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THE MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE, E s t a b l i s h e d J u l y ? 1839, BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. VOLUME X X II. J A N U A R Y , 185 0. CONTENTS OF NO. I, NUMBER I. YOL. X X II. ARTICLES. PAGE. ART. I. T E A : A N D TH E T E A T R A D E . By a G id e o n N y e , Esq., m erchant o f Canton, C h in a ... 19 H . TH E CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AM E RICA N COTTON M AN U FACTU RES IN 1849. By A . A . L a w r e n c e , Esq., o f Massachusetts............................................................. 26 III. TH E M O R T A L IT Y OF BA LT IM O R E : W ITH REFE RE N C E TO TH E PRINCIPLES OF L IF E INSURAN CE. By Professor C. F. M ’ C a y , o f the University o f G eorgia......... 35 TV. TH E P R A C TIC A L W O R K IN G OF CH E AP PO STAG E. By J o s h u a L e a v i t t , Corre sponding Secretary o f the Boston Cheap Postage Association.................................................. 44 V . C O M M ER CIAL CITIES A N D TO W N S OF TH E UNITED ST A TE S—N o. X I X .- T ^ E CITY OF W O R CE STE R, M a s s a c h u s e t t s .................................................................................. 54 V I. BA N K R U P TCY— BAN KIN G. A Letter to the Editor, in R eply to an Article in the De cem ber num ber o f the M erchants' M agazine................................................................................ 65 V II. G IL B A R T ’ S PR A C T IC A L T R E A TISE ON BAN KIN G. On the Nature o f Banking—The Utility o f Banking—On the General Administration o f a Bank................................................ 68 Vin. CO M M ERCIAL CODE OF SPATN.—N o. X I —CONCERNING INTERPRETING BRO K ERS OF SHIPS. Translated from the Spanish by A . N a s h , Esq., o f New Y o rk B a r .. 73 M E R C A N T I L E L A W CASES. Sight B ills: a Decision in the Fourth District Court, N ew Orleans.......................................................... 74 A ction to R ecover Money L o a n e d : a Decision o f the Supreme Court, N ew Y o r k ............................ 75 Suit to R ecover Clothing furnished a M in o r: a Case in the Commercial Court, Cincinnati.............. 76 Absent D ebtor—Insolvent Law o f Massachusetts: a Case in Supreme Judicial Court o f that S tate....................................................................................................................................................................... 77 C O M M E R C I A L C H R O N I C L E AND R E V I E W : EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REV IE W OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC., ILLUSTRA TED W IT H TABLES, ETC., AS FOLLOWS *. Increased Abundance in the Money Market— Export o f Cotton— Arrival o f G old from California — Emigration to California—Production o f the Mines—Tendency to Speculate— Increase o f Banking Capital—Ocean Bank o f the City o f New Y ork— Dividends o f Free and Chartered Banks Compared— Dry G oods im ported into New Y ork for last six months—Flattering Pros pects o f the Cotton Market—High rate o f W ages—The Cotton Speculation o f 1839— Bank o f France, etc.................................................................................................................................................... V O L . X X I I .-----N O . I . 2 78-83 18 CONTENTS OF N O . I ., V O L . X X I I. PAGE COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. Production o f Hogs and B eef Cattle in Ohio in 1848 and 1849.................................................................. Foreign Dry Goods Trade o f New Y ork in 1849........................................................................................... G oods withdrawn from W arehouse during the year 1849........................................................................... Virginia Tobacco T rad e: Exports, Stocks, & c — Coffee Production o f Ceylon in 1848-9.................. Statistics o f Licenses, and the Liquor Trade o f New Y o rk City in 1839............................................... The Coal Trade with London, England, from 1560 to 1848........................................................................ 84 84 85 86 87 87 COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. Changes m ade in the Jamaica Tariff................................................................................................................. A n abstract o f the Corporation Laws o f Indiana.......................................................................................... 88 89 NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. Discovery o f Four Shoals in the Main Channel, Nantucket.—N ew Light-house on Ardnamarchan. Shoal on the South-east Point o f Fort Tinge.—Light-house on the Ostergarns.................................... 90 91 J O U R N A L OF B A N K I N G , C U R R E N C Y , A N D F I N A N C E . Condition o f the Banks o f the State o f New Y ork on the 22d o f September, 1849............................ United States Treasury Notes Outstanding, D ecem ber 1, 1849 .................................................................. O f the Uniformity o f the G old Coin o f the United States........................................................................ A Statement o f the Debts and Finances o f Virginia in 1849.................................................................... D ebt and Finances o f Georgia in 1849............................................................................................................. Debt and Finances o f South Carolina in 1849................................................................................................ D ebt o f Indiana in 1849....................................................................................................................................... Oates’ Interest Tables........................................................................................................................................... Valuation o f the Real and Personal Property o f each W ard o f New Y ork City in 1849.................. Merchants’ Exchange Bank in the City o f N ew Y o rk .................................................................................. Letter to the Editor about a Mutual Bank for D eposit and D iscount...................................................... The National Bank at Vienna, Austria............................................................................................................ State Tax on the Profits o f the Banks in O h io ................................................................................................ British Fees in Bankruptcy.— Bullen, the Rich Banker.............................................................................. 92 93 93 94 96 97 98 99 101 102 102 103 103 103 R A I L R O A D , C A N A L , A ND S T E A M B O A T S T A T I S T I C S . Statistics o f the Central Railroad and Banking Company o f Georgia in 1848-9.................................... Railway Speculation and the Stock Exchange in England........................................................................ M ovem ent o f Railroads between Albany and Buffalo for the W inter o f 1849-50................................ Opening and Closing o f the New Y ork Canals in each year from 1824 to 1849.................................... Business o f the Colum bia and Philadelphia Railroad in 1849.................................................................... JOURNAL 104 105 106 106 107 OF M I N I N G A ND M A N U F A C T U R E S . Manufacture o f Cotton G oods at the S o u th : a Letter referring to the Cotton Discussion com m enced in the N ovem ber num ber o f this Magazine, from W illiam G r e g g , o f S. Carolina___ A Letter from General C. T. J am es , on the same Subject.— Cannel Coal in Virginia.......................... The W orld’s Exhibition o f the Produce o f Industry in 1851.................................................................... A n Experim ent with Semi-bituminous Coal.................................................................................................. Rolling Mills in and near Cincinnati, O h io .................................................................................... ................. Manufactures o f Dayton, Ohio.—The Mining Prospects o f England in 1849-50.................................. The Product o f the Cliff Mine o f Lake Superior in 1849............................................................................ Manufacture o f Paint from Z in c in Newark, New Jersey.......................................................................... 107 109 109 HO HI 112 112 113 MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES. Bankruptcy in Batavia, Island o f Java............................................................................................................ In a G ood Business................................................................................................................................................ A Great Business or a Small Business.—Rom an Markets........................................................................ .. Character for Integrity.— The Electric Telegraph in Prussia...................................................................... The Morality o f Life Insurance.— Commercial Swindling in L o n d o n .................................................... O f Purchasing Merchandise Fraudulently Obtained.— The E conom y o f Eggs, and the E gg Trade. O f Discounts on Merchandise............................................................................................................................. Smuggling in Russia.— O f the Measurement o f Foreign Deals................................................................. Singular Cotton Speculation in the N eighborhood o f Manchester............................................................ Excerpts for Business Men.— D iscovery o f Ancient Coins in the Isle o f W ight................................... L iverpool Trade with Africa.— Cattle im ported into England.................................................................... 113 114 115 116 117 118 118 119 120 120 120 THE BOOK TR A D E . Comprehensive N otices o f 38 new W orks or new Editions................................................................ 121-128 HUNT’ S MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE AN D COMMERCIAL REVIEW. J A N U A R Y , 1 850. Art. I.— T E A : A ND f H E TEA TRADE. W h e t h e r regarded as a necessary o f life, o r as forming an element in the amelioration o f the intercourse o f nations, the article o f Tea takes the first rank in the history of Commerce. The production o f one countrv, its use has spread over almost every other civilized one, until its name has become a synonyme o f the ancient empire where it grows, and suggests to the mind, not so much the healthful proper ties of a simple shrub, as the history o f the intercourse with China, and of China itself. N o other production o f the soil has, in an equal degree, stimulated the in tercourse of the most distant portions o f the globe ; nor has any other beve rage, with equally unalloyed benefit, so commended itself to the palates of the people of the more civilized nations, or become so much a source o f com fort, and a means o f temperance, healthfulness, and cheerfulness, whilst it may be doubted if any other is equally a restorative and stimulative of the intellectual faculties of man. The incentive to the industry of many millions in China, it is the direct source of an immense revenue to the British exchequer,* and o f much pros perity to the manufacturing and commercial interests o f the British empire, and other nations ; and whilst its agreeable and healthful properties have diffused comfort and cheerfulness, and promoted temperance amongst the households of the western nations, these, reciprocally, have contributed to the moral influences o f this interchange o f commerce upon the millions of the populous and farthest East. But, in tracing the progress o f its use, and estimating the mutual benefits that it has conferred, the satisfaction that is derived therefrom is not wholly un alloyed— for, whilst it forms on one side the healthful element o f a reciprocal * The duty upon tea imported into Great Britain, has reached the almost incredible sum of £5,400,000 sterling, or about 125,000,000 per annum. Tea : and the Tea Trade. 20 commerce, we find that it has become, (at a recent period, and mainly indirectly, it is true,) in some degree, the interchange o f an article of commerce— opium — whose effects are widely injurious, thus presenting, to the western nations, the humiliating contrast, of the gift of what is fraught with the worst of evils, with that from which flows unmixed good. Until the taste for this pernicious drug had spread insidiously over the em pire, and the traffic in it had largely increased, China was the recipient of the precious metals from the western nations, in the adjustment o f the bal ance o f trade in her favor; but since the expiration o f the East India Com pany’s charter, (1834,) the consumption of it has so largely augmented* that, although the exports o f Chinese produce have also greatly increased, yet the export o f the precious metals, in adjustment of the balance adverse to China, has reached the annual sum of about $10,000,000 ; thus inflicting upon China a two-fold injury, in the demoralization o f her people, and the under mining o f her pecuniary resources— whose effects are o f the most grave mo ment, as threatening the very integrity of the empire. A s one o f the impediments in the way of the prosperity of the tea trade, the consideration o f the influences o f this immense traffic is in no wise a di gression ; nor can we, consistently, content ourselves with merely an inciden tal allusion to it, although it is no part o f our purpose to discuss the moral question, for we find it greatly prejudicial to the whole legal trade with China.) * It seriously disturbs the financial affairs o f the country, thus impairing confidence, and directly depressing the prices of all other articles of importa tion, whilst, at the same time, raising those o f export articles. These are the direct commercial evils, irrespective o f the disturbing politi cal questions that it involves. The legalization o f the trade in the drug would, no doubt, tend to lessen * The rapid growth and great amount of the opium trade is shown bv the following figures and dates:— In the year 1767, the import of opium had reached but 1,000 chests; in 1816, it was about 3,200 chests; in 1826, about 9,900 chests; in 1836, about 26,000 chests; in 1845, about 40,000 chests ; in 1848, considerably more. The net revenue to the British Indian government had, in 1845-6, already reached the large sum of £4,^66,536 sterling, or about $23,000,000 ! f A letter o f August last, from a house at Shangliae, speaks directly to the point, as quoted b elow ; as does the following evidence of George Moffat, Esq., M. P., before the Select Committee of the House of Commons:— “ The value of opium imported into China from India, is very little short, I believe, in the last year, (for which there is no official return,) o f £5,000,000 sterling; for the year 1844, for which there is a return, the value was £4,800,000 sterling, making the balance of trade very much against the Chinese ; hence they demand and obtain a very high price for their tea, which the im porters into China o f English produce are compelled to take in payment.” EXTRACT FROM A LETTER OF AUGUST LAST, FROM A HOUSE AT SHANGHAE. “ W e do not know if the same cause operates quite as much here as at Canton; but think there is much truth in an article in the ‘ Register,’ (newspaper,) attributing the small demand for European (foreign) manufactures to the quantity of drug placed against produce. We expected, here, for instance, a revival of demand, when produce came freely to market, but were disappointed, and attributed it, at the time, mostly to this cause. The country cannot take both goods and drug; and thus the question is, so far as England is concerned, which branch of industry should be encouraged 1 “ The East India Company will never give up the drug; and probably the govern ment would not, should the company’s charter not be renewed in 1854. It appears to us the difficulty must increase with the increasing quantity of the luxury imported.” Tea : and the Tea Trade. 21 its price, and work some amelioration o f these commercial evils ; nor is it improbable that the sum of its deleterious effects, morally and physically, upon the consumers o f it, may be lessened, by thus robbing it of the fascina tion o f a forbidden and expensive luxury. The greatest and most direct discouragement and impediment o f the tea trade, and one involving a greater wrong to China, considered in a commer cial sense alone, remains, however, to be noticed; and is found where those who confided in Sir Robert Peel’s enunciation o f the free trade policy, made about fo ir years ago, would not expect, at this day, to find it in the British T ariff o f Duties. Nor would one who, with a regard to international jus tice, and the comity of nations, should refer to the existing treaties between the two powers, credit the existence, in British law, o f such a “ gross injus tice to China,” * as is involved in the unparalleled and oppressive tax exacted upon the importation o f tea into England. The enormous sum of the duty annnally collected upon the importation o f tea, has already been stated ;f and the nature and extent o f the injustice to China, in thus taxing her great staple, is shown by a comparison o f the tariffs o f duties of the two countries, that o f England exacting a duty o f 2s. 2| d. per pound on tea, which exceeds 250 per cent upon the cost of it, whilst that of China imposes an average duty o f only 5 to 7 per cent upon British goods ! Nor does the rate o f duty represent the amount o f the imposition, or o f the enhancement o f the cost to the consumers, for the reason that the duty forms so large a part o f the cost, that the interest upon the money re quired to conduct the business, is a large per centage upon the first cost, and that the consequent necessity for a large capital enables a few wealthy houses to retain a virtual monopoly o f the business, after it passes from the hands of the importers, thus depriving the consumers o f the advantages o f the com petition which, in most other articles o f importation, tends to moderate the prices. But, as between the British government and the mass o f the consumers, there is also involved, in the practical working of this law, a grevious injus tice, which, as tending directly to lessen the consumption o f the leaf, demands notice in this article. The duty, it will be observed, is a fixed one, (of 2s. 2-}d. sterling per pound,) upon all classes o f tea alike, so that the consumers whose means do not admit o f their using the higher cost classes, (but whose comfort, health, and temperance, depend, in the greatest degree, upon the use of tea,J) are compelled to pay the government a tax o f 200 to 400 percent, in the form o f duty, whilst the wealthy consumers pay but 50 to 100 per cent, on the qualities used by them. The effect o f this inequality in the levying o f the tax, seeing that it acts upon that class of the population with whom the question o f price is the most important one, in seriously checking the consumption, will be obvious. * The expression used by Sir George Larpent, Bart., before the Select Committee o f the House of Commons, in 1847. f It is now £5,400,000 sterling, per annum ; and were not the real necessities of the treasury known, it would seem that the remarkable capability of expansion which has characterized this source of revenue, served but to increase the greediness of a minis ter careless of the consequences to the comforts of the people, or the trade of the country, for the writer remembers that when the question of the reduction of the duty was agitated some years ago, the minister professed himself satisfied with what he then got from tea, but unwilling to part witii any of that, which was but £3,800,000, or about $8,000,000 less than n ow ! j; Vide subsequent copies of papers of Mr. Norton, page— 22 Tea : and the Tea Trade. Indirectly, also, this exorbitant duty has done great harm to the trade, by engendering speculations, based upon the expectation o f its reduction, at dif ferent times; and it is thus that it has been a fruitful source of the vicissitudes which have marked its course, the past six years especially. In respect to the whole question o f this excessive duty, it may be said that a radical reduction o f it to about one shilling per pound, would satisfactorily adjust it, even though its fixed and uniform character were retained, for so moderate a uniform tax would tend to a greater assimilation of the qualities o f the tea imported, and the inequality of it to the consumers would, there fore, scarcely form a matter o f complaint. The necessity for a measure o f this nature, to relieve the trade from its present depressed state, is forcibly and conclusively shown in the following ex tracts from the report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, (184V,) and in the extract from the circular of a highly respectable tea bro kerage house in England, o f a recent date, also, annexed hereto. The following are the extracts from the report of the Select Committee, as above alluded to :— “ W e must look to tea mainly, and to an increased consumption o f tea, for the means o f maintaining, still more of extending, a profitable trade with those vast regions. “ For such an extended consumption, unless we are content to wait for the slow progress of an increase dependent solely on the increasing numbers of our pop ulation, we can only look to some considerable reduction o f the price; and for such reduction, now that competion, since the abolition of the monopoly o f the East India Company, has had its full effect, and that new sources of supply have, for some time, been opened, we can only look to a reduction o f the duty. On a first cost, ranging on the qualities in most general demand, from 8d. to 10d., in the ports o f China, if any reduction can be effected, it might be o f advantage to the merchant, but would have no important effect upon the selling prices in Eng land. It is only through the duty, a duty on the average qualities of about 200 per cent, and on the worst qualities o f above 350 per cent, that any such reduc tion to the consumer can be effected, as to stimulate consumption in any sensible degree; and such a reduction thus becomes essential to a healthy and an extended trade. “ That it is desirable in itself, as promoting the increased consumption of a bev erage wholesome and agreeable to every class o f our population, and one which is increasingly desired as a substitute for intoxicating liquors; and that it would be no more than is due to the Chinese, who tax our products so lightly, while we burthen theirs so heavily, and with such inconvenience to their trade, your Com mittee conceive to be equally clear. In fact, the sole difficulty exists in the effect which any material reduction, and none other would be o f much value, may be expected to have upon the resources o f the exchequer.” Extract from Messrs. Brodribb and Coates’ Tea Circular, o f August 2 2d, 1 8 4 0 :— “ Tiie stock here, as also in the United Kingdom, is much smaller than at the same period last year, especially o f black, W’hile prices do not range higher. The demand has kept pace with that of last year, as will be seen by the annexed ta bles. This anomaly cannot be accounted for on the ordinary principles o f demand and supply, but must be attributed to other causes. By a return brought by the last mail o f the “ British Trade in China,” it appears that the value o f tea exported in 1847, was £2,849,577, while in 1848 it was only £1,909,900. W e cannot put the position o f the trade in a truer light than by placing opposite to these sums the amount o f duty paid on tea in each o f these years; they are as follows :— 23 Tea : and the Tea Trade. 1847 ........ 1848 ........ Value o f tea exported from China. Am ount o f duty paid on tea in the United Kingdom . £2,849,577 1,909,900 £5,067,042 5,330,537 . England. Scotland. Ireland. £3,859,720 4,075,777 £494,847 520,453 £712,475 734,307 This is, we believe, the real cause o f the depressed state o f the tea trade. H ow is it possible, under such a load o f taxation, that the trade can expand ? H ow is it possible, while such an amount o f additional capital is required to put the tea into circulation for consumption, that first hand buyers should be otherwise than very limited in number— that importers should, in consequence, be dependant for the ready sale o f their cargoes upon only a very few large first class houses— that with even these houses their first care should be to provide means to meet the impera tive demands for duty— that under such circumstances, the free competition which would otherwise insure to the merchant the highest value for his produce, is not only destroyed, but the purchasing o f tea from first hands converted into a virtual monopoly ? The reimbursement o f the merchant’s capital, by payment for his teas, is, from this cause, made secondary to, and in some measure dependant upon, the ability o f first advancing money for the duty.” It will be observed that the expediency, nay, the necessity, o f the material re duction of the duty is unreservedly declared by the committee; and it is known that the sole reasons for the delay have been found in the necessities o f the treasury, which, since the report was made, has been kept in an unsatisfactory state, by unforeseen causes ; first, the famine in Ireland, which rendered a loan necessary ; secondly, by the monetary crises o f 1847 ; thirdly, by the revo lutions of 18 48 -9. As the apprehension o f the recurrence of these causes of embarrassment is subsiding, and the revenue is recovering itself, whilst the various interests o f the country are prosperous again, it is reasonable to suppose that this im portant change may be proposed during the next session o f Parliament. It will give an immense impulse to the trade ; and, although in two or three years, no doubt, the supply will become adjusted to the extent o f the demand, yet for the succeeding one or two years, a considerable advance above the current values of teas, generally, will take place. This need not, however, raise prices above the scale at which they ruled, until a recent period, in this country. In striking contrast with these hindrances to the tea trade, on the part of Great Britain, is the remarkable fact o f the total exemption o f tea from duty in the United States. This has been the case since 1832 ; and it brings us to the more immediate consideration of the trade in this country. That it is far short o f its full practical development here, is apparent to any one who has observed attentively the system pursued in England, and the means taken to extend its use ; indeed, it is surprising that the consumption is so much less than it is in England, after allowing for the difference in the modes o f intro ducing its use, considering the general habits and almost universal prosperity o f our people. It would seem that this is to be attributed, in a great degree, to the general want o f knowledge o f the preferable modes o f preparing i t ; to the use o f unsuitable water; or to the abuse of it, by making the infusion too strong. But there is no doubt that where an actual distaste for the bev erage exists, it has chiefly arisen from the introduction of false tea, and of very inferior qualities o f genuine ; and this has, in part, been forced upon the importer by the demand in this country for a “ cheap ” article, which, in effect, means usually a low priced but dear one, for it has not yet become generally known, here, that economy in tea consists in buying the better classes— that is to say, the medium, and the higher priced. 24 Tea : and the Tea Trade. W h en it is considered that a large part o f the cost o f tea is made up of the transportation and similar charges, with the cost of chests and lead, and the export duty in China— (about three cents per pound, on all kinds alike)— (the land and canal carriage in China, hundreds o f miles, and the freight and similar charges from China)— which from their nature, are made proportionate to bulk and weight, it will be perceived that a tea costing sixty cents per pound, incurs no more, on the pQund, for these charges, than a tea costing but thirty cents ; and that whilst these charges, assumed at ten cents per pound, make up one-third the cost o f the last named, they amount to but one-sixth the cost o f the sixty cent tea— thus leaving, in genuine intrinsic value, fivesixths of the cost in the latter, and showing that thirty cents invested in h alf a pound o f the better tea, would leave twenty-five cents’ value in tea, whilst in the lower quality the same outlay would leave but twenty cents’ value o f tea / and it is only necessary to extend this calculation to a family’s annual supply to show how material is the pecuniary saving, which, however, is not so important as the avoidance o f what may be injurious to health, in the spu rious or low qualities. That a more extended use o f tea should he encouraged, as conducive to temperance and to the social comforts o f the people, has long been the opinion o f a majority o f their representatives in Congress, and has always proved the prevailing argument in favor o f its continued exemption from duty. That the taste for it may be greatly diffused by judicious management on the part o f the dealers, in the western and southern portions o f the country especially, where the inferior qualities have been largely sent, there can be no doubt on the minds o f those who have witnessed its extended use and bene ficial effects in England and China. It has been well said by Dr. Williams, in his work upon China,* that “ wherever it has been denounced, the opposition may usually be traced to the use of a simulated preparation.” A nd he remarks that “ in Europe its progress has been well compared to that o f truth.” “ Suspected at first, though very palatable to those who had the courage to taste it, resisted as it encroached; abused as its popularity seemed to spread ; and establishing its triumph at last, in cheering the whole land, fr o m the palace to the cottage, only by the slow and resistless effects e f time and its own virtues.” The predilection o f the great Dr. Johnson for tea, is well known ; and the numerous medical, and other authorities, in favor o f it, need not be quoted here, for beyond all these is the practical eviednce of its appreciation, in the constant increase o f the consumption in England, where the modes o f pre paring it are most regarded, notwithstanding the enormous tax it bears. O f its first use in England, Mr. Montgomery Martin says :— “ In 1662, Charles II. married the Princess Catherine o f Portugal, who, it is said, was fond o f tea, having been accustomed to it in her own country; hence it became fash ionable in England. Waller, in a birth-day ode to her Majesty, ascribes the introduction of the herbf to the Queen, in the following lines :— “ ‘ The best of Queens and best of herbs we owe To that bold nation, who the way did show To that fair region where the sun doth rise, Whose rich productions we so justly prize.’ * The “ Middle Kingdom.’ f Shrub. T ea : and the Tea Trade. 25 “ The same poet attributes an inspiring power to the Chinese le a f:— “ 1The muses’ friend, tea, does our fancy aid, Repress those vapors which the head invade.’ ” The appreciation in which it has long been held in China by the people, is shown by the writings o f many native authors, some extracts o f transla tions from which (published in the Chinese Repository, o f January last) are here given, including directions for the preparation o f tea. The observance o f the last in using tea (the writer has many years’ experience in China for declaring) will tend greatly to extend a predilection for the beverage; and the enjoyment derived will be proportionate to the heed bestowed upon this point. “ Whenever the tea is to be infused for use,” says Tung-po, “ take water from a running stream, and boil it over a lively fire. It is an old custom to use run ning water boiled over a lively fire; that from springs in the hills is said to be the best, and river water the next, while well water is the worst. A lively fire is a clear and bright charcoal fire. “ When making an infusion, do not boil the water too hastily ; at first it begins to sparkle like 1crabs’ eyes; then somewhat like ‘ fishes’ eyes,’ and lastly, it boils up like pearls innumerable, springing and waving about. This is the way to boil the water, which without a lively fire cannot possibly be done well. “ Tea is o f a cooling nature, and if drank too freely, will produce exhaustion and lassitude; country people before drinking it, add ginger and salt to counteract this cooling property. It is an exceedingly useful plant; cultivate it, and the benefit will be widely spread ; drink it, and the animal spirits are lively and clear. The chief rulers, dukes and nobility, esteem it ;— the lower people, the poor and beggarly, will not be destitute of it;— all will be able daily to use it and like it.” Another authority says:— “ By drinking the genuine tea, people require less sleep,” which is really the case; but as the tea is good and efficacious, so like wise is the tea dust to drink, but the leaves should not be boiled. Another author says:—“ That drinking it tends to clear away all impurities, drives oft' drowsiness, and removes or prevents head-ache, and is universally in high esteem.” It will be seen that spring or river water is preferable to well w ater; and it may be added that water with any impregnation of limestone is unsuitable. In China, an earthen vessel for heating the water, and a tea-pot o f Chinaware are both considered indispensable. The mode suggested by M. Soyer, of the Reform Club, London, as given below, is no doubt worthy o f adoption, with special care that the water is really b oilin g; and to have the tea in perfection, the first infusion, only, should be used. If, therefore, sufficient drink has not been obtained from the first filling o f the tea-pot, it should be cleansed, and fresh leaves put in, with boiling water again ; and thus the tea-pot should always be cleansed after use. H OW TO MAKE A GOOD CTJP OP TE A . M. Soyer recommends that, before pouring in any water, the teapot, with the tea in it, shall be placed in the oven till hot, or heated by means o f a spirit lamp, or in front o f the fire (not too close, o f course,) and the pot then filled with boil ing water. The result, he says, will be, in about aminnte, amost delicious cup of tea much superior to that drawn in the ordinary way. To revert to the question o f duty in this country, it is pretty certain that no one will propose so unpopular a measure, so long as the wants o f the treasury can be supplied from sources less objectionable. Neither tea or coffee are grown within the limits o f the United States, so that a duty upon 26 The Condition and Prospects o f Am erican them would appear like a direct tax upon the consumers, without a compen sating benefit to any interest in the country ; and as a check to the consump tion of tea here tends to check the demand for our cotton manufactures in China, where those have to come in competition with the product o f the cheaper labor of England, it would seem to be impolitic to impose a duty upon the leaf, so long as other sources, which do not reach the prosperity of the country, or the social comforts of the people, exist. There are, also, national considerations o f the greatest importance involved in this question o f duty, for it is undeniable that the exemption o f the great staple of China from all imposts gives us, as a nation, a just advantageground in any negotiations with the Chinese government. The value o f this position can be estimated by those who have marked the almost marvelous progress westward, and toward China, made by this country the past year, and who can appreciate the advantages which are to be derived from the ex tension o f our territories, in closer proximity to that empire. Nor will such fail to recognize and admire the sagacity of those to whose enlightened en terprise we are indebted, at this early period in the history of our newly-ac quired territories, for that efficient and admirable link in the chain (already so golden an one) which at present binds our distant portions together so firmly. W e need hardly say that we allude to the Pacific line o f steamers from Panama to California, established by Messrs. Howland & Aspinwall, and their associates, which has served so materially to develope and render acces sible the wonderful resources o f that region, whose treasures had lain undis turbed, if not unknown, until about a twelvemonth a g o ; and which is so important as a pioneer line, and connecting link in that chain formed by mu tual interests, which is destined to draw more closely the oldest o f Empires and the New W orld. Having, in the foregoing, presented the subject of the tea trade as a whole, and in its several aspects, considered historically, politically, commercially, economically, and socially, with reference, especially, to the producing coun try, and the two principal consuming countries, we shall, in a future number o f this Magazine, proceed to exhibit its statistical progress and present posi tion in all the more considerable consuming countries, and in China, accom panied by remarks upon the results shown thereby. Art. II.— THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AMERICAN COTTON MANUFACTURES IN 1849. Iu the last number of this Magazine, we endeavored to point out some er rors which we believed were calculated to do harm, in an article in the N o vember number, under the title of “ Production and Manufacture of Cotton, with reference to its Manufacture in the Cotton-Growing States, by General Charles T. James, civil engineer, o f Rhode Island.” In doing so, we stated:— That the increase o f machinery for manufacturing cotton, has outrun the production of the raw material. This is made evident by the amount taken by the manufacturers during the last five years, and the amount of the crop for the same years, showing an excess of consumption of 616,000 bales. Also by the present high price of cotton, which is not caused by speculation Cotton M anufactures in 1849. 27 merely, but is based upon the fact stated above; also by the present low price o f goods, o f which some kinds, especially those of which the cotton comprises a great part o f the value, cannot be sold at the cost. W e endeavored to show that the profits o f manufacturing in this country have not been as large as they have been represented, and we have given a table of the dividends, for eleven years, o f 26 manufacturing establishments in New England, o f the first class, with capitals amounting to $24,925,000. W e gave some reasons why the cotton planters are not in a condition at the present time, to establish manufactures on so extensive a scale as is re commended. In what follows we wish to give some more facts, which will go to confirm the conclusions already reached, and to show the unsoundness of the views o f those who would artificially stimulate the business o f manufacturing, even in districts wholly unsuited for it. For the sake of making a fair exhibition o f the results o f manufacturing, under the most favorable circumstances, we selected for the table referred to, only mills o f the first class ; that is, those with ample capitals, good water power, good machinery and buildings, responsible and skilful agents, and all the appliances for pursuing the business in the best manner. W e believe there is no part o f this country where the same fabrics have been manufac tured with as good success, or will be for some time to come. In fact we can not expect that the same mills will again produce results at all equal to these for so long a period. The steam-mills we have omitted altogether, as we con sider them to have a radical defect, which does not allow them to be placed in the list o f the “ first class.” Their success here, even under the most favorable circumstances, has been, on the whole, bad, as we shall show hereafter. B y calculating the rate o f dividends paid to the proprietors o f these first class mills, from the profits made duriug these eleven years, we shall find it to average per cent per annum. The dividends of the Laconia Company have been 11 per cent since 1846, instead o f 6 per cent, as stated in the table. But if the losses in bad years, and the loss which would result from a sale of the shares at the present prices were to be deducted from the dividends, this average rate would be considerably reduced. W ou ld the cotton planters be satisfied with the same interest* on their investment, and assume the same risk to obtain it ?f * If any one will examine the statements in a work published in 1844, called “ Notes on Political Economy, as applicable to the United States; by a Southern Planter,” he will be satisfied that the profits of growing cotton are anything but small; and that when the planter attends to his own crop, and manages his business with his own cap ital, the income from his investment has been more liberal than from any principal branch of business in the manufacturing States. f If, owing to civil convulsions, to war, to foreign competition, or any other cause, the business of manufacturing should cease to be profitable, the value of the cotton mills would soon be entirely lo s t; in fact, a stoppage of three years would be as dis astrous as a loss of one-half of it. Neither could any sale be made of this species of property, or any benefit whatever derived from it. We see, now, at the present time, when no uncommon embarrassment exists, the market value of the shares in some of the best manufacturing establishments, with handsome reserves, is from 15 to 20 per cent below the par. On the other hand, the cotton planter, in case his present business is broken up, may raise other products. He will have his laud, which an intermission o f crops will improve, rather than injure; and though it probably would not be so valuable to sell, it would possess all its capa bility to produce, and he and his family might live upon it, and be well supported. 28 The Condition and Prospects o f Am erican If it would add any force to our argument, beyond that of the facts already given, we would make a list o f establishments commenced upon estimates made by one set o f proprietors and completed by others, with a total loss of the first outlay ; o f individuals and corporations ruined by changing from fa brics found to be unprofitable to others which became not less s o ; o f others whose capital has been lost by locating on imperfect water-power, creating the necessity o f abandoning their works for other uses, or o f calling in requi sition the aid o f steam, always an expensive remedy, and, in some localities, disastrous; of others, (and this includes a large class,) who have undertaken more than, under a money pressure, they could carry on, and who have broken down from inability to meet their engagements, even with a great amount of property in their hands. It would hardly be too much to say that all the country mills in New Eng land, which have been built fifteen years, have wholly or partially failed. There are exceptions, but they are only exceptions to the general truth. Some of those which are now ranked among the first class, were a total loss to the original proprietors. Even during the last ten years, which have been gene rally so prosperous for the manufacturers, how many mills have changed hands from the necessities of the owner 1* The following list shows the dividends of the largest establishments in New Hampshire for a series o f years up to the first o f January, 1849 :— f Nashua Company........................................... Jackson Company........................................... Stark Company................................................ Merrimack Mills............................................... Cocheco Company............................................ Great Falls Company...................................... Exeter Company.............................................. Salmon Falls Company.................................. New Market Company............................... Portsmouth Steam Mills.............................. Columbian Company..................................... Pittsfield Company......................................... Portsmouth Company, South Berwick........ Capital. $1,000,000 480,000 1,250,000 1,200,000 1,300,000 1,500,000 162,000 1,000,000 600,000 Years. Dividends. 85 per cent. 10 120 10 8 13 180,000 150,000 183,000 21 133 2 di vid’s in 13 y’rs. 40 per cent. 15 “ 2* 10 9 10 4 10 2* 40 90 55 41 44 “ M Total.................................................... The average dividend, (calling the Pittsfield 20 per cent,) is less than 6/ jV Per cent P31' annum. If the difference between the cost o f the stocks and their present market value be taken from the amount o f the dividends, (which will produce the only true result,) the rate will be less than 5 per cent per annum. * While the Merrimack Company, for example, has been making large dividends from making printed calicoes, and the Cocheco Company has made good earnings by the same business, the large and long-established works of the Messrs. Robeson, at Fall River, have been stopped by the ill success and failure of the energetic and lib eral proprietors. The same has happened to the large works at North Adams, Massa chusetts, at Providence, and some other places in Rhode Island, and in the vicinity of New York and Philadelphia. f This does not include the Amoskeag Company, of $2,500,000 capital, which is not exclusively a manufacturing company, but derives its profits, in a great measure, from sales of land and water-power. This list includes some of the companies given in the previous number, among those of the “ first class,” and as it was made out at a different time, and not by the same person it differs from that slightly, but not in any material point. Cotton M anufactures in 1849. 29 This is a faithful exhibition of the results o f manufacturing, taking the good and the bad together. These mills are chiefly owned in Massachusetts, and are carried on in the same manner as the Lowell mills and others within the State. A list o f Massachusetts mills taken indiscriminately for the same period, would show a result very similar. Y et manufactures have been a source o f great wealth to New Hampshire, and to New England. The monthly pay rolls of these New Hampshire compa nies amount to 5187,757, or $2,013,084 per annum,* a great part o f which is sent home by the workmen and women, a part is deposited in the savings banks, and the rest is expended for dress and luxuries. The same benefits to the working class will be derived, in whatever part o f our country factories are established, under circumstances which allow o f their being kept in ope ration. The merits o f steam as a motive-power have often been discussed, and many estimates have been made o f its advantages even over water-power. This question we do not purpose to disturb; but we will give some facts which may be o f service to those who are making plans for going into the business o f building mills. In the article in the November number, to which wo have before referred, a statement is made, in detail, o f the last year’s business o f a mill with 10,000 spindles, which resulted in a profit o f $89,000, on a capital of $250,000. There is an error in addition of $10,000, which would leave by these figures a profit o f $79,000, or more than 31 per cent for the year 1848. This, we are told, was from a steam-mill, and it is so different from the re sult o f the best water-mills, that one unacquainted with the subject might infer that the dift'erenco arises from the power used. Perhaps the northern steam-mills are not a fair criterion by which to judge o f the profits of steammills in other parts of the country, though the writer informs us that “ they are driven at as great a profit, to say the least, as the water-mills.” The most celebrated in New England are those in Portsmouth, New Hamp shire, Newburyport, and Salem, Massachusetts, most o f them built under the superintendance of General James, the writer o f the article to which we allude. The Portsmouth mill was erected in 1845-6, after a course o f lectures deV livered in that town by General Jame3. By a reference to these lectures, which were printed, it will be seen at a glance that the estimates and calcu lations have been wholly disregarded by the results. The public spirited stockholders have waited patiently for dividends, but have not, as yet, been gratified, and the price o f the shares has continued to sink, until they cannot now be sold for more than the interest which has been lost upon them.f The “ James S t e a m - M i l l , a t Newburyport, is sometimes held up as a model for all steam-mills. It has 17,000 spindles, and manufactures fine shirtings. It was put in operation in 1843, just before a period o f as great * The dividends o f the New Market Company, for example, have amounted to 44 per cent, for ten years, which, on the present capital, would be less than $300,000, while the pay roll for the same period, has been $1,014,840. ■j Within the past year, the directors have obtained the services of Mr. Samuel Batchelder, formerly the agent of the York Company, at Saco; and under his manage ment it is hoped that this company will reap the reward which every one wishes to at tend the efforts made in establishing a new branch of manufacture. I The statements here made, in regard to the Newburyport Mills, are given by Mr. Samuel Frothingham, who has been acquainted with their history from the commence ment, and has been the Boston agent of the Bartlett Mills, since they were started. 30 The Condition and Prospects o f Am erican prosperity as manufacturers had ever seen in this country. The dividends have been as follows :— 3, 4, 5, 7, 6, 3, per cent, or -8 per cent in rather less than 6 years, or about 5 per cent per annum. To show the uncertainty with which estimates o f the cost o f mills should be received, we will mention that this was at first designed for 6,000 spindles, and was to have cost $65,000. The first subscription was for $75,000, which would have left but a small cash capital; but it was supposed that with a good run o f business it would answer the purpose. W h en the mill was completed it was found to have cost $100,000, and the stockholders were called upon for an additional subscription. Afterwards a plan was intro duced for increasing the machinery to 11,000 spindles, which were to make the whole cost $189,000. But when the whole was completed the cost was found to be over $250,000, and the stockholders were again called on for subscriptions. W e do not know what the cost has been up to this time. It would be difficult to guess at what price $10,000 of the stock could be so ld ; certainly not near the par value. Another mill, called the “ Globe,” in the same town, has been erected un der the same supervision as the “ James.” It has 12,200 spindles, for the manufacture o f number 14 drillings. This was put in operation in 1846, and has made no dividends, but a loss.'* This mill was planned for 10,000 spin dles, and was estimated to cost $200,000, hut when complete it contained 12,200 spindles, and had cost $348,797 TVo- Here again the stockholders were forced to make a new subscription, which they did, at the rate of $400 a share, instead o f $500, the price of the first. The present value o f the shares is not more than $180, and we think they cannot be sold at that price. But the last, the largest, and the most expensive o f the steam-mills i New England, is the Naumkeag, at Salem. This has 24,000 spindles, and cost, with the appurtenances, $680,000. This expenditure is very wide for first estimate, and has consumed the whole capital, requiring a new sub scription. The mill is a very fine one ; it has been in operation two years, but has not paid simple interest on the investment. N o considerable amount o f the stock can be sold in the market without submitting to a reduction equal to all the dividends yet made. It is in the hands of able and wealthy men, who will bring out its full capacity. These three mills as here desribed, are the last built, and are said to be the finest steam-mills in the United States.f They have all been built under the superintendance o f the writer, who now informs the southern planters, as an argument for building mills to manufacture their own cotton, and who are not within reach o f water-power, that “ it would be better to pay for steampower contiguous to navigable waters, than to have water-power gratis taxed with twenty miles transportation.” ^ * The selling agents are Messrs. Read and Chadwick, one of the best commission houses in Massachusetts. W e mention this to show that the bad success of the mill cannot be attributed to bad management of the goods, but must be traced to the m ill itself. f The Bartlett Mills, at Newburyport, were built before either of these, and have been more successful, though they cost $334,000, instead o f $265,000, which is the estimate. \ All the mills in our list of “ first class,” given in the last number, are more than twenty miles inland; some are more than fifty miles— while the steam mills at New buryport and Salem are in sea-port towns, with good harbors, affording every facility Cotton M anufactures in 1849. 31 If it were possible to find a locality where mills driven by water-power and by steam-power are running together side by side, with the latter un der the greatest advantages for cheapness of fuel and labor, we should know by the value of water-power in that neighborhood, which of the two is most appreciated. If the steam-power is really better than the water, then the water-power would cease to be used, and steam would take its place ; for who, merely for the sake of having his machinery turned by water, would incur a daily and hourly expense which he could as well avoid. There are several places in this country where the two powers are used, and even in the same establishment ;* but we do not know of any where the steampower is applied under the greatest possible advantages, that is, in the vici nity of a coal region, where fuel is at its lowest price, and where the raw material and the labor are not higher than the average rate. This fact may, in some measure, account for the low estimation in which steam-power is held in places where water can be h a d ; besides, we have not yet, by a long series of years, had an opportunity to test the relative value o f each. But fortunately there are places in Europe where the two are used to gether ; there are many in Great Britain, where the steam engine had its birth, and where it has been brought nearest to perfection ; where coal, too is in abundance, almost at the cost o f transportation merely ; and where the two powers have been tested ever since the steam-engine was invented. If, then, we can find a neighborhood, where, under all the favorable cir cumstances here named for making a comparison, a rate of value for each is established, we may take it as a criterion of value for all the rest. Taking then, for example, the vicinity o f Manchester, where, for a long period, water was the only power used, do we find that since the introduction of steam it has lost its value 2 So far from true is it, that the water rents were never so high as at present; much higher than when steam was first introduced ; higher than in any part o f this country, and twice as high as at Lowell, Lawrence, Amoskeag, Saco, Hadley, and other places in New England. The following letter is from a gentleman who holds a high place in the estimation of the successful manufacturers in Massachusetts, (and to whose success few have contributed more,) who, by his long experience in applying the moving power to machinery, as well as by a recent visit to the manufacfor freight. Coal, which is the chief article to be considered in saving freight for a steam mill, has been delivered at these wharves as cheap ($5 to $6 a ton) as it is said to have cost the two nameless mills, which are given in the November article as exam ples of the great success of manufacturing by steam at the North, and which earned from 30 to 40 per cent, during the last year, “ and made more money, in proportion to their number of spindles, than any two in the North driven by water.” (This is true ; but it might be added that they earned more than any five other mills driven by steam; and we are the more curious to know where these two wonderful mills are sit uated.) Certainly our friend, the General, will not refuse to inform us what mills these are, and under whose management such results have been achieved. * The Cocheco Company, at Dover, New Hampshire, have four mills, one of which, containing 1,200 spindles, is driven by steam during a part of the year. The expense o f running this mill, including fuel, labor on the steam-engine, repairs of engine, oil, and interest, has been 845 a day, or at the rate of $13,500 a year. But as it is seldom driven by steam more than six months in the year, the actual expense is only $6,250— more than is required to run the same amount of machinery in the other mills. This is but four years old, and has an expensive engine, and is a first-rate mill, with the ex ception o f the steam. It would have been cheaper for the company to have purchased the additional water-power required, at an expense of $75,000. 32 The Condition and Prospects o f Am erican hiring districts of England and Scotland, is as well informed on this subject as any one in this country. It shows the exact value of water power in the center o f a large manufacturing district, where steam is used under the greatest advantages. L o w e l l , November, 24, 1849. D e a r S ir :— In July last I visited Greenock, in Scotland, and the water power, called the Shaw’s W ater W orks, being to me one o f the most interesting things in the town. I called on Mr. Morrison, the superintendent, who very po litely communicated to me the following information, o f which I took notes at the time. The water is collected from various sources in an artificial reservoir, situated about six miles from Greenock, called Loch Thorn, after the engineer w ho pro posed the scheme. The quantity o f water to be relied upon for regular use, is esitimated at 1,200 cubic feet per minute, the use being limited to twelve hours per day, and 310 days per annum. The total fall is 512 feet. The power is used for various purposes, and is leased at prices depending on the situation o f the privilege. The sites near the upper parts o f the fall are difficult o f access; some o f these are leased at £ 1 10s. per horse-power per annum. The water company do not furnish the mill site, or, in fact, any land; this is leased by the mill owners from other parties, at the rate o f about £ 1 2 per Scots acre per annum. The lower falls are in the business part o f the town, and are leased at £ 4 10s. per horse-power per annum ; the rent o f land at the lower falls I did not learn, it must be much greater, however, than at the upper falls. The cost o f coal at the mills, on the lower falls, Mr. Morrison stated to be six shillings sterling per ton. The horse-power o f the different falls is determined from the total power o f the water, reckoning 44,000 lbs. one foot per minute, equal to one horse-power. T o compare this with the price o f water-power at Lowell, I will take the last sale o f warranted water-power. This was in 1839, when the Massachusetts cotton mills, chartered in that year, purchased nine mill powers, on the lower fall, and about 400,000 square feet o f land. They paid in cash at the time o f the purchase, $84,024, which, at six per cent interest, represents an annual rent o f $5,041 44. They also stipulated to pay in addition to the above, an annual rent o f $2,700, making a total o f $7,741 44, which may be taken as the annual rent paid by the Massachusetts cotton mills, for their water-power, and the necessary quantity o f land on which to erect their mills. B y the terms o f the lease, each mill power is declared to be 45-J- cubic feet o f water per second, on a 17 feet fall. Consequently, by the Greenock mode o f computation, the nine mill-powers are equal to 592 horse-power. Taking Greenock rates, 592 horse-power at £4 10............................................ 7J- Scots acres of land at £12................................... £2,664 87 Annual rent of power........................................ £2,751 A t $ 4 84 to the pound sterling, this is equal to $13,314 84 per annum, or 72 per cent greater than the actual rates paid at Lowell. Taking into account that coal in any part o f Massachusetts costs at least three times as much as at Greenock, it will be readily seen that the cost o f steam-power in Massachusetts, is enormously greater than the actual rates paid at Low ell for water-power. Yours very respectfully, JAMES B. FRANCIS. In the last number we gave the market price o f the shares in the princi pal manufacturing corporations, as it has been during the past year, and as it is now.* By that it will be seen that very few of them are worth the par * Within the last month sales have been made of some of these stocks at auction, as well as at the brokers’ board, in Boston, and by ineividuals, at prices lower than the Cotton M anufactures in 1849. 33 value, and that the greater proportion are at a discount o f from 10 to 30 per cent, and a few even lower than thi£. Some o f these establishments have large reserved funds accumulated b y many years of successful business, all have some reserve, which is absolutely necessary for renewing the ma chinery and buildings, and to secure improvements required by the improve ment made every year in the process o f manufacturing. The machinery o f most o f them is kept in perfect order, and the shares are generally more val uable than when first created, since new mills must have sufficient success to lay aside the same contingent funds, before they can venture to divide their profits.* This depreciation occurs, too, when there is no unusual fear of in vestments in manufacturing, and at a time of depression not as great as has occurred several times before. Does not this strengthen the assertion which we have made, that the business o f manufacturing cotton, here and else where, has been pushed beyond the limits of the present demand for goods, and beyond the supply of cotton. W ere there no other proof, would not this be enough to assure us that the profits of manufacturing are now small, and have been so for some time past, and must continue so until there is a change in the course of trade. How can we otherwise account for the un willingness o f capitalists to buy the shares at the present low rates. If it is true that there is a plenty o f capital at the South ready for invest ment, would it not be far more profitable for the holders o f it to send it to the North, and purchase the best stocks, which will be the first to feel a re turn o f prosperity, rather than to build new mills, to be driven by steam, or even by water-power. Some idea o f the competition in manufacturing, and its consequences, and o f the necessity for those engaged in it to use the greatest vigilance and ac tivity to keep up with the constant improvements which are made, may be formed by reviewing the prices of any o f the staple goods ten or twenty years ago, and at the present time. In 1828 Amoskeag tickings were sold at 271 cents and 23 cents a yard ; the same as are now sold at 11 and 9J cents. Merrimac prints fell from 17 cents, in 1837, to 9.28 in 1849. Cocheco prints, in 1837, were 14T'T4T cents, and now 8 T9/ 5. Printing cloths which in 1835, were sold at 10 cents, are now at 5 to 6 cents. The Indian Head, Tremont, and other staple sheetings o f N o. 14 yarn, which, in 1832, were sold at 10 cents, are now at 6^ to 7 cents. The prices o f Newmarket cot tons in 1837 were 12, 13, and 111 cents ; they are now 7-^, 61, and 6 cents. The Boott and Suffolk drillings in 1836 were sold at 14 cents, and now at 7 cents. Neither has this reduction been sudden,f but has gone on steadily to the present time. quotations of Messrs. Head and Perkins ; which indicates that others equally as good would meet with a similar reduction, if forced into market. Chicopee, for instance, sold for $505, Perkins at §670, and Cabot at $760, for $1,000. * Take, for example, the Hamilton Company, at Lowell, which has a very large re serve, of nearly $200,000. The dividends, for the last five years, have been 44 per cent, and the shares can be bought at 80 per cent. The Boott Company has a large contingent fund, also, and the dividends of the last five years have been 48 per cent; the shares cannot be sold higher than $900 for $1,000. The Chickopee, with $36,000 reserve, and of which the dividends, for the last five years, have been 30 per cent, has lately been sold, as above, at about 50 per cent of the cost. f The argument that protective duties on goods tends to raise the price, loses its force, when we look at these results. The rise in price, may be for a few months, but the reduction caused by competition is a perpetual benefit to the consumer. W e have no fear now, o f foreign competition in the heavy goods, and we care little what the V O L . X X I I . --- N O . I . 3 34 Condition and Prospects o f Am erican Cotton M anufactures. Cotton was formerly much higher than now, but the reduction in the price o f it has not been at all equal to that o f the goods. The following ta ble indicates the price of cotton to the manufacturer, for the last fifteen years; and also the cost o f the cloth per pound during the same time. It embraces two qualities o f cotton, tis well as o f cloth.* Year. 1835....................... .............. 1836....................... ............. 1837....................... ............. 1838....................... ............. 1839....................... ............. 1840........................ 1841..................................... 1842..................................... 1843..................................... 1844......................... ........... 1845......................... ........... 1846......................... ........... 1847......................... ........... 1848......................... ........... 1849......................... ........... Fine cotton. 20. 5 21. 6 19. 8 13.28 16. 5 12. 5 11. 8. 9. 5 7.25 8.12 10. 4 9.34 8. to I l f Coarse. Fine cloth. 18.36 19.36 17.44 11.55 14.53 9.7810.58 9. 2 6.88 8.71 6.03 7.61 10. 4 8. 7 to 11 6 mos. 35.39 43. 9 43.86 36.19 34.08 33.33 29.55 28.21 25.52 21.48 22.49 22.37 21.69 23.62 20.36 6 mos. Coarse. 28.12 29.22 26.92 19.67 23.66 18.12 18.31 16.96 13.57 14.91 12.43 15.42 18.26 15.12 14.65 Showing that the reduction in the price o f cotton has been 10 and 9 cents, / while in the cost o f cloth it has been 15.03, and 13.47 cents a pound, (or rather less, if carried out for the whole o f 1849).f Labor, too, is much higher than formerly, especially that o f females, and so far adds to the cost;\ so are the articles o f oil, starch, and some others used upon the machinery, and in the processes. The improvement in machinery, and the constant effort to produce at a cheaper rate, are the chief causes of this great change in value. W e can hardly imagine that this cheapening process can go on much farther, and yet it has appeared as improbable for several years past as it does now. Neither will this competition become less. The great number o f mills imposes the necessity upon the managers to watch every improvement, and to spare no pains and no expense to secure it. A new invention, or a new process by which a saving can be made, is no sooner adopted by one, than others are forced to follow. Besides this, as long as a fair interest can be rate of duty may be. But some new fabrics, such as lawns, ginghams, and also cali coes, and some others, require protective duties for some time longer. The mixed goods (cotton and wool) all require some protection, and all woolen goods, unless the duty should be taken off the raw material. * This was made up from the books of the Lawrence Company. f Cotton is no lower, at the present time, (Dec. 1, 1849,) than it was in the years 1823, 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1838, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, and is much higher than during some of these years. ^ In 1814, and to 1818, a woman’s labor, for one week, would enable her to buy but one yard of ticking. Now it will buy 23 yards. Then she earned 2 yards of sheeting with a week’s work ; now, 35 yards. Then, 2£ yards of calico; now, 30 yards. Then, aj- yards of shirting; now, 39 yards. Women’s wages have risen nearly, or quite, threefold, and men's have doubled. Then we imported all the woolen cloth used, ex cept what was made on hand looms ; now we export many articles. To some coun tries we export the very goods which we once received from them. The export of cotton goods has steadily increased, from $2,898,750, in 1844, to $5,718,205, in 1848 ; and the increase is greater than appears by this valuation, since the price of goods was much lower in 1848, and a larger quantity was required to reach the same value. The export o f this year will probably be larger than ever. The M ortality o f B a ltim ore: w ith R eference, etc. 35 obtained, or whenever there is a prospect o f doing a profitable business, no opportunity will be lost to get up new establishments, upon the great water powers, created with such a vast outlay. The great dam just made at Had ley, Massachusetts, and the other preparations for a great manufacturing city, will yield no income, unless the water which it affords can be sold or leased ; and the proprietors themselves will be the first to embark in new enterprises. The same is true o f Lawrence, of Amoskeag, Saco, and many other places of less note. The unoccupied water-power, situated or owned in Massachusetts alone, is enough to drive all the cotton machinery now running in the United States, out o f Massachusetts. Though the benefits o f manufacturing have been so great to Hew Eng land, they have, for the most part, but indirectly reached the proprietors. H ow great the increase of wealth would have been, had it not been under taken, cannot now be known : but we think the result would not have been so very different as is sometimes supposed. The people are industrious and enterprising : and the result o f thirty years o f general industry is a great in crease in the comforts o f living and in wealth ; it is very much the same as it would be with an individual.* The same industry and well-directed enterprise will produce the same results in the Southern States. The erection o f steam mills will not do it, nor any other mills built with borrowed capital. Skill, industry, perseverance, and capital must be u nited; and when they do exist together, success will follow at the South as well as at the North. “ Expec'tes et sustineas necesse est; nam tita Quod solvat non habet area Jo vis.” Art. III.— T H E M O R T A L I T Y OF B A L T I M O R E : W IT H REFERENCE TO THE P R IN C IP L E S O F L IF E IN S U R A N C E . T h e contributions that have been made to vital statistics in the United States, have been exceedingly meagre and unsatisfactory. Our Life Insu rance companies are altogether dependent on the experience o f other coun tries. W hether our mortality exceeds that o f Carlisle, or even that of North ampton, is not, by any means, a settled question. The bills o f mortality published for all our cities, give the ratio of the deaths to the whole popula tion ; but this is not enough to enable us to institute a comparison between the mortality here and elsewhere. Although 1 in 42 die annually in Philadeljihia, and 1 in 46 in England, the probabilities o f living in the former place may be greater than in the latter. Our population is increasing ra pidly— theirs slowly. The children here are more numerous than there, and as the mortality in infancy is very large, this may produce so great an effect as to make the probability of living, at every period of life, as great at Phila delphia as in England. On the other hand, we are receiving a large number o f immigrants, who are in the prime o f life, when the vital energies are strong, * The other manufacturers, in proportion to their magnitude, have not added less to the wealth of the whole of the people ; neither are they in any respect less important. The woolen manufacture, and the boot and shoe manufacture are each nearly, or quite, equal to that of cotton in New England. 36 The M ortality o f B altim ore: with Reference so as to resist the attacks o f disease, and recover from the injuries inflicted by accident or violence. W e have but few who have reached old age, when the vital powers are feeble. For both these reasons, the ratio o f the deaths to the whole population must be small. Now, whether these conflicting causes neutralize each other, or if not, how far one overbalances the other, it will be difficult or impossible for any one to say. W e may thus see that our bills o f mortality do not furnish any accurate comparison between our mortality and that o f other countries. O f as little service are they to the Insurance offices. It is their wish to know what are the chances o f living, at every period o f life, from youth to old age. The premiums they charge for insuring an individual at 30, for his whole life, depend on the probabilities o f life at 30, 40, 50, and even up to 100. Their rates o f insurance for a single year, depend on the probabilities of life for a single year ; but when they insure for life, they must know the chances o f dying at every subsequent age. Our bills of mortality, and the ratio o f deaths to the whole population, supply no knowledge o f this kind. They tell us, indeed, that the number dying between 20 and 30 years o f age is greater than the number between 60 and 70 ; but this gives no knowledge o f the liability to death between these two periods; much less does it give this for every age in each period o f ten years. To make a comparison between the mortality o f different places, it is ne cessary to reduce both to a common standard. The common standard usu ally adopted is, to determine the number that would be living at every period o f life, supposing the chances o f dying to continue unaltered, and the popu lation to remain stationary, affected neither by immigration, emigration, or natural increase. W e suppose, for instance, at any place, 10,000 persons born, and from the rate o f mortality prevailing among children at that place, we determine how many o f these survive the first year, the second, <fec., and in like manner we determine how many arrive at every period o f life, till all are carried off by death. W h en such a table is constructed for two places which we wish to compare with each other, it is easy to decide on their comparative mortality, at every age, from infancy to the extreme limit o f human life. It is in this form that tables o f mortality become useful to a life insu rance company. The Carlisle and Northampton tables profess to give the number living at every age, in a stationary population. O f 10,000 persons born, they say how many arrive at the age o f 20, 21, 90, 91, <fcc., and thus enable the insurance company to determine the chances o f living, at every period o f life. If, out of the 10,000, 6,000 live to the age o f 20, 20 to the age of 90, and 1 to the age o f 100, the chance that a man at 20 has o f lin ing to the age of 90, is 1 in 300, and to the age o f 100, it is 1 in 6,000. Our census tables do not give this information. I f there were found 100 persons in Philadelphia, at the age o f 90, and one at the age o f 100, no guess could be made o f the chance that a man at 90 has o f living 10 years, for we do not know how many were living at 90 ten years before, out of whom this one survives. In our increasing and ever-changing pojmlation, it is impossible to tell, merely from a census, how many o f any particular age survive to any other age. However minute and accurate the census should be made, this would be true. Much more is it true, when our census only gives the whole number living between each ten years from 20 up to 100. To make, then, any comparison between our mortality in the United States and that in foreign countries, or to determine the chances o f living to To the P rinciples o f L ife Insurance. 37 any particular period o f life, so as to inform an insurance company o f the premiums they ought to charge, it is necessary to construct a table o f mor tality for a stationary population. To do this, when we have both the bills o f mortality, and the census of the people, and o f their ages, is not a diffi cult problem ; but I am not aware that it has been attempted hitherto in the United States. Excepting only Dr. W igglewortli’s table, published many years ago for New England, I know no other that has been constructed in this country. The recent extension o f the life insurance companies in the United States, demands that all the information that may be accessible and useful to them, should be brought forward, that they may have experience at home, as well as abroad, to guide them in the contingent and uncertain con tracts on which they are venturing. I propose to explain, briefly, a table I have constructed for the city of Baltimore. In the February number o f the Banker's Magazine, the average interments in the city o f Baltimore, from 1826 to 1848, were published by J. H. Alexander, Esq., and I have been kindly furnished by him with the numbers for each year, with only three exceptions, one o f these being the year 1832, when the cholera prevailed. B y uniting these with the census returns o f 1830 and 1840, sufficient materials may be had for constructing a table o f mortality for a stationary population. Table I., at the end of this article, contains the average interments from 1826 to 1848, and tables II. and III. contain the census o f the white popu lation at the two enumerations in 1830 and 1840. To obtain the popula tion for the intervening years, I have taken each decade by itself, and sup posed the numbers to increase in geometrical progression. The numbers be ing thus found for each year, the average o f the whole period is taken, and in serted in table IV . The colored population was treated in the same manner, except that I supposed, for facility in calculation, the rate o f increase to be in arithmetical progression, which is allowable, on account o f their slow rate o f increase. These results are contained in tables V., VI., and VII. Before combining the white and black population, it is necessary to inter polate the numbers for the latter, so as to distribute them into periods of ten years each, to correspond with the white population. This is rendered diffi cult, by the long and irregular intervals in the census, and by the changes constantly taking place, both among free blacks, and the slaves. To assist in this interpolation, I have had recourse to the interments. It is a principle well established by Dr. Price, and others, that, in a stationary population, the numbers o f the people, at every period o f life, may be obtained from the ages o f the dying, by beginning at the oldest, and adding together the number of the dying at each preceding age. Thus, if one die at 100, two at 99, three at 98, and four at 97, the number o f the living at 97 would be 10 ; at 98, 6 ; at 99, 3 ; and at 100, 1. A nd so for all the preceding ages. In an increasing population, this mode o f procedure would give the num bers o f the people everywhere too small. But in Baltimore, as the census shows the colored population, after 55, (table V . and VI.,) to be stationary, and, as many elderly persons among the merchants and men o f business re tire from the city, this method will give results nearly accurate for the latter periods o f life. Let us try it, and notice the results to which it leads. The deaths (table I.) over 100 are 4 ; over 90, they are 9 ; and this makes the living at 90 to be 13. In like manner, the number at 80 is found to be 55. By interpolating these numbers, we have the living, at each age, nearly as follow s:— 38 The M ortality o f B altim ore: with Reference A t 90............................ 91 ............. 92 ............. 93 ............. 94 ............. IS 12 11 10 9 A t 95............................ ............. 96 97 ............. 98 ............. 99 ............. 8 7 6 5 5 A t 1 0 0 ............................ 1 01 ................ 1 02 ........... 103 ................ 104 ................ 4 3 2 1 1 Making the total population above 90 to be 97. A nd these numbers ought to be too small, according to the mode of investigation, since the population is not stationary, but increasing. But the census gives the whites over 90 at 36, leaving 61 for the colored. As, however, the whites in the city ex ceed the blacks two or three times, it is almost impossible that the colored over 90 should so far outnumber the whites. Admitting longevity to prevail among the former much more than among the latter, such a disproportion is • ipcredible. To those who are acquainted with the colored population in our Southern States, there can be no hesitation in ascribing the apparent improbability to which we have arrived to an over-estimate in the age o f the dying. It is necessary thus to reduce the deaths over 100, to one or t w o ; and even then, the living over 90, and also over 80, will be probably too large. As, however, it is dangerous to make changes in the facts on which our reason ings are based, it will not be safe to introduce any considerable corrections. I f we suppose only one death to occur annually, over 100, and transfer two of the others to the number between 90 and 100, and one to the preceding de cade, the numbers living at 70, 80, 90, and 100, would be 132, 55, 12, and 1. If these numbers be interpolated, the population over 90 would be about 56 ; over 80, about 316 ; and over 70, about 957, as appears by the follow ing table, in which the numbers are taken for ten years, and thus increased ten-fold, to give greater regularity to the several decrements :— A ge. Living. 90 .................... 91 .................... 92 .................... 93 .................... 94 .................... 95 .................... 96 ..................... 97 ..................... 98 ..................... 99 ..................... 100....................... 101 ..................... 102 .................... 103 .................... 104 .................... 120 98 79 63 50 39 30 23 18 14 10 7 5 3 1 Total........... 560 A ge. 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Living. A ge. L ivin g. ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... 550 484 423 367 317 272 233 200 170 144 70 ........... 71 .......... 72 ........... 9 3 . . ..................... 74 ........... 75 ........... 76 ........... ........... 77 78 ........... 79 ........... 1,320 1,235 1,159 1,061 989 910 833 759 687 617 Total........... 3,160 Total........... 9,570 Now, as the whites over 70, 80, and 90, are (table IV .) 588, 167, and 36, this will leave for the blacks 369, 149, and 20, or 538 as the whole number over 70. The census (table V II.) gives the number o f the colored popula tion over 54, at 1,247, and this will leave 709 as the number from 54 to 70. Now, if w'e observe that 369 is the number o f the colored between 70 and 80, it will be evident that 709 is probably as small a number as can be al lowed for the living between 54 and 70. The principle o f Dr. Price, which we have used as the basis o f our investigation, forbids this number to be too large. It may, therefore, be safely regarded as representing very nearly the true number o f the colored population between 54 and 70. So, also, for the numbers we have obtained for the later ages. Thus, by considering the in- To the P rinciples o f L ife Insurance. 39 terments, and by using Dr. Price’s method for a stationary population, we have found four additional numbers to aid in interpolating the colored popu lation. W e have— Under 10.................................. “ 2 4 . . . . ........................... “ 36................................... “ 55................................... 4,914 6,229 4,199 3,308 Under 1 0 ................................. “ 80 ............................... “ 90 ............................... Over 90............................... 109 369 149 20 From these numbers, table VIII. has been constructed, and if we take from this interpolated table, the numbers for each decade, as in table IX ., and join them with the census o f the white population, in table IV., we will have the total numbers o f both the white and the colored, for each period o f 10 years4 This result is inserted in table X . W e have next interpolated this result, and the interments, (table I.,) and by this means formed tables X I. and, X II. By comparing these, we have the ratios between the living and dying, for every year, from infancy to old age. These ratios, in ten thousandths are inserted in table X H I. After the age o f 20, they increase pretty regu larly, and it is best to correct for any irregularities in the preceding interpo lations, by taking the mean o f 3 or 5 of these ratios, and to regard this mean as representing the true mortality. These averages are inserted in table X IV . W e are now ready for constructing the table o f mortality for a stationary population. W e suppose 10,000 j>ersons born, and representing the deaths in the first year o f their life by x, the number entering on the second year would be 10,000— x, and the number o f the living between 0 and 1 would be 10,000— ±x, and this, multiplied by the ratios previously obtained, would give the deaths for the first year, that is, (10,000— -i*,) . 1 6 4 3 = 2 ; and, hence, 2 = 1 6 4 3 -^ 1 .0 8 2 1 5 = 1 5 1 8 . Hence, the survivors for the second year would be 8,482. In like manner, the deaths and the surviv rs were formed for every successive year, and the numbers inserted in tablesX V. and X V I. Finally, I have constructed table X V II., by means o f a mathemati cal formula, which I have found to coincide very nearly with the law o f mor tality in every table I have examined, and this harmonized result I regard as expressing even more correctly than table X V ., the probable survivors in a stationary population at Baltimore. As, however, I do not here present the evidence in favor o f this formula, I shall use table X V . in making the com parisons which I shall now institute between the mortality at Baltimore and other places. B y the term probable life, is understood the period that any one has an equal chance of attaining. Thus, if 50 persons are living at the age o f 20, and 25 of these survive at 52, the probable life at 20 will be 32 years. It is, therefore, the time that elapses before the death of half o f the number of persons living at any age. Table X V III. contains the probable life in Balti more, Carlisle, and Sweden. It is evident at once, from an inspection o f this table, that for all the middle periods of life, from 10 up to 60, the mortality at Baltimore is greatly in excess o f the other two places. A t the age o f 70 and upwards, it is less. B y expectation o f life, the writers on human mortality understand the average duration o f all the lives o f the persons living, at any age. Thus, if 20 persons were living at 95, and at the end of 1 year 10 o f these should die ; at the end o f 2 years, 5 ; at the end o f 3 years, 3 ; and at the end o f 4 years, 2 ; then the expectation o f life would be 10 times 1, added to 5 times 2, added to 3 times 3, added to 4 times 2, and the sum divided by 20, making 1.85. But, if while 10 died at the end of the 1st year, 4 died at 40 The M ortality o f B altim ore: with Reference the end o f the 2d, 2 at the 3d, 2 at the 4th, and 2 at the 5th, then the ex pectation would have been 10 -fr 8 + 6 + 8 + 10, divided by 20, or 2.1 years. In both cases, the probable life is one year. But in the first the ex pectation o f life is nearly 2 years, and in the second it is more than 2. Table X I X . contains the expectation o f life at the three places before mentioned. It appears from this mode o f comparison, as before, that the mortality in middle life is in excess at Baltimore. A t the age o f 60, the expectation is greater at Baltimore than in Sweden, this result being brought about not by a lower mortality at 60, but by the greater longevity at the ages of 80 and 90. The most satisfactory mode o f comparison is, to take the chances o f living 1 0 years, or of living 1 year. This at once reveals at what period o f life the mortality at Baltimore exceeds that of the other places. These chances are inserted in tables X X . and X X I . W e see immediately, by inspecting these, that the mortality at Baltimore is less at all ages under 20, and over 70 ; but. for the intervening period, it is greatly in excess. A t the ages o f 20, 30, and 40, the mortality is fully one-half more. A t 50, the chance o f dying in one year is twice as much at Baltimore as at Carlisle. After making these comparisons, we are reminded that as our life insurance companies almost everywhere use the Carlisle table, in determining their premiums, they are more or less in danger o f charging too low for insurance. I f this is done, the mutual companies cannot sustain themselves, and the stock companies are in similar danger, since their capital bears but a small ratio to the amounts insured. In considering this inquiry, I would remark, first, that the Girard Compa ny, o f Philadelphia, the X ew Y ork Mutual, and a large number who profess to use the Carlisle tables, have increased their premiums beyond what these tables demand. If 121 per cent be added to the rates that ought to be charged, on account of expenses of all kinds, their charges for insuring $100 for a single year, should be according to the Carlisle tables :— 20. 10. 40. 50. 60. .80 1.14 1.46 1.51 3.77 1.69 1.96 4.35 Whereas their actual rates are— .91 1.31 The rates founded on the mortality at Baltimore, with the 121 addition, would be— 1.19 1.66 2.28 3.18 4.38 So that, although the average charges at these six periods are 18 per cent more than the Carlisle tables demand, they are still 33 per cent below what are indicated by the experience o f Baltimore. It may be further remarked, that the persons insured are select and healthy lives, free from the taint o f hereditary disease, and at the time o f insurance, free from actual disease. But, although it is thus asserted in the declaration made by the assured, it cannot be supposed that this is even generally true. Often it is true, and then the company is the gainer. But too frequently the applicant feels some secret uneasiness, some symptoms o f debility and feeble ness not yet developed into disease, some change in his health, which warns him to guard against the contingency of death, by making a provision for his family. For these reasons the select character o f the lives cannot afford much security to the companies. Another consideration is o f more importance. The mortality o f Baltimore 41 T o the P r in g le s o f L ife Insurance. may be greater than tbe average in the United States. This is doubtless true. The health o f cities is everywhere below that o f the surrounding country. The causes of this are well known and fully understood. But when it is remembered that by far the greater portion o f those who are avail ing themselves o f the benefits o f insurance are residents o f our cities and large towns, this consideration will be o f little benefit to the companies. I f there is thus more or less doubt whether our life insurance companies are not charging rates that are too low, our anxieties for those companies who have reduced their charges below the earlier standard, become of the most serious character. If there is much reason to fear that the old rates are too low, even for the times o f ordinary mortality, what fears must be felt for the stability o f companies who have reduced these rates, when the average mortality is doubled by the ravages o f cholera. These fears and anxieties are not quelled by remembering that dividends o f 50 per cent profits have been hitherto made by most o f the companies ; for it is easily perceived that at the first, when the insured are all in good health, the number o f deaths will be far below the average. Already, the oldest mutual company has experienced a mortality nearly as great as at Carlisle; and when the results o f the present year are added to their experience, it is to be feared their deaths will be fully equal to the amount indicated by their tables. Let, therefore, all the companies be warned in time. Let prudence, cau tion, and the most watchful carefulness characterize the conduct o f their di rectors, and especially let them beware o f reducing their rates so as to en danger their existence, ruin the confidence reposed in them by the assured, blast the hopes o f the widow and the orphan, and endanger the success of societies calculated to do so much good throughout the length and breadth o f our land. Let them keep up their charges to the old limits. If they are too high, the excess will be returned to the assured as dividends. I f too low, disgraceful bankruptcy, blasted expectations, and violated confidence form a picture o f the future, too frightful to contemplate. T A B L E I. T A B L E II. A verage interments in Baltimore from 1826 to 1848. W hite population o f Baltimore in 1830. nder “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ er X. 2. 5. 10. 21. 3 0 .. 4 0 .. 50. 60. .# .. .. .. ., TO.. 80. 9 0 .. . . 100.. 100 .. 601 229 251 114 140 225 241 191 129 103 11 42 9 4 Under 5 ____ it 10___ (t 15___ it 20___ it 30___ it 40___ it 50___ it 60___ it 1 0 .... a 80 . . . tt 90___ Over 90___ T A B L E III. T A B L E IV. W hite popu’ n Average o f Baltimore white popu’ n in 1840. from 1826 to ’ 48. 8,994 1,291 1,011 1,916 13,009 8,105 4,148 2,664 1,268 415 135 32 12,510 9,121 8,238 9,384 18,001 11,265 6,240 3,620 1,862 626 118 31 11,646 8,610 1,892 8,984 16,116 10,336 5,844 3,311 1,111 588 161 36 61,114 81,142 15,901 42 The M ortality o f B altim ore: with Reference Under ti ii it it Over (C 10............... . . . . 24............... ___ 36............... 55............... ___ 100............... ___ 100............... ___ 54 ............... ___ TABLE V. TABLE VI. TABLE VII. Colored population Average of Baltimore Colored population colored popu’n. in 1830. in 1840. from 1826 to 1848. 4,518 5,069 4,914 5,903 6,368 6,229 4,199 5,016 2,931 3,461 3,308 1,193 1,203 55 43 1,248 1,246 1,241 Total............... Under « it ti it ii it it ii ti ii Over 21,266 TABLE IX. Average colored population from 1826 to 1848. 2,635 2,219 2,250 2,225 4,302 3,414 1,115 622 451 369 149 20 5 ............... ..................... 10............... 15............... 20............... 30............... 40............... 50............... 60............... 10............... 80............... 90............... 90............... Total............... Age. 0 .... 1___ 2 ___ 8 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 1 ___ 8 ___ 9 ___ 10___ 11___ 12___ 13___ 14___ 15___ 16___ 11___ 18___ 19___ 20___ 2 1 .... 22___ 23___ TABLE VIII. XI. Q o -3 Po 2S 2© 1 -3 ° c^ p pTo p, p" n ". o' •a • I o' l S' •J3 641 3,65^r 540 2,990 500 2,680 480 2,530 468 2,430 460 2,330 451 2,250 2,110 455 2,100 454 2,039 453 2,020 452 2,010 451 2,010 450 449 2,030 2,062 448 2,130 . 441 446 2,200 445 2,260 444 2,300 443 2,319 441 2,340 439 2,300 438 2,260 436 2,220 XII. MB* ao p-g : b • os : g ; ST • ■3 : 9 601 229 126 15 50 38 28 21 16 11 9 8 8 8 9 10 11 14 11 21 25 25 25 25 XIII. erzr. < 0O mo ■S • o’ 1,643 166 410 291 206 163 125 91 16 54 45 40 40 40 44 41 50 62 14 90 101 109 111 113 20,491 XIV. XV. m > eg © B o' 1 ** 3^ > ■* p ■ ■ ■oB §' :. 'oB io i 109 in 114 20,491 TABLE X. Average white and colored from 1826 to 1848. 14,281 10,889 10,142 11,209 21,018 13,150 1,619 3,993 2,114 951 316 56 96,404 XVI. o oP •< S’ *T3 p •§ S' E.B c g: Bo : b 1,518 10,000 8,482 626 361 1,856 1,495 219 148 1,216 1,128 115 1,013 81 6,926 61 52 6,859 6,801 31 6,110 30 6,140 21 6,113 • 21 6,686 21 6,659 29 6,630 31 33 6,599 6,566 40 6,526 48 6,418 58 6,420 68 6,352 69 6,283 10 6,213 11 XVII. m Ba §2 IV n o : a1 : ? .... « ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 6,420 6,346 6,211 6,195 43 To the P rinciples o f L ife Insurance. 2 5 .... 26___ 21___ 28___ 2 9 .... 30___ 31___ 32___ 33___ 34___ 35___ 36 ___ 31___ 38___ 39 . . . 4 0 .... 41___ 4 2 ___ 43___ 44___ 45___ 4 6 ___ 41___ 48___ 49___ 50___ 51___ 52___ 53___ 54___ 55___ 5 6 .... 51___ 5 8 .... 5 9 ___ 60___ 61 ___ 62___ 63___ 64___ 65___ 66___ 61___ 68___ 69___ 10___ 11___ 12___ 13___ 14___ 15___ 16___ 11___ 18___ 19___ 80___ 81___ 82___ 83___ 84___ 8 5 .... 86___ 8 1 .... 431 428 424 419 413 406 391 386 312 354 336 311 299 282 265 248 232 216 200 184 169 154 139 124 109 95 83 12 63 51 53 51 50 49 49 48 48 41 41 46 46 45 44 43 43 42 41 40 39 38 31 36 34 32 30 26 23 21 19 16 14 11 9 2,090 2,020 1,950 1,810 1,808 1,150 1,660 1,480 1,410 1,410 1,340 1,230 1,110 1,090 1,050 916 950 815 850 800 145 690 635 515 524 491 483 432 419 406 393 380 340 328 315 303 261 256 245 214 204 194 184 158 149 1,320 1,535 1,151 1,069 989 910 833 159 681 611 550 484 423 861 311 212 233 200 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 - 26 25 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 19 18 11 16 15 14 14 13 13 13 13 M rc 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 85 84 82 80 19 11 14 12 10 61 66 61 56 50 45 39 33 30 120 124 129 134 138 149 157 165 110 m 181 195 205 211 219 225 231 240 241 250 255 261 268 218 286 282 290 301 310 320 331 342 353 366 381 396 412 430 449 468 490 516 544 510 604 644 680 112 148 199 846 888 949 1,019 1,086 120 126 132 136 142 144 142 150 121 125 129 135 142 149 156 164 111 119 181 195 203 211 218 225 232 238 244 250 256 262 269 216 283 281 294 301 311 321 331 342 355 368 382 391 414 431 450 411 494 518 545 516 608 640 618 111 151 199 846 900 958 1,028 1,103 119 125 131 136 139 143 146 151 6,010 5,991 5,922 5,846 5,168 5,681 5,603 5,516 5,426 5,334 5,239 5,142 5,043 4,942 4,839 4,135 4,630 4,524 4,418 4,312 4,206 4,100 3,994 3,888 3,182 3,611 3,513 3,469 3,366 3,263 3,160 3,051 2,954 2,851 2,148 2,645 2,542 2,439 2,336 2,233 •2,130 2,021 1,925 1,823 1,121 1,620 1,520 1,421 1,323 1,221 1,133 1,041 951 864 119 698 619 546 419 416 362 314 211 13 15 16 18 81 84 81 90 92 95 91 99 101 103 104 105 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 105 104 104 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 102 102 102 101 100 99 98 96 94 92 90 87 85 81 79 73 37 63 54 48 43 38 6,038 5,958 5,877 5,795 5,712 5,628 5,543 5,457 5,370 5,282 5,193 5,103 5,011 4,918 4,824 4,729 4,633 4,536 4,438 4,344 4,244 4,143 4,041 3,938 3,834 3,729 3,623 3,517 3,410 3,302 3,194 3,085 2,976 2,867 2,768 2,649 2,540 2,431 2,322 2,213 2,107 2,001 1,896 1,792 1,689 1,587 l-,487 1,389 1,293 1,200 1,109 1,021 936 854 776 701 630 562 500 441 396 344 296 44 8 8 .... 89___ 90___ 91___ 92___ 93___ 94___ 95___ 96___ 97___ 98___ 99___ 100 __ 101 __ 102___ 103___ 104___ 105____ The P ractical W orking o f Cheap P ostage. 6 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Birth...................... 10........................... 20........................... 30........................... 40........................... 50........................... 60........................... 70........................... 80........................... 90 ............... 170 144 120 98 79 63 50 39 30 23 18 14 10 7 5 3 1 153 167 183 194 203 206 220 231 233 217 222 286 300 285 400 667 1,000 26 24 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 .... 159 170 180 191 201 211 219 221 225 238 252 262 299 388 490 692 1,000 85 31 28 24 21 19 15 12 10 8 233 199 168 140 116 95 76 61 49 39 31 24 18 13 9 5 2 .... 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 252 213 178 147 120 97 77 60 46 35 26 19 13 9 6 4 2 1 T A B L E X V III. T A B L E X IX . PR O B A B LE L IF E . E X P E C T A T IO N OF L I F E . Baltimore. Years. Carlisle. Years. 37.4 38.0 35.3 28.0 22.7 17.7 13.0 8 .6 5 .3 3 .6 41.0 53.3 45.2 36.6 28.9 21.6 14.1 8.1 4 .6 2.2 Sweden. Baltimore. Years. Years 36.8 50.5 42.3 34.3 26.5 19.0 12.1 7 .0 3.9 2.5 . 36.9 46.4 35.4 29.0 23.9 19.3 14.6 10.1 7.1 5 .0 Carlisle. Sweden. Years. Years. 38.7 48.8 41.5 34.3 27.6 21.1 14.3 9.2 5.5 3.3 36.1 46.2 39.0 32.1 25.4 19.0 12.8 8 .0 4 .8 3.0 T A B L E X X I. TABLE f c . 10 Y E A R S . C H A N C E O F D Y IN G IN 1 Y E A R . Carlisle. Sweden. Baltimore. Carlisle. Sweden. Baltimore C H A N C E OF D Y IN G IN Birth...................... 10........................... 20........................... 30 ............... 4 0 ............... 50 ............... 60 ............... 70 ............... 80 ............... 0 .............................. .20 .90 .35 .06 .07 .10 .13 .17 .34 .60 .85 .94 .37 .06 .09 .11 .15 .22 .41 .67 .88 1.00 .152 .004 .011 .015 .022 .028 .039 .062 .113 .167 .154 .004 .007 .010 .013 .014 .033 .052 .122 .261 .201 .007 .007 .011 .014 .020 .033 .076 .146 .233 • Art. IV.-— THE PRACTICAL WORKING OF CHEAP POSTAGE. T he adoption o f cheap postage will be a virtual revolution in the post-of fice. It will change the genius o f the institution, from that o f sharp exac tion to that o f wise and liberal accommodation; because it will change its vital principle from that o f tax to that o f freight. The old saw, that “ the post-office must support itself,” meant, in practice, that letters must be taxed sufficient to defray all the expenses that may be put upon the post-office. Major Hobbie showed this conclusively, in his very able letter, o f December 21, 1848. H e says o f the British system o f cheap postage :— “ The most important circumstance is, that in reducing their postage from high The P ractical W orking o f Cheap Postage. 45 rates to a low and uniform one, they changed its nature, from that o f a tax, (yield ing a net revenue to the crown, nearly equal to $8,000,000 annually,) to that o f freight, or the price, merely o f transportation, including delivery, &c. “ W e have numerous unproductive routes, many of which yield a revenue of less than half o f their cost. This circumstance, and the fact that the postage on newspapers fails to pay the cost on their transportation, by about one-third, and that this item o f expense, and the cost o f transporting the franked matter through the mails, are cast upon the postage assessed upon charged letters, gives to our post age the character of a tax. “ I am well satisfied, from a general estimate, that the surplus cost o f the un productive routes, the expense of transporting newspapers, beyond what the post age upon them defrays, and the amount that free matter would come to, if charged with postage, could not be less, at the most moderate estimation, than $1,000,000. “ Supposing Congress should provide some other way for raising this $1,000,000, than by assessing it as a tax exclusively upon the postage payers o f private cor respondence, then, what would be required would be a letter postage revenue equal to the actual cost o f the transportation o f letters.” This estimate of a million o f dollars, as the amount o f tax exacted from letter postage, is more likely to be under the mark than over it. Be it more or less, it is very unjust. The government, which requires these branches o f service, should pay the expense. If the public good requires the expense, the public treasury should pay it. The nesessity o f raising this million o f dollars tax out o f letter postage, has been the great tidal o f every successive Chief o f the Department, and has given character to the institution, alike under every administration— mousing for mites to make up this vast amount. This has caused the various altercations between the Department and the Members of Congress about franking and its abuses. The fact is, there is no abuse o f franking, so far as lexers are concerned, because the frank, by its proper import, covers whatever may be under it— within the prescribed limit o f two ounces. The sending o f other books or things under the name o f public documents is an abuse, a simple fraud, a proper penitentiary crime. But the franking o f letters for other people is the nature o f the privilege. On this point, therefore, so long as the franking privilege continues, the De partment was wrong, and yet its necessities have been allowed to serve as its apology. The impertinence o f prying into letters, under the old system, for the pur pose o f finding out whether there was not a bank note, or some other piece o f paper concealed within its folds, and under the present law, to see if there is not a letter enclosed for another person, grows out o f this principle. Only charge postage as freight, or just remuneration for service rendered, and it is evident that the contents o f a letter can make no difference in the rate charged, because they make no difference in the sendee rendered. N o carrier o f freight thinks o f charging an extra price on the parcel he conveys to A , because there may be enclosed in it an article belonging to B. W h en it is thus settled, that the sender o f a letter by mail is to pay only what that service is fairly worth, and that he is not to be taxed for the sup port o f any other service, or the accomplishment o f any other object o f the government, we then come to the practical inquiry, what is the service worth ? W h at is a fair price for carrying a letter ? W h at can it be done for ? The English experiment is conclusive on this point, that it is a remunerative bu siness to carry letters to any distance for a penny sterling, which is about two cents o f our money. Nay, it is not only remunerative, but may become productive, in the event o f a very large increase of business ; the British g o 46 The P ractical W orking o f Cheap Postage. vernment, in fact, realizing a net profit o f above three and a half millions o f dollars per annum, while their post-office costs two millions o f dollars a year more than ours. Make whatever deduction you please on account of mail packet service, £701,580, which is paid by the Admiralty and not by the post-office, there remains a sufficient amount received from penny postage alone, to pay the whole expense o f the post-office, while nothing is credited for the newspapers, which, instead o f postage, pay a stamp duty o f above £250,000 to the treasury. That the government can afford to carry letters for a penny, is further proved by the operation of the increase o f letters. The first year of the new system, the number o f letters added to the work o f the post-office was 93,000,000, while the addition to the cost of management averaged only a farthing per letter. The actual cost o f the Deparment, at this time, ave rages 3.838 farthings per letter. There is no escape from this conclusion. Major Hobbie, in his letter be fore quoted, says, “ Considering the vastness o f our territory, and the mag nitude o f our system of mails, and the still greater extent to which it must be carried, three cents here will be a fa r cheaj>er rate, in comparison to service performed, than one penny in England.” That the aggregate service o f the post-office is performed in this country for two-thirds o f what the service costs in Great Britain, ($4,346,850 to £1,386,853, equal, in federal currency, to Se,*? 12,368,) shows the fallacy o f this argument. Besides this, we derive an income o f $750,000 from newspaper postage, which yields nothing to the English post-office. In addition, Major Hobbie says that there ought to be a million o f dollars paid out o f the Treasury, for government postage, franked documents, unproductive routes, and the deficiency of newspaper postage. W ith these deductions, we have only two millions and a half o f dollars to charge to the amount o f letter postage, where the English post-office charges six millions. But there is another thing to be noticed. The reason alleged why three cents should be regarded as a just equivalent for services, which, in England, are amply compensated by two cents, is “ the vastness o f our territory, and the magnitude of our system o f mails.” This can only operate by enhancing the cost o f transportation. But the fact is, that the transportation of mails costs, in this country, $2,448,756, and in England, £507,773, equal to $2,229,763, a difference o f $218,993, less than 10 per cen t; a sum averag ing only one-third o f a cent upon tha present number o f paying letters in this country. Even this is on the assumption that the whole cost o f transportation should be charged on the letters, whereas, in fact, only a very small part of it should be so charged, the greater part o f the cost being incurred for newspapers, and for running mails that carry few or no letters. It is evident, therefore,- that if the freight principle is adopted, two cents is the highest rate that can be charged, and that every proposition to charge a higher rate, is, in fact, a scheme to tax letter postage for the benefit o f some other object, aud is an abandonment o f the freight principle, which is vital to the system o f cheap postage. The friends of cheap postage will, therefore, feel bound to resist any and every attempt o f this kind, as in fact, subversive of the object they have in view. Some have supposed that, a postage o f one cent would pay. The distin guished philanthropist, Dr. S. G. Howe, o f Boston, in a brilliant article which he wrote for the Massachusetts Quarterly Review, earnestly advocated a one The P ractical W orking o f Cheap Postage. 47 cent rate. But this would he a departure in the opposite direction, from the true principle o f freight, or a just equivalent for services rendered, which is deemed essential to the success o f cheap postage. Let it be known that the service required is paid for, and an essential motive to fidelity is supplied, without which it would be impossible to keep so vast a machine in order. The experiment with newspapers at one cent, although they require less handling than letters, proves that letter postage at one cent never would be made to pay. For, although we are such a newspaper reading people, the one cent rate does not yield, at the end o f sixty years, more than twothirds o f the expense. The amount o f handling required in the care o f let ters would swell the expense, so that no supposable increase o f numbers would meet the cost o f postage. As there can be no intermediate rate, because there is no coin in which payment can be made, it follows that two cents is the freight mark, and cannot be abandoned for any other. Another proof of the correctness o f this rate is seen in the still continued energy and growth o f the British post-office. The net revenue for the year ending October 5th, 1849, is £60,000 above that o f last year, a proof that the rate is not too high. The profits which, with good management, cannot fail to accrue, will be ■well employed in increasing the public accomodation by the mail. Let us now suppose the cheap postage law passed, and that the Depart ment has fully impregnated itself with the ruling idea o f freigh t, not tax. The chief is no longer earnest to merit applause by his success in worming out that million o f dollars from letter postage to pay other objects. Postage itself is no longer a mystery of prerogative, but a mere dollar and cent af fair of quid p ro quo, to be managed like any other matter o f business, ac cording to the dictates o f common sense. It is now evident that the administrative credit, and success o f the D e partment will now depend upon two things, the greatest possible increase in the number o f letters carried in the mails, and the greatest possible economy, in avoiding unnecessary expense. N o outlay of money would now be spared, if, in any way, by direct or indirect operation, it could be made to pay. N o expense would be incurred, through favoritism or other motive, which could be curtailed or dispensed with. The spirit o f public accommodation would take possession of the whole corps o f post-office officials and servants; and each would vie with all in endeavoring to afford the greatest facilities, to en courage the greatest multiplication o f letters. It would also lead to a great simplification of the whole business of the post-office, both at the general post-office, and in every branch of the service. The uniformity o f rate would simplify the accounts, to an amazing degree. It is said that several additional clerks were required in the general post-of fice, under the old system, merely from the fact that every return from a post-office necessarily had one column o f fractions of a cent. The payment o f postage by stamps would guard the Departmet against losses. It would so simplify the business of the local post-offices, that they could bo kept at much less expense, with less cost o f clerk hire, and by persons who would be satisfied with a lower rate of compensation. In this manner would the D e partment compensate itself for the additional labor of receiving and deliver ing three or four times the present number of letters. It would not be easy to specify all the ways in which the labor of keeping a post-office will be diminished by the general practice of prepayment with stamps. These stamps will be for sale, not only at the post-office, but at 48 The P ractical W orking o f Cheap Postage. the shops, the keepers o f which find it for their interest to have them, not for the profits o f the sale, for there are none, but for the accommodation of their customers, and to secure the trade in other things. The office o f reception has then no trouble o f running to the window and making change on a pre paid letter; and the office o f delivery no trouble in trusting out unpaid let ters to persons with short memories. In curious contrast with this is the mode now in use o f selling postage stamps. Y ou find them for sale no where but at the post-office, and at the post-office you cannot buy stamps at the window. N o clerk can be trusted with the precious charge. But you must go round by a back way, through an ob scure door, up a narrow, winding stairway, into a lobby having several doors, and when you find the one leading to the cashier’s room, you may enter there, and be allowed to purchase stamps ! This is but a specimen o f a hundred ab surd and vexatious inconveniences to which the community submit, which will be voted intolerable under the reign o f cheap postage. There will be a certain revolution in the system, or rather wn-system, at present pursued in the gathering and distribution o f letters in our large towns. This cannot fail to take place, for the simple reason that the • present method will be found too cumbersome and costly to pay, while a far more simple and more convenient system cannot fail to pay, in all cases where sound judgment may warrant its adoption. One essential change will be, that by adopting a strictly uniform rate, for all distances or no distance, the distinction between mail letters and drop letters will be abolished, and the local distribution will become an integral portion of the post-office, and en joy all its supervisions, privileges, and responsibilities, instead o f the anomolous, insecure, and irresponsible management which now exists in this city, it is said under the sanction and authority o f the Department at Washington. It is surprising that the citizens submit with so much apathy to this state o f things. It was stated, a few weeks ago, in the E ra newspaper, that there were over 700 letters in one o f these sub-post-office establishments, (Boyd’s,) designed for the mails, but not forwarded because the fe e was not prepaid. W h o can tell the sad hearts, perhaps the failing fortunes, that may be occa sioned by this suppression o f seven hundred letters ? Correspondents o f the daily papers are ever and anon complaining that letters deposited in these sub-post-offices, with the expectation that they will be delivered at once, are not delivered till two or three days after, when the objectof writing has been frustrated by the delay. This will be greatly remedied by making the sub-offices a part o f the post-office, under the control and responsibility o f the post-master. W alk around the old “ Middle Dutch,” and observe the extent o f the apparatus, the frontage required, and the number o f persons employed, for the delivery o f letters to those who make it a point to call for their letters. There are 3,228 boxes, for which rent is voluntarily paid by individuals who wish to find their letters deposited separately from the mass. There are 15 windows for general delivery, including that for ladies, and that for newspapers. A nd if you watch, after the arrival o f a steamer, or just at the close o f the day, when the workingmen leave their toil, and hurry to snatch their only oppor tunity o f calling for a letter, you will often find long rows o f men waiting their turn to call at the window. W h at would be thought o f the wisdom o f our W ater authorities, if they had established one reservoir at the corner o f Nas sau and Cedar streets, for the use o f all the inhabitants living below Chambers street, and then employed a dozen or twenty men to deal it out to those who The Practical W orking o f Cheap Postage. 49 came for a supply ? “ As cold water to the thirsty, so is good news from afar.” A nd yet for this comfort we must all huddle to one place, instead o f having safe and ready conduits to bring it promptly to every man’s door. W ithout data for a particular estimate, it is quite within bounds to say, that a thousand dollars per day would not pay for the time spent by the people o f New York in going and sending to the post-office, when, with cheap post age and prepayment, a hundred dollars a day would cause all the letters to be delivered at the dwellings or counting rooms o f the people, three times daily, within half an hour after the mails are ready for delivery. It is not very difficult to see how this plan o f free delivery o f prepaid let ters, all over the city, three or four times a day, could be made to pay ex penses. Embracing all letters alike, whether coming by mail or originating in the city, it would greatly increase correspondence through the mails, by the facility o f the process, and the absence o f extra expense. And then, with a well arranged and trustworthy management, an immense internal corres pondence would arise among the inhabitants, for business and friendship, which would yield a harvest o f profit to the post-office, and a far richer har*vest o f commercial and social benefits to the people. In London, where there are ten deliveries daily, over a circuit o f three miles from the general post-office, the weekly number o f district post-letters de livered, that is, o f letters originating in London, or what our department calls “ drop letters,” in February, 1848, was 707,674, and o f general post letters, that is, letters brought by mail, 2,192,302, making a total o f 2,899,976, equal to 414,439 daily. A nd so perfect is the system, that a stranger rare ly remains a week in London without being reached by his letters, even when bearing only the general address of London. A nd so satisfactory is it, that there are no private boxes, and one window answers for all calls o f every description. The number o f drop letters has increased nearly three fold since the establishment o f the penny rate, which reduced the postage one half. This is a case in point, to show what would be the effect o f a reduc tion from five cents to two cents. W h y should 2,000,000 o f people in Lon don receive 150,000,000 o f letters in a year, while 21,000,000 in the Unitech States receive only 62,000,000 ? Cheap postage and free delivery are the cause. W h at an immense amount o f business and o f social intercourse is indicated by the circulation of 120,000 city letters every day. H ow many transactions would be facilitated among us, how many inconveniences avoided, by even three or four reliable opportunities o f sending to any individual in any part o f the city or suburbs— for two cents. Letters produce letters. Each letter received naturally leads to a reply. Every man who writes on his own business will o f course enclose a stamp to prepay the postage on the answer. But dead letters bring no answers. The esprit du corps of the department, which will prevail under the new system, will be the ambition o f showing the greatest possible multiplication o f letters, as the sole test o f administrative ability. If a sufficient number o f competent carriers are employed, they will soon come to know the names o f nearly every person in their respective districts, and o f course will be almost sure o f effecting the delivery of every letter to its direction. This will supercede the present costly system o f advertising. It will also greatly diminish the proportion o f dead let ters, now amounting to upwards o f two millions a year, which is a dead loss, to the department, including expenses, o f $200,000, nearly the whole o f which will be avoided by the general adoption of prepayment. In England, with six V O L . X X I I . ----- S O . I . 4 50 The Practical W orking o f Cheap Postage. times our number o f letters, the dead letters are only half as many as in this country. To show the facility with which such small services can be performed for the most trifling consideration, with ready pay, observe that the cost o f deliver ing the daily papers by carriers is not more than half a dollar a year for 310 papers. The dealers in penny papers often lay up money by buying papers at 67 cents per hundred and selling them for a cent a piece, or serving them to subscribers at 6 cents per week, which they collect weekly. It may be said, and with truth, that letters require to be delivered with more care than pa pers, so that even prepaid letters will require more time. But many persons will have letter boxes at the door, properly secured, into which the carrier can drop his prepaid letters, ring the bell, and pass on. For it must not be forgotten that, when the old spirit o f exaction shall be cast out, and the spirit o f accommodation becomes the inspiring genius o f . the post-office, all reasonable and decent people will be equally as^ansioue' to, acSwimodate it, as it is to accommodate them. A nd this ri^dry o f mutual facilitation will be o f itself a stride in the progress o f sociab feflncijient- .(■?' ' j i ' Another branch o f the servicd wnich'jneeds, and' will feel the renovating effects o f cheap postage, is the arrangement, o f tiio mails, especially those which are connected with the steamboat andTmlroad lines. For example : The mails from Boston for the surrounding villages, two, three, five, or ten miles distant, are mostly sent early in the morning, and are made up over night. A large share of the letters and papers for those places are from the South, and are brought to Boston by the steamboat line from New York, which arrives after those mails are made up, but before they are actually de spatched. The consequence is, that all those letters lie in the Boston postoffice till the next mail— often 24 hours. If there is a noon mail, they get them, but too late to reply by return o f mail. The contents of the English mail, when it comes to New York, are subject to a similar detention. The remedy is, to require the traveling mail agents to sort and arrange all those mails during the passage from New York, so that they can be despatched in a moment with the outgoing morning mails for Boston. The same thing might be done to a great extent in the railroad trains, by just securing a proper apartment for the post-office in one o f the cars. Even if additional clerks should be required to perform the labor, it would be so much labor saved from the clerks in the office. And the difference o f expense would be trifling in comparison with the public advantage, and the great in crease o f correspondence which it would produce. Such a system, were it introduced, would lead to a multiplication o f mails in some proportion to the number o f trains running daily. Only simplify the process, and take away the mystery and machinery with which the business is invested, and there is no good reason why letrers should not be delivered as frequently as parcels. In connection with this would be a more reasonable provision for late posted letters. The mail now closes at Boston one hour before the departure of the train, and after that no letter can pass through the post-office for New York. But by sending half a mile, to the railroad station, a letter can be dropped in the box at the very instant of departure. A nd the mail itself is not taken from the post-office till within 20 minutes o f departure. W h y, then, may not a pocket be kept open at the post-office, in which late letters nay be de posited, for an additional postage, up to the time that the mail is taken ? Such a practice existed, by connivance, though without an additional fee, for late letters. A n d those letters, with those left at the cars, were sorted by The Practical W orking o f Cheap Postage. 51 the traveling agent during the passage to New York. But the Postmaster has legally ordered it discontinued, at some inconvenience to the public. W hat we want is a new system. A recent case will illustrate several points in this connection. The mail agents on the railroad lines had been in the practice o f receiving all letters deposited with them or in the letter box o f the car, and these letters they sorted and mailed, as far as they could. But a question arose in regard to the legality o f this practice, and the matter was referred to the general postoffice for decision. The Postmaster-General thereupon issued a circular, stating that the proper duty o f the route agents is the care and delivery o f the mails, “ but inasmuch as necessity may at times require letters to be written too late to be mailed at the office,” the route agents “ are permitted to receive and mail them,” it being “ presumed” that no person will thus deliver letters “ except in a real case o f necessity.” This order was considered by some o f the agents to be a virtual permission to refuse letters ; which produced com plaints, and the case went back to the Postmaster-General for explanation. This produced the following order, which is placed on record as a memorial o f the no-system which now governs the post-office— the fault o f the insti tution more than o f those who are compelled to administer it. P o st-O f f ic e D epartm en t, November 23c?, 1849. S ir : It is represented that some route agents on the railroads have given such construction to a circular recently issued, as to refuse to receive letters for the mail. Such is not the language or object o f that circular. Its object was to induce the com munity, as far as possible, to deposit all letters in the post-offices, where their de spatch would be most convenient and certain, but at the same time to have the agents receive those delivered to them, and to mail them as far as in their power. They will continue to receive all that are offered, and to mail to destination all that they can. Respectfully, your obedient servant, J. C o l l a m e r , Postmaster-General. It reminds one o f Mr. Adams’ famous “ Ebony and Topaz” toast, the strug gle between light and darkness, the endeavor to harmonize the spirit o f ex action with the spirit o f accommodation. W ill any one tell us what was the object aimed at by the circular, that is not given up by the explanatory or der ? The fault is in the system. The people demand accommodation, while the genius o f the system prompts to exaction. There is no way to restore consistency and uniformity o f action, but by establishing unity o f principle, in conformity with the demands o f the people. To facilitate and systematize these arrangements, and superintend their working, and keep them in order, we need a division o f the work into dis tricts, from ten to twenty in number, on a plan partly suggested by Major Hobbie’s letter. In each district there should be a deputy Postmaster-Gene ral, with a surveyor and clerk, who might have the entire direction o f the mails and routes, under the paramount orders o f the Postmaster-General. Our post-office army is now made up o f a General, three Majors, and 20,000 privates, each one o f the latter being in direct correspondence with the Chief. No service can be made effective under an organization so defective and un business like. A district deputy, with a proper force o f assistants, would have, in effect, a personal supervision o f the whole work. It would involve some additional expense, but at the same time it would greatly simplify the work, and reduce the labor and cost o f the general post-office ; and would more than pay for itself by its promptness in stopping innumerable small leaks, which now go undetected. It would give unity and consistency o f move 52 The Practical W orking o f Cheap Postage. ment to the whole work, prevent many complaints, and greatly promote the public accommodation. Perhaps it will not be out o f place to consider what may be the working o f the new system in regard to the postage o f Congress, which is now such a big affair. The Postmaster-General, in his report o f the present month, (December, 1849,) states the value o f the postage o f Congress at $792,700, in addition to the sums allowed to postmasters for distributing free letters; amounting, probably, to §150,000 more. The labor o f franking so many speeches and documents, which custom has imposed upon members o f Con gress, is felt by very many o f them to be a grievous bondage, from which they would very gladly be freed, if it could be done with honor, and without the loss o f popularity or o f political advantage. In order to have a correct understanding o f the case, it is necessary to divide the business into three classes, letters, public documents, and speeches. The letters to and from members o f Congress are very numerous, in con sequence o f their having the frank. A nd the great number o f letters they receive, and o f answers they write, may be a good illustration o f the way letters will be multiplied when every body gets what will be equivalent to the franking privilege— that is, a rate o f postage so low that no one will ever omit writing on account o f the expense o f postage. If the Congressional franking privilege be abolished in the “ A ct for establishing cheap postage,” it will not tax members with the expense o f postage on letters sent to them, because all such letters will be prepaid by the sender, who will also, if he is a gentleman, enclose a stamp to prepay the answer. Or, if Congress shall think it necessary, each member can be supplied with a certain quota o f let ter-stamps, as he is now furnished at each session with a fixed allowance o f stationery. The public documents published by Congress, for the information o f the people, have been the subject o f much censure that they do not deserve. It will be a bad day when Congress shall cease the circulation o f documen tary details of the public business. It may be that there has sometimes been an excess. But o f this Congress must be the only judge. W e must have documents published, large ones, in large numbers. A n d they must be circulated through the mail, at least to a great extent, because there is no other channel through which they can be spread to all parts o f the country. All that the friends o f cheap postage should ask is, that the expense of circu lating these documents should be paid by Congress, and not made a tax upon the letter correspondence as at present. In that case the documents would be enveloped for the mail, and each one officially stamped, “ Document o f the Sen ate,” or “ Document o f the House of Representatives.” A member, on learning the number and description o f documents allotted to his disposal, would have nothing more to do but to hand to the proper clerk a list o f names to whom they should be forwarded, and they would be directed and sent, the whole being weighed at the post-office, and. the postage charged to the House fund. I f members wish to have the documents show from whence they come, it would be easy to procure stamps with each member’s name to be applied to all his documents. The business o f franking speeches and electioneering documents will all be superceded by the provision o f stamped bands or envelopes, at one cent, for all newspapers and pamphlets not exceeding two ounces in weight. There is the whole matter o f Congressional postage, disposed o f with the emancipa tion o f members from the burden o f franking. The Practical W orking o f Cheap Postage. 53 A s soon as the system o f cheap postage shall he adopted the public will demand its extension to the ocean also. It will be a sorry blunder if our statesmen allow Great Britain to take the lead o f us in establishing “ ocean pen ny postage.” W ith 3,000,000 of citizens who were born in the old world, and half a million more coming over every year, it is an abuse for Congress to allow their correspondence with the “ loved and left beyond the sea,” to be clogged with an enormous tax. There is no reason whatever why the principles o f cheap postage should not be as well applied on the sea as on the land, and with as good success. B y establishing sea postage at two cents in all American packets and vessels, we should lay three millions o f ca pillary tubes, through which the principles and example o f our freedom would be communicated to the hearts o f the people all over Europe. The great convenience o f stamps for prepayment o f postage is well worthy o f consideration. This has not been realized in the use of stamps under the present system, because no special inducement has been offered for prepayment. W ith the existing rates o f postage it would not do to charge a double rate on unpaid letters. But with a postage o f two cents, when pre paid with stamps, and the stamps kept for sale at every post-office and every shop, their use would become universal. They would answer to remit small sums by mail. There is no trouble o f making change at the window, no loss o f money by a child in going to the post-office. In a word, the diffe rence in the ease and despatch o f business, between cheap postage and any possible modification of the present system, is as great as between a well-or dered railroad, and an old-fashioned two-horse stage, without springs, on a muddy winter road. It is hardly within the compass o f possibility that the expectations o f the friends o f cheap postage should not be much more than realized in its success. It is not credible that we should not send 120,000,000 or 130,000,000 of letters the first year ; or that we should not double again in five or six years more. W h y , Ireland, poor Ireland, in her squalid misery, without a legisla ture, and without foreign commerce, and with millions o f people who never taste o f bread— Ireland mails 28,587,090 letters in a year, under the influ ence o f cheap postage. Scotland, with but 2,628,957 inhabitants, and no great commercial center, or political metropolis, sends 28,669,169 letters yearly. Scotland and Ireland together, with 11,000,000 o f inhabitants, send 57,000,000 ; only 5,000,000 less than the number we have reached in the fourth year o f our reduced postage. Does any sensible man, who is acquainted with the working o f cheap post age in Great Britain, entertain a doubt that this system is to he adopted here ? Nothing short o f it can satisfy the reasonable demands of the peo ple. W h y delay ? W h y waste time in experiments that we know must be futile ? It will cost less money, create less complaint, and confer greater benefits, to do at once, what all must see is to be done at last. H ow many generations will honor the memory o f the thirty-first Congress, if they will make their first act o f general legislation the “ A ct to establish C h e a p P ostage .” 54 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. Art. V.— COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES. NUM BER S IX . THE CITY OF WORCESTER, Ma ss ac h u se tts. L O C A T IO N — E A R L Y S E T T L E M E N T A N D H IS T O R Y — M A N U F A C T U R E S — P R O G R E S S IN P O P U L A T IO N — W E A L T H A N D T A X A T IO N — B A N K IN G IN S T IT U T I O N S — S A V IN G S B A N K — R A IL R O A D S , E T C . T h e town, or ratlier city o f Worcester, this ancient and flourishing place having recently been admitted to the rank and liberties o f a municipal incor poration, is the shire town o f Worcester county, Massachusetts. It is situ ated 40 miles west from Boston, 50 miles east from the Connecticut River at Northampton, about half-way, therefore, between the two, 194 miles from the city o f New York, and 394 miles from Washington. The Connecticut is the nearest navigable stream o f importance. Through the valley o f W o r cester flows the Blackstone, which, with its branches, rill, rivulet, and brook, penetrates to almost every farm, and drains the whole valley. The largest body o f water in the vicinity is a pond, or rather lake, lying partly in W o r cester and partly in Salesbury township, which extends, from north to south, about four miles in length, with bold shores, dotted with islands, some o f which are said to be still clothed with their primeval forests, and whose waters, uniting with those o f H alf Moon, Round, and Flint Ponds, find an outlet in the Little Blackstone. This lake, sometimes called Long Pond, is, we are assured by the antiquarian and historian, entitled to the ancient Indian name of Quinsigamond. By this name the district, as well as the pond, are designated in the early colonial records. Like most Massachusetts towns, Worcester is lucky enough to have an origin which, without a stretch o f language, may be called ancient, and a history running far enough back into the past, to possess an interest for the antiquarian, and to perplex him with its obscurity. As early as the 18th May, 1664, a grant o f 3,200 acres, made by the colony as early as 1657 to Mr. Increase Nowell, was located on the east side o f Quinsigamond, Quansiggemuck, Quinsigamug, or Quonsigamong, which are a few o f the various readings which antiquity supplies o f this ancient name. The Indians o f this region were o f the Nipmuck, or Nipnet, Tribe, whose lands are believed to have extended over part o f the north o f Worcester county, the whole o f the southern part, into Connecticut, and, possibly, as far west as the Connecticut River.* In 1665, commissioners were appointed by the “ Great and General Court ” to make a survey, and determine if there be “ a meet place for a plantation, that it may be improved for that end, and not spoiled by granting farms.” N o survey was made until 20th October, 1668, when a report was pre sented recommending the reservation o f the site for a town, it “ being con veniently situated, and well watered with ponds and brooks, and lying near midway between Boston and Springfield, about one day’s journey from either.” The land is pronounced “ very good chesnut-tree land.” The Court there upon appointed a committee o f four to settle the town so recommended in * The reader w ho w ould learn the w hole history o f this town is referred to the w ell-w ritten and interesting “ History o f W orcester, Massachusetts.” By W i l l i a m L i n c o l n , W orcester, 1837. The City o f Worcester, Massachusetts. 55 the report. The committee held its first meeting in Cambridge, July 6, 1669, and formed a plan for the settlement, in which it was proposed to di vide the territory into ninety twenty-five acre house lo ts; that the most con venient place, nearest the middle of the town, should be set apart and im proved for placing the meeting-house for the worship of G o d ; a convenient lot o f fifty acres for the first minister should be laid out as near to it as might b e ; another lot in the next convenient place, not far from thence, for the ministry that should succeed in all future tim es; that twenty acres should be reserved, near the center, for a training field, and to build a school-house upon ; that a lot o f twenty-five acres should be appropriated for a school and school-master, to remain in that use forever; and that two hundred and fifty acres should be for the use o f the county. Thus careful was colonial wisdom, in laying the foundation o f their State, to secure religion and learning for its corner-stone, and whatever doubts po litical theory may suggest as to the policy and justice o f uniting church and State, who can fail to see that, under the circumstances, the founders o f W o r cester pursued the only wise course, and showed true foresight 1 In 1675, the work o f settlement went on with vigor, surveys were made, numerous grants confirmed, and six or seven houses erected. The settlement clustered around the “ old Indian fort,” a block house erected at an early pe riod on the ancient “ county r o a d ” to Connecticut, which passed near the pond. The time was not yet gone by when such prudence was needless. Although the Nipmuck o f Pokachoag were o f a more gentle and peaceful character than other tribes, and although the pious labors o! Elliot, who visited them in September, 1674, had not been without effect, yet overruled by their fiercer neighbors, and by the genius o f Philip, they also became a dangerous enemy. The town, from which the inhabitants had fled on the approach o f the Indians, was destroyed by them, December 2 ,1 6 7 5 . On the return o f peace vigorous efforts were made to rebuild i t ; the land, be it observed, had been before purchased o f the Indians, but one Sagamore Paunasunet not having joined in the conveyance, his title was purchased of his heirs. On the 10th September, 1674, the “ Great and General Court” permitted the “ plantation at Quansigamond to be called Worcester.” But, on the breaking out o f Queen Anne’s W ar, when danger from the Indians again threatened, the town, or rather the attempt to build, was again abandoned. “ The inhabitants fled, and the place was given up to decay.” Finally, a last successful attempt was made in 1713, and Colonel Adam W inthrop, Gershon, Jonas Rice, and others, are'th emen to whose daring, or whose enterprise, Worcester owes its first successful settlement. The first male child born in Worcester was Adonijah, the son o f Jonas Rice, on the 7th November, 1714. In 1718, it was estimated to contain fifty-eight dwell ing houses. But it is not our design to detail the past fortunes so much as the present prosperity o f Worcester. In all the struggles and dangers o f Indian and French wars, in the trials and perils which afforded so useful, not to say ne cessary, a preparation to the people o f colonial America for the revolutionary struggle that was coming on, the citizens o f Worcester shared fully and hon orably. Worcester was, in fact, a sort of interior capital o f the State, the center of the more western counties, and, from the beginning of the contest o f words 56 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. and negotiation to the end o f that o f the sword, its citizens never failed to respond to the call o f patriotism from the eastern capital, Boston. On the 21st October, l^GS, the town instructed its fepresentatives to join in no measure countenancing the Stamp Act. A t the same time the people o f Worcester, through their grand jury, with the discrimination o f the true patriot, condemned the rioters who destroyed the property o f Governor Hutchinson, in Boston. The tax on tea called forth from Worcester a cry o f indignation and re monstrance, and a spirit of resistance full as deep and strong as from any other place. Many o f the inhabitants entered into an agreement not to buy any European commodity but what was absolutely necessary; “ that we will not at funerals use any gloves, except those made here, or purchase any article o f mourning but what shall be absolutely necessary.” They consented to abandon the use o f all foreign tea, “ which are clearly superfluous, our own fields abounding in herbs more healthful.” A convention o f ladies, animated by the spirit o f these resolutions, held at Boston, recommended the Labrador tea (Ledum Palustre) as a substitute. Worcester was the home o f many obstinate tories as well as zealous whigs. Chandler, whose family was distinguished in the early history o f the town, and Putnam, a most able lawyer, put forth their strength to check the spirit o f rebellion; but, after a struggle, the rogated party was prostrated. The energy and vigilance o f such men as Timothy Bigelow, Jonas Hubbard, and a little later of Isaiah Thomas, insured the triumph o f the whigs. In March, 1775, minute men were organized, who trained half a day in each week. The tradition is yet preserved in many o f the villages o f W o r cester, o f a horseman mounted on a white horse, death’s messenger, if not death, who came riding into town on the morning of the 19th April, 1775, shouting, as he passed, “ To arms ! to arm s! the Avar is begun !” W hen he reached the church his horse fell exhausted, his white sides red with blood, and wet with sweat. That day, one hundred and ten men, under Captain Bigelow, marched from Worcester. In the daring and disastrous march against Quebec, Arnold was joined by Major Bigelow, Captain Hubbard, and twelve men from Worcester. From the Kennebec, the heroic Hubbard wrote to his wife :— “ I know not whether I shall ever see you again. The weather grows severe cold, and the woods, they say, are terrible to pass; but I do not value life or property, if I can secure liberty for m y children.” The ter rible forests were passed, but the “ son o f liberty ” fell in the attack at the head o f his command. l i e refused to be removed from the falling snow and flying balls. “ I came here to serve with you, I will stay here to die with you,” were his dying words. It was to Worcester that Isaiah Thomas took refuge from the persecution which the patriotic tone o f the “ Massachusetts Spy ” called down upon him at Boston. His press having been previously removed in secret, after a busy day at Lexington on the 19th, where Mr. Thomas was with the militia, mus ket in hand, he journeyed all night, and reached Worcester the next day. The Spy, then first published at Worcester, has been continued to this day, running a career ancient and honorable. The activity and industry o f Isaiah Thomas, succeeded in building up one o f the most extensive, and, we think, earliest printing and publishing establishments in the country. His “ His tory o f Printing,” in two octavo volumes, was published at Worcester in 1810. A copy of the New Testament in the original, bearing the colophon “ Wigormal, Massachusetteusi, Excudebat Isaias Thomas, Jr., April, 1800,” The City o f Worcester, Massachusetts. 57 is now in our possession, and is valued as the first American edition of that work, and one o f the first Greek hooks printed in America. On the 14th July, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was received at Worcester. It was publicly read by Isaiah Thomas. On Monday following, the first fourth o f July celebration in Worcester took place. A m ong the toasts were— 1. Prosperity and perpetuity to the United States of America. 4. His Excellency, George Washington. 6. Commodore Hopkins. 13. Sore eyes to all tories, and a chestnut-burr for an eye-stone. 14. Perpetual itching without the benefit o f scratching, to the enemies o f America, &c.— somewhat coarse, but just. Any great historical picture, if you scan it closely, betrays such little coarseness, why not that o f the Revolution ? In the course o f the war Worcester furnished the army with one colonel, two lieutenant colonels, two majors, seven captains, ten lieutenants, five en signs, twenty sergeants, and three hundred and eighty-nine privates. N o sooner was the Revolution over than the citizens o f Worcester were called upon to pass through another trial, which visited all the colonies in a degree, but only at one or two points led to peril to the State. The Revo lution left behind it financial ruin. There was no trade— there were no man ufactures— there was no currency. It was, indeed, a commercial crisis, as well as a political one. The two were blended together, and the former came well nigh inducing a political crisis dangerous to liberty. W orcester was the seat and center o f Shay’s rebellion, as it has been called, not from the disaffection o f its own citizens, but because being the capital, in fact, o f the district, the seat o f justice, where the courts were held, it became the first point o f attack for the seditious, whose object was to prevent the prosecution o f suits, and whose excuse was the ruined condition of all classes, which ren dered the payment of debts, de fa cto, impossible, and their prosecution, de ju re, somewhat of a farce, and almost an oppression. The arguments which can justify a general bankrupt law, may almost palliate Shay’s rebellion. “ In 1784,” says Lincoln, “ more than 2,000 actions were entered in the county o f Worcester, then having a population less than 50,000, and in 1785, about 1,700. Lands and goods were seized and sacrificed on sale, when the general difficulties drove away purchasers. For some weeks the insurgents held possession o f the town, which, how ever, they abandoned about the 8th December, 1786. The remnants of their forces under Shay, at Petersham, were broken up, and the insurrection brought to an end by a bold and sudden movement o f General Benjamin Lincoln, who, at the head o f 4,400 men, by a forced march which has been pro nounced one o f the most “ indefatigable ever performed in Am erica”— a march o f thirty miles performed in one intensely cold and snowy night, fell upon them as if from the clouds, and routed them without firing a gun, on the 4th February, 1787. The career and progress of Worcester, during the long years o f peace that followed, more pleasant than interesting in the recital, are best seen in the recital o f its present prosperity. Worcester is the center o f one of the richest and most productive agri cultural regions in Massachusetts, and few towns in the State produce a greater variety o f manufactured articles, or a larger amount, if wo take into view the fact that there is not a single chartered company for manufacturing purposes in the city, all being carried on by individual skill, capital, and en terprise. W e have no later official data than a document prepared from the re 58 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States . turns o f the assessors by the Hon. J ohn G . P a l f r e y , late Secretary o f the Commonwealth o f Massachusetts, for the year ending April 1, 1845. The four or five years that have elapsed since that time, have not only added some new branches o f industry, and increased the number in several o f those then in operation, but extended the operations of almost every branch o f manufactures in this rural and industrial city. From these returns we de rive the following particulars o f the productions, &c., o f Worcester for the year 1845. The returns for the year 1850, would doubtless show an in crease in the aggregate, o f from one-third to one-half in the value o f the manufactured articles. Cotton mills, 3 ; spindles, 4,800; cotton consumed, 360,000 lbs.; sheetings manufac tured, 637,597 yards; value, $*36,944; cotton yarn manufactured, and not made into cloth, 2,100 lbs.; value. §410; cotton thread manufactured, 21,500 lbs.; value, §7,830; capital invested, §53,200; males employed, 4 2 ; females employed, 35. Woolen mills, 6 ; sets of machinery, 11; wool consumed, 307,550 lbs.; broadcloth manufactured, 88,960 yards ; value, §124,540 ; satinet, 166,000 yards ; value, §72,500; males employed, 72; females employed, 61. Mills for the manufacture of carpeting, 1. Furnaces for the manufacture of hollow ware and castings, other than pig iron, 3 ; hollow ware and castings manufactured, 1,750 tons ; value, §134,500; capital invested, §47,500; persons employed, 135. Establishments for the manufacture of cotton, woolen, and other machinery, 12; value of machinery manufactured, §310,000; capital invested, §89,800; persons em ployed, 239. Lock manufactories, 2; Jocks manufactured, 19,200 ; value, §6,000; capital invested, §2,700; persons employed, 11. Plough manufactories, 1; ploughs and other agricultural tools manufactured, 8,000; value, §48,000: capital invested, §10,000 ; persons employed, 35. Brass foundries, 1; value of articles manufactured, §2,000; capital invested, §400; persons employed, 3. Paper manufactories, 1 ; stock consumed, 450,000 lbs.; paper manufactured, 300,000 lb s .; value, §30,000; capital invested, §11,000; persons employed, 12. Saddle, harness, and trunk manufactories, 4 ; value of articles manufactured, §7,500; capital invested, §2,000; persons employed, 12. Hat and cap manufactories, 5 ; hats and caps manufactured, 14,182 ; value, §24,752 ; capital invested, §11,600; persons employed, 32. Cordage manufactories, 1: cordage manufactured, 14 tons; value, §4,000; capital invested, §1,500; persons employed, 4. Card manufactories, 2 ; value of cards manufactured, §22,000; capital invested, §7,000 ; persons employed, 8. Establishments for the manufacture of railroad coaches and other vehicles, 5 ; value of vehicles manufactured, §221,100; capital invested, §67,450; persons employed, 127. Soap and tallow candle manufactories, 2 ; soap manufactured, 800 bbls.; value, §3,200; tallow candles manufactured, 10,000 lbs.; value, §900; capital invested, §2,000; persons employed, 4. Chair and cabinet ware manufactories, 3 ; value of articles manufactured, §27,500; capital invested, §15,500 ; persons employed, 28. Tin ware manufactories, 6 ; value of ware, §38,500; capital invested, §8,600; per sons employed, 26. Boots manufactured, 140,000 pairs ; shoes, 143,000 pairs ; value of boots and shoes, §288,550 ; males employed, 566 ; females employed, 119. Straw bonnets and hats manufactured, 4,000 ; value, §10,000; female employed, 10. Bricks manufactured, 5,600,000 ; value, §28,000 ; persons employed, 40. Value of snuff, tobacco, and cigars manufactured, §4,000; persons employed, 8. Value of building stone quarried and prepared, §23,500; persons employed, 51. Value of whips manufactured, §1,500; persons employed, 2. Value of mechanics’ tools manufactured, §12,000; persons employed, 8. Value of wooden ware manufactured, §7,250; persons employed, 10. Lumber prepared, 500,000 feet; value, §6,000; persons employed, 8. Fire wood prepared, 2,644 cords ; value, §9,254 ; persons employed, 8. The City o f Worcester , Massachusetts. 59 Sperm oil consumed in manufacturing, 7,660 gallons; value, $7,660 ; all other kinds of oil, 750 gallons; value, $600; anthracite coal consumedin manufacturing, 577 tons ; value, $4,6] 6 ; bituminous coal consumed, 85 chaldrons; value, $935 ; value of all other articles of American production, excepting cotton, wool, and iron, consumed in manufac turing $110,000; value of all other articles of foreign production consumed, excepting as above, $45,000. Value of letter presses manufactured, $3,500; capital invested, $1,600; persons employed, 4. Value of machine card presses manufactured, $18,000; capital invested, $5,000; persons employed, 4. Value of hand card presses manufactured, $4,000; capital invested, $2,000; persons employed, 4. Value of patent water wheels manufactured, $5,000; capital invested, $3,000; per sons employed, 5. Value of sashes, doors, and blinds manufactured, $16,500; capital invested, $8,500 ; persons employed, 23. Value of fancy boxes manufactured, $2,500; capital invested, $500; persons em ployed, 5. Value of sieves and wire work manufactured, $8,000; capital invested, $3,000 ; persons employed, 11. Value of paper hangings manufactured, $6,500; capital invested, $2,500; persons employed, 7. Value of window blind hangings and fastenings manufactured, $2,400; capital in vested, $400; persons employed, 3. Value of musical instruments manufactured, $300; capital invested, $100; persons employed, 1. Value of marble monuments manufactured, $5,000; capital invested, $2,200; persons employed, 7. Value of Japan and varnish manufactured, $7,500; capital invested, $1,000; persons employed, 1. Value of silver plated ware manufactured, $1,500; capital invested, $500; persons employed, 2. Value o f reeds and harnesses manufactured, $8,000; capital invested, $1,500; per sons employed, 25. Value of nuts and washers manufactured, $1,500 ; capital invested, $1,000; persons employed, 2. Value of trusses manufactured, $350; capital invested, $1,000; persons employed, 1. Value o f umbrellas manufactured, $4,500 ; capital invested, $3,000 ; persons em ployed, 6. Value of copper and wood pumps manufactured, $2,500; capital invested, $700; persons employed, 6. Value of cotton carpeting manufactured, $26,000; capital invested, $7,000; persons employed, 11. Value of card wire manufactured, $110,000 ; capital invested, $60,000; persons em ployed, 51. W e passed some time in Worcester during the past season, and visited several o f the manufacturing establishments; and, among others, the wire manufactory o f Mr. Ichabod Washburn. This establishment has been in operation about 17 years, employs 50 hands, and turns out from 300 to 500 tons o f the various sizes, including card, reed, cotton flyer, annealed, broom, buckle, and spring wire ; also, all kinds o f round, flat, or oval wire, adapted to various machine purposes. The telegraphic wire manufactured at this es tablishment is made from foreign extra refined iron, which experience has shown to be more reliable than American iron, although in this respect im provements are being made. W e also visited the extensive pistol factory o f Messrs. Allen and Thurber. One hundred men are employed in the various processes o f manufacture, and every pistol goes through some twenty-five different hands, who turn out fifty per day, or nearly 15,000 per annum. The California speculation has CO Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. created a great demand for this article, and its reliable quality has secured for Messrs. Allen and Thurber a ready market for all that they are able to turn out. Every pistol is tested before it is sold. For beauty and strength we believe that these pistols stand unrivalled in the market. The progress o f Worcester in population and wealth since 1840 has been remarkable. Few cities in the New England States, if we except Lowell, Lawrence, &c., which have been built up by incorporated capital invested in extensive manufactures, show a greater increase in population or in wealth. W e here subjoin a table exhibiting the population in different years from 1763 to 1849. The census in each year from 1790 to 1840 is the official, as shown by the census o f the United States, and that for 1S45, by the State. The census o f 1847 was taken by Worcester, preparatory to applying for a city charter. For 1849, we have given an estimate, based on the official census o f 1845 and 1847. The progress in wealth, or in the increased val uation o f property, is equally remarkable, especially during the last nine or ten years, as will be seen by the subjoined table:— POPULATION AND VALUATION OF PROPERTY FROM Years. 1163___ 1116___ 1190....... 1800....... 1810........ 1820........ 1830........ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1763 Population. Val.of prop. Years. 1,418 1840........... R925 1845............ 2,095 1846............ 2^411 $296,542 1841............ 2,511 1,416,383 1848........... 2,962 2,015,150 1849............ 4,112 2,141,8001 TO 1849. Population. VaL of prop. 1,491 84,2S8,950 6J)04^050 11,556 l,116'l00 1,690^850 15,643 8,121,100 10,150,282 W e cannot, perhaps, give a better idea o f the distribution o f wealth in an inland city, in one o f the most wealthy States in the Union, than by pub lishing a list of the persons who paid a tax in 1849 upon $20,000 and up wards. The property o f the wealthiest man in the city, it will be seen, is valued at $511,000. The valuation is probably below the market value. The following schedule embraces the name o f ninety-one individuals and firms in the city of Worcester, the valuation o f whose property amounts each to $20,000 and upwards, with the amount o f tax assessed upon each, at the rate o f $6 75 per $1,000 :— Valuation. Stephen Salisbury. Sarah W aldo........ Isaac Davis........... Elizabeth Salisbury Tax. $511,000 $3,449 25 R’gles, Nourse cfc Co 145,100 919 42 Fred. W. Paine... . 143,150 910 34 Est. Eliz. Waldo.. . 143,200 966 60 Ephraim M ower... 139,054 928 61 Wm. A. Wheeler.. 809 i i Wm. T. Merrifield. 12l'350 Icliabod Washburn 115,850 181 98 F. H. Kinnicutt. . . . L. & E. L. Barnard. 111,290 151 20 Abiel Jaques......... John G reen.. . . . . 101,300 683 11 Wm. M. Bickford.. George Bowen___ 94,000 634 50 John W. Lincoln.. Charles Paine........ 89,900 606 82 Pliny Merrick........ Henry Goulding . . 86,100 585 22 Est. Amos Brown.. Bradley Rice... . 11,000 519 10 James Estabrook.. Sam’l M. Burnside. 508 11 George T. Bice.. . . 16,550 Fox, Rice & Co.. . . 10,000 412 50 Samuel H. Colton. Charles Washburn. 381 21 Tucker & Bonney.. 51,300 386 43 57,250 Willard Browu.... 384 21 Ira M. Barton......... 56^930 Edwin Conant. . . . 311 25 Albert Brown........ 55,000 Alfred D. Foster.. 369 22 John F. Pond........ 54,100 John Davis............ 359 50 Charles Thurber. . 53,260 Valuation. $53,150 53,000 52,106 50,610 49,110 49J00 48,500 41,150 41,000 44,020 43,800 42,850 41,000 40,650 40,630 40,500 39.850 31^250 31,000 36,300 36,150 Tax. $358 351 355 342 331 331 321 318 311 291 295 288 216 214 214 213 268 251 250 245 244 16 15 16 02 49 42 31 26 25 13 12 63 15 38 25 31 98 43 25 02 12 The City o f Worcester, Massachusetts. Benj. F. Heywood. Samuel Davis........ Daniel Goddard. . . Geo. A. Trumbull.. Horatio N. Tower.. Est. Kebec’a Waldo Francis T. Merrick. George Hobbs. . . . Wm. Dickinson___ Rejoice N ew ton.. . Perley Goddard. . . Simeon Burt.......... Thos. Kinnicutt.. . . E. H. Hemmenway Horatio Phelps___ E. P. .Partridge.. . . Lewis Bigelow___ ElijjjM-Eliigg.......... t. DaStiieJl Waldo. .Samuel IX Harding Fjrancis Ll.-pfewey. Safnuel Perry........ ' >Charles Allen . . . ' Edward Earje........ Wiljiam ijrfw n . . . V V .. • ' Valuation. 135,700 35,300 35,110 34;850 34,100 33,317 33,100 32,900 32,000 31,285 30,000 30,000 29,700 29,700 29,500 29,400 29,260 29,220 29,000 28,950 28,450 28,220 28,130 27,615 26,400 s/ Tax. $239 238 236 233 230 224 223 228 216 210 202 202 200 200 199 198 197 197 195 195 190 190 189 186 178 97 27 99 23 17 88 42 07 00 97 50 50 47 47 12 45 50 23 75 41 68 48 87 40 20 John Hammond. . . James H. W all... . Artem’s Ward, 2d. Simon S. Gates. . . L. & S. P. Harring’n Paine Aldrich... . . W m. Harrington. . B. L. Hardon & Co. Frederic W. Gale.. Geo. W.Kichardson A. M. Merrifield... C. A. <fcE. Harring’n E. T. Balcom b.__ Horace Chenery... Abijah Bigelow. . . William C. Clark.. David S. Messinger J. & B. Harrington. Alvin Waite........... Jonathan Grout. . . George Chandler.. Kinnicut <Ss Co___ Benjamin Buffum.. A. Chamberlin___ 61 Valuation. $26,025 25,755 25,650 25,600 25,400 25,300 25,200 25,200 24,800 24,400 24,375 23,750 23,300 22,883 22,260 22,250 22,100 21,510 21,100 21,050 20,300 20,000 20,000 20,000 Tax. $176 173 173 172 171 170 170 170 167 164 164 160 157 151 150 150 149 145 142 142 137 135 135 135 66 84 13 80 45 77 10 10 40 70 53 31 27 08 25 18 17 19 42 08 02 00 00 00 NON-RESIDENTS. Valuation. n and Worcester Railroad............................. George Brinley, Hartford........................................ Heirs P. Amidon, Boston........................................ Worcester and Nashua Railroad............................ Western Railroad................................................... Providence and Worcester Railroad..................... Catholic C ollege...................................................... Edward Lamb, Boston............................................ $100,400 16,000 34,000 29,900 28,200 26,000 24,000 24,000 $677 513 229 203 190 175 152 152 70 00 50 82 35 50 00 00 As we have given the “ upper twenty thousand,” we may as well subjoin the “ upper ten thousand,” who pay a tax upon $10,000 and upwards, but below $20,000. Should either o f the classes o f “ uppers ” discover any in justice in the valuation o f tht-'r. property, that if is either overtpr under esti mated, we will cheerfully, s® . tjip matter to. right; hj a future number o f our journal; remarking, at the same time, that” th e' errols, i f any, have been committed by the assessors, and. not by $he.e3jtbr.o* the Merchants? M aga zine. The worthy citizens of tVorsester.whc af& het”t enrolled in either of the lists must console themselves with the/eflection that they have a smaller tax to pay, and that they constitute an cvevwfjelming majority of its popu lation. Allen tfc Thurber.. Baker, Smith......... Bangs, Mary G.. . . Barber, Wm. & Sil’s Billings, Samuel... Bliss, Harrison. . . . Brittan, Josiah. . . . Bigelow, W. & Son. Bowen, Charles___ Bowen, Eben. H .. . Bartlett, Stephen.. Bigelow, W. R . . . . Valuation. $18,500 10,600 17,600 12,150 14,400 17,280 19,350 19,250 10,345 18,560 11,200 16,400 Tax. $124 88 73 05 118 80 85 01 98 70 118 16 132 11 132 83 71 36 126 83 77 10 112 20 Barnes, A. P .......... Brooks, Silas......... Bryant, Ira............ Brooks, Nath......... Butman, Benj........ Brown, Wm. & A.. Buffum, Benj.......... Boy den, Jos........... Chamberlin, H. H. Chapman, J.’s Est. Coes, L. & A. G . . . Corey, John........... Valuation. $11,200 12,700 12,500 15,810 19,600 14,600 17,100 19,700 17,100 12,000 12,650 11,700 Tax. $77 10 87 23 85 88 108 27 133 81 98 56 116 93 134 48 116 93 81 00 88 39 80 48 62 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. Curtis, Beriah . . . . Chapmin, Henry.. . Chase, Anthony. . . Corbett, Otis.......... Davis <fc Tourtellot. Draper & Clark. . . Draper Wm. A ___ Dixie, E. F ............. Earle, John Milton. Eaton, William___ Earle, T. K. C o... . Fox, Wm. B........... Fletcher, J o e l........ Flagg, Joel............ Fisher, W. A .......... Green, Jas. & C o .. Hathaway, Ruth. . Hooper, Wm. R . . . Harrington, Eben . Hardon, B. L ......... Hammond, Perley. Hadwin, Charles... Heywood, B.’s H’rs Jennison, Samuel.. Jennison, W m ..... Litch, Joel H ........ Lincoln, D. W . . . . Lamb, Edward___ Miller, Henry W .. Morse, Mason H . . Mason, Joseph___ Merrifield, Alpheus Mann, John............ Valuation. $10,670 11,400 18,000 13,700 10,600 14,700 14,120 18,700 11,700 10^500 12,200 11,050 19,300 12,500 10,250 13,800 15,000 16,700 18^400 11,000 12/760 18^660 17,500 19,200 10,600 11,150 14,600 19,500 18,900 12,690 10^650 16,620 11,680 16,400 16,700 15,450 15,850 13,150 Tax. $73 50 78 45 123 00 93 78 70 88 99 23 96 79 127 73 78 98 72 38 83 85 74 59 131 67 85 88 70 69 94 65 101 25 120 31 124 20 75 75 87 68 127 50 118 13 85 88 73 05 76 79 98 55 133 13 129 08 88 46 73 39 113 66 80 37 112 20 114 23 105 79 108 49 90 26 Morgan, W illiam .. Morse, Adolphus.. JNewton, H ester... O’Keefe, Patrick... Parkhurst, Nat . . . Patch, Wm. M . . . . Parker, W m .......... Paine, Gardiner. . . Putnam, Samuel... Prentiss, Charles G. Pouty, Calvin........ Perry, J. G .& D .H . Rice & Goddard . . Rice. Edward B. . . Spurr, S.’s Heirs.. . Sargent, Joseph ... Scott, Samuel B.. . Stebbens, O. F. . . . Stowell & So n . . . . Simmons, John... . Thomas, Benj. F.. . Tolman, A lb ert.. . Taft, A. & S. M . . . Vose, Mrs., child’n . Walker, Asa.......... Univ’rsalist Socie’y Warden, John___ Wesson, W. R . __ Whiting, Israel. . . Washburn, H. S . . White, Charles . . . Warren, J. G ......... NON-RESIDENTS. Roland, ’iV ljfa i.j ..* •. ISJOAS; * 108 00. Nor. <St Wo(. BSiii’cf • \ foftoo • • *67 50 Denny, Daniel.. . . JM0Q . .105 SO Damon, Samuel.. . w op ‘. l 2 , w De Witt, Alexand’r 0. • ••94 €0 , . Valuation. $10,160 15,200 14,500 11,500 10,150 16,280 18,600 24,790 10,280 13,900 16,200 10,700 15,350 21,100 11,560 12,000 19,150 16,420 10^700 10,900 1R470 11,000 14,540 11,700 12,400 10,800 10,660 15,500 10,300 10,700 16^600 12,500 12,600 12,900 16.350 14,800 10,250 Tax. $70 13 104 10 97 88 79 13 70 01 114 20 127 05 170 58 70 91 95 33 110 85 73 73 106 61 142 43 79 58 81 00 130 76 112 31 77 73 15 08 80 40 74 25 102 60 80 48 85 20 72 90 75 00 104 63 71 03 73 75 112 05 85 88 86 55 88 69 111 S6 101 63 70 69 •• fiaHe, . : ’ &ale, tfyrus........... H .......... H$st jn*Jg, Rufus.. . Rdbin^Sn, Jer........ 13,000 10,600 11,300 10,550 17,750 87 71 76 71 119 75 55 28 21 81 B a n k in g I nstitutions . T fi'jrj'j'i'c five incorporated banks in Worcester, (besides an institution for savings*) with an aggregate capital o f $650,000. The Central, the Quinsigamond, and the Mechanics’, have each a capital of $100,000, the Worcester Bank has a capital o f $200,000, and the Citizen’s a capital o f $150,000. T he W orcester C ounty I nstitution f o r S a v in g s , located in the city o f Worcester, was incorporated in 1828, and commenced business the same year. It pays interest at the rate o f 4 per cent per annum. The dividends are made in January and July, and, if not called for under three months, are added to the principal and placed on interest. After appropriating the amount o f the semi-annual dividends, the surplus income is divided every fifth year, and placed in the same manner to the accounts which have ex isted for one or more years, in equitable proportion. For the following state The City o f Worcester , Massachusetts. 63 ment o f the deposits and payments for twenty-one years, (including the div idends in the receipts,) we are indebted to the politeness o f Samuel Jennison, Esq., the trustworthy Treasurer o f the institution:— Years. 1829___ 1830___ 1831___ 1832___ 1833 . . . 1834___ 1 8 3 5 .... 1836___ 1837___ 1838___ 1839___ 1840___ Deposits. 7,795 16 11,902 47 29,087 63 50,371 59 52,659 65 68,093 30 113,572 55 98,102 67 75,519 21 69,814 34 146,012 54 98,337 9 3 ' P’d depos’s. 1,999 00 2,227 54 3,659 23 7,780 60 18,999 00 28,239 26 32,628 90 48,517 77 61,941 74 64,522 50 87,594 33 70,951 83 Years. 1841___ 1842___ 1843___ 1844___ 1845___ 1846___ 1847___ 1848___ 1849___ Total.. Deposits. $121,264 39 141,279 59 143,717 51 297,118 19 246,446 01 223,920 17 233,365 05 237,640 73 293,044 05 P’d depos’s. $56,640 48 70,291 39 91,728 25 122,327 59 114,732 89 164,414 15 149,999 97 215,304 31 274,403 81 2,759,064 73 1,678,894 54 The following table shows the state o f the Worcester County Institution for Savings on the 11th o f April, 1849, as per the Treasurer’s official re port :— The Treasurer charges himself for amount due to 6,514 depositors, and credited on their accounts.............................................................. For balance due to sundry depositors, not on interest.......................... Dividend of January, 1849.............................................. ........................ Profits received and undivided...................................................... . . . . . Total.......... ..................................................................................... And is credited— By amount o f bankstock........................................................................... By United Statesstock............................................................................... By notes of the county of Worcester, and of towns........................... By notes secured by pledge of Boston Water Loan........................... By notes secured by pledge o f bank stock............................................ By notes secured by mortgage of real estate........................................ By notes with personal security............................................................... By cash......................................................................................................... Total................................................................................................ $1,059,124 1,027 20,487 3,784 13 20 01 69 $1,084,423 03 137,830 102,700 176,819 6,900 32,600 547,531 75,692 4,350 00 00 07 00 00 16 44 36 $1,084,423 03 R a il r o a d s . Worcester is the center o f an extensive railroad system, a circumstance that has contributed, in no small degree, to the recent rapid growth in population and wealth. The railroads o f five distinct corpora tions center or terminate at Worcester, namely, the Boston and Worcester, the Western, which connects with the former, and extends from Worcester to the west line o f the Massachusetts, in the town o f W est Stockbridge, where, by means o f the Albany and W est Stockbridge Road, it forms a con tinuous line to Albany and Buffalo; the Norwich and Worcester, connecting with the Boston and Worcester, and forming a direct railroad and steamboat line between Boston and New York, by the steamers from Allyn’s Point, six miles below N orw ich; the Providence and Worcester, between the two cities, and connecting at Worcester with the several roads centering there, and at Providence with the Stonington R o a d ; and finally the Worcester and Nashua, extending from the former to the last named place. The Worcester and Nashua, the Norwich and Worcester, and the Providence and Worcester Roads pass through a great number o f thriving manufacturing villages. That our readers may have a clear idea of the connection o f Worcester, by means o f these roads, with the different places on their several routes, we subjoin a tabular statement o f each road as follows :— 64 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. I>LACE3, DISTANCES, AND FARES ON THE PROVIDENCE AND WORCESTER RAILROAD, FROM WORCESTER. Fares. Miles. Fares. Places. Miles. Places. .. 254 SO 80 Worcester....................... Waterford....................... 0 85 Woonsocket.................... i $0 15 27 Grand Junction............. 0 85 6 0 25 Hamlet............................ 274 Milbury........................... 0 95 0 30 Manville......................... 30 4 Sutton............................. 84 32 1 00 0 30 A lbion............................. 9 Grafton............................ 38-J1 10 0 35 A sh ton ........................... Farnum’s ......................... 10 4 364 1 20 0 40 Lonsdale.......................... North Bridge................... 124 1 20 16f 0 55 Valley Falls................... 374 W hitins.......................... 1 25 38J 0 60 Pawtucket..................... U xbridge....................... 184 1 30 0 75 Providence..................... 23 Millville........................... 434 25 0 80 Blackstone..................... PLACES, DISTANCES, AND FARES ON THE WESTERN RAILROAD. Miles Miles, from Boston. Fares. Places. Places. from Boston. Fares. .... 40 $1 00 Middlefield..................... Worcester....................... $3 60 1 25 Becket............................. 135 53 Clappville....................... 1 40 W ashington.................... 138 3 70 Cliarleton......................... 57 62 1 50 Hinsdale......................... 143 3 85 Spencer........................... 146 3 90 1 60 Dalton............................. 64 East Brookfield.............. 151 4 00 1 70 Pittsfield*....................... 67 South Brookfield............ 154 4 20 69 1 75 Shaker Village.............. West Brookfield............ 159 4 35 73 1 85 Richmond....................... Warren............................ .. 4 45 162 . . . . State Linef.................... Brimfield......................... 4 60 167 83 2 10 Canaan............................. Palmer............................. 4 70 92 172 2 40 East Chatham............... Wilbraham..................... 4 80 98 2 50 Chatham four Corners^. 177 Springfield............ , . . . , 181 4 90 100 West Springfield........... 2 60 Chatham Center............ 184 4 95 108 2 80 Kinderkook..................... W estfield....................... 116 192 5 00 3 05 Scliodack......................... Russell............................. 119 200 5 00 3 15 Albany............................. Chester Village............. 126 3 35 Chester Factories........... PLACES, DISTANCES, AND FARES ON THE NORWICH AND WORCESTER ROAD FROM WORCESTER. Fares. Miles. Places. Miles. Fares. Places. 26 80 70 Pomfret........................... Worcester....................... 0 75 i $0 05 Daysville....................... Grand Junction............. 314 0 85 34 0 12 Danielsonville................ Auburn............................ 44 40 1 00 0 25 Central Village.............. O xford............................ Hi 1 10 I4 f 43 0 35 Plainfield....................... North V illage................ 1 25 494 16 0 35 Jewett City.................... W ebster......................... 1 50 58 0 55 Greenville....................... W ilson's......................... 194 1 50 59 204 Fisherville..................... 0 55 Norwich........................... 1 75 66 0 60 Allyn’s Point.................. Mason’s ............................ 214 Thompson....................... 234 0 60 PLACES, DISTANCES, AND FARES ON THE WORCESTER AND NASHUA RAILROAD.^ Places. Worcester....................... • West Boylston............... Oakdale........................... Sterling........................... Clintonville.................... New Boston................... Lancaster........................ Miles. .. 9 10 12 16 18 19 Fares. $0 0 0 0 0 0 20 25 35 45 50 50 Places. Miles. Still River...................... Howard........................... Groton Junction............. Groton............................. Pepperell........................ H ollis............................. Nashua............................. 23 25 28 31 36 39 45 Fares. SO 0 0 0 1 1 1 65 70 80 90 00 10 25 * The Pittsfield and North Adams Road connects at this place, extending from Pitts field to North Adams, a distance of 20 miles. I The Housatonic connects at State Line. i The Hudson and Berkshire Road connects at Chatham four Corners. § This road connects, at the Groton Junction, with up and down trains of the Fitch burg, Stony Brook and Peterboro, and Sliirly Railroads; and, at Worcester, with the Norwich and Worcester, Providence and Worcester, and Western. Bankruptcy — Banking. 65 PLACES, DISTANCES, AND FAKES ON THE BOSTON AND WORCESTER ROAD, FROM WORCESTER. Places. Worcester..................... Millbury*...................... Grafton.......................... W estboro................ . Soutkboro..................... Ashland....................... Milford*........................ Holliston*.................... Framingham................ Saxonville*.................. Cochituate Village*. . . Miles. 7 13 17 21 • •♦ Fares, 1st cl’s. 0 0 0 0 15 25 35 45 ,,,, 0 50 . Places. Natick........................ West Needham.......... Grantville................... Lower Falls*............. Auburndale*.............. West Newton............ Newtonville................ Newton Corner........... Brighton...................... Cambridge.................. Boston......................... Miles. 27* 30* 31* 36 37 40 40* 45 Fares, 1st cl’s. 0 60 0 65 0 65 0 0 0 0 80 80 85 90 1 00 W e made several visits to Worcester during the last summer, and collected considerable information, which we have attempted to embody in the pre ceding pages; and, although this article has grown to a much greater length than we proposed in the outset, we have been compelled to omit many points o f interest in its industrial progress and social condition, which it would have afforded us pleasure to introduce. The fact is, with but few exceptions, we received but little aid in collecting facts and materials for that purpose from the residents o f Worcester. W e may, however, resume the subject at some future time, and should our friends in Worcester furnish us with the desired information, we shall be able to give a more comprehensive and complete account o f one o f the most interesting and important inland towns in New England. Every city or town, o f any considerable importance in the industrial scale, would do well to collect, at intervals o f one or two years, all the “ facts and figures ” bearing upon their industrial interests, and upon their moral and social condition and progress, not only for the use of the citizens, as a contribution to the general information, but for the common benefit of our common country. It will, we may remark in this connection, afford us great pleasure to embody all reliable information calculated to ex hibit the condition o f any of our large towns, wherever located, and em brace an account o f their resources in our series o f “ C om m ercial C ities and T ow ns of T he U nited S tates .” Art. VI.— B A N K R U P T C Y — B A N K I N G . Mr. F reeman H unt, E sq, Editor o f the Merchants' Magazine, etc. D e a r S ir :— The article in your Magazine for November, 1849, whose title we have placed at the head o f our communication, deserves attention for the im portance o f the subject it discusses, and for its originality. The fact which it as sumes as its basis, the extensive prevalence o f bankruptcy among the mercantile class o f society, is no doubt one o f its characteristics; whether to the extent as serted is of no importance to the argument. The cause o f the fact should, if practicable, be ascertained; but we believe the cause assigned by your corre spondent inadequate— not the true one— and the reasons which he gives for his opinion entirely fallacious. After various statements to prove the truth o f his first position, which con * Branches of the Boston and Worcester Road. VOL. XXII.----NO. I. 5 66 Bankruptcy — Banking. firm the general proposition, and go far to establish the fact that mercantile pursuits are particularly liable to the result o f bankruptcy, he reaches the conclusion that the cause o f the evil is “ the too high rate o f interest.” H e assumes his conclusion to be true, and all further investigation as useless. Let us first ascertain— what is the true nature and character o f interest— examine his reasons for his opinion, and then endeavor to assign other and better causes as reasons for the generally admitted fact, the tendency o f mer cantile pursuits to bankruptcy. Interest is the amount paid for the use o f capital in the form o f money. In the earlier days o f society the opinion prevailed that this was a proper sub ject for legal enactment, and that opinion still pervades society. There is some reason for the opinion, especially since money o f credit is so generally in use ; but were capital only used as money, then there would be no pro priety in legalizing the price o f its use, except what arises from the fact that it is the legal medium for the extinguishment o f debt. The law should cer tainly be retained in relation to those who exercise the power o f creating the money o f credit. General laws, however, still exist on the subject; but in re ality they are o f little force, the price o f money, like that o f all other com modities, is determined by the law o f supply and demand. Money being capital in a form adapted to ready conversion into all other forms, interest, or the price o f its use may be more than the price of the use o f other forms of capital; it can never be less; it may be assumed, however, that the price of the use o f money will, as a general rule, correspond to the use of other cap ital ; the rent o f lands, o f houses, and other forms of capital must correspond to the rent of money, or interest, the tendency to an equilibrium in the pro ductive power o f capital would undoubtedly bring about such a result. If, then, it is demonstrated by your correspondent that the rate o f interest is too high, the demonstration goes farther, and proves that the income de rived from all capital is too great. I f the small amount o f capital as money used by others than its owners is productive of the mischief described, then the price paid for the vastly greater amount of capital, in other forms, would long since have worked the bankruptcy of all classes o f society who use pro perty not their o w n ; the tendency to bankruptcy would have been general, and not peculiar. The first argument o f your correspondent in support o f his proposition is, that as the increase of the wealth o f the State o f New York, for ten years, from 1835 to 1845, was only 1J- per cent, per annum, upon its capital o f $531,000,000, without compounding the interest, therefore seven per cent in terest is excessive. In the first place, is any reliance to be placed upon the statistics 2 During the ten years the population o f the State has increased 30* per c e n t; to have preserved its w e a lth ie r capita, it should have been in 1845, $690,000,000, assuming it to have been in 1835, $531,000,000, while it is stated to be only $605,000,000. Now, will it be pretended that the per capita wealth o f New York in 1845 is not equal to what it was in 1835? Has the State been adding thousands o f acres o f cultivated land, building cities, constructing canals, railroads, ships, and all other forms and varieties o f permanent capital during the period, and yet its wealth,per capita, been diminishing ? The idea is ridiculous ; such statistics are not only o f no value, but positively mischievous, since, while they claim to be authoritative, they prove not only that the people o f New York cannot afford to pay 7 percent, * Sufficiently near the truth for our argument. Bankruptcy — Banking. 67 but tbat they would grow poor without paying any interest; and more, that the interest paid is abstracted from the general wealth, though paid to its own citizens ; or in other words, that capital is o f no advantage to the results o f labor. Doubtless something is to be attributed to the great expansion of price in 1835 ; but statistics which militate against all the known facts o f ex perience are o f no possible value or use. The same disposition may be made o f the statistics of Massachusetts ; they are o f no avail in the argument. His allusion to “ Kellogg on Labor and other Capital” leads us to say with your correspondent, it is “ a work well worthy attentive perusal and study, because it discusses the great subjects o f currency and finance, subjects with which so ciety are yet in almost utter ignorance, but which are the basis of economic science,” and not because its principles are true, its reasons logical, or its sug gestions original. The next proposition which forms the basis o f your correspondent’s argu ment is, that as society cannot afford to pay interest upon its whole capital, therefore it cannot pay interest upon any portion which might be added, and which might give increased activity to the whole. The general public is but an aggregation o f individuals ; what is true o f the individual must be true of the aggregate. Labor is the primal cause o f all increase o f wealth; but mere labor is a weak instrument o f production, compared with itself, in combina tion with capital. The farmer without a plough, and the artizan without tools or materials, are examples o f the former, and with them o f the latter ; it would be difficult to persuade either of these parties, destitute o f the capi tal necessary to make their labor productive, that 7 per cent per annum was unwise in them to pay, or unreasonable in others to receive, for the use o f the capital without which their capital, labor, would be either wasted, or o f little avail. If it quadrupled, as it would, the product o f their labor, your corres pondent, with all his sophistry, would hardly be able to induce them to fore go its use, because its proprietor demanded one fourteenth, not o f the gene ral result, but o f the sum which he contributed to its production; while both the plough, and the tools, and materials, remain to repay the principal when required. A nd though society, if entirely destitute o f capital, and obliged to borrow its whole stock, might not be able to pay 7 per cent, while in dulging in its present liberal consumption o f the products o f its industry, in combination with its borrowed capital, yet it might pay interest at the present rate, and yet be in a better situation than if entirely destitute o f capital, and dependent upon mere labor for the supply o f its wants. But all such comparisons are ideal m erely; capital is civilization ; without it man is a savage; like all other commodities, its value must depend upon the law of supply and demand. N o man is compelled to use it, and no one has a right to its use except with the consent o f its owner ; to encourage its accumulation is the method to reduce its price; that isralso the wisdom o f the State, since its accumulation is the basis o f civilization, and the larger the accumulation the less will be its value, and the more facile its appropriation by those, who in the order o f Providence, are without it. Your correspondent further alleges that the fact that though interest up on our debts is payable to our own citizens, and not to those o f another coun try, yet this “ serves only to cover up the fatal wound.” This is mere dog matism, obviously; if interest were payable out o f the country, its tendency would be constantly to diminish capital, and thus increase its price, especially on his assumption that the amount of interest is greater than its advantage to la bor ; and not only that, but it would diminish the value o f our labor, since Bilb arts Practical Treatise on Banicing. 68 its expenditure, for which only it is desired, and by which alone it can be made productive, would go to employ the labor o f other countries, whi le if expended at home it would increase the demand for, and value of, our own labor, as well as increase the amonnt of, and thus diminish the value of, cap ital. “ Money does not produce— does not increase o f itself” — its only “ accumu lation is that of rent.” Neither do houses, nor lands, nor labor saving ma chinery ; they do not only not increase, they perish if labor is not bestowed upon them, not only for their preservation, but for their occupation ; so mo ney, if left idle, is of no value, and in this condition commands no interest. Human hands and human skill, if not exercised, produce nothing ; are they, therefore, o f no value, and is their use and exercise worthy o f no reward ? The burden o f interest upon our debts must be borne by p r o d u c tio n d o e s not capital produce ? The railroad and the spinning jenny are capital; do not they produce when they transport commodities which must otherwise be car ried on men’s backs, or make yarn which would otherwise be twisted with the fingers? The only value to capital is its power o f production ; who would pay for that which would produce nothing. Capital is the coordinate of la bor, its aid and friend, equally necessary with labor to any adequate supply of human wants; neither can produce without the other, and every effort to array them in opposition to each other is treason to humanity. Capital has the advantage o f labor in that while it is comparatively per manent, labor is evanescent; the advancing horn's consume the one, while the tooth of time but slowly destroys the other; in the natural antagonism between these two forces, capital has the advantage, and therefore should be liberal to its weaker friend ; but if labor would be more careful o f capital, it would soon render its burden light. Having demonstrated, as we think, the defects o f your correspondent’s positions, we will endeavor in our next to offer our own reasons for the fact admitted— the extensive prevalence o f bankruptcy among the mercantile classes o f society. g . b . Art. VII.— GILBART’S PRACTICAL TREATISE ON BANKING.* I n our number for July, 1849, we gave a brief notice, with extracts, o f a “ Treatise on Banking Bookkeeping,” as practised in the banking houses of Great Britain, stating that the work then before us was only a single section of a “ Practical Treatise on Banking,” then passing through the press. The complete work is now received, consisting o f two volumes, and extending to nearly eight hundred pages. It is beautifully executed, and invites a perusal from all who are interested to understand the details o f the system, by which the monetary affairs o f the Old W orld are managed, and the practical ope ration o f principles, which centuries o f large experience have developed and matured. W e do not profess a thorough acquaintance with the subject discussed in this work, nor have we any other interest in it than that we feel for every * A Practical Treatise on Banking. By J a m e s W ii .u a m G t l b a r t , F. R . S., General Manager of the London and Westminster Bank. Fifth Edition. In two volumes. London: 1849. Gilbart’s Practical Treatise on Banking. 69 department o f mercantile science, on the fair development and just applica tion of which the prosperity and happiness o f civilized nations so much de pend. In this point o f view, it has strong claims upon the attention o f sev eral classes o f persons to whom we beg leave to commend it as a study. To those who are practically engaged in the business o f banking, however deep ly they may be versed in the science, it may ofter many useful suggestions. To those who are called upon to write, speak, or legislate upon the system, as it is every year, in one form or another, agitated among us, it may furnish sound practical views in place of those unfledged theories and crude concep tions, which so often disturb the harmony o f our counsels, and the symmetry o f our legislative enactments. The principles o f a science are always and everywhere the same. The practical application o f them may vary indefinitely with the habits and cus toms o f the people among whom they are applied. However widely, there fore, the mode o f conducting the business o f banking in Great Britain may differ from that, o f the United States, the fundamental principles, wliich lie at the bottom o f the system, must be the same in both. Money is the same element here as there, and is regulated and controlled by the same fixed and unchangeable laws. It is subject to the same fluctuations of scarcety and plenty, of pressure and plethora, and from the same general causes. Whoever, therefore, treats ably o f these matters, as observed and understood in Europe, may be profitably consulted and studied by the political econo mist of America. Mr. Gilbart’s work, to use a common phrase in such cases, seems “ to cover the whole ground.” It surveys the entire field of the science o f banking, and o f the art, as practised in England, and leaves nothing unsaid which can elucidate the one, or illustrate the other. It realizes, to the full, the high anticipations o f our previous notice, being strictly scientific in its arrange ment and analysis, and attractively artistic in the disposition and finish o f its parts. Mr. Gilbart’s style is beautifully clear and lucid, blending the brevity and point o f a thorough bred merchant, with the purity and harmony o f a finished scholar. In this respect, we take leave to commend it, as a model, to any who may have occasion to treat elaborately o f mercantile science or practice. The work is divided into two parts, each part comprising a volume. Part I. treats o f Practical Banking. Part II. o f Banking Institutions. Part I. comprises fourteen sections, and treats o f the Nature and Utility o f Banking— Banking Terms— The General Administration of a Bank— Its Administration, with reference to several Departments of its Business, and during a Pressure— The Administration o f the Bank o f England and of Joint Stock Banks, with an Inquiry into the Causes o f the Failure o f the Latter— Banking Bookkeeping— Banking Calculations— and Banking docu ments. Part n . comprises ten sections, and treats o f the Bank o f England— The London Private Bankers— -The Joint Stock Banks of London— The Banks o f the Country, o f Scotland, and o f Ireland— and the Moral and Religious Duties o f Banking Companies. The following extracts will serve to justify to our readers the opinion we have expressed o f the style and manner o f the work. W e should be grati fied to know that they also served to create a demand, not for an American edition o f the work, but for such an importation o f the original as shall give to the accomplished author substantial evidence that we are not alone in our appreciation o f his merits :— 70 OilbarCs Practical Treatise on Banking. ON THE NATURE OF BANKINO. “ What is it that we call a Banker ? There is in this city a company or corpora tion, called goldsmiths, and most o f those called bankers are o f that corporation; but so far as I know, there is not a company or corporation in England called bankers, nor has the business any definition or description either by common law or by statute. By custom we call a man a banker who has an open shop, with proper counters, servants, and books, for receiving other people’s money, in order to keep it safe, and return it upon demand; and when any man has opened such a shop, we call him a banker, without inquiring whether any man has given him money to keep or n o ; for this is a trade where no apprenticeship is required, it having never yet been supposed that a man who sets up the trade o f banking, could be sued upon the statute o f Queen Elizabeth, which enacts, that none shall use any art or mystery then used, but such as have served an apprenticeship in the same.” * The term bank is derived from banco, the Italian word for bench, as the Lom bard Jews in Italy kept benches in the market-place, where they exchanged money and bills. When a banker failed, his bench was broken by the populace; and from this circumstance we have our term bank-rupt. A banker is a dealer in capital, or more properly a dealer in money. He is an intermediate party between the borrower and the lender. He borrows o f one party, and lends to another; and the difference between the terms at which he borrows and those at which he lends, forms the source o f his profit. By this means he draws into active operation those small sums o f money, whieh were previously unproductive in the hands o f private individuals; and at the same time furnishes accommodation to those who have need o f additional capital to carry on their commercial transactions. Banks have been divided into private and public. A private bank is that in which there are hut a few partners, and these attend personally to its manage ment. A public hank is that in which there are numerous partners, and they elect from their own body a certain number, who are entrusted with its management. The latter are usually called joint-stock banks. The business o f banking consists chiefly in receiving deposits o f money, upon which interest may or may not be allowed;— in making advances o f money, prin cipally in the way o f discounting bills;—and effecting the transmission o f money from one place to another. Private banks in metropolitan cities are usually the agents o f the banks in the provinces, and charge a commission on their transac tions. In making payments many country banks issue their own notes. The disposable means o f a bank consists of—First, the capital paid down by the partners, or shareholders. Secondly, the amount o f money lodged by their customers. Thirdly the amount o f notes they are able to keep out in circulation. Fourthly, the amount o f money in the course o f transmission— that is, money they have received, and are to re-pay, in some distant place, at a future time. These disposable means are employed— First, in discounting bills. Secondly, in advance o f money in the form o f cash credits, loans, or overdrawn accounts. Thirdly, in the purchase o f government or other securities. Fourthly, a part is kept in the banker’s till, to meet the current demands. O f these four ways of employing the capital o f a bank, three are productive, and one is unproductive. The discounting o f bills yields interest— the loans, and the cash credits, and the overdrawn accounts, yield interest— the government securities yield interest— the money in the till yields no interest. The expenses o f a bank may be classified thus; rent, taxes, and repairs o f the house in which the business is carried on ; salaries o f the officers; stationer’ s bill for books, paper, notes, stamps, &c. ;J incidental expenses, as postages, coals, &c. The profits o f a bank are that portion o f its total receipts— including discount, interest, dividends, and commission— which exceeds the amount o f the expenses. * Speech, delivered in the House of Commons, in 1746.—See the London Magazine for that year, page 120. Gilbart's Practical Treatise on Banking. 11 ON THE U TILITY OF BANKING. Banking also exercises a powerful influence upon the morals o f society. It tends to produce honesty and punctuality in pecuniary engagements. Bankers, for their own interest, always have a regard to the moral character o f the party with whom they deal; they inquire whether he be honest or trickey, industrious or idle, prudent or speculative, thrifty or prodigal, and they will more readily make advances to a man o f moderate property and good morals, than to a man o f large property but o f inferior reputation. Thus the establishment o f a bank in any place immediately advances the pecuniary value o f a good moral character. There are numerous instances of persons having arisen from obscurity to wealth only by means o f their moral character, and the confidence which that character pro duced in the mind o f their banker. It is not merely by way o f loan or discount that a banker serves such a person. He also speaks well of him to those persons who may make inquiries respecting him : and the banker’s good opinion will be the means of procuring him a higher degree o f credit with the parties with whom he trades. These effects are easily perceivable in country towns; and even in London if a house be known to have engaged in gambling or smuggling transactions, or in any other way to have acted discreditably, their bills will be taken by the bankers less readily than those of an honorable house o f inferior property. It is thus that bankers perform the functions o f public conservators o f the commercial virtues. From motives o f private interest they encourage the indus trious, the prudent, the punctual, and the honest— while they discountenance the spendthiift and the gambler, the liar and the knave. They hold out inducements to uprightness, which are not disregarded by even the most abandoned. There is many a man who would be deterred from dishonesty by the frown o f a banker, though he might care but little for the admonitions o f a bishop. ON THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATION OF A BANK. T o be a good banker requires some intellectual and some moral qualifications. A banker need not be a man o f talent, but he should be a man o f wisdom. Talent, in the sense in which the word is ordinarily used, implies a strong de velopment o f some one faculty o f the mind. Wisdom implies the due propor tion o f all the faculties. A banker need not be a poet or a philosopher— a man o f science or o f literature— an orator or a statesman. He need not possess any one remarkable quality by which he is distinguished from the rest o f mankind. He will possibly be a better banker without any o f these distinctions. It is only necessary that he should possess a large portion o f that practical quality which is called common sense. Banking talent (using the word talent here in the sense o f adaptation of character to any particular pursuit) consists more in the union o f a number of qualities, not in themselves individually o f a striking character, but rare only in their combination in the same person. It is a mistake to suppose that banking is such a routine employment that it requires neither knowledge nor skill. The number of banks that have failed within the last fifty years are suf ficient to show that to be a good banker requires qualities as rare and as important as those which are necessary to attain eminence in any other pursuit. The dealer in money exercises intellectual faculties o f a high order, and o f great value to the community. His profession has a powerful bearing on the practical happiness o f mankind. But though wisdom— or, in other words, a high degree of common sense— does not imply the possession o f any remarkable talent, (the undue development o f any one faculty,) it always implies the absence of any remarkable defect. One great defect in a banker is a want o f decision. A banker ought to know how to bal ance the evidence on each side of a question, and to arrive speedily at a just conclusion. Another defect is a want of firmness. A banker having after a mature consider ation, made up his mind, should be capable o f a strict adherance to his previous determination: ho should know when to say, N o; and having once said No, he should adhere to it. 72 Gilbart's Practical Treatise on Banking. Another defect is a hasty or impetuous temper.* Another defect is that of being swayed by any personal or constitutional pre possession. Almost every man— not excepting even the banker— has a sin by which he is most easily beset; a constitutional defect, against which it is necessary he should be upon his guard. It is a great advantage to a banker, and indeed to every one else, to know him self. He should know wherein he excels, and wherein he is deficient. He ought to know whether he is disposed from his temperament to be excessively cautious, or excessively liberal— whether his manners are courteous or abrupt— whether he is apt to view matters on their gloomy or on their bright side— whether social in tercourse renders him more or less fit for his official engagements— whether the presents and civilities he receives from his customers do, or do not, affect his trans actions with them in matters o f business. When he has made a loss, he should examine whether the loss was occasioned by the ordinary operation o f events, or produced by any little weaknesses o f his own character. He should record all those instances in which he has shown a want o f firmness, o f discretion, of dis crimination, or o f perseverance; and should guard in future against the exhibition o f any similar defect: “ Man, know thyself; all wisdom centers there.” But while a banker should make himself acquainted with his own defects, he ought not to let his customers become acquainted with them. All wise men know their own defects; none but fools publish them. Crafty men, who often have oc casion to borrow money, are quick in perceiving the weaknes o f their banker. And if they find that by coaxing, or flattering, or gossiping, or bribing, or threat ening, they can influence his conduct, he will always be at their mercy. On this account it is, perhaps, advisable that a banker should not have too much social in tercourse with those o f his customers who have occasion to ask him for any large amount o f accommodation. The section on “ A Season o f Pressure,” (page 96,) which is full o f in terest and instruction, cannot be appreciated by an extract, it should be read entire.f W ith the History o f Banks and Banking Operations, treated o f in the second part, our American bankers, and our shipping and importing mer chants, who have so much to do with the bankers o f Europe, ought to be well acquainted. W e have no space for extracts ; but we cannot leave the work without commending to the special attention o f all who are “ making haste to be rich,” the eighth section o f the second part— on the Moral and Religious Duties o f Banking Companies. W e admire the moral heroism and Christian independence which dictated that section, and wish the examples may become much more frequent, o f ac complished men o f business carrying the religion they profess at home to their counting-houses and stores, and wearing it in their every day concerns, not as a cloak, but as a garment. W e regret that time and space will not permit us to make further extracts from this work. W e trust, however, that the almost random passages quoted will induce all who desire to become accomplished in the practice o f banking to make themselves perfectly familiar with the contents o f this admirable treatise. * “ He that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.” “ He that is slow to wrath is of great understanding, but he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly.” “ A wise man will hear and will increase learning; and a man of under standing shall attain unto wise counsels.” f We hope to find room for this section in some future number of our Magazine. Commercial Code o f Spain. 73 Art. T ill.— C O M M E R C I A L C O D E OF S P A I N . NUM BER X I. CONCERNING TH E INTERPRETING BR OK ER S OF SHIPS. A rticle '729. In all the ports o f the sea open for foreign com m erce, there shall be such a num ber o f interpreting brokers o f ships as m ay be ju d g ed necessary, in proportion to the extension o f their com m ercial relations. For these duties, they shall always be preferred to the ordinary brokers of the same place, when they understand two living idioms o f the languages of Europe ; which knowledge shall be an indispensable requisite for every one who may be an interpreting broker of a ship. 130. Upon the appointment, aptitude, and requisites, which the brokers o f ships shall possess, for the purpose of entering into possession o f their offices, there shall be observed the regulations prescribed with respect to the ordinary brokers, in the first section, second title, book first, with only the restriction that the amount o f their security shall be reduced to one-half designated in the article referred to. 731. The particular functions o f interpreting brokers o f ships are— F irst. To intervene in contracts o f affreightments, which the captains or consignees o f vessels have not m ade directly with the freighters. Second. To assist the captains and supercargoes o f foreign vessels, and to serve as interpreters in their declarations, protests, and other proceedings, which may occur to them in the tribunals and official offices, it being under stood that such persons shall remain at liberty not to avail themselves o f the services o f a broker, when they can manage their affairs by themselves, or by the assistance o f their consignees. Third. To translate the documents which the above-mentioned foreign captain and supercargo may have to present in the same offices, certifying that the translations have been made well and faithfully, without which requisite they shall not be admitted. Fourth. To represent the captains and supercargoes in the judicial tribu nals, when they cannot personally appear themselves, or through the medium of the naviero or the consignee o f the ship. 732. The obligation o f the interpreting brokers shall also be to make three kinds o f entries— First. Concerning the captains to whom they (the brokers) may render the assistance which corresponds to their duties, expressing the flag, the name, the quality, and the tonnage, o f the vessel, and the ports o f her departure^ and destination. Second. The documents which they may translate, copying the transla tions to the letter, in the register. Third. Concerning the contracts o f affreightment, in which the brokers may intervene, expressing in each article the name o f the vessel, its flag, its matriculation and tonnage, the names o f the captain and the freighter, the destination for which she may be freighted, the price o f the freight, and the money in which it shall be paid, the effects o f the cargo, the special condi tions agreed upon between the freighter and the captain, upon the subject o f demurrage, and the time fixed for commencing and finishing the loading o f the vessel, referring upon this subject to the original contract signed by the parties o f which the broker ought to preserve a copy. 74 Mercantile Law Cases. These three classes o f entries shall be made in seperate books, with the formalities prescribed in article 40 of this Code. 733. The interpreting brokers are prohibited from purchasing any goods on board of the vessels which they go to visit in port, neither for themselves, or any other person. 734. These ship brokers shall be also subject to the prohibitions prescribed in the articles 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, and 107, o f this Code. 735. In case of the decease or removal o f an interpreting broker, his books shall be taken possession o f in the same manner as with respect to the ordinary ship brokers, as is prescribed in article 96 of this Code. 736. The pay which belongs to ship brokers, for their functions, shall be regulated in port by a particular taritf, for the approbation o f which the Crown reserves its rights, and in the meantime the practice shall be pursued, which is, at the present time, actually observed. MERCANTILE LAW CASES. SIGHT BILLS. The decision rendered by Judge Strawbridge, o f the Fourth District Court, New Orleans, in the case o f Nimick is. Martin & Co., will be found interesting to merchants. The action was on a bill o f exchange for $1,500, drawn at sight by Martin & Co., o f New Orleans, on J. S. Lake & Co., o f New York. Pay ment being refused on presentation, the bill was protested for non-payment, and suit instituted. There was no protest for non-acceptance. The following are the reasons given by the Judge for sustaining the action o f the plaintiff:— The question mainly debated in this case is, whether a bill o f exchange at sight is payable on presentation or entitled to grace ? On the abstract question, as part o f the common law, I have not now, nor have I for thirty years had the least doubt. Chitty, in his Treatise on Bills, page 409, speaks o f a difference in decisions and treatises on the subject, but concludes that “ it is now settled that the days of grace are allowed.” Judge Kent, in his Com mentaries, vol. 3, page 100, uses similar expressions, but qualifies this as “ the better opinion.” Neither of them refer to any decisions, nor has the research of any one engaged in this case found one which sustains the position of the defend ant. The treatises referred to are those o f Chitty and Bailey, who admit the days o f grace, and Kidd and Beaurs, who deny them, without citing any authority ; and the foreign writers, Pothier and Jousse. O f these latter it may be remarked, that notwithstanding the very great weight due to the opinion of Pothier, the reason giv en by him, namely : “ the inconvenience a traveller might sustain by waiting whilst the days o f grace are running,” is insufficient to show that such is the law. The inconvenience might easily be avoided by taking a draft at sight without grace, (which, by the way, though well known amongst merchants, would be a very useless and incongruous act, if all drafts at sight were payable on presentation) or a draft on demand, or the more common device almost universal in this country o f a bank check. Be the opinion o f these civil law writers correct or not, it can not establish such to be the law merchant in the city of New York. If we were at liberty to examine into the reason o f the thing, it would seem much stronger in favor o f a sight draft, than o f one at sixty days or six months, where all rea son fails. The plaintiff, however, relies on the usage o f New York, and under a com mission issued from this court he has produced a mass o f proof almost overwhelm ing. Some opposing testimony has also been taken. If as has been asserted, more such could have been produced, it is the error of the defendant not to have Mercantile Law Cases. 75 done so. The court cannot hesitate, under the great preponderaney o f testimony, in which merchants, lawyers, brokers, and notaries almost unanimously concur. It has, however, not been introduced without opposition, and very high authority pro and core has been laid before the court to establish or impeach the rule that “ where the law is clear, proof o f custom cannot be received to vary it.” I concur in the opinion o f Judge Story, in 2 Summer’s Report, 377, “ that usages amongst merchants are to be sparingly adopted, as being often founded in mere mistake,” and it may be added, on crude opinions of the laws, and not from the knowledge and experience o f numerous cases and facts, but he never asserted that they were to be disregarded. Perhaps these conflicting opinions might be reconciled by close examination; perhaps some o f these were eases of positive legislation and fixed rule which certainly cannot be varied by usage, whilst others were cases o f com mercial laws almost wholly dependant on the usage o f merchants, in which cases it would be difficult to assign any good reason why a system based on custom should not be changed in the same manner. Indeed, in a case referred to by Chitty, Judge Buffer mentioned a case before Justice Willes in London, where it was left to a jury o f merchants, who decided (of course under the custom) that days o f grace were allowed on sight bills. No one would think of offering proof that, by the custom o f the city of New York, the right of primogeniture existed there. Nor would any one, I think, deny the right to show by proof that it was the usage there to pay notes in bank before three o’clock, or they would be subject to protest. The treatises on insurance present numerous instances where the constructions o f a policy here is different from that adopted in England, and like differences ex ist in different States, all arising out o f usage. It is not, however, necessary, in this case, to reconcile these differences. The case of Renner vs. the Bank of Columbia, 9 Wheaton, 58, appears to the Court decisive o f the present. The biff there sued on had not been protested until the fourth day after that of payment, and by the general Merchant law, the liability of the endorser was gone. This was, however, shown to be in conformity with the usage o f the banks in the district, and, on the showing, the plaintiff had judg ment, If, then, the custom o f any community can vary the law by adding a fourth day o f grace, it can abridge them a day, or dispense with them altogether. Here the proof does establish that for forty years, and longer than any witness produced can remember, the usage in the city o f New York has been to pay sight drafts on presentment, or protest followed. It has not escaped the notice of the court, that the testimony given in Renner’s case was not excepted t o ; and secondly: that some o f Judge Thompson’s expres sions appear to lay stress on the fact o f defendant’s having before dealt with the bank, and knew their mode o f business. But leaving these out o f view, the broad principles laid down and on which the case was decided, cover all that is in con test here. Judgment is therefore rendered for the plaintiff with damages and costs. J. Livingston for plaintiff; Kendall & Howard for defendants. ACTION TO RECOVER MONET LOANED. In the Superior Court, (city o f New York, Sept. 1849.) Judge Sanford presid ing. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, and others vs. William A. Bayley. This was an action for money lent. From the accounts produced by the plain tiffs, it appeared that during the year 1847, they had lent various sums to the defendant, and received part payment on account of them. From their accounts, it appeared that in January, 1848, there was a balance due to the plaintiffs o f about $6,000, which they now sued for. The plaintiffs relied on the implied ad mission of defendant that their account against him was correct, as he had an in terview with them after they furnished the account, and made no objection to it. As security for the money lent defendant, he had hypothecated with plaintiff 550 shares of Harlem Railroad Stock, which they sold on the 11th o f January, 184 8. The defendant now alleged that this stock was sold without his authority o r giving him due notice, and in an improper manner, and he claimed as an offse t Mercantile Law Cases. 76 against the plaintiffs’ demand, the loss which he had sustained by the sale o f the stock. In reply to this, the plaintiffs produced the testimony o f their agent, who deposed to having given the defendant notice on a Saturday that unless the plaintiffs where paid their money, the stock would be sold on the following Tues day. As to the stock being sold on the day, and in the manner alleged by the plain tiffs, the evidence was not very clear. It appeared from the evidence o f the brokers who it was alleged sold the stock, that they did sell a quantity o f Harlem Railroad stock at the Board o f Brokers, on the day on which plaintiffs alleged that defend ant’s stock was sold, but there was no entry in their books going to positively identify the defendant’s stock, as that which was sold by them on that day. The court charged the jury, that according to the rule of law and common sense, when a man receives an account, and afterwards comes in contact with the persons who presented it and makes no objection to it, it is implied that he then deems it correct; leaving him however, at liberty, if he afterwards finds it incor rect, to show it to be so. If the defendant had satisfied the jury that the plain tiffs sold his stock without proper notice or in an improper manner, then such sale was illegal, and the defendant is entitled to claim the highest price which such stock since sold fo r; and if the sale o f the stock was illegal, it extinguishes the plaintiffs’ claim, as it sold but for 39 percent, and has since sold at 63, which would amount to more than the plaintiffs’ debt. To render the sale legal, the stock, in this case, should be sold only with reasonable notice, and in a proper manner. The stock must be sold at auction, no other way o f sale being known to the law. There might, however, be some custom in relation to such sales, but no proof had been offered to show it. In regard to the place o f sale, there was nothing in the constitution or nature o f the Board o f Brokers to show that it was not as good a place for the sale as any other in the Exchange. A sale made at the Board o f Brokers was therefore as good a sale as if made elsewhere. If the jury were satisfied that the sale was not made with sufficient notice, or at auction, or without the defendant being called on before the sale to pay his balance, then they would find for the defendant. But if they were satisfied that those requsites were com plied with, then they should find for the plaintiffs. Verdict for plaintiffs, $6,384. • SUIT TO RECOVER FOR CLOTHING, ETC., FURNISHED A MINOR. In the Commercial Court, Cincinnati, (October 9, 1849,) Collins & Timberlake vs. Srunker. The plaintiffs, storekeepers in Lexington, Ky., brought the suit to recover $286 for articles o f clothing, &c., furnished to defendant’s son, in 1843, within a period o f about eighteen months, while he was a student in Lexington College, under the charge o f Professor McCown. The evidence was documentary, and rather voluminous, and included the ac counts o f the plaintiffs. Mr. Riddle for the plaintiffs, in his defence, relied upon the testimony he had introduced, to show that positive instructions had been given to Professor McCown not to open an account, a sufficient supply of the requisite articles being furnished by defendant for the use o f his son, when he entered the College; and drew the attention o f the Court to the case o f Watson vs. Watson, in Johnson’s Reports ; where upon a case taken up to one o f the higher courts on a certiorari, a judg ment, giving a tradesman damages for goods furnished to a minor, was reversed, upon the principle, that the discretion o f the parent was to determine the necessity o f the articles required. This did not, o f course, apply to the case o f a delin quent parent, but the principle was obviously applicable to the present case, the defendant having equiped his son in a manner suitable to his situation. Counsel then read the plaintiffs’ bill, drawing particular attention to sundry items for Cologne and Florida water, tobacco, kid gloves, fancy scarfs, cigars, penknives, powder and shot, four pair o f fine boots, and the same number of shoes, within two months ; all which matters he submitted were more abundantly dealt out to this young lad than would be proper even if he were the son o f a rich Carolina or Louisiana planter, Mercantile Law Cases. 77 or of a Cincinnati attorney— in full practice, (a laugh,) much less required for the son o f a plain, old-fashioned Methodist preacher. Mr. Henry for the defendant, contended that the evidence, in showing Professor McCown’s agency in relation to defendant’s son, fully established his liability. The articles were furnished upon his representations, and those representations were true. Defendant, too, was aware o f the transaction— he had been transmit ted a copy of the account while it was in progress, and so far from expressing his disapprobation, he remitted a portion of the debt, and promised to pay the balance. Counsel in referring to the items in the account, said they were not at all incon sistent with the position o f a student in Lexington, one of the most fashionable places in the United States, where all kinds of extravigant habits were practised—and if defendant was not satisfied to have his son educated in Ohio, he should not be held irresponsible for the debts contracted for these articles, when lie removed him from his own care to the charge of Professor McCown, who opened this account, in consequence o f the absolute necessity— the fact not being as represented, that he had furnished a complete supply o f the requisite clothing and other articles to his son. The court then briefly charged, remarking that the defendant could be held lia ble only so far as he had created Professor McCown his authorized agent. A parent certainly was liable for any necessaries furnished to a child; but it was only in the case o f a palpable omission o f duties that a third party could in terfere. The jury returned a verdict for plaintiffs; $209 damages. ABSENT DEBTOR— INSOLVENT L A W S OF MASSACHUSETTS. In the Supreme Judicial Court, (Massachusetts, 1849.) Nicholas H. Brigham vs. Frederick A. Henderson. This was an action o f assumpsit brought by the plaintiff to recover the amount o f a draft for $399 84, drawn in favor o f the plaintiff, and accepted by the defend ant. All the parties, at the time, were citizens of Massachusetts, and the draft was payable at either hank in Boston. The defendant pleaded his discharge un der the insolvent laws of Massachusetts. It appeared, that at the date of the acceptance, the plaintiff was a citizen o f the State, but contemplated removing to New Orleans, for which city he soon left, and there resided at the time the de fendant took advantage of the insolvent laws, and also when this action was com menced. The Court below instructed the jury proforma, that the plaintiff being a citizen o f another State, he was not affected by the defendant’s discharge in in solvency ; whereupon they returned a verdict for the plaintiff, and the defendant took exceptions to the ruling. M etcalf , J., delivered the opinion o f the court. He remarked that the case presented a question o f considerable labor which the counsel should have shared with the court. But that the same points has arisen in another case, in which elaborate written arguments had been prepared, and from which the court had re ceived much assistance in the case before them. The statute of 1838, chap. 163, sec. 7, which was the same as that reported by the commissioners in 1831, declared in what cases the operation o f the insolvent laws ahould discharge the debtor. From all debts proveable under that act, which were founded on any contract made by him, after that act should go into operation, if made within the commonwealth, or to be performed within the same. The at tention of the commissioners had been directed to the question, and they were of the opinion that the provision o f the statute did not conflict with that clause o f the constitution o f the United States prohibiting the states from passing laws im pairing the obligations o f contracts. The plaintiff had relied upon the case of Ogden vs. Saunders ; but whatever that case may have decided, or was supposed to have decided, it did not reach the precise point in the present case. Nor was there"?any decision of the United States Courts that did; and in the absence o f such decisions, the court would rely upon the validity o f the statute, and sustain he defendant’s executions. Commercial Chronicle and Revie ic. 78 COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. I N C R E A S E D A B U N D A N C E IN T I I E M O N E Y M A R K E T — E X P O R T OF C O T T O N — A R R I V A L OF G O L D F R O M C A L I F O R N IA — E M I G R A T I O N T O C A L IF O R N IA — P R O D U C T IO N O F T H E C R E A S E OF B A N K IN G C A P IT A L — O C E A N B A N K OF T H E C H A R TE R E D BANKS COM PARED— DRY G O O D S I M P O R T E D IN T O F L A T T E R I N G P R O S P E C T S OF T H E C O T T O N T IO N O F 1839— M IN E S — T E N D E N C Y T O S P E C U L A T E — IN C I T Y OF N E W M A R K E T — H IG H NEW RATE Y O R K — D IV ID E N D S YORK FO R LAST OF F R E E AND S IX M O N TH S— OF W A G E S — T H E C O T F O N S P E C U L A B A N K OF F R A N C E , E T C . T he progress of the season has as usual been marked by a continued increase in the abundance o f money, and its accumulation is now proceeding in a more rapid ratio than has perhaps ever before been known in this country. The rate at 30 a 60 days for money on good securities, is 3 a 4 per cent per annum; on first class bills o f longer date, 5 a 6 per cent, while produce, particularly cotton, is firm abroad, and going forward in a manner to supply the bill market freely. The exports o f cotton from the United States from September 1st, to December 1st, are 200,000 bales, worth, at average rates, $8,800,000, or nearly $2,000,000 more than the value o f cotton exported at the same time last year. As a conse quence, the rate o f bills is falling. Sterling is nominal at 7 i a 8£; top-rates, for first class signatures, 8J a 8^; francs, 5.27 i a 5.26-J-. At this season, the imports o f goods usually decline, and the remittances for spring importations not being active, the demand is limited. As it is, there is a prospect o f importing specie from Europe for the spring. The arrivals from California at the Philadelphia mint, up to the close o f November, had reached $3,800,000, and the arrival o f the Crescent City has supplied a further sum o f $1,218,000, to various firms. The accounts she furnishes, are o f large arrivals o f immigrants, being 4,000 for the month o f November, making, as estimated, 30,000 o f inhabitants in the city, and 80,000 at the mines. The labor of these latter continues to be rewarded with fair returns, and there is no apparent diminution in the probable productions of the mines. Under all these circumstances favoring the continued abundance of money, there is a growing disposition to speculate; real estate, and stocks par ticularly, are showing such results as must necessarily promote confidence in them as investments. Perhaps there can be no better indication o f the general prosperity o f the banks, as well as o f their customers, than is furnished in the comparative high rates o f dividends. The usual result of abundance o f money, accompanied by large earnings o f corporate associations, is manifesting itself on all sides, in the formation of new capital. In Boston, two new banks are in pro cess o f formation, one with a capital o f $1,000,000, and the other with one of $500,000. There are also applications before the New Jersey Legislature for twelve new charters, viz :— Mercer County Bank, at Trenton, capital $200,000 ; Farmers’ and Mechanics’, at Salem, $50,000; one at Cape May, $50,000; at New Brunswick, $200,000; at Bordentown, $100,000; at Freehold; at Phillipsburg, (Warren county;) at Jersey City, $200,000; at Elizabethtown; at Deptford, (Gloucester;) at Jersey City or Van Vorst, $100,000; and one at Patterson. The aggregate thus demanded will not be far from one million of dollars. In Pennsylvania, the notices of applications for new banks, and re-charters of old ones, to the coming Legislature, are as follow s:— Kensington Bank, Philadelphia, (additional capital,) $250,000; Carlisle Deposit Bank, Carlisle, Pa., $226,762; Commercial Chronicle and Review. 79 Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank, Easton, $300,000; Miners’ Bank, Pottsville, (ad ditional capital,) $200,000; Anthracite Bank, Tamaqua, $500,000; Mechanics’ Bank, Pittsburgh, $200,000; Bank of Pottstown, $200,000; City Bank, Phila delphia, $500,000; Dauphin Bank, Harrisburg, $200,000; Farmers’ and Mechan ics’ Bank, Allentown, $150,000; Exchange Bank, Pittsburg, (renewal,) $819,580 ; Southwark Bank, Phila., (additional cap.,) $150,000; Canal Bank, Erie, $300,000 ; Wellsboro’ Bank, Wellsboro’, $150,000; Central Bank, Harrisburg, $500,000 ; Bank o f Spring Garden, Philadelphia, $300,000; West Branch Bank, Williams port, (renewal,) $100,000; Lebanon Bank, Lebanon, Pa., (renewal,) $70,280; Spring Garden Bank, Philadelphia, $250,000; Blair County Bank, $200,000; Farmers’ Deposit Bank, Pittsburg, $62,500; Harrisburg Bank, Harrisburg, (re newal,) $300,000 ; Schuylkill Bank, Philadelphia, (renewal,) $1,000,000. Making an increase o f nearly $5,000,000 in the capital o f the State employed in banking. In the State o f New York, about $2,000,000 o f new capital is being organized, embracing that o f the Ocean Bank, which, with a capital o f $535,000, went into operation December 10th, under Nathaniel Weed, Esq., the books remaining open until the 1st inst., for an additional subscription o f $250,000. This institution promises to be one o f the most useful, and it may he remarked, as an indica tion of the sources whence cash capital is being derived, that the largest stock holder in this new bank, is a successful California adventurer. In the interior o f New York there are also many new banks being organized under the new law, or general law. As this permits banks to organize and go into operation with out special legislation, they have only to proceed at pleasure, checked only by the high price o f New York Stock, to which they are restricted as securites for issues. It is also the case that the clause o f the constitution, which requires all stock holders in banks that issue paper to circulate as money, to become responsible for all the debts o f the concern to an amount equal to the shares, comes into opera tion on the 1st o f January, 1850, but this does not appear to effect the value or posi tion of bank stocks. The disposition to promote the circulation o f bank credits, is fast increasing over many of the States, and the legislators o f each should take prompt measures for checking the excess o f the evil, and of rendering its regular action at once conducive to the State interests, and beneficial to the note-holders. In New York, it has been found that the application o f the principle o f securities for circulation, and the operation o f a general law for the organization o f banks, has in no degree diminished the profits of institutions; on the other hand, the dividends declared by the institutions, under the free law, are, as a general thing, superior to those of the chartered institutions. Thus the following banks, o f about equal capital, earned as follows last year:— Free Banks. Am. Ex. Bank. Fulton............. Chemical........ North R iver.. Total.......... Capital. Per Ct. ilivid's. Chartered. $1,155,400 9 $103,986 Phcenix............. 600,000 10 60,000 Leather Manuf. 300,000 12 36,000 Mech. & Trades. 645,000 8 52,400 National........... $2,710,400 9.31 $252,386 Total............ Capital. $1,200,000 600,000 200,000 750,000 Per Ct,. D ivid’ s. 7 :$84,000 8 48,000 10 20,000 8 60,000 $2,750,000 17.70$ 212,000 The free banks, which gave security for their circulation to the full amount in New York State Stocks, have declared nearly one and a half per cent more profit than nearly similar amounts o f capital employed under charters. This fact is con clusive, that there is nothing in those requirements for the security o f the public, to interfere with the profits o f the institutions, and therefore, the opposition which 80 Commercial Chronicle and Review. the system receives from chartered interests, cannot proceed from an intelligent understanding of the true interests o f a regular business. It proceeds more par ticularly from those whose designs are directed against the public, through the hope of getting into circulation large amounts o f unsecured paper, in view o f ulti mate insolvency. Under these circumstances, it would seem to be the duty o f the Pennsylvania and New Jersey Legislatures, where the demand for new char ters is so rife, at once to pass a general law, requiring, in the former State, Penn sylvania Stocks to be deposited as security. As $5,000,000 o f new capital are asked for, such a demand for the stocks o f the State, would bring a considerable quantity from abroad, into the State, and by so much retain the interest at home, while bill-holders would be amply secured. The details of the shocking frauds recently exposed, would show the necessity for some mode of protecting the public. In New Jersey, where no State stocks exist, those o f the Federal Gov ernment would form an absolute and necessary security. In Michigan, where few or no banks exist, and the stock o f that State is small, a general law o f such a character would probably cause all its stock to be brought within the borders o f the State, and the dividends would remain within it, while an ample and sound currency would, with the increasing amounts o f coin in the country, displace the circulation o f irresponsible institutions. / The business o f the fall usually ceases with the closing of the canals, which took place this year on the 5th o f December. O f late, however, the use o f the telegraph, and the increase o f railway communication, has served to prolong transactions through the year; while, by means o f the former, the city merchant can: ascertain the home-standing o f a country dealer, before his purchases are completed. So can that dealer order goods, and receive them by express, in al most any period o f the year. The business, therefore, is now more distributed throughout the year, and there is no time when, as formerly, the dealer might say that his business is entirely quiet. The amount o f dry goods entered at the port o f New York, for the fall season, has this year been much larger than for the previous one, as follow s:— D RY GOODS IMPORTED INTO THE PORT OF NEW YORK, FROM JUNE 1ST, TO DEC. 1ST. Woolens. Entered............. 6,808,872 With, f ’m Wareh. 1,321,860 Cottons. 3,400,133 374,190 Silks. Flax. Miscellaneous. Total. 7,262,288 2,058,375 1,223,473 20,753,146 548,000 272,553 125,473 26,41,476 Total, 1849.... $8,130,732 3,774,323 7,810,288 “ 1848.... 5,884,873 4,118,906 6,056,745 Increase........ $2,245,959 Decrease........ 1,753,543 344,583 2,330,928 2,009,852 1,348,346 1,472,949 321,076 23,394,632 19,543,325 3,851,307 124,603 This large importation has sold well, at constantly rising prices, and while the dull quarter finds smaller stocks on hand than usual, the prices are higher than at the commencement o f the season. The generally good demand throughout the country, indicated in these facts, comprised as well an inquiry for merchandise of domestic origin, and both proceeded from the general state o f prosperity arising from well sustained prices o f raw produce, although this was sent to market in very considerable quantities. The position and prospects o f cotton are flattering; for nearly a year, the market has been on the rise, under the weight of a large crop, influenced by an unusual demand for consumption, supported by rumors o f Commercial Chronicle and Review. 81 diminished production, and prices now range from 60 to 100 per cent over those current one year ago. This advance in the price o f raw material, has naturally affected the cost o f wrought fabrics, and improved the demands o f manufactures, without adding much to their actual profits. These, between high rates for labor, and high prices for raw materials, cannot be large, without a material rise in the prices o f goods, beyond what has taken place. The high rates o f wages is a di rect and necessary consequence o f the general prosperity o f the country, which finds employments for the many, more agreeable and lucrative than the drudgery o f factory service. Nevertheless, it does not appear that the high price o f cotton diminishes the quantity consum ed; although it is a necessary law o f trade, that high prices discourage consumption, yet its operation, or rather the fact o f high prices, is always comparative. These prices for an article o f general consumption, which, in a season o f dear food, and scarcity o f money in England, are high, are by no means so in aseason where both these great elements areabundant and cheap. Thatis to say, where the ability to consume more, exists, the consequent demand is not checked by a money price for the thing desired somewhat higher than that o f a previous and less prosperous year. This appears now to be the case with cotton. The speculation which exists in that article, is, in some re spects, similar to that which marked the year 1839. During the decade which has since elapsed, the article has undergone many and great vicissitudes. The crop o f 1837-8, and 1838-9, compares with the last and the present, as follow s:— Crop. 1837- 8 ............................. 1838- 9 ............................. Crop. 1,801,497 I 1848-9............. 1,360,622 | 1849-50........... 2,728,596 2,200,000 The actual proportionate decline in the production o f cotton in 1839, was mueh larger than the estimated decline this year. It may be serviceable to recur to the circumstances o f the speculation, and its utter failure o f the year 1839. The crop declined during the year ending with August, 1838. It had annually increased since 1832, and had exceeded that o f the previous year, by 378,000 hales, or 25 per cent, and, as a consequence, had ruled lower, averaging 7 f cents in Liverpool, throughout the year. F or the thirteen previous years, there had been an unin terrupted annual increase in consumption, averaging 9 per cent per annum, and the purchases by the trade were very large, proportioned to the large crop. W hen, therefore, it became apparent that a decline o f 25 per cent would take place in the production, the safety o f speculating for a rise was supposed beyond question. There were, however, then in operation many elements fatal to the success o f such an enterprise. In the first place, the large purchases by the trade in 1838, which were unusual for consumption, were taken by spinners as stock ahead. Thus, Messrs. Strutt, o f Derbyshire, had, anticipating an advance in price, taken stock for three years ahead, at the rate o f 10,000 bales per annum. The prevalence o f this disposition, aided by the abundance o f money, had swollen the apparent demand for consumption. W ith the spinners so well stocked, the Eng lish harvest o f 1838 failed. A t the same time, the state o f affairs in the United States was very unsound. Prices o f cotton, under the direct purchases o f the late National Bank, which issued its bills o f the old institution, had been forced unnaturally high, and in October, 1838, new fair to good fair, sold at 14£ a 15 cents per pound. Such prices, even with a continued good demand, left a small margin for an advance. V O L . X X I I .-----N O . I . Nevertheless, the United States Bank, and all who com6 Commercial Chronicle and Review. 82 manded credit, entered the market with avidity, and the Bank o f England, not withstanding rising prices for food, and a continued drain o f the precious metals, continued to reduce the rate o f interest, and thus facilitated the cotton move ment. The follow ing figures describe the movement from the close o f the crop year 1838, to the reaction and ruin o f 1839:— 1838, October..................... “ November................ “ December................ 1839, January................... “ February................. “ March....................... “ April........................ “ May......................... “ June......................... “ July......................... “ August..................... “ September............... “ October................... Fair Cotton. 6f 7± H H H 9± 8J 8± 8 n n 6f Brokers’ rate o f Bullion Wheat. disc’nt, per ct. 65 3 69 H 74 H 78 Si 77 H 73 3f 70 3f 70 H 69 5 68 H 70 6 71 6i 70 in Bank. 89,500,000 9,250,000 9,000,000 9.250,000 8,750,000 8,250,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 3,750,000 3,250,000 2,750,000 2,500,000 N ow , although cotton had risen 50 per cent, wheat 12s. per quarter, and the specie diminished £2,500,000, the Bank o f England in March, 1839, offered to reduce the rate o f interest to 31 per cent on exchange bills, until April. This was followed by more adverse circumstances. The importation o f food contin ued large, and the bullion in bank to sink, until the alarmed institution, in May, altered its course, and continued to advance the rate o f interest, availing itself, for the first time, o f the repeal o f the usury laws, to raise the rate o f interest above 5 per cent, a point that it had not previously attained since 1704. A ll was o f no avail; the failure o f the United States bank took place on the 9th October, 1839, and that o f England in the follow ing month, was prevented only by a 1oan from the Bank o f France. Under these circumstances it was, that the great falling off in the production o f cotton was more than countervailed by the high price o f the raw ma terial, the famine price o f food, and the financial revulsion abroad, with the catastro phe o f the late National Bank here. None o f these circumstances attend the position o f the great staple this year. The great relaxations that have taken place in the commercial policy o f England, has greatly promoted the consumption o f goods, at tended as it has been by a removal o f duties upon consumable articles, particu larly cotton, a large railroad expenditure, and an abundant supply o f cheap food. I f w e compare the state o f affairs now, with that o f 1839, w e have the follow ing results:— PRICES OK COTTON IN NEW YORK, OCTOBER 1ST, 1 8 3 8 , AND 1 8 4 9 . Ordinary &. m id. 1838.................................................................................. 1849................................................................................. 10 a 13 91 a 10 Fair & good . 13J a 14 11 a 11£ This being the state o f prices in New York at the opening o f both crops, the situation o f things abroad is indicated as follows Price, fair cotton. d. d. Wheat. 1838............................... 1849.............................. ............... H a 7± s. d. 74 6 41 5 ............. l£ a li 33 1 Increase ..................... Discount. 31 21 Bullion in bank. £9,250.000 16,038,290 1 £6,788,290 Commei'cial Chronicle and Review. 83 In addition to this actual state o f affairs favoring a large consumption o f goods this year, it is to be remembered that the corn trade has become regular, and the importation o f even the large quantities that were made during the yfear ending with August, 1849, failed to disturb exchanges— that the Bank o f England, which, in 1839 confessedly reduced the circulation, with the object o f reducing the value o f cotton, has, by its new charter, been shorn o f that power, while the large railroad expenditure, and active employment, as well in England as in Western Europe, afford the means o f a considerable consumption o f goods. The circumstances recounted were mainly instrumental in reducing the consumption o f cotton in England 30 per cen t; but to attain this, it was requisite that prices in New Y ork should rise to such rates as the follow ing quotations in New York, May, 1839:— N ew Orleans. Ordinary a middling fair........................................ Fair a good fair...................................................... M obile. 14 a 15^ c. 16£ a 16} 14 a l 5 J c . 1 6 J a l6 £ These are 25 per cent higher than the present prices o f the raw material, and the so-called high price now relatively to food and interest. It is the case, un doubtedly, that many o f the spinners have large stocks o f cotton, purchased with the abundant money, at the low prices o f the past year, and also that many o f the goods-markets have been well stocked; but it is also the case that the general ability to consume is great. A s an indication o f the views o f the United States manufaoturers, we may take a table o f the purchasers for consum ption:T o Oct. 31. T o N ov. 30. St’k, Sep. 1. Rec’ts, Oct. 140,934 154,792 140,934 497,567 S u pply.. . E xp ort.... 59,489 Stock........ 177,561 29,7526 12, 1849. 140,934 566,440 D ec. 638,501 194.193 318,404 To Dec. 12,1848. 144,815 597,077 707,374 226,626 343,285 741,892 371,745 277,282 237,050 Tak. for c@n. Price, fair.... 68,676 U f a 12 125,904 lO f a 11£ 137,463 10J a 11|- 92,365 6} a 7 Thus, with a price 50 to 80 per cent higher than last year, the United States manufacturers have taken 50 per cent more cotton this year than for the corre sponding season last year. Under these circumstances, the prospect for sustained prices o f the raw material, are better than usual; the demand for goods being such as to warrant the advance manifest in the raw materials. It appears from the accounts o f the Bank o f France, that the cash in hand had increased by 2,000,000 francs in Paris, and decreased by l,500,000f. in the depart ments. T he commercial bills discounted have diminished by 4,500,000 francs. The protested bills have decreased by 130,000 francs. The bank notes in circu lation have diminished by 5,250,000 francs in Paris, whilst they have increased in the departments by 750,000 francs. The balance to the credit o f the treasury has increased by 5 ,750 ,000f., and the sundry credits have decreased by 5,500,000f. Commercial Statistics. 84 COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. PRODUCTION OF HOGS AND BEEF CATTLE IN OHIO. "We published a table, in the December number, 1849, of the Merchants' Magazine, showing the number and value of hogs and beef cattle, in fifty-nine counties, in the State of Ohio, as returned for taxation, by the township assessors, and equalized by the County Board, for the year 1848. From an official copy of the annual report o f the Auditor of that State, and the Cincinnati P rice Current, we are enabled to give the returns for the remaining twenty-seven counties, as follows:— 1848. Hogs. 59 Counties br’ t for’ard D efiance----Fayette........ Geauga........ L a k e ............ L o r a in ........ L u c a s .......... M ontgom ery T ru m b u ll.. . W a y n e ........ W illia m s.... A th e n s ........ E rie.............. W ashington .......... S h elby.......... Anglaize . . . D a r k e .......... H ancock----Jackson ----L i c k i n g ----M adison----M e rce r........ Pickaw ay. . . P i k e ............ P u tn a m ----S h e lb y ........ Stark............ T o t a l... 1849. Value. Hogs. Value. 1,374,891 $1,692,524 5,903 5,177 35,314 57,314 G8,700 12,165 5,702 10,283 14,391 21,259 9,902 10,316 40,000 59,652 22,062 13,983 28,149 28,161 6,109 4,879 18,011 15,546 11.613 8,912 20,100 16,401 23,369 17,678 14,547 16,223 8,697 11,719 27.339 29,669 18,951 13,686 13,834 15,813 37,639 35,473 25,007 33,596 7,509 10,577 91,206 54,589 16,211 24,482 6,134 7,694 14,547 16,223 32,343 36,988 1,464,514 $1,839,811 5,224 4.600 34,125 52,590 6,345 9,119 4,842 7,650 12,725 16,208 8,341 8,588 51,242 34,243 12,550 17,719 27,375 24,506 6,290 5,165 19,692 21,551 8,032. 10,502 16.561 20,645 16,540 20,830 H uron 15,241 13,812 11.980 9,251 29,014 29,369 17,532 12,752 16,481 19,607 33,891 38,287 23,587 32,609 11,009 8.830 54,382 94,937 26,032 19,356 8,174 6,192 15,241 13,812 29,983 32,234 1,886,263 $1,322,968 1,967,998 $2,444,312 1848. Beef. Value. 647,804 $6,092,264 3,183 29,641 15,444 217,701 18,516 245.197 9,959 126,829 17,253 220,611 9,560 103,294 13,863 102,756 31,088 399.740 17,894 132,761 4,509 44,716 10,231 84,696 8,079 94,G87 10,289 96.665 15,036 171,984 6,893 47,183 5,842 41,348 10,241 71,468 8,486 65,317 8,449 65,744 18,891 156,797 22,592 322.223 4,102 29,909 24,416 442,928 5,214 48,935 3,809 27,623 6,893 47,383 18,607 165,412 1,017,143 $9,695,372 1849. Beef. 708,103 3,621 14,815 21,767 11,140 20,879 10,093 13,996 35,968 19,035 5,287 11,343 8,939 16,282 17,373 7,541 6,706 10,803 9,493 9,687 19,832 20,600 4,709 23,899 5,601 4,246 7,541 19,793 . Value. $6,464,958 33,738 195,711 277,829 142,728 262,261 101,705 107,605 431,915 137,033 52,358 97,351 104,610 110,936 195,058 51,303 48,549 74,868 71,748 79,217 175,097 286,279 32,738 427,801 66,380 29,893 53,303 i79,798 1,069,102 $10,292,860 THE FOREIGN DRY GOODS TRADE OF NEW YORK.* There are few persons who have any definite idea of the value of the dry goods which annually pass through our custom-house into the hands of consumers. New York is called the commercial emporium of the country; but with many this term is treated as a complimentary cognomen, which has no significant application to our city, and to which we have no peculiar title, except through the courtesy which concedes it. Others suppose the commercial importance of New York consists in the huge warehouses which shadow a considerable portion of the city, as if piles of brick and mortar could create wealth. The true secret of our prosperity, apart from the manu facturing carried on within the borders of New YTork city, may be found in the constant stream of created value which passes through this channel, and is distributed far and wide over the country. It is not local or individual wealth which fills the warehouses and throngs the streets. Stagnant water breeds but the pestilence. It is the flowing stream which irrigates and fertilizes what would otherwise be a desert waste. So it is the constant flow of a nation’s supplies, through the facilities here offered for trade, which supports half a million of people, and gives New Y’ ork the first rank on this continent. We furnish receiving and distributing warehouses for the products of * From the Journal of Commerce. Commercial Statistics. 85 American fields and workshops, and for the tributes to our wants which come from abroad. It is impossible to show the extent of this trade in every department at one view. W e subjoin the value of foreign dry goods which have passed through this channel for the year ending with the close of the fall trade. These tables have been prepared with much expense of time and labor, and, we believe, may be relied on as correct:— VALUE OF FOREIGN D R Y GOODS ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION DURING THE YEAR ENDING DE CEMBER 1ST, 1 8 4 9 . Months. W oolen. Cotton. December..... January......... February........ March............. April............... M a y ............... J une................ J u ly ............... August........... Septem ber... October........... November - . . $100,580 321,011 925,657 722,013 450,708 304,474 474,865 1,020,673 2,963,604 1,330,783 600,413 418,534 $280,945 718,226 1.642,339 1,478,902 471,877 410,671 376,450 817,520 1,142,686 548,516 269,654 245,312 T o t a l.... $ 9 ,6 3 3 ,3 2 5 $ 8 ,4 0 3 ,0 9 8 Silk. $298,539 1,861,999 1,798,582 1,276,090 836,986 314,482 456,643 1,784,797 2,859,992 1,130,523 529,063 501,270 $ 1 3 ,6 4 8 ,9 6 6 Flax. $174,794 234,496 524,371 149,721 281,638 245,431 158,264 231,650 706,075 443,266 227,291 291,829 $ 4 ,2 6 8 ,8 2 6 Mis’laneous. $210,167 253,077 568,011 514,933 287,441 304,918 194,280 262,297 361,336 209.243 95,184 101,332 $ 3 ,3 6 2 ,2 1 9 GOODS WITHDRAWN FROM WAREHOUSE DURING THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 1 s t , 1 8 4 9 . Months. W oolen. December... . January........ February . . . March........... April............ May ........... June............. J u ly ............. August......... September.. October......... November . . Silk. Flax. $ 3 7 ,1 7 2 $ 7 9 ,4 3 8 $ 6 0 ,5 5 6 $ 1 8 ,4 6 0 1 8 0 ,9 0 9 2 1 3 ,1 9 2 2 3 6 ,9 1 0 1 7 ,2 0 4 4 7 ,9 6 7 1 7 6 ,2 9 4 2 5 4 ,4 6 2 2 5 6 ,1 5 2 6 2 ,5 5 2 4 2 ,1 9 5 1 2 3 ,7 0 1 1 5 6 ,2 3 3 1 8 3 ,8 7 3 6 6 ,6 5 6 8 5 ,5 8 9 4 7 ,4 4 1 8 9 ,4 7 9 9 9 ,1 9 8 2 9 ,3 5 1 5 2 ,5 0 6 4 5 ,3 7 4 6 4 ,3 7 5 5 7 ,1 5 6 6 3 ,9 4 9 2 5 ,0 9 1 3 0 ,4 4 7 3 8 ,1 5 6 4 0 ,9 3 0 3 4 ,9 8 3 2 1 ,4 2 9 2 4 ,4 3 1 Cotton. Mis’laneous. $ 5 3 ,9 6 8 1 0 5 ,6 9 4 8 8 ,0 7 8 7 9 ,6 5 6 5 9 ,1 3 9 6 6 6 .6 7 6 1 2 9 ,1 0 1 2 0 1 ,4 3 1 9 0 ,4 7 3 2 1 ,3 3 2 3 3 0 ,5 0 4 8 4 ,9 9 5 1 1 3 ,5 7 7 3 0 ,2 3 6 2 3 ,7 9 0 1 4 5 ,3 6 2 1 8 ,4 4 0 5 3 ,1 2 3 3 3 ,5 7 1 1 1 ,6 2 6 4 3 ,1 7 7 1 4 ,2 2 0 5 9 ,2 8 3 2 4 ,1 5 1 2 2 ,2 7 5 T ota l....... Goods enter’d 1 ,9 3 2 , 7 5 7 1 ,2 3 1 , 3 6 9 1 ,4 4 1 , 8 4 5 6 2 0 ,7 2 5 4 3 2 ,1 9 9 9 ,6 3 3 , 3 2 5 8 ,4 0 3 , 0 9 8 1 3 ,6 4 8 ,9 6 6 4 ,2 6 8 ,8 2 6 3 ,3 6 2 , 2 1 9 Grand total $ 1 1 ,5 6 6 ,0 8 2 $ 9 ,6 3 4 ,4 6 7 $ 1 5 ,0 9 0 ,8 1 1 $ 4 ,8 8 9 ,5 5 1 $ 3 ,7 9 4 ,4 1 8 RECAPITULATION OF THE ABOVE TABLES. Description o f goods. "Woolens........................................ Cotton.......................................... S ilk .............................................. Flax.............................................. Miscellaneous........................ Ent’ d for consum ption. W ith d’ n from warehouse. $9,633,325 8,403,098 13,648,966 4,268,826 3,362,219 $1,932,751 1,231,369 1,441,845 620,725 431,199 $39,316,434 5,657,895 39,316,434 Total taken for consumption........................... $44,974,329 The increase over the imports for the previous year is not as great as many antici pated. The principal cause of this disappointment was the prevalence of the cholera during the summer, which curtailed the orders for the fall trade. Still, owing to the increased quantity of woolens brought out, the importations for the last six months exceed those of the corresponding period of 1848, although there has been a heavy falling off in cotton and silk goods, as the following comparative table will show :— Commercial Statistics. 86 TOTAL VALUE OF DRY GOODS W HICH PASSED INTO CONSUMPTION FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDING DECEMBER 1ST, IN EACH YEAR. Description of goods. Manufactures of w ool............................... . “ cotton............................... “ s ilk ................................. “ flax.................................. Miscellaneous............................................. 1849. 1848. 84,851,198 4,631,124 8,234,060 1,815,082 1,445,236 88,130,732 3,774,228 7,810,288 2,330,928 1,348,955 820,976,700 823,395,131 20,976,700 82,418,431 Total increase in six months.......... VIRGINIA TOBACCO TRADE. In the Merchants’ Magazine for November, 1848, (vol xix., page 545,) we published a tabular statement, showing the quantity of tobacco inspected, the stock on hand, and and the exports, foreign and domestic, in each year from 1843 to 1848, furnished by a reliable correspondent, residing in Richmond, Virginia. The same gentleman has sent us, in continuation of that statement, the following additional particulars :— Stock on hand October 1,1848................... ............hhds. Inspected, year ending September 30, 1849................. 13,959 44,904 -------- 58,863 EXPORTS. Great Britain. . . France................ . Cowes, for orders Belgium.............. Bremen.............. 9,667 |Holland............ 3,267 Italy, Spain, &c 551 1,478 T ota l.... 1,045 Manufactured and shipped coastwise.....................hhds. Stock on hand, October 1,1849............... ........................ 663 2,972 19,643 27,720 11,500 -------- 58,863 The shipments coastwise were, to New York, about 2,100 hhds; the shipments to other ports probably about 600 libds.; and there was manufactured in Virginia about 25,000 hhds.: in addition to which there is manufactured a large quantity’ of tobacco not packed in hogsheads, nor inspected, but brought to market loose. A portion of this is afterwards packed and inspected, but the larger portion manufactured. The extent of this cannot be ascertained. It may be equal to 2,000 to 4,000 hogsheads in different years. COFFEE PRODUCTION OF CEYLON. According to the latest accounts of the crop of 1848-49 in Ceylon, there had been shipped 239,199 cwts. of plantation coffee, against 190,685 cwts. in the preceding yea r; and of native coffee 127,796 cwts. against 86,170 cwts.; making a total of the ship ments in the present year of 41,103,440 lbs., against 31,007,760 lbs. in 1848. The ac counts of the growing crop are of the most favorable description, and the estimate of its yields, so far as plantation coffee is concerned, is no less than 273,000 cwts.; so that if the shipments of native coffee should be only the same as in the last year, and we have every reason to believe there will be a considerable increase, the entire shipments w ill amount to no less than 44,889,152 lbs. Two years ago, in 1847, they did not reach 20,000,000 lbs. and that was the largest crop up to that time. So rapid an increase o f production, together with the great improvement which has taken place in the price o f this description of coffee of late, cannot fail to restore prosperity to that important island. Native Ceylon coffee, which a year ago was sold in Liverpool at 27s, is now Commercial Statistics . 81 worth 46s. 6d per cwt. The following is the estimate of the growing crop of the coffee plantations:— * No. o f estates. Est. crops. Districts. Saffragam and Ouvah.. . Badullah......................... Four Kories.................... . Seven Kories.................. Kotm alie......................... . Dolosbagie ................... Bulatgamma................... Yrattenoweyra................ 21 20 17 5 31 6 46 26 ciots. 9,000 9,900 9,000 4,500 22,500 8,500 20,000 22,000 N o. o f estates. Est. crops. cwts. 9,000 Oodenewera.......... ........ 12 Oodapalata............. 60,000 9,500 Harrispatto............ ........ 14 23,000 Hewapetta.............. 24 15,000 Matelle.................... ........ 55,000 D om bera............... Drstricts. Total................... 273,000 STATISTICS OF LIQUOR LICENCES IN NEW YORK CITY. NVe give below a statement of the number of licenses granted in the city of New York, since the 9th of May. 1849, in the several wards. The table shows, taking the population of 1845— the last official census— the proportion o f the licenses to the in habitants. It would seem, from this table, that the retail liquor trade, selling it by the glass, was a profitable business, there being one license granted for every 98 o f the population. Besides, we are credibly informed that in the 6th ward alone, there are more than 300 places where liquor is sold without licenses. Deducting members of the temperance societies, women and children, who do not patronize places where liquor is sold by the glass, which, on the very lowest estimate, may be put down at one-half of the whole population, we find that we have one license, or retailer, for every 49 persons in the city of New York. Licenses Wards. 1st............... 2 d .............. 3 d .............. 4th ........... 5 th ............. 6 th ............. 7 th ............. ............ ............ ........... ........ ........... ........... ........... ........... 9 th 10th............. ........... Popu- Proporlation. tion. 342 160 192 345 193 222 215 216 12,230 6,962 11,900 21,000 20,360 19,343 25,556 30,900 36 64 62 61 106 66 119 143 194 30 907 1 59 165 20*993 127 W ards. Licenses. n t h ............... 12t h ............... 13 t h ............... 14th ............... 15t h .............. 1 6 th ............... 17th............... 18th............... T o t a l.. 253 128 215 116 299 216 182 ... 3,779 Popular Proportion. tion. 27,259 13,378 22,411 21,103 19,422 40,350 27,147 108 106 179 98 168 84 126 371,223 98 THE COAL TRADE WITH LONDON. The London Shipping Gazette gives the following summary view of the coal trade of that city, derived from official sources:— About 300 years ago (say about 1550) one or two ships were sufficient for the de mand and supply of London. In 1615 about 200 were equal to its demand; in 1705 about 600 ships were engaged in the London coal trade. In 1805. 4,856 cargoes, con taining about 1,350,000 tons; in 1820, 5,884 cargoes, containing 1,692,992 tons; in 1830, 7,108 cargoes, containing 2,079.275 tons; in 1840, 9,132 cargoes, containing 2,566,889 tons; in 1845, 2,695 ships were employed in carrying 11,987 cargoes, con taining 3,403,320 tons ; and during the past year, (1848) 2,717 ships, making 12,267 voyages, and containing 3,418,340 tons. The increase in the importation during the last ten years, that is to say, from the year 1838 to the year 1848, when the respec tive importation was 2,518,085 tons, and 3,418,340 tons, is upwards of 90 per cent. Now, by taking 2,700 vessels as the actual number now employed, and by calculation such vessels averaging 300 tons burthen per ship, and giving to a vessel of that size a crew of eight men, it will appear that at the present time 21,600 seamen are employ ed in the carrying department of the London coal trade. Commercial Regulations. 88 COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. CHANGED I3V THE JAMAICA TARIFF. The House of Assembly of Jamaica have finally passed a revenue bill, laying duties on imports, which has been concurred in by the Council, and signed by the Governor. The following table shows the duty under the expired act, and that under the new bill now in force:— Duty under new bill. Beef, pork, and tongues........................................... Bread or biscuit......................................., . .............. Cattle .......................................................................... Cheese..................... / ................................................. Drugs........................................................................... Salm on...................................................................... . Rye Flour................................. .................................. Preserved meats.......................................................... Rice.............................................................................. Salt.............................................................................. Brandy......................................................................... Rum, gin, and whisky................................................ A ll other spirits and cordials..................................... Refined sugar.............................................................. Tobacco, manufactured on every £100 value........ And farther per pound weight................................. Tobacco, manufactured, on every £100 value........ For every pound weight....................... %................. Spring carriages, not used for agricultural purpo ses, plate, gold watches, gold and silver watch es, gold and silver clocks, jewelry...................... On all other goods, wares, or merchandise, plan tation supplies, clothing, <fec., effects of every k in d......................... ............................................... Duty under expired act. 20s. per bbl. 16s. per bbl. 6s. per cwt. 4s. per cwt. 10s. per head 4s. per head. 10s. per cwt. Is. per cwt. 100s. per cent. Free. 10s. per bbl. 8s. per bbl. 2s. “ 4s. “ £6 per cent. 2 per cent, 2s. per cwt. 15 “ Id. per cwt. 6d. “ 8s. per gallon. 6s. per gallon. 6s. 6s. 12s. 6s. 2d. per lb. Id. per lb. 50 per cent. 32 per cent. 6d. “ 3d. “ 24 15 3d. “ 3d. “ 10 drawback, 2 “ 8 per cent. 5 “ drawback, 2 “ 3 percent. Except coke, coals, (fee., diamond, hay, straw, ice, turtle, beeswax, tortoise-shell, raw hides, and hemp. ABSTRACT OF THE CORPORATION LAWS OF INDIANA. We copied into the Merchants' Magazine, for August, 1849, from the “ Economist,” a valuable journal, recently established at Cannelton, Indiana, for the purpose of pro moting the industrial interests of the west, a succinct account of the law of limited partnerships, as it exists in Indiana. The same journal examines, as germain to the subject, the law of corporations, and gives a brief synopsis of its provisions, as follows: The general powers of corpoi ations “ to sue and be sued, appear, prosecute, and de- * fend the final judgment and execution, to have common seal which may be altered at pleasure, to elect officers, make by-laws and regulations,” are the same here as in most other States. Many of the wants of corporation are provided for in their several charters, which provisions set aside the provisions of the general la w ; in all other cases the statute regulations prevail. The first meeting of all corporations not otherwise provided for in this act of incor poration is required to be called by notice, signed by any one or more of the persons named in the act of incorporation, stating the time, place, and purpose of the meeting. The notice to be seven days previous to the meeting, and delivered to each member, or published in some newspaper in the county, if any such there b e ; if not, then in an adjoining county. A t this meeting thus assembled, they may proceed to fill vacan cies and transact any business that may be done at any regular meeting. Such corporations may hold lands to the amount authorized by law, and may con i Commercial Regulations. 89 vey the same. This corporate power, except for the purpose of prosecuting the busi ness for which they were established, continues for three years after their charters have expired by limitation, forfeiture, or otherwise, for the purpose of closing up their concerns. When the charter of any corporation expires or is annulled, any creditor, stock holder, or member of the same, upon application to the circuit court of the county in which such corporation carries on its business, or has its principal place of business, at any time within the said three years, may have one more persons appointed to be receiv ers or trustees of, and for such corporation, to have charge of the estate and effects thereof, and to collect all debts, prosecute and defend suits and do all acts which might be done by the corporation, if in being, for the settlement of any unfinished business. Upon all such applications, the same circuit court has chancery jurisdiction, and may make such order, injunctions, and decrees as equity may require. It is made the duty of said receiver to pay all debts due from the corporation, if there be sufficient funds, and if not, to distribute the same rateablv among creditors. The balance remaining, after payment of debts, is to be distributed in the same way among those entitled to it. Actions brought against such corporation, for the recovery of any debt, ate com menced by issuing a summons which may be executed on the president, presiding offi cer, or a majority of the members. Whenever a corporation shall have offended against any of the provisions of the act or acts, creating, altering, or renewing such corporation, or violated the provisions of any law, by which such corporation shall have forfeited its charter by misuser, or for feited its privilege by non-user, or done or omitted any acts which amount to a sur render of its corporate rights, privileges, and franchises, or whenever it shall exercise any franchise or privilege not conferred upon it by law, an information in the nature of a quo warranto may be filed by the prosecuting attorney, upon his own relation, on leave granted against the same; and it is made the duty of the prosecuting attorney to file such information in the office of the clerk of the Circuit Court, whenever he has good reasons to believe such information can be established by proof, and leave to file such information may be granted by the Circuit Court in term time. Whenever any judgment shall be rendered against a corporation upon such inform ation, the court, as a court of Chancery, may restrain such corporation, appoint a re ceiver of its property and effects, and take an account, and make distribution thereof among its creditors. The president, cashier, secretary, treasurer, or other proper officers of such corprations, must, on or before the 25th day of May in each year, make and deliver to the county assessor of the county wherein such corporation is liable to be taxed, a written statement specifying under oath the real estate, if any, owned by such company, the township and counties in which it is situated, and the sums actually paid therefor, the capital stock actually paid in, and secured to be paid in, the amount of capital, stock held by the State and by any incorporated literary or charitable institution, the town or place in which the principal office or place of transacting the financial business is situated. Penalty for non-conformity to these regulations within thirty days after the time specified above, is the forfeiture of $250 to the State. The cash value of the stock of all such companies is to be ascertained, by the as sessor, by the sales of stock, or in any other manner, deducting therefrom, the sums paid for real estate then owned by such company, and the amount of stock, if any, belonging to the State, and to incorporated literary and charitable institutions, which value thus ascertained, together with the value of the real estate of such companies, shall constitute the amount on which the tax of such company shall be assessed. In case there is no real estate belonging to such corporation upon which the taxes can be made, the court may order the sequestration of part of such company’s prop erty, sufficient to meet all demands. Such are the main features of the corporation laws of Indiana, which together with the liberal provisions that pervade the charters of those companies which have their operations within this State, have been found to afford the fullest security and encour agement tq the investment of associated capital. Under these laws several cases have been argued and determined in the Supreme Court of the State. W e refer to only two of these decisions. “ It is held that a judgment against a corporation, in the case of a forfeiture of its charter, is, that the franchise be seized into the hands of the State, and that when its 90 N autical Intelligence . franchises are seized by execution, on the judgment, then, and not till then, the corpo ration is dissolved; also that the whole corporation is answerable, so far as its fran chises are in question, for the misconduct of the president and directors, or other select body in the management of the concerns under their control.— (1 Black, p. 167.) NUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. NANTUCKET SHOALS. A. D. Bache, the superintendant of the United States Coast Survey, communicated to the Secretary of the Treasury, on the 5th of November, 1849, the subjoined report of Lieutenant Charles H. M’Blair, U. S. N., showing the position of four shoals, in the main channel in Nantucket Shoals, discovered in the course of Lieutenant M’Blair’s hy drographic operations, during the last season. A sketch showing the position of these discoveries has been prepared, which will be published. U nited S tates S urveying S teamer B ibb, ) Wilfleet Bay, October 8, 1849. ) S ir — I beg leave to report that we have recently discovered four shoals lying on what is known by the pilots as the Main Ship Channel over the Nantucket Shoals. They consist, as far as we have yet been able to determine, of sharp and abrupt ridges of fine white sand. Beginning at the most western shoal and designating them numerically as they lie east of each other, it may be stated that numbers one and three stretch in a North Westerly direction, the former being about one-quarter and the latter one-sixth of a mile long. The remaining two, designated by numbers two and four, are very small spots somewhat circular in shape. The smallest sounding, reduced to mean low water mark, show, on No. 1, 14 feet; on No. 2, 15 feet; on No. 3, 14 feet; and on No. 4, 9 feet. The bearings and distances of the shoalest spots on each, from points determined on Nantucket Island, are as follows:— No. 1, from Great Point Light, N. 86° 30' E. (true) distance 9.5 nautical miles. No. 1, from Great Sankaty Head, N. 39° 58' E. (true) distance 9.6 nautical miles. No. 2, from Great Point Light, N, 85° 40' E. (true) distance 10.2 nautical miles. No. 2, from Sankaty Head, N. 42° 18' E. (true) distance 9.7 nautical miles. No. 3, from Great Point Light, N. 87° E. (true) distance 10.3 nautical miles. No. 3, from Sankaty Head, N. 43° 55' E. (true) distance 9.6 nautical miles. No. 4, from Great Point Light, N. 86° 45' E. (true) distance 10.7 nautical miles. No. 4, from Sankaty Head, N. 44° 50' E. (true) distance 9.9 nautical miles. These shoals can readily be discovered by the rip (or ripples) formed on them by the tides at all stages, except during slack water, when they can no longer be detected by this means; but, in daylight, they exhibit the usual discoloration of water. Besides the shoals already noticed, I subjoin the bearings and distances of two spots of small extent, on which we found 18 feet water at reduced soundings. One bears from Great Point Light, N. 85° 40' E. (true) distance 9.8 nautical miles; and from Sankaty Head, N. 40° 16' (true) distance 9.4 nautical miles. The other bears from Great Point Light, N. 85° 10' E. (true) distance 11.2 nautical miles ; and from Sankaty Head, N. 45° 25' E. (true) distance 10.5 nautical miles. I am , respectfully, yours, C. H. M’ B L A IR . Prof. A. D. B ache, Sup't U. S. Coast Survey. NEW LIGHT-HOUSE ON ARDNAMURCHAN. W e learn from the St. John’s New Brunswicker, of November 29th. 1849, that notice has been received at the port of St, John, of a new light-house which has been erected upon the Point of Ardnainurchan, in the county of Argyle. The light of which was exhibited on the night of Saturday, the 1st of December, 1849, and every night there N autical Intelligence . 91 after, from sunset until sunrise, and for the benefit of which the commissioners of the Nothern Light-houses are authorized, by virtue of a warrant from the queen in council, to levy the toll of one farthing per ton on all vessels not in ballast, or privileged foreign vessels, and one-half penny per ton for such foreign unprivileged vessel. The following is a specification and description of the light-house:— The light-house is in lat. 56° 48' 45" N. and Ion. 6° 13' 30" W. By compass, the light house bears from Calliach Head, N. E. f E. distant seven miles; from the Cairns of Coll, E. S. E. distant three miles; from Kana Head, S. £ E. distant thirty miles; from Scour of Eigg, S. W. by S. £ W . distant eleven miles; and from Bo Askadil Rock, W. S. W. distant seven miles. The Ardnamurchan Light will be known to mariners as a fixed light, of the natural appear ance. It will be visible in a North Westerly direction from N. E. by E. £ E. round to S. W. by S. The lantern is elevated 180 feet above the level of the sea ; and the light will be seen at the distance of about six leagues ; and at lesser distances according to the state o f the atmosphere. SHOAL ON THE S. E. POINT OF FORT TONE. On the north side of the entrance of the. harbor of Marsamusetto, a.shoal runs off from the S. E. part of the low rocky point of Fort Tigne, in a S. E. by E. direction, about 48 or 50 fathoms. A t that distance from the shore there is a depth of 24 feet of water over a rocky and uneven bottom. MARKS FOR AVOIDING THIS SHOAL. A black mark, six feet broad, and eight feet deep, (with a white border,) is painted on the north part of the Bastion of Fort St. Elmo. This mark, brought in a line with St. Elmo Light-house, bearing S. by E., by compass, leads along the East side of that shoal in six and seven fathoms water. And Boschetto Palace brought open to the southward of the S. W. Bastion of Fort Manoel, bearing W. by S., leads along the south side of the shoal in four and five fa thoms w’ater, passing about 30 fathoms from the shore of Fort Tigne. In the angle of meeting of these marks, where both are on, there is 7£ fathoms water. These marks are perfectly safe, but close, and must not be passed towards the shoal. In working out, keep Boschetto Palace open to the Southward of the S. W. Bastion of Fort Manoel, until the light house is open on the east side of the black mark, on the north part of the bastion of Fort St. Elmo. And in working in, keep the light-house open to the eastward of the black mark on St. Elmo, until Boschetto Palace is open to the southward of the bastion of Fort Manoel. DESCRIPTION OF MARKS. The south end of the bastion of Fort Manoel is remarkable, being close to the wa ter, having a stone sentry box built on the top of it. The Palace of Boschetto is also remarkable, being a large square building on the most distant high land, near the center of the island. The light-house of St. Elmo, with the black mark, bearing S. by E. and N. by W., from each other cannot be mistaken. LIGHT-HOUSE ON THE OSTERGARNS ISLET. The following is a translation of an ordinance issued by the Royal Navy Board at Stockholm, under date of the 16th October :— The Royal Navy Board hereby makes known, for the information and guidance of mariners, that the Coal Light-house, situated on the Ostergams Islet, East Gothland, has been rebuilt, and that a stationary, or fixed light, of the third class, has been erected there. The said light was exhibited for the the first time, on the 1st of Octo ber, 1849, and is to be kept burning during the same time, as all other lights in this kingdom. The tower of the light-house has been considerably elevated, so that the light will burn at the height of 104 feet above the level of the sea, and will be seen all round the horizon. In clear weather, the said light ought, consequently, to be visible from an ordinary vessel’s deck, during the night-time, at a distance of 3£ geo graphical or German miles, or more. Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance. 92 JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE. CONDITION OF THE BANKS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. We have carefully compiled the following statement of the condition of the Banks of the State of New York, from the Controller’s statement of September 22d, 1849. It will be seen that the Controller has made a new classification, as follows:— 1st. Of the in corporated (or Safety Fund) Banks of New York city; 2d. Banking Associations of New York city; 3d. Other Incorporated Banks out of the city of New Y ork; 4th, Other Banking Associations out of the city of New Y ork ; 5th. Other Individual Banks, or banks owned by indiduals, under the free banking system of the State. The returns embrace one hundred and eighty-seven banks and two branches. No reports were re ceived from the “ Drovers’ Bank of Cattaraugus,” and the “ Village Bank.” R E SOU RCES. Other Other Incorporated Banking incorporated banking Other banks o f assoc’ns o f Banks associations individual N. Y . city. N. Y . city, o f the State, o f the State, banks. Loans & D isco’nts, except to Directors and Brokers....... $31,549,359 $15,116,289 $23,657,663 Loans & disc’ts to Directors. 1,'802,332 923,421 1,315,053 A ll other liabilities, absolute or contingent o f Directors. 530,864 A ll sums due from brokers.. 625,530 1,062,279 220,560 Real estaie.............. ................. i;731,594 1,731,594 382,019 1,116,309 93,796 54,311 Bonds and m ortgages............ 744,259 Stocks........................................ 978,169 2,843,215 823,873 Promissory notes, other than for loans and discou n ts.. . 12,874 119,393 Loss and expense account... 112.668 191,717 66,615 O verdrafts................................ 19,104 5,466 64,916 S p ecie ........................................ 1,849,683 6,172,563 683,925 Cash item s................................ 1,555.945 4,821,562 770,722 Bills o f solv’ t banks on hand 287,660 369,772 1,204.854 Bills o f susp’ d banks on hand 2,256 Estimated value o f the same. 907 Due f ’m solv’t b’ks on dem ’d 848,755 2,966,730 4,416,447 Due Pm solv’ t b’ ks on credit 329,029 Due f’ m susp’d b’ljs on dem ’ d 251.288 4,833 Estimated vau e o f the same. 58,292 Due f ’m susp’d b’ks on credit 4,418 Estimated value o f the same. ........ ......... 18,341,285 $2,454,327 654,872 249,950 ‘266,497 1,682,888 4,558,950 52.910 82,253 81,272 227,009 250,172 236,811 1,748 811 844,020 30,142 13.845 448 Total resources................ $51,776,509 $24,724,089 $35,526,968 $17,572,203 81,299 52,916 202,880 3,158,542 51,498 35,905 12,405 86,995 74,260 134,867 1,719 1,137 278,254 31.000 Grand Total. $81,118,923 4,695,678 1,618,814 2,239,618 3549,335 2,778,134 12,362,748 236,675 489,168 183,163 9,020,175 7,472,661 2,233,964 5,723 2,855 9,354,206 390,171 269,966 58,740 4,418 .6,704 $136^56,473 L IA B IL IT IE S . Capital........................................ $16,251,200 $8,817,500 $12,664,060 $6,347,638 $1,507,928 Profits........................................ 901,973 227,843 2,585,818 1,140,542 2,458,450 Notes in cir’ la’n, not regist’ d 282,637 368,136 Registered notes in circulat’ n 3,959,710 4,521,412 3,222,754 1,747,753 9,584,126 331,640 212,494 906,786 Due Treasurer o f State o f N. Y 1,116,207 D ue Commis. o f Canal Fund Due depositors on d em a n d .. 19,835,301 2,763,943 1,119,853 8,64Q,927 5,130,746 Due individuals & corp ’ns, 489,746 99,995 oth. than b ’ ks & depositors 48,712 89,679 20,152 1,454,208 153,017 Due banks on dem and.......... 8,233,056 2,076,097 4,119,223 40,000 193,431 64,968 Due banks on credit.............. 399,015 Due to others, not included 327,562 53,007 28,881 in either o f above h ea d s... 231,979 734,368 Total liabilities. $45,588,326 7,314,616 650,773 23,035,755 2,567,127 37,342,770 748,284 16,935,601 697,414 1,375,797 $51,776,509 $24,724,089 $35,526,968 $17,572,203 $6,656,704 $136,256,473 S U M M A R Y OF T H E I T E M S O F C A P IT A L , C IR C U L A T IO N , A N D D E P O S I T S — S P E C IE A N D C A S H I T E M S — P U B L IC S E C U R I T I E S , A N D P R I V A T E S E C U R I T I E S , OF T H E B A N K S O F T H E S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , ON T H E M O R N IN G OF T H E 22d D A Y OF S E P T E M B E R , 1849. Capital...................................................... $45,588,326 i S pecie...................................................... Cir’ t’n (old em isson)........ $650,773 Cash Item s................................................. “ (registered n otes). 23,035,755 ' Public securities..................................... 23,686,528 : Private securities................................... 37,342,770 I Deposits, $9,020,175 7,472,621 12,599,423 91,015,516 93 Journal o f Banicing, Currency , and Finance. UNITED STATES TREASURY NOTES OUTSTANDING, DEC. 1, 1849, T reasury D epartment, Register’s Office, Dec. 1, 1849. Amount outstanding of the several issues prior to the 22d July, 1846, as per records of this office,.............................................................. .. Amount outstanding of the issue of the 22d July, as per records of this office, ................................................................................. ...................... Amount outstanding of the issue of the 28th January, 1847, as per re cords of this office..................................................................................... $143,289 31 64,250 00 2,551,650 00 2,759,189 31 Deduct cancelled notes in the hands of the accounting officers, of which $200 is under acts prior to 22d July, 1846 ; $1,950 under act of 22d July, 1846, and $1,400 under act of 28th January, 1847................... 3,550 00 $2,755,639 31 A L L E N A . H A L L , Register o f the Treasury. OF THE UNIFORMITY OF THE GOLD COIN OF THE UNITED STATES. It having been stated in one of the New York journals, that the United States Mint at Philadelphia, sends forth gold coin lacking in certainty and uniformity of value, and that the Bank of England would not loan money on American coin for want of uniformity in its denominational value, the Hon. J. Phillips Phoenix, member of Congress from New York, addressed a letter to R. M. Patterson Esq., Director of the Mint, enclosing the statement in the New York paper. The following is the Director’s reply to the charge:— M P i n t ok t h e h il a d e l p h ia , N U ov. n it e d S t a t e s , ) 24, 1849. f S i r :— Your communication of the 8th inst., enclosing a slip from one of the New York papers, was received a few days since. It required some time, especiaUy in a press of business, to consider what answer should or could be made to so grave and surprising an allegation, the force of which is condensed in the caption of “ false mint age.” As to accuracy of assaying and melting, I confidently affirm that there is not a mint in the world which can show a stricter faithfulness to the legal standards than has been maintained here for a long series of years. I have taken steps to ascertain whether the statement is true, that the Bank of England does not receive our gold coin, without previous melting and assay. Sup posing it to be true, as I have little doubt it is, there are two ways of accounting for the fact, which should cause any writer, understanding his subject, to hesitate before publishing a wholesale discredit of the national currency, and wounding the reputation and the feelings of those who are entrusted with its manufacture. The first is, within the past sixteen years we have had three various standards es tablished by law, for our gold coin: first, up to June, 1834, it was 22 carats, or 9168qousandths; at that time it was reduced to 899-225 thousandths; and in January 1837, there was a farther change to the more simple proportion of 900 thousandths’ or nine-tenths. Of this fact I have been surprised to find that even our most intelli gent dealers in foreign exchange have not a clear apprehension; and it is not, there fore, wonderful, if the Bank of England, unwilling to take the trouble of discrimina ting by dates and devices, should use the shorter course of melting down a i l assaying The other solution, and rather the more probable, (though they may consist with each other,) is that it is contrary to usage, everywhere, for the mint of one country to take the coins of another by tale, or at the alleged fineness. It is not done here • we receive the gold sovereign, not at the alleged fineness, which it does not reach, but at its actual assay, after melting. In a matter of this kind there is no courtesy to be wasted, on one side or the other. The Bank of England, you are aware, is the channel through which the mint of England is supplied with material, the two institutions being closely connected. YTou will perceive, then, that we have been charged with false mintage, and the cur rency of the country has been disgraced, because we have followed the various stan 94 Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance . dards enacted by law, or else, because the mint of England, like all other mints, takes our coin upon its o\^n assay, and not upon our testimony. Allow me, in conclusion, to express my obligations to you, for having made me ac quainted with this charge, and thus enabled me to repel it. Very respectfully, your faithful servant, H on . J. P hilips 1‘ n a :s ix . M em ber o f Congress. R . M. PATTERSON , Director. DEBT AND FINANCES OF VIRGINIA IN 1849. A reliable correspondent of the Merchants' Magazine, residing in Richmond, Vir ginia, has sent us the subjoined tabular statement of the condition of the public debt and resources of Virginia, on the 30th of September, 1849 :— PUBLIC DEBT AND RESOURCES OF VIRGINIA, SEPTEMBER 30, 1849. State stocks held by private parties— Issued for internal improvements.......................................... “ for subscriptions to banks............................................ $7,091,187 450,107 *7,541,294 Held by State institutions— Held by the literary fund (increase in 1849, $76,000)......... “ Board of Public Works (inc. in 1849, $12,239). 1,096,106 366,863 1,462.969 Total...................................... The outstanding debt is held thus— In Great Britain................................................ In Prance, Germany, Asc................................. $2,200,700 80,400 In Virginia........................................................ Maryland..................... District of Columbia................................... Other States................................................ 4,703,267 374,277 57,600 125,050 $9,004,263 2.281,100 5,260.194 $7,541,294 Redeemable as follows :— At option of State «< after 1852.. « a 1854.. « a 1855.. « u 1858.. « a 1859.. a a I860.. u 1861.. u “ 1862.. «( « 1863.. it a 1865.. it u 1867.. ti “ 1868.. it a 1869.. it a 1872.. u it 1873.. $215;300 Within 15 years after 1844. “ 80,000 1845. it 145,000 1852. it 1,171,900 1854. U 1,685,418 1855. ti 859,788 1858. 314,215 Irredeemable until 1 8 5 0 ... 91,180 To be redeemed in 1855 .. it 245,542 1 8 5 8 ... ti 16,838 1 8 5 9 ... it 18,750 1 8 6 0 ... it 277.500 1 8 6 1 ... it 391,820 1 8 6 2 ... it 112,100 1 8 6 3 ... 242,000 600,000 $300,000 100,000 50.000 20.000 138.000 63.500 245.000 25.500 24.500 4,900 9,150 21,366 61,966 10,061 1,073,943 6,467,351 $7,541,294 FUNDS AND RESOURCES OF THE COMMONWEALTH. The amount held by the State is $2,677,505 ; the Literary fund, 490,070; by the Board of Public Works, $8,6^7,241; showing a total of $11,854,816.* * O f this amount, the portion bearing 6 per cent interest is $6,462,994; the portion bearing 5 per cent interest is §1,053,069; the portion bearing 51 per cent interest, is $25,300. Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance . 95 Consisting as follows— Productive Stocks— Bank stocks, at par (paying near 7 per cent)................... Old stock, Janies River Co. (paying near 6 per cen t).. . . Certificates and bonds (paying near 6 per cent)................. §3,808,220 254,000 135,460 ------------$4,197,680 Stocks in railroad companies................................................ 1,084,133 Stocks in turnpike companies................................................ 381,064 Stocks in navigation companies ......................................... 361,873 Loans to public institutions, secured by mortgages.......... 1,354,705 ---------------------- 3,181,775 Total of Productive Stocks and funds................................................. 7,379,455 Unproductive, or more or less available...................................................... 154,741 Stocks in public works not completed......................................................... 3,674,254 Stocks in works completed orsuspended, but unproductive...................... 646,366 T o ta l................................................................................................... The above does not include the cost of stocks in works transferred, sold, abandoned, or useless............................ Roads constructed on State account, or in aid of counties.. The aggregate receipts amounted to...................................... “ disbursements................................................ Balance in the Treasury, on the 30th September, 1 8 4 9 ... The receipts for dividends, interest, ifec., of the productive stocks and funds included in the above, were.................. Amount of loans obtained and paid into the Treasury Stocks issued for loan of 1847, to James R. & K. C o........ Stocks cancelled by the sinking fund.................................... $11,854,816 $879,534 978,212 ------------- $1,857,764 $998,388 962,957 73,393 430,752 478,217 250,000 92,721 LIABILITIES OF THE COMMONWEALTH AUTHORIZED BY LAW, WHEN DEMANDED. Bonds of corporations guaranteed by the State— James River & Kenauha Co.’s bonds................................... “ “ to be issued......................... Chesapeak Ohio Canal Co................................................... “ “ to be issued............................. Valley Turnpike Co................................................................. City of Wheeling, to be guaranteed........................................ Alexandria Canal, to be guaranteed........................................ $1,400,000 500,000 300,000 200,000 20,874 500,000 43,520 ------------$2,964,394 Loans which may be called for under existing laws, to complete State subscriptions for internal improvements— To be paid on aaceunt of subscriptions to works in progress $2,840,729 Subscriptions made to organized companies, not called for 349,400 “ authorized by law to organized companies, but not yet required................................... 1,850,564 “ authorized to companies when organized.. . . 998,600 ------------6,039,293 T o ta l..................................................................................................... $9,003,687 In connection with the foregoing statements, furnished by our correspondent, we here subjoin an extract from Governor Floyd’s message to the Virginia Senate and House of Delegates, made on the 3d of December, 1849, on the same subject:— “ It will be, I am sure, gratifying to you, and to the people at large, to know that Virginia has at her command ample means to discharge all her subsisting public debt, with the exception of a very small and inconsiderable sum. If it were thought desir able to-morrow to wipe out the public debt, a sale at par of her profitable and inter est-paying stocks would effect it. This present subsisting debt amounts to $7,541,294 11. The annual interest and dividends received by the State, amount to $430,752 08; showing that the stocks yielding this sum are worth, at par, $7,197,200, or about the amount of the public deb t; that is, within $362,000 of our present indebtedness. There is, however, an additional sum of $6,000,000, which, under existing laws, may 96 Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance. be called for out of the treasury, and about $5,000,000 of which will, it is thought, be certainly demanded in the course of a few years ; hence this sum, although not now a subsisting debt, will become so, and ought, therefore, to be taken into the estimates of our liabilities. This view shows the precise condition of our financial situation, and is fully sustained by the reports and documents which will be laid before the Legislature. The State, it is true, has guaranteed loans to a consideraole amount for various incor porated companies, which securityship some have regarded as a part of the public deb t; but this is unquestionably an error, for a knowledge of the resources, and the prospects of the companies, whose bonds have been guarantied, will satisfy all that tey are, or will ultimately be, amply able to pay their bonds, as, up to this time, they have always done the interest on them.” DEBT AID FINANCES OF GEORGIA. We give below a report of the financial condition of Georgia, embracing a detailed statement of her public debt, derived from official returns to the Legislature now in session, made up to the 20th of October, 1849 :— FINANCES. Balance in the Treasury, October 20, 1848................................... Receipts from all sources, for the fiscal year ending 20th of Oc tober, 1849...................................................................................... $365,587 73 Total..................................................................... The total disbursements for the same time were— For the expenses of the State Government........... Interest on the public debt........................................ Paid off part of the public debt............................... $629,216 93 263,629 20 $88,696 08 110,823 33 75,000 00 274,519 41 Total........................................................................................ $354,697 52 STATISTICS OF THE PUBLIC DEBT. Total debt of Georgia, October, 1847............................................. Bonds having 5, 15, and 20 years to run, issued un der act of General Assembly, passed December 23d, 1847, and delivered to the engineer of the Western and Atlantic Railroad, for the final com pletion of the road.................................................. 375,000 00 Issued in 1848, for payment of claim of Peter Frezevant.................................................................. 22,222 22 ----------------- $1,578,875 61 Total................................................................................................ Paid off in 1848, £16,000 sterling bonds, issued to Reid, Irving, & Co., London, due in 1848....................................................................... 1,976,097 83 Amount of debt, December 1, 1848........................................................ Federal bonds paid off in 1849................................................................ 1,903,472 22 75,000 00 Total debt, as stated in the above exhibit................................. In making up a reliable statement of the total indebtedness of the State of Georgia, it is proper to add the probable deficiency arising from the winding up of the Central Bank, at Milledgeville, the property o f the State, which was put in liquidation about four years ago. The Finance Committee made a report to the Legislature in 1848, that the deficit would be from $175,000 to $195,000. We add to the funded debt of the State the maximum estimate........... 397,222 22 72,625 61 $1,828,472 22 195,00000 Making the liability of Georgia in every shape.................... $2,023,472 22 It will be seen that bonds are payable from 1853 to 1874. If the annual payments of principal are equal to those for the last two years, the whole amount of the State debt could be absorbed within the respective periods the bonds fall due. The Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. 97 Treasurer, in his report to the Legislature, remarks: “ Believing that the public sen timent looks to a continuation of such reductions, by the annual appropriation to that object of all sums in the Treasury, which the wants of the government do not require, and confidently trusting that legislative provision for that purpose will be made du ring your present session, I have inserted in the estimate of expenditures sums con formable to these views.” In the estimates referred to for the years 1850 and 1851, the following amounts are inserted:— $72,000 is put down for the reduction of the debt in 1850. 70,000 “ “ “ “ “ 1851. The next meeting o f the Legislature will be 1851. DEBT AND FINANCES OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN 1849. The following statements relating to the public debts, the finances, and bank of South Carolina is derived from the last annual message of the govenor, to the Legislature of South Carolina: the public debt of South Carolina, and the means for its liquidation is thus stated in the message :— Am ount now Rate, interest and date o f Loan. 6 per cent 6 “ 5 “ 6 “ 5 6 6 5 3 “ “ “ " “ Railroad loan, 1839 .................... «( « u Fire loan, “ “ M U it a ........ ...... Randolph Stock, ........ Railroad Bank cap.,......... Revolutionary. ........ owing. $176,328 71 276,328 71 486,666 67 482,722 20 488,888 88 325,808 90 10,000 00 46,714 34 117,438 40 W hen payable. W here payable. 1850 Charleston. 1852 Charleston. 1858 London. 1860 Charleston. 1868 London. 1870 Charleston. 1850 Charleston. 1859 Charleston. A t pls’re Charleston* $2,310,896 81 The resources of the bank, applicable to the payment of this debt, amount to $3,888,368 60, which is an excess, or available assets over the liabilities of the State of $1,532,843 99, or over two and a half millions, if the sum of $1,051,000, received/rom the Federal Government on deposit, be included. The following sketch of the history of the bank of South Carolina, is thus given in the same message:— This institution was chartered in 1812. To the pecuniary pressure of the times, in duced by the restrictive policy of the Federal Government, it owed its existence. The distress of the planting community was so general and paralizing, that the Legislature, after investigating every mode of relief, ultimately adopted the scheme of a system of public loans, in the nature of discount on real or personal property. The accommoda tion furnished on mortgage to individuals, limited at first to $2,000 each, but by the act of 1825, increased to $10,000. The 7th section of the original law prescribed should be distributed in proportionate amounts among the election districts. This provision, I believe has never been carried into effect. Its execution, if required at the time, was soon rendered unneccessary, as it is well known, that our agricultural population recov ered from the consequences of the sudden revulsion in their condition, at an early period subsequent to the war. In 1820, the capital of the bank was pledged for the redemption of the public debt. This was done to meet the expenses consequent on the establishment of a system of internal improvement, then commenced by the State. The immediate effect was to convert the bank, for many years practically only as a loan office, into an institution to be conducted on purely commercial principles. By the usual accommodation on bonds, it incurred embarrassments and hazards, and the operation was too slow to attain the end, which, by a virtual modification of the principal, if not exclusive design of the orignal act, it was henceforth to fulfil. In 1833, it was deemed “ expedient and beneficial, both to its citizens and the State, V O L T . X X I.-----N O . I. * Valued at $72,810 60. 7 Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance. 98 to re-charter the bank.” It now becomes the solemn duty of the legislature to inquire, whether its existence shall be prolonged beyond the year 1856, to which by law it is limited. In concluding this subject, he says:— In submitting a plan for winding up the bank, I scarcely need assure you, that the subject has received my most attentive examination, and that in suggesting the necessity for your action upon it I have been influenced solely by a high sense of official duty. It is proper that I should inform you, that Messrs. Baring, Brothers <fc Co., of Lon don, have addressed to me a communication substantially protesting against closing the bank, on the ground that that institution was voluntarily offered by the State, as one of the securities for the loan negotiated by them. I will only here remark, that it is not proposed to destroy the bank, but to deprive it of its banking powers. It will con tinue as a corporation until 1860— four years beyond the period to which its duration extends by the existing law. A t that time, only *188,888 88 of the foreign, and 8398,619 50 of the domestic debt will be due, while the assets of the bank will amount to about two and a half millions. But, in truth, the foreign debt will then have been paid, if the plan of hypothecating securities, or emitting new bonds, should the ordi nary means fail, be resorted to. In order to secure that result, the directors should be invested with full powers. By this expedient, the argument of violated faith wil have no ground on which to rest. The State will have discharged its obligations in full, and that, too, before the period specified in the contracts. In the meanwhile, let the assets o f the bank, not required for the redemption of the liabilities of that institution, bo solemnly set aside for the liquidation of the public debt. STATE DEBT OF INDIANA. The readers of the Merchants’ Magazine, are referred to the number for August, 1849, (voL xxi., page 147 to 153,) for a full and comprehensive statement of the debts, finan ces and resources of Indiana. The subjoined statement touching the debt of Indiana, may be regarded as a note to that article, including the last official statement, derived from the message of the governor to the Legislature, at the opening of the last session, on the first Monday in December, 1849. The debt of Indiana is complicated, and requires some explanation. By the acts of the Legislature of the 19th of January, 1846, and the 27th January, 1847, proposals were made to the holders of the bonds (and then about 811,000,000 were held in Great Britain,) that they should complete the Wabash and Erie Canal, and take the State’s interest in it for one-half of this debt, and the State would issue new certificates for the other half, upon which she would pay interest at the rate of 4 per cent per annum, until January, 1853, and after that time at 5 per cent per annum, and issue certificates for half the arrears of interest, upon which she would pay interest at the rate o f 2£ per cent per annum after 1st January, 1853. In this 2| per cent stock is included 1 per cent per annum of principal, which gives the holders of the old bonds 5 per cent interest per annum upon the new 5 per cent stock from the dividend day, next preced ing the surrender of the old bonds. There has been surrendered and converted into new stock to 1st July last. $9,530,000 •Since July 1st................................................................................................... 33,000 Making........................ ......................................................................... $9,563,000 Leaving yet to come into this arrangement, 1,488 bonds, or $1,488,000. Classified as follow s:— State’s half of principal of bonds surrendered, interest payable in New York semi-annually, 5 per cent, $4 in cash; $1 added to back inter est—redeemable in 1867 and 1868........................................................... $4,781,500 State’s half bonds for back interest, with one per cent of principal as above, interest payable in New York semi-annually after 1853, 2£ per cent......... .................................................................................................... 1,642,617 Domestic floating debt, Treasury notes, &c................................................... 334,820 Old bond’s unsurrendered on 31st October, 1849, (the State’s half is ) .. . 744,000 Total amount on which the State pays interest.......................................... Bonds on which the State Bank pays the interest, redeemable in 1855 to 1865, at — per cent per annum.................................................................... Total debt of Indiana......................................................................... $7,502,937 1,390,000 $6,892,937 Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance. 99 C A N A L DEBT. Canal's half of principal of bonds, redeemable in 1867, 5 per cent interest as above.................................................. Canal's half interest on bonds, for arrears of interest 2£ per cent stock, interest payable after 1858..................... Canal’s half unsurrendered bonds......................................... Preferred canal stock, 6 per cent interest, principal and interest payable out of canal revenues before any other payments can be made, for the completion of the canal. §4,781,500 1,360,475 744,000 800,000 --------------- 7,685,975 Amount of the State’s former liabilities, principal and interest................. §16,578,915 The property of the canal is pledged for the payment, principal and interest, of the canal debt, and the State, agreeable to the acts of the Legislature referred to above, is free from any responsibility for this half of her late indebtedness, and the means to preserve the value of these bonds depend entirely upon the receipts from the canal. The fund held by the bank is considered ample to pay the interest on the §1,390,000. It holds a sinking fund for the redemption of the Treasury notes issued in 1839-40. These notes are receivable for all State dues, and are being rapidly withdrawn. Joseph A. Wright, the governor of Indiana, took the oath of office on the 16th of De cember, 1849. In his inaugural message to the Legislature, delivered on that occasion, he says:— “I take this occasion, in the commencement of my duties, to express to you this day, and through you to your fellow-citizens, the assurance that no effort of mine shall be spared to keep fair the credit of the State, and faithfully to keep all our past contracts. “ We should now mutually covenant and agree with each other, as the representa tives of our people, that we will maintain at any and every sacrifice, the credit of In diana upon our past engagements; and that we will not hereafter pledge her faith for another dollar of public money. It is not only our duty to take this position and keep it firmly, but to go one step further. “ By increased property, subject to taxation, as well as new objects of revenue, to be reached by judicious enactments, we may. so soon as the small amount of six per cent treasury notes now outstanding is provided for, command means to create a sinking fund whereby the extinguishment of our State debt may be immediately thereafter commenced. “ The Wabash and Erie Canal is accomplishing, as it progresses, all that its friends predicted by the arrangements made by the State with our creditors. Its progress equals the expectations of its warmest friends. Due credit should be given to the board of trustees for the energy they have displayed in pressing forward this great work. “ It is your plain duty in good faith to carry out all the stipulations and agreements entered into with our creditors in connection with this work, and in no manner whatever throw any obstacles in the way of its advancement. If this work progresses the next two years as it has the past, we shall have by that time, the waters of the lakes united with the Mississippi. We then shall have in actual operation the longest canal in the United States, carrying upon its bosom the productions of the most fertile part of the Mississippi valley.” OATES’ INTEREST TABLES. Mr. George Oates has in press, and will publish in a few days two series of interest tables bearing the above title, one at 6, the other at 7 per cent per annum, which will be found equally useful to banking institutions, who charge interest by days, at the rate of 360 days to the year, and to merchants and others who charge interest by years, months and days, each month being the twelfth part of a year of 365 days. They give the interest on any sum from §1 to §1,000, consecutively, for any length of time from 1 day to 360 days, by the first mode of calculation, or by the second mode, from 1 day to 2£ years, by the addition of two sums only, and which are both seen at a glance. The following tables are introduced to show their construction, and the way in which they are used. Example o f the first mode. Wanted the interest on §598, for 163 days. Turn to the table headed §598— and on a line with figure 5, will be found 150, (5 months of 30 Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance . 100 day8 to the month, making 150 days) the interest on which, found in the second column (months) is $17 44 2 ; then turn to figures 13, opposite to which in the first column (days) is $1 51 2, together $18 95 4, say $18 95, 4 mills being less than half a cent are thrown aside. Example o f the second mode. Wanted the interest on $596, for 1 year 7 months and 14 days. Turn to the table headed $596, and in the second column, (months,) opposite 19— (19 months being 1 year and 7 months,) will be found $66 05 7 ; then turn to the first column (days,) and opposite 14, is found $1 62 2, together $67 67 9, equal to $67 68, nine mills being more than half a cent, are reckoned one cent. These two examples explain the whole method, the only difference i>eing in the amount to be sought for. and the time for which interest is to be charged. Mr. Oates in his preface says, “ in preparing these interest tables, the author has attemp ed to produce such as combine the two important requisites, simplicity and comprehend siveness, in a greater degree than has hitherto been attained,” and in our opinion, after an examination of these tables, it will be conceded that he has been eminently successful. These tables are extended so as to give the interest on any sum from $1 to $10,000, by the introduction of tables from $1,000 to $10,000 by thousands, which for easy re ference, will be placed on the inside of each cover of the book. ' TABLES) )'rtj ' j 1 11 23 34 46 .57 69 •81 92 04 15 27 39 50 62 73 85 97 08 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 20 31 43 55 66 ■78 89 01 .12 24 36 47 1 2 3 4 5 6 20-86 2 4 .3 3 7 8 27-81 9 3 1 .2 9 34.7 6 O 10 38.2 4 11 8 -02 12 4 1 .7 2 13 4 5 .1 9 14 48 .6 7 15 5 2 .1 5 16 55.6 2 17 59.1 0 18 6 2 .5 8 19 66.0517 20 09.5313 7 3 .0 1 0 g 21 7 6 -4 8 7 J* 22 23 79.90J3 E& 83.44(0 -O i 24 25 8 6 .9 ) 7 26 9 0 .3 9 3 27 9 3 .8 7 0 28 97-34(7 29 100-82 3 30 1 0 4 .3 0 0 3 .4 7 6-9 5 10-43 13-90 17-38 PEJ1 C E N T i $ 597. Days. $ c. m. 2 7 •11 6 .23 2 •34 8 •46 4 •58 0 •69 7 ■81 3 •92 9 1-04 4 1.16 1 1-27 7 1-39 3 1-50 9 1-62 5 174 1 1-85 7 1 -97 3 2 -0 9 0 2 -2 0 6 2 .3 2 2 2 -4 3 8 2 -5 5 4 2 .6 7 0 2-78 6 2 -90 2 301 8 3 .1 3 4 3 -2 5 0 3 36|6 3.48)3 u Months. !*< $ c. m. s 5 3-48 3 6-96 5 10-44 8 1393 0 17-41 3 2 0 -89 5 2 4 .3 7 8 27-86 0 31.3 4 3 3 4 .8 2 5 3 8 .3 0 8 4 1 -79 0 4 5 .2 7 3 4 8 -7 5 5 5 2 .2 3 8 5 5 .7 2 0 5 9 .2 0 3 62.6 8 5 6 6 .1 6 8 6 9 .6 5 0 7 3 .1 3 3 76.61 T) 8 0 .0 9 8 8 3 .5 8 0 87-06 3 90.5 4 5 9 4 .0 2 8 97-51 0 100-99 3 104.47 5 3o 1 60 2 90 3 120 4 i5o 5 180 6 210 7 240 8 27O 9 3oo 10 33o 11 36o 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 s 21 22 % 23 -0 3 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 $ 598. Days. $ c. m. •11 .23 .34 •46 .58 •69 •81 .93 1.04 1.16 1.27 1.39 1.51 1-62 1-74 1.86 1-97 2-09 2-20 2-32 2-44 2 -5 5 2-67 2 -7 9 2-90 3-02 3-14 3 .2 5 337 3-48 Months. $ c. m. 6 3 -48'8 3 6 -9 7 7 9 1 0 -4 6 5 5 13.95 3 1 17-44(2 8 2 0 -93 0 4 24.41)8 0 2 7 -9 0 7 7 3 1 .3 9 5 3 3 4 -8 8 3 9 3 8 -37 2 5 4 1 .8 6 0 2 4 5 .3 4 8 8 48-83,7 4 52-32,5 0 55.8113 7 59.30(2 3 6 2 -79 0 9 6 6 -27 8 6 69-76(7 2 7 3 -2 5 5 8 76-74|3 4 80.23)2 1 8 3 .7 2 0 7 8 7 -2 0 8 3 9 0 -6 9 7 0 94.18(5 6 9 7 -6 7 3 2 101.16(2 8 104.65(0 Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. 101 VALUATION OF PROPERTY IN NEW YORK CITY. W e publish below a tabular statement of the “ relative value of the real and per sonal estate in the city and county of New York, as assessed in 1848 and 1849,” from the official records in the Controller’s office. Five of the wards of the city and county show a decrease in valuation of $2,819,758 41, and thirteen wards an increase of $4,843,324 77; giving an increase, in all the wards of the city, of $2,033,566 36, in 1849, over the valuation of 1848. The total valuations, in each year, from 1845 to 1849, inclusive, has been as follows :— 1845. 1846. 1847. 1848. $239,995,517 $244,952,404 $247,152,303 $254,192,027 1849. $256,217,093 Exhibiting an increase, in five years, of $16,221,476. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE REAL AND PERSONAL ESTATE IN THE CITY AND COUNTY OF NEW YORK, AS ASSESSED IN 1848 AND 1849. $61,164,451 12 $197,761,919 00 TOTAL. W ards. 1S48. i... i i ... h i ... IV... V... VI... VII... VIII... IX... X . .. XI... XII... XIII... X IV... X V ... XVI... XVII... XVIII.. . $52,410,201- 84 16,301,797 46 17,051,339 74 9,142,157 00 11,370,400 00 8,098,260 00 13,182,727 00 13,122,799 00 12,126,914 20 7,219,737 00 5,402,850 00 7,396,161 00 4,641,955 73 8,793,327 40 29,421,805 55 10,032,164 20 13,417,020 00 15,061,910 00 Total . . $254,193,527 12 Personal estate. .$24,216,930 67 1,808,696 68 4,661,456 09 983,750 00 1,719,600 00 ' 1,030,050 00 2,281,145 00 1,074,550 00 1,661,323 38 813,450 00 138,839 26 673,900 00 440,555 73 1,675,359 16 10,233,554 41 756,614 20 2,261,600 00 2,003,800 00 Ol $193,029,076 00 1849. A S S E S S M E N T S OF Real estate $28,011,100 00 14,831,250 00 12,627,750 00 8,080,170 00 9,514,700 00 7,488,850 00 11,018,463 00 11,518,850 00 10,707,150 00 6,415,600 00 5,467,950 00 6,917,021 00 4,403,900 00 7,149,600 00 17,294,400 00 10,062,115 00 11,496,900 00 14,756,150 00 04 Total 1848. Personal estate. $24,677,851 84 1,754,447 46 4,665,739 74 1,188,937 00 1,945,400 00 587,300 00 2,311,522 00 1,687,699 00 1,620,114 20 844,337 00 153,450 00 674,850 00 395,905 73 1,793,127 40 12,373,305 55 473,014 20 2,316.870 00 1,700,580 00 04 IV . V. V I. V II. V III. IX . X. X I. X II. X III. X IV . XV. X V I. xvn . X V III. Real estate. $27,732,350 00 14,547,350 00 12,385,600 00 7,953,220 00 9,425,000 00 7,510,960 00 10,871,205 00 11,435,100 00 10,506,800 00 6,375,400 00 5,249,400 00 6,721,311 00 4,246,050 00 7,000,200 00 17,048,500 00 9,559,150 00 11,100,150 00 13,361,330 00 00 A SSESSM EN TS OF Wards. i. ii. in . 48 TO TAL. 1849. $52,228,300 16,639,946 17,309,206 9,063,920 11,234,300 8,518,900 13,299,608 12',593,400 12,368,473 7,229,050 5,606,789 7,590,921 4,844,455 8,824,959 27,527,954 10,818,729 13,758,500 16,759,950 Increase Decrease. 57 68 09 00 00 00 00 00 38 00 26 00 73 16 41 20 00 00 786,565 00 341,480 00 1,698,040 00 $256,217,093 48 $4,843,324 77 $182,171 27 $338,149 22 257,866 35 78,232 00 136,100 00 420,640 00 116,881 00 529,399 00 241,559 9,313 203,939 194,760 202,500 31,631 18 00 26 00 00 76 1,893,851 14 $2,819,758 41 102 Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance. Total valuation in county........................................... water district................................. “ lamp “ ................................. “ south of cefiter of 34th street... . $256,217,093 245,098,457 248,849 227 246,671,067 48 48 48 48 Total increase of real estate........................................... Total decrease of personal estate................................... $4,732,843 00 2,709,276 64 Total increase......................................... .............. $2,023,566 36 TH E MERCHANTS’ EXCHANGE BANK IN TH E CITY OF NEW YORK. This bank was chartered in 1828, with a capital of $750,000, under the Safety Fund System, but did not go into operation, or commence business, -until 1831. The original charter expired on the 1st of June, 1849 ; but the stockholders were prepared to meet this emergency, having organised under the Free Banking Law in January, 1849, when they opened their books, and in sixty days, $1,235,000 was subscribed; every dollar of the old stock being transferred to the books of the new association. The new insti tution, under the title of the “ Merchants' Exchange Bank in the City o f New York” went into operation on the 1st of June, 1849. The old bank has never failed to pay a dividend. For the first two or three years, it made a semi-annual dividend of 3-Jper cent, and for the last seven years, it has paid a semi-annual dividend of 4 per cent, or 8 per cent per annum. The first semi-annual dividend of the new association, payable early in January, 1850, will, we understand, amount to 4 per cent, and leave a surplus on hand of some $20,000 clear, besides the extra expenses incurred in fitting up the new banking-house. The building of the old bank has been taken down, and a new edifice erected on the site of the old, with the addition of another lot. The new bank is built in the most substantial manner, at an expense of $20,000. It is in the Grecian style of architecture, and is one of the most beautiful, safe, and convenient buildings designed for banking purposes to be found in New York. As we have no banking facilities, or favors to ask, we may be permitted, in this connection, to express our high appreciation of the characters of Messrs. J ames Y an N ostrand, and W illiam H. J ohnson, the President and Cashier, who have filled their respective offices, the for mer for eight, and the latter for the last ten years, in such a manner as to command the respect of customers, and the confidence of the directors and stockholders. But the history, which we have briefly sketched, is the best comment upon the manage ment of this bank. MUTUAL BANK OF DEPOSIT AND DISCOUNT. The plan proposed, or the suggestions made, in a former number of the Merchants’ Magazine, by our correspondent “ F. 6 . S.,” for the establishment of a Mutual Bank for discount and deposit, it would seem, by the following extract from a private letter ad dressed to the editor, had attracted the attention of a number of gentlemen at Syra cuse, in New York. W e do not feel at liberty, however, to give the name of our cor respondent; but his references in the city of New York, are among our most respect able merchants:— Extract from a private letter to the editor, dated Syracuse, Dec. 21, 1849. “ D ear S ir :— A preliminary meeting has been held to consider the subject of estab lishing a Mutual Bank for discount and deposit, in our city, at which a committee wa3 appointed to draw up a plan for such an institution, to report at an adjourned meeting, and as a member of that committee, I would say that we need more information on the subject, as to its details; and if you, or any of your correspondents, can send me anything that will aid in forming the details of a bank based upon the general princi ples of the article signed F. G. S., in your November number, you will confer a great favor upon the committee, ant aid, as I believe, a most excellent cause.” Journal of. Banking, Currency, and Finance. ips TH E NATIONAL BANK AT VIENNA, AUSTRIA. The Journal des Debats, contains a letter from Vienna, dated October 31st, 1849, giving the following account of the National Bank of Austria:— The Bank of Austria has eleven branch establishments, one at Prague, others at Brunn, Buda, Gratz, &c. The object of these branch banks is to exchange bills for bills, bills for cash, or cash for bills, and to reimburse the bills of the central bank drawn on them, and to draw on the Bank of Vienna. None of the branch establish ments -discount bills of exchange, except that of Prague, where the discount is 4 per cent; there is a discount bank also at Brunn, but it is regulated by a commercial committee, and has its funds supplied by the head establishment. The Bank of Vienna, like that of France, is influenced by passing events; in periods of crisis it has with the authorization of the government, opened temporary credits to the great com mercial establishments of the country, and thereby saved them from ruin. The great est act of importance performed by the bank has, however, been to assist the govern ment itself, during the late political shocks, and to have enabled it, in spite of the enormous military expenditure, to avoid the necessity of levying extraordinary taxes, and to wait for the most favorable moment to contract a loan. The debt of the State to the bank, comprising the floating debt, is large, but the new loan, as well as a part of the Sardinian indemnity, are to be devoted to diminish that obligation. As the revenues of the monarchy will augment by the regular division of the taxes, and as the expenses of the army will necessarily decrease, the government will be enabled to pay off the remaining portion of the debt, and thus the bank will again return to its ordinary modes of business, and render that assistance to the public which it did before the events of 1848.” TAX ON TH E PRO FITS OF BANKS IN OHIO. A question of some importance to the revenue of the State came up for decision at a recent term of the Common Pleas Court in Ohio. This question arose upon the 6th section of the Banking Act of 1845—which pro vides that each banking company shall, semi-annually, on the day designated for de claring its dividend, “ set off to the State 6 per cent on the profits, deducting therefrom the expenses and ascertained losses of the company for the six months next preceding, which sum or amount, so set off, shall be in lieu of all taxes to which such company would otherwise be subject.” Some of the banks so construed this section as to con sider the 6 per cent so payable to the State, as a part of the expenses, and to be deduct ed from the semi-annual profits, and set off to the State 6 per cent on the residuum of profits after such deduction. To settle this question, a suit was brought by the State against the Franklin Branch in Cincinnati, one of the banks claiming to deduct the 6 per cent as expenses. The court held that this 6 per cent payable to the State was not to be considered as a part of the expenses of the bank, but rather as a part or share of the dividend of profits, and gave judgment for the State accordingly. BRITISH FE E S IN BANKRUPTCY. Under the new English Bankruptcy Act, in lieu of fees, payment is to be made by stamp duty. On every petition for adjudication of bankruptcy, or for arrangement between any debtor and his creditors, under the superintendence and control of the court, or for certificate of arrangement by deed, £10 duty. Every declaration of in solvency, 2s. 6d.; every summons of trader debtor, 2s. 6d.; every admission or depo sition of trader debtor, 2s. 6 d .; every bond, with sureties, 2s. 6d.; every application for search for petition or other proceeding, (except search for the appointment of any sitting or meeting, Is. The stamp duty on allocations by any officer of the court for any costs, charges, or disbursements, varying from Is. 6d. to £5. The Commissioners of Inland Revenue are to carry out the act with respect to stamp duties in lieu of fees, and to appoint persons for the sale and distribution, and to make allowances with re gard to the same. CHRISTOPHER BULLEN, TH E RICH BANKER. Christopher Bullen, of the banking firm of Leyland, Bullen & Co., recently died at his residence, near Liverpool. Mr. Bullen was probably one of the wealthiest men in Europe, for he lias, it is confidently stated, by the English Journalists, left behind him 104 Railroad , Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. cash to the amount of £5,000,000 or £7,000,000. Although so very rich, he was par simonious to an extreme degree. He resided in the house of his uncle, Mr. Leyland, the tjpuuder of the bank; but although a comparatively small mansion, he occupied only two or three apartments, and allowed the remainder to fall into decay— so much so, that the parlors and drawing-rooms were tenanted by sparrows, swallows, and bats, the unglazed windows affording them free ingress and egress. He saw no company, courted no society, and indulged only in one taste— the purchase of pictures. His paintings are numerous, but he never hung them up, never exposed them, aud they now remain as they did during his life-time, piled up with their faces turned to the walL For several years his health had been bad, and some time ago he paid a visit to Malta, Smyrna, <fcc., and returned greatly improved in constitution, but the expense distressed him, and it was only by threat of legal proceedings, thas he was induced to pay the physician who accompanied him £700. Some time ago, a merchant in difficulties, was lamenting to him the state of his finances, when he observed, “ You are happier much happier than I am ; you have got no money, but you have got good health. I have plenty of money, but I have bad health; I wish I could exchange with you.” RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS. C E M ’RAL RAILROAD OF GEORGIA. In the Merchants' Magazine for April, 1849, (Yol. xx., pages 146, 147,) we gave a tabular statement of the places, distances, and rates of fare on this road, and also an abstract of the annual report of the Board of Directors of the “ Central Railroad and Banking Company of Georgia,” for the year ending December, 1848. The tables pub lished in our abstract embraced an account of the number of passengers, and freight carried over the road in each month of the year, as compared with the previous year, (1847.) From the report of W. M. Wadley, the Superintendent, now before us, we are enabled to give a statistical view of the business of the road for the year ending December 1st, 1849. From this report, it appears that the earnings of the road for 1849 have been..................................................................................... $668,383 91 The total expenses, same time............................................................... 337,628 87 Leaving a balance, as nett profits, o f........................................... $330,755 04 Showing an increase in the gross receipts of the road, over 1848, of $152,131. The following table shows a comparison of the various branches of business for the year just closed, with the previous one:— 1848. 1849. Up freight............. .through. ....... way. Down freight......... . through. “ ...... Up passage........... . through. .......way. Down passage.. . . .through. “ . . . . ----- way. United States Mail §108,211 41 32,825 49 241,894 74 46,583 29 19,854 82 13,534 28 15,968 08 12,180 53 19,200 00 $167,721 39,774 304,572 66,003 22,345 13,753 21,611 12,851 19,750 49 37 86 32 66 28 18 75 00 Difference. $59,510 08 6,948 83 56,678 12 19.420 03 2,490 84 219 00 5,643 10 671 22 550 00 Total earnings. Bales cotton........... .through. $516,252 64 137,157 31,571 $668,383 91 164,334 39,391 $152,131 27 27,077 7,830 Total bales cotton........... 168,718 203,725 35,007 The following table exhibits the number of passengers, and also the number of bales of cotton transported over the road in each month of the year, from December 1st, 1848, to December 1st, 1849:— Railroad , Canal, awe? Steamboat Statistics. N U M B E R O F B A L E S OF C O T T O N . N U M B E R OF P A S S E N G E R S . Through. Way. M onths. Up. D ow n. Up. Down. D e c .__ Jan........ Feb . . . March.. . A p r il... M a y .. . . June. . . . July....... August.. Sep........ Oct........ N o v .. . . 296 227 373 445 281 218 268 291 232 40S 662 407 246 256 290 263 317 301 400 393 301 319 349 364 697 699 530 573 669 575 513 664 638 592 743 972 713 653 497 600 564 603 432 613 600 634 724 1,044 Total. 4,208 3,799 7,865 7,677 10 5 M on th s. Dec......... Jan......... Feb......... March... . A pril. . . . May . . . . Jun e.. . . July . . . . A ug........ Sep......... Oct.......... Nov......... Total... Through. 21,852 19,690 18,375 20,506 19,056 9,074 3,341 3,785 2,678 3,186 16,769 25,721 Way. 7,061 6,252 5,766 4,859 1,308 369 106 108 979 1,354 3,553 7,176 Total. 28,913 26,452 24,141 25,365 20,344 9,443 3,447 3,894 2,957 4,540 20,322 32,896 164,334 39,391 203,725 The current expenses of the road during the year, are exhibited under the .appro priate heads, as follows:— Maintenance of way, including salaries, <fcc., <fec...................................... machinery and motive power........................................ “ of cars............................................................................... Transportation expenses............................................................................. Incidental expenses.. . . , ........................................................................... Total expenses......................................................................................... §126,S it 94,466 32,040 80,213 3,490 35 44 41 *74 93 $337,755 06 The total number of miles run by all the engines during the year, has been 346,240. The company have, at this time, seven eight wheel passenger cars, three eight wheel lug gage cars, three four wheel luggage cars, 105 eight wheel box freight cars, 113 eight wheel platform cars, and fifteen four wheel gravel cars; or a total of 246 cars. On the 1st day of August, 1849, the rate of travel in the passenger cars was re duced to three cents per mile. The Western and Atlantic Road, and Georgia Rail road rates have been reduced to the same point. What effect this reduction will have on the revenues of this company, remains to be seen; but the Board believes, that whilst the act of reducing to so low a figure furnishes evidence of the willing ness o f the direction of this company to yield to the generally expressed public wish on this subject, the interests of the company will be promoted by the measure. W e have no doubt but that the company have pursued a wise policy, in making this reduction. Cheap fares work well in New York, and in the New England States. This Company, says Mr. Cuyler, the President of the Board, and the South West ern Railroad Company, stand pledged to the Corporation of Savannah, that their two railroads shall be united at the earliest convenient moment. With a view to that junction, and a connection, at the same time, with the Macon and Western Road, a bill is now before the Legislature of Georgia, which this Board hopes will be passed into a law. RAILWAY SPECULATION AND TH E STOCK EXCHANGE. A step was recently taken by a leading firm in the London Stock Exchange, which is likely to have a powerful effect in checking the reckless speculation in railway shares, which has been so long prevalent. A seller being unable to deliver a certain number of Great Western shares which he had disposed of on speculation for the account, the brokers by whom they had been purchased resolved to exercise their right of rebuy ing them publicly, according to the rules o f the Stock Exchange, thus rendering him liable for any difference in price they might be compelled to pay. The dealers, aware o f what was to take place (the purchase being made by parties specifically employed by the committee of the house,) generally forbore to accept the biddings, and hence Railroad , Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. 106 the price, which was nominally about 60, was driven up to 73 before the transaction could be completed. It is evident that, says the Liverpool Chronicle, if all the respect able brokers will henceforth, without favor or exception, act in this way^such gambling fluctuations as those in the table of prices for the month, will, for the future, far less frequently be recorded. RAILROADS BETWEEN ALBANY AND BUFFALO, The superintendents of the several railroad companies between Albany and Buffa lo, have agreed upon the following schedule for the winter of 1849-50. The arrange ment took effect from the 17th of December, 1849. The passenger trains going east and west, leave Albany and Buffalo as follows:— PASSENGER TRAINS GOING WEST, LEAVE AS FOLLOWS: Express. Leave Albany............................ “ Schenectady.................... “ Utica................................. “ Syracuse......................... “ Auburn............................. “ Rochester......................... Arrive at Buffalo....................... 7 7 11 2 3 6 10 A. M. 45 “ 36 “ M. P. 15 “ 30 “ “ Mail. 10 A. M. 11 “ 3 30 “ 7 P. M. 8 45 “ 2 A. M. 6 “ Night. 7 P. M 8 * 12 “ 2 30 A.M. 4 30 “ 9 “ 1 P. M. PASSENGER TRAINS GOING EAST, AS FOLLOWS: Express. Leave Buffalo............................. “ Rochester....................... “ Auburn........................... “ Syracuse........................... “ Utica................................. “ Schenectady................... Arrive at A lbany...................... 7 A. M. 10 “ 1 30 P. M. 3 15 “ 5 45 “ 9 “ 9 45 “ Mail. 10 A. M. 2 30 P.M . 7 45 “ 9 45 “ 1 A. M. 5 “ 6 “ Night. 7 P. M. 1115 “ 4 30 A.M. 7 “ 10 145 P. M. 2 30 “ FREIGHT TRAINS LEAVE EAST AND WEST, AS FOLLOWS: Leave A lbany. “ Schen’dv. “ Utica....... “ Syracuse. “ Auburn.. “ Roch’ter.. “ Buffalo... 2 P. M. 7 A. M.Leave Buffalo..1 P. M. 3 20 “ 8 “ “ Roch’ter. 6 “ ll “ 1 3 0 P.M. “ Auburn.. 1 A. M. 7 A. M. 6 30 “ “ Syracuse. 3 30 “ 6 A. M. 9 30 “ “ Utica 9 “ 10 30 “ 4 30 P. M. “ Schen’dy. 3 P. M. 5 P. M. 10 “ Arrive at Alb’ny. 4 “ 6 “ It will be seen, from the above tables, that there are three passenger trains each way between Albany and Buffalo, and one freight train each way, daily. OPENING AND CLOSING OF THE NEW YORK CANALS. The following table shows the time of the opening and closing of the New York canals, for the last twenty-six years; or in each year, from 1824 to 1849, inclusive:— Opened. Closed. No. days. 1 Year. Closed. No. days. Opened. Year. April 20 219 1837___ Dec. 9 234 Dec. 4 April 80 1824___ “ 12 238 1838___ No. 25 228 “ 5 “ 12 1825___ 213 1839___ “ 20 De. 16 228 “ 18 “ 20 1826___ 241 1840___ “ 20 “ 18 227 “ 23 1827___ “ ? “ 26 269 1841___ No. 29 218 “ 20 Mar. 27 1828___ “ 20 “ 23 230 1842___ 218 “ 17 1829___ May 2 May 1 242 1843___ De. 1 214 April 20 “ 17 1 8 3 0 .... April 18 “ 1 230 1844___ No. 26 223 “ 16 1831___ “ 15 228 241 1845___ “ 29 “ 21 1832___ “ 25 “ 16 224 “ 12 238 1846___ 25 “ 19 1833___ May 1 De. 21 234 240 1847___ “ 12 1834___ “ 17 “ 1 “ 9 223 230 1848___ No. 30 “ 15 1835___ “ 1 “ 5 216 1849___ 219 “ 26 “ 25 1836___ / Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. 107 BUSINESS OF TH E COLUMBIA AND PHILADELPHIA RAILROAD, The following report of John Dunlap, the weighmaster of this road, shows the tram her of cars, and the amount of tonnage weighed, from the 1st of December, 1848, to the 1st of December, 1849, which shows an excess over last year’s report of 8711 cars, and 5,466,278 lbs. loading:— Aggregate No. cars No. cars, Aggregate weighed. w’t load’g. weighed. w’t load’g. 3,009,478 531 3,342,400 July................... Decem ber........ 2,917,741 520 January ........... . . . . 5,422,900 August............... 875 2,686,638 538 February ........ ___ 1,181 7,527,200 September........ 3,897,544 733 March............... . . . 1,093 6,772,708 O ctober............. 4,273,670 729 4,124,799 November.......... A p r il............... . . . 712* M a y ................. 715* 4,100,572 Total.......... . . . . 8,903* 52,190,978 4,115,228 June................. . . . 711* JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. TH E MANUFACTURE OF COTTON GOODS IN TH E SOUTH. The controversey commenced by an article from Gen. C. T. J ames, published in the November, and continued by Mr. A. A. L awrence in the December and present num ber of the Merchants' Magazine, is calculated to shed much light upon the whole sub ject; and however exaggerated may have been the statements of Gen. J ames, we fully concur in the opinion of our esteemed correspondent, Mr. G regg, the writer of the fol lowing paper, that the publication of that article will neither “ do our Journal or its readers any harm.” W e go for the free and fair discussion of every topic legitimately falling within the original design and scope of our Journal, and shall, therefore, admit whatever is furnished for publication on this subject from any respectable and re sponsible source:— F reeman H unt, E sq., Editor o f the Merchants' Magazine, etc. D ear S ir :— I have read, with great interest, Mr. A. A. Lawrence’s article in your December number, and also your remarks, in connection with extracts from private letters and anonymous newspaper articles, all criticising an article from the pen of General C. T. James, which appeared in your Journal for November last. The article referred to, I read very carefully, and think it will do your Journal, or its readers, no harm, especially after what follows in the last (December) number, which every one who noticed the article so severely criticised, will read. The able essay of Mr. Lawrence, although true, is, in my opinion, calculated to do us quite as much harm as that of General James. The latter’s low estimates of the requisite capital, and his extravagant calculation with regard to profits, may lead a few of our unthinking capitalists into embarrassment, and possibly loss of entire invest ments ; while the remarks of the former are calculated to discourage the spirit of pro gress, at present manifested at the South. I have never encouraged persons to look for more than 10, 12, or 14, per cent, on in vestments in manufacturing; but the remuneration which capital receives, when in vested in such pursuits, is not a criterion from which to judge of the profits derived by a country at large. While we admit Mr. Lawrence’s statement relative to the dividends paid, we cannot but notice the fact, that New England has grown rich and prosperous, beyond all precedent, since her capitalists engaged in this particular field of enter prise. No one can for a moment doubt that the manufacturing of cotton goods has been chiefly instrumental in producing the great changes wrought in New England, during the last thirty years. The low dividends of Mr. Lawrence, and the high esti mate of profits of General James, are both calculated to mislead. Such results as those set forth in General James’ article, are utterly fallacious, for the difference be tween good and bad management will dissipate even exorbitant profits. A cotton plantation in South Carolina, where the land is but tolerably productive, if well man 10 8 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. aged, will generally yield a fair interest on the capital invested : the same, badly man aged, may bring the proprietor in debt. What is true of a cotton plantation, is equally so of a cotton factory. It may be truly said, that in regard to individual profits, figures do not tell the truth ; but when we extend our views beyond the immediate profit to the owner, and look at the subject in a national point of view, they may be relied oil with more safety. The productive power of machinery adds wonderfully to the value of labor. Three hundred efficient and disciplined hands, mostly women, and many of them children, will work a sufficient number of spindles and looms, to manufacture into No. 14 cloth, three thousand six hundred bales of cotton, of four hundred pounds each, per annum; which, under any circumstances, will be worth double the cost of the raw material, and generally three times as much. By this statement, it appears that three hundred hands in a factory, will produce, at the lowest estimate, what is equivalent to twelve bales per hand, and, in prosperous times, from eighteen to twenty bales; while the same number of hands, even admitting them all to be adults, would not, in South Carolina, average more than two and a half to three and a half bales to the hand, per annum, from the soil, besides raising the provisions necessary for their subsistence, estimated at not more than one bale. Additional force is given to the argument, by the fact that manufacturing labor is supplied mainly from that portion of society which cannot be rendered available in agriculture, and this has peculiar force, in reference to the policy of the Southern States engaging in the manufacture of cotton; for a large portion of our poor white people, are not only unproductive, but actually a burthen to us. In the face of low dividends, these illustrations will show the great advantages which may be de rived from the introduction of manufactures, and it also explains satisfactorily how the Eastern people have grown rich from a pursuit which has paid capitalists only a mod erate interest on their money. The naked statement that an individual can produce in a factory that which is equivalent to from twelve to eighteen bales of cotton per annum, would induce an in experienced person to conclude that this business was enormously profitable, for he does not see the multitude of channels through which the large gross profits of the manufacturer are dwindled down to very moderate ones. But it is enough for us, at the South, to know that manufacturing has heretofore paid sufficiently well to induce the continued annual investment of immensely large sums, for thirty years past, both in the Middle and Eastern States, as well as in all parts of Europe— that we have la bor, both white and black, at least 20 per cent cheaper than in New England, and with few exceptions, as cheap as in any part of the world— that water-power may be had for almost nothing—that our provisions are as cheap, and, above all, that we have the cotton at hand, sound, bright, and unsullied by the rain, mud, smoke, <fcc., incident to its transit from the interior of our State, to its final destination. This last item alone, is equal to £ of a cent a pound in our favor, and explains what the generality of persons do not understand— why southern manufactured domestics are superior in quality to a similar style manufactured in the Eastern States. Fair cotton is a very different article by the time it reaches New England, from what it was when it left the interior of any of the Southern States. So far as our consumption is concerned, (which has not yet been reached by southern production, and may not for many years to come,) our advantages are too apparent to need argument. Add the transportation and charges both ways, (the cotton going to the manufacturing district, and the cloth returning to us,) and it makes a difference in our favor, which foreigners cannot overcome by superior skill, provided we exercise that caution in the first invest ment which prudent men should do, and pay such attention to the judicious direction o f labor, as is necessary to success on a cotton plantation. I am very respectfully and truly yours. Charleston, (8 . C.) Dec. 20th, 1849. WILLIAM GREGG. W e published in our December number an interesting letter from Mr. G regg, the writer of the foregoing communication, giving an account of the Graniteville (S. C.) Cotton Manufactory, <fcc. Since the publication of that letter, we have received from the writer an address delivered before the South Carolina Institute by Mr. G regg , which we shall publish as soon as we can find room for it. Mr. G regg , the founder of the Graniteville Cotton Manufactory, is a gentleman of character and intelligence, and is earnestly engaged in promoting the industrial progress of the Southern States, by means of a judicious diversification of their pursuits. Journal o f M ining and Manufactures. 10 9 LETT ER FROM GENERAL C. T. JAMES, We cheerfully publish the subjoined letter from Gen. C. T. J ames, the writer o f the article in the November number of the Merchants’ Magazine, on the “ Pro duction and Manufacture of Cotton, and its manufacture in the Cotton-Growing States.’’ F reeman H unt, E sq., Editor o f the Merchants' Magazine, dec. D ear S ir :— Having noticed, in an editorial paragraph in your Magazine for De cember, 1849, a quotation relative to the Globe Mill, at Newbury, Massachusetts, from an article signed “ I,” in the Boston Courier, permit me to say:— The truth of that statement, as well as of many others made by the same writer, was promptly denied by me, over my own signature, in the columns of the Courier. It is not to be expected that I should follow an anonymous writer farther. A gentleman of acknowledged ability being engaged in reviewing my article published in your November number, I shall await with patience the conclusion of his labors in the January number, that I may be able, in February, to place before your readers such an array of facts, as shall fully substantiate the truth of my article in the November number. Respectfully yours, Providence, Bee. 22, 1849. C. T. JAMES. C A M E L COAL IN VIRGINIA. W e cheerfully give place to the following communication, fcrreeting an error in a communication of “ Observer,” published in a former number of this Magazine. The error, we believe, was made in the manuscript of our correspondent, and not by the printer:— F reeman H unt, E sq., Editor o f the Merchants’ Magazine, etc. D ear S ir :— In your number for December, (page 676,) in ray notice of the Cumber land Coal, and Cannel Coal found in this country, there is made by the printer, a ma terial error, in stating the distance of the Great Falls of the Potomac to be 165 miles from Washington. It should be 14 miles. There is, at these falls, an immense power for machinery, which must, in all probability, be brought into use before long. Since sending you my first note, mentioning four localities of Cannel Coal, I have lately heard of a fifth, viz., in Virginia, on Elk River, winch falls into the Great Ka nawa, at the Charlestown Salt Works. This Cannel Coal is said to be found in col umnar blocks, of 14 to. 18 inches diameter, like the basaltic columns on the west side of Mount Holyoke, near Northampton, Massachusetts, and also like the columns of the Giants Causeway in Ireland. For making gas, it is superior to all other coals. A company has been incorporated for working this mine, with a capital of a million of dollars. How much has been paid in, I have not heard. O bserver. TH E WORLD’S EXHIBITION OF TH E PRODUCE OF INDUSTRY IN 1851. W e copy from the French Journal des Bebats, which published an elaborate article on the subject, afew passages referringto the proposed world’s exhibition of the produce of industry in 1851. We trust that our countrymen will not be backward in furnishing specimens of American skill and industry:— An exhibition of the produce of industry will take place in London in the year 1851. This will not be a purely English exhibition by any means; the produce of the entire globe is invited to be present. Nor -will the exhibition be exclusively confined to manufactured articles, for raw material of all sorts will figure thereat; all produc tion, in a word, which will bear the carriage to London, so as to appear in good con dition. To sum up the speech of one of the commissioners sent to the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor by Prince Albert, to whom the initiative of this vast scheme is owing, a ren dezvous is given to everything that man extracts from the surface and the bowels of our planet—to everything that he creates by combining the materials with which he is furnished by the working of the earth. Africa will be represented at the exhibition of 1851 by elephants’ teeth and gold dust; Asia by her silks, which will be placed opposite those of Europe, Italy, and the Levant. Near the cottons of Egypt will be seen those of India and China, Brazil and the United States of Am erica; in juxtapo 110 Journal of M ining and Manufactures. sition with the hemp and flax of Europe will be observed the textile materials of the equinoctial regions of the globe; beside the precious metals of Mexico, Peru, Chili, and California, will glitter the gold of Siberia and Transylvania, the iron and tin of Great Britain, the silver of Germany, and the mineral produce of France ; the woolens of Hungary, Saxony, and Spain will be contrasted with those of Australia, and the furs of Siberia with those of Canada; and the spectacle will be rendered complete by the addition of the spices of the Levant, the olives of the borders of the Mediterranean, the grapes or the vintages of all growths, grain of all sorts, from the corn of Poland, Southern Russia, and Sicily, to the lice of Carolina, Piedmont, China, and India, to the maize of Mexico, Turkey, and the United States of America. In this gigantic exhibition will be included steam engines, from the locomotive to the exhausting machine of Cornounaille; looms for the manufacture of cloth, from those of Manchester and Lowell, to the rude apparatus of the Indian weaver; implements of agriculture and trade, and the most delicately manufactured scientific instruments, both those of Gambey ami those of the successors of Ramsden. Every sort of fabric, every kind of art, from the rudest and most clumsy to the most refined and delicate specimen, from the most primitive contrivance to one in which taste and imagination shall be displayed in the highest degree; everything will be re ceived and exhibited in the most favorable light, from whatever country it may have been transmitted. The hospitality of Great Britain is offered to all that the industrious inhabitants of the planet are capable of producing. The impulse has al£ady been given in the British empire. The directors of the powerful company which rules the Indies have already despatched to their immense empire all the nect 1 ° " ' nsmission from those remote regions— which were the cradle contingent to this great and interesting solemnity. It will certainly be no light honor to be distinguished in the midst of competitors so numerous by a jury of independent and influential men. The medals of the exhibition of London will be titles of which the possessor will have every reason to be proud. But there will be something more than mere medals. Great prizes will be awarded to those who, by advancing art, have thereby rendered a service to civilization. There will be a prize of £2,000, and four of £1,000 for the four great divisions that appear to be already adopted,— raw materials or agricultural articles, machinery, manufactured articles, and sculptures, and works of art in general. This exhibition, according to the idea of those who are its promoters, will be renew ed quinquennially, as in France. The expense will not be charged to the state. The government will merely be asked to grant a site, on which will be erected a temporary edifice for the exhibition, as in our Champs Elysees; but it may be imagined, from the particulars already adduced, what its extent will be. The funds will be raised by subscription, and it is estimated that £100,000 will be sufficient. In this manner the politeness shown to the other nations of the world will be more spontaneous and cordial. AN EX PER IM EN T W ITH SEMI-BITUMINOUS COAL. An interesting an important experiment, as we learn from the Harrisburg Telegraph, was recently made at Harrisburg, (Penn..) on a locomotive on the railroad, with the semi-bituminous coal of the Dauphin and Susquehanna Company. The fire was regu lated by Mr. Kirk Few, the superintendent of the Harrisburg and Mount Joy Railroad Company, accompanied by several gentlemen interested in the application of this fuel for steaming purposes. Although the fire box was constructed for the use of wood, the combustion of the coal was so rapid, and the flame so intense, that steam was genera ted to an excess that required to be blown off frequently. The whole trial was com pletely successful, and Mr. Few expressed his entire satisfaction that it would accom plish all that could be desired for driving locomotives— that it was indeed the perfec tion of fuel for this purpose. Even while going up grade, and both pumps supplying water to the boiler, the steam was in such excess as to be required to be blown off. It is gratifying for us to state that the railroad to the mines is now finished, and that an inexhaustible supply awaits the industry of the miner to bring it to the Harrisburg market, which, being the center from which canals and railroads radiate in all direc tions, will supply a want already severely felt in the scarcity and dearness of wood. Journal o f M ining and Manufactures . I l l ROLLING MILLS IN AND NEAR CINCINNATI. , The “ Cincinnati Price Current ” has commenced the publication of a series of short articles, which the editors propose to continue as they may be able to collect the facts, relative to manufactures in the West, and more particularly of Cincinnati. Introduc tory to this series, the editors of the Price Current justly remark:— “ The situation of Cincinnati, as a commercial city, and her resources, both natural and acquired, render this the most desirable location in the west for manufactures. Hence it is that she is rapidly approaching that point in manufactures to which she long since attained in commerce. It may, we think, be truly said that Cincinnati is the Gotham of the west. In regard to manufactures, she has many superior advantages over sister cities; situated in a State, or we may say, the midst of States, abounding in both agricultural and mineral products, where employment for the masses is abun dant, varied, and profitable, the merchant, farmer, miner, and mechanic, all have their respective fields of labor. The soil is most productive, and beneath it the earth abounds in coal and iron, which furnish the principal material for the manufacturer. But these are only her natural advantages. With every portion, almost, of our own and adjoin ing States there is constant and cheap communication. Canals or railroads, running east, west and north, from this city, makes it the center of a large and thickly pop ulated country ; besides, there are the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and their tributaries, which are navigated in every direction ; so that, by either river, railroad, or canal, ac cess is had to every city or town in the western country. The population of the west is being rapidly extended ; and where, a few years ago, the Indian might have stood, and almost exclaimed, with Selkirk, “ From the centre, all round to the sea, I am lord of the fowl and the brute,” cities and towns are springing up “ as if by magic.” With the increase of population there must be an increased demand for manufactures; and with all the resources and advantages of the west, the east should not supply her citizens with those articles for which we have been accustomed to look to New England and the north Atlantic States. “ So accustomed have we been to look to, and depend upon Pittsburg, for supplies of iron, that very many of the western people have supposed all the iron sold in this mar ket was of Pittsburg manufacture. Such, however, is not the fact, as will be seen by the statement appended. There are, it will be seen, ten Rolling Mills, in and near Cincinnati, all of which depend on, and find a market in Cincinnati for their products. These produce near 22,000 tons of iron, annually, the yearly value of which falls but little short of two million dollars,” The statement we here give of the several mills, their location, etc., we have obtain ed from the most reliable sources. STATEMENT OF TEN ROLLING MILLS, IN AND NEAR CINCINNATI. Name o f W orks. Kentucky Iron W orks.a......... Jacking Iron W orks.a............. Newport Iron W ork s.i............ Fulton Rolling M ills.c*.......... Location. Covington........ d o ............... N e w p o r t ........ F u lt o n ............ Owners. J .R . M cN ickol.............. Bush & Jordan.............. D . W olfe & C o .............. Shreve, Steele &.C o . ... G lobe Iron and W ire W orks A Cincinnati........ W orthington &. Pullan. Mill Creek Iron W ork s.cf........ Lockland Rolling Mill.e^........ Portsmouth Iron W orks.c___ Hanging R ock It. M ill.c......... Pom eroy Rolling Mill.e............ Cincinnati........ L o ck la n d ........ P orlsm ou th ... Hanging R ock. P o m e r o y ........ Cin. Iron C o .................. Phelps & Chapman----J. G. G aylo.d &. C o .... W illiam s & C o .............. Pom eroy Iron C o .......... Capacity for yearly Production. Value. 3.000 tons___ $225,000 1,500 d o ......... 140.000 1.000 do, 110.000 3.000 d o ......... 250,000 t 3,500 in iron £ 360,000 4.000 600 2,500 1,200 1.000 t o n s .... d o ......... d o ......... d o ......... d o . ----- 325.000 50.000 200.000 90.000 75.000 21,700 Total annual value o f products.......... $1,825,000 * Burned in September; now rebuilding. f Not finished. \ Not running. Works in the table marked (a) manufacture Bar and Sheet Iron ; those marked (b) Sheet and Plate Iron ; those marked (c) Bar and Sheet Iron, and Nails ; those marked (d) Bar and Sheet Iron, and W ire; those marked (e) Bar Iron. 112 Journal o f M ining and Manufactures . MANUFACTURES OF DAYTON, OHIO. Dayton has a population of about 15,000, and is located in the heart of one of the richest agricultural sections of the west. A Dayton correspondent of the Ohio States man gives the following exhibit of the manufactures of Dayton:— There are five oil mills that purchase from the farmers about 160,000 bushels of flax seed annually, at a cost of $160,000, producing 340,000 gallons of oil, and 400,000 lbs. of oil cake, and employing in the business from forty to fifty hands, besides twenty coopers to furnish them with barrels. The five iron foundries give permanent employment to 100 hands, and cast annually nearly 900 tons of pig iron. The four flouring mills grind annually from 150,000 to 170,000 bushels of wheat. A last and peg factory turn out some $20,000 worth of stock yearly, which gives constant pro fitable employment to twenty-five hands, and produce every variety of goods in that line, possessing a very superior finish. Woolen machinery, such as carding machines, power looms, spring jacks, <fcc., are manufactured after the most approved eastern pat terns. Carpets and coverlets of a great variety of patterns, and style of finish, are made, and the proprietor of this establishment has some difficulty to supply the orders that are given for his goods, tiiey being in such great demand. A large capital has lately been invested in establishing a linen factory, which is destined, under proper management, to become a great auxiliary to the agriculture of Montgomery county, as it will supply a cash market for the fiber of the flax plant, which up to this time, has been thrown away as useless. The cotton and woolen factories give employment to a great number of hands, mostly girls and boys, and both branches are in a flourishing condition. Three paper mills give employment to between 40 and 50 hands, manu facturing nearly 500 tons of paper, which net the establishments about $80,000 per annum. TH E MINING PROSPECTS OF ENGLAND. The London Mining Journal, in speaking of the subject of which it is the special weekly organ, says, that to whatever part of the mining horizon of England it looks, there business is characterized by great steadiness and regularity in all its depart ments ; that it is able to testify to the firmness of prices and the vivacity of the mar kets generally; and that there are prospects for a good winter trade. The same jour nal, in noticing a rise of 10s. per ton on the price of lead, and the spirited demand at the periodical sale at Holywell, November, 1849, when a large quantity of ore was brought forward aud sold, observes:— “ As this improvement in . trade is mainly at tributed to the large demand that has arisen for export this year to the United States of America, it may be serviceable to those of our readers who are interested in this metal to learn that we have been informed by an intelligent correspondent on the other side, that the production of the mines in the United States has so materially fallen oft* while the amount of consumption has so greatly increased, that they will re quire an importation during the next year of at least 15,000 tons to meet the wants of the country. Such an export in the present state of the stocks here, must have the effect of producing a considerable advance in the price of lead.” TH E CLIFF COPPER M INE OF LAKE SUPERIOR. It appears from a statement of Col. McKnight, that the yield of the Cliff Copper Mine, last year, (1849,) amounted to one thousand tons. This copper is shipped in large masses, some weighing as high as three tons. It goes to Pittsburg, (Penn.,) where it is melted into ingots, and from thence to the Atlantic cities, where it meets a ready and constant market. The yield of this thousand tons will be some 75 per cent, making the product of ingot copper 750 tons, which is worth $380 per ton, and which, shows the product of the mine for the year 1849 to be as follows:— 750 tons of copper at $380 per ton............................................................ $285,000 Deduct expenses, $7,000 per month........................................................... 84,000 Leaves nett profit.............................................................................. $201,000 The stock of this company, (the Boston and Pittsburg Mining,) is divided into 4,000 shares, which cost originally $18 50 per share, and on which a dividend of $20 per share will be declared this year, leaving in the treasury money enough to nearly pay the expenses for another year. The stockholders of the Boston and Pittsburg Com pany, as we learn from the Detroit Tribune, expended the sum of $110,000, before they obtained any results. Mercantile Miscellanies. 11 3 MANUFACTURE OF PAINTS FROM ZINC. W e learn from the Newark (N. J.) Daily Advertiser, that the Sussex Zinc Com pany, of Newark, have been for some time past experimenting in the manufacture of this article, with such satisfactory results, that the zinc paint, which is the white oxide of zinc, will be one of the chief articles of manufacture at the large works which they are about to erect on the banks of the Passaic. The ore of the Sussex mines is said to be of such a nature, that the white oxide can be made from it without the necessity of first reducing it to the metallic state, which is necessary in France, and it can therefore be made at less cost. The process o f making the paint is interesting. The ore is pulverized and mixed with a small proportion of anthracite or charcoal, as a flux; and about forty pounds is used as a charge for a cylindrical retort made of clay, three and a half feet in length, and is eight inches in diameter. The retort is placed in a reverberatory furnace hori zontally, one end being exposed by an opening in the furnace w a ll: a sheet-iron re ceiver is attached to the mouth of the retort, having an opening at the neck to admit atmospheric air. The receiver is elongated by flexible tubes that serve as additional receivers, and also to carry off the carbonic oxide. When the proper heat is applied, the zinc is set free from the ore, and conveyed into the receiver as a vapor of zinc, where, meeting the current of atmospheric air, from which it takes up the oxygen, it falls at once as a beautiful powder of pearly whiteness. The small furnace now works four retorts. The metallic zinc is made in the same manner, with the exception that in the latter case the air necessary to form the oxide is entirely excluded. The furnace to be erected on the river is to work one hundred and eight retorts. The white paint, which has been tried, is said to be more durable than that made from white lead, and less liable to turn dark. It is a somewhat dif ferent shade of white from the paint made of white lead. MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES. BANKRUPTCY IN BATAVIA, ISLAND OF JAVA. W e are indebted to an esteemed correspondent, a highly respectable merchant of Boston, for several extracts from the manuscript of a private letter, dated Batavia, (Island of Java,) September 22d, 1849. It was received just as the last sheet of the Mer chants' Magazine was going to press, or we should publish the extracts entire. As it is, we can only find room for a few passages, touching the condition of a bankrupt in that island, as follows:— To be bankrupt here, is a somewhat different affair from what it is in the United States. Immediately on becoming bankrupt, the names of the parties are placarded about town, and in the Exchange, as if prima facie infamous. The books are then ex amined by the public officer for that purpose. If the estate does not pay 60 per cent, and the bankrupt can be proved to have done business after he knew that fact, he is put into prison, as a criminal, for a number of years, and declared “ aloost,’' which sig nifies infamous, or without character. After this, the “ aloost” person is indeed ex communicated. His word is not to be taken; he is not allowed to be a witness, even on oath, and if a man trusts him, he does it at his own risk; he has no legal remedy against him. On the other hand, if a man takes his books to the public officer, and de clares that he has given up all he has, and it does not appear that he has been doing business, knowing he was a bankrupt, and after a strict investigation there are no sus picious circumstances, his creditors must sign his papers. Thus, the creditor is protected without oppressing the debtor; the rogue is distinguished from the honest; and a person is obliged, by a terrible penalty, to know the state of his affairs, and when once em barrassed, to refrain from speculating to retrieve himself. 'This law came into operation May, 1848, and it was not long before it caught some thing in the shape of an English concern, who pay about one-quarter of 1 per cent, and whose partners are now expiating their offence in prison. I suspect you could not get such a law at home. The 60 per cent would be rather V O L . X X I I.-----N O . I . 8 11 4 Mercantile Miscellanies. objectionable, in some places, and, besides, what would be the use of doing business, if a man could not cheat his creditors ? It would be taking away one of the largest profits of commerce. There is a story told of a man here, who was once in prison for debt, under the old law. When he had an opportunity, he said to his detaining creditor, who was paying sixty guilders per month for his support—■ “ Now what is the use of your keeping me here at such an expense ? Just give me thirty guilders a month, and let me find myBelf, and let the other thirty go toward writing otf the debt.” The writer of this letter, who, it seems, arrived at Batavia on the 14th of September’ 1849, gives an interesting table of distances on the route from New York to that place, with the time occupied in performing the voyage, as taken from the ship’s log-books, etc. This we shall publish in the February number of the Merchants' Magazine. Ii\ A GOOD BUSINESS. Many seem to think that success in life depends wholly upon the start they take, and that if they can but have their bark rightly trimmed and squared with the cur rent, they may rest upon their oars and still be sure of their wished-for haven. If a man once “ get into a good business,” they regard his fortune as made, without refer ence to his own exertions, and think that there can be no fear of the result. But the contrary of this is quite as frequently true; and it is no uncommon thing to see the finally prosperous man, encounter the butfetings of adverse storms at the beginning of his career, and those who at first sailed smoothly along an unruffled sea, make ship wreck at last. Indeed, we may see the reason of this in the fact that the discipline of early difficulties prepares the harassed mariner for final triumph, while the favoring gales which have marked the course of others, have lulled them into a iatal security. Perpetual mutability is characteristic of human affairs, and a season of calm should blind none to the chances of a coming storm. We do not allude to this to dishearten any who are sailing with us on life's troubled sea, or to excite coward fears. A storm is not a shipwreck— the leaping waves dash harmlessly against the bow of the welltrimmed bark— aud a furious gale may but bear the skilful mariner more rapidly to his destined port. We would have none shrink from an effort on the sea, because the voyage is dangerous, but simply warn those whom a deceitful calmness may have led into a careless indifference to the future. The present is a time when merchants should be unusually careful, particularly in giving credits. The past season has been a trying one through the country, and our advice given to our readers a few weeks since to examine their ledgers, is daily grow ing of more importance. The visits of the epidemic throughout the country have al tered the standing and prospects of many country merchants, some of whom will come to market to ask for credit. If any of them are unsound at present, this is the very moment for them to stop, and farther credit should be refused. Let no one, in the vain hope that their debtor may improve his position, add to the amount at risk by farther sales. It is always better to pocket a loss at once which must be made, than to postpone it with a risk of its increasing. A customer of doubtful credit ought to have no place upon a merchant’s books. If the jobber trusts only undoubted custom ers, he will lose enough in the course of trade, but whenever there is room for doubt, he should give himself the benefit of it, as the jury do a prisoner on trial, and refuse the credit a-ked. This should be an invariable rule, never to be violated. And now with regard to those who lmve been safe in the past, let there be renewed scrutiny into their responsibility. That a man has been at some former period in a good busisiness, is no safeguard against his present insolvency. The foundations of many have been sorely shaken. Some have had but a light trade, or anxious to keep up their ac tive sales, have entrusted their goods to irresponsible persons who will buy at any season on credit. Such should be carefully watched, and if necessary stricken off the roll of customers. This undertaking, simple as it may seem, requires courage, and that too in a high degree. It is a difficult matter to bring our lips to a decided nega tive, when an old customer asks credit. Many a man has been ruined because he had not the moral firmness to pronounce the little monosyllable. Its importance should, therefore, be fully understood, and when judgment says “ N o ” the lips should not shrink from echoing its verdict.— Merchants’ Gazette. Mercantile Miscellanies . 11 5 A GREAT BUSINESS OR A SMALL BUSINESS. A merchant, a manufacturer, or trader, observes a recent English writer, should keep within his capital. The same applies to his talents. He should never under take more than he cau properly manage; the last error or loss being always on the other side. It may therefore be laid down as a maxim, that a small business, well conducted, is more profitable than a great business, ill, or indifferently conducted; for in the one case there is a gain, although it may be small, in the other most probably a positive loss. This may be illustrated by a mistake sometimes fallen into by poor emigrants to the west, who, having plenty of land for nothing, or cheap, are induced to bring under tillage a large surface which they are unable to do justice to, when they would have been much better off with a small surface, well cultivated ; the former scarcely producing anything, while the latter would most likely have yielded a good return, or crop. It is true in the general, the terms small and great business, must be under stood with considerable latitude, and with reference to a persons means and capabili ties— command of money and labor, as well as means of management. But it is easy to perceive, that while many failures in business take place in default of the former, there are not a few also, in respect of the latter. Anxious indeed as traders always are to extend business intent upon gain, or too often impatient of the slow returns of industry, it is a thing which not seldom happens, that they undertake more than they can duly manage. More particularly dangerous indeed, are a number of different avocations or engagements, commonly termed irons in the fire, which confound and distract, and take up time (a thing to be particularly guarded against) in passing from one to another. Hence the remark frequently made, that those who do most business, do most ill. We do not indeed decry, or wish to discourage enterprise; but are of opinion that in all cases, men should be cautious in quitting a certainty for an uncertainty ; where they are well, they should endeavor to keep well. For instance, if a shopkeeper is thriving in a shop of mean appearance, in an obscure part of the town for which ho pays little rent, the quitting of, for an expensive shop, in a more fashionable quarter, becomes a question of serious consideration, as incurring a great hazard : such a mea sure may, indeed, sometimes be necessary, from the change in the place, either in buildings, or fashion, the one including the other; and, indeed, so much is this a case of circumstance, that the very neglecting of it may be an error, but it ought always to be adopted warily, and after due deliberation— the number ruined by the species of am bition referred to, it being unnecessary to say. The same must apply with greater force, as being a matter of greater importance to entering into a new business, or changing one business for another; and although we may be a little deviating from our subject, it may not be amiss here to state what occurs to us in similar respect, with regard to a clerk, or, that is when he finds himself comfortably placed, and satisfies his employers, he ought not to be tempted by an in crease of emolument, or higher wages, rashly to change a situation which has all the appearance o f permanency, for one which may be of no long duration. ROMAN MARKETS. Waterton, the naturalist, relates that when in Rome he was more fond of visiting the markets than the repositories of sculpture and paintings. I passed, says he, a considerable portion of my time in the extensive bird-market of Rome. I must, how ever, remark, that the studio of Vallati, the renowned painter of wild boars, had great attractions for me ; and I have now at home a wild boar done by him in so masterly a style, and finished so exquisitely, that it obtains unqualified approbation from all who inspect it. The bird-market of Rome is held in the environs of the Rotunda, for merly the Pantheon. Nothing astonished me more than the quantities of birds which were daily exposed for sale during the season; I could often count over four hundred thrushes and blackbirds, and often a hundred robin red-breasts in one-quarter of i t ; with twice as many larks, and other small birds in vast profusion. In the course of one day, seventeen thousand quails have passed the Roman custom-house; these pretty vernal and autumnal travellers are taken in nets of prodigious extent, on the shores of the Mediterranean. In the spring of the year, and at the close of summer, cartloads of ringdoves arrive at the stalls near the Rotunda. * * As you enter Rome at the Porto del Popolo, a little on your right, is the great slaughter house, with a fine 11 6 Mercantile Miscellanies . stream of water running through it. It is probably inferior to none in Italy, for an ex pensive plan, and for judicious arrangements. Here some seven or eight hundred pigs are killed on every Friday during the winter season. Nothing can exceed the dexterity with which they are dispatched. About thirty of these large and fat black pigs are driven into a commodious pen, followed by three or four men, each with a sharp skewer in his hand, bent at one end in order that it may be used with advantage. On entering the pen, these performers, who put you vastly in mind of assassins, make a rush at the hogs, each seizing one by the leg, amid a gen eral yell of horror on the part of the victims. Whilst the hog and the man are strug gling on the ground, the latter, with the rapidity of thought, pushes his skewer be twixt the fore leg aud the body quite into the heart, and there gives it a turn or two. The pig can rise no more, but screams for a minute or so, and then expires. This pro cess is continued until they are all despatched, the brutes sometimes rolling over the butchers, and sometimes the butchers over the brutes, with a yelling enough to stun one’s ears. In the meantime the screams become fainter and fainter, and then all is silence on the death of the last pig. A cart is in attendance ; the carcasses are lifted into it, and it proceeds through the streets, leaving one or more dead hogs at the door of the different pork shops. No blood appears outwardly, nor is the internal hem orrhage prejudicial to the meat, for Rome cannot be surpassed in the flavor of her ba con, or in the soundness of her hams. CHARACTER FOR INTEGRITY. W e have somewhere seen a notice of a Rotterdam thread merchant who had accu mulated fifty thousand dollars by his own industry, punctuality and integrity, and it was remarked of him that he never let a yard of bad thread go out of his hands, and would never take more than a reasonable profit. By these means he acquired such entire public confidence, that his customers would as willingly send a blind roan or a child to buy for them as go themselves. We refer to the case not to intimate that we have no such instances among our selves, but for the purpose of suggesting the great value to any business man of such a character, and the exceeding agreeableness to dealers with him of the confidence he inspires. And we affirm nothing extravagant in saying that the character for strict integrity acquired, is of as much real worth to its possessor as the pecuniary savings of his industry. Let such a man lose by any misfortune all his money, he is still a man of capital, of weight of influence, and is the superior, on mere business calcula tions, of many a man of large monied means. But the beauty of the thing is this, that any man, however small his business and limited his capital, has just as good an opportunity of winning confidence as the millionaire. Integrity in small things is even more impressive than integrity in great things. And after all that men may say in praise of the enterprise, skill, shrewdness, and tact of particular business men, there is one character towards which all minds in stinctively render their reverence— and that is, the man who would rather be honest than wealthy, and who prefers integrity to gain. TIIE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH IN PRUSSIA. The electric telegraph bureau returns the government a revenue of about one hundred thalers a d a y ; it ought to be much more, considering the extent of the intercourse be tween three such cities as Berlin, Hamburgh, and Cologne; but the tariff is fixed too high,— double the charge made on the English lines,— and the regulations are too intri cate to be gone through for any but the most important communication. The previous submission of the despatch to the chief of the bureau; the reference to the president of the police in case of doubt; the receiving the necessary order ; the writing, stamp ing, and sealing of all the forms (supposing any doubt to have arisen,) make it better, in ordinary cases, to keep to the post, which is, in some instances that have been report ed, actually the quicker. Simplicity and despatch in any matter of business are not yet German qualities. A telegraphic message was recently sent by a banker in London to Leipsic over Madgeburgh ; at the same time, a letter was posted to the same address, to make assurance doubly sure, and the precaution was a wise on e; the telegraphic communication arrived half an hour after the letter was delivered. Mercantile Miscellanies. 117 THE MORALITY OF LIFE INSURANCE. “ But if any provide not for liis own, and especially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an inhdel.” Many persons have doubted the propriety of insuring their life, through a mistaken notion that insurance is distrusting God or his protecting care. But no one doubts the propriety of investing funds in safe and undoubted securities, that the heirs may derive benefit of them. Yet, what is the difference of the two in respect to the government and providential arrangements of our heavenly benefactor ? Why should not we trust our property without any security ? Because, it is not rational, wise or judicious. A life insurance is an investment of funds for the benefit of the heirs. It is nothing more or less. A man of the age of forty wishes to secure to his family $ 1,000. to protect them from want in the event of his death. The house that he has labored to build for a home to his family, stands on ground mortgaged to the person of whom he purchased it for $1,000. He hopes in a few years to acquire a competency and discharge the mort gage. But, he has no lease of his life. Its brittle thread may be unexpectedly sundered, and he may leave his wife and children destitute, whose support and care required all his ability. The widow cannot pay the incumberance on the property, and must soon be without a home. But,----------if the husband had made a deposit with a Life Insu rance Company of $32 each year, then at the time of his death his widow would have been furnished at once with the means to pay the mortgage, and retain the possession of a home that no creditor of her husband could wrest from her. Is not this providing fo r his own? Is this distrusting God? Is it not employing the means by which the Pro vidence of God acts, to make safe and valuable deposit ? Has not lie set the bounds that you cannot pass ? Are you careful in all your doings to accomplish the desire of your heart ?-itSWhere is to be found a certainty ? In the insurance of the life, and in that alone. Will it not be to you a source of high gratification at the hour of dying, that while in health you made that provision in a Life Insurance Company that will be valuable to your family when you can render them no other aid ? No one can doubt for a moment that money will give more effectual benefit to a widow and her fatherless children, than all the mere sympathy of a selfish world.— Brewster. COMMERCIAL SWINDLING IN LONDON. It is necessary again to warn the mercantile public against some dexterous persons, who, by means of forged letters, and other documents, are endeavoring to obtain ad vances from foreign bankers and their connections in London. A case has just occur red in which a foreign letter, dated New York, purporting to be from Baron Roenne, the representative of the German Central Power in the United States, was addressed to a firm in London, and by means of which it was sought to obtain credit for $140,000. The letter stated that Mr. Y. Greisheim had rbeen left sole executor to a brother in Ohio, who had died with large landed possessions, besides $176,000, which were now lying at Mr. V. Greisheim’s disposal at New York, and that this Mr. Y. Greisheim, who was at present in Europe, would call upon the firm in question to make arrange ments so as to draw for the amount. Of course upon presenting himself Mr. V. Greis heim wished his draught on New York to be cashed, but upon this being refused he was willing to wait while it was sent over for collection. The reply from Baron Roenne was that he knew nothing of the parties, and the bill was accordingly sent back protested. Meanwhile, however, the pretended Mr. V. Greisheim had started from London to Paris, whence he had written to the London firm requesting them to hold the proceeds of the bill, as soon as they should be received, at the disposal of his brother-in-law, a Colonel V. Obenreiter, and having obtained their reply, stating that his request should be attended to, he appears to have gone to Munich, where by mak ing use of his original story, coupled with the letter of the London firm, together with another and subsequent letter (to which their signature has been forged) announcing that they have placed the $140,000 at his credit, he has endeavored to negotiate his draught at one o f the leading banking-houses for £3,000, adroitly professing not to de sire cash, but simply Frankfort paper to that extent. Here, however, he has also been foiled, the bankers having taken the precaution of writing to London; but the letters seem to have been so ingeniously fabricated, and the entire story so well got up, that without the publicity wre have now given to the matter, it would be probable some houses might ultimately be taken off their guard. Mercantile Miscellanies. 11 8 OF PURCHASING MERCHANDISE FRAUDULENTLY OBTAINED. A case of considerable general interest was recently decided before Judge Jones in New York city. It seems that a man by the name of Morris Jacobs bought a valu able case of Sinchews of Messrs. Godfrey, Pattinmn & Co., for cash, paying them by a sight draft on H. Pincus, of Philadelphia. He sent a porter to take the goods away, and left three or four hours after, in the Sarah Sands, for Liverpool. Mr. Pincus de clined accepting the draft, and it was ascertained that Jacobs had cheated other par ties in the same way. The house thus defrauded, set about tracing the goods, and found that the case valued at about $6,000, had been taken to the Carleton House, where Jacobs boarded, and from thence had come, in some way, into the possess ion of Levi Drucker, 26 Cedar Street. They visited Mr. Drucker’s room, at the Hotel de Paris, where they found a wrapper whicli they identified, and on meeting that gentleman, he acknowledged possession, but said that he had bought them in a regular way. Suit was immediately brought against him for the goods. Judge Jones charged the jury that the evidence tracing the goods directly from Jacobs to Druker, was defective, but the jury, being under the new code judges of the law, as well as the facts, brought in a verdict for the plaintiffs for value of the goods, with interest. Although this at first might seem to be hard upon the innocent holder of merchandise honestly obtained, yet a moment’s reflection will satisfy every reader that it is just. I f a merchant purchases valuable goods of a total stranger, or of an acquaintance even, under very suspicious circumstances, he should be made to understand that he does so at his own risk, and proof of the honesty of the transaction must rest upon him. Jacobs could not have had over three hours in which to make the sale and re ceive the money, and the transaction must have taken place at his room in the hotel, a suspicious place for the location of a silk house. We trust this will put merchants on their guard against purchasing goods which may have been stolen or obtained by fraud. THE ECONOMY OF EGGS, AND THE EGG TRADE. Some very interesting experiments relative to the production of eggs, were made about ten years ago by Mr. Mouat, of Stoke, near Guildford. He obtained three pul lets of the Polish breed, on the 1st December, 1835, which had been hatched in June previous, and they commenced laying on the 15th of the same month. They laid from the 1st December, 1835, to the 1st December, 1836, between them, 524. During the year they consumed three bushels of barley, seventeen pounds of rice, and a small portion of barley meal and peas, the cost of which amounted to about 16s. lOd. The number of eggs being 524, gives about 31 eggs per every shilling expended, and, assu ming the weight of each egg to be one and a quarter ounce, we have a result of fortyone pounds of the most nutritious food that can possibly be procured at the low cost of 4£d. per pound; or if these eggs were, instead of being consumed, sold to a retailer, a profit of about 100 per cent accrued to the producer. Out of 72,000,000 eggs annually imported into England from France, Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries, France contributes 55,000,000. Calculating the first cost at 4£d. per dozen, England pays annually to France for eggs about £77,000. OF DISCOUNTS ON MERCHANDISE. A late number of the London Economist makes the following remarks on this subject:— “ There are many and serious practical losses sustained by want of a clear under standing o f the effect of discounts. The net cost of the £100 of goods, purchased by A at 20 per cent discount, would be £8 0; the net cost of the same, purchased by B at 30 per cent discount, would be £70; the difference therefore, between these two sums would be the measure of the cheapness of the goods of B, compared with the goods of A : that difference is £10, which on £80 is 124 per cent. The subject is one of great importance to illiterate persons, who very often, from great perseverance and ingenuity, rise into very important positions in trade. We know an instance of a very deserving person being ruined by a miscalculation of discounts. The article he manufactured he at fir^t supplied to retail dealers at a large profit of about 30 per cent. He afterwards confined his trade almost exclusively to large wholesale houses, to whom he charged Mercantile Miscellanies. 119 the same price, but under discount of 20 per cent, believing that he was still realizing 10 per cent for his own profit. His trade was very extensive; and it was not till after some years that he discovered the fact, that in the place of making 10 per cent profit, as he imagined by this mode of making his sales, he was *-ealizing only 4 percent. To £100 of goods he added 30 per cent, and invoiced them at £130. At the end of each , month, in the settlement of accounts, amounting to some thousands of pounds with in dividual houses, he deducted 20 per cent, or 26 on each £130, leaving £104 net for every £100 value of goods at prime cost, in place of £110, as he all along expected. It is by far the simplest and best plan to conduct transactions at net prices, or subject only to such moderate discount as may fairly apply to an early, in place of a distant, payment. SMUGGLING IN RUSSIA. The following statements of smuggling, derived from a reliable source, will serve to illustrate the influence of high or prohibitory tariffs on the manners and morals of a people:— The line of frontier between Prussia and Russia is becoming the seat of a formidable system of smuggling, carried on by armed bands of men, who in some cases, after es corting their wagons to points within the Russian territory, have made their retreat with such military precision and order, that it is believed they must have turned the discipline acquired in the Prussian army to good account. The border country may be described as in a perpetual state of war, and that of the worst kind; the Russian preventive corps have the severest instructions, and carry them out in the severest manner; but the smugglers are often more numerous and quite as well trained, and know the ground perfectly, and thus set them at defiance. Unfortunately, another “ border” practice has lately become more frequent— the smuggler bands have become robbers. One of them, headed by a man named Krotinus, is now notorious ; it has plundered the houses of several of the richer Russian landowners on the frontier, re turning across the line into Prussia to spend the proceeds. A party of this band re cently passed the day at a village wine-house, and were called out towards evening by a man who proved to be the captain himself, “ for duty he was mo3t particular in inquiring whether his men had behaved respectably and paid for every thing ! OF THE MEASUREMENT OF FOREIGN DEALS. The revenue authorities of Great Britain, having had under their consideration an ap " plication from the Superintendent of the Grand Surrey Canal Docks, London, request ing that the ad-measurement singly of each deal exceeding twenty one feet in length, required under the customs general regulation of October, 1843, may be dispensed with, and that ten per cent only of each assortment of such deals may in future be measured singly, and that the remainder of the importation may be delivered, and the quantity calculated according to the average ascertained from the deals actually measur ed. The customs authorities have sanctioned the adoption of the proposed arrangement with respect to deals and battens exceeding twenty-one feet in length, (not being deck deals,) in those cases in which the parties interested in the disposal of the goods may not object thereto, and orders have been issued for the measure to be carried into effect accordingly. This privilege which was granted at the request of the Dock Company with respect to the measurement of foreign deals imported into the port of London, has, upon a request to that effect from one of the principal outports, been extended to all the ports throughout the United Kingdoms, where the new mode of measurement for the duties will be permitted, if desired from the present time. SINGULAR COTTON SPECULATION. A late number of Wilmer and Smith’s Liverpool Times furnishes an account of the closing of a cotton speculation, which is almost without a parallel in the obstinacy and fatuity which it exhibits. The following is a statement of the transaction, as we find it recorded in the journal referred to above:— “ A lot of cotton has been sold in our market, which was originally purchased during the speculative mania of 1825, and which has, consequently, been held for twenty- 120 Mercantile Miscellanies. four years, the owner refusing to sell for less than it originally cost. The results are as follows: The price in 1825 was, we believe, Is. 9d. per lb .; the cost, with interest, warehousing, <fec., when sold, 10s. 6d. The price realized was 7fd. The article, when sold, was of excellent quality, and in good condition. We believe that the neighbor hood of Manchester furnished the sensible speculator.” EXCERPTS FOR BUSINESS MEN: OR, THOUGHTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON BUSINESS, FROM “ ACTON.” T h e S h r e w d M en. Men who are so shrewd and well-practised in the ensnaring arts of business that no one can possibly circumvent them, are very often self-circum vented in their efforts to surpass others. Nothing is more common than for those per sons to deceive themselves, whom nobody can deceive. Thus the simple and the wise are brought at last to occupy the same level, for the cunning of the wise is taxed for the simplicity of the simple. Moreover, in business, as in politics, the crafty are not the profound. O ve rreach in g in B usiness. In dealing, we must in most cases submit to the dealer. The advantage is naturally on his side, but he takes double advantage of an advantage; and frequently, if we buy only an egg, or an oyster, something extra must be paid for the shell; if a bundle, a trifle for the string; and twenty per cent more for the rent of the store. If we have a knack of buying without money and are booked, then the double and single entry process is served upon us. A B ad B usiness . Khol, in his travels in Russia, observes, that while at Moscow he happened to take a stroll through one of the markets of that city. He saw there a man, who sold frozen fish by the pound. “ Friend,” said he to him, “ how do you come on in your business ?” “ Thank God,” replied the man, “ very badly.” DISCOVERY OF ANCIENT COINS IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT. A most curious and interesting discovery of coins of the 14th century was recently made by the workmen employed in erecting some buildings at the back of the prem ises of Messrs. Perress and Dallimore, drapers, of High-street, Newport. They consist principally of the pennies of the reigns of Edward I., II. and III., of the mints of Lon don, Canterbury, York, Durham, Berwick, Newcastle, Lincoln, St. Edmund's, Bristol, Dublin, and Waterford, intermixed with many of the reign of Alexander of Scotland. About 2,500 are in the possession of Mr. Perress, and it is known that very many more were taken by the workmen, previously to his becoming aware of the discovery. So large a horde of coin, of one period, has not before been discovered in the island, and is equalled only by that brought to light some few years since at Buriton, in Hamp shire, and which consisted exclusively of pennies of the Conqueror. From the circum stance that all the coins now found are immediately anterior to the time of King Richard II., the period of the deposit may not unreasonably be referred to the burning of Newport by the French, in the second year of the reign of that monarch. LIVERPOOL TRADE WITH AFRICA. W e learn from late Liverpool papers that it is in contemplation by some Liverpool merchants to form an African Company, with a capital of £100,000, in 2,000 shares of £50 each. The following is from the programme:— “ Deposite 10s. per share. Liabili ty to extend only to amount of shares. No dividends to be made until a reserve fund of £50,000 has been accumulated. A. call of £10 per share to be made as soon as the committee are formed; and a further call of £10 in three months afterwards, a call of £10 in nine months, and the remainded as the committee may appoint as requsite or re quired. To be under a committee of management of five individuals to be selected from the shareholders. Operations to com-mence when 1,000 shares are subscribed for.” CATTLE IMPORTED INTO ENGLAND FROM IRELAND. It appears from the London Inspectors of Imports and Exports, that in 1848 there was imported into Great Britain, from Ireland, 189,960 oxen, bulls, and cows; 9.992 calves, 324,179 sheep and lambs, and 106,407 swine, and in 1849, 196,042 oxen, bulls and cows, 7,080, calves, 255,682 sheep and lambs, and 110,787 swine. 121 The Boole Trade. TIIE BOOK TRADE. 1. — A Copious and Critical English-Latin Lexicon, founded on the German-Latin Dictionary o f Dr. Charles Earnest Georges. By the Rev. J oseph E smond B id dle , M. A., of St. Edward Hall, Oxford, author of a “ Complete Latin-English Diction ary,” ike., and the Rev. T homas K er ch ev er A rn old , M. A., Rector of Lynden, and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. First American edition, carefully revised, and contianing a copious dictionary of proper names, from the best sources. By C h ar les A nthon , Professor of the Greek and Latin languages in Columbia College Royal 8vo., pp. 754. New York: Harper & Brothers. A slight inspection, as is well remarked, in the preface to the London edition of this work, will show that it aims at a far higher standard of accuracy and completeness, than any of its English predecessors. Indeed, says the same authority, it can hardly be said to have had any predecessor in its kind; for no English Latin Dictionary hitherto published, has ever professed to give any account of the use of words set down, their synonymical distinctions, the niceties connected with their employment by classical writers, with such remarks and corrections as a cursory glance at any important word in this work will prove that it has at least attempted to supply. The learned, and al most Herculean labors, in the department of classical literature, and the eminent suc cess of Dr. Anthon, the American editor, in former works, are circumstances well cal culated to inspire confidence in the character of the present enterprise. 2. — The Whale and His Captors. By the Rev. H en ry T. C h ee v e r . Harper & Brothers. This little work, which may be properly considered a biography #f the largest ani mal in the world, will gladden the heart of many a youth, whose young mind, filled with the imaginary delights of a sea life, eagerly seizes upon every description of its perilous incidents. It would be fortunate, were they always to find so much truth as in this; the dangers, “ disagreeables and disgustings,” properly added, which is usually felt by boys of a certain age to go to sea. Not only is it an excellent work, full of interest for youth, for whom its many excellent engravings particularly adapt i t ; but it will be found instructive to more mature minds. The first chapter condenses the facts and figures of the whale fishery, from which, among other statistics, we find that six hundred and ten vessels, amounting to 196,113 tons, are engaged in the American whale fishery, being much less than the number employed in 1844, though no reason for this diminution is stated. The crude value of the fishery was, in 1848, $7,392,488. 3. — Fairy Tales from all Nations. By A nthony R. M ontalba . With twenty-four illustrations. 12mo., pp. 359. Harper & Brothers. The materials of this collection of tales were selected, as we are informed, from more than a hundred volumes of the fairy lore of all nations. Accustomed as we have been to travel in the dusty paths of every-day life, it is not surprising that our taste does not permit us to appreciate fairy tales, although in imagination we sometimes wander into the regions of the supernatural. Still we are inclined to think with Mrs. Embury, that an attractive fairy tale, so thoroughly pervaded by a fine moral truth, that the youthful mind cannot but imbibe its influence, is of far more effective benefit than an overstrained moral tale, where improbable incidents, and. exaggerated ideas of excellence, tend to give false views of life, and its duties. The volume contains some thirty tales, from almost as many different languages, including the Arabic, Sla vonic, Hebrew, German, Sweedisli, Sanskrit, Hungarian, Norman, Bohemian, Fran conian, Italian, &c. The admirable illustrations of Richard Doyle, add not a little to the attractiveness of the collection. 4.— The History o f A lfred the Great. York: Harper & Brothers. By J acob A bbott. 12mo., pp. 270. New It is the design o f this volume, to exhibit, in a popular and compressed style, the biography o f a prominent king of England, and one of the principal founders of the British monarchy. The narrative of these facts associated with his career, and which is found in the more extended historical works regarding that country, is here set forth in a clear and comprehensive form, and the book is illustrated by several en gravings, which portray, in some degree, the character of the period o f which it treats. 122 The Book Trade. 5-— The Miscellaneous Works o f Oliver Goldsmith. Including a Variety o f Pieces now first Collected. By J ames P rior , Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, author of the Life of Goldsmith, Life of Burke, etc., etc. In four volumes. 12mo., pp. 586. New York: George P. Putnam. Prior to the appearance (in 1837) o f the present collection of the miscellaneous works of Goldsmith, a writer who has long taken his stand, both in verse and prose, as an English classic, but one attempt, anonymous, had been made in that direction. It proved, however, to be quite imperfect, as all who will take the trouble to compare it with the carefully edited collection of the indefatigable Prior, whose immense research and scrupulous fidelity are so highly and deservedly commended by Irving, will readily perceive. The first volume of Mr. Putnam’s edition, before us, contains all the essays and papers of Goldsmith, which appeared in “ The Bee,” a weakly paper commenced October 6th, and terminating with the eighth number, November 24th, 1759, on diverse subjects, the inquiry into the state of the polite learning in Europe, and the prefaces to his histories and various other works, etc. Both the old and new ma terials collected by Mr. Prior, and embraced in this edition, are accompanied with brief notes, clearing up the local and temporary allusions in which they abound, and which another generation would have rendered it impossible for any diligence to ex plain. 6. — Orations and Occasional Discourses. By G eorge W. B ethune , D. D. 12mo.» pp, 428. New York : George P. Putnam. The author of this volume enjoys a wide reputation in this country as a pulpit ora tor, and a public lecturer. It contains twelve discourses, orations and addresses de livered before literary, and other societies. The third, in the collection entitled “ Lei sure, its Uses and Abuses,” delivered before the Mercantile Library Association in 1839, was originally published in the first volume of the Merchants’ Magazine. A l though they are not marked for any extraordinary degree of originality of conception, there is a grace and scholarly elegance in their composition, that will commend them to readers of a refined and cultivated taste. The admiring friends of the author will not object to the “ repetition of some main thoughts, in several of the discourses.” 7.— Success in L i f e ; a Series o f Books, Six in Number, each Complete in Itself • The Successful Merchant, Lawyer, Mechanic, Artist, Physician, Farmer. To con sist o f Biography, Anecdotes, Maxims, dtc. By Mrs. C. T uthill. New York: George P. Putnam. The present volume is the first of a series of books, designed to illustrate the causes and principles of success in the various professions and occupations of life. It is en titled “ The Merchant.” Each chapter is devoted to a distinct subject, but all bearing upon the author’s design of exhibiting those principles of action and traits o f character which go to form the upright, enterprising and successful merchant. The materials are derived from the mercantile biographies that have from time to time been published in the Merchants' Magazine, and other sources. These she has contrived to work up into an agreeable and instructive volume, that is well calculated to stimulate the young who aspire for distinction and success in mercantile pursuits. 8. — The King o f the Hurons. By the author of the “ First of the Knickerbockers,” and the “ Young Patroon.” New York: George P. Putnam. The King of the Hurons, says the author, is a story of civilized rather than savage life, notwithstanding the seeming indication to the contrary contained in its title, and those of its readers who are familiar with the events of the age in which its scenes are supposed to have occurred, will readily remember the historical personage from whom the idea of its principal character has been derived. The deserved popularity of the previous tales of this comparatively new candidate for public favor, will doubt less secure for the present work a wide circulation— but not wider than it deserves. 9. — Oliver Goldsmith; a Biography. By W ashington I r v in g . With Illustrations. New York: George P. Putnam. We noticed this charming book, on its appearance, some months since, when pub lished in connection with the complete works of Mr. Irving. The present edition is more ample in its dimensions, and is copiously and beautifully illustrated with scenes drawn from the varied life and occupations of the clever, kind-hearted Goldsmith, graphically portrayed by Prior, and his last and most graceful biographer, the author of the present volume. It affords another illustration of the taste and liberality evinced by Mr. Putnam in the production of elegant books. The Book Trade. 12 3 10. — Women o f the Old and New Testament: a Series o f Portraits. With Characterestic Descriptions. By several American Clergymen. Edited by W illiam B. S pragu e , D. D. Eighteen Original Designs engraved expressly fur this Work. 4to. New York : D. Appleton <fc Co. This is one of the most magnificent publications ever, produced in the United States. Elegant and beautiful as was the “ Women of the Bible,” issued some year or two since, by the same enterprising publishers, this is an evident improvement on that work, in all that constitutes artistic beauty and completeness; and, as we are informed, the uncommon favor with which that work has been justly regarded by those most competent to estimate its merits, induced the publishers to offer to the public another o f the same general character. The former work was confined to the characters sup plied by the Old Testament, while the present has taken the larger number of its sub jects from the New. The volume before us contains twenty-eight plates, from draw ings by G. Staahl, engraved in the highest style of the art, as follows:— “ Virgin and Infant Saviour;” “ S a r a h “ E l i z a b e t h “ M i r i a m “ Anne the P r o p h e t e s s “ Rah a b “ Herodias;” “ The Levite’s W ife;” “ Zepporah;” “ The Canaanitish Woman;” “ The Witch of Endor ;” “ Daughter of Jairus;” “ Widow of Nain ;” “ Michael;” “ Mar tha ;” “ Mary Magdalen,” and “ Bathsheba.” The letter-press illustrations are furnished by living divines of different denominations, as follows:— W. Ingraham Kipp, D. D .; Erskine Mason, D. D .; William B. Sprague, D. D .; Rev. Charles Wadsworth; Rev. E. N. Kirk; Rev. B. A. W ood; E. Haller, D. D .; N. S. S. Bemen, D. D .; Right Rev. J. P. H. Henshaw, D. D .; John Todd, D. D .; Thomas Smyth, D. D .; Samuel Hansen Cox, D. D .; Right Rev. J. H. Hopkins, D. D .; Rev. J. F. Stearns ; Rev. Robert Hallam ; Nicholas Murray. D. D., and Rev. R. S. Storrs, jr. The sketches are something more than a mere outline of the history of the individuals to whom they relate. “ They aim to bring out those great lessons of truth and wisdom which, in some form or other, lie embodied in all their characters, and which are adapted to form the mind to virtue, usefulness, and immortal felicity.” They of course exhibit great diversity of style ; but are probably among the best efforts of their authors. The engravings would do credit to that model of artistic excellence, the “ Art Journal;” and the letter-press, paper, binding, &e., afford a fine illustration of the tas e and liberality of the publishers, and are in perfect keeping with the general excellence of the -work. 11. — Hearts and Homes; or Social Distinction. A Story. By Mrs. E llis , author of the “ Women of England.” 8vo., pp. 714. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Few writers o f domestic tales, designed to illustrate the moral and social virtues of every-day life, in the present day, have succeeded in securing so wide a circle of read ers, as the author of the present volume. Though more elaborate than any preceding work from the same pen, it will, we presume, be read with equal interest by all who have been gratified and instructed by like labors in the same department of literature. Without exhibiting any remarkable "degree of vigor, or portraying any fine spun tran scendental ideas of life, her writings inculcate those ordinary every-day morals and man ners so intelligible to the popular mind, in England and the United States.” 12. — The Four Gospels; Arranged as a Practical Family Commentary fo r Every D ay in the Year. By the author of “ Peep of Day,” <fcc. Edited, with an introductory preface, by S tephen H. T yng , D. D., Rector of St. George’s Church, New York. Il lustrated with twelve highly-finished engravings. 8vo., pp. 548. New York : D. Appleton & Co. Dr. Tyng recommends this work “ in a very cordial and unqualified manner,” as well calculated “ to open the precious and imperishable blessings of the Gospel to those who familiarly use it.” The comments on the Gospel are of course in harmony with the religious tenets and sentiments of that earnest divine, and eloquent and popular preacher. 13. — Home Recreation; a Collection o f Tales o f Peril and Adventure, Voyages and Travels, Biography, Manners and Customs, Poetry, and other Entertaining Sketches. A new Gift Book fo r Young Readers. By G randfath er M er r ym a n . With Col ored Illustrations. New York: D. Appleton & Co. The design of this work, as may be inferred from the title, which we have quoted at length, is to interest as well as amuse; to excite the imagination through the medium of the feelings. It embraces in its range of subjects almost every variety of reading, tales of adventure and peril, voyages and travels, biography, natural his tory, sporting and hunting sketches, new riddles, poetry, and a variety of miscellany. 12 4 The Book Trade. 14. — Poems and Prose Writings. By R ichard H enry D ana. In two volumes. 8vo., pp. 443 and 440. New Y ork : Baker Scribner. These volumes contain the prominent efforts of one of the most distinguished poets and classical prose writers in this country. The poems and prose writings in the first of these volumes, with a few additions, were embraced in a collection published in 1833, including the series of tales published under the general title of the I dle M an. The second volume, now first published in a collective form, embraces articles upon several subjects, which have been contributed to the North American Review, and other leading periodicals. It is a gratifying feature of the recent enterprises of our publishing houses, that the labors of our more eminent authors are thus incorporated in a permanent form. It is by such means that their actual merits can be most prop erly appreciated. The leading efforts of high genius, are admired, like beautiful works of sculpture, or painting, and such authors as Dana, Willis, Bryant, Longfellow, and Lowell, are brilliant gems, worthy of enduring caskets. The handsome style in which these volumes are produced, is creditable to the taste and liberality of these enter prising publishers. 15. — The Brilliant: A Gift f o r 1850. Edited by T. S. A rthur. 8 v o ., pp. 300. New York: Baker tfe Scribner. We regret that this annual was received too late for notice in our December issue; for it is the first appearance of a new candidate for public favor, and merits such en couragement as will secure its annual visits. Brilliant binding, beautiful pictures, fine paper, and clear and handsome print, although constituting the material of the book, so far as its manufacture is concerned, is by no means its chief excellence, or its most valuable characteristic— exquisitely beautiful, and artistic as are its illustrations, “ not the less excellent and beautiful are the literary portions.” A ll the engravings, fifteen in number, are line and stipple, the works of eminent artists, and finished in the most elaborate style. If any of our readers have delayed, in this “ festive season of the year, when kind feelings flow forth in gifts, tokens, and remembrances,” to “ supply the demand” thus suggested, we will venture to recommend them to examine a copy of the “ Brilliant,” and leave the decision to their taste and judgment, confident that the result will be such as to meet the approbation of the worthy publishers. — Sacred Scenes and Characters. By J. T. H eadley , author of “ Sacred Moun tains,” <fcc. With original designs by Dailey. New York: Baker & Scribner. 16. The Bible, like fine gold, is capable of a wide expansion. Its comprehensive truths furnish material for an almost infinite variety of illustration. It is full of scenes and sketches given only in outline, the filling up of which, is left to the inspiration or the imagination of the reader. In the present work, Mr. Headley, leaving the fields of dogmatic theology, and of ethics,.takes some of the striking or remarkable scenes and characters of the sacred historians, and expands them into glowing pictures, not, how ever, forgetting the great truth each outline is designed to illustrate or enforce. The high-wrought, and, withal, graceful and graphic style of the author seems peculiarly well adapted to the scenes selected, some of the most thrilling and pathetic that the wonderful book, on which they are based, embraces. The book is published in the style of the annuals, in so far as its typography and external appearance are concerned, and is beautiful enough in its material form, and pure enough in its spiritual essence, for the drawing-room, or “ center-table,” o f any of our most orthodox friends. 17. — The Miscellaneous Works o f the Rev. J. T. Headley, with a Biographical Sketch and Portrait o f the Author. 2 Vols., 12mo., pp. 322 and 319. New York: John S. Taylor. These two volumes embrace the prominent contributions of the author to the lead ing periodicals of the day. Mr. Headley’s productions enjoy a wide popularity. Few writers possess, in a more eminent degree, the faculty of impressing their own glow of feeling upon the minds of their readers. He carries his reader along with him through his high-wrought, and sometimes thrilling scenes. The reader does not find time to stop; and if he stumbles, we stumble too, and are up again and on. Mr. Headley’s delineation of the character of Napoleon, in the “ Waterloo” miscellany, is not the Na poleon of his later, and more elaborate account of that extraordinary man. The for mer was written for the “ Christian Parlor,” and the latter to meet the wants of the popular mind. Few writers of the present day have attracted more attention. The present volumes contain some of his happiest efforts of the descriptive character. The Book Trade. 12 5 18. — Leavitt's Reading Series. By J oshua L eavitt. Boston : John P. Jewett. This series consists of four books, namely, “ The Primer; or, Little Lessons for Little Learners,” “ Easy Lessons in Reading for the Younger Classes in Common Schools,” “ Reading Lessons for the Use of the Middle Classes in Common Schools,” and “ Selections for R-eading and Speaking for the Higher Classes in Common Schools.” Mr. Leavitt starts with the settled axiom that “ there is no royal road to learning’” ex cept that acquired by “ dint of repetition.” His first book is, therefore, designed “ to furnish an arrangement of lessons, at once convenient for the drilling process,” and cal culated to “ aid those associations of ideas, and that systematic progress, from lesson to lesson, which may make it easier for our little friends to climb the first round in the ladder of learning.” In the second book, “ Easy Lessons,” he has succeeded in making “ such a selection of pieces as must engage the attention and interest the mind of children, and lead them naturally into an animated and graceful style of reading.” The third book furnishes similar advantages to the middle classes. It contains nothing “ that can give reasonable offense to any deserving portion of the community— nothing that is immoral or irreligious— nothing adverse to the welfare of mankind, or incon sistent with true patriotism.” The fourth, possesses all the moral and intellectual char acteristics of the preceding numbers of the series, and is evidently “ prepared with great care, both in making up the elementary exercises, as well as in selecting the les sons for reading and speaking.” The whole series will bear a careful and critical ex amination. Every page of it bears the impress of the author’s untiring industry, good sense, and correct taste. Indeed, we have never examined a series of books better adapted to promote the objects for which they were designed than this of Mr. Leavitt, and we should rejoice to learn that they were universally adopted in all our common schools. 19. — Sketches o f Reforms and Reformers o f Great Britain and Ireland. B. S tanton. 12mo., pp. 393. New York : John W illy. By H enry It appears to be the aim of Mr. Stanton to exhibit a summary view of the most im portant general reforms which have been effected or attempted in Great Britain and Ireland, from the period of the French Revolution down to the present time. Prom inent popular movements are noticed in their order of time, and in connection with each are sketches, more or less full of persons who bore a leading part in them. “ It is,” we quote from Mr. Stanton’s candid preface, “ an humble attempt to make some of the reformers of America better acquainted with some of the reformers of the Old World— to show that the Anglo-Saxon love of liberty, which inspires so many hearts on both sides of the Atlantic, flows from the same kindred fountain— to prove that, though when measured by her own vaunted standards, Great Britain is one of the most oppressive and despicable governments on earth, her radical reformers constitute as noble a band of democratic philanthropists as the world has ever seen.” The work is written in a strong and spirited style, and the author gives utterance to the generous impulses of his warm and manly soul in “ thoughts that breath and words that burn.” W e heartily commend the volume to all who have any faith in human progress, or who desire that the Right should supplant the Wrong. 20. — The Western World, or Travels in the United States, in 1846 to 184*7; Exhibit ing them in their Latest Developments, Social, Political, and Industrial, including a Chapter on California. By A lexander M ackay, Esq., of the Middle Temple, Bar rister at Law. 2 vols., 12mo. pp. 312 and 316. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard. Mr. Mackay spent some years in the United States, before he undertook the journey described in this work. A circumstance, which afforded him every opportunity of studying the American character in all its national, and most of its individual manifes tations— of acquainting himself with the different spheres of society, and with the manners and domestic habits of our people, and of observing the workings of our com plicated political machine, from the administration of Federal affairs, to the supervision of those of a township—from the election o f a President, to that of the lowest office in the gift of a country village. The journey, upon which the work is made, was com menced in 1846, when he visited America for the second time, residing several months at Washington, during a critical period in the international affairs of Great Britain and the United States. Under such circumstances, we are not surprised to find a fair and candid account of the social, political, and industrial development of the country. It is, in the main, the most unprejudiced work relating to our country and its institutions, from the pen of an Englishman, that we have ever read. 12 6 The Book Trade. 21. — The Illustrated Atlas and Modern History o f the World, Geographical, Politi cal, Commercial, and Statistical. Edited by R. M ontgomery M artin , Esq., author of the “ History of the British Colonies.” London: J. & F. Tellis. New York: J. B. Ford. ' We have received nine parts of this atlas, by far the most beautiful production of its class that has ever come within the reach of our observation. Each part consists of two illustrated colored maps, engraved on steel, and accompanied by four large pages of descriptive letter-press, exhibiting an outline of all the more important geographi cal, statistical, and commercial facts and features of the several kingdoms and coun tries, in a clear and comprehensive form. The nine numbers before us embrace maps o f the Eastern Hemisphere, Cabool, the Punjab and Beloochistan, Austria, Mexico, California and Texas, Northern Italy, Western Hemisphere, Denmark, Southern Italy, Prussia, France, Germany, Russia in Europe, the British Isles, Spain and Portugal, Sweden and Norway, China, Belgium, and Turkey in Europe, all in the order we have named them. The maps were drawn and engraved by J. Rupkin, from government, and other authentic sources, including all new boundaries, discoveries, and railways of which accounts have been received in London to the time of going to press. The space on each map is taken up with views of public buildings, etc., executed in a style of art that would do credit to the skill and taste usually displayed in the “ Art-Journal.” The work is as cheap as it is beautiful, the numbers being sold at 25 cents each, so that the whole work, with 32 maps and the letter-press, will cost but $8 when completed. 22. — Ten Discourses on Orthodoxy. By J oseph H enry A llen , Pastor of the Unita rian Church, Washington. 12mo., pp. 227. Boston: Crosby <fc Nichols. W e have read almost theology enough in our day to “ make a preacher,” Indeed, as Franklin would say, it has been one of the errors of our life. The dogmas of “ Calvin ism,” “ Orthodoxy.” or “ Unitarianism,” never, we apprehend, made us, or anyone, more truly religious, charitable, just, humane, or virtuous. We are willing, nay, de sirous of accepting and practising whatever is good, and true, and practicable, in any aud every creed. But this is not the place either to discuss the subject or express our opinion as to the truth or error of this or that dogma: but there are those who take an interest in theological discussion, and such will find in this volume the Unitarian side of the question, fairly stated and ably defended. The author of these discourses regards “ Orthodoxy not merely as a false or defective system, but as standing in the way of a more broad and positive conception of Christianity.” The volume contains ten discourses, devoted to a discussion of the prominent points at issue between the “ Orthodox ” and the “ Unitarian ” theory of Christian faith. The first two discourses are devoted to a statement of the “ Orthodox Theory of Christianity,” and the author’s objections to that theory, followed by sermons on the “ Trinity,” the “ Deity of Christ,” the “ Vicarious Atonement,” “ Depravity of Human Nature,” “ Eternal Punishment,” “ Scripture Infallibility, etc. 23. — Vegetable D iet: A s Sanctioned by Medical Men. and by Experience in all Ages, Including a System o f Vegetable Cookery. By W jlliam A . A i-cott, author of the “ YToung Man’s Guide,” “ Young Woman’s Guide,” “ Young Mother,” “ Young House keeper.” 12mo., pp. 312. New York: Fowlers Jr Wells. This appears to be a new and revised edition of a work prepared and published by Dr. Alcott, some ten or twelve years ago. The original intention of the author, as we learn from the preface to the present edition, was simply to show the safety of a vege table and fruit diet, both for those afflicted with many forms of chronic disease, and for the healthy. As the author proceeded in the investigation o f the subject, he became convinced that he ought to go further, and show its superiority over every other. This he has attempted to do, with what success, we are not prepared to say. The volume embraces the testimony of more than a hundred individuals, besides that of societies and communities, among whom are many persons of considerable distinction; some fifty of them either medical men, or such as have made physiology, Ac., a leading or favorite study. 2J.— Chronic Diseases; especially Nervous Diseases o f Women. By D. Rosen. Trans lated from the German, by C harles D umming. New York: Fowlers <fc Wells. Without endorsing all that the author of tl .is volume, has put forth, we can heartily commend it to general perusal, believing, as we. do, that it contains many valuable sug gestions, and is, on the whole, calculated to promote not only the physical, but the moral and intellectual happiness of the human race. The B ook Trade . 127 25. — The Annals o f the English Bible. By C hristopher A nderson. Abridged and Continued by S amuel I ren^eus P rime, Secretary of the American Bible Society. 8vo., pp. 549. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. Prior to the publication of this volume in 1845, no connected history of the English Bible had been published either in England or the United States, a deficiency to be regretted, if we take into view the heart stirring incidents, the frequent peril of life, and the hair-breadth escapes its history involves. The English Bible, it is well re marked by the author of the present work, at this moment is the only version in ex istence on which the sun never sits. Commencing with a brief summary of the ages which preceded any printing of the. Scriptures in the English tongue, the author traces more elaborately its history through a period of some three hundred years, in Eng land, Scotland, and North America, bringing it down to our own time. The value of such a work, in a literary as well as theological point of view, will scarcely be disputed by any one at all familiar with ecclesiastical history from the time of Tyndale, the original translator, or at least who regards the Bible as containing a divine revelation touching man’s, duty and destiny. Those who regard it merely as a record of portions of the human race through a long series of ages, will not find it entirely void of interest. 26.— History o f the Puritans in England, and the Pilgrim Fathers. 12mo., pp. 508. New Y ork: Robert Carter Brothers. This volume embraces two works, namely, the Puritans in England by the Rev. W. H. Stowell, Professor of Theology, Rotherham College, and the Pilgrim Fathers, by D. Wilson, F. S. A., Scotland, author of “ Cromwell and the Protectorate,” etc. The first is intended to compress within narrow limits the stoiy o f the English Puritans, by weaving into the tissue of the general narrative some biographical details respecting the men who bore that name. The writer professes to have consulted the best author ities on both sides o f the great controversey of which Puritanism was the result. He aims at fairness and candor, and, although not entirely divested of the tone of an ad vocate and admirer of the Puritan character, it is less eulogistic than some other works o f the same description. The second work “ The Pilgrim Fathers,” exhibits their vir tues by a narrative of their deeds, and an exposition of the principles of which they were actuated, expanding into a somewhat comprehensive view the remarkable results of English Puritanism. The work will doutless obtain a more extensive circulation among the descendants of the Pilgrims than it has in the United Kingdom. \ 27. — Pastorial Reminiscences. By S hepard K. K ollock. With an Introduction, by A. Alexander, Professor in the Theological Seminary, at Princeton, New Jersey. This volume contains a detailed account of several interesting cases of experience which occurred in the pastorial life of the author, and of which he was a witness. As two of the narratives relate to seamen, it is hoped that it will circulate among that class o f people, “ and be useful to many both as containing a warning from the exam ple of the ‘ Naval Apostle,’ and encouragement from that case of conversion which was proved to be genuine by the fruits of holiness wliicli ensued.” 28. — The Crocus; a Fresh Flower fo r the Holidays. Edited by S arah J osepha H ale. Illustrated with thirty-two engravings, from original designs. New Y ork: Edward Dunigan. This beautiful volume contains some seven or eight stories, translated from the Ger man of Christopher Von Schmid, one of the best and most popular writers for the young in Europe, interspersed with several poems from Miss Gould, Mrs. Howitt, Mrs. Sigourney, Mrs. Hale, and Mrs. Osgood. Innocence and love, truth and industry, obe dience and piety, are the graces and qualities that our young friends will learn with delight from the perusal of these well-told tales. The illustrations are chaste in de sign, and artistic in execution. 29. — Dunigan's Popidar Library o f Instruction and Amusement. New York: E. Dunigan <fc Brother. The eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth numbers of this beautiful little library embrace three as amusing and instructive stories as are to be found in the English language. The numerous engravings are among the best that we have seen applied to the illustration of juvenile books. 30. — Sidonia, the Sorceress; the supposed Destroyer o f the whole Reigning Ducal House o f Pomerania. By W illiam M eeniiold, author of the “ Amber Witch.’' New York: Harper <fc Brothers’ Library of Select Novels. 128 The Book Trade . 31. — The A rt Journal. London and New York: George Virtue. The illustrations of the November number of this splendid work consist of three masterly engravings on steel, viz., the “ First Ear-Ring,” and the “ Dutch Ferry,” both from paintings in the Vernon Gallery; the former engraving by W. Greatback, and the latter by R. Wallis. “ Michael and Satan,” the third illustration on steel, was en graved bv W. Roffe, after the Group in Marble, by J. Flexman, R. A. “ The Death of Marmi onand a “ Summer day’s Retreat,” from passages in Milton and Thompson, are as beautiful in design as they are finished in execution. There is no falling off either in the artistic or literary department of this noble work. 32. — Wandering Sketches o f People and Things in South America, Polynesia, Cali forn ia , and other places visited during a Cruise on board o f the United States ships Levant, Portsmouth, and Savannah. By W illiam M axwell W ood, M. D., Surgeon United States Navy, late Fleet Surgeon of the Pacific Squadron. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart. The author of this work, from having been officially associated with the naval ser vice, possessed a favorable opportunity of observing the countries and scenes which he describes. He has accordingly given to us numerous very interesting sketches of those observations made in South America, Polynesia, and California, as well as other places. A portion of those* countries has attracted a considerable degree of interest from our recent relations with its territory, and we have no doubt that the work will be re ceived with favor. 33. — Longs' Library o f Select Novels. 8vo. New Y o rk : H. Long &, Brother. We have received five numbers of this series of novels, embracing “ Mothers and Daughters,” by Mrs. Gore, and “ The Dowager, or the new School for Scandal,” by the same author; also, “ Ellen Percy, or Discipline,” by Mary Brunton; “ Jeremiah Parkes,” by Mrs. Mackenzie Daniel; “ Rockingham, or the Younger Brother,” and “ Jack Ariel, or Life on Board of an East Indiaman ” all highly commended by the critical authorities in England. They are all neatly printed, done up in the pamphlet form, and sold for 25 cents each. 34. — The Great Metropolis; or New York Almanac f o r 1850. New York: H. Wil son <fc Co. ^ This manual, of some two hundred pages, besides the usual callendar for 1850, con tains a mass of information almost indispensable to the merchant and the mechanic, the citizen and the stranger. It answers concisely the questions of every class of men, and should be in the possession of every person residing in, or visiting, the “ Commer cial Emporium.” 35. — Disturnell's United States Almanac and National Register fo r 1850. New Y ork’ J. Disturnell. This manual for 1850 contains a mass of information useful for present and future reference. It is compiled with great care, and the information it embraces is reefnt and accurate. 36. — The Wheat-Sheaf Gathered from our Oicn Fields. By F. C. W oodworth , and T. S. A rthur. 18mo., pp. 288. New York : M. W. Dodd. The plain English of this volume, divested of its metaphor, is that it contains a number of tales and sketches gathered from two different minds, or fields of thought; both capable of appreciating the wants of an improved taste in juvenile literature, and, at the same time, furnishing the most healthful food, served up in the most palateable style. It is a pleasure to recommend to parents good books—books that will aid in surrounding their children with the highest and best influences. 37. — Anecdotes o f the Puritans. New York : M. W. Dodd. A collection of anecdotes illustrative of the character and habits of the Puritans, drawn from authentic sources, not readily accessible to the American public. They will be found interesting and suggestive of profitable thoughts ; and are, moreover, calcu lated to stimulate the reader to a more thorough study of Puritan history. 38. — Pictorial Edition o f the Poetical Works o f Lord Byron. New York and Lon don : George Virtue. Parts 10 and 11 of this edition contain four fine line engravings, illustrative of pas sages in the poems. It will, when completed, form a beautiful copy of Byron’s com plete poetical works.