violations of the said writ of injunction and of
each and every provision thereof, and further that you, the said sheriff, undersheriff,
and deputies, and all such assistants as may be deemed necessary by you, to that end,
do attach the bodies of the defendants, members of the said Western Federation of
Miners, or others enjoined and restrained by the said writ of injunction according to
the terms and provisions thereof, who may be found by you, or any of you, and in the
view of you, or any of you, in acts of violation of the said writ of injunction, and forth­
with, or as soon thereafter as may be, to bring the persons whose bodies are so attached,
before the said court to answer "for such misconduct.
And you are further directed and commanded that in the event that such persons
whose bodies may be attached by virtue of this order, cannot, for any reason, be brought
forthwith before said court, that each of such persons whose bodies maybe so attached,
be let to bail by the said sheriff in the sum of $200, conditioned for his appearancs
before the said court upon the first day upon which said court shall thereafter be in
session.

Under a blanket writ issued by Judge O’Brien at midnight October
23 the militia and deputy sheriffs arrested 141 men at Allouez mine
and 68 at the Mohawk mine, on the charge of violating the order
of the supreme court. The men were brought on street cars to
Houghton and a hearing was set for the afternoon of the day of their
‘arrest, October 24. A. A. Kerr, attorney for the Western Federa­
tion ol Miners, objected to the proceedings, and moved that the men



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B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be dismissed. He called the proceedings an attempt to imprison
men before proof of guilt. The names of many of the defendants
being unknown to the officers the court stated that they should
answer to their names at the call of the sheriff. Judge O’Brien an­
nounced that he would permit them to go on their own recognizance,
but that he did not believe bail was necessary and that he did not
intend to punish any man in advance of a hearing. He also directed
that in future violations of the injunction the sheriff could arrest the
violators and then release them on their own recognizance to appear
in court at a stated time. He further said:
I
think the court has the power to enforce its decrees by the method adopted in
this case. There may be no authorities precedent, but it does not follow that the
power does not exist in the court. Under the showing it seemed to me that if the
injunction was to be enforced at all some process similar to this must be adopted.
This is a supreme court injunction and this court must enforce it, laying aside what­
ever the private opinion of this court may be. There is no doubt that the injunction
will be enforced. ^ It is the duty of every citizen and inhabitant to obey it not merely
in letter but in spirit. Law and order must be maintained or the Hepublie can not last.
The men on strike are most interested in showing they are law-abiding citizens and
willing to do their duty as citizens and the inhabitants of thia county.

Addressing the men arrested at Allouez, Judge O’Brien said:
This court does not want to interfere with your liberty, but order and liberty should
go hand in hand. The working class should respect thi3 injunction. Do not interfere
with men going to work. They have that right and the court will protect them in it.
Respect the writ. I ask you to bear this in mind and tell tlie other strikers. Law
and order come before even the solution of this industrial problem.

The 141 men who had been arrested at Allouez were then dismissed
and there was a hearing of the men arrested at Mohawk. In addressing
these men, the judge repeated in substance what he had told the men
arrested at Allouez, and said, u You are permitted to parade, but you
must not interfere with men going to work.” He warned them, say­
ing: “ The supremo court says you have no right to picket. Whether
this order is right or wrong, obey it. You have no right to call men
scabs” ; and further said, “ You should recognize the absolute futility
of attempting to evade the injunction.”
On November 9 the militia arrested 99 strikers and women i:i
Calumet, on the charge of violating the injunction.
STRIK E BitBAKEFvS BROUGHT IN.

In September mining was done by the three largest companies, the
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., the Copper Range Consolidated Co.,
and the Quincy Mining Co. At all of the other mines work was still
entirely suspended. At the Quincy mines the number that returned
to work was comparatively small. At the Copper Range mines there
was a larger number, and at the Calumet & Hecla mines a much
larger number. By the end of September the production of the
Calumet & Hecla mines was stated by company officials to be 40 per
cent of the normal output, but officials of the Western Federation
of Miners alleged that this statement was much exaggerated.
The first strike breakers brought into the district were brought by
the Quincy Mining Co., and arrived at Hancock on the morning of
September 19. These men were engaged by the Austro-American
Labor Agency, 89 First Street, New York. They were Germans, and
few of them could read English. The “ statement of labor contract”



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

63

furnished to each showed that they were engaged to work under­
ground in copper mines for the Quincy Mining Co., at $2.50 per day,
9 hours a day, and each was to pay the company, out of his earnings
during the first six months, the cost of his transportation from New
York, $24.50. Following is a copy of the “ contract” :
[Telephone, Orchard 36S5. Frank & Nemerofsky, Props. Austro-American Labor Agency.
Street, near First Street “ L ” Station, New York.)

59 Firs!;

STATEM ENT OF LABOR CONTRACT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 700 OF THE LAW S O ?

1910.

Name of employer..................... .................. Quincy Mining Co.1
Address of employer................................... 32 Broadway, N. Y .1
Name of employee..................................... Mike Thomas.2
Address of employee.................................. 152 Ridge.2
Nature of work to be performed.............. Untorirdiech in der Kupfer Mine.1
Hours of labor............................................. 9.1
Wages offered...............................................$2.50 per tag.1
Destination of persons employed.............. Hancock, Mich.1
Terms of transportation.............................. $24.50 abezorgen, nach 6 monathe returniert.1
Remarks....................................................... Strike,1 50 cents per month for doctor.3
If more than one person is engaged, a list of names and addresses will be found
attached.
New York, 9/16 1
1913 \
English, German, Hungarian, Slovak, Italian, Swedish, Polish.
Rest of contract printed.

Identical contracts were seen by an agent of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. None of them were signed, but all of them bore the fol­
lowing names and addresses written in pencil and apparently in the
same handwriting:
Mike Thomas, 152 Ridge.
Emil Rein, 323 Wash.
Horace Joseph, 343 23d St.
Joseph Kuerfers, 323 Wash.
Franz Isigkeit, 323 Wash.
Franz Mock, Essex St.

Karl Kamp, 323 Wash.
Karl Niermann, 323 Wash.
Adolf Rosenfeld, 3 St.
Lorenz Mascher, 323 Wash.
Karl Werner, 323 Wash.
Paul Schmidt, 323 Wash.

The items on the “ contract” were printed in seven different lan­
guages, but the blanks were filled out in German, most of them by
typewriting, but the word “ strike” was written in English, probably
to comply with the law in New York, but evidently intended to de­
ceive the Germans who could not read English.
Thirty-seven men started from New York, but six of them left the
train on the way to Hancock. The 31 who arrived at Hancock
reached there in a car over a spur track to the Quincy mines at 2 a. in.,
September 19. According to an admission of Charles L. Lawton,
general manager of the Quincy Mining Co., made to an agent of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, they were kept confined in the railroad
coach several hours. Then they were escorted to a shaft house by
soldiers and Waddell men. Gen. P. L. Abbey and other officers of
the National Guard were present. There were present also a largo
body of strikers near enough to be seen by the newcomers.
On the same day, before any of the men from New York went to
work, 14 of them broke away from the mine and went to some of the
strikers and told them that they had not known that they were coming
i Typewritten.




2 Written in pencil.

64

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to a place where there was a strike, and did not know it until they
arrived and saw the soldiers and in the background the strikers.
The 14 men went to the headquarters of the federation in Hancock,
where they made the same statements, and 12 of them put the statement in the form of an affidavit, a copy of which follows:
o f M i c h i g a n , County o f Houghton, ss:
We, the undersigned, depose and say that we have been hired by the AustroAmerican Agency, New York City, to work in the mines of the Quincy Mining Co.,
at Hancock, Mich., with the understanding that there is no strike on in the district.
On September 19, 1913, at our arrival to Hancock, we were locked into a coach from
2 o’clock a. m. until quarter after 4 o’clock, and then we were taken to the Quincy
mine location. On September 19,1913, we seen by the thousands of strikers parading
on the county road. Then we found out that we were hired under misrepresentation
by the agency who shipped us here. And furthermore say that we were not held
by the Western Federation of Miners at their headquarters at Kansankoti Hall. Han­
cock, Mich., against our will or any other way, and that we are not willing to work
in the Quincy mine while the strike is on, and therefore we came to the Kansankoti
Hall to get protection against the Quincy Mining Co., as we were in the belief that
we would be forced to work in the mines under conditions against our will.
Deponents further saith not.

St a t e

A dolf R o s e n f e l d .
K arl K am p.
M ik e T h o m a s .
E m il R e i n .
B r im o J a c o b s .
K arl W e r n e r .

Jo s e f C u r v e r z .
Fr a n k M ock.
K ar l N ie r m a n n .
P a u l S c h m id t .
F r a n k Ls i v k e i t .
L o r e n z M a s c iie r .

Witnesses.
Jo h n K h s k i l a .
W il l ia m K a n g a s .
A n d r e w P y h t il a .

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 20t.h day of September, A. D. 1913.
Jo h n K

iis k il a ,

Notary Public, Houghton County, Mich.
My commission expires November 17, 1916.

Several armed Waddell men came to the federation hall to find the
men who had left the mine. The Waddell men raised quite a dis­
turbance and arrested one man, but they did not find the men they
wanted, as these men, apprehending trouble, had left the village.
During the latter part of September strike breakers were engaged
through the Austro-American Labor Agency, 28 South Canal Street,
Chicago, and the Chicago Commissary Co. and Employment Agency,
642 West Madison Street, Chicago. On September 29 an affidavit
was made by 24 men employed through the Austro-American Labor
Agency for the Quincy Mining Co. They swore that the agent of
the agency informed them that there was no trouble or strike at the
place where they were to work, that on arrival at the Quincy mine
they were guarded by deputies and soldiers and not permitted to
leave the bunk house and boarding house at the mine, and that they
were otherwise mistreated. The affidavit follows:
o f M i c h i g a n , County o f Houghton, ss:
We, the undersigned, being duly sworn, depose and say that we reside in the city
of Chicago, State of Illinois; that we went into the Austrian-American Employment
Agency and the agent asked us if we ever worked in the copper mines. We told
him that some of us worked in the coal mines of Pennsylvania. We asked him whether
there was any trouble or strike in the district where he was going to ship us, and he
answered us that there was no trouble or strike in the district, and told us to come
into his office at 4 o’clock in the afternoon. At 4 p. m. he told us that he had a good

St a t e




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

65

railroad job for us that would pay $2.10 to $2.50 a day, and the board would cost us
$4 a week, and the company would pay us every two weeks. Then he handed us a
slip of paper and said: “ If you don’t like to work in the mines, you can work on sur­
face or on railroad.’ ’
On the 25th day of September, 1913, we left Chicago, 111., and arrived on the fol­
lowing Friday, and were met by eight soldiers, who came into the car at Quincy Mills,
to our best information. We asked the agent who accompanied us what the soldiers
came to meet us for, and he said, “ Don’t be afraid.” When we arrived at the board­
ing house we were presented a piece of paper for our signatures, and we inquired of
the employment agent why we were to sign our names on the paper, and we were
informed that we were to sign the pledge not to join or belong to any labor union or
unions.
On Friday, the day of our arrival, we did not go down into the mine to work, but
we were taken underground on Saturday following, and we worked underground
shoveling rock and dirt and pushing big heavy cars; we were frequently told to get
busy and get more on the cars; that the other miners had filled 16 cars per day.
We were told to work again, but we refused to do so, because we had found out
that there was a strike, and we did not come to break the strike.
We further depose and say that our breakfast consisted of two boiled eggs, two
slices of bread, and a cup of water supposed to be coffee; and our dinner consisted of
two cheese sandwiches, a couple of soda crackers, and a cup of colored water supposed
to be coffee; and our supper consisted of tomato soup, potatoes, two pieces of hamburg steak, boiled beans, and a cap of so-called coffee. And we further depose and
say that we were fed like a bunch of dogs.
On Sunday morning there were some scrambled eggs placed at one end of the table,
and the fellows at that end ate them all, and the rest of us at the other end of the table
did not get anything but bread and so-called coffee, and we asked for more eggs from
the deputy, and we were told by him that “ If you are not satisfied, you can go to
hell.”
After that we went upstairs and the deputy followed us, and one of us went to talk
to him and he pulled him down from the step outside and punched and beat him.
After he was done with the fellow he jumped on one Meyer, and the said deputy
was not able to lick him and went to get eight more deputies in the boarding house,
and when they came in one of them shot in the house through the ceiling, and then
he hit Meyer on his forehead with a gun and told him to wash his head, which was
bleeding, and he answered and said that he was not going to do it and wanted to show
it to the superintendent of the mine, but he was taken into the doctor’s office to dress
his wound.
On Monday morning we were going to work to earn enough money to get back,
but when we found out that in our dinner pails there was only a piece of stinking
bologna, two slices of bread, an apple, three soda crackers, and so-called coffee, we
told them that we were not going to work, because we were hungry and did not have
enough to eat in order to work, and have found out for sure that there is a strike in the
district and did not want to be strike breakers.
We further depose and say, that on Monday we were confined in the boarding house,
guarded by deputies, and kept as prisoners. The superintendent of the mine came
and told us that if we would go to work the company will furnish us good board and
lodging. We told him that we don’t want to work. After that he took our names and
requested us to go to work again, but we refused. Then the guards started to make
trouble again. They passed all kinds of remarks and told us to go back if we had good
shoes to walk with, and we answered and said that we are going to walk back, but we
are not going to work as long as there is a strike.
The superintendent told us to wait until 4 o’clock in the afternoon in order to pay us.
He came into the bunk house, made us lino up one by one in the bunk house and let
us enter in order to pass into the boarding house, and he handed us an empty envelope.
Then we were taken by bunches of five outside of the boarding house ana our pictures
were taken and we were told to get out of there. We met a fellow on the road who
took us into the union hall.
We further depose and say that we were guarded by deputies and soldiers in said
bunk house and boarding house and were not permitted to go anywhere out of said
bunk house and boardinghouse, against our will, and were like prisoners while we were
at Quincy mine.
Albert Meyer, Stenly Deds, John Portko, Stenly Buttons, Pit Edort, Adam
Lurick, Stulioz Buskoz, Frank Drzesviecki, Henry Heorft, Fred Miller,
Otto Jaspr, Mik Smith, Pete Morris, Tam Wazle, Golm Kurta, Frank
Fhishel, Joo Remen, Chas. Marks, Styf Supski, Wm. Thomas, Alfred
Funkel, John Pisolko, Adam Kuiig, John Bielash.
29848°—Bull. 139—14------5



66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Subscribed and sworn to before me, a notary public, in and for Houghton County,
Michigan, this 29th day of September, A. D. 1913.
John K h skila ,

Notary Public, Houghton County, Mich.
My commission expires November 17, 1916.

At the same time the following affidavit was made by seven men
employed through the Chicago Commissary Co. & Employment
Agency for the Quincy Mining Co.:
of M ichigan , County of Houghton, ss:
We, the undersigned, being duly sworn, depose and say, that we reside in the city
of Chicago, State of Illinois. That we went into the Chicago Commissary Co. &
Employment Agency inquiring if there was any work to be had and we were informed
that there is work in Michigan, either in the mines or on the railroad. We asked is
there any trouble or strike in the district and were informed that there was no labor
trouble or strike in that district, and we were promised to be paid at the rate of $2.50
a day, board would cost $5 a week, and the company pay every two weeks.

State

Stani S k in e r ,
F r a n k F vode ,
E mil B r a u n ,
Y achnal M iller ,
F red B a u e r ,
Z ot B olefski ,
T om Z acki .

Subscribed and sworn to before me, a notary public in and for Houghton County,
Mich., this 29th day of September, A. D. 1913.
John K h sk ila ,

Notary Public, Houghton County, Mich.
My commission expires November 17,1916.

The Houghton and Calumet Daily Gazette of October 1 said:
The strike breakers imported by the Quincy during the past two weeks all quit work
yesterday morning and were paid off. They numbered about 75 and they all walked
off the location toward Hancock as soon as paid. Just what their intentions are could
not be learned yesterday afternoon.

During October many strike breakers were brought in by the Calu­
met & Hecla Mining Co., and some for other companies. Some of
these men came from western points by way of Duluth, but most of
them came from Chicago. The Houghton and Calumet Daily Ga­
zette of October 28 said that over 1,200 new men had been brought
into the district up to that time.
The following affidavit was made October 28 by men that were
brought from Fargo, N. Dak.:
op H oughton , State o f Michigan, $s:
Barney McAllister and John McManus, being first duly sworn, depose and say that
they are residents of Fargo, N. Dak; that on the 21st day of October, 1913, they went to
the Western Employment Agency office in Fargo, where they could get a ticket to the
Michigan mines for $2. They only intended to go as far as Superior, Wis., where they
intended to stay. 4 One of the deputies at the station stepped up to us and we told him
*
we wanted to get something to eat and would like to stay over night as wo were tired.”
He said, drawing his gun: “ You have to go to Calumet.” Then we were taken to the
cars. We were guarded until we got to Calumet where the train stopped. \7e were
taken from the cars by five or six deputies, put in an auto and taken to one of the
mining camps.
Deponents further saith not.

County

John M cMa n u s .
B. M cA llister .

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a notary public, this 28th day of October,
1913.
John M al n a r , Notary Public.
My commission expires June 13, 1915.



67

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.
VIOLENCE DU RIN G THE STRIK E.

After the rioting which occurred on the first two days of the strike,
when 16 men who tried to go to work were injured by the strikers
badly enough for hospital treatment, there was but little disorder for
three weeks, or until the middle of August, when work was resumed
to some extent in the mines of the three largest companies. Com­
plaints were made by men who had not joined the Western Federation
of Miners that they had been threatened by federation men with
bodily injury if they should return to work, and some men who had
joined the federation asserted that they had by threats been coerced
into joining it and that they were ready to give up their membership
cards. Unquestionably some men were intimidated by members of
the federation.
The situation was so quiet during the first three weeks of the strike
that on August 11 the two batteries of artillery and one of the brass
bands were sent home. From this time the military forcewas gradually
reduced from the original number, 2,565, to about 500 in the latter
part of September. The soldiers were not held in high esteem by the
strikers, but were not execrated so much as were the Waddell “ gun­
men ” or the deputy sheriffs, who were regarded as scabs.” The
soldiers at first guarded the properties of the mining companies,
though the strikers showed no disposition to injure property. As
the soldiers were gradually sent home and as the number of deputies
was increased, the duty of protecting property was left almost entirely
to the deputies, and tne soldiers gave most of their attention to fol­
lowing parades of strikers to see that men who wanted to go to work
were not prevented. When work was resumed at some of the mines
only day shifts worked, and the strikers got out in large numbers
early every morning to meet the men going to work and try to per­
suade them not to work. If persuasion failed, the men were denounced
as “ scabs” and traitors to tne cause of labor. If they could not thus
be intimidated, they were in some cases roughly handled or beaten.
As much as possible the soldiers and deputies stopped the disorder
that occurred during this early morning “ picketing.” Crowds of
strikers were kept constantly on the move, and the picketing parades
were closely attended by the soldiers. Frequently these parades were
led by women, and a number of them were arrested for abusing men
going to work, grabbing their dinner pails or otherwise creating a dis­
turbance. Fifteen women were arrested one morning in Laurium vil­
lage. Arrests were made under act 163, Public Laws of 1867, Com­
piled Laws of 1897, section 11343, as follows:

“

(11343.) That if any person or persons shall, by threats, intimidations, or other­
wise, and without authority of law, interfere with, or in any way molest, or attempt
to interfere with, or in any way molest, or disturb, without such authority, any me­
chanic or other laborer in the quiet and peaceable pursuit of his lawful avocation,
such person or persons shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction
by a court of competent jurisdiction shall be severally punished by fine of not less
than $10 nor more than $100, or by imprisonment in the county jail where the offense
shall have been committed, not less than one month nor more than one year, or by
both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court; but if such punishment
be by fine, the offender shall be imprisoned in such jail until the same be paid, not
exceeding 90 days.

Neither the soldiers nor the deputy sheriffs interfered with the
parades after the hour men went to work in the mines unless they
considered there were signs of disorder. In a number if instances,



68

BULLETIN OJ? THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

however, clashes occurred on the streets between the soldiers and
crowds of strikers, and in some cases the strikers were dispersed at
the points of bayonets, or by mounted soldiers riding through the
crowds. Gen. Abbey justified this breaking up of crowds by the riot
law of the State, sections 11334 to 11341 of the Compiled Laws of
1897. The first three sections follow:
(11334) S e c t io n 1. If any persons to the number of 12 or more, being armed with
clubs or other dangerous weapons, or if any persons to the number of 30 or more,
whether armed or not, shall be unlawfully, riotously, or tumultuously assembled in
any city, township, or village, it shall be the duty of the mayor and each of the alder­
men of such city, the supervisor of such township, the president and each of the trus­
tees or members of the common council of such village, and of every justice of the
peace living in such city, township, or village, and also of the sheriff of the county
and his deputies, to go among the persons so assembled, or as near to them as may be
with safety, and in the name of the people of this State to command all the persons
so assembled immediately and peaceably to disperse.
(11335) S e c . 2. If the persons so assembled shall not, upon being so commanded,
thereupon immediately and peaceably disperse, it shall be the duty of each of said
magistrates and officers to command the assistance of all persons there present in
seizing, arresting, and securing in custody the persons so unlawfully assembled so
that they may be proceeded against for their offenses according to law.
(11336) S e c . 3. If any person present, being commanded by any of the magistrates
or officers aforesaid to aid and assist in seizing and securing such rioters or persons
eo unlawfully assembled, or in suppressing such riot or unlawful assembly, shall refuse
or neglect to obey such command, or when required by any such magistrate or officer
to depart from the place of such riotous or unlawful assembly shall refuse or neglect
so to do, he shall be deemed to be one of the rioters or persons unlawfully assembled,
and shall be liable to be prosecuted and punished accordingly.

General Order No. 1, issued by Maj. A. H. Gansser, commanding
the Third Regiment of Infantry, and dated Mohawk, Mich., August
31, contained the following item:
With the reduction of our military forces in the copper mines strike zonet the
officers and men of this command are urged to redouble their vigilance, mindful of
our mission, “ To assist the civil authorities in the preservation of law and order
and the safeguarding of life and property,” mindful, too, that we are to perform this
duty with firmness and kindness. Gen. Abbey directs that hostile crowds of more
than 30 are to be peaceably dispersed. Rioters refusing to disperse are to be arrested,
whether men, women, or children; this is to apply also to guard lines about mine
properties.

The soldiers were not kept under proper discipline. One of the
first orders issued by Gen. Abbey, General Order No. 3, dated July
26, 1913, provided:
Where such commanders of regiments find conditions warrant they may excuse
applicants for limited time only. Not more than one man from any company, troop,
or battery may be excused at the same time.

Gen. Abbey himself admitted that this order was not enforced.
The result was that crowds of privates were daily seen on the streets;
they visited saloons, and many of them became intoxicated, and some
carried revolvers while they were in an intoxicated condition. They
were reported to have visited disorderly houses.
On the night of August 12 a miner, a member of the Western Fed­
eration of Miners, was shot by a corporal near the Quincy mine
because of neglect to obey an order to halt. The bullet took: effect
in one of his knees and in the calf of his other leg. Later during the
same night a private was waylaid by an unknown person at South
Kearsarge, and he was so badly beaten on the head that he was uncon­
scious for several hours. On August 13 a private, who had been




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

69

kicked by a cavalry horse 10 days previously, died. No other sol­
diers were injured during the strike.
At Painesdale, about 5.30 p. m. on August 15, John Kollan, a
striker, attempted to go to his boarding house by a short-cut path
which had been used before the strike. A deputy sheriff, an em­
ployee of the Copper Range Consolidated Co., warned him not to go
that way, and after a parley he went on. The deputy later asserted
that Kollan threatened him, but this was -denied. The deputy
reported the matter to the man in charge of the Waddell men, and
they decided to arrest Kollan on a charge of intimidation. Two
deputies and four Waddell men then went to the boarding house.
One of them laid his hand on Kollan’s shoulder and told him he was
arrested, but he broke away and ran into the house. Several other
men who were playing tenpins in the yard also ran in the house, and
it is claimed that one of the deputies was hit in the head by a tenpin.
Thereupon the Waddell men and deputies surrounded the house on
two sides and began firing at the inmates through three windows on
one side and the back door. They claim that a shot was fired from
the house. When the firing began there were 15 people in the house,
including two women and four children. Four men were shot, and a
baby in its mother's arms was powder burned. Firing continued
until the six men had exhausted the bullets in their revolvers. One
of the men in the house, Diazig Tizan, was killed instantly, and one
of the wounded men, Steve Putrict, died the next day. Another one
of the wounded men was shot while he was sitting at a table eating
supper. Neighbors later testified that the Waddell men and depu­
ties, after shooting up the house, went into the street and gathered
up stones and empty bottles and put them around the house to indi­
cate that they had been used as missiles against them. These men
then made a complete search of the house to find weapons, but did
not find any. If a bullet was fired from the house no trace of it could
be found, but the tracks of many bullets fired into the house were
found in the walls.
Anthony Lucas, prosecuting attorney of Houghton County, visited
the scene of the shooting, and after an investigation denounced it as
wanton murder, and called upon the sheriff, James A. Cruse, to
arrest all of the six men. The sheriff, however, allowed them all to
escape and for several days their whereabouts were unknown. They
fled to an adjoining county, and an attorney called on Lucas and
told him that they would be returned if the charge against them
was reduced from murder in the first degree. Lucas refused to com­
promise,. and at the inquest the next week the men were present.
After the inquest all six of them were indicted by a justice of the
peace (who acts in such cases as a grand jury in other States) for
murder in the second degree. # The bond of each of the six men was
placed at $5,000 for the indictment in each of two cases, making
$10,000 bond required for each, and in default of bail they were
committed to jan to await trial. Afterwards they were liberated
on bail.
On Sunday, August 17, when Diazig Tizan and Steve Putrict were
buried, there was a great#
funeral parade of strikers at Calumet, and
at the cemetery Federation leaders made speeches denouncing the




70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

brutality of the Waddell men and deputy sheriffs. In the parade
were displayed placards bearing the following inscriptions:
In memory of our murdered brothers.
Our Lord said: Do not take what you can not give.
Give not thy boughs of cedar; give back my life, oh thugs.

As a result of a clash between deputy sheriffs and a body of strikers
and women, a girl 14 years of age, named Margaret Frazakas, daughter
of a widow, was shot in the nead, at Nortn Kearsarge. An early
morning picket parade of strikers, women, and children, from 150 to
200 in all, took place there on September 2. The soldiers prevented
them from going near the mine, but while the soldiers were at
breakfast the parade was stopped by 15 deputy sheriffs. When this
occurred the paraders were going away from the mine and toward a
county road, about 300 yards distant. The women and children
were in front of the crowd when they were halted by the deputies at
a crossroads. Epithets were passed between the crowd and the
deputies, but no stones were thrown, clubs used, or arms fired, until
the deputies began firing, and no shots were fired except by them.
One of the deputies, a mine captain (foreman) gave the order to fire,
and all of the deputies fired until they emptied their revolvers, about
90 shots in all. One of the first snots struck Margaret Frazakas
down, but marvelously no other person was hit. The course of three
bullets in a house on the corner showed that some of the shots were
low’ enough to have struck persons, and one of the shots that pierced
the side of the house came within a foot or two of hitting a man and
child inside. Doubtless, however, many of the shots were fired in
the air, else it is hard to account for only one person being injured.
The girl was struck above the right ear by a bullet, and part of her
brains oozed out. For days she was supposed to be fatally wounded.
She was taken to the hospital at Laurium, where she remained for
weeks. Her recovery was considered to be one of the most remark­
able instances of the kind on record.
The deputies, after they had emptied their revolvers, did not take
time to reload, but started to run, and they were pursued by the
strikers, who not until then began to throw stones at them. They
have not yet been brought to trial.
In Keweenaw County, where there are two mines, and where the
Western Federation of Miners was very strongly organized, there
was but little disorder during the first two months of the strike.
John Hepting, the sheriff, had only a few deputies, and those he
appointed at first were members of the Western federation of Miners.
In July the local union of the federation granted written permission
for members of the federation to continue as firemen at Mohawk and
Ahmeek mines, to keep the pumps operating for the purpose of
affording fire protection and providing electric lights at those mine
locations. Trouble arose later at the Mohawk mine when the manage­
ment attempted to require a master mechanic to attend the com­
pressor pump for pumping out the water that was accumulating in
the mine. The management brought nonfederation men from the
company’s stamp mill at Gay, 18 miles distant, to act as firemen.
These men were intimidated by the strikers and left Mohawk because
they deemed it was unsafe for them to remain there. At Ahmeek
also the federation firemen were withdrawn.




71

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

When the first Ascher men were brought in on the night of Sep­
tember 29 some shooting occurred. They were brought in in a Pull­
man car to Ahmeek mine. Sheriff John Hepting and Prosecuting
Attorney J. A. Hamilton of Keweenaw County investigated this
shooting and reached the conclusion that the first shots were fired
by men within the car. Thereupon they withdrew the blanket gun
license which had been issued to the Ahmeek Mining Co. permitting
employees of the company to carry arms. The prosecuting attorney
stated that when these licenses had been issued the officers of the
company had given a verbal promise to supply him with the names
of those to be armed. He had required this promise^ because ho
feared that the company might bring in men from outside and arm
them. These terms had not been kept by the company and there­
fore the license was revoked.
Gen. Abbey summoned the sheriff and prosecuting attorney to
appear before him and expostulated with them about their with­
drawal of the license for the guards at Ahmeek mine and said that
this action would force the mine watchmen to carry their weapons
openly. The result was the telegram to the governor, which follows:
E a g l e R i v e r , M ic h .,

Hon.

October 2,1913,

N. F e r r i s ,
Governor, Lansing, Mich.
D e a r S i r : Due to the stirring conditions existing in Allouez Township since Mon­
day evening, Setember 29,1 find the situation is entirely beyond my control. Private
citizens passing along the county road through said township have been fired upon
from ambush and after careful investigation have been unable to apprehend any of
the offenders. Several persons have been shot—no one seriously injured as yet. At
a special meeting of the board of supervisors, called this day for discussion of this
matter, with advice of prosecuting attorney and board of supervisors, I deemed
it advisable to notify you and ask your aid in handling the situation, which is beyond
my control.
W.

Jo h n H

e p t in g ,

Sheriff.
A. H a m i l t o n ,
Prosecuting Attorney.
F. X . K a i s e r ,
Clerk.
J.

S . R . S m it h ,

Supervisor, Allouez Township.
W

esley

Cl a r k e ,

Supervisor, Eagle Harbor Township.
D . L. V i v i a n ,
Supervisor, Sherman Township.

During October there was more disorder than during previous
months. Most of it occurred at Allouez and other mines in the north­
ern end of Houghton County and at Ahmeek and Mohawk mines in
the southern end of Keweenaw County. On October 3, 24 artillery­
men were sent to Ahmeek, which increased the military force in
Keweenaw County to 75 mounted men. On October 6 a clerk em­
ployed by the Ahmeek Mining Co., while passing a group of the
strikers, was shot at twice. The second shot passed through his
body. He stated that there were about 10 men in the party that
fired on him, and that they fled when he fell. On October 15 Sheriff
Hepting wrote to Gov. Ferris that in all Keweenaw County he was
able to find only five men who would stand by him as deputies,
protect the men who wanted to go back to work, and prevent violence.



72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

He also said that he would be powerless without the aid of the troops,
and without them the mines could not be operated.
On the morning of October 8 Deputy Sheriff James M. Pollack,
ir., was found in an unconscious and dying condition on the sidewalk
leading from Houghton to Hurontown. He had a number of wounds
in his scalp and a bullet hole in his head. He lived less than two
hours ana never regained consciousness. On the same morning
Joseph Minerich, bleeding profusely from a wound in the abdomen,
walked into a boarding house at Hurontown. He was taken to a
hospital in Hancock and died the night of October 9. Until his
death he maintained that no one else was implicated in the shooting.
However, nine men suspected of having been with Minerich at the
time of the shooting were arrested on the charge of murder. One of
these men, named Luka Pease, a brother-in-law of Minerich, is alleged
to have made a statement that he, Minerich, and another man were
walking on the sidewalk toward Houghton, that Minerich said some­
thing to Pollack which Pease did not hear, that thereupon Pollack
shot Minerich in the stomach, and that while Pease was holding Pol­
lack the latter was shot by Minerich. At the inquest a physician
testified that in his opinion Pollack would not have been able to
shoot anyone after he received the shot in his own brain. The case
against the nine men arrested was set for hearing on October 29 before
Judge Little.
On October 23, 35 strike breakers were brought to Calumet.
While the train was stopped at Hancock, snowballs and stones
were thrown at the car conveying the men. All the windows in
this car and some in other cars were broken. Seven men charged
with stoning the train were arrested. One of them was Dan Sul­
livan, president of District Union No. 16, Western Federation of
Miners.
The newspapers reported several alleged attempts to wreck rail­
road trains m various parts of Houghton County by means of rails
being spread or dynamite being placed on the tracks. This tam­
pering with the tracks caused no injury, and the Miner’s Bulletin
claimed that it had been done to prejudice the public against the
strikers, and that it was significant tnat the locomotive engineers
knew just where to stop before running into danger. These inci­
dents occurred after the agent of the Bureau of Labor Statistics had
left the district.
In Ontonagon County, where there are several small mines, the
Western Federation of Miners was even more strongly organized
than it was in, Keweenaw County. As no mine workers tried to go
back to work in Ontonagon County, there was no disorder of any
kind until the middle of October, when the Winona mine was re­
opened. The sheriff appointed only a few special deputies, and
they were members of the federation.
Considering the number of men involved in the strike, the length
of time the struggle was continued, and the bitterness caused by
bringing soldiers and Waddell men to the district, the strike was
remarkably peaceful. The only persons killed were two of the
strikers, who were wantonly shot down by Waddell men and depu­
ties at Painesdale, and a deputy and striker, who killed each other
near Hurontown. The leaders of the Western Federation of Miners
in charge of the strike repeatedly warned the strikers against car­



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

73

rying firearms and using intoxicants, and very few were arrested for
these offenses. Undoubtedly many men that started to go back to
work were intimidated and some abused and beaten. On the other
hand, the deputy sheriffs and Waddell men acted with great bru­
tality toward the strikers, and in many cases beat even women with
clubs or night sticks.
In many cases it would be impossible to determme who was the
aggressor. The real facts could be ascertained only by a court with
power to subpoena witnesses, and even then there would doubtless be
miscarriages of justice. The only conclusion that one can reach is
that some of the violence was caused by the strikers and for some
of it peace officers were responsible.
One of the most remarkable features of the strike was that, in spite
of the excitement and passion which prevailed, no property of the
mining companies was injured by strikers and, in fact, none showed
any disposition to injure property.
During the course of the strike many of the strikers and some
women were arrested on charges of intimidation or assault. When
they were given hearings before justices of the peace, many of the
cases were dismissed for want of sufficient evidence and in other cases
the persons were released on peace bonds of from $100 to $300. Some
of the accused persons were fined by the justices and some were bound
over to the circuit court. Any person tried before a justice of the
peace in Michigan has the right to demand a jury trial in the justice's
court. In Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties there is no
grand jury, but justices of the peace bind over to the circuit court all
persons charged with serious offenses.
The following table shows the number of persons charged with
various offenses committed in connection with the strike who were
given hearings before justices of the peace, according to a transcript
of the various dockets, up to the dates mentioned:
Num­
Recorded ber of
to—
per­
sons.

Court.

Placed
Dis­
Found Bound
Ad­
Ac­
under
missed. quitted. guilty. over. journed. peace
bond.

15
8
9
15
7
10
10
11

43
58
35
34
27
56
2
8

12
16
8
16
4
17

263

Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.

Justice Little’s.....................................
Justice O’ Sullivan's............................
Justice Eichkern’s ..............................
Judge Armit’s......................................
Judge Jacolo’ s .....................................
Judge Fisher’s.....................................
Judge Bartonen’s................................
Justice Medlyn’s .................................

74

1

3
3

3

20
27
21
7
16
26
2
4

39

123

6

2
2
2

1
1
7
1
4

7
11
5
2
4
7

7

14

1

i

The following is a list of the charges against persons for offenses
committed in connection with the strike, and the number of persons
against whom each offense was charged up to the dates mentioned
in the table:
Males:
Assault and battery............................................................................................
Assault with intent to commit murder.............................................................
Assault with intent to do great bodily harm...................................................
Attempt at destruction of life or property.......................................................
Carrying concealed weapons..............................................................................
Creating noise and disturbance.........................................................................



17
2
19
6
10
10

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Hales—Concluded.
Drunk and disorderly........................................................................................
Felonious assault................................................................................................
Inciting riot........................................................................................................
Interfering with an officer.................................................................................
Intimidation.......................................................................................................
Loitering on sidewalks and street corners........................................................
Murder.................................................................................................................
No charge or not reported..................................................................................
Resisting an officer................................................................... ........................
Riotous assembly...............................................................................................
Simple assault.....................................................................................................
Slander................................................................................................................
Threatening to kill and murder........................................................................
Unlawful assembly.............................................................................................
Using indecent language in presence of women..............................................
Violation of ordinance No. 2, Red Jacket........................................................

3
1
32
3
56
1
15
7
17
5
3
1
4
1
1
1
215

Females:
Assault and battery............................................................................................
Assault with intent to do great bodily harm...................................................
Inciting riot. ......................................................................................................
Intimidation.......................................................................................................
Resisting an officer.............................................................................................
Simple assault.....................................................................................................

7
1
5
27
6
2
48

The 15 persons charged with-murder include 4 Waddell men and 2
deputy sheriffs charged with the murder of 2 strikers at Painesdale
on August 15, and 9 men charged with the murder of Deputy Sheriff
Pollack on October 8, when a striker also was killed. Of the 263
cases, all were against strikers or strike sympathizers, except the 6
men charged with murder at Painesdale. When the strikers mis­
treated the men that went to work during the strike they were ar­
rested and fined, imprisoned, or bound over. But when peace offi­
cers, deputy sheriffs, soldiers, or Waddell men engaged in conflicts
with the strikers and the officers were the aggressors in beating or
riding down the strikers, there was no one to arrest the officers.
This accounts for the fact that practically all of the cases in the
courts of justices of the peace were against strikers.
The September term of the Houghton County circuit court was
opened on September 2, and continued until September 20. Judge
P. H. O’Brien presided. During this term the most serious cases
against strikers were tried.
Louis Foder, charged with assault with a pistol with intent to
kill a deputy sheriff, admitted that the pistol was discharged in a
scuffle, but claimed that it was accidental, and after the judge, jury,
and prosecuting attorney had inspected Foder’s home, where the
shooting had occurred, the judge, on motion of the prosecuting
attorney, directed a verdict of not guilty. #
Joseph Mihelcich was charged with malicious attempt to destroy
property. He had been arrested while passing a mine shaft, and
some pieces of dynamite were found in his coat pocket. He claimed
that he had been using dynamite for blowing up stumps in a farmer’s
field, who had promised him the wood from the stumps. In this
case the jury reported a disagreement.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

75

George Males, charged with assault with intent to do great bodily
harm less than murder, in resisting an officer, was convicted only of
simple assault, and appealed his case.
The statutes of Michigan provide that in each county the sheriff,
county treasurer, county clerk, and judge of probate shall select the
names of persons to act as petit jurors. The panel of 36 jurors that
served during these trials was composed largely of employees of
mining companies, and nearly all of the 36 were connected directly
or indirectly with the companies. The only other striker tried
during the September term of court was charged with carrying a
concealed weapon, but was discharged. About 10 cases against
strikers were continued over to the next term. These cases were
those of persons charged with carrying concealed weapons, intimida­
tion, and resisting an officer.
At the October term of the circuit court in Keweenaw County
three cases connected with the strike were tried. The defendants in
two cases were acquitted, and the other case was nolle prossed.
A R B IT R A T IO N PRO PO SALS U N A V A ILIN G .

The law of Michigan which provided for the settlement of strikes
by a State board 01 arbitration, act 238, Public Laws of 1889, was
repealed by the legislature of 1911.
The mining companies having refused even to acknowledge receipt
of the communication from officials of the Western Federation of
Miners, dated July 14, 1913, it was, of course, useless for the federa­
tion to ask the managers for a conference to arrange terms of arbitra­
tion. Two arbitration propositions made by the governor of Michigan
and one made by the United States Department of Labor were
accepted by the federation officials but were flatly refused by the
mine managers. The managers held semiweekly meetings to discuss
the strike situation and on all matters relating to the strike they
acted together. All three propositions for arbitration were rejected
by the managers on the ground that they would not deal with the
Western Federation of Miners, for the reason, they asserted, that it
was a lawless organization. They also claimed that there would have
been no strike if their employees had not been incited to strike by
agitators from Denver.
On July 29, six days after the strike began, C. E. Mahoney, vice
president, and A. A. Kerr, attorney in Michigan for the federation,
called on Gov. Woodbridge N. Ferris at Lansmg and requested that
he endeavor to arrange for holding a “ joint conference of both sides”
to the controversy, with the view of bringing about a settlement of
the strike. In compliance with this request Gov. Ferris telegraphed
Gen. Abbey as follows:
Lansing, Mich., July

1913.

Gen. P. L. A b b e y ,
Michigan National Guard, Calumet, Mich.
Present the following message to mine owners and employees involved in strike:
“ Mine owners and employees involved in strike: The welfare of this great Common­
wealth demands a speedy settlement of your industrial dispute. As governor of
Michigan, I offer my best services in joint conference of both sides to be held at Lan­
sing at earliest possible date.”
W oodbridge N. F erris .




76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

On July 30 Gen. Abbey presented the governor's proposition to the
managers at their meeting at the Houghton Club ana, later in the day,
presented it to officials of the Western Federation of Miners. The fed­
eration officials accepted the proposition, but the managers rejected
it, their reply being as follows:
Gen. P. L. A b b e y ,
Commanding Michigan National Guard.
Sir: In response to the message from Ills excellency the governor of Michigan to the
mine owners and employees involved in strike, presented to us through you at a con­
ference held this day for that purpose, and to which we have given careful considera­
tion, we, who are the managers and superintendents of the mines affected by the
existing situation, on behalf of the several companies and their numerous stockholders,
as well as on behalf of the employees, who in a large majority have been and are not
only willing but anxious to continue at work, desire to express to you, and through you
to the governor, our high appreciation of the offer of his services in the pending dispute
and our deep obligation to him therefor.
With the utmost respect for him personally, and for the high office which he holds
with so much honor to the State of Michigan, and with great regret that the circum­
stances seem to us to render it necessary, we feel obliged to say that for the welfare and
good name of the State as a whole, for the best interests of our employees, for the
interests of this entire community, and as making for continued and lasting industrial
peace and quiet in this district, we should not and can not enter into or take any part
in a joint conference with the leaders oi; representatives of the Western Federation of
Miners, which organization is solely responsible for the conditions now existing, nor
with any representatives of those who are actively engaged in the strike, and who
falsely assume to represent the great body of our employees.
In thus stating our position we feel that it is due to his excellency, as well as to
yourself, that we should also state our reasons for this conclusion.
The copper mining district of Michigan has operated its mines on an extensive
scale for upward of 50 years. In all that time there has been no general strike among
the employees. There has never been any serious labor disturbance or dispute.
The few which have occurred locally at some mine locations have been speedily and
satisfactorily adjusted between the managements and the employees. There have
been satisfaction and contentment on the part of those employed and good feeling
and mutual respect between employers and employees. We believe it can be said
truthfully that in this mining district the conditions of labor, the consideration for
the employees, the means taken for their comfortable housing, for their general wel­
fare, for their health, for the education of their children, and their fair and generous
treatment in every respect have not been excelled anywhere in any industry of like
kind.
The history of the Western Federation of Miners is well known. That organiza­
tion, was directly responsible for the strike in the Coeur d’Alene district, the Homestake strike, the strike on the Mesaba Range in 1907, the recent strike in the Porcupine
district in Ontario, the strikes at Bingham and at El Paso, and others which may be
recalled. Each or those strikes was accompanied by lawlessness, riots, assaults, vio­
lence, destruction of property, and bloodshed. They resulted in the bloody riots of
Colorado; the blowing up of the railroad station, with great loss of life; the assassina­
tion of Superintendent Collins of the Smuggler Union; the blowing up of Mr. Bulkeley Welles of the Smuggler Union; the murder of ex-Gov. Steunenberg of Idaho.
Some of these strikes were under the leadership of some of the leaders of the present
one. All of them were organized, incited, instituted, and called by the Western
Federation of Miners.
About the year 1907 this federation, with such a record behind it, began to send
their organizers from the West into this district. They have carried on a systematic
attempt to secure the complete domination of the mine laborers of this district.
They have attempted to breed and engender discontent among some 20,000 employ­
ees of the mining industry, and it is but natural that they secured many recruits.
For a long time it has been definitely known that as soon as their leaders felt that
they were strong enough a strike would be called.
It is reliably known to us that the federation succeeded only in a small measure in
attracting to itself the employees of the mining industry in this district. ^ The majority,
and on reliable information the large majority, of the employees declined to affiliate
with them. On direct information, a very large number believed that they had no




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

77

grievance to strike for and did not wish to strike; on reliable information, the greater
part of them desired t$ continue at work and now desire to resume work.
>
On the 23d of July the strike called by the officials of the Western Federation of
Miners took place. It wasand is under the direction of skilled and experienced
strike leaders of the federation, who are not residents of this district or of this State.
The strike took out only those affiliated with that organization on the morning when
it went into effect. Many of our employees continued at work for the day.
A campaign of violence and riot was at once instituted. The officers of the counties
were without power to maintain order or to restrain lawlessness. By threats publicly
made, including threats of destruction of their homes in their absence, violence to
their families, and death to themselves, the men of the night shift were deterred from
going to work underground. Mechanics and laborers were driven from their employ­
ment b^ riotous mobs, armed with firearms, clubs, rocks, iron bars, and other weapons.
Mechanics, miners, and laborers who desired to work, or while at work, were cruelly
beaten ana many were severely injured. One old man 75 years of age, who had
worked in the mine for more than 30 years, was beaten and seriously injured. Another
of like age was driven from his work at the point of a gun. The officers of the law
were helpless, derided, cursed, and their authority ignored. A deputy sheriff’s star
was a signal for an attack on the wearer. Officers were assaulted and beaten. Active
resistance undoubtedly would have resulted in the destruction of property and the
loss of many lives. A store building and its contents were burned after the pro­
prietors announced that they must refuse credit. The men were driven from the
pumps and the mines were flooded with water, causing great destruction and damage.
At some of the mines even the operation of pumps for the fire protection of the com­
munity was forcibly prevented and the men driven out. At every branch of the
mining industry at the several mining locations the labor of the employees willing
and anxious to work was stopped forcibly, riotously, by threats and intimidation, by
violence and assault, by woundings and beatings. For the remainder of the week
every mining location was wholly at the mercy of these rioters, and millions of dollars’
worth of property absolutely in their hands.
All this was but the repetition of the results which have invariably followed the
calling of a strike by the councils of the Western Federation of Miners.
Of their membership in this community many of our employees, since the
strike was instituted, have been taken from their homes and intimidated and
forced under threats into joining the #
federation. The strikers have paraded
by day and by night, armed with weapons of all kinds, and have forced men,
unwilling to do so, to join their parades. The large majority of our employees
at the mine locations were for the time terrorized into complete submission
to these riotous strikers, who are those who have affiliated with the Western
Federation of Miners, and none others.
.i
There was no call by these strikers for conference or for mediation or for
adjustment while they thus completely dominated the situation.
:
There is therefore no industrial dispute between the mine owners and em­
ployees. Under the circumstances and because of our knowledge that the ma­
jority of our employees have at no time sympathized with the purposes of the
federation, and have been and are now willing and anxious to continue in their
employment, we can not recognize the right of the Western Federation of
Miners to intervene or to assume to represent our employees with respect to the
present conditions, or in any other manner whatsoever.
The suggested joint conference of both sides could mean nothing other than
a conference in which one side would not be our employees or representatives
of our employees, but would be the Western Federation of Miners or its repre­
sentatives, whose sole object is undeniably to establish the federation in a
dominant control of the mining industry of this district. With them we can not
confer, and, with all respect to his excellency, we feel that we can not enter
into a joint conference with or in any manner recognize that organization,
which, most certainly to our knowledge, does not represent our employees, with
the great majority of whom we have no dispute of any kind.
It has constantly been the practice in the past and will continue to be the
practice in the future for managements of the various companies to confer
freely with their own employees or with representatives of their employees on any
matter relating to improved working conditions or real or supposed grievances
and willingly to redress or ‘correct any wrongs. No intervention of any kind
was or will be necessary for such joint conferences; but to confer or treat with
an organization foreign to your territory and to the interest of our employees
and not in any manner representing them is something which we can not con­
template.



78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

We desire to be clear and emphatic in conveying to you our opposition to the
Western Federation of Miners, in the firm belief, based upon its record, which
is a matter of history, that the domination of this district by that particular
organization, for which purpose alone this strike has been incited and instituted
by that organization, can result in nothing but harm to the best interests and
welfare of our employees and of this entire community, and can conduce to
nothing but a continuance of discontent, which is their doctrine, and a constant
recurrence of lawlessness and disorder, which seem to follow upon their methods.
In spite of the beneficent effect of the presence of the Michigan National
Guard under your efficient command, which has given to the people and the
business interests of this community a feeling of confidence and a comparative
peace and quiet, yet the intimidation of our employees, threats of personal vio­
lence, of the destruction of property, and even of the taking of human lives,
continue to this day. No later than yesterday employees of more than one of
our companies, nonsympathizers with the Western Federation of Miners, were
set upon and cruelly beaten. Under no circumstances would we consent to
confer with strikers or representatives of strikers or to compromise any differ­
ences or consider alleged grievances with a body of men who are thus lawlessly
conducting themselves.
Under all the trying circumstances of the riotous proceedings of the days
before your arrival we have refrained from the employment or the use of private
armed guards. In the belief that the prevention of bloodshed was the first and
the highest consideration, we prohibited and prevented the use of firearms or
deadly weapons against those who were attacking our property and our em­
ployees. We have relied solely upon the constituted authorities for their pro­
tection. The local officers of the law, with conscientious and zealous desire to
that end, found themselves without power to cope with the lawlessness, disorder,
violence, and riotous conduct which ensued from the first inception of the strike.
Through the request of his excellency, preferred by officials charged by law
with the exercise of discretion in the matter, the Michigan National Guard,
under your command, has come to this community for the sole purpose of the
maintenance and enforcement of law and order, without favor either to mine
owners or strikers.
We have imported no strike breakers. We have imported no mechanics,
miners, or laborers. Our old employees, to a large majority within our own
knowledge, who have no grievance and with whom we have no dispute, are
willing and anxious to resume their work, from which they have been driven by
force and violence on the part of a comparatively small but well-organized and
well-officered body of strikers, who have submitted themselves to the influence
and domination of the Western Federation of Miners.
Our only request of the great Commonwealth of Michigan is that our old em­
ployees who are willing and anxious to resume work may be permitted to do
so without molestation from those who have undertaken and thus far succeeded
by intimidation and personal violence in preventing them in the exercise of the
right which the laws of Michigan assure to them to labor without interference
or molestation. If our employees could to-day be assured of their entire free­
dom from unlawful molestation, if they could feel sure that their homes and
their families would be safe in their absence, we should be assured of an imme­
diate or speedy settlement, not of an industrial dispute which has no existence,
but of a situation which if continued will mean that the organization known
as the Western Federation of Miners, its local councils and those of our em­
ployees who have affiliated with it, and who alone constitute the active strikers,
are not amenable to the laws of this State.
We have every assurance and a confident belief that our attitude as herein
stated to you with reference to the present deplorable situation and with refer­
ence to the domination of the district by the Western Federation of Miners has
the hearty support and approval of the entire business interests and the respon­
sible citizenship of this community.
It is our belief, respectfully expressed, that the best and highest welfare of
this great Commonwealth of Michigan demands as a foremost consideration
that its laws be enforced, that lawlessness, violence, and disorder be restrained,
and that the miners, mechanics, and laborers who desire to work be permitted
to do so without violation on the part of any organization, combination of strikers
or individuals, of the statute which makes it an offense against the peace and
dignity of the people of this Commonwealth, by threats or intimidations or
otherwise, and without authority of law, to interfere with or in any way to




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

79

molest or disturb any mechanic or other laborer in the peaceful pursuit of his
lawfuF avocation.
We again wish to express our profound appreciation of the offer of his ex­
cellency communicated to us through you. If the situation were such as to
admit of the suggested joint conference, we should gladly and thankfully accept
the offer of his excellency the governor. We trust that we have shown by the
statement of a situation which can be fully substantiated sufficient reasons for
respectfully declining to enter into any conference with the Western Federation
of Miners or its representatives.
We also wish to express to his excellency and to yourself our full appreciation
of the prompt action which resulted isx the presence in this district of the
Michigan National Guard, which under your efficient command, with favor
toward no interest, either of mine owners or employees, has in so large a meas­
ure restored to this community that peace and order and observance of law
which makes in the highest degree for the welfare of the community and of the
entire State.
Very respectfully,
J a s . M ac N aughton .

F. W. D enton ,
Copper Range Consolidated Co.
C h a s L. L aw to n .
T heo . D engler.
It. M. E dwards .
J. L. H arris .

July 30, 1913.
The following mines are represented by the above signatures:
Mr. James MacNaughton is general manager of the Calumet & Hecla Mining
Co., Ahmeek Mining Co., Allouez Mining Co., North Kearsarge Mine, South
Kearsarge Mine, Tamarack Mining Co., Osceola Consolidated Co., Laurium
Mining Co., La Salle Copper Co., Isle Royale Copper Co., Superior Copper Co.,
St. Louis Copper Co., and Centennial Copper Mining Co.
Mr. F. W. Denton is general manager of the Baltic Mining Co., Champion
Copper Co., and Trimountain Mining Co.
Mr. Charles L. Lawton is general manager of the Quincy Mining Co.
Mr. Theodore Dengler is agent of the Wolverine Copper Mining Co., and
Mohawk Mining Co.
Mr. R. M. Edwards is president and general manager of the Franklin Mining
Co., Rhode Island Copper Co., Indiana Mining Co., North Lake Mining Co.,
Algomah Mining Co., and general manager of the South Lake Mining Co.
Mr. J. L. Harris is general manager of the Hancock Consolidated Mining Co.
and Oneco Copper Mining Co.

The second effort of Gov. Ferris to effect a settlement of the
strike was through Judge Alfred H. Murphy, of the circuit court of
Wayne County. Judge Murphy spent nearly two weeks in the
copper range, acquainting himself with labor conditions in the mines
and the causes of dissatisfaction that had led to the strike. On
August 14 he held a conference with the mine managers at the
Houghton Club, and urged them to agree to arbitration of the strike.
He even went so far as to propose arbitration with the question of
recognition of the federation eliminated, he having been assured by
the federation officials that they would not insist upon a considera­
tion of that question. The reply of the managers follows:
At the recent meeting with you of the mine managers of Houghton and
Keweenaw Counties, the operations of whose mines is affected by the existing
strike conditions, you submitted to us the following question:
“ Eliminating any recognition now or hereafter of the Western Federation of
Miners, what terms and conditions of labor will you authorize me, as the
representative of the governor, to present to anyone interested as the basis for
the reemployment of your men? ”
You are authorized as representative of the governor to state that the men
will be reemployed on the same terms and conditions of labor as existed at
the several properties prior to the inception of the strike. That in such re­




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

employment the fact that a former employee has been a member of, or otherwise
affiliated with, the Western Federation of Miners, will not of itself be considered
as a bar to his reentering our employ. But we reserve the right to use our
individual discretion as to the reemployment of any who may be known to have
engaged in acts of agitation, lawlessness, violence, or intimidation, or inciting
thereto. After such employment and the cessation of strike conditions any
body of the employees at any mining property or affected individuals brought
to the attention of any one of us through his own employees will be given full
consideration, with the desire, as in the past of each of us severally, to correct
any wrongs that we may find to exist, either in individual instances or in gen­
eral conditions.
The foregoing answer to your question is the basis for the reemployment of
our men. The great differences in working conditions existing at the various
mines have made it impossible to formulate a statement of the terms and con­
ditions of labor which could be made uniformly applicable to the several mines
with justice to their respective employees 01* with fairness to the several mining
companies. But you are further authorized, assuming such reemployment
ensues, to state with respect to matters mentioned by you at our conference.
As to wages, let us say that the adoption of a uniform minimum wage is
impracticable, owing to the great differences in conditions at the several prop­
erties. But to you, as the representative of the governor, we will when the
work is resumed, and for a reasonable period thereafter, submit our pay rolls
and all material data, and if, after being informed as to attendant conditions
and circumstances, you find any iniquities in specific individual instances, they
will be remedied in accordance with your recommendations. If, taking into
full consideration the living and working conditions, the advantages and privi­
leges furnished to or for the employees, the costs of mining and production, and
all material circumstances, you find at any of our mines that the general rates
of wages as to any class or all classes of employees are inadequate, unfair, or
inequitable, we will severally give full and fair consideration to your recom­
mendations in that regard.
As to the working hours, we have each had for some time under consideration
a change in this respect, with the intention, if and so far as found practicable,
to bring about as near an approach as conditions may warrant to an eight-hour
day for our underground employees, a portion of whom have heretofore been
in close approximation to that condition. The present situation does not alter
our intentions. Any change of this character involves to a great extent a re­
organization of the operations and for that reason must be a gradual one. The
time within which it can be brought about can not now be stated. We can now
state only the fact that it has been and is under favorable consideration.
As for the one-man drill, we can only state that with respect to this, as to all
our operations, our efforts, in advance of all other considerations, are exerted
toward securing the safety of our employees. The conditions of competition,
the low grade of our rock as compared with other districts, the increasing
expense, with debts and other conditions, have made the use of the one-man
drill imperative for the continuation of operations.
The request for nonemployment* of boys under 18 is clearly a matter for the
legislature. The foregoing involves as a condition the early cessation of strike
conditions, the elimination of any recognition now or hereafter of the Western
Federation of Miners, and the withdrawal from that organization of those of
its members who may be reemployed. This is not imposed as a condition of an
arbitrary nature, nor is it stated through ill will, but must be recognized that
in view of the nature of the teachings and utterances of such leaders in their
addresses to their members and to the public with respect to ourselves, our
officials, our employees, and our companies, there can not be a restoration of
harmony, good feeling, and mutual respect between employers and employees,
between bosses and men, or among the men themselves in any other way. To
act otherwise on our part, to fail to bring about such restoration, most essential
to the welfare of our men and of the community and the State, would be to
invite an early renewal of strife.
James MacNaughton, general manager of the Calumet & Hecla Mining
Co., Ahmeek Mining Co., Allouez Mining Co., North Kearsarge
Mine, South Kearsarge Mine, Tamarack Mining Co., Osceola
Consolidated Mining Co., Laurium Mining Co., LaSalle Copper
Co., Isle Royale Copper Co., Superior Copper Co., St. Louis Cop­
per Co., and Centennial Copper Mining Co.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

81

F. W. Denton, general manager of tlie Baltic Mining Co., Champion
Copper Co., and Trimountain Mining Co.
Charles L. Lawton, general manager Quincy Mining Co.
Theodore Dengler, agent of the Wolverine Copper Mining Co. and
Mohawk Mining Co.
R. M. Edwards, president and general manager of the Franklin Min­
ing Co., Indiana Mining Co., North Lake Mining Co., Algomah
Mining Co., and general manager of South Lake Mining Co.
J. It. Harris, general manager of the Hancock Consolidated Mining
Co. and Oneco Copper Mining Co.
R. R. Seeber, superintendent of the Winona Mining Co. and Houghton
Copper Co.

Judge Murphy made his report to Gov. Ferris on July 26, and on
the next day gave out for publication the following statement:
One of the duties given me by the governor was to offer my services in media­
tion in an effort to learn what concessions, if any, the employers would make. I
put to them a question which eliminated the employees’ demand for recognition
of the Western Federation of Miners. I did so, because I am satisfied that the
employers will not recognize the federation, whatever be the cost to themselves,
their employees, and the whole community. With the obstacle of recognition
removed, I wanted to see what the employers were willing to do. With that I
learned it could then be ascertained what concessions the employees would make.
The controversy would thus be narrowed to its smallest compass. Eliminating
recognition of the federation, the question asked upon what terms the strikers
would be reemployed.
The answer of the employers has now been made public. There are two out­
standing features in it which in my judgment are unreasonable and arbitrary.
A conference with the mine managers was had after the receipt of this answer.
They adhere unalterably to it. I could not, with self-respect, propose these
terms to the employees, for no self-respecting striker could submit to the two
conditions I refer to.
The employers insist on refusing in their individual discretion reemployment
to any striker who has engaged “ in acts of agitation,” or who has “ incited
thereto.” To agitate for improved! conditions, to agitate for the right of em­
ployees to organize, to agitate for any legitimate end is the right of every citi­
zen. To penalize the exercise of that right by refusing employment throughout
the copper country to any striker is to put him and his family upon that com­
munity practically without employment. It is wrong fundamentally and wholly
wrong in principle. In policy nothing so much reminds me of it as the obtuse
course of the Bourbons. It would put the strikers who return to work in the
position of sacrificing their fellows who had been loyal in a common cause.
The position of the employers that withdrawal from the membership in the
federation must be a condition precedent to reemployment is equally arbitrary
and! untenable. In principle, if the employer can do this, he can, with like
propriety, compel withdrawal from any political, religious, or social body as a
condition of employment. It is basically un-American. In this tense situa­
tion, where power should be used generously and gently, it is a policy which
will set men’s teeth, evoke in the striker the spirit of loyalty and sacrifice, and
make them ready to suffer desperate hardships before acknowledging any such
right in the employer.
The respective contentions concerning wages, hours, and other conditions of
labor are attended by many considerations and by different factors in different
mines. We are prone, I think, in the lower peninsula, to identify the copper
country with the Calumet & Hecla only. True, it and its 12 subsidiary com­
panies dominate the situation. But there are 15 other mining companies.
Some of them have been operating for years without paying a dividend. Some
have been calling upon their stockholders for from $80,000 to $100,000 a year
in assessments to keep them running, in the hope that a profitable mine will be
developed. And while at least a living wage may rightly be demanded from
all mine operators, there are many conditions to be studied in working out
just conclusions upon the questions of hours and wages.
I believe there are real grievances, at least upon the part of the trammers.
They fill and move for distances varying from 50 to 1,500 and even, at places,
2,000 feet, a car which empty weighs 1,900 pounds and which carries 2 A tons
29848°—Bull. 139—14------6



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of rock. In the mines of South Africa this work is done by electric haulage.
These trammers complain so generally of the treatment they receive from their
bosses that I think a foundation for the complaints must exist. Nor do I be­
lieve that they have had opportunity in the past, without incurring the penalty
of added difficulties and even discharges, to appeal from the boss to a .higher
authority for redress.
The time consumed by all underground men in getting to the levels below
and returning to the surface at the close of work is borne by the employees.
In the Butte (Mont.) district this is divided, the workmen going down on their
own time and coming up on the company’s time.
The one-man drill, of which there are now 400 in the Calumet & Hecla mine,
has, I believe, like all labor-saving devices, come to stay. Its installation
should .be, if it has not been, accompanied by equitable conditions as to pay
and safe conditions of operation.
I speak of the foregoing as indicating the real need of improvement in some
conditions. To arrive at just conclusions on all the matters in dispute would
involve full inquiry in the presence of, and with the cross-examination of, both
employers and employees.
What should the State do? It is maintaining troops in the strike region at
great expense. Many of Michigan’s manufacturers are directly interested as
consumers of copper.
The Commonwealth, as the organ of society at large, is directly concerned
not only with the industrial but with the social and economical welfare of all
the parties in interest—the men, the women, and the children of the Keweenaw
Peninsula.
Yet the State is compelled to look on. with the contending forces at arm’s
length, with no ample authority to take care of its interests. Just what the
State can do and should do in such a situation calls for careful study. It
should not be done in a haphazard way.
The Canadian act, which provides a board of investigation and conciliation
for industrial disputes in which is involved any public necessity, whether an
article of commerce or a public utility, points a way. In Canada a board com­
posed of three members— one appointed by each of the contending parties, and
a chairman selected by both—is delegated to investigate. It has the full power
of a court of record to compel the testimony of witnesses and the production of
papers. A lockout or a strike must be suspended when contemplated until the
board completes its hearing and makes its formal finding. Its report is not
binding upon the parties. Its only appeal is to public opinion. But it is an
appeal made after full inquiry and with an effort at impartiality. After the
report, if desired, the lockout or strike may go into effect notwithstanding the
finding. From March, 1907, to March, 1913, the act was invoked 145 times, and
there were only 18 strikes during that period.
The State should at least have the power to bring the parties in for full ex­
amination. The State, as the ancient phrase has it, is parens patriae— the
father of the country. For its own welfare and protection, and because of
the social obligations it owes its people, it must devise a way of fulfilling that
duty. But this calls for no hasty, ill-considered legislative program. It re­
quires careful research and sound judgment.
That the duty which the State also owes its people to protect life and prop­
erty still requires the presence of troops can not be doubted by anyone who
will make impartial inquiry into existing conditions. The troops are being
gradually reduced, and the governor, upon the information given him, will con­
tinue this policy. The time is not yet here when they may be wholly with­
drawn.

A dispatch from Big Rapids, Mich., the home of Gov. Ferris,
dated August 26, and published in the Houghton and Calumet Daily
Mining Gazette, said that, after his conference with Judge Murphy,
the governor said:
Judge Murphy’s mission has been accomplished to my entire satisfaction.
My talk with him merely strengthens my prior convictions. I do not hesitate
to say that the men have real grievances. By this I do not want to be under­
stood as taking the position that they are right in all their contentions and
should have all the concessions they demand, but they are entitled to some of
the things they ask, and this fact, in my opinion, makes the position taken by
the operators seem arrogant and unfair.



83

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

You can say for me that as long as the presence of the soldiers in the copper
country is necessary to afford any man who desires it protection for life and
property they will remain on the job.

On September 4 Charles H. Moyer, president of the Western Fed­
eration of Miners, and Clarence Darrow, of Chicago, one of the fed­
eration’s legal advisers, called on Gov. Ferris at Lansing and urged
that he again endeavor to settle the strike by arbitration. Following
is a copy of a letter written by President Moyer from Chicago on the
same day and a copy of the governor’s reply:

4

C hicago , September , 1918.
Mr. W oodridge N. F erris ,
Governor of Michigan, State Capitol Building, Lansing, Mich.
# D ear Sir : Per your request, I hereby submit in writing the terms of settle­
ment agreeable to the striking miners of the copper district in the State of
Michigan.
First. The employer shall agree that all men who went on strike shall be
reinstated in their former positions.
Second. The right of the employees to join any society, association, or
organization shall be conceded by the employers. This being agreed to by the
employers, the employees agree to submit all other questions in dispute, includ­
ing hours, wages, and the one-man machine, to a board of arbitration, said
board to be created as follows: Employers to select two members, the employees
two, and the governor of the State of Michigan to act as the fifth member of
the board, both parties at interest to be bound by the findings of the board.
Respectfully submitted.
C harles H. M oyer
(In behalf of the employees),
President Western Federation of Miners.

State

of

M ic h ig a n , E xecutive C h am bers ,

Lansing, September 5, 1918.
M y D ear Sir: I have your communication of September 4, also one from

Mr. Clarence Darrow, of Chicago, bearing the same date. I thank you for this
communication. Rest assured that I shall continue to do everything in my
power to bring about a settlement of this strike whereby justice will be the
dominating factor.
I wish to assure you that I have done everything within my capacity to
bring about a just settlement of this strike. My regret is that the very men
I have pleaded for during the past 25 years should utterly misunderstand my
attitude. I care nothing about this, provided the strike has a righteous
conclusion.
Very sincerely, yours,
W oodbridge N. F erris, Governor.
Mr. C harles H. M oyer,
President Western Federation of Mmers, Calumet, Mich.

A dispatch from Lansing, dated September 15 and published in
the Hancock Evening Journal of that date, said:
Gov. Ferris to-day received notice that another attempt to bring a settlement
of the copper strike had failed. He received the following telegram from
Allen F. Rees, of Houghton, attorney for the mine managers:
“ We can not act along the lines of your telegram,\ because conditions seem
to make it impossible.”
The telegram referred to by Rees contained a plan of arbitration proposed
by Chairman Hemans, of the State railroad commission, and embodied the
withdrawal of the Western Federation of Miners from the controversy.

During September Gov. Ferris was urged to call an extra session
of the legislature to enact measures which would* provide for arbi­
tration or for improved conditions in the mining districts. Among
measures which he was asked by various persons to recommend were 1



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1. The enactment of a law reestablishing a State board of arbitra­
tion.
2. The enactment of an eight-hour law for men working under­
ground, similar to such laws in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho,
Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Washington,
and Wyoming.
3. The enactment of a law which would prohibit sheriffs from
bringing men from other States into their counties to act as “ aids.”
4. The enactment of a law which would change the burden of
paying the expense of the militia, when called out on strike duty,
from the State treasury to the treasury of the county where the
militia should be sent.
5. The enactment of a law which would impose a tonnage tax on
the production of the mineral mines of the State.
Gov. Ferris issued a letter to all the members of the legislature
asking for their advice as to calling an extra session, and a large
majority advised against it. He then abandoned the idea.
The Houghton and Calumet Daily Mining Gazette of Septem­
ber 11 said that Claude O. Taylor, president of the Michigan Fed­
eration of Labor, who had been in the copper district several days,
and who had conferred with officers of the Western Federation of
Miners, would call upon James MacNaughton, general manager of
the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., and lay before him another plan
for arbitrating the strike. The Gazette further said:
The plan is practically the same as those already submitted to the corpora­
tions by Gov. Ferris, Clarence Darrow, and others, excepting that the labor
people are willing to arbitrate the question as to whether or not the corpora­
tions shall recognize the right of the men to organize local unions not affiliated
with the federation.
It is proposed to have the arbitration committee made up of seven men, three
to be appointed by the strikers, three by the mining companies, and the seventh
by these six. The strikers’ three Relegates are to be local men who are not
officials of the federation of miners.

On September 11, Mr. Taylor called at the Calumet & Hecla
offices, but the general manager refused to meet him.
At a regular semiweekly meeting of the mine managers, held at
the Houghton Club on September 17, John A. Moffitt, special repre­
sentative of the United States Department of Labor, presented the
two following propositions:
H oughton , M ic h ., September 17, 1913.
To the managers of the mines in the copper district of Michigan.
Ge n t l e m e n : A s special representative of the United States Department of
Labor, I offer for your immediate consideration the good offices of the depart­
ment in bringing about an adjustment of the existing strike of the mine workers.
These good offices of the department are offered to you, collectively or sepa­
rately, for the purpose of mediation, conciliation, or arbitration, under existing
conditions, preferably the latter, to wit:
First. That all the issues involved in the strike shall be settled by arbitration.
Second. That the board of arbitration shall be composed of five members.
Third. That two of the members shall be selected by the mine managers.
Fourth. That two of the members shall be chosen by the mine workers now on
strike.
Fifth. That the latter two members shall not be members of the Western
Federation of Miners.
Sixth. That the latter two members shall be selected at a meeting which all
mine workers now on strike shall be invited to attend.
Seventh. That the fifth member shall be designated by the United States
Secretary of Labor.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

85

Eighth. That the decision of this board of arbitration shall be binding on both
the managers and the mine workers now on strike.
If this proposal as a whole is not acceptable to you, I request that you indi­
cate wliat part of the proposition is objectionable.
Respectfully submitted.
J o h n A. M offitt ,

Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.

H oughton , M ic h ., September 17, 1913.
To the managers of the mines in the copper district of Michigan.
G entlemen : With the view of adjusting amicably the differences between you
and your former employees now on strike, I propose to you, collectively or sepa­
rately, that you discuss these differences with a committee composed of such a
number of persons as you may suggest; that these persons shall be members of
the Western Federation of Miners, or shall not be members of that organization,
as you may prefer, and they shall be chosen at a meeting which all of the mine
workers on strike shall be invited to attend.
Respectfully submitted.
J o h n A. M offitt,
Special Representative, United States Department o f Labor.

At this meeting of the mine managers some of them requested Mr.
Moffitt to secure from the Western Federation of Labor information
as to the number of members of the federation in the Michigan copper
district at the time of the referendum vote on calling a strike and the
number that voted in favor of striking. To each of the managers
Mr. Moffitt sent a letter as follows:
Calum et , M ic h ., September 19, 1918.
To the managers of the mines in the copper district of Michigan.
Gentlemen : In compliance with the request that was made at your meeting
in Houghton on the 17th instant, that I should ascertain if possible the num­
ber of votes cast by your employees in favor of a strike and the conditions
under which the vote was taken, I desire to inform you that, upon investigation
at the union headquarters at Calumet and other points, I gathered the follow­
ing information:
That the executive board of the Federation of Miners was requested by the
mine workers of this district to give their approval to holding a referendum
vote on two propositions, which was granted, to wit:
A. Asking for a joint conference of the mine managers and the employees.
B. In case a joint conference should be refused, that a strike be called.
After the aforesaid request was granted, meetings of the men were held at
their respective places of meeting in this district, and they were notified that
on July 1 balloting would begin at the offices of the secretaries at the follow
mg places: Calumet, Ahmeek, South Range, Hancock, and Mass City, and that
the polls would be open each day until July 12 from 8 o’clock in the morning
until 6 o’clock p. m., and all the men were urged to vote.
Notice of said balloting was advertised in the local papers in foreign lan­
guages, and committees of the men were also sent to the various localities to
remind the men of the referendum. The polls were closed to voting at 12
o’clock noon on July 12, and a canvass of the votes showed that nearly 9,000
votes were cast, and of this number 98 per cent voted in favor of the afore­
mentioned propositions.
Very truly, yours,
J o h n A. M offitt,
Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.

When Mr. Moffitt presented the propositions for mediation or
arbitration to the mine managers on September 17, their attorney,
Allan F. Rees, said that these propositions contained “ several new
elements,” and some time would be required to draft a formal reply.
By “ new elements” he probably referred particularly to the pro­
posal that the two members of the arbitration board chosen by" the



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

strikers should not be members of the Western Federation of Miners,
the mining companies having always declared that they would not
consent to arbitration by a board on which the federation was repre­
sented. He also probably referred to the request that if the arbitra­
tion proposition should not be acceptable as a whole the managers
should indicate what part of the proposition was objectionable.
The reply of the mine managers, dated September 20, refusing to
accept the good offices of the United States Department of Labor,
did not discuss the propositions in detail, but was only a reiteration
of the managers’ declaration that “ the real issue involved in the
strike is recognition of the Western Federation of Miners,” and that
they were unalterably determined to bring about the “ elimination ”
of that organization in the Michigan copper district. Their reply in
full follows:
Hon. J o h n A. M o f f i t t ,
Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.
Dear Si b : The undersigned, being managers of the copper mines of the
counties of Houghton and Keweenaw, in the State of Michigan, desire to ex­
press to you their most sincere appreciation of your offer of the good offices of
the Department in bringing about an adjustment of the existing strike, involving
part of the mine workers of our companies, submitted to us in yours of Septem­
ber 16.
The first offer submitted by you begins with the proposition: “ That all of
the issues involved in the strike shall be settled by arbitration.,,
The real issue involved in the strike is recognition of the Western Federation
of Miners as an organization entitled to represent, through its officials, the
mine workers of the district. This has been publicly announced in speeches and
in print by the officials of that organization themselves.
In like offers of mediation made by the governor of Michigan personally and
through personal representatives appointed by him and acting by his authority
we have heretofore definitely declined to treat with the Western Federation of
Miners, either directly or indirectly. This conclusion was arrived at in the
first instance because of the past history of the federation in its operations
throughout the mining districts of the West; because it was and is our firm con­
viction that the domination of the employees of the mining companies by that
federation would not be to the best interests of our employees themselves;
and because the federation was entirely unjustified in attempting to speak as
the representatives of our employees for the reason that, according to our
best information at the time of the inception of the strike, confirmed by all the
information which we have obtained since then, not to exceed 25 per cent of
the employees of the companies (and in many instances a much smaller per­
centage) were members of the organization and the large majority of our
employees were not willing to be dominated by that organization.
It should also be recognized that because of the attitude of the officers, leaders,
and organizers of the Western Federation toward the mining companies and
their officials and employees there could not be a resumption of mutual rela­
tions and good will and confidence between employers and employees so long
as the employees or any part of them are under the influence or domination
of the federation. This should be apparent from the nature of the teachings and
utterances of the officers, leaders, and organizers of the federation, as set forth
in their published speeches and in their official applications.
LARGE FORCE AT W ORK.

All of the larger mines of the district have resumed operations with a large
portion of the normal forces of their employees, who are entirely satisfied with
conditions. In the case of the Calumet & Hecla, after deducting from the
normal force those who are known to have removed from the district by reason
of strike conditions or for other reasons, from 80 to 85 per cent of its employees
have returned to work and are now engaged in their several occupations.
Similar conditions (with varying percentages) exist at the other larger mines
of the district which are now in operation.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

87

Under these circumstances it is our judgment that we would be remiss in our
duties toward the great majority of our employees if we should take any
action which in any manner would recognize the Western Federation of Miners
as the representatives of the mine workers or as dictating or dominating the
actions of our employees, even to the extent of an arbitration as to their right to
recognition or as to any other difference, real or fancied, which the federation
may urge.
For these reasons, among many others which might be mentioned, we must
adhere to our position that we will in no manner deal with the Western Federa­
tion of Miners, either directly, through mediation, arbitration, or in any other
way.
The only issue involved at the time the strike was called by the Western
Federation of Miners was our refusal to. enter into any conference with a com­
mittee of representatives of the federation. The only demand that was made
was for such a conference, with a statement that if we were not willing to meet
the officials of the Western Federation of Miners it would be taken as proof that
the situation could not be settled peaceably. We have had no other grievances
submitted to us in any way, either officially or otherwise. This was not a
grievance of our employees, but was a grievance of the federation represented
by their officials and organizers from other States, who are entirely unjustified
in making any claims to a right to represent the employees of the mines of this
district.
Both of your propositions, as submitted by you, involve arbitration or discus­
sion by or with committees, a part of them to be chosen “ by the mine workers
now on strike.”
The mine workers now on strike are those only who are members of the
Western Federation of Miners. As above stated, they constitute but a small
part of our employees. No method of choosing or appointing arbitrators or com­
mittees by “ the mine workers now on strike ” could be devised in which such
choice will not be the direct choice of the Western Federation of Miners as
such, and with that federation we will have no dealings of any kind.
It can not be too definitely understood with relation to the present situation
that the mining companies can not and will not in any maner recognize or deal
with the Western Federation of Miners. They do not represent our employees,
but, on the contrary, under present conditions, they stand between the employ­
ers and the employees as the only bar to a satisfactory and amicable adjust­
ment of all existing differences.
Because of this situation and without any lack of full appreciation of the
efforts of yourself and the Department of Labor, we feel that it is necessary
to say to you that we can not accept any plan of mediation or arbitration be­
tween the mine employers and* the mine workers on strike, which is but
another designation for the Western Federation of Miners.
But we suggest to you in view of the situation as above stated and as it
exists in the counties of Houghton and Keweenaw at this date, that if you
should use your personal influence and the influence of the Department of Labor
to induce the officials, organizers, and leaders of the Western Federation of
Miners to come to a full realization of the futility of any attempt to secure
recognition in this district or to retain a standing therein which would permit
them to remain as a factor of influence among our employees or any portion
thereof, and to withdraw themselves and their influence from the present situ­
ation and from the district, there would be nothing in the way of an early ad­
justment of any differences or grievances, if they exist, between the employers
and their employees. In this way and in this way only can the present deplor­
able condition be remedied or adjusted.
Since the inception of the strike it has been stated in published speeches
of the officials of the Western Federation of Miners that they demanded an
eight-hour day, abolition of the one-man drill, and a minimum wage of $3 per
day for all employees. No grievances of that kind were stated or submitted to
the companies in any form.
T H E EIG H T-HO U R D AY.

As to the working hours, it may be stated to you, as was stated to Judge
Murphy, who was here on a similar mission in behalf of the governor of Michi­
gan, that for some time prior to the inception of the strike there had been under
consideration by the several companies the institution of an eight-hour day
for underground employess so far as that rule could be made practicable. The



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

present strike situation does not alter the intention of the companies in that
regard. It is known to the companies that a large number of their underground
employees do not want the eight-hour day, and are opposed to it, but we will
state to you that if the eight-hour day for our underground employees is de­
sired by them or a sufficient majority of them, it has been and will continue to
be given favorcial publications [favorable consideration].
The one-man drill question is purely and simply a manufactured grievance.
We know it to be the fact that those who operate these drills do not want them
abolished. The continuation of the mining industry in this district requires
the use and application of every modern appliance for the reduction of cost.
It is made necessary by the low-copper content of the rock and the expense of
deep mining, as compared with higher production of other competing districts.
The one-man drill is an economic necessity which has come to stay. The con­
ditions of its use have been prescribed by the legislature and the question of
its abolition is one which could not be submitted to arbitrators.
As to the minimum wage question, the conditions at the different mines vary
to such a large extent that no scale can be adopted applicable to all the differ­
ent conditions. This has been impossible in the past and will continue impossi­
ble in the future and wonId be as unfair to the laborers themselves as to the
companies.
We greatly regret that the situation is such as to render the plan of arbi­
tration or of conference with a committee or with representatives of the West­
ern Federation of Miners an impossibility to us. With the elimination of that
organization, arbitration or mediation would become wholly unnecessary, as we
are convinced that there would be no difficulty in adjusting satisfactorily all
questions that might arise between our employees and the respective companies
by whom they are employed.
Dated at Houghton, Mich., September 20, 1913.

The arbitration plan proposed by Mr. Moffitt was accepted by the
three members of the executive board of the Western Federation of
Miners, who were then in Calumet. A copy of their acceptance
follows:
Calum et , M ic h ., September i7 , 1913.
Mr. Joh n A . M offitt,

Special Agent, Department of Labor, City.
H onored S ib : The striking miners of the copper district of Michigan, through

their representatives, gladly accept your good offices in attempting to negotiate
a settlement with their employers. They welcome arbitration in the settlement
of this dispute, and further consider that your proposed method of constituting
the board, eliminating as it does all question of the recognition of the Western
Federation of Miners, puts it above any reasonable objection on the part of the
employers, while at the same time it meets with our hearty approval, to wit:
That all differences shall be settled by a board of arbitration, said board to
consist of five members, two of whom shall be chosen by the mine managers in­
volved in the controversy,, or whatever numbers may desire a settlement; two
to be chosen by the strikers in mass meeting assembled for the purpose, the two so
chosen not to be members of the federation; the fifth member of the board to
be chosen by Hon. W. B. Wilson, Secretary of the Department of Labor. We
shall accept arbitrament of said board in all matters at issue and hope that it
will enter on its duties very soon.
Appreciating your efforts in the behalf of industrial peace based on justice,
we remain,
Faithfully, yours,
C. E. M a h o n e y .
Y anco T ersich .
Gu y E. M illeb.

Though the mine managers refused to accept the propositions for
mediation or arbitration submitted by a representative of the Fed­
eral Government, they afforded Walter B. Palmer, a special agent
of the United States Department of Labor, full opportunity to ex­
amine the working conditions underground and on the surface, and
gave him and Charles B. Wait, a special agent of the same depart­
ment, free access to their books to obtain data regarding the earnings



MICHIGAN COPPER. DISTRICT STRIKE.

89

of employees of the mining companies, and a careful examination of
the books and pay rolls was made.
On the suggestion of Gov. Woodbridge N. Ferris a movement to­
ward effecting a settlement of the strike was inaugurated by the
Copper Country Commercial Club. At a meeting of the executive
committee of the club on September 13 a committee was appointed
to investigate the working conditions in the mines and to bring about
an adjustment of the differences. By a unanimous vote of the ex­
ecutive committee the following preamble and resolutions were
adopted:
PURPOSE OF ORGANIZATION.

The Copper Country Commercial Club is an organization of 500 business men
and others of Houghton and Keweenaw Counties, whose purposes as stated in
the constitution of the club are as follows:
To instill, cultivate, and develop a spirit of civic pride among the people of
the copper country and an abiding confidence in the business and future great­
ness of the locality.
To upbuild, develop, and improve manufacturing, mercantile, agricultural,
and other economic conditions.
To cooperate in and centralize all our efforts for general publicity.
To induce people to come to the copper country and make their homes among
us; and
To take every possible means to promote the welfare of all of the people of
this community.
DAMAGE DONE B Y STRIKE.

For upward of seven weeks a condition of affairs has existed and to-day
exists in the copper country which is nullifying every effort and every purpose
of this organization.
On July 23 the Western Federation of Miners called a general strike of all
of its members employed in the mines of this district, and within a few hours,
by forcible means and otherwise, every man employed, in or about the mines,
whether a member of the federation or not, was deprived of his work, thus
throwing out of employment an immense body of men.
BIOT AND BLOODSHED FOLLOW.

From the day of its inception the strike has been attended with rioting and
bloodshed. Every day riotous mobs roam through the streets of our communi­
ties and are held in check only by the force of the National Guard of the State.
Attacks on workingmen are of daily occurrence; our jails are filled with per­
sons awaiting trial for violent acts during the strike; our children daily have
before their eyes the spectacle of men acting in absolute disregard of law and
order; all of which creates a deplorable and disgraceful condition which should
not be tolerated in a civilized community.
The expense already incurred for maintaining the troops and the augmented
civil authorities is enormous.
REFUSE TO MEET FEDERATION.

The mine managers have refused to recognize the Western Federation of
Miners and have refused to treat with them; mediation and arbitration have
been offered from various sources and refused.
The press has been filled with the claims and counterclaims of the opposing
parties, none of which has been verified.
Reports of working conditions, wages, and hours of labor in the mines of the
copper country have been spread broadcast throughout the land which, if taken
for true, are a lasting shame and disgrace to the community.
To avoid above conditions, many of our best people have left the copper
country— some permanently, others to await the end of the struggle; business
is demoralized; the enormous loss in wages to the men can never be regained;
the damage to the copper country in its reputation for prosperity and well­
being can not be estimated.



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
RIC4HTS OF TH E PUBLIC.

In view of the above, therefore, we believe that the time has come when this
organization, whose every purpose is thus being destroyed, should rise up
and demand that violence, rioting, and bloodshed must cease in this community,
and that the rights of the thousands of people who are not directly involved
in this strike must be recognized and respected.
We believe that the Copper Country Commercial Club should, through a
committee of its members, conduct an investigation to ascertain the facts and
truth as to wages, hours of labor, and working conditions in general in the
copper country, and when the truth has been ascertained should publish it to
the people of this county, of this State, and of the Nation.
OFFER TO MEDIATE.

We believe that inasmuch as every attempt to bring about a cessation of
strike conditions has failed, this organization should, through such committee,
offer its services to both employer and employee, so that order may be restored
and a resumption of work brought about: It is therefore
Resolved, That the chairman of this meeting be authorized to appoint a com­
mittee of three members of the commercial club, which committee is hereby
instructed to take every means to carry out the purposes herein mentioned with
all possible speed.
That such committee may employ clerical help and incur such expense in
connection with their work as may be necessary.
That such committee report the result of its work, and that it be authorized
to make such report public by publishing the same in the press of this com­
munity and of the State.
TH E M EN APPOINTED.

This resolution was adopted by unanimous vote of the executive committee
and the following committee was chosen: Henry L. Baer, of Hancock; Edward
Ulseth, of Calumet; and John W. Black, of Houghton. This committee will
meet to-morrow and take up its work without delay.
It is the intention of the committee to consult with the men and with the
mine managers and with all other persons interested in the unfortunate labor
situation.
There is every reason for the belief that the committee will be able to use its
good offices for the purposes of securing concessions from the mining com­
panies for the men and to influence all parties to the controversy with the
end in view of settling the differences and securing a more general resumption
of mining operations than is now in vogue.

The executive committee of the commercial club appointed a com­
mittee to investigate the strike. It was composed of Henry L. Baer,
a wholesale meat merchant of Hancock; Edward Ulseth, a contractor
and coal dealer of Calumet; and John W. Black, a contractor of
Houghton. This committee opened an office in Calumet and sought
information from both the mine managers and the men who were
on strike.
The officials of the Western Federation of Miners refused to co­
operate with this committee or to furnish it with information,
because they considered that the investigation by the commercial
club was made on the suggestion of the mining companies and in
their interests.
The report of the committee to Gov. Ferris was dated October 8,
1913, approved by the Copper Country Commercial Club on Octo­
ber 10, published in the Houghton and Calumet Daily Mining
Gazette of October 14, and republished in an illustrated pamphlet
of 85 pages. Sections of the report were republished as an adver­
tisement in the Boston Globe of October 20, making a full page, and



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

91

in other Boston newspapers. Following are some of the conclusions
which the committee reached, quoted from its report:
Attitude toward organized labor.— During the time that mining operations
have been carried on in this district the industry has been singularly free
from strike troubles. The entire district has been carried on on the open-shop
principle, as nearly as the committee has been able to ascertain. At no time
has any part of the district been thoroughly unionized, and at no time during
the history of the district has any mining company treated directly with any
labor organization. At the same time, men have been employed by the various
companies without discrimination on account of union affiliations. At the
present time there are employed by the various mining companies on surface,
machinists, molders, railway engineers, brakemen, and others who belong to
the various unions or labor organizations of their particular crafts. Up to
the time of the present strike men were not discriminated against because of
their membership in the Western Federation of Miners or any other miners’
union, and many men undoubtedly were at work in the district underground
who belonged to the Western Federation of Miners. Since the beginning of
the present strike, however, every one of the managers of the mining com­
panies operating in the district has announced that hereafter no member of
the Western Federation will be employed, and it may be stated at this point
that each of the managers of the various companies has also stated, both to
this committee and to representatives of the Federal Department of Labor
and the governor of the State, that they will under no circumstances recognize
in any manner that particular organization.
When requested by this committee to give their reasons for this arbitrary
attitude, the mining managers stated as their reason the record of the Western
Federation, as they understood it, in other camps previous to the trouble in
this district. They pointed out in particular the record of the federation in
the strike carried on by it in the Coeur d’Alene district in Idaho in 1894, the
strike carried on by it in the Cripple Creek and other mining districts of
Colorado from 1894 to 1904, and took the stand that in their refusal to recog­
nize or treat with the federation they were justified by the fact, as stated
by them, that every labor dispute in which the Western Federation had taken
a part was accompanied by bloodshed and violence. ♦ * *
Blacklists.— The committee has investigated as thoroughly as was possible
the question as to whether or not the mining companies in the Michigan district
or the mine operators had formed any combination or had acted with any
concerted plan previous to the present strike, and from such investigation the
committee is convinced that, previous to the present strike, there has been no
concerted action or combination among the mine managers or operators at any
time until after the strike had commenced. Since the strike has been in
progress the committee finds that the mine operators have adopted a uniform
policy in regard to the recognition of the Western Federation of Miners and the
reemployment of members of that organization.
The committee has also investigated thoroughly the question as to whether
or not there existed in the copper district of Michigan a “ blacklist” of any
kind, and whether discharge from one company would affect the possibility
of obtaining reemployment with some other company. On this point the com­
mittee finds that, beyond any question, there has never existed, in recent years
at least, any agreement of any kind between the various companies, nor has
there existed any blacklist of employees. The committee has found, as a mat­
ter of fact, that employees discharged by one company have found ready em­
ployment with the other companies, and in one instance found that an em­
ployee discharged by a mining captain in one shaft of a mine, within a few
days was reemployed by a captain of another shaft of the same mine. * * *
Reemployment of labor.—As the district for some time previous to the strike
was suffering a shortage of labor, the committee is informed that it will be
necessary, in order to bring the number of employees up to the normal force,
to give employment to considerable more men than were working on the day
before the strike. A few of the companies are at the present time taking into
their employment outside labor which is coming into the district. This, how­
ever, to a limited extent. For some time previous to the strike there existed
a shortage of labor in the copper country. It is estimated from figures obtained
at the various mines that they were operating with about 1,500 men short of
normal force. In addition to this, it is estimated that when the strike com­
menced fully 2,000 men left the district, and, therefore, as nearly as the com­



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

mittee can ascertain from the various mine managers, if the men on strike
desire to go back to work, there will be plenty of opportunity for them to
obtain their old positions. This statement is made with the reservation, how­
ever, that the various managers declare that they will not reemploy certain of
their old employees who have taken part in any violence or criminal action
during the days of the strike. * * *
The one-man drill.— It is claimed by the Western Federation of Miners and
its members that the one-man drill, so-called, has placed a burden upon the
miners in the copper mines of Michigan which is not commensurate with the
wages paid. In this connection, in order to clarify the situation, it may be
stated that drilling originally was done by hand. The purpose of the drill in
mining work is to drill holes into which the powder is afterwards charged for
blasting. In the early days of mining this work was done by two or more
men, one of the men holding the drill while other men acted as strikers. As
the mining industry developed, a power drill was introduced which was operated
by two men. The introduction of the first power drill operated by two men
met with the same resistance which is now being offered to the one-man drill.
The claim was made that it would put a great many men out of employment,
which same claim is also made at the present time in reference to the oneman drill.
It may be stated generally that in the Lake Superior copper district the aver­
age copper contents of the rock decreases with depth. This has been the his­
tory of the district, and the cost of mining increases proportionately with depth.
As has been shown briefly in this report by tables, the Michigan copper mines
are operating with rock carrying lower copper contents than the other coppermining districts of the United States, and the Michigan copper mines are op­
erating at greater depth and consequently at greater cost than the other copper
mines of the United States. In order to compete with the other copper districts
of the United States, the above facts have made it absolutely imperative that
the mines of Michigan should be operated with the closest economy. * * *
This committee, in order to understand the drill and its workings, inspected
the drill at work underground in four of the mines. The members of the com­
mittee talked to men operating it. They operated it themselves, they saw the
drill taken down and set up. The committee talked to a number of miners who
were operating the one-man drill, and in no case found any specific objection to
its use. In a few instances the men claimed that it was difficult to set up in
some places, but the committee found that it is a practice among the miners for
one man to help another whenever necessary. The one-man drill operators in­
terviewed invariably admitted that they are making more money on the one-man
drill than they were on the two-man drill, and not in a single instance did the
committee find a man that would give up his one-man drill to go back to the
two-man drill. The committee found in some cases men who said that two men
should be on the drill, but when requested for their reasons and asked of what
assistance the second man would be in operating the drill, they were unable to
give any, except that the assistance would be given to set up the drill in the
morning and to take it out of the way before blasting. The committee on one
of its trips underground saw one man set up his drill in nine minutes, but from
what the committee has been able to ascertain, the average time required by
miners to make their places of work safe by barring down loose rock, preparing
the place for the drill, and setting up the drill seems to be about one and onehalf hours.
The claim has also been made to the committee that a great many men would
be thrown out of work by the adoption of this drill, but mining men and en­
gineers in this particular district claim that the installation of this one-man
drill will permit mining companies to work poorer ground than has ever before
been handled in the district and that instead of throwing miners out of em­
ployment it will create a demand for more miners.
On its trips underground the committee took occasion to ascertain whether or
not the mining companies were operating in accordance with the law passed
at the recent session of the legislature in reference to the one-man drill,
namely, the act providing that men operating these machines should not be sta­
tioned more than 150 feet from the place where other employees were at work,
and the committee found, as a matter of fact, that the mining companies gen­
erally were operating in accordance with this act.
From its investigation the committee has concluded that the one-man drill
in this district is an economic necessity and that the mining companies operating
in the district will insist on continuing its use. * * *



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

93

Minimum wage.— From the tables and information given in the earlier part
of this report, showing the varying conditions at the different mines, the
contrast in the copper content per ton of rock mined by the different com­
panies, the costs of mining in the different mines, it is apparent that a general
minimum scale of wages applied to all of the mines of the Michigan copper dis­
trict can not be put into effect without working injustice both to the operator
and to the employee. The injustice to the operator comes in the fact, as
demonstrated, that those companies which are now operating at a loss and
those companies which will operate at a loss at the average price of copper
will either have to be able to operate at a greater loss or close down their
mines. Several of the companies now operating, if the minimum wage de­
manded by the Western Federation of Miners went into effect, would have to
go out of business and cause, of course, the throwing out of employment of a
great many men. On the other hand, a uniform scale of wages, doing away
with the contract system among the miners and trammers, would work hard­
ship upon a large body of the employees who now earn wages in excess of the
scale advocated by the Western Federation of Miners.
The real question, of course, is whether or not the men working in the
copper industry of Michigan are being paid an adequate wage for the work
which they perform. If a company can not operate and pay its employees a
living wage, that company should cease operations.
The contract system.— The contract system which is in vogue in the copper
country has existed for a great many years. The chief objection to it is the
objection made by some of the men that under the system there are months
when they do not obtain enough pay to afford them a living. The committee
investigated this feature as fully as it was able to do without having the
specific complaints of all of the men before it. The committee investigated all
cases presented to it of men who claimed to have worked an entire month on
contract without having made adequate wages because of poor ground or hard
luck, and found that in some instances the docket or pay check for one' month
would seem to bear out their claim, but, on taking an average of six months
or twelve months, it was invariably found that the average pay made was con­
siderably higher than the one month submitted to the committee. Contracts
are let for periods of two or three months by the mines, and whereas in some
instances during the first month the pay made by the men was comparatively
small, when the three months are taken together and averaged the pay amounts
to a considerably higher figure. The advantages of the contract system, as
claimed by the mine operators and by many of the men, are that it affords the
efficient miner or trammer an opportunity to make good pay and gives him a
chance to increase his own efficiency and increase his compensation in propor­
tion thereto.
In examining the pay rolls of the various companies and tabulating the same,
the committee found that there was a wide discrepancy in the wages paid to the
various classes of labor in the various mines. The wages paid by some of
the companies average considerably higher than the wages paid at some of
the other mines, one of the reasons for this, of course, being the fact that,
as before stated, the richer mines in the district can afford to pay higher wages.
Other reasons are the facts that in some of the mines the work is carried on at
a greater depth and, in some instances, under more unfavorable conditions than
at some of the more shallow mines. The fact that this discrepancy exists also
seems to bear out the statement that there has been no combination or con­
certed action among the various mine managers of the district, and the com­
mittee is informed that previous to this report there have been no comparative*
tables made of the wages paid by the various companies. * * *
Tramming,— The conditions under which trammers work in the various mines
differ to a great extent. In some mines where a large amount of rock is to be
taken out from one level, it has been possible to install electric tramming, which
means that the work of the trammer consists in loading the cars, which are
then hauled to the shaft by electric motors. In other mines where only a
limited amount of rock is taken out at each level it has been impracticable to
establish power tramming and the cars are pushed to the shaft by the trammers.
The problem of lightening the work of loading and pushing tram cars has been
one that has caused considerable trouble. The average car trammed by two
men holds 2\ tons of rock. The distance which it is required that trammers
push the car varies, at different levels in the various mines, from 50 feet to
distances of fifteen or sixteen hundred feet. The cars are of various types and
trammers can be found who insist that each particular kind of car is the best.



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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

All the cars run on steel rails and the levels and the tracks are graded with a
down grade toward the shaft in favor of the loaded car. The number of cars
required to be taken out by men who work on day’s pay varies with the varying
conditions and the distances to be trammed.
Loading conditions also vary. In some cases the tram cars are loaded by
shoveling from the floor of the drift, in some places they are loaded from chutes,
and wherever possible a loading platform or sollar is constructed level with the
top of the car so that the work of loading is minimized. In some instances the
men push the cars a short distance, from which point the cars are hauled by
electric or cable haulage. The tramming is done in many cases by contract,
and a comparison of the pay made by trammers working on day’s pay with
those working on contract shows that contract trammers make by far the big­
gest wages. At the same time they accomplish more work, and it has been
found that the contract trammer who makes the biggest pay is also the best
man for the operator. Contract trammers in the mines from which the com­
mittee has been able to obtain statistics tram on an average of 21 tons, while
trammers working on company account or day’s pay average from 12 to 14
tons. * * *
The demand for an eight-hour shift.—The problem of working hours for
underground employees in the mines of Michigan seems to be one of the hardest
to solve. In other industries where work is performed on surface and is not
complicated by the necessity for conveying the men to and from their work the
eight-hour proposition is in most instances merely one of dollars and cents.
When applied to work underground many complications and problems creep
in which make it hard to establish a uniform rule. It is conceded, even by the
men who are now out on strike, that underground employees of the mines in
Michigan do not actually work more than 8 hours a shift, but it is claimed
that the hours from the time the men leave the surface until they are returned
to the surface amounts to 10 or more hours out of the day.
In other mining districts where operations are conducted nearer the surface
and under totally different conditions it has been found practicable to put into
effect a so-called eight-hour shift. In many of these mines the copper deposits
lie in the shape of a blanket deposit, and men are lowered to a certain depth
in the mine, from which all operations are carried on.
In the Michigan mines the copper deposits lie in a vein dipping from the sur­
face, and operations are carried on at many different levels, necessitating the
lowering of men to different distances in the mine and, of course, returning
them from different levels. Added to this is the immense depth of Michigan
mines as compared to other mines, all of which makes the time of lowering the
men to their work and bringing them back to surface probably longer than in
any other mining district. There also enters into this problem the necessity
for keeping skips, or cars by which rock is hoisted out of the mine, in operation
for a long enough period to hoist the rock broken by the miners; in other words,
the time taken up in hoisting and lowering men deducts just that much time
from the period during which rock can be hoisted.
As a matter of safety, men are lowered in* the mine at certain fixed hours
in the beginning of the shift and are brought back to surface at certain fixed
hours at the end of the shift. During these hours no rock is hoisted. Every
precaution is taken by the companies in the hoisting and lowering of men.
Special cages are put on for their use, and in some of the mines special cables
are used. The cages containing the men, which carry only a limited number
(the most lowered at one time being about 30), are run at a moderate rate of
speed, which is made necessary by the immense depth of the mines. It should
be borne in mind that at some of the deeper workings of the Calumet & Hecla
mine the men are lowered on an incline shaft for a distance of a mile and onehalf. The length of these shafts makes it imperative that great care should be
taken in their upkeep and maintenance, and as an illustration of their care it may
be stated that in the Calument & Hecla mine some 800 men are employed solely
on shaft work in keeping the shafts in repair and in working condition. * ♦ *
It must be borne in mind that in the deeper mines, although the men quit
work underground at about the same time, a great number of them are hoisted
to surface at the same shaft and with the same cage, and consequently it is
necessary that some of the men wait their turn to get on the cage and be taken
to surface, which means that considerable time elapses between the time they
stop work and reach the surface over and above the actual time taken to hoist
them. Under the system used by most of the mines the men who are lowered




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

95

first in tlie beginning of the shift are given the privilege of coming out first
at the end of the shift. * * *
Three shifts.— It is impracticable in the mines of the copper district of Michi­
gan to work three eight-hour shifts, this for various reasons, one reason being
the fact that it takes so much time to lower the men to work and to bring them
back to surface, another reason being that at the end of the day’s work when
the miners blast their holes, a period of from one to two hours must elapse
before men can work in the same place again because of the gases which are
generated by the explosions.
In some of the mining districts of the United States, notably the Butte dis­
trict, the men work an eight-hour shift, going to their work on their own time,
but being brought to the surface on the company’s time. In the mines in Michgan no attempt has heretofore been made to inaugurate any kind of an eighthour shift. * * *
Treatment of men by petty bosses.— In regard to the complaint that was made
by some of the men of the treatment by petty bosses, it may be said that this
complaint is a general complaint which is bound to exist in any industry which
requires the number of petty bosses that are required in the mining industry.
It may be taken for granted that no mine manager wants his underbosses to
mistreat his men, and the solution of this problem lies in providing an adequate
method by which men can present their grievances to the management. It is
claimed by some of the men that they dare not make complaints against a petty
boss without incurring the displeasure of that boss and running the chance
of losing their jobs. It is undoubtedly true that some of the bosses who are pro­
moted from the ranks are not competent to handle the men under them. It is
undoubtedly also true that many of the complaints that are now heard against
underbosses arise out of feelings of jealousy and personal grudge, and can not
be adjusted in a general way, but can only be taken up in individual cases
and sifted to find the truth. The committee believes that all of the mine mana­
gers of the copper district would willingly adjust any legitimate complaint
against any of the minor bosses if brought to their attention.
Access to management.—As to the presentation of grievances, the committee
finds the fact to be that many of the men feel they have no way of getting to
the men in authority who could adjust their grievances. This problem is one
largely of reassuring men of the fact that they may go freely to their employers
and present their grievances and troubles without incurring discrimination.
Heretofore in the district this has been accomplished at times by committees
in the case of general grievances, and at times by the individual making a
personal visit to the man in authority. The committee has tried to ascertain
whether or not any mining company has discriminated against any man or has
discharged him for making complaints, and has been unable to find one case
where that has been done. Nevertheless, the fact remains that many of the
men do not feel free to go to their employers with their grievances. The com­
mittee also has been unable to find a single case where any empolyer, mine
manager, or person in authority has refused to meet with any man or with any
committee of the men to discuss the grievances and problems arising during
the course of the work. If some method could be adopted by which the men
could be assured that they might come freely to their employers and tell their
troubles and present their grievances without incurring any displeasure or dis­
crimination, the problem of presentation of grievances would be solved.
Conclusion.—Undoubtedly, by withholding this report for some future time,
the committee would be enabled to embody much valuable information and data
which is not at hand at the present, but it is felt that the publication of the
report at this time, giving the facts as the committee has found them, may help
to clear away many of the false issues that have been raised and may do some­
thing toward bringing to a termination the unfortunate state of affairs existing
in the copper country.
The committee has come to the conclusion that:
1. The mine managers will not recognize the Western Federation of Miners.
2. No minimum wage applicable to all mines in the district can be established
with justice to all parties concerned.
3. The one-man drill has come to stay.
The committee has also concluded:
1. That the question of establishing some kind of an eight-hour working day
ought to receive the serious consideration of both men and operators.
2. That some attempt ought to be made to provide an adequate method by
which the employee can obtain and have perfectly free access to the manage­



96

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ment for the purpose of presenting grievances without fear of discrimination
or discharge.
With these conclusions in mind, the committee decided to meet the man­
agers of the various mining companies and put before them its findings rela­
tive to an eight-hour shift and the presentation of grievances, with the hope
that something might be done to adjust those matters.
At the meeting which was held there were present managers or other repre­
sentatives of each of the companies mentioned in the report, and the following
statement was made to the committee and agreed to by each representative:
1. That, as previously stated, the mining companies had under favorable con­
sideration for some time previous to the strike the establishment of an eighthour working day for underground employees; that the different conditions at
the various mines render it impossible to work out an absolutely uniform
working-day for all underground employees at all of the mines; that each man­
agement will work the problem out with reference to its own peculiar condi­
tions ; that this could not be done in a short time; but that each management
will establish and have in operation an eight-hour working-day for under­
ground employees on or before January 1, 1914.
2. That the adjustment of grievances ultimately rests with the general man­
ager, superintendent, or man highest in authority at the mine; that, therefore,
the solution of the grievance problem lies in providing and maintaining a
method of free access between the men and the general manager or official
highest in authority at the mine; that, therefore, each manager will set aside
a certain fixed day or half day in each week as a day for hearing complaints
and grievances; that he will devote such day exclusively to meeting men and
hearing complaints; that he will investigate every complaint presented to
him and will adjust every legitimate grievance with all possible speed; that
lie will see to it that no man is discriminated or militated against because of
presenting complaints; that he will prepare a notice embodying the above and
will distribute it among his employees.
The committee feels that with the inauguration of the above plans there
must necessarily come closer acquaintance between employer and employee,
from which will result untold good to both parties.

On October 30 the various mining companies issued a public state­
ment to the Copper Country Commercial Club, which reported the
agreement for an eight-hour day by January 1, and the plans for hear­
ing grievances, as previously given publicity in the report of the club,
and added the following statement:
That on condition of withdrawal from the Western Federation of Miners all
former employees will be reemployed without discrimination because of having
been a member of that organization, or because of nationality, reserving the
right to exercise discretion as to the reemployment of those known to have en­
gaged in lawlessness, intimidation, or inciting thereto. This offer will not be
continued for long.

The commercial club, in giving this statement to the public, said :
The Copper Country Commercial Club desires in this way to make known to
all interested the present willingness of the companies to take back substan­
tially all of their old employees on these terms. If acted upon quickly the
strikers will now have an opportunity for reemployment. All citizens of the
community are urged to assist, through this present opportunity, in bringing an
end to the strike.
DISCRIM IN ATION AN D ADJUSTM ENT OF GRIEVANCES.

Before the strike of 1913 employees of the copper mining companies
were seldom asked whether or not they belonged to the Western Fed­
eration of Miners, and instances of discrimination against members
of the federation were not common. The mine workers made little
complaint about such discrimination.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

97

The schedule of inquiries which the companies involved in the
strike were requested to answer contained the following inquiries:
1. Have officers or captains of the company ever questioned employees as to
whether or not they were members of the Western Federation of Miners?
2. Have employees been discharged or discriminated against because of mem­
bership in the federation? If so, state the circumstances.
3. In employing men since the strike began, are they asked whether or not
they are members of the federation; and if they are members (a) are they re­
employed, and (6) are they required to withdraw from the federation?
4. How were employees before the strike able to present grievances without
incurring discrimination or prejudice?

The answers of the various companies, which follow, were made
during August and September, 1913.
R e l a t io n s w i t h
no.

i.

calum et

E m ployees,

& hecla

m in in g

CO.

1. Yes; in individual cases.
2. Only a few cases of men who have been agitating while in the mine or
were openly opposing the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.
3. We have employed no men since the strike commenced, except men who
we knew did not belong to the Western Federation of Miners, and when time
comes will insist that applicants, if members, withdraw from the Western
Federation of Miners.
4. Our employees have at all times been able to present their grievances as
individuals, and have had the right to go to the president of the company if
necessary. There is a distinct understanding that an employee who has taken
a grievance higher than his immediate superior shall not be discriminated
against. In cases where the differences are of a personal nature we have
transferred the man to another department.
NOS. 2 , 3 , AND 4 . OSCEOLA CONSOLIDATED M IN IN G CO., NORTH KEARSARGE M IN E , AND
SOUTH KEARSARGE M IN E .

1. No official questioning of employees as to membership in the Western Fed­
eration of Miners has been done. Doubtless there have been cases where a
foreman has asked men the question to satisfy his own curiosity—not for the
purpose of making a record of it.
2. No.
3. Yes. (a) Men working for the company before the strike began will be
reemployed if they have been guilty of no violent or vicious acts, but (6) they
will be required to withdraw from the Western Federation of Miners.
4. Individual employees or committees of employees are always at liberty to
call upon the officer of this company to present grievances or to make requests;
in no case within the knowledge of the writer has any discrimination or preju­
dice been incurred thereby.
NO.

5.

ISLE ROYALE COPPER CO.

1. No; there has never been any question as to membership in the federation.
2. No; they have not.
3. Nonstrikers were not out of our employ, and therefore net asked, (a)
5T
es. (6) Yes; they are required to withdraw from the federation.
4. Our employees came to office in person or their committee, or by mail, and
have not been discriminated against.
NO. 6 . A H M EE K

M IN IN G CO.

1. Have never made a practice of asking the men whether or not they were
members of the Western Federation of Miners.
2. Have never discriminated against any employee on account of membership
in federation.
29848°—Bull. 139—14------7




98

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OP LABOR STATISTICS.

3. Have not hired anybody since the strike started. When we resume opera­
tions we intend to ask every one of whom we are at all doubtful whether they
belong or not, and we also will require them to withdraw from the federation.
4. All employees have been told that if they were not satisfied with adjust­
ment from their immediate foreman they could always take it up with the
superintendent, who would take it up with the general manager, and no one was
ever discriminated or prejudiced against.
NO. 7. TA M AR AC K M IN IN G CO.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Yes.
No.
(a) Yes; (6) yes.
By personal interviews with superintendent or general manager.
NO.

8. ALLOUEZ

M IN IN G

CO.

1. No.
2. No.
3. When actual mining operations are resumed, all applicants for work will
be asked if they belong to the Western Federation of Miners Union, and if so,
required to withdraw from said organization before they are hired.
4. Employees have been repeatedly told that if they had any grievance, real
or imaginary, they could take it up with the captain; if his solution of the
difficulty was not satisfactory, then to the superintendent, and if still unsatis­
factory, to the general superintendent or general manager, and in no case would
discrimination or prejudice be shown.
NO.

9.

SUPERIOR COPPER CO.

1. No; with the exception of one case where I questioned a man with whom
I have been on very good terms.
2. No.
3. Yes. (a) ------ . (&) No; unless they withdraw from the Western Federa­
tion of Miners.
4. I have known of no case of discrimination on this account. Minor griev­
ances, such as contract prices, bad conditions underground, incompetent partners,
individual cases of injustice, are continually being presented to trammer bosses,
shift bosses, and the captain, and any such grievances not satisfactorily ad­
justed were brought to me as superintendent. The employee still dissatified
has always had the right to go over my head and lay his case before the gen­
eral superintendent or the general manager.
NO. 1 0 . C EN TENN IAL COPPER M IN IN G CO.

1. NO.
2. No.
3. When actual mining operations are resumed, all applicants for work will
be asked if they belong to the Western Federation of Miners Union, and if so,
required to withdraw from said organization before they can obtain work.
4. Employees have been told that if they had a grievance, real or imaginary,
and were not satisfied with the captain’s decision, they could bring it before
the superintendent, and if still unsatisfactory, to the general superintendent
or general manager, and in no case would prejudice or discrimination be shown.
NO. 1 1 . LA SALLE COPPER CO.

1. The superintendent and the captains have occasionally asked employees
as to whether or not they were members of the Western Federation of Miners.
2. No.
3. Men are asked whether or not they are members of the federation when
they apply for work since the strike began. If members, they may be reem­
ployed if they are considered desirable, provided that they withdraw from the
federation.
4. Employees have always been able to present grievances without incurring
discrimination or prejudice by doing so in any honorable way.




99

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.
NO. 1 2 . LA U B IU M M IN IN G CO.

1. Employees have sometimes been questioned as to whether or not they
were members of the Western Federation of Miners.
2. No employees have been discharged or discriminated against because of
membership in the federation.
3. Applicants for work since the strike began are asked whether or not they
are members of the federation. Members may be employed if they are consid­
ered desirable, but only on condition that they withdraw from the federation.
4. Employees have always been able to present grievances without incurring
discrimination or prejudice by doing so in any honorable way.
NOS.

13,

14,

AN D

1 5 . BALTIC

M IN IN G CO., TR IM O U N TA IN
COPPER CO.

M IN IN G

CO.,

CH A M PIO N

1. The only time questions were asked was after notice from the local of the
Western Federation of Miners was received, a full account of which was fur­
nished you in my letter of the 18th instant.
2. Any known organizers of the Western Federation of Miners were dis­
charged when identified. Only four or five such cases occurred previous to the
strike.
3. Yes; and they are not employed unless they state that they are no longer
members of the Western Federation of Miners and do not propose to have any­
thing more to do with it.
4. Only by speaking of their grievances to their bosses or to the general man­
ager, or by striking.
NO. 1 6 . Q U IN C Y M IN IN G CO.

1. No.
2. No.
3. No. The great majority of strikers are Finns, Austrians, and Italians
who can not speak English.
4. In any manner they choose.
NO. 1 7 . M O H A W K M IN IN G CO.

1.
2.
3.
4.

In conversation with the men the question may have been asked.
No.
No men have been employed since the strike.
By consulting the superintendent.
NO. 1 8 .

WOLVERINE COPPER M IN IN G CO.

1. In conversation with the men the question may have been asked.
2. No.
3. None have been employed since the strike.
4. By consulting the superintendent.
NO. 1 9 .

FR A N K L IN M IN IN G CO.

1. Not to our knowledge.
2. No.
3. No men hired since strike.
4. Each employee has a pay book on which is printed the following: “ Com­
munications and complaints must be made to the foreman of your department.”
NOS. 2 0 AN D 2 1 .

W IN O N A COPPER CO. AND H OUGHTON COPPER CO.

1. No.
2. No.

3. We have so far not reemployed any men at either the Winona or the
Houghton The watchmen, pumpmen, etc., now employed we do not believe
are members of the federation.
4. By bringing their grievances either directly to their foreman or to the
superintendent.




100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
NO. 2 2 .

M A S S CONSOLIDATED M IN IN G CO.

1. Not to our knowledge. If they have done so, it is without our knowledge
or orders.
2. No.
3. No men have been employed since the strike began.
4. Personally or by means of a committee of their own number.
NO. 2 3 .

1.
2.
3.
will
Yes.

H AN CO C K CONSOLIDATED M IN IN G CO.

No.
No.
Have not employed any new men since strike began, (a) Old employees
be reemployed as required, provided they withdraw from federation. (6)

4. As far as we know, employees had no grievances; if they had any, they did
not make them known to the officials of the company. The company is now
and always has been ever ready to meet its employees relative to any grievances,
but as noted, if the employees had any grievances, they did not make them
known to the proper officers of the company. If employees had any grievances,
they could have in the past and will in the future be able to present them to the
proper officers of this company without incurring discrimination or prejudice.
NO.

1.
2.
3.
will
Yes.

24.

ONECO COPPER M IN IN G

CO.

No.
No.
Have not employed any new men since strike began, (a ) Old employees
be reemployed as required, provided they withdraw from federation. (6)

4. As far as we know, employees had no grievances; if they had any, they did
not make them known to the officials of the company. The company is now
and always has been ever ready to meet its employees relative to any grievances,
but as noted, if the employees had any grievances, they did not make them known
known to the proper officers of the company. If employees had any grievances
they could have in the past, and will in the future, be able to present them to
the officials of this company without incurring discrimination or prejudice.
NO. 2 5 .

L A K E COPPER CO.

1. Very rarely.
2. In a very few cases, when men appeared to be trouble makers.
3. None have been employed since the strike.
4. Employees have always had the opportunity of presenting a grievance
either singly or in a body to either the foremen or tlie manager without incur­
ring discrimination.

During the strike all of the companies decided not to reemploy men
who were members of the Western Federation of Miners unless they
should withdraw from that organization, and all men employed or
reemployed were required to promise that they would have no con­
nection with it.
In spite of the replies of the companies that employees before the
strike had full opportunities to present their grievances to the higher
company officials, it is a fact that many of the mine workers felt that
they were unjustly treated by the petty bosses and that it would be
useless for them to appeal to the higher officials. Many felt that if
they went over the heads of the petty bosses the latter would be
prejudiced against them and would give them harder tasks. The
petty bosses usually belong to the races whose representatives have
been engaged longest in mining in this district. The other mine
workers are largely of races whose representatives have more recently
come to the district. It is commonly asserted by the mine workers
that in assigning working places and fixing wage and contract rates
the bosses favor men of their respective races. Probably one reason



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

101

why many mine workers who considered that they had a grievance
did not appeal to the higher officials was that they could not speak
English or could speak it only imperfectly.
The report of the committee appointed by the executive committee
of the Copper Country Commercial Club to investigate the strike,
approved by the club on October 10,1913, stated that at a meeting or
the managers or representatives of the mining companies each of
them had agreed that he would set aside a certain day or half day
in each week exclusively for hearing grievances, that he would adjust
legitimate grievances as speedily as possible, that he would not dis­
criminate against anyone who might present a grievance, and that
he would distribute a notice to this effect among his employees.1
CONCESSIONS THE COMPANIES W OULD M AKE.

Miners on day shift work five full shifts from Monday to Friday,
inclusive, and half a shift on Saturday, or five and one-half shifts a
week. Miners on day shift one week, change to night shift the next
week, and those on night shift change to day shift. Miners on night
shift work only five shifts a week, from Monday night to Friday night.
The shifts of miners, day or night, from Monday to Friday are from
9 to 10 hours, according to the facilities provided for lowering men
into or bringing men up from the shaft. On Saturday miners work
half a day shift.
Trammers on either daj or night shift work five full shifts from
Monday to Friday, inclusive, the hours being the same as for miners,
but on Saturday the day and night shifts of trammers are from seven
to eight hours.
The hours here given for both miners and trammers include the
time required to go down and come up, but does not include one hour
allowed for luncheon.
Several mine managers have intimated that they would be willing
to operate their mines on an eight-hour working basis—that is, eight
hours per day for six days a week. R. R. Seeber, superintendent of the
Winona Copper Co. and the Houghton Copper Co., stated to an agent
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics that he would be glad for miners to
work on a schedule of eight hours, and would allow them to go down
into the mine or return to the surface on the company’s time; that is,
one way of the trip being made on the company’s time and the other
way on the miners’ time, as is allowed in Butte, Mont., under con­
tracts that the Western Federation of Miners have with the mine
managers there.
F. W. Denton, general manager of the Copper Range Consolidated
Co., stated to an agent of the Bureau of Labor Statistics that he be­
lieved that the mining companies could afford to make some conces­
sions on working hours, and that he had “ always regarded it as
ridiculous that hours for all men working underground were not the
same.”
The reply of the mine managers to Mr. Moffitt, representing the
United States Department of Labor, and their reply to Judge Mur­
phy, representing the governor, stated that for some time prior to
the inception of the strike the mining companies had considered the
1 See extract from report of the committee under “ Arbitration proposals unavailing,”
p. 96.




102

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

question of reducing the working hours to eight for underground men,
as far as the change would be found to be practicable.
The report of the committee appointed by the executive committee
of the Copper Country Commercial Club to investigate the strike,
approved by the club on October 10, 1913, says that at a meeting of
the managers or other representatives of the mining companies each
of them had agreed to put in operation an eight-hour working-day for
underground employees on or before January 1, 1914, and that each
would set aside one day or half a da}' each week exclusively for hear­
ing grievances.1
I f the working hours were reduced to eight, the shifts of miners
would be but little shortened. This is illustrated b y the following
table showing the hours a miner works during a fortnight at present,
compared with the time he would work on an eight-hour basis:
Hours o f miners at present.
H r s . m in.

5 days,
hours a day, including time required to descend and ascend,
but not including 1 hour for luncheon_______________________________
Saturday, including time required to descend and ascend______________
5 nights, 9$ hours a night, including time required to go down and come
up, but not including 1 hour for luncheon___________________________

47 30
5 30
47 30

Total for 2 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------- 100

30

Hours of miners on 8-hour basis.
H r s . m in .

6 days, 8i hours a day, including time required either to descend or
ascend, but not including 1 hour for luncheon---------------------------------- 49
6 nights, same------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 49
Total for 2 weeks_________________________________________________

99

30
30
00

If the working hours were reduced to 8, the shifts of trammers
would be shortened about 11 hours in 12 days, as shown by the fol­
lowing table:
Hours o f trammers at present.
H r s . m in.

5 days, 9£ hours a day, including time required to descend and ascend,
but not including 1 hour for luncheon----------------------------------------------5 nights, same________________________________________________________
1 day, Saturday, including time required to descend and ascend, but not
includling 1 hour for luncheon--------------------------------------------------------1 night, Saturday, same----------------------------------------------------------------------

47 30
47 30
7 30
7 30

Total for 2 weeks______________________________________________ 110

00

Hours of trammers on 8-hour basis.
H r s. M in .

6 days, 8J hours a day, including time required either to descend or
ascend, but not including 1 hour for luncheon----------------------------------6 nights, same------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

49
49

30
30

Total for 2 weeks----------------------------------------------------------------------

99

00

In the first part of each of these tables an allowance of 30 minutes
is made for the trip going down and coming up. In the second part
of the tables allowance oi 15 minutes is made for the trip one way,
as in Butte, where the 8-hour system prevails, the miners make the
trip one way on the company’s time and one way on their own time.
1 See extract from report of the committee under “ Arbitration proposals unavailing,”
p. 96.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

103

For two reasons it would be impracticable for the mines to be
operated on the basis of three eight-hour shifts a day. One refcson is
that considerable time is required for the man cages to carry the men
down into the shafts (the shafts in Michigan being very deep) and
to bring them to the surface. The other reason is that there must be
an interval between men ascending and others descending to permit
the fumes of powder resulting from the blasting to clear away.
While several of the mine managers who were interviewed by the
agent of the Bureau of Labor Statistics said that some concessions
might be made as to working hours, they did not talk as if any
other concessions could be granted. As a rule the mining companies
that pay dividends to their stockholders pay larger wages to their
employees than do the nondividend-paying mines. The claim is made
by the managers of nondividend-paying mines that they can not
afford to pay wages equal to those paid by the dividend-paying
mines. This argument was used by James MacNaughton, general
manager of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., which company pays
the highest wages paid to mine workers in the district. The answer
of the men is that all of the mining companies should pay fair wages
or quit mining. Mining is a business of much uncertainty as to pro­
duction, and developing a “ prospect ” is in the nature of a gambling
operation. But those who are gambling in “ prospects ” should them­
selves stand the expense, and not require their employees to stand
part of it by paying them low wages. They would not expect to
buy mine machinery and materials for any less than the market
rates because their mines are still in the development stage, and there
is no better reason why they should expect to employ labor for less
wages than are paid by the producing mines. I f the “ prospects ”
turn out to be big producers as hoped for, the profits will not be
divided with employees in the past, but will go to the owners in the
form of dividends. F. W. Denton, general manager of the Copper
Range Consolidated Co., stated to an agent of the Bureau that in
his opinion mining companies should pay fair wages or quit the
business, and he instanced one mine of another company which he
said ought to be closed up.
UNDERGROUND CONDITIONS.

The mines in the Michigan copper district are entered by shafts,
either incline or vertical. At the top of each shaft is a shaft house
which contains a powerful engine. This engine operates a drum on
which is wound the cable that is used for lowering empty skips^ or
cars into the mine and for drawing skips loaded with copper-bearing
rock to the surface. In the same way, man cages conveying the
underground workers are lowered into the mine and hoisted to the
surface.
An inclined shaft follows the pitch of the copper lode. At the
depth of every 100 or 125 feet drifts or levels are dug from the shaft
along the lode in either direction, and from these levels stopes are
dug upward from one level to the next one above. A stope is a sec­
tion of the lode from which the ore is being taken out. Along the
levels are laid tracks on which tramcars are pushed by men or
drawn by motors or mules. The tramcars are loaded at the stopes




104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

with the copper-bearing rock, and when they reach the shaft the
rock i&dumped into the skip.
Cutting a drift is called “ drifting,” and cutting a stope is called
“ sloping,5 but the first cut that is made above the drift Is called
5
“ drift stoping.” All of these operations are done by drilling and
blasting.
In the Michigan copper district the ore is in either conglomerate
or amygdaloid rock. Most of the mines are amygdaloid, and the
only conglomerate mines are operated by the Calumet & Hecla Min­
ing Co. A conglomerate mine is one in which the rock consists of
rounded and water-worn debris of rock or pebbles, united into a
compact mass containing mineral deposits. Amygdaloid means al­
mond shaped, and it is an igneous rock containing almond-shaped
nodules in which mineral has been deposited.
In the conglomerate mines it is necessary to use a great deal of
heavy timber, which is placed between the floor and roof in the
drifts and stopes to prevent the roof from falling in. Amygdaloid
is a much stronger rock, and in amygdaloid mines but little timber­
ing is used, and the roof is supported by pillars or sections of the
rock which are left undisturbed. In some mines rock walls are built
along the sides of the drift. Timbers called “ stulls ” are placed
across the drift on top of the walls, and other timbers called “ lag­
ging 5 are placed lengthwise on the stulls to form the roof.
5
Following is a brief description of the work that is done by under­
ground men:
Miner.—Bars down loose rock; operates drill machines; charges
and fires blasts. The last work done on a shift is blasting. After
an interval of two hours a new shift comes on and the first work
done by the miner in that shift is to loosen the broken rock resulting
from the blast, using a bar for that purpose. Miners work singly
or in pairs, according as they use one-man or two-man machines.
Trammer.—Loads tramcars and pushes them to the shaft. Usu­
ally there are two men to a car, sometimes three. In some mines the
trammers dump the rock from the cars into the skip in which it is
hoisted up the shaft to the crusher in the shaft house on the surface.
In some mines there are other men who do the dumping, and in
some mines the cars are dumped by mechanical tipplers.
Timberman.—Places timbers in shaft, drifts, and stopes to support
the roof of the mine.
Laborer.-^-Drags or picks down the rock from the stopes to the
drifts; builds rock walls and fills stopes with poor rock; helps
timbermen.
Trackman.—Builds and repairs tramcar tracks.
Boy.—Carries drills; operates small hoists that raise dirt from the
bottom of new shafts.
The following table, compiled from data furnished by the mining
companies, shows the pitch of the copper-bearing lodes or veins, in
degrees with the horizon, the average thickness of the veins, the
depths of the shafts, the distances from the shafts to the stopes, and
the grades of the drifts or levels:




105

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Depth of shaft.
Mine.

Pitch of Average
vein.
thickness
of vein.

Feet.
Ahmeek...............

Allouez.................

40-41

Baltic...................

70-72

Calumet & Hecla

37-38

12
12
12
12
12

Centennial........... .

38-39

12-13

Champion........... .

’ 7( ^ 72'

30-35

Franklin...............
Hancock.............. .

45
38-54

6-7

Houghton
Isle

52
56

Lake.....................
La Salle...............
Laurium..............
Mass......................

35
44

20
40-50

10

43
43

Mohawk...............

35-40

14

North Kearsarge

40

12

Oneco...................
Osceola.................

35
40

Quincy.................
South Kearsarge

52
40

12

Superior...............
Tamarack..........

Trimountain___

70-72

Winona...............
Wolverine...........

40

Grade of
levels.
On in­
cline.

Feet.

Vertical. Shortest. Longest.

Feet.

1,723
1,814
1,740
1,751
2,641
2,937
30-35
2,103
2,470
2,397
1,520
15 200- 8,100 120-4,900

12
12

30-35

Distance from shaft
to stopes.

2,506
2,683
2,152
2,170
3,486
3,407£
2,230
2,630
2,550
1,620

3,821
4,293
2,530
2,495
2,108
2,384
3,600
1,428
620
3,162
1,939|
1,158*
1,549

1,666

2,146
1,770
1,650
1,741
1,656
1,104
2,379
2,364
1,476
1,963
1,383
898
3,873£
3,276£
1,449
1,250
4,263
4,609
6,597
2,820|
1,992^
1,978

2,815
2,335
2,315
1,272
1,406
1,700
3,995
3,872

2,383
2,592
2,387
2,354
1,989
2,249
2,546
1,166
4,000
1,620
a
1,607
960
1,284
950
1,453

1,220
1,115
1,136
1,131
753

8.
717

1,600
3,409
4,355
8 5,253
4,450
5,308
2,656
2,203
2,184

Feet.

100

Feet.

Inches per

100feet.

7
1

1,045

427

10

2,235

50

1,400

15
75
75
736

100

1,200

1.900
1.900
1,653

4

6-10

6-10

10

2,600

12

1,200

1,000

0)

100
100

8

75

( ?500
3

10

i1
)

10

650
300

200

50

700
1,400
1,500

100

f

1,600

400

150

110
100

(2
)

2,030

10
9

3,000
900

1,100

1,100

2,500

100

10
10

1,100
800

"i,m

7*
*io‘

1Not reported.
J
No stoping has been done.
:From the 5,223Hoot level an incline shaft extends to an additional depth of 495 feet.

Most of the shafts are inclined and follow the pitch of the vein,
which varies from 35° to 72°. There are only a few vertical shafts.
As will be seen, there are great differences in the depths of the shafts,
and the greatest differences are in the shafts of the Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co., which vary from 200 to 8,100 feet on an incline, from 120



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

106

to 4,900 feet vertically. Some of the shafts in the Conglomerate
lode of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. are the deepest shafts in the
world.1
The distances from the shafts to the stopes vary from 15 feet in one
of the Calumet & Hecla shafts to 3,000 feet in one of the Quincy
shafts. The grades of the drifts vary from 3 inches in 100 feet in the
Baltic, Champion, and Trimountain mines to 12 inches in Franklin
and Quincy mines. The grade of the drift is a matter to be consid­
ered in connection with the heavy work of tramming by hand-pushed
cars. Some of the best minmg engineers consider that a grade of 5
inches in 100 feet is best, and that a steeper grade makes too hard the
work of pushing the empty tram cars up grade back from the shaft
to the stopes.
The following table, compiled from data furnished by the companies,
shows the depths of the various shafts, the number of men employed
underground, the means of ventilation in the mines, and the sanitary
provisions:
e N
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107

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

e N
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108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Depth Num­
of
ber of
men
shaft
on in­ under­
cline. ground.

Mine.

Qllinny_______

,

Feet.
6,597

Ventilation of mine.

Sanitary regulations under­
ground.

1,456

Natural............................................

Use of quicklime.

272

Each mine has 2 shafts; 1 shaft,
by reason of location or on ac­
count of having steam pipes at
the collar, is maintained as an
“ upcast” shaft, and the other
shafts are “ downcast.” Ven­
tilation is thus natural and ef­
fective.

The old workings are commonly
used by the men. At intervals
quicklime is scattered in these
places. Water-closets are pro­
vided adjoining the change*
houses on surface.

Superior.................... 1,978

182

2 shafts connected underground
by a level. The main work­
ing shaft is upcast. There are
valves in the compressed air
line at all working places, and
free use is made of the com­
pressed air to blow out the gas
in addition to that exhausted
by machines. Compresses are
continually working between
shifts for the purpose of blow­
ing out foul air and gas.

The men go into old workings, or
in places where men are
bunched. Boxes and lime are
furnished.

Tamarack............... 13,409
14,355
(2)
15,253
14,450
15,308

476

Natural............................................

Barrels are provided as closets,
with lime to disinfect.

Winona..................... 1,272
1,406

290

Natural. Some ventilating doors
are placed in various levels to
regulate the air flow to a cer­
tain extent.

Excrement is deposited in pow­
der or candle ooxes, covered
with dirt, and hoisted.

Wolverine................

361

Natural j due to difference in
elevation of shaft collars, and
exhaust air from drills and
pumps.

Pump sumps and abandoned out
of the way stopes are used for
closets.

South Kearsarge. . .

2,820*
1,992J

1,700
3,995
3,872

1 Depth of shaft, vertical feet.
2 From the 5,223J-foot level an incline shaft extends to an additional depth of 495 feet

The mine managers seem to consider that the mines are sufficiently
ventilated, but the mine workers allege the contrary and complain
about the poor air they are compelled to breathe from 10 to 11 hours
a day. The oxygen is consumed not only by the lungs, but by the
open lights which underground men carry. Air enters the mine by
the shaft, and if there are two or more shafts and they are connected
on some levels, the air is supposed to form a current irom one to the
other. In some mines also there are raises, or openings, between the
levels, to give additional circulation to the air.
There are no fans for blowing fresh air into the mines, as there are
in coal mines, and the managers allege that fans are not necessary,
as there are no gases in copper mines. Though the shafts are m
many cases half a mile deep on incline—in some cases a mile deep,
and m one case a mile and a half—there is no means of artificial ven­
tilation except the leakage from the compressed air piped from the
surface to operate the drills and the pumps, though at the end of a
blast the valves of the compressed-air pipes are opened to blow away
the powder smoke.
The sanitary arrangements are nearly as crude as they possibly
could be. In some mines powder or candle boxes are used as latrines,




MICHIGAN OOPPEB DISTRICT STRIKE.

109

and when filled they are taken to the surface. In some mines dirt is
used to cover the contents of the boxes, and in other mines lime is
rovided for that purpose. In some mines the matter goes into the
irt that is hoisted. In some mines the men are supposed to go to
abandoned workings, but often they do not do this on account of
the distance. In some mines there are no sanitary regulations
beyond requiring levels to be cleaned Tip occasionally.
A paper on 4
‘Mine sanitation,” by E. B. Wilson, was distributed
in printed form at the annual meeting of the Lake Superior Mining
Institute, held at Houghton, Mich., in 1912, and was reprinted in
the proceedings of the institute.1 From this paper the following is
quoted:

S

Dr. B. W. Jones,2 in his paper on the “ Importance of the ordinary prevention of
water-borne diseases in mines, showed that typhoid fever, tapeworm, and hookworm
could be contracted by drinking impure water in mines. Germs of disease and the
infectious parasites are transmitted from one person to another in many ways, but
chiefly through the air and through water. In every metal mine employing over 25
men arrangements should be made for evacuation. Latrines should be provided, but
if they are not kept clean the conditions may become almost as bad as if there were
none. Sheet-iron cans or boxes should be arranged for receivers, and into theje dry
sawdust and ashes should be sprinkled to act as deodorizers. Chloride of lime is not
considered a suitable deodorizer for underground. These cans and boxes should be
provided with covers, taken to the surface, cleaned, and returned daily. The roof
and sides of the places should be kept fresh with whitewash, the floor cemented and
doped, so that it may be washed and not collect any filth. For privacy, portable
screens might be arranged.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
The hookworm is present in the Cornish tin mines in the Camborne district, Eng­
land, and has been for some years. It is becoming almost general in the southern
coal mines of the United States, and it is almost sure to enter our deep northern ore
mines unless each operator uses great care to prevent it. Mines which become infected
require the most drastic and expensive measures for universal extermination of the
pest. In fact, complete eradication does not yet appear to have ever been accom­
plished.

All of the amygdaloid mines are comfortably cool, with tempera­
tures varying from 50 to 75° F. The amygdaloid rock is much cooler
than the conglomerate rock, and the rock in many amygdaloid mines
is damp from water seepage. The only high temperatures are in
the conglomerate lodes of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. The
company reports the highest temperature in the deepest of these
lodes to be 85° F. The miners, however, claim that on the lower
levels of the mines, one of which is 8,100 feet deep on the incline,
the temperature is always above 90°, and that on account of the
heat their trousers are the only garments they can wear with any
degree of comfort. As no work was done during the strike on the
lower levels, these statements could not be verified.
In the Franklin and Quincy mines underground men are furnished
with drinking water from water mains. In the Lake mine drinking
water is caught from small streams in the rock. In the Calumet &
Hecla, Tamarack, Allouez, Isle Royale, Hancock, and Oneco mines
the men are furnished with water that is brought underground in
cans, jugs, or kegs. In all the other mines there is no provision for
supplying underground men with water, and the mine managers seem
to think that no water is needed by the men except what they can
carry in the bottoms of their dinner pails. Many of the men bring
tea or coffee instead of water in the pails.
i Vol. X V II of the Proceedings, pp. 117-126.
*Lake Superior Mining Institute Proceedings, Vol. X II, p. 105.




110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ACCIDENTS IN AN D ABOUT THE M IN ES.

A bulletin on “ Metal-Mine Accidents in the United States during
the Calendar Year 1911," by Albert H. Fay, shows that in 1911 the
number of men killed in and about the metal mines averaged 4.19 per
1,000 men employed. It also shows that the fatalities averaged more
in copper mines than in any other kind of metal mines. The fatalities
averaged 5.33 per 1,000 men employed in or about copper mines, 4.29
in iron mines, 3.43 in lead and zinc mines, 3.95 in gold and miscella­
neous metal mines, 1.66 in miscellaneous mineral mines.1
The number of men killed in or about the copper mines of Michigan
averaged 4.94 per 1,000 employed in or about the mines, a lower aver­
age than in any State except California. The average number of men
seriously injured in Michigan copper mines was 54.88 per 1,000 men,
or larger than in any State except a number of eastern and southern
States that are grouped together. The causes of death or injury as
shown by the same bulletin (pp. 17-21) were as follows:
Table showing number o f men hilled or injured in and about copper mines in Michigan,
1911.
[U. S. Bureau of Mines: Metal-Mine Accidents in the United States during Calendar Year 1911.
ington, 1913. Technical Paper 40.]

Cause of injury or death.

Number Number Number
killed. seriously slightly
injured. injured.

Underground:
1. By fall of rock or ore from roof or wall....................................
2. By timber or hand tools.............................................................
3. By explosives...............................................................................
4. By haulage accidents..................................................................
5. By falling down chute, winze, raise, or stope.......................
6. B y run of ore from chute or pocket.........................................
7. By drilling accidents...................................................................
8. By electricity (shock or bums)................................................ .
9. By machinery (other than mine locomotives or machine
drills).,
10. B y mine fires...................................
nine
11. By suffocation from natural gas..
12. By inrush of water.........................
13. By other causes...............................
Total underground.
Shaft:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

By
By
By
By
By

236
32
4
193

Total.

22

27
75

2

229

259

27
47

1,146
254
359
331

1,243
332
31
1,341
277
390
406
3

27

falling down shaft...............
objects falling down shaft.
breaking of cables...............
overwinding........................
other causes.........................
Total shaft accidents.

Wash­

317

344

643

3,936

979
297

22

17
20
4
17

12

i P. 13. This bulletin is Technical Paper 40, issued by the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior.
It apparently shows that during 1911 there were in proportion to tho number of employees in and about
the mines more fatal accidents in metal mines than in coal mines in the United States, in spite of the fact
that “ in the metal mines there is an entire absence of the gas or dust explosions” which occur in coal
mines. The number of men killed in and about the coal mines during 1911, as stated in this bullotin
(p. 5), averaged 3.73 per 1,000 men employed as against 4.19 in metal mines. But this may he oxplainod
by the fact that the metal mines are operated many more days during a year than are coal mines. This
bulletin shows the average number of days that the different kinds of metal mines in tho United States
were operated during 1911—copper mines, 308 days (p. 21); iron mines, 277 (p. 26); lead and zinc mines,
256 (p. 29); gold and miscellaneous metal mines, 276 (p. 36); all metal and miscellaneous mineral minos,
282 (p. 50). The Production of Coal in 1912, by Edward W . Parker, a bulletin issued by tho U. £5. Geo­
logical Survey, shows (p. 37) that the average number of days that coal mines were operated in 1911 was
220. If the fatal accident rate of coal miners be calculated on the basis of their working 308 instead of 220
days, the rate per 1,000 would be increased from 3.73 to 5.22 as against 5.33, the rate of copper-mine work­
ers working 308 days.




Ill

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Table showing number o f men hilled or injured in or about copper mines in Michigan,
1911—Concluded.

Cause of injury or death.

Number
Number seriously Number
slightly
killed.
injured. injured.

Surface:
1. By mine ears and locomotives.................
2. By railway cars and locomotives.............
3. By run or fall of ore in or from ore bins.
4. By boiler explosions...................................
5. By electricity (shock or bums)...............
6. By machinery..............................................
7. By other causes.................. ‘ .......................

Total.

3
5
54
14
28
193

14
32
205

Total surface.

23

286

313

Grand total. .

679

4,260

5,002

Of the 59 fatal accidents underground, including those that oc­
curred in the shaft, 28 were caused by the fall of rock or ore from
the roof or wall. Also the number of persons who were seriously
injured and the number who were slightly injured from this cause
were very large. Occidents of this kind are largely due to the neg­
lect of miners to bar down all of the rock that is loosened by the
blasts before beginning work again in the stopes. Inexperienced
miners are often careless about mis matter, and, without making a
thorough examination of the rock, they begin drilling into it again,
with the result sometimes that tons of rock come tumbling down
upon them. The danger from falling rock is great in the Michigan
copper district on account of the steepness of the stopes, which fol­
low the pitch of the lodes, and which vary from 35 to 72 degrees. In
the Copper Range Consolidated mines and other mines that have
very steep stopes, the danger is not so great, because as the stopes
are dug upward they are filled below with refuse rock, leaving only
room enough for the miners to work.
Of the 12 deaths from accidents that occurred in shafts, 9 were
from falling down the shaft. The State mining law requires that
there shall oe railings around the shaft at each level, but on many
levels in some mines only chains are hung across the level at the edge
of the shaft and they afford inadequate protection.
There is a large number of haulage accidents, but most of them
cause but slight injuries, such as bruises, and result from loading,
pushing, and dumping tram cars.
In the following table the number of mine workers killed or in­
jured is shown with the average per 1,000 employed:
Number of men employed, days worked, and number o f mm hilled and injured per 1,000
employed in and about copper mines m Michigan, 1911.
[Bureau of Mines: Metal-Mine Accidents in the United States during Calendar Year 1911. Washington.
1913. Technical Paper 40.]

Number of operators reporting..........................................................................

30

Employees:
Undergroimd...............................................................................................
Surface.................................... ................................................................. 1.

11,953
4,351

Total.........................................................................................................

16,304




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Num of days w
ber
orked....................................................................... 5,012,196
A
verage days w
orked...........................................................................
307
N ber of em
um
ployees:
Killed—
U
nderground 1
........................................................................
59
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
4.94
Surface...................................................................................
4
Per 1,000 employed...........................................................
0.92
Total killed............................................................................
63
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
3.80
Seriously injured—
U
nderground 1
........................................................................
656
5 * 88
4
P 1,000 employed..........................................................
er
Surface...................................................................................
23
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
5.26
Total seriously injured.............................................................
679
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
41.65
Slightly injured—
U
ndergrou d 1
n ........................................................................
3,974
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
332.47
Surface...................................................................................
286
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
65.96
Total slightly injured..............................................................
4,260
P 1,000 employed...........................................................
er
261.28
W
idows............................................................................ .................
31
O
rphans..............................................................................................
77
The workmen’s compensation law of Michigan^went into effect on
September 1, 1912. All of the mining companies have elected to
accept its terms and to pay the prescribed compensation for death or
injuries in order to avoid suits for damages. In case of death by ac­
cident, the dependents of the deceased person are paid a weekly rate
of compensation for 300 weeks, this weekly rate depending on the
earnings of the person before death. The following table, which
shows the compensation paid by the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.
to dependents of employees who were killed from September 1, 1912,
to August 31, 1913, may be examined with interest:
Compensation paid by the Calumet <c Hecla Mining Co., under employers9 liability act
$
on account offatal injuries during the year ending August SI 1913

,

Date of in­
jury.

Name of employee.

Occupation.

1. Borchgrevink, Ole..........
2. Sikanen, Albin...............
3. Destefani, John..............
4. Bliztz, Frank..................
5. Krogh, Christian N ........
6. Bradovic, John...............
7. Vidosch,Matt.................
8. Krizmanic, Stephen.......
9. Rom, John.....................
10. Orsolano, Anton.............
11. Bartle, Franklin.............
12. Endahl, Chas. V.............
13. Coppo, Antony...............
14. O'Connor, Martin...........
15. Yuntunen, Henry..........

Painter.......................
.......do.........................
Watchman.................
Sprinkler....................
Watchman.................
Trammer....................

i

I




n

c

Sept. 18,1912
.......do...........
Oct. 23,1912
Nov. 7,1912
Jan. 10,1913
Jan. 23,1913
Jan. 29,1913
Companyaccountant.. Apr. 2,1913
Roller man................. Apr. 11,1913
Company accountant. Apr. 29,1913
June 16,1913
June 20,1913
June 22,1913
July 3,1913
July 19,1913

l

u

d

e

s

s

h

a

.

Total
Weekly compen­
sation to
rate of
Date of death. compen­ be paid
during
sation.
300
weeks.
Sept. 18,1912
.......do...........
Oct. 23,1912
Nov. 7,1912
Jan. 10,1913
Jan. 23,1913
Jan. 31,1913
Apr. 2,1913
Apr. 11,1913
Apr. 29,1913
June 16,1913
June 20,1913
June 22,1913
July 4,1913
July 19,1913
f

t

a

c

$7.62
7.36
7.73
7.88
7.54
7.53
8,14
7.24
7.86
10.00
7.19
10.00
7.95
c

$2,286
2,208
2,319
2,364
2,262
2,259
2,442
2,172
2,358
3.000
2,157
3.000
2,385

i

d

e

n

t

s

113

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

HOUSES OCCUPIED B Y MINE W ORKERS.

All of the Michigan copper-mining companies have built houses to
accommodate the mine workers at all 01 their mines except some
small “ prospect ” mines. At some mines there are not enougn houses
for all oi the employees, and some are obliged to live in houses rented
from other owners than the mining companies. At none of the mines
are any of the employees compelled to live in company houses.
The dwelling houses owned by the companies are usually substan­
tially built frame houses, and they are usually kept in good repair.
The lots on which the houses stand are usually 50 by 100 feet. At
only one mine are the lots as narrow as 25 feet. At several mines
the lots are 60 or 75 feet wide, and in some cases 100. Some lots are
125 feet deep and some 150 feet.
The following table shows the number of frame houses owned by the
various companies and the monthly rental of these houses according
to the number of rooms that they contain:
Number and monthly rental of houses of—

Company.

3 rooms.

4 rooms.

5 rooms.

6 rooms.

7 rooms.

8 rooms.

9 rooms
and over.

Total
num­
ber of
houses.

No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent.
2 $3.50
7 4.00
4 4.00
8 5.00

Ahmeek...................
Allouez.....................
Calumet & Hecla
Centennial..............
Copper Range........
Franklin..................

20 $5.00
2
18
2

4.00
5.00
6.00

2 $5.00
2 6.00

1 $4.00
28 6.00
2 7.00
26 7.50

58
66
1764

7

Houghton................
Isle lioyale............. 10

3.00

Lake.........................
La Salle...................
Mass.........................
Mohawk...................
North Kearsarge...
Oneco.......................
Osceola..................... 3
Quincy....................
South Kearsarge...
Superior..................
Tamarack...............
Winona................... 38
Wolverine...............
1
4
1
1

15

5.00

11
9
1

5.00
6.00
6.50

12

3.00

13

4.00

2
19

4.00
5.00

3
8

3.00
4.00

3
5
22
13

3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00

8

6.00

1
2
2
26

2
1
1

2 $3.00

4.00

3.00
4.00
5.00

1
17
7

2.00
5.00
6.00

3
1
1
1

6.00
2.00
5.00
6.00

1

4.00

29
50

7
4.00 129
60
(8)

32
9
2
1
1
6

2
4.00 109
3.9C 11
T
4
3.50
1
4.00
4.50 14
5
5.00

1

7.00

44

2
7.00
4.00
5.00
6.00

1
1
1
2

12.00
3.00
5.00
10.00

5.00

1
1

5.00
8.00

1

2 607
50

$5.00

5.00

1 $10.00

2
1

5.00
8.00

2
107

»43
6
35
4179

3.00

3.30
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00

1
G 3.32 136
O

6.00
3.98 291

65
185

5.00 41
<8) 126

6.00
(8)

10

(8)

2
6.00
5.00 169
4.00 45
4.00
3
4.50
1
5.00
3
6.00 25
1
5
1

5.00
6.00
5.95
4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50

12
17
9
2
1
3

6.00
7.00
7.45
5.00
6.00
7.00

3

15.00

4.92 380

5.70 175

6.37

13

8.69

8

12

<8)

4

7.00

7267
443
(5)
16
327
115
87

3,045

1 None less than 4 rooms. Average rent, $6.74 per month.
2 Houses of different sizes ranging from 2 to 12 rooms, rented from SI.50 to $15 per month.
3 From 3 to 8 rooms, number of each not reported, renting from $2 to $8 per month.
« Fifty-three single with 5 and 6 rooms and barn at $5.50 and 63 double with 10 rooms and barn at $5.50
each side.
5 Included with Osceola.
6 Rent for $4 and $5.
7 Including North Kearsarge and South Kearsarge.
8 Rent according to number of rooms not reported.

29848°—Bull. 139—14------8



114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

As shown by the table, the average monthly rental of the frame
houses was—for the three-room houses, $3.32; for the four-room
houses, $3.98; for the five-room houses, $4.92; for the six-room houses,
$5.70; for the seven-room houses, $6.37; for the eight-room houses;
$8.69; and for houses with nine rooms and over, $7. The average
monthly rental per room was—for the three-room houses, $1.10; for
the four-room houses, $1; for the five-room houses, $0.98; for the
six-room houses, $0.95; for the seven-room houses, $0.91; for the
eight-room houses, $1.09; and for the houses of nine rooms and
over, $0.80.
The following table shows the number of frame houses, owned by
the companies, that are supplied with water and sewerage connections:
Frame dwelling houses owned by companies.
Company.

Ahmeek..................................................................................
Allouez...................................................................................
Calumet & Hecla.................................................................
Centennial.............................................................................
Copper Range.......................................................................
Franklin.................................................................................
Hancock.................................................................................
Houghton..............................................................................

Number
of frame
houses.
58
66
764
44
607
50
5
2

Number
with fau­
cets in
house.

Number
with sewer­
age con­
nections.

None.
None.
764
3
607
30
5
2

None.
None.
325
3
None.
8
5
1

Isle Royale............................................................................
107
* 41
38
Lake........................................................................................
9
43
39
La Salle..................................................................................
6
None.
None.
Laurium.................................................................................
None.
Mass........................................................................................
35
None.
None.
Mohawk.................................................................................
None.
None.
179
None.
None.
8
65
15
Osceola...................................................................................
1267
Quincy....................................................................................
Superior.................................................................................
Tamarack..............................................................................

443
16
327

$
None.
220

16
67

Winona................................................................................... 1
Wolverine..............................................................................

115
87

103
None.

8
None.

1 Including North Kearsarge and South Kearsarge.

(2
)

Charges for
water.

No charge.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
50 cents per
month.
No charge.
Do.
Do.
No charge.
Do.
Do.
50 cents per
month.
No charge.
Do.
50 cents per
month.
Do.
No charge.

2 Not reported.

Probably in no mining district in the United States is the rent
lower than it is in the Michigan copper district for houses rented to
employees. The companies do not expect to make any profit on
their houses, and the income from house rents is so small that some
general managers complain that it is hard for them to get the stock­
holders of their companies to agree to erect enough houses to provide
for all of the employees. The very low rent is an advantage to the
employees that are married, and one reason of the companies for
making the rents low is to hold the married men. They consider
married men to be more reliable than single men, more apt to work
regularly, and not so apt to leave the employment of the company
to work for another mining company, or to seek employment outside
the district. However, single men claim that married men are to
some extent compensated for low wages by the low rent, but that
low rents are of no benefit to the single men and really is one cause
of keeping wages low.
As will be seen by this table, all the frame houses owned by the
Calumet & Hecla, Copper Range, Hancock, and Houghton companies
are provided with running water, with faucets in the houses; and
some of the houses at the Centennial, Franklin, Isle Royale, Lake,



115

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE,

Osceola, Tamarack, and Winona mines are provided with faucets.
No charge for water is made by the Calumet & Hecla, Centennial,
Copper Range, Franklin, Hancock, Isle Royale, and Lake companies.
At the Houghton, Osceola, Tamarack, and Winona mines a charge of
50 cents per month is made for water supplied to each house. The
occupants of the houses that are not supplied with running water
obtain water from wells, and the number of wells varies from one to
each house to one well for five houses.
Electric light is furnished at a cost of from 5 to 12 cents per kilowatt
hour for some of the houses at the Calumet & Hecla, Osceola, Ahmeek,
Tamarack, Copper Range, Winona, and Houghton mines, and at $2
a month for houses at the Mass mine.
Garbage is removed weekly from the houses of the Calumet &
Hecla Co., and biweekly from the houses of the Copper Range Co.
Some companies report that garbage is removed when necessary,
and others that it is removed annually. No charge for removing
garbage is made by any company. The privies of houses which have
no sewerage connection are cleaned by the companies without charge.
Some companies report that privies are cleaned whenever necessary,
others that the cleaning is (lone annually or every two years. No
charge for this is made.
The companies that have built houses during recent years were
requested to furnish statements showing the number of houses, the
number of rooms in the houses, the cost of construction, and the
monthly rentals. The statements received are summarized in the
following table:
4-room houses.

5-room houses.

No.

Cost per
house.

Rent
per
house.

Osceola Consolidated Mining Co.........................................
Ahmeek...................................................................................
Do......................................................................................
Superior...................................................................................
Mohawk...................................................................................
Oneco........................................................................................

7
4
3

$818.74
715.25
883.85

$4 00
4.00
4.00

Average cost and average rent.................................
Per cent annual rent is of cost.................................

14

803.12

4.00
6.00

6-room houses.

No.

Osceola Consolidated Mining Co.
Isle Royale Co.................................
Ahmeek............................................
D o...............................................
Tamarack.........................................
Allouez..............................................
Superior............................................
La Salle.............................................

Cost per
house.

Rent
per
house.




$843.60
862.95
1,000.00
1,150.00
550.00

$5.00
5.00
*6.00
*5.50
*4.00

155

1,082.68

5.37
6.00

No.

Cost per
house.

Year
built.

$6.00

1906

6.00
1907
6.00 1904-1907
6.00 1904-1907

.

1,409.83
1,450.00

1 100.00

225

Rent
per
house.

$931.57

5.84
7.20

1,300.65

6.36
5.90

6.00

5.50
5.00

973.13

7.50

6.00
6.00

1,050.00
620.00

1 Have basement.
* W ith barn.

10
10
2
126
7

7-room houses.

1.500.00

tfohawk..
Franklin.
O neco....
Average cost and average rent.
Per cent annual rent is of cost.. .

Cost per
house.

$1,046.14
1.435.00
1,111.25
1.160.00
130

Rent
per
house.

No.

103

3 One 8-room house, cost $1,000, rents $5.
4 Water 50 cents per month ©er family extra.

1897-1900
1907
1910
1907
1907-8
1899-1907

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In the cost reported the value of the land is not included. It
appears by the table that the average cost of the houses was for the
four-room houses, $803.12, or $200.78 per room; for the five-room
houses, $1,082.68, or $216.54 per room; for the six-room houses,
$973.13, or $162.19 per room; for the seven-room houses, $1,300.65,
or $185.81 per room.
The average monthly rental of these recently constructed houses
was for the four-room houses $4, or $1 per room; for the five-room
houses $5.37, or $1.07 per room; for the six-room houses $5.85, or
$0.97 per room; and for tne seven-room houses $6.36, or $0.91 per room.
If the houses are rented during the whole year the average annual
rentals amount to 6 per cent of the reported construction cost of the
four-room houses, 6 per cent of the five-room houses, 7.2 per cent of
the six-room houses, and 5.9 per cent of the soven-room houses. This
small income from houses is put little, if any, more than the amount
necessary to pay for taxes, insurance, and repairs, and to provide
for depreciation.
In addition to the frame houses that are owned by the mining
companies and rented by them to their employees, tnere are at a
number of mines log cabins containing from 2 to 10 rooms each.
Most of these cabins were built in the early days of mining in the
district, but a few have been built within recent years. They were
built of hewn logs and have shingle roofs and plank floors. The
spaces between the logs are well chinked up and these cabins are
about as warm in winter as are the frame houses. However, they
have comparatively few windows and the windows are small. The
number of these cabins owned by each company and the monthly
rentals according to the size of the cabin are shown in the following
Log cabins.
Number and monthly rental of houses of—
Mine.

Total
7 rooms number
and over.
of
cabins.
No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent. No. Rent.
2 rooms.

Allouez..

4 rooms.

5 rooms.

2 $2.00

Ahmeek.......................................

3 rooms.

5 ,-33.00

4 $3.00
1 3.50
1 4.00
4 2.00
10 2.50
40
0)
1 5.00

........................

Calumet & Hecla........................
Centennial....................................
Copper Range..............................
Franklin........................................
Hancock........................................
Houghton.....................................
Isle Roy ale...................................
Lake...............................................
La Salle.........................................
Laurium........................................
Mass...............................................
Mohawk.........................................
North Kearsarge.........................
Oneco.............................................
Osceola..........................................
Quincey.
................................
South Kearsarge.........................
Superior.........................................
Tamarack.....................................
Winona.........................................
Wolverine.....................................

4

11

13
3 $4.00

17
40
5
None.
2 13
None.
None.
11
2
4
None.
3
None.

3.00

2 $1.00
1

3
5
1
2

10
.0

11

(3)

2

2.00

1

1

1 Rent from $0.50 to $3 per month.
2 Number of rooms not reported; rent, free.
a Rent free.
4 Included in Osceola.
* Rent from $3 to $4 per month.




2.50

6 rooms.

3

3.00

3.00

61

(5)

12

4.00

3 . 00 10
2 . 00
3 .0 0

4.00

64

5.00

1

6.00

33

3.18

88

4.39

16

4.13

(3)

2.36

«5

(6)

Iw ie.
7 79
8 25
None.
78
5
1

5 $7.20

296

• Three 8-room cabins at $8 per month and two
10-room cabins at $6 per month.
7 Including North Kearsarge and South Kearsarge.
8 Four-room and five-room cabins, rent from $1 to
$2 per month.

117

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

As will be seen, the rent of these cabins is less even than the rent
of the frame houses, and for that reason they are in demand by mine
workers who wish to economize as closely as possible.
Some of the mine workers that are employed in the mines near
Hancock and Houghton own the houses in which they live and the
land on which the houses stand. At other mines the companies own
all of the ground, and they will not sell any ground to employees or
anyone else, even with the mining rights reserved. At some of these
mines some of the employees have built their own houses on ground
rented from the companies. Each company was requested to state
the number of its employees that occupied houses built on ground
leased to them, the annual ground rent, and the number that occu­
pied houses built on land that they owned. The statements of the
companies are shown in the following table, but the information is
not very definite, and there is no information about the number of
freeholders:
H

Mines.

o

Houses on
groundrent lease.

Ahmeek...-.......................................................................................................
Allouez................................................................................................... ; ........
Calumet & Hecla............................................................................................

o

t

r

e

p

o

e

s

0
0
5.00
4 $5.00- 6
4
7
5
0
5
5
,

2
3
2

(4
(

0
.
.
.
.

0
0
0
0

None.
None.
None.
None.
2

(i)
(i)

0

6

.

0

2

0
0

.

5

None.

t

e

5
1
.

d

.
.
0

0
0
0

)

0

W 0 230
(

0
6
46

i

0
None.
None.

0

.

......... 5
1

8

r

)

0
^None.
0
0
None.

(

None.

3
3
6

i

0
None.

None.

(l)

2

0
0

^ o0 n e .
None.
1

.

STIPU LATION S IN L E A S E S .

The leases of the mining companies for houses rented to their
tenants provide that the house shall not be used for any purpose other
than a dwelling, boarding or lodging house for employees of the com­
pany, that# tenant has no right to possession beyond 15 days after
the
he has quit the employment of the company or been discharged,
and that then the company has the right, without notice, to recover
possession, and also that for any cause or reason whatsoever the
company may, after 15 days' notice, put the tenant out of the house.
Following is the principal portion of the house lease of the Calumet
& Hecla Mining Co. and its subsidiary companies:
Witnesseth, That said party of the first part hath agreed to let and hereby doth
let, and the said party of the second part hath agreed to hire, and hereby doth hire,
the following described premises belonging to the party of the first part, and in eaia
county situated, to wit:




n

(l)
hi

^one.
1

w

0)

$5.00

5
1

o

Number of
employees
who are
freeholders

Annual
ground
rent.

1

Centennial ^
Franklin...........................................................................................................
Hancock...........................................................................................................
Houghton.........................................................................................................
Isle Roy ale......................................................................................................
Lake..................................................................................................................
La Salle............................................................................................................
Laurium.......................................................................... ...............................
Mass...................................................................................................... ...........
Mohawk............................................................................................................
Oneco................................................................................................................
Osceola..............................................................................................................
Quincy..............................................................................................................
Superior............................................................................................................
Tamarack.........................................................................................................
Winona.............................................................................................................
Wolverine........................................................................................................
N

s

None.
*
1

*

u

0

.

0

0

118

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

To be used and occupied solely for a dwelling house—boarding house for boarding
and lodging the employees of the party of the first part by the party of the second
part—for which the said party of the second part agrees to pay to said party of the
dollars per month, for each and every month of such occu­
first part....................
pation, and a proportional part thereof for any part of a month, payable on the pay
day of each month, the first payment to be made on the pay day o f -----, A. D. 19...
Provided, however, and this lease is upon the following express conditions, to wit:
That if the party of the second part shall refuse or neglect to pay the rent above men­
tioned at the time above mentioned, or shall let, demise, sell, underlet, or assign
this lease, or the whole or any part of said premises without the consent of the party
of the first part thereto obtained, or shall sell or suffer to be sold in or upon said prem­
ises any spirituous or intoxicating liquors,... . ...................................................................
or shall refuse or neglect to keep said premises in good preservation (ordinary wear
and tear and damages by the elements excepted); or shall continue to occupy or hold,
or suffer to be occupied or held, said premises beyond 15 days after said party of the
second part ceases to be an employee of the party of the first part, whether because
of being discharged by the party of the first part or on voluntarily terminating his
relation as employee to the party of the first part; in such and in any such case it
is hereby expressly understood and agreed that this lease shall, at the option of the
party of the first part, wholly cease and determine, and it shall thereupon be lawful
for tne party of the first part to reenter into and repossess and recover said premises,
and the party of the second part, and any other occupant, to remove and put ont,
and in such or in any such case it is expressly agreed that no notice to quit whatever
shall be required to be given by the party of the first part to the party of the sec­
ond part.
It is further agreed that should the said first party wish to terminate the tenancy
hereby created, for any cause or reason whatsoever, other than those mentioned in the
preceding conditions (although said second party should have fulfilled, performed,
and kept each and every condition and covenant hereof), it may do so at any time
by giving said second party 15 days’ notice of such wish (and such notice shall not
be required to terminate at the expiration of any rental period), and at the expira­
tion of such 15 days this lease shall wholly cease and determine, and the party ot the
first part shall thereupon, and without further or other or different notice, be entitled
to immediate possession of said premises, and to recover the same, and the party of the
second part, or any other occupant, to remove and put out. The said party of the
second part covenants and agrees to keep, perform, and observe each and all of the
conditions herein mentioned.
It is further agreed that said first party may retain, out of any moneys due, or to
become due, from it to said second party, any rent due or to become due hereunder,
and also an amount sufficient to fairly compensate said first party for any injury done,
or suffered to be done, to said premises by said second party, contrary to the terms
hereof.

The mining companies grant five-year ground-rent leases to em­
ployees who wish to build houses to use as dwellings. The groundrent lease of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. and subsidiary com­
panies provides that if the lessee should fail to pay any taxes or
assessment, or if he should cease to be an employee of the company
by discharge or otherwise, or if, without the written consent of the
company, he should sell, assign, or transfer the lease, or sell, assign,
lease, or sublet the house he has built on the land, or if he should do
several other specified things, the lease shall after 90 days become
void, the company shall have the right, without notice, to take full
possession of tne land and the house thereon built by the lessee; and
if the house should not be removed by the lessee within 90 days
after reentry it shall fully vest in and become the property of the
company, its successors and assigns, without conveyance thereof and
without liability to pay for the same or any part thereof.
Following is the principal portion of the ground lease of the Calumet
& Hecla Mining Co. and subsidiary companies:
Witnesseth as follows: The said party of the first part in consideration of the rents
and covenants hereinafter specified, doth hereby let and lease to the party of the
second part the following described piece of land, situate in the township of...................
in said county, to wit:..........................................................................................................



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

119

(expressly saving, reserving, and excepting, liowever, to itself, its successors and
assigns, all metals and minerals upon said land and tlie right to enter upon said land
to remove the same and the right to dig and mine for the same to within 15 feet
of the surface of the rock and to construct ana maintain all excavations, pipes, conduits,
and other structures upon the demised premises which it may deem necessary for its
mining operations upon this or other land, being liable to the party of the second
part only for damages actually done thereby) for the term of five years from and after
.................... , at the rent o f.............. dollars per annum, payable annually in advance,
to be used and occupied for the sole purpose of erecting and maintaining thereon a
............. single dwelling house and outbuildings only, and for a single family.
Provided, That in case any rent shall be due and unpaid, or the party of the second
part shall erect or maintain, or suffer to be erected or maintained, thereon, any other
structure or structures than as aforesaid, or shall neglect to pay any tax or assessment,
ordinary or extraordinary, levied upon said land, or upon the structure or structures
to be erected thereon during the life of this lease, for the space of 60 days after the
same shall become due and payable, or shall sell or suffer to be sold, upon said land
any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, or shall carry on, or suffer to be carried on upon
said land, or in said structure or structures, any business or occupation contrary to
law or to good morals, or shall sell, assign or transfer this lease, or sell, assign, lease or
sublet the structures upon said land, or any part thereof, without the written consent
of the party of the first part, first obtained, or shall continue to occupy or hold, or suffer
to be occupied or held, said premises beyond 90 days after said party of the second
part ceases to be an employee of the party of the first part, whether because of being
discharged by the party of the first part, or on voluntarily terminating his relation as
employee to the party of the first part, then and from thenceforth, in such and in any
such case, it is hereby expressly understood and agreed that this lease shall at the
option of the party of the first part, wholly cease and determine, and it shall thereupon
be lawful for the said party oi the first part, without notice to the party of the second
part, to reenter into and repossess the said lands, and to take full possession of said land,
and of such structure or structures, and in such and in any such case, the party of the
second part shall have the right to remove from said land any structure or structures
he may have erected or maintained thereon for the space of 90 days next after
such reentry, and no longer, and all such structures remaining upon said land after the
lapse of said 90 days, shall fully vest in, and become the property of the party of
the first part, its successors and assigns, without conveyance thereof, and without any
liability on the party of the first part, its successors or assigns, to pay for the same or
any part thereof.
And the said party of the second part doth hereby hire said piece of land for the
term of five years, as above mentioned, and doth covenant and agree to and with the
said party of the first part, its successors and assigns, that he will pay therefor-----------dollars per annum, annually in advance, that he will erect and maintain thereon no
other structure or structures than as aforesaid; that he will pay, 60 days after the
same shall become.due and payable, any and all taxes and assessments, ordinary and
extraordinary, that may be levied upon said land, or upon the structures thereon, that
he will neither sell, nor suffer to be sold upon said land any spirituous or intoxicating
liquors; that he will not carry on, nor suffer to be carried on, upon said land or in said
structures, any business or occupation contrary to law or to good morals; that ho will
not sell, assign, or transfer this lease, or sell, assign, lease or sublet the structures upon
said land, or any#
part thereof, without first obtaining the consent of the party of the
first part thereto in writing, and in case of breach or nonobservance of any or either of
the covenants or conditions above mentioned he will quit and yield up the possession
of said land and of such structure or structures, and that such structure or structures
shall vest in and become the property of the party of the first part, its successors or
assigns, unless the party of the second part shall remove the same from said land
v/ithin said 90 days.
And the said party of the first part doth agree that the said party of the second part,
on paying the aforesaid rent, performing and keeping all the covenants, and observing
all the conditions aforesaid, shall and may peaceably and quietly have, hold and enjoy
the said premises for the term aforesaid.

It is unnecessary to comment on the drastic nature of the terms of
these five-year ground-rent leases, but it seems strange that any
person would build a house on land leased on such conditions, and
it is most astonishing that 1,000 houses have been built on land so
leased from the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., as estimated by the
company, and 153 at subsidiary companies—81 at Osceola, 30 at
Tamarack, 27 at Centennial, and 15 at Allouez.



120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Under the provision that the lease shall terminate when the lessee
shall cease to be an employee of the company, by discharge or other­
wise, or shall terminate on account of violation of any other stipula­
tion, the only relief that the lessee has is to move his house from the
land within 90 days; but this permission to move his house is ineffec­
tual, because the various companies own vast tracts of land and there
is no other land near most of the mine locations. Copies of the
ground-rent leases of all the mining companies were not secured,
but those that were obtained are of much the same tenor as that of
the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. Some of them expressly provide
that the company may terminate the lease at any time it desires,
and some of them provide that compensation at an appraised valua­
tion shall be paid to the lessee at the termination or cancellation of
the lease.
The ground-rent lease of the Trimountain Mining Co. contains the
same provisions as the lease of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. in
regard to the lessee being allowed, on the termination of the lease,
to move his house from the land without liability on the part of the
company to pay for any improvements, but this lease also contains
the following provisions:
And the said party of the second part doth hereby hire said piece of land for the
term o f--------------- years, as above mentioned, and doth covenant and agree to and
with the said party of the first part, its successors and assigns, that he will pay therefor
------------------------------ dollars per annum, annually in advance; that he will erect
and maintain thereon no other structure or structures than as aforesaid; that he will
pay, within 60 days after the same shall become due and payable, any and all taxes
and assessments, ordinary and extraordinary, that may be assessed or levied upon
said land, or upon the structures thereon; that he will neither sell, nor suffer to be
soldi upon said land, any spirituous, malt, or intoxicating liquors; that he will not
carry on, or suffer to be carried on, upon said land or in said structures, any business
or occupation contrary to law or to good morals; that he will not sell, assign, or transfer
this lease, nor sell, assign, lease, or sublet said land, or any part thereof, or the struc­
tures upon said land, or any gart thereof, without first obtaining the consent of the
party of the first part thereto in writing, and, in case of breach or nonobservance of
any or either of the covenants or conditions above mentioned, and upon notice from
said first party, its successors or assigns, that it desires said premises for mining or
other purposes, as hereinafter provided, he will quit and yield up the possession of
said land and of such structure or structures, and that any and all structure or struc­
tures erected by said lessee, his legal representatives or assigns, on said land shall
vest in and become the property of the party of the first part, its successors or assigns,
unless the party of the second part shall remove the same from said land within said
90 days.
It is expressly agreed by and between the parties hereto that should said first party,
its successors or assigns, desire said premises for any purpose or purposes connected
with its mining operations and property, it shall have the right to and may cancel this
lease by a 30 days’ written notice to said lessee, his legal representatives or assigns (if
there shall be any under the terms hereof), which said notice may be served by mail
by delivery to said lessee, his legal representatives or assigns, personally, or by leaving
the same with any person occupying said premises, and in such event this lease ana
all the obligations, agreements, and covenants of said first party herein contained shall
cease and determine immediately after the expiration of 30 days from such service of
said notice.
It is hereby mutually agreed and understood that on the expiration of the term of
this lease, to wit, said--------------- years, if the party of the first part shall, on demand,
refuse to renew the same for another term, or when the said party of the second part,
having c[uit or been discharged from the employment of said Trimountain Mining Co.,
shall, within 90 days next thereafter, have quit said land and the structures thereon and
turrendered the same to said company, ana in no other case or contingency whatever
the structures erected upon said land by said lessee, his legal representatives or assigns,
shall be valued and appraised at their then cash value in manner following.
The party of the first part, by its agent or superintendent, shall choose or nominate
one person, and the party of the second part one person, to make such appraisal, and in



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

121

case of their failure to agree these two shall appoint a third person, in which case a
majority of the three shall make such appraisal; and the amount thus ascertained
shall thereupon become and be due and payable by the party of the first part to the
party of the second part, and on the payment or tender of the amount so ascertained,
the full title to such structure or structures shall vest in the party of the first part, its
successors or assigns, without other or further conveyance; but on the expiration of the
term hereof, in the absence of such demand and refusal, all such structures upon the
land shall vest in and become the property of the party of the first part, as above pro­
vided, unless the party of the second part shall remove the same within 90 days next
after such expiration. This provision as to appraisal and payment of valuation
applying only to cases where within the 90 days aforesaid said lessee shall notify said
party that he voluntarily surrenders such structures to said first party and request an
appraisal as in this paragraph provided, and within the same time appoints and names
to said first party the person to act as his appraiser.

The following is quoted from the ground-rent lease of the Champion
Copper Co. and the Winona Copper Co., which are identical in form:
It is further expressly agreed that said first party may at any time at its option, upon
90 days’ written notice, terminate this lease and purchase said dwelling house or other
buildings and appurtenances which may have been erected upon said premises by
said second part___ , ..................... heirs or assigns. Notice of the election of said
first party to so purchase shall be deposited in the United States mail in the post office
at Painesdale, Mich., inclosed in a sealed envelope, with legal postage thereon fully
prepaid, addressed to said part... of the second part,......... heirs or assigns, at his,
her, their, or any of their last-known place or places of residence; and on the expira­
tion of 90 days after said notice is so deposited as aforesaid in said post office said
lease shall thereby be terminated.
Whenever under any of the terms of this lease said first party shall elect to purchase
said dwelling house or other buildings and appurtenances which may have been
erected upon said premises by said second part................................. heirs or assigns,
it may do so at the value thereof, to be determined by the general manager of saia
first party and said second part___ , o r .............. heirs, executors, administrators, or
assigns within 10 days from the date of the notice of die election of said first party
to purchase; and in case they can not agree upon said value within said 10 days, then
they shall, within five days after the lapse of said 10 days, select some competent
erson to determine the same, who shall determine the same within 10 days after
is selection; and in any event in computing said value there shall be deducted by
the persons or person determining the same any and all rent then due or to grow due
from said second part..........................heirs or assigns to said first party, and also any
bonus paid to said second part___ by said first party, which sum, after making saia
deductions, shall be paid by said first party to said second part-----, .............. heirs
or assigns, if and when said second part.......................heirs or assigns shall vacate
and surrender said premises to said first party.
And it is expressly understood and agreed by the parties hereto, their respective
heirs, executors, administrators, successors, and assigns, that the whole amount of
rent reserved and agreed to be paid by said second part-----for said above demised
premises, and each and every installment thereof, and any bonus that may have been
aid by said first party to said second part-----, shall be and are hereby declared to
e a valid and first lien upon any and all buildings and improvements that may have
been or that may at any time in the future be erected, placed, or put upon said prem­
ises by said part___ of second part,.................. heirs or assigns, and that whenever
and as often as any installment of rent shall become due and remain unpaid for.............
days after the same becomes due and payable said party of the first part, its agent,
attorney, successors, or assigns, may sell at public auction, to the highest bidder for
cash, after having first given notice of the time and place of such sale by posting up
notice thereof in three public places in the township of Adams at least 10 days
previous to the time of such sale, all the buildings and improvements on said prem­
ises, and as attorney of said part-----of the second part, hereby irrevocably consti­
tuted, may make to the purchaser or purchasers thereof a suitable and proper transfer,
bill of sale, or other conveyance and out of the proceeds arising from such sale, after
first paying the costs and expenses of such sale, including attorney fees, retain to
itself, its successors or assigns, the whole amount due on said lease up to the date of
said sale for such rent and bonus, rendering the surplus, if any, to the said part----of the second part,.................heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, which
sale shall be a perpetual bar to and against all rights and equities of said part___ of
the second part,.................heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns in and to the
property sold.

E

E




122

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

At the beginning of the strike the mine managers declared that they
did not intend to evict the strikers from the houses belonging to the
mining companies, but on September 4 the management of the Copper
Range Consolidated Co. (which includes the Trimountain, Cham­
pion, and Baltic companies) began to serve eviction notices on the
tenants in its houses. In some instances the tenants were notified
that they must return to work by September 8 or move out of the
houses. Some men, who had been leaders in the strike, were not
given this alternative, as the company did not wish to employ them
again. The eviction was temporarily suspended by a restraining
order, issued on September 6 by Judge P. H. O’Brien, of the circuit
court, on the petition of the Western Federation of Miners. Two
weeks later the Quincy Mining Co. began serving eviction notices.
A number of men in the mining district have during the winter
worked for the companies and have during the summer engaged in
farming on land leased from the companies. These farm leases are
similar in terms to the ground-rent leases. During the strike some
of the farmers leasing lands from the companies contributed potatoes
and other products to support the strikers. This assistance seems to
have been objected to by the companies. The Houghton and Calumet
Daily Mining Gazette, a paper that upheld the views of the companies
throughout the strike, stated “ on good authority” that the companies
were determined to drive “ this undesirable class from the district”
and intimated that the leases of the tenants who were former em­
ployees would be canceled and that they would not be paid anything
for the houses they had erccted or for other improvements they had
made. The following was published in the Gazette of October 21:
The statement was made yesterday on good authority that some of the mining com­
panies tnat have farms out on lease will cancel the leases of Finnish Socialist farmers.
The strike with its attendant crippling of industry, its suffering among the poorer
classes, its numerous fatalities, and its riots and general disorders, is laid at the door
of the Finnish Socialists. The mining companies are determined to remove thia un­
desirable class from the district. The cancellation of farm leases is one of the means.
This fcay appear to the uninitiated to be a drastic measure, but the situation is one
reflecting no credit on Finnish Socialists. It is estimated there are 500 of these people
occupying farms leased from mining companies. They pay $10 to $20 per 40 acres per
year—not a very steep rental. The low rental and the probability that they never
would be disturbed in their tenure of the lands, because farm lands are of little use to
mining company, has made it possible for this class of farmers to prosper. It is now
known that they have been assisting in strike agitation; that they have contributed
largely to the strike benefits in the way of farm products. Such a class of antagonists
naturally is something that the mining companies can not help to foster in justice to
themselves.

The following appeared in the Gazette dated October 24:
Most of the Finn farmers in this vicinity are working land leased from mining cor­
porations. The leases are at nominal figures, usually out of consideration to faithful
employees. These Finnish farmers who have been conspicuous in the strike parades
and in the strike meetings doing the loudest talking, talking against the corporations,
must walk up to the office of these same companies and ask for a renewal of their leases
January 1. They are by no means sure they will get it. Some others of the strikers
who own houses located on company land are finding out that they have a difficulty
to which they gave little consideration. These men, realizing that in the past the com­
pany always stood ready to take their houses off their hands at a fair appraised valua­
tion, presumed that unwritten law would always continue. Now they want to move
to other camps, being unable to get their jobs back. They want the company to buy
their houses. The company is not in the house-buying business right at this moment.




123

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.
L IV IN G CONDITIONS.

In the section of the report relating to houses occupied by em­
ployees, statistics are given which show that mining companies rent
houses to employees at a low rental, and mention is made of the fact
that some of the companies supply electric lights for these houses at
a cost of from 5 to 12 cents per kilowatt-hour. In statements made
by the companies some of them say that they furnish soft coal to em­
ployees at from $4.50 to $5.25 per ton, and hard coal at from $7.75 to
$8.50 per ton. Following is the price list of coal dealers in Calumet
and Laurium:
Price list o f coal in Calumet and Laurium on June 1, 1918.

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None of the mining companies conducts a boarding house for its
employees, but at most of the mines there are boarding houses con­
ducted by private parties who rent houses from the companies. In
these boarding houses the price of board and lodging varies from $20 to
$22 per month. Some Italians, Hungarians, and other foreigners live
more cheaply than this, by clubbing together, renting a house, buying
the provisions, and hiring somebody to cook the food or cooking it
themselves
In this investigation the prices of commodities in stores were not
secured, but the prices are not considered dear by the people in the
district. Store prices have largely been governed by the prices fixed
by the Tamarack Cooperative Association, which has a large depart­
ment store located at Calumet, and which sells and delivers goods in
adjoining villages for a distance of 15 miles or more. It does a larger
business than any other cooperative store in the United States.
It was organized in 1890, has 1,800 stockholders, and at the end of
each fiscal year pays its stockholders a dividend of 8 per cent on their
shares of $10 par value each, and pays its customers 12 to 13 per cent
on the amounts of their purchases. The following details from the




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124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

twenty-second annual statement of the company for the year ending
January 15, 1913, show the extent of the business:
Capital stock paid in....................................................................................
$68,180.00
Insurance fund (reserve) on deposit in bank.............................................
18,727. 87
Total sales from Jan. 15,1912, to Jan. 15, 1913..........................................
845,930. 90
Dividend No. 22, payable Feb. 15, 1913....................................................
103,947.02
Total dividend since organization............................................................... 1,144,006.53
Total sales since organization...................................................................... 9,763,330.00
Insurance in force.........................................................................................
105,000.00

The Copper Range Consolidated Co. is the only mining company in
the district that has company stores. It conducts four stores. The
amount of sales of each of them and the amount collected through the
company pay office during 1912 are shown by the following figures:
Trimountain store—sales, $161,215.32; collected through com­
pany, $29,309.81. Atlantic store—sales, $118,555.51; collected
through company, $7,735.23. Beacon Hill store—sales, $63,299.13;
collected through company, $14,734.19. Redridge store—sales,
$49,904.22; collected through company, $15,917.12. No complaints
were heard regarding overcharges in these stores.
W E LFAR E WORK.

The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., which has a larger number of
employees than any other company in the Michigan copper district,
has provided a number of welfare agencies for their benefit. The em­
ployees of its subsidiary companies also have the privileges of its
bathhouse and library.
The Calumet & Hecla Co. has built and now owns 10 school build­
ings, which are used as public schools, and for which Calumet Town­
ship pays rent. It also has built and owns an armory which is used
by the local military company, and for which the State pays rent.
It has given the ground for the Young Men’s Christian Association
building in Calumet and for most of the church buildings in the town­
ship ana has contributed to their support.
Following are replies by the various companies involved in the
strike to the requests “ Describe welfare agencies of the company and
charge to employees for each” :
Ca l u m e t & H e c l a M in in g

Co.

The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. maintains the following institutions solely for
the welfare of the employees, viz:
PUBLIC LIBRARY.

The public library contains 35,000 volumes, and literature in the various languages
which may be of interest to the employees. This library is free to any resident of
Calumet Township.
BATHHOUSE.

The company operates a modern bathhouse, built at a cost of $50,000, containing
tubs, showers, and a swimming pool 26 by 40 feet. For the use of this bathhouse a
charge of 2J cents is made per bath, except in the case of the women’s department,
which is free to women and also children, who must be accompained by an adult
female attendant. This charge of 2\ cents merely covers the cost of washing the
towels and in no way compensates for the operation of the bathhouse proper. This
bathhouse is designed in two sections to take care of both men and women of the com­
munity.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

125

HOSPITAL.

A company hospital is also maintained, for which, a charge of 50 cents per month is
made to all single men and $1 per month for married men. This $1 covers medical
and surgical attention and all medicines that may be necessary for the entire family.
In addition to the doctor regularly employed in taking care of the accident cases,
the company employs eight physicians who furnish all necessary attention in the
homes of our employees, and in addition to this, an eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist
of high standing. Should any family require surgical and hospital service, such
surgical service is covered by the $1 and a hospital charge at the rate of 66 cents per
day is m#de while confined in the hospital.
For a period of 40 months in the years 1897, 1898, 1899, and 1900 the company
paid all the hospital and aid-fund charges for its employees.
At the present time a new hospital is being erected, which is estimated to cost
$250,000. This hospital will be equipped with every modern appliance conducive to
efficiency and the comfort of the patients.
AID FU N D.

Established July 1, 1877, for the purpose of providing a fund to aid in the case of
sickness, accident, or death by accident.
Every man who desires to accept the benefits of this fund shall be charged through
the mine office monthly with the sum of 50 cents, and every boy whose wages shall
not exceed the sum of $30 per month shall be charged 25 cents.
To the amount collected each month the Calumet <e Hecla Mining Co. will add the
f
same amount, to be placed to the credit of said fund.
When a contributor is disabled for labor by accident while actually engaged in
work or labor for the company he shall receive from the aid fund, at the rate of $25
per month, or fractional part thereof.
When a contributor dies from injuries received there shall be paid from the fund
the sum of $500.
When a contributor is disabled for labor from sickness he shall receive at a rate of
$25 per month, or fractional part thereof, payment to commence on the fifth day of
sickness.
This fund shall be governed by a committee consisting of the mine physician, the
chief mining captain, and one miner.
From time to time there have been reductions in the charges for the fund and during
the calendar years of 1897, 1898, 1899, and 1900 the company paid the employees’
charges for the fund. The charges were resumed in January, 1901, on which date
the wages of all emplo/ees were raised 2J per cent to cover charges.
Amount collected from employees for fund to Jan. 1, 1913...................... $504,881.37
Amount donated by company.....................................................................
625,482. 87
Total payments to members........................................................................ 1,596,707.14
Liabilities:
Trustees.......................... .....................................................................
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co................................................................
Assets:
472 shares of Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. ’s stock, selling price Aug.
7, 1913..................................... ............................................................

85,000.00
25,290. 02
110,290.02
193,520.00

PENSION FUND.

In 1904 the company started a pension fund. Certain employees who had attained
the age of 60 years or more and who had been in the company’s employ 20 years or
more, were retired on a pension proportioned to length of service and wages and for a
period of five years.
From May 1, 1897, to January 1, 1901, the company paid in addition to the sum
provided for in case of death and permanent disability by the aid fund in accordance
with its rules, a sum equal to that provided for by said rules, viz, $500 in case of death
and $300 for permanent disability.
AID OUTSIDE OF REGULAR AID FU N D.

To relieve wants of men not entitled to aid from employees’ aid fund by its rules,
from 1900 to 1909, $3,860.



126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU 01’ LABOR STATISTICS.
FREE FUEL DISTRIBUTION.

To the widows or orphans of quondam employees, to any employees who have been
unfortunate in any of many different ways, and to any with a very large family and
no income but the man’s wages, the company has for many years given free wood,
sufficient for the whole summer’s requirements, upon request, and many loads of coal
when circumstances justified it. The teaming cost alone of this wood delivery is in
the neighborbood of $100 per month.
CALUMET

&

HECLA BROOM FACTORY.

In July, 1903, the company built and equipped a broomfactoryand engaged a teacher,
who taught three of our blind miners to make brooms. Total outlay, $1,400. Since
that time the factory has been and is self-supporting.
PASTURAGE.

Pasturage is furnished to all employees for one cow, a charge of $1.50 being made
for each additional cow.
G ARBAGE REMOVAL.

All garbage is collected and removed without cost to the employees.
ELECTRIC LIGHT.

The company has made a contract with the local electric light company whereby
employees living in company houses are furnished with electricity at a reduced rate,
viz, 8 cents per kilowatt hour; the regular rate being 12 cents per kilowatt hour. This
reduction is granted to the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. in consideration of its owner­
ship of the pole lines running over the company’s property.
VOLUNTARY RELIEF FUND (INAUGURATED MAY, 1912).

Monthly payments to widows or orphans of deceased employees who lost their lives
from either sickness or accident while in the employ of the company. This relief is
started with each widow whose circumstances seem to require it shortly after the
death of the support (breadwinner) of the family and continued until it is not neces­
sary. Payments have been made for as long as 12 years in one case, and in one case
over $1,200 was paid to a widow in less than 4 years, when she remarried.
One hundred and eighty widows or orphans (only a few of the latter) have been paid
from this fund to date $29,292.
INSUR ANCE.

Any employee during illness is entitled to 8 months’ aid or a total of $200, but should
disability continue beyond the 8 months and death result within 12 months of the
expiration of said aid, the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. will pay the sum of $250 ex­
clusively to such relatives of the deceased as are first named in the following list: (1)
To the widow; (2) to the children; (3) to the father and mother or either of them; (4)
to the brothers and sisters.
CHURCHES A N D SCHOOLS.

To the thirty-odd churches in the community the company has contributed the sum
of $35,762. The company has also given free a site for all the churches on its location,
and to the Young Men’s Christian Association, and has also made a liberal donation to
the Young Men’s Christian Association. The company also owns 10 school buildings.
In addition to the above it is a rule of the company that no one residing on company
property shall be allowed to suffer from the want of necessities of life.
Free open-air concerts are given by the Calumet & Hecla Band throughout the
summer season.
O sceola C on solidated Mining Co .

The company contributes to charity and church organizations; all employees and
their families have access to the public library and bathhouse in Calumet. There is
no charge to employees on account of welfare agencies. The company pays $250 in
case an employee dies from illness, the payment being made to the nearest dependent
or relative.
Pensions of $15 to $20 per month are paid to old retired employees.



MICHIGAN COPPER DISTBICT STRIKE.

127

I sle R oyale C opper C o .

Upon the death of an employee from sickness, the company pays the sum of $250
to his heirs, as are first named in the following list: (1) To the widow; (2) to the
children; (3) to the father and mother or either of them; (4) to the brothers and
sisters. No charge is made to employees for this benefit.
A h m eek M ining Co.

Employees are allowed the use of small patches of ground for garden truck, etc.;
also free pasturage.
They have access to the Calumet & Hecla library, which is well equipped. A
charity account is carried in the cost sheet for necessary cases, and the company has
given out strict orders that no one be allowed to suffer on company property for the
want of necessaries of life whether it be an employee or not.
The company also maintains an employees’ aid fund, by which the employees are
paid $1 per day for sickness for each day after the sixth day they are off duty through
sickness.
This aid fund also pays injured employees $1 per day from the sixth day to the
fourteenth day after injury, as the compensation act covers only after the fourteenth
day. No charges are made by the company for any of the above. Employees have
not contributed to the aid fund since August, 1912.
T amarack M ining Co.

Free access to library. Baths at 2£ cents. House rent free to widows. Wood sup­
plied to widows. Company pays $250 on death of an employee from sickness.
A llouez M ining Co.

an d

Centennial Copper Mining Co.

Free pasturage for gow s . Wood (old shaft rollers, etc.) allowed to parties who are
in need. Charity accounts carried on cost sheets and strict orders given that no per­
son living on the company’s land, whether employee or not, be allowed to be in dire
necessity. Donation of $250 to the relative or relatives of a member of the aid fund
who dies from illness. Outlying lands of the company are rented (preferably to em­
ployees) as farms, with rates from $10 to $20 per annum for 40 acres. Small, irregular
pieces of land are rented, preferably to employees, as potato patches, etc., at nominal
rentals, from $1 to $5 a year, depending on size, and in some cases no charge at all.
Employees have privileges of Calumet & Hecla public bathhouse, at
cents per bath.
Employees have privileges of Calumet & Hecla public library. Open air band con­
certs by the Calumet & Hecla band in summer. Preliminary plans have been made
for a workmen’s club house. Company ambulance to take patients to hospital, whether
employee or member of employee’s family, in case of accident or illness.
Superior Copper Co.

We carry a charity account. We have general orders that no one in our employ or
living upon company property shall go hungry. All employees have free pastures
for cattle and free land for gardens. In cases of death by sickness the company pays
$250 to the nearest relative. There are free band concerts during the summer.
L a Salle Copper Co .

This company has no special welfare agencies. Employees are on an equal footing
with Calumet & Hecla employees in the use of the Calumet & Hecla bathhouse and
library. The company will not knowingly allow any one on its property, whether
employee or not, to suffer for lack of necessities; one paupef family receives free
house rent. Pasturage for one cow to a familv is free.
Copper R ange Consolidated Co.

There are no specific welfare agencies maintained by the company unless the
maintenance of a public library at Panesdale and branches at other locations comes
under this head, all of which is free to employees and the public. There are free
baths at the library in Painesdale, and bathing equipment of change houses, tubs, and
showers, are open to men at all times free.




128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
L

a

C e r ep

k o

. p C

o

A mine ths«t is not yet paying expenses can not go far in the line of charities, but an
aid fund is maintained for the employees, for which a deduction of 50 cents a month
is made.

The Laurium Mining Co. reported, “ This company has no special
welfare agencies;” the Quincy Mining Co. reported, “ None for which
any charge is made;” the Wolverine Copper Mining Co., Franklin
Mining Co., Hancock Consolidated Mining Co., Oneco Copper Mining
Co., Houghton Copper Co., Winona Copper Co., and Mass Consoli­
dated Mining Co. reported, “ N o n e a n d the Mohawk Mining Co.
made no answer to the inquiry.
M ICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT.

The Michigan copper district, also called the Lake Superior copper
range, embraces mines in Houghton, Keweenaw, ana Ontonagon
counties. These three counties are the most northern part of the
Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Houghton and Keweenaw coun­
ties constitute the Keweenaw Peninsula, which is about 40 miles
wide, east to west, at its base, and projects about 70 miles northeast
into Lake Superior. The greater number of mines in this district,
and the mines with the largest production, are in Houghton County,
which lies between Ontonagon County on the south and Keweenaw
County on the north. The developed and developing part of the
Michigan copper district is about 100 miles long, and varies in width
from 3 to 5 miles. The lodes or veins of copper are tilted at various
angles, from 20 degrees to 72 degrees with the horizon. Those that
are being mined vary from 35 to 72 degrees.
The production of copper on a commercial basis in the Michigan
district began in 1845. This district is the oldest copper-producing
range in the United States, except Santa Rita, N. Mex., where pro­
duction began about 1800. From 1845 to 1912, inclusive, Michigan
produced 5,205,717,606 pounds of copper, or 29.53 per cent of the
total output in the United States. In total production to the end
of 1912 Michigan is surpassed only by Montana, which has produced
33.44 per cent of the output of the United States. For many years
subsequent to 1845 the annual production of copper was greater in
Michigan than in any other State. Its annual production is now
surpassed only by that of Arizona and that of Montana. According
to “ Copper in 1912,” by B. S. Butler, the smelter output in pounds of
copper during 1912 was 359,322,096 in Arizona, 308,770,826 in
Montana, 231,112,228 in Michigan, 132,150,052 in Utah, 83,413,900
in Nevada, 31,926,209 in Alaska, 31,516,471 in California, 29,170,400
in New Mexico, 18,395,256 in Tennessee, and in the whole United
States, including Alaska, 1,243,268,720.1
The value of the 231,112,228 pounds of fine copper produced in
Michigan during 1912 was $36,977,956.48, on the basis of the market
price being 16 cents a pound; it rose to 17 cents during 1912.
Horace J. Stevens, author of The Copper Handbook, says in a
paper on “ Mines of the Lake Superior copper district” : 2
Occasionally immense masses, of many tons weight, are found, while in the richer
mines there is much “ barrel work,” i. e., masses of virgin metal, ranging from a few
1

2
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9

0

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129

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

pounds up to 100 pounds or more in weight. The principal reliance of the mines is
upon stamp rock; that is, amygdaloid or conglomerate rock carrying native metal, in
sizes ranging from that of a pea down to flakes of almost microscopical dimensions that
are savea with difficulty from the slimes at the mill.

The following is quoted from the article on Michigan in “ Copper in
1912” :
A little native silver occurs with the copper. The lodes are of low grade, but
characterized by great extent and rather uniform distribution of the metallic content.
This, together with the fact that the ore is susceptible of high concentration with low
cost of refining the resultant “ mineral,” makes it possible to work these low-grade de­
posits at a good profit. The native copper occurs in the lodes in masses varying from
microscopic size to bodies weighing hundreds of tons. The richest lode mined at pres­
ent yields less than 1.5 per cent copper, and the poorest rock treated yields but little
above five-tenths of 1 per cent of metal. For this low-grade ore to be profitable it
must be handled on a largo scale; this has resulted in the construction of the immense
plants that characterize the Lake district.

The following table taken from “ Copper in 1912” shows that the
percentage of copper extracted from the copper-bearing rock or ore
is less than 1 per cent in Michigan, and less than in any other of the
important copper-mining States:
Copper produced in 1912 from ores in which copper constitutes the principal value, by
States.

State.

Copper in ore.

Copper ore.

Pounds.

Short tons.
Alaska..........................................
Arizona.........................................
California.....................................
Colorado.......................................
Idaho......... .................................
Michigan......................................
Montana.......................................
Nevada.........................................
New Mexico.................................
North Carolina............................
Oregon..........................................
Pennsylvania and Maryland. .
Tennessee.....................................
Texas............................................
Utah..............................................
Virginia........................................
Washington.................................
Wyoming.....................................
Total and average...........

9

3

6

,

,

5

4

1

1

9
7
9

5

0

4

,

5

2
0

6

5
3
2

2
6

,

1

7

1

,

1

7 1
8 6
2 1
4
3
8 6
3 5
0
6
,
1,

4

0
2
1

2
6

1

5

5

5
,

0
6

,

1
3

3,
,
,

,
,
,
,

2

7

1

5
6 1

5 ,

2 ,
2
19
,5
6 1 2
, 25
2
1 , 68
68
6
4 ,
9 ,
1 1
8 ,
, 14
0
, 3
5 ,
5 6
1 ,
3 ,
6 ,
5 8
7
5
,
2 9 6
0
25
09
04
2 8
2
, 94
7
2
2
,4
,
87
1 0 1
2
5
1 , 50
2
7
,
5

,

2 6

Silver in
ore.

Gold in ore.

Value in
gold and
silver
per ton.

Fineouiiees. Fine ounces.

59

3

8
3
8

5
3
1

42

4

0
1
9

Percent­
age.

1 ,

4 5

1 3
4 2 4
33
5 2
3 3
1 4 .
2
9 2
17 9
12 3
97
2, 4
,. 0
18
1 1
7 . 5
, . 8
3 4
58
1 1 ,

5 0
0 . 75
.8 81
. , 9
. , 3
93 1
2 . * 9
.9 32
.8 4
1 . 5
. 82
2
0
.3 5
. 6
19
1
3
9
. , 3
7.
8
. 9 4 27

7.
7

,6
,

86
22
86
5 ’
,
,

7
5

6
1
,
26
8
8

1
0

4,
75 ,
45 7
1 ,0
7 , 2
,
6 ,3
13 5
09,
49
95
2
13
4 .
0 ,
5
5 0
9 .

5 61

34 9
2
,
5 62
,4 2
5
7
5
9 3
0
4
0
1 48
1
3,
5
2 5
8
3
.
1
6

13

2

7

5

6 1

8
1
8

4
62 ,

1 5

9

0
10
28

3

2

3

70
2
4
5

.

7
4

5
, , 0 8

87
. 6 0 1
7 .
0 ,5 3 7
1 9
9 2
.
9 2
. 4 8 2
9 5
. 1 3
8 2
8
6 m
9 * ,
1 7
1 3
.
4 9
. 0 7
5 6 2
3
. 30
9 , 5
5
0
2
. . 9 . . ., . 8
1
0
,9 5 2
4 0
9
8
2
3
1
1
1
5
5 6

4 7

, 58 4
9
.8 8 4 1 ,
1, 6 4
. 5 40
, 33 3
2
2, 19 .
81
,. 4 0
5
5.
15
4
, .6 5 1
04
, . 45 2
67




1
9

5 0
. 1 7
81
3
3
02 3
8 ,
5
8
85

5 . 2 5
. 0
0
. . . 1 .9 . . 0 3 3
.
5
0
36 3
.2 . 5 0 ,

9

1

3
3

5*

5

1

4

1
5 9
8

9

.

1
.

.
.

2

5
.

9
4

During recent years great improvement has been made in the
methods of stamping and smelting the copper-bearing rock, so that
much rock which had too small a percentage of copper to pay for
mining, stamping, and smelting by old methods can now be produced
profitably. At Xake Linden, Mich., where the stamp mill of the
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. is located, there is a pile of sand, covering
many acres, which is the refuse accumulated from the stamp miU for
40 years. Analysis has shown that there are 5 pounds of copper in
eacn ton of this sand, and it is intended that the sand shall be put
through a regrinding process, which has been invented in the last
four years. A regrinding mill is being erected, and it is estimated
that $100,000,000 worth of copper can be saved from this sand.
Following is a list of the mining companies now operating in the
Michigan copper district, with the capitalization of each and the
29848°—Bull. 139—14------9

1 3

.
15

5

130

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

dividends paid by each. While, as will bo soon from the table, most
of the subsidiary companies largely owned or controlled by the
Calumet & Hecla Co. were not yet paying dividends, the annual
statement of that company for 1912 showed that the value of real
estate owned by the corporation and used in its business was $16,788,104, and of real estate not used in its business was $686,520, and that
the value of assets in excess of liabilities December 31, 1912, was
$10,716,414. The extent of the stock interest of the Calumet &
Hecla Co. in these subsidiary companies is shown on page 131.
[Information more in detail as to the organization and properties of these mining companies is given in the
appendix.]
Capital
Year
organ­ Par
ized. value
per
share.

Company.

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.................
Subsidiary companies:
Ahmeek Mining Co.........................
Allouez Mining Co...........................
Centennial Copper Mining Co___
Cliff Mining Co.................................
Gratiot Mining Co............................
Isle Royale Mining Co....................
La Salle Copper Co..........................
Larium Mining Co...........................
Osceola Consolidated Mining C o..
Seneca Mining C o ...........................
Superior Copper Co.........................
Tamarack Mining Co......................
White Pine Copper Co. (commor.)
White Pine Copper Co. (preferred)
Copper Range Consolidated Co...........
Subsidiary companies:
Baltic lin in g Co..............................
Trimountain Mining Co................
Champion Copper Co......................
Atlantic Mining Co....................
Quincy Mining C o .................................
Mohawk Mining Co................................
Wolverine Copper Mining Co...............
Franklin Mining Co................................
Indiana Mining Co.................................
North Lake Mining Co.
South Lake Mining Co.....................
Algomah Mining Co..........................
Winona Copper Co............................
Houghton Copper Co........................
Mass. Consolidated Mining Co.........
Hancock Consolidated Mining Co..
Oneco Copper Mining Co.................
Lake Copper Co.................................
Victoria Copper Mining Co.............
T

o

t

a

l

.

.

Author­
ized.

Amount
issued,
p

a

Amount
paid in.
r

Dividends
to 1312,
inclusive.

value.

1S72

$25

$2,500,000

$2,500,000

$1,200,000

§120,050,000

1S80
i 8.7
.9

25
25
25
25
3
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
23

1.250.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
'300,000
3.750.000

1.250.000
2.500.000
2.250.000
1.500.000
300,0G0
3.750.000
7,574,425

850.000
2,225,000
1,750,003
780,C D
C
300.000

1.350.000
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
11,170,100
None.
None.
9.420.000
None.
None.
12,902,249

1,800,000

7.750.000
1.250.000
843,876
None.
20,430,000
2.250.000
7.440.000
1.240.000
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.

1m

1910
1006
1809
1906
1909
1873
18C0
1904

1SS2
1909
1009
1901
1897
1899
1899
1872
1848
1898
1S90
1857
1909
1908
1909
1910
1898
1909
1899
1906
1899
1905
1899

10,000,000

1 , 000,000

2.500.000
500,000
2.500.000
1.500.000

3,7:0,000

100

1.230.000
40,000,000

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
3.750.000
2.500.000
1.500.000
5.000.000
2.500.000
2;500,000
2.500.000
2.500.000
5.000.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
5.000.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000

1, 000,000

2,403,7C0
500,000
2.500.000
1.500.000
2.133.000
152,3C0
39,369,200
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.500.000
2.750.000
2.500.000
1.500.000
4.158.950

2',0 0,0 0
0 0
2.500.000
1,447,975
1.750.000
4,166,675
1.675.000
2.500.000
4.158.950
1.750.000
2.500.000
2.500.000

133,550,000 119,040,225

2,0 0 C0
0, C

2,500,003
1.130.000
2.150.000

2.100.000
780.000
2,362,2f4
840.000
800.000
382,205
770.000
3,833,341
402.000
2.300.000
2,362,284
385.000
300.000
1.400.000

196,196,225

1 Not reported.

The mines of several of the companies that have not paid dividends
are still in the “ prospect” stage of development.
The strike of 1913 affected the mines of all the companies included
in the table except the Atlantic Mining Co., which was not then in
operation, the White Pine Copper Co., and the Victoria Copper
Mining Co.
The following is quoted from the annual report of the Calumet &
Hecla Mining Co. for the year ending December 3, 1912.




M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

The Calumet

& Hecla Mining Co. owns:
Shares
issued.

Company.

Shares.

24,200
41,000
41,500
19.400
50.100
30,500
152,977
37,550
32,750
11,207
50.100
19,400
43,202
G 092
,

131

Ahmeek Mining Co....................................................................................................................
Allouez Mining Co......................................................................................................................
Centennial Copper Mining Co..................................................................................................
Cliff Mining Co............................................................................................................................
Gratiot Mining Co......................................................................................................................
Isle Royale Copper Co...............................................................................................................
La Salle CoppedCo.....................................................................................................................
Laurium Mmhisc Co....................................................................................................................
Osceola Consolidated Mining Co.................! ..........................................................................
Seneca Mining Co........................................................................................................................
Superior Copper Co....................................................................................................................
Tamarack Milling Co.................................................................................................................
White Pine Cooper Co., common............................................................................................

50.000
100,000
90.000
60.000
100,000
150,000
302,977
40,000
98,150
20,000
100,000
60,000
85,320
6,092

Several years ago the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. formed a plan
to secure control of a number of other mining companies, and it pur­
chased stock in 13 companies— in some cases a majority of the stock
and in other cases a controlling interest in the stock issue. In 1911
the Calumet
Hecla Co. decided to consolidate these 13 companies
with itself and proposed to the stockholders of these companies that
they exchange their stock for Calumet & Hecla stock on a basis that
was offered by the directors of the Calumet & Hecla Co. The pro­
posed basis of stock exchange was not satisfactory to some of the
stockholders of the 13 companies, as they considered that they were
not offered a fair equivalent. Some of the dissatisfied stockholders
attacked the consolidation in the courts, on the ground that it was a
violation of the Sherman antitrust law. After these suits had been
started, the directors of the Calumet & Hecla Co., by a circular dated
October 6, 1911, announced the abandonment of the plan for con­
solidation, or rather the plan for the exchange of stock. Neverthe­
less, these 13 companies are now practically consolidated with the
Calumet & Hecla Co., for they have the same officers, practically the
same directors, and they are managed as a single corporation. Suits
are now pending to prevent the Calumet
Hecla Co., or its officers,
from voting the shares that company owns in the 13 other companies.
Two suits started by Godfrey M. Hvams are pending in the United
States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and one started
by Charles M. Turner is pending in the circuit court for the county of
Ingham, Mich.

&

&

The Franklin Mining Co., Indiana Mining Co., North Lake Mining
Co., South Lake Mining Co., and Algomah Mining Co., are under the
same management.
The Winona Copper Co. and the Houghton Copper Co. are under
the same management.
The Hancock Consolidated Mining Co. and the Oneco Mining Co.
are under the same management.
The Copper Range Consolidated Co. and the Isle Royale Mining
Co. were mcorporated under the laws of New Jersey, the Gratiot
Mining Co. under the laws of Maine, and all the other companies
under the laws of Michigan.
The Copper Range Consolidated Co. is a holding company, and
holds the stock of tne Baltic Mining Co., the Trimountain Mining Co.,



132

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the Champion Copper Co., the Atlantic Mining Co., the Copper Range
Railroad Co., and the Copper Range Co. (a land and timber compas e Mohawk Mining Co. and the Wolverine Mining Co. are under
the same management.
The mines of the Ahmeek Mining Co. and Mohawk Mining Co are
in Keweenaw County; the mines of the White Pine Copper Co.,
Indiana Mining Co., rJorth Lake Mining Co., South Lake Mining Co.,
Algomah Mining Co., Mass Consolidated^ Mining Co., Lake Copper
Co., and Victoria Copper Mining Co. are in Ontonagon County; the
mines of the other companies in Houghton County.
The head office of the Hancock Consolidated Mining Co. is at
Hancock, Mich.; the head offices of the Quincy Mining Co., Mohawk
Mining Co., and Wolverine Mining Co. are in New York; the head
offices of all the other companies are at Boston.
The people of Michigan nave for years been discussing a measure,
proposed in several sessions of the legislature, to assess a tonnage tax
on all copper mined in the State. Sentiment in favor of this measure
is undoubtedly growing, though strongly combatted by the mining
companies. The argument urged in favor of the measure is that the
people of Michigan are entitled to more of the benefits derived from
its natural resources than they now receive. The greater part of the
stock of the copper mining companies is owned in Boston or elsewhere
in the Eastern States, and probably not over 10 per cent is owned by
citizens of Michigan. An official list of the stockholders of the Calu­
met & Hecla Mining Co., the largest company in the district, which
is on file in the office of the circuit court for the county of Houghton,
shows 98,109 shares outstanding on January 1, 1912, the shares
having a par value of $25 each. ^ Of these 98,109 shares 4,550, or
4.64 per cent, were owned by citizens of Houghton County; 5,022,
or 5.12 per cent, by citizens oi other counties in Michigan, and 88,537,
or 90.24 per cent, by persons whose residences were m other States.

Copper mining is practically the only industry in the Michigan
copper district. The agricultural resources of the land have been but
little developed. Originally it was a fine timber country. Most of
the timber suitable for lumber has been cut, but much timber grown
in the district is used in the mines.
The Great Lakes give the district cheap transportation facilities
for the copper that is shipped out of the district and for the coal and
other materials that are brought into the district. A ship canal,
called the Portage L$ke Canal, and owned by the United States,
>asses through Houghton County, greatly shortening the distance
rom one end of Lake Superior to the other. The copper district
is served by the Mineral Range, the Copper Range, and the Keweenaw
Central Railroads, which connect with the Chicago & North Western
Railroad and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad.

}




M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

133

POPULATION OF THE DISTRICT.

As shown by the Thirteenth Census of the United States, the popu­
lation of Houghton County in 1910 was 88,098; Keweenaw County,
7,156; and Ontonagon County, 8,650. The principal places in these
counties, with their population in 1910, were as follows: Houghton
County— Houghton village, the county seat, 5,113; Hancock city,
8,981; Laurium village, 8,537; Red Jacket village, 4,211; Calumet
Township (including Laurium and Red Jacket villages), 32,845.
Keweenaw County— Ahmeek village, 766. Ontonagon County—
Ontonagon village, 1,964.* Other statistics of the population of these
counties, as shown by the census of 1910, appear m the following
table:2
Population of Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties, Mich.— Male andfemale,
native andforeign born, 1910.
Population.

Houghton Keweenaw Ontonagon
County.
County.
County.

7,156

Total population............................
Male.............................................................
Female........................................................
White..........................................................
Other races.................................................
Native white, native parentage.............
Native white, foreign parentage............
Native white, mixed parentage.............
Foreign-born white..................................
Males of voting age...................................
Foreign-born white of voting age.........
Foreign-born white, naturalized...........
Foreign-born white having first papers
Alien............................................................
Unknown...................................................

Total.

47,353
40,745
87,990
108
9,446
35,761
9,450
33,333
25,481
18,001
7,742
2,875
6,562
822

8,650

103,904

4,186
2,970
7,153
3
585
2,739
633
3,196
2,365
1,856
821
270
671
90

4,835
3,815
8,644

56,374
47,530
103,787
117
11,750
41,430
11,143
39,464
30,578
21,472
9,508
3,267
7,651
1,042

6

1,719
2,930
1,060
2,935
2,732
1,615
945

122

418
130

As will be seen the population of the three counties is largely of
foreign birth. Of the total white population, 103,787, in the three
counties combined, 39,464, or 38.02 per cent, were foreign-born white,
41,430, or 39.92 per cent, were native white of foreign parentage;
11,143, or 10.74 per cent, were native white of mixed parentage, and
only 11,750, or 11.32 per cent, were native white of native parentage.
Of the 21,472 foreign-born white of voting age in the three counties,
only 9,508, or 44.28 per cent, were naturalized. In addition there
were 3,267 foreign-born white who had taken out first papers, but
they are not eligible to vote under the laws of Michigan.
1 Thirteenth Census, bulletin: Population, Michigan. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor
Civil Divisions.
2 Thirteenth Census, bulletin: Population, Michigan. Composition and Characteristics of the Population.




134

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The number of residents of the three counties who were bom in
foreign countries, as shown by the Thirteenth Census of the United
States, was as follows: 1
Number o f white persons residing in Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties,
Mich., who were born in foreign countries, 1910.
Foreign wliite.

Bom i n Austria............................
Belgium...........................
Canada, French.............
Canada, Other...............
Denmark.........................
England.......................... .
Finland.............................
France..............................
Germany......................... .
Greece..............................
Holland............................
Hungary..........................
Ireland.............................
Italy.................................
Norway............................
Russia..............................
Scotland...........................
Sweden.............................
Switzerland......................
Turkey............................
Wales............................... .
Other foreign countries..
Total..

i noughton Keweenaw Ontonagon
! County.
County.
County.

333
26
616
477
51
459
536
146
723
65
17
921
799
634
030
343

508
128
42
9
640

1,200

5
87

1
158

22

33
5

512
85
73
56
73

I
|
!
i

33,333 j

144
120
32
15
73
3

165
7
199
324
24
163
1,158

8
195
4
91
33
58
244
15

221

12

1
2

11
3,196

2,935

Total.

4.005
33
2,943
1,843

84
5,262
13,894

11
5

2.005
65
13
1,083
912
2,811
1,203
624
1,808
100
74
53

1
3

39,404

The development of the Michigan copper range began about 1844.
The first foreigners employed in the range were Cornishmen, Scotch­
men, Irishmen, and Germans. They came to the district in the early
years of development, and they constituted the greater proportion
of the mine workers during the first 30 years. Of these the Cornishmen or their descendants are now the most numerous. Canadians
began to come prior to 1S70; In the seventies Finlanders, Swedes,
and Norwegians began to arrive, and in the eighties Italians. About
1890 Croatians began to come, and they were followed, in the nineties,
by other Austrians, and by Hungarians and Poles. The Finlanders
are twice as numerous as the mine workers of any other race.
As shown by the last preceding table, 39,464 of the white persons
in the three counties were bom in foreign countries, and of these
13,894, or slightly over one-third, were born in Finland, 6,625 in
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, 5,089 in Austria and Hun­
gary, 4,786 in Canada, 3,098 in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark,
2,811 in Italy, and 2,005 in Germany.
The number of native white residents of the three counties, both of
whose parents were born in foreign countries, as shown by the Thir­
teenth Census, was as follows.1
1Thirteenth Census, bulletin: “ Population, Michigan.




Composition and Character of tiio Population/!

135

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Number of white persons residing in Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties,
M i c h p a r e n t s were bom in foreign countries—1910.
Native white.

Houghton
County.

Both parents bora i n Austria. .................................................................................
Canada— French..................................................................
Canada— 0 ther....................................................................
Denmark................................................................................
England.................................................................................
France....................................................................................
Germany................................................................................
Holland..................................................................................
Hungary.................................................................................
Ireland*..................................................................................
Italy........................................................................................
Norway...................................................................................
Russia.....................................................................................
Scotland.................................................................................
Sweden...................................................................................
Switzerland...........................................................................
All others of foreign parentage 1. . ..........................................

2,537
4,110
730
50
4,407
95
3,630
10
314
1,793
1,074
930
302
245
1,139
84
13,408

T o t a l ...............................................................................

35,761

Keweenaw Ontonagon
County.
County.

Total.

50
92
82
95
66
4
58
3
1,151

132
217
184
17
154
10
335
5
2
211
23
38
193
12
151
7
1,233

2,996
4,506
939
70
4,971
108
4,156
15
366
2,099
1,782
1,063
564
261
1,648
94
15,792

2,739

2,930

41,430

327
179
25
3
410
3
191

i Native whites having both parents born in countries other than specified, and also those having both
parents of foreign birth but bom in different countries.

In reporting the number of native white persons both of whose par­
ents were bom in foreign countries, the census did not enumerate
separately those born in Finland, but the number is undoubtedly
large.
The mining #companies dominate the economic, industrial, and
political situation in the district. Mining is the only big industry,
and all other business is dependent upon it. The mining companies
own most of the land in the district, pay most of the taxes, and in
some townships pay 90 per cent of the t^xes. They refuse to sell
any land even with the mining rights reserved. ^
Therefore outside of
the city of Hancock and the few incorporated villages there are very
few freeholders, and nearly all of the houses are owned by the com­
panies and rented to employees, or were built by employees on land
rented by ground-rent leases* The terms of these leases are explained
in a section of this report headed “ Stipulations in leases.”
Community interests are almost entirely subject to the direction
of the mine managers. Most of the churches in the district were
built on land that the mining companies have given and most of the
schools have been built by the companies and rented by them to the
townships. The mine managers control the school boards, and their
powerful influence is felt in the nomination and election of village,
township^ and county officers. There are 18 members of the board
of supervisors in Houghton County, and they assess property and
decide on all expenditures for county purposes. Following is" a list
of the members of the present board, with the business connection of
each:
Board of supervisors of Houghton County, April, 1913, to April, 1914.
Adams Township: A. D. Edwards, formerly chief clerk Atlantic Mining Co.; member
of Michigan House of Representatives.
Calumet Township: James MacNaughton, general manager Calumet & Hecla Mining
Co.
Chassel Township: Edward Hamar, general manager Worcester Lumber Co.




136

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU

OF ) .ABOR STATISTICS.

Duncan Township: A. G. Johnston, represents Pricket Farming Land & Lumber Co.
Elm Iiiver Township: Rex II. Seeber, superintendent Winona Mining Co.
Franklin Township: Richard Ilourke, jr., bartender.
Hancock Township: Patrick Sollman, farmer.
Laird Township: Peter Hiltunen, farmer; contractor for getting oiit timber for Wor­
cester Lumber Co.
Osceola Township: A. L. Burgan, superintendent Osceola Tamarack Stamp Mills.
Portage Township: Gust.^ T. Hartmann, formerly superintendent Copper Range
Railroad. His brother is superintendent of the Mohawk mine.
Quincy Township: Charles L. Lawton, general manager Quincy Mining Co.
Schoolcraft Township: Samuel Eddy, sawmill owner; furnishes lumber to mining
companies.
Stanton Township: Edward Koepel, superintendent stamp mills of Copper Consoli­
dated Co.
Torch Lake Township: Charles Smith, chief clerk stamp mill of Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co.
Hancock, first ward: John L. Harris, superintendent Hancock Mining C
o'.
Hancock, second ward: Charles S. Mason, coal, brick, wood, lime, and tile dealer;
used by companies.
Hancock, third ward: John Funkey, sr., hardware merchant; sells to mining com­
panies.
Hancock, fourth ward: Richard H. Hosking, stone and brick contractor.

It will be noticed that the board is largely composed of mine officers.
Most of the other members are engaged in business enterprises, such
as the lumber industry, which are closely connected with the mining
companies and dependent on them. Among the 18 directors there is
only one, and he is a Socialist, who did not usually vote with the
others on questions before the board relating to the strike.
If all the foreigners in the copper range should become natural­
ized and the working people should vote together, they undoubtedly
could control the elections, but fear discharge from employment by the
companies, and that means in most cases that they could not obtain
other employment in the district, and in some cases that they would
lose the homes they have built. According to the United States census
there were in 1910 in Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties
30,578 males of voting age; the foreign-born white of voting age
numbered 21,472; the foreign-born white who were naturalized
numbered 9,508, and the foreign-born white who had first papers
numbered 3,267. In Michigan foreign-born males who have taken
out only first papers are not eligible to vote. The foreign-born white
that are naturalized are only 31.09 per cent of tlie number of males of
voting age, but the number of foreign-born white of voting age is
70.22 per cent of the total males of voting age.
Three daily papers printed in the English language are published
in Houghton County—a morning paper at Houghton, an evening
paper at Hancock, and an evening paper at Calumet. These three
dailies advocate the policies of the mining companies and voice the
opinions of the mine managers. A number of newspapers printed
in foreign languages are published in Houghton County—a daily
Finnish paper at Hancock (a strong socialistic organ), a daily Finnish
paper at Calumet, a triweekly Finnish paper at Hancock, a semi­
weekly Finnish paper at Calumet, a daily Italian paper at Calumet, a
triweekly Croatian paper at Calumet, and a weekly Slavonian paper
at Calumet.




APPENDIX I.
A greement B

etw een

W

estern

F e d e r a t io n of M in e r s
Co p p e r Co .

and

B u t t e & S u p e r io r

Following is a copy of a contract or agreement between tlie federation and one of the
Montana companies, which is similar in essentials to the contracts with other com­
panies, all of which contracts are made for three years:
This agreement, made and entered into this 3d day of July, A. D. 1912, by and
between the Butte Miners Union No. 1, Western Federation of Miners, hereinafter
designated as the “ union” party of the first part, and the Butte & Superior Copper
Co. (Ltd.), hereinafter designated as the “ mining company,’5 party of the second
part, witnesseth:
Whereas, the said mining company employs a number of the members of the union
at and about its mines in the vicinity of Butte, Silver Bow County, Mont., and it is
the desire of each of the respectiye parties hereto to perpetuate friendly relations and
at the same time to have a definite agreement with reference to the compensation to
be paid the members of the union employed by the mining company:
Now, therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises and agreements hereinafter
specified, it is agreed between the respective parties hereto as follows, to wit:
1. That 8 hours in each 24 hours shall constitute a shift or day’s work.
2. That the men employed underground, belonging to said union, shall start to go
down the shaft or into other mine opening at the beginning of a shift, and shall leave
their places of work at the expiration of eight and one-half hours from that time, it
being understood that the miners shall have one-half hour of said time in which to eat
lunch, the miners to be hoisted or come from their work on their own time. It is also
understood that where tliree consecutive shifts are employed, eight consecutive
hours shall constitute a day’s work.
3. Where the word “ miner ” is used in this agreement [sic], shall mean all under­
ground men engaged in any' of the work of mining and cage tenders at the collar of
the shaft.
4. The rate or amount of wages to be paid miners for a day’s work or, proportion­
ately, for a part of a day’s work shall be determined as follows:
The average price of electrolytic copper as given in the Engineering and Mining
Journal for each calendar montn shall be the basis for determining the rate of wages.
5. The Mining Company agrees that it will during the continuance of this contract,
pay a minimum wage scale, which shall be equal to the amount which the members
of the Union were receiving during the month of May, 1912.
6. When the average monthly price of electrolytic copper is 15 cents and over
and under 17 cents, the wages of all men within the jurisdiction of the Union em­
ployed underground shall be increased 25 cents per day over and above the wages
m effect during the month of May, 1912; when the price of electrolytic copper is
17 cents and over, the wages of all men employed underground belonging to the
Union shall be increased an additional 25 cents per day over the scale of wages received
during the month of May, 1912.
The intention of the foregoing is that when the average monthly price of electro­
lytic copper is under 15 cents per pound all miners other than miners employed in
shafts, station cutting and winzes, and station tenders shall receive $3.50 per day;
for all miners employed in shafts, station cutting and winzes, and station tenders
the wage rate shall be $4 per day. When the average monthly price of electrolytic
copper is 15 cents and under 17 cents, then the wage rate shall be $3.75 per day for
all miners other than miners employed in shafts, station cutting, and winzes^ and
station tenders, and for all miners employed in shafts, station cutting, and winzes
and station tenders the wage rate shall be $4.25 per day. When the average monthly
price of electrolytic copper is 17 cents per pound or over, the wage rate shall be $4
per day for all miners other than miners employed in shafts, station cutting, and
winzes and station tenders, and for all miners in shafts, station cutting, and winzes
and station tenders the wage rate shall be $4.50 per day.




137

188

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS,

For all men employed upon the surface at or about any of the mines of Mining
Company, over whom the said Union has acquired jurisdiction from the Mill and
Smelterinen’s Union, the wage rate shall be as follows: When the average monthly
price of electrolytic copper is under 15 cents, the wage rate shall be the scale formerly
required by that Union when copper was under 18 cents per pound; when the average
monthly price of electrolytic copper is 15 cents and over, and under 18 cents per
pound, then the wage rate shall be increased 25 cents per day above that scale: and
when the average monthly price of electrolytic copper is 18 cents per pound and
over, then the wage rate for such employees shall be increased an additional 25 cents
per day. It is understood that whenever the Company has been paying during the
month of May a rate in excess of the Union wage scale the foregoing increase shall not
apply, but in no case shall any employee receive less than the Union scale, as above
provided.
7. Should a miner’s employment terminate by reason of voluntarily quitting,
discharge, or other reason before the end of any calendar month, the rate of settlement
in such cases shall be as follows:
The wage rate for any settlement made for any part of a month up to and including
the 15th of such month shall be based upon the'previous month’s price of electrolytic
copper.
The wage rate for any settlement made for any part of a month extending beyond
the 15th of such month shall be made for the whole time of employment in said month
at a rate based upon the average price of electrolytic copper for the first 15 days of the
calendar month of settlement.
8. Should the authority used in ascertaining the market price of copper appear to
either party to this agreement to be false or wrong at any time, then either party shall
have the right to request that a representative be appointed by each party and those
two persons shall appoint a third, a majority of whom shall decide on the method or
means to be used in arriving at the correct price of copper for the purpose of this
agreement.
9. Nothing in this agreement shall deny or preclude the right of employees, either
themselves or through the said Union, from taking up with the Mining Company the
question of any grievance or unfair treatment, or any matter herein agreed upon, that
may require adjustment.
10. It is agreed that this agreement and contract shall take effect from June 1, 1912,
and remain m full force and effect for a period of three years from and after the date
hereof, and that said agreement shall remain in full force and effect thereafter until
30 days’ written notice shall be given by either party to the other of its desire to termi­
nate the contract.
In witness whereof, the said party of the first part has caused these presents to be
executed in duplicate by the following committee, thereunto duly authorized by
said first party, and the party of the second part has caused these presents to be exe­
cuted in duplicate by its proper officers, thereunto duly authorized, the day and year
first above written.




By
Authorized Committee of Party o f ike First Part.
B y ..........................................
Its Gmeml Superintendent, Party o f the Second Part,

APPENDIX II.
O rg x V n iza tio n

and

P r o p e r t ie s o f t h e C a lu m e t &
S u b s id i a r y Co m p a n ie s .

H e c la

M in i n g

Co.

and

[From Moody's Manual, 1913.]
C a lu m e t & H e c l a M in i n g C o .

Incorporated in 1871, in Michigan, as a consolidation of the Hecla, Calumet, Port­
land, and Scott Mining Cos. Charter renewed in 1901 for 30 years and amended in
1905, giving the company the right to hold securities of other companies, in addition
to doing a general mining and smelting business. Owns a majority of the capital
stock of the Gratiot Mining Co., La Salle Copper Co., Laurium Mining Co., Seneca
Mining Co., Superior Copper Co., and White Pine Copper Co., and has substantial
holdings in Centennial Copper Mining Co., Ahmeek Mining Co., Allouez Mining Co.,
Isle Koyale Copper Co., Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Tamarack Mining Co., and
Cliff Mining Co. See appended statements of these companies.
Having acquired all the capital stocks of the Frontenac Mining Co., Manitou Mining
Co., and St. Louis Copper Co., the real and personal properties of these companies,
together with that of the Dana Copper Co., were taken over by the Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co. during 1912. The lands formerly owned by the Manitou, Frontenac, and
Dana companies are now known as the “ Manitou-Frontenac branch” and the lands
of the St. Louis company as the *
'‘St. Louis branch.”
Owing to the opposition on the part of minority stockholders the proposed plan of
consolidation with subsidiaries, which was favorably voted upon by the shareholders
of companies interested in March, 1911, was abandoned.
Properties.—The Calumet S Hecla mine proper includes about 2,750 acres in Hough­
c
ton County, Mich., being one of the largest producers in the world. Company owns
also large tracts west of the Tamarack mine and the Metalline and Dover tracts, with
an area of 200 acres lying immediately south of the Tecumseh, and also vast tracts of
timber lands in Michigan and Wisconsin. The total landed holdings of the company,
including property controlled through subsidiary corporations, mining lands under
option, and miscellaneous lands in Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties,
approximates 75,000 acres.
The stamp mills are at Lake Linden, 4 miles from the mines, on a tract of 998
acres, having several miles of frontage on Torch Lake. These mills have been entirely
rebuilt, remodeling being completed in 1907. The new power plant at Lake Linden,
which when completed will have a total capacity of 18,000 kilowatts, equal to more
than 24,000 horsepower, furnishes electrical energy for the mine as well as for the mills.
Water for the mills is supplied f>y five pumps, of which the Michigan is the most
powerful in the world, having a daily capacity of 60,000,000 gallons. The four other
pumps have a combined capacity of 72,000,000 gallons. The Torch Lake smelter is
situated at Hubbel, about a mile south of the company’s stamp mills, on a 30-acre
site. The smelter has four furnace buildings, each 80 feet by 130 feet, and a blister
copper furnace building 50 feet by 70 feet, with 11 reverberatory furnaces. The
power plant at the smelter has three 125-horsepower boilers, ana a fourth boiler
generates steam by the combustion of waste gase3 from the reverberatory furnaces.
The Torch Lake smelter has deep-water shipping facilities, and in addition is served
by three railways.
The Buffalo Smelting Works are situated at Black Rock, N. Y., on the Niagara
River. The works include reverberatory and blast furnaces, a 30-ton electrolytic
refinery, and two mineral storage houses.
Company maintains three distinct systems of water works, one at the mines in
Calumet, one at the mills in Lako Linden, and one on the shore of Lake Superior,
4 miles from Calumet, the latter pumping water for domestic uses. A power line
was constructed to the Lake Superior water works in 1908-9, and the company is now
sending water from these works to the mill boilers at Torch Lake.
The Hecla & Torch Lake Railroad, owned by the company, connects the mines,
mills, shops, and smelter at Torch Lake, by upward of 20 miles of tracks. The dock




139

140

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUEEATT OF LABOE STATISTICS.

system includes a series of coal sheds at Lake Linden, with one of 200,000 tons ca­
pacity. There is a series of docks at the mills and smelter on Torch Lake, each wharf
having at least 21 feet of clear water alongside. The ship canal connecting Torch
Lake with the Government waterways on Portage Lake is owned and operated by the
Calumet & Hecla. The canal is 21 feet deep and accommodates the largest vessels
plying on the Great Lakes. Tolls on independent cargoes entering Torch Lake
through this canal are charged by the company, the charge ranging from 2 cents
per ton on soft coal to 50 cents per ton on package freight. The company ha3 saw­
mills at the head of Torch Lake. Company owns extensive tracts of pine, hemlock,
and hardwood timber along the southern shore of Lake Superior, these lands carrying
about 500,000,000 feet of standing timber.
Sccuritin* otcned, as o f Dec. 31. 1912.

Shares.
Number
owned.
Ahmeek Mining Co...............................................................................................................
Allouez Mining Co.................................................................................................................
Centennial Copper Mining Co.............................................................................................
Cliff Mining Co.......................................................................................................................
Gratiot Mining Co.................................................................................................................
Isle ltoyale Copper Co..........................................................................................................
La Salle Copper Co.................................................................................... ..........................
Laurium Mining Co..............................................................................................................
Osceola Consolidated Mining Co........... ; ...........................................................................
Seneca Mining Co..................................................................................................................
Superior Copper Co...............................................................................................................
Tamarack Mining Co............................................................................................................
White Pine Copper Co., preferred................................................................................
White Pine Copper Co., common......................................................................................

Number
issued.

24,200
41,000
41,503
19,400
50,103
30,500
152,977
37,550
32,750
11,207
50,100
19,403
6,092
43,202

50.000
100,000
90.000
60.000
100,000
150.000
302,977
40.000
96,150
20.000
100.000
CO,000
6,092
85,320

Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $2,500,000; par, $25, of which $12 per share
is paid up, so that the actual cash capital paid in is only $1,200,000. Stock transferred
at company’s office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston. Registrar: American Trust Co.,
Boston. Listed on Boston Stock Exchange.
Dividends have been paid in recent years as follows: 1896, $25; 1897, $40; 1898, $50;
1899, $100; 1900, $70; 1901, $45; 1902, $25; 1903, $35; 1904, $40; 1905, $50; 1906, $70;
1907, $65; 1908, $20; 1909, $27; 1910, $29; 1911, $24; 1912, $42; March, 1913, $10.
Payments quarterly, March 20, at company’s office, Boston. Total dividends paid
from organization in 1871 to and including March 20, 1913, amounted to $121,050,000.
Gold notes.—$4,134,000 4 per cent gold coupon notes; dated February 18, 1909;
due February 18,1919; interest, February and August 18, at Old Colony Trust Co.,
Boston, trustee, coupon, $1,000. Callable at par and interest after three years. This
is the last of four series of notes issued early in 1909 to finance the purchase from S. A.
Bigelow of stocks of various mining companies. The other series were paid March 1,
1912, September 1, 1912, and February 18, 1913, respectively.
Production. etc., years ended Dec. SI.

Pounds.
82,549,979
80,096,995
72,059,545

Rock
treated.

Cost
Price
per
re­
pound
of cop­ ceived
per
per pro­ pound.
duced.

!

Tons.
2,643,938
2,842,883
2,795,514

Cost
Price
per
re­
pound
ceived
of cop­
per
per pro­ pound.
duced.

ni

Refined
copper
produced.

i f f

Uock
treated.




Cents.
9.00
8.2S
8.96

Cents.
13.62
13.61
13.20

1911
1912..........

Tons.
2,909,972
2,806,510

Pounds.
74,130,977
07,856,429

Cents.
8.52
9.86

Cents.
12.82
16.65

141

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Assets and liabilities.
Dec. 31,
1912.

Dec. 31,
1911.

Apr. 29,
1911.

Apr. 30.
1910.

Apr. 30.
1909.

Apr. 30,
1908.

ASSETS.

Cash a t mine office....................
Cash at New York office...........
Cash and copper at Boston
office..........................................
Bills receivable...........................
Development and equipment
fund...........................................
Insurance fund...........................
Employees' aid fund.........
Sinking fund...............................
Due from other companies___
Calumet Transportation Co___
Supplies.......................................

$135,535
15,000

$157,647
15,000

$157,529
15,000

$167,371
15,000

6182,316
15,000

$182,071
15,000

6,667,509
953,212

7,072,192
516,293

5,852,434
546,257

6,272,865
708,255

6,186,988
406,001

4,488,352
650,017

1,482
983,177
29,352
369,204

5,390
967,920
10,492

554
959,724

52,649
463,184
1,151,800

1,166,999
943,800
348,511
1,329,810

1,446,116
975,000
348,511
1,189,690

Total assets....................... 11,560,426

11,720,449

9,159,754

8,546,706

7,774,107

6,295,720

457,342

582,898

879,408

952,338

1,337,737
250,000
7,017

920,901

LIABILITIES.

Drafts and bills payable...........
Keweenaw Association notes
Employees’ aid fund.................

844,012

Total liabilities.................

844,012

457,342

582,898

879,408

952,338

1,594,755

Balance of assets........................

10,716,414

11,263,107

8,576,856

7,667,298

6,821,769

4,700,965

Officers.—Quincy A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president, Boston; James
MacNaugliton, second vice president and general manager, Calumet, Mich.; George
A. Flagg, secretary and treasurer; W. C. Smith, assistant treasurer, Boston. Direc­
tors: F. L. Higginson, Quincy A. Shaw, Walter Hunnewell, Boston; R. L. Agassiz,
Newport, R. I.; James MacNaughton, Calumet, Mich.
Annual meeting, second Thursday in June.
General office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
Mine office, Calumet, Mich.; mill office, Lake Linden, Houghton County, Mich.
C o m p a n ie s C o n t r o l l e d

b y C a lu m e t & H e c l a M in i n g C o .

AH M E EK MINING CO. OP MICHIGAN.

Incorporated in 1880 in Michigan. Property, located on the Kearsage lode, just
west of the Mohawk mine, consists of about 920 acres in Kearsage, Keweenaw County,
Mich. Development work was begun in 1902 and now includes four shafts, No. 1
being 2,472 feet deep: No. 2, 2,643 feet; No. 3, 2,136 feet; and No. 4, 2,146 feet.
Rock is being stamped at the Osceola and Tamarack mills. Stamp mill at Tamarack
was completed in March, 1910. The boiler house, containing six boilers, and pump
and power house, which has a 40,000,000-gallon pump engine and electric generator,
were also completed early in 1910, the boilers, pumps, etc., going into commission
May 30,1910.
Capital stock.—Authorized and outstanding, $1,250,000; par, $25; $17 paid in.
The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owns 24,200 of the 50,000 shares. Transfer agent:
State Street Trust Co., Boston. Registrar: American Trust Co., Boston. Listed on
Boston Stock Exchange. Dividends have been paid as follows: November 1, 1911,
$2; 1912: January 20, $3; April 26, $4; July 22, $5; October 10, $6; 1913: January 10,
$7; April 10, $7.




142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. 31.

Rock
treated.

Tons.
298,178
405,045
530,305
598,549
(552,200

1908
1909
1910
1911

Refined
copper
produced.

6,280,2-il
9,198,110
11,844,9:4
15,196,127
10,455,700

Total cost
por pound
of refined
copper.
Cents.
12,63
15 48
11.05
7.17
7.85

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.

Gross in­
come.

1908................................
1909................................
1910................................
1911................................
1912................................

§857,649
1,235; 007
1,538,003
1,960,513
2,757,577

Expenses,
construc­
tion, etc.
$795,364
1,420,874
1,295,616
1,083,186
1,292,180

Net in-

162,285
2 185,867
242,387
877,327
1,465,397

Real es­
tate pur­
chased.
$84,640
10,350

Interest
paid.

$2,780
13,067
7,054

i Deficit.

Dividends.

$250,000
1,100,000

Balance.

i $22,355
1 198,997
3 229,320
3620,273
3365,397

3 Surplus.

Assets and liabilities, December 31,1912.—Assets: Cash, accounts receivable at Boston,
copper and silver unsold, $1,759,785; cash and accounts receivable at mine, $17,914;
supplies and fuel at mine, $123,272; total, $1,900,972. Liabilities: Accounts payable
at Boston, $37,413; accounts payable at mine, $134,350; dividend payable, January 10,
1913, $350,000; total, $521,7G3. Balance of assets, $1,379,209.
Officers.—R. L. Agassiz, president; Q. A. Shaw, vice president; G. A. Flagg, secretary
and treasurer; C. H. Bissell, assistant secretary ana assistant treasurer, Boston; J.
MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: F. L. Higginson, Q. A.
Shaw, R. L. Agassiz, Thos. N. Perkins, Jas. MacNaughton, W. A. Hodgson, T. L.
Chadboume, jr.
Annual meeting, second Tuesday in June.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston.
ALLOUEZ MINING CO.

Incorporated originally in September, 1859; reincorporated in 1889 under laws of
Michigan. Owns over 3,400 acres on the mineral range, mostly in Houghton and
Keweenaw Counties, Mich., a large tract lying immediately to the north of the Kear­
sarge branch of the Osceola mine, and carrying the Kearsarge lode. Company owns
a one-half interest in the Lake Milling, Smelting & Refining Co. On December 31,
1912, No. 1 shaft was 209 feet below the seventeenth level, a distance of 3,422 feet from
the surface, and No. 2 shaft was 173 feet below the twenty-first level, 3,382 feet from
the surface. No. 2 shaft began producing in 1910.
Capital stock.—Authorized and outstanding, $2,500,000; par, $25; paid in, $22.25.
Registrar: Old Colony Trust Co., Boston. Transfer agent: American Trust Co., Boston.
No bonds. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owns 41,000 of the 100,000 shares. Stock
traded in on the Boston Stock Exchange.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. 81.

Rock
treated.

190S....................................................................................................................
1909....................................................................................................................
1910....................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912...................................................................................................................




Tons.
220,905
253,049
247,119
288,610
333,613

Refined
copper
produced.

Pounds.
3,047,051
4,031,532
4,655,702
4,780,494
5,525,455

Total cost
per pound
of refined
copper.
Cents.
16.81
13.39
11.57
13.30
13.52

143

MICHIGAN COPPEB DISTBICT SXBIKB.

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.

Total
receipts.

1905................................
1900................................
18C3................................
1807................................
19CG................................
1910................................
1911................................
1912................................

$195,427
542,704
400,753
£57,235
CC8,455
€09,858
€29,229
918,436

Total
expenses.

$118,714
450,533
422,509
450,801
394,790
521,345
574,400
641,641

Construc­ Payment, Construc­
tion and
tion and
stamp
real
eauipment mill, etc.
estate.
at mine.
$35,517
75,879
6,571
84,846
82,030

Interest.

$13,2S7
$84,586
$337,741
17,417
18,232
17,347

42,976
88,184

Deficit
for year.

C19,143
i3,C65
22,328
310,214
101,029
171,096
6,379
1171,264

i Surplus.

Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912.—Assets: Cash, accounts receivable at Bos­
ton and unsold metal, 1486,437; cash and accounts receivable at mine, $2,367; sup­
plies at mine, $63,852; total, $552,656. Liabilities: Notes and accounts payable at
Boston, $402,705; accounts payable at mine, $56,387; total, $459,091. Balance of
assets, $93,564.
Officers.—Quincy A. Shaw, president; E. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer; G. G. Endicott, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer,
Boston, Mass.; Jas. MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors:
Quincy A. Shaw, H. F. Fay, G. A. Flagg, F. L. Higginson, W. L. Frost, Boston;
Thos. N. Perkins. Westwood, Mass.; B. L. Agassiz, Newport, R. I.; Jas. MacNaugh­
ton, Calumet, Mich.
Annual meeting, second Wednesday in April.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
CENTENNIAL COPPER MINING CO.

Incorporated 1896, under laws of Michigan, as successor to Centennial Mining Co.
Owns one half of the $500,000 capital stock of the Lake Milling, Smelting & Refining
Co., the other half being owed by the Allouez Mining Co. Property comprises 640
acres, being section 12, township 56, range 33 west; also a triangular patch of about 30
acres bought to secure outcrop of the Kearsarge lode. The present management in
1897 began work on the Osceola lode, but later discontinued m order to open up and
develop the Kearsarge lode, which is the only lode now being operated on the prop­
erty. On December 31,1912, No. 1 shaft was 189 feet below the thirty-fourth level,
3,821 feet from the surface; No. 2 shaft was 180 feet below the thirty-sixth level,
4,158 feet from the surface.
Capital stock'.—Authorized, 100,000 shares; par, $25; outstanding, 90,000 shares, on
which $19.50 has been paid in. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owns 41,500 shares.
Transfer agent: American Trust Co., Boston. Registrar: Old Colony Trust Co.,
Boston. Listed on Boston Stock Exchange.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. 31.

Rock
treated.

1908....................................................................................................................
1 9 0 9 .................................................................................................................
1910....................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................




Tons.
169,693
196,525
102,133
86,543
106,517

Refined
copper
produced.

Pounds.
2,196,377
2,583,793
1,572,566
1,493,834
1,742,338

Total cost
per pound
of refined
copper.
Cents.
18.49
15.61
14.48
12.69
13.46

144

B U L L E T IN o r

T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.
Balance,
Jan. 1.

1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..
1910..
1911..
1912..

195,951
331,780
340,310
129,985
18,2C
0
1
39,3(5
3
60,107
J
54,061

Sale of
product.

1230,130
439,510
438,253
294,165
343,051
204,778
192,997
285,006

Total
receipts.

Other

receipts.

5353,982
11,645
k i)>598
3
334
2,602
2,173
2,560

10

$680,062
782,941
1,014,161
424,484
363,913
167,586
195,557
285,076

Mine and
other
expenses.

1300,384
366,905
469,983
389,952
397,360
222,281
189,512
234,503

Construc­
Total
tion equip­
ment, etc. payments.

£47,899
75,666
414,193
16,272
5,918
5,412

1348,283

442,631
884,176
406,224
403,278
227,693
189,512
234,563

Surplus,
Dec. 31.

1331,780
340,310
129,985
18,260
>39,365
^60,107
J
54,061
*3,549

1Deficit.

Assets and liabilities, December SI, 191:2.—Assets: Caah and accounts receivable at
Boston and copper unsold, $183,263; cask and accounts receivable at mine, $3,121;
supplies at mine, $47,501; total, $233,886. Liabilities: Notes and accounts payable
at Boston, $209,956; accounts payable at mine, $27,479; total, $237,435. Balance of
liabilities, December 31,1912, $3,549.
Officers.—Quincy A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; Geo. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer; Geo. G. Endicott, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer,
Boston; Jas. MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: Quincy A.
Shaw, R. L. Agassiz, H. F. Fay, Geo. A. Flagg, Jas. MacNaugliton, F. L. Higginson.
Annual meeting, first Tuesday in April.
General office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston; mine office, Calumet, Mich.
CLIFF M INING CO.

Incorporated December, 1909, in Michigan, and acquired the Cliff lands of the
Tamarack Mining Co., in Keweenaw County, Mich.; through these lands runs for a
distance of about 11,000 feet the Kearsarge lode. The Tamarack Mining Co. con­
veyed the Cliff lands, retaining, however, the timber thereon, and also placed in the
treasury of the new company $100,000 cash; and received in exchange 60,000 of the
authorized 100,000 shares. As of December 31, 1912, the Calumet & Hecla owned
19,400 of the 60,000 outstanding shares of stock.
A temporary shaft was started in August, 1910, and by December 31, 1911, it had
reached a depth of 217 feet; no sinking was done in 1912.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $2,500,000; outstanding, $1,500,000, of which $780,000
paid in, consisting of 60,000 shares of $25 each, on which $13 paid in. Transfer agent:
American Trust Co., Boston. Registrar: State Street Trust Co., Boston. Traded in
on unlisted department of Boston Stock Exchange.
Expenses, year ended December 31, 1912.—Expended* in exploration and develop­
ment work, $14,796; miscellaneous expenses, $1,688; total, $16,484, less balance of
interest receipts, $3,299; balance, $13,185; add balance of assets, December 31, 1911,
$75,757; balance of assets, December 31, 1912, $62,572.
Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912.—Assets^ Cash and accounts receivable in
Boston, $58,428; cash and accounts receivable at mine, $4,646; supplies at mine, $544;
total, $63,618. Liabilities: Accounts payable at mine, $1,046; balance of assets,
December 31,1912, $62,572.
Officers.—R. L. Agassiz, president; Quincy A. Shaw, vice president; G. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer; C. H. Bissel, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Bos­
ton; James MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: Rodolphe L.
Agassiz, Francis W. Hunnewell, Francis L. Higginson, Quincy A. Shaw, Thomas N.
Perkins, George A. Flagg, James MacNaughton.
Annual meeting, first Wednesday in April.
General offices, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
GRATIOT M IXIN G CO.

Incorporated January 29, 1906, in Maine. Company was formed for the purpose of
taking over 600 acres of land near the Mohawk mine. Shaft No. 1 had, on December
31, 1911, been sunk to a depth of 1,971 feet and Shaft No. 2 to a depth of 1,521 feet.
Owing to the low grade of rock and the condition of the copper market, together with
the fact that there were no suitable milling facilities for a reasonably large produc­




145

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

tion, the property was closed down on March 31, 1911; no active operations were con­
ducted during 1912.
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $300,000; par, $3. Fully paid and non­
assessable. A majority (50,100 shares) is owned by Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.
Earnings and expenses, year ended December S I,1912.—Receipts from sales of machin­
ery, etc., $8,585; expenses and interest, $21,555; excess of expenses over receipts,
$12,970; balance of liabilities, December 31, 1911, $345,541; balance of liabilities,
December 31, 1912, $358,511. .
Assets and liabilities December SI, 1912.—Assets: Cash at Boston, $598; cash and
accounts receivable at mine, $8,702; supplies on hand at mine, $639; total, $9,939.
Liabilities: Accounts payable at Boston, $368,300; accounts payable at mine, $149;
total, $368,449; balance of liabilities, $358,511.
Officers.—Quincy A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer, Boston, Mass.; James MacNaughton, general manager, Calu­
met, Mich. Directors: Q. A. Shaw, F. L. Higginson, Boston, Mass.; R. L. Agassiz,
Newport, R. I.; J. MacNaughton, Calumet, Mich.; G. A. Flagg, Holliston, Mass.
Annual meeting, first Thursday after third Wednesday in August, at Portland, Me.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston; mine office, Calumet, Mich.
ISLE ROYALE COPPER CO.

Incorporated March 14, 1899, in New Jersey, as a consolidation of the Isle Royale
Consolidated Mining Co. and the Miners’ Copper Co. The present company began
operations on April 20,1899, with all the property and cash assets of the old Isle Royale
Consolidated Mining Co., increased by 1,400 acres of new mining property and
$1,000,000 in cash from the Miners’ Copper Co. In all the company owns about
2,800 acres of valuable copper mining land in Houghton County, Mich. In 1907
purchased for $220,000 the Hussey Howe tract of 240 acres adjoining and northeast of
the Superior property, controlled by Calumet & Hecla. This tract is surrounded by
Isle Royale lands, and is supposed to carry the Baltic lode. Development work on
the properties was begun in August, 1896. On December 31, 1912, No. 2 shaft was
84 feet below twenty-ninth level and 3,162 feet from surface, No. 4 was 5.5 feet be~
low fifteenth level and 1,939 feet from surface, No. 5 was 47.5 feet below ninth level
and 1,206 feet from surface, No. 6 was 4.5 feet below thirteenth level and 1,553 feet
from surface, “ A ”' shaft was 18 feet below fifth level and 972 feet from surface. In
September, 1912, ground was broken for No. 7 shaft.
The Isle Royale Railroad, owned by the company, connects the mine and mill
with about 5 miles of main line and has a junction with the Duluth, South Shore &
Atlantic Railway. Equipment includes three locomotives and forty 40-ton steel
rock cars. The stamp mill is situated at the mouth of Pilgrim River, the mill site
having nearly 1 mile of frontage on Portage Lake. The mill has three heads, each
with recrushing rolls, the single head having a daily capacity of 500 tons, and the two
compound heads a daily capacity of 750 tons each, rower for the mill is furnished
by a 750-horsepower engine, taking steam from four 250-horsepower boilers in a 46 by
72 feet boiler nouse at the rear of the mill. There is a 32 by 600 feet wharf, with
deep water, at the mill site. Water is furnished the mill by a 16,000,000-gallon pump
discharging into a 32-foot steel water main running 2,200 feet from pump house to
mill. Three 100-horsepower boilers furnish pumping power.
Capital stock.—Authorized and outstanding, $3,750,000; par $25. Transfer agent:
Old Colony Trust Co., Boston, Mass. Registrar: State Street Trust Co., Boston, Mass.
No bonds. The Calumet & Iiecla Mining Co. owns $762,500 of the stock. Initial
dividend of $1 per share paid March 31, 1913.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. SI.

Rock
treated.

190 8
190 9
1910....................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................

29848°—Bull. 139—14------10



Tons.
218,940
401,283
520,860
457,440
o31,lOo

Refined
copper
produced.

Pounds.
3,011,664
5,719,056
7,567,399
7,490,120
8,186,957

Total cost
per pound
of refined
copper.
Cents.
28.99
16.64
11.84
10.85
11.89

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.
Gross
receipts.
1906.
1907
1908.
1909.
1910
1911.
1912.

$588.340
492,224
427.364
790; 528
988,233
9G9,365
1,395,637

Expenses,
etc.
$431,372
763,659
878,575
951,519
895,920
812,657
975,870

Net
profits.
$156,968
1271,435
1461,211
1160.9P
-1
92.313
156, 708
419, 767

1 Deficit.

and liabilities, Decetnber 31, 1912.—Assets: Cash, accounts receivable at
Boston, copper and silver unsold, $587,564; cash and accounts receivable at mine,
$13,708; supplies and fuel at mine, $103,385; Lake Superor Smelting Co. stock,
$32,000; total, $736,657. Liabilities: Notes and accounts payable at Boston, $72,914;
accounts payable at mine, $106,000; total, $178,914. Balance of assets, December 31,
1912, $557,743.
Officers.—Rodolphe L. Agassiz, president; Q. A. Shaw, vice president; G. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer; Clarence H. Bissell, assistant secretary and assistant treas­
urer, Boston; James MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors:
Q. A. Shaw, R. L. Agassiz, C. N. King, F. L. Higginson, W. E. L. Dillaway, C. O.
Whitten, F. L. Whitcomb.
Annual meeting, first Wednesday in April at Jersey City, N. J.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
LA SALLE COPPER CO.

Incorporated December, 1906, in Michigan, to take over control of the properties
of Tecumseh Copper Co., the La Salle and Caldwell companies (under option to
Calumet & Hecla), and certain lands contributed by the Calumet & Hecla and the
Sheldon estate. The charter of the Tecumseh Copper Co. expired on February 3,
1910, and on May 11, 1910, the La Salle Copper Co. purchased the entire property
of that company. Prior to this purchase La Salle owned all but 159 shares of the
Tecumseh stock. The properties comprise the Douglas and Sheldon estates, 400
acres; La Salle (association), 840 acres; Tecumseh, 560 acres; Caldwell, 560 acres;
total, 2,460 acres. The company’s present mineral expectations are confined to the
Kearsarge lode, which has been demonstrated both by diamond drill and by shafts.
The policy is to concentrate work in developing the properties and in blocking out
ore. On December 31,1912, No. 1 shaft was 38 feet below twentieth level and 2,146
feet from surface, No. 2 was 49 feet below seventeenth level and 1,770 feet from
surface, No. 5 was 128 feet below tenth level and 1,450 feet from surface, and No. 6
was 7 feet below seventh level and 882 feet from surface. Refined copper produced
in 1910, 633,778 pounds; in 1911, 280,598 pounds; no production in 1912. With
the higher prices for copper obtaining, it was planned to resume operations in June,
1912, but it was impossible to secure a sufficient working force until November.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $10,000,000; outstanding, $7,574,425; par, $25. The
Calumet & Hecla Co. contributed $1,000,000 cash to the treasury ana agreed to loan
the company $750,000 additional if necessary in return for which, and its contribution
of 240 acres to the property, it received 161,750 shares of the 302,977 shares issued.
Asof December 31,1912, Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owned 152,977 shares of the stock.
Transfer agent: Old Colony Trust Co., Boston. Registrar: State Street Trust Co.,
Boston. Listed on Boston Stock Exchange.
Receipts and expenses, year ended December 31, 1912.—Interest and miscellaneous
receipts, $10,244; expenses at mine, $19,998; expenses at eastern office, etc., $6,434;
construction at mine, $4,037; deficit, $21,124.
Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912.—Assets: Cash and accounts receivable at
mine, $6,085; cash and accounts receivable at Boston, $239,400; supplies on hand,
$646; total, $246,131. Liabilities: Accounts payable at mine, $5,472. Balance of
assets, December 31, 1912/ $240,660.
Officers.—Q. A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg,
secretary and treasurer; W.C. Smith, assistant treasurer, Boston; James MacNaughton,
general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: Q. A. Shaw, F. L. Higginson, Walter




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

147

Hunnewell, Boston; It. L. Agassiz, Newport, R. I.; G. A. Flagg, Holliston, Mass.;
James MacNaughton, Calumet, Mich.; T. N. Perkins, Westwood, Mass.
Annual meeting, second Wednesday in June.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.; mine office, Calumet, Mich.
LAURIUM M INING CO.

Incorporated in Michigan. Lands comprise 325 acres of surface rights, with mineral
rights to 575 acres, lying east of Calumet & Hecla Mine. On December 31,1912, shaft
No. 1 was 32 feet below fourteenth level and 1,444 feet from the surface. A new hoist,
capable of working to a depth of 2,100 feet, and a larger compressor have been installed
in place of the old equipment.
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $1,000,000; par, $25. The Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co. owns $938,750 of the stock.
Receipts and expenses, year ended December St, 1912.—Interest received, $1,843; ex­
penses at mine, $44,507; eastern office, $1,722; construction at mine, $5,681; excess
of expenses, $50,067.
Assets and liabilities, December SI, 1912.—Cash, accounts receivable, and supplies,
$22,187; accounts payable, $3,722. Balance of assets, $18,465.
Officers.—Q. A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg, secre­
tary and treasurer; G. G. Endieott, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Boston;
James MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: Q. A. Shaw, F. L.
Higginson, G. A. Flagg, Boston; R. L. Agassiz, Newport, R. I .; James MacNaughton,
Calumet, Mich.
Annual meeting, second Tuesday in June.
General office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.; mine office, Houghton, Mich.
OSCEOLA CONSOLIDATED M INING CO.

Incorporated in 1873, in Michigan, to acquire a copper mining property at Hancock,
Houghton County, Mich., bordering on the famous Calumet & Hecla mines. Com­
pany was consolidated with the Opechee Mining Co. in 1879, and in 1897 purchased
the 'Kearsarge Mining Co., this purchase carrying with it the control of the Iroquois
Copper Co. and the Tamarack Junior Mining Co. Over 35 miles of underground work
has been done. Lands, 2,120 acres, in four separate tracts; also an extensive mill site
in Houghton County, Mich., and considerable holdings of timber and miscellaneous
lands in Houghton and Keweenaw Counties, Mich. Property includes four mines,
or “ branches,” known as the Osceola, North Kearsarge, South Kearsarge, and Tama­
rack Junior; the latter being idle.
The two stamp mills, completed in 1899 and 1902, respectively, adjoin those of the
Tamarack, on the shore of Torch Lake. The original mill, built in 1886, was tom
down in 1905. The boiler house, adjoining the mills and furnishing power for both,
has three 250-horsepower boilers, delivering steam at 150 pounds pressure, and nine
250-horsepower boilers, operated under 105 pounds pressure. Rock is transported
from the various mines to the mills by the Hancock & Calumet Railroad, a branch of
the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railway.
During 1912 all the real and personal property of the Hancock Chemical Co. and the
Tamarack-Osceola Copper Manufacturing Co. was sold and the Osceola Consolidated
Mining Co. received net for its stock holdings $46,667.
Total depth of shafts, December 31, 1912: Osceola branch—No. 5, 110 feet below
forty-sixth level, 4,623 feet from surface; No. 6, 99 feet below forty-sixth level, 4,592
feet from surface. South Kearsarge branch—No. 1, 20 feet below twenty-third level,
2,820 feet from surface; No. 2, 22 feet below sixteenth level, 1,992 feet from surface.
North Kearsarge branch—No. 1, 190 feet below thirty-fourth level, 3,873 feet from
surface; No. 3, 161 feet below thirty-first level, 3,251 feet from surface; No. 4, 187
feet below fifteenth level, 1,449 feet from surface.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $2,500,000; outstanding, $2,403,750; the balance, $96,250,
being held in the company’s treasury; par, $25. Transfer agent: American Trust Co.,
Boston. Registrar: State Street Trust Co., Boston. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.
owns 32,750 shares of the 96,150 shares of stock outstanding. Dividends in 1899,1900,
and 1901, $6 per share each; 1902 and 1903, none; 1904, $2 per share; 1905, $4; 1906,
$10; 1907, $13; 1908, $2; 1909, $8; 1910, $10; 1911, $7.50; 1912, $12.50; January 31,
1913, $3; payments semiannually, January and July. Total dividends paid from 1878
to and including January 31,1913, $11,170,100. Listed on Boston Stock Exchango,




148

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Production, etc., years ended Dec. SI.

Rock
treated.

1908....................................................................................................................
1909....................................................................................................................
1910..................... . .............................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................

Refined
copper
produced.

Tons.
1,241,400
1,494,845
1,217,720
1,246,596
1,246,557

Pounds.
21,250,794
25,296,657
19,346,566
18,388,193
18,413,387

Total cost
of refined
copper per
pound.
Cents.
10.25
9.47
9.37
9.28
10.36

Earnings, expenses, and income account, year ended Dec. 31.
Gross
earnings.

Operating
expenses.

Net
earnings.

Con­
struction.

Dividends.

1905.. $2,961,971
1906.. 3,646,811
1907.. 2,481,306
1908.. 2,914,544
1909.. 3,465,857
1910.. 2,571,865
1911.. 2,371,373
1912.. 3,118,604

$1,815,119
1,868,140
1,674,177
2,091,823
2,285,401
1,746,340
1,615,780
1,734,199

$1,146,251
1,778,671
807,129
822,721
1,180,456
825,525
755,593
1,384,405

$207,505
155,482
84,374
145,615
109,810
66,939
90,965
174,331

$576,900
1.153.800
673.050
676,900
961,500
769,200
673.050
1.153.800

Surplus
for year.
$361,846
469,389
49,705
100,205
109,146
110,614
18,422
56,274

Previous
surplus.
$505,929
867,775
1,337,164
1,386,869
1,487,074
1,851,220
1,840,606
1,832,184

Total
surplus.
$867,775
1,337,164
1,386,869
1,487,074
1,596,219
1,840,606
1,832,183
1,888,458

i Deficit.

jLssets and liabilities, Dec. 31.
Assets.

1912

Cash accounts receivable
at Boston and unsold
metal................................. $1,775,509
Cash and accounts receiv­
12,740
able at mines....................
250,063
Supplies and fuel.................
Wood and timber lands...
37,309
Mineral Range Railroad
341,100
Lake Superior Smelting
Co. stock...........................
60,000
Total...........................

2,476,721

1911

$1,740,832

1
j

Liabilities.
Accounts payable at mines.
Accounts payable at Bos­
ton......................................
Dividends payable in Jan-

1912
$265,543

1911
$243,635
22,311

288,450
1,888,458

15,527
239,886
37,309

34,270

336,525
1,832,184

2,476,721

2,434,654

341,100
60,000
2,434,654

Total ..........................

Officers.—It. L. Agassiz, president; Q. A. Shaw, vice president; G. A. Flagg, secre­
tary and treasurer; C. H. Bissell, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Boston;
James MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: F. L. Higginson,
Q. A. Shaw, R. L. Agassiz, James MacNaughton, William H. Dwelly, jr., Guy W.
Currier, Thomas N. Perkins.
Annual meeting, second Thursday in March.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
SENECA MINING CO.

Incorporated March 23, 1860, in Michigan. Lands, originally 3,240 acres, were
reduced/by 1,880 acres, transferred to the Ahmeek Co. The remaining tract is located
just north of the Mohawk and Ahmeek mines, and carries the Calumet, Kearsarge, and
Allouez conglomerates, and the Osceola and Kearsarge amygdaloidal beds. No
development work was done during 1912.
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $500,000; paid in, $201,000; par, $25, of which
$10.05 is paid in. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owns 11,207 shares of the stock.
Expenditures, year ended December SI, 1912.—Mine expenses, $2,032; mine taxes, $657;
eastern expenses, $1,844; interest, $5,675; total, $10,208.




149

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Assets and liabilities, December 31,1912.—Assets: Cash at Boston, etc., $876; supplies
at mine, $1,021; total, $1,897. Liabilities: Notes and accounts payable at Boston,
$140,721; accounts payable at mine, $3,496; total, $144,216. Balance of liabilities,
December 31, 1912, $142,319.
Officers.—H. L. Agassiz, president; G, A. Flagg, secretary and treasurer; A. Garceau,
assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Boston; James MacNaughton, general mana­
ger, Calumet, Mich. Directors: R. L. Agassiz, Newport, R. I.; G. A. Flagg, Holliston, Mas§.; F. L. Higginson, Boston; James MacNaughton, Calumet, Mich.; T. L. Chadbourne, jr., New York.
Annual meeting, fourth Monday in March.
General office, 32 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.; mine office, Ahmeek, Mich.
SUPERIOR COPPER CO.

Incorporated July 22,1904, in Michigan. Lands, 450 acres, between the Baltic and
Isle Royale mines. Company has a two-year lease on two tracts of the Atlantic mill,
giving a stamping capacity of about 700 tons daily. In order to ship rock to the Lake
Milling Co.’s stamp mill at Point Mills, a line of railroad has been built to connect No. 1
shaft with the Isle Royale Railroad. On December 31, 1912, shaft No. 1 was 254 feet
below 18th level and 2,014 feet from surface; No. 2 shaft was 41 feet below 14th level
and 1,341 feet from surface.
Capital stoclc.—Authorized and issued $2,500,000; par, $25. The Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co. owns $1,252,500 of the stock. Transfer agent: American Trust Co., Boston.
Registrar: Old Colony Trust Co., Boston.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. 31.
Refined
copper
produced.

Kook
treated.

1908....................................................................................................................
1909....................................................................................................................
1910....................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1012________________________________________________________________

Tons.
962
81,641
140,514
162,599
172,322

Total cost
per pound
of refined
copper.

Pounds.
21,244
1,789,315
3,181,041
3,236,233
3,921,974

Cents.

Interest.

Balance.

15.31
12.75

1Not reported.

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.
Gross
value of
fine copper.

£411,267
046,771

1911.....................
1912.........................

1Deficit.

Silver
sales and
miscel­
laneous.
$19,617
26,261

Total.

$430,884
673,032

Expenses.

Construc­
tion.

$453,972
478,395

$28,901
12,165

$12,527
9,599

i $65,516
2172,873

2 Surplus.

Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912.—Assets: Cash, accounts receivable at
Boston and copper and silver unsold, $290,868; cash and accounts receivable at mine,
110,188; supplies, $8,505; total, $309,561. Liabilities: Accounts payable at Boston,
$184,565; accounts payable at mine, $25,212; total, $209,777. Balance of assets,
December 31,1912, $99,784. #
Officers.—Q. A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg, sec­
retary and treasurer; A. J. Garceau, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Boston;
James MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet^ Mich. Directors: Q. A. Shaw, Bos­
ton; R. L. Agassiz, Newport, R. I .; James MacNaughton, Calumet, Mich.; G. A.
Flagg, Holliston, Mass.; F. L. Higginson, Boston.
Annual meeting, second Tuesday in June.
General office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston; mine office, Calumet, Mich.




150

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
TAMARACK MINING CO.

Incorporated in 1882 in Michigan. Company owns over 1,110 acres in Keweenaw
County, Mich., with about 7,000 additional acres of timber and other lands. The
mine adjoins the Calumet & Hecla on all sides. It has been operated for a great many
years and extensive development work has been done. The mine is opened by
nve shafts. The No. 1 shaft is 109 feet below the nineteenth level and 3,409 feet from
the surface; No. 2 shaft is 23 feet below the thirtieth level and 4,355 feet from the
surface; No. 3 shaft is 29.5 feet below the eighteenth level and 5,253 feet from the
surface; No. 3 shaft (inclined) is 113 feet below the twenty-first level and 406 feet
below the eighteenth level; No. 4 shaft is 4,450 feet from the surface; and No. 5 shaft
is 147 feet below the fortieth level and 5,308.5 feet from the surface.
Company has two stamp mills on Torch Lake, with a combined daily capacity of
3,500 tons of conglomerate rock. Mill No. 1 has five heads, three of wliich are com­
pounded; the boiler house has four 200-horsepower boilers. Mill No. 2 has two
stamps, and the boiler house has seven 200-horsepower boilers. The pump house,
ownedjointly with the Osceola Co., has two 40,000,000-gallon pumps and one 15,000,000
gallon pump.
Late in 1909 the Tamarack Co. sold its Cliff lands to the Cliff Mining Co. on terms
shown in Manual for 1912, page 3960.
During 1912 all the real and personal property of the Hancock Chemical Co. and
the Tamarack-Osceola Copper Manufacturing Co." was sold, and the Tamarack Mining
Co. received net for its stock holdings $14,332.
Production, etc., years ended Dec. 31.

Rock
treated.

Tons.
C54,897
C39,099
525,554
392,338
421,385

1908................................................................................................................
1909....................................................................................................................
1910,..................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................

Income account, years ended Dec.
Total
receipts.
1906.........................................
1907.........................................
1908.........................................
3909.........................................
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912......................................

$1,917,232
1,835,970
1,716,974
1,906,878
62,230,017
957,916
1,309,807

Total
expenses.
$1,413,084
1,751,835
1,870,191
1,890,810
1,563,717
1,116,876
1,040,194

Total cost
Refined
copper pro­ per pound
of refined
duced.
copper.
Pounds.
12,806,127
13,553,207
11,063,606
7,494,077
7,908,745

Cents.
15.24
1430
14.70
15.55
13.15

31.

Gross
profit.

Dividends.

i $504,148
184,135
*153,217
1 16,068
1666,300
*138,960
269,613

a $300,000
8 240,000

New con­
struction.
$90,518
93,410
582,389
44,613
62,667
4,239,

Balance.

*$113,630
4249,277
4235,606
4 28,546
1603,633
<193,199
1269,613

1 Surplus.
2 20 per cent.
s 16 per cent.
* Deficit.
6Includes $49,533 for clirf exploration.
•Includes $770,315 received from sale of cliff lands, timberlands, and other income, and $25,000 *Lake Supe­
rior Smelting Co. dividend.

Capital stock.—Authorized and. issued, $1,500,000; par, $25. Transfer agent: Old
Colony Trust Co., Boston.^ Registrar: State Street Trust Co., Boston. Total divi­
dends paid to and including July, 1907, $9,420,000; none since. The Calumet &
Hecla Mining Co. owns $485,000 of the stock. Listed on Boston Stock Exchange.




151

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Assets and liabilities, Dec. 31.
Assets.
Cash and accounts receiv­
able and copper unsold. .
Supplies and fuel at mine..
Wood and timber lands . . .
Hancock and Calumet
bonds.................................
Mineral Range railroad
stock............. .....................
Lake Superior Smelting
Co. stock............................
Total............................

1912

mi

Liabilities.

1912

1911

Notes and accounts pay$541,280
210,567
184,596

$491,748
234,949
171,766

99,000

$610,914
851,249

1,500,152

1,462,163

99,000

364,700

$379,290
1,120,862

364,700

100,000

100,000

1,500,152

1,462,163

Total..........................

Officers.—R. L. Agassiz, president; Q. A. Shaw, vice president; G. A. Flagg, secre­
tary and treasurer; C. H. Bissell, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, Boston;
Jas. MacNaughton, general manager, Calumet, Mich.; Directors: R. L. Agassiz,
Q. A. Shaw, Jas. MacNaughton, F. L. Higginson, F, L. Whitcomb, R. S. Bradley,
Edwin C. Lewis.
Annual meeting, first Wednesday in April.
Office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
W HITE PINE COPPER CO.

Incorporated in 1909, in Michigan, to develop 4,739^ acres of lands which carry
the Nonesuch lode, conveyed to the company by the Keweenaw Association ana
others. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., having expended $100,000 on the property,
received 43,202 shares of White Pine common stock, and in return for further sums
advanced for development and equipment is entitled to receive preferred stock at
par. Up to December 31, 1912, the Calumet & Hecla Co. had received 6,092 shares
of preferred stock, being the entire amount issued. On December 31, 1912, No. 1
temporary shaft was 67 feet below the first level and 213 feet from the surface; No. 2
temporary shaft was 4 feet below the first level and 135 feet from the surface.
Capital slock.—Authorized, $3,750,000 common and $1,250,000 5 per cent cumu­
lative preferred; outstanding, December 31, 1912, $2,133,000 common and $152,300
preferred; par $25. The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. owns $1,080,050 common and
all the preferred. The preferred stock is issued from time to time to provide funds
for development, etc., and is to be retired out of earnings before dividends are paid
on the common.
Receipts and expenses, year ended December SI, 1912.—Sales of 2,221 shares of preferred
stock at par, $55,525; interest, $2; total, $55,527. Deduct: Running expenses at mine,
$48,159; construction at mine, $8,504; taxes, $1,000; eastern office, $1,037; timber
purchased, $321; total, $59,021. Excess of expenses, $3,494.
Assets and liabilities, December SI, 1912.—Assets: Cash, $684; supplies at mine,
$2,413; total, $3,097. Liabilities: Accounts payable at Boston, $15,400; accounts
ayable at mine, $4,398; total, $19,798. Balance of liabilities, December 31, 1912,
16,701.
Officers.—A. Shaw, president; R. L. Agassiz, vice president; G. A. Flagg, secretary
and treasurer; G. G. Endicott, assistant treasurer, Boston; Jas. MacNaughton, gen­
eral manager, Calumet, Mich. Directors: Q. A. Shaw, R. L. Agassiz, D. S. Dean,
F. L. Higginson, F. W. Hunnewell, G. A. Flagg, Jas. MacNaughton.
Annual meeting, first Tuesday in April.
General office, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston.

f

Co p p e r R a n g e C o n s o l id a t e d

Co.

Incorporated December 2, 1901, under laws of New Jersey, as a securities holding
corporation. The company’s assets consist principally of securities owned in sub­
sidiary companies, through which the Copper Range Consolidated Co. is the second
largest copper producer of the Lake Superior district. Its production includes the
total output of the Baltic and Trimountain mines and one-half the output of the
Champion mine, the other one-half belonging to the St. Mary’s Mineral Land Co.,
which is the joint owner, with the Copper Range Consolidated Co., of the shares of the
Champion Copper Co. The company owns and controls all the stock of the Copper
Range Railroad Co. Company owned as of January 1, 1913, 99,659 of the 100,000



152

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU BEA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

shares of outstanding stock of the Baltic Mining Co.; 99,699 of the 100,000 shares of the
Copper Range Co.; 99,345 of the 100,000 shares of the Trimountain Mining Co.; 1G,392
of the 42,443 shares (the remaining 26,051 shares being owned by the Copper Range
Co.) of the stock of the Copper Range Railroad Co.; and 93,470 oKlie 100,000 shares of
the Atlantic Mining Co. In addition the Copper Range Consolidated Co. owns
$870,000 face value of bonds of the Copper Range Railroad. Through the Copper
Range Co., the Copper Range Consolidated Co. controls $1,250,000 (one-half) of the
stock of the Champion Copper Co., and through the Baltic and Trimountain companies
controls $190,000 of the stock of the Michigan Smelting Co., the former owning $80,000
and the latter $110,000 of the Smelting Co.’s stock.
Capital stock.-—Authorized, $40,000,000; outstanding, $39,369,200; par, $100.
Dividends have been paid (quarterly, January 1) as follows: 1905, 3 per cent; 1906,
5 per cent; 1907, 8 per cent; 1908, 1909, 1910, and 1911, 4 per cent each; 1912, 2 per
cent; January, April, and July, 1913, f per cent each. Total dividends paid to
December 31,1912, $12,902,249. No bonds.
Combined production of operating companies, years ended Dec. 31.
1911
Tons of rock stamped................................................................................................ .......... 1,779,072
Average yield refined copper................................................................................. ...........
20.87
Copper produced.................................................................................................. pounds.. 37,130,292
12.54
Average price per pound........................................................................................ cents..
Average cost per pound........................................................................................... do___
9.74

1912
1,784,402
21.07
37,584,647
16.16
10.51

Consolidated statement o f operating companies, years endedDec. St.
1911

1912

Sales of copper and interest..............................................................................................
Mining expenses, including smelting, freight, marketing, etc*...................................

$4,655,647
3,447,100

$6,084,202
3,661,837

Houghton Co., taxes.............................................................................. ...........................

1,208,547
163,373

2,422,364
164,157

Total income from mining......................................................................................
Other income.......................................................................................................................

1,045,174
53,532

2,258,207
144,160

Net income................................................................................................................
Deduct interest, taxes, and general expenses of Copper Range Consolidated Co.
Deduct one-half of net mining profit of Champion Copper Co., which belongs to
the St. Mary's Mineral Land Co...................................................................................

1,098,708
66,851

2,402,367
83,992

227,294

625,810

Balance of net income..............................................................................................

804,561

1,692,566

Receipts and disbursements, year ended Dec. 31, 1912
Receipts.
Balance, previous year..........................
Baltic Co. dividends.............................. .
Trimountain Co. dividends.................
Copper Range Co. dividends............... .
Received from various companies____
Dividend received in capital stock
issued, but which remains unex­
changed.................................................
Notes payable.........................................
Total...............................................




Disbursements.

Amount.

Michigan Smelting Co.
Taxes.............................
Interest........................ .
Other expenses............
Dividends................... .
Notes payable..............
Accounts receivable...
Cash on hand Dec, 31.

$39,955
7,771
39,085
37,136
78S,429
925,000
2,397
455,499

Total................. .

!, 295,271

Mic h ig a n

c o p p e r d is t b ic t

153

s t b ik e .

Gencrcl bclarjx ih x t, Dec. Jl.

1911

1912

ASSETH.

$79,100
Stocks owned 2....................................................................................................................... 37,865,400
Copper Range R . R. Co.:
870,000
Bonds at par...................................................................................................................
Stock at par....................................................................................................................
1,639,200
260,411
Accounts receivable.............................................................................................................
6,000
Copper Range electric plant...............................................................................................
74,186
General exploration.............................................................................................................
672, .331
Cash.........................................................................................................................................
315,874
Total.............................................................................................................................

41,782,502

$79,100
37,890,100
870,000
1,639,200
183,787
8,396
68,823
672,331
455,499
41,867,236

LIABILITIES.

Capital stock....................................................................................................................
39,344,500
39,369,200
1,100,000
Notes payable........................................................................................................................ 2,025,000
United Metals Selling Co.....................................................................................................
300,000
500,000
Deposits:
Trimountain Mining C o ................................................................................
21,442
50,214
Copper Range Co...........................................................................................................
125,317
25,206
Atlantic Mining Co.......................................................................................................
47,200
Michigan Smelting Co..............................................................................................
30,806
Copper Range R . R. Co............................................................ ..................................
..........20,*677
Stock suspense.......................................................................................................................
63
Accounts payable..........................................................................................................
1
18,183
62,030
Surplus....................................................................................................................................
17,365
592,535
Total.............................................................................................................................

41,782,502

41,867,236

1791 shares of Copper Range Consolidated Co. held by the treasurer for exchange for the outstanding
shares of the Baltic Mining Co. and the Copper Range Co.
2 Consists of 99,659 shares of the Baltic Mining Co.. 99,699 shares of the Copper Range Co., 99,345 shares
of the Trimountain Mining Co., and 93,470 shares of Atlantic Mining Co.

Officers.—Wm. A. Paine, president; R. T. McKeever, vice president, Boston; F. W.
Denton, vice president, Painesdale, Mich.; Frederic Stanwood, secretary and treas­
urer, Boston.
Directors.—The foregoing and J. H. Brooks; Charles J. Paine, jr., Boston; S. L.
Smith, Detroit; F. McM. Stanton, New York; J. R. Turner, Jersey City.
Co m p a n ie s

Controlled

by

Copper R a n g e

C o n s o l id a t e d

Co.

ATLANTIC MINING CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated July 18, 1872, in Michigan. Owns
extensive copper mining and milling property in Houghton County, Mich.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $2,500,000, of which f l ,180,000 hag been paid in; par,
$25; paid in, $11.80. Practically all owned by Copper Range Consolidated Co.
Receipts and expenditures, year ended December SI, 1912.—Rents, custom work, etc.,
at mine, $121,250; other income, $10,592; total, $131,842. Deduct: Operating expen­
ses, $81,362; taxes, insurance, etc., $9,374; total, $90,736. Surplus for year, |41,106;
surplus forward, $174,826; total surplus, $215,932.
General balance sheet, December 31, 1912.—-Indebtedness at mine, $325; accounts
payable, $163; surplus, $215,932; total, $216,420. Contra: Cash in Boston, $68,497;
Michigan Smelting Co. stock, $40,000; cash and supplies at mine, $106,384; mer­
chandise invoices at mine audited for payment, $838; copper delivered, not paid for,
$701; total, $216,420.
Officers.—W. A. Paine, president; Frederic Stanwood, secretary and treasurer,
Boston.
Directors.—The foregoing and F. P. Son, J. H. Blodgett, Boston; Samuel L. Smith,
Detroit; J. R. Stanton, J. W. Hardley, New York.
BALTIC MINING CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated in December, 1897, in Michigan.
Property, 800 acres in the Keweenaw copper belt, Houghton County, Mich. There
are live shafts, numbered from south to north. Three shafts are producing, these
being Nos. 2, 3, and 4 shafts, with a total depth of 2,257 feet, 2,526 feet, and 2,457



154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

feet, respectively, and bottom levels of the twenty second, twenty-sixth, and twentyfifth, respectively. No. 1 shaft was abandoned at a depth of 219 feet. Production
was begun in August, 1899. During 1912, 464 feet of shaft sinking, 10,547 feet of drift­
ing, 679 feet of crosscutting, and 1,772 feet of raising was accomplished. Equipment
consists of a compressor plant; boiler plant, with four 250-horsepower boilers; a 360foot coal trestle of 5,000 tons capacity; electric light plant, machine shop, etc., and
more than 100 dwellings; also a stamp mill at Bedridge, on Lake Superior, with a
capacity of 5,000 tons daily
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $2,500,000, of which $2,491,475 is owned by
the Copper Range Consolidated Co.; par, $25. Dividends in recent years have been
paid as follows: 1905. 69.4 per cent; 1906, 77.7 per cent; 1907, 55.5 per cent; 1908,
50 per cent; 1909 ana 1910, 55.5 per cent each; 1911, 20 per cent; 1912, 28 per cent.
Statement o f production, years ended Dec. SI.

Tons of rock hoisted.........................
Tons of rock stamped.......................
Copper produced, pounds...............
Pounds of copper per ton stamped

705,281
652,433
13,373,961
20.50

Receipts and disbursements, years ended Dcc. SI.
1911
Sales of copper, etc.................
Operating expenses and taxe,
Mining profit...........................
Surplus for year......................
Previous surplus....................
Dividends................................
balance surplus......................

927,030
396,821
530.215
530.215
278,497
500,000
308,712

1912
$2,165,350
1,467,957
697.393
697.393
308,713
700,000
306,106

General balance
-Copper Bange Consolidated Co., $174,638; indebtedness at
mine, $97,138; mine drafts in transit, $91,277; accounts payable, $7,527; surplus,
$306,106; total, $676,686. Contra: Cash in Boston, $4,455; copper on hand, $295,836;
United Metals Selling Co. copper delivered and not paid for, $166,636; Michigan
Smelting Co. stock, $80,000; cash and supplies at mine, $126,590; accounts receivable,
$2,980; insurance suspense, $187; total, $676,686.
Officers.—William A. Paine, president; Frederic Stanwood, secretary and treasurer,
Boston. Directors: William A. Paine, J. H. Brooks, R. T. McKeever, Thomas S. Dee,
Boston; S. L. Smith, Detroit.
CHAMPION COPPER CO.

Controlled by stock ownership jointly with St. Mary’s Mineral Land Co. Incor­
porated October 14,1899, in Michigan. Property. 1,240 acres near Copper Range and
Trimountain, Houghton, Mich. Total depth of shafts: Shaft “ B,” 2,356 feet; “ 0 ,”
2,334 feet; “ D,” 2,168 feet; “ E,” 2,388 feet. During 1912, 429 feet of shaft sinking,
9,343 feet of drifting, 1; 209 feet of cross cutting, and 1,740 feet of raising was accom­
plished. Equipment includes hoists of 3,000 feet capacity, electric plant, stamp
mill, mine buildings, water-supply system, and a village of 444 dwellings. The
stamp mill at Freda, on Lake Superior, has four simple heads and two compound
heads. Power for the mill is supplied by a 500-horsepower engine, with a 180-horse­
power engine in reserve. The boiler house has four 200-horsepower boilers. The
pump house has a 20,000,000 gallon pump; water taken from the lake through a 1,020foot tunnel.
Capital stock. —Authorized and issued, $2,500,000, of which one-half is owned by
Copper Range Co. and one-half by St. Mary’s Mineral Land Co.; par, $25. Dividends
have been paid as follows: 1903, 12 per cent; 1904, 8 per cent; 1905, 40 per cent; 1906,
48 per cent; 1907, 40 per cent; 1908, 20 per cent; 1999, 32 per cent; 1910, 36 per cent;
1911, 20 per cent; 1912, 44 per cent.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

155

Statement of production, years ended Dec. SI.
1911
Tons of rock hoisted...................................................................................
787,416
Tons of rock stamped................................................................................
734,392
Copper produced, pounds........... ........ .............................. .......... ... ...... ........................
15,639,426
Pounds of copper per ton stamped...............................................................
21.30

1912
804,944
765,306
17,225,508
22.51

Receipts and disbursements, years ended Dec. SI.
1911
Sales of copper, etc...................................................................... ............. $1,962,730
Operating A-vpAnsps and ta-rap
1,508,141
Mining profit............... . r., T , r, _______ ____________________ r. , . r_. rr,. _____
454.588
Surplus for year........................................................................................
454.588
Previous surplus....................................................................................................................
837,6C8
Dividends................................................................................................................................
500,000
792,256
Balance surplus......................................................................................................................

1912
$2,785,411
1,533,791
1.251.619
1.251.619
792,256
1,100,000
943,876

Assets and liabilities, Dec. SI.
1911

1912

ASSETS.

C a sh .......................................................................................................................................
Copper on hand......................................................................................................................
United Metals Selling Co., copper delivered, not paid for..........................................
Michigan Smelting Co., stock............................................................................................
Cash and supplies at mine...................................................................................................
Insurance suspense................................................................................................................

$155,210
406,713
145,671
110,000
26,798
149,632
854

$82/009
502,868
176,694
110,000
40,849
203,292
697

Total..............................................................................................................................

994,878

1,116,409

89,533
89,103

100,344
62,199

792.256

943.876

994,878

1,116, 409

LIABILITIES.

Indebtedness at mine...........................................................................................................
Mine draft in transit.............................................................................................................
Accounts payable..................................................................................................................
Total..............................................................................................................................

23,986

9,990

Officers.—William A. Paine, president; Charles J. Paine, jr., vice president; Frederic
Stanwood, secretary and treasurer, Boston. Directors: William A. Paine, George P.
Gardner, N. H. Stone, C. J. Paine, jr., Richard Oiney, Boston; S, L. Smith, Detroit;
F. W. Denton, Painesdale, Mich.
COPPER RAN GE CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated in 1889, in Michigan. Property
9,360 acres south of Baltic mine and miscellaneous land comprising 441 acres with 4
miles frontage on Lake Superior. Company owns 50.000 shares of Champion Copper
Co. stock and 26,051 shares of Copper Range Railroad Co. stock.
Capital stock .—Authorized ana issued, $2,500,000, of which the Copper Range
Consolidated Co. owns $2,492,475: par, $25. Dividends in 1905, $3 per share; 1906,
$6; 1907, $4.50; 1908, $3; 1909, $6; 1910, $4.50; 1911, $3; 1912, $4.50.
Receipts and expenditures, year ended December SI, 191?.—Balance from previous
year, $26,499; dividends received, $550,000; interest received, $3,415; other receipts,
$2,491; total, $582,405. Expendituies: Taxes, $3,649; general expenses at Houghton
and Boston, $1,556; timberlands, $11; dividends, $450,000; cash, $127,188; total,
$582,405.




156

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUKEAU OF J-ABOR STATISTICS.

General balance sheet, Die. SI.
1911

1912

ASSET.-?.

Lands on mineral range.......................................................................................................
Timberlands................................................................................................................
Stocks owned.........................................................................................................................
Cash.......................................................................................................................................

92,336
3,855,100
26,499

$1,287,658
92,348
3,855,100
127,188

5,261,593

5,302,294

Capital stock.........................................................................................................................
Accounts pavable..................................................................................................................
Profit and loss........................................................................................................................

2,300,000
7,751
2,953,842

2,300,000
9,661
3,052,633

Total.............................................................................................................................

5,261,593

5,362,294

Total...........................................................................................................................
LIABILITIES.

Officers.—William A. Paine, president; C. A. Snow, vice president; Frederic Stanwood , secretary and treasurer, Boston. Directors: The foregoing and II. T. McKeever,
Boston; F. W. Denton, Painesdale, Mich.
TRIMOUNTAIN MINING CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated 1899 in Michigan. Property, 1,120
acres lying south of Baltic and north of Champion in Houghton County, Mich. Total
depth of shafts: No. 2, 2,742 feet; No. 3, 2,267 feet; No. 4, 2,191 feet. During 1912
263 feet of shaft sinking, 7,746 feet of drifting, 401 feet of crosscutting, and 1,770 feet
of raising was accomplished. Equipment at each shaft includes a 2,500-horsepower
hoist, with capacity for raising 6-ton skips from 1-mile depth. Mine buildings include
machine shop, carpenter shop, smithy, and warehouse. There is a 35-drill air com­
pressor at No. 2 shaft, with a condensing plant in a separate building adjoining. The
power plant at No. 3 shaft includes a battery of water-tube boilers and a 4,500-foot air
compressor, running 65 drills, 10 pumps, and sundry pneumatic machinery. The
stamp mill occupies a 100-acre mill site at Beacon Hill, on Lake Superior, and has four
compound heads, a 300-liorsepower engine, and six 250-horsepower and two 200horsepower boilers. The mill pump house has a 20,000,000-gallon pump.
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued $2,500,000, of which $2,000,000 paid in; par,
$25, of which $20 is paid in. Copper Range Consolidated Co. owns 99,345 shares of the
stock. Company paid $300,000 in dividends in 1903, $500,000 in 1908, $150,000 in
1910, and $300,000 in 1912.
Statement o f production, years ended Dec. SI.

j p £ &
i
Pounds.
1904.................................................................................................................... 10,211,230
1905.................................................................................................................... 10,476,462
1906..................................................................................................................
9,507,933
1907.................................................................................................................... 8,190,711
1908..................................................................................................................
6,034.908
5,282; 404
1909...................................................................................................................
1910.................................................................................................................... 5,694,868
1911.................................................................................................................... 6,120,417
1912...................................................................................................................
6,980, 713




Price
received
per
pound.

Total
cost per
pound.

Cents.
Cents.
13.67
15.47 ........... io.*93
18.85
11.40
17.28
11.82
13.39
12.50
13.89
13.89
12.74
12.17
12.54
11.55
16.16
11.73

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

157

Receipts and disbursements, years ended Dec. 31.
1911
$768,595
708,224
60.370
60.370
432,551

Sales of copper, etc....................
Operating expenses and taxes.
Mining profit...............................
Surplus for year..........................
Previous surplus........................
Dividends....................................
Balance surplus..........................

522,922.

1912
$1,132,718
824,246
308.472
308.472
522,922
300,000
531,394

Assets and liabilities, December SI, 1912— Indebtedness at mine, $99,504; mine
drafts in transit, $40,681; accounts payable, $4,299; surplus, $531,394; total, $675,879.
Contra: Cash at Boston, $50,925; copper on hand, $215,555; United Metals Selling Co.
copper delivered, not paid for, $31,174; Michigan Smelting Co. stock, $110,000; cash
and supplies at mine, $211,871; accounts receivable, $55,954; insurance suspense,
$400; total, $675,879.
Officers.—William A. Paine, president; Frederic Stanwood, secretary and treasurer,
Boston. Directors: The foregoing and J. H. Brooks, Charles A. Snow, R. T. McKeever,
Boston; Fred. W. Denton, Painesdale, Mich.; J. R. Stanton, New York.
FRANKLIN M INING CO.

Incorporated April 3, 1857, in Michigan. Owns copper mining property at Han­
cock, Houghton County, Mich., on the same lodes as the Calumet & Hecla mines
and some of the oldest existing Lake Superior copper mines. Stamp mill located at
Portage Lake. Owns over 90 per cent of stock of Rhode Island Copper Co. See
appended statement.
Production and development, year 1912.—During the year 1,710,651 pounds of copper
were produced and sold at 16.79 cents per pound. There were 184,057 tons of rock
hoisted and 176,462 tons stamped. Development during the year totaled 5,134 feet.
Capital sfodb.—-Authorized, $5,000,000; par, $25; outstanding December 31, 1912/'
166,358 shares on which $14.20 per share had been paid in. Assessment of $2 per
share was paid October 18,1912. No dividends paid since January, 1894.
?
Treasurer's statement, December SI, 1912.—Cadi and accounts receivable, $138,340;
fuel and supplies at mine, $51,058; assessment, October 18, 1912, $332,716; interest,
$5,964; copper sold, $287,286; other receipts, $1,043; total, $816,407. Contra: Accounts
payable, $179,761; balance due from Stephen R. Dow & Co., $81,394; balance due
from Rhode Island Copper Co., $99,819; mine liabilities omitted in 1911, $661; mine
expenses, $365,026; smelter and general expenses, $47,907; total, $774,568. Surplus,
December 31,1912, $41,839.
Assets and liabilities, Dec. SI.
[Exclusive of mine and plant.]
Assets.

1911

1912

Cash and accounts receiv­
able.
Copper sold........................
Assessment No. 2 unpaid.
Fuel.....................................
Supplies..............................

$133,168

$63,142

5,173
*25*363
25,695

62,106
42,560
26,115
41,022

Total.........................

189,399

234,945

Liabilities.

1911

1912

Drafts outstanding
Notes payable....... .
Accounts payable..

137,169

88,000

53,793

$20,560
105,560
67,546

Total.............
Balance of assets...

179,762
9,637

193,106
41,839

s.—R. M. Edwards, president and general manager, Houghton, Mich.; A. L.
Wyman, secretary, Henry Tolinan, treasurer, Boston. Directors: R. M. Edwards,
Houghton, Mich.; I. J. Sturgis, Boston; H. M. Howard, Brookline, Mass.; Henry
Tolman, Newton, Mass.; C. G. Rice, S. J. Jennings.




158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
HANCOCK CONSOLIDATED M ININ G CO.

Incorporated June 11, 1906, in Michigan. Property comprises 992 acres, including
the old Hancock mine, the Condon tract, and land secured from St. Marys Mineral
Land Co. The Hancock mine, between 1861 and 1885, had produced 2,854 tons of
fine copper.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $5,000,000, of which $2,800,000 in treasury; par, $25,
only part paid in.
Receipts and disbursements, year ended December 31, 1912.—Receipts from assessments,
$182,977; loan, $50,000; total, $232,977. Disbursements: Construction and develop­
ment, $217,765; taxes, $31,658; interest, $2,237; general expenses, $15,883; total,
$267,543. Excess of disbursements, $34,566.
General balance sheet, December 31.
1912

Liabilities.

1911

Treasury stock.................... $3,000,000
594,698
Real estate............................
Expense................................
264,685
Construction and develop­
1,264,215
ment...................................
41,559
Cash.......................................
24,211
Supplies................................
6,260
Assessments.........................
1,922
Accounts receivable...........

$2,800,000
594,698
312,226

Capital stock........................
Interest.................................
Accounts and notes pay­
able.....................................
Refined copper....................

$5,000,000
14,314
88,549
94,687

134,515
94,637

5,197,551

5,241,279

Total...........................

5,197,551

5,241,279

Assets.

Total...........................

1911

1,481,980
6,577
19,666
23,283
2,849

:

1

1912
$5,000,000
12,077

Officers: J. D. Cuddihy, president; Thomas Hoatson, vice president; J. H. Hicok,
secretary and treasurer; John L. Harris, general manager. Directors: J. D. Cuddihy,
Thomas Hoatson, James Hoatson, S. B. Harris, Allen F. Rees, Frederic W. Nichols.
HOUGHTON COPPER CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated in 1909, in Michigan. Property com­
prises 160 acres, located in the Houghton district, Mich., on the Superior lode.
Development work is being prosecuted by shaft sinking and drifting. Total
development to January 1, 1913, about 2,946 feet.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $2,500,000; par, $25; issued, 67,000 shares, on which
$6 per share paid up. The St. Marys Mineral Land Co. owns 37,222 shares of the
stock.
Income account, year ended December 31,1912.—Receipts: Assessment No. 1, $63,255;
miscellaneous, $2i9; total, $63,474. Expenditures: Mine expenses, $42,164; taxes,
$2,732; interest and insurance, $998; Boston office expenses, $3,507; total, $49,400.
Surplus, $14,074.
Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912.—Assets: Cash, $1,700; supplies, $4,630;
^
accounts receivable, $57; total, $6,387. Liabilities: Accounts payable at Boston,
$4,000; accounts payable at mine, $5,741; total, $9,741. Excess of liabilities, $3,353.
Officers: Charles J. Paine, jr., president; George P. Gardner, vice president; A. E.
Coe, secretary and treasurer, Boston; L. L. Hubbard, general manager, Houghton,
Mich. Directors: George P. Gardner, Charles J. Paine, jr., N. H. Stone, Boston;
James P. Edwards, F. W. Nichols, Houghton, Mich.
LAK E COPPER CO.

Incorporated November 28, 1905, in Michigan. Property consists of 2,010 acres,
adjoining the Adventure, in Ontonagon County, Mich., including 1,150 acres of
mineral land, 680 acres of timber lands, and 180 acres of cutover lands. Company
purchased 20 acres immediately east of the shaft from the St. Mary’s Mineral Land Co.,
to provide room for a surface plant, the purchase carrying with it mineral rights to a
depth of 100 feet. The bulk of the mineral property formerly was a part of the Belt
mine, first opened in 1848, and taken over in 1882 by the Belt Mines Co. (Ltd.).
During fiscal year 1911-12, 12,653 feet oi development work was done, compared
with 9,831 feet in previous year. Production was started in April, 1912, with monthly
average of about 115,000 pounds copper. Mill recovery shows about 26 pounds of
mineral per ton.




MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKB.

159

Capital stock.—Authorized and outstanding, 100,000 shares ($2,500,000); par, $25,
of which $3 per share ($300,000) paid in.
jReceipts and disbursements, year ended April SO, 1912.—Receipts: Cash on hand
May 1, 1911, $326,952; sale of copper, $39,338; miscellaneous receipts, $6,070; interest
on bank deposits, $9,151; total receipts, $381,511. Expenditures: Expenditures at
mine, $311,076; all other expenses, $10,972; total expenditures, $322,048. Cash on
hand April 30, 1912, $59,463.
Assets and liabilities, April SO, 1912.—Assets: Cash in bank, $59,463; supplies at
mine, $17,959; copper on hand, $30,380; total, $107,802. Liabilities: Accounts pay­
able (current indebtedness at mine), $20,289. Balance of assets, $87,513.
Officers.—W. A. Paine, president, Boston, Mass.; John H. Rice, vice president,
Houghton, Mich.; R. H. Gross, secretary and treasurer, Boston, Mass.; C. K. Hitch­
cock, jr., manager, Lake Mine, Mich. Directors: John H. Rice, R. C. Pryor, Hough­
ton, Mich.; W. A. Paine, R. II. Gross, G. L. Stone, W. F. Fitzgerald, R, T. McKeever,
Boston, Mass.
MASS CONSOLIDATED MINING CO.

Incorporated in 1899, in Michigan, to operate copper properties of about 3,000
acres in mass, Ontonagon County, Mich. The mine is stated to be notably rich in
mass copper and its physical equipment is adequate. There are three shafts with
respective depths of 1,757 feet, 1,857 feet, and 1,100 feet. The power plant between
A and B shafts has a double hoist, a 50-drill air compressor, a dynamo for electric
light, and two 250-horsepower boilers.
The stamp mill, situated on Keweenaw Bay, on an arm of Lake Superiort 34 miles
northeast of the mine, is equipped with two heads of about 1,200 tons capacity. The
boiler house has two 200-horsepower and one 350-horsepower boilers. The pump
house has a 16,000,000-gallon pump, fed from a 12-foot by 30-foot well, connected
with a tunnel running 300 feet under the bed of the bay to the intake.
In 1911 the company completed the purchase of the Evergreen Bluff Mining Co. ’s
lands, comprising about 2,000 acres, ana which had divided the southern half of the
Mass property.
A special meeting of the stockholders was held in 1912, and it was voted to sell a
portion of the company’s lands to a new company, the stock of which was to be offered
to stockholders of the Mass company, but condition of the stock market has oeen such
that no attempt has been made so far to carry out the plan.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $2,500,000; paid in, $2,300,000; par, $25. No bonds.
No dividends.
Production, years ended Dec. 31.
Refined
copper.

Tear.

Average
price re­
ceived.

Pounds
copper par
ton of rock.

Number
feet new
openings.

Pounds.
Cents.
19.52
2,106,739
11.34
1906.............................................................................................
2,078,677
18.26
10.16
1907.............................................................................................
1,766,930
13.50
10.32
1908..............................................................................................
13.613
1909.............................................................................................. 1,723,436
12.36
12.503
14.59
1910.............................................................................................. 1,321,885
1,326,898
12.76
1911....................................................... .....................................
17.58
2,045,006
17.02
1912.............................................................................................
15.39

9,834
3,354
1,085
2,464
4,335
7,166
4,892

Income account, years ended Dec. SI.

Year.

1906......................................................................
1907......................................................................
1908. ..................................................................
1909........ .............................................................
1910.......................................................................
1911.......................................................................
1912.......................................................................




Total re­
ceipts.

$416,631
388,171
240,520
243.749
365.749
494,834
349,355

Construc­
tion, ex­
Expenses
and taxes. ploring and
real estate.
1477,941
433,280
261,433
271,361
186,289
211,002
187,798

$42,387
14,265
25,978
17,393
49,390
253,122
182,919

Total ex­
pended.

Deficit for
year.

$520,328
$103,697
447,545
59,374
287,411
46,89.1
288,754
45,005
235,697 sur. 130,070
464,124 sur. 30,710
21,362
370,717 |
i

160

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Aa-sels and liabilities, Dec. St.
1912

Assets.
Cash on hand...........
Accounts receivable
Assessments.............
Supplies at mine___
Supplies at mill.......
Coppev on hand___

$13,736
15,299
16,688
17,649
18,681
20,303

$17,429
18,239
" *27,820
17,383
61,160

Liabilities.

1911

Notes payable..........................
Accounts payable....................
Pay roll.....................................
Evergreen Trust......................
Compensation fund.................
Amount due certificate hold­
ers from sale of unpaid as­
sets..........................................

$30,400
30.139
10,8S8

1912
$65,400
47,026
16,758
1,634
1,371

Total.

102,356

142,031

219

495

Total...........
Surplus of assets.

71,640
30,710

132,684
9,347

Total.

102,356

142,031

Officers: J. W. Linnell, jr., president; T. O. Nicholson, vice president; W. A.
Bancroft, secretary and treasurer. ^Directors: The foregoing ana D. A. Carrick,
James B. Hill, William F. Fitzgerald, F. J. Schultheis, F. L. Maguire, and E. W.
Walker.
M O H AW K M INING CO.

Incorporated in November, 1898, in Michigan. Company owns a tract of 800 acres
in sections 27, 28, 33, 34, township 57 north, range 32 west, in Keweenaw County, 4
miles northeast of the property of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. Company has a
mill site of 140 acres, with a frontage of three-fourths of a mile on Traverse Bay, Lake
Superior, about one-fourth of a mile from mouth of the Tobacco River. The mineral
lands aggregate 800 acres, forming an irregular tract with its axis on the strike of the
lode. Development is by five shafts and underground openings. The Mohawk mill
at Gay has four stamps, each head with a daily capacity of 500 tons, working on the
rock of the Kearsarge lode. The equipment includes the most modem machinery,
also a town named in honor of Joseph E. Gay, with dwellings for employees, streets,
water mains, hydrants, etc. An 1,800-foot spur to a connection with the Traverse Bay
Railroad was constructed in 1909, also a dam to furnish sufficient water for the needs
of the plant. Development work in 1905 showed total openings of 10,812 feet; 1906,
13,314 feet; 1907, 11,043 feet; 1908, 12,669 feet; 1909, 13,691 feet; 1910, 14,978 feet;
1911,15,459 feet; 1912 (634 feet shaft sinking and 14,768 feet drifting and crosscutting),
15,402 feet.
Capital stock, $2,500,000; par, $25.—Dividends have been paid as follows: 1906, $5
per share; 1907, $9; 1908, $2.50; 1909, $3; 1910, $2; 1911, $1.75; 1912, $3.50; Feb­
ruary 1, 1913, $3; payments, semiannually, F & A 1,
Operating statistics, years ended Dec. 31.

Year.

1906....................................................................................................................
............................................................................
1907..................................... .•
1908....................................................................................................................
1909.................................................. .'...............................................................
1910...................................................................................................................
1911....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................




Refined
copper.

Pounds.
9,352,252
10,107,266
10,295,881
11,248,474
11,412,066
12,091,056
11,995,598 ;
i

Total cost,
including
construc­
tion, per
pound.
Cents.
11.54
11.747
10.755
11.207
10.965
10.399
10.61

Price re­
ceived per
pound.

Cents.
19.60
15.66
13.43
13.20
11.44
12.63
16.08

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

161

Income account, years ended Dec. SI.
Gross
receipts.

Year.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

Expenses.

$1,585,787
1,384,165
1,484,292
1,493,816
1,527,108
1,929,428

$1,084,029
1,085,590
1,248,048
1,251,365
1,226,322
1,264,177

Mining
profit.

$501,758
298,575
236,244
242,451
300,786
665,251

Construc­
tion
charges.
$103,353
21,796
12,553
54,368
31,280
8,815

Net
profit.

Divi­
dends.

$398,405
276,779
223,691
188,083
269,506
656,436

$900,000
250.000
300.000
200.000
175.000
350.000

Surplus
for year.

$557,822
584,600
508,291
496,374
590,881
897,316

Assets and liabilities, Dec. SI.
Assets.

1912

1911

$14,676
275,000
599,947
108,237
80,000

Cash in bank.............................. $16,099
Cash in trust company............. 150,000
Copper on hand, sold............... 432,535
85,250
Cash and supplies at mine___
Stock in Michigan Smelting Co. 80,000

Liabilities.

1911

1912

763,885

$158,449
14,555

Total............................

173,004

180,544

Excess of assets over liabilities. 590,881
Total.................................

Indebtedness at mine.........
Accounts payable................

897,316

$161,403
19,141

1,077,860

Officers: Joseph E. Gay, president; J. R. Stanton, treasurer; J. W. Hardley, secre­
tary, New York. Directors: The foregoing and W. A. Paine, Boston, Mass.; Fred
Smith, Kearsarge, Mich.
QUINCY MINING CO.

Incorporated originally by special charter of the State of Michigan March 30, 1848.
Charter expired March 6,1878, when the company was reorganized under the existing
mining law of Michigan. Its business is that ofcopper mining and smelting, and it owns
and works one of the richest copper-mine properties in the Portage Lake district,
Houghton County, upper Michigan. Purchased the mine and mill location of the
Franklin Mine Co., adjoining the company’s property, in 1908.
In 1910 the company purchased 800 acres of mineral land from the St. Mary’s Canal
Mineral Land Co., immediately adjoining the company’s present territory and carry­
ing the extensions of the Pewabic vein. The cost of the property was $600,000.
The stamp mills, two in number, are at Mason, on Torch Lake, 6 miles from the
mine, and have a combined stamping capacity of about 5,000 tons aaily. The power
house at the mills is equipped with four 250-horsepower water-tube boilers. The
pumps include one 20,000,000-gallon pump, and three pumps with a combined capacity
of 21,000,000 gallons daily. Water is taken from a 100-foot tunnel driven under the
bed of the lake. A 440-foot tunnel, carrying steam and water pipes, connects the mills,
boiler houses, and pump houses. The smelter is situated one-half mile from the mine,
on the shore of Portage Lake. The works, in addition to treating the Quincy produce,
do a custom business.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $3,750,000; outstanding, $2,750,000; par, $25. Divi­
dends have been paid in recent years as follows: 1900, 36 per cent; 1901, 36 per cent;
1902, 28 per cent; 1903, 22 per cent; 1904, 20 per cent; 1905, 24 per cent; 1906, 50 per
cent; 1907, 54 per cent; 1908, 18 per cent; 1909, 16 per cent; 1910, 20 per cent; 1911,
16 per cent; 1912, 20 per cent; March, 1913, 6 per cent; June, 1913, 5 per cent; pay­
ments quarterly. Total dividends paid to January 1, 1913, $20,430,000.
Production years ended Dec. SI.
Year.

Refined
copper.

Year.

1904................................................................
1905................................................................
1906..............................................................
1907..............................................................
1908................................................................

Pounds.
18,343,160
18,827,557
16,194,838
19,796,058
20,600,361

1909...............................................................
1910..............................................................
1911...............................................................
1912..............................................................

29848°—Bull. 139—14------11



Refined
copper.
Pounds.
22,511,984
22,517,014
22,252,943
20,634,800

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

Income account, years ended Dec. 31.

Year.

Gross in­
come.

Operating
expenses,
etc.

Net profit.

1905........
1900........
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2

$2,981,121
3,099,011
3,717.501
2,796,230
3,034,810
2,974,08a
2,854,804
3,381,587

$1,905,523
1,963,437
2,442,359
2,358,464
2.478,716
2,360,125
2,365.067
2,430,052

SI,075,198
1,135,574
1,275,152
437,706
556,094
613,981
489.737
945.535

Other in­
come.

$29,285
27,411
21,520
16.394
12,756
28,732

17, mo

15,245

Previous
surplus.

Total sur-

$946,841

$2,051,325
1,250,000
2,517,204
1,486,364
1,560,214
1.762,908
1,570,504
1,933,278

1,220,532
1,032,204
991,384
1,120,215
1,062,907
972,499

Dividends. Balance.

$600,000 $1,451,325
1.250,000
1,032,204
'991,364
1,120,214
11,0C2,908
i 972,499
U , 233,278

1 ,’ 485,’666'
495.000
440.000
550.000
440.000
550.000

i After deducting $150,000 in 1910, $138,005 in 1911, and $150,000 in 1912, on account of land purchased from
St. Mary’s Canal Mineral Land Co.

Assets and liabilities, December 31, 1912, exclusive of real estate, mine plant, and sup­
plies in use.—Cash, copper, and investments, $980,6l3; accounts receivable, $212,030;
total, $1,192,643. Contra: Mine drafts unpaid, $3,893; accounts payable in New
York, $17,325; accounts payable at mine, $236,461; accounts pavabie at smelting
works, $9,318; total, $266,997; leaving $925,646; add supplies, etc., and accounts
receivable at mine, $281,083; supplies, etc., and accounts receivable at smelting
works, $26,549; balance of assets, $1,233,278.
Officers.—William R. Todd, president; W. Parsons Todd, vice president; W. A. O.
Paul, secretary and treasurer. Directors: W. Parsons Todd, W. R. Todd, Walter P.
Bliss, Isaac H. Meserve, Charles J. Devereaux, Otto Kirchner (of Michigan), Jas. L.
Bishop, W. M. Belcher, John M. Longyear.
W IN O N A COPPER CO.

Incorporated November 3, 1898, in Michigan; owns an extensive mineral prop­
erty of about 1,500 acres in Houghton County, Mich.; also timber rights to 1,768
acres, situated about 5 miles from the mine; also owns the entire capital stock of the
King Philip Copper Co. The mine has two working shafts. Company 3ias electric
pumps and runs about 10 drills, and also has a 2~Iiead stamp mill. Development,
year ended December 31, 1912, shows drifting, 3,060 feet; crosscuts, 114 feet.
Production, year ended December 31, i912.—
-Rock stamped, 181,148 tons; product of
mineral, 3,586,520 pounds; product of refined copper, 2,307,237 pounds; yield of
mineral per ton of rock stamped, 19.79 pounds; yield of copper per ton of rock
stamped, 12.7367 pounds; price received per pound for copper, 16.306 cents.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $5,000,000; 166,667 shares issued; par, $25, of which
paid up, $23 per share. Of the stock, 66,666 shares were issued in exchange for King
Philip Copper Co. stock on the basis of two Winona shares for three of King Philip.
No dividends.
Income account, years ended Dec. 31.
|
Year.

1906..................................................
1907..................................................
1908..................................................
1909..................................................
1910..................................................
1911..................................................
1912..................................................
1Advanced to stamp mill.




!

Sales of
copper.

Other
income.

Total
income.

$63,326
219,332
1,456

$1,175
3; 086
14,979
265,774
203,157
3 315,906
18,094

$64,501
222,418
16,435
265,774
203,157
475,796
394,314

159,890
376,220

2Surplus.

Smelting General
Mine
and mar­ expenses Deficit
expenses. keting.
and
for year.
taxes.
$276,140
383,375
196.982
100; 308
98,379
278,547
429,540

$3,350
15,419
1,038
1 56,500
1138,000
38,638
24.422

2 Includes $185,421 from

$13,501
13,824
13.106
14; 041
17,598
11, 797
25,132

$228,490
190,200
196,147
294,925
50.820
*146,814
84,780

163

MICHIGAN COPPER DISTRICT STRIKE.

Assets and liabilities, Dec. 81.
1911

1912

ASSETS.

Cash in bank...............................................................................................................................................
Accounts receivable.................................................................................................................................
Supplies and cash at m ine....................................................................................................................
Copper on hand.........................................................................................................................................
Total..................................................................................................................................................

$45,186
3,275
81,125
65,289

127,881
4,224
81,856
63,718

194,875 |

177,679

LIABILITIES.

Accounts payable.....................................................................................................................................
48,061 | 115,645
Excess of assets....................................................................................................................................
146,814 j
62,034
Total..................................................................................................................................................

194,875 j
i

177,679

Officers.—Charles J. Paine, jr., president; Nathaniel H. Stone, vice president,
E. 33. O’Connor, secretary and treasurer, Boston. Directors: William A. Paine;
James H. Seager, Charles J. Paine, George P. Gardner, Walter Hunnewell, Nathaniel
H. Stone, Charles J. Paine, jr.
KING PHILIP COPPER CO.

Controlled by stock ownership. Incorporated November 13, 1905, in Michigan.
Property, 1,040 acres, in Houghton and Ontonagon Counties, Mich. The mine
is opened by two shafts on the Winona lode, which averages about 20 feet in width.
The shafts are equipped with 1,200-foot hoists.# Power house contains a battery of
two 200 horsepower boilers, 6 drill and 15 drill air compressors, and a powerful 3-stage
air compressor. Company recently erected a stamp mill in conjunction with the
Winona Copper Co.
Capital stock.—Authorized and issued, $2,500,000; par, $25, of which $13 has been
paid in. All owned by Winona Copper Co.
Officers.—Charles J. Paine, jr., president; George P. Gardner, vice president;
Edward B. O’Connor, secretary ana treasurer. Directors: E. V. R. Thayer, George
P. Gardner, Walter Hunnewell, Rufus R. Goodell, Nathaniel H. Stone, Charles J.
Paine, jr.
W O LVERINE COPPER MINING CO.

Incorporated in 1890, in Michigan. Property consists of 320 acres, of which 280
acres are freehold and 40 acres adjoining mineral rights, in Houghton County, Mich.,
the property carrying 3,100 feet of the strike of the Kearsarge amygdaloidal bed, on
which the mine is opened. The Kearsarge bed averages about 17 feet in width on
the Wolverine property.
Ore is blocked out for about six years’ production, and an estimate of 20 to 25 years’
life is given the mine. About 20 power drills are employed in stoping and 10 in
opening work. There are 5 Knowles electric pumps in use, and tramcars are used for
underground rock handling.
The principal mine buildings are at No. 4 shaft, where there are 20-drill and 22-drill
air compressors. The company owns a large number of dwellings.
The mill, completed in 1902, is situtated 13 miles from the mine, near the mouth of
Tobacco River, on Traverse Bay, Lake Superior, adjoining the Mohawk, both mills
being served by a single pump, and managed by a joint superintendent. Capacity
(two heads) is about 1,100 tons per day. A complete machine shop, and a boiler
nouse containing a battery of 200 horsepower water-tube boilers have been built.
The pump house, which is owned and operated jointly by the Wolverine and Mohawk,
has a 20,000,000 gallon Snow pump, and also an 8,000,000 gallon Nordberg pump,
which is used as an auxiliary. Rock is transported to the mill by the Mohawk &
Traverse Bay Railroad.
Capital stock.—Authorized, $1,500,000; par, $25, on which $13 per share has been
paid. Dividends have been paia A and O 1, as follows: 1898, $1; 1899, $3.50; 1900,
1901, and 1902, $4 each; 1903, $5.50; 1904, $7.50; 1905, $11; 1906, $17; 1907, $17.50
1908, 1909, and 1910, $10 each; 1911, $9; 1912, $10; April, 1913, $5.




164

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Development work, etc., years ended June SO.
Sinking
shafts.

1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.

Drifting
and cross­
cutting.

Total
openings.

Fed.
358
450
414
321
191
430
541

Y ear.

Feet.
4,419
4,993
4,841
4,631
4,948
4,718
4,293

Feet.
4,778
5,443
5,255
4,951
5,139
5,154
4,834

Stoping.

Fathoms.
23,252
23,175
23,817
23,869
25,440
26,061
25,845

Operations, years ended June SO.

Production
of refined
copper.

x ear.

Yield of
copper
per ton
of rock.

Cost per ton of rock.
Hoist.

Stamp.

Pounds.
Pounds.
28.32
$1.49
1906..................................................................................................... 9,681,706
9,372,982
27.24
1.58
1907.....................................................................................................
26.82
1.62
1908..................................................................................................... 9,356,123
9,995,748
26.75
1.52
1909.....................................................................................................
1910..................................................................................................... 9,757,101
24.96
1.55
1911..................................................................................................... 9,617,168
24.75
1.59
1912..................................................................................................... 9,408,960
23.45
1.53

$1.54
1.65
1.71
1.60
1.61
1.64
1.58

Income account, years ended June SO.
1900-7

1907-8

1908-9

1909-10

1910-11

Proceeds of copper.
Interest.....................

$2,002,379
15,198

$1,231,223
13,221

$1,334,056
8,326

$1,291,528
2,671

$1,209,747
1,271

$1,327,031

Total receipts

2,017,577

1,244,444

1,342,382

1,294,199

1,211,018

1,327,031

692,337
44,904
600,000

720,394
2,939
600,000

723,123
2,191
600,000

540,000

Expenses..................
Construction............
Dividends................

669,037
685,042
42,137
1,140,000 ‘ ” ’ 750*666’

1911-12

713,850

Balance..........
Previous surplus.. .

1 166,403
989,186

2 190,598
1,002,227

i 5,141
811,629

« 29,134
816,769

2 114,296
787,635

173,181
673,339

Total surplus.

1,155,589

811,629

816,770

787,635

673,339

746,520

1Surplus.

2 Deficit.

Assets and liabilities, June SO, 1912.—Assets: Cash in bank, $10,207; deposit in trust
company, $250,000; copper bills and copper on hand, $451,121; cash and supplies at
mine, $44,358; stock in Michigan Smelting Co., $80,000; accounts receivable, $4,642;
total, $840,328. Liabilities: Indebtedness at mine, $67,632; accounts payable, $26,176;
total, $93,808. Excess of assets, $746,520.
Officers and directors.—Joseph E. Gay, president; J. It. Stanton, treasurer; J. W.
Hardley, secretary; E. B. Hinsdale, Samuel L. Smith.




APPENDIX III.
Ca p it a l P a id i n , D iv id e n d s , a n d C o s t o f P r o d u c t io n o f L a k e S u p e r io r M i n e s .

IFrom Report of Strike Investigation by the Committee of the Copper Country Commercial Club of
Michigan, 1913.]
COST OF PRODUCTION.

The following tables (as far as the committee has been able to complete them)
show in detail the average copper contents per ton of rock, of the rock mined by the
various companies during the year 1912, the number of pounds of refined copper
produced in 1912, the amount of money paid out in wages to employees, ana the
average cost per pound of copper produced:

Company.

Mohawk Mining Co........................
Ahmeek Mining Co.........................
A llouez Mining Co............................
Osceola Consolidated Mining Co..
Osceola mine.............................
North Kearsarge mine............
South Kearsarge mine............
Stamp mill.................................
Wolverine Copper Mining Co........
Centennial Copper Mining C o ,
Calumet & Hecla Mining Co..........
Tamarack Mining Co......................
La Salle Copper Co.........................
Laurium Mining Co........................
Franklin Mining Co........................
Oneco Copper Mining Co...............
Hancock Consolidated Mining Co.
Quincy Mining Co...........................
Isle Royale Copper Co....................
Superior Copper Co.........................
Copper Range Consolidated Co___
Baltic Mining Co......................
Trimountain Mining Co..........
Champion Copper Co..............
Winona Copper Co..........................

Average
copper con­ Pounds of re­
tents per fined copper
produced.
ton of rock
mined.
Pounds.
13.81
25.229
16.56

Amount paid
in wages.

11,995,598
16,455,769
5,525,455

$765,820.
543,817.
163,615.

18.2

1,479,642
8,611,720
8,322,025

21.86
16.36
24.18
18.76

9,120,485
1,742,338
67,856,429
7,908,745

9.8

1,710,651

15.73
15.43
22.76

20,634,800
8,186,957
3,921,974
13,373,961
6,980,713
17,225,508
2,307,237

297,371.03

213,360,007

Cents.
10.61
7.85
13.52
10.36

135,097.
468,226.
255,585.
142,659.
378,875.
60,591.
3,983,013.
633,842.
3,614.
27,183.
219,724.
21,501.
141,123.
1,436,781.
555,205.
164,220.
2,208,537.

20.50
19.04
22.50
12.73

Cost of
production
per pound
of copper.

12,606,409.34

12.8
12.8

Total............................................................................................

8.665
13.46
13.15

L

.48
11.89
12.75

3No copper production during 191.; explcratory and development work only.

The average price of copper per pound, over a period of 20 years, from 1891 to 1910,
as given by Stevens’s Copper Handbook, is 13.768 cents per pound.
DIVIDENDS AND ASSESSM ENTS OF LAK E SUPERIOR M INES.

Of the above mining companies in the district seven paid dividends duiing the
year 1912, namely: Mohawk Mining Co., Ahmeek Mining Co., Wolverine Copper Min­
ing Co., Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Quincy
Mining Co., and Copper Range Consolidated Mining Co. The Isle Royale Copper
Co. in 1913 paid one dividend of $1 per share, being the first dividend since its
operation, which commenced previous to 1860.
In view of the claim that has been made that the Lake Superior copper district
is the richest in the world, the following table, taken from Stevens’s Copper Hand­
book, will be of interest. The table lists something over 70 mining companies that
have operated in the Lake Superior copper district from 1849 to 1910. Of the entire




1C5

166

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

list only 14 mines have paid back the money invested. If the Calumet & Hecla
Mining Co. is taken from the list, the table will show that in all those yeais the copper
ndustry has just about paid back the money invested in it:
Company.

Adventure Consolidated.
Albany & Boston.
Allouez.....................

Atlantic..................
Arcadian................
Arnold.....................
Ashbed...................
Azteo.........................

Baltic.......................
Belt.........................
Boliemian..............
Calumet & H ecla..
Centennial (O ld)..
Centennial (New).

1849-1910

ments.

$2, 450,000
850.000
840.000

2. 225.000
1. 180.000
1, 800,000
810.000
40.000
150.000
1, 800,000
1. 300.000
' 180,000
140.000

i, 200; 000

§990,000

100.000

111,000

2. 300.000
Elm River.
Evergreen Bluff.
Flint Steel...........
Forrest................ .

2,0 0,0 0
0 0
1
.200.000

112,500,000

111,300,000
1.135.000
1.755.000
2.030.000
4.100.000
2,407,620

2,130,000
8,600', 000
2,518,620
‘

166* 666 ”

10,756,526

225.000
264.000
180.000

1, 020,000

$4,750,000
1,300,000
180,000
140,000

1. 300.000
1, 000,000

1,300,000
900,000

Keweenaw...............
King Philip.............
La Salle .*.’ .*..*.*
Mass Consolidated.
Mayflower.
Michigan..
Minnesota.........
Mohawk............
National............
New Arcadian.
Nonesuch..........
N
<
N
<
Ohio Trap Rock.
Ojibway................
Old Colony..........
Osceola..................
Pennsylvania___
Peninsula.............
Pewabie.
Phoenix (O ld)..............
Phoenix Consolidated.

225.000
264.000
180.000

220,000

1,240,000
1,800,000

120,000

120,000

240' 000
,

K f c :::::

Tamarack Junior.
Tecumseh..............
Trimountain. . . . . .
Toltec.....................
Victoria..................

240.000

200.000

200,000

2. 750.000
180,000
2. 800.000
800,000
300.000

2.750.000
160,000

1,00 0
0,0 0
2,100,000
800.000
2,0 0,0 0
0 0
2,0 0,0 0
0 0

800.000

2, 000,000

2, 000,000
450.000
1, 800,000
350.000
75.000
400.000
283.000
230.000
150.000
1, 008,000

,

1,820,000
2,150,000
320,000

1 100,000

1. 700.000
126.000
400.000
585,200
1, 037,500
1. 350.000
470.000

1, 000,000

.
10,000,000

1, 000,000

Total.

1.350.000

* i6,’ 302,’ 506'
666'
100,000 ” *’376*
9,420,000

" ‘soo'ooo‘




1, 000,000
100.000

’ ***640,*
666'
500.000

19,102,500

**

8 * 640*666

1.200 0
.0 0

500.000
1, 200,000

2,200,000
6,300,000

1, 000,000

79,565,700

*'*414,*800

20,000

1 200.000

780.000

7,043,250

i2e’666'
400.000

2, 200,000

Wolverine.
Wyandot........
Miscellaneous.

1,364,000
350,000

30.000
75.000
400.000
283.000
230.000
150.000
1,008,000

1,100,000
9,343,250

100.000

780.000
640.000
500.000
2, 000,000
500.000

20,000

2.800.000
800,000
300.000

1,00
0,000
2,100,000

200.000
VAge_______
Rhode Island.

8,456,526

2,0 0,0 0
0 0
1,200,000

1, 800,000
lumbolt.
luron.
Indiana (Old).
Isle Royale.

Creditbai-

$2,450,000
850.000
840.000
2.225.000
190',000
1.800.000
810.000
40,000
150,000

6,550,000

1. 135.000
1, 755' 000
,

2. 500.000

Debit bal-

dividends.

“ i * 660'
666*

5,520,000

10, 000,000
194,120,896

61,843,500

176,298,696

REPORT OF JOHN B. DENSMORE, SOLICITOR OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, DETAILED AS
COMMISSIONER OF CONCILIATION, ON HIS
EFFORTS TO SECURE A SETTLEMENT OF THE
STRIKE.
D epartm ent
O f f ic e o f

of
the

L abor,
S o l ic it o r ,

Washingtonj January 9, 1914•
The S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r :
Pursuant to directions contained in your letter of December 26,
1913, I proceeded on that day to Calumet, Mich., for the purpose of
attempting to settle the industrial dispute between the copper-mine
operators and their men. For the purpose of ascertaining how diffi­
cult or easy might be the task of negotiating a settlement, I made an
effort to obtain accurate information as to the number of men still on
strike. From information given me by both operators and miners I
concluded there were between six and seven thousand of the old em­
ployees still idle.
Approximately 15,000 men were employed just prior to the strike.
On January 1, 1914, a statement from the operators shows 8,000
former employees at work; the statement from the strikers' officials
shows benefits on that date being paid to 7,500 members of the union
who are idle.
My negotiations with the striking miners were conducted through
Judge II. U. Hilton, general counsel of the Western Federation of
Miners, and Claude Taylor, president of the Michigan Federation of
Labor. These gentlemen were in immediate charge of the strike dur­
ing the absence of President Charles H„ Moyer.
The original demands of the union were as follows:
1. A demand for the recognition of the Western Federation of
Miners.
2. A demand for either the abolishment of the one-man drill or the
working of two men on each drill.
3. A demand for a minimum wage of $3 for trammers and $3.50 for
miners.
4. A demand for an eight-hour working day0
g r ie v a n c e s .

1. The claim that men are not treated with justice and decency by
the petty bosses employed in the mines.
2. That the men have no adequate way of presenting grievances to
the various mining managers without incurring the displeasure of the
minor bosses, and undergoing discrimination and possible discharge
for making complaints.




167

168

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

From Judge Hilton and President Taylor, representing the strikers,
I obtained authority to make a settlement on the following basis:
1. That the miners be given an opportunity to present grievances
through a committee.
2. That the wages and hours—$3 minimum and 8f hours, pro­
posed by the operators in notice posted by them on December 1,
1913, as a modification of the original demands, go into effect at once.
3. That the miners be taken back to work without discrimination
on account of their membership in any union.
4. That there be no discrimination on account of membership in
any union after they had returned to work.
The proposal did not require nor demand recognition of any union
or organization, nor the signing of any agreement or contract by the
operators with the Western Federation of Miners, nor its officials,
national or local, nor with any individual employee, or at all.
For the purpose of bringing all the influence possible to bear upon
the operators in urging this plan of settlement, I requested a con­
ference with a committee of citizens representing all the public in the
strike zone. This committee, composed of business men, bankers,
and professional men from Houghton, Hancock, and Calumet, repre­
senting the Copper Country Commercial Club and Citizens’ Alliance
and the public, met me in conference, and heard my plan of settlement.
After a discussion lasting six hours, during which every possible angle
of the situation was discussed, and the distressing contingent possi­
bilities attending a continuance of the conflict considered, the com­
mittee stated that they would not only refuse to urge the plan of
settlement upon the operators, but would seriously object to the
operators making any settlement that included the taking back of
any old employees or others who were members of the Western
Federation of Miners unless he first renounced his union, turned in
his card to the company, and signed an agreement not to join or
belong to the union.
I then proposed that the operators post notices at the mines to the
effect that all miners who so desired would be taken back to work
without discrimination. This offer of settlement was also refused on
the same ground and for the’ same reason.
There being no possibility of obtaining the large influence of the
citizens' committee behind my plan, the following day I presented
the same plan to all the mine managers in conference. The plan was
refused by the managers, collectively and individually, with unaltera­
ble determination. I was also told by them that no man who had
ever been a member of the union could be employed without first
separating himself from the Western Federation of Miners by turning
into the company's office his union card and signing an agreement
not to join or belong to the union. I was told that they would never,
under any circumstances, either directly or indirectly, recognize the
Western Federation of Miners, permit one of its members to work in
the mines, or in any manner treat with them, individually or col­
lectively.
My plan of settlement having failed, I asked the operators to pro­
pose a plan. They proposed to take back all the men for whom
places could be found if the men would surrender their union cards
and sign an agreement not to belong to or join the union. They also



M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

169

proposed tliat I, as a representative of the United States, conduct a
ballot of the men on strike on the question of returning to work on
the operators’ plan. This vote in effect would be to determine
whether the strikers desired to renounce their union. The operators
proposed this ballot because they stated they were convinced that
the majority of the strikers desired to go to work, regardless of the
union, and were only prevented from doing so through fear. As I
was without authority to conduct such a ballot, except through
the recognized representatives of the strikers, I laid the proposition
before the strike leaders.
For the reason that the operators had no offer of any kind to make
based upon the result of such vote—that is, they would not agree to
treat or arbitrate should the vote disclose a determination to remain
on strike—this proposal did not meet with the approval of the strike
leaders.
The leaders of the strikers then advised me they had conceded all
they could; that the only remaining concession the strikers could
make was to give up their union cards and their right to belong to
the union for a chance to work. This they refused to do. There
being no remote possibility of a settlement on the basis above
described, and no possibility of recession on the part of the operators
or striking miners, my efforts to restore peace came to an end.
Very respectfully,
J. B. D e n s m o r e , Solicitor.




REPORT OF JOHN A, MOFFITT, IMMIGRANT I N ­
SPECTOR, DETAILED AS COMMISSIONER OF
CONCILIATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LA­
BOR, ON HIS EFFORTS TO SECURE A SETTLE­
MENT OF THE STRIKE.
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C., November 21, 1913.
Hon. W il l i a m B. W il s o n ,
Secretary United States Department of Labor,
Washington, D. O
.
D e a r S ir : I desire herewith to submit a report of my efforts, as
special representative of the United States Department of Labor, to
adjust the strike in the copper fields of the northern Michigan
Peninsula.
Relative to the strike in the copper fields of Michigan and in fur­
therance of the departments desire to bring about an adjustment of
this labor difficulty by mediation, conciliation, or arbitration, I pro­
ceeded to Boston, pursuant to your oral instructions, and on Sep­
tember 2 last sought the good offices of Mrs. Glendower Evans, at her
residence, 10 Otis Place, to bring about a conference between the
officers of the Calumet & Hecla Copper Co. in that city and. your rep­
resentative, Mrs. Evans, besides being a stockholder in the company,
having devoted a great deal of her time in the past to the improve­
ment of the condition of the wage earner.
A meeting was arranged at the offices of the company, No. 12 Ash­
burton Place, Boston, Mass., on September 5, 1913, with Mr. Quincy
A. Shaw, president; Mr. Rudolph Agassiz, vice president; ancl
Secretary-Treasurer Flagg.
Messrs. Shaw and Agassiz dwelt at some length on the connection
of the Western Federation of Miners with other labor difficulties, but
Mrs. Evans and your representative finally secured Mr. Shaw’s assent
to meet committees of the employees who were on strike and of the
employees who were not on strike, with the proviso, however, that
members of the federation should be excluded from membership on
either committee. Mr. Shaw further stated at that time that he
intended to visit Calumet within a week or tw'o, presumably with a
view to bringing about some adjustment of the difficulty.
I had the honor of communicating to you orally at Washington on
September 10 last Mr. Shaw’s clearly expressed 'willingness to meet
committees of the employees who were not connected with the federa­
tion, and you thereupon directed me to proceed to Calumet to confer
with Mr. James McNaughton, the general manager of the Calumet &
Hecla Co. and its subsidiary companies, with a view to bringing about,
r
if possible, a conference between the respective representatives of the
mine operators and the striking miners, using President Shaw’s state­
ment as the basis for such a conference.
170




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171

Arriving at Calumet on tlie morning of the 13th instant, I had Mr,
Walter Palmer, of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, arrange a meeting
for me with Mr. McNaughton for 10 o’clock in the morning of the 15th
instant, at the office of the Calumet & Hecla Co. Mr. Palmer accom­
panied me to this meeting where we met Mr. McNaughton and one
of the attorneys for the mine managers, a Mr. Petermann, I dis­
cussed the strike situation at some length with Mr. McNaughton, and
upon the conclusion of said discussion, tendered the good offices of
the Department of Labor to bring about, if possible, an adjustment
of the trouble. Mr. McNaughton asked how I proposed to do that.
I said by mediation or arbitration. He said as to the former they
(meaning his companies) wanted no “ go between/’ and as to the latter
he knew of nothing to arbitrate. He further stated that Mr. Palmer
had already offered the good offices of the Department of Labor, which
were declined, and that would be his answer to me. I thereupon
requested him to meet a committee of his men on strike, informing
him at the same time that I had consulted Mr. President Shaw and
other officers of the Calumet & Hecla Co. at their offices in Boston,
and that Mr. Shaw had expressed a willingness to meet committees of
the men, provided the Western Federation officials were not repre­
sented on these committees. He said he knew" of my having been to
Boston, and that he and Mr. Shaw thoroughly understood each other.
Mr. McNaughton then said that, while he would meet a committee of
the men on strike, he first wanted to know how such committee would
be appointed. I replied by stating that in my opinion the fairest way
would be to call the men on strike together in meeting and allow them
to select their own committee, thereby eliminating the influences of
the so-called objectionable federation officials. Mr. McNaughton
said that he would reserve the right to pass upon the personnel of
such a committee when appointed, and if any of them were objection­
able to him, he would refuse to meet them.
He further stated that no matter what the outcome of a meeting
with a committee would, be, he was determined that the men would
return to work upon individual application and in no other way, and
that those given employment would first be obliged to sign a paper
to the effect that they did not hold membership in the Western Fed­
eration of Miners, or would not while in the employ of the Calumet
& Hecla and their subsidiary companies. Mr. McNaughton then
reviewed the occurrences that led up to the strike, dwelling at some
length on the history of the Western Federation of Miners, and in
so doing expressed a determination never to confer with the local or
general officers, or the individual members of the federation “ for the
purpose of adjusting the strike or for any other purpose.” At this
point I suggested that should the Western Federation of Miners waive
claim to recognition of their union, would he then meet a committee
of his employees on strike. His reply to this was: “ Oh, no. They
can’t work that on me—form a local organization and subsequently
join the Western Federation.” I then expressed regrets at being
unable to have Mr. McNaughton meet his employees, and thereupon
decided to call upon all the mine managers (nine in number) of the
copper fields individually.
On the morning of September 16 I called at the headquarters of
the miners at Calumet, where I was permitted to interview those in



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B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

charge of the strike, including the officers of the Western Federation
of Miners. After talking over the strike situation for some little
time, I tendered to them the good offices of the Department of Labor
to negotiate a settlement of the strike. (For miners’ reply see
attached letter, marked “ Exhibit A.” )
On the afternoon of September 16 I took up my work of meeting
the mine managers individually by calling uponMr. Theodore Dengler,
manager of the Mohawk and Wolverine mines, at his home in Wol­
verine, where I was cordially received. I explained my mission to
Mr. Dengler, wiio appeared to be very much interested, and when I
explained to him my purpose for calling upon the managers indi­
vidually he suggested that to meet the managers I would be obliged
to cover a large territory, and further suggested, that it w just
ras
possible that he could get the managers together in meeting for me
at Houghton on the following morning, September 17, but in order
to be sure he would phone me at my hotel the same evening. I
accepted his kind offer, believing I could accomplish more by meeting
them collectively. This meeting was held at the Houghton Club at
Houghton on the morning of September 17. All the mine managers,
including Mr. McNaughton, were present; also their attorneys,
Messrs. Keiss and Petermann. After a general discussion of the
strike situation had concluded, I offered, either individually or col­
lectively, the good offices of the Department of Labor and presented
each of them with copies of two propositions as a basis for the settle­
ment of the strike. (Propositions herewith attached and marked
“ Exhibit B.” )
As to their acceptance or rejection of the good offices of the depart­
ment, nothing was said, but on reading the propositions Attorney
Reiss suggested that there were several new elements contained in
the propositions that would have to be considered, and desired to
know whether I cared to discuss them informally or wished a formal
reply. My answer to this was that, if agreeable to the mine managers,
an informal discussion of them could be had, but that I also desired
a formal reply. This appearing to be satisfactory, and in fact so
expressed by Attorney Keiss, a general discussion ensued, which
lasted upward of two hours, and during which the mine managers
were insistent to know the actual number or the approximate number
of the miners that voted to strike, and requested our Mr. Palmer and
myself to ascertain, if possible, this information for them, which we
agreed to do. Attached herewith is a copy of our findings, marked
1 Exhibit C,” copy of which was forwarded by special delivery to
1
each of the mine managers.
On the evening of September 20 Mr. Petermann, of counsel for the
mine operators, called at my hotel and handed me a paper containing
the reply of the mine managers to the propositions presented to them.
(See attached paper, marked “ Exhibit IX” ) In this connection I
desire to further report that Mr. Petermann when handing me this
paper said that the mine managers were determined to drive the
Western Federation of Miners out of the copper fields, if they had to
fight all winter to do so. I suggested that, if such was the attitude
of the mine managers, the price exacted seemed to me inhuman, as
there would unquestionably be terrible suffering, particularly amongst
the women and children in such a cold country. To this he replied
that the price paid made no difference to him. Believing that I had



M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

173

exhausted all means in my power to effect an adjustment of the
strike, I returned to Washington, and on September 24 I again had
the honor of communicating to you orally the result of my efforts at
Calumet. You thereupon directed me to get into communication
with Congressman Andrew J. Peters, of Massachusetts, with whom
you had already arranged to use his good offices with the officers of
the Calumet & Hecla Copper Co. at Boston, to further try to effect
a settlement of the strike at that point. Mr Peters arrived in Boston
on Thursday morning, October 1, called at the office of the Calumet
& Hecla Co., and in an interview with Vice President Agassiz,
arranged a meeting for us (Mr. Peters and myself) with the officers
of the aforesaid company, for 10 o'clock in the morning^ on October 3.
At this meeting I told Mr. President Shaw of my mission to Calumet
and the attendant results. I reminded him of his expressed willing­
ness to meet committees of his employees on strike in our interview
at Boston during the month of September. He said that he never
agreed to meet committees of the Western Federation. I told him
that the information I received at Calument was that, since the
inauguration of the strike, the several thousand miners on strike had
joined the Federation, and that in a communication from their repre­
sentatives to me they waived all claims to act on any committees,
and were perfectly willing to be represented by men not members of
the Federation. Mr. Shaw desired to know who these men would
be, and I suggested that two public-spirited men of the class of Mr.
Peters, and, if agreeable to Mr. Peters, he (Mr. Peters) to be one of
them. Mr. Shaw evidently did not take kindly to this proposition,
as he would not consider it until such time as the matter could be
taken up with the full directorate of the company, and he did not
know when this could be done. Mr. Peters thereupon propounded a
number of questions to Mr. Shaw, among which was the following:
Question: “ Mr. Shaw, would you and two other directors of your
company meet a committee of the men on strike if such a request was
made of you ?”
Answer: “ Yes; provided, however, that the invitation to attend
such a meeting would come through Mr. McNaughton, as I would do
nothing over Mr. McNaughton’s head/7
See letter of October 7 to Mr. Shaw and answer thereto. (Here­
with attached, marked “ Exhibit E.” ) I then told Mr. Shaw that,
as far as I could learn from the men on strike at Calumet, if he was to
go there there would be no question of an immediate settlement of
the trouble and that I was somewhat surprised to learn that he had
been to Lansing, Mich., and did not go to Calumet, as I presumed in
my first talk with him that that was his intention. To this he
replied as follows: That to have done so would have encouraged the
strikers to hope that the company would deal with their organization.
He first expressed regret that the governor and the Federal author­
ities had offered their good offices at mediation, saying that these
efforts merely encouraged the men to continue the strike, for had
there been no interference he was sure the strike would have been
settled long before this. In the few minutes’ talk that followed I
incidentally mentioned the fact that the atrocities committed by the
so-called Waddell gunmen from New York, particularly in the case
where a family of poor inoffensive foreigners were shot down in their
own home, were to be deplored. In reply Mr. Shaw said that his



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B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU R E A U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

company employed some of those Waddell men and that there were
two sides to every case. I then inquired what caused the great haste
and how it happened that the State militia was entrained to the
copper fields 12 hours after the strike occurred. While at Calumet
I was informed by Gen. Abbey, who was in charge of the militia,
that the strike started on July 23 and the soldiers were entrained on
the 24th, and it was inconceivable to me, at least, how the militia
could be made ready in so short a time, unless there had been some
understanding with the governor before the strike actually took place.
Mr. Agassiz replied to this by stating that the governor was called
up on the phone, and the militia was consequently dispatched to the
strike zone. This ending the conference, I returned to Washington,
and, acting under your instructions, I forwarded a copy of Mr.
Shaw’s answer to Mr. Peters’s question to the representatives of the
men on strike at Calumet, requesting a reply containing their views
on the proposition of meeting a committee of the directors of the
Calumet & Hecla Co, ^On October 20 I received letter (herewith
attached, marked “ Exhibit F ” ) from Mr. Charles Moyer, representing
the striking miners.
On October 24 I dictated and mailed a letter to Mr. Quincy A.
Shaw (herewith attached, marked “ Exhibit G ” ) inclosing a copy of
Mr. Moyer’s letter and requesting an answer thereto. On October
31 I received his of the 29th. (Attached hereto, marked “ Ex­
hibit H.” )
Before concluding my report to you, I believe it my duty to call
your attention to the fact that on July 15 a petition from the miners,
requesting a conference with the mine managers to place before them
a number of grievances for adjustment, was forwarded by registered
letter to each of the several mine managers of the copper district.
The receipts for such letters are herewith attached (marked “ Exhibit I ” ), and will show that six of the mine managers received those
petitions but took no action on them, and that Mr. Charles L. Law­
ton, general manager of the Quincy Mining Co., refused to accept the
petition mailed to him, the same being returned and attached hereto.
(Marked “ Exhibit J.” )
And I desire to advise you that upon investigation I am credibly
informed from authoritative sources among the leaders of the strikers
that “ had the mine managers respected the petitions forwarded to
them and met the miners in conference, the strike would have been
averted; but when the petitions were ignored the only alternative the
men had was to strike.
I wish to further call your attention to the
correspondence had with the representatives of the men on strike.
(Exhibits A and F.)
This correspondence clearly indicates that the officials of the West­
ern Federation of Miners waived all claim of recognition of their union
by the mine managers.^
In conclusion, I believe it but proper to report that every hon­
orable effort was made by your representatives (Mr. ^Palmer and
myself) to bring about an amicable adjustment of this industrial
conflict, but without avail, and feel that this report would be incom­
plete if I failed to recognize the very valuable suggestions and advices
given by you to your representatives in the conduct of their negotia­
tions for a settlement of this strike.
Respectfully submitted.
J o h n A. M o f f i t t ,
Special Representative.



175

M IC H IG A N COPPER D ISTRICT S T R IK E .
E

x h ib it

A.

REPLY OF W ESTERN FED ERATIO N OF M INERS TO PROPOSITIONS.

C a l u m e t , M i c h .,

September 17,1918.

M r . J o h n A . M o f f it t ,

Special Agent, Department o f Labor, City.
S i r : The striking miners of the copper district of Michigan, through their
representatives, gladly accept your good offices in attempting to negotiate a settle­
ment with their employers. They welcome arbitration in the settlement of this
dispute, and further consider that your proposed method of constituting the board,
eliminating as it does all question of the recognition of the Western Federation of
Miners, puts it above any reasonable objection on the part of the employers, while
at the same time it meets with our hearty approval, to wit: That all differences shall
be settled by a board of arbitration, said board to consist of five members, two of
whom shall be chosen by the mine manageis involved in the controversy, or what­
ever numbers may desire a settlement; two to be chosen by the strikers in mass meeting
assembled for that purpose, the two so chosen not to be members of the federation;
the fifth member of the board to be chosen by Hon. W. B. Wilson, Secretary of the
Department of Labor. We^ shall accept the arbitrament of said board in all matters
at issue and hope that it will enter upon its duties very soon.
Appreciating your efforts in behalf of industrial peace based on justice, we remain,
Faithfully, yours,
C . E. M a h o n e y .
H

onored

Y a n c o T e r z ic h .
G u y E. M i l l e r .

E
f ir s t

x h ib it

B.

p r o p o s i t io n .

H o u g h t o n , M i c h ., September 17, 1913.
To the managers o f the mines in the copper district of Michigan:
G e n t l e m e n : As a special representative of the United States Department of Labor
I offer for your immediate consideration the good offices of the department in bring­
ing about an adjustment of the existing strike of the mine workers. These good
offices of the department are offered to you collectively or separately for the purpose
of mediation, conciliation, or arbitration, under existing conditions preferably the
latter, to wit:
First. That all of the issues involved in the strike shall be settled by arbitration.
Second. That the board of arbitration shall be composed of five members.
Third. That two of the members shall be selected by the mine managers.
Fourth. That two of the members shall be chosen by the mine workers now on
strike.
Fifth. That the latter two members shall not be members of the Western Federa­
tion of Miners.
*
Sixth. That the latter two members shall be selected at a meeting which all mine
workers now on strike shall be invited to attend.
Seventh. That the fifth member shall be designated by the United States Secretary
of Labor.
Eighth. That the decision of this board of arbitration shall be binding on both the
managers and the mine workers now on strike.
If this proposal as a whole is not acceptable to you, I request that you indicate
what part of the proposition is objectionable.
Respectfully submitted.
J o h n A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.
SECOND PROPOSITION.

H o u g h t o n , M i c h ., September 17, 1913.
To the managers o f the mines in the copper district o f Michigan.
G e n t l e m e n : With the view of adjusting amicably the differences between you
and your former employees now on strike, I propose to you, collectively or separately,
that you discuss these differences with a committee composed of such a number of




176

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U REA U OF LABOK STATISTICS.

persons as you may suggest; that these persons shall be members of the Western
Federation of Miners, or shall not be members of that organization, as you may pre­
fer, and they shall be chosen at a meeting which all of the mine workers on strike shall
be invited to attend.
Respectfully submitted.
J o h n A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, United States Department o f Labor.
E x h i b i t C.
M ic h ig a n H

otel,

Calumet, Mich., September 19, 1913.
To the managers of the mines in the copper district of Michigan.
G e n t l e m e n : In compliance with the request that was made at your meeting in
Houghton on the 17th instant, that I should ascertain, if possible, the number of votes
cast by your employees in favor of a strike and the conditions under which the vote
was taken, I desire to inform you that upon investigation at the union headquarters
at Calumet and other points I gathered the following information:
That the executive board of the Federation of Miners was requested by the mine
workers of this district to give their approval to holding a referendum vote on two
propositions, which was granted, to wit:
(a) Asking for a joint conference of the mine managers and the employees.
(b) In case a joint conference should be refused, tnat a strike be called.
After the aforesaid request was granted, meetings of the men were held at their
respective places of meeting in this district, and they were notified that on July I
balloting would begin at the offices of the secretaries at the following places: Calumet,
Ahmeek, South Range, Hancock, and Mass City, and that the polls would be open
each day until July 12, from 8 o’clock in the morning until 6 p. m., and all the men
were urged to vote.
Notice of said balloting was advertised in the local papers in foieign languages, and
committees of the men were also sent to the various localities, to remind the men of
the referendum. The polls were closed to voting at 12 o’clock noon on July 12, ana a
canvass of the votes showed that nearly 9,000 votes were cast, and of this number 98
per cent voted in favor of the aforementioned propositions.
Very truly, yours,
J o h n A. M o f f it t ,
i
Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.
E x h ib it

D.

M INE M A N A G E R S’ REPLY.

Hon.

A. M o f f it t ,
Specml Representative, United States Department of Labor.
D e a r S i r : The undersigned, being managers of the copper mines of the counties of
Houghton and Keweenaw in the State of Michigan, desire to express to you their most
sincere appreciation of your offer of the good offices of the department in bringing
about an adjustment of the existing strike, involving part of the mine workers of our
companies, submitted to us in yours of September 16.
The first offer submitted by you begins with the proposition: “ That all of the
issues involved in the strike shall be settled by arbitration.’ ’
The real issue involved in the strike is recognition of the Western Federation of
Miners as an organization entitled to represent, through its officials, the mine workers
of this district. This has been publicly announced in speeches and in print by the
officials of that organization themselves.
In like offers of mediation made by the governor of Michigan, personally and through
special representatives appointed by him and acting by his authority, we have hereto­
fore definitely declined to treat witn the Western Federation of Miners, either directly
or indirectly. This conclusion was arrived at in the first instance because of the past
history of the federation in its operations throughout the mining districts of the West;
because it was and is our firm conviction that the domination of the employees of the
mining companies by that federation would not be to the best interests of our employees
themselves; and because the federation was entirely unjustified in attempting to
speak as the representatives of our employees, for the reason that, according to our best
information at the time of the inception of the strike, confirmed by all the information
which we have obtained since then, not to exceed 25 per cent of the employees of the
companies (and in many instances a much smaller percentage) were members of the
Jo h n




M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

177

organization, and tlie large majority of our employees were not willing to be domi­
nated by that organization.
It should also be recognized that because of the attitude of the officers, leaders, and
organizers of the Western Federation toward the mining companies and their officials
and employees there could not be a resumption of mutual relations of good will and
confidence between employers and employees so long as the employees or any part of
them are under the influence or domination of the federation. This should be appar­
ent from the nature of the teachings and utterances of the officers, leaders, and organ­
izers of the federation, as set forth in their published speeches and in their official
publications.
All of the larger mines of the district have resumed operations with a large portion
of the normal forces of their employees, who are entirely satisfied with conditions. In
the case of the Calumet & Hecla, after deducting from the normal force those who are
known to have removed from the district by reason of strike conditions or for other
reasons, from 80 to 85 per cent of its employees have returned to work and are now
engaged in their several occupations. Similar conditions (with varying percentages)
exist at the other larger mines of the district which are now in operation.
Under these circumstances it is our judgment that we would be remiss in our duties
toward the great majority of our employees if we should take any action which in any
manner would recognize the Western Federation of Miners as the representatives of
the mine workers or as dictating or dominating the actions of our employees, even to
the extent of an arbitration as to their right to recognition or as to any other differ­
ences, real or fancied, which the federation may urge.
For these reasons, among many others which might be mentioned, we must adhere
to our position that we will in no manner deal with the Western Federation of Miners,
either directly, through mediation, arbitration, or in any other way.
The only issue involved at the time the strike was called by the Western Federation
of Miners was our refusal to enter into any conference with a committee or representa­
tives of the federation. The only demand that was made was for such a conference,
with a statement that if we were not willing to meet the officials of the Western Fed­
eration it would be taken as proof that the situation could not be settled peaceably.
We have had no other grievance submitted to us in any way, either officially or other­
wise. This was not a grievance of our employees, but was a grievance of the federa­
tion, represented by their officials and organizers from other States, who are entirely
unjustified in making any claim to a right to represent the employees of the mines of
this district.
Both of your propositions, as submitted by you, involve arbitration or discussion
by or with committees, a part of whom are to be chosen “ by the mine workers now
on strike.”
Tjhe mine workers now on strike are those only who are members of the Western
Federation of Miners. As above stated, tliev^ constitute but a small part of our em­
ployees. No method of choosing or appointing arbitrators or committees by “ the
mine workers now on strike” could be devised in which such choice will not*be the
direct choice of the Western Federation of Miners, as such, and with that federation
we will have no dealings of any kind.
It can not be too definitely understood with relation to the present situation that
the mining companies can not and will not in any manner recognize or deal with the
Western Federation of Miners. They do not represent our employees, but on the
contrary, under present conditions, they stand between the employers and the em­
ployees as the only bar to a satisfactory and amicable adjustment of all existing
differences.
Because of this situation and without any lack of full appreciation of the efforts of
yourself and the Department of Labor, we feel that it is necessary to say to you that we
can not accept any plan of mediation or arbitration between the mine employers and
“ the mine workers on strike,” which is but another designation for the Western Feder­
ation of Miners.
But we beg to suggest to you, in view of the situation as above stated and as it exists
in the counties of Houghton and Keweenaw at this date, that if you should use your
personal influence and the influence of the Department of Labor to induce the officials,
organizers, and leaders of the Western Federation of Miners to come to a full realization
of the futility of any attempt to secure recognition in this district or to retain a standing
therein which would permit them to remain as a factor of influence among our
employees or any portion thereof, and to withdraw themselves and their influence from
the present situation and from the district, there would then be nothing in the way of
an early adjustment of any differences or grievances, if they exist, between the
employers and their employees. In this way and in tliis way only can the present
deplorable condition be remedied or adjusted.
29848°—Bull. 139—14------12



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OF T H E B U REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Since the inception of the strike it has been stated in published speeches of the
officials of the Western Federation of Miners that they demanded an eight-hour day,
abolition of the one-man drill, and a minimum wage of §3 per day for all employees.
No grievances of that kind were stated or submitted to the companies in any form.
As to the working hours, it may be stated to you, as was stated to Judge Murphy, who
was here on a similar mission in behalf of the governor of Michigan, that for some time
prior to the inception of the strike there has been under consideration by the several
companies the institution of an eight-hour day for underground employees, so far as
that rule could be made practicable. The present strike situation does not alter the
intention of the companies in that regard. It is known to the companies that a laige
number of their underground employees do not want the eight-hour day, and are
opposed to it, but we will state to you that if the eight-hour day for our underground
employees is desired by them, or a^sufficient majority of them, it has been and will
continue to be given favorable consideration.
The one-man drill question is purely and simply a manufactured grievance. Vie
know it to be the fact that those who operate these drills do not want them abolished.
The continuation of the mining industry in this district requires the use and applica­
tion of every modem appliance for the reduction of cost. It is made necessary by tlie
low copper contents of tfie rock and the expenses of deep mining, as compared with the
higher production of other competing districts. The one-man drill is an economic
necessity which has come to stay. The conditions of its use have been prescribed by
the legislature, and the question of its abolition is one which could not be submitted
to arbitrators.
As to the minimum-wage question, the conditions at the different mines vary to
such a large extent that no scale can be adopted applicable to all the different con­
ditions. f
ihis has been impossible in the past and will continue impossible in the
future, and would be as unfair to the laborers themselves as to the companies.
We greatly regret that the situation is such as to render the plan of arbitration or of
conference with a committee or with representatives of the Western Federation of
Miners an impossibility to us. With the elimination of that organization, arbitration
or mediation would become wholly unnecessary, as we are convinced that there
would be no difficulty in adjusting satisfactorily all questions that might arise between
our employees and the respective companies by whom they are employed.
Dated at Houghton, Mich., September 20,1913.
Very respectfully,
Ja s . M a c N a u g h t o n .
F. W. D e n t o n .
J. L . H a r r i s ,
T h eo . D engler.
R . It. S e e b e r .
E noch H e n d e r so n .
C h a s . L. L a w t o n .

The following mines are represented by the above signatures:
Mr. James MacNaughton is general manager of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co,,
Ahmeek Mining Co., Allouez Mining Co., North Kearsarge Mine, South Kearsarge
Mine, Tamaiack Mining Co., Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Lauiium Mining Co.,
La Salle Copper Co., Isle Royale Copper Co., Superior Copper Co., St. Loui3 Copper
Co., and Centennial Copper Joining Co.
Mr. F. W. Denton is general manager of the Baltic Mining Co., Champion Copper
Co., and Trimountain Mining Co.
Mr. Charles L. Lawton is general manager of the Quincy Mining Co.
Mr. Theo. Dengler is agent of the Wolverine Copper Mining Co. and Mohawk Mining
Co.
Mr. J. L. Harris is general manager of the Hancock Consolidated Mining Co. and
Oneco Copper Mining Co.
Mr. R. R. Seeber is superintendent of the Winona Mining Co. and Houghton Copper

Co.
E

x h ib it

E.
D epar tm e n t of L a b o r ,
O f f ic e o f t h e S e c r e t a r y ,

Washington, October 7, 1013.
A. S h a w , Esq.,
12 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass.
D e a r S i r : A s my report to Secretary Wilson, of the United States Department of
Labor, of the interview Congressman Peters and I had with you and Mr. Agassiz at
your office at Boston, is in the course of preparation, and in order to have said report
Q u in c y




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M IC H IG A N COPPER D ISTRICT ST R IK E .

as nearly correct as possible, I desire to ask if I quote you properly in the following
answer to a question propounded by Mr. Peters:
Question by Mr. Peters: “ Mr. Shaw, would you. and two other directors of your
company meet a committee of the men on strike if such a request was made of you?”
Answer by Mr. Shaw: “ Yes; provided, however, that the invitation to attend such
a meeting would come through Mr. MacNaughton, as I would not do anything over
Mr. MacNaugliton’s head. ”
An early reply will be inexpressibly appreciated by,
Yours, very truly,
J o h n A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, United States Department of Labor.
C a l u m e t & H e c l a M in i n g C o .,

Boston, Mass., October 10, 1913.
A. M o f f it t , Esq.,
Special Representative United States Department of Labor,
Office of Secretary, Washington, D. C.
D e a r S i r : I beg to acknowledge your letter of October 7, which I only received
this morning on my return from a trip to Buffalo and New York.
You have correctly given my answer to Mr. Peters’s question, except that there
should be added to the answer my statement at that morning’s meeting that I would
not meet a committee of our former employees if any members of the Westem Federa­
tion of Miners were on such a committee and, furthermore, I stated that there were
many men formerly in our employ who have participated, and are continuing to par­
ticipate, in acts of violence, who, in our opinion, are of a type of man whom we will
not again knowingly employ, and that if any of these were on the committee I should
reserve the right as’to whether or not I should see the committee.
Yours, "very truly,
Q u i n c y A. S h a w , President.

Jo h n

O ctober

15, 1913.

M r. C h a r l e s M o y e r ,

President Western Federation o f Miners, Calumet, Mich.
S i r : On the morning of the 4th instant Congressman Andrew J. Peters, of
Massachusetts, and I had a meeting with Messrs. Quincy A. Shaw, president; feudolph Agassiz, vice president; and George A. Flagg, secretary-treasurer, of the Calu­
met & Ilecla Mining Co., at the offices of said company, 12 Ashburton Place, Boston,
Mass., where we urged these gentlemen to agree^ to^ meet committees representing
their men now on strike in the copper fields of Michigan; in fact, we pointed out to
them that, in our opinion, it was their duty to meet their men and try and effect an
amicable adjustment of the present strike. After a two-and-a-half hour discussion
of the conditions obtaining in the copper fields of Michigan, at least as I saw them,
Congressman Peters propounded a number of what might be termed “ acute” ques­
tions to Mr. Shaw, one of which I herewith inclose a copy.
In preparing my report to Secretary Wilson of this meeting, and in order to have
same correct, on the 7th instant I forwarded the question and answer to Mr. Shaw for
verification, and on the 10th instant I received his answer, a copy of which is here­
with inclosed.
I therefore desire that after a careful perusal of the said questions and answers
thereto, you will let me know the position of the men on strike. As to Mr. Shaw’s
reply, I might further say that our files here in Washington will be incomplete until
we receive your answer to the propositions under cover.
Anticipating an early reply, believe me,
Very truly, yours,
J o h n A. M o f f it ,
Special Representative, United States Department o f Labor.
D

ear

E x h ib it

F.

C a l u m e t , M i c h ., October 18,191S.
A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, United States Department o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
D e a r S i r : In reply permit me to say that we know of no men on strike who are
not members of the local unions of the Western Federation of Miners. It is agreeable
to us that a committee selected by the men on strike shall meet Mr. Shaw and two

Jo h n




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B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

other directors of the Calumet < Hecla Mining Co., at any time Mr. Shaw and said
&
directors express a willingness to meet them.
We further agree that if Mr. Shaw and the directors should make any concessions
to the demands of the men on strike and that a referendum vote will be taken to
determine whether the same shall be accepted.
It is further agreeable that no representative of our international organization shall
serve on said committee.
Very truly,
C h a s . H. M o y e r ,
President Western Federation o f Miners.
C a l u m e t , M i c h ., October 18, 19IS,
Mr. J o h n A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, Uniled States Department, of Labor,
Washington, D. C.
D e a r S i r : I beg to acknowledge receipt of yours of the 14th instant, inclosing a
question propounded Jby Congressman Andrew J. Peters, of Massachusetts, to Sir.
Quincy A. Shaw, president of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., at a meeting held at
the office of said company on the morning of October 4, and have carefully noted
your request for an answer from me to the proposition submitted by Mr. Shaw.
As I understand the question submitted by Mr. Peters was as follows:
“ Mr. Shaw, would you and two other directors of your company meet a committee
of the men on strike if such a request was made of you?’ 9 Answer of Mr. Shaw: “ Yes;
provided, however, that the invitation to attend such a meeting would come through
Mr. McNaughton, as I would do nothing over Mr. McNaughton s head.”
And that on October 10, in answer to an inquiry from you, addressed to Mr. Shaw,
askinghim if you had quoted him properly, he stated that he had been correctly quoted,
but that it was his desire to have added to the answer that he would not meet a com­
mittee of former employees if any members of the Western Federation of Miners were
on such a committee.
In reply permit me to say that we know of no men on strike who are not members
of the local unions of the Western Federation of Miners. It is agreeable to us that a
committee, selected by the men on strike, shall meet Mr. Shaw and two other directors
of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., at any time Mr. Shaw and said directors express
a willingness to meet them.
We further agree that if Mr. Shaw and the directors should make any concessions
to the demands of the men on strike, that the committee will refer the same back to
the men on strike and that a referendum vote will be taken to determine whether
the same shall be accepted.
It is further agreeable that no representative of our international organization shall
serve on said committee.
Believing that an adjustment of this deplorable situation would result should such
a conference be held, and assuring you of our earnest desire to do anything within
reason to that end, I am,
Very truly,
C h a s . H. M o y e r ,
President Western Federation o f Miners.

E
U

x h ib it

n it e d

G.

St a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ,
I m m ig r a t io n S e r v ic e ,

Washington, D. C., October 24,19IS,
A. S h a w ,
President Calumet 6s Hecla Mining Co.,
12 Ashburton Avenue, Boston, Mass.
D e a r S i r : By direction of the Hon. W. B. Wilson, Secretary of the United States
Department of Labor, I forwarded to the striking miners at Calumet, Mich., a copy
of the result of the meeting held at your office at Boston, Mass., on the 4th instant,
at which Mr. Agassiz? Congressman reters, yourself, and I were present, requesting
a reply to the suggestions contained therein.
On the 20th instant I received an answer? a copy of which I herewith inclose, and
request that you give immediate consideration to the propositions contained in same,
and kindly favor me with your conclusions in the matter as soon as is convenient for
you to do so.
Very truly, yours,
M r. Q u i n c y




J o h n A . M o f f it t ,

Special Representative, United States Department o f Labor,

181

M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

H.

E x h ib it

C a lu m e t & H e c l a M in i n g C o .,

Boston, Mass., October 29, 1913.
A. M o f f it t ,
Special Representative, United States Departmen t o f Labor,
Washington, D. C.
B e a r S i r : Upon my return from Philadelphia this morning I find your letter to me
of the 24th instant inclosing copy of letter to you signed “ Ciias. H. Moyer, president
W. F. of M.” (president of the Western Federation of Miners).
I have repeatedly stated to you that we could have no negotiations with this organi­
zation.
Without, however, dwelling on this and the other considerations which in them­
selves would govern our action, I feel confident you will agree with me that the acts of
lawlessness and violence of almost daily and nightly occurrence at the Michigan copper
mines since our interview on the 4th instant make it impossible to consider the matters
commented upon in his communication.
I take this opportunity of sending you, under separate cover, a half-dozen copies of
the report made to Gov. Ferris by the committee appointed by the Copper Country
Commercial Club to look into the conditions existing in the copper mines at Lake
Superior.
Yours, truly,
Q u i n c y A. S h a w , President.
M r. J o h n

E x h ib it

6 CH.

I.

BN.
H a n c o c k , M ic h .

Yours 157, 17th Bgd. Dan Bullivan to Quincy Mining Co.
S. G.
II. G.—New York, N. Y., July 18-13.—10.10 p. m.

Decline to accept.

M.

E x h i b i t J.
Letter No. 121.
P. O., Hancock, Mich.
Received for registration 7/15, 1913, from copper district, C. E. Hietala, Secy,
union. Addressed to James MacNaughton, gen. mngr. of Calumet & Hecla Mining
Co. 1st class postage prepaid. Postmaster, per T. W.
(Return receipt requested.)

[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original Reg. No. 121.
Return to C. E. Hietala, eecJ Box 217, Hancock, Mich.
y,
(Stamped:) Calumet, Midi., July 15, 1913, 3.30 p. m.
[Back.)
r e g is t r y

return

r e c e ip t .

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which
)pears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery 7/15, 1913. Jas. MacNaughton. Frank Gillet, agent.
Letter No. 150.
P. 0 ., Hancock, Mich.
Received for registration 7/16,1913, from Copper Dist. Union, C. E. Hietala, sec’y,
addressed to Mr. Richard M. Edwards, supt. Franklin Mng. Co., Houghton, Mich.
1 class postage prepaid. Postmaster, per T. A. W.
(Return receipt requested.)
Special delivery.




182

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOK STATISTICS.
[raoc.]

Special delivery.
Post Office Department. Official business. Original Ileg. No. 150.
Return to C. E. Hietala, sec’y, Box 217, Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Houghton, Mich., July 17, 1913,10.30 a. m.
[Back.]
REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which
appears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, 7/17, 1913. R. M. Edwards.
[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original R,eg. No. 148.
Return to C. E. Hietala, sec’y, Box 217, Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Hancock, Mich., July 17, 1913, 4 p. m.
[Back.]
REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number (> which
l
appears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, 7/17/13. Jno. L. Harris. Oscar Johnson, agent.
[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original Reg. No. 151.
Return to: 0. E. Hietala, Sec’y, box 217, Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Jul 17 1913

[Back.]

R EGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which ap­
pears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, July 17, 1913. 0. K. Hitchcock, jr.
[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original Reg. No. 142.
Return to: C. E. Hietala, Sec’y, Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Painesdale, Mich,, Jul 16 1913 1 pm
[Back.]
REG ISTR Y RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which ap­
pears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, July 16, 1913. Fred. W. Denton. Fred W. Collick.
[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original Reg. No. 141.
Return to C. E. Hietala, secy., Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Mass, July 16, 1913, 5 p. m.
[Back,]
REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which
appears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, 7/16/13. Elton W. Walker. E. F. S., agent.



M IC H IG A N COPPER DISTRICT ST R IK E .

188

[Face.]

Post Office Department. Official business. Original Reg. No. 140.
Return to 0. E. Hietala, secy., Hancock, Mich.
(Stamped:) Mohawk, Mich., July 16, 1913, 5 p. m.
[Back.]
REGISTRY RETURN RECEIPT.

Received from the postmaster registered article, the original number of which
appears on the reverse side of this card.
Date of delivery, 7/16, 1913. Mohawk Mining Co. F. H. Getchell, clerk.
Letter No. 140.
P. O., Hancock, Mich.
Received for registration 7/15/1913, from C. E. Hietala, sec’y, addressed to Frederick
W. Denton, Painesdale, Mich. 1 class postage prepaid. Postmaster, per J. A. W.
(Return receipt requested.)
Letter No. 141.
P. O., Hancock, Mich,
Received for registration 7/15/1913, from 0. E. Hietala, sec’y, addressed to Mohawk
Mining Co., Mohawk, Mich.. 1 class postage prepaid. Postmaster, per J. A. W.
(Return receipt requested.)
Letter No. 142.
P. 0., Hancock, Mich.
Received for registration 7/15/1913, from C. E. Hietala, sec’y, addressed to Elton
W. Walker, Mass Cons. Mn’g Co., Mass City, Mich. 1 class postage prepaid. Post­
master, per J. A. W.
(Return receipt requested.)
[Face.]

Sent to Ipswich defense fund, Ipswich.

Donation.

•Back.]
RECEIPT FOR U . S. POSTAL M O N E Y ORDER.

Dollars, 12. (Amount for which issued.)
(Stamped:) Hancock, Mich., July 15, 1913.

M. O. B.

Special.
Letter No. 117.
P. O., Hancock, Mich.
Received for registration, 7/14, 1913, from Box 217, C. E. Hietala, sec’y, addressed
to Mr. Chas. L. Lawton, general mngr. Quincy Mng. Co., Hancock, Mich. 1 class
postage prepaid. Postmaster, per J. A. W.
[Sealed envelope.]

Registered No. 117.
(Addressed:) Mr. Chas. L. Lawton, general manager of the Quincy Mining Co.,
Quincy, Hancock, Michigan.
From C. E. Hietala, sec’y Copper District Union, Box 217, Hancock, Mich.
Return receipt requested.
(Written on face:) Refused.
[Back.]

(Stamped:) Hancock, Mich., July 14,1913.




Registered.