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MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE AND COMMERCIAL NOVEMBER, REVIEW. 186V OUR M E R C A N T I L E MARINE. T he T one of tiie Service D egenerating—Cause of this D egeneracy —E vidence of the same —F raudulent Shipwrecks —Opinions of H amburg U nderwriters—Comparison of P E R C E N TA G E O F D IS A S T E R S IN E N G L IS H S E R V IC E W IT H OUR O W N — C E R T IF IC A T E S OF S E R V IC E C ompetency issued in these Countries—A similar System necessary here—A d van tages of this System to Shipmasters , Ship - owners and U nderwriters—Suggestions about TnE Collection of Statistics of D isasters, and B enefits to be derived there from—R ecapitulation and Conclusion. and A r c h b ish o p W h a t e l y says, what hardly any thinking man will now deny, “ If oaths were abolished— leaving the penalties for false witness (no unimportant part of our security) unaltered— I am convinced that, on the whole, testimony would be more trustworthy than it is.” It will be admitted that there is an amazing difference between the facility with which oaths are broken, when there is no penalty, or an insufficient one, attached to their forfeiture, and when the penalty for perjury is sharp and severe. The records o f our custom-houses and our courts bear witness to the truth o f these assertions. Many a man will run the risk o f havii his goods confiscated, who would hesitate to perjure himself in a witness’ box. Hence it is evident that it is the penalty, and not the oath that most people respect. That this should be so does not, indeed, argue well for human nature; but then we must always take men as they are, and not as they ought to be, in providing checks against possible misconduct. It is true that a sense o f honor has sufficient influence in many men’s minds to keep them in the paths o f rectitude ; but the ex perience o f daily life too clearly proves that with most men the fear of punishment has greater influence. A self-approving conscience is, by no means, always sufficient. Merit must be distinguished from incompe tency, or men will cease aspiring to attain it. The truth of these remarks is clearly demonstrated by the present condition o f our mercantile marine service. It is generally admitted that the tone o f that service, both for VOL. xlv .— no. v. 29 450 Our Mercantile Marine. [November, character and efficiency, has greatly degenerated from its former standard. The reasons for this degeneracy are undoubtedly to be found in the facil ity with which incompetent men obtain commands, and the absence of any distinction between good and bad masters. Competent men and careful navigators must now be satisfied with the approval of their own consciences ; and have, at the same time, the mortification of seeing others totally unfit for the responsibilities they assume, or careless and even dis honest in the discharge o f them, entrusted with commands almost as readily as themselves. As the practice o f insuring ships is now universal, and as competition among insurance companies has rendered the facilities for obtaining this protection from the hazards of the sea very great, it will be seen that ship-owners have not the same direct interest in the loss o f their ships that they would have if compelled to bear the burden o f it themselves. And, consequently, they are not so careful in the choice, or so strict in the dismissal of their masters as they would be under a different system. It is true that merchants do really bear the burden, for if losses are un necessarily increased by the acts o f inefficient or dishonest masters, insur ance premiums must be increased accordingly ; and, therefore, although insurance companies seem to be the only sufferers, it must be remembered that they in reality only distribute the losses among their customers. It is, therefore, a matter of the highest importance, both to shipmas ters and ship-owners, that reforms should be adopted. Some system should be inaugurated by which competent and worthy men should have the preference in obtaining commands, and by which dishonesty could be exposed and punished, thus insuring greater protection to life and property at sea, and diminishing a serious burden upon commerce. A ny one who will take the trouble to consult the records o f marine losses published in our daily papers, cannot fail to be struck with the fact of their enormous magnitude. The annual estimates for 1860 were over twenty-eight millions of dollars, and for the year before thirty-seven and a half millions ; and a careful perusal o f the circumstances of these losses will make it evident that many o f them need never have happened. Many ships have been abandoned at sea and afterwards picked up and brought into port, and some vessels have been forsaken by their captains and brought home by their mates. A very graphic and forcible writer in one o f the daily papers* remarks, that “ the dishonesty o f some masters is believed to he a prolific cause of losses. Instances o f this kind are to be met with in all parts o f the world, but there are some particular quarters where they seem to occur more frequently, owing to facilities for collusion and fraudulent shipwrecks. Those who read the columns o f our paper devoted to marine news can not fail to have noticed the great number o f wrecks taking place in the vicinity o f the Bahama Islands. The navigation there is undoubtedly beset with difficulties, but they are so well known and understood, and so many light-houses and marks have been erected, that watchful, skillful and honest shipmasters have passed and repassed, at all seasons o f the year, and for many years, without disaster, unless under such extraordi nary adverse circumstances of wind and weather as clearly and reasonably accounted for their misfortune, while their conduct after shipwreck has * Courier and Enquirer, January, 1860. 1861.] Our Mercantile Marine. 451 left no suspicion as to their integrity. But there is another side to the picture; and we are pained to say that the instances o f shipwreck are numerous in which the circumstances plainly show that the cause has not been ‘ the perils of the sea,’ but a deliberate and wilful intention and collusion to commit fraud for personal gain, abetted, connived at, screened and shared by wreckers and disreputable persons residing on some o f the Bahama Islands, an exorbitant salvage on the cargo being agreed upon among themselves b y private arbitration, and the wreck subsequently burned to prevent her recovery or to avoid investigation. A nd not withstanding the disposition evinced by the governor of the Bahamas, the magistracy and many of the best citizens to suppress these disgraceful and piratical proceedings, their efforts are very seldom successful, and the dishonest shipmaster, whose acts have not been investigated by the con sular representative o f his own country, escapes unpunished to enjoy the fruits of his fraud, throwing a heavy loss upon the merchant or insurer, and a disgrace upon the profession of shipmaster.” In other countries, where stricter rules for the appointment and stricter investigations into the misconduct o f shipmasters prevail, the losses are neither so heavy nor are fraudulent ones so frequent. Thus, it is asserted, that in the trade between Cuba and Hamburg, although directly in the path where some of our worst losses occur, no Hamburg ship has been lost in twenty years.* It is notorious, that in that country shipmasters have to undergo strict examinations as to character and capacity before obtaining commands ; and a proof o f the care they take of their ships is to be seen in the low rates o f insurance there. The American consul at Hamburg makes the following remarks on this subject in his official report, published in the “ Commercial Relations” for 1859 : “ In reply to certain questions which, at the request o f the President of the Atlantic Insurance Company, of New-York, I had asked o f a Hamburg insurance broker, the following replies were received, givinginformation as to the rates and customs which obtain here in regard to marine insurance, and the estimation in which American shipping is held by Hamburg underwriters: “ ‘ The premium charged on first-class, A No. 1 vessels is I-j- per cent, per annum ; but underwriters here would refuse to take at this rate any American (United States) vessel, because they know that there are few hands on board who are thorough sailors, many of them never having been to sea before, and even their captains very often knowing nothing o f seamanship, leaving the whole command in reality to the mates. “ 1Hamburg masters, as well as mates, have to undergo very strict examination before they are allowed to take command. The same is true of Denmark, Sweden and Prussia; their vessels are, consequently, considered by Hamburg underwriters just as good risks. “ ‘ The premium from Hamburg to New-York and home is, in the summer season, two per cent., and rises in the winter to three and a half.’ ” A similar system of examining masters and mates before intrusting them with commands prevails in England, and is attended with like beneficial results. The British Board of Trade report for the year 1860 gives the per centage of disasters as compared with voyages, as follows : This assertion is made upon the authority of a foreign consul at K ey West. 452 Our Mercantile Marine. [November, For the eight years, from 1852 to 1860, tV j. o f one per cent., or one accident in every two hundred and thirteen voyages; and for the year 1860 alone, o f one per cent., or one in every one hundred and eightyeight voyages. This per centage includes accidents o f every kind, great and small, and the voyages include over-sea and coasting. On the other hand, the proportion of accidents to American ships to the number of voyages is, as near as can he estimated with the imperfect data at com mand, for the year 1860, 1Tny\ per cent., or one accident of some kind in every seventy-five voyages.* This, it will be seen, is more than double the per centage for English ships. In contrast with this present degeneracy o f the service, we quote the remark of an experienced shipmaster about the standing of American ships in former days. He says, that in the year 1832, when he was lying in the port o f Trieste, there were many American ships waiting for cargoes, and not a single British ship could obtain a freight until all these were filled, so decided was then the preference for our vessels. Contrast this with the statement o f the Hamburg insurance broker, and the inference is plain that the tone o f the service must have indeed degenerated. It would thus appear that our experience o f marine disasters contrasts unfavorably with that of other countries, since insurances are more profit able in Hamburg, and British statistics show a much smaller per centage o f accidents than ours. Both of these countries have adopted a system o f giving certificates o f competency and service to capable and worthy shipmasters. And in each o f them strict investigations are made in all cases of suspicious disaster, and where the master is proved to be at fault, he is either suspended for a time from service, or has his certificate cancelled altogether; and when this happens he is unable to obtain a command. It is evident, therefore, that unless similar measures are adopted in this country, the present degeneracy in its mercantile marine will continue to increase, the number of fraudulent shipwrecks will be greatly augmented, and our commerce will be so burdened by this shame ful waste of capital that we will be unable to compete with our rivals for commercial supremacy. No class o f men are, perhaps, more directly interested in a reform of this kind than the shipmasters themselves. All men are more or less influenced by their surroundings, and the peculiar hardships and dangers o f a sailor’s life seem to beget peculiar characteristics. They are often careless and reckless, but are, at the same time, particularly sensitive to * The estimate above given is obtained in the following manner: The Commerce and Navigation Report of the Secretary o f the Treasury for 1860 gives the number of entries o f American vessels at the different United States ports as 12,206, and the number of clearances of the same as 12,682. Now, as every entry and every clear ance represent a voyage begun or ended, we have, for the foreign trade of the year, 24,888 voyages— in round numbers say 25,000; and estimating the coasting voyages as at least double, we have a total number of voyages of American ships during the year o f about 75,000. The whole number o f disasters to these ships during the same period, according to a report published b y Mr. I saac H. U pton in the M er chants’ M agazine for July, 1861, amounts to 839. But as this sum does not include the minor disasters, which are all included in the British report, we may safely set down the casualties of all kinds as about 1,000 in number. This, compared with the 75,000 voyages, would give the per centage of 1 33-100, as above, or one acci dent in every seventy-five voyages. 1861.] Our Mercantile Marine. 453 praise and blame. A self-approving conscience may be sufficient for some, but public opinion has more weight with most o f them. And when we add to the disgrace of forfeiting a certificate the certain loss of occupation it will necessarily entail, we provide the strongest possible safeguard for efficiency and good conduct in any class o f men, and espe cially in a class unfitted, both by their temperament and habits, to bear disgrace or to change their occupation. On the other hand, by thus dis tinguishing between competent and worthy shipmasters, and incompe tent and dishonest ones, we raise the tone of the whole service, and thus make a sailor’s life more attractive to men o f intelligence and high cha racter. All such men will sympathize with these reforms, and the class who will probably disapprove o f them is the very one that makes their establishment a necessity. B y this means a laudable ambition would be instilled into the minds of all honest shipmasters, who, as long as they held their certificates, would necessarily be regarded as such ; while, on the other hand, a wholesome fear o f disgrace would be held up to those who, without this dread o f punishment, might be dishonestly disposed. It seems only reasonable to suppose that a sense o f honor, and a feeling o f responsibility for the lives and property under his charge, would pre vent any man from taking the command o f a ship who felt himself in competent for the task ; or would cause one who did so to use his best efforts for the successful accomplishment of the voyage. But the facts prove that this is not the case. Incompetent men do notoriously obtain commands, and many ships are lost by the carelessness or inefficiency of their commanders. The sense o f honor is not always a sufficient safe guard. The fear o f punishment may be. As to the feeling o f responsi bility for life and property, it has been said, perhaps too harshly, but nevertheless with much truth, that the former consideration has always been of minor importance in comparison with the love o f gain; and as to the loss of property, the insurance companies prevent the owner from feeling that directly, and as the master is, of course, aware o f this, it may not be without its influence with him, especially if the vessel be old, unseawortliy or badly out o f repair. It has been remarked, however, that in cases o f fraudulent shipwreck the master and crew generally escape. W hen a man sets out purposely to wreck his vessel it is natural that he should select a safe place, or he might be disappointed in his unrighteous plans, and find, when death stared him in the face, that what was meant to be a fraud, had in reality become to him, at least, a misfortune. The history o f modern science demonstrates no truth more clearly than this, that great results are not arrived at suddenly, as it were by in spiration, but only come by patient and laborious investigation. Thou sands o f observers have watched and recorded the phenomena o f the heavens, ingenious men have applied their observations to the science of navigation, and generation after generation have passed their lives in col lecting apparently insignificant facts, before it became possible, by their collected experience, to navigate the trackless sea. But now, by the aid o f the compass and the sextant, and the collected experience of those who have gone before him, the sailor finds the sea as well mapped out as the land, and its pathways have become as definitely marked as the high ways of the shore. But although much has been accomplished, much more perhaps remains to be done. The field is wide enough for all the observers that can possibly investigate it, and the results of the labors of 454 Our Mercantile Marine. [November, the late superintendent o f the Washington Observatory, M a u r y , have clearly proved to sailors both how much there is to see, and how much can result from intelligent observations made after a uniform plan. Thousands o f log-books have been examined by this patient man, and the experience of all these observers collected in his wind and current charts. All that relates to the theory of storms is still, however, hardly more than conjecture, and in this and other directions great discoveries yet remain to be made. How necessary, then, not only for the material interests of commerce, but for the greater interests of science, is it that shipmasters should be men of intelligence and capable o f appreciating the wonders that are daily spread out before them. H ow much nobler the ambition to extend the domain o f knowledge than to accumulate ill-got ten gains. To add a mite, however small, to that fund in which consists the true riches of mankind, rather than by dishonest acts to accumulate wealth which is only a disgrace to its possessor. Nor are these results alone o f scientific value. Their practical importance in diminishing the cost of carrying cargoes by shortening the time required to make voyages, (which alone is a most essential benefit to commerce,) has thus been ingeniously estimated by a writer in H unt ’ s M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a z in e for May, 1854 : “ According to Mr. M a u r y the average freight from the United States to Bio de Janeiro is 17.7 cents per ton per day ; to Australia, 20 cents ; to California also about 20 cents. The mean o f this is a little over 19 cents per ton a d a y ; but, to be within the mark, we will take it at 15, and in clude all the ports of South America, China and the East Indies. “ The sailing directions have shortened the passage to California thirty days ; to Australia, twenty days; to Eio Janeiro, ten days. The mean of this is twenty, but we will take it at fifteen, and also include the above named ports o f South America, China and the East Indies. W e estimate the tonnage o f the United States engaged in trade with these places at 1,000,000 tons per annum. W ith these data, we see that there has been effected a saving for each one o f these tons o f fifteen cents per day for a period of fifteen days, which will give an aggregate o f $2,250,000 saved per annum. This is on the outward voyage alone, and the tonnage trad ing with all other parts o f the world is also left out o f the calculation. Take these into consideration, and also the fact that there is a vast amount of foreign tonnage trading between these places and the United States, it will be seen that the annual sum saved will swell to an enormous amount.” It need hardly be said that merchants, as a class, and especially those connected with shipping, have a great interest at stake in promoting these proposed reforms. For it requires but little argument to prove that if the underwriters pay the losses directly, the merchants have to make it up in the long run. And, therefore, when losses are unnecessa rily increased by the incompetency or misconduct of shipmasters, the burden falls finally upon the shipowners. Here, as with the shipmasters, it is the higher class of merchants that will gain by the alteration o f the present system, and it is only the less scrupulous portion who will feel themselves oppressed by it. Those shipowners who are careful in the selection of their masters, and, it may be added, who are also conscien tious in repairing and fitting out their ships, are now taxed with high premiums made necessary by the carelessness or cupidity o f men of an 1861 .] Our Mercantile Marine. 455 entirely different grade. Nor is it only in the high premiums charged that injustice is at present done to honest men, hut also in the distribu tion of the profits, the worthy and the unworthy get an equal share. The merchant, whose ill-fitted out and inefficiently officered ships have, by the claims which are the natural results o f such antecedents, considerably diminished the profits of the insurers, still receives from them an equal per centage of their scrip with the one, whose example generally followed, would cause a great decrease to appear in the annual amounts o f losses to he paid. Now, if a society were established to issue certificates to competent masters, and if only such as held certificates were allowed to command ships, the number o f these fraudulent claims would probably be greatly lessened. It is not pretended that a society would have any greater facilities for selecting competent men for shipmasters than indi viduals now have, if they took the pains to use th em ; but, at the same time, it is believed that the fear o f losing a certificate through miscon duct, and the disgrace and loss of occupation that would result from it, w'ould make some men less unscrupulous and more careful than they ap pear to be now. The society would only do as an organization what individuals ought to do, hut fail to do privately ; and the greater publicity of its actions, and the mass o f information concerning the character and ability o f shipmasters that would soon accumulate on its records, would give more importance to its selections and rejections; and would be of great service to the merchants seeking for a fit person to take charge o f his property, and to the underwriter in investigating suspicious losses. When the same man’s name figures conspicuously in the disaster list, and the ships that he commands are seen to be uniformly “ unlucky,” as it is facetiously termed, both merchant and underwriter can take warning, the one how lie employs and the other how he insures him. As these facts accumulate they will serve to show where the bad losses occur, and as these particulars are annually classified and recorded, it will soon he evi dent what losses are really caused by the “ perils o f the sea,” and what by the fraudulent acts of man. W hen this knowledge is obtained a more just division o f profits may ensue ; hut at present, while the under writers are almost in the dark, and while discrimination is thus impossi ble, the present plan must be continued. Although these facts are so evident that every merchant will readily admit them ; and although every intelligent shipowner is aware that a wicked waste o f property, no matter who owns it, or who insures it, is a loss which must finally fall upon him, in part, as a member o f the mercantile community; although these things are undoubtedly true and are known to all, still busy men, eager to secure their private fortunes, do not ap pear to heed them. And in the haste to get rich a little sooner by close attention to individual concerns, men often refuse to act in concert even for their own acknowledged interests. The question o f how to diminish these needless losses comes, how ever, in so practical a way to the underwriters, that from them the first steps in the proposed reform should undoubtedly emanate. They have the advantage of organization, and, with the assistance o f prominent ship owners, should at once form an association to ensure the better safety of life and property at sea. If they do not take some steps of this kind, and allow the present evils to increase, the result must be disastrous in the extreme to them. Their losses will increase so greatly that the pre 456 Our Mercantile Marine. [November, miums must be much augmented, or the companies will inevitably fail; and with their failure greatly embarrass commercial enterprise. Even now foreign companies are able successfully to compete with ours for their best risks; and this must necessarily induce many merchants to in sure abroad, who would find it more convenient to insure in this country, if it were equally economical. The reason why these institutions are able to offer better terms than ours is to be found, it is believed, in the facilities which their regulations afford of encouraging competent and careful masters, and o f disgracing and dismissing dishonest ones. Hav ing thus a large proportion o f what are technically known as “ good risks” on their books, they can afford to insure the best o f ours at a lower rate than we, without materially increasing their per centage o f losses, but greatly diminishing our proportion o f profits. Such a society, although started by the underwriters, can never become a success, unless supported by the active aid and good will o f both ship owners and shipmasters. W ith these, its success is certain; without them, its failure equally so. Its aims in the beginning would of course be more limited than they would naturally become when their impor tance and usefulness are more generally understood and appreciated. A t first, it might confine itself to the issuing o f certificates o f service and competency to men of experience and ability. Records o f disasters would o f course be kept, aud, when suspicious losses occurred to vessels commanded by persons holding its certificates, investigations would naturally be held. A s these records accumulated, they might be tabu lated and compared with the whole number o f voyages, and per centages obtained as a guide for insurance premiums. They might also be arranged in various ways, and the per centages o f particular trades, of vessels of a certain class or grade, or vessels laden with different kinds o f cargoes, obtained. The different kinds of disasters, the fires, the standings, the collisions, &c., might all be classified. In a word, such a collection of statistics might be arranged in every conceivable manner, and in every way be of service. The experience o f all the companies, which each individual institution might be unwilling to publish sepa rately for the benefit o f the rest, might, in the aggregate, be subjected to similar classification for the general benefit. In life insurance, such collections of statistics have been productive o f the most valuable results; and the analogy between the two branches o f insurance, the life and the marine, is sufficient to warrant the assertion, that if an equal number of facts about the proportion o f loss to safety, in marine insurance, were collected, that at present exist about the proportion of deaths to the living, for the use o f life insurers, the same exactness would soon be arrived at in the one business that now prevails in the other. A society o f this kind, started in New-York, would probably be followed by simi lar organizations in the other seaports of the United States ; and between these a daily meteorological record might be telegraphed, and warning thus given o f coming storms. This experiment has been successfully tried in France and England, and has been recommended as a desirable thing to adopt in this country, by Professor M a u r y . The holders of certificates in different parts o f the world, sailing over various seas and visiting different climates, would undoubtedly take pleasure in communi cating to the society any interesting phenomena about storms, winds, currents or climates that came under their notice, and such communica Our Mercantile Marine. 1861.] 457 tions, in the mass, might be a v ery valuable addition to a merchant’s or an underwriter’s knowledge. Reforms, however, to be undertaken successfully, must be undertaken cautiously, and it is only by slow degrees, and step by step, that im portant changes can prudently be made. In the beginning, such an organization as the one proposed would probably have to encounter many prejudices, and perhaps some positive hostility ; but it is believed that a thorough understanding of the nature of the evils which it pro poses to remedy, and o f the important benefits to the commercial world which will necessarily result from its establishment, will be sufficient to enlist for it tl’ie hearty sympathy o f shipmasters, shipowners and un derwriters. Of shipmasters, because, by weeding their profession of its unworthy members, the tone of the service will be raised, and a better class of men will join its ranks— men who, by their faithfulness and intelligence, will at once increase our commercial supremacy, by adding cautiousness and honesty, to maritime adventure and enterprise; and who will play an im portant part in adding contributions to the science o f the seas, from which so much has already resulted. Of merchants, because they are at present burdened with high pre miums, and would be seriously embarrassed by their further increase; and because they, as a class, love their country too well to neglect any means that promises to prevent her present maritime supremacy from passing from her hands. And of underwriters, because they are merely the agents o f the mer chants, and their interests are consequently identical; and because foreign competition, although at present not seriously felt, will inevitably become injurious to them, if the present necessary augmentation o f their rates continues. And this must inevitably be the case if the fraudulent losses, which are the principal cause of this increase, are not prevented by the introduction of the proposed reforms. FIRE INSURANCE IN LONDON. the annual meeting of the shareholders o f the Royal Insurance Com pany, Liverpool, it was stated that a meeting o f all the officers engaged in fire insurance in London had recently been held, consequent on the late great ,fire, at which it was agreed to advance the rate o f premium on com mercial insurance to a considerable extent. Subsequent reflection, how ever, had shown that a modification o f the proposed rise would be suffi cient ; and Mr. D o v e , the manager of the Royal Company, was o f opinion that these modified rates would be found sufficient to meet all contingencies. He proceeded to say, that within the last seventeen years 580 new insur ance offices, o f all kinds, had been projected. O f these, 233 had ceased to exist in the same period, 11 had amalgamated with other companies, 134 had transferred their business, and 42 were winding up their affairs in chancery. O f the whole number, 95 fire offices had discontinued busi ness. Within the last seventeen years 48 fire offices had been established. Of these, only 12 survive, 36 having discontinued business; and, in all, there are only 52 fire offices now doing business. A t 458 The Hides o f the River Plata. [November, T H E H I D E S OF T H E R I V E R P L A T A . From “ Japan, the Amoor and the Pacific. B y H enry A rthur T illey .” T h e y -were that day killing mares, more than five hundred o f which pretty creatures were penned up in a corral. These corrals communicate one with another, a portcullis door being between each two. The last is in the shape of a pear, strongly boarded in, and surrounded by a platform. In the narrow end is a truck, which moves from it on iron rails, up and down a long shed. A strong bar o f wood crosses the opening where the truck fits into the narrow end o f the corral, and on this bar is a block through which the lasso runs, having one end fastened to the saddles of two Gauchos, while the noose remains in the hands o f the Matador on the platform. W hen all is ready the Gauchos ride into the farther corral, drive the animals into the pear-shaped one, and the portcullis is dropped. The Matador whirls his lasso, sometimes over the heads of three or four marcs at once, gives a signal to the mounted Gauchos, who spur their horses, and the mares are dragged on to the moving platform, with their heads against the bar. The Matador then strikes them on the head with a heavy iron hammer, the truck moves up the shed, and another mounted Gaucho, with a rope, drags them off the truck on either side of the tramroad, when other men are ready to skin and cut them up. Oxen.— The same mode is adopted with oxen, only they are killed by the stab o f a knife in the neck, which divides the spinal marrow. The first stab is generally sufficient; the animal ceases to feel instantaneously. The only suffering for the poor beasts is being kept long in the corrals without food and water, sometimes for two or three days. Barbarous as it seems to a European to see horses thus slaughtered for their skins, it is a painful necessity. The Gaucho will never ride on a mare, and if a stranger were to venture to do so he would be hooted and jeered by every urchin he met. The Gaucho is far from being like the Arab, who, it is known, rides only mares, and treats them a little more kindly than human beings. But the Gaucho will not only not ride mares, but treats the horses he does ride in a most barbarous manner; his spurs have points an inch in length, and on a journey these are applied to the blood-stained sides of the beast till he drops exhausted. What does that matter to the rider ? He easily finds another ; in fact, in the country they have hardly any value at all. The rotting carcase or the skeleton o f the horse b y the wayside is a usual sight, even in the vicinity o f the city o f Buenos Ayres. Among the five hundred mares above-mentioned three were saved from the fate o f the others by an English gentleman, who had lately brought with him from England three fine horses, and was about to try to improve the breed. For these three mares he only paid sixteen shillings each. The five hun dred mares were killed and disposed o f in about six hours. Slaughtering.— In many establishments as many as eight hundred horses or oxen are slaughtered every day, and that nearly throughout 1861. The Hides o f the River Plata. 459 the year. In winter only, when the animals are not fat, is there a little relaxation. In the long shed above-mentioned the work o f dismembering the animals is going on, and the expertness with which it is performed may be judged of by the fact, that five minutes hardly elapse from the time the ox leaves the corral before it is already cut up and salted. The men employed in this work are Basques, and often children with faces like angels are among them deep in blood, and revelling in their dis gusting work. W hen the hide, the principal object o f value, is removed, the flesh is cut up in lumps off the carcase, and removed to other hands, which slice it and throw it in brine, from which it passes to still other hands, which pack it in stacks, with layers o f salt between. The flesh is turned every day for a few days, until it is dried by the air, and in that state forms the came secco, which is exported in vast quantities to Havana, the Brazils, Chili, Peru and the African coasts. Salting.— The hides are salted in the same manner, the superfluous brine running from the meat to the reservoir which contains them. Most o f the salt used is brought from Cadiz. The bones undergo a different treatment. Those containing marrow are subjected to the action o f steam, and the fat thus procured is likewise largely exported to the same places as the meat, besides being much used as butter by the natives, who are excessively fond of it. The rest of the bones, entrails and all that contains fat are steamed in another vat for tallow. The tongues are salted and consumed at home. The sinews, horesehair, &c., are also utilized, but still there is an enormous waste, for everything is performed in a very rough manner, on account o f the high price o f labor. Formerly only the hides were taken, and the rest left to perish on the spot. The mares are killed for their hides and hair alone. The flesh is useless, and is either burnt or thrown away. The proprietor pointed out to me a plot o f ground which he had formerly caused to be excavated to raise the ground of his premises, and the holes had been entirely filled up with mares’ flesh. Most of the men employed keep huge and disgusting swine, which they fatten on the flesh and blood thus obtained without stint. Thousands of sea-gulls whiten the air and the ground, revelling on the disgusting remains. The small quantity of fat procured from the flesh and bones o f the mares contains but little stearine or hard fat. Refuse.— The refuse is strained from it by hanging it in long bags, through which a clear though dark-colored oil drips out. This is chiefly used for burning in lamps. The furnaces are fed entirely with flesh, bones and refuse, and the stench which is produced from the reeking blood, the ammoniacal fumes from the scorching bones and other sub stances, are quite enough to sicken the strongest stomach. The residue or bone-ash has lately become a valuable export to Europe, where it is used as manure. Soap and candles are also made in these factories, for home consumption. Statistics.— In the three Partidos o f the province o f Buenos Ayres alone, there were, according to the returns o f 1858, 3,875,742 horses, 8,672,675 oxen and 1,385,280 sheep. In the year 1838 the number of horned cattle did not exceed four millions ; but since the pampas south of the Salado has been cleared o f Indians, and the country in general become more settled, the above enormous increase has taken place. The same with the sheep, the wool of which was formerly so coarse that 460 The Oil-Seeds o f Commerce. [November, it was only fit for carpets ; whereas, since the improvement o f the breed by a cross with fine-woolled sheep, it is largely exported for finer manu factures. The exportation for 1858 consisted o f 969,604 dry and 318,304 salted ox-hides, 68,874 dry and 120,757 salted horse-hides, wool to the amount o f 37,423 fardos, tallow, 240,362 cwt., besides horns, oil, bones and hair. The number o f ships in which these were exported was 404. THE OIL-SEEDS OF C O M M E R C E . I. .L inseed. II. R ape Seed. III. Ground N ut. IV. C otton-Seed Oil . V. D odder Seeds, Sunflower Seed, Cress Seed, N iger Seed, R amtil , R adish Seed, Safflower Seed. T he consumption of oil in the United States has increased much more rapidly than the supply, and this, indeed, is true in all parts of the world. The oil wells, now being dug in many parts of our country, and producing such extraordinary results, may, for a time, relieve this want, and oils may remain at present prices, which are materially greater than those of twenty years ago. W e perceive, by the following article from the London Farmers' Magazine, that the subject of oils is attracting much attention in Europe: G r e a t as has been the extension o f commerce and the progress o f agricultural supplies, within the last few years, they are yet far from commensurate to the wants o f Europe. It is, therefore, a wise provision that new discoveries ai'ise, either out o f the progress o f science or the extension o f foreign agriculture, to meet the increased demands. When the oils yielded by the whale fisheries declined, and, by their enhanced price, became expensive and inadequate to the wants o f the consumer, increased attention was given to the production and manufacture o f vegetable oils, and enormous quantities of oil-seeds, for crushing, from Europe and the East, and solid oils from Africa, were obtained. Even these, however, large as have been the imports o f late, were insufficient to meet the progressive demand ; and now additional supplies of rosin oil and mineral oils are coming forward, obtained either from coal or from asphalte and petroleum. The mineral oil springs in some of the States o f America have turned out complete fortunes to the owners o f the land, so cheap and abundant is the spontaneous supply from the wells sunk, and so easily is it purified. The vegetable oils, however, provide, and will long continue to do so, the bulk of the consumption. The importation o f the oil-seeds and oil-cake is a matter in which our readers necessarily take an interest, and therefore we may with pro priety draw attention to the growing trade. Four years ago, when writing on this subject, we gave the statistics o f the imports o f seed and cake for a series of years; but these, by comparison now, look exceed ingly trivial. In 1855 our imports o f linseed were but 757,000 qrs., and o f rape seed 162,352 qrs. Last year the imports were 1,255,000 qrs. o f linseed, and about 300,000 qrs. o f rape seed. So with oil-cake : the foreign imports, which in 1855 were but 80,659 tons, rose in 1860 to upwards o f 100,000 tons. 1861.] The Oil-Seeds o f Commerce. 461 Besides the two principal oil-seeds already named, we imported in 1859 about 183,000 qrs. o f poppy, sesame, sursee and unenumerated oil-seeds. The specific returns o f imports o f these for last year are not yet published by the Board o f Trade. W hile the consumption o f oil and oil-seeds was so much larger than usual last year, the stocks held are exceedingly small, and prices high. The manufacture of linseed oil in the United Kingdom, in 1860, was estimated at 65,000 tons, of which 33,700 tons were exported. The home production o f oil-cake was also considerably in excess of former years. The stock of rape seed held was only about 18,000 qrs. at the commencement o f this year, while of poppy and Niger seeds there were none on hand. Rape and seed oils, wo are told, continue to sustain the same prominent position in our markets they have done for years past, and, independent o f a large home make, 9,500 tons were imported into the kingdom last year. A new kind o f grease, made from rape oil, is now manufactured at Leipzic. The mass o f grease or fat is quite pure, without taste or smell, and, according to medical certificates, contains nothing in the least in jurious to health. In cookery it answers fully the purposes o f butter, with the advantage, that, instead of the usual quantity of butter, onethird in quantity o f this rape seed grease will suffice. The butter sold in London is bad enough, in all conscience ; and we therefore trust that, for edible purposes, the rape grease may be kept by our German friends. The ground nut, as it is popularly termed, the subterraneous fruit o f the arachis hypogcea, is now cultivated very extensively as an oil-seed, especially at the Gold Coast, Gambia and Sierra Leone, on the W est Coast of Africa. England imported, in 1859, 1,124 tons from the Gambia, 1,116 tons from Sierra Leone, and 147 tons from the Gold Coast. But large quantities are sent direct thence to France. Thus, in 1857, 13,554 tons o f ground nuts were exported, o f which 11,300 tons went to France and 1,300 to the United States. From Sierra Leone, 243,123 bushels were sent away, o f which 206,503 went to France. The French imports from their own African possessions are also considerable ; and it is stated that from 70,000 to 80,000 tons of ground nuts are annually received, chiefly at Marseilles. In the Southern States o f America its culture is much attended to, and there, and in parts o f the W est Indies, it is called pindar and peanut. In Brazil it is known under the name of mindoubi. In Natal and the Cape, as well as in the Indian Presidencies, the ground nut is now extensively grow n ; and in Spain and Algeria it is found to rank among the more advantageous objects o f field cultivation. The price has o f late been steady in our market for them, at £16 10s. per ton. The prepared oil, expressed from the seed or kernel, is o f the finest quality, and fit for some of the most delicate purposes to which oil is put. Under the name o f gingelly and teel, quantities o f sesamum seed are imported from India and Egypt, and occasionally from other quarters. The small seeds are o f all colors, varying from white to black. W hen care fully pressed, sesame oil is quite equal to the best olive. On the coast of Africa, and in some parts of the W est Indies, sesame is called bennie seed. Cotton-seed oil is now a large article o f commerce, its seed being abundant, and the difficulties o f removing the husk having been got [November, The Oil-Seeds o f Commerce. 462 over. In cotton seed the oil is in smaller proportion, and the albumi nous compounds larger than even in the best linseed cake. There are other seeds, o f less commercial importance, which are occa sionally used to obtain oil from, among which may be enumerated pump kin, melon and cucumber seed in India, and also under the name of agusi in Western A frica; dodder seeds, or gold o f pleasure, (camelina sativa,) in the South of Europe and Canada; sunflower seed, cress seed, Niger seed, the small black seed o f guizotea oleifera, called “ ramtil” in India ; radish seed and safflower seed ; (carthamus tinctorious ; ) the oil of this makes excellent soap. Mustard seed is also pressed for oil. W e have confined our remarks entirely to the oil-seeds properly so called, distinct from the oils obtained from nuts and other vegetable sources, -which furnish so large a proportion o f the supplies, as the palm, cocoanut, olive, bassias, vegetable tallow and wax, which can scarcely be looked upon, in an agricultural point o f view, as objects o f agriculture, although they are o f high importance, both to the producer of the oil, the merchant and the manufacturer. Professor A n d e r s o n well observed, som^'tirHe ago, that the intro duction o f new oil-seeds into commerce is a matter which very much depends upon the farmer; for, in the more familiar seeds, such as linseed and rape, the value o f the cake often exceeds half that o f the seed, and the price obtainable for it is a matter o f the utmost moment to the manufacturer, who cannot afford to use a seed unless he can sell the cake to the farmer. He must be guided also by the proportion of oil the seed will yield in the press, and hence a knowledge o f the quan tity o f that substance contained in them is o f importance to him. A knowledge o f the composition o f these oil-seeds is important also to the farmer, because it is quite possible that some of them may be sufficiently low-priced to permit them to compete advantageously with linseed, which is occasionally used, more particularly for feeding calves, although its high price necessarily restricts its employment. W e may, hereafter, touch upon the composition and comparative feeding properties o f the oil-cakes obtained from many o f these seeds, -whether home-made or imported. TRADE WITH THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. L ate London papers contain a despatch from the British consul at Lagos, and a copy o f a treaty o f commerce, signed by the king and chiefs o f Porto Novo, dated July 2d, authorizing British subjects to erect fac tories for collecting palm oil and other produce o f the country. Other privileges are conceded in fulfilment o f the treaty; a payment of two heads of cowries for every pound o f ivory exported from Porto Novo. A similar treaty was also concluded with the chiefs o f Badagry, the traders to pay one and a half head cowries on every 150 gallons of oil, and two strings o f cowries on every pound o f ivory exported from Bada g ry ; the payment of one head per thirty gallons hitherto charged on palm oil coming from Porto Novo, and all other charges and imposts on produce, to cease. The Seal Fishery o f Labrador. 1861.] THE SEAL FISHERY 463 OF L A B R A D O R . F rom a recent article in Harper's Magazine, entitled “ Three Months in Labrador,” we gather the following information respecting one o f the most important industrial pursuits o f the North country: The seal fishery of Labrador is valued at $1,500,000 per annum, and is wholly prosecuted by Newfoundland vessels, with the exception o f per haps a dozen that sail from Canada and other Provinces. The hunting ground lies between the 49th and 52d parallels of latitude, and the sea son of catching extends from March to May, inclusive. The average fare 'o f successful vessels is two thousand seals, though as many as eight thou sand have been taken; but o f upward of four hundred vessels that yearly engage in sealing not more than sixty make remunerative voyages, and many suffer heavy losses. Hence the business is altogether a lottery. Nevertheless, the chances o f large gains are so seductive that sealers’ berths, in vessels “ up for the ice,” command a premium of from $8 to $20. The men so engaged obtain their outfit (which includes clothing, guns, ammunition, &c.) on credit, the cost o f which is deducted from their earnings at the end o f their voyage; and they not unfrequently find a balance of $125 in their favor at the close of the season. Yet they are fortunate if, after their accounts are squared, they do not find themselves in debt to the vessel, or at least with empty pockets. The expense o f the outfit is borne by the owners of the vessel. The captain receives no wages, but is allowed a tare o f ten cents on every seal caught. When this is deducted, one-half fare is divided among the crew, and the other half falls to the owners. The average price per seal is $3 50. Consequently, a faro o f two thousand seals, worth $7,000, yields to the owners and crew $3,325 each, and to the captain $350. Sealing vessels are sheathed with iron and extra planked about the bows to protect them from the ice. On reaching the ground they are warped into channels cut through the ice, where they lie snugly moored until warm weather breaks it up. Then the sealers, singly and in small parties, each man armed with a heavy iron-spiked bat, and muffled to his eyes in furs, go forth in quest of victims. These lie quietly sunning them selves near their breathing holes, often a hundred together, uttering dole ful cries and frog-like croaks. Upon some hummock a sentinel is ever on the alert to warn o f approaching danger. But the hunters, creeping stealthily, and taking advantage of the wind and inequalities o f surface, rush upon them at the first alarm, dealing death-blows right and left among the affrighted herd, who wriggle hurriedly over the ice, and tumble floundering into their holes. The old seals generally escape, as their movements are wonderfully qu ick ; but many o f the young are killed. These are now dexterously “ sculped,” stripped of their blubber and pelts, which come off entire; the bloody carcases are left to glut the starveling bears and arctic foxes, and the pelts rolled up and dragged away to the vessel. After the ice breaks up the seals are shot from boats in open water, where they are found disporting. There are various kinds o f seals, among which are the harbor, ranger, jar, hood, doter, bedlamer, harpe, blue and square flipper; differing as 464 The Seal Fishery o f Labrador. [November, greatly in size and physiognomy as members o f tbe human family. There are canine and feline looking seals ; seals with round smooth heads crop ped like a prize-fighter’s, and seals with patriarchal beards and long flowing locks; meek pensive-looking seals, and seals fierce and long tusked; little seals three feet long, and monsters upwards o f eight feet in length, weighing a thousand pounds. Selah! The hood seal when attacked throws up a thick bullet-proof hood or shield before its face, and whichever way a gun is presented this defence is always opposed, the animal moving dexterously from side to side with every movement o f his assailant. An effective wound must be given directly under the ear, and it requires an expert marksman to hit him there. The h;irpe is most esteemed, and commands a market price of 87 to 88. He is a first-class pugilist, and always shows fight, rising on his hind flippers, dodging the bat skilfully, and often seizing it from his assailant’s hand. He is very tenacious o f life, and, when worsted, frequently feigns death. A t such times the unsuspecting sealer, stooping over to “ sculp” him, is liable to serious injury. Sometimes they have been completely disem bowelled. Seals whelp in March, and suckle their young. They are in good con dition at all seasons, but are seldom taken after July, as they migrate to more northern regions, returning in December. In early summer they are caught in strong, large meshed nets. They constitute an important article o f food to the settlers and Esquimaux, and to the latter are indis pensable. The blubber is exceedingly fat, and being cut into strips and thrown into vats, a large quantity o f oil is obtained by natural drainage. The residue is tried out by heat. It is extensively used for machinery, both in Europe and the United States, but is sold under a different name. Its value is about fifty cents per gallon. The Seals o f Spitsbergen.— A full-sized Spitzbergen seal, in good con dition, is about nine and a half or ten feet long, by six or six and a half feet in circumference, and weighs six hundred pounds or upwards. The skin and fat amount to about one-half the total weight. The blubber lies in one layer o f two or three inches thick, underneath the skin, and yields about one-half o f its own w'eight o f fine oil. The value of a seal, o f course, varies with the state o f the oil market all over the w-orld ; but, at the time o f which I write, oil being unusually cheap, they only aver aged five or six dollars apiece ; but still, the fact o f the animals being of some use contributed to render the chase of them much more exciting, as nothing can be more distasteful or unsatisfactory to the feelings o f a true sportsman than taking the life o f any thing which is to be o f no use when dead. From what I have heard, I am inclined to suspect that a good many o f the shipwrecks which happen in Spitzbergen are caused wilfully, in order to defraud the insurance offices. These vessels are principally insured in Hamburg, and, I believe, the rate of insurance is as high as seven per cen t.; although one would think that even that was little enough for the unavoidable risks o f such a dangerous voyage, without taking into consideration the impunity with which such nefarious pro ceedings as I have alluded to may be committed in those distant waters.— L amont’ s “ Seasons with the Sea-Horses.” The Cotton Culture in China. 1861.] THE COTTON CULTURE IN 465 CHINA. W e find an extract from F ortune' s work on China, giving an interesting account of the mode o f growing cotton in that extensive empire. That work states that the word cotton is derived from Kho-tcn, the name of the most western district of China, and it must have been cultivated there centuries before it was known to the western world. W e have no means of learning how much cotton is produced there, but probably more than is now produced in India, as its immense population is supplied mostly from home manufacture.— Editors o f Merchants' Magazine. T he Chinese or Nanking cotton-plant is the Gossypium herbaceum o f botanists, and the “ M ie wha" o f the northern Chinese. It is a branch ing annual, growing from one to three or four feet in height, according to the richness o f the soil, and flowering from August to October. The flowers are of a dingy yellow color, and, like the Hibiscus or Malva, which belong to the same tribe, remain expanded only for a few hours, in which time they perform the part allotted to them by nature, and then shrivel up and soon decay. A t this stage the seed-pod begins to swell rapidly, and, when ripe, the outer coating bursts and exposes the pure white cotton in which the seeds lie imbedded. The yellow cotton, from which the beautiful Nanking cloth is manu factured, is called “ Tze mie wha” by the Chinese, and differs but slightly in its structure and general appearance from the kind just noticed. I have often compared them in the cotton fields where they were growing, and although the yellow variety has a more stunted habit than the other, it has no characters which constitute a distinct species. It is merely an accidental variety, and although its seeds may generally produce the same kind, they doubtless frequently yield the white variety and vice versa. Hence, specimens o f the yellow cotton are frequently found growing amongst the white in the immediate vicinity o f Shanghae; and again, a few miles northward, in fields near the city o f Poushun, on the banks of the Yang-tze-kiang, where the yellow cotton abounds, I have often gathered specimens of the white variety. The Nanking cotton is chiefly cultivated in the level ground around Shanghae, where it forms the staple summer production o f the country. The district, which is part of the great plain o f the Yang-tze-kiang, al though flat, is yet several feet above the level of the water in the rivers and canals, and is consequently much better fitted for cotton cultivation than those flat rice-districts in various parts of the country— such, for example, as the plain of Ningpo— where the ground is either wet and marshy, or liable at times to be completely overflowed. Some fields in this district are, of course, low and marshy, and these are cultivated with rice instead of cotton, and regularly flooded by the water-wheel during the period of growth. Although the cotton land is generally flat, so much so, indeed, that no hills can be seen from the tops o f the houses in the city o f Shanghae, it has, nevertheless, a pleasing and undulating appearance, and, taken as a whole, it is perhaps the most fertile and agricultural district in the world. The soil is a strong rich loam, capable of yielding immense crops year after year, although it receives but a small portion o f manure. V O L . x l v .— n o . v. 30 466 The Cotton Culture in China. [November, The manure applied to the cotton lands o f the Chinese is doubtless peculiarly well fitted for this kind o f crop. It is obtained from the ca nals, ponds and ditches which intersect the country in every direction, and consists of mud which has been formed partly by the decay o f long grass, reeds and succulent water-plants, and partly by the surface soil which has been washed down from the higher ground by the heavy rains. Every agricultural operation in China seems to be done with the greatest regularity, at certain stated times, which experience has proved the b est; and in nothing is this more apparent than in the manuring of the cotton lands. Early in April the agricultural laborers all over the country are seen busily employed in cleaning these ponds and ditches. The water is first o f all partly drawn off and then the mud is thrown up on the adjoining land to dry, where it remains for a few days until all the superfluous water is drained out o f it, and is then conveyed away and spread over the cotton fields. Previous to this the land has been prepared for its reception, having been either plowed up with the small buffalo plow in common use in the country, and then broken and pul verized by the three-pronged hoe. In those instances where the farms are small and cannot boast o f a buffalo and plow, it is loosened and broken up entirely by manual labor. W hen the mud is first spread over the land, it is, o f course, bard or cloggy, but the first showers soon mix it with the surface soil, and the whole becomes pulverized, and it is then ready for the reception o f the cotton seed. Iioad-scrapings and burnt rubbish are saved up with care, and used for the same purpose and in the same manner. A considerable portion of the cotton lands either lie fallow during the winter months, or are planted with those crops which are ready for gathering prior to the sowing o f the cotton seed. Frequently, however, two crops are found growing in the field at the same time. Wheat, for example, which is a winter crop, is reaped in the Shanghae district gene rally about the end of May, while the proper time for putting in the cot ton seed is the beginning o f that month or the end of April. In order, therefore, to have cotton on the wheat lands, the Chinese sow its seeds at the usual time amongst the wheat, and when the latter is reaped, the former is several inches above ground, and ready to grow with vigor when it is more fully exposed to the influence of sun and air. The Shanghae season, that is, from the late spring frosts to those in autumn, is barely long enough for the production and ripening o f the cotton, as it is easily injured by frosts ; and the Chinese farmer is thus obliged, in in order to gain time and obtain two crops from his ground in one year, to sow its seeds before the winter crop is ready to be removed from the ground. When it is possible to have the first crop entirely removed before the cotton is sown, it is much preferred, as the land can then be well woi'ked and properly manured, neither o f which can otherwise be done. The method o f sowing one crop before the preceding one is ripe and removed from the land is very common in this part o f the country; and even in autumn, before the cotton stalks are taken out o f the ground, other seeds are frequently seen germinating and ready to take the place o f the more tender crop. In the end of April and beginning o f May— the land having been pre pared in the manner just described— the cotton seeds are carried in baskets to the fields, and the sowing commences. They are generally 1861.] The Cotton Culture in China. 467 sown broadcast, that is, scattered regularly over the surface o f the ground, and then the laborers go over the whole surface with their feet and tread them carefully in. This not only imbeds the seeds, but also acts like a roller to break and pulverize the soil. Germination soon commences, the seeds rooting first in the manure which had been scattered over the surface o f the land. In some cases, the seed, instead o f being sown broadcast, is sown in drills or patches, but this mode is less common than the other. These patches are often manured with bruised oil-cake, which is the remains o f the cotton seed after its oil has been extracted. The rains, which always fall copiously at the change o f the monsoon, which takes place at this season o f the year, warm and moisten the earth, and the seeds swell, and vegetation progresses with wonderful rapidity. Many of the operations in Chinese agriculture arc regulated by the change of the monsoon. The farmer knows from experience that when the winds, which have been blowing from the north and east for the last seven months, change to the south and west, the atmosphere will be highly charged with electric fluid, and the clouds will daily rain and re fresh his crops. The cotton fields are carefully tended during the summer months. The plants are thinned where they have been sown too thickly, the earth is loosened amongst the roots, and the ground hoed and kept free from weeds. If the season is favorable, immense crops are obtained, owing to the fertility o f the s o il; but if the weather happens to be unusually dry from June to August, the crop receives a check which it never entirely recovers, even although the ground after that period should be moist ened by frequent showers. 1845 was a season o f this kind, and the crop was a very deficient one compared with that of the previous year. The spring w'as highly favorable, and the plants looked well up to the month of June, when the dry weather set in, and gave them a check which they never recovered. Abundance of rain fell later in the season, but it was then too late, and only caused the plants to grow tall and run to leaf, without producing those secretions which ultimately go to the formation of flowers and seed. The cotton plant produces its flowers in succession from August to the end o f October, but sometimes, when the autumn is mild, blooms are produced even up to November, when the cold nights generally nip the buds, and prevent them from forming seed. In the autumn o f 1844 this happened on the night o f the 28th o f October, when the thermometer sank to the freezing point, and then ice was found on the sides o f the canals and ponds. As the pods are bursting every day, it is necessary to have them gathered with great regularity, otherwise they fall upon the ground and the cotton gets dirty, which, o f course, reduces its value in the mar ket. Little bands o f the Chinese are now seen in the afternoon in every field, gathering the ripe cotton, and carrying it home to the houses of the farmers. As the farms are generally small, they are worked almost entirely by the farmer and his family, consisting sometimes of three or even four generations, including the old gray-haired grandfather or great-grandfather, who has seen the crops of fourscore years gathered into his barns. Every member o f these family groups has a certain de gree of interest in his employment; the harvest is their own, and the more productive it is, the greater number o f comforts they will be able to 468 The Cotton Culture in China. [November, afford. O f course, there are many cotton farms of larger size, where laborers are employed in addition to the farmer’s family, but by far the greater number are small, and worked in the way I have just described. It is no unusual sight to see the family goats, too, doing their share of the work. Several o f these animals are kept on almost every farm, where they are, o f course, great favorites with the children, and often follow them to the cotton fields. Although the children, with their little hands, can gather the cotton as well as their elders, they are not strong enough to carry it about with them, and it is amusing to see their favorites, the goats, with bags slung across their backs, receiving the deposits of .cotton, and bearing it home to the houses, evidently aware that they too are working for the general good. However fine the crop may be, the Chinese are never sure o f it until it is actually gathered in. Much depends upon a dry autumn, for, if the weather is wet after the pods begin to burst, they drop amongst the muddy soil, and are consequently much injured, if not completely de stroyed. When the cotton reaches the farmyards, it is daily spread out on hurdles raised about four feet from the ground, and fully exposed to the sun. As the object is to get rid o f all the moisture, it is, of course, only put out in fine weather, and is always taken into the house or barn in the evening. W hen perfectly dry, the process o f separating it from the seeds commences. This is done by the well-known wheel with two rollers, which, when turned round, draws or sucks in the cotton, and re jects the seeds. It is a simple and beautiful contrivance, and answers well the end for which it is designed. The cotton is now sent to market, and a portion o f the seeds are reserved for the next year’ s crop. Early in the fine autumnal mornings the roads leading into Shanghae are crowded with bands o f coolies from the cotton farms, each with his bamboo across his shoulders, and a large sack of cotton swung from each end. W ith these they hurry into the town, for the purpose o f disposing o f them to the merchants, who have numerous warehouses from which they send the cotton to the other provinces of the empire. These coolies, or small farmers— for many o f them bring their own produce to market themselves— are very independent in their dealings. Having reached the first warehouse, the cotton is exposed to the view o f the merchant, who is asked what price ho intends to give for that particular quality; and should the sum offered be below the owner’ s expectations, he imme diately shoulders his load and walks away to another merchant. A t this season it is almost impossible to get along the streets near the sides of the river where the cotton warehouses are, owing to the large quantities of this commodity w’hich are daily brought in from the country. It is bought up by the large cotton merchants, who empty it out in their warehouses, and then repack it in a neat and compact manner before it is conveyed on board the junks. Before the cotton is converted into thread for the purpose o f weaving it is cleaned and freed from knots by the well-known process common in our possessions in India. This is done by an elastic bow, the string of which, being passed under a portion o f the cotton placed on a table, throws it into the air by the vibration which is kept up by the workman, and separates the fiber without at all breaking or injuring it. A t the same time the wind, caused by the sudden vibrations, carries off the dust and other impurities. After this process the Chinese cotton is particu 1861.] The Cotton Culture in China. 469 larly pure and soft, and is considered by good judges not to be surpassed by any in the world. It is much superior to that imported to China from Hindostan, and always commands a higher price in the Chinese market. Every small farmer or cottage reserves a portion of the produce o f his fields for the wants o f his own family. This the female members clean, spin and weave at home. In every cottage throughout this district the traveller meets with the spinning-wheel and the small hand-loom, which used to be common in our own country in days of yore, but which have now given way to machinery. These looms are plied by the wives and daughters, who are sometimes assisted by the old men or young boys, who are unfit for the field. Where the families are numerous and indus trious, a much greater quantity o f cloth is woven than is required for their own wants, and in this case the surplus is taken to Shanghae and the adjacent towns for sale. A sort o f market is held every morning at one of the gates of the city, where these people assemble and dispose of their little bundles of cotton cloth. Money is in this manner realized for the purchase of tea and other necessaries, which are not produced by the farms in this particular district. When the last crops are gathered from the cotton fields, the stalks are carried home for fuel. Thus every part o f it is turned to account; the cotton itself clothes them, and affords them the means o f supplying them selves with all the necessaries of life ; the surplus seeds are converted into o i l ; the stalks boil their frugal meals, and the ashes even— the re mains of all— are strewed over their fields for the purpose of manure. But even before this takes place, the system I have already noticed— of sowing and planting fresh crops before the removal o f those which occupy the land— is already in progress. Clover, beans and other vegetables are frequently above ground in the cotton fields before the stalks o f the latter are removed. Thus the Chinese in the northern provinces lengthen by every means in their power the period of growth, and gain as much as they possibly can from the fertility of their land. The reader must bear in mind, however, that the soil in this district is a rich deep loam, which is capable o f yielding many crops in succession without the aid of a particle o f manure. Nature has showered her bounties on the inhabi tants of the Chinese empire with no sparing hand; the soil is not only the most fertile in China, but the climate is capable o f rearing and bring ing to perfection many of the productions of the tropics as well as the whole of those found in all the temperate regions o f the globe.— F o r t u n e ’ s Tea Districts o f China, vol. 1, chap. xii. 470 THE The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. MANCHESTER A COTTON nnual R eport [November, SUPPLY ASSOCIATION. for 1 8 6 1. T he fourth annual meeting of the Cotton Supply Association was held in the Town Hall, Manchester, on Tuesday, the 11th June. J ohn Cheetham, Esq., President of the Association, occupied the chair. Among the gentlemen present were E dmund A shworth , Esq., Vice-President; M alcolm R oss, Esq., Treasurer; H ugh M ason, Esq.; J ohn P latt , Esq., Chairman o f the Manchester Cotton Company; H enry A shworth, E sq.; T homas E mmott, E sq .; W illiam W anklyn , E sq.; T homas Clegg, Esq.; W right T urner, Esq.; J osiah R adcliffe, Esq.; W illiam A rmit age, E sq.; J ohn Cheetham, Jun., E sq .; Dr. P orbes, of India; Dr. B eke, the Abyssinian trav eller; H enry J ordan, Esq., Commissioner from the Government of Queensland, Australia; Rev. Mr. T ownsend, from Abbeokuta, A frica ; Rev. J ames S tewart ; Rev. W . A rthur ; A. B inyon, E sq.; J. M. D unlop, E sq.; E dmund H owarth , E sq.; E. C. H oward , E sq.; Charles S chuster, E sq.; Dr. R assaerts, French Consul; R. A. B arlow , E sq .; W . H ayman, E sq . ; A. I reland, E sq. ; J. G arnett, Esq.; J oseph L eese, E s q .; J. S mith, E sq .; J. C. O llerensiiaw , E sq.; T. I I eppell, Esq., Engineer to the Madras Railw ay; D avid Chadwick , E sq.; Mr. G. R. H aywood , Secretary, <Scc., <!sc. M r . G. R. H a y w o o d , having read a portion o f the report which had been previously circulated among the gentlemen present, the Chairman said : Gentlemen : It is now four years since the association, whose claims we are this morning to advocate, appeared before the public of this town and neighborhood. The principle upon which that association was founded was, that it was unwise in a great manufacturing trade o f this country, upon the continuance and extension of which so large an amount o f population and o f varied interests were concerned— it was most unwise that year after year this great trade should continue in almost total dependence upon one source of supply for its raw material. It was further said, in reference to that principle, that that great source o f supply was connected with a mode o f employing labor which could not (if we are believers in truth and righteousness) ultimately be contin ued, but might, at some moment unexpected to us all— it was fondly hoped to be a distant period then— fail and break down, leaving us in the direst emergency. I certainly, for one, little thought that within four years from that time these two objects on which we formed this association would combine together to illustrate the soundness o f our principle and the wisdom o f our project. W e have had, after the largest crop o f cotton which America ever produced, as sudden a col lapse, larger in extent and amount than ever was similarly witnessed; and to that simple fact alone you have mainly owing the very considera ble advance which has taken place in the price o f the raw material. But we have, in addition, the totally unexpected and sudden spectacle of that country, arrayed into two hostile parties, and we look on with amaze ment, with regret and with terror, at the probable results which may flow 1861.] The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. 471 from this most unfortunate struggle. I know I speak your own senti ments when I say that every Englishman deeply regrets this struggle has taken place. W e may wholly and entirely abominate the continu ance of slavery in one section o f that country, but we at the same time cannot hut deeply regret its citizens should meet in hostile array, and we should see the unfortunate spectacle which that great republic now presents. I think the principles upon which we founded this association are not stronger to-day than they were at first, though probably they are more exten sively recognised. It is, however, a matter o f regret that in the district which is more especially interested in discussing this question of obtain ing a wider area for the supply of the raw material, we have so little o f the interest and excitement found in other parts o f the country. I have lately, with some other members of the Council, been on a deputation to London, and we found in every circle— whether the high circles of mem bers of parliament and the nobility, or amongst the different merchants in the city— the great and absorbing question asked, “ W hat are you doing in Lancashire, and what is to he the result there of this impending crisis in America ?” That being the case, I think you must admit the paragraph in the report which states that now at least the trade of this country ought to congratulate itself that this association has been formed, and is working so successfully, is based on most satisfactory evidence. Had you been called together unexpectedly in consequence of this great crisis in America, you would have been without experience on this ques tion ; you would have had no information such as that now presented to y o u ; and, being without any safe guide, the result probably would have been that you woidd have had various schemes totally unsound in their principles and objects, and which would have brought you into much trouble and loss, without achieving any of the objects at which they at tained. But your position now is this : Y ou are possessed of information from every part of the world where cotton can be cultivated, with the exception of one country— I allude to China. It may be, we cannot expect to have supplies of cotton from that country, because it is an opponent o f our selves in the Indian market; but as we are now opening up the interior of that country, it is thought desirable we should obtain some information on the subject, and our foreign secretary (Lord J ohn B u ssel l ) has kindly offered to send out instructions to our ambassadors and consuls to make inquiries for our guidance. W e are, therefore, in a position to show you what are the sources upon which you may rely in the emergency on which we are now entering. Let us, however, recognise, as we ought to do, the superior advantages which the American planter has over any other individual in the growth o f cotton. I am afraid we too often neglect this. W o see men lightly sitting down to write an article, and saying cotton can be grown in this country and the other, without seeing the formidable obstacles which are in the way. What is the position of the American planter ? In the first place, he has the pre-eminent advantage of being an Anglo-Saxon, endowed with all the enterprise, skill and energy connected with that character. He is planted in a country whose soil and climate are peculiarly adapted to the culture of cotton— a culture which extends from the very lowest to the very finest quality. He is, from his intelligence and position, ade 472 The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. [November, quately acquainted with the wants o f the consumer ; he knows as well as we do what we want. He lias the advantage of a country covered with roads, railways and water navigation ; he is able, with the greatest possi ble economy, to convey his produce to the port, and when he gets it there he has capital at hand to assist him in sending it on a short and speedy voyage to the great markets o f the world. Now this is the man we are called to contend w ith; and what are the places in the world in a condition to contend with this individual ? It does so happen that from the information which your association possesses, we find that there are only two spots on the globe that pos sess the very first requisite for cotton cultivation, and that is labor. Y ou have only the west coast o f Africa, and the great continent o f India, in which you have labor to employ. Every other country possessing soil and climate to grow a quality o f cotton equal, and in some respects superior to that which America produces, has to contend with the want o f labor. Take the case, first, o f our own West India colonies. There is no doubt you have there climate and soil for the production o f a most valuable quality o f cotton ; and, looking back forty or thirty years ago, a very considera ble supply was sent from those islands to this country. But since the abolition o f slavery there has been a want o f labor. Mr. C r o s s .— Before the abolition o f slavery. • T he C h a ir m a n .— Well, perhaps it w as; but since the abolition o f slavery there has been a want of labor, and I regret that our jealousy o f again encouraging the traffic should have been carried to the extent o f forbidding the planters a carefully guarded immigration of foreign labor to assist in the cultivation of the plantations. In addition to that, another and a more formidable difficulty presents itself in the fact that the culture of sugar and coffee are more advantageous to the planter than the culture o f cotton ; and, therefore, while I am glad to see any parties whatever di recting their attention to these colonies, yet still I see, in the absence o f labor, and in the presence o f more highly remunerative articles o f cultiva tion, too great difficulties to hope for any large supplies thence. The same argument applies to Natal. I have friends in that colony who give the best and safest information, and they say that capital and enterprise will be directed to the cultivation o f sugar and coffee. W e shall get small lots from thence, but we shall have nothing like a steady and abun dant cultivation o f cotton. Crossing over to Australia, we have there a climate and soil— especially in the colony o f Queensland— equal to the production of the finest and most useful qualities, and there are no other products to disturb the attention o f the cultivator. I have great hopes, therefore, with the immi gration o f Indian and Chinese coolies, that in the course of time some thing would be done there, and a large cultivation carried on. W e now come to South America. Forty years ago we were very largely depen dent upon Brazil for the supply o f a very valuable quality o f cotton ; but there the same element meets us as in the W est Indian Islands. You find the cultivation o f coffee and sugar more remunerative than that o f cotton, and the consequence has been that Brazil, which at one period furnished us with 200,000 bales annually, now only returns 100,000 bales, and I expect the supply from that quarter will gradually become nearly extinct. Chili and Peru also produce cotton. W e have had a gentleman from Peru here stating that their climate and soil are well adapted to the 1861.] The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. 473 cultivation o f cotton, and the small quantities which have come to us prove it. But they have no labor, and their government being opposed to the immigration of Chinese, they came to us to obtain our interest to procure the' services o f our own government to point out to theirs the advantages to be derived from bringing over the Chinese. Egypt is another cotton district. W ithin thirty years it has become a cotton country, growing a most valuable quality, and I believe is capable o f a very considerable increase. But though you have labor, you have a government not alive to its own interest, and other difficulties o f a kind which we are endeavoring to overcome. W e have decided that our commissioner shall proceed by way of Egypt to India, and, by the aid of our consul, show to the Pasha the great utility and prosperity that might result from his encouraging more largely the cultivation of cotton in his dominions. In Algiers, too, there is no question that you have a climate and soil adequate to the growth of very fine cotton. The French government has already been engaged in its cultivation, and some of the cotton grown there has been purchased by English spinners and found equal in quality to American. But, as I told a gentleman the other day in London, who said that they were getting up a joint-stock cotton company in Paris, they have no labor. The Arab is not a man who can be brought to that patient industry which such a cultivation requires; and the Emperor of the French, no doubt aware of this, and wishing to improve the cultivation of cotton, was most anxious to obtain that celebrated paragraph in the treaty with the Chinese which permits the free emigration of Chinese to other countries. Then we have Turkey. Some gentlemen in London are very anxious to turn their at tention to the cultivation o f cotton there. Your association has supplied seed and gins for the cultivation o f cotton in Syria, and we have had cotton sent us equal to the best New-Orleans samples; but here again we are beset by the difficulties o f misgovernment, and a total neglect of the precautions necessary to ensure the security of life and property, and thus it is unsafe in the present state o f things for any Englishman to ven ture his person and capital in the undertaking. It appears to me, then, that the energies of the trade at the present crisis should be chiefly directed to two places. The first I would allude to, where there is abundant labor, is the west coast of Africa, and a quality of cotton quite satisfactory, yet you are beset by a formidable difficulty. You are amongst a people rude, barbarous and uncivilized; you have hostile tribes frequently, as at the present moment, at deadly war with each oth er; and thus the efforts which my friend Mr. C l e g g has made, and which do him so much credit, and the efforts which this association have endeavored to make, are at the present moment in a great degree arrested by this unfortunate hostility and warfare amongst the tribes there. Then, again, you have the climate on the west coast of Africa, which is so detrimental to Europeans. I was told by Mr. C l e g g that he had lost either eleven or thirteen agents ; and this associa tion has lost the aid of three gentlemen to whom they had entrusted the carrying out of their views. Now, though I do hope to see in progress of time a considerable supply o f cotton from Africa, I despair o f its giving us any material assistance for some years to come. India, then, must be our chief reliance. It is calculated that the pres ent production o f cotton there is not less than 6,000,000 bales annually. 474 The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. [November, The country, too, is under our own government, so that we have that advantage which we do not possess in many others, and it has, also, an abundance o f free labor. W e have no question o f slavery to battle or grapple with, but at the same time there are most formidable difficulties there as compared with the position of the planter in America. In the first place, the cultivation is not in the hands o f the Anglo-Saxon; there is no such man scarcely in the cotton districts as an Englishman. The cultivator is the ryot, a small farmer holding a few acres o f land, and so poor that his seed has to be furnished by a banker, and when the crop arrives at maturity it is taken by this banker almost at his own price, which very seldom exceeds l j d . or l|-d. per pound. It is cleaned in a very imperfect way, and sold by the banker to a dealer. The dealer falsely mixes it and packs it for the purpose o f increasing his profit. Then, again, it is transferred from him to another dealer, undergoing a similar operation. When it reaches the hands o f the native dealer at Bombay, it is pressed in large presses and sold to the English merchant. There is, therefore, the absence o f European superintendence; and scarcely any produce whatever of the soil o f India arrives at any satisfac tory degree of cultivation without European superintendence ; while you have no roads to the seaboard, no water communication, no railways, although there is a probability that shortly some will be put to our use. These are the disadvantages under which you labor as compared with the American planter. There is another serious obstacle, and that, strange to say, under our own government. It was the understood and never-deviating principle of the Board o f Control that no land should ever be sold to a European. Y ou have, further, the jealousy o f the civil service against any intrusion on the part of the European trader, who was and is denounced as an in terloper. It is not at all surprising that under these disadvantages the cotton which you get from India is the worst grown in the whole world, that it fetches at all times the lowest prices, and when we come to talk to a great number o f consumers, and ask them to look to India for a sup ply o f cotton, they smile with incredulity, and say, if you direct your sympathies to any other part o f the globe, they may agree with you. Now we have, from the inquiries wdiich we have made, ascertained the possibility not only o f increasing the quantity o f cotton exported from India (which to my mind is quite a secondary consideration,) but also of realizing the other object which we have in view, and that is, elevating the quality to the standard o f American cotton ; so that in the event of a failure there, you have another country on which to rely. That is the great object we have in hand ; and unless that can be obtained, I should despair of India. W e are charged, however, with not giving a sufficiently remunerative price to the Indian ryot. This has been the old stock-song for the last twenty years with everybody— from the Indian secretary down to his most humble subordinate. Now, one would have thought that practical men of the world would have seen, in the quaint language o f H o d i b r a s , “ the value o f a thing is what it will b r i n g a n d if Indian cotton will not bring a fair price, it is because the planter does not grow that which the consumer wants. Y ou know last year there was a very abundant crop o f cotton in America— especially o f the inferior qualities; that the prices were comparatively lo w ; and that the very 1861 .J The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. 475 lowest of the American cotton, when clean, is far more suitable to the wants of the English spinner than Indian cotton. The consequence was, whilst last year the Indian export of cotton to Great Britain was 600,000 bales, the consumption here only reached to some 1'IS,000 bales ; so that had not the Russian, Germans and Swedes come in to take this cotton away, you would have had more than 400,000 bales piled up in the ware houses o f Liverpool, indicative o f its unsuitableness to the great propor tion of our own consumers. And this is not the case with last year o n ly ; but since 1855 we have received into the ports o f this country from India 2,974,000 bales, or an average annual import o f 496,000 bales, while our average annual con sumption during this time has only been 266,000 bales; so that you have had an excess o f imports over consumption annually o f 230,000 bales o f Indian cotton during this period. This excess has been carried away to the Continent; and so I find, while our annual consumption for the last six years has been 266,000 bales o f Indian cotton, that o f the Continent has been 286,000 bales. India, however, is capable o f producing a much larger quantity for exportation than 600,000 bales annually. The exports o f cotton from Bombay in the first four months o f the present year are double in amount o f those in the corresponding period of last year ; and if this is continued throughout the year, proba bly 1,200,000 bales may be shipped from thence. I think we may fairly calculate to receive in this country 900,000 or 1,000,000 bales from India during the year ; and I am happy to say there is a much larger propor tion o f it good cotton than has ever been received before. The associa tion is, therefore, turning its attention to India, but not to it exclusively. W e are ready to aid every other country which seems prepared to take up the cultivation o f cotton ; and it is singular that in the fourth year o f our existence our correspondence is increasing, our connections extending, and our labors increasing also. W e have already been enabled to devote the development o f this supe rior cotton cultivation in India, into the hands o f a limited cotton com pany, the chairman o f the executive of which is my friend, Mr. J ohn P l a t t , of Oldham, and I have no doubt there will be no want of energy in carrying out its operations. To facilitate these, it has been decided to send our secretary, Mr. H a y w o o d , to India, in the character o f a com missioner, and Sir C h a r l e s W ood has very kindly placed the services of Dr. F o rbes — who, I believe, is on the platform at this moment— at our disposal, and who will accompany Mr. H a y w o o d on his mission. Their object will be to establish first at Dharwar, where the cultivation o f NewOrleans seed is progressing, and afterwards in such other parts o f India as may appear suitable, a number o f English agents, probably those inti mately acquainted with the habits o f the natives and their language, to promote the cultivation of the higher classes o f cotton. I f we distri bute samples of these seeds, and offer for their cultivation a much higher remuneration to the ryots, we are told they will be quite as alive to the workings o f self-interest as any class o f people. Your association have thought it necessary to bring under the notice o f government the difficul ties which will impede the operation of the Cotton Company in India, and a deputation accordingly went a few days ago to London. W e have drawn the attention o f government to, and have petitioned both houses o f parliament upon three points, one o f which is, that if 476 The Manchester Cotton Supply Association. [November, Englishmen are to go into the interior o f India, and he connected in any way with the soil, we want an alteration in the existing law o f tenure. The soil o f India is invested really in the hands o f the goverment. It has been their policy, as I have stated, that no independent Englishman should ever he allowed to hold a fee simple in India. Well, we are try ing to break that down. W e find the old civilian notion still existing, but we are backed up by practical men who have resided in India, and it is gratifying to find men long acquainted with Indian habits and views strengthening us in the great work we are undertaking. W e ask, in the next place, that our agents shall be protected, in mak ing advances to the natives, by a simple and effective law for the enforce ment o f contracts. A t present there is not sufficient protection to pro perty or security for advances to the ryot. But the government say— “ W e are considering that question ; we will do all we can to aid you in that object.” And Sir C h a r l e s W ood has lately laid on the tables of the House of Commons a bill for improving the law courts o f India, more especially having a view to the introduction in the interior of English barristers as magistrates. I believe that this, if carried out, will be of very great assistance to us. Then, we propose to government a practical object in our present emergency. There is a portion of Central India, called Berar, very little known to Europeans. It is a large and widely-extended cotton-growing district. The cotton is chiefly consumed in the interior, but small quantities occasionally go to Calcutta for ship ment to China. The river Godavery flows through this district 600 miles to the sea; Its navigation is, however, impeded at several points by rocks, to remove which obstacles an outlay o f £400,000 or £500,000 would be requisite. W ere this effected, cotton might be brought from Berar to Coringa (the port of shipment) at a cost of one-eighth of a penny per pound. W e have, therefore, pressed this subject upon the govern ment, and our views have been supported by Sir C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n , the late governor of Madras, and Sir W il l ia m D e n is o n , the present governor. The great Peninsular Bailway Company are constructing a line to Nagpore, in Berar, a distance o f 560 miles from Bombay. B y this line cotton may be laid down in Bombay at a cost o f one-third o f a penny per pound (for freight;) so that in two directions this part o f Central India may be opened for the transmission o f produce for export. Sir C h a r l e s W o o d , whilst concurring with us as to the advantages to be derived from the opening o f the Godavery, feels himself committed to the completion of the railways now in progress in India, and has prom ised to use every effort for the completion o f this Berar line within the next two years. But already we find this and other railways are giv ing considerable aid in the transport of cotton, and that the native dealers readily avail themselves of their use ; and as they gradually ap proach completion, we may look for much greater facilities for the trans mission of cotton from the interior. I will only add, in conclusion, that in all the departments o f government with which we have been brought into connection, we have found the warmest interest existing as to the promotion of the objects of the association ; and when assistance can be rendered, we may rely upon its being done. The Commerce and N avy o f Belgium. 1861.] THE COMMERCE 4Y7 A N D N A V Y OF B E L G I U M . I. T he F lemings in tiie N inth Century. II. M aritime L a w of the E leventh Century. III. F lax and H emp C ultivation in the T welfth Century. III. T rade of E ngland, Scotland and I reland with the F lemings. W e are indebted to the London Athenmum, o f September, for a criti cism on the work o f V a n B r u y s s e l , on the Commerce and Navy o f Bel gium. The writer says that for the last half-century history has dwelt chiefly on the efforts that have been made by European nations for the advancement of their material prosperity, commercial and industrial. Never before was so much activity displayed in furtherance o f this object. Electricity and steam have given an impetus to the efforts of the people, and the result must be a revision o f the laws o f commerce and a reform of the tariff. The division of labor, which has only been applied hitherto to individuals, must from henceforth be made applicable to nations. But in order to understand what objects are more especially adapted for the purposes o f trade and commerce, we ought first to acquaint ourselves with the past traffic and navigation of each nation. This is what M. V a n B r u y s se l has attempted to do with regard to Belgium, from the time o f C aesar to the downfall o f the Low Countries in 1830. He has shown how much a small population, gifted with perse verance and energy, may effect in a few centuries. He begins by de scribing the knowledge possessed by the Morini, Menapii and others on the coast, in working iron, making cloth, coloring wood, and in manu facturing different varieties o f tissue. The inhabitants o f these countries were also good sailors, and at a very early period established Belgium colonies in England. When the Romans came they found many o f these colonies in Kent, Sussex, Surrey and elsewhere; the Venta Belgarium, which became the modern Winchester, was the centre and chief o f these establishments. Mr. W r ig h t , in his history, has shown that the Menapii went even to Ireland for commercial purposes at that remote period. The conquest of Gaul by C . e s a r put an end to this commercial activi ty, and it was not until long afterwards that the Belgians were again permitted to pursue their industrial occupations. The law prohibited the importation of certain products into Belgium, such as wine, oil and iron. The author here gives a detailed account of the different articles furnished by the Low Countries to Rome under the emperors. A t the decline of the Roman empire there was a long period during which commerce and literature were at a complete standstill in the north of Europe. Under C h a r l e m a g n e n ew regulations gave a fresh impulse and vigor to trade. It was then that, for the first time, was established the uniformity of weights and measures. Under his son, Louis I., we find Ostend mentioned as a small seaport. Ships of various kinds were al ready made use of for commercial as well as for warlike purposes, all of which are carefully described in the work before us. In the ninth century, says S ig e b e r t de G e m b l o u x , Antwerp had al ready attained a certain importance as a place of traffic. A n d e r s o n , in his “ History of Commerce,” shows that the Flemings had, from the year 836, held an interchange of products with Scotland, which the Scots 478 The Commerce and N avy o f Belgium. [November, found very advantageous, especially for the sale of their salt fish. The inhabitants o f Aldenbourg were, even at that time, in the habit o f going regularly into Wales on fishing excursions, hilling their fish with lances and arrows. About a century later, B a l d w in III., Count o f Flanders, instituted regular annual fairs in all the principal towns, which attracted a great many foreigners, and were instrumental in making Bruges, Courtrai, Calais and Thourout very prosperous cities. To prove the prosperity produced in Flanders by commerce, it suffices to show that twelve or fourteen rich Flemings helped W il l ia m o f Nor mandy in his conquest o f England, by supplying him with soldiers, ships and money. Among other names cited we find G il b e r t o f Ghent, P h il ip and H u m p h r e y o f Courtrai, B er tr a n d o f Melle, R ic h a r d of Bruges, and many more. M. T h ie r r y is wrong in saying, in his “ His tory o f the Conquest of England,” that the Count of Flanders refused all assistance to W il l ia m . The latter even promised to pay his father-inlaw an annual rent of 300 marks in silver as the price o f his supplies. This is stated by the English historian, M a l m e s b u r y , and the Flemish chroniclers, M e y e r , O n d e g h e rs t and D e s p a r s . Twenty ships "were equipped by Flanders for this expedition. After the conquest many Saxons o f noble birth took refuge in the Low Countries, and among others, the mother and the sister of H a r o l d . It is to be regretted that M. V an B r u y s s e l has not alluded to the latter, as her tomb, with an inscription giving the details o f her sorrows, was found some years ago among the ruins of the church of St. D o n a t , in Bruges. This circum stance was well worth mentioning. In such warlike times there were no laws for the regulation o f com merce. The first appears in the eleventh century after the conquest of Jerusalem b y G o d f r e y , o f Bouillon. He established what are called the assizes o f the kingdom o f Jerusalem, the second part of which relates entirely to the rights and duties o f maritime transactions. Under H e n r y I., of England, a considerable number o f Flemish manu facturers and tradesmen settled in Pembrokeshire, where they constructed a road of great extent, called Flemings' Way, to facilitate traffic. Their cleverness in weaving wool and flax was so remarkable, that G e r v a s iu s , in his chronicle, says that it was in them an inborn gift o f nature. T y t l e r , in his history o f Scotland, tells us, also, that the influx o f Flemish merchants at the end o f the twelfth century was one of the great causes o f wealth in that country; and M a c p h e r s o n , in his “ Annals o f Com merce,” states that they were the first who introduced the cultivation of flax and hemp into England, as is mentioned in a charter of Westminster, in 1175. A little later we find that some o f the cities o f Flanders possessed the largest emporiums o f merchandise to be found in all Europe. W il l ia m , the Breton, thus describes in his poem of the “ Philippidos” the amount of wealth in the harbor of Damme, when P h il ip A u g u stu s , king of France, came to attack Flanders -with 1,700 ships. He speaks of the port of Calais : “ The merchandise brought there by foreign vessels exceeds all belief. Masses of bullion, heaps o f oriental wools, wax, cloths, Hungarian furs, grain, wines from Gascony, iron and other metals, and a number of other products from England, which were collected at Damme preparatory to exportation into other countries, bringing large profits to speculators.” M r. B a z l e y ’ s Views o f Cotton. 1861.] 479 M. V a n B r u y s s e l gives interesting details on tlie forms o f the differ ent vessels o f the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and on the com mercial relations between Belgium and Europe during the same period. England, Scotland and Ireland traded with the Flemings in woods, lea thers, lead, coals, cheese and salt. They received from Norway various sorts of b ird s; from Denmark, horses; from Russia, furs; Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, sent wax and gold and silver in gots; from Aragon came saffron, rice, almonds, & c .; from Germany, wine, corn and iron. Fez, Tunis and Morocco traded in furs and sugar; Constantinople, in alum and fruits; Egypt, in spices; and from Palestine, Armenia and other parts, came silks and gold and silver cloths. The researches made by the author are very considerable. His long residence in London enabled him to examine the repositories o f ancient documents; and the reader will be rewarded for perusing this book, more amusing in parts than many works of fiction, and replete with in formation hitherto but little known to the public. THE A COTTOS GLANCE AT THE QUESTION. COTTON TRADE. By T. B azley , o f Manchester. W e reprint the extended remarks made by Mr. T h o m as B a z l e y , (M. P. for Manchester,) at the recent meeting of the British Association. The facts communicated by Mr. B a z l e y are valuable in themselves, but his ignorance of the political features o f the United States is somewhat curious, and no doubt leads some persons astray in their estimates of the workings o f commerce and legislation in this country. Mr. B a z l e y , for instance, says “ the North has robbed the South by unjust exactions for which he has no ground in fact. He alludes to the operation o f the tariff. Now it is well known that the South has not been forced to buy northern goods when it preferred foreign. The duties paid by the South amount, perhaps, to fifteen millions of dollars annually on foreign goods consumed by them, or about two dollars per head. It is the North, mainly, that pay the duties on iron, woollens, liquors, &c. The South has the same advantages, and even greater, in the establishment o f do mestic manufactures, and could (in a time o f peace) produce their own cotton goods as well as the North, if they thought proper. In fact, the South could manufacture cotton without the expense o f double freight, double commissions, double insurance and loss o f time, now involved in sending their raw cotton to remote parts, all which expenses are paid by the northern and European manufacturer on goods consumed in the southern States. “ A protective system has been fostered in the North, founded very exten sively upon the pirated inventions o f this country,” (England.) Here Mr. B a z l e y is equally at fault. I f he will recur to the history o f England for the past hundred years, he will find that it was by the protective system that England has built up her credit, wealth and greatness; and to this day 480 A Glance at the Cotton Trade. [November, maintains a tariff more severe than the “ odious” M o r r il l tariff, which is so loudly abused by English politicians and their press. Great Britain last year levied custom-house duties amounting to twenty-two millions sterling, or about $110,000,000. The United States, with a population two millions larger than that of Great Britain, has levied in no one year over sixty-four millions o f dollars. The ten years, from 1850— 1859, the aggregate custom-house duties levied by the United States were $531,000,000, or an average o f fifty-three millions of dollars; whereas Great Britain levied during the same period two hundred and fourteen millions sterling, or $1,070,000,000, or about double the former. Upon the single article o f tobacco, mainly exported from this country, Great Britain has levied, in ten years, duties to the amount of two hun dred and twenty millions o f dollars 1 This is far more than the duties levied by the United States upon all the goods imported from Great Brit ain. Indeed, England has no ground o f complaint against us as to the tariff. Let her reduce her custom-house duties to a level with our own and we will be content. Mr. B a z l e y ’ s remarks were as follow :— Ed. M. M. A century ago the population o f Manchester was below 30,000, whilst now 350,000 persons reside in and occupy it. Population and wealth have wonderfully increased and ramified to other places ; but now, in the zenith of prosperity, a mysterious hand has written upon our walls the words of caution and o f admonition. During the last fifty years upwards of 20,000,000,000 pounds weight of cotton from all sources have been consumed in Great Britain, and the value would probably be not less than £750,000,000 sterling, or might equal a sum of the amount o f our national debt, the chief supply having been obtained from the United States of America, Upon a fair computation, the import o f that mate rial, which has so largely employed the capital and labor o f this country, has yielded a profit of not less than £1,000,000,000 sterling to the people of the United Kingdom within that period. The wonder is that so large a supply of cotton could be procured from that one source, the United States ; and when we reflect that this country possesses a monopoly of the vast extent of territory found in the whole world capable of producing this raw material, the inference is most palpable, that there has been de veloped the most successful agricultural industry in the States o f America, which has been either ever contemplated or realized ; whilst in British colonies and dependencies apathy and neglect have prevailed. If the legislature had little sympathy with the great industry o f Lancashire, the interests o f our foreign possessions might have induced our rulers to stimulate productions in them, which would have found compensating markets at home. The advocates o f large and o f independent supplies o f raw cotton, from all possible sources, have never desired governmental favors, their object having been to promote the removal o f repressing obstacles, and to pro cure, by the aid o f a sound colonial policy, at least a fair share, in pro portion to the extent o f our foreign possessions, of not only cotton, but o f every other product which they might more abundantly have yielded. During the last year the consumption of cotton in Great Britain was 85 per cent, from the United States, 8 per cent, from other foreign sources, and 7 per cent, from British territory. The present position of the trade is most precarious and dangerous. Existing stocks and prospective supplies o f cotton may enable the mills 1861. ] M r. B a z l e y ’ s Views o f Cotton. 481 to be worked into the spring o f next year, at moderately full time ; but afterwards, unless supplies be received from the United States, independent sources can only furnish the means o f keeping the mills at work little more than one day in the week. W ith the growth of this industry 5,000,000 of our population have become, directly and indirectly, de pendent upon it for their subsistence; and the productiveness o f their capital and labor, including the raw material, was, for the last year, nearly eighty million pounds sterling. O f this large value twenty-five millions of cotton manufactures were absorbed in the consumption of the people of the United Kingdom, and there remained for exportation fifty-five millions. The estimated capital engaged in its fixed and floating investments is two hundred million pounds. Now, when we contemplate the vast in terests involved in this surprising trade, seeing that the people employed and connected with it exceed the population o f the kingdom of Belgium, of Holland and of Portugal; that the national treasury receives from it an amazing sum in aid of the expenses o f the State; that a commercial marine of unparalleled magnitude derives support from i t ; that the com fort and happiness o f the laborers employed in it are imperilled by any indications which threaten to disturb its existence and prosperity ; and that its suspension, or serious curtailment, would even endanger the gen eral w eal; we may well inquire what efforts have been made to sustain the usefulness, prosperity and permanency o f this source o f national riches. That the cotton trade should have rested chiefly upon the one supply of the States of America for its very means of existence, every good and every wise man has deplored; but that to produce that supply the por tion of the human family which is most defenceless should be held in the degradation of slavery is abhorrent to the feelings of the righteous, of the humane and of the benevolent. Most effectually to suppress slavery will be to supersede the necessity for the labor o f the slave, and if the chiefs of Africa could be induced to cultivate sugar, cotton and to bacco upon their own soil, they need not expel and degrade their la borers. O f the commercial policy o f the United States o f America censures can scarcely be too severe. In the Northern States protection has pre vailed, and the people o f the South have been compelled to pay extrava gant and monopolist prices for the manufactures produced by their own agricultural labor, and which, in the form o f cotton, has been received in this country free from every tax. The North has robbed the South by unjust exactions, and the South has robbed the negro of life and liberty ! W hy the British manufacturer has tamely submitted to an import tax of 30 per cent, upon cotton goods entering the States of America, whilst the raw cotton, the growth o f those States, has been received here free from tax or impost, without making an effort to procure supplies of his raw material from free labor, with the right to send free exports in ex change, can only be accounted for by the anxiety to possess an apparent immediate benefit at the cost of advantages more enduring, but which could only be regarded as of prospective or future possession. Partial and unjust government has at length reaped the fruit of con vulsion, and for which unjust policy had sown the seed. The North has taxed for its own protection and advantage the people o f the South and YOL. XLV.-----NO. V. 31 482 A Glance at the Cotton Trade. [November, their industry ; and the South has held in degradation, oppression and slavery the laborers who have enriched their owners. Mutual wrongs have been committed, and hitherto no just object appears before the world as a cause o f the lamentable struggle which is exhausting both of them. But slavery is doomed. A protective system has been fostered in the North, founded very ex tensively upon the pirated inventions o f this country, and by the agency o f which our manufactures have been largely excluded from the markets of the States. Even their very literature has been abstracted from the intellectual faculties of those in their fatherland who have only their cul tivated minds and soul-breathing thoughts for their inheritance. In addition to these grave reasons, which mainly affect the morality of the States, this country has been paying a tribute o f five million pounds sterling per annum to those States in excess o f the price at which cotton could be remuneratively produced and sold. W ith the convulsion which exists in America, with the adverse commercial policy dominant there, and with the inhuman system of slavery which prevails in the cotton pro ducing districts, what are the duties which devolve upon our governing and mercantile classes ? I f by the convulsion of the States we are taught our national as well as commercial duties, the lesson will be ultimately beneficial. Whether it has been wise for our government to see continually in creasing the dependence o f this great trade upon the one chief supply of its raw material, and that source adverse in interest, and oppressive to its own labor, we can only answer in the negative. W ith the East and W est Indies, with tracts in South, East and W est Africa, and with land in Australia as extensive as Europe, capable of growing cotton from the lowest to the highest qualities, it is a national reproach to us that we have permitted our own fields to be uncultivated, and that our spinners and manufacturers have been driven by necessity to consume the produce o f slavery. Lacking the means of communication and of irrigation, the resources o f the East Indies remain in much the same dormant condition in which they have been for two thousand years; but brighter prospects are open ing in that great dependency; railways are being constructed, canals formed, river navigation improved and works o f irrigation promoted. One great defect is, however, retained with perverse tenacity. The tenure o f land is obstructive alike to the rights o f individual ownership, and to its effective cultivation. W ithout doing the slightest wrong to the hold ers of any land, its equitable transfer might be sanctioned, and a landed proprietary as influential as in our own country might be established. Protection to life and the rights o f property, with every other just ad junct o f good government, will inevitably lead to prosperity. Small supplies of cotton, as good as that obtained from New-Orleans, are now received from India, and the cotton of this vast dependency is certainly im proving; but wdiilst, from a combination o f circumstances and causes, the ryot of India is only paid 12s. per acre for his crop of cotton, and the American cultivator can obtain £12, the energy and ca pability of the former cannot be developed. Supposing efforts to be made commensurate with indicated difficulties, all the common cottons, or 75 per cent, o f the consumption o f Great Britain, might be obtained from India in a couple o f years. From Egypt the supply of cotton may 1 8 6 1 .] M r. B a z l e y ’ s Views o f Cotton. 48 3 increase, but there the withering influence of the despot retards its ex tended cultivation, though the spirited, energetic and successful enter prise of M e h em et A l i is an example deserving the imitation o f better men. He introduced that agricultural industry into his vice-royalty, and founded a fountain o f wealth whence flow millions o f annual income to the advantage of Egypt. For all the finer, higher and better classes o f cotton, from New-Orleans, Brazil and Egypt, to the most beautiful Sea Island, Queensland, in Australia, might quickly afford all requisite supplies. That territory alone, besides sustaining the population o f Europe, could easily be made to produce all the cotton now consumed in the w orld ; but so sweeping a change and enlarged production need not be deliberated upon, the facts being only referred to as illustrating the powers of that colony. In seek ing from the government the development o f the resources o f the colo nies, the two-fold advantage would arise of which that power would finan cially be greatly benefited, alike at home and in the colonies. Govern ment must set its colonial house in order. Land grants for beneficial purposes should be free, facilities afforded for emigration, public works promoted, and prosperity will follow in the train. Capitalists, merchants and manufacturers, whose investments are largely embarked in the cotton trade, have duties devolving upon them. These bodies are known to have large investments in foreign railways, in the cultivation o f sugar and other products, and in many dubious se curities ; but in the cultivation o f the staple raw material of their own pursuits they have not ventured to embark. Last year the cotton trade contributed to capital and labor fifty million pounds sterling, and in the last fifty years the aggregate reward has been one thousand millions. Surely from these treasures might be spared some pittance o f capital to free the negro, and to insure still greater prosperity to industry. Supposing the government of our country to be willing to make all the preliminary arrangements which will contribute to the security and profit o f capital invested in cotton growing, the clear duty o f the class referred to will be to enter upon investments with no niggard hand; and, for their encouragement, it may be mentioned that very recently an ex tensive Louisiana cotton planter has asserted that he could grow cotton at 3d. per lb. which is now worth 9d. per lb. in Liverpool, and o f course he has had to buy his laborers, and afterwards to sustain them. The confessed profit is 200 per cent., but, in all sobriety of judgment, cotton growing would afford 100 per cent o f recompense. Here, then, the governing, the capitalist, the mercantile and the man ufacturing classes have duties in common to perform, and from which none of them should withhold their willing help. Upon this subject the warning voice has been long and often heard, and the present embarrass ment in cotton supplies has been anticipated. Having, therefore, been forewarned, may this great and world-benefiting industry be forearmed. 484 [November, A nn u al R eport on Breadstuffs. ANNUAL REPORT ON B R E A D S T U F F S . T h e export o f breadstuffs, domestic as well as foreign, is one of the first importance to this country ; it is especially so to the city and State o f New-York in the present condition o f the financial and commercial affairs o f the nation. From the port of New-York alone were exported to foreign countries, in the single month of August, 1861, (being the close o f the cereal year,) no less than 297,000 barrels o f flour, 2,389,000 bushels o f wheat and 2,338,000 bushels of Indian corn, valued at over six millions of dollars. In order to present this subject to our readers in its full breadth, w e copy from the annual circular of Mr. E d w a r d B ill the following tabular statement of the export o f breadstuffs, from this and other ports, to Great Britain and Ireland, for the past year, compared with fourteen former years, viz., 1846-1860 : E xport of B readstuffs to G reat B ritain and I reland , from S eptember 1, 1860, to S eptember 1, 1861. Bushels Bushels Barrels Barrels Corn. Wheat. From Flour. Corn Meal. N ew -York,........................... Kew-Orleans,....................... Philadelphia,......................... B altim ore,........................... B oston,................................. Other ports,......................... . . . 1,775,338 .. . .. 179,427 . . ... 1 9 2 ,1 7 5 .. ... 1 2 7 ,0 3 1 .. ... 126,846 . . ... 160,844 . . One year to Sept. 1, 1861,. . . . 2,561,661 . . “ “ I860,. . . . 717,156 . . “ “ 1859,. . . . 106,457 . . “ “ 1858,. . . . 1,295,430 . . “ “ 1857,. . . . 849,600 . . “ “ 1856,. . . . 1,641,265 . . “ 1855,. . . . 175,209 . . “ “ 1854,. . . . 1,846,920 . . “ “ 1853,. . . . 1,600,449 . . “ “ 1852,. . . . 1,427,442 . . “ “ 1851,. . . . 1,559,584 . . “ “ 1850,. . . . 5 7 4 ,7 5 7 .. “ “ 1849,. . . . 1,137,556 . . “ “ 1848,. . . . 182,583 . . 1847,. . . . 3,155,845 . . 3,266 . . 20,541,073 . . 996 . 66,767 . . . 1,593,416 . 969,084 . 48 . 13,032 . 106 . . 2,369,998 . 8,653,569 1,464,267 704,447 853,200 14,100 16,451 .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11,705,034 2,221,857 342,013 3,317,802 4,746,278 6,731,161 6,679,138 6,049,371 1,425,278 1,487,398 2,205,601 4,753,358 12,685,260 4,390,226 17,157,659 4,416 . 944 . . 58 143 . 685 . 6,816 . 4,768 41,726 . 100 . 1,680 . 5,620 . 6,411 82,900 . 108,534 844,187 . Total for fifteen years,... ...18,831,914 . . 1,108,988 To the 25,553,370 4,938,714 439,010 6,555,643 7,479,401 7,956,406 324,427 6,038,003 4,823,519 2,728,442 1,496,355 461,276 1,140,194 241,309 4,000,359 . 74,176,428 . . 85,897,434 Continent, from N ew -Y ork and OTHER PORTS. Barrels Bushels Bushels Flour. Wheat. Corn. One year to Sept. 1, 1861,. . . . 142,129 . . 3,452,496 . . " “ I860,. . . . 49,243 . . 178,031 “ “ 1859,. . . . 51,388 . . 57,845 “ “ 1858,. . . . 303,100 . . 390,428 “ “ 1857,. . . . 483,344 . . 2,875,663 . . “ “ 1856,. . . . 748,408 . . 2,610,079 . . “ “ 1855,. 7,763 .. 4,972 . . Total for seven years,.. 101,145 19,358 25,519 16,848 543,590 282,083 308,428 ...1,785,375 .. 9,569,504 . . 1,296,971 Barrels liye. . 347,258 13,100 . 216,162 . 1,975,178 35,569 . 2,587,267 F rom Canada to G reat B ritain and I reland, via St. L awrence. Barrels Flour. Bushels Wheat. Bushels Corn. Bushels Peas. Bushels Barrels Oats. OatrnH. Jan. 1 to Aug. 22,1861,___ 369,648 3,221,277 134,196 1,236,218 289,273 17,929 F L O U It — B b i s . 1859-60. 1858-59. 1857-58. 1856-57. 1SS5-56. 1854-55. 1853-54. 1852-53. 1851-52. 1850-51. 1849-50. September,......... October,.............. November,.......... December,.......... January,............. February,............ August,............... 251,688 270,892 228,678 187,565 168,959 186,868 171,539 211,140 200,068 271,593 2S1,779 297,243 79,422 141.157 126,641 139,589 49.138 34,635 69,193 83,445 103,810 177,377 221,607 239,236 92,851 140,238 75,906 58,266 30,930 36,120 49,140 71,168 65,492 56,300 11,342 75,006 80,776 169,506 171,3S6 104.5S4 125,720 108,982 73,553 124,790 111,604 162,877 173,30S 140,708 103.202 193,896 244,639 205,S08 110,546 94.305 119,665 80,128 78,685 53,188 59,919 58,869 111,471 193.961 221,373 207,052 180,839 126,048 89,411 74,875 124,952 329,348 293,185 217,754 24,302 34,687 49,757 56,188 72,794 30,244 22,474 40,390 37,608 20,834 33,087 36,240 197,482 261,143 410,258 395,239 208,700 132,213 85,052 67,103 70,390 96,052 87,246 32,580 125,246 122,974 106,663 112,010 115,746 101,927 157,135 146,117 63,294 145,008 187,632 164,963 122,336 S4.339 143,460 74,504 39,336 61,263 62.612 76,750 142,606 149,583 180,306 124,857 215,084 141,6S7 155,268 96,555 49,855 28,002 27.649 44,805 97,286 97,466 231,084 268,833 74,575 45,286 69,145 80,160 56,302 33,007 27,181 23,331 29,276 55.406 47,921 148,462 Total,........... 2,728,012 1,465,250 762,759 1,547,794 1,402,850 2,169,769 459,145 2,043,458 1,548,715 1,261,952 1,453,574 690,052 1853-54. 1852-53. 1851-52. 1850-51. 1849-50. 551,883 684,688 471,289 441,246 261,896 112,801 189,302 276,842 172,179 390,976 597,092 520,200 204,864 118,866 817,743 152,585 88,819 103,554 120,608 136,142 165,617 82,044 279,122 206,986 64,226 103,229 265,822 164,227 23,641 ’ 986 1,485 12,675 61,806 930,528 1,502,881 1,809,908 1,491,907 661,676 288,621 299,965 43,558 63,530 807,302 145,209 77,853 40,693 20,081 65,755 60,525 192,096 270,665 27,283 41,716 69,610 116.577 88,802 14,568 2,010 3,138 255,849 7,622,938 4,669,844 1,976,950 1,270,960 May,................... E x p o r t o f W H E A T - I t u » h c * l « —fro m N e w -Y o r lt . Months. 1860-61. 1859-60. September,.......... October,.............. November,.......... December,........... January,.............. February,............ March,................ April,.................. May,.................... June,................. July,................... August,............... 2,228,924 2,600,226 2,472,162 2,027,145 832,169 1,060,995 972,6SS 999,843 1,729,108 3,577,243 2,968,999 2,889,645 79,839 144,408 117,112 50,196 59,299 25,842 175,878 356,010 792,926 1,401,791 1,743,045 Total,........... 28,859,147 4,946,346 1858-59. 1857-58. 1856-57. 1855-56. 132,890 174,670 124,815 9,787 10,759 5,990 600 1,567 3,000 9,026 14,184 620,622 694,241 910,269 468,325 180,631 17,358 33,257 127,743 405,680 1,171,513 672,939 385,298 1,099,029 1,829,131 2,057,913 1,464,201 239,994 177,179 270,061 138,708 75,092 130,698 182,9S0 112,509 277,583 947,569 1,214,102 1,011,626 360,531 209,384 143,374 79,159 248,523 910,765 1,291,599 1,214,167 487,288 I 5,696,876 7,772,495 7,968,882 1854-55. 16,953 13,728 103,032 41,541 3,643 11,640 100 45,954 874,898 485 1860-61. Annual Report on Breadstuffs. Months. 1861.] In order to show the breadstuff's trade of this port alone, as indicated by its foreign exports, we extract from the New- Yoi'h Shipping List the following elaborate monthly table of exports of breadstuff's to all foreign ports from New-York city, from Sept. 1 to Aug. 81, for the following years: 486 A nn u al R eport on Breadstuff's. [November, E x p o r t © f C O R N —B u s h e ls —fr o m N e w - Y o r k . M onths . 1860-61. 1859-60. 1858-59. 1857-58. 1856-57. 1855-56. September,.............. October,.................. November,.............. December,.............. January,.................. February,................ March,..................... April,...................... May,....................... June,...................... July,........................ August,................... 189,726 260,098 599,531 851,870 613,261 603,751 789,664 1,057,004 799,151 768,968 397,276 2,838,429 12,175 7,923 2,610 9,086 4,149 23,561 70,321 105,786 483,930 877,573 175,386 147,371 72,861 200,735 93,173 15,560 5,789 20,775 19,298 21,701 16,739 19,480 33,684 16,729 175,126 190,068 87,634 49,190 144,684 256,797 412,406 456,814 142,331 109,529 19,263 13,244 858,727 383,888 880,632 237,540 142,642 311,701 681,560 357,528 135,993 21,678 18,557 76,089 357,242 130,407 206,279 332,165 295,293 221,608 401,202 557,506 348,795 300,716 97,636 256,657 Total,................... 9,268,729 1,919,871 536,524 1 2,057,086 3,606,535 3,499,506 M onths . 1854-55. 1853-54. 1852-53. 1851-52. 1850-51. 1849-50. September,.............. October,.................. November,............... December,.............. Januarv,.................. February,................ March,..................... April,...................... May,........................ June,...................... July,....................... August,................... 193,857 490,118 880,573 750,583 508,859 320,097 383,834 168,314 86,307 437,828 778,485 333,414 19,890 26,004 144,168 364,175 453,311 726,711 591,358 8S3,959 360,759 488,415 109,231 124,111 20,914 11,517 5,743 12,208 30,956 122,716 184,860 118,426 65,963 42,275 12,086 8,893 30,008 114,095 114,814 8,073 42,199 50,823 78,819 107,255 190,126 104,609 105,538 33,861 51,518 24.671 18,943 49,345 53.672 42,809 25,065 67,308 510,507 424,337 175,895 111,441 61,978 193,131 145,805 70,792 97,662 522,423 463,141 360,084 414,529 419,525 119,072 11,936 Total,................... 5,327,269 3,792,092 636,557 980,220 1,555,521 2,880,018 F oreign E xports of F lour, W heat ant> C orn, for the Y ear ending A ugust 31, 1861, from the P ort of N e w -Y ork . F lour. Average, Total value. price. Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, July, Aug., 1S60,. . “ .. “ .. “ .. 1861,. . “ .. u . “ ... “ ... . . u . W heat. Average Total price. value. Corn. Average Total price. value. 251,688 $5 85 $ 1,472,374 2,228,924 $1 30 $ 2,897,601 189,726 68 c. $ 128,014 270,892 5 75 1,557,629 2,600,226 1 22 3,172,275 260,098 66 171,665 228,678 5 70 1,303,465 2,472,162 1 28 3,164,367 599,531 70 419,672 984,716 2,027,145 1 15 2,331,217 851,870 66 187,565 5 25 511,122 963,066 832,169 1 26 1,048,533 613,261 72 441,548 168,959 5 70 422,626 186,868 5 60 1,046,461 1,060,995 1 26 1,336,853 603,751 70 943,464 972,688 1 25 1,215,860 789,664 68 536,971 171,539 5 50 739,903 211,140 5 60 1,182,384 999,843 1 28 1,279,7991,057,004 70 543,423 200,068 5 50 1,100,004 1,729,108 1 25 2,161,385 799,151 68 438,312 271,593 5 50 1,493,761 3,577,243 1 20 4,292,692 768,968 57 214,529 281,779 4 50 1,268,006 2,968,999 1 00 2,968,999 897,276 54 297,243 4 75 1,411,904 2,389,645 1 00 2,389,645 2,338,429 48 1,122,446 12 months,..2,728,012 $ 14,727,234 23,859,147 $28,259,226 9,268,729 $ 5,690,231 487 Journal o f Agriculture. 1861.] JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE. I. T he B ritish H arvest. II. T he I mportance of a Good H arvest . III. Guano D iscoveries. IY . F lax C ulture. THE BRITISH HARVEST 1861. OP T h e latest accounts received, with respect to the harvest, are n o t satis factory. The wheat crop is deficient in the number o f sheaves, and the weight, after threshing, is inferior to that o f a fair average crop. Many fields o f wheat are injured by rust, and in other places the corn on the ground has heated. The farmers who cut their wheat before it arrived at maturity have suffered least. These unfavorable accounts have pro duced an effect on the Paris flour-market, and sellers are now slow in presenting themselves. Even bakers have consented to pay one franc the sack more than in the preceding week. THE IMPORTANCE OP A GOOD HARVEST. The cost o f British imports o f grain of all kinds, as well as flour for the last seven years, were, in the year 1854, __£21,760,283 1855, __ 17,508,700 .. .. 1856,_____£23,039,422 . . 1857,____ 19,380,567 . . 1858,____£20,152,641 1859,___ 18,042,033 making a total in six years o f £119,833,676, andan annual average o f £19,980,613, paid for foreign grain and flour, while in the year 1860 the cost amounted to the enormous sum o f £31,671,918, mainly owing to the bad harvest in England ; but these figures do not represent, by any means, the full extent to which we are still subjected by the harvest o f 1860. They only show what a large sum o f money we have paid ; but the payments in that year were not near so heavy as they have been since. The official information, brought down to the end of April, makes the value of the grain and flour imported in the first four months o f 1859, £4,384,045 ; 1860, £3,913,001, and 1861, £12,435,435, by which it will be seen that we have been paying for the first four months o f the current year at the rate o f £37,306,305 per annum, or £8,522,434 more for breadstuffs than in the same period o f 1860.— London Times, Aug., 1861. GUANO DISCOVERIES. B y accounts recently received from Sydney, it appears that the guano, discovered some time since on Flat Island, in Port Philip Bay, is now in much use, the difference o f price between this guano and that imported from the Chincha and other islands on the coast o f Peru being very con siderable, the former being five guineas per ton, while the latter com mands from £15 to £16. Experienced navigators aver that large de 488 Journal o f Agriculture. [November, posits of that article are to be found upon the many uninhabited spots on the South Sea Islands. Samples from some places in the South Pacific, brought by American vessels, have been analyzed with even more favor able results than those o f the Flat Island. In one analysis o f the latter, the highest per centage of that fertilizing substance, phosphate, was 43.03, whilst the former shows a much superior per centage, and is as follow s: Phosphate and carbonate o f lime, 6 5 ; moisture, 2 8 ; organic matter, 5 ; saline matter, 2— 100. It is devoid o f smell in consequence o f its deficiency o f ammonia. Flat Island guano, on its first introduction into Victoria, met with much prejudice; but its extensive use now has re moved this erroneous impression. Government, as well as the Board of Agriculture, have been furnished with various analyses, which all agree as to the efficacy o f Flat Island guano. The cargo o f guano, the analysis o f which is given above, was brought from M‘Keen’s Island, one o f the Phoenix group, in 4° south latitude, 176° west longitude. Other cargoes have been brought from Baker’s Island, 13 miles north o f the equator, 23° south latitude, 176° west longitude. FLAX CULTURE. An adjourned meeting o f the prominent citizens o f Niagara county, and others interested, was held at the American Hotel, Lockport, in August last, to hear the report o f a committee appointed to ascertain the facts in regard to the culture of flax in that locality, and to confer with the “ American Flax Company.” The practical conclusions o f the com mittee may be gathered from the follow ing: That from the best information they could obtain from farmers and publications upon the subject, a fair average yield o f dry straw after the seed has been threshed off, is a ton and a half per acre, and ten bushels of seed, although two tons o f straw and eighteen bushels o f seed have frequently been raised upon an acre of land. That the lands o f this county and the adjoining counties o f Erie, Orleans and Genesee, are well adapted to the growth o f flax, and that the crop in these counties would be highly remunerative to the farmers. W e do not regard it as a pecu liarly exhausting crop, and it has the great advantage of keeping the land clean and free from weeds, and is a good crop to seed with, either for timothy or clover. After hearing the report, a discussion of the subject ensued, in which Hon. W a sh in g to n H unt and Hon. S. B. R u g g l e s , Mr. T u r n e r , of Black Rock, and other distinguished gentlemen took part. The following reso lutions were adopted: On motion o f Governor H unt , it was resolved, that it is the opinion o f this meeting that the “ American Flax Company” will be able to procure all they want at $8 per ton, and that we will do all in our power to aid and assist in procuring such supply. On m o tio n o f Dr. M o rse , it was resolved , that a com m ittee o f three b e a p p o in te d t o g e t th e p led g e o f farm ers to raise from on e to three th ou san d ton s o f flax straw, to see that a sufficient su p ply o f the best k in d o f flax seed b e b rou g h t in to m arket, and to m ake such oth er ar rangem ents as are necessary t o forw a rd th e enterprise. JOURNAL I. T he 489 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. 1861.] new OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. P atent L aw of the U nited States. II. P atent L aw s of E uropean Govern III. Quicksilver . IY . Cocoanut Oil . Y. I ndia L ubber Y arnish . ments. UNITED STATES PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT OF A n A ct in a d d it io n to U seful A “ A n rts .” A ct to p r o m o te the 1861. P r o g r e ss of the Approved Marcli 2, 1861. Be it enacted by the Senate and House o f Representatives o f the United States o f America in Congress assembled, That the commissioner of patents may establish rules for taking affidavits and depositions required in cases pending in the Patent Office, and such affidavits and depositions may be taken before any justice o f the peace, or other officer authorized by law to take depositions to be used in the courts of the United States, or in the State courts o f any State where such officer shall reside ; and in any contested case pending in the Patent Office, it shall be lawful for the clerk of any court o f the United States for any district or territory, and he is hereby required, upon the application of any party to such contested case, or the agent or attorney o f such party, to issue subpoenas for any witnesses residing or being within the said district or territory, commanding such witnesses to appear and testify before any justice of the peace, or other officer as aforesaid, residing within the said district or territory, at any time and place in the subpoena to be stated ; and if any witness, after being duly served with such subpoena, shall refuse or neglect to appear, or, after appearing, shall refuse to testify, (not being' privileged from giving testimony,) such refusal or neglect being proved to the satisfaction of any judge o f the court whose clerk shall have issued such subpoena, said judge may thereupon proceed to enforce obedience to the process, or to punish the disobedience in like manner as any court of the United States may do in case o f disobedience to process o f subpoena ad testificandum issued by such cou rt; and witnesses in such cases shall be allowed the same compensation as is allowed to witnesses attending the courts of the United States. Provided, That no witnesses shall be required to attend at any place more than forty miles from the place where the subpoena shall be served upon him to give a deposition under this law. Provided, also, That no witness shall be deemed guilty of contempt for refusing to disclose any secret invention made or owned by him. And provided, further, That no witness shall be deemed guilty of contempt for disobeying any subpoena directed to him by virtue of this act, unless his fees for going to, returning from and one day’s at tendance at the place o f examination, shall be paid or tendered to him at the time of the service of the subpoena. S e c . 2. And be it further enacted, That, for the purposes o f securing greater uniformity o f action in the grant and refusal of letters patent, there shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, three examiners-in-chief, at an annual salary of 490 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. [November, three thousand dollars each, to be composed o f persons o f competent legal knowledge and scientific ability, whose duty it shall be, on the written petition of the applicant, for that purpose being filed, to revise and determine upon the validity o f decisions made by examiners when adverse to the grant o f letters-patent, and also to revise and determine in like manner upon the validity o f the decisions of examiners in inter ference cases, and when required by the commissioner in applications for the extension o f patents, and to perform such other duties as may be assigned to them by the commissioner; that from their decisions appeals may be taken to the commissioner o f patents in person, upon payment o f the fee hereinafter prescribed; that the said examiners-in-chief shall be governed in their action by the rules to be prescribed by the com missioner o f patents. S e c . 3. And be it further enacted, That no appeal shall be allowed to the examiners-in-chief from the decisions of the primary examiners, ex cept in interference cases, until after the application shall have been twice rejected; and the second examination o f the application by the primary examiner shall not be had until the applicant, in view' o f the references given on the first rejection, shall have renewed the oath of invention, as provided for in the seventh section o f the act, entitled “ An act to promote the progress of the useful arts, and to repeal all acts and parts of acts heretofore made for that purpose,” approved July fourth, eighteen hundred and thirty-six. S e c . 4. And be it further enacted, That the salary of the commissioner o f patents, from and after the passage o f this act, shall be four thousand five hundred dollars per annum, and the salary o f the chief clerk of the Patent Office shall be two thousand five hundred dollars, and the salary of the librarian of the Patent Office shall be eighteen hundred dollars. S e c . 5. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner o f patents is authorized to restore to the respective applicants, or, when not re moved by them, to otherwise dispose of such of the models belonging to rejected applications as he shall not think necessary to be preserved. The same authority is also given in relation to all models accompany ing applications for designs. He is further authorized to dispense in future with models o f designs when the design can be sufficiently repre sented by a drawing. S e c . 6. And be it further enacted, That the tenth section o f the act approved the third o f March, eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, au thorizing the appointment o f agents for the transportation o f models and specimens to the Patent Office, is hereby repealed. S e c . 7. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner is further authorized, from time to time, to appoint, in the manner already pro vided for by law, such an additional number o f principal examiners, first assistant examiners and second assistant examiners, as may be re quired to transact the current business o f the office with despatch, provided the whole number of additional examiners shall not exceed four of each class, and that the total annual expenses of the Patent Office shall not exceed the annual receipts. S e c . 8. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner may re quire all papers filed in the Patent Office, if not correctly, legibly and clearly written, to be printed at the cost of the parties filing such 1861.] Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. 491 papers; and for gross misconduct lie may refuse to recognise any per son as a patent agent, either generally or in any particular case ; but the reasons of the commissioner for such refusal shall be duly recorded, and be subject to the approval o f the President of the United States. S e c . 9. And be it further enacted, That no money paid as a fee on any application for a patent, after the passage o f this act, shall be with drawn or refunded, nor shall the fee paid on filing a caveat be considered as part o f the sum required to be paid on filing a subsequent application for a patent for the same invention. That the three months’ notice given to any caveator, in pursuance of the requirements o f the twelfth section o f the act o f July fourth, eighteen hundred and thirty-six, shall be computed from the day on which such notice is deposited in the post-office at Washington, with the regular time for the transmission of the same added thereto, which time shall be endorsed on the n otice; and that so much o f the thirteenth section of the act o f Congress, approved July fourth, eighteen hundred and thirtysix, as authorizes the annexing to letters patent o f the description and specification of additional improvements, is hereby repealed ; and in all cases where additional improvements would now be admissible, inde pendent patents must be applied for. S e c . 10. And be it further enacted, That all laws now in force fixing the rates o f the Patent Office fees to be paid, and discriminating between the inhabitants of the United States and those of other countries, which shall not discriminate against the inhabitants o f the United States, are hereby repealed, and in their stead the following rates are established: On filing each caveat, ten dollars. On filing each original application for a patent, except for a design, fifteen dollars. On issuing each original patent, twenty dollars. On every appeal from the examiners-in-chief to the commissioner, twenty dollars. On every application for the re-issue of a patent, thirty dollars. On every application for the extension of a patent, fifty dollars; and fifty dollars, in addition, on the granting o f every extension. On filing each disclaimer, ten dollars. For certified copies o f patents and other papers, ten cents per hundred words. For recording every assignment, agreement, power of attorney and other papers, of three hundred words or under, one dollar. For recording every assignment and other papers over three hundred and under one thousand words, two dollars. For recording every assignment or other writing, if over one thousand words, three dollars. For copies of drawings, the reasonable cost o f making the same. S e c . 11. And be it further enacted, That any citizen or citizens, or alien or aliens, having resided one year in the United States, and taken the oath o f his or their intention to become a citizen or citizens, who by his, her or their own industry, genius, efforts and expense, may have in vented or produced any new and original design for a manufacture, whether o f metal or other material or materials, an original design for a bust, statue or bass-relief, or composition in alto or basso relievo, or any new and original impression or ornament, or to be placed on any ar- 492 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. [N ov em b er, tide of manufacture, the same being formed in marble or other material, or any new and useful pattern, or print, or picture, to be either worked into or worked on, or printed, or painted, or cast, or otherwise fixed on any article of manufacture, or any new and original shape or configu ration of any article o f manufacture, not known or used by others before his, her or their invention or production thereof, and prior to the time o f his, her or their application for a patent therefor, and who shall de sire to obtain an exclusive property or right therein to make, use and sell, and vend the same, or copies o f the same, to others, by them to be made, used and sold, may make application in writing to the com missioner o f patents, expressing such desire, and the commissioner, on due proceedings had, may grant a patent therefor, as in the case now of application for a patent, for the term o f three and one-half years, or for the term o f seven years, or for the term of fourteen years, as the said applicant may elect in his application : Provided, That the fee to be paid in such application shall be for the term o f three years and six months, ten dollars; for seven years, fifteen dollars; and for fourteen years, thirty dollars : And provided, That the patentees of designs under this act shall be entitled to the extension of their respective patents for the term of seven years from the day on which said patents shall expire, upon the same terms and restrictions as are now provided for the extension of letters patent. S e c . 12. And be it further enacted, That all applications for patents shall be completed and prepared for examination within two years after the filing o f the petition, and in default thereof they shall be regarded as abandoned by the parties thereto, unless it be shown to the satisfaction o f the commissioner of patents that such delay was unavoidable; and all applications now pending shall be treated as if filed after the passage o f this a ct; and all applications for the extension o f patents shall be filed at least ninety days before the expiration thereof, and notice of the day set for the hearing o f the case shall be published, as now required by law, for at least sixty days. S e c . 13. And be it further enacted, That in all cases where an article is made or vended by any person under the protection o f letters patent, it shall be the duty o f such person to give sufficient notice to the public that said article is so patented, either by fixing thereon the word patented, together with the day and year the patent was granted, or when, from the character o f the article patented, that may be impracticable, by en veloping one or more o f the said articles, and affixing a label to the package, or otherwise attaching thereto a label, on which the notice, with the date, is printed ; on failure of which, in any suit for the infringement o f letters patent by the party failing so to mark the article the right to which is infringed upon, no damage shall be recovered by the plaintiff, except on proof that the defendant was duly notified o f the infringement, and continued after such notice to make or vend the article patented. A nd the sixth section o f the act entitled “ An act in addition to an act to promote the progress o f the useful arts,” and so forth, approved the twenty-ninth day of August, eighteen hundred and forty-two, be, and the same is hereby repealed. S e c . 14. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner of patents be, and he is hereby authorized to print, or in his discretion to cause to be printed, ten copies o f the description and claims o f all patents which Journal o f M inina and Manufactures. 493 may hereafter be granted, and ten copies o f the drawings o f the same, when drawings shall accompany the patents: Provided, The cost of printing the text of said descriptions and claims shall not exceed, exclu sive of stationery, the sum o f two cents per hundred words for each o f said copies, and the cost of the drawing shall not exceed fifty cents per copy ; one copy o f the above number shall be printed on parchment, to be affixed to the letters patent; the work shall be under the direction, and subject to the approval o f the commissioner of patents, and the expense of the said copies shall be paid for out of the patent fund. S e c . 15. And be it further enacted, That printed copies of the letters patent of the United States, with the seal o f the Patent Office affixed thereto, and certified and signed by the commissioner of patents, shall be legal evidence o f the contents o f said letters patent in all cases. S e c . 16. And be it further enacted, That all patents hereafter granted shall remain in force for the term of seventeen years from the date of issue ; and all extensions of such patents is hereby prohibited. S e c . 17. And be it further enacted, That all acts and parts o f acts heretofore passed, which are inconsistent with the provisions o f this act, be, and the same are hereby repealed. EUROPEAN PATENTS. Many valuable inventions are yearly introduced into Europe from the United States, by parties ever on the alert to pick up whatever they can lay their hands upon which may seem useful. Models are not required in any European country, but the utmost care and experience are necessary in the preparation of each case. W e copy from “ The Scientific American.” Great Britain.— From a synopsis of the patent laws, published in the Scientific American, it appears that patents for inventions, under the new law, as amended by the act o f October 1, 1852, and now in operation, include the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in one grant, which confers the exclusive right to make, use, exercise or vend. This is conceded to the inventor or the introducer for a period of fourteen years, subject, after the patent is granted and the first expenses paid, to a government tax twice during its existence, once within three years, and once again within seven. The purchaser of a patent would assume the payment of these taxes. There is no provision in the English law requiring that a patented invention shall be introduced into public use within any specified limit. Under the patent act o f October, 1852, the British government relin quished its right to grant patents for any of its colonies, each colony being permitted to regulate its own patent system. If a patent has been previously taken out in a foreign country, the British patent will expire with it. France.— Patents in France are granted for a term o f fifteen years, unless the invention has been previously secured by patent in some other country ; in such case it must take date with and expire with the pre vious patent. After the patent is issued the French government requires the payment o f a small tax each year, so long as the patent is kept alive, and two years’ time is given to put the invention patented into practice. It should be borne in mind, that, although the French law does not require that the applicant should make oath to his papers, yet if a patent 494 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. [November, should be obtained by any other person than the inventor, upon proof being adduced to this effect before the proper tribunal, the patent would be declared illegal. B elg iu m .— Patents in Belgium are granted for twenty years, or, if pre viously patented in another country, they expire with the date thereof. The working o f the invention must take place within one year from date o f patent, but an extension for an additional year may be obtained on application to the proper authorities. Inventors are only legally entitled to take out patents. T h e N eth erla n d s .— Patents are granted by the Royal Institute of the Netherlands to natives or foreigners, represented by a resident subject, which extend to a period o f about two years, within which time the in vention must be brought into use, and, upon payment o f an additional tax, a patent will be granted to complete its whole term o f fifteen years. Unless these conditions are complied with the patent ceases. P r u s s ia .— Applications for patents in Prussia are examined by the Royal Polytechnic Commission; and unless there is novelty in the in vention the applicant’s petition will be denied; and if it is granted, the invention must be worked within six months afterward. A respite, how ever, of six additional months may be obtained, if good and sufficient reasons for it can be shown. A u s tria .— Austrian patents are granted for a term o f fifteen years, upon the payment o f one thousand florins, or about five hundred dollars in American currency. This sum, however, is not all required to be paid in advance. It is usual to pay the tax for the first five years upon the deposit of the papers, and the patent must be worked within its first year. The Emperor can extend the patent and privilege o f working by special grant. In order to obtain a patent in Austria, an authenticated copy of the original letters patent must be produced. S p a in .— The duration of a Spanish patent o f importation is five years, and can be prolonged to ten years; and the invention is to be worked within one year and one day. To obtain a Cuban patent requires a special application and an extra charge. R u ssia .-— Since the close o f the Crimean war considerable attention has been given to Russian patents by Americans. Russia is a country rich in mineral and agricultural products, and there seems to be a field open for certain kinds o f improvements. The present Emperor is very liberally disposed towards inventors, and, as an evidence o f the interest which he takes in the progress of mechanic arts, we may state that we have had visits from two distinguished Russian savans, specially sent out by the Emperor to examine American inventions. A s Russian patents are expensive and somewhat difficult to obtain, we do not take it upon ourselves to advise applications; inventors must judge for themselves; and this remark applies not only to Russia, but also to all other foreign countries. Canada .— Patents o f invention are granted only to actual residents of Canada and British subjects. Under the general patent law o f Canada, an American cannot procure a patent for his invention there. The only way in which he can do so is by virtue of a special act o f Parliament, which is very difficult, uncertain and expensive to obtain. Several zealous friends of reform in Canada are working earnestly to bring about a reciprocal law, but their efforts have thus far proved fruitless. Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. 1861.] 495 B r itish I n d ia .— The date of the law, February 28, 1856 ; duration of a patent, fourteen years. Invention must be worked within two years from date of petition. Privilege granted only to the original inventor or his authorized agent in India. S a x o n y .— Duration o f patent, from five to ten years. Invention must be worked within one year from date o f grant. Careful examination made before granting a patent. H a n o v er .— Duration o f patent, ten years ; and in case o f foreign patent having been previously obtained, an authenticated copy of said patent must be produced. Invention must be worked within six months from date of grant. S a rd in ia .— Duration o f patent, from one to fifteen years. Patents for five years or less must be worked within one year, and all others within two years. N o r w a y and S w eden .— Duration o f patent, three years at least, fifteen at most, according to the nature and importance o f the invention. Pat ents for foreign inventions not to exceed the term granted abroad, and to be worked within one, two or four years. A u s tra lia . — Date of law, March 31,1854. Careful examination made "by competent persons previous to issue o f patent, which, when granted, extends to fourteen years. Imported inventions are valid according to duration o f foreign patent. It would require from twelve to eighteen months to procure a patent from the Australian government. QUICKSILVER. The quantities o f quicksilver exported from San Francisco during the first half of each o f the last five years, and the market rate at the close o f each period, were as follow : First six months o f 1857................ 1858,.............. 1859,.............. 1860,.............. 1861,.............. ........... 11,938 flasks, ........... 13,452 “ ........... 581 ........... 3,799 “ ........... 14,797 “ .. Value per lb., June 30th, tt if ii ft it ii if ii .. .. .. .. .. 65 cents. 65 “ 65 “ 81 40 cents. It appears, from the data o f the present year, that quicksilver is re suming the importance which it had attained prior to the suspension of the New-Almaden mine. The full operation o f those extensive works, and the important progress constantly making in others, swell the export of this year to larger dimensions than ever, and have produced a corre sponding reduction o f its current value for that purpose. A much larger quantity can be produced, and a large increase in the export may be looked for. COCOANUT OIL. The production o f cocoanut oil on islands in the Pacific is increasing. On June 11th the Hawaiian schooner M a r il d a arrived at Honolulu in twelve days from Fanning’s Island, bringing 12,000 gallons of cocoanut oil. She reported every thing at the island prospering. On her return she was to take the new oil-press constructed by Mr. H u g h e s , at the Honolulu foundry, which will enable the proprietors to double the pre sent manufacture o f oil, at a much reduced cost o f labor. 496 Journal o f M in in g and M anufactures. INDIA RUBBER [N ov em b er, VARNISH. That India rubber dissolved in various liquids yields a good varnish is well known ; but in general they are too viscid for delicate purposes, and are only good for making stuffs water-proof. India rubber liquified by heat, dissolved in oil of coal tar, or drying linseed oil, does not give n varnish of sufficient fluency or free from smell. Moreover, a considerable quantity of India rubber remains undissolved in a gelatinous state, sus pended in the liquid, so that the solution is never clear. Dr. B o l l y has recently published some remarks on this subject which may be useful. I f India rubber be cut into small pieces and digested in sulphuret of car bon, a jelly will be formed ; this must be treated with benzine, and thus a much greater proportion o f caoutchouc will be dissolved than would be done by any other method. The liquid must be strained through a woollen cloth, and the sulphuret of carbon be drawn off by evaporation in a water bath ; after which, the remaining liquid may be diluted at will with benzine, by which means a transparent, but still yellowish liquid, will be obtained. A more colorless solution may be prepared by digest ing India rubber cut into small pieces for many days in benzine, and fre-. quently shaking the bottle which contains it. The jelly thus formed will partly dissolve, yielding a liquid which is thicker than benzine, and may be obtained very clear by filtration and rest. The residue may be sepa rated by straining, and will furnish an excellent water-proof composition. As for the liquid itself, it incorporates easily with all fixed or volatile oils. It dries very fast, and does not shine, unless mixed with resinous varnishes. It is extremely flexible, may be spread in very thin layers, and remain unaltered under the influence o f air and light. It may be employed to varnish geographical maps or prints, because it does not affect the whiteness o f the paper, does not reflect light disagreeably as resinous varnishes do, and is not subject to crack or come off in scales. It may be used to fix black chalk or pencil drawings; and unsized paper, when covered with varnish, may be written on with ink.— G alignani. SWISS CHEESE. Each parish in Switzerland hires a man, generally from the district of Gruyere, in the Canton o f Freyburgh, to take care of the herd and make the cheese; one cheeseman, one pressman or assistant, and one cowherd, are considered necessary for every forty cows. The owners o f the cows get credit in a book for the quantity of milk given by each cow daily. The cheeseman and his assistants milk the cows, put the milk all together, and make cheese o f i t ; and at the end o f the season each owner receives the weight of cheese proportionable to the quantity of milk his cows have delivered. B y this co-operative plan, instead of small-sized, unmarketable cheeses, which each owner could produce out o f his three or four cows’ milk, he has the same weight in large, marketable cheeses, superior in quality, because made by people who attend to no other business. The cheeseman and his assistants are paid so much per head o f the cows in money or in cheese; or sometimes they hire the cows, and pay the owners in money or cheese. A similar system exists in the Frence Jura. 1861.] Cotton Crop o/'ISSS— 1861, 497 C O T T O N C R O P OF T H E U N I T E ! ) S T A T E S . I. Statement and T otal A mount for the Y ear ending 31st A ugust, 1S61. II. P roduction of EAcn State in 1850 and in 1861. III. P er Centage of P roduction in each State . I Y . E xport from each P ort. Y . Consumption in the U nited States, 1S47-1S61. Total. States a n d P orts . Bales. 1861. I860. 1859. 1858. 1,781,599 2,139,425 1,669,274 1,576,409 546,794 843,012 704,406 522,364 144,747 252,424 192,062 145,2S6 121,172 192,724 173,4S4 122,351 477,584 525,219 475,788 282,973 L o u isia n a . Export from N e w -O rlean s — T o foreign ports,.............................. 1,788,673 T o coastwise p o r t s ,........................ 132,179 Burnt at N ew -O rleans,.................. 3,276 10,118 Stock, 1st Septem ber, 1S61,.......... 1,929,246 Deduct— R eceiv ed from M ob ile,.................. R eceived from M ontgom ery, &c., R eceived from F lorid a,.................. R eceived from T exa s,.................... Stock, 1st September, 1860,.......... 48,270 11,551 13,279 30,613 73,934 177,647 A labam a. Export fr o m M obile — T o foreign ports,.............................. T o coastwise p o r ts , ........................ M anufactured in M obile, (e s t.,).. Stock, 1st Septem ber, 1S61,.......... 456,421 127,574 2,000 2,481 Deduct stock, 1st Septem ber, 1860,........ 588,476 41,682 T e xas. Export from G alv esto n , & c.T<> foreign ports,.............................. T o coastw ise p o r t s ,........................ Stock, 1st Septem ber, 1861,.......... 63,209 84,254 452 Deduct stock, 1st Septem ber, 1860,........ 147,915 3,168 F l o r id a . Exp. from A p al ac h ic o l a , St . M a r k s , & c . T o foreign ports,.............................. T o coastwise p o r t s ,........................ Burnt at St. M ark s,........................ Stock, 1st Septem ber, 1861,.......... 28,073 85,953 150 7,860 Deduct stock, 1st Septem ber, 1860,........ 122,036 864 G e o r g ia . Export fro m S a v a n n a h — T o foreign ports— U plands,.......... Sea Islands, .. T o coastw ise ports— U plands,. . . Sea Islands, Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1861, Stock in A ugusta, & c., 1 A u g., “ 293,746 8,441 170,572 11,512 4,102 5,991 Deduct— R ec’ d from Florida— Sea Islands, U p la n d s,... Stock in Savannah, 1st Sept., 1860, Stock in Augusta, & c .,l “ “ 1,033 6,188 4,307 5,252 494,364 16,780 South Carolina . E xp.from Charleston & G eorgetown, T o foreign ports— U plands,.......... Sea Islands,... T o coastw ise ports— U pla n ds,. . . Sea Islands, V O L . X L V .-----N O . V . 199,345 15,043 121,663 8,355 32 [N ov em b er, Cotton Crop o f 1 8 5 8 — 1861. 498 COTTON CROP OP 1858—1861.—(OmUnued.) Total. States and Bales. P oets. Burnt at Charleston,................. Stock in Charleston, 1 Sept., 1861, 564 2,S99 Deduct— Received from Florida and Sa vannah—Sea Islands,............. Uplands,.................. Stock in Charleston, 1 Sept., 1S60, 255 2,378 8,897 N orth To foreign ports,........................ 195 T o coastw ise p o r t s ,........................ 56,100 1860. 1859. 1858 336,339 510,109 4S0,653 406,251 56,295 41,194 37,482 23,999 78,132 56,987 33,011 24,705 143,424 10S,676 85,321 9,624 347,S69 11,530 C a r o l in a . Export — 1861. V ir g in ia . Export — To foreign ports,........................ To coastwise ports,................... Manufactured, (taken from ports,) Stock, 1st September, 1861,........ 810 61,129 16,993 2,000 80,932 2,800 Deduct stock, 1st September, 1860,...... T ennessee, &c. Shipments from Memphis,......... “ “ Nashville,........ “ “ •'Columbus and Hickman, Ky.,........................ Stock, 1st September, 1861,........ Deduct— Shipments to New-Orleans,...... Manufactured on the Ohio, &c.,. Stock, 1st September, 1860,........ 369,S57 16,471 5,500 1,671 196,366 52,000 1,709 393,499 250,075 3,656,0S6 4,669,770 3,851,481 3,113,962 Total crop of the United States,........ Decrease from crop of 1860, 1,013,684 bales; 1S59, 195,395 bales. Increase over crop of 1858, 542,124 bales. E x po rt op C otton to F o r e ig n P o r t s , From September 1, 1860, to August 31, 1861. To Great Britain. F rom New-Orleans, La.,. Mobile, Ala........... Galveston, Tex.,... Florida,................. Savannah, Ga.,...... Charleston, S. C.,... Virginia,............... North Carolina,---New-York,........... Baltimore,.............. Philadelphia,......... Boston,................. Grand total,__ Total last year,, Decrease,....... .bales, To France. To Nort . Other Forof Europe. eign Ports. 1,159,348 340,S45 47,229 27,140 282,994 136,513 S10 144 158,415 975 3,793 IT,019 3SS,925 96,429 3,640 49,122 35,i97 2,4S3 6,113 93 1,783,678 456,421 63,209 28,073 302,187 214,388 810 195 248,049 3,545 8,798 23,225 2,175,225 2,669,432 578,063 589,587 216,250 295,072 158,030 220,082 3,127,568 8,774,178 494,207 11,524 78,622 62,052 646,605 10,061 29,886 122,042 6,601 12,315 933 6,165 24,401 113,858 12,546 25 2,967 23,588 51 5,315 87 499 Cotton Crop o f 1 8 5 8 — 1 8 61 . 1 8 6 1 .] C o m p a r a t iv e C r o p S t a te m e n t . From the JV. Y. Shipping and Commercial List. 1860-1,.... ... 1859-60,... ... 1S5S-9,__ ... 1857-8,.... ... 1856-7,.... ... 1S55-6,.... ... 1854-5,.... ... 1S53-4,.... ... 1852-3,.... ... 3,656,086 4,669,770 3,851,481 3,113,962 2,939,519 3,527,845 2,847,339 2,930,027 3,262,882 Bales. Bales. Bales. 1851-2,.... ... 1850-1,.... ... 1849-50,... ... 1S48-9,.... ... 1847-8,.... ... 1S46-7,.... ... 1845-6,,... ... 1844-5,.... ... 1S43-4,.... ... C o n sum ption 3,015,029 2,355,257 2,096,706 2,728,596 2,347,634 1,778,651 2,100,537 2,394,503 2,030,409 in the 1 8 4 2 -3 ,.... . . . 1S 4 1-2 ,.... . . . 1 8 4 0 -1 ,.... . . . 1S39-40,... . . . 1 8 3 8 -9 ,.... . . . 1 8 3 7 -8 ,.... . . . 1 8 3 6 -7 ,.... . . . 1 8 3 5 -6 ,.... . . . 1 8 8 4 -5 ,.... . . . Bales. 2,378,875 1,6S3,574 1,634,945 2,177,835 1,360,532 1 8 3 3 -4 ,.... . . . 1,205,394 1 S 3 2 -3 ,.... . . . 1,070,48S 1 8 3 1 -2 ,.... . . . 987,477 1 8 3 0 -1 ,.... . . . 1,038,848 1829-30,... . . . 976,845 1,801,497 1 8 2 8 -9 ,.... . . . 870,415 1,422,930 1827-8,.... . . . 727,593 1,860,725 1 8 2 6 -7 ,.... . . . 957,281 1,254,328 1 8 2 5 -6 ,.... . . . 720,027 U n ited S t a t e s , 1861. Total crop of the United States as before stated,...................................................bales, 3,656,0SG A dd stocks on hand at the commencement of the year, 1st Sept., 1860: In the Southern ports,....................................................................... In the Northern ports,.................................................. .................... Makes a supply of............................................................................ Deduct theref rom— The export to foreign ports,.............................................. 3,127,568 Less, foreign included,...................................................... 701 Stocks on hand, 1st September, 1861: In the Southern ports,....................................................... In the Northern ports,....................................................... 37,574 45,613 Burnt at New-Orleans, St. Marks, Charleston and Philadelphia,. Manufactured in Virginia and Mobile,........................................ 4,390 18,993 142,613 85,095 227,70S 3,8S3,794 3,126,867 83,1S7 23,383 ------- 3,233,437 Taken for home use north of Virginia,.................................................................. bales, Taken for home use in Virginia and South and West of Virginia,........................ “ 650,357 193,383 Total consumed in the United States, (including burnt at the ports,) 1860-61,... “ 843,740 Estimate of the amount o f cotton consumed the past year in the States South and West o f Virginia, and not included in the receipts at the ports. T h u s: North Carolina, bales,. South Carolina,.......... Georgia,.................... Alabama,................... Tennessee,................. On the Ohio, &c.,...... 1854. 1855. 1856. 1857. 20,000 . . 12,000 . . 23,000 . . 6,000 . . 6,000 . . 38,000 . . 18,500 . . 10,500 . . 20,500 . . 5,500 . . 4,000 . . 26,000 . . 22,000 .. 15,000 .. 25,000 .. 6,500 .. 7,000 .. 42,000 .. 25,000 17,000 23,000 5,000 9,000 38,000 Total to Sept. 1, bales, 105,000 S5,000 117,500 117,000 1858. 1859. .. 26,000 .. 29,000 .. .. 18,000 .. 20,000 .. .. 24,000 .. 26,000 .. 8,000 .. 10,000 .. .. 10,000 .. 13,000 .. .. 39,000 .. 45,000 .. 1860. 1861. 30,000 21,000 2S,000 11,000 15,000 49,000 .. 33,000 .. 24,000 .. 82,000 .. 12,000 .. 17,000 .. 52,000 125,000143,000154,000 170,000 To which, if we add (for the past year) the stocks in the interior towns 1st September, (say 6,200 bales,) the quantity detained in the interior, (say 25,000 bales,) and that lost on its way to market, (9,000 bales,) to the crop as given above, received at the shipping ports, the aggregate will show, as near as may be, the amount raised in the United States the Cotton Crop o f 1 8 5 8 — 1 8 61 . 500 [N o v e m b e r, past season— say, in round numbers, 3,866,000 bales, (after deducting 300 bales new crop received this year to 1st ult.,) against Bales. Bales. Bales. 1860,...... ....4,805,800 1857,. ........... 3,014,000 1859,...... ....4,017,000 1856,. ........... 3,335,000 1858,...... ....3,247,000 1855,. ........... 3,186,000 Bales. 1854,.... ...... 3,000,000 1851,.... ...... 2,450,000 1853,.... ...... 8,360,000 1850,.... ...... 2,212,000 1852...... ...... 3,100,000 1849,.... ...... 2,840,000 The quantity of new cotton received at the shipping ports to 1st September was, in Bales. Bales. 1861,...... ........ 1860,...... ........ 1859,...... ........ 1858,...... ........ 1S5T,....... ........ 1856,...... ........ 1855,...... ........ 300 51,600 12,369 8,031 100 1,800 26,079 1854,. .............. 1853,. .............. 1852,. .............. 1851,. .............. 1850,. ............... 1849,. .............. 1848,. .............. 1,890 6,716 5,125 3,200 255 575 3,000 1847,.... .......... 1846,.... .......... 1845,.... .......... 1844,...... ......... 1843,.... ......... 1842,.... .......... 1841,.... .......... Bales. Bales. 1,121 200 7,500 7,500 300 3,000 32,000 1840,.... .......... 80,000 1839,.... “ 1838,.... 1837,.... 1836,.... .......... 9,702 1835,.... ......... 3,424 1834,.... S tatement showing the A mount of C otton Consumed Y early in tiie U nited S tates, from 1841 to 1801. Year. 184*7-8,.......... ........ 1 8 4 8 -9 ,......... ____ 1849-50,........ ........ 1850-1,.......... ........ 1851-2,.......... ........ 1852-8,........ ......... 1853-4,.......... ........ 1854-5,.......... ........ 1855-6,.......... ____ 1856-7............____ 1857-8,.......... ____ 1858-9.................... 1859-60,........ ........ 1 8 60-1,.......... ........ North o f Virginia. Elsewhere. Total, United States. Foreign export and stock. Bales. 523,892 504,143 476,486 386,429 588,322 650,393 592,284 571,117 633,027 665,718 452,185 760,218 786,521 650,357 Bales. 92,162 138,342 137,012 99,185 111,281 153,332 144,952 135,295 137,712 154,218 143,377 167,433 185,522 193,383 Bales. 616,044 642,485 613,498 485,614 699,603 803,725 737,236 706,412 770,739 819,936 595,562 927,651 972,043 843,740 Bales. 1,731,590 2,086,111 1,483,208 1,869,643 2,315,426 2,459,157 2,192,791 2,140,927 2,757,106 2,119,583 2,518,400 2,923,830 3,677,727 2,812,346 ,. ,. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Total crop. Bales. 2,347,634 2,728,596 2,096,706 2,355,257 3,015,029 3,262,882 2,930,027 2,847,339 3,527,845 2,939,519 3,113,962 3,851,481 4,669,770 3,656,086 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 'C omparative S tatement of the P roduction of C otton in the U nited S tates for the Y ears 1860-61 and 1849-50, and P er Centage of each S tate at those P eriods. 1849-50. 1860-61. Bales. Louisiana,....................... Alabama,....................... Texas,............................. Florida,........................... Georgia,......................... South Carolina.............. North Carolina,............. Virginia,......................... Tennessee,..................... Mississippi,................... Arkansas,....................... Kentucky and Indiana,. Bales, 1,751,599 546,794 144,747 121,172 477,584 336,339 56,295 78,132 143,424 3,656,086 Per cent aye Bales. 47.90 14.95 3.96 3.31 13.06 9.20 1.54 2.13 3.95 178,737 564,429 57,596 45,131 499,091 300,901 73,849 3,947 194,532 484,293 65,346 772 .. .. .. 100. .. 2,468,624 Per centage .. .. .. .. 7.24 22.87 2.33 1.83 20.22 12.19 2.99 .16 7.88 19.62 2.64 .03 100. 1 8 6 1 .] Cotton C rop o f 1 8 6 8 — 1861. 501 There is an apparent discrepancy in this statement, in the omission o f the States of Mississippi and Arkansas as producers of cotton in the year 1860-61. This arises from the fact that neither has a seaport through which to export their crop to foreign countries and to domestic ports. Hence, it will be found that, ordinarily, all the cotton o f Arkansas, and nearly all of the State of Mississippi, is distributed via New-Orleans. Some portions o f Mississippi cotton are shipped to Mobile, which is the second port in importance in the United States as a cotton-receiving and exporting point. From an official “ S tatem en t o f the P r o d u cts and T a x able P r o p e r ty o f L o u isia n a ]' in 1859, it appears that cotton is not ordi narily the most valuable crop of that State. A t the prices prevailing during the past twelve months (10 @ 22 cts.) it was equal to the sugar crop in aggregate value. The main products of that State, in 1859, were as follow, and, at prices of 1860-61, would result thus : S u gar,............. 292,180 Cotton,............. 499,885 Molasses,......... 422,054 C orn ,............... 18,121,043 lihds., . . Value, $100 per hhd., bales, .. “ 60 per bale, bbls., “ bushels, . . “ 40 cts. per bushel, . . $29,218,000 .. 30,000,000 .. 6,000,000 .. 5,250,000 Owing to the unsettled state o f the country, and the absence o f our usual mail facilities, our labor has been prosecuted with more difficulty, and less satisfaction to ourselves, than ever before, but we take pleasure in stating, that owing to a combination of favorable circumstances, we are, with a few unimportant exceptions, enabled to present a statement which, we believe, in all its leading items, to approximate exactness, and one which, for all practical purposes, may be considered reliable. Some of the minor details usually given in our statement are of necessity omitted, owing to the causes alluded to above, and some others are less complete than we could wish, but we feel assured that the statement, as a whole, will be found very nearly correct. It is well known that, owing to the disturbed state of the Southern section of the country, the commerce in cotton was hurried to a close some two months or more earlier than usual, and the results now given were more or less correctly known a month or two ago. It will be well, however, to observe here, that our former (weekly) tables included as receipts a ll the shipments from Mem phis, but to arrive at the commercial crop o f the country, we have, as usual, deducted the amount consumed on the Ohio, &c., estimated, by good judges, at 52,000 bales, and, on this account, the aggregate crop will now appear less than was previously supposed it would be. The statement, however, must speak for itself; it is the best we could make, considering the serious embarrassments under which we have labored. It may be well to observe, that the preceding statement of the crop is that o f the United States, as a w hole , and does not purport to be the crops o f the S tates, though the shipments, stocks, &c., are necessarily arranged under the different leading shipping ports or States, as the case may be.— A7. Y . S h ip p in g L ist. •502 H is to r y o f the U n ited S ta tes T a riff. HISTORY OF T H E UNITED [N ov em b er, STATES TARIFF. I. T ariff of M arcit, 1861. II. M ethod of L evy for P rotection. III. F ailure as a R eve nue M easure. IV. D iminished Consumption. V. D ecline in I mportations . VI. M onthly C ustoms, P ort of N ew -Y ork . VII. Congressional D iscussion. VIII. O utbreak of W a r . IX. E xtra Session. X. F ree A rticles T axed . XI. T ea and Coffee. XII. E stimated R evenue . XIII. N orthern Consumption. XIV. Y ield of the three T ariffs . XV. B onded G oods. XVI. E xports of the Country. XVII. R eturn of Specie . XVIII. Grain E xports—Cotton I mports—E ffect of L oan upon Customs—P robable Change . The tables (pp. 506, 507) embrace every article enumerated in tbe tariff act of August 5th, 1861, with the rate of duty levied on each; to which we add the comparative rates according to the tariffs o f 1842, 1846, 1857 and March, 1861. The whole will show at one glance the changes at these dates on these articles. In our number for April last we brought down the history o f the national tariffs passed since the formation o f the federal government to the enactment of March, 1861, which had been passed hastily amid the extraordinary excitement that attended the close o f the 36th Congress. That tariff restored the rates of duties to the highest protective rates for the leading manufactures. It changed the mode o f levying the duties, and introduced many complications in their application. It made charges on long lists of articles previously free, generally on the principle of light taxes upon raw or partly manufactured articles, and increasing the rate in proportion to the degree in which the imported article was sup posed to rival similar articles o f domestic production. Such a principle, although it gratified the views o f those who held that home manufac tures should be protected by the direct interference o f the government, was not of a nature to improve the revenues, since the domestic articles would, by reason o f the increased tax, more readily exclude the foreign one from the markets, thus cutting off the taxed article from the service of the revenue. In a similar manner, tea, coffee and cocoa, which are not United States productions, were left free of duty, while sugar, which has a domestic rival, was charged with a specific duty, but of a lower equiva lent than the ad valorem o f the former tariff. The tariff, as a whole, was calculated to increase the public revenue in speculative seasons, but to have a contrary effect when, from general causes, commerce was depressed and want of confidence bore heavily upon those circulating credits which are, in the United States, the machinery of business. This had been the case since the November election had been followed by political events o f a serious nature. The commercial effect o f those events was to cause an immediate decline in importations, and this decline showed itself, as a consequence, in the falling off in the customs revenue, although the tariff remained unaltered up to the first o f April, when the new tariff o f March went into operation. The following table shows the monthly customs receipts at the port o f New-York, where two-thirds of the whole federal revenue are collected, during the two years of the operation of the tariff 1857 and the first quarter o f the year 1861: H istory o f the United States Tariff. 1 8 6 1 .] 1859. 1860. January,...........$3,478,471 .. 3,328,688 . . February,........ March,................ 3,164,011 . . A p r il,................. 3,212,060 . . May,................... 4,014,520 . . June,.................. 3,314,429 . . J u ly ,................... 4,851,246 . . August................ 4,243,010 . . September,___ 2,908,506 .. October,............ 2,318,750 .. November,.......... 2,157,154 . . December,.......... 2,843,388 . . $39,834,233 .. $3,899,166 3,378,043 3,477,545 2,444,268 2,466,463 2,024,193 4,504,066 4,496,243 3,038,803 2,632,078 1,798,749 1,171,826 50 3 1861. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. $35,431,443 $2,050,202 2,528,736 Tariff of 1857. 2,489,926 1,643,262 “ March,1861. 979,145 1,894,064 2,069,591 1,558,824 “ August 5. 1,645,294 _ _ _ .. ____ The political events of November, 1860, had an immediate effect upon the revenue, which declined to less than half that o f the corresponding months o f the previous year. The discussion of the tariff question during the session naturally led to larger importations as a precaution against the higher duties threatened in that discussion, and the receipts in February and March, although far behind those of the corresponding months in 1860, were larger than during the prevalence o f the panic in November and December. W ith the first o f April the tariff of March went into operation, but almost simultaneously with its action the war broke out and destroyed what re mained of confidence, thereby curtailing business and again reducing the yield o f the tariff, while the necessities o f the war required increased revenues. When Congress met, under these circumstances, the revision o f the tariff was again brought to its notice, and efforts were made to re duce those more strictly protective imposts which, in the altered state of the national commerce, assumed a prohibitive action, and were therefore detrimental to the great object of revenue. These efforts were, however, without success. The rates were not modified, but many important arti cles, previously in the free list, were subjected to tax. O f these, coffee and tea were the most promising for revenue. Brown sugar was raised from three-fourths of a cent per pound to two cents per pound, and molasses from two to five cents per gallon. These three changes, with that in rela tion to cocoa, were calculated to give a large revenue. The quantities and values imported in 1860, with the rate and amount o f duty, were as fol low, compared with the revenue that the new act would draw from the same quantities: 1861. I860. D uties. Q u a ntity. Value. Tea,...............lb. 30,593,106 $ 7,306,916 C offee,............... 200,998,751 25,063,333 C o co a ,............... 3,186,721 389,839 Sugar, b ro w n ,.. 692,944,872 30,471,302 “ clayed, . . 1,035,639 78,229 “ loaf, A c.,. 771,334 8,087 “ ca n d y ,... 41,598 1,243 “ s y ru p ,... 86,312 19,717 Molasses, . . gall. 30,922,633 5,062,850 $ 8,569,534 R a te. free. “ 4 cts. 24 “ ti it it ft it it If it ti ft Am ount. $15,593 7,313,112 18,774 1,941 298 4,732 1,215,084 D uties. R a te. 15 cts. 4 “ 3 “ 2 “ 2*“ 4 “ 6 “ 2 “ 5 “ Am ount. $4,588,960 8,039,950 127,468 13,858,897 2,589,097 29,853 2,495 1,726 1,546,131 $ 30,974,577 504 H istory o f the United States Tariff. [N ov em b er, The quantities imported in 1860 were for the whole Union, and, if estimated for the North only, must be reduced in the ratio o f forty per cent, for the articles o f tea, coffee and cocoa. In the case o f sugar, how ever, the quantities imported are not more than half o f the whole con sumption of the Union, the remainder being made up from the Louisiana production. Hence, the quantities of sugar imported may be assumed to be the usual Northern supply. All these articles, however, encounter a diminished demand, by reason o f that general economy which flows from the depression o f general industry; and, instead of deriving, as was esti mated, $35,000,000 from the amended tariff and $20,000,000 from the tax on tea, coffee and sugar, the prospect is that the whole tariff for the present fiscal year will not give $20,000,000. I f the dutiable imports are taken for three periods o f the present year, embracing the three tariffs, the results are as follows : Imports. Duties. Average. Jan. 1 to April 1, 3 mos., tariff ’ 57,........ $36,024,451 . . $ 1,068,864 . . 19^ per cent. April 1 to Aug. 5, 4 “ « ’ 61,.......... 2 5,164,019.. 6,586,062 . . 26^ Aug. to Sept., 2 “ “ Aug.,’61, 12,324,147.. 3,204,218 . . 26 These figures give for result that the old tariff yielded less than twenty per cent, in the last three months of its operation, while that of March, 1861, gave but twenty-six and one-eightli per cent, upon the imports, be cause the articles most heavily taxed were imported in a smaller ratio. The new tariff gives no higher average rate of taxes on dutiable imports, for the reason, that in the first two months of its operation it hardly became effective in its full force. The large quantities o f goods in bond, and which were imported freely to come in under the old rates, did not feel the new taxes, and new importations have been comparatively very small. The new law provides that goods can remain in bond no longer than three months without paying duties, under a penalty o f an addition o f twentyfive per cent, to the duty. The amount o f goods in bond at the close of July, or when the new tariff went into effect, was, in round numbers, $23,000,000, and has since not much diminished. The importations that now take place are under the new tariff. It appears, however, that, for three months o f the fiscal year 1862, which begins July 1, already elapsed, the customs revenues have been but $5,273,809, which would give for the year $21,084,000, or $34,000,000 short of the official estimate. This result cannot be ascribed to the higher taxes, since, as the table demonstrates, the average import is hardly more than under the old one, and also because it has yet not come fully into operation. The great depression of general business, arising from the economy o f the people, is the main cause o f the lessened im portations and smaller revenues. The commerce of the fiscal year 1862 must undergo a very great change in respect to exports, which, in ordi nary years, are the measure o f the importations from which the customs revenues are derived. The exports o f 1860 were as follow s: 1860. Produce now blockaded,.............$236,905,881 Produce and manufactures, ____ 79,336,542 Specie,........................................... 56,946,851 Total exports,...........................$373,189,274 . . 1861. . . $210,111,000 .. 129,500,000 .. 23,771,877 $363,382,877 . . 1862. (Estimate.) .. nil. . . $130,000,000 .. nil. $130,000,000 1861.] H istory o f the United States Tariff. 505 In 1860 the proceeds o f the large exports returned in the shape of dutiable goods to the extent of $279,872,327, and $82,291,614 in free goods. In 1860 $23,771,877 was exported in specie in the first part o f the year. The exports o f breadstuffs then becoming large, reaching an excess o f $46,000,000 over the previous year, simultaneously with the great decline in importations, $34,076,153 o f specie returned into the country, the joint effect o f the famine abroad and the political events at home. The new year opens with the new tariff, and also with an export demand for breadstuffs, which, it is hoped, will carry the aggregate ex ports to a point as high as last year, or $130,000,000. The cost of exporting grain to Europe this year is somewhat increased by the fact that ships have few return freights. Not only goods come in less quantities, but immigration has been greatly affected. Hence, vessels require the outward-bound grain to pay two freights. The same general circumstances cause exchanges to rule 3 @ 4 per cent, lower than last year. These two unfavorable features are offset, to some extent, by the lowness of prices; but these, in their turn, so lessen the profits of pro ducers as to check the consumption o f goods. The favorable features are, that, while the crops are very large, there are no attempts to hold for a speculative rise, but the whole moves freely forward on a cash basis. It is obvious, that if the whole proceeds of this exportation are received in the shape of dutiable goods, taxed at an average of thirty per cent., the revenue would be $39,000,000 ; at an average o f twenty-six per cent., the rate for the first two months of the new tariff, the amount would be $33,800,000. But the exports may not reach so high a figure, the more readily that prices are much lower than for the corresponding season last year. In other words, more grain is given for the same money, and a considerable portion will be required to pay for free goods. The product of the tariff is, then, dependent upon the value of the exports of which the proceeds return into the country; and the range o f the new tariff upon the leading heads o f importations is, as compared with the previous tariffs, as follows : ( S ee n ext p a g e.) The position o f the cotton trade, for the moment, is such that no de pendence, for revenue, can be placed upon duties imposed upon those manufactures, since the material o f manufacture fails as well abroad as at home. The Northern States have been accustomed to manu facture 700,000 bales o f cotton, worth $35,000,000. As that material threatens now to run short altogether, a great demand for substitutes must spring up, which may improve the importations o f other articles. The aggregate importation cannot, however, exceed the value o f the produce exported, without involving such an outward current o f specie as will react upon the means o f purchase. In the case that the government loan is taken to any extent abroad, that circumstance will supply bills that will give great latitude to the importations, and greatly improve the revenue. It is by no means impossible that considerable sums in stock may be so exported. It would seem to be most probable, that linen, wool and silks, with their mixtures, would, to a considerable extent, supplant cotton, the cheaper article in general use. The demand for British linens might then fairly be increased at the duty charged under the March tariff o f twenty-five per cent, on lower qualities. 506 C om parative R a tes o f D u t y , 1 8 4 2 — 1 8 6 1 . COMPARATIVE RATES 1842. OF D U T Y , 1846. 1857. [N o v e m b e r, 1842 — 1861. March, August, 1861. 1861. Acid, tartaric,................ 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Almonds,.................. lb., 3 cents. .. 40 per ct. .. 30 per ct. .. 2 cents. .. 4 cents lb. “ shelled,......lb., 3 cents. .. 40 per ct. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 cents. .. 6 cents lb. Argol,...................... lb., free. .. 5 per ct. .. free. .. free. .. 3 cents lb. Arrow root,................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 20 per cent. Banannas and plantains,. free. .. 20 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10per cent. .. 20 per cent. free. .. 15 per ct. .. free. .. free. .. 15 per cent. Bark, Peruvian,............. Bar lead,........................ 3 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1Yz ct. lb. .. 1)4 cent lb. Brandy,..................gall., $100 .. $1 00 .. 30 per ct. .. $100 .. $1 25 gall. Brimstone, crude,.. ..ton, 20 per cent. .. 15 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. $3 per ton. “ rolls,...... ton, 25 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. $6 per ton. Button cloths, silk,........ 30 per cent. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Cassia,................per lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 8 cents lb. .. 10 cents lb. Cassia buds,........per lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 8 cents lb. .. 15 cents lb. Caustic soda,................. 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 1 cent lb. Cayenne pepper,.........lb., 10 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 8cents lb. .. 6 cents lb. “ ground,........lb., 10 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 4cents lb. .. 8 cents lb. Chicory root,.............. lb., free. .. free. .. free. .. free. .. 1 cent lb. Chicory, ground,...... lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 2 cents lb. Chloride of lime,............ 1 cent lb. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 80 cts. 100 lbs. Chocolate,...................lb., 4 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 6 cents lb. Cinnamon,.................. lb., 25 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 20 cents lb. Cloves,....................... lb., 8 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 4 cents lb. .. 8 cents lb. Cloves, oil of,........... lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 70 cents lb. Cocoa,........................ lb., 1 cent lb. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 3 cents lb. Cocoa leaves and shells,.. 20 per cent. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 2 cents lb. free. .. 8 cents lb. Cocoa, prepared,.......lb., 1 cent lb. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. Coffee,........................lb., free. .. free. .. free. .. free. .. 4 cents lb. Copal gum,.................... 15 per cent. .. 10 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Cream Tartar,............ lb., free. .. 20 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 6 cents lb. Currants,.................... lb., 3 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 2 cents lb. .. 5 cents lb. Bates,.......................lb., 1 cent lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. )4 cent lb. .. 2 cents lb. Feathers and downs,__ 25 per cent. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Figs,.........................lb., 2 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 8 cents lb. .. 5 cents lb. Ginger, preserved,__lb., 2 cents lb............................ 15 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Ginger root,............... lb., 2 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 3 cents lb. Ginger, ground,..........lb., 2 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 5 cents lb. Gum copal,..................... 15 per cent. .. 10 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Gunpowder,...............lb., 8 cefits lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Hemp, Manilla,..........ton, $25 .. $25 .. $19 .. $15 .. $25 ton. Hemp, Eussia,........... ton, $40 .. $30 . $24 .. $35 .. $40 ton. Hides,............................ 5 per cent. .. 5 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 5 per cent. .. 10 per cent. India rubber,................. free. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 10 per cent. -----boots and shoes,___ 30 per cent. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Ivory,............................ free. .. 5 per ct. .. free. .. free. .. 10 per cent. Ivory, vegetable,........... free. .. 5 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 10 per cent. cents lb. ..20perct... 15perct...1)4 cent lb. .. 2)4 cents lb. Lead, sheets,.................... 4 Lead, pigs and bars,...... 3 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1 cent lb. .. 1)4 cent lb. Lead, red,.................. lb., 4 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1)4 cent lb. .. 2)4 cents lb. Lead, white,.............. lb., 4 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1)4 cent lb. .. 2)4 cents lb. Lime, chloride,.............. 1 cent lb. .. 10 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 30 cts. 100 lbs. Liquorice,.................. lb., 25 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 3 cents lb. .. 5 cents lb. Liquorice root,...........lb., 25 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. free. .. 1 cent lb. Leather, sole and bend,.. 6 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. 1 8 6 1 .] The United States Tariffs, 1 8 4 2 — 1 8 61 . 1842. 1846. 1857. 507 March, August, 1861. 1861. Lemons,......................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 20 per cent. Limes,........................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 20 per cent. Mace,........................lb., 50 cents. .. 40 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 15 cents lb. .. 25 cents lb. Manilla hemp,......... ton, $25 .. $25 .. $19 .. $15 .. $25 per ton. Molasses,....................... 4)4 cts. lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 2 cts. gall. .. 5 cents gall. Nutmegs,...................lb., 80 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 15 per cent. .. 25 cents lb. Nuts,......................... lb., 1 cent lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 1 cent lb. .. 2 cents lb. Oil of cloves,.............. lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. . 70 cents lb. Oranges,......................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 20 per cent. free. .. 15 per ct. .. free. .. free. .. 15 per cent. Peruvian bark,.............. Pepper, Cayenne,....... lb., 10 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 3 cents lb. .. 6 cents lb. Pepper, ground,.........lb., 10 cents lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. 4 cents lb. .. 8 cents lb. Pig lead,........................ 8 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1 cent lb. .. 1% cent lb. Pimento,...................lb., 5 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 30 per ct. .. 2 cents lb. .. 6 cents lb. Plantains,..................... free. .. 20 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 20 per cent. Plums,....................... lb., 25 per cent. .. 30 per ct. .. 8 per ct. . 1 cent lb. .. 5 cents lb. Prunes,......................lb., 3 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 2 cents lb. .. 5 cents lb. Quinine,......................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Rags,............................. % cent lb. .. 5 per ct. .. free. .. free. .. 10 per cent. Raisins,.......................lb., 3 cents lb. .. 40 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 2 cents lb. .. 5 cents lb. Red lead,................... lb., 4 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1)4 cent lb. .. 2)4 cents lb. Rochelle salts,........... lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Russia hemp,........... ton, $40 .. $30 .. $24 .. $35 .. $40 ton. Sal Soda,....................... 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. )4 cent lb. Saltpetre, crude,..... lb., free. .. 5 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 1 cent lb. Saltpetre, refined,— lb., 2 cents lb. .. 10 per ct. .. 8 per ct. .. 10 per cent. .. 2 cents lb. Salt, sacks,.................... 8 cts. bush. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 6 cts. bush. .. 18 cts. 100 lbs. Salt, in bulk,................. 8 cts. bush. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 4 cts. bush. .. 12 cts. 100 lbs. Salts, Rochelle,......... lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. ., 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Sewing silk,................... $2 lb. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Silk velvet, under $3 yd., $2 50 lb. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 35 per cent. Silk velvet, over $3 yd.,.. $2 50 lb. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Silk, under $1 yard,...... $2 50 1b. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Silk, over $1 yard,......... $2 50 lb. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Silks, floss,.................... 25 per cent. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 30 per cent. Silks, tram,.................... 50 cents lb. .. 15 per ct. .. 12 per ct. .. 15 per cent. .. 25 per cent. Silk ribbons, galloons, &c. 30 per cent. .. 80 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Silk fringes, laces, &c.,... $2 50 lb... 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 30 per cent. .. 40 per cent. Soda, bicarbon.,..100lbs., 20 per cent... 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 1 cent lb. Soda, sal,................. lb., 20 per cent... 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. )4 cent lb. Soda, caustic,................ 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 1 cent lb. Spirits turpentine,, .gall., 10 cents. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 10 cts. gall. .. 10 cents gall. Spirits,..................... gall., 60 cents. . .100 per ct. .. 30 per ct. .. 40 cents. .. 50 cents gall. Sugar, brown,.............lb., 2)4 cents. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. X cents lb. .. 2 cents lb. Sugar, clayed,.............lb., 2)4 cents. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. % cents lb. .. 2)4 cents lb. Sugar, refined,............lb., 6 cents. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 4 cents. .. 4 cents lb. Sugar, syrup of,......... lb., 2)4 cents. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. % cent lb. .. 2 cents lb. Sugar candy,.............. lb., 6 cents. .. 30 per ct. .. 24 per ct. .. 4 cents lb. .. 6 cents lb. Tartar emetic,...........lb., 20 per cent. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 20 per cent. .. 10 cents lb. Teas,........................lb., free. .. free. .. free. .. free. ..15 cents lb. Turpentine, spirits,.gall., 10 cents. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 10 cts. gall. .. 10 cents gall. Vegetable ivory,............. free. .. 5 per ct. .. 4 per ct. .. free. .. 10 per cent. Velvets, silk, under $8,.. $2 501b. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 20 per cent... 35 per cent. Velvets, silk, over $3,... $2 50 lb. .. 25 per ct. .. 19 per ct. .. 30 per cent... 40 per cent. White lead,................... 4 cents lb. .. 20 per ct. .. 15 per ct. .. 1)4 cts. lb. .. 2% cents lb. Wines,................... gall., 6 60 cts. .. 40 per ct. .. 80 per ct. .. 40 per cent. .. 50 per cent. D istilled Spirits. Glass. July 4 ,......... March 2 6 ,... July 1, 1812, all ) ft 2 9 “ . . 224 “ if 6 0 “ . . 40 " “ duties doubled, f P ig Iron. . 10 p. c. . 1 c. lb .. . 21 c. lb .. . 1790 . 1804 . Coffee. . 121 “ .1 5 “ Manufac tured Iron. Bar Rolled Iron. Clothing. Cottons. Woollen 5 p. c .. . 5 p. c. . 5 p. c. . • 7 1 p .c.. • H . c. . . 5 71 “ 71 “ “ .. 5 p. c .1 1 “ . .4 “ .. ..11“ ..4 “ . . 10 “ . . 10 “ .10 “ . .1 0 “ . . 10 “ . . 10 “ “ . . 15 “ . . 15 “ .1 5 “ . .1 0 “ . 15 “ ..1 5 “ “ . . 15 “ .1 5 “ . .1 0 “ . iv i “ . . 15 “ . . 71 “ .. n “ .. 71 “ . 15 “ . .2 1 “ ..4 . .5 “ . . 15 171“ •. 2 1 “ . .5 “ . . 171 “ . . 171 “ . 171 “ •. 121 “ ■ 20 “ . . 171 “ . 30 “ .. 5 “ . .10 “ ..3 0 “ .3 0 . .2 5 . “ . . 30 “ . .5 “ . . 20 “ . . 20 “ .830 ton. . . 3 0 “ . 25 “ ..2 5 “ .. 5 “ ..8 1 0 ton.. . 25 “ .830 “ . .3 0 “ . 25 “ . . 20 “ “ ..8 1 21 “ . . 25 “ .|36 “ . .5 0 “ . 25 “ . . 45 “ “ . . 25 “ .830 “ . .5 0 “ . 25 “ . . 50 “ . 15 “ - 4 “ April 2 7 ,__ 1816 . tf 4 2 “ . . 20 “ .. 3 “ May 22,___ 1824 . ft 4 2 “ . . 30 & 3 c. lb .. . 20 “ . 3 “ May 1 9 , . . . . 1828 . It 5 7 “ . . 30 “ 3 “ . . 20 “ .. 3 “ . .5 July 14,........ 1832 . ft 5 7 “ . . 30 “ 3 “ . . 20 “ . . 21 “ . .free. 20 ..8 1 0 . . 30 “ “ “ 40 March 2,........ 1833* p. 0. gallon, 60 “ . . 30 & 6 c. lb .. August 6 , . . . . 1846 . p. c. March 3,........ 1857 . “ March 2,........ 1861 . August 5 ,___ 1861 . 20 . . 20 p. c. “ . .20p. c. . . “ . . 20 p. c .. . 20 “ . 20 p. c. . .2 0 “ . 20 “ . . 20 “ 30 “ . . 2 1 c.lb . . “ . . $9 ton.. . 30 “ •825 ton. . .5 0 “ . 30 “ . . 40 “ . . 40 p. c. 30 “ . . 30p. c. . . “ . . 30 p. c .. . 30 “ . 30 p. c. . . 3 0 “ . 25 “ ..30 “ . . 30 “ 24 “ . .24 . . 24 “ . . 24 “ .2 4 . .2 4 “ . 19 “ . . 24 “ gallon, 40 “ . . 30 tf 5 0 “ . . 30 “ 30 .. . . $6 ton.. . 30 “ •815 ton. . .3 0 “ . 30 “ 25 A 12 c “ 30 “ “ .$15 “ . 30 “ 25 <fc12 100 30 20 “ “ .. “ f c . lb. . “ .. 2 “ . . 4 c. lb .. . |6 “ . . 30 “ “ . .3 0 * Where the duty exceeds 20 per cent., the excess to be reduced biennially until the excess should cease, 1S42. [November, September 11 1841 . August 3 0 ,... 1842 . H is to r y o f the U n ited S ta tes T a riff. 1789 . . gallon, 1 0 c .. . 10 p. c. ft 15 “ . . 121 “ ft May 2 ,......... 1792 . 2 8 “ . . 15 “ tf 2 8 “ . . 20 “ June *7,........... 1794 . if March 3 , . . .. 1797 . 2 9 “ . . 20 “ August 1 0 ,.. Sugar. China. 508 D uties L evied by each G eneral T ariff of tiie U nited S tates, since the F ormation of the G overnment, upon E leven L eading H eads of I mports . 1 8 6 1 .] Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. 50 9 CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND BOARDS OF TRADE. Monthly Meeting o f the Chamber o f Commerce, Mew-York. T iib monthly meeting of the New-York Chamber of Commerce was held Thursday, October 3d, 1861. P e l a t ia h P e r u , Esq., president, in the chair. Present, Messrs. P h e l p s and Low, vice-presidents, and about forty members. The following gentlemen, who were nominated September 5th, were this day elected members : J ohn J a c o b A s to r , Jr., J o n a t h a n II. R a n som , E d w a r d M ott R obinson , S e l aii V an D uzer, E dw ard W il l e t s . Mr. R o y a l P h e l p s said that as Mr. A sto r was a personal friend— a gentleman whom they would all regard as an acquisition to the Cham ber— he considered the presentation o f his name a favorable opportunity to raise the inquiry, how the Chamber was to be constituted— whether of respectable citizens o f New-York in general, or o f merchants ? Gen tlemen were constantly elected who had no connection whatever with the commerce of New-York, and it had been a frequent subject o f re mark. lie felt assured Mr. A sto r would not take offence at his embrac ing the opportunity to make an objection that might hereafter be a shield between the Chamber and such nominations. Mr. P . M. W e t m o r e , while entirely concurring in the views expressed by Mr. P h e l p s , considered that Mr. A s to r could not be said to have no connection with the commerce o f New-lTork. As a large capitalist, whose money was invested, and became the foundation for extensive commercial transactions, he was very intimately connected with com merce. He was glad, however, that the question was raised; and, with the intention o f himself bringing up the subject, he had cut a paragraph from the Evening Post, stating that Mr. G. AY. S m it h , late Street Com missioner o f this city, had received a commission in the rebel army. This Mr. S m ith had been elected a member o f the Chamber, although having no connection whatever with commerce. The Secretary read from the by-laws showing that those “ whose vo cations were connected with the trade o f the country” were embraced as eligible, v iz.: “ No persons can be admitted members o f this corporation but mer chants and others, residents o f this and contiguous States, whose avoca tions are connected with the trade and commerce o f the country.” Mr. O p d y k e said that Mr. A s to r , properly speaking, was not a mer chant. Commerce, in a large sense, took in financial transactions, such as banking, exchange, brokerage, buying and selling whatever was to be sold. Mr. A stor did not come under that category, so far as he knew, being engaged only in investing his own revenues. But under the sen tence read from the by-laws he was eligible. AVm. B. A stor , his father, was a member. Mr. P h e l p s withdrew his objection, which he had made solely for the purpose of stopping the further election of men not merchants. Mr. A. C. R ic h a r d s , from the committee on procuring medals for 510 Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. [November, presentation to the soldiers at Forts Sumter and Pickens, reported that $1,500 would he required to supply the 168 medals. A subscription list, h ead ed b y Mr. P iie l p s for $ 1 0 0, was im m ed iately op en e d , and th e sum o f eig h t h u n d red dollars subscribed. Mr. R . B. M in t u r n was re-elected a member of the Arbitration Com mittee for the term o f twelve months. Mr. B lunt thought that some action should be taken in the case of runaway members. He moved that the names o f I s aa c V . F o w l e r , M. L o v e l l and G. W . S m it h , who had absconded, be stricken from the roll o f members, which was adopted. On motion o f Mr. G e o r g e O p d y k e , the Executive Committee were requested to present three names for trustees o f the Nautical School, es tablished by the legislature, for approval of the Chamber at its next meeting. (This law was printed in the September No. of the M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a z in e , pp. 310, 311.) A letter was received from Prof. F r a n c is L ie b e r , o f Columbia College, thanking the Chamber for his election as honorary member. Mr. P r o s p e r M. W e t m o r e offered th e f o llo w in g : Resolved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to prepare and submit, at the next meeting of the Chamber, a memorial to the Congress o f the United States, asking that authority be granted to the Assay Office in this city to coin for the national currency such portion o f gold and silver bullion which may be in the Treasury o f the United States as the Secretary o f the Treasury may direct. This resolution, Mr. W e tm o re said, he based upon a statement of the bullion deposited in the United States Assay Office, New-York, by which it appeared that the total deposits, from October 1, 1860, to September 30, 1861, were— of silver, $2,480,237; o f gold, $67,788,158. Bullion transmitted to the United States Mint for coinage, during the same period — o f silver, $2,300,126; o f gold, $64,855,532. The cost of transporting the bullion to the Mint at Philadelphia, and returning it, was $71,755; but this was not the only or greatest loss sustained. The loss o f time involved by transmitting the bullion to Philadelphia, instead o f coining it here, was as four weeks to three days. Again, the risk was enormous. No great loss had yet been sustained; but when they recollected that two millions a week, on the average, went by way of boat to Amboy, and the liability o f accidents to steamboats, it would be seen what a risk the government ran ; for the loss, if any, would fall, not on the owners nor on the express company, but on gov ernment ; and it was a very unprofitable kind of insurance, for they re ceive no premium. He thought the community who furnish government, in its necessity, with seventy per cent, of the coin it had to use, ought to be permitted to furnish the coin from its own Mint, since it had all the power except authority from Congress. He added the following item s: B ullion D eposited, U nited S tates A ssay O ffice, N e w -Y oek . Silver. $ 216,472 452,118 792,647 1,019,000 .. . . . Gold. $ 11,818,605 17,882,427 21,959,126 16,128,000 .. . . . Total. % 12,035,077 18,334,545 22,751,773 17,147,000 Total deposits from October 1, 1860, to September 30, 1861, $ 2,480,237 .. $ 67,788,158 .. $ 70,268,395 1860, 1861, “ “ 4th quarter,....................... 1st “ ....................... 2d “ ....................... 3d “ ....................... 1861.] 511 Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. B ullion T ransmitted to U nited S tates M int for C oinage. Silver. 1860, 1861, ' “ « 4th quarter,....................... 1st “ 2d “ 3d “ $101,987 496,830 809,367 891,942 $2,300,126 Gold. Total. .. .. .. .. $8,772,811 19,484,603 19,505,400 17,092,718 .. .. .. .. $ 8,874,798 19,981,433 20,314,767 17,984,660 .. $64,855,532 .. $ 67,155,658 The estimated eost o f transportation to and from the Mint— on gold, $64,855; on silver, $6,900— is $71,755. A dd to this the loss o f time, and the aggregate loss will appear to be about one hundred thousand dollars annually. The resolution was adopted. Mr. B lo o d g o o d made a brief address, introducing a resolution for the appointment o f a committee of three, to take into consideration and re port upon a suggestion made by an eminent merchant o f New-York. Mr. B l o o d g o o d remarked: W hile no one can entertain a higher esti mate o f the influence, the labors and the beneficent measures o f the Chamber of Commerce, I am o f the opinion that its sphere o f usefulness may be greatly enlarged. Its action, though powerful, is not as extended as it might be, and I therefore respectfully suggest at least one method by which its great influence might be increased. Composed of the lead ing merchants and bankers o f New-York, it sustains the character which was impressed upon it by its founders and their successors; and, on a careful study o f its history, I find that it has been hitherto equal to every emergency of peace or war, of navigation and o f commerce. But I believe there are still many important positions which it might efficiently occupy. I perceive, I think, that it has not entirely fulfilled its high duties, though self-imposed, and that its ability to do good is by no means exhausted. If I may be allowed to express m y private opinions on this subject, I would say, that, much as it has done, much remains to do. Thus, if I am rightly informed, the Liverpool Chamber o f Commerce exercises an immense influence, not only over commerce itself, but in the details which make it successful, and has, within a few years, by its exertions, elevated that city to the rank of a first-rate port. This Liverpool Chamber not only interests itself in public questions, but also in their details. They have a clock which tells the true time of day for the shipping; they have signals, daily hoisted, premonitory of the weather, communicated by careful observers at Greenwich, by which the departure o f ships is regulated ; they look after the magnetic influ ences which disturb the marine compass, and it is by their interference that the maritime interests o f their port are regulated. Your intelligent and efficient secretary has, at my suggestion, written to the officials of that institution for a full explanation o f their regulations, their application and their results. I regret they have not reached him in time to be sub mitted at this meeting. Be this as it may, the object o f my remarks at this time is this : Believing for some time that the Chamber o f Commerce had still untried fields to cultivate, I suggested to a friend and relative o f mine a measure which he has thus far cordially assented to. This gentleman, o f ample means, a retired merchant, to whom, in more ways than one, New-York has been greatly indebted, is the owner o f a site in this immediate neigh 512 Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. [November, borhood. He owns four large lots between Pine and Cedar streets. On these, at my suggestion, he will erect a structure in marble, in the most substantial manner, and in the finest taste, at his own expense, the upper stories o f which shall be principally devoted to the use o f the Chamber of Commerce. There will be constructed a large room for general pur poses, committee rooms, rooms for a library and marine charts, a hall for the meeting of the Chamber and merchants generally, apartments for a commercial newspaper reading-room, (which, I am informed, can easily be transferred from the Exchange, and for which negotiations can readily be made,) a tower for a clock, an observatory, from which the whole bay and harbor will be visible, and space for the Nautical School which has been created by act o f the legislature, and which will fall under the con trol of the Chamber. He does not require assistance from the Chamber o f Commerce to erect these buildings. He will accept only a fair and reasonable rent for his building, and advance the money himself. This expenditure is contemplated to be about $70,000. It may be said that this is not the time for such an enterprise. But, in my judgment, it is the very time of all times. The proposed edifice can be erected at less cost now than it could have been in our palmy days, or hereafter when our palmy days return. The erection o f this building, and the enterprise and sagacity o f the Chamber of Commerce, could never be more felicitously displayed than in seizing upon this opportunity. It is true we are at war with our own brothers, engaged in a distressing family quarrel; but New-York, favored by nature, by Providence and its own intrinsic merit, stands in all its magnificent proportions undisturbed. To the merchants, bankers and people o f New-York the country owes this day its proud position and its real safety. But for them, no armies would have crowded the seat of war ; but for them, rebellion this moment would be rampant; and when this controversy i ended, "nd when the historian makes his record o f its events, no such city and no such people will have ever received or deserved so much honor. Ours is a case o f peculiar character. It has no parallel. A good cause may be sometimes overthrown for want o f strength ; but a good cause, with a just quarrel and a superior force, never yet failed and never can. I look forward confidently to the restoration o f the Union, the supremacy of the Constitution, and a return to their allegiance o f that mistaken, cheated and abused population of the South, who have been led by demagogues into a fratricidal contest, which must end in their utter ruin if persisted in, unless they accept again our brotherly care. And this I believe they will do. No matter, then, about the condition o f things elsewhere, when we are all right here. The Chamber of Commerce has a destiny which has sur vived two wars, and will survive this. Art, philanthropy, patriotism, commerce cannot be extinguished by any difficulties o f the hour, and therefore we are safe in extending our benevolent action to reach pos terity, who will admire our persistence. It is, therefore, no objection to my proposition that war exists. Com merce goes on. I am surprised to learn, from this morning’s papers, that our trade was never more active in this port than at this moment. More entries and departures than were ever known ; more exports than imports, and no falling off in them. If Cotton has ceased to be King, I am happy to find that Corn has ascended the throne, and that his dynasty is not to 1861.] Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. 513 be disturbed for the present. In a French paper I received yesterday, I find it stated that the grain crop o f France is one-third less this year than last; and that country has no where else to look for a supply than the Northern and Western United States. W e may congratulate ourselves, therefore, on the stability o f our commerce, in spite o f all the obstacles which foreign jealousy has placed in our path. I see, therefore, no reason why the Chamber of Commerce may not proceed in its honorable course, nor why it should not seek every favor able opportunity to extend its influence, nor why such patriotic and, I may say, disinterested offers to increase its usefulness should be un noticed. The Chambers o f Commerce in Cincinnati and St. Louis, I am told, are conducted on a superior scale, though they have no bays in which the navies o f the world may anchor, no healthful “ salt sea” waves to break upon their shores. Here is an opportunity, then, that has never occurred before to us, and may never occur again. I therefore respect fully suggest that a special committee be appointed, o f which I hope our experienced and liberal-minded president may be chairman, to take into consideration the suggestion now made, in good faith for myself and the eminent citizen whose name I am ready to give if called upon to do so. If the plan is adopted, the merchants o f New-York will have a place of resort that will have no superior, either in this country or in Europe, and exercise a large and beneficial influence. I f it is not, I shall have at least the pleasure o f having made a fair and useful and a patriotic pro position, and performed my duty as one of its humble members. The subject was referred to a committee, consisting o f the President, Messrs. B l o o d g o o d and Cisco. LETTER FROM PROFESSOR LIEBER. N ew -Y ork, September 13, 1861. S i r ,— Prevented by circumstances beyond my control from attending the first meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, after its honorary mem bership had been conferred on me, I am obliged to request o f you, Mr. President, the favor o f expressing to the Chamber my sincere thanks for the honor which your eminent institution has kindly bestowed upon me. I appreciate this distinction, and value it the more on account o f the time in which you have extended it to me— a period, it seems, o f peculiar honor to the merchants o f New-York. In selecting me for the honorary membership, the Chamber o f Com merce of the State of New-York has doubtless been prompted by a desire to express its sympathy with one of the branches which I am teaching at Columbia College— a branch which, indeed, has been called the phi losophy of commerce, and which certainly is the science of production and exchange, and exchange is commerce. May this sympathy between the great commerce of our city and the course o f education and know ledge always subsist between your Chamber, the chartered embodiment of the merchants at the southern end o f this the only port-surrounded city in the world, on the one hand, and our college on the northern hill of the city on the other hand. May they flourish together. Both are interwoven with the history of New-York. Our Chamber of Commerce was established, if I am not mistaken, in the year 1758, a few years after the foundation o f our college. The two institutions are already linked VOL. x l v .— n o . v. 33 514 Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. [November, together by the worthy and venerated president of the latter, an active member of long standing o f the former. I f a profession were required o f a new member, I could make mine with reference to trade, and to that struggle in which our country is en gaged and which signally affects our commerce, in a very few words. I am by conviction, sympathy and all the results o f observation and study, an unwavering Union man. I believe that commerce is the hand maid o f civilization, and that men are inherently exchanging beings; I am in favor o f the freest possible exchange, o f unshackled trade ; I know that one of the characteristics o f modern progress is the almost universal establishment of free trade within each country ruled by one government; I believe that without the Union civil liberty will not be maintained, and I know that in modern history, ever since the downfall of antiquity, civil, and, in a great measure, even religious, liberty have gone hand in hand with com m erce; and I know that when commerce suffers, that which presents itself to the less observing as a relief nearest at hand proves fre quently the merest palliative— in economy as in medicine. W ar dis turbs exchanging traffic, indeed, but every peace on that account is not a remedy. Many a peace recorded in history, ancient as well as modem, has proved a scourge more dire than the war it was intended to close. There is nothing great without its sacrifice, and commerce is not ex empted from this universal law, any more than religion, science, liberty, the arts, or that civilization which comprehends them all. W e have civil war in our country— sad for all o f us— and bitter for those who wantonly plunged her into this contest; for whatever its issue may be, one thing seems to be beyond all doubt— neither, cotton nor slavery will come forth from this war as they went into it. The royal purple o f the one will be rumpled, perhaps rent, and the divinity o f the other will appear somewhat shorn and paled. Be the end o f the war what it may, the bankers and merchants o f New-York, this Chamber and the capitalists, deserve the warmest acknow ledgments o f every patriot, and to take a much more confined view, o f every economist, for having bravely supported the active and able Sec retary of the Treasury in his directness o f purpose and candor o f conduct, when lately he was in the midst o f us on his momentous errand to obtain a large portion o f the means wherewith to carry on our just and conser vative war, which has been forced upon us and is now necessary, even in a purely commercial point of view. It is true, indeed, that those who are now in arms against their own country have proclaimed the desire o f establishing free trade as one of the causes— an economical reason for an insurrection which commenced with the setting aside o f the elements of morals, the stepping over the principles o f honor, and the breaking o f those oaths which are held by men most sacred; and, on the other hand, it is true that the United States have enacted an untoward tariff; but has the revolted portion of the country shown itself in former times, and does it show itself even now, frankly and plainly for free trade ? The sugar interest o f Louisiana tells us no. Had it ever been candidly in favor o f internal free trade ? The river tonnage duty, repeatedly asked for by men from that portion, would surely not have promoted free domestic traffic. I f ever this in surrection should come victoriously to settle down into an acknowledged new state of things, would it not break up the free traffic and unhampered exchange in the territory of the Union, which is the largest portion o f 1861.] Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. 515 the whole peopled northern continent— that free trade within the country for which Germany toilsomely labors, and which, permit me to repeat it, is one o f the cheering characteristics o f modern progress ? Nature gave us a land abounding in all the means o f sustaining life and industry— food and fuel; she cast a network o f fluvial high roads over the whole. Our history is marked by no feature more dis tinctly than by the early complete freedom o f river navigation, for which other nations have struggled in vain for many long centuries; and this insurrection, with a federal confession o f judgment, steps in and means to snap the silver thread. The Mississippi belongs to you, sir, as much as to any man in Louisiana, and it is mine as much as it is yours. It belongs to the country by divine right, i t j u s d ivin u m ever existed in any case ; and let us trust in that God the country will never allow it to be wrested from us. Every consideration, with the consciousness of a high mission imposed upon us by our Maker to that of the commonest econo my, urges us to hold fast to the unstinted freedom o f our fluvial and all other communication. Let us first re-establish complete free trade with in our whole domain, and afterwards let every one who candidly believes in the blessings of international free trade see to that. Important as the topic o f free trade doubtless is proved to be by the recent history o f civilized nations, and by the development o f all ex change, there is, nevertheless, a principle which every economist and publicist acknowledges as o f far greater importance for production and exchange for commerce in its evident and its narrowed spheres— it is the simple fact that the instability of the country’s polity affects production and exchange far more than an injudicious policy, plague or conquest. Let the right o f secession— as it has almost farcically been called— be established; let American polities be considered as confederacies of States merely pieced or huddled together without a pervading and com prehensive national element, (an effete type o f polity belonging to a pe riod long passed in the political progress o f our race,) and, sir, we may as well close the doors o f our Chamber, and you may save yourself the trouble of presiding over us. I say what I literally mean. The right o f secession once acknowledged would lead to a number of chartered States, folio wing the pattern held up by the insurgents, which brings small States, proud of an imaginary sovereignty, into contact just sufficient to produce jarring and contest, and to prevent organic harmony. The history o f all pure or real confederacies is uninviting, frequently appalling, whether regarded in a general point o f view or with reference to production and wealth alone. T o such a supposed state o f things our commerce would cease to be an organic branch o f civilization, and sink to the short-sighted, selfish extorting which constitutes the trading o f all lawless countries, be the lawlessness caused by the despotism o f the many, the heartless arrogance o f the few or the tyranny o f one. As men o f duty and honor, as patriots, as merchants and men o f in dustry, as lovers o f freedom and civilization, as men who know that great and constant accumulation o f wealth is requisite for modem civili zation, as men who are determined to do right and wish to act nobly, let us stand by our country and see that this gigantic, sanguinary absur dity be crushed or driven from every corner of the soil. Accept, sir, the sentiments o f m y highest regard, with which I am your very obedient servant. F r a n c is L ie b e r . T o P e l a t ia h P e r it , P resid en t o f the Cham ber o f Commerce. 516 Chambers o f Commerce and Boards o f Trade. [November, The Secretary reported that he had received copies of the following works for gratuitous distribution among the members : I. Annual Report o f the Patent Office o f the United States on Agri culture, for the year 1860. One volume, 8vo., pp. 504, with engravings. II. Remarks on the Proposed Issue o f Treasury Notes on Demand. III. Acts and Resolutions passed during the first session o f the ThirtySeventh Congress. July— August, 1861. Octavo, pp. 96. IV. The Utility and Application o f Heat as a Disinfectant. B y E l is h a H a r r is , M. D., o f New-York. Octavo, pp. 22. Y . Annual Report o f the Superintendent o f the Insurance Department of the State o f New-York, March, 1861. Two volumes, octavo. The Secretary reported that the speech o f the Hon. J oseph H olt before the Chamber o f Commerce and citizens of New-York, at Irving Hall, on Tuesday, September 3d, had been printed in pamphlet form for distribution among all persons who desired copies. The next meeting of the Chamber will be held Thursday, November 7th. J. S m ith H THE N EW -YORK PRODUCE o m an s , S ecretary. EXCHANGE. A meeting of grain dealers was held October 11th, after business hours, at the Produce Exchange. F r a n c is P. S a g e was appointed Chairman and F. B a n k s , Secretary. The Chairman stated that the meeting had been called for the purpose o f finally settling the demurrage question between the sellers o f grain and the transportation men. Three days have usually been allowed to remove the grain after the arrival of the boat, after which twenty-five dollars per day had been charged. Three days had been found too short a time, and twenty-five dollars is too much to pay for each additional day. The buyers think the improve ments which have recently been made in the size of the canal-boats entitle them to much more time. The next question was the liability for a detention o f the boats after the proper time for discharge. In their insurance policy provision is made, and five days are allowed for them to discharge. A nd it was also desirable to settle who is responsible for damage done to a boat after the proper time for discharge. The third question was the right o f rejection after the grain has been examined and the boat sent alongside the ship. From the length of time which occasionally elapses before a boat is discharged, after it is sent alongside ship, great loss is often caused. Mr. L a w b e r moved that a committee of two be appointed to represent all the interests, and report at the next meeting. The Chairman then appointed the following comm ittee: Shipowners, F r a n c is M. F r e n c h and J o h n S. W ill ia m s ; buyers, J. J. K in g s la n d and H . S tu t zer ; re ceivers, J. B. H e r r ic k and E. S. B r o w n ; forwarders, M. M. C a l eb and H u g h A l l e n . The meeting then adjourned until Friday, October 18th, at one o’clock. Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. 1 8 6 1 .] JOURNAL I. OF NAUTICAL 517 INTELLIGENCE, T he A m erican S hipm asters ’ A ssociation . II. B r it ish Steam V essels for C h in a . III. B r it ish Steam ers for P eru . IV. A n I n cid en t of the S e a . V. T he L a k e T r ad e to L i v e r poo l . VI. S u rveys in A u s t r a l a s ia . VII. T he S a n d w ic h I sland s . VIII. L igh t -H ouses in S c otlan d — Ca p e of G ood H ope — S ou th P a c if ic — C oast of B r a z il — B a y of B isc ay . AMERICAN SHIPMASTERS’ ASSOCIATION. T he American Shipmasters’ Association has been organized at New- York with a view to elevate the moral character and professional capacity o f American seamen, by the encouragement of worthy and well-qualified officers, and to promote the security of life and property at sea. Under the direction o f a council of experienced shipmasters and shipowners, certificates will be issued to worthy and competent persons, after exami nation, for such offices as they may be qualified to fill with credit in the mercantile marine service. These certificates, it is believed, will serve as a recommendation to shipowners, and will, doubtless, be encouraged by underwriters in making favorable insurances on vessels and cargoes under the command of officers holding them. Merchants and shipowners paying ten dollars annual fee will be en titled to participate in the privileges of the association, in accordance with the rules thereof. The association will be under the direction of a president, the duties to be performed by a chairman and secretary. A treasurer will attend to the judicious management o f its finances. Suitable rooms in the “ Merchants’ Exchange,” Nos. 89 and 90, are provided, called “ The Shipmasters’ Rooms,” where the chairman and secretary will attend for the necessary duties of the association. These rooms will be supplied with newspapers, books and records relating to marine and commercial intelligence. Subscribers to the association, shipmasters and officers holding its cer tificates, will have free admission to the rooms, with the privilege o f in troducing masters and mates o f foreign vessels in port, or strangers tem porarily visiting New-York. Printed monthly reports o f officers in good standing and holding cer tificates of the association will be furnished to the members, and will be published hereafter in the M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a z in e . In order to secure the contemplated object of the association by placing proper persons in commission, the right o f revocation will be reserved in each certificate issued. The council o f the association are: Captain C h a r l e s H . M a r s h a l l , Captain E z r a N y e , Captain E. E. M o r g a n , Captain R o bert L. T a y l o r , Captain W il l ia m C. T h o m p so n , (o f the Neptune Insurance Company,) and J ohn D . J o n e s , (President Atlantic Marine Insurance Company,) under whose directions examinations are to be made and certificates issued. These certificates will be o f two grades : 1st. O f competency. 2d. Of service. The certificate o f competency will be issued to experienced seamen upon examination as to nautical science, under the direction o f the council. 518 Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. [November, The certificate o f service will be issued to any experienced officer for the station he has filled, when approved b y the council, or under the rules which may be adopted. A record o f all examinations and certificates issued will be kept by the secretary, alphabetically arranged, in convenient form for reference. Also a register o f shipwrecks, with the names o f officers in command. For the information o f officers holding the certifi cates o f the association, a bulletin will be kept with the address o f persons desiring officers o f vessels: and, if necessary, o f officers not employed or desiring situations. R u les o r th e C o u n c il of the S h ip m a s t e r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n . I. C ertificates. — Applicants for certificates must present a written state ment, under their signature, specifying their native place, age, principal voyages and service, period o f following the sea, and any other indication o f their capacity or experience, and shall give reference to persons and vessels for and on which they have been employed, and shall answer such questions as m aybe deemed proper. Such statements and answers, and written recommendations, certificates or objections from previous employers or others, shall be preserved for future reference. Misstatements made by the applicant shall be a sufficient reason for refusing a certificate, or for revoking one, if granted. II. M a ster's Certificate o f S ervice. — The qualifications for a certificate of service shall be— experience as a mariner and as a navigator; skill in the sailing and management o f a vessel; a service o f one or more voyages as master; to be in good standing with his employer, o f good character and habits, particularly as to temperance ; he shall be twentyone years o f age, and have had six years’ experience at sea. I f an applicant for a certificate as master has only served in a fore-andaft rigged vessel, and is ignorant o f the management o f a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words “ fore-and-aft rig ged vessel” will appear. III. C ertificates o f Com petency. — The qualifications shall be all those required for service, and the applicant shall possess competent knowledge of nautical science to determine the longitude by observation, the proof of which shall be an examination under such rules as the council may prescribe. IV . R ejected A p p lica tion s. — Rejected applications for certificates shall not be reconsidered, except upon application o f three members o f the council, when the whole case may be examined. Y . R evocation s. — All certificates may be revoked for reasons satisfac tory to a majority of the council; for cruel or inhuman treatment o f crew or passengers, for breach o f trust or barratry, for unskilfulness or mis conduct, involving unnecessary damage to vessel or cargo, or for ship wreck not satisfactorily accounted for. V I. R e-E x a m in a tion s. — On application o f the holder, a revoked cer tificate may be reconsidered. If, upon examination by the council, or other persons under their directions, the applicant should prove faultless, a new certificate may be issued to him, but no new certificate shall be granted after a third revocation. 519 Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. 1861.] O f f ic e r s of the S h ip m a s t e r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n . Council, Captain C h a r l e s H . M a r s h a l l , Captain E z r a N t e , Captain E. E. M o r g a n , Captain R o bert L. T a y l o r , Captain W il l ia m C. T h o m p son and J ohn D . J o n e s , (ex officio.) Treasurer, D a n ie l D r a k e S m ith . Chairman, examiner in seamanship, Captain W il l ia m W . S t o r y . Secretary, I saac H. U pto n . President, J ohn D . J o n e s . Applications for certificates may be made at the rooms of the associa tion, 89 and 90 “ Merchants’ Exchange,” Wall-street, New-York. BRITISH STEAM VESSEL FOR CHINA. The steam tug I slan d Q ueen has been built, in England, for Mr. M‘Farl a n e , who was for many years resident in China, and who thoroughly un derstands the river navigation of that country. She is about 400 tons measurement and 110 horse-power, the engines being made on the diagonal principle, which has been so successful in the I n c a and other vessels. In this instance they are fitted with surface-condensers, and, as this great improvement in machinery was looked forward to with con siderable interest, we have ascertained the following particulars o f several trials the I sland Q u een has made : She made her first trial trip to Douglas, Isle o f Man, thence to Holyhead, and from there to Liverpool, her average speed being ten knots, and the consumption of coal equal to ten tons in twenty-four hours. The next trial was to ascertain her efficiency as a tug boat; and in September last she towed out to sea, from the M e r s e y , a new vessel, belonging to Mr. E d w a r d B a t e s , called the E d w a r d P e r c y . The E d w a r d P e r c y is about 900 tons measurement, and was drawing fully eighteen feet. She towed this vessel easily at the rate of eight knots per hour, which is considered a first-rate result, looking at the nominal power of the steamer and the size o f the vessel towed. The consumption of coal during the time she was towing was at the rate o f twelve tons in twenty-four hours. The surface-condensers worked beautifully, the vacuum being steady at twenty-eight. Two other trials were made, each o f four hours’ duration. In one case she made a speed o f eight to nine knots, with a consumption equal to six tons in twenty-four hours; going ten to eleven knots, the consumption was equal to ten and a half tons. So far, therefore, this improved class o f engines, with surface-condensers, has proved satisfactory, and its ad vantages will be more apparent when contrasted with engines on the common plan, especially for long voyages, the boilers being kept perfectly clean and free from the incrustation usual when ordinary condensers are used. THE PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. Messrs. J ohn R e id & Co., Port Glasgow, launched from their buildingyard a magnificent iron paddle steamship, o f 1,400 tons register, named the P e r u . This vessel is the property o f the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, and is intended to ply between Panama and Valparaiso, as a consort to the C a l l a o , V a l p a r a is o and other ships built by Messrs. J ohn R e id & Co., a few years ago. The P e r u will be furnished with Messrs. 520 Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. [November, R a n d o l p h , E l d e r <fc Co.’s patent double cylinder engines, o f 350 nomi nal borse power. In September last Messrs. R a n d o l p h , E l d e r & Co. launched from their recently acquired building-yard at Govan the first vessel built by their firm. The vessel alluded to was christened the T a l c a , and is the property o f the Pacific Steam Navigation Company. She is a paddle steamer, of the following dimensions : length o f keel and forerake, 190 feet; breadth of beam, 30 feet; depth from keel to under side of upper deck at amidships, 17 feet; height between decks, 6 feet; burden, 800 tons. Her engines are R a n d o l p h , E l d e r & Co.’s patent double cylinder, of 160 horse power nominal. AN INCIDENT OP THE SEA. The ship A l bert G a l l a t in , on one o f her outward voyages to NewYork, early in the present year, experienced very severe weather, and when in lat. 49° 30' N., long. 42° W ., the captain ( D e l a n o ) threw a bottle overboard containing a memorandum to the effect that the vessel was suffering from a violent gale, and requesting any person who picked up the bottle to report the circumstance. The memorandum was dated February 9, and on the 7th March the A l bert G a l l a t in arrived in a leaky and distressed state at New-York. On the 19th February the bottle was picked up off the Island o f Iona, north of Scotland. THE DIRECT ROUTE TO LIVERPOOL. Tire J ohn G. D e s h l e r , o f Detroit, Michigan, which arrived at Liverpool from that port, grain laden, when on her passage though the Straits of Belle Isle, and when surrounded by ice and in very thick weather, was driven upon the rocks, where she remained for three days, but, after dis charging a part of her cargo, she was, through the great exertions and skill used by Captain M a n n , got once more into deep water, and was safely navigated by him to this port, where the remainder o f her cargo has been discharged in first-rate order. This is her third voyage across, and the severe test she has undergone is another proof, if it were necessary, that the lake-built vessels are quite equal, if not superior, for carrying cargoes in good condition to many o f the ocean-going ships. The bark R a v e n n a , Captain M a l o t t , arrived at Chicago, September 28, direct from Liverpool. She made the run from Liverpool to Quebec in the short space of twenty-eight days without carrying away a sail, rope or spar, and outsailing ships which left 20 and 30 days before her. The R a v e n n a brings 200 tons of salt for C hicago; the remainder o f her cargo was consigned to Detroit and Cleveland. This is the first shipment to Chicago direct from Liverpool in an American vessel. The R a v e n n a left here on the first o f June, and the trip has proved that grain can be landed in Liverpool direct from Lake Michigan in as good condition as it can from New-York.— C hicago J ou rn a l, S a tu rd a y E v en in g , Septem ber 28 th. AUSTRALASIA. The surveys o f the coasts o f Australasia have now been amply provi ded for. New South Wales and Victoria are each to contribute £3,500 Journal o f Nautical Intelliaence. 521 a year; South Australasia, £2,000 ; and Tasmaniaaud Queensland, £1,500 a year each towards the surveys, and the English Admiralty has sanctioned a similar sum o f £10,000 a year out o f the imperial treasury to meet the contributions of the colonies. THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. A t the October meeting o f the Ethnological Society, New-York, the recording secretary read an account, by Mr. Joane, of the Micronesian mission, published in June last, o f a voyage o f five hundred miles and back, made by a few natives in their little canoes, without a compass, and with only two stopping-places, guided by the stars, currents, winds, &c. This writer remarked that this fact proved that the islands o f the Pacific might have been peopled either by accident or by design, and accounted for known resemblances in language, &c. The author considers it certain that the Sandwich Islands were peopled from the Society Islands, and that voyages were made between them before the days of Captain C ook . Mr. G u l ic k stated, at a former meeting o f the society, that he had seen natives who had recently performed that voyage in canoes; and they declined accepting a compass, saying that their pilot had one in his head. NEW LIGHT-HOUSES. Cape o f G ood H o p e. — Official in formation has been received at the Department of State, from the Colonial Government at the Cape of Good Hope, that a light would be exhibited from the new light-house on the Roman Rocks on the 16th September, 1861, which will supersede that shown at the light-vessel now moored a cable’s length north o f the rocks. It will be a revolv in g white light, showing a bright face for the space of twelve seconds twice every minute, which will serve to distinguish it from the Cape Point light in thick weather, as that light revolves only once every minute. The light will be fifty-four feet above the sea, and visible in clear weather, from a ship’s deck, thirteen miles distant. The light-tower is forty-eight feet high, the lower half of which will be painted black and the upper half white. From the light-house, Noah’s Ark bears S. 56° W . - f miles, and the Dock-yard clock W . by N. 1.65 mile. N. N. E. § E. 2 f cables from the light-house, lies the C astor R o ck , with only fifteen feet on it at low water, springs. Its position is marked by a beacon, with a flag, having the word “ r o c k ” painted on it. There are patches o f nineteen and twenty-four feet between the Castor Rock and the light-house, which renders it necessary for large ships to give the light-house a berth of at least three and a half cables, when passing to the N. E., before hauling in for Simon’s Bay. In sailing for Simon’s Bay, by keeping the light-house in line with Elsey Peak, bearing N. ^ W ., a ship will pass midway between the Whittle Rock and Miller’s Point. R om an R ock L ig h t, F a lse B a y , S cotland , W est Coast, S ou n d o f I s la y — F ix e d L ig h t on M a ca r th u r H ea d . — Official information has been received, that on and after the 1st 522 Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. [November, day of September, 1861, a light would be exhibited from the light-house recently erected on Macarthur Head, on the western side o f the south entrance to the Sound of Islay, Argyllshire. The light will be a fixed light. It will show white up the Sound, from the eastern shore of the Island o f Islay, till it bears about S. -1 W . ; red towards the Island of Jura, from S. £ W . till it bears about w est; and white from west, round southerly and as far to the westward as it can be seen, or until obscured by the south side o f Islay. The light will be elevated about 128 feet above the level o f high water springs, and should be seen in clear weather at a distance o f 17 miles. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric or by lenses, varying with range from the first to the third order. The light will show its greatest power towards Cantyre to the south and the Sound o f Islay to the north. The light-tower is circular, built o f stone, and painted white. It is 42 feet in height from the ground to top o f lantern, and its position is lat. 55° 45' 55" N., long. 6° 2' 55" west o f Greenwich. B ay o f Biscay, Spain, North Coast— Fixed and Flashing Light at Rivadesella.— Notice has been given, that on and after the 20th day of August, 1861, a light would be exhibited from a building recently erected on Mount Somos, the western extremity o f the entrance o f the Ria or Inlet of Rivadesella, in the province o f Oviedo, on the north coast o f Spain, in the Bay o f Biscay. The light is fixed and flashing, showiug a bright flash every four minutes. It is placed at an elevation of 370 feet above the mean level of the sea, and should be visible from the deck o f a ship, in an ordinary state o f the weather, at a distance o f 17 miles, but only through an arc o f the horizon o f 167 degrees to seaward. The illuminating apparatus is catadioptric, or by lenses of the third order. The light-tower is square, surmounted by an octagonal lantern, and rises from the centre of the keeper’ s dwelling to a height o f twenty-five feet from the ground. All the buildings, including the lantern, are painted white. The tower stands 30 yards from the margin of the sea, in lat. 43° 28' 40" N., long. 1° 5' 0 " east o f the Observatory o f San Fer nando, at Cadiz, or 5° 7' 16" west o f Greenwich. Jupiter Inlet and Cape Florida Lights.— Official information has been received, that on or about the 23d August, 1861, a band o f lawless per sons extinguished the lights at Jupiter Inlet and Cape Florida, on the coast of Florida, and removed the illuminating apparatus, Ac. Cape o f Good Hope, Simon's B ay— Revolving light on Roman Rocks. — On and after the 16th day o f September, 1861, a light will be exhib ited from the light-house recently erected on the Roman Rocks, near the western shore o f False Bay, Cape o f G ood Hope, South Africa. The light will be a revolving white light, showing a bright face for the space o f twelve seconds every half minute. It will be placed 54 feet above the mean level o f the sea, and in clear weather should be seen from the deck of a vessel at a distance of 12 miles. The illuminating apparatus is catoptric or by reflectors o f the third order. The light-house is circu lar, of iron, and 48 feet h ig h ; the lower half will be painted black, the upper half white. Its position is lat. 34° 10' 45" S., long. 18° 27' 30" east from Greenwich. Noah’s Ark Rock bears from it S. W . b y W . three-quarters o f a mile, and the Dock-yard clock W . by N. I f mile. The 1861.] Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. 523 light vessel hitherto moored on the north side of the Roman Rocks will be removed on the exhibition o f the above light. The Castor Rock, with only 15 feet on it at low water springs, lies N. N. E. f E., 2f cables from the light-house ; it is marked by a beacon, with a flag having the word rock painted on it. Between this rock and the light-house there are patches o f 19 and 24 feet water. To avoid these dangers a vessel o f large draught, when passing to the northeast of the light-liouse, should give it a berth o f cables before hauling in for Simon’s Bay. When bound to Simon’s Bay from the southward by day, the light-house kept in line with Elsey peak 1ST. f W ., will lead between the Whittle Rock and Miller’s Point. B y night this bearing of the light is the only guide. C aution. — The mariner should be on his guard in misty weather against the possibility of mistaking the light on Roman Rocks for the light on Cape Point, as they are both revolving, and only ten miles apart. The distinction consists in the difference of interval o f revolution, the light on Cape Point showing its bright face every minute, and the light on the Roman Rocks every half minute. S o u th A m erica , Coast o f B r a z il— R ev olvin g L ig h t on S an ta B arba ra , A b ro lh o s Isla n d s. — The Secretary o f State for the marine department at Rio de Janeiro has given notice that a light is exhibited from a light house recently erected on the island o f Santa Barbara, one of the Abrol hos Islands, on the coast o f Brazil. The light is a revolving white light, attaining its greatest brilliancy every minute. It is placed at an ele vation o f 189 feet above the mean level o f the sea, and should be seen in clear weather at a distance o f 1*7 miles. The illuminating appa ratus is dioptric, or by. lenses o f the first order. The tower, which is circular and surrounded by a dwelling, stands on the highest part of the island. It is built o f iron, 51 feet high, and surmounted by a bronze lantern. The position o f the eastern summit o f the island is latitude l ? 0 57' 42" S., longitude 38° 41' 30" west o f Greenwich. R ev o lv in g L ig h t on P o n ta dos N a u fra g a d o s. — A light is exhibited from a light-house recently erected on Ponta dos Naufragados, on the southern bar o f St. Catharine. The light is a revolving white light, at taining its greatest brilliancy every thirty seconds. It is placed at an elevation o f 149 feet above the mean level o f the sea, and should be seen in clear weather at a distance o f 18 miles. The illuminating appa ratus is dioptric, or by lenses o f the second order. The tower is circular, and its position is given in latitude 27° 49' S., and longitude 48° 42' 37" west o f Greenwich. S o u th P a c ific Ocean.— R e e f o f f S tew a rt Is le, N ew -Z ea la n d . — The fol lowing notice to mariners has been received from the Admiralty, London : “ It appears from an examination o f the weather-book o f the ship B r u c e , T h o m as M e ik l e jo h n , commander, in his passage from Otago, by the south of New-Zealand, to Calcutta, in November, 1860, when passing the southeast extreme o f South or Stewart Island, discovered a dangerous reef, which is not laid down in the Admiralty or any other charts, or noticed in the New-Zealand pilot or sailing directions. This danger, which is described as two low rocks, from three to six feet high, and close together, on which the sea breaks heavily, lies in the direct track of vessels closely rounding Stewart Island in proceeding to or from the 524 Journal o f Nautical Intelligence. [November, southern settlements o f New-Zealand. Its position, which appears to have been determined with some accuracy, is as follows : “ “ “ “ “ 1 - f miles E. by N. 5tV “ E. by N. 3-j “ E.by S. 7J “ S. E. f E. Or, in latitude 47° f N. from Owen Island, off Lord’s River. \ N. “ the extreme of the Break Sea Isles. | S. “ W reck Reef, off Port Adventure. “ East Head, north of Port Adventure. 7' 35" S., and longitude 168° 21' 35" E. “ Soundings, though tried for, were not obtained in its neighborhood, from the rapid rate o f sailing o f the ship in passing the danger. “ Caution.— It is creditable to Captain M e ik l e jo h n to have entered the discovery of this reef in his weather-book, but it is greatly to be regretted that he did not take some steps, immediately on his arrival at Calcutta or in England, to make public the existence o f this very serious danger, which lies but little out o f the sailing track o f ships bound to the southern settlements o f New-Zealand. Had not the remark been seen by Rear Admiral F itz R o r, (who was searching this book for meteorological facts, and at once transmitted it to the Admiralty for publication,) this reef might not have been heard of until it had caused the wreck of a vessel. On being applied to for further information, Captain M e ik l e jo h n readily sent up his original chart on which the reef was marked at the time, and there can be but little doubt o f its existence. Masters o f vessels are, therefore, warned to keep a good lookout in this neighbor hood. They are further requested, on the discovery o f any danger, to report the same immediately on arriving at the first port, in order that other vessels may be put on their guard, and for the general benefit of the mariner.” IR O N -P L A T E D SHIPS. Three of the tenders made to the English Admiralty for iron-plated vessels were promptly accepted by Mr. M a r e , o f Millwall, Mr. L a ir d , of Birkenhead, and by the Thames Iron Works, where the W a r r io r was built, and they were ordered to commence the construction o f the vessels forthwith. The length of the new ships will be 400 feet on the lowwater lin e; breadth, extreme, 59 feet 4 inches; depth, 21 feet below the gun-deck ; and tonnage, 6,815. The length of the W a r r io r class is 380 feet, breadth 58 feet, and tonnage 6,170. The breadth of deck, however, in the proposed frigates, will not be greater than the W a r r io r , as the Admiralty have most wisely decided on giving the sides o f the new vessels a greater incline towards the deck. Thus, the slope o f the W a r r io r ’ s sides inwards, from the water’s edge, or the “ tumble home,” as it is termed, is an incline of about one foot in thirteen ; whereas, in the ships to be built it will be at an incline o f one in eight and a half feet, which, of course, not only increases the chances o f the shot glancing off, but has the more important advantage o f getting the weight more in the centre, and diminishing the tendency to roll. The internal subdivisions, as to water-tight compartments, &c., will be almost precisely similar to those of the W a r r io r . The main decks are to be armed with 36 100pounder A r m st r o n g s , and the spar-deck with 21 guns o f a similar calibre. Two forward guns will, it is said, be 200-pounders, and so, also, will the pivot-gun at the stern. 1861.] Commercial Regulations. COMMERCIAL I. 625 REGULATIONS. T he C on fiscation A ct of A ugust , 1861. II. R esults of C onfiscation A ct . III. C ommer T r ea ty b etw een F ran ce a n d I t a l y . IV. F ree I m portations into F r an ce . V. T r eaty b etw e en E n glan d a n d F rance . VI. T r e a ty w it h T u r k e y . VII. T r e a ty b etw e en R u ssia a n d C h in a . VIII. D ecisions of the S e cretary of tiie T r easu ry on H o llo w W a re — W ool len C a r d C loth —P r in ted C otton H and ke rc h ie fs . c ia l AN ACT TO CONFISCATE PROPERTY USED FOR INSURRECTIONARY PURPOSES. B e it enacted b y the S enate and H o u se o f R epresen tatives o f the U ni ted S ta tes o f A m erica in Congress assembled, That if, during the present or any future insurrection against the government o f the United States, after the President of the United States shall have declared, hy proclam ation, that the laws o f the United States are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed hy combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the power vested in the marshals by law, any person or persons, his, her or their agent, attorney or employee, shall purchase or acquire, sell or give, any property of what soever kind or description, with intent to use or employ the same, or suffer the same to be used or employed, in aiding, abetting or promoting such insurrection or resistance to the laws, or any person or persons en gaged therein ; or if any person or persons, being the owner or owners o f any such property, shall knowingly use or employ, or consent to the use or employment o f the same as aforesaid, all such property is hereby de clared to be lawful subject o f prize and capture wherever found; and it shall be the duty o f the President of the United States to cause the same to be seized, confiscated and condemned. Sec. 2. A n d be it fu r t h e r enacted, That such prizes and capture shall be condemned in the district or circuit court o f the United States having jurisdiction o f the amount, or in admiralty in any district in which the same may be seized, or into which they may be taken and proceedings first instituted. Sec. 3. A n d be it fu r t h e r enacted, That the Attorney-General, or any District Attorney of the United States in which said property may at the time be, may institute the proceedings o f condemnation, and in such case they shall be wholly for the benefit of the United States; or any person may file an information with such attorney, in which case the proceedings shall be for the use of such informer and the United States in equal parts. Sec. 4. A n d be it f u r t h e r enacted, That whenever hereafter, during the present insurrection against the government of the United States, any person claimed to be held to labor or service under the law o f any State shall be required or permitted by the person to whom such labor or ser vice is claimed to be due, or by the lawful agent o f such person, to take up arms against the United States, or shall be required or permitted by the person to whom such labor or service is claimed to be due, or his lawful agent, to work to be employed in or upon any fort, navy yard, dock, armory, ship, entrenchment, or in any military or naval service whatsoever, against the government and lawful authority o f the United States, then and in every such case the person to whom such labor or ser vice is claimed to be due, shall forfeit his claim to such labor, any law of the State or of the United States to the contrary notwithstanding. And 526 Commercial Regulations. [November, whenever thereafter the person claiming such labor or service shall seek to enforce his claim, it shall be a full and sufficient answer to such claim that the person whose service or labor is claimed had been employed in hostile service against the government o f the United States, contrary to the provisions of this act. Approved, August 6, 1861. CONFISCATION OF VESSELS. The seizure o f vessels at New-York and other Northern ports, under the new confiscation act, still continues. All the vessels taken are first libelled, then confiscated, and will be finally sold to the highest bidder. Some o f these vessels were loading with cargoes for foreign ports. The government, it is stated, will not claim their cargoes, (unless it should be proved that they were intended to be shipped to Southern ports,) and the owners will be afforded every facility for their removal. In case o f most o f the seizures but a small part, say one-fourth o f the vessel, belongs to parties in the seceded States. The three-fourths owners, resident in the North, will bid in the vessels, and, as the Secretary of the Treasury has discretionary powers by the act, he will undoubtedly remit the amount paid for shares previously owned by the bidders-in, and ac cept only the amount due for the portion o f the vessel claimed by South ern owners. The Southern owners can, o f course, have no claim upon the Northern buyers, as the act o f Congress confiscates their property. The South is thus likely to be cut off from any ownership in a large number of vessels, and Northern shipowners will have an opportunity o f adding to their property at a considerable rate, considering the probable amount which will be invested under the confiscation sale. W ith regard to the transferred vessels, it is believed that there will be no special difficulty in establishing the illegality o f the transfers. The federal government will not be likely to recognise powers o f attorney issued by the rebels, particularly when they were issued for the purpose o f attempting to nullify a law enacted by Congress, and to avoid the con fiscation which the act o f Congress and the proclamation o f the President decree. COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE AND ITALY. The P u n g o la of Milan gives the following details concerning the treaty o f commerce now in course o f negotiation between France and Italy: Absolute reciprocity in commerce and navigation, even in the coasting trade. Perfect equality for vessels as regards tonnage, pilotage and quarantine dues, & c .; also for loading and unloading cargoes in port, the use of docks &c. Agricultural and manufactured productions o f all countries to be imported by French and Italian vessels without any dif ferential dues being imposed. The productions o f the two countries, ex ported or imported from one to the other, to enjoy the privileges accorded to those of the most favored nations. Perfect equalities o f duties in the coral and other fisheries. All favors which may hereafter be accorded to any nation by either power, is to be accorded to the other. The reduced import duties on certain articles granted by preceding treaties to be ex tended to rice, flax and hemp tissues, salt meat, &c. The reductions 1861.] 527 Commercial Regulations. accorded to Belgium by the recent treaty to be extended to Italy. A bo lition o f the certificate o f origin in the event o f direct imports. Italian securities to be negotiated in the Bourse o f Paris, and those o f France in the Bourses o f Italy. Abandonment o f all taxes and charges whatever in case o f shipwreck, also of all transit dues. TREATY BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA. The Delhi Gazette of June 27th gives the following as authentic : The Ambassador o f the King o f Kokan arrived in Cabul on the 5th, on his way to Peshawur, and was received very warmly in Durbar by the Ameer. He (the ambassador) informed the Ameer that he was going with cer tain proposals to the British authorities which had relation to news re ceived at Kokan, to the effect that a treaty had been concluded between the Emperor o f Russia and the Emperor o f China, by which the Russians have pledged themselves to protect and hold seven cities belonging to China, situated near the boundaries o f Yarcund Kashkur, and to occupy the same by an armed military force. The Russians have also agreed to assist the Chinese with troops, if necessary, against the British and K okanees. It seems that the Emperor o f China had written to the Czar to say that the British had taken some o f his places near Hindostan, and were intending to come upon others; and his Celestial Majesty having received a very favorable answer to his letter from Russia was the cause o f the treaty being concluded. FREE IMPORTATIONS. The Chamber of Commerce of Boulogne have published a notice call ing particular attention to the liberal dispositions o f the Circular, No. 781, just issued by the French Custom House, in accordance with which French subjects returning into France, or foreigners settling there, are al lowed to import all articles o f personal and domestic use, such as cloth ing, house-furniture, musical instruments, books, &c., free o f duty. Agricultural implements, tools and mechanical appliances may also be imported free of duty by persons intending to employ them, and stu dents’ materials and marriage outfits are also to be exempt from duty. THE ANGLO-FRENCH COMMERCIAL TREATY. The Paris correspondent o f the London Times, writing in September, says: Now that the first o f October is approaching, the term at which the treaty o f commerce with England is to be carried into full execu tion, the shopkeepers in Paris who deal in cotton goods are reducing their prices to a figure quite unprecedented. They fear, it is said, that the French market will be overstocked with British manufactures. Every Englishman they perceive in any public place they imagine to be a man ufacturer come to compete with and undersell them. A Rouen paper states that the hotels in that town are filled with English merchants and manufacturers, come to make sales o f their produce for the 1st of Octo ber, the period when a variety o f British merchandise will be admitted into France on the payment o f a duty o f 15 per cent, ad valorem. That paper adds that the prices demanded b y the English dealers are so mod 528 Commercial Regulations. [November, erate that they would create surprise, were it not known that English merchants make immense sacrifices in order to become masters o f the market. TREATY WITH TURKEY. The treaty of commerce between Great Britain and Turkey, which is to come into operation on the 1st o f October, has been laid before Par liament. Turkish produce and manufactures purchased by British sub jects are to be liable to no duty, except an export duty o f 8 per cent., diminishing annually by 1 per cent., until it be reduced to a fixed ad va lorem duty o f 1 per cent., to cover the general expenses o f administration and control; and the produce and manufactures o f the dominions and possessions of Her Britannic Majesty are not to be subject in Turkey to any duty beyond an import duty o f 8 per cent., but the import of tobacco or salt is prohibited. There is to be no differential duty on British ship ping. The duty o f 3 per cent, now levied on articles passing through Turkey by land to other countries is to be reduced to 2 per cent., and after eight years, is to be merely 1 per cent., to defray the expense o f regis tration. No charge is to be made on British produce or goods in Brit ish ships passing through the States. The “ most favored nation” clauses are inserted. D ecisio n s o f the S ecreta ry o f the T rea su ry o f questions a risin g u p on appeals by im p o rte r s f r o m the D ecision s o f C ollectors rela tin g to the p r o p e r classification, under the T a riff A c t o f M a rch 2, 1861, o f certa in a rticles o f F o re ig n M a n u fa ctu re , entered at the p o r ts o f B oston a nd M ew -Y ork. HOLLOW WARE. T rea su ry D ep a rtm en t, J u l y 12, 1861. Sir,— I have had under consideration your report on the appeal o f Messrs. B a l a n c e & G r o s je a n from your assessment of duty, at the rate o f 30 per cent., under the provision for “ manufactures o f metal, &c., not otherwise provided for,” in section 22 o f the tariff act o f March 2, 1861, on certain “ hollow ware” imported by them. The appellants claim entry at the rate o f 2^ cents per pound, as being provided for in section 1, under the classification o f “ hollow ware, glazed or tinned.” The articles in question it appears are returned by the appraisers at your port as composed o f “ metal, and hollow, but not castings o f iron.” The provision under which the importers claim to enter at a duty o f 2£ cents per pound refers, in my opinion, to hollow ware, being a casting of iron, and does not embrace hollow ware o f any other description. Being excluded from that classification, the wares in question would fall under the provision to which you referred them on the entry, v iz .: “ Manufac tured, articles, vessels and wares, not otherwise provided for, o f brass, copper, gold, iron, lead, pewter, platina, silver, tin or other metal, or of which either o f these metals, or any other metal, shall be the compo nent material of chief value,” and your decision assessing duty at the rate of 30 per centum ad valorem is affirmed. I am, very respectfully, S. P. C h a s e , S ecreta ry o f the T rea su ry. H ikam B a r n e y , Esq., Collector, <&c., N e w -Y o r k . 1861.] C om m ercial R egu la tion s. WOOLLEN CARD 529 CLOTH. T rea su ry D epa rtm en t, J u l y 29, 1861. Sir,— I have had under consideration your report on the appeal o f Mr. B e n ja m in P olan d from your decision, subjecting to duty, at the rate o f 12 cents per pound, and in addition thereto 25 per centum ad valorem , as a “ manufacture o f wool, made wholly or in part of wool, not other wise provided for,” under the tariff o f March 2, 1861, certain “ woollen card cloth” imported by him. The appellant claims entry thereof at the rate o f 30 per cent, under section 22 o f the tariff of 1861, as being provided for in the provision for “ manufactures not otherwise provided for, composed o f mixed mate rials, in part of cotton, silk, wool or worsted or flax.” The article under consideration is a manufacture, cotton, wool and linen, and is used for manufacturing cotton cards. After a careful examination o f this case I concur with you in opinion, that the merchandise in question is subject, under the second subdivision o f section 13 o f the tariff o f 1861, to duty at the rate o f 12 cents per pound, and in addition thereto 25 per centum ad valorem . Your assessment o f duty at those rates is affirmed. I am, very respectfully, S. P . C h a s e , S ecreta ry o f the T rea su ry. J. Z. G o o d r ic h , Esq., Collector, dec., B oston , M ass. PRINTED COTTON HANDKERCHIEFS. T rea su ry D ep a rtm en t, S eptem ber 10, 1861. Sir,— I have had under consideration the appeal o f Messrs. L. H e id e n h e im e r & Co., from your assessment o f duty at the rate of “ 2 cents per square yard and ten per centum ad valorem in addition,” on printed cotton handkerchiefs, under the provision in section 14 o f the tariff o f March 2, 1861, for “ manufactures of cotton, &c., on finer or lighter goods of like description, not exceeding 140 threads to the square inch, counting the warp and filling, two cents per square yard, * * * * and if printed, painted, colored or stained, there shall be levied, collected and paid a duty o f 10 per centum ad valorem in addition.” The appellants claim that the above section refers “ only to goods sold by the ya rd , and printed cotton handkerchiefs being bought and sold by the dozen or by the piece, the meaning o f the act could not be to levy on them a duty by the yard,” but that they should be classified either under the head of “ all manufactures o f cotton, bleached, printed, painted or dyed, not otherwise provided for,” at 30 percent., section 14, or, “ as wearing apparel ready for use,” at the same rate o f duty, sec tion 22. These goods are in pieces of several dozens in length. I concur in the views expressed by you, and the goods in question are liable, in my opinion, to duty at the rates assessed on the entry, viz., two cents per square yard and ten per centum in addition. I am, very respectfully, S. P , C h a s e , S ecreta ry o f the T re a s u r y . H ir a m B a r n e y , Esq., Collector, dec., N ew - York.. VOL. x l v .— n o . v. 34 530 H STEAMERS. 5 P W H E R E B U IL T . M ASTERS. EH 15 Canadian, (Br.)... Graham, 18 Tulu, (Br.)......... Goodwin, 20001Greenock, 452 Glasgow, YEAR. MARINE LOSSES FOR JUNE, 1861. IIA IL FROM . 1860 Liverpool, 1857 Glasgow, W H E R E FROM . Quebec, New-York, W H ERE TO . D IS A S T E R S . Liverpool, Tot. loss; sk. by ice in St. Law. R. June 4, Kingston, Ja., Total loss at Port Morant, Ja., May 28, 2 Steamers,........................... Totals, SHIPS. 4 Betsy Williams, .. 25 Dasliaway,.......... 5 Equal Rights,...... 24 Masonic,............. 4 Yesper,.............. Nickerson, 400 Stonington 1012 Hallowell, Me. Wedge, G.W. Collier 850 Black Rock, Sebart, 439 Richmond, G.W. Bailey, 321 Newbury, 1S46 New-Bedford, 1854 Hallowell, 1861 New-York, 1847 Bath, 1827 New-London, Manzanilla, Baltimore, New-York, New-Orleans, New-London, New-York, Calcutta, Bristol, Eng., Liverpool, Whaling, $ $ LO SS O N CARG O. 350,000 75,000 425,000 On Riding Rocks, off and at Nassau, May 5, Put back to Baltimore, leaky, June 24, Put into St. Thomas, leaky, May 15, Put into St. Thomas, leaky, May 23, Condemned at Honolulu, March 26, $ $ 100,000 6,000 6.700 4,600 3.700 10,000 $ $ 31,000 40,000 60,000 $ $ 5,000 8,000 3,400 2,600 14,000 TO TAL LO SSES. $ $ 890,000 135,000 525,000 $ $ 11,000 9,700 8,000 6,300 10,000 45.000 1 871 Miramichi, 1S60 Miramichi, 306 Eastport, 1849 New-York, 39S Rockland, 1855 Rockland, 365 Memel, 1856 Memel, 627 Quebec, 1S49 Liverpool, 430 Nova Scotia. 1849 Liverpool, 280 Warren, R. I., 1852 Fall River, 305 Wells, Me., 1853 Wells, 402 Portsmouth, 1824 Boston, 499 Bath, Me., 1851 Bath, Savannah, Liverpool, Havana, Cardenas, Pensacola, Cienfuegos, Madeira, Baltimore, Liverpool, Savannah, Darien, Queenstown, Havana, Falmouth, E., Sagua, New-York, Buenos Ayres, Cork, Havana, Cronstadt, Total loss at Hunting Islands, May 20, $ 40,000 $ 26,000 $ 66,000 Total loss on Key Pedro, June, 8.500 8.500 Total loss on Jardinallis Bank, May 13, 15.000 3.000 18,000 Total loss on Cape Hatteras, June 2, 17.000 80,000 47.000 Ashore near St. Helena, June 6, ar. N. Y., 2,000 2,000 Abandoned at sea, April 18, 9.000 6.000 15.000 Put into Bermuda, June 16, 4.000 3,700 7,700 Ashore on West Bank, N. Y. Bay, June 14, 3.500 6,000 9.500 Put into Baltimore in dis., June 14, (cond.) 7.500 9,000 16,500 On fire and sunk at Cronstadt, June 13, 8.500 8.500 10 Barks,.............................. Totals, BRIGS. 15 Alpine,............. . 14 Bedouin, (Br.)__ 8 Borneo,...... ' ___ 26 Com. Stewart,__ 8 Franklin, (Br.).... 12 Jaffa, (Br.) .. / __ 2 Lind, (Dan.)........ 6 Milton,................ Killman, McKenzie, Norton, Wilson, Chisholm, Douglass, Petersen, Hoyt, 249 Frankfort, Me. 1858 Frankfort, 298 New-Glasgow 1858 New-Glasgow 199 Bristol, Me., 1851 Jacksonville, 155 Harpswell, 1847 Harpswell, 176 Maitland, N.S. 1S55 Maitland, 182 Maitland, N.S. 1858 Maitland, 238 Westarvick, 1840 Westarvick, 155 New-Bedford, 1844 Boston, New-Orleans, New-York, Minatitlan, Portland, Matanzas, Sydney, C . B . , New-York, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Galway, Hamburg, Pictou, N. S., New-York, New-York, Liverpool, Boston, Put into Newport, leaky, Abandoned at sea, April, Put into Key West, leaky, May 18, Total loss on White Head Island, June 16, Total loss on Conch Reef, May 21, Total loss on Nantucket Island, June 8, Missing since December 26, 1860, Condemned at Gibraltar, May 14th, 8 Brigs,................................. Totals, $ 115,000 $ 83,700 $ 198,700 $ 4,500 11,000 3.700 4.000 5.000 3.700 5,500 6.000 $ 3,000 15,000 2.500 $ 4 8 ,4 0 o ! $ 4 0 ,0 0 0 2.500 4.000 9.000 4.000 $ 7,500 26,000 6,200 4,000 7,500 7,700 14,500 10,000 $ 83,400 Marine Losses. 5 Ships,................................. Totals, BARKS. 14|Coronet, (Br.)...... Brown, 12jCornelia,__ ' ....... Barton, 6(Caroline Ellems,.. Ellems, 10 Emma Eloise, (P.) Healy, 14 Edward, (Br.)__ Tucker, 4 Johan, (Br.)........ Clase, 22 Mary E. Barney,.. Robbins, 15,Mary Sawyer,...... Bartlett, 15 Sarah Sheaf,........ Chase, 30[Tanaro,.............. Berry, LO S8 ON V ESSEL. SCHOONERS. 1 Healey, Low, 22 4 J. J. Spencer....... A. Dole, 25SjMauricetown, 1S60 Greenwich, Portland, Cardenas, 11C Damariscotta, 1849 Boston, Bangor, New-York, 234 Bridgton, N. J 1855 Camden, N. J. New-Orleans, Bordeaux, 126 Morristown, 1847 Morristown, Delaware R., Wrecking, 17 Mariner, (Br.)__ Morris, 240 Cornwallis, 1S60 Cornwallis, Hillsboro, N.B New-York, 5 Medora,.............. L. Rhoades, 99 Bucksport, 1848 Rockland, New-York, Portland, 2 N. & D. Scudder,.. Pinckney, Barnstable, Fishing, 97 Mystic, Ct., 1852 Barnstable, 4 Sarah H. Sears,... AEGoodsell 175 Fairhaven, 1859 New-Haven, New-York, Nassau, 29 Sea Breeze, (Br.) . R. Wilson, 192 Hopewell, N.B 1860 St. Johns,N.B. Matanzas, New-York, 13 Woodpecker, (Br.) 175 London, 1S60 London, Columbia E., Victoria, Put in Holmes’ Hole, leaky, May 29, Put in Boston, leaky, June 20, Put in Philadelphia, leaky, May 20, Total loss at Overalls. Del. Bay, Abandoned, lat. 40 15, Ion. 69 35, May 28, Col. sclir. Tarquin, and sunk, June 2, Put in Liverpool, N. S., leaky, May 15, Aband. 18 m. from Harbor Island, May 18, Put in St. Thomas leaky, (2d dis.) June 10, Total loss on Columbia Bar, May 10, 10 Schooners,........................Totals, M A R IN E LO SSE S H ft STEAMERS. M ASTER. W H E R E B U IL T . 150 1 Jno. R. Thompson, Jas. Colory, 115 Baltimore, New-York, 6 New World,........ St. John, 2S7 Hoboken, 22 Potomska,........... Nye, -"J H A IL FRO M . W H E R E FROM . $ 43,700 $ 27,700 $ 71,400 W H E R E TO . D IS A S T E R S . LO SS ON V i^SSE li. LO SS ON CARG O. TO TAL LO SSE S. 1S5 1852 Philadelphia, New-York, 185 New-York, New-York, 1854New-Bedford, Portland, Baltimore, Albany, New-York, $ 25,000 S’k bv wreck of John Truck, Phil. June 28, Struck sunk, barge, sunk near Stuyvesant, Ashore on Bears’ Sh’ l, Monomey, July 18, 570 Medford, Boston, 1849 Boston, 549 Chelsea, Boston, 1854 Bath, Me., 1352 Bath, Me., 1854 Newport, E., Newport, E. 1119 Portsmouth, 1854 London, Portsmouth, 556;East Boston, 1858 Boston, Cronstadt, 998 Beverly, Mass. 1853 Beverly, Mass. Callao, 60S Bangor, Me., 1858 Bangor, Havana, 1225: Rockland, 1854 Rockland, Cardiff1, 597|Bath, Me., 1855 Puget Sound, Puget Sound, 1637j Rockland, Cardiff, 1853 New-York, 592|Wiscassett, 1847 Liverpool, En. Liverpool, 496 Medford, 1840 Princetown, St. Johns,NB. 855 Guernsey, 1845 England, Tome, 1198lPortsmouth, 1855 Newburyport, London, 875.Castine, Me., 1851 Castine, Boston, Shanghae, Hong Kong, Madras, Calcutta, Boston, Cork, Cienfuegos, Shanghae, Toulon, Kurrachee, Baltimore, Queenstown, Liverpool, Calcutta, London, T’w’ d in Singapore May 19, col.with St.M. Lost on the Prata Shoals, May 15, Sunk 175 miles S.E. Pernambuco, May 29, Ashore 30 miles N. Pernambuco, June 8, Put into Elsinore in distress, June 29, Put into Valparaiso in distress, Mav 29, Total loss, burnt by privateer Jeff. Davis, Put into Queenstown, leaky, June 26, Total loss by fire at Toulon, Lost on the Brazilian coast, June 26, Ashore in Chesapeake B., July 25, tot. loss Put into Halifax, leaky, June 24, Put in Falkland Is., fore c’mp’rt full wat’r, Abandoned at sea, June 15, Put in Portland, July 29, lost topmasts, &c 15 Ships,............................ Totals, 1,800 $ 10,000 10,000 2,600 $ 25,000 11,800 10,000 2,600 $39,400 $10,000 $ 49,400 $ 5,000 25,000 $ 40,000 52,000 63,500 1,000 6,000 2,000 7,600 4,000 35,000 3,700 i,6oo 30,000 18,000 65,000 10,000 10,000 3,000 3,500 1,000 6,000 10,000 50,000 60,000 1,200 $5,000 65,000 115,500 1,000 8,000 11,600 35,000 4,700 48,000 75,000 13,000 4,500 16,000 110,000 1,200 $ 301,000 $ 212,500 $ 513,500 531 12,000 4.000 2,700 X 4 Steamers,........................Totals, SHIPS. 20Argonout,........... Norton, 30 Alfred Hill,........ Morse, 9 Edgar Stringer,... Wood, 11 Emily Farnum,... Simes, 17 Ethan Allen,...... Lindburg, 4 Elizabeth Kimbal, Wilson, 18 Golden Rocket,... Powers, 20 J. Wakefield,...... Howe, 6 Lawson,.............. D. Wright, 29 Live Yankee,...... Boyle, 30 Maggie Carie,(Br.) Craig, 11 Middlesex,.......... Merrill, 22 Santiago, (Br.)— Davison, 31 Star of Hope,...... Pearson, 30 Wm. Witherel,... Atwood, 3.000 4.000 $500 900 3,800 1,000 13,000 5.000 1,200 24,800 9.000 12,200 F O R J U L Y , 1 86 1. PS H $ 2,000 July, 1861. ■«< OQ $500 900 1,800 1,000 10,000 1,000 1,200 12,800 5,000 9,500 BARKS. M ASTER. TO N S. MARINE LOSSES FOR JULY, 1 8 6 1 . 1 W H E R E B U IL T . (C o n t in u e d .) d < H A IL FRO M . i B Cutler, 1851 Boston, 489 Richmond, Edward Hill,...... J. H. Avery, 499 Warren, R. I., 1S56 Newbury, Patterson, 3S5 J. Cockerell, (Br.) Ambrose, 853 Sunderland, 1S51[London, Mystery,.............. Taylor, 328 Duxbury,Mass 1854;Boston, Mary R. Barny,... Robins, 2S0 Warren, R. I., 1854 Fall River, Sarah Sheaf,........ Chase, 402 Portsmouth, 1S24 Boston, Young Greek,__ Taylor, 460 Medford, lS55,Caldera, W H E R E FROM . W H E R E TO . D IS A S T E R S . LO SSES. Havana, Ash. Chesapeake S’ nd, July 8, Nassau, c., $ 16,000i $10,000 $ 26,000 New-York, Burnt at Boston, July 4, 2,500 2.500 17.500 90 000 Hussam, Collision and sunk, July 6, total loss, 43.500 London, Put back to N. Y., ISOm. E. Sandy H., l’ky, |New-York, 6,000 7.500 13.500 Burnt at Boston, July 4, In port, Boston, 14.000 14,000 Falmouth, E., Put into Bermuda in distress, June 8, Havana, 2.500 8,000 5.500 Put into Baltimore in distress, condemned Buenos Ayres, Cork, 7.500 6,000 13.500 Ashore on Wolf Trap, Chesapeake B. (off,) Baltimore, ICaldera, 1,000 3.500 2.500 198 Searsport, Me. 1853 Searsport, Trinidad, [Philadelphia, 236 E. Boston, 1S50 Belize, Ilond., New-York, Belize, 260 Portsmouth, 1857.New-York, Philadelphia, [Havana," 273 Portsmouth, 1854New-York, Kingston, Ja., New-York, 300 Sarrente, New-York, ;In port, 1560 Naples, 19S Prospect, Me., 1554 Prospect, Boston, |In port, 235 Uckermunde, 1555 Jersey, Rio Janeiro, Baltimore, 240 Searsport, 1849 Boston, Boston, In port, 195 Bangor, 1859 Bangor, New-York, Rio Grande, 19S Fall River, 1847 Boston, Lisbon, Rio Grande, 300 New-London, 1561 New-York, Cuba, Aspinwall, 108 Medford, 1844 Boston, Fayal, Boston, 29S Prospect, Me., 1855 Stockton, Boston, In port, 176 St. Peters Bay. 1851 Pictou, N. S., St.Jago, Cuba. New-York, 264Risoer, 1S36 Norway, Montreal, [Bristol, Eng., 18i;Orland, 1850,Newpo*rt, R. I. Liverpool, |Providence, Ashore near Cape Henelopen, Abd. in hurricane, lat. 31 28, long. 72 12, Put back to Philadelphia, cond.^nd sold, On a reef off Cuba, condemned, On fire, foot Clinton-st., East River, July, Burnt at Boston, July 4, Ashore near Carrituck, N. C., July 4, con. Burnt at Boston, July 4. Dmgd in gale, stove galley, cabin doors, Ab’d and sunk, 12 miles N.E. Pt. Anago, Ashore near Punta Luena Reef, total loss, Put into Fayal, leaky, and condemned, Burnt at Boston, July 4, Ashore at Bird Rock, May 3, condemned, Col. and sunk, June 23, Put into Queenstown for repairs, 16 Brigs,............................ Totals, $67,0001 $ 55,000 $1,800 9.000 2.600 4.500 3,700 8.000 $ 2,000 10,000 M00 2,000 $8,800 19.000 2,600 10.500 5,700 8,000 5,000! 15.000 7.000 7,000 S00 10.500 15.000 5.000 7.000 28.500 15.000 800 $ 94,400 155,000 $149,400 10,000 7.000 1.000 3.500 15,000 5.000 7.000 7.500 8.000 $600 3.000 3,700, 9.000 7,500. 1,500 i,soo! 16,000 7,000 $ 9,000 2,000 750 1.000 $600 12,000 5,700 9,000 7.500 1.500 2,550 [November, SCHOONERS. 120 Frankfort, 26Benj. S. TVright,.. Browm, 1S59 Frankfort, Gloucester, Fishing, Put into Gloucester for rep., col.July 28, 27:Bodulch,.............. Perkins, 97 Castine, Me. 185S;Castine, Me., New-York, St. Ann's Bay, Abandoned in a hurricane, July 10, 26 Chas. S. Carstairs, Naylor, 254 Pocomoke, 1854 Philadelphia, Boston, Philadelphia, Ashore on Rainford Island Rocks, (off.) 213 Perth Amboy, 1857!Perth Amboy,........................................... Total loss, burnt by secessionists, 1 Christiana Keen,.. Stacey, 4 Dashaway,........... Littlefield, 177 Surrey, Me., 1855 Surrey, Me., Boston, In port, Burnt at Boston, July 4, 4 Energy,................ J. Mitchell, 67 Maine, 1859 St.Georges,Me St.Georges,Me Boston, Missing since May 27, SjEmily C. Horton,. Deming, 110 Cape May, lS46|New-York, Port Ewing, New-Bedford, Col. with Str. Metropolis, sunk, July 7, TO TAL CARG O. Marine Losses. Reed, Robinson, Chapman, Sturtevant, M. Russo, Herriman, Lecroix, Lampher, R. N. Seely, Evans, Phinney, ... Cook,........ S. P. Griffin, Page, Hansen, Hammond, L O S S ON Liverpool, Boston, 8 Barks,............................ Totals, BRIGS. 12 Altevela,.......... 27jCreole, (Br.)__ 23 Costa Rica,...... 17 Elizabeth, (Br.). 22 Errichita, (Ital.) 4 Fanny O. Field,. 17 Gloria, (Br.)__ 4 H. Matthews,... 27 John Jeffrey,... 13 J. Nickerson,... 8 Julia,.............. 2 Medford,.......... 4 Orilla,.............. 13 Orient,............. 20 Omen,............. 26,S. P. Brown,__ LO SS ON VESSEL. 110 Damariscotta, 1S49 Boston, New-York, Boston, 100 N. Providence 1840 Baltimore, Rio Grande, New-York, Boston, In port, 122 Noank, L. I., 1848 Eastham, 281 Wilmington, 1S5S Wellfleet, Boston, Philadelphia, 1851 Port au Prince Port au Prince Boston, 132 Hampden, 1846 Rockland, Me. New-York, 125 Rockland, Portsmouth, 147 Trenton, Me., 1854 Trenton, Trenton, Me., Gibraltar, Georges Bank, 90 Essex, Mass., 1856 Gloucester, Gloucester, 270 New-Jersey, 1854 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Key West, 280 Camden, N. J. 1858 Boston, Mobile, Boston, Turk’s Island, Boston, 96 Baltimore, 1849 Hingham, 13S(Barnstable, 1840 Pittston, Me., Bridget’ n,N.S. Boston, 90|Kingston, 183S Belfast, Penobscot ltiv Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Salem, 195;Philadelphia, Gloucester, Fishing, 84 Essex, 1857 Gloucester, Kennebunk, Baltimore, 158 Currituck, 1S53 Baltimore, 1S59 Greenport, 1857 Ellsworth, J1S60 Lunenburg, Matanzas, Falmouth, E.. Put into Halifax, July 21, foremast sprung Trinidad,Cuba Cork, At Boston in distress, and burnt July 4, Cienfuegos, Halifax, Ashore on the Isle of Pines, J une 27, 26 Schooners,.....................Totals, R E C A P IT U L A T IO N N O . OF D IS A 8. 4 25 20 20 42 APRIL, 1861. Steamers,................... Ships,......................... Barks,......................... Brigs,.......... .............. Schooners,................. 111 35 LO SS O N C A R G O . LOSSES F O R TOTAL. N O . OF D IS A S . $ 23,500 432,300 168,300 66,700 87,300 $24,000 354,500 179,600 130,100 151,250 $ 47,500 786,800 347.900 196,S00 238,550 5 26 16 17 32 $ 778,100 $ 839,450 *1,617,550 96 $ 425,000 31,000 115,000 43,400 43,700 $ 100,000 14,000 83,700 40,000 27,700 $ 525,000 45.000 198,700 83,400 71,400 4 15 8 16 26 $ 658,100 * 265,400 * 928,500 69 TI1E YEAR MAY, 1S61. Steamers,................... Ships,........................ Barks,........................ Brigs,......................... Schooners,................. JULY, 1861. Steamers,................... Ships,........................ Barks,........................ Brigs,........................ Schooners,.................. $2,600 1,000 8,000 300 400 2,600 $ 3,600 2,200 3,000 500 12,500 1,000 3,000 250 1,800 6,500 1,300 2,000 500 600 3,000 1,700 1,600 1^200 9,000 4,100 $ 71,150 $ 27,050 $ 98,200 1861. LO SS ON V E S S E L A N D F R E IG H T . L 0 8S ON CARG O. TO TAL. $ 307,000 563,000 131,800 120,200 67,300 $159,000 1,096,500 1S7,100 127,700 66,000 $ 466.000 1,659,500 318,900 247,900 133,300 $ 1,189,300 *1,636,300 $2,825,600 $39,400 301,000 67,000 94,400 71,150 $ 10,000 212,500 55,000 55,000 27,050 $ 49,400 513.500 122,000 149,400 9S,200 $ 572,950 $359,550 $932,500 533 2 5 10 8 10 JUNE, 1861. Steamers,................... Ships,......................... Barks,........................ Brigs.......................... Schooners,................. LO SS O N V E S S E L A N D F R E IG H T . OF $ 1.000 1,200, 3,000; 500: 4,500! 1,000 3,000' 250 1,800 6,500 1,000 1,600 500 600 3,000 1,700 1,200 1,200 9,000 1,500 July, 1861. 199|Greenport, 233 Ellsworth, lOOjLunenburg, Sprung aleak, ash. Vineyard Sd., July 17, Put in Rio Janeiro, leaky, June 4, cond., Burnt at Boston, July 4, Col. July 19, lost jackstavs, davits & boat, Total loss at Bird Rock, June 28, Col. Str. Pennsylvania, put inN.IIaven, Condemned at Gibraltar, June 12, Collision, lost cliainplates, rail, &c., Put back, damaged in hurricane, July 23, Burnt at Boston, July 4, Put back to Grand Turk, cond. and sold, Missing since April 5, Ashore at Hampden, Ashore at Block Island, July 10, (off,) Missing since June 16, Put into New-York in distress, 1861.] 20 Envoy,............... Low, 18!Exchange,......... Fuller, 4'F. A. Hawkins,.., Mayo, 22 George S. Green, Cobb, 1 5 Gen. Veaze,........ Gallagher, 20 Gertrude Horton,. Pendleton, 13,Harriet,.............. Young, 20 Harvest Home,. Forbes, Jane N. Baker,... Handy, M. A. McNeil,__ Kelly, Nerissa,.............. Bagnes, Only Son,............. Jas. Fraser, 8 Red Rover,.......... Baker, 20 Rachel S. Miller,.. Henderson, 23|Rolla,................. Bambrick, lSjSeeing,................ Sofford, 22,Stony Brk. Packet, (Sloop,) 27|Tamaulipas,........ Buckley, 4lQuindaro,............■Walls, 20(Valorous, (Br.).. .|(Wilson, 534 Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. RAIL-ROAD I. AND TELEGRAPH [November, STATISTICS. TnE TELEGKArn'FEOM Moscow to N e w - Y ork . II. B ritish R a il w a y Statistics . III. N e w R oute from E u rope to I n d ia . IV. I m portan t to R a il w a y C om panies . Y. Steam on Common R oads . YI. T iie P a c if ic T e le g r aph . YII. T he A t la n tic C a b l e . THE RUSSIAN PACIFIC TELEGRAPH. T h e plan for establishing a telegraphic line connecting Europe through Siberia with the Pacific Ocean has, during four years, had time to take shape and form, so that, at the commencement o f the present year, the supreme sanction was given to the project for constructing a telegraphic line in the counties bordering on the Am oor and Oussouri, from Nikolaiewsk by Kabarovka to the port o f Novgorod, (1,900 versts,) the most important point o f the possessions recently annexed to Russia on the sea o f Japan. The establishment of this line is undertaken by the Ministry o f Marine at its cost and under its direction; and at the same time the superior direction of the means o f communication (Board o f W orks) has com menced the construction o f a line starting from Kasan in the direction of Siberia, which proposes opening at the end o f the present year a tele graphic communication from Kasan to Omsk, (1,900 versts,) and continue it afterwards to Irkutsk, a distance of 2,475 versts from Omsk. Thus, probably within two or three years, on the one side there will be tele graphic communication between Europe and Asia to Irkutsk, and, on the other hand, our new colonies on the Amoor and Oussouri will be con nected with each other, and with our principal ports on the Japanese waters. Thus o f the extent o f 10,000 versts, which the Siberian tele graph will embrace, there only remains the central portion, that of Irkutsk by Kyachta to Kabarovka, about 3,500 versts, where as yet nothing has been settled ; but it is beyond a doubt that as soon as the works actually projected shall have been successfully completed, this intermediate line will be constructed, and thus, within four or five years at the latest, the gigantic project of a telegraph from Europe to the distant lands on the shores o f the Pacific Ocean will be realized. The year 1861 promises to be a memorable one, if we consider the great questions which will receive a solution. Among those questions we must place the commencement o f a durable connection and the establishment o f rapid communication between Siberia and civilized Europe, and the apparatus o f the electric telegraph on the virgin shores o f the Am oor and Sea of Japan. It seems needless to point out the importance and usefulness o f so vast an •extension o f improved communication by the promoters of civilization and commerce.— St. Petersburgh Gazette. Colonel R o m a n o f f , o f the imperial Russian engineers, was introduced to the members o f the New-York Chamber o f Commerce, October 11th, to lay before them the project o f a telegraph line to run from St. Peters burgh to some point on the eastern shore of Siberia, and from thence to the Russian possessions on this continent. 535 Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. 1861.] The great overland telegraph to be erected will, when completed, form a direct chain o f communication throughout the world. It was first started in accordance with an ukase from the Emperor o f Russia, issued in 1858, since which time three thousand miles of it have been laid from St. Petersburgh to Omsk, in Eastern Siberia. Moscow, three thousand five hundred miles from that point, will be the principal station. The wires will go over Behring’s Straits, a distance of forty miles, the cur rents of which depend on the winds, and are never beyond three miles. The widest gap in the Straits is eight miles. The line will cross from Omsk to Orkutsk, thence to Kyachta— the great entrepdt o f commerce from Siberia to China; from that point it will be continued to the Altai Mountains to Cheta, and thence to Nicoleisk, atthe mouth o f the Amoor River. This will end the Russian project which has been guaranteed by the government. The propriety o f continuing the line to the United States is now under advisement, and the project is considered easily prac ticable, involving only an additional outlay o f $1,000,000 or $3,000,000, according to the route taken. The following table shows the number of miles to be embraced by the whole line : Miles. St. Louis to San Francisco, (1,800 miles finished,)................... San Francisco to Prince of Wales’ Cape,...................................... Behring’s Straits (submerged,)...................................................... East Cape to mouth of Amoor River,.......................................... Amoor River to Moscow, (1,200 miles finished,)......................... 2,000 2,500 40 2,400 '7,000 Total,....................................................................................... 13,940 Count R o m a n o f f states that the line will be completed to Irkutsh in about a year, which will enable the merchants of London to communi cate with Pekin in fourteen days. It has been proposed to extend it from the mouth of the Amoor to Jeddo, Japan, which will involve but three submerges— one of six miles, one of eight and another of twelve. Count R o m anoff also stated that the cable sunk in the Red Sea by the British government, to communicate with India, was eaten by insects, with which the water abounds, after it had successfully operated for about three months, and it is now considered impracticable to renew the enterprise at that point. The British government had appointed a com mission to inquire into the causes o f the failure. American vessels frequently sail to the Amoor with spices, tea, coffee, iron, &c., and the establishment o f telegraphic communication between the United States and that point, and Russia in general, must tend to increase the trade between both countries. Col. R o m anoff will prosecute his inquiries in the United States for about two months, and then return to Russia. Mr. C o llin s , in the mean time, will give him many o f the facilities necessary to his mission. The proposed line will unite all the telegraphs in the world, without crossing the Atlantic Ocean, so that the great “ cable” enterprise need not be resuscitated. The cost is set down for two wires at $3,000,000. To maintain this line, one thousand men, at $300 each per annum, would become necessary, making a total o f $300,000. To this force it is pro posed to add one hundred stations, at $1,000 per annum ; two supply ves sels at $40,000 ; interest on capital at 74 per cent, per annum, $210,000 ; contingencies, $100,000. Total, $750,000. It is calculated that 300,000 messages, at $5 each, would be received, making a total o f $1,500,000 revenue. 536 Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. BRITISH RAILWAY [November, STATISTICS. Returns just issued cover two years— 1859 and 1860— and show the annual traffic of all kinds, and the annual working expenditure, in the bulk and in detail. The first thing we remark is the largeness of the totals, showing immense social and commercial activity. There were at the end of 1860, 10,433 miles of railway in use, or 431 miles more than in the previous year. The total passenger traffic over these lines was 163,435,678, or 13,678,384 more than in 1859. If we analyze this we find that third-class passengers constitute more than one-half of the whole, a fact pointing to the influence o f low fares and the development o f excursion traffic. If we take the separate returns of England, Ire land and Scotland, we find that in England the proportion of third to second-class passengers is less than two to one, whereas in Scotland it is six to one ; but Ireland only one and a third to one. There would, therefore, appear to be a wide field for the development of third-class traffic in England, and still more in Ireland, while in Scotland third-class travelling is general, for even the second-class passengers are outnumbered by the first. Another characteristic o f the returns is brought out by a contrast between the movement of goods and of live stock. In each of the three great divisions of the United Kingdom there was an increase of goods traffic in 1860 over goods traffic in 1859. But in the transport of live stock there was, on the whole, a decided falling off. Fewer cattle, fewer sheep and pigs were carried over the English lines. In Scotland there was a similar decrease, except in pigs. In Ireland alone the transit o f cattle exceeded that of the previous year, but the sheep and pigs were fewer. These figures speak plainly of the severity o f the winter of 1859-60. In Ireland alone there were 76,520 pigs and 18,650 sheep less transported by railway than in 1859. The deficiency o f traffic from these sources was made up by an increase in all others— more passengers, more minerals, more merchandise o f all kinds. The figures show that the severity of the winter decreased, but did not arrest the tide o f gen eral prosperity. The total returns from all sources o f traffic in 1859 was £25,743,502, and in 1860 this was increased to £27,766,622. If we turn to the table showing the working expenditure, we find some striking figures. The actual cost o f working 10,433 miles of railway in the United Kingdom is £13,189,368. In this item are included £2,437,362 for maintenance of way; £3,801,282 for locomotive power ; £3,699,708 for traffic charges, (coaching and merchandise ;) and no less than £181,170 for “ compensa tion,” a charge alone of 1.37 per cent. The great items o f expense are thus :— maintenance o f way, locomotive power and traffic charges ; but repairs and renewals o f carriages and wagons sw'allowupthe£l,118,784, and there is a comprehensive item o f £1,068,521 for our old acquaint ance, “ sundries.” Thus it comes about that the proportion per cent, o f expenditure to the total revenue is, in England, 48, in Scotland, 44, in Ireland, 45 per cent. Scotland, therefore, seems to have the most cheaply managed lines, and Ireland, where railways pay no government duty, exceeds by one per cent, the Scottish cost o f management. These enor mous figures explain the comparatively low dividends of railway compa nies; for the £14,561,118 available for division has to be distributed among the shareholders who have contributed the £330,000,000 of capi tal sunk in our railways.— Globe. 1861.] 537 Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. IMPORTANT TO RAILWAY COMPANIES. A case of great importance to railway companies and railway travel lers has been finally decided, after protracted litigation. A person named D a v id K e y s brought an action against the Belfast and Ballymena and the Londonderry and Coleraine Railway Companies for the sum o f £1,890, the value o f a box o f watches which he had entrusted to the care of the guard, and which could not be found when he arrived at the end of his journey. The companies resisted the claim, on the ground that the plaintiff was a second-class passenger, entitled to carry only ordinary passenger’s luggage, and that they could not be responsi ble for property not booked in their office. A jury gave K e y s a verdict for £1,261. An appeal was made to the Court o f Common Pleas, which confirmed the verdict, and then to the Court o f Exchequer, which agreed with the judgment of the Common Pleas. The companies then ap pealed to the House o f Lords, who have decided that the companies were not responsible ; thus reversing the judgment of the courts below, and giving a lesson to travellers not to run risks for the sake of a small charge on booking valuable parcels. STEAM ON COMMON ROADS. The bill to regulate the use o f locomotives on common roads in Eng land has now become law, and is expected to lead to important results in cheapening the transit o f heavy goods. During the last thirty years great efforts have been made to use steam on common roads; but, in credible as it may seem in a country whose prosperity is inseparably connected with an early use of every such facility, they have been perseveringly defeated by the opposition of the local trustees, who have im posed prohibitory tolls. Two years back, an experiment to convey coal by a traction engine from Little Hulton to Manchester, a distance of seven miles, is understood to have proved not only that an immense saving could be effected, but that the wear and tear o f the road was diminished ; yet the toll charged amounted to 4s. per ton, against 3£d. per ton for coal drawn by horses ; and this, o f course, effectually pre vented the introduction o f the system. The new bill assimilates the tolls to be charged, in a great degree, to those charged for horse traffic; and, although it comprises various regulations, which will probably be found to be more or less needless or vexatious, it seems sufficiently wide to enable the method to have at last a fair field.— London Times, August, 1861. EUPHRATES VALLEY — THE ROUTE TO INDIA. It is not too much to say that there is no existing or projected rail road that can for a moment compare, in point o f interest and importance, with that of the Euphrates Valley. It brings two quarters o f the globe into juxtaposition, and three continents, Europe, Asia and Australia, into co-relation. It binds the vast population o f Hindostan by an iron link with the people o f Europe; it inevitably entails the colonization and civilization of the great valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris ; the resusci 538 Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. [November, tation, in a modern shape, o f Babylon and Nineveh, and the re-awakening of Ctesiphon and Bagdad o f old. It will also settle the mail route to and from Australia and China— an element o f prosperity o f very great importance— for the passenger traffic from the Australian colonies ex ceeds one hundred weekly, and, ere the railway can be completed, will be five times that number; of whom more than half will take the short est route, while the number o f emigrants from this country, who will prefer a passage of forty to over eighty days, may also be fairly expected to be very large. According to Sir J ohn M a c n e il l , who was assisted in the survey by Captain B u r g e ss and the officers of Her Majesty’s steamship S t r o m b o l i , there is every facility for making a harbor in the vicinity o f the ancient port of Sileucia, near the mouth o f the Orontes, and the country via Antioch, Killes and Ailam, to Aleppo, ninety miles in length, pre sents no engineering difficulty. B y making a detour, a rich settled country, dotted over with towns and villages, is accommodated, and branch lines would be unnecessary. A large traffic is already in exist ence, as the toll books at a bridge on the Orontes show' that about 1,200 camels and horses laden pass each day. This will be the most important portion of the railway from the Mediterranean to the Persian G u lf; the link from Sileucia to Aleppo is in itself a complete work, having a port at one end and the chief emporium of Mesopotamia at the other, to which the traffic from India, Bagdad, &c., converges. Or, should the railway be carried on to the Euphrates, sixty miles beyond Aleppo, by the route recommended by General C h e s n e y and Sir J ohn M a c n e il l , there would be a still more perfect work o f about one hundred and fifty miles in length, beginning at a port in a great sea and ending at the head o f a navigable river in a greater ocean. This would be o f itself, and by itself, a complete, perfect and profitable enterprise ; not only would a new country be opened up to European enterprise, but a direct ness in the route to India obtained, which few would believe who do not work it out on the map. Taking the line of the Austrian railways to Trieste ; thence by rail to Jabor Castle, down the stream o f the Euphrates and by the Persian Gulf to Ivurrachee, where the Scinde, the first complete Indian project, commences the future network o f Indian lines, the traveller will follow a route as direct as any railway can be expected to afford. Eight days and six hours will take the traveller through Trieste to Sileucia; thence the railway will take him, in five hours, to the head of the navigable waters of the Euphrates. Three days and three hours more will see the river voyage completed to Bussorah ; and three more days— making in all fourteen—-bring the traveller to Kurrachee, where the Scinde keeps the western door of the railways o f our Indian empire. Like most o f the other railways for which India is indebted to Mr. A n d r e w , this line from Sileucia to Jabor Castle, though complete in itself, is regarded by him as the parent of further projects, whose construction will depend on the success of the parent line, and will gradually lessen the distance be tween the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. Thus he would extend his works by degrees along the valley o f the river by Phumsah, the ancient Thapsacus ; cross thence into Mesopotamia, working down the valley by Annah and Hit to the environs o f Bagdad, and thence by Babylon and Hillah to the point where the Tigris and the Euphrates 1861.] Rail-Road and Telegraph Statistics. 539 join at Kumah, and the united stream becomes deep enough for steamers o f the largest size. Other branches, too, might top the Persian Gulf at Scherster, or at Bussorah, -where the trade is extensive, and the accom modation for ships o f large tonnage already ample.— London and China Telegraph. THE TELEGRAPH TO THE PACIFIC. According to recent accounts o f the progress o f the Pacific Telegraph line -west o f Great Salt Lake City, it appears probable that the entire line will be in full operation in November, 1861. It is the intention to estab lish twenty regular operating offices between Salt Lake and the frontier offices, to be ever prepared for accident or unfortunate malice that might cut the line. It is said that the Mormon chief and his counsellors and immediate friends have turned on this Western line every team and man at their disposal, to secure the completion of it before the first fall of snow, if possible. The line was completed from Port Kearney to Julesburg in October, making 350 miles from Fort Kearney and 1,050 from St. Louis. The section between Julesburg and Salt Lake City wras in operation on the 18th o f October. Prom Fort Churchill, in the Territory of Nevada, to which the lines already extend from the Pacific coast, the gap towards Salt Lake City is rapidly closing, and the western section will doubtless be completed as soon as the eastern section. The only hindrance yet caused by the war has been the neces sity o f sending wire, for about 200 miles o f the line, around by way of Nevada, instead o f through Missouri. THE ATLANTIC CABLE. The report of the Atlantic Telegraph Company states that in the cable recovered and brought home by Captain K e l l , there was not the slightest symptom of deterioration or decay in the gutta percha. It had been subjected to a very severe electrical test, and a comparison between its present state o f insulation and the records o f original tests o f the most perfect portions of the cable when it left the gutta-percha works, three years ago, showed that an actual improvement had taken place in its condition since it wras laid down.— Chemical News. THE MALTA AND ALEXANDRIA CABLE. The following is an extract from a letter dated Malta, June 8th : “ The first section o f the Malta and Alexandria cable, 230 miles in length, was laid without a single accident or check o f any description. After joining the cable to the shore end at Tripoli, which had been previously laid by the steam-tug B u l l d o g , despatched a wreek in advance, the M a l a c c a , ac companied by the M e d in a and S c o u r g e , proceeded along the coast east ward towards Benghazi, which is to be the next station. Nearly 300 miles more o f cable were thus laid eastward, forming a part o f the second section, the end being hermetically sealed, carried into shallow water and buoyed. This operation was as successfully performed as the first. The entire length of between 500 and 600 miles has since been carefully tested, and found to work admirably it is even said, with a smaller amount o f electric power than any cable yet submerged. 540 Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. STATISTICS I. OF TRADE AND [November, COMMERCE. T he L a k e T r ad e . II. C ommerce of B u ffa lo . III. T he Cork T r a d e . IY. T r ad e of T u r Y. E x po r ts of P e n a n g . YI. T r ad e a n d N a v ig a t io n of F ran ce . YII. T he L in en T r a d e . YIII. C h in a T r ad e . IX. T he T obacco T r ad e . X. P h il a d e l p h ia G r a in M a r k e t . XI. P rice of P otatoes , 1854—1861. XII. B a n g o r L um ber M a rk et . key. THE LAKE TRADE. T h e statistics o f vessels arriving and clearing at Buffalo during the quarter ending September 30, 1861, make up a larger exhibit than has ever before been recorded in the history o f that city for a single quarter. The figures are as follow s: Vessels. Tonnage. Entered,.......................................... 2,320 Cleared,........................................... 2,297 831,951 825,345 No. Crews. 24,630 25,285 Aggregate,............................. 4,617 1,663,302 49,905 The following is a statement o f the number o f vessels which have passed by or in the vicinity o f the light-house at W ind Mill Point dur ing the quarter ending September 30th, 1861: Barks, 189 ; brigs, 177; schooners, 1,449; sloops, 189; steamers, 799. Total, 2,797. The greatest number o f vessels passed in one day is 114. The Secretary of the Treasury has forwarded the following circular to collectors at the lake ports : “ Treasury Department, August 16, 1861. “ Sir,— I have been officially informed that it is customary at several ports on the lakes to issue clearances to vessels after their departure, and to send them by mail to the masters, so that they may receive the same on arrival at the place o f destination. A rigid enforcement of the strict letter of existing laws, not adapted, in some respects, to the peculiar exi gencies o f the trade on the lakes, would doubtless place it under many embarrassing restrictions. I can, therefore, perceive no objection to officers of the customs extending every facility and convenience consistent with the laws, and not incompatible with the interests of the revenue. “ The practice, however, o f granting clearances under the circum stances stated, involves a serious departure from the law, and you are ac cordingly directed immediately to discontinue the same if prevailing at your ports, and to conform to the sixteenth and seventeenth sections of the Coasting A ct o f 1793, and insist upon a faithful compliance there with by the masters o f the vessels engaged in the trade between the several ports o f the United States on the lakes. “ I am, very respectfully, “ S. P. C h a s e , Secretary o f the Treasury." 1861.] Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. COMMERCE 541 OF B U F F A L O . The following comparative table shows the receipts o f lake flour and grain at Buffalo for the month o f September in each o f the following years: 1859. Flour,...........................bbls. 1860. 236,399 ____ Wheat,......................... bush. 1,600,856 Corn,............................ bush. 290,148 Oats,.............................bush. 148,961 Barley,.........................bush. 18,905 R ye ,..............................bush. 27,710 Totals grain one month, 2,086,575 194,092 1861. ___ 4,803,939 1,316,342 133,209 69,098 2,535 .... 6,325,123 328,611 3,983,612 4,741,141 336,801 8,673 29,593 .... 9,099,820 And from the opening o f navigation to September 30th, in the years 1859. Flour,......................... bbls. 1860. 876,934 ___ W heat,......................... bush. 3,571,402 Corn,............................. bush. 2,393,977 Oats,............................. bush. 725,297 Barley.......................... bush. 78,343 R y e ,..............................bush. 40,264 Total grain,..................... 6,809,283 THE 729,322 9,772,250 9,995,763 857,832 78,766 35,567 ___ 20,690,178 CORK 1861. ____ 1,338,414 15,539,364 15,227,596 1,643,024 115,098 268,193 ___ 32,793,275 TRADE. The cork trade in Portugal is reported to be on the increase. The annual exportation now amounts to upwards o f 10,000,000f. It takes place principally from Sines, the only port o f the province o f Alemtejo, where the largest quantity o f cork trees grow. The greatest amount is sent to London, where, on the average, the consumption amounts to 10,000 lbs. per day o f Portuguese corks. A considerable quantity is also sent to France, America and the Baltic. The Portuguese cork is inferior to the French, but superior to that o f Italy. THE TRADE OF TURKEY. The following statistics relative to the trade of the Turkish empire are not without interest: The general trade o f Turkey with foreign countries amounts to about £41,000,000 sterling. Its traffic with Great Britain and Franco amounts to about 40 per cent, o f its entire foreign trade. That with Austria, 15 per cent.; with other parts o f Germany, 10 ; with Russia, 5 ; Belgium, 2 ; and all other countries, 28 per cent. In 1857 the trade between Turkey and France amounted, for exports, to 84,901,748f., and for imports to 110,422,893f. In the year 1858 the imports amounted to only 84,901,748f., and the exports to 69,923,746f. France has chiefly imported from Turkey corn, raw silk, cocoons, silk-worms’ eggs, wool, cotton and seeds for crushing. The exports from France to Turkey con sist of stuffs, refined sugar, dressed skins, with a variety o f manufactured goods. Turkey supplied France, within the 19 years between 1841 and 1859, with 300,000,000f. worth o f corn, equal to about 21 per cent, of the entire of the exports from that country during the same period. 542 Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. EXPORTS FROM PENANG F or the rO THE UNITED [November, STATES, Y ears 1859 AND 1860. 1860. 1859. Articles. 1860. 1859. Articles. .... Camphor,......... 9,051 3,447 261 Sugar,................. Cinnamon,........ 3,268 1,480 41 22 Tapioca,............. Cutch............... 22,138 17,370 6,791 4,066 Tin...................... Gum Benjamin, 1 22 47 Tortoise S h ell,.. Gutta Percha,. 22 Essential O il,. . . 103 109 H ides,............... 2,648 3,909 Cassia,................. Horns,.............. 11 Tea,.................... 67 India Rubber,. 1,521 C hina,................. 55 3,178 M a ce ,............... 244 W ild Cinnamon, 471 287 Nutmegs,.......... 68 2,390 7,556 Fire Crackers,.. 5 Black Pepper, 20,627 38,510 Gum Hamar,. . . . 25 White Pepper,. 18 P ep per,............. . .bags, R atan,.............. 1 3,243 2,580 Mace Paste,___ Rum,................. . -galls., 60 Ratan Chairs,__ 8 TRADE AND NAVIGATION OF FRANCE. The French Board o f Trade returns for the first quarter o f this year give the duties on imports at 25,931,000f., against 38,346,000f. in the corresponding period in 1860, and 41,991,000f. in 1859, showing a con siderable falling off, arising from alterations in the tariff, in accordance with the Anglo-French commercial treaty. A t the same time, however, there is a considerable increase in the quantities o f imported produce and manufactures, such as wines, spirits, cocoa, coffee, grain and flour, cochi neal, cotton, oil-seeds, tallow and lard, coal, coke, wool and machinery. The latter has increased in value from 870,290f. last year, to l,643,980f. this year; pig iron from England from 62,364 quintals last year, has in creased to 164,255 quintals; copper from England from 13,601 quintals last year has increased to 24,518 quintals ; lead, zinc, salt, from 87 quin tals last year from England, has increased to 5,739 quintals. Sugars, both foreign and colonial, and flax and hemp fabrics. The exports from France show a falling off this year, as compared with last year, in oxen and sheep, inferior wines, grain, flour, machinery, mil linery, porcelain, salt, refined sugar, glass; but there is an increase in woollen fabrics and oil-cake. The returns relating to shipping give the following results : F rench V essels. ls£ quarter. Inwards. 1861,........................................................... 370,184 1860, ........................................................ 324,941 1859, ........................................................ 343,659 Outwards. 318,718 316,678 344,416 F oreign V essels. 1861, ........................................................ 511,666 1860, ........................................................ 511,406 1859,.......................................................... 484,304 289,559 345,984 363,677 Although foreign trade in France continues to be in a depressed state, the increased receipts o f the railway companies indicate an improvement in the home trade. Accounts from St. Dizier mention a brisk demand for cast iron, o f which 1,200,000 kilogrammes were disposed o f within a 1861.] 643 Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. few days. The price, which a short time since was only 121 f., rose to 125f. This rise in the present dull season astonishes some parties. The depression in the foreign trade is attributed in a great measure to the civil war in the United States. This assertion is confirmed by the official returns, which show that the exportation of wine to the States has de clined during the present year to 63,769 hectolitres from 131,000 hecto litres in the corresponding period o f the year 1859; brandy, to 13,428 hectolitres from 50,297 ; millinery, the value reduced to 112,521f. from 547,862f. The export o f silks from France, which in the corresponding period of the year 1859 amounted to 20,719 metrical quintals o f 2241pounds weight, has, during the present year, declined to 15,903. The metrical quintal o f silk is worth 10,000f., which makes a diminution of nearly 150,000,000f. in that article alone. TH E E xports of L inens from the LINEN TRADE. U nited K ingdom for tiie Six Months E nding J uly 30. To 1859. Hanse Towns,................. ....y a r d s , 3,583,366 United States,............... .................31,170,751 C u ba,................................ ................. 5,188,146 933,044 St. Thomas,................... ................. Brazil,............................... ................. 4,909,415 British West Indies,___ ................. 1,770,583 British East Indies,. . . . ................. 1,392,850 Australia,....................... ................. 1,920,652 Other countries,............... .................14,738,163 1860. ___ 5,154,565 ___ 23,815,079 . . . 4,022,631 ___ 707,005 ___ 4,544,674 ___ 2,469,916 ___ 1,336,577 ___ 2,612,291 ___ 17,102,190 Total yards,................. .................65,606,970 60,764,918 CHINA ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1861. 5,560,246 12,059,993 4,431,291 1,709,607 4,688,841 2,336,941 1,453,381 2,134,231 26,478,059 60,852,590 TRADE. From New-Ckwang, the newly-opened port in Manchuria, accounts have been received, describing it as situated in a low, flat, swampy coun try. The town stands on a creek eight miles from the main river, and eighty from its mouth. It is approached by a very tortuous river, which is full o f sand banks. About fifteen miles below New-Chwang, the river forms into two branches, one of which, called Wy-leaou-ho, runs on about 330 miles to Le-mun-tun, a place o f great trade. The other branch, called the Le-leaou-ho, goes on to Mard-ka. A t Tai-tsze, the Tien-tsin and Shangtung junks load, while those from Ningpo and Shang hai load at Yenko. There is a large junk trade at both these places, which export peas, beans, tobacco, pea-cake, oil and drugs. Yenko is a filthy place of mud huts, built in a swamp, the streets so full o f uncleanli ness that it is difficult to walk about, and nothing is to be seen but pov erty and d irt; the country all around is flat, with not a blade o f grass to relieve the eye. Cattle, and a few fruits, arc procurable with difficulty. Altogether, the prospects o f this port are not encouraging. THE TOBACCO TRADE. The last annual report on foreign commerce from the State Depart ment gives very full and explicit information upon the subject o f the 544 Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. [November, growth, manufacture and consumption o f tobacco in foreign countries, where we have also a market for our own tobacco. The low prices of the wine crop for some years, and also the failures o f that crop, induced many large owners o f vineyards in Germany to convert, at a great ex pense, their vineyards into tobacco fields, tobacco then bearing a good price. But the last three years have proved good wine years, and the prices of tobacco have been considerably reduced. So the tobacco fields are being turned back into vineyards. German tobacco has been bought by American speculators and export ed to the United States, where it is manufactured into segars and re exported to Europe as American tobacco. The American traders found after awhile that they were not buying even German tobacco, but beet and turnip leaves, with which it is extensively adulterated. German se gars, made partly of beet and turnip leaves, are also exported into the United States and to other countries. Belgium and Holland and the Zollverein are the chief consumers o f the beet and turnip-leaf tobacco, and the article stands in the way o f the consumption o f the pure Ameri can tobacco. The quantity o f German tobacco now on hand, including the beet and turnip-leaf crops, is represented as immense. It is held back for higher prices. One single house has five hundred quintals of leaves on hand, waiting for a rise in the leaf market. The American tobacco which is manufactured into snuff is mixed with five per cent, of German tobacco, in consequence o f which, all snuff manufactured at Bingen, &c., is subject to a transit duty when exported to Northern Germany. Thus the American tobacco, which has already paid duty, pays duty a second time. In this report there are fifty consular despatches respecting the to bacco trade o f the United States in various parts of the world. The tariffs upon tobacco, and the monopoly regulations concerning it, and laws affecting its price to the consumer, are given in this report with much detail.— National Intelligencer. PHILADELPHIA Hour, (extra,).. Flour, (superfine Rye flour,........... Corn m eal,......... Corn, (y e llo w ,).. Corn, (w h ite,).. . O a ts ,................... R ye....................... Wheat, (red,) . . . Wheat, (white,).. PRICE Sept. .per bbl. $ 5 ) “ 5 4 . “ 4 .per bush. . “ . « . “ . “ 1 . “ 1 OF GRAIN MARKET. 28,1858. Sept. 28,1859. Sept. 28, 1860. Sept. 28,1861. 50 . . . . $ 5 50 ___ $5 88 ___ $ 5 50 ___ 5 62 37 ___ 4 87 ___ 5 25 00 ___ 4 00 ___ 4 25 ___ 3 25 00 ___ 3 50 ___ 3 50 ___ 2 81 93 ............... 75 ___ 56 83 ............... ___ 73 ___ 54^ 44 ___ 40 ___ 36 ___ 31 83 ___ 85 ___ 80 ___ 60 30 ............... ___ 1 33 ___ 1 24 40 ................. ___ 1 45 ___ 1 35 POTATOES FROM 1 854 to 1861. The following table, carefully prepared for the American Agriculturist, by Mr. H e n r y B. W a l k e r , a large dealer in New-York, will be found interesting and useful. The statistics have reference to the best potatoes at wholesale prices; it will be noticed that the price has fallen every year, with but one exception, since 1854: 1861.] Statistics o f Trade and Commerce. 545 A verage P rice of P otatoes per B ushel. 1854. 1855. 1856. 1857. January, $ 1 07 . . $ 1 22 . . 8 0 72 February, . . . 1 18 . . 1 25 72 M a rch ,......... 1 12 . . 1 25 80 A p ril,............ 1 50 . . 1 43 63 M ay,.............. 1 44 . 1 26 60 June,............. 1 50 . 1 34 60 1 00 . 1 00 . . 1 00 July,.............. August,......... 1 50 63 69 September,.. 1 22 69 70 October,........ 1 00 69 75 November, . . 1 89 84 66 December, .. 1 02 65 94 Average,. . $ 1 22 . . $ 1 01 B AN GO R ..$ .. .. .. .. .. 0 1 1 1 1 1 1858. 1859. 97 . . $ 0 91 . . $ 0 03 . . 1 00 00 88 35 77 41 58 25 55 62 61 64 61 83 57 83 54 96 53 95 55 1860. 93 . . $ 0 58 95 83 68 70 47 49 50 65 60 45 45 58 64 55 60 59 63 52 63 45 64 63 . $ 0 75 . . $ 1 00 . . 8 0 72 . . | 0 59 . . $ 0 56 L U M B E R M A R K E T . Amount o f lumber surveyed from January 1st to September 1st, 1861, compared with the amount surveyed during the same period in 1859 and 1860 : 1859. 1860. 1861. Green pine,.........feet, 36,500,687 D ry pine,.................... 6,957,048 Spruce, ......................... 50,778,315 Hemlock, &c.,............... 11,148,414 ___ 32,421,759 6,910,215 60,671,908 12,264,641 ___ 20,058,281 5,269,408 43,770,971 7,506,969 Total,...................... 105,384,464 ____ 112,568,523 ____ 76,605,559 LA KE R E C E I P T S OP B R E A D S T U F F S . The total receipts of flour, wheat and corn, (flour reduced to wheat,) at the four leading ports, for the week ending September 21st, and since 1st January last, were as follows : Week ending Sept. 21. C h ica g o ,........................... bushels, T o le d o ,............................................ Milwaukie,........................................ D etroit,............................................ B R E A D S T U F F S 1,702,907 918,783 559,640 250,992 IN Since Jan. 1. ___ 37,679,895 10,881,914 9,790,671 4,886,758 F R A N C E . The last important movement is thus announced under official caption in the M oniteur: “ From the 15th of the present month (October) till the 30th o f September, 1862, the cargoes o f grain and flour, rice, pota toes or dry vegetables, carried on rivers and canals, not conceded to pub lic companies, will be exempted from all internal navigation dues levied by the State. The same exemption will be extended to the dues levied on canals that have been so conceded, and which may be re-purchased, under the authority o f the laws of the 28th o f July and the 1st o f Au gust, 1860. Foreign vessels may, till the same date, and under the same conditions as French vessels, navigate all the rivers and canals of France exempt from these dues, wherever their cargoes may have been grown, provided they consist of grain and cereals, as specified in the for mer article.” 35 VOL. x l v .— no. v. [November, Commercial Chronicle and Review. 546 COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. Progress of B usiness—I mports—E xports—D omestic P roduce—D ry Goods T rade—CustomH ouse R evenue—L arger P ortion of B readstuffs—T able of E xports—Grain at the W est—Grain for F reights—B ank L oans—R ates of E xchange—A dvance in R a il -R oad F reights—I ncrease of Canal T olls—T elegraph Communication—I mports and Stocks of Sugar and Coffee—T reasury L oan—T he B anking M ovement—Clearing -H ouse for E ight Y ears. G r e a t activity has prevailed during the month in shipping at this port. The foreign demand for breadstuffs has given an impulse to prices and to freights. The canals and rail-roads are overburdened with freight for the Atlantic ports, at prices more remunerative than hitherto. Tide-W ater Receipts.— The receipts at tide-water o f flour, wheat, corn and barley, for the years 1860 and 1861, have been as follows : Nine Months. Flour. Wheat. Corn. bbls. bushels. bushels. .........................739,100 ......................... 871,100 .. .. 10,393,600 18,174,000 .. .. Increase, 1 8 6 1 ,... 132,600 .. 7,780,400 .. 1860, 1861, Barley. bushels. 12,020,900 . . 16,673,200 . . 942,800 522,300 4,652,300 Dec. 420,500 Reducing the wheat to flour, the excess in the receipts of 1861 is equal to 1,688,680 barrels o f flour. The receipts at tide-water o f the principal articles o f produce, from the opening of the canals to and including October 14th, have been as follow s: Ca n a l open , ...................................... F lou r,............................... bbls., W h ea t,............................... bushels, Corn,..................................... “ B arley,................................. “ E ye,....................................... “ O ats,..................................... “ 1859. 1860. 1861. A pril 15. A pril 25. May 1. 360,000 .. 1,745,100 .. 2,379,000 . . 670,900 . . 176,700 . . 3,425,500 . . 739,100 10,393,600 12,020,900 942,800 213,800 4,758,800 .. .. .. .. .. .. 871,700 18,174,000 16,673,200 522,300 536,200 3,806,100 The rail-roads and canals have been tested, during the last two months, to their utmost capacity. The following is the new tariff o f the roads from Chicago on East-bound freights, which took effect this m onth: C hicago to Suspension Bridge, 17. Y ., rail, Buffalo, 17. Y ., r a il,.................. “ “ lake,................... Albany and Troy, 17. Y ., rail,. Albany, lake,............................. New-York, r a il,......................... “ lake,......................... Boston, via Albany, r a il,........ “ “ “ lake,........ “ “ Grand Trunk, rail, Portland, rail,............................. Pittsburg, Pa., r a il,................. “ lake,................. Philadelphia, Pa., ra il,............ “ lake,............ W i class. $0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 45 40 87£ 824 904 874 974 924 974 974 43 40 874 824 Flour in lots , fi ft y bbls. and over. . . $0 90 .. 0 90 .. 0 80 .. 1 75 .. 1 65 .. 1 85 .. 1 75 .. 1 95 .. 1 85 .. 1 95 .. 1 95 .. 0 85 .. 0 80 .. 1 75 .. 1 65 Wood, . . $0 90 .. 0 90 .. 0 75 .. 1 50 .. 1 45 .. 1 60 .. 1 45 .. 1 70 .. 1 50 .. X 75 .. 1 75 .. 0 90 .. 0 88 .. 1 50 .. 1 35 1861.] 547 Commercial Chronicle and Review. The increased business on the New-York State canals is shown in the fact that the tolls have increased twenty-five per cent, compared with last year, v iz.: April 25 to October 14, 1860,.................................................................. $2,284,084 May 1 to October 14, 1861,.................................................................. 2,845,572 According to the official returns, the foreign imports, of all descriptions, landed at the port o f New-York during the month o f September, were but a little over seven millions o f dollars, of which one and a quarter million were specie ; so that the total imports for the month, in produce and merchandise, were but six millions of dollars, against sixteen millions for the same month in each o f the last two years : F oreign I m ports E ntered. For consumption,.. For warehousing,.. Free goods,............ Specie and bullion, Total entered,.. . AVithdrawn,....... at N e w - Y o rk 1858. $11,180,523 2,900,700 1,253,829 138,243 in S eptember . 1859. .. .. .. .. $15,473,295 . . 2,905,062 . . 1860. $ 12,470,440 2,177,966 1,810,626 184,553 1861. .. .. .. .. $11,516,137.. 2,835,734 . . 2,652,332 . . 255,695 . . $3,106,298 1,390,766 1,577,385 ' 1,231,012 $ 16,643,585 .. 2,898,441 .. $16,260,450.. 4,007,272 . . $7,305,461 2,938,464 This decline has excited surprise, since it is unprecedented in the his tory of the trade. The imports of specie from foreign ports, since Jan uary 1st, are a little over thirty-five millions. If this be deducted from the total imports, the aggregate o f merchandise and produce received for nine months will fall below one hundred millions, which is but little over half the corresponding total in the last two years. W e annex a com parative summary for the nine months ending October 1st: F oreign I m ports at E ntered. For consumption,.. For warehousing,.. Freegoods,............ Specie and bullion, N e w - Y ork 1858. fo r N in e M onths, 1859. from J an uary 1 st . 1860. 1861. $76,582,434 . . $144,397,670 . . $129,786,408 . . $41,657,913 20,232,150 . . 28,351,768.. 32,395,925.. 34,492,899 16,552,095.. 23,160,678 . . 21,469,063 . . 23,651,574 2,021,173.. 1,834,054.. 1,147,633.. 35,186,730 Total entered,.. . $115,387,852 . . $197,744,170 . . $184,799,029 . . $134,989,116 AVithdrawn,----31,097,577.. 20,305,309.. 24,090,639.. 31,549,666 This decline is a marked one throughout the year, although it is greatest for the last quarter. W e have compiled a quarterly summary, leaving out the imports of specie, which have been insignificant in former seasons : Q u a rter ly S tatement of F oreign I mports 1858. First quarter,........ Second quarter,. . . Third quarter,----- at N e w - Y o rk , 1859. $ 2 9 ,044,464.. $59 ,1 1 6 ,7 8 8 .. 32,740,170.. 70,048,086.. 53,603,218.. 68,579,298.. from 1860. J a n u ary 1 st . 1861. $ 6 4,702,778.. $46,290,767 53,025,238.. 31,658,441 67,081,000.. 21,853,178 Total, 9 months, $115,387,852 . . $197,744,170 . . $184,809,016 . . $99,802,386 The importations of foreign dry goods at New-York for the month of September were less than two millions, the bulk being in woollen goods, wanted for fall and winter consumption ; the total goods on the market being only $3,403,976, or less than half what it was in the month of September, 1860. The stocks in warehouse are now much reduced, and also the stocks in first and second hands in the market. 548 Commercial Chronicle and Review. [N ov em b er, I mports of F oreign D ry G oods at N ew -Y ork for the M onth of S eptember. E n te re d f o r Consum ption. Manufactures of W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... S ilk ,....................... Flax,....................... Miscellaneous,. . . . Total................... 1858. 81,910,232 881,692 2,077,703 404,768 301,912 1860. 1861. .. . . . . $2,431,129 746,431 2,039,271 544,315 512,969 $943,070 194,273 375,830 145,788 98,237 $5,990,973 . . $6,274,115 1859. .. .. .. .. .. $5,576,307 . . $2,005,381 862,065 1,998,329 614,930 518,268 . $1,757,198 . . . . . $451,803 161,113 134,334 . . 76,925 . 51,458 . $826,357 209,492 * 423,973 155,800 31,156 $875,633 . . 6,274,115 . $1,646,778 1,757,198 $7,149,748. . $3,403,976 W ithdraw n f r o m W arehouse. Manufactures of 1858. W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... S ilk ,....................... Flax,....................... Miscellaneous,. . . . $484,900 128,765 178,456 121,410 107,745 T o ta l,................. For consumption,.. $1,021,276 . . 5,576,307 . . $640,932 . 5,990,973 . Total on market, $6,597,583 . . $6,631,905 . . 1859. .. .. .. .. .. $317,469 96,581 76,672 109,614 40,596 1860. 1861. E n tered f o r W arehousing. Manufactures of 1858. W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... S ilk ,....................... Flax,....................... Miscellaneous,. . . . $178,150 100,492 44,416 79,043 46,607 T ota l,................. For consumption,.. Entered at port, 1859. .. .. .. .. .. $185,812 115,460 67,446 130,088 38,287 1860. 1861. . . . . . $160,150. 176,704 . 46,468 . 48,329 . 34,419 . $ 144,823 61,368 99,324 19,957 19,394 $448,708 . . 5,576,307 . . $537,093 . 5,990,973 . $466,070 . 6,274,115 . $ 344,866 1,757,198 $6,025,015 . . $6,528,066 . . $6,740,185 . . $2,102,064 I mports of F oreign D ry G oods at the P ort of N ew -Y ork for N ine M onths FROM J anuary 1 st. E n tered f o r C onsum ption. Manufactures of 1858. W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... S ilk ,....................... Flax,....................... Miscellaneous,. . . . $13,890,836 7,557,996 14,459,562 3,359,963 2,698,170 Total, ................. 1859. .. .. .. .. .. $41,966,527 . . 1861. 1860, . . . . . $26,379,832. . 12,653,087 . 28,530,675 . 5,428,610 . 4,815,331 . $7,235,754 2,844,499 7,370,310 1,517,549 1,738,588 $87,503,193 . $77,807,535 . . $ 20,706,700 $28,375,357 18,866,286 27,476,406 8,089,840 4,695,304 W ithdraw n fr o m W arehouse. Manufactures of 1858. W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... Silk.......................... Flax......................... Miscellaneous,. . . . $4,003,246 3,280,663 3,065,465 1,868,026 1,136,379 1860. 1859. .. .. .. .. .. $2,578,390 1,404,902 796,003 880,313 354,466 . . . . . $2,869,485 2,248,651 1,423,510 729,296 501,240 1861. .. . . . . $5,390,458 3,748,918 4,381,136 1,576,928 693,767 $13,353,779 . . 41,966,527 . . $6,014,074 . 87,503,193 . $7,772,182 . . 77,807,535 . $15,791,207 20,706,700 Total on market, $55,320,306 . . $93,517,267 . $85,579,717 . . $ 36,497,907 Total................... For consumption,.. 1861.] 549 Commercial Chronicle and Review. E n tered f o r W arehousing. Manufactures of 1858. W o o l,..................... Cotton,................... S ilk ,....................... Flax......................... Miscellaneous,___ $ 1 ,90 9 ,6 4 2 .. 1,648,030.. 1,032,557 . . 728,273 . . 483,884 . . T o ta l,................. For consumption,.. Entered at port, 1859. 1860. 1861. $ 2 ,88 6 ,0 5 3 .. 1,264,009.. 734,493 . . 689,330 . . 380,879 . . $2,92 2 ,2 1 0 .. 2,139,212.. 1,312,614 . . 410,382 . . 499,993 . . $ 5,577,828 3,130,936 4,912,349 1,359,351 866,839 $5,802,386 . . 41,966,527 . . $ 5 ,9 5 4 ,7 6 4 .. 87,503,193 . . $7,28 4 ,4 1 1 .. 77,807,535 . . $16,477,303 20,706,700 $47,768,913.. $93,457,957 . . $85,091,946.. $37,184,003 The contrast for the nine months ending 1st October is still stronger, the importation o f dry goods being about one-fourth the amount reported for 1859 or 1860; but the quantities withdrawn from warehouse and placed upon the market are more than double those of the nine months of 1860, thus making the total upon the market thirty-six millions, or fortythree per cent, of last year, and only thirty-nine per cent, of 1859. The Custom-House revenue has fallen off, relatively, on the one hand, by the greater proportion o f free goods landed to take advantage o f the old tariff, and increased, on the other hand, by the higher rates of duty, as fixed by the tariff act o f August 5, 1861, and the greater total with drawn from warehouse. Included in the receipts from customs in Sep tember were $1,449,096 o f Treasury Notes, or nearly seven-eighths o f the whole amount. O f the duties since 1st January, $7,487,997, or nearly half, were paid in these government obligations. The payments in these notes are about over, as the Treasury now receives them at par for sub scriptions to the new loan, and the duties will hereafter mostly he paid in specie. The cash duties received at New-York for the nine months were as follow : Cash D uties R eceived at N ew -Y ork for N ine M onths. 1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. First six months,.. In J u ly ,................. In August,............. In September,___ $ 1 1 ,0 8 9 ,1 1 2 .. 3,387,305 . . 3 ,545,119.. 2,672,935 . . $ 19,912,181.. 4,851,246 . . 4 ,2 4 3 ,0 1 0 .. 2,908,509.. $18,339,679.. 4,504,066 . . 4 ,496,243.. 3,038,803 . . $10,585,335 2,069,591 1,558,824 1,642,382 Total, 9 months, $20,694)472.. $ 31,514,949.. $30,378,781 . . $15,856,132 The exports for September have been very large. The corresponding total last year (i. e., the exports for September, 1860) was larger, exclusive o f specie, than the total for any previous month of any year since NewYork was settled. The advices from Europe serve to show that the export trade for the remainder o f the year will be quite as heavy. It will be seen that the shipments of specie for the last month hardly amount to a noticeable item : E xports from N e w -Y ork to F oreign P orts for the M onto of S eptember. 1858. Domestic produce, For. mdse., (free,).. For. mdse., (dut.,).. Specie and bullion, Total exports,.. Total, ex. specie, $3,521,992 . . 1 6 9 ,8 6 3 .. 2 0 4 ,3 9 0 .. 3,239,591 . . $ 7,135,836 . . 3,896,245 . . 1859. 1860. 1861. $ 4 .94 6 ,6 1 2 .. 188,0 7 2 .. 6 3 5 ,1 3 2 .. 8,267,681 . . $9,232,931 . . 4 6 ,6 2 0 .. 6 2 0 ,3 9 4 .. 3 ,758,734.. $9,877,909 30,013 264,168 15,756 $ 14,037,497 . . 5,769,816 . . $13,658,679 . . 9,899,945 . . $10,187,846 10,172,092 550 [November, Commercial Chronicle and Review. The exports, exclusive o f specie, since January 1st, 1861, are ninety-six millions, against sixty-nine millions for the same period of last year, and forty-nine millions for the same time in 1859. W e annex a comparative summary: E xports from N e w -Y o r k to F oreign P orts fo r N in e M onths, 1859. 1858. Domestic produce, $41,534,618 . . For. mdse., (free,).. 1,125,561 . For. mdse., (dut.,).. 2,986,672. Specie and bullion, 20,602,848. J an u ary 1 st . from 1860. $43,470,969 2,327,879 3,447,668 57,926,455 .. . . .. 1861. $63,527,320.. . $90,560,438 1,976,632 1,983,127.. 4,136,725 .. 4,140,079 39,357,284 .. 3,279,814 Total exp orts,.. $66,249,699 . . $107,172,971 . . $ 109,004,456 .. Total, ex. specie, 45,646,851 . . 49,246,561 . 69,647,172 .. $99,956,963 96,777,149 These heavy exports are made up largely of corn, (8,613,811 bushels,! wheat, (over seventeen million bushels,) and of flour (two million barrels.) Provisions, too, form a very important part of the aggregates. Cut meats have been shipped this year to the extent of three times that of 1860, and eight times that o f the corresponding period o f 1859. Receipts o f Produce.— W e have compiled our usual monthly summary of the movements o f produce at the port o f New-York. The receipts show a large increase in flour, an immense gain in the arrivals o f wheat and corn, and a considerable increase, also, in meat provisions. There is, for obvious reasons, a decrease in the supply o f cotton and naval stores. The following will show the comparative receipts during the first nine months in each of the last four years : Receipts o f Certain Articles o f Produce at the Port o f Neic-York f o r the first Nine Months o f the Years 1858— 1861. Ashes,....................... Breadstuffs: tt Wheat flour, . . . . Corn meal,........... . 11 W heat,................. it R y e ,..................... it Oats,.................... “ Barley,................ . , “ Corn,.................... Cotton,..................... Naval stores: Crude turpentine, . .bbls., tt Spirits “ it Rosin,................... tt Tar,........................ tt Pitch,................... Provisions: Pork..................... ■-Pkg s-> tt B eef,.................... Cut meats,............ . “ tt Butter,................. . tt Cheese,.................. Lard, . . . . . . .tcs. and bbls., ** W hiskey,................. . 1858. 1859. 1860. 13,962 . 17,855 . 18,351 . 2,695,656 69,797 2,716,488 238,033 1,463,785 72,203 6,295,038 307,250 .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,621,732 6,490 1,204,541 126,417 2,255,585 468,662 2,160,723 317,082 82,515 111,925 430,750 29,172 3,270 . .. .. . . 71,490 116,196 586,834 31,156 2,667 .. .. .. .. .. 45,581 119,972 526,276 42,759 5,585 . . . . . 32,254 45,081 193,334 48,467 2,137 123,762 34,632 76,758 258,191 250,769 80,141 .. . . .. .. . 136,557 46,900 55,206 182,023 253,938 57,292 18,970 81,801 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73,340 29,868 47,001 256,683 428,532 42,517 24,514 140,164 . . . . . .. ., .. 89,908 23,285 72,479 265,923 396,719 81,907 35,887 213,308 106,991 . ... ., ... .. .. .. . ,. .. 1861. 16,092 2,162,667 86,401 8,361,821 142,552 2,957,886 421,180 9,433,165 331,286 . . 2,933,329 . 71,815 . . 15,752,583 . 465,662 . . 2,628,509 . 808,091 . . 13,470,107 . 242,094 1861.] 551 Commercial Chronicle and Review. E xp orts o f C ertain L ea d in g A r tic le s o f D om estic P rod u ce f r o m N ew -Y o rk to F o reig n P o r ts f o r the fir s t N in e M on th s o f the Year. 1858. Ashes, pots,................ . .bbls., it “ p e a r ls ...... Beeswax,................. ..lbs., Breadstuff's: Wheat flour......... . .bbls., it Rye flour,............ it Corn meal,........... W heat,................. it R y e ,..................... “ Oats,.................... “ Barley,................ if Corn,.................... Candles, mould....... “ sperm, . . . . . “ Coal,......................... Cotton,..................... It H ay,......................... H ops,....................... . . “ N aval stores: Crude turpentine, . .bbls., ft Spirits “ it Rosin,.................. ft Tar,...................... it P itch,................... Oils: Whale,................. it Sperm,................. a L a r d ,................... “ Linseed,............... Provisions : Pork,..................... . .bbls., ti Beef,..................... Cut meats,........... Butter,................. Cheese,................ Lard,.................... R ice,......................... “ ......................... Tallow ,.................... Tobacco, crude,.. . . “ manuf.,.. . Whalebone,............. . .lbs., 1 ,1 3 9 ,6 2 1 5 ,4 3 4 6 1 ,9 8 0 3 ,0 1 7 ,6 5 3 1 2 ,4 8 7 2 7 ,9 6 1 . . . . . . . 1 ,3 3 5 ,6 6 2 4 3 ,7 6 3 5 ,9 4 2 1 9 ,4 1 3 1 0 9 ,4 5 3 2 4 ,2 5 8 1 ,8 8 9 a ,. “ . .bbls., . .lbs., • -phgs., “ 1 4 3 ,0 1 7 . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . 9 ,2 0 8 6 ,5 5 0 1 6 8 ,7 4 8 3 9 ,7 3 3 9 ,8 0 5 4 9 ,8 7 6 1 4 9 ,0 1 1 2 2 ,8 2 2 185 .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. 7 2 ,4 7 3 5 2 ,0 5 2 3 4 7 ,3 8 5 9 ,5 5 2 3 ,9 4 3 . . . . . . 6 5 ,5 1 2 5 5 ,5 1 1 4 5 7 ,0 1 3 2 1 ,4 4 2 4 ,9 1 3 .. . . . . .. . . 3 2 4 ,3 2 8 8 6 3 ,3 7 0 2 4 ,2 9 6 3 2 ,3 5 8 . . 1 4 1 ,9 1 4 . . 1 ,1 4 2 ,4 2 9 . 3 1 ,7 9 7 2 3 ,2 7 9 . . . . . 1 1 ,3 7 5 2 ,5 6 0 1 9 5 ,4 6 4 1 2 ,0 1 6 . 2 ,7 4 0 . 1 7 9 ,6 6 9 . . . 1 ,9 8 0 ,8 3 4 8 ,9 5 3 . . 8 6 ,1 7 1 . . 1 7 ,1 5 2 ,8 3 8 4 5 0 ,1 8 8 . 1 4 5 ,8 3 2 . 1 ,0 0 0 . . . 8 ,6 1 3 ,8 1 1 5 3 ,3 6 1 . 1 0 ,8 6 2 . 2 2 ,7 2 3 . 1 5 1 ,3 3 4 . 1 3 ,3 8 0 1 6 ,6 7 1 . 2 2 ,1 4 2 6 ,6 8 8 . 1 ,1 8 8 ,5 7 7 6 ,4 6 9 7 2 ,8 8 9 6 ,6 7 2 ,0 0 2 100 1 0 1 ,6 2 4 8 ,2 8 0 2 ,1 3 7 ,5 5 2 4 6 ,7 3 4 1 5 ,4 4 2 2 7 ,9 4 1 1 3 5 ,0 9 6 2 1 ,5 6 5 1 8 ,7 1 4 1 8 9 ,1 6 6 2 5 ,7 0 4 2 ,5 0 4 4 3 ,7 9 0 . 5 5 ,5 9 7 . 4 0 6 ,2 2 2 . 2 0 ,0 8 7 . 5 ,0 1 3 . 2 4 8 ,1 7 1 9 5 5 ,7 2 9 4 7 ,7 4 5 2 9 ,4 3 4 . . . . 6 7 4 ,5 4 2 8 6 5 ,5 0 1 9 2 ,8 6 0 7 2 ,9 5 5 3 0 ,4 3 1 4 9 ,3 0 9 . . 5 ,0 3 5 ,5 5 0 . . 1 3 ,9 8 9 ,9 2 2 . . 2 ,0 8 3 ,8 7 4 . . 7 ,3 2 8 ,0 2 5 . . 4 ,7 8 6 ,7 4 1 . . 1 6 ,4 2 7 ,4 9 4 . . 8 ,1 8 5 ,1 8 3 . . 1 5 ,2 4 4 ,5 1 9 3 1 ,1 9 9 . . 2 0 ,8 1 8 . 2 2 ,6 9 6 . . 1 ,9 3 7 ,3 7 8 . . 9 ,9 3 0 ,6 0 6 . 5 2 ,5 4 0 .. 6 5 ,5 8 6 . . 4 ,3 1 2 ,7 9 1 . . 5 ,2 6 1 ,1 5 9 . . 1 ,4 8 3 ,1 9 3 .. 5 5 5 ,3 9 1 . . . . . . . . 8 2 ,7 2 1 2 3 ,0 4 8 2 4 ,6 7 3 . 4 1 ,5 9 3 ,2 6 6 6 2 ,1 8 0 . . 6 0 ,4 7 3 . 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 9 0 4 6 ,7 9 3 3 ,4 1 9 ,7 5 0 9 2 6 ,1 5 9 1861. 1860. 1 1 ,6 6 7 . . 1 ,6 1 1 . . 5 3 3 ,4 6 4 4 ,2 8 7 6 2 ,2 5 7 3 3 ,7 6 1 1 5 ,1 4 8 ,0 4 3 1 ,3 7 8 ,7 9 0 4 ,0 0 9 ,3 2 1 9 ,9 4 0 ,1 1 9 3 2 ,2 0 9 it .. 1859. 9 ,8 3 4 . 1 ,3 6 8 . 1 6 2 ,6 4 6 . . .. .. 1 0 7 ,5 8 7 . . 7 9 ,9 7 6 . . 3 0 ,1 3 7 . 1 0 ,8 4 3 ,2 5 7 . 2 1 ,8 1 0 ,9 5 2 . 3 3 ,3 0 8 ,2 9 8 1 5 ,9 1 1 1 4 ,6 2 8 . . 1 8 ,3 4 7 ,0 3 6 . 7 9 ,6 8 4 . . . 2 ,7 7 2 ,5 7 1 . 7 5 1 ,1 6 3 The importations o f coffee since the passage of the tariff bill have been materially below the average, v iz.: 1858. New-York,................. Boston,....................... Philadelphia,............. Baltimore,................. New-Orleans,............ Nine mos.,............... Three m os.,............. Twelve m os.,.......... Monthly average,.. ti it a 1860. 1859. 1861. 30,021 5,006 7,002 9,844 13,867 ... .. . ... ... ... 34,633 5,739 10,404 13,099 18,463 .. . . .. .. .. .. . . 22,028 3,697 4,857 7,897 12,795 .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . .. 40,029 3,111 6,065 9,137 9,620 65,740 32,782 . . .. 82,338 21,932 . . .. .. .. 51,274 25,243 . . .. .. 67,962 98,522 8,210 ... ..; 104,270 8,688 .. . . .. 76,517 6,376 .. .. 5,663 552 [November, Commercial Chronicle and Review. The stock o f coffee at New-York on the 1st October was less than the average m o n t h ly imports o f the year 1858 or 1859, viz. : Stock o f Coffee at the five principal Ports o f the United States o f America on the 1st o f October, 1858— 1861. T otal T onb. S tock 1858. in New-York,............... Boston....................... Philadelphia............ Baltim ore,............... New-Orleans,........... it it . “ Total 1st October,. Increase,.................. .. .. .. .. .. 5,861 .... 1861. 1860. 1859. 1,670 250 686 755 2,500 6,465 835 296 2,123 1,786 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 866 303 71 193 1,286 .. . .. .. .. . .. . 7,140 985 49 1,571 none. 11,505 ___ 2,719 .. 9,745 4,138 ........... ....................... ........... . European ports have five-fold the stock that our ports have. Stocks o f Coffee in the six principal Depots o f Europe, up to ls< September. Stock 1st September. In Holland,. . . A n tw erp,... Hamburg,. . Trieste,........ Havre,.......... . Great Britain, tt tc tc “ “ Total Sept. 1st,. . tons, 1858. 48,950 3,650 8,750 3,700 2,800 11,900 .. .. .. .. .. .. Average. 1859. 1860. 1861. . . 41,550 . . . . 31,500 . . . . 22,150 . . . . 36,037 . . 2,700 . . . . 2,450 . . . 2,600 . . . 2,850 . . 6,750 . . . . 4,000 . . . 9,000 . . . 7,125 . . 1,800 . . . . 1,850 . . . 3,300 . . . 2,662 . . 4,550 . . . . 5,450 . . . . 7,250 . . . . 5,012 . . 7,900 . . . . 7.750 . . . . 7,400 . . . . 8,738 79,750 . . . . 65,250 . . . . 53,000 . . . . 51,700 . . . . 62,424 The stock of sugar in New-York on the first o f October, 1861, was about one-half what it was at the same date in 1860. The new tariff o f August, 1861, has reduced the importations to a low figure. W e find that the importations o f sugar for nine months of the year 1861, com pared with three previous years, are as follow : 1858. 1859. New-York,.............. ...........tons, 177,996 . . Boston,................... Philadelphia,......... .............“ 22,464 . Baltimore,.............. ............. “ 21,127 . 9 m os.,................... ...........tons, 251,148 3 m os.,................... 12 m os.,................... ........... “ 281,064 1860. 1861. 189,629 28,968 29,253 19,925 .. .. . . 224,345 42,385 29,286 28,309 .. . . .. 180,882 26,802 18,895 10,746 . . 267,775 27,654 .. .. 324,325 40,138 .. . 237,325 .. 295,429 .. 364,463 .. .... In the leading ports of Europe the stock, on 1st September, was four times that o f the United States, (from E. H. Mo r i n g ’ s N. Y. Circular,) v iz.: Stocks o f Sugar in the six principal Depots o f Europe, up to 1st September. 1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. Average. . . 16,250 . 1,900 . 5,037 . 3,800 . 5,975 . . 121,337 In H olland,............... Antwerp,............... . . Hamburg............... . . Trieste,................. H avre,................... Great Britain,. . . . “ “ Ct ti 16,000 1,600 2,400 5,550 850 110,150 Total, Sept. 1st,... United States,.......... tc 136,550 . . 148,000 . . 147,300 . . 185,350 . . 154,299 40,517 . . 55,912 . . 89,458 . . 42,377 . . . 13,500 .. 2,700 .. 4,000 .. 5,500 .. 8,950 . . 113,350 . . 12,000 . 600 .. 6,000 .. 2,550 .. 5,450 . . 120,700 . . 23,500 .. 2,700 .. 7,750 .. 1,600 .. 8,650 . . 141,150 553 Commercial Chronicle and Review. 1861.] The stock on hand in New-York, on 1st October, was only 32,820 tons, or about equal to the average of forty-five days’ imports, and about one-half what it was in October, in 1860, viz.: Stock o f Sugar on hand at four Principal Ports, October lsf. T otal T ons. Stock 1858. in 1859. N ew -Y ork,................................. Boston......................................... Philadelphia,............................. Baltimore,.................................. 29,508 5,344 2,380 3,285 .. .. .. .. 42,395 6,563 3,784 3,170 Total, 1st October,............... “ 1st September,.......... 40,517 46,749 .. .. 55,912 78,289 Decrease,............................... 6,232 .. 22,377 1860. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61,427 14,423 4,466 9,142 1861. .. .. .. .. 32,820 7,126 80 2,351 89,458 109,106 .. .. 42,377 63,557 19,648 .. 21,180 One of the most interesting items o f the month is the completion of the telegraphic line o f communication from New-York City to Salt Lake City, via St. Louis. The first message was published at New-York on Saturday, October 19th, dated Salt Lake City, October 18th. The line from the latter city to San Francisco, was completed on the 24th of O ctober; thus giving us a direct communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific. Measures have been taken by the Russian government to extend the telegraphic line from Moscow, eastwardly, to the mouth of the Amoor. Of this line, some fifteen hundred miles have been completed. From the Amoor, the line will be further extended through Asiatic Russia to Behring’s Straits; thence across to Russian America, where a connec tion will be formed with the British territory, and to the extreme north ern point of the United States on the Pacific, and thence to San Fran cisco ; thus giving, at an early day, a complete telegraphic communica tion from New-York, westwardly, to Asia, and to Russia in Europe and to other portions of the European continent. W e reported in our September number, (page 331,) that the banks of New-York, Philadelphia and Boston had agreed in convention to take the new loan of the general government to the extent of fifty millions of dollars, with the option of taking fifty millions further on the 15th of October, and fifty millions on the 15th o f December. The first subscrip tion of fifty millions was allotted as follows, showing the capital and specie of the banks of the three cities, August 17 : No. o f Hanks. Aggregate Capital. N e w -Y o rk ,............ Boston,................... Philadelphia,........ 54 46 19 .. .. .. $ 69,900,000 38,000,000 11,811,000 .. .. .. Loan allotted,. $ 35,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 Specie. .. .. .. $ 49,733,000 7,000,000 6,400,000 The effect of this upon the New-York banks was to increase the loans from 108 millions, as reported on the 17th August, to a weekly average of 137 millions on the 24th, the specie funds becoming reduced there after according to the instalments drawn for by the treasury. The changes in the aggregate movements of the banks are indicated in the following table of loans, specie, circulation, deposits and exchanges, at the beginning of each month, since January last: 554 [November, Commercial Chronicle and Review. 1861 Jan. 5, $ Feb. 2, Mch. 2, Apl. 6, May 4, June 1, July 6, Aug. 3, Aug. 17, Sept. 7, Sept. It, Sept. 28, Oct. 5, Oct. 12, Oct. 19, Loans. Specie. Weekly Clearings. Circulation . Deposits. 129,625,465 $ 24,839,475 1$8,698,283 121,907,024 31,054,509 8,099,376 121,893,963 34,480,407 8,290,755 122,113,496 41,705,558 8,930,141 124,610,166 38,054,254 9,296,399 118,290,181 37,502,402 8,683,780 112,134,668 45,630,025 8,862,799 111,719,111 46,226,181 8,585,574 108,717,434 49,733,990 8,521,426 139,158,230 41,887,230 8,890,581 136,565,624 37,529,412 8,792,620 126,128,326 38,123,552 8,638,780 148,545,488 39,809,901 8,884,056 156,318,914 41,139,606 8,733,090 151,828,438 42,282,884 8,583,673 $86,454,430 87,879,743 89,635,298 94,859,810 94,977,381 90,197,459 90,579,753 92,229,384 92,046,308 114,091,061 106,760,876 96,551,898 120,607,549 129,188,487 126,433,063 SubTreasury. $ 95,994,868 j; 3,645,500 122,138,525 4,328,000 126,728,832 9,166,030 123,277,671 8,486,494 106,413,316 9,761,752 88,847,249 11,468,789 88,313,230 4,616,620 81,415,525 6,738,059 80,172,670 4,380,239 89,058,896 13,094,909 95,611,078 14,293,222 85,685,514 13,103,484 110,687,377 10,629,098 113,981,352 10,802,803 122,803,544 9,508,649 The receipts and shipments o f wheat at Milwaukee last week were the largest ever known for a single week at that city, amounting to more than six hundred thousand bushels received, and over a million bushels forwarded. The receipts were, for the yea r: Flour. bbls. Wheat. bush. Oats. bush. Corn. bush. Barley. bush. Rye. bush. Total since Jan. 1, 376,181 . . 10,615,559 . . <70,118 . . 81,858 . . 35,429 . . 62,285 Same time in 1860, 107,860 . . 6,093,329 . . 148,864 . . 107,355 . . 64,253 . . 34,234 Same time in 1859, 1 42,871.. 3,314,290 . . 201,236 . . 137,450 . . 101,178 . . 9,654 Shipments of flour and wheat from January 1st to October 19th, in the years 1860 and 1861, compare as follow : 1860, 1861, ........................................ flour, bbls. 287,550 wheat, bush, 4,794,815 ........................................................... 530,380 ____ 10,694,586 Increase,..................................................... 242,630 .... 5,898,771 The annual meeting o f the Clearing-House Association o f the banks o f this city was held October 15th, when T h o m a s T ile s to n was re-elected Chairman, and W il l ia m B . M e e k e r , Secretary. The following commit tee was elected and appointed : C learin g-H ou se Com m ittee. — J. D. V e r m il y e , G e o r g e S. C o e , J. M. M o r r is o n , E. D . B r o w n and J. M. P r ic e . Com m ittee on Conference.— J a m e s G a l l a t in , J a c o b C a m p b e l l , Jr., G e o r g e W . D c e r , A. S. F r a s e r and R . H . H a y d o c k . Com m ittee on A d m ission s. — D. R. M a r t in , C. F. H u n te r , H . B l y d e n b u r g , J. Q. J ones and M. M. F r e e m a n . Com m ittee on A rb itra tio n . — H. H. J a c q u e s , J ohn T h o m p so n , J. W . D u e r , W . L . J en k in s a n d F. A . P l a tt . M r. G. D. L y m a n was re-a p p oin ted m anager. C learing-H ouse T ransactions from O ctober 1 1 , 1 8 5 3 , to O ctober 1 , 1 8 6 1 . A gg rega te balances. 1 8 5 3 - 4 ........................................................... $ 2 9 7 ,4 1 1 ,4 9 3 69 18545 ,.............................................. 289,694,137 14 18556................................................ 334,714,489 33 18567 ............................................... 365,313,901 69 18578 ,.............................................. 314,238,910 60 18589................................................ 363,984,682 56 18596 0 ,........................................... 308,693,438 37 18606 1 ,........................................... 353,383,944 41 A gg rega te exchanges. $ 5 ,7 5 0 ,4 5 5 ,9 8 7 06 5,362,912,098 33 6,906,213,328 4 7 8,333,226,718 06 4,756,664,386 09 6,448,005,956 01 7,231,143,056 69 5,915,742,758 05 $2,627,434,997 79 $ 50,704,365,288 81 Total transactions for eight years,........................................ 53,331,799,286 60 1861.] 555 Foreign Correspondence. FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE MERCHANTS’ M AGAZINE AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW . L o n d o n , October 5th, 1861. tlic Bank of France and its branches have felt the necessity of curtailing their loans on commercial paper, owing to the drain of gold from the country, the Bank o f England pursues an opposite policy, by reducing the minimum rate o f discount. From the 16th of May to the 1st o f August the Bank o f England rate stood at 6 per cent.; at the latter date it was reduced to 5 per cen t.; on the 15th o f August, to 4£, and on the 29th to 4 per cent. On the 19th September a further reduction to 3Is- per cent, was made. On the 26th of September the Bank of France advanced their rate of discount from 5 per cent., at which it had stood since the 22d o f March, to 5\ per cent. This movement was partly anticipated, a belief having been entertained in Paris during the previous week that an increased de mand for money would soon be felt from the continued grain purchases. On Tuesday, October 1st, the Bank o f France raised the rate of dis count to 6 per cent., the former rise, on the 26th ult., not having been found effectual in arresting the efflux o f bullion. Advices from Paris state that the condition o f the Bourse on the 2d was such as has not been paralleled for many years. The uncertainty and agitation were ex treme, and at one time it was almost impossible to transact business. This was, in part, produced by the Bank of France having borrowed, till the next settlement at the end of the month, an amount equal to about a million sterling, upon French rentes, at the rate of 5^ per cent, per an num. The scarcity o f money thus produced caused the general terms for carrying on transactions from account to account to advance, until be tween 8 and 10 per cent, were the minimum rates. The following is an abstract o f the gross revenue o f the United King dom in the year and quarter ending September 30,1861, compared with the corresponding periods o f the preceding year : W h ile Q u ar t er en d in g Se pt . 30. 1860. Customs,............. . £5,888,000 Excise,................ 5,089,000 Stamps................ 2,053,000 Taxes................... 166,000 Property ta x ,__ 2,281,000 Post-office,.......... 800,000 Crown lands,___ 65,568 Miscellaneous,... 315,598 Total income,. . £16,658,166 1861. .. .. Y e a r en d in g S ept . 30. 1860. 1861. £5,982,000 4,221,000 2,013,000 160,000 991,000 810,000 66,479 297,753 . . £23,396,395 . . 20,070,000 8,267,258 3,257,000 . . 10,309,816 3,370,000 289,568 1,849,940 . . £23,488,000 . . 18,624,000 8,426,170 3,130,000 . . 11,133,000 .. 3,470,000 292,479 1,242,511 . . £14,601,232 ..£ 7 0,8 0 9 ,9 77 . . £69,806,160 Subjoined are the imports o f wheat and flour into Great Britain, in quarters, for the three previous harvest years, ending 1st August, with 556 [November, Foreign Correspondence. quarterly and annual im ports; flour reduced into wheat at the rate o f three and a half cwts. per quarter : First quarter,.................................... Second quarter,................................ Third quarter,................................... Fourth quarter,................................. 1858-59. 1859 60. qrs. 1,142,000 1,019,000 1,032,000 1,914,000 qrs. 916,000 954,000 491,000 1,653,000 Yearly totals,................ quarters, 5,161,000 .. .. .. .. .. 4,020,000 1860-61. qrs. 2,610,000 2,994,000 2,462,000 2,430,000 .. .. .. .. .. 10,556,000 The first month of the present season shows a falling off, not only in regard to the months immediately preceding it, but also with respect to the corresponding month o f last year, and is below the monthly average o f last season by 115,000 quarters. In regard to actual available supply, it is even more deficient, as compared with August, 1860, than shown from the shipments to France from England. Subjoined are the values o f the exports of British produce and manu factures for the month and eight months ending 31st August, for the present and two previous years, and o f the values o f the principal articles imported in the month and seven months ending 31st July, the importa tions being one month behind the exportations, as requiring much greater labor to compute : 1859. E xpo rts. 1860. 1831. Month of August,..................................... £12,111,215 ..£13,535,205 ..£12,331,441 Eight months ending 31st A u gu st,.. . . 86,405,885.. 88,011,892 . . 82,515,126 Im ports. Month of July,.......................................... Seven months ending 31st July,........... 15,551,616.. 16,361,153.. 15,200,442.. 11,148,952 90,569,648.. 100,015,301 The decrease in the value o f the exports is more than accounted for by the diminution of our shipments to the United States; at the same time it is worthy o f remark, that the exports to India, in regard to cotton goods, with which those markets were supposed to be saturated, exhibit no fall ing off, but, on the contrary, an increase; the value for the month o f August being £1,122,170, against £842,167 in August, 1860, and £1,116,769 in August, 1859. In cotton yam it is otherwise, being respectively £119,728, £142,767 and £228,927. Subjoined is the value of our exports to the United States for the month of August in the present and two previous years: Cotton manufactures,..................... Linen “ Woollen “ Silk « Metals,.................. Earthenware,.................................. Haberdashery and m illinery,.. . . Hardware and cutlery,................... Soda.................................................. Spirits,.............................................. Coals,................................................. Salt,.................................................. Totals, 1859. 1860. £211,511 122,432 301,189 31,183 419,810 63,593 112,089 99,618 46,411 9,935 22,416 8,218 £441,175 228,119 489,363 31,886 434,431 19,318 138,720 141,463 54,230 13,486 25,414 9,904 £1,416,851 ___ £2,094,309 1861. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ £38,564 42,279 111,693 13,665 101,811 16,514 33,659 11,679 20,198 665 26,052 5,809 ___ £483,174 1861.] Foreign Correspondence. 557 The falling off in our total exports is only £1,197,764, while to the United States alone, as compared with August, 1860, it is £1,611,135. It appears that the shipments o f cotton from Liverpool to the United States amounted, during the past month, to 3,703 bales, o f which the whole were American, except 321 bales o f East Indian. The principal portion was conveyed in steamers. B y the ship A s ia , o f New-York, a cargo o f crust guano has lately been imported from the island of Sombrero, and landed in the West India docks. Sombrero is situate near the Dutch island o f St. Martin, in the W est Indies, and is the property o f Messrs. W ood & S ons , of NewYork, who are said to hold it under the protection o f the United States government. The discovery o f the guano deposits on the island is of recent date. Hitherto the shipments have been chiefly to the southern ports of the States; but, as those are now blockaded, the supply may probably be directed towards England. A prospectus has been issued o f the General Tram Rail-Koad Com pany, with a capital of £200,000, in £5 shares. The first object is to carry out a concession which has been granted by the Emperor o f the French, for a horse rail-road in France, between Clermont and Eiom, a distance o f twelve miles. It is curious to witness the changes that have taken place in the values o f some o f the principal articles largely imported from the United States. W e subjoin the comparative prices in this market at the present time, compared with those ruling in September, 1860, from which it will be seen that the articles more immediately affected by the blockade have materially advanced in value : P r ic e s . D e s c r ip t io x o p P r o d u c e . 1860, Tobacco, Virginia, Kentucky and M ary-) land, ranging, per lb............................ ) Average about, per lb .,....................... 7d. Rice, Carolina, per cw t.,............................. 18s. to 26s. Bark, Philadelphia, per cwt.,..................... 8s. 6d. to 9s. “ Baltimore, “ .......... .......... 7s. 6d. to 8s. Linseed cake, American, thin, per ton,.. . £9 los. to £10. Rosin, common, per cw t.,........................... 5s. 2d. “ medium to fine, per cw t.,............... 6s. to 16s. Turpentine, American, rough, per c w t .,.. 7s. 6d. to 8s. “ spirits, “ .. 32s. Tar, American, per bbl.,............................. 17s. 6d. to 18s. 1861. 6d. to 14d. 101d. 26s. to 31s. 11s. to 12s. 9s. 3d. £ 1 0 12s. 6d. to £10 15s. 12s. 3d. to 12s. 6d. 13s. to 20s. nominal. 60s. nominal. The first cargo o f new teas has arrived from China, in the F i e r y C r o ss , Captain D a l l a s , from Foo-chow ; she passed through the Downs for Lon don 23d September. There is always considerable competition in getting the first cargo to market, and, in addition to the ordinary freight, a further sum is usually engaged to be paid to the successful ship, which prize the F i e r y C ross carries off this season, in the shape of an extra 10s. per ton. O f French commercial affairs it may be said, that while no crisis is imminent, yet the wants o f the country will probably be very large. Speaking o f the commercial treaty between England and France, which took effect on 1st October, the Paris correspondent of the T im es says : “ In spite of the increase in the importation o f raw material, which shows increased production and the falling off o f exportation, there is no trace o f manufacturing distress. What can one do but conclude that France 558 Foreign Correspondence. [November, has found consumers at home for her manufactures ? The first beneficial effect of the new commercial policy was, therefore, to make many articles accessible to people who were before deprived o f them. As for the financial drain, it has absolutely nothing to do with the national indus try and manufactures.” The Moniteur contains an imperial decree, dated the 1st o f October, according to which the ports o f Marseilles, Bordeaux, Nantes, Rouen, Havre, Dieppe, Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk, and the custom-houses of Tourcoing, Roubaix, Lille, Valenciennes, Mulhouse and Lyons, are, dating from the 1st inst., open for the importation o f cotton and woollen yarns of every description, either of English or Belgian manufacture. B y the same decree, the following articles o f English or Belgian origin or manu facture cannot be imported into France, either by land or sea, except through the custom-houses appointed : A ll goods paying a duty of twenty francs per one hundred kilogrammes; also, coaches, playing-cards, chicory, roasted or ground, cutlery, skin and leather work, articles made of horse or cow’s hair, pure or mixed chemicals, ordinary soaps, drinking glasses and crystals, white and colored, window glass, colored glass, polished or engraved, watch and optical glasses, and all other glassware not men tioned in this category, sea-going vessels, hulls o f sea-going vessels, river craft, alpaca, lama and Vienna wool, and camel’ s-hair yarn. The French Foreign Office is engaged with several new commercial treaties, suggested by that which comes into operation this month be tween England and France. The Zollverein negotiants progress towards conclusions, contrary to the assertions o f a Belgian journal. A letter from Cognac, dated the 18th of September, says : The vintage throughout this district will be quite as bad, and even worse, than was sometimes since apprehended. In many vineyards there are no grapes at all. A few vines show a little fruit, but, on the whole, the result will be very bad indeed. The quantity o f wine that will be made this year in the Cognac district will not be sufficient for the requirements of the people inhabiting the neighborhood. No Cognac brandy can, therefore, he expected to be distilled this year, and the wants o f the trade must be entirely supplied from the old stocks o f 1860,1859 and 1858. The vin tage has commenced in the neighborhood of Lyons. The quality o f the wine is excellent, and the grape ferments readily. The celebrated white wine of Condrieu, o f this year, is already offered for sale in the wineshops o f Lyons. It is calculated that the rain which fell last week will increase the wine crop by full 25 per cent. The leading items o f the past week are as follow : September 26.— The prospectus o f the Metropolitan and Provincial Bank (limited) published. Capital, £1,000,000. (England.) Bank o f France advanced rate o f discount from 5 to 5^ per cent. September 27.— The Commercial Union Fire Assurance Company an nounce the commencement o f business in London. September 28.— Bills o f Messrs. R a p h a e l , G a r d in e r & Co. protested. October 1.— The prospectus o f the Queensland Cotton Company (lim ited) published. Capital, £100,000. Advance of the rate o f discount by the Bank o f France to 6 per cent. October 2.— The prospectus o f the General Tram Rail-Road Company (limited) published. Capital, £20,000. THE MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE AND C O M M E R C I A L R E V I E W . E s t a b li s h e d J u l y , 1 8 3 9 . • E D IT E D BY J . S M IT H H O M A N S , (S E C R E T A E Y O F T H E C H A M B E R O F C O M M E R C E O F T H E S T A T E O F N E W - Y O R K ,) A N D W IL L IA M VOLUME X L V . B . D A N A , ATTORN EY A T L A W . NO VEM BER, CONTENTS OF No. 1861. V., A rt. YOL. NUMBER V. XLY. p a g e I. OUR MERCANTILE MARINE.—The Tone of the Service Degenerating—Cause of the Degeneracy—Evidence of the same—Fraudulent Shipwrecks—Opinions of Damburg Underwriters—Comparison of per centage of Disasters in English Service with our own—Certificates of Service and Competency issued in these Countries—A simi lar System necessary here—Advantages of this System to Shipmasters, Shipowners and Underwriters—Suggestions about the Collection of Statistics of Disasters, and Benefits to be derived therefrom—Recapitulation and Conclusion,........................... 449 II. THE HIDES OF THE RIVER PLATA.—Wholesale Slaughter of Mares—Oxen— Salting—Refuse—Statistics,...................................................................................... 458 I I I. THE OIL-SEEDS OF COMMERCE.—1. Linseed. 2. Rape Seed. 3. Ground Nut. 4. Cotton-Seed Oil. 5. Dodder Seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Cress Seed, Niger Seed, Eamtil, Radish Seed, Safflower Seed,......................................................................... 460 IV . THE SEAL FISHERY OF LABRADOR AND SPITZBERGEN.—Statistics—Seal ing Vessels—Varieties of Seals—Seal Blubber used for Machinery,........................... 462 V. THE COTTON CULTURE OF CHINA.—Yellow Cotton—Nanking Cottons—Chinese Cotton Picking—Spinning Wheels of the Chinese,....................................................465 VI. THE MANCHESTER COTTON SUPPLY ASSOCIATION.—Annual Report for the Year 1860—1861.—Prospective Supply—Brazil—Peru—Chili—Africa—Egypt—India —Indian Railways,.................................................................................................. 470 VII. THE COMMERCE AND NAVY OF BELGIUM.—1. The Flemings in the Ninth Century. 2. Maritime Law of the Eleventh Century. 3. Flax and Hemp Cultiva tion in the Twelfth Century. 4. Trade of England, Scotland and Deland with the Flemings,................................................................................................................ VIII. THE COTTON QUESTION.—Remarks of Mr. of August, 1861,..................... B azley 477 before the British Association 479 IX. THE BREADSTUFFS TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES.—Annual Report on the Supply and Export of Flour, Wheat, Com, Corn-Meal—Extraordinary Foreign Demand for the year 1861,.................................................................................. 484 Contents o f November No., 1861. 560 X. COTTON CHOP OF THE UNITED STATES.—1. Statement and Total Amount for the Year ending 31st August, 1861. 2. Production of each State in 1850 and in 1861. 8. Per Centage of Production in each State. 4. Export from each Port. 5. Con sumption in the United States, 1847-1861,.................................................... ••••••• 497 XI. HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES TARIFF.—1. Tariff of March, 1861. 2. Method of Levy for Protection. 3. Failure as a Revenue Measure. 4. Diminished Consumption. 5. Decline in Importations. 6. Monthly Customs, Port of New-York. 7. Congressional Discussions. 8. Outbreak of War. 9. Extra Session. 10. Free Articles Taxed. 11. Tea and Coffee. 12. Estimated Revenue. 13. Northern Con sumption. 14. Yield of the Three Tariffs. 15. Bonded Goods. 16. Exports of the Country. 17. Return of Specie. 18. Grain Exports—Cotton Imports—Effect of Loan upon Customs—Probable Change,................................................................... 502 JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE. 1. The British Harvest. 2. The Importance of a Good Harvest. 3. Guano Discoveries. 4. Flax Culture,........................................................................................................................ 487 JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. 1. The new Patent Law of the United States. 2. Patent Laws of European Governments. 3. Quicksilver. 4. Cocoanut Oil. 5. India Rubber Varnish,................................................ 489 BOARDS OF TRADE AND CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE. 1. New-York Chamberof Commerce, October, 1861—Letter from Professor L i b b e r —New-York Produce Exchange,............................................................................................................. 509 JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 1. The American Shipmasters’ Association. 2. British Steam Vessels for China. 3. British Steamers for Peru. 4. An Incident of the Sea. 5. The Lake Trade to Liverpool. 6. Sur veys in Australasia. 7. The Sandwich Islands. 8. Light-Houses in Scotland—Cape of Good Hope—South Pacific—Coast of Brazil—Bay of Biscay. 9. Iron-Plated Ships,...................... 517 COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 1. The Confiscation Act of August, 1861. 2. Results of Confiscation Acts. 3. Commercial Treaty between France and Italy. 4. Free Importations into France. 5. Treaty between England and France. 6. Treaty with Turkey. 7. Treaty between Russia and China. 8. Decisions of the Secretary of the Treasury on Hollow Ware—Woollen Card Cloth—Printed Cotton Handkerchiefs,........................................................................................................ 525 JOURNAL OF M A R I N E INSURANCE. List of Marine Losses in the months of April, May, June and July, 1861,............................... 530 RAIL-ROAD, CANAL AND TELEGRAPH STATISTICS. 1. The Telegraph from Moscow to New-York. 2. British Railway Statistics. 3. New Route from Europe to India. 4. Important to Railway Companies. 5. Steam on Common Roads. 6 . The Pacific Telegraph. 7. The Atlantic Cable,.............................................................. 534 STATISTICS OF T R A D E AND COMMERCE. 1. The Lake 'trade. 2. Commerce of Buffalo. 3. The Cork Trade. 4. Trade of Turkey. 5. Exports of Penang. 6 . Trade and Navigation of France. 7. The Linen Trade. S. China Trade. 9. The Tobacco Trade. 10. Philadelphia Grain Market. 11. Price of Potatoes, 1854—1861. 12. Bangor Lumber Market,........................................................................... 540 COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND R E V I E W . Progress of Business—Imports—Exports—Domestic Produce—Dry Goods Trade—CustomHouse Revenue—Larger Portion of Breadstuff’s—Table of Exports—Grain at the WestGrain for Freights—Bank Loans—Rates of Exchange—Advance in Rail-Road Freights—In crease of Canal Tolls—Telegraph Communication—Imports and Stocks of Sugar and Coffee, 546 F O R E I G N C O R R E S P O N D E N C E OF T H E M E R C H A N T S ’ M A G A Z I N E . Rates of Discount of Bank of England and Bank of France—Revenue of the United Kingdom— Imports of Wheat and Flour into Great Britain—Exports—Shipments of Cotton—Guano— Horse Rail-Road in France—Changes in value of principal articles Imported from the United States—New Teas—Commercial Treaty—Free Ports of France for the Importation of Cotton and Woollen Yarns—Cognac Vintage,................................................................................ 5 5 5