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/ THE MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE, Established July? 1 8 3 9, BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. VOLUM E X X I . D E C E M B E R , 1849. CONTENTS NUMBER VI. O F N O . V I ., V O L . X X L ARTICLES. ART. PAGE. I. A REVIEW OF THE COTTON TRADE. By Professor C. F. M’Cay, o f the University o f Georgia..................................................................................................................................... 595 II. THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE. By J o s h u a L e a v i t t , Corresponding Secretary o f the Boston Cheap Postage Association..................................... 601 ID. THE ASTRONOMICAL EXPEDITION TO CHILI. By J a m e s F e r g u s o n , Esq., o f the National Observatory, Washington............................................................................................ 611 IV. CONNECTION OF THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS BY RAILS ACROSS NORTH AMERICA. Ay an O f f ic e r o f E n g i n e e r s ........................................................... 616 V. RELATION OF RAILROAD CORPORATIONS TO THE PUBLIC. By R. G. H a z a r d , Esq., of Rhode Island.................................................................................................................. 622 VI. THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AMERICAN COTTON MANUFACTURES IN 1849. By A. A . L a w r e n c e , Esq., of Massachusetts............................................................. 628 VII. THE COTTON GIN. By J. B l u n t , Esq., of the New York Bar.............................................. 633 Vin. THE POPULATION OF NEW ENGLAND. By W il l i a m B r ig h a m , Esq., o f Massachusetts. 639 IX. COMMERCIAL CODE OF SPAIN—No. X —CONCERNING PERSONS WHO MAY INTERVENE IN MARITIME COMMERCE. Translated from the Spanish b y A. N a s h , Esq., o f New Y ork..................................................................................................................... 644 M E R C A N T I L E L A W CASES. Agents and Factors—an Important Decision.................................................................. .................... Liabilities of Railroads for Personal Injury............................................................................................ Action to recover o f Sureties for bonds given for faithful Performance o f Trusts........................... Question o f Signature............................................................................................................................... 646 649 649 650 C O M M E R C I A L C H R O N IC L E AND R E V I E W : EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL R E V IE W OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC., ILLUSTRA TED W IT H TABLES, ETC., AS FOLLOWS : The Money Market—Banks of New York City—Export o f United States Stocks from 1842 to 1848 —Receipts of California Gold at the United States Mint—Imports and Exports o f Specie from New York and Boston for last ten months—Movement of Specie at the Port o f New York from. 1847 to 1849—United States Revenue and Expenditure—Business o f the Port o f New York for ten months—Increase of Imports and Exports of the United States—Breadstuffs entered for Consumption in Great Britain for 1849—Sales of Cotton in Liverpool—Increasing demand, for Corn—Prices of Farm Produce in Great Britain—Banks o f New Orleans—The general Aspect o f Banking Capital—Annual arrivals of Immigrants at the Port o f New York for thirty years— Emigration to California, etc., etc.................................................................................... ............ 651-653 VOL. XXI.----NO. VI. 38 594 CONTENTS OF NO. V I., VOL. XXI. PAGE COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. United States Revenue and Collection Laws: a Treasury Circular o f Instructions......................... 658 The new Spanish Tariff on Cotton Goods, etc........................................................................................ 660 Of Statements of Insurance Companies in the State of New Y ork: Controllers Report................. 662 NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. Hurl Gate: Surveys for the Removal o f the Rocks............................................................................... Lights on Sea Reach, River Thames....................................................................................................... Signal Staff at Cape Agulhas................................................................................................................... Lights on Ringholmen and Terningen................................................................................................... 664 665 665 665 COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. Imports of Boston in 1848 and 1849......................................................................................................... Foreign and Coastwise arrivals at Boston from 1830 to 1848, inclusive.............................................. Commerce of Cleveland, (Ohio,) imports and exports......................................................................... Tonnage owned at Cleveland.................................................................................................................... Exports o f Coffee, Hides, Indigo, etc., from Laguayra, Venezuela..................................................... Export o f Breadstuflfs from United States in 1848-9.............................................................................. Production of Hogs and Beef Cattle in Ohio in 1848-9........................................................................ JOURNAL 666 668 668 669 669 670 670 OF M I N I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S . The Graniteville (S. C.) Cotton Manufactory of William Gregg, Esq................................................. 671 Statistics o f Inventions in the United States........................................................................................... 672 Receipts, Expenses, fees, salaries, etc., of the Patent Office, from 1828 to 1848................................ 673 Patents o f each class issued to citizens o f the several States, from 1790 to 1849............................... 674 Ratio of inventions to the population of each State.............................................................................. 676 Cumberland and Cannel Coal Trade.............................................. .'........................................................ 476 Manufacture of Cotton in the Southern States, with reference to an article in the November num ber o f this Magazine........................................................................................................................... 677 Cotton and W oolen manufacturing establishments o f New Hampshire............................................ 680 Production o f the mines o f Chili............................................................................................................... 681 Improvement in the manufacture of Hemp—Chicopee Cotton Mills—Hogs packed in the W est.. . 682 R A I L R O A D , C A N A L , AND S T E A M B O A T S T A T I S T I C S . Progress of Railroads in Georgia.................................................................................................... .........684 Number of persons employed on Railroads in Europe......................................................................... 685 Railroad accidents in Europe.................................................................................................................... 685 Vastness o f Railway works....................................................................................................................... 686 Reduction o f Railroad capital in England.............................................................................................. 686 J O U R N A L OF B A N K I N G , C U R R E N C Y , A N D F I N A N C E . Debt and Finances of Alabama................................................................................................................ Francis’ Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange................................................................. Constitution and Terms of the London Stock Exchange...................................................................... Finances o f the East India Company...................................................................................................... Banks of Maine, Cashiers, Capital etc...................................................................................................... A Treasury Circular to Receivers of Public M oney............................................................................... Land Revenue of the British Crown....................................................................................................... Royal Money Borrowing in England....................................................................................................... British Loans from 1780 to 1783............................................................................................................... Bill of Exchange—Bankruptcy—Banking............................................................................................... 687 688 689 689 690 690 690 691 691 691 MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES. Commercial importance o f Agriculture................................................................................................... Inland Commerce and Communication................................................................................................... Habit as related to Business...................................................................................................................... Washing and Bathing Establishments..................................................................................................... Mutual Life Insurance............................................................................................................................... 692 694 694 696 696 TI I E B O O K T R A D E . Notices of 35 New Works or New Editions, etc........................................................................... 697—704. HUNT’S MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW. D E C E M B E R , 1 8 4 9. Art. I.— A R E V I E W OF T H E C O T T O N T R A D E . T he price o f cotton, during the past season, has been continually upward. A bout the first of November it reached the lowest point, and, from that time forward, there has been a uniform advance. A t first, the rise was slow, with occasionally a backward m ovem ent; but recently it has been so rapid, that the rates have already risen (see table I., at the end o f this article) from 35 per cent below, to 35 per cent above the average. The causes o f this ad vance are plain and evident. There is no mystery, no combination o f plant ers or sellers, no forced or unnatural efforts o f speculators, bringing about the results. The pacification o f Europe, the revival o f business in France, the fine harvest in England, the large consumption, the small stocks, and the discouraging prospects o f the new crop, are all powerful influences favorable to an advance ; and it is difficult or impossible to name a single cause in the opposite direction. O f these influences, most powerful is the promise o f a short crop. After the largest production ever before known, we see the stocks on hand lowTer than they were at the beginning o f the year. (Table II.) W ith a decrease in the amount produced, below the wants o f the manufac turers, prices necessarily rise above the average, until the high rate o f the raw material lessens the consumption and brings the demand within the sup ply. It is this cause, more than all others combined, that has brought about the recent advance. The triumph o f the Austrians in Lombardy, and of the Neapolitans in Sicily; the establishment o f order in Paris and Vienna ; the cessation o f hostilities in Schleswig-IIalstein, and in Hungary, have all produced but a slight effect; while the late frost in April, the heavy rains in summer, the rust, the worm, and the caterpillar, in the autumn, have told with great power on the market. The splendid harvest in England has been next in influence ; but next only, after a great interval. A ll have, however, combined to produce the effect, and they have done it fairly, legitimately, and, therefore, permanently. In considering, therefore, the probable supply and demand for the coming year, we must base our calculations on high pri 596 A Review o f the Cotton Trade. ces. This will increase the shipments from India, and, by encouraging late picking, increase the production o f the United States. It will, at the same time, discourage consumption, generally, and especially in England. A l ready have the spinners at Manchester commenced working short time, and this is not to be regarded as a combination to prevent the rise in prices, but the necessary consequence o f a short crop. A diminished supply o f cotton causes an advance in the price, and a diminished consumption is indispensa bly necessary to bring up the price o f the manufactured article. In this way, the equilibrium between demand and supply is established, and price must be considered, before either the supply or the demand can be properly estiniated. The supply from the United States will this year be undoubtedly small. But small and great are comparative words, having no meaning o f themselves. W e mean, that the crop will fall off largely from the receipts o f last year. It will do this at every principal sea-port, and for two causes. Because the production is less, and because the large stocks in the hands o f the planters had much to do with the extraordinary receipts o f last season. The crop o f South Carolina and Georgia will be shortened by the late frost in the spring, by the excessive rains in June and July, and by the drought in August. The worm, also, has done considerable damage in some portions o f these States. The season is very much protracted, but this was the case last year. The amount planted is not larger, as a greater breadth o f land was devoted to wheat than ever was done before. Near Macon, a consider able force was turned to the construction o f the South-Western Railroad. These causes have none o f them been very fatal, or serious ; but they have had their influence. The effect o f all may be estimated to produce a falling off o f 75,000 bales in these two States. A like decline, compared with last year, may be anticipated, on account o f the large supply o f old cotton, which was carried forward, to swell the receipts o f last season. The amount re ceived at Charleston and Savannah, will thus be reduced from 850,000 bales to 700,000. The extension o f railroads further west will attract to these ports some cotton, formerly sent to the Gulf o f Mexico, and thus keep up the receipts higher than they would have been in former years, w'hen the pros pects o f the crop were the same as they now are. A t Apilachicola and Mobile the receipts must fall off largely. Besides the causes operating in the Atlantic States, they have had the rust and the cater pillar in many places. The ball worm has also been much more destructive than in Georgia. On the Tombigbee, the disasters have been greater than in the worst seasons we have ever had. Twenty per cent on the receipts o f last year may be deducted for the amount o f the new crop. This may seem small, to those who have heard the reports from the western and southern portion o f Alabama and Georgia. But when the price is as high as it now is, the planters will keep their hands picking till February. Many a field that would have been ploughed up or neglected, will now be gone over a fourth or a fifth time. This cotton will be poor, but it will swell the receipts as much as any other. From New Orleans we have more disastrous reports than from any other portion o f the cotton region. Besides all the injuries before mentioned, they have suffered from the overflowings o f the Mississippi and the Red River. This damage has been especially severe on the Red, where the loss from this cause alone, has been estimated as high as 100,000 bales. This is exagger ated, doubtless, but the injury .has been very serious. The prevalence o f A Review o f the Cotton Trade. 597 cholera in the summer, along the Mississippi, by diminishing the force at work, permitted the grass to grow, and thus injured the prospects o f the crop. Throughout Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, the deficiency will be large; but in Tennessee and North Alabama, it will be slight. A falling off o f 20 per cent may be anticipated at New Orleans; but not more than this, because the disasters o f last year had already reduced their receipts 10 per cent be low those o f the preceding year. Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia, will produce about as much as last year. The increased cultivation in Texas will make up for the ravages o f the worm. These estimates bring up the whole production of the United States to 2,250,000 bales. (Table III.) The supply from India is very much dependant on the price. There has been a report from Bombay o f a failure in the crop, but this has not been confirmed by subsequent advices. The discouraging news from the shipments to China will balance the effect o f any slight deficiency in the production. A considerable increase may be anticipated over the imports o f 1849, on account o f the rise in prices; but they will not much exceed the average o f the last seven years. This has been 208,000 bales, and I would estimate the imports into England for 1850, at 230,000 bales. (See table IV .) The receipts from Egypt, Brazil, and the W est Indies, are small, and nearly stationary. The rise in prices will probably prevent any falling off from the receipts o f 1849. These will doubtless reach 220,000 bales, (table V .,) and the same amount may be expected for the next year. The summary o f these supplies gives a total o f 2,700,000 bales, (table V I.,) which is less than the crop o f the United States, for the year that has just closed. This falling off in the supply must cause a decrease in the con sumption, else all the present stocks would be exhausted— a result which can not possibly occur. This decrease will not take place in the United States. It would seem, from the published statements, (table V II.,) that the wants of our manufac turers have declined in the past year. This is, beyond doubt, only apparent. The very low price at which cotton was sold at the close o f 1848, induced the manufacturers to lay in large stocks, while the advancing rates o f 1849 produced an opposite effect. Hence the extraordinary increase that appeared to take place in 1848, and the apparent decrease in 1849. The advance in the consumption o f the United States has been so uniform and unvarying, that no fears need be indulged that this increase will not continue. W e have already become the largest consumer o f cotton in the world, and this rank we will continue to hold, without dispute, hereafter. Our people now manufacture more cotton, and purchase more cotton goods, than are con sumed by Great Britain and all her dependencies, in the four quarters o f the globe, (table V III.,) and the next year will witness no change in this matter. H igh prices o f the raw material have no power to check consumption here. Our people are not so poor as to deny themselves necessary clothing, when prices rise, and almost all cotton goods are necessaries, not luxuries, o f life. H igh prices o f cotton, besides, favor our consumption, to some extent, by in creasing the ability o f the South to buy, and by keeping down the price of exchange, and preventing the exportation o f specie. Our consumption for 1850 may safely be put at 550,000 bales, the average for 1847 and 1848 being 520,000. A decline must take place in Great Britain. The favorable prospects presented by a fine harvest, cheap food, and general prosperity, will fail to neutralize the influence o f high prices o f the raw material. Peace in In 598 A Review o f the Cotton Trade. dia, in Germany, in Italy, in the whole world, cannot enable the European laborers to consume their usual amount o f goods, when prices advance beyond their usual limit. The fund out o f which the great mass purchase their clothing, is limited, jmd this constant sum will buy a smaller number of yards, when the cost per yard is increased. W ith average rates for cotton, the consumption o f England would exceed that o f any former period. Ire land is q u iet; the chartist agitation has ceased ; food is abundant; trade is active; the currency in fine order ; money at a low rate o f interest; the stocks o f goods in the hands o f manufacturers sm all; the demand for labor on railroads, mines, and iron works, g o o d ; and everywhere the elements o f prosperity are visible. The foreign market is not less promising than the home market. From Europe, India, and America, the demand for English exports is alike favorable. But in spite o f all these considerations, the ad vance in the raw material must inevitably check the consumption. The deliveries to the trade this year have exceeded every former year. The excess over 1845 (table I X .) is slight— over last year it is considerable. The stocks in the hands o f manufacturers are now small, because they have been buying, for some time, less than they have consumed. The whole consump tion, in 1848, was 1,464,000 bales, and in 1845, it was 1,574,000. For the present year, it will probably reach 1,600,000 bales ; but for 1850, it cannot safely be estimated at higher than 1,450,000. In France the consumption is now largely in advance o f last year, and up to the 1st of August it exceeded the amounts o f 1845 and 1846. (Table X .) The increased stability o f Louis Napoleon’s government, for the last half o f the present year, promises that this excess will be maintained, and that the close o f the year will witness the largest delivery o f American cot ton ever made. The whole amount o f American cotton consumed in France was 351,000 bales, in 1845, and 277,000 in 1848. For 1849, it’will pro bably reach 400,000 bales ; and, unless .political troubles, not now foreseen, should injure the prospects o f trade, the high price o f cotton will not bring the demand for 1850 below 350,000 bales. On other parts o f the continent, besides France, the consumption o f cotton has been regularly increasing. The average demand, for the last five years, has been 442,000 bales, and this period includes the disastrous harvest o f 1847, and the revolutionary excitement o f 1848 and 1849. The demand for 1850 cannot fall as low as this average. It will be almost certain to ex ceed 450,000 bales, even if the present advance in prices is sustained. W e have thus a total demand (table X II.) o f 2,800,000 bales, which ex ceeds the supply (table Y I.) 100,000 bales. A s the stocks were lower in January last (table X III.) than they had been for the last ten years, and as they are now lower (table II.) than they were a year ago, this deficiency o f the supply must keep up prices much above the average. They are now 30 or 40 per cent above, middling fair being quoted in Charleston (October 19th) at 1Of cents. This advance must be maintained, unless the lateness o f the frost should carry up the United States crop above 2,250,000 bales, or unless serious political troubles should arise in Europe, to darken the prospects of business. The day o f prosperity to the planters has at last come. The promise for the future is bright. The crop is not small, though much re duced from last year. It is the increased consumption during the last year, as much as the short crop, which has advanced prices. The prospect is, therefore, that even a large crop from the next planting will bring fair prices, while a failure would carry up prices to the high range o f 1835 and 1836. The present crop, though small, will bring a much larger amount o f m on ey A Review o f the Cotton Trade. 599 than the last. The disasters being uniformly distributed, every part o f the country will receive the benefit. The planters have deserved this prosperity, and at last they have received their reward. Let them continue their en deavors to divert their labor to other pursuits ; let their extra capital be de voted to the building o f railroads, mills, and factories ; let them extend the cultivation o f sugar, wheat, and corn ; let them raise at home their own pork, mules, and horses ; let them encourage domestic manufactures o f all kinds. And, by thus transferring a portion o f their labor from the producduction o f cotton, it will be easy to keep up the price above the low limits to which it has fallen, for the last few years. TABLE I. AMERICAN EXPORTS, VALUE, AND AVERAGE PRICE. Exports in lbs. 1840 to 1848 1849............. Value in the Whole Orop Custom-House. Price in cts. in lbs. Value o f whole crop. 6,050,200,000 1478,930,000 8.0 7,451,000,000 $592,041,000 ...............................................ab’t 6.0 1,140,000,000 68,400,000 Total for ten years, from 1840 to 1849, inclusive, 8,591,000,000 $660,441,000 Average price.............................................................................. 7.7 cents. (( 35 per cent below, is ___ ___ 5 And 35 per cent above, is ___ 10.4 TABLE II. PEE CENT STOCKS. 1819. 1848. United States, 1st of September, 1849............... Liverpool, 5tli of October, 1849. Havre, 1st of August, 1849........ 155,000 547,000 64,000 171,000 533,000 95,000 Total, for these three places................. 766,000 799,000 TABLE III. UNITED STATES CROP. 1847. Receipts. 1848. 1849. Estimate. 1850. Texas......................................... New Orleans........................... Mobile....................................... Florida...................................... Georgia..................................... South Carolina......................... Other places............................ 8,000 706,000 324,000 128,000 243,000 350,000 20,000 40,000 1,191,000 436,000 154,000 255,000 262,000 10,000 39,000 1,094,000 519,000 200,000 391,000 458,000 28,000 40,000 900,000 420,000 170,000 325,000 375,000 20,000 Total............................. 1,779,000 2,348,000 2,729,000 2,250,000 TABLE IV. ENGLISH IMPORTS FROM THE EAST INDIES. Years. 1825 to 1833, average bales.. 1833 to 1841 “ “ .. 1841 to 1843 “ * .. 1843 to 1846 “ “ .. 1841 to 1849 “ “ .. 1846 .......................................... 1847 .......................................... 1848 .......................................... 1848, first six m onths......... 1848, Octo ber 6th, Liverpool. 1849, first six m onths............. 1849, October 5th, LiverpooL. 1849, whole year, a b o u t........ 1850, “ “ “ ........ Import. 73,000 140,000 265,000 192,000 208,000 50,000 223,000 227,000 102,000 93,000 38,000 69,000 150,000 230,000 Remarks. Declining prices. High prices. Chinese war. Peace, and low prices. Moderate prices. Low prices, and repeal of duty. Advance in prices. Moderate prices. Moderate prices. Moderate prices. Yery low prices. Very low prices. Y ery low prices. High prices. 600 A Review o f the Cotton Trade. table v. ENGLISH IMPORTS FROM BRAZIL, EGYPT, ETC. 1844 ............. bales 1845 ................................ 1846 . . , ......................... 1847 ................................ 1848 ................................ Average......................... 191,000 201,000 153,000 136,000 137,000 165,000 1848, first six months........ 1848, October 6th, Liverpool. 1849, first six months........... 1849, October 5th, Liverpool, 1849, whole year, about........ 1850, whole year, about........ 55.000 93.000 135.000 180.000 220,000 220,000 TABLE VI. SUPPLY. Crop o f the United States............................................. bales English import from East Indies, about................................ English import from all other places, about......................... Total 1849. 1850. 2,729,000 151.000 220.000 2,250,000 230.000 220.000 3,100,000 2,700,000 TABLE VII. AMERICAN CONSUMPTION. Years. 1844.................... 1845..................... 1846..................... 1847..................... 1848..................... 1849..................... American consumption. ............................ ........................... ............................ ........................... Average for three years. 321,000 354,000 386,000 413,000 458,000 490,000 389,000 423,000 428,000 523,000 Increase per cent. 5.2 10.3 9.0 7.0 10.9 7.0 TABLE VIII. ENGLISH MANUFACTURES---- AVERAGE ESTIMATE OK BURNS AND HOLT, IN MILLIONS OF POUNDS. 1846. 1845. Weight Weight Weight W eight 511 348 163 85 of manufactured goods.............. of goods exported....................... retained at home....................... exported to British Possessions. 514 366 148 87 1847. 1848. Average. 377 300 77 67 509 335 174 79 478 337 141 72 Total amount retained for Great Britain and her dependencies........................... A dd I f ounce for waste in manufacturing each pound.......................................... 213 26 Total amount of raw material consumed...................................'............... 239 Number o f bags consumed in the whole United States, in 1849................. 628,000 Weight o f these, in millions of pounds, at 417 lbs. per bag................................ 263 Excess of United States consumption over English.............................................. 24 TABLE IX. D ELIVERIES TO THE TRADE AT LIVERPOOL. October 5.......... ....................................... bales Septem ber]........................................ August 3............................................................ July 6................................................................ 1849. 1848. 1,220,000 1,123,000 989,000 835,000 1,032,000 921,000 812,000 665,000 1845. 1.187.000 1.070.000 958.000 826.000 TABLE X. DELIVERIES AT HAVRE. August 1 .bales 1849. 1848. 1847. 1846. 1845. 242,000 151,000 142,000 217,000 231,000 601 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. TABLE XI. CONSUMPTION ON THE CONTINENT. English exports. Years. 1844 ......................... 1845 ................. 1846........................... 1847........................... 1848........................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ___ 1849, about............... ............. American exports, omitting Stocks France and on the Apparent Great Britain. 31st December, consumption. 121,000 194,000 208,000 190,000 115,000 170,000 240,000 144.000 285.000 205,000 169,000 255,000 120,000 90,000 39,000 76,000 60,000 436,000 450,000 340,000 461,000 322,000 100,000 522,000 TABLE XII. DEM AND. 1849. ■bales Consumption o f the United States............. Consumption of Great Britain, about.......... Consumption in France o f United States cotton, about... . English and American exports to other countries.. . Total.......... 1850. 518,000 1,600,000 400,000 562,000 550,000 1,450,000 350,000 450,000 3,080,000 2,800,000 TABLE XIII. STO CK S. Liverpool. 1844, December 31. 1845........................... 1846.......................... 1847........................... 1848........................... ..bales ........... ........... ........... 741,000 885,000 439,000 364,000 Great Britain. France. Rest of Continent. Total. 903,000 1,060,000 549,000 452,000 496,000 78,000 69,000 30,000 63,000 29,000 120,000 90,000 39,000 76,000 60,000 1,101,000 1,219,000 618,000 591,000 579,000 Art. II.— THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE. C h e a p Postage is no longer an experim ent; its success lias justified the anticipations o f its promoters, and silenced the cavils o f incredulity. The principles on which it rests are no longer theoretical. The arguments and calculations, which seemed so conclusive, when only seen on paper, have now been subjected to a trial-process, which must satisfy even those over-cautious minds that believe nothing they do not see. “ Rowland Hill’s-System of Postage ” is now as distinct a subject o f study and o f history, as Professor Morse’s System o f Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs ; and the principles and rules o f operation are as necessary to be understood, in order to successful applica tion in practice. Dr. Franklin’s system o f electricity will afford as much help in one case, as Dr. Franklin’s system o f postage in the other. It is Rowland Hill’s system which has wrought the wonders o f cheap postage in Great Britain ; and that will do the same here, if applied accord ing to Rowland Hill’s principles. That the expense o f postage per letter is inversely as the number o f letters, is seen in the fact that in 1839, under the old system, 76,000,000 letters cost, on an average, two-pence half penny per letter ; while in 1840, the first year o f the new system, 169,000,000 602 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. costless than a penny— a farthing, per letter; and, in 1847, the -whole 322.000. 000 cost only three and a half farthings per letter. The distance, greater or less, which a letter is carried, is matter o f small consequence. Ten letters carried a hundred miles may cost the government a dollar per letter; when 10,000 letters could be carried the same distance, and the transporta tion cost only one mill per letter. A n d if government runs one mail from Boston to New York, and another from New York to Philadelphia, it costs no more to carry the Boston letters to Philadelphia. Hence, distance is laid out o f the calculation, and uniformity becomes the rule o f postage. Hence, also, the productiveness o f the post-office is proportioned to the increase o f numbers ; and therefore the interest o f the department requires it to do .eve rything to increase the number o f letters, by increasing the public accommo dation. The genius o f the new system is public accommodation ; and the measure o f success in administration is the number o f letters it induces the people to write, by the facilities it affords for their conveyance. The increase of letters in Great Britain, from 76,000,000 in 1839, to 169.000. 000 in 1840, and 346,000,000 in 1848, shows something o f what the system is capable o f doing ; while the fact that the addition o f 93,000,000 letters the first year added only £ 1 01 ,6 78 to the expense, which is only at the rate o f one farthing per letter, shows that the great increase o f expendi ture, £5 28 ,1 76 , added between 1840 and 1848, was caused by increased public accommodation, rather than the increase in the number o f letters. Our own “ reduced postage,” established by the act o f Congress o f 1845, contained only one solitary feature o f Rowland Hill’s system— that o f rating letters solely by weight— a great improvement, it is true. A n d in regard to letters going not more than thirty miles, which make up one-fifth of the whole, and were before carried for six cents, the reduction to five cents was too trifling to produce any considerable effect in increasing the number sent. And yet the results o f the act o f 1845 all go to confirm the soundness o f Rowland H ill’s principles, and show that his system is just as applicable, and will prove quite as successful and beneficial in this country, as in Great Britain. It is quite remarkable, that while the whole cost o f management o f the British post-office is §6,712,368, that of the United States is only §4,346,850 — a difference of $2,365,518. A nd the cost o f transportation, in which we should naturally expect the difference to be very great, on account o f the immense distances traversed by our mails, is $2,229,763 in Great Britain, and $2,448,756 in the United States, which is only $210,993 more. There is, therefore, no shadow o f a reason why the rate o f postage on letters should be greater here than there. This system has been in operation for ten years, in Great Britain, before the eyes o f the people o f the United States. Thousands o f our citizens, visiting England, have witnessed its facilities, and experienced its benefits, and have wished that our own country might enjoy the same blessing. Its practicability and adaptedness to this country have been demonstrated over and over again ; and yet we do not get cheap postage. None o f our lead ing statesmen have made the cause their own, or have shown that they had taken pains to understand the elementary principles of the system. Congress meets and adjourns, without passing the bill, and the men by whose apathy or opposition so great a good is lost, hold up their heads before the people, and are reelected. W h y does not Congress pass a bill establishing Rowland Hill’s system o f cheap letter postage ? The true and only reason is, that th q people — the p e o p l e have never willed it, with that energy o f purpose which Congressmen always understand and obey. The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. 603 The truth is, the people at large have hardly begun to be impressed with the real value o f cheap postage. They like the idea very well, o f sending their letters at a cheaper rate ; but the few letters which they now write, do not make their hill for letter postage much o f a burden ; or, if their busi ness requires many letters, the postage amount is a per centage so small, as to be but little thought of. The public mind has been too much occupied with'the financial and pecuniary bearings o f the question. On the first in troduction o f the subject, it found our public men so deeply imbued with the old saw that the “ j>ost-office must support itself”— a principle grounded on no thing in the constitution, and contradicted by its own histoiy for two years out o f five, that the first objection everywhere to be met was, “ W ill it pay ?” A n d we were obliged to wait until the department became convinced, by full experiment, that the old system could not be made to pay, before we could get the partial and unskillful reduction o f postage, granted by the act o f 1845. That reduction was made, avowedly, not with the idea o f copying Rowland Hill’s system, but mainly for the purpose o f putting down the private mails, by underbidding them. That reduction also relieved the business community so far, that it was impossible, for a time, to obtain the attention o f the public to the claims o f the true system o f cheap postage. A nd when, at length, the question came up, early last year, in a form to awaken interest, the friends o f cheap postage found themselves embarrassed by a strong prejudice, in the people and representatives o f the more thinly settled parts o f the country, who had imbibed the notion that the call for cheap postage came only from the cities, and was a mere scheme for the great merchants and manufacturers o f the East, and in a strong impression, hastily taken up in high quarters, that the length o f our routes was a good reason for insisting that cheap postage, in this country, should be three cents, rather than two cents, which is the nearest equivalent for Mr. Hill’s penny sterling. In meeting these and other minor difficulties, we have too much lost sight o f the real object in view, the grand social and moral benefits o f cheap postage, which make it one o f the beneficent wonders o f the age. It was a conviction o f these benefits which, in the early part o f last year, led a few individuals, in Boston and Hew York, themselves mostly discon nected either with the commercial or the publishing interest, to associate to gether for the purpose o f awakening the public mind to the greatness o f the loss which our country is suffering every year that we remain without cheap postage. It is in this light that we wish the people to regard it. A nd when they once begin to consider what cheap postage will do for society, they will be so earnest in demanding it that their rulers cannot choose but yield and grant the boon. The post-office is, by its very constitution, a great social machine, intended to weave a net-work o f personal intercourse between the people all over the country. The authors o f the Federalist so understood it. In their decisive plea for our present constitution, (N o. 42,) they argue for the establishment o f a post-office by this simple consideration, that “ N o t h i n g w h i c h t e n d s t o FACILITATE INTERCOURSE BETWEEN THE STATES, CAN BE DEEMED UNWORTHY o f t h e p u b l i c c a r e .” That ought to be the spirit o f all legislation and ad ministration for the post-office— to facilitate intercourse. W hen the post-of fice does this most effectually, it best subserves the object o f its creation. To facilitate intercourse is to advance society, in all its great interests. The interchange o f thought is the advancement o f society. W here this inter 604 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. change is hindered or clogged, thought is stifled, inquiry suppressed, affection chilled, enterprise hampered, freedom chained. In proportion to the actual exercise o f this interchange, mankind rise, and advance, and grow, in all that constitutes the glory o f humanity. To “ facilitate intercourse” is about the only positive act for the advancement o f society which the constitution em powers our national government to put forth. To this power alone it has interposed no limitations, but those which bound the resources o f the gov ernment, and the capacities o f the people. Congress has, from the beginning, acted in the spirit o f this principle, in one remarkable particular— the postage of newspapers. To “ facilitate inter course among the States,” the charge for newspapers has approached to uni formity, and has been fixed at a rate very far below the expense incurred. Even with the very great increase o f newspapers, within the last five years, they do not pay above two-thirds o f what they cost the department. Y et Congress has carried them from one end o f the country to the other, and the sole reason has been, that by this liberality, the government could “ facilitate intercourse among the States.” Rowland Hill’s system itself, glorious as it is, may be considered as little more than an application with a slight emen dation o f our plan o f newspaper postage to the postage on letters. A s he has demonstrated, and experience in England has proved, that the application o f the same principle to letters is practicable, and within the reasonable ability o f the government, what the friends o f cheap postage now ask is, that Congress will apply their own principle to letters, as they have always done to newspapers. The chief emendation is the adoption o f absolute uniformity o f rate, which is grounded on the discovery that there is no practicable differ ence in the expense. Cheap postage on newspapers has made us a newspaper-reading people ; cheap postage on letters would make us a letter-writing people. The power and practice o f writing one’s thoughts is itself an advanced stage o f educa tion. The mere ability to read the Bible, to write one’s name, and to tell the numbers on a bank-note, is an achievement o f great value, compared with the absence o f that ability. And one reason why so many remain without even this medium o f learning, in this land o f schools and Bibles, can be no other but the lack o f an operating motive to learn, brought to bear upon the mind in early life, when the opportunity was enjoyed. Cheap postage furnishes that motive. A ll the educational systems in the world cannot be a substitute for it. The proverb says— “ A child can lead a horse to the wa ter, but ten men cannot make him drink.” Neither can legislation compel the youthful mind to dip and drink at the fountain o f knowledge. The ex pectation o f writing letters, to be sent by mail for two cents, will make mil lions o f young eyes glisten with enthusiastic determination to master the mysteries o f reading and penmanship. A nd the practice o f writing thus en couraged, and o f course commenced with the first ability to shape a letter with a pen, will train, and stimulate, and discipline, and strengthen the minds o f a rising generation to a pitch of intellectual advancement far beyond their predecessors. A n d then, the practice o f writing will keep knowledge always bright, and the intellectual powers continually advancing. Vast multitudes o f people never advance in the knowledge o f letters beyond their attainments at school. Perhaps at that time they would indite a letter, in tolerable English. But the cost o f postage has stood in the way o f frequent letter-writing ; and, in fact, the man or woman o f five-and-thirty finds it an irksome task to write a The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. 605 few lines o f necessary information, and, at sixty, lias lost the faculty alto gether. Cheap postage would have made them good letter-writers in youth, and would have kept them continually improving in that faculty, even to old age. Lord Bacon tells us that “ Reading makes a full man, conversation a ready man, and writing an exact man.” There is no more salutary discipline o f the mind than the exercise o f mastering its thoughts, and arranging them in order, so as to express them to its own satisfaction with the pen. Conceive o f a whole community trained to this exercise, and continuing in it always, and you have the idea o f a people more intellectual than ever lived. A n d cheap postage will do it. It is impossible to give in books, or magazines, or newspapers, that preci sion and particularity o f information which is necessary for the practical ap plication o f the knowledge they disseminate. Individuals have their own questions to ask, and their own difficulties to remove. A single word o f per sonal inquiry would often save much laborious study, preserve from embar rassing mistakes, and make knowledge practically available, in cases where now it comes to no fruit. In the prosecution o f philosophical investigations, in historical research, in the construction o f machinery, in the application o f useful improvements, in looking up evidence for the support o f just claims, every facility given to correspondence is o f immense value. B y cheap post age, the minutire o f knowledge will bo diffused among mankind, as they never can be by printing. And the collection o f knowledge will be equally fa cilitated. The number o f seekers and o f dispensers will be indefinitely in creased. Innumerable researches will be set on foot. Truths, buried in the minds o f obscure individuals, will be brought out. Facts that will soon be beyond the reach o f human inquiry, will be gathered up and preserved. All the treasures o f wisdom— even the golden sands will be collected and added to the common stock o f useful knowledge. W h o can tell how much o f the advancement o f science in Great Britain is to be traced to the influence of the 350,000,000 letters annually written there ? •Cheap postage will do more for us than it has done for them, because it will act upon a more active and inventive people. Cheap postage is much more essential to the cultivation o f the affections than o f the intellect. The wise statesman will carefully cherish the social affections among the people, for there courage and honor, patriotism and pub lic spirit, the vital energies o f the republic, have their seat. In this eager and money-getting age, we are in no small danger of suffering a deteriora tion o f the kindly sympathies, which bind man to man, and sweeten life, and keep the mind from sinking into sordid avarice, or unrelenting ambition. The government has the power, by the grant o f cheap postage, to rekindle and preserve, in glowing freshness, the warm sympathies o f millions o f hearts towards each other, which are now languishing and ready to die, for the mere want o f personal intercourse. Distance, and other difficulties, render visiting impossible. But the frequent interchange o f letters, which would certainly take place if the postage was “ only two cents,” would be a pre cious and effectual substitute. It would be hazarding nothing to predict that a million o f persons, who now write but rarely, would write letters to dis tant friends within the first week after they became acquainted with the ex istence o f cheap postage. A nd the still continuing increase o f letter-writing in Great Britain, from 169,000,000 the first year, to 195,000,000, to 200,000,000, to 220,000,000, and 242,000,000, and 211,000,000, and 299,000,000, and 606 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. 322,000,000, and, finally, to 346,000,000 in the ninth year, while the very latest reports show an increase o f £100 ,0 00 in the net revenue o f the postoffice, for the tenth year ending the 5tli o f October, requiring an addition o f 24,000,000 letters for its production ; these facts prove that when once the impulse o f cheap postage is begun to be felt, it will g o on indefinitely; or, in other words, the more letters people write, the more they wish to write. From writing annually, they will wish to correspond monthly, and from monthly, week ly, and from weekly, daily. W h en the number o f letters shall have increased in this country to 300,000,000, or only four times the present number, what freights o f love and friendship will be continually borne from one extremity o f the land to another, thrilling every day a million o f hearts with kind and pure sympathies ! Cheap postage will do this. A gentleman of eminence in the legal profession, who has been employed professionally in a large number o f divorce cases before the courts, re marked that a large proportion o f those unhappy marriages originated in some slight interruption o f affection, occasioned by temporary absence, during which there was not a constant intercourse kept up by letter. A n d he had no doubt that the establishment o f cheap postage would, in thousands o f cases, forestall these little alienations, by the facility it would afford for the continued interchange o f sympathies, by frequent correspondence. W h at father, driven by the demands o f business or benevolence, or in the public service, to be absent from his home, would not feel the frequent letters o f his sons, his daughters, the childish first scrawls o f his little ones, coming by every mail, to be like guardian angels, hovering around him to keep off every contaminating breath, and fanning with their wings the pure flame o f domestic love in his heart l Children, too, absent at school, boys put to trades, or in counting-rooms, young persons pushing their fortunes in any o f the thousand forms o f enter prise created by our busy Anglo-Saxon race, would find that the frequent “ letters from home ” — the kind greetings o f father and mother, o f sister and brother, would surround them as with a continual presence o f home, with all its blessed restraints and genial influences. It would so strengthen the stakes o f the paternal tent, that the heart could never be torn from its hold ; and it would so lengthen its cords, that it would cover every member o f the household, however far removed. The old roof-tree would send its fibres, and spread out its shadow, to embrace and shelter every wanderer who had been born at its root. Preserve the domestic affections, and you have almost a sure guaranty for the domestic virtues, the foundation o f all good morals. A n d even if a young man should be led by temptation away from the path o f virtue, these incessant letters from home will find their way to his heart, and win him back to the hallowed circle, because they have never allowed him to sink into the cold isolation o f confirmed vice. A ll this ministry o f heavenly beneficene is the effect o f cheap postage. The usefulness o f cheap postage, in aiding the various enterprises o f be nevolence and reform, should not be lost sight of, in this recital. Hun dreds o f thousands o f our citizens are interested in behalf o f some one or other o f these objects ; and will welcome anything as a boon to themselves which will make them more efficient. The power o f the newspaper press to advance these enterprises, has apparently reached its acme. W e have secured about as much newspaper material as can be read. Nearly every attempt to crowd in new papers to sustain new movements is a failure, or, at best, short lived, and o f limited influence. But cheap postage, by making these efforts direct and personal, carrying their message from an individual to an individual, will The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. 607 open a new surface to the influence o f truth ; will awaken to activity new and deeper tissues o f sensibility; and, by combining as well as arousing, by union as well as action, will reduplicate, to a thousand fold, the benevolent and moral energies thus produced. A pleasant illustration of the working o f this sort o f “ mind-machinery,” may be seen in Mr. Burritt’s description o f the preparatory process which preceded Mr. Cobden’s motion in Parlia ment, in favor o f the great Peace measure o f international arbitration :— First o f the dynamics o f this mind-machinery o f popular opinion, planted in “ a little upper room,” and opened upon the Legislature o f the greatest empire in the world, was the P enny P ost. For the six months’ “ agitation” o f the national mind, which the Peace Congress Committee had originated and conducted, in fa vor o f the measure to be brought forward by Mr. Cobden, the Penny Post had been plied with unremitting activity. Nearly 50,000 letters, and other missiles, in manuscript or lithograph, had been sent out in every direction, like radiating veins o f thought, through which “ the one idea” was kept in lively circulation. Thus it acquired a constituency o f earnest minds, in almost every town in the kingdom, which sent a representative to Parliament; and that representative had perhaps been surprised to receive at St. Stephen’s by the Penny Post, communi cations from his own constituents, requesting him, with the emphasis o f electors, to give his voice and vote for Mr. Cobden’s motion. Then hundreds of thousands o f printed leaves, elucidating “ the one idea,” had been scattered with a sower’s hand among the masses o f the people, which they had read eagerly on their way to the field or factory; and the silent conviction o f myriads o f men, women and children o f the laboring classes, who had no votes to give or withhold, had strengthened the pressure of the people’s mind upon Parliament, Then every night, for six months, a public meeting in some city, town, or village, had given an utterance to “ the one idea,” which the press echoed and re-echoed among the populations far and near. Thus, one hundred and fifty assemblies o f the people, from Land’s End to John O’Groat’s, embracing the active minds o f as many com munities, had thrown into the gathering tide o f public opinion the force o f their sympathies. And the great meeting in Exeter Hall was to give a great voice to these convictions and sympathies o f the people, and to speak to Parliament the last words o f the nation in favor o f the measure to be discussed in the House o f Commons on the ensuing evening. There is one other social interest on which cheap postage will bear with a benign effect, which should secure its speedy adoption, and the favor o f every lover o f his country and her institutions. It will ensure forever the continu ance o f our glorious Union. This precious interest has ever been a subject o f the most tender solicitude to every patriotic bosom. The Father o f his Country, in his Farewell Address to the People o f the United States, gives utterance to his solicitude in these memorable words :— It is o f infinite moment, that you should properly estimate the immense value o f our National Union; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immova ble attachment to i t ; accustoming yourself to think and speak o f it as o f the palladium o f your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning o f every attempt to alienate any portion o f our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts. Since these oracular exhortations were given, fifteen States have become thirty, and others are already pressing for admission to the Union. The mul tiplication o f interests, the expansion o f our territory to so vast an extent, and the convulsions with which the world is agitated, have multiplied the dan gers o f disunion, and increased the solicitude o f the statesman. One o f the 608 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. foremost o f our senators has not hesitated to commit his reputation to the prophecy, that it is impossible to extend the cords o f our Union so as to em brace the new empire which is to rise on the shores o f the Pacific. But we must surely try ; and no man deserves the confidence of the American peo ple, as a legislator, who is not ready to do all and everything that is within the constitutional power and the reasonable ability o f the government, to make our Union as lasting as time, whatever may be its extent. Canals and railroads, commerce and education, the circulation o f newspapers, and the habit o f meeting b y our representatives in the halls o f national legislation, may do much to preserve the Union. But no intelligent citizen will affirm that these ties o f political connection and pecuniary interest afford a satisfac tory guaranty for the perpetuity o f the Union in all contingencies, or make it what all wish it to be— i n d i s s o l u b l e . W e need a more intimate inter course o f individuals ; such interchange o f individual thoughts and feelings as will make our nation “ E Pluribus Unum,” all one heart. The strength o f the three-fold cord, proverbial from the time o f Solomon, is derived from the intertwining o f innumerable small fibres. A nd this principle has received a new illustration, in the wire cables, which have just completed a solid com munication at W heeling, between the oldest o f the “ Old Thirteen,” and the “ Territory north-west o f the Ohio.” W here solid bars o f iron would fall assunder by their own weight, these twisted wires easily sustain the tread o f an army. Cheap postage will strengthen the fibres and twist the cables o f living thought and feeling, which will make our Union as lasting as human nature on earth. Cheap postage, in its various forms o f influence, secures our Union from danger, by its operation upon all the causes o f danger. The safety-lamp, in vented by Sir Humphrey Davy, renders the explosive gases o f the coal mine harmless, by dividing them, and forcing them through the fine meshes o f the wire screen. The flames that light our city are not dangerous, because the inflammable gas is made to pass through capillary tubes. Cheap postage will perform the same function in regard to all noxious principles, and all enlightening processes in the body politic. The agitations o f controversy, the measures o f reform, even the machinations o f the malcontents o f every description, will become innocuous ; while the true advancement o f society will advance with steady course, aided, not endangered, by every wind that blows, and every wave that rolls and rocks. This has been its effect in England. W h ile it quickens all the elements o f political and social reform, it has made the government and social order o f the country stable and secure, while all the rest of Europe has been tossed upon the billows o f revolution and civil strife. Cheap postage dis armed Chartism, and brought the friends o f the written charter to strive for their object solely by peaceful agitation through the forms o f the constitution. Cheap postage repealed the Corn-Laws, and gave the starving millions the blessings o f free bread. Cheap postage has just repealed the Navigation Laws. Cheap postage has repeatedly interposed the veto o f the minority, and defeated favorite schemes for consolidating the power o f the aristocracy, in legislating for the benefit o f the few against the many. In the year 1843, the writer o f this spent a few weeks in England, where his attention was turned to the examination o f the workings o f cheap postage. Shortly after his return home, he penned the following description, and published it as an editorial leader, in a daily paper, o f which he then had the control. The pledge with which it concludes has never been lost sight of. From that day The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. 609 to this, he has lost no opportunity o f urging upon the community, and upon Congress, by all means in his power, the importance o f the adoption o f R o w lan d H ill ’ s S ystem of C h e a p P o stage . (From the Boston M orning Chronicled) No person can realize the value o f the “ British system ” o f postage, who has not experienced its benefits. It is the most beautiful manifestation o f pure be neficence in human government, that can be found upon earth. By it, the gov ernment comes to every man, every woman, every child, every day in the year, (Sundays excepted,) and for a compensation so small as hardly to differ from mere gratuity, offers to carry all their letters o f business, affection, or philanthrophy, to any and every spot in the empire, with the utmost speed and the most unfailing certainty that human ingenuity and power can attain. It is a complete leveler. The poorest peasant, the factory-girl, the match-vender, the beggar, even, enjoy the benefits o f the cheap postage, as they do o f the vital air, on precisely the same terms with the richest banker, the proudest peer, or royalty itself. It is the grand conservative power o f the realm, as well as one o f the most ef fective instruments o f reform. It equalizes excitement in all parts o f the body politic. It draws the thunder from every threatening cloud by innumerable con ducting points. It allows the blazing gas to burn with complete freedom, because the millions o f capillary orifices create no danger o f an explosion. It is a system full formed, and all but perfect, at its first trial. No invention, no deduction of science, no experiment in legislation, was ever brought forth so complete in all its results. And then it is so simple, in every one o f its parts and movements, bringing out so many effects with so little complication o f causes, that in this re spect it approximates more nearly to the works o f the infinite Creator than any other human device or discovery on record. Indeed, its wording and its effects are so much in conformity to the mind o f God, that we are bound to place it high among those “ good and perfect gifts which are from above, and come down from the Father o f rights.” Now the simple question is, whether the people o f this republic shall continue to have the channels o f business and social intercourse obstructed by an enormous tax, or shall be allowed by our rulers to enjoy the same privileges that the British monarchy allows to its taxed and pitied subjects. W e shall aim to hold the publie mind to this question. The American system has failed, and cannot be restored. The British system has been tried, and proved to be both practicable and capable o f self-support. In Great Britain it is already, in four years, a source o f revenue. With our wide-spread territory, but lower salaries, we have no doubt in four years it 'will support itself, with all the privileges now afforded. A system which is proved to be so simple, so economical, so perfectly prac ticable, and fraught with such vast benefits to the highest interests o f the nation, ought to enlist the earnest support o f every good citizen, both to secure its adoption by Congress, and to aid its working, when it goes into effect. B y the uniformity and cheapness o f rate, it is made dependent for its success entirely upon the perfect accommodation it affords to the public, so as to induce the greatest possible number o f letters to be sent by the mail. A n d this necessarily leads to the utmost simplicity and economy in the de tails, the most compact and methodical arrangements in all branches o f the service, and inspires every faithful functionary with its own spirit, which is to diffuse its utmost advantages to every citizen, with the fewest possible disap pointments and failures. The British post-office, though very far from perfection, and though load ed still with many cumbrous appendages retained from the old system, is yet in its practical working as a means o f conferring benefits upon the peo ple, the most complete piece o f governmental machinery ever adopted by man. It is the glory o f the government o f God, to accomplish num erVOL. XXI.----NO. VI. 39 610 The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage. ous and complicated results, by few and simple means— as seen in the man ifold operations o f electricity, gravitation, &c. Men, on the contrary, are forced to combine numerous and complicated instrumentalities for the pro duction o f isolated effects. In the establishment o f cheap postage, human government seems to approach toward this glorious model, and shows itself in some measure worthy o f its claims to a divine origin, for it presents itself as a wise and benificent dispenser o f impartial favors upon all its subjects. It is the best answer that can be given to the allegation that all government is usurped and tyrannical, and will go far to justify the position taken in Scripture, that “ the powers that be are ordained o f God.” W h o can limit the good effects o f a system, which every day presents the government o f the country traversing every village in the land with its visits o f kindness, and rendering its services to every family at a rate so cheap as to be all but gratuitous ? Unless the bill to establish cheap postage is passed by Congress early in the session, it will be impossible to complete all the arrangements for work ing the new system with success, in time for the act to go into operation on the first o f July, the beginning o f the “ fiscal year,” as it is termed, by which it is convenient to regulate all the business o f the government. W h a t is needed, therefore, is such a general expression o f earnest desire, on the part o f the people, as shall convince Congress that, in adopting cheap postage, they shall be giving effect to the public will. It is desirable, especially, that all the classes o f citizens who take an interest in the advancement o f society, in education, in social happiness, in morals and religion, should give utterance to their views through every appropriate channel. The press, and especially those portions o f it particularly devoted to the general inter ests o f mankind, should speak out, with fervor and force, with frequency and constancy, as if resolved to be heard and to make an impression. Petitions may well g o to Congress from every college, academy, and school, every lit erary institution, every professional seminary, every learned society, every li brary and lyceum, every association o f men for any purpose o f mutual ben efit or public improvement, with the simple request that we may have letter postage at two cents for half an ounce. Individual citizens, in every path o f life, can help, by addressing letters to their representatives. There is not half pains enough taken in this way to keep members o f Congress acquaint ed with the minds o f their constituents. It is for this very purpose that they have the franking privilege, and now is a favorable opportunity for the people to use it for so great an object. Let Congress give us cheap post age for the people, and the continuance or repeal o f the franking privilege becomes o f small account. A union o f effort and influence, to do one thing at a time, cannot fail to succeed. A n d a new era to our free republic and happy Union, will commence the day that we begin to enjoy THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE The Astronomical Expedition to Chili. 611 Art. III.— T H E A S T R O N O M I C A L E X P E D I T I O N TO C H I L I * • T he document whose title we have given below, contains a brief statement o f the origin and objects o f the astronomical expedition recently prepared by our government, and sent to Chili, under the direction o f Lieutenant James M. Gillis, a description o f the instruments with which it has been furnished, the observations which are to he made with them, and directions to insure the more satisfactory cooperation o f astronomers in other parts o f the world. The success o f this undertaking concerns both the honor o f the country, and the progress o f science. W e therefore submit such notice o f it as our space will allow, and the subject being one with which the majority o f our readers may not be familiar, involving, also, scientific principles o f some in tricacy, we have deemed it not improper to preface our remarks with a brief explanation o f the object'to be attained, a history o f the different expeditions heretofore set on foot for similar purposes, their results, and the reasons which render such an undertaking, at the present time, both desirable and necessary. Some o f the most important elements o f astronomy, as it exists at present, have been derived from observations o f the two planets o f our system which are nearest to us— Venus and Mars. It was from the analysis and discussion o f observations previously made upon the last named planet, by Tycho Brahe, that Kepler succeeded in discovering and demonstrating the fact o f the motion o f the planets in elliptical orbits, and the principal laws by which that motion is governed. The treatise in which these laws (still bearing the name o f their sagacious discoverer) were first announced to the world, “ Astronomia nova de motibus stellse Martis,” indicates, by its title, the planet whose appearances had been the object o f first and most attentive considera tion, and. the development o f whose true motion was to solve forever a long disputed question, and afford a basis for the splendid discoveries which soon after followed. In giving the title o f the new astronomy to his treatise on the motion o f Mars, Kepler seems to have been aware o f the extent and character of the superstructure for which he had provided so secure a founda tion. In this work he traces, not indistinctly, the course o f the investigations which were to follow, and defines, generally, the character o f the single force which produces all the apparently complicated motions o f the universe. The earlier astronomers also availed themselves o f the appearances pre sented by this planet, for obtaining the value o f the solar parallax, and the distance between the sun and earth— two quantities having a constant rela tion to each other, and the latter o f which is the unit o f all lineal measures in the higher astronomy. But it has been from the other planet, Venus, that in later times the more accurate determinations o f these values has been de rived, and it is for the purpose of arriving at still greater precision in regard to them, that the present expedition to Chili has been planned and appointed. The word parallax, in its technical sense, signifies the angular difference between the position o f a body, as seen from the surface o f the earth, and the position o f the same body, if it had been seen from the center. For a proper estimation o f the positions o f the hearenly bodies, or such o f them as have discernible diameters, it is necessary to refer them to their respective * Circular prepared by direction of the Hon. W . Ballard Preston, Secretary o f the Navy, in rela tion to the Astronomical Expedition to Chili, by Lieutenant M. F. Maury, Superintendent o f Na tional Observatory. 612 The Astronom ical Expedition to Chili. centers, or to suppose their masses condensed into a point, as without this correction, it would be impossible to fix their places with certainty. The dif ference, therefore, between the observed place o f a planet, as seen from the surface o f our earth, and its true place referred to the earth’s center, is called its parallax. The mean value o f this quantity is different for each individual body, depending upon its distance from the earth, being greatest in the bodies which are nearest to us, and least in those which are most remote ; so that the parallax o f the nearest fixed star has, until recently, been considered al together immeasurable, and its distance infinite. Parallax is also affected by the position o f the observer upon the surface o f the earth, and it is by this difference that its absolute value becomes deter minable. It is, except for the .moon, always a small quantity, and its great est value, termed, technically, the horizontal parallax, is the angle which the semi-diameter o f the earth subtends at the body whose position is under con sideration. The solar parallax, though amounting, at its maximum, only to eight se conds o f a degree, is o f constant use in the ordinary operations o f practical astronomy ; but it is not in this view that its accurate determination is most important, but as affording the only data from which to determine the dis tance between the sun and earth, the unit in all astronomical computations. It will be evident that two observers at different points o f the earth’s sur face, would refer the position o f a body near them, to different places, among bodies which are more remote. And, when this reference is made to the concave o f the starry heavens, considered as at an infinite distance, the angu lar difference between the two places to which the body is referred, expresses the angular difference at the planet, between the places o f the two observers. If, then, the absolute distance between the two observers be known, also, it becomes the base o f a triangle, which, with the angle at the planet, and one or both of the other angles which are derivable from the observations, furnish the data requisite for determining the distances between each o f the observers and the body observed. This is the general principle used in the determina tion o f parallax and distance. The solution o f a plane triangle, one side o f which, and all the angles, are'known. The question thus simply presented, becomes complicated and laborious in its solution, from the motion o f the earth, from its spheroidal figure, from the relative positions o f the observers, and from the small proportion which the known side bears to the other two. But these conditions it would exceed our limits to explain, and it is only the more general features o f the subject which we wish to present to our readers. In pursuing the subject, it must be observed that the parallaxes o f all bodies have a certain relation to each other; that is, they are inversly in pro portion to the distances o f the respective bodies from the earth, and are all referred to the same base— the radius o f the earth. The relative values of their distances are also known from the theory o f planetary motion, so that, from an accurate determination o f the parallax o f one body, the parallaxes o f all the rest are immediately derived. This being the case, and the base being always relatively small, astronomers would naturally direct their atten tion to that body whose parallax, in any one position, is largest, and most susceptible o f determination. This was found to be Mars, near its opposition, when its distance from the earth is to its distance from the sun, as 52 to 152. The efforts o f the earlier astronomers, until the middle o f the last century, including the labors o f Cassini, La Caille, and their distinguished cotempo raries, were all aimed at perfecting the details o f this method, and in this The Astronomical Expedition to Chili. 613 way the horizontal parallax o f the sun had been fixed at ten seconds o f a degree, exceeding, by about one-fifth, the value derived from subsequent and more accurate determinations. A new direction was, however, soon to be given to these attempts. Be tween 1660 and 1742, the transits o f Mercury over the disk o f the sun, had been observed by .the astronomers o f different nations, for the purpose o f perfecting the theory of that planet, which (from the time o f Kepler, who was advised to let Mercury alone, if he wished to preserve his repose, to the time o f Le Verrier, who has given us the last paper on this subject) has been the subject o f more investigation and labor than any other body o f the system. In 1667 the celebrated Edmund Halley was sent to St. Helena, for the express purpose o f observing the transit o f Mercury o f that year. It is probable that the observation o f this transit, and the time necessarily spent in its discussion, first suggested to Halley the use which might be made o f the transits o f the inferior planets in the determination o f the solar parallax. For though Mercury, the planet then used, does not present the most favor able conditions for this purpose, still the consideration o f the desiderata in this case would naturally suggest where to look for circumstances more fa vorable. These were found in the transits o f Venus, and, though the two phenomena o f this kind next succeeding the time o f Halley (occurring, as they do, only twice in a century) had been predicted by Kepler, and compu ted by others, Halley was the first to announce to the world the advantage which might be gained from the use o f them in the determination o f the parallax o f the sun. The method devised by Halley is one o f those happy artifices to which the exact sciences in modern times owe, in a great measure, their so rapid advancement, and the discovery or application o f which contributes always so much o f enjoyment to the cultivators o f these branches o f knowledge. It will occur, at once, to every one, that, during the transit o f an inferior planet between us and the sun, the planet will present itself upon the sun as a dark, circular spot, and that this dark spot will be referred, by different observers, to different parts o f the sun, according to their relative positions on the surface o f the earth, thus affording an accurate measure o f the parallactic angle upon a bright circular surface o f well determined dimensions. But this is not the only advantage o f the method o f Halley. During the time o f the transit, the path o f the planet will be sensibly a straight line, and its motion may be regarded as uniform. The apparent paths o f the planet, as seen by each ob server, become, therefore, two chords o f the same circle, determining, by their lengths, the value o f the arcs to which they belong. The lengths o f these chords are determined by the duration o f the transit, or interval between the ingress and egress o f the planet, as seen by each observer, and the difference between these arcs thus determined by their chords, gives the value o f the angle at the planet, between the two observers. The quantity thus found, after some reductions required by the circumstances already spoken of, gives the absolute difference between the parallax o f the planet and the parallax o f the sun, and as the theory o f planetary motion gives the ratio between these two quantities, they are, therefore, both determined, as two quantities are know when we have their difference and their ratio. Speaking o f the method, Herschel says :— (Astron. page 245) “ It affords an admirable ex ample of the way in which minute elements in astronomy may become magnified in their effects, and, by being made subject to measurement on a greatly enlarged scale, or by substituting the measure o f time for space, 614 The Astronomical Expedition to Chili. may be ascertained with a degree o f precision adequate to every purpose, by only watching favorable opportunities, and taking advantage o f nicely adjusted circumstances.” But two transits o f Yenus have occurred since the announcement of Hal ley. The first in 1761, and the second in 1769. The two next will happen in 1874 and 1882. Halley’s papers on this subject appeared in 1667, 1691, and 1716, so that ample time had been given for the discussion o f principles, the perfecting o f details, and making the necessary preparations. On the approach o f the first transit, in 1761, astronomers were sent by all the na tions o f Christendom, to the stations the most favorable for observation. A m ong these, Maskelyne went to St. Helena, Pingre to Isle Rodriguez— and there were also many other observers. A computation and analysis of these observations, made principally by Maskelyne, Pingre, and La Lande, gave the limits o f the solar parallax at 8 ", 5 ", and 10 ", 2 " and 9 " was adopted as the approximate value. In the meantime, the transit o f 1769 was waited for impatiently, and more extensive preparations made for its proper observation than had been found practicable in 1761. The experience acquired in the first observation, and subsequent interchange o f opinion, had enabled the scientific world to accord as to the points requiring the nicest attention. Greater perfection in the in struments had been attained, and, as in the first transit some o f the observa tions, after years o f preparation, had been lost by unfavorable weather, such contre temps was, as far as possible, provided against by increasing the num ber o f stations. The results derived were proportionally numerous, and, after long and laborious computations and comparisons, gave the limits o f the solar parallax as 8 ", 40712, and 8 ", 68556. In concluding a detailed exposition o f these different results, Delambre says:— (Astron. Tome 2, 506.) “ Our first conclusion is, that the parallax is sufficiently well known for all purposes of practical astronomy, and that it is most probably included between the limits 8 ", 5, and 8 ", 7— we will make it 8 ", 6.” These same observations have been recalculated with immense labor and improved methods, by the most distin guished astronomers o f the present day, the last and most critical discussion having been performed by the celebrated Encke. The value thus arrived at is 8 ", 5776. A n d here we might suppose the matter to have rested, at least till the oc currence o f the next transit o f Venus, in 1874. But in this progressive age, no department of science stands still. The labors o f Bessel have approxima ted to a determination o f the parallax and distance of the fixed stars. Han dler, by an analysis o f their proper motions, has attempted the determination o f a central sun to our system, and the one-hundredth part o f a second has become a measurable quantity. In such circumstances, it would be deroga tory to wait twenty-five years longer, and other methods have been devised as a substitute for the still distant transit o f Venus. The expedition to Chili is an important part o f the process commenced for a new determination. Since the last recomputation by Encke, o f the observations o f 1761 and 1769, the uncertainty still left in the sun’s parallax, amounting to about g i 7 o f its whole value, has been regarded as a serious defect, to remove which seems more obligatory upon astronomers o f the present day, when we re gard the very great improvements which have been made in the construction o f telescopes, and all other astronomical instruments since the date o f the last observation. To arrive at greater precision, observations have recently been made upon Mars, during its opposition. W e have already stated that The Astronomical Expedition to,' Chili. 615 the first attempts o f Cassini and La Caille, to determine the parallax o f the sun, was by means o f this planet observation, and the instrumental improve ments o f the present day, would undoubtedly give much greater precision to results thus derived. To direct attention to this point, and acquire a sufficient number o f observations, there have been published, in the Nautical Almanac,* “ lists o f stars proper to be observed with Mars near its opposition,” but, as yet, no results o f these observations have been presented, nor do the proper measures seem to have been taken to make them available. The attempt now about to be commenced, was first proposed by Dr. Gerling, in Schumacher’s Astronomical Notices for 1847. It is to be based upon observations made upon Venus, during the inferior opposition, and near her stationary points, by comparing her position with the nearest fixed stars. These observations to be made at stations at the greatest practical distance from each other, or approaching as nearly as possible to a diameter o f the earth. A n d in operations o f so much delicacy, the condition o f the problem will be much improved by a judicious location o f the observers. Thus, ob servations made at Greenwich might (as is suggested by Dr. Gerling) be combined with similar ones made at Paramatta, in New Holland, the places being nearly antipodal. W h ile Chili, finding its most direct opposite in China, would combine advantageously with any o f the observations o f the old world— and, joined with Washington, has the advantage o f being very nearly in the same meridian, and is more than a semi-diameter distant. The observations are o f the same kind as those for Mars, upon which plan et, at its opposition, observation^ are also to be made, and consist pf continued measurements between the planets and the nearest stars, thus determining their places as seen by each observer, and from thence deducing their paral lax, from which finally is deduced the parallax o f the sun. The conditions are most favorable when the parallax o f the planet is greatest, as compared with that o f the sun, the quantity to be determined. Dr. Gerling has the following statement o f the relative advantages o f the different methods. Designating by P the parallax o f the planet, and by p that o f the sun, we have— For the opposition of Mars at the mean distance................. For the opposition of Mars at the perehelion distance......... For the interior conjunction of Venus at the distance.......... For Venus stationary at the distance...................................... 0.52 0.365 0.28 0.34 P P P P = = = = 1.92p 2.74p 3.57p 2.94p From this it appears that Venus, at its interior conjunction, presents the most favorable condition ; but unfortunately, at this stage, the planet is close to the sun, and as it cannot then, even with the best telescopes and clearest, atmospheres, be compared with stars less than the first or second magnitude, observations may be considered, at this point, nearly impracticable. The stationary points afford the next best condition, and it is upon these that the most important observations are to be made. The advantage o f the method now proposed is, that it does not depend upon a single phenomenon, as the transit o f Venus, (in which thef effect of * Such lists are found in the Nationol Almanac, June, 1841. Speaking o f observations o f Mars, near the opposition, Dr. Gerling says:—“ But it appears that, after the brilliant results o f the last transit of Venus, or indeed,, since 1751, this second method has never seriously been brought into us, although it affords a very proper occasion to test the new methods o f observation, and the Nautical Almanac have prepared an Ephemesis for that purpose.” — Astron. Nachrichten, No. 599. f W e have heard it stated that either Mr. Riltenhouse, or Mr. Ellicott, both o f whom observed the transit o f 1769 in America, sent invitations to some of his neighbors to be present on the occasion, and was answered by one of them that he was very much engaged, but would certainly avail himself o f the next opportunity. 616 Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans years o f preparation may be lost by a cloud,) but that corresponding observa tions are continued for months, the accuracy o f the final results increasing proportionally to the number o f measurements. Another advantage to be derived from the expedition, will be to awaken interest to the subject, and undo the palsied feeling, which sometimes creeps over even the scientific world, consoling itself, for lack o f exertion, with the reflection that the subject is minute— o f too little importance, and has been sufficiently settled for all practical purposes. W herever this feeling becomes paramount, either in great or little masses, the wheels o f knowledge are hindered, or stopped altogether. In the expedition— continuing, as it does, for two years— Lieutenant Gillis will have an opportunity o f increasing, very considerably, the catalogues o f southern stars— a contribution o f no small consequence to the astronomical world. Besides, it is not at all improbable, that, properly managed, the present expedition may result in the establishment o f a permanent observatory in Chili, whose climate and atmosphere are said to be o f rare purity and clearness. The circular prepared by Lieutenant Maury, in regard to the expedition and its objects, is brief and perspicuous, stating clearly the part which the government has undertaken in this matter, and the cooperation which it ex pects from the scientific world. It has the character most appropriate to such papers-— is plain, and to the point. The eplremerides and charts pre pared by Lieutenant Gillis, and which accompany the circular, supply the ne cessary details. W e sincerely wish him success, and that the results may be such as shall do honor to the country and to himself. Art. IV.— CONNECTION OF THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS BY RAILS ACROSS NORTH AMERICA. F rom British America in the north, to New Granada, in the south, there are many lines o f fair direction, and gentle acclivities, affording prac ticable routes for railways leading from the waters o f one great sea, to the shores o f the other. Those lines which are entirely within the United States, need only start from the right bank o f the Mississippi, or the western shore o f the Gulf o f Mexico. But they must all cross the main dividing ridge o f the continent through some o f those passes o f the Rockey Mountains, found between the 39th and 42d parallels o f north latitude. One such route, under the auspices o f Col. Benton, the indefatigable Senator from Missouri, may, notwithstanding its great length, meet with such patronage and as sistance from the Federal Government, as to secure its construction within no very remote time. But this in common with all those routes still further north, will ever prove impassible in winter, from the immense falls o f snow which invariably fill up their mountain gorges, at that season o f the year. The valley o f the Rio Gila, the southern limit o f the United States, on the western slope o f the continent, can only be rendered partially available for a railway; and that by deflecting its course so far to the southward as to carry it for many miles entirely within Mexican territory. But after all, such a route would find its natural terminus on the G ulf o f California ; a nd B y B ails across N orth America. 617 being at the head o f that long gulf, this terminus will not be as accessible from the ocean, as ports farther down the coast towards Mazatlan. Between the parallel o f the Bio Gila, 32° North, and that o f the head stream o f the Arkansas, 39° North, all the mountain ranges and rallies on the Pacific side, run transversely to a western course, and present such bold and formidable accidents o f ground, as to forbid the hope that even the closest researches might lead to the discovery o f a practicable line for a rail way running directly across this part o f the continent. On the eastern side o f the great back bone o f America, the rallies o f the Arkansas and Nebraska, or Platte Bivers, and those o f their numerous tributaries, are alone likely to afford the natural lines o f approach to the noted passes o f the Bocky M oun tains. It is moreover probable, that the most natural debouch from those passes towards the Western Ocean, is that following the emigrants trail, by the Great Salt Lake, into the Valley o f St. Mary’s, or Humbolt’s Biver, and thence on to the eastern foot o f the Sierra Navada, o f Alta California, which Sierra will have to be crossed at one o f its greatest depressions, so as to enter some one o f the rallies which discharge their waters into the Bay o f San Francisco. The total distance by such a route from the Mississippi Biver to the Bay o f San Francisco, would not be far from two thousand miles. A ll routes south o f this, and north o f either Isthmus, have their natural termini on the respective gulfs o f Mexico and California. The Isthmus routes, Panama, Nicaragua, and Tehuantepec, all present the common advantages o f short lines. The first not necessarily exceeding fifty, nor the last two hundred miles in extent. Consequently the first cost o f the construction o f either o f these lines would be relatively small, and the subse quently yearly expense o f keeping such a railway in good order, would be come a matter o f trifling moment. Indeed, the cost o f transhipment from ocean to ocean, by such a line, would but little exceed that o f unloading one vessel, and transferring its cargo into another, lying at a different dock o f the same port. If, therefore, the advantages o f a connection by rails be tween the two oceans were confined to the mere portage across from sea to sea o f goods and persons passing between Europe and Asia, then no argu ment would be necessary to show that the consideration o f other routes than the Isthmus ones would be mere waste o f time, and that the hope o f finding any capitalist willing to venture his money, in such an undertaking, would prove to be a visionary speculation. The railway statistics o f any country will show that long lines are not always as profitable from the transportation o f things and persons, going through from one extreme to another, as from that only passing between the intermediate points o f the railway. Or, in other words, that the way business is often more advantageous than the through business. Should a line o f rails be so placed as to afford some pro fits on the investment from its way business, then such a line might readily enter into competition with a shorter one, for a through business o f such a character as to seek either line. During the long time that the Spaniards owned Florida, Mexico, and South America, and whilst they had the complete control o f the trade o f the Pacific, it would seem that the galleons from the Philippine Islands, and those from Chili and Peru, would naturally have met at the Isthmus o f Panama to tranship their cargoes into the fleet destined to transport them from the eastern shore o f America to Spain ; yet we know that this short portage, and apparently direct line, was early abandoned for the longer one across the continent, from Acapuleo through the city o f Mexico to Vera 618 Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Cruz; thereby, at the very least, decupling the distance o f the land route. Undoubtedly political as well as economical reasons influenced the Council o f the Indies in making such a change. But, assuredly, if all economical reasons should have proved themselves to be opposed to the change, the old Isthmus route must have been again resorted to in the long period which intervened before the Colonies were separated from Spain. It should be further borne in mind, that all vessels crossing from Asia to America, are led by the prevailing winds o f the Pacific, to sail so far to the northward as to make the western coast o f America along the shores o f California; and that the distance thence to Panama is still very great, whereas Panama itself is not as near Europe as Tampico, or any other port on the Gulf o f Mexico. Although the most direct and shortest line from China, or Japan, to Europe, would cross the continent north o f the United States, still a railway from the G ulf o f California to the G ulf o f Mexico, would be sufficiently near a direct route to shorten greatly the voyage, and would certainly be enough so to compete with the short portages far to the South, over the Isthmus routes. Such a line would in fact bring Canton and London ten days closer together than can be done by the Panama route. The character o f the population, and that o f the government o f a country through which a route passes, must have a great influence upon the prop erty value o f a railway, both in the security o f the investment, and in that part o f the regular increase o f the local profits o f the railway depending upon the advance and progress o f the people dwelling along its line. Neither the people nor the government o f a pure Mexican race would now offer any o f those securities. A s it is not the through business o f a railway which is always the most profitable to its owners, neither is it likely that the more remote traffic be tween Europe and Asia will prove as profitable to a railway across the con tinent o f America, as that arising between the United States and their grow ing territories on the Pacific. Indeed, but few o f those who may be led to investigate this subject, will be found unwilling to admit that the mere short ness o f a railway connecting the two oceans, and the cheapness o f its first cost, are not such overwhelming advantages as to drive all longer lines from competition with it. However, before the longer one can be adopted, even in this case, it must be shown to combine, in a fair degree, all the advanta ges o f accessibility, directness o f course, and perfect freedom from all inter ruption caused by rigor o f climate, and, moreover, to afford that security o f property in the investment, without which the most alluring enterprise would fail in attracting the sagacious capitalist, A great work o f this cosmopolitan character, should draw the attention of all Christendom, and can very properly elicit in its support the zeal and en thusiasm o f the statesmen o f many nations. I f such a work could be con structed under the practical guaranty o f the pecuniary and commercial in terests o f the trading people o f the two great maritime powers o f the world, then retired capitalists would seek its stock as the most secure and profitable investment which could be made o f the proceeds o f the labor o f their early years. The consummation o f such an enterprise, would be well worthy the united efforts o f the people o f America and England. To the British states man especially, this enterprise should hold forth a great charm ; for it may be so conducted as to free a large part o f that vast capital which was so con fidingly invested, a quarter o f a century since, by British subjects in Mexican bonds and m ines; but which now, to all appearances, is hopelessly involved, B y Rails across N orth America. 619 for the eventual release o f this capital seems only to depend upon the means and faith o f the insolvent government o f a retrogressing race. This retro gression of the Mexican race, before the inroads o f the wild and indigenous tribes roaming over their northern frontier, has been so constant and rapid, throughout the last half century, as to attract the attention of all persons familiar with the people or history of Mexico. Intelligent British and Am er ican officers without any communication or interchange o f opinions with one another, have been led to fix the speedy limit, brought on by these encroach ments, which is soon to confine that race to about the 24th parallel o f lati tude, which is in fact much about the same boundary Cortez found to limit the cultivation of the soil, under the rude application o f the arts o f hus bandry used by the semi-civilized subjects o f Montezuma. If this pressure meets with -no check from the people o f another race, all that great extent o f country lying north o f Mazatlan, Durango, San Luis Potosi, and Tampico, up to the southern boundary o f the United States, will, in a few years be turned into a howling wilderness, left free to the range o f the savage, the buffalo, and the deer, and where in equal wildness the ox and horse, every domestic tie to man being sundered, will be seen roaming in countless num bers. Such is the deplorable fate imminently pending over the devoted heads of the people of the Mexican States o f Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila, and from which, if left alone to their own resources, nothing short o f divine interposition can save them. But the timely introduction o f the American and European, would change the scene. Most o f this northern part o f Mexico, as far as nature’s laws alone operate in restraining man, is now, in truth, as fairly open to colonization as any part o f North America w'as, when Sebastian Cabot carried the flag o f the first Tudor to its shores ; or when that gallant adventurer, Capt. John Smith, put foot on the banks o f James River, at the head of his little band o f cavaliers. The settlement or colonization of this region by Americans, or Europeans, is the best, if not the only hope for the Mexican race. Indeed, such colonization o f their waste and abandoned lands, is o f late ardently advocated by some o f the best wri ters and purest patriots o f Mexico. The colonists would soon impress upon the Indians such a correct sense o f their power and will, to resent wrongs, as to make the chiefs o f the sava ges dread the ills and dangers attending the existence o f a hostile state. After establishing this conviction in the minds o f the Indians, the colo nists themselves would not only become secure in their possessions, but would find no difficulty in restraining the Indians from making further de predations upon those who should fall under their protection. The Mexican Vaquiero, and Ranchero, returning in safety and quiet to the care o f their flocks and herds, would do their humble part in adding to the material wealth and greatness o f the Mexican nation. The busy miner, then freed from all alarm for his personal safety, would again delve into the bowels o f the earth, turning out the measureless riches now buried in the long un worked mines o f Sonora, and Chihuahua, which are as reputedly rich in gold as any other mine in Mexico. I f it were equally practicable to cross the continent at all points, the rail ways being forced to the southward by the frosts and snows which obstruct the passage o f the mountains in the winter, and again to the northward by the great length o f the sea voyages to the Isthmus, its best position would, therefore, be about the latitude o f Cape San Lucas, the southern extremity o f lower California. The distance across from Mazatlan to Tampico, in a 620 Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans straight line, is between five and six hundred miles ; but there are no two points on the opposite shores o f the continent, separated by more insur mountable obstacles. The same difficulties offer themselves against the adoption o f any other line crossing the southern part o f the great wilderness o f Northern Mexico, but would not, however be found in going from Tam pico to San B ias; which latter points are respectively situated near the out lets o f the two great rivers draining both water sheds o f this section o f the continent. Their sources interlock where all the spurs and branches o f the great Sierra Madre, coming from the South, are compressed together, as by a knot, before spreading out again towards the northward. It is the great bifurcation o f this Sierra to the northward, which gives the characteristic features to the region styled the Mexican Wilderness. The main chain o f the Sierra, sweeping around to overlook the Pacific, tends to the northwest ward, whilst the Sierra Garda runs nearly directly north towards Saltillo, Monterey and Linarez, leaving between these mountain ranges that vast table land which is now overrun and desolated by the Camanches. A rail way following up one o f these rivers from Tampico, and down the other to San Bias, would traverse the famous Bajia, and necessarily pass through some o f the richest and most populous districts o f Mexico. It would, con sequently, be within that region which it is most likely will the longest re main under the control o f the Mexican race. To avoid this it will be neces sary to go several degrees north to find good posts which can be connected by a railway running a tolerable direct course, and having easy grades. Such a line may, however, be established about latitude 28° North, and will not necessarily exceed in extent one-half of the distance o f the great internal route through the United States, from the Mississippi River to San Francisco. It will traverse the American State o f Texas, and the Mexican States o f Chihuahua and Senora, and will pass over a country, although now almost a perfect wilderness, rich in undeveloped wealth, and one in every aspect adapted to rapid settlement and colonization. Pass Caballo, one o f the best inlets on the G ulf o f Mexico, will afford the entrance to its eastern port in Matagorda Bay. Guayamas, probably equal to any harbor in the world, will be its western port. From Matagorda Bay, one o f several routes would follow up the valley o f the Colorado, o f Texas, and that o f its tributary, San Saba, crossing over into the valley o f the Pecos, and thence by one o f those characteristic vallies o f Northern Mexico, not the Thalweg o f any drainage, to Presidio del Norte, where the Rio Conehos empties itself from the South into the Rio Grande. Here leaving the territories o f the United States, and crossing into those o f Mexico, the route would follow up the valley o f the Rio Conehos, if necessary, to clear some broken and mountainous country bordering on the Rio Grande, but deflecting westward at the proper time to reach one o f the Puertos, or Passes o f the Sierra Madre, which would give an easy passage across that summit into a tributary valley o f the Rio ITiaqui, and thence tracing down that stream to tide water at Guayamas. The bot toms o f the Colorado o f Texas are covered with an inexhaustible supply o f the finest red cedar in the world. Every engineer will at once appreciate this as one o f the most valuable acquisitions possible for a company building a railway. There are other routes from Matagorda Bay to the Rio Grande, at the mouth o f the Conehos; a close examination might prove one o f them better fitted than that here designated for a railway. The extreme southern one would cross over to the San Antonio River, and follow up that river and its tributary, the Medina, to the foot of the mountains, thence running parallel B y R ails across N orth America. * 521 to the mountains along the foot o f the slopes, to where the Rio Grande comes forth into the plains o f Texas, thence tracing up that river itself. The intermediate routes would naturally present themselves to the observation o f the exploring engineer. From the mouth o f the Conchos to the Hiaqui, it is by no means certain whether it would be better to turn off directly up the valley of the Conchos, or to trace still further up that o f the Rio Grande, before making for the Sierra Madre. A general designation o f the direction o f the line between the extreme points is now alone pretended to be offered. A few brief remarks may suffice to show by what combination o f divers interests such an extensive work might be undertaken so as to save that unity and harmony in the conduct o f it, without which it would be vain to hope for its completion. The State o f Texas should in the first place grant the unrestricted right o f way over her territories, under a liberal charter, which should at the same time cede to the company a large portion o f the unlocated lands along the line o f the road. Her people are too sensible o f the many advantages they would derive from such a road, to call for any arguments to induce her to make the necessary grant. It will readily be given on any fair evidence o f the probability that the railway would be con structed. To get the same right o f way privileges, and protection from the Mexican government, State and Central, may prove much more difficult. It is in this, however, that the claims o f the Mexican bond holders may be effi ciently brought to bear. The sanction o f the Central government might be demanded by these claimants, and should be granted by that government as a slight mark evincing a disposition to render to its injured creditors some tangible acknowledgement o f their long withheld dues. Some o f the sepa rate State governments have heretofore repeatedly made engagements with American hunters and trappers, to defend their people from the inroads o f the Indians. A railway company could be so organized as to undertake to discharge the same duty towards the people o f the States through which the railway might run, in return for adequate privileges granted to the company by the government o f those States. W hilst the Mexican bond holders obtain the grant o f the right o f way, &c. for a railway company organized for building the railway, they must se cure something more substantial for themselves. This might be effected by getting themselves converted into a company o f Empresarios, with the full authority o f such over all vacant and abandoned lands, bordering upon the line o f railway, and lying to the northward, between it and the south western boundary o f the United States; agreeing for the Mexican govern ment to impose upon the company o f Empresarios, the usual obligations o f colonizing and settling the lands, and further that o f eventually disposing of them at limited rates to the heads o f families, and other actual settlers. The bond holders receiving the lands at a low rate, in lieu o f their bonds, would turn the present worthless paper o f the Mexican government, into real and convertible property. The charter, the right o f way, and lands necessary for stations, and other railway purposes, to be transferred by the company o f Empresarios, to the railway company, for no further consideration than the incidental advanta ges the railway would afford in bringing their other lands more speedily into market. The foregoing is intended merely as an outline o f the most prominent reasons in favor o f the selection o f the route, herein roughly designated, as the most proper for connecting the two great oceans by rails across North America. 622 Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public. Art. V.— RELATION OF RAILROAD CORPORATIONS TO THE PUBLIC. T he introduction o f railroads, is making changes in the business o f the world, o f which we cannot yet appreciate the importance, or predict the consequences. The fact, obvious on slight investigation, that in the aggregate, the cost o f distribution bears a large ratio to the original cost o f production, suggests the magnitude o f the results which may be expected from this new mode o f transportation, and its probable effects on human industry. A change so momentous, in a cardinal department o f trade, will probably require some alteration, or some modification in the application o f the laws which have heretofore regulated this branch o f business. The law o f “ common carri ers,” has, however, been so perfected by the thought o f profound civillians, aided by the results o f long experience, that it now embodies an amount o f well settled principles, which will go far to enable the judiciary to meet the emergency created b y railroads, though it can hardly be expected that they will meet every case arising under a system so different from that which they were intended to regulate. A prominent and very important difference, which at once presents itself, is the absence o f competition on the line o f a railroad. This deprives the system o f the rrsual and best means o f fixing the rates o f charges, and o f protecting the public from imposition. A railroad is in fa c t a monopoly o f the transportation on and near its lin e; for it will be long before rival roads ■null be built side by side, so as to compete for the same local business, and the question arises, in what way shall this inherent difficulty be obviated ? It is important to railroad companies, as well as to the public generally, that this problem should be settled with as little delay as possible, or as soon as we shall have obtained the pre-requisite experience. A t present we can only hope that our suggestions may tend to its solu tion, and direct attention to some collateral questions involved in the in quiry. A m ong these, there are two arising from claims made by some companies, which we deem it important at once to discuss. First, they alledge that they have the right to manage their roads as they would any other property, solely with a view to making the largest profits, and without any other reference to public accommodation than their own interest dic tates. And, secondly, that they can rightfully charge as high rates as they choose, and vary their charges, carrying for some persons at one price, and demanding more or less o f others, for similar service. If these claims are well founded, a legislative grant o f a railroad charter confers on the grantees the power o f controlling the collective and individual business o f the whole section which their road traverses; for railroad facili ties have become a part o f the general progress o f the civilized world, and that portion which only derives a partial benefit from them, cannot compete in business with those which have all the advantages arising from their use. A company with such powers could say, we will do the transportation at such price as will just give our road the preference over the old modes o f carriage, so that the advantages to the community shall be the minimum, which will insure to us the maximum o f profit. It is evident that in such case the public might be debarred nearly all the advantages consequent on railroad improvements, and the business o f a community be destroyed by competition with those more favored by such improvements. A nd yet it is Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public. 623 seriously argued, that inasmuch as the public will not change from the old mode unless the new be more advantageous, that still the public are bene fited , and the company fulfil their obligations. This argument would be better grounded, if the mechanical improvement, and the right to use it on their route, were the exclusive and earned property o f the company, as well as the road itself. But this improvement is the common property o f the age, in the advantages o f which all have an equal right to participate ; and the natural advantages o f the route belonged to the community, the right o f appropriating them having been granted to the company by the legislative power, which itself had no right to make such grant— and especially when including the power to take individual property for the use o f the road— on any other ground than that o f public benefit. In the very nature o f the grant, then, there is an obligation on the part o f the grantees, to use their franchise for public accommodation. The right o f the public in such cases, and, indeed, the whole subject is yet new, and opinions have hardly been reduced to principles. Let us test these claims by analogies presented by older discoveries. As we have before observed, the grant o f a railroad charter, is in effect a grant o f a monopoly, from the nature o f the case. Suppose, then, a legislature should confer upon a com pany o f publishers the exclusive right o f furnishing, upon their own terms, printed books and papers to any designated community, and that under this grant, the company should adopt the rule o f selling at a price which should just give the printed a preference over manuscript copies— could there be any possible justification for thus cutting off a community from their share o f the advantages resulting from the discovery o f printing, now the common property o f mankind ? W e can hardly bring ourselves to imagine such an outrage upon the rights o f a people; and yet to make the case parallel to that o f a railroad company having the power to charge at pleasure, we must give the publishing company the additional power o f taking, for the accom modation o f their presses and store-houses, the private property o f any indi vidual o f the community, paying him, not what he may agree to sell for, but what others may award him. The effect, then, o f a grant to a railroad company, with power thus claim ed, upon the business o f the community generally, might be to arrest all progress, or to make any progress merely subservient to the income o f the road ; for as fast as business sprung up, and particularly business requiring permanent investments, the company could absorb all the profits o f labor and capital, in the charges for transportation. But the exercise o f the second claim, o f the right to make distinctions in the charges to individuals, or communities, would be attended with conse quences still more disastrous and dangerous to the public. This would give the company not only the control o f the whole business to be done, but would enable them to say who should do it. They could say to the town o f A ., disposed to favour them in turn, we will transport for you for one-half the charge to your rivals in the town o f B., who do not choose to submit with a good grace to our requisitions. A n d they can say to any individual o f this favored town, who may be disposed to question the propriety o f their conduct, we will charge you more for transportation than you can afford to pay, and as the road has now taken the place o f all other modes o f carriage, you cannot pursue your business at all, unless you submit to our terms, or by a more conciliating course, obtain our favor. They can say to the pro prietors o f one line o f stages running to their road, we will convey your pas- 624 Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public. sengers for less than those o f the rival line ; and in this way it is manifest that the business must soon fall into the hands o f those who would he most subservient to the company holding such extraordinary powers. This control o f the business would almost o f necessity run into a controlling influence in politics, and the legislators who made the grant, might soon be made sensi ble that they must become the humble servants o f the board, perhaps mere stock gamblers whom they have armed with such formidable power, or yield their places to more pliant occupants. W hen, during the recent revolution in France, it was proposed that the government should take into its charge the industrial pursuits o f the coun try, did not every one here perceive that it would lead to a despotism o f the most intolerable character— to a system under which those in power could always present the alternative o f submission or starvation ? Against a rail road company exercising a similar control over the industry o f the country, we should not even have the doubtful remedy o f the ballot-box. W e have already seen one State struggling for supremacy with a com pany whose road traverses a small portion o f its territory. W e saw its citizens suddenly awakened to a sense o f their danger, by an apprehension that the company would get the control o f the judicial appointments. The State trembled, yet made an energetic effort to avert such an overwhelming calamity. But no sooner had they pointed a spear at the iron horse, than they found that the coils o f the serpent had already been insidiously thrown around them, and the effort now making by the State to extricate itself and offspring from the crashing embrace o f the monster, appears as convulsive and almost as hopeless as that o f Laocoon. W h at then may be the influ ence o f a railroad, or a combination o f roads, running so as to control the business o f a large portion o f a State, and under the management o f some talented, energetic, and unprincipled autocrat o f W a ll street, with his plot ting, subtle advisers. It evidently behooves us, at this early stage o f the railroad movement, to seek a remedy, or, rather, a preventive, o f such dangerous perversion o f char tered power ; for when it has once gone so far as to control the official ap pointments o f a State, including the judiciary, there is no remedy short o f revolution. Having reached that point, the company is as absolute as the Emperor Nicholas, and without his responsibilities and ambitious aspirations for the improvement o f his dominions. Those who come under the yoke o f such petty tyrants, will find themselves in much the same condition as were the na tives o f the conquered provinces o f Hindostan, who, under the direction of the East India Company, were ruled by nabobs, having no feeling in com mon with the governed, and no love or pride o f country, to neutralize their baser feelings, using their power merely to extort from a subjugated people, every shilling which toil and privation could yield, to gratify the rapacity o f their principals, who, actuated by the conflicting influences o f public indig nation and private avarice, instructed their officials to “ be merciful, but send the rupees ” — “ do not treat the cringing natives so cruelly, but be sure to send the rupees.” In the case already alluded to, public indignation, long since excited, ap pears, as yet, to have gained from the company little, if anything, more than a diminution o f the rudeness to which passengers have long been subjected, by the agents o f the road, but who seem now to be acting under the new or ders to “ be civil to travelers, but take their m on ey ; be less insolent and abusive, but be sure to get the dollars.” R elation o f R ailroad C o lo ra tio n s to the P u blic. 625 W e say, then, it behooves us, at this early stage, to seek the preventive of such abuses; and this, we apprehend, is to be found only in holding the rail road companies rigorously to the performance o f their duties, and to a strict impartiality in fulfilling them. W ith regard to these duties, the time has, probably, not yet arrived, to fix them with that precision, which longer ex perience will dictate, but on this point we would remark, that the companies deriving their privileges from the public, on the very ground o f public ac commodation, makes it their duty to give such accommodation in return ; and the grants being in the nature o f a monopoly, requires that the interests of the public should be carefully protected. A ll the circumstances, indeed, seem to point to the necessity o f such protection. Individuals who carry for hire, are, more or less, under the influence o f those reciprocal, social obligations and moral considerations, which have no little effect in harmonizing conflict ing interests, and establishing customs in conformity to justice. Standing face to face with those for whom they perform the services, they are ashamed to be extortionate, even when circumstances would permit them to be so with impunity. The mysterious “ board ” which constitutes the soulless activity, the unmoralized will o f a corporation, knows no such ameliorating influences. The measure o f accommodation, and the rates o f compensation, would, at first, appear to depend very much upon the circumstances o f each particular road, as the necessary expenses o f construction, the necessity o f high grades when constructed, and the amount o f business which the location affords. A ll differences, arising from these circumstances, will, however, be found to be embraced within very narrow limits, for the sagacity o f those interested will, and for the greatest benefit o f the community ought, to seek out those loca tions where the business indicates that the expenditure o f the same capital will give the greatest return on the most reasonable rates o f transportation. A road will not be built through a sparse population, doing little business, unless it connects important points furnishing a large amount o f transporta tion, or makes one o f the links o f a chain between such points, and to with hold from the residents on such a route the usual accommodation, or to charge them extraordinary prices, would be to take from them the natural and incidental advantages o f their position, and transfer them to the railroad company, without any equivalent. Besides the tendency o f business to con centrate on the lines o f railroads where the proper facilities are given, is such, that the interest o f a road so located, would obviously, in the end, be pro moted by a liberal policy. I f it will not pay at reasonable rates, it probably will not pay very well at higher, and with no chance o f improvement by increase o f business. The profits o f the company, on capital invested, will not always furnish a criterion for compensation, for they may have expended a much larger amount than necessary, and to allow them, in such cases, to charge in proportion to their outlay, would be making their imprudence or extravagance a burthen on the public, or would be allowing them to take and squander a portion o f the advantages which o f right belong to the com munity. If, then, the cost is to be an element o f charge, it should be with allowances only for such injudicious expenditure, as with ordinary prudence and skill will still enter into the cost o f construction-. Besides, as we have already intimated, the very reason why the road does not yield a better in come, may be, that the small amount o f accommodation, and the high char ges, as compared with other roads, has destroyed the business on its line, on, at least, prevented its increase. W e do not mean to say that there should be no difference on different VOL. xxi.— no. vi. 40 626 R elation o f R ailroad Corporations to the P u blic. routes, but only that until the routes have been more closely culled, those which capitalists select, will not vary so materially as might at first appear. On some o f them, the transit o f cars will not be reqired so frequently as on others ; and this difference in the expense o f the company, for accommoda tion to the public, furnishes a means o f equalizing the rate o f compensation, admitting o f much latitude in its application, and going far to neutralize the variations in the' amount o f business. This view is important, as showing that the customs and charges established on roads where there is competi tion, may properly be used to determine what they should be on roads where no such competion exists. But, whatever the proper amount o f accommo dation and rates o f compensation may be, we apprehend there can be no good reason for allowing the proprietors to make invidious or arbitrary dis tinctions among those dependent on them for transportation, the injurious and dangerous consequences o f which we have already endeavored to point out. Even in the case o f common carriers, with all the facilities for compe tition, it has been found expedient to make it legally obligatory upon them to carry for all persons applying under the same circumstances, and for a reasonable price. In the absence o f any specific law on the subject, these, with some additional obligation upon railroad companies, might be inferred from the very nature o f their grant. This grant is for the benefit o f the community, and to this benefit each individual o f the community has the same right. To suppose that the legislative power grapted such privileges as an equivalent for benefits to be unequally distributed at the pleasure o f the grantees, involves a monstrous absurdity. That all the individuals o f a com munity have equal rights to the advantages given in return for a railroad grant, seems indeed too obvious to require argument or illustration. Some general rules o f difference in articles requiring, from their nature or quantity, more or less labor to transport, or involving greater or less risk o f loss or damage, may be permitted; but all mere arbitrary distinctions are forbidden by public policy, as otherwise a road might often, by a general rule, extort from a few persons, or from a single individual, whose business required the trans portation o f materials different from all others carried on it. W e arrive, then, at the conclusion that public policy and justice, both, require that the charges to each person having business done on a road, should, as nearly as practicable, be in proportion to the services rendered, the charge for carriage being in proportion to the distance conveyed, adding a fixed sum for loading and unloading, where this is done at the expense o f the road proprietors. W e will now consider how far the great regulating principle o f competi tion may be made available in fixing the amount o f accommodation to be given by railroad companies, and the charges for services rendered by them. They have not unfrequently claimed the right o f charging much higher rates o f compensation for way-travel and freight, than for that carried over the whole road. This distinction has sometimes been carried to the extent o f charging more for a portion o f the distance, than for the whole. For this they attempt to justify themselves, by saying that competition between the ends o f their road reduces the rate, but that no such competion can ex ist at the intermediate points, and therefore the communities at those points have no claims to the advantages which result from this competition. It is surprising to what an extent reasoning so preposterous has been admitted, and the result acquiesced in. I f a country merchant, having no competitor within several miles, should say to one o f his customers, you, having no horse, cannot procure your goods R elation o f R ailroad Corporations to the P ublic. 627 except from me, and I therefore charge you more than I do your neighbor, who has a good team, would he not shock all our common-sense notions o f honesty and propriety ? W ou ld not a serious direct avowal o f such princi ples seem to be downright impudence ? A nd yet it would not quite equal the principle avowed by the railroad companies just alluded to, for if they made any distinction, it should obviously be in favor o f the community whose property has been taken for the convenience o f the road, and who, on the other principle, might be compelled to give up the natural advantages of their position for a railroad, and to surrender their private property for its use, to give to others in the same business an advantage over them. But, though such discrimination in favor o f those on the line o f the road would be more just and reasonable than to vary the charges to their disadvantage, yet even this is forbidden by liberal views o f public policy. It might deprive the public o f the most effectual guardianship of its rights, and, with our na tional organization, would be particularly liable to abuse. A road carrying cheaply for the citizens o f the State in which it was located, might be left at liberty to prey on all others at discretion. For the very reason that there can be no competition at each particular point to regulate the rates o f charge, public policy, no less than justice, requires that this competition between the two ends o f the road where it exists, should regulate the rates for the other points o f the route. W h en it does not exist between the termini o f the road, it sometimes exists between the termini o f two or more roads taken as one chain, and the price to which this competition reduces the transportation o f the competing freight or passage, should govern the price o f the local business. In this way, the great governing principle o f business competition would be brought into exercise on a very large proportion o f the railroads, and these would furnish data from which to deduce the rates proper for those where no competition existed either at their termini, or at intermediate sta tions. This is the rate which thecompanies themselves fix, as one at which they are willing and desirous to carry ; and it is not to be presumed that they will seek the business at less rates than justice to themselves and the public requires, and if they do, public policy demands that they should not be per mitted to give those not on the line o f the road a business advantage over those whose domain has been taken from them under the pretext o f a com mon benefit. The necessity o f direct competition on the lines o f the roads being thus obviated, the companies might be protected from such competi tion with advantage to the public. The rules, then, demanded by public policy and justice, are, that railroad companies should extend all reasonable accommodation to the communities dependent on their roads for transporta tion ; this accommodation to be judged o f and regulated by the usages and customs which have been established on those roads where competition ex ists, due allowance being made for any other difference in the circumstances. That the compensation should be governed, when practicable, by the price received on the same road for freight subject to open competition ; and, when this cannot be done, by the price o f competing freight on other roads under similar circumstances ; and that the benefits o f the road should be equally free to every member o f the community, on the same terms. The Condition and P rospects o f 628 Art. VI.— THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AMERICAN COTTON MANUFACTURES IN 1849. I n an article in the Merchants' Magazine for the last month, upon the “ Production and Manufacture o f Cotton,” there appeared some statements, which, if correct, are new to many persons familiar with the subject to which they relate. I f they are incorrect, a brief examination o f them may be use ful in dispelling the visions o f wealth so vividly brought to the view o f the Southern planters, now urged to become manufacturers. W e hope that no thing will be said or done to discourage manufacturing at the South ; far from i t : it is legitimate, and must steadily g o on increasing. A t the same time, we shall consider it to be doing good service to them and to us at the North, if we can bring to light errors which might deceive those who are beginning to inquire into this business, with reference to pursuing it. W ithout commenting upon the remarks made at the commencement of the article, in regard to the elements o f wealth, and the causes o f the une qual distribution of property in Great Britain, about which some o f the best informed statesmen have expressed opinions entirely different from those o f the writer, we pass to the first suggestion made for a remedy to the great evil under which we now suffer— of sending our cotton to Great Britain for manufacture, instead o f securing to the cotton-growing States all the benefits which arise from that process. The remedy proposed is to withhold the cotton from the European mar kets, and manufacture it at the South ; to curtail the production, until it can all be manufactured where it is grown. W e should not have presumed that this is to be done suddenly, and at once, did the writer not tell us that “ if we wish for more labor and skill, they can readily be procured, to any amount.” But from what source can the labor and the skill be derived, to set in ope ration an amount o f machinery so vast as is here contemplated ? Certainly not from the North, where every good agent, sub-agent, and overseer, is prized and retained, and where operatives are not to be had to run the ma chinery now built. Agents and overseers may be brought from E ngland; but unless the Southern men and girls, who are to be under their control, have less independence, or, if one choose to call it so, less prejudice, against obeying foreigners than the girls and men in New England, it will he neces sary to bring the operatives also from the manufacturing districts o f Eng land ; not a desirable population at home, much less so here. But supposing this difficulty were overcome, from what quarter is to pro ceed the capital required for the enterprise ? Have our Southern friends such resources o f money now at their command as to create these immense works, or are they borrowers ? W e have always supposed the latter to be the case. W e sell our fabrics, which are made at the North, to the Southern buyers, on a credit o f from six to ten months. Neither do we receive a similar credit in return, for the reason that they are not in a condition to grant it. A ll the great staples sent from the Southern market are sold for cash, or on a credit o f sixty days. It is in this way that the foreign and the home man ufacturers supply themselves with cotton. Though there are many rich men in the large cotton-growing States, the number o f moneyed men is very small, and they are not usually the projectors o f new enterprises. The planters are generally in debt, more or less, either from having extended their business Am erican Cotton M anufactures in 1 8 4 9 . 629 beyond their means, or from the habit o f anticipating their incomes, by bor rowing o f their cotton factors, the banks, or by credits at the stores. This lack o f capital is forcibly shown, in the amount of land still unsold and uncultivated in the great cotton-growing States Acres. Unsold. Owned. Louisiana has............................................. Mississippi."___ : ....................................... Alabama.................................................... Arkansas.................................................... 29,115,840 30,174,080 32,462,080 33,406,720 28,052,018 14,326,430 17,450,560 27,464,603 6,263,872 15,811,650 15,911,520 5,942,117 T ota l.......................................... 125,758,720 82,693,611 43,929,109 Or almost two-thirds o f the land still laying waste for want o f the means and the population to bring it into use. I f it were not an unpleasant subject, we might allude to the State debts o f some o f them, still unpaid, principal and interest, as another evidence o f in ability to command the use o f money. To carry out this plan o f withholdidg the cotton, it will be necessary to obtain the passage o f a law imposing an export duty. W ithout this, it would be impossible to prevent it from going abroad, as soon as the with drawal o f a portion had produced its effect o f raising the price in Europe. This duty must be prohibitive, or it will not answer the purpose in view. O f course this would be met by retaliative duties from other countries. But the scheme appears to be wholly impracticable, and we will not introduce any farther objections to it. The writer o f the article to which we refer, starts upon the supposition that the production o f cotton is in excess. “ There is too much produced. True, a great deal too much. Make a proper distribution o f labor and sk ill: produce no more cotton than can be manufactured at home.” The crop o f the United States, in 1843, was 2,378,875 bales ; in 1844, 2,030,409 ; in 1845, 2,394,503 ; in 1846, 2,100,537 ; in 1847, 1,778,651 ; in 1848, 2,3 47,634; and it has not reached the amount o f 1843, (excepting in the year 1845,) until this year o f 1849, when the crop is 2,728,596 bales. Mean time, there has been a large increase in the number o f manufacturing estab lishments in Europe, and in this country. Our own factories required, in 1843, 346,744 bales ; in 1844, 389,006 bales ; in 1845,422,597 bales ; in 1846, 427,967 bales; in 1847, 531,772 bales; in 1848,518,039 bales; in 1849, if it were not for the depression which exists in this business, and which prevents many new mills from starting, and lessens the product o f others, there would have been required more than 600,000 bales for our own use. The increase abroad, though not in the same proportion, has been very great. This explains, in a great measure, the cause o f the present high price o f cotton,* which, with the large crop of last year, is not sufficient to supply the machinery when in full operation. The production of cotton, for the last five years, has been 11,323,000 bales ; and the consumption has been 11,939,000 bales ; showing an excess o f consumption o f 616,000 bales, which has been supplied by the surplus on hand at the commencement o f the time. The present price renders the manufacture o f all descriptions o f coarse goods impossible, except at a loss ; a state o f things which cannot continue long, and will be followed, during * The great rise in the price, 9ince last year, is to he attributed partly to speculation; but this is based upon the fact here referred to. Notwithstanding the immense importations into England, dur ing the past year, the stock on hand (October 27th) was 112,000 bales less than in 1848. 630 The Condition and P rospects o f the coming season, b y a rise in the price o f goods, or by a fall in the rawmaterial ; perhaps by both. The argument which has been used, that the manufacturer receives a very much larger rate o f interest on his capital invested, than the cotton-grower, now brought forward by the writer o f the article before referred to, will not bear investigation. It is asserted that the cotton planters have received, for that part o f their crop sent to Great Britain in 1841, but $29,000,000 ; whereas, if they had received as much in proportion to their outlay o f cap ital, as the manufacturer, it would have been $150,000,000 ; leaving a de ficit o f $121,000,000, which the planter may save, by adopting the plan before named. It may be useless to undertake to prove that the planters o f this country receive and are satisfied with a lower rate o f interest than the British man ufacturers, or even than our own ; but in this case it is easily done. It is asserted that the capital required to raise as much cotton as is used in Great Britain, is $150,000,000, and that it is from this outlay that $29,000,000 only is received ; whereas the vast amount o f other produce raised on the cotton estates is kept entirely out o f v iew ; the com , potatoes, pork, &c., which comprise almost the whole living o f the planter and his hands, and some o f which are forwarded in large quantities to New Orleans, and the other mar kets, are not mentioned. Another error in this calculation is, that the price o f cotton is put at 6 cents, when, if we should take the present price, for the purpose o f making the comparison, fair cotton as high as 12 a 13 cents,* and middling fair at 11 cents, after deducting the expense o f selling, this would leave for the planters $50,000,000, to which add $20,000,000 for farm pro duce, and we obtain the result o f $70,000,000, instead o f $29,000,000. I f the estimates given o f the cost o f cotton lands and slaves, and the yield per acre, are as incorrect as the other data, the result will be still more unlike that which is given. The estimate o f the investment in cotton manufactures in Great Britain ($149,600,000) is wholly incorrect. The real capital used in this business is more than $250,000,000 ; since, besides the investment in buildings and ma chinery, there is required a large amount o f cash capital, which the manufactu rer must either own or borrow. In N ew England, a manufacturing establish ment is supposed to require one-third as much cash capital as the amount invest ed in land, buildings, and machinery. One is called “ the floating,” and the other the “ fixed capital,” and the one is as necessary to success as the other. The proportions vary in the different kinds o f manufacture; none should have less than one-third in cash, unless they are willing to depend upon fa cilities granted by their commission merchants, and for which they must pay a high price, or upon banks and money-lenders, who generally call in their loans in times o f scarcity, when most wanted by the borrower. The next comparison introduced by the writer o f the article in question, to show the inequality in the compensation received by the cotton planter, and by the manufacturer, is that in which he contrasts the labor o f 57,000 persons in the New England factories, in 1839, upon a capital o f $42,000,000, with the labor o f the planters and their hands, in the same year, (1839,) upon a capital o f $150,000,000 ; and the conclusion drawn from it is that the New England manufacturers and operatives received as much for their * The price, in 1847, when the estimate was made of the value of British manufactures, averaged rather lower than this. A m erican Cotton M anufactures in 1 8 4 9 . C31 labor as tbe planters received for their whole cotton crop o f that year, namely, “ $27,278,762.” But, as the crop o f that year was 61,442,900 lbs., and as the price was fourteen cents in the Southern ports, or 13 cents to the planter, they must have received $80,005,770. There is another error in the same comparison, in regard to the amount allowed for materials used in man ufacturing, which would increase the discrepancy o f the results. The next argument introduced, is to show by figures that a factory requir ing an investment o f $250,000, is better property, and will yield a larger income than ten plantations, costing, with the hands, $738,000. The net income o f the plantations is put at $80,000, or 11 per cent, (a much higher rate o f interest than ever has been received, for a series o f years, from the best average investments in manufacturing establishments, as we shall here after show,) and the net profit o f the cotton-mill is stated at $90,000, or 35 per cent per annum. W e have never heard o f any such rate o f profit, and to a manufacturer it would seem to be enough to state this result, to have its correctness doubted. The first error in the calculation is found in the cost o f the mill, and the capital required to run it, which is stated 60 per cent too sm all; that is, it should be $400,000 instead o f $250,000 ; or $270,000 for the mill, and the balance for floating capital. The firs t cost o f a steam mill would be rather less, but not much, with the houses for the operatives, cotton house, and other buildings, &c.* The cloth produced is valued at 7 i cents a yard, which is a higher price than has been received for N o. 14 or 15 plain or twilled cottons, for two years past. For the iast nine months it has averaged 5.90 cents for sheetings and drills, which would yield, upon the estimated production, 4,500,000 yards, (a large allowance for 10,000 spindles,) $265,000 instead o f $337,500, the sum stated. But we will take the goods at a fair average price— say 7 cents net, and they will yield $315,000. From this we are told to deduct the cost o f cotton, labor, steam-power, interest on capital, &c.— “ $247,000.” Omitting the interest, ($15,000,) this will be 232,000, which, taken from $315,000, leaves $83,000 profit, or 2 0 f per cent on a capital of $400,000. This extraordinary result (w7hich has not been obtained b y any o f the New England mills making these goods, for the past three years) indicates another error, which wre soon discover to be in the price o f the cotton, which is again taken at 6 cents, though it has not been as low as that in the New Y ork market for 20 days, during the last twenty years.f Supposing we calculate * In reckoning the cost o f manufacturing establishments, it is frequently the case that the cost of the mill and machinery only is given, whereas the whole of the buildings required to carry on the business should be included, since they are as necessary as the mill itself. It is this omission which has given rise to much trouble and embarrassment to those who have commenced manufacturing with capital supposed to be ample, but which has been expended in the erection o f the works, and it has been necessary to mortgage the establishment, to obtain the means to carry it on, or even to com plete it. Where the owners have been in companies incorporated, they have resorted to the creation o f new shares, at a half, or even a quarter o f the original price. This operation has been, and is now going on, through the whole o f New England, to a large extent, not only in manufacturing, but in railroad, and other corporations. Among the manufacturing establishments, none have been more remarkable for their creation of new stock than those at Newburyport abd Salem, for which the estimates were made by General James, the stockholders being unacquainted with manufacturing. The “ James Steam Mill,” the “ Bartlett,” and the “ Globe,” at Newburyport, and the “ Naumkeag Mill,” at Salem, have all been found without cash capital, and, in some instances, in debt when completed, and all have been obliged to call in more, and they are still deficient, with the exception, perhaps, o f the Bartlett. + If we take the cotton at a fair a average price of 9 cents, $03,000 o f the $83,000 profits will be taken away; leaving a profit o f 5 per cent per annum, on $400,000, which is as high as the average profits of the present year. The goods are still at a lower price than the average, though higher than they were six months ago. 632 The Condition and P rospects o f dec. the cotton at the present price, which is 111 cents, and the goods at the present price, it would take away all the profit o f 883,000, and leave a loss o f $16,000, which gives the actual state o f all the cotton-mills working new cotton in this country, at the present time. The mills with ample capitals have been, and some are still, working cotton bought at a low price, and for the present six months will show a small profit, but all others are making, and must continue to make, a loss, until there is a change. The profits o f manufacturing are so often over-rated, that it is with diffi culty that the truth can be believed. The well-managed New England mills have been as successful, during the last ten years, as any in the world— cer tainly more successful than in any other section o f the United States ; though for many years after their first establishment, they brought great losses upon the stockholders. The following table will show the results o f the business o f the best establishments :*— DIVIDENDS OF THE NEW ENGLAND COTTON MILLS OF THE FIRST CLASS. oo Name and location. Capital. Appleton, Low ell....................... 600,000 5 Atlantic, Lawrence................... 1,300,000 x Boott, Lowell............................. 1,200,000 11 Boston,f Waltham................... 450,000 6 Cocheco,! Dover, N. H ............. 1,300,000 6 Cabot, Springfield.................... 690.000 6 Chicopee, Springfield............... 340,000 9 Dwight, Springfield................. 730,000 x Great Falls, Somersw’rth, N.H. 1,500,000 o Hamilton, Low ell..................... 1,200,000 o Jackson, Nashua, N. H ............. 480,000 5 Lawrence, Lowell..................... 1,500,000 10 Laconia, Saco, Maine................ 1,000,000 x Lancaster, Clintonville............. 1,000,000 x Massachusetts, Lowell............. 1,800,000 x Mancli’sterM’ls,|| Manch., If. H. 1,200,000 x Merrimac, Low ell..................... 2,500,000 11 Nashua, Nashua, N. H .............. 1,000,000 10 Otis, W are................................. 450,000 o Palmer, Three Rivers.............. 160,000 20 Perkins, Springfield................. 700,000 5 Salm’n Flls,§Salm ’nF'ls,N .H . 1,000,000 x Stark, Manchester, N. H .......... 1,250,000 x Suffolk, Lowell.......................... 600,000 11 Thorndike, Three Rivers.......... 375,000 o Tremont, Lowell....................... 600,000 11 York, Saco, Maine.................... 1,200,000 16 - H -t H - 1^3 N iH—- M—• K— &\ >— t H-* K— CTi ------ I— 1 on 5 6 0 6 6 12 12 3 5 X X X X X X X X X X X o 5 25 3 9 8 3 7 3 5 10 o 3 8 o o 3 5 11 20 o 0 7 3 11 18 5 3 17 o 6 7 2 3 516 2 7 16 X X X X X X X X X X X 0 3 4 14 X X X X 4 11 8 6 6 0 9 3 o 3 X 8 12 0 8 0 0 8 10 5 6 9 16 10 3 6 8 0 10 10 6 9 16 0 9 20 X X X X X 8 11 11 8 9 2 3 3 2 7 o 14 6 14 5 14 6 16 6,A7 8 o 7 12 X 18 16 8 5 6 10 6 4 6 6 6 6 20 16 4 3 12 9 3 0 20 16 9 6 20 cl 2 10 8 14 10 6 5 20 18f 9 8 14 15 10 3 X 8 3 0 X X o 0 20 20 19 6 X . .loss 0 30 16 9 7 20 18 6 3 12 8 13 6 25 21 9 3 20 13 9 6 X 25 8 8 18 20 llloss 20 18 8 6 15 15 7 3 18 16 7 2 18 20 11 6 3a 6 o 2 4 6 6 3a6 4a 8 6 3a 6 4a7 6 o o 6 o r25 4a8 18 0 2a 6 4a8 3 5 6 3 . * Almost all these were taken from the books of the companies, or furnished by the treasurers, t These dividends are upon $1,000 a share. The valuation has been reduced, and the shares are now valued at $750. J The original investment of $1,000,000 was all lost. | W ool is mixed with cotton in the greater part o f their goods. § This company became embarrassed and the prop erty was sold to the present proprietors at one-third o f the cost. (a) Also a dividend in stock of 25 per cent. The shares in this company were originally $1,000; but, owing to embarrassments, new shares were created at $200, which is now considered par. Upon the cost these dividends would be much smaller. (5) Also 10 per cent from profits made previous ly. ( r ) This was principally in new stock, and was not earned this year. The dividends o f this company have been much larger, owing to having reserved their profits in years previous to these, (e) Also a dividend from previous profits o f 10 per cent. ( / ) And a dividend in stock o f 20 per cent. Manufacture fancy wove goods. The mark “ x ” in the statement of dividends o f New England mills signifies that the mills were not in operation during those years. In many cases there were losses where the mark is “ o.” There are other establishments as large as these, which have been embarrassed by deficient water and other causes, which prevent their being placed in this list of first class mills. The Cotton Gin. G33 The following table, prepared by Messrs. Head and Perkins, Stock Bro kers, shows the present price o f shares, and when there have been no sales, the price they would bring if put into the market. The difference between the par and the present price is just so much loss, which should be sub tracted from the dividends, in order to judge fairly o f the business. MARKET AND P A R VALUE OF SHARES IN FIRST CLASS COTTON MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS. Market price. Appleton.............. Atlantic................. Boott..................... Boston.................... Cabot..................... Chicopeee............. Cocheco................. D w igh t................. Great Falls........... Hamilton................ Jackson................. Laconia.................. Lancaster.............. Lawrence.............. 670 850 500 770 850 Par value. 1,000 1,000 1,000 750 1,000 1,000 650 1,000 200 1,000 800 1,000 450 1,000 Manchester Mills........ Massachusetts............ Merrimac.................... Nashua......................... Otis............................... Palmer......................... Perkins....................... Stark........................... Suffolk......................... Salmon Falls............... Thorndike.................... Tremont...................... Y o r k ........................... Market price. 750 900 1,120 450 1,050 750 750 800 900 450 650 875 930 Par value. 1,000 1,000 1,000 500 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 500 1,000 1,000 1,000 Many smaller mills have been equally successful, and many have embar rassed the owners, and passed into other hands during the same period. ., W e defer to another number the examination o f some o f the other calcu lations in the article on “ Cotton and its Manufacture,” and shall hereafter give some facts in regard to the value of water-power at the present time in the coal districts o f England, which will show that, after long experience, the English manufacturers prefer to buy water at a higher price than is paid in any part o f this country, though they can have coal for their steam-power at from 4 to 5 shillings a ton, certainly as low as in any o f the cotton-grow ing States. Some facts will also be given, in regard to the steam-mills built under the Superintendence o f General James, which will exhibit the unexpected result that they have not yet yielded to their proprietors simple interest upon their investments:— Art. TIL— T H E COTTON GIN. T he names o f men distinguished for natural endowments, or for hav ing conferred, by their services or inventions, signal benefits upon their country, form the treasure o f which a nation is justly proud. The manner in which those services are requited, not unfrequently becomes its most lasting reproach. This country is not without some illustrations o f this remark, and among them, that o f Eli W hitney, the inventor o f the Cotton Gin, is most prominent. Mr. W hitney was a native o f Worcester County, Massachusetts, and in 1792 he was a guest in the house o f the widow o f General Green, near Savannah. H e was then about twenty-seven years o f age, and one day, when a number o f distinguished men were on a visit at the house, a conver sation arose on the cotton plant, then recently introduced on their plantations. The soil was well suited to its growth, and the necessity o f devoting them selves to the cultivation o f something besides rice, tobacco, and indigo, was universally admitted. The difficulty of separating the seed from the staple, was, however, deem ed 634 The Cotton Gin. inseparable, as it was a day's work for a woman to clean one pound o f cotton for market. A s W hitney was well known to have a remarkable genius for mechanics, Mrs. Green recommended the visitors, who were expressing their regret at this obstacle, to apply to her young friend, who, as she expressed herself, “ could make anything.” This conversation called W hitney’s attention to the subject. H e procured some cotton in the seed from Savannah, and commenced his task. From the tin o f an old coffee-pot, iron wire drawn by himself, and 'with such tools as a Georgia plantation could furnish, he con structed the first Cotton Gin, and Mrs. Green, who proved a most efficient friend, caused a building to be erected for its exhibition, and invited her friends from different parts o f the State to witness its operations. Its success was complete. The assembled planters saw with astonishment and delight, that more cotton could be cleaned in one day, by a single hand, than in one month in the usual mode. The cultivation o f cotton was now placed within the reach o f American labor, and visions o f wealth were sud denly opened to the planters o f the South. It was impossible to have any invention made more susceptible o f proof than that o f the Cotton Gin. The subject was suggested in a large company, and the first machine constructed and exhibited in the presence o f an assemblage o f respectable men from different parts o f the State. The obstacle to be overcome was a subject o f general remark. The com munity acknowledged the difficulty that stood in its way. It seemed in superable to ordinary minds, and mechanical genius was publicly appealed to, to lend its aid to remove it. Fame and wealth were held out by the laws o f the country as the fitting rewards to the intellectual Hercules who should accomplish the task. This appeal was answered in the construction o f the Cotton Gin. Steps were taken to obtain a patent, and a factory opened for the construction o f the machine. Before this, however, was accomplished, the first violation o f W hitney’s right occurred, and this was followed up by a systematic attempt among the planters to possess themselves o f the machine, which must always reflect lasting dishonor and reproach upon the people o f Georgia. The knowledge o f the invention spread through the State, and crowds o f people came from all quarters to see the machine, but it was not deemed prudent to gratify their curiosity, until a patent had been obtained. This restraint excited their passions, and they broke open the building in the night, carried off the model, and forthwith commenced to make machines, with some slight de viations from the original, with the hope o f avoiding the penalty for violating the patent. This was to be expected, and so far no responsibility could at tach to the community. Individuals, regardless o f the rights o f others, and ready to invade their privileges and property, are to be found in all coun tries. It is only where no law exists for the punishment o f such crimes, or where the courts o f justice prove inadequate to the vindication o f the law, that society can be justly charged with participating in the offence. This was the aspect that the State o f Georgia soon assumed, in relation to W hitney’s invention. W h en suits were commenced for violations o f the patent, the jurors ar rayed themselves against the patentees, and in spite o f the charge o f the court, acquitted those who violated their rights. Private interest was now so strongly enlisted against the claims o f the in ventor— the violations were so multiplied, that public sentiment became cor- The Cotton Gin. 635 rupted, and arrayed itself on the side o f what seemed a general interest. This, however, could not be effected upon the hold footing o f a direct inva sion o f private property, for the benefit of the public. In order to bring this about, the public mind must be deceived, before it could be corrupted. Be fore the community could be induced to sacrifice its benefactor, it must be taught to believe him an impostor. Great exertions were therefore made to create a belief that "Whitney was not the inventor o f the Cotton G in ; but that somebody in Switzerland had commenced the idea o f it before him, and, especially, that one Hodgin Holmes was entitled to the credit o f introducing saws, instead o f wire teeth. Upon these grounds ostensibly, but in reality because the cotton planters in Georgia were unwilling to pay for the use o f an invention that had covered the State with cotton plantations, and raised their owners to affluence, W h it ney & Miller, who was his partner, were unable to obtain a favorable de cision in that State for the infringement o f their patent, until December, 1807, when thirteen years o f the patent had expired. Nor was this the whole extent to which this unprincipled opposition was carried. The States o f North and South Carolinahad entered into agreements with the patentees for the people o f those States. In the honest old North State, a tax o f five shillings and sixpence was laid upon every saw employed in gin ning cotton, which for five years was collected, and after deducting the ex: penses o f collection, was paid over to the patentee. The State o f South Carolina agreed to give fifty thousand dollars for the use o f the patent; but after paying twenty thousand dollars, the Legislature was induced, by representations from the Legislature o f Georgia, not only to suspend the payment o f the residue, but to commence a suit for the sum paid, and to arrest W hitney until after full examination. Feelings o f indig nation o f the deception practised by the demagogues o f Georgia, prompted them to withdraw the suit, and to carry into effect the original contract. The Legislature o f Tennessee also agreed to pay twenty-seven and a half cents for each gin saw used in the State for a period o f four years. The State o f Georgia, however, did not relax its opposition to W hitney, nor its citizens cease to violate his patent. On the contrary, they sought to pre vent the citizens o f the adjoining States from making the compensation, that their feelings o f justice induced them to offer. The governor o f Georgia, in 1803, in his message to the Legislature, took strong ground against W hitney’ s right, and a committee o f the Legislature recommended resolutions, asking the cooperation of North and South Caro lina and Tennessee, in this unprincipled crusade against the legal rights and property of a private citizen. There is, perhaps, nowhere to be found in the annals o f the violation o f private rights by public bodies— certainly not in this country— not even in the dark history o f repudiation, a more unblushing avowal o f the sordid m o tives, than those avowed by the State o f Georgia in the following reso lutions :— “ Resolved, that the Senators and Representatives o f this State in Congress be, and they hereby are, instructed to use their utmost endeavors to obtain a modifi cation o f the act, entitled an act to extend the privilege o f obtaining patents for useful discoveries and inventions, to certain persons therein mentioned, and to en large and define the penalties for violating the rights o f patentees, so as to pre vent the operation o f it to the injury o f that most valuable staple, cotton, and the cramping of genius in improvements, in Miller & Whitney’s Patent Gin, as well as 636 The Cotton Gin. to limit the price o f obtaining a right o f using it, the price at present being un bounded, and the planter and poor artificer altogether at the mercy o f the patent ees, who may raise the price to any sum they please.” “ And, in case the said Senators and Representatives o f this State shall find such modification impracticable, that they do then use their best endeavors to in duce Congress, from the example o f other nations, to make compensation to Miller & Whitney for their discovery, take up the patent-right, and release the Southern States from so burdensome a grievance.” The effect o f these resolutions was to induce Tennessee to suspend the payment o f the tax laid upon Cotton Gins, and a similar attempt was made in North Carolina. The good old North State proved true to her unstained character. She repudiated not her pledged faith, but the sordid temptation held out to her integrity, and stands, as she always has stood, an example to her neighbors o f undeviating fidelity to all her public engagements, whether to individuals, or to the Constitution, which she was slow to approve, and has hitherto shown herself incapable o f violating. In the other States, the example o f Georgia prevented W hitney from re ceiving the just reward o f his ingenuity, and although South Carolina after wards repented o f her precipitancy, and carried out her contracts, the incon venience, embarrassment, and positive loss resulting from this opposition, prevented any decision on the merits o f his patent until December, 1807, when in a suit brought against Arthur Frost, on a violation o f the right in Georgia, Judge Johnson gave a decision, from which we make the follow ing extracts:— The defendant, in violation o f the patent-right, has constructed, and con tinues to use, this machine ; and the object o f this suit is to obtain a perpet ual injunction, to prevent a continuance o f this infraction of complainants’ right. Defendant admits most o f the facts in the bill set forth, but contends that the complainants are not entitled to the benefits o f the act o f Congress on this subject, because— 1st. The invention is not original. 2d. Is not useful. 3d. That the machine which he uses is materially different from their in vention, in the application o f an improvement, the invention o f another person. To support the originality o f the invention, the complainants have pro duced a variety o f depositions o f witnesses, examined under commission, whose examination expressly proves the origin, progress, and completion of the machine by W hitney, one o f the co-partners. Persons who were made privy to his first discovery, testify to the several experiments which he made in their presence, before he ventured to expose his invention to the scrutiny o f the public eye. But it is not necessary to resort to such testimony to maintain this point. The jealousy o f the artist to maintain that reputation which his ingenuity has justly acquired, has urged him to unnecessary pains on this subject. There are circumstances in the knowledge o f all mankind, which prove the originality o f this invention more satisfactorily to the mind, than the direct testimony o f a host o f witnesses. The cotton plant furnished clothing to mankind, before the age o f Herodotus. The green seed is a species much more productive than the black, and by nature adapted to a much greater variety o f climate. But by reason o f the strong adherance o f the fibre to The Cotton Gin. 637 the seed, without the aid o f some more powerful machine for separating it than any formerly known among us, the cultivation o f it would never have been made an object. The machine, o f which Mr .W hitney claims the in vention, so facilitates the preparation o f this species for use, that the cultiva tion o f it has suddenly become an object o f infinitely greater national im portance than that o f the other species ever can be. Is it, then, to be ima gined, that if this machine had been discovered, the use o f it would ever have been lost, or could have been confined to any tract or country left un explored by commercial enterprise ? But it is unnecessary to remark further on this subject. A number o f years have elapsed since Mr. W hitney took out his patent, and no one has produced or pretended to prove the existence o f a machine o f similar construction or use. 2d. W ith regard to the utility o f this discovery, the Court would deem it a waste o f time to dwell long upon this topic. Is there a man who hears us who has not experienced its utility ? The whole interior of the Southern States was languishing, and its inhabitants emigrating, for want o f some ob ject to engage their attention, and employ their industry, when the invention o f this machine at once opened views to them, which set the whole country in active motion. From childhood to age it has presented to us a lucrative employment. Individuals who were depressed with poverty, and sunk in idleness, have suddenly risen to wealth and respectability. Our debts have been paid off. Our capitals have increased, and our lands trebled them selves in value. W e cannot express the weight o f the obligation which the country owes to this invention. The extent o f it cannot now be seen. Some faint presentiments may be formed, from the reflection that cotton is rapidly supplanting wool, flax, silk, and even furs in manufactures, and may one day profitably supply the use o f specie in our East India trade. Our sister States, also, participate in the benefits o f this invention ; for, besides affording the raw material for their manufactures, the bulkiness and quantity o f the article afford a valuable employment o f their shipping. 3d. The third and last ground taken by defendant, appears to be that upon which ho mostly relies. In the specification, the teeth made use o f are o f strong wire, inserted into the cylinder. This is certainly a meritorious improvement in the mechanical process o f constructing this machine. But, at last, what does it amount to, except a more convenient mode o f making the same thing ? Every characteristic o f Mr. W hitney’s machine is pre served. The cylinder, the iron tooth, the rotary motion o f the tooth, the breast work and brush, and all the merit that this discovery can assume, is that o f a more expeditious mode o f attaching the tooth to the cylinder. After being attached, in operation and effect they are entirely the same. Mr. W hitney may not be at liberty to use Mr. Holm e’s iron plate, but certainly Mr. Holme’s improvement does not destroy Mr. W hitney’s patent-right. Let the decree o f a perpetual injunction be entered. Out o f sixty suits instituted for violations o f his patent, this was the first in which a decision was had upon the merits o f his invention. This was followed up at the next term, by verdicts for damages in two other cases, o f fifteen hundred dollars, and two thousand dollars. Thirteen years o f his patent, however, had now expired, and it was too late for him to expect any remuneration for his invention. The expenses o f establishing his right had swallowed up the sums received from those ac knowledging their obligation to remunerate him, and the interest against a further extension o f his patent was too general to permit him to hope for 638 The Cotton Gin. success in such an application. The opposition, therefore, had virtually suc ceeded in depriving him o f his property. The combination had triumphed in appropriating the invention, -without compensating the inventor. The State o f Georgia could boast that she had opened the way to wealth to all the planting States, in preventing the inventor o f the Cotton Gin from reap ing any substantial reward for his discovery. She had, in the language o f her resolutions, “ prevented the operation o f the patent act, to the injury o f that most valuable staple, cotton, and the cramping o f genius in improve ments in Miller & W hitney’s Patent Gin.” “ The planter and poor artificer were no longer at the mercy o f their patentees.” “ The Southern States were released from so burdensome a grievance,” without the intervention of Congress. B y the energy and unity o f her citizens, she had succeeded in trampling upon the patent laws, as a few years later she did upon the Cher okee treaties. Glorious achievement! Georgia was indeed an independent State; indepen dent not only o f all federal obligations, but o f all rules that right-minded men obey and reverence. Let her enjoy that reputation. N o other State will claim any share in the achievement. The sole glory must always belong to her, and so long as the invention continues to meliorate the toil o f her slaves, and to add to the wealth o f her citizens, so long will be the memory o f the injustice practised towards the greatest practical benefactor o f the Southern States, cast a dark shadow upon the character o f the State. The moral o f this history should not, however, be confined to Georgia ; much may be learned by other States. Everywhere the temptation to oppose the execution o f the law, where its enforcement operates against the many, and to the advantage o f the few, is too readily listened to. It requires moral principle and self-control to with stand the suggestions o f self-interest, especially when public opinion seems on that side. It is the weak point o f our institutions. The remonstrances o f one seem so insignificant when opposed to the demands o f the many, that it requires an incessant guard to prevent injustice, when the rights o f an individual come in collision with the temporary interest o f the mass. A nd yet those rights must be vindicated. The permanent interests o f the com munity are best subserved by perfect protection being extended to the rights o f the humblest individual— where the laborer and mechanic, denizens o f a crowded metropolis, and the industrious cottager, remote from all police and armed sentinels, can repose in safety under the invisible but all-powerful egis o f the law. This is the great object o f government. It is to guard individual rights that our own constitutions were formed. The provisions relating to the writ o f habeas corpus, trial by jury, the restriction o f the right o f eminent domain, the prohibition o f expost fa cto laws, and all laws impair ing the obligation o f contracts, what are they but muniments erected by our ancestors for the protection o f private rights. They form the bulwark o f our freedom. The independence o f the country, and its protection from foreign aggression and violence, rest upon the valor and strength o f the American people, but these are restraints imposed by themselves for the safe guard o f personal right. A self-imposed compact, solemnly entered into by the whole community, that it will not exercise that authority which it re sumes after centuries o f despotic abuse, for the oppression o f a private cit izen. Arm ed with that safe-guard, an American citizen may stand on his own domain, and call upon the whole countiy to protect him in the exercise o f his rights, and make his cause its own. Upon the promptitude with P opulation o f N ew E ngland. 639 which it responds to that call depends the existence o f the government in its pristine spirit. If it heed not the call, if it leave that one man unaided in the assertion o f his unquestioned right, if it put not forth its strength when thus invoked, the character o f our institutions is changed. It is no longer a government o f law, but o f power. The citizen thus suffering unredressed injustice from the majority, no mat ter under what pretence, whether that his patent checks the growth o f cot ton, or that his manorial rights extract rente from the hard-working farmer, that man is subjected to an exercise o f despotic power as clearly as if he had been sent to the Bastile by the mandate o f an arbitrary monarch. The injustice being sanctioned or enjoined by the voice o f the community, so far from being a mitigation, is rather an aggravation o f his suffering. His sole hope, then, is in the returning reason o f the people. W h en the excitement is over, when the voice o f passion is stifled, and the contest has been ended, then it is that justice is vindicated. This, however, is too often postponed, until the immediate actors in the scene have passed from the stage, and an other generation appears to sit in judgment upon their motives and actions. Then, when it is too late to mete out practical justice, either by rewarding the benefactors o f mankind, or punishing those who slandered and persecu ted them, then it is that impartial history assumes the duty o f setting forth the facte in their true colors, and stamping upon them the character they must forever hold in the estimation o f mankind. The true interest o f Georgia would have been as essentially promoted by her making full conrpensation for the use o f the Cotton Gin, as by the illegal violation o f W hitney’s patent; but nothing can erase from her records the part taken by the community in the perpetration o f that injustice, or remove the stain upon the reputation o f the State, J. b . Art. VIII.— P O P U L A T IO N OF N E W E N G L A N D . T he six States commonly known as Hew England, comprise a territory o f 65,000 square miles, and lie between 41° and 48° 12' north latitude, and 65° 55' and 74° 10' west longitude. The greatest length o f this territory is about 575 miles, and its breadth is from 150 to 300 miles. Its area is less than that o f Virginia, and but little larger than that o f Illinois. This region o f country has become, to all who have breathed its air, or been nur tured upon its soil, an object o f deep interest. It was among the earliest set tled portions o f the North American continent— the chosen home o f the ex iled Puritans, and the place where American independence originated, and was most firmly maintained. Its growth in population, though less rapid than many other portions o f the country, has been constant, and in every period since the settlement at Plymouth, has been increasing, though not at a uniform rate, owing to emi gration, wars, and other causes. The earliest settlers o f New England did not find the country abandoned by the natives, nor did they seek a soil entirely fitted or prepared for cultiva tion, as does the present emigrant to some parts o f the W est and North ; but for more than a century they had to fight, not for an extension o f ter ritory, but to maintain even those which have already been made. It was a lon g and serious struggle between the races, and o f such a characrer that, at the end o f the first century from the settlement at Plymouth, a large portion 640 P opulation o f N ew England. o f New England was still in possession o f the natives o f the soil, the wild Indians and beasts. In 1720, but a small portion o f Maine had been set tled by the English, and New Hampshire had an English population o f only about 10,000, who were mostly settled in a few southern and south-western towns. Vermont was but a wilderness; Massachusetts had hardly been settled beyond Worcester, and that could scarcely be called a permanent settlement; Connecticut had a population o f some 40,000, but this was not scattered over half her present territory : and Rhode Island had then no settlement o f consequence beyond the borders o f Narragansett Bay. The whole number o f the inhabitants o f New England, at that time, was supposed to number 130,000 or 140,000. The wars with the Eastern and New Hampshire In dians, in 1722 and 1725, and the success o f the colonists over them, gave a new impulse to settlements in that direction, and we find that in 1750 the population o f New Hampshire had increased to 30,000, and that o f Maine to 10,000 or 12,000. During the early settlements o f New England, no accurate census was ta ken, and though we cannot get the exact amount, yet data do exist, which enable us to estimate pretty nearly its progress. For the first 23 years, to the union o f the New England colonies, in 1643, the increase o f population was chiefly owing to emigration from the mother country. During a part o f this time, it was very great. In 1635 it is said that 3,000 settlers came to Massachusetts, and about the same number in 1638. In 1639, there were three regiments in Massachusetts, and about 1,000 soldiers. It must be borne in mind that emigrants w’ere leaving, as well as coming, to New Eng land, at this period ; and even as early as 1631 or 1632, a company removed from Lynn to Long Island, and in 1630, some o f the Massachusetts people, finding themselves straightened for land, crossed the wilderness, and settled on the Connecticut River. In 1642, there had been settled, in New England, 50 towns and villages, about 40 churches established, and 77 ministers set tled, who came out from England, and about 16 students, who afterwards entered the ministry. In 1643, at the time o f the union o f the colonies, the proportion o f men which each agreed to furnish for their common defense, was 100 for Massa chusetts, and 45 for each o f the other colonies. I f this proportion is a true indication o f the comparative strength o f the United Colonies, as it un doubtedly was, and if the population o f Massachusetts was then 6,000, that o f Plym outh alone would have been 2,700, and that o f Connecticut and New Haven 5,400, the whole amounting to nearly 15,000. H ow near this estimate comes to the truth, we do not pretend to sa y ; but it seems to give too great a population to Connecticut and New Haven, for in 1655 there were but eight towns settled in the colony o f Connecticut, a n d ' five in New Haven. In 1655, the ratable polls in Connecticut were 753, wdiich would give a population o f upwards o f 3,000. In 1650, the whole popula tion o f New England has been estimated at 50,000. In 1665, the militia in Massachusetts were about 5,000 strong, from which we may infer the whole population must have been nearly 30,000. In 1671, the number o f males in Connecticut and New Haven, between the ages o f 16 and 60, was 2,050, which gives the population for that colony about 10,000. In 1693, the whole population o f New England was estimated at 100,000, and there were then 130 churches, or one church for every 750 persons. In 1673, a writer gives the following account o f Boston :— “ It has,” says Population o f N ew England. 641 he, “ 1,500 families, five iron works, which cast no guns, 15 merchants, worth £ 5 ,000 each, 500 persons worth £3 ,000 each, that no house in New Eng land has above 20 rooms, and not 20 in Boston that had 10 rooms ; there were no beggars, and not three persons were annually put to death for th eft; a dancing school was set up, but put dow n ; a fencing school was allowed. In 1700, the whole population o f New England was supposed to be 120.000, o f which— Massachusetts had......................... Connecticut.................................... '70,000 30,000 I | Rhode Island New Hampshire. had. 10,000 This shows an increase on the population o f 1660, in 40 years, o f 70,000, or 140 per cent. From this statement, it appears that the population dou bled in about 28 years. In 1759, the whole population o f New England is supposed to have been 345.000, o f which— Massachusetts h ad... . . . . . . . 200,000 I Rhode Island had...................... New Hampshire........................... 30,000 | Connecticut. 35,000 80,000 which would give an increase, in 49 years, o f 225,000, or nearly 200 per cent. This gives nearly the same rates o f increase between 1700 and 1749, as there was between 1660 and 1 7 0 0 ; and it also gives nearly the same rate of increase in each o f the four colonies— that o f Connecticut being the smallest, and that o f Rhode Island the largest. This is, however, but an estimate o f the population, though probably nearly correct. In 1730, a census was taken in Rhode Island, by which it appears that the whole population was then 17,935, o f which 15,302 were whites, 985 were Indians, and 1,648 were negroes. I f the population, in 1750, had become 35,000, as was estimated, it must have doubled in about 20 years. In 1735, a valuation in Massachusetts was taken, by wliich it appears its white male inhabitants o f 16 years o f age, and upward, was 35,427, which would give an entire population o f 140,000. In 1752, the ratable polls were 41,000, which would give a population o f 165.000. A t the beginning o f the old French W ar, in 1754, the population o f New England was about 420,000, and in 1763 it is supposed to have increased to 500.000. During this year, a census o f Massachusetts was taken, and the whole white population was 235,810, and 5,214 blacks. This includes about 20,000 in the district of Maine. In 1762, a census o f Connecticut was taken, by which it appears that there was 151,000 whites, and 4,590 blacks, in that State. In 1775, at the beginning o f the Revolution, the population o f New Eng land was as follow s:— New Hampshire had................... Massachusetts................ ............. Rhode Island................................ 80,000 345,000 60,000 Connecticut had................. Making, in all..................... 200,000 ---------685,000 being an increase o f 270,000 in 20 years, or 65 per cent. Estimates and censuses were made at the close o f the war in 1783, by which it appeared that the increase o f population, for the nine years previous, had been about 20,000. On the adoption o f the Federal Constitution, a new census was taken, b y which it appears that in 1790, the whole population o f the New England vol. x xi. — no. v i. 41 10,000 642 1 P opu lation o f N ew England. States was 1,009,522, o f which 3,886 were slaves— 2,764 o f whom were in Connecticut. This would give an increase o f population from 1775 to 1790, o f 325,500, equal to 471 per cent. In 1800, the population was 1,233,011, making an increase, for ten years, o f 233,589, or a trifle more than 23 per cent. In 1810, the whole population was 1,491,973, making an increase, for ten years, o f 258,973, or 21 per cent. In 1820, it was 1,659,808, making an increase, in ten years, o f 167,836, or a little above 11 per cent. In 1830, the whole population was 1,955,704, making an increase, in ten years, o f 304,909, or 18-i per cent. In 1840, the population was 2,233,950, making an increase o f 278,691, or 141 per cent, in ten years. From the above, it will be seen that the greatest increase o f the per centage o f population under the Federal Government, has been between the years 1790 and 1800, and the least between 1810 and 1820, and the great est actual increase was.between the years 1820 and 1830. It will be seen that the increase o f population, from 1700 to 1750, was nearly 200 per cent, and from 1750 to 1800, 250 per cent, and from 1830 to 1840, about 82 per cent, which would be equal to about 100 per cent for 50 years. The increase o f population, from 1750 to 1800, was 883,000, and from 1800 to 1840, it was 1,000,000, showing a greater actual increase, but a much less per centage. A t the same rate o f increase for the next half century, which has actually taken place in the last 50 years, the population o f New England, at the ex piration o f it, will be 5,000,000. B y the last census, the number o f inhabitants to a square mile, in Massa chusetts, was 98 ; in Bhode Island, 8 0 ; Maine, 16 ; New Hampshire, 31 ; Vermont, 31 ; and Connecticut, 66. W ere the whole o f New England densely peopled, as in Massachusetts, it would have a population o f above 6, 000, 000. The rate o f increase has been different, in the different States. That of Maine has been, for each ten years the last fifty years, 50, 50, 31, 33, and 25 per cent. That o f New Hampshire has been 29, 17±, 18, 10, 16>J- per cent. That o f Vermont has been 80, 40, 8, 18J, and 4 per cent. That o f Massachusetts has been 131, 12, 11, 17, and 19-’ - per cent. That o f Connecticut has been 6, 4, 5, 8, and 4-J- per cent. That o f Rhode Island has been i , 11, 8, 17, and 111 per cent. It will be seen that during the last ten years, the greatest increase has been in Maine, and the least in Vermont. During the first ten o f the last fifty years, it was the greatest in Vermont, and the least in Rhode Island. Mas sachusetts stands next to Maine, in its ratio o f increase. The rate o f increase in each o f the New England States will probably hereafter be relatively more uniform than heretofore. The same causes which will promote the prosperity o f one, will operate upon all. Maine and V er mont will no longer have the advantage, as before, o f being new States. The establishment o f manufactories in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connec ticut, has had a tendency to change the tide o f emigration, and its present tendency is rather to, than from , the old States. The more intimate connec P opulation o f N ew E ngland. 643 tion now made between them, by means o f railroads, will tend to give them a more uniform prosperity, and to develope more equally tbeir resources. The change, however, from an agricultural to a manufacturing people, has undoubtedly had a tendency to increase the growth o f large towns and cities at a greater rate than the country. Boston affords a good illustration o f this fa ct:— In 1700 1722 1742 1752 1765 1790 her population was__ ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... 7,000 In 1800 ..................... 10,567 1 8 1 0 ..................... 16,382 1820 ..................... ............... 17,574 1830 ..................... ............... 15,520 1840 ..................... ............... 18,088 43,298 61,392 93,470 The increase from 1700 to 1750, was about 100 per cent, and from 1750 to 1800, about 46 per cent— while the increase o f New England, during the same period, was 250 per cent. The increase o f Boston did not equal that o f the State, or o f New England, till 1790. Since that time, and until 1820, its rate o f increase was some greater than that o f Massachusetts, or New England. From 1820 to 1840, its increase was about 110 per cent, while that o f all New England was only about 33 per cent. The rate o f increase o f the New England population, for the last 40 years, has been little more than that o f some o f the old countries in Europe. From 1801 to 1811, England gained 144 per cent, and W ales and Scotland 13 per cent each. From 1811 to 1821, the gain o f England was 18 per cent, and in Scotland, 15-f. Germany is said to have increased about 1£ per cent per annum, since the peace o f Europe, and such is supposed to have been nearly the increase in France. The above facts show that notwithstanding the great emigration from New England, and more especially for the last 50 years, and notwithstanding the constant wars in which she was engaged, for a century and a half from the time o f her settlement, and the consequent drain upon her population caused b y it, yet she has made constant progress in her numbers, as well as in her wealth, and in the extension o f her enterprise. It was said by Burke, more than 60 years ago, in speaking o f the people o f New England, “ that there was no sea that was not vexed by their fisheries, and no climate that was not a witness to their toils.” Since then, her own population, now living and laboring on the soil, has nearly quadrupled, while, at the same time, she has been sending forth emigrant after emigrant, and colony after colony, spreading themselves over every portion o f the country, and forming no unimportant part o f the population o f half o f the States o f the Union. N or is this progressive growth likely to cease, at least for centuries to come. Never was there a time when more successful efforts were making for the development o f her resources, nor when her sons had stronger reasons to be attached to her hills and vallies, and to the institutions which have made , them glorious and worthy the residence o f freemen. Hutchinson tells us that the only regret expressed by many o f the fathers o f New England, in closing their earthly career, was, that they could not live to see her future glory 1 May not we— nay, may not generations yet to come, express the same regret, and not live to see her greatest and noblest triumphs ? Commercial Code o f Spain. 644 Art. IS.— C O M M E R C I A L C O D E OF S P A I N . NUM BER X. CONCERNING PERSONS WHO MAY INTERVENE IN MARITIME COMMERCE. Section 1st. O f Navieros, or the Managing Owners o f Ships, or the person who controls their destination. This person is called an Exercitor in the Civil Law, and in the English Law usually denominated the ship’s husband. H e may be a part owner or a stranger. See Bell’s Law o f Scotland, p. 449. In the Spanish law he is called a Naviero, which term we shall adopt in our translation. D e L o-N aviero. A rticle 616. N o person shall be a Naviero, who does not possess the le gal capacity which the exercise o f commerce demands. 617. A ll Navieros must be necessarily enrolled in the registration o f com merce, within the province where they reside, and without this requisite they cannot control their ship for navigation. 618. To the Naviero, personally, pertains to make all the respective con tracts concerning the vessel, its administration, its freights, its voyages, and the captain and mate o f the ship ought to conform themselves to the in structions and orders which they receive from the Naviero, being responsible for whatever they may do in contravention o f such orders and instructions. 619. Also it corresponds to the Naviero to nominate to them, the captain o f the ship, but if he should have part owners in the part o f the vessel, said appointments shall be made by a majority o f all the part owners. 620. The Navieros can, for themselves, discharge the offices o f captain and mate o f their own vessel, without being prevented by the objection o f any part owner, at least by one who has not been matriculated, which gratifica tion shall confer a preference. In case o f two part owners, who have both been matriculated, concurring to solicit such appointment or command o f the vessel, he who holds the greatest interest in the vessel shall be preferred ; and if both hold an equal portion in the vessel, it shall be determined by lot who shall have the com mand o f the vessel. 621. The Naviero is responsible for the debts and obligations which the captain o f the ship may contract for repairing her, fitting her out, and fur nishing her with provisions : and he cannot avoid this responsibility by al leging that the captain exceeded his powers, or acted contrary to his orders and instructions. Always it being understood that the creditor shall justify himslf that the amount for which he demands payment was employed for the benefit o f the ship. 622. Also there shall fall upon the Naviero the responsibility o f the in demnifications in favor o f a third party, which may have been occasioned by the conduct o f the captain, in custody o f the effects which have been loaded into the vessel by the Naviero, but he can save himself from this re sponsibility by making an abandonment o f the vessel, with the whole o f her appurtenances and height, which have been earned on the voyage. 623. The Naviero is not responsible for any contract which the captain has made for his own particular benefit, although the captain has made use o f the ship for its fulfillment. Commercial Code o f Spain. 645 N or for the obligation 'which the captain may have contracted outside o f the limits o f his functions, without a special authority to do so— nor for those contracts which the captain may have made without the solemnities prescribed b y the laws as conditions essential for their validity. 624. Neither is the Naviero held responsible for the excesses which, dur ing the navigation, the captain and ship’s company may com m it; and a right only is had on account o f these excesses to proceed against the persons and goods o f those who shall commit these faults. 625. The Naviero shall indemnify the captain for all the supplies which he shall furnish for the use o f the ship, with his own funds, or those o f other persons, always when he shall have acted according to his instructions, or in use o f the powers which legitimately are competent. 626. Before the sailing o f the vessel, the Naviero can dismiss, at his pleasure, the captain and individuals composing the ship’s company, when the hiring shall not be made for any particular time, or determined voyage, paying them their wages which they have earned, according to their contract, and without any other indemnification than what shall be founded in an ex pressed and determined agreement. 627. The captain, and any other individual o f the ship’s comyany, being discharged during the voyage, shall be paid their salary until they return to the port where they were hired and shipped, unless they shall have commit ted a fault which may have given a just cause for discharging them, or may have incapacitated them for discharging their duties. 628. W h en the agreement o f the captain and the individuals o f the ship’s company, with the Naviero, shall be made for a determinate time or voyage, they cannot be discharged until the completion o f their contracts, except for cause o f insubordination, o f a grave and dangerous nature, habitual drunk enness, or damage caused to the vessel or her cargo, by deceit or negligence, manifest or proved. 629. The captain o f the ship being a part owner in the vessel, cannot be discharged, unless the Naviero shall reimburse the value o f his portion solicial, which, in defect o f an agreement between the parties, shall be estimated by skillful persons named by both parties, or officially, if they shall not make a verification o f it. 630. I f the captain who is part owner has obtained command o f the ves sel b y a special agreement in the acts o f the company, he cannot be deprived o f his station, without a grave cause. 631. The Naviero cannot contract for nor admit more cargo on board than what corresponds to the capacity which shall be declared to his ship in her matriculation, and if he should do this, he shall be responsible for the damages which may residt to the shippers. 632. I f a Naviero should contract for more cargo than what the vessel ought to carry, with reference to her capacity, he shall indemnify the ship pers with whom he has failed to fulfill their contracts, for all the damages which has happened to them by the want o f such fulfillment. 633. Every contract between the Naviero and the captain fails in case of the sale o f the vessel, reserving to the latter his rights for indemnification, which shall correspond to him according to the stipulated agreement with the Naviero. The vessel being sold, shall remain obligated as security for the payment o f this indemnification, if, after a demand has been made against the seller, he should turn out to be insolvent. a. k. 646 M ercantile Law Cases. MERCANTILE LAW CASES. AGENTS AND FACTORS. Superior Court, New York. Before Hon. L. H. Sanford, and a jury. J. & R. Milbank & Co. vs. A. Dennistonn & Co. This was an action for the misconduct o f the defendants, as agents o f the plaintiffs, in their sale o f 5,000 barrels o f flour, at Liverpool, in the summer o f 1846. T he allegations were, that the sale was in violation o f orders, and also that it was not made with reasonable care and diligence. Milbank & Co., who were merchants at New York, with a branch o f their house at New Orleans, on the 25th o f June, 1646, wrote to Dennistonn & Co., at Liverpool, having a branch o f their house at New York, announcing tw o ship ments o f flou r; one o f 5,000 barrels, by ship Nicholas Biddle, and 3,000 barrels by the Georgians, both then on their voyage from New Orleans to Liverpool. Referring to arrangements intended by them with Dennistonn’s New Y ork house, Milbank & Co. w rite:— “ Y ou will please make no disposition o f the flour, until w e give you ourwishes per Caledonia, unless 22s. in bond is obtainable; in which case, if, in your judgment, you deem it our interest to accept that figure, please do so. Our R. W . Milbank designs visiting your city soon, and we trust our correspondence may be extended.” T he Caledonia, sailing soon afterwards, took out another letter from Milbank & Co., to Dennistonn & Co., dated 27th June, in which, enclosing invoices o f the tw o shipments, and alluding to the good quality and condition o f the flour, they write as fo llo w s :— “ W e fear the first introductions for consumption may tend to continue low prices, as they will probably be large immediately on the passage o f the new bill. Believing that after the stocks now in bond shall have been reduced by consumption, &c., an improvement may ensue, w e would express our desire that these parcels may be withheld from the market until the operation o f the Corn Law shall have produced its results. W e hope w e may not err in assum ing its passage. Though if 22s. in bond is obtainable on arrival, and you think our interest dictates such sale, please so dispose o f it. Our R . W . Milbank de signs visiting your city, by steamer o f the 16th o f July, and will confer with you.” R. W . Milbank was detained until the middle o f August, and did not reach Liverpool until the 4th o f September. Dennistonn & Co., on the 18th o f July, acknowledged the receipt o f Milbank’s letters, and that the Nicholas Biddle, with 5,000 barrels, had arrived. They w rite: — “ Y ou seem to think that 22s. per barrel should be taken for it in b on d ; but this is 25s. free, at present, and this figure is not obtainable for New Orleans flour. I f o f good quality, and sweet, 24s. might be obtained. In tw o days w e hope to get a sample, and have it valued; but as we have little expectation o f getting an offer at the price you allude to, w e shall likely store the flour, and await the arrival o f Mr. R . W . Milbank, with whom we can confer as to the fu ture proceedings.” On the 3d o f August, Dennistonn & Co. inform Milbank & Co. o f the arrival o f the Georgians, with the 3,000 barrels. They proceed:— “ W e much fear that this shipment, as well as that per Nicholas Biddle, will disappoint y o u ; as, in com mon with almost all the flour from the Gulf, this year, if not sour, it will only bring the price o f sour. Our market has been at a stand for some days; but as the last tw o or three days have been unsettled, there may possibly be some activ ity to-morrow.” Accompanying the letter was a circular, in which, after stating the dullness o f the grain market, the commencement and favorable appearance o f the harvest in England, they say that “ Indian corn had risen in price, in consequence o f very alarming accounts o f a blight o f the potatoe crop in Ireland.” The cargo o f the Nicholas Biddle was put in charge o f a brother at Liverpool, M ercantile L aw Cases. 647 on the 21st o f July. The ship began discharging July 27th, and the flour was put in store. On the 4th, 5th, and 7th o f August, the 5,000 barrels ex Nicholas Biddle were all sold at 21s., duty paid. On the 18th o f August Dennistonn &. Co. announce the sale, but state that in consequence o f a rise in the market, owing to the harvest in England turning out badly, and the continued information, both from England and Ireland, o f the blight o f the potatoe, they regretted the sale, and that they should hold the Georgiana’s cargo, which, they hoped, would make up the deficiency. On receiving news o f the sale, Milbank & Co. refused it, and complained that their orders had not been conformed to. Previously, however, on the 31st o f July, the Milbanks at New York wrote to Messrs. Dennistonn:— “ W e suppose that, ere this, the crop o f wheat has been ascertained as to its probable yield, and the grain and flour market conformed to such results. W e therefore ask you to exercise your discretion in effecting sales for us.” This letter arrived at Liverpool during an excitement produced by bad weather and potatoe blight, say August 12th. The cargo o f the Georgiana was proved to be in the same condition, and o f the same quality as that by the Nicholas Biddle. It was kept till the end o f Sep tember, and then, and in October, it was sold at 29s., and 29s. 9d. per barrel. The Corn Law went into operation on the 27th o f June. The plaintiffs claimed that they had lost the difference between this price and that for which the Nicholas Biddle’s cargo was sold, by the defendants’ selling the latter as they did; insisting that the same was unwarranted by the orders, and was negligent. The defendants sold some similar flour o f their own, about the time o f the sale o f the Nicholas Biddle’s flour, at the same price, and gave evidence that the rise o f price was not contemplated at the time o f that sale. No bad faith was in any manner imputed to the defendants. By the account current, including the proceeds o f the sales o f the cargoes, the de fendants were charged with advances on the 14th o f July, due on the 15th o f Septem ber, leaving a balance o f about $1,400, which the defendants paid, and also they ten dered and paid into court about $180, accruing from some small items o f account between the parties. The sales o f the flour ex Nicholas Biddle, yielded about $2 30 per barrel, and the loss, according to the price o f the flour ex Georgiana, was about $9,500. Mr. L o r d , on part o f the plaintiff, contended, 1st. That the orders to sell were to depend on the results o f the Corn L aw ; that the letters o f the plaintiffs plainly showed the expectation o f a fall in the prices, as a first result, but a rise as soon as the stocks thus thrown on the market should have been decreased by consump tion ; and there was no evidence that any such result had happened, or had been waited for. That the defendants’ determination to store the flour, expressed on the 18th o f July, and actually carried into effect by storing the cargo, begun to be landed on the 27th o f July, and which could but just have been got into store by the 4th o f August, when the sales were made, showed the defendants’ own judgment that the time for selling, indicated by the plaintiffs’ orders, had not ar rived. 2d. That under these circumstances, the sale was evidently made through inattention and neglect. There was no necessity calling for the sale. One o f the Milbanks was announced as on his passage, who should have been waited for before a sale, so much below expectation, was made. That the defendants, in their correspondence, put the subsequent rise o f price on the potatoe blight, and the short harvest; which potatoe blight had been announced by the defendants themselves, in their letter o f the 3d o f August, the very day before the sale; which letter also contained statements showing the harvest in England yet to be doubtful. That these facts, in connection with the absence o f any intimation, on the 3d o f August, o f the purpose o f selling, and the sale immediately made on the 4th o f August, gave satisfactory evidence that the defendants had wholly neglected the matter, and had left it all to the brokers, who had sacrificed the property. 648 M ercantile Law Cases. Mr. B idw ell , for the defendants, insisted that the orders were not explicit; and, in the absence o f all imputation o f bad faith, the fact o f the defendants’ selling was p roof that they took them, not to restrain them from selling, and that for such honest mistake, even if such, they were not responsible. That the results o f the Corn Law had taken place when the sale was m ade; it had been in opera tion more than a month, and all the Liverpool witnesses examined by the defend ants proved that the eifect was to reduce the prices. That the rise o f prices afterwards was not a result o f the Corn Law, but o f the potatoe blight, and de ficient harvest, which both became known only after the sale. That the potatoe blight mentioned in the letter o f the 3d o f August was in Ireland only, and it was not then affecting the English flour and grain m arket; that the sale was made b y a competent broker, in the way proved to be usual, and was justified by the opinions o f the experienced witnesses who had been examined. S a n d f o r d , Justice.— After stating the several dates and material facts, and the contents o f the letters, charged the ju ry :— That the letters o f the 25th and 27th o f June were orders to withhold the flour from market until the results o f the Corn Law, then expected to be passed, should be known, unless 22s. in bond could be obtained. T h e defendants, re ceiving the consignment, accompanied, at the time, with these instructions, were bound to obey them. Did they obey them ? What were the results meant by the plaintiffs’ letter ? It appears that in ex pectation of the Corn Law, large stocks o f bread stuffs had accumulated in Eng land in bond, in expectation o f the reduction o f duty. This was known to the defendants, and, as appears by the letters o f the plaintiffs, was supposed by them also. The letters express the expectation o f the immediate results being a fall o f pri ces, but that the further results would be a rise, from the consumption being in creased, and shipments, in the face o f low prices, being diminished; that a reac tion would take place. The plaintiffs insist that this was the result to which the letters referred. The defendants insist, that the immediate results were referred to, and that they had taken place before the sale. It is for the jury to say, under the facts known to the defendants, how they ought to have understood the letters in these respects, as men o f reasonable skill and knowledge o f business. If they were warranted in understanding the letters as they contend, they would not be liable. I f not, they will be liable, unless it appears that time had been given for the results, according to the plaintiffs’ construction o f the letters. There does not seem to be proof that it had. If, on this part o f the case, you find that the defendants violated instructions, then they are liable, and you need not further consider the case. But if the plaintiffs have not satisfied you o f this, then they place their claim on the ground o f the defendants’ negligence, inattention, and want o f skill in making the sale when they did. As factors, the defendants were bound for good faith, and reasonable skill and diligence, such as a prudent man managing his own affairs would exhibit. Exhibiting this, they would not be liable for mere error o f judgment. The sale o f their own flour, at the same time, and for a similar price, is evidence as to their good faith, which, indeed, is not denied; but it is not evi dence o f their skill or dilligence, for they may exhibit a want o f these in their own business. It is for you to decide, upon the whole evidence, whether such skill and dili gence have been bestowed on this sale. On the one hand, it is in proof, by some o f their witnesses, that the price o f breadstuffs was declining; that the results o f the Corn Law had been to depress them ; that the prospect o f the new crop was favorable. On the other hand, are the plaintiffs’ letters o f the 25th and 27th o f June, showing their wishes to hold on to the flour, the expected arrival, in a short time, o f one o f the plaintiffs at Liverpool, with whom they might con fer; the in creased consumption to arise from a reduction o f prices, the diminution o f im ports, the potatoe blight, as then known, the landing and storing o f the goods, and the sale so nearly follow ing on it. A ll these circumstances on each side, bear on the question, and you are to say if the defendants, in this sale, acted as a pru dent man would have acted in the management o f his own affairs; if they have, they are not liable; if not, they are. M ercantile Law Cases. 649 If, on either o f the grounds, the defendants are liable, it is then for you to say when the sale should have been made, so as to determine the price at which the plaintiffs’ damages are to be assessed. They claim that the sale o f the cargo o f the Georgiana shows the time and the price. Perhaps that is a fair criterion, as the plaintiffs actually did hold this cargo, and the results are given to you. Bu t this is a question for you. The jury found for the plaintiffs, and assessed their damages, inclusive o f the amount tendered, and also allowing interest, at §11,136 37. LIABILITIES OF RAILROADS. H. C o r n in g . The Connecticut River Railroad Company had recently the amount o f $9,040 damages awarded against them at the recent trial in favor o f E. H. Corning, E sq , for personal injury sustained while a jiassenger in one o f the cars o f the Company. The facts are thus stated:— At the time o f the accident, the engine which did the mischief, and which was running on trial, without any cars attached, was running about fifteen miles an hour, but the down train had so nearly stopped that it was moving at a very slow rate. No other persons beside Mr. E. H. Corning were much injured. The plaintiff did not experience much immediate inconvenience from his bruises. ‘ He came down to Springfield, went about town some time, attended to his business the next day, went to church the day following, it being Sunday, and some weeks after took a journey by railroad to Greenfield, and on his return, went from Northampton to Chicopee Falls by way o f Amherst, in a private con veyance. During the whole of this time, however, he suffered more or less inconvenience. Soon after, his sufferings increased, and his symptoms grew more alarming, and he has since been wholly incapacitated to attend to his ordinary business, and he has been under medical treatment. He has had palpitation o f the heart, a high pulse, dizziness, and one o f his eyes and one o f his legs have been seriously af fected. His attending physician did not, at first, deem his case alarming, nor was the plaintiff himself, nor his friends, much concerned about it. Several medical wit nesses were called during the trial, and they all seemed to agree that the best course for the plaintiff, at the outset, would have been to keep still and quiet, and be careful about his diet, but that the prescriptions actually made for him were wise, under the circumstances, considering how little was then known about his real condition, compared with what was developed by subsequent symptoms. The Court instructed the jury that they were to view the plaintiff’s constitu tion as it was when the suit was commenced, which was on the 21st o f August last, and not as it is at the present time. They were to award such damages as, in their opinion, would compensate him, so far as dollars and cents could do, for the injuries received. They were not to pay any attention to the fact that he might be a poor man, and the defendants a rich corporation, but consider only what amount of damage has been done, and what amount o f money would pay for it. The golden rule had nothing to do with the case, for if juries were to do as they would be done by, it would be impossible ever to get a man hung’. C ase of E zra ACTION TO RECOVER OF SURETIES FOR BONDS GIVEN FOR FAITHFUL PERFORMANCE OF TRUSTS. In the Supreme Judicial Court o f Massachusetts, 1849, Edward G. Loring, Judge o f Probate, vs. Simon Willard. Same vs. W o . Bacon. These were two suits against two different sureties, on two different bonds, given for the faithful performance o f his duties, by Charles Fox, guardian o f John W . Furness, a minor. The bond on which Willard was surety was given May 23d, 1832. In June, the guardian represented to the Judge o f Probate that a legacy o f $500 had been bequeathed to the ward, and that as the penalty o f the 050 M ercantile Law Cases. first bond was merely nominal, the bond was insufficient security. The Judge accordingly ordered a new bond, in the penal sum o f $1,000, which was given ac cordingly, with Mr. Bacon as surety. The former bond was not cancelled. The legacy was paid into the guardian’s hands. The guardian duly accounted for the interest up to the year 1838. In 1838, it appeared that he had neglected to ac count for the funds in his hands, and the Judge, at the instance o f the adminis trator o f the ward, ordered the bonds to be put in suit. M e t c a l f J., delivered the opinion o f the Court. It was objected, 1st, that the legacy to the ward was not a vested legacy, or one which the ward was entitled to receive, and that the guardian was not bound to account for it. But the same question came up in a former suit, in which the present administrator o f the ward, as executor o f the testator, sued Fox, the guardian, to recover back the legacy. That case, Furness vs. Fox, was decided in 1848, and it was there held that the legacy belonged to the ward. The guardian was clearly bound to account for it ; and his failure to do so was a breach o f the bond.' 2d, It was contended, that the second bond was void, because the Judge had no right to require i t ; and that the first bond was void, because it was superseded by the second. The Court, how ever, were clearly o f opinion that both bonds were valid. Whether the Judge could have required the second bond if objected to at that time by the guardian, it was not now necessary to decide; though it would seem that there ought to be such a power, where an insufficient bond was taken in the first instance. But here, the guardian o f his own motion suggested that the first bond was insuffi cient, and the execution o f the bond by the surety was entirely voluntary. There is no legal objection to filing several bonds with a single surety on each. The filing o f a second bond 'does not impair the first, judgment for the plaintiff against each defendant, for the penalty o f their respective bonds; with liberty to the defendants to be heard in chancery as to the amount; each defendant to con tribute towards the satisfaction o f the amount, in proportion to the penalty o f their respective bonds. QUESTION OF SIGNATURE. In the Court o f Common Pleas (Boston, Mass.), before Judge Perkins (August, 1849), Churchill vs. Donaldson. This was a suit originally commenced in the Justice’s Court, to recover the price o f a bureau, claimed to have been sold and delivered to the defendant. Jpdgment was entered against the plaintiff in the Justice’s Court, and ho appealed. When the case was first taken up in the Court o f Common Pleas, the plaintiff called, as a witness, his clerk, who swore to the sale and delivery o f the bureau. The defendant’s counsel, on cross-examination, handed this witness a bill o f par cels, purporting to be signed by Wm. Churchill, and on inquiry, the witness pro nounced the signature to be Wm. Churchill’s. The bill o f parcels was receipted, and contained the charge for the bureau. The plaintiff declared himself surprised by this evidence, and asked for delay on that ground; and the Court granted him a continuance. At the next term the cause was tried. The same witness was called, and tes tified that the signature was not Churchill’s. Both parties produced signatures to different papers purporting to be Wm. Churchill’s, and went to the jury on a comparison o f handwriting. The jury, after being out some time, came in for instructions, saying, through their foreman, that they were satisfied that many o f the specimens that had been produced by the witnesses were not Churchill’s hand writing, but that they were equally certain that the signature at the bottom was executed by the same hand that wrote the capping to the bill; and they requested to be instructed, whether, if they believed that the signature was executed by Churchill’s clerk, it was to have the same force and effect as if executed by Churchill. The Court told the jury that there was no evidence that it was exe cuted by Churchill’s clerk, and took the papers from the jury and dismissed them. At this term, the case came up again for trial. The same clerk was on the stand, and testified to the sale and delivery o f the bureau. On cross-examination, Commercial Chronicle and Review . 651 he testified that the hill was made in Churchill’s store, and issued therefrom. There was other testimony in the case, to the effect that money had been paid by the defendant to the plaintiff. Both parties avoided asking the clerk whether the signature to the bill was Churchill’s, evidently considering it unsafe on either side to do s o ; the defendant fearing he would say “ no,” and the plaintiff being aware that if he said “ no,” he would be asked if he had not before said “ yes.” The defendant contended, that, as the bill was made in, and issued from, Churchill’s store, and the handwriting o f thp signature resembled that o f the capping o f the bill, and no claim was made for the other articles in the bill besides the bureau, and some money had been paid, the jury might infer that Churchill had issued the receipted bill as a genuine receipt, and that he had been paid. The jury returned a verdict for the defendant. COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. T H E M ONEY M A R K E T — BANKS OF N E W Y O R K 1848— R E C E I P T S O F C A L IF O R N IA GOLD A T C I T Y — E X P O R T O F U N IT E D S T A T E S S T O C K S F R O M TH E U N IT E D S P E C IE F R O M N E W Y O R K A N D B O S T O N F O R L A S T T E N OF N E W Y O R K FROM 1847 T O 1849— STATES M IN T — I M P O R T S AND 1842 T O EXPORTS OF M O N T H S — M O V E M E N T O F S P E C IE A T T H E P O R T U N I T E D S T A T E S R E V E N U E A N D E X P E N D IT U R E — B U S IN E S S O F T H E P O R T O F N E W Y O R K F O R T E N M O N T H S — I N C R E A S E O F I M P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S OF T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S — B R E A D S T U F F S E N T E R E D F O R C O N S U M P T IO N IN G R E A T B R IT A I N F O R 1849— S A L E S OF C O T T O N IN L I V E R P O O L — I N C R E A S I N G D E M A N D F O R C O R N — P R I C E S O F F A R M P R O D U C E IN G R E A T B R IT A I N — B A N K S OF N E W O R L E A N S — T H E G E N E R A L A S P E C T O F B A N K IN G C A P IT A L — A N N U A L A R R I V A L S OF IM M IG R A N T S A T T H E P O R T O F N E W Y O R K F O R T H I R T Y Y E A R S — E M I G R A T I O N T O C A L IF O R N I A , E T C ., E T C . T h e general state o f prosperity which we alluded to in our last number, has been undisturbed by any conflicting elements. The money market remains quite easy, and good short paper is rather in demand than otherwise. The general prosperity o f business has been such as to keep the merchants o f the city well supplied with funds, and the deposits o f the city banks show an unusual amount on hand. The quarterly returns o f the' banks, as ordered by the con troller, give the leading features, as follow s:— BANKS OF N E W YO EK CITY. Loans. September SO, 1848. December 31, 1848. February 9, 1849. June 30, 1849. September 22, 1849. Specie. Circulation. Deposits. Balances due banks. $40,097,890 $4,740,847 $5,726,891 $20,353,365 $4,337,134 41,031,247 5,850,424 5,783,498 21,443,148 5,528,941 43,521,441 4,523,775 5,460,399 22,928,554 5,864,022 48,515,471 9,586,308 5,539,572 27,227,134 9,804,973 49,922,265 8,022,246 5,990,100 28,482,228 8,536,794 These figures present an extraordinary increase in the leading items. Thus the balances due banks, and the individual deposits, are, together, $12,328,523 o f means at the disposal o f the banks, more than at the same period last year; and this has been employed $3,281,399, in specie, and $9,824,375 in increased loans, which have gradually swollen in amount during the whole year. The large ex ports have paid for the considerable importations, and these have found remuner ating sales and prompt payment in the interior. The means thus placed at the disposal o f the banks have been loaned so as to produce a constant excess o f supply upon the market. That is to say, the amount o f money paid out by the banks, on discounts, has constantly exceeded the amounts paid in on matured paper, thus keeping the borrowers well supplied. It is however the case, that the institutions have been wary in their movements, and no class o f paper similar • Commercial Chronicle and Review. 652 to those old long dated renewable notes, which laid the foundation o f a disas trous revulsion in by gone years, has found favor. The importations o f goods have been very considerable, but have been paid for in produce, stocks, and specie. The amount o f produce has much exceeded that o f last year, supplying the bill market with good paper. This supply has been enhanced, however, by the exportation o f United States stocks, o f which we learn from official resources the amounts held abroad at the close o f September, was nearly as follows:— Loan of “ “ “ 1842........................... 1843........................... 1846........................... 1841........................... $110,313 466,300 512,100 5,310,530 Loan of 1848....................... “ 1848, coupon......... $4,891,150 8,500,000 Total XJ. S. st’k held abr'd $20,391,593 This considerable amount, reaching nearly one-third part o f the whole federal debt, has gone abroad, mostly in the last eighteen months greatly increasing the supply o f bills; some specie has also been required, but not larger than the re ceipts from other quarters, mostly California, have been. The amount received at the mint from that quarter is now, altogether, $3,800,000. The imports and ex ports o f specie from the ports o f New York and Boston, for ten months, ending with October, are as follow s:— Boston. New York. Total both ports. Imports..................................... Exports..................................... $1,250,914 303,862 $3,559,183 4,024,519 $4,810,091 4,328,441 Excess of imports........... “ exports........... $841,052 ............... ............... $1,083,486 $490,656 The receipts from California and the United States mines, have exceeded this by some millions. The money market o f New York, at this time last year, was tight, and in our number for November, we had occasion to describe it as fol lows :— “ The money market has been tight during the month, and many dealers in New York and other cities have felt the pressure intensely; and lately it has be come facile. It has resulted from the course o f business during the past year, that the indebtedness o f the city to the country, which was last year large, by reason o f the moderate sales o f manufactured goods to the interior in return for the immense quantities o f produce which came down for sale and export, is this year reversed, and the city dealers have not been able to collect as largely as the necessity o f meeting their own obligations required. The consequence was, a great diminution in the amount on deposit with the several banks, leaving them but little means to meet the usual demand for discount which arises from the dealers in cotton and farm produce at the beginning o f a new crop year.” The circumstances that induced an easy market in the fall o f 1848, again con spired to produce the same result this year. At that time, however, a consider able exportation o f specie sprang up, which drew heavily upon the banks o f the city, at the same moment that the balances due the interior were rigorously called for. The pressure thus produced was severe towards January, and a few small banks suspended. This year the exportation o f specie has been checked by the stock movement, and the inconvenience it might have occasioned, by the receipts from California. The following table will show the monthly movement o f specie at the port o f New York for two years:— 653 Commercial Chronicle and Review . MOVEMENT OF SPECIE IN PORT OF N EW YORK, AUGUST August, 1847 September, 1847 October, 1847 November, 1847 December, 1847 January, 1848 February, 1848 March, 1848 April, 1848 May, 1848 June, 1848 July, 1848 August, 1848 September, 1848 October, 1848 November, 1848 December, 1848 January, 1849 February, 1849 March, 1849 April, 1849 May, 1849 June, 1849 July, 1849 August, 1849 September, 1849 October, 1849 1, 1847. TO NOVEMBER, 1849. Specie in Net Net Total Assistant ^Specie Import. Export, export, import. Duties, demand. Treasury, in banks. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. 195,555 66,000 ............... 3,337,341 3,207,786 3,521,763 ............. 94,546 350,925 256,379 2,096,604 2,352,983 5,291,554 ............. 100,773 674,548 573,775 1,213,983 1,787,758 1,893,908 ............. 58,915 1,455,946 1,397,031 ........ 1,024,766 2,421,797 ....................... ......... 39,712 1,888,867 1,849,155 ........ 856,576 2,705,731 734,060 ............. 48,030 1,183,517 1,135.485 ........ 2,305,017 3,440,502 ................................ 49,502 433,226 383,724 ........ 2,416,497 2,800,221 ................................ 22,781 452,507 429,726 1,553,003 1,982,729 536,754 6,722,326 65,917 1,180,422 1,124,505 ........ 1,686,506 2,811,011 ................................ 18,280 1,000,000 l,681f720 554,875 2,236,595 105,569 ............. 69,532 1,871,972 1,802,440 1,143,497 2,945,937 159,036 6,751,338 64,631 744,983 680,352 1,794,236 2,474,588 199,958 ...... 133,855 331,031 197,176 2,533,343 2,730,520 563,312 ...... 197,098 501,445 304,347 2,119,571 2,423,918 1,433,387 4,740,847 127,998 832,423 704,425 1,328,833 2,033,258 855,330 ...... 104,971 482,156 377,185 1,122,549 1,499,734 2,223,593 ...... 70,488 365,878 295,350 806,620 1,101,970 1,184,931 5,850,424 57,700 122,582 64,882 1,911,465 1,976,347 1,277,303 ...... 21,322 106,851 85,529 2,070,447 2,155,976 1,693,790 4,523,775 130,895 86,506 44,3892,043,3951,999,006 1,822,091 ............. 638.746 85,691 553,0551,497,445 964,390 1,917,470 ............ 1,137,932 373,916 764,0161,452,617 688,601 1,863,081 .......... 122.746 596,411 473,665 1,347,898 1,821,563 1,701,972 9,586,308 327,007 138,353 188,6541,994,3601,815,706 1,234,097 ............ 60,739 357,368 296,629 3,461,511 3,758,190 2.630,491 ....... 489,485 326,384 163,1011.583,7131,420,612 3,701,0468.022,246 572,614 1,830,518 1,257,904 1,560,553 2,818,457 3,811,533 ....... The apparent movement at the port o f New York has been one o f continuous efflux, according to these official custom figures, and yet the amount in the city, including banks and assistant treasury, was, at the close o f September, 1849, $11,723,292, being as large an amount as ever before accumulated in the city. This as well as the export demand, has been supplied by the action o f commerce, and it becomes all the more abundant, that its course is not restricted. On the other hand the government action creates a current for it towards those points where the largest commercial operations require the greatest payments under the law. It happens under our system o f government, that the revenues can seldom exceed the current expenditures, though this has been the case for the quarter ending September 30, which forms the first quarter o f the fiscal year 1850. The revenue and expenditure o f the federal government, under leading heads, have for five quarters been as follow s:— UNITED STATES REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE, QUARTERLY. ,--------------------------------------------- Quarters ending------------------ Customs......... Lands............ Miscellaneous. Loans.............. Total rev’uc Sept. 30, 1848. Dec. 31, 1848. March 31,18497 June 30, 1849. Sept. 30, 1849. $8,991,935 $5,181,870 $8,374,628 $5,794,256 $11,450,000 494,498 482,209 389,566 279,685 370.000 934,269 133,211 2,181,350 63,500 175.000 7,599,950 3,734,500 10,127,200 5,004,000 1,246,500 $19,735,114 $14,211,348 $14,680,044 $11,141,490 $13,241,500 EXPENDITURE. Civil............... W ar................ N a v y ............. Interest.......... Loans. . . . . . . Total.......... $3,371,231 8,064,851 2,979,022 181,176 3,268,850 $3,864,669 3,803,990 2,680,269 1,510,659 2,403,950 $2,873,030 2,498,259 2,091,291 167,308 3,510,208 $3,909,143 3,001,428 2,041,912 1,765,224 3,700,523 $2,678,760 3,302,315 2,052,435 34,499 842,176 $17,866,104 $14,263,517 $11,140,096 $14,418,230 $8,910,186 The ordinary revenue o f the quarter has exceeded the ordinary expenditure by Commercial Chronicle and R eview . 654 $3,961,481, mostly derived from the large customs revenue. O f the loans re ceived and paid, $839,450 appears to be merely a funding of Treasury notes in the coupon stock o f 1847, and the balance o f the loan o f 1848 was paid in apparently. It will he observed that the customs revenues for the quarter September 30, 1849, exceeded those o f the corresponding period last year, by the sum o f $2,458,000, or nearly 30 per cent. This is a larger amount than was received in any quarter under the tariff o f 1842. The considerable importations which yield these large revenues have sold well, and the stocks on the shelves o f Atlantic merchants are quite small for the season. The means for purchasing such quan tities o f goods, in addition to the large manufactures o f domestic goods, were de rived from those exports o f breadstuffs to which in our last we alluded, as so far exceeding those o f the previous year, added to an enormous crop o f cotton which sold at advancing prices under the spur o f speculation, based upon short crop es timates as the season advanced. The business o f the port o f New York for the ten months ending with Octo ber, has been, as compared with last year, as follow s:— BUSINESS OF THE PORT OF N EW YO EK FOE TEN MONTHS. 1848. 1849. Imports. Specie. Free. Dutiable. Total. 928,260 7,838,219 71,235,766 80,002,245 3,552,119 8,605,951 75,924,438 88,082,508 Increase . 2,623,859 Decrease.................. Specie. 9,886,749 4,026,579 767,732 4,688,972 8,080,343 ............. .................................................... 5,860,170 Exports. Foreign. Domestic. Total. 2,961,103 24,690,305 37,538,157 4,273,344 24,245,949 32,045,872 1,312,241 444,356 5,492,285 There has been an apparent increase o f imports o f $8,080,343, and a decrease o f exports o f $5,492,285, making an apparent difference o f $13,580,000. This state o f things was remarked upon in a New York daily print as indicative o f ap proaching revulsion, and appeals based on it were made to the fears o f the mer chants; a little examination shows that the decrease in exports is altogether specie, brought about by a subsiding o f those elements o f distrust which existed last year on the continent o f Europe, and o f the increased imports, $2,623,859, is specie. The actual exportation o f goods from the port, is nearly $1,000,000 more than last year, and the importation o f goods to be paid for but $500,000, increase, showing an apparent adverse balance o f but $4,000,000, instead o f $13,580,000. This balance is apparent only because as the city o f New York imports for the Union, and New Orleans exports for the Union, the bills o f the latter are exported from New York in payment o f its imports. These with stocks have been sufficient to sustain the commercial balance, and the excess o f specie exported, is unimportant. The importations o f breadstuffs into Great Britain for the year ending with August, and showing the proportion sent from the United States, are seen in the following table:— BEEADSTUFFS ENTEEED FOE CONSUMPTION IN GREAT BRITAIN, YE AR ENDING AUGUST, 1849. Export from U. States to G. Britain, same time. W heat................ qrs. B a rley..................... O a ts......................... R y e ........................... Peas........................... 4,323,645 equal to bush. 1,323,827 “ 1,221,883 “ 220,829 “ 266,475 “ 33,589,160 10,588,616 9,774,664 1,766,836 2,131,800 $1,084,385 ............... ............... ............... Commercial Chronicle and Review . 655 Beans......................... Indian corn............... Flour......................... 531,177 2,281,283 1,002,393 “ “ “ 4,249,416 18,298,264 8,019,144 T o t a l.-................. 11,177,512 “ 89,420,096 ................. 12,721,626 5,570,080 $19,375,091 These large supplies o f foreign breadstuffs consumed in Great Britain, in ad dition to the local crops, kept prices low, and with abundance o f money, favored a large demand for manufactured goods. This favorable aspect o f the cotton trade, combined with the growing quietude o f Europe, the brisk markets o f the East, and the abundance o f money at home, early stimulated a speculation in cotton. The low price o f cotton doubtless induced a large actual consump tion, and induced many spinners to take advantage o f the cheapness o f money, to lay in stock at those low prices. This naturally had a tendency to advance prices, and the position o f affairs favored a simultaneous short crop cry, which has had the effect o f sending prices to a point from which there must be a reaction. W e find, from the Liverpool brokers’ circular, that the deliveries for consumption for three years, ending January 1st, 1849, were 3,864,666 bales, or 24,773 per week; but it should be borne in mind that the year 1847 was one in which short time was extensively in operation, and that year should, consequently, be thrown out o f the calculation. In 1846 and 1848, then, the total quantity delivered for con sumption was 2,839,478 bags, or 27,302 bags average per week. It appears, also, that the quantity taken by spinners, January 1st to June 22d, 1849, was 31,115 bales per week, and from June 22d to August 17th, 46,616 bales per week. Say January 1st to August 17th, 1,075,045 bales, against 857,970 in the same period o f 1848. Now, notwithstanding that the low prices augmented the production o f coarse yarns, that the actual improvements in machinery and increase o f spindles enhanced the actual consumption, there is but little doubt that the stocks o f the spinners were considerably augmented. The fact, however, that a United States delivery of 2,700,000 bales had left a diminished stock o f raw material, while the export returns showed a considerable increase in goods sent out o f the country, naturally prepared the way for much activity on receipts from the United States, o f estimates varying from 2,000,000 to 2,200,000 bales. The excitement which prevailed is manifest in the following figures:— SALES IN LIVERPOOL. Prices o f fair, upland, and Mobile. Sales in week ending October 5 ................ “ “ “ 12 ................. “ “ “ 19 ................. 28,990 116,770 191,009 5£ a . . 6 a .. 6 f a 6£ At the close o f the last week, accounts reached Liverpool, o f enlarged estimates for the crop. Fine weather, it was stated, was remedying the alleged previous damage, and the possibility o f a crop as large as the actual growth last year, was hinted at. It was at once evidence that such crop, even with cheap food and abundant money, could not be consumed at the high rates current, being nearly 100 per cent over those o f last year. The money market already began to feel the influence o f the speculation, and the spinners, by falling back on their reserved stocks, and checking purchases, had it in their power to bring on a disastrous re vulsion, and the market began to give way. It is possible that under the general combination o f circumstances favorable to a large consumption, a crop o f 2,500,000 Commercial Chronicle and Review. 656 bales might not seriously have depressed prices, had not the speculation, by rais ing prices too high, checked the consumption, and thus subjected the market to serious reaction. Many holders will doubtless realize in season, and the fact that receipts at the ports are rapidly increasing, would show a desire, on the part o f growers, to realize present rates. The prospect o f an Irish demand for corn is improving, and also that the depend ence o f England, on foreign supplies, will gradually increase. The land mono poly o f England, by adding the item o f rent to be paid by the occupier and pro ducer, made requisite a tax on the foreign article, which should protect him against the proprietary producers abroad, who had no rent to pay. The removal o f this tax has now thrown directly upon the English farmer the whole burden o f his rent, which was before borne by all consumers o f bread. This burden will be enhanced, by the abrogation o f the navigation laws, which, by diminishing freights, will make the competition between the cheap rentless lands o f other countries, and the landlord burdened soil o f England, more severe, and, as a consequence, much o f the poorer soils will be abandoned, while the expensive system o f cul ture before resorted to, to increase the quantity o f protected corn, must be relin quished as unprofitable. A considerable diminution in the product o f a good English harvest, as compared with former years, may then freely be looked for. W e have given above an official table o f the quantity o f food taken for consump tion in England, for the year ending August, 1849. That was in aid o f the har vest o f 1848, which was “ good,” but the accreable product, from causes alluded, could not have been as large as usual. The result o f this is, that the small farm ers, with small crops at low prices, cannot meet tithes, taxes, poor-rates, and rent, the last the most onerous; and their capital and numbers are annually diminishing, swelling the numbers o f bread consumers in other employments. The diminished means o f all the farmers prevent them from holding to the usual price in those months which immediately succeed harvest. They are compelled to sell, to raise money, and the lowest range o f prices for the year precedes January. These are circum stances likely annually to increase the English demands upon the United States for food, the supply o f which will be facilitated by the removal o f the restraints o f the navigation act. The products o f the lake States, as well as those o f the soil watered by the tributaries o f the Mississippi, will find a market o f constantly increasing capacity ; and the volume o f farm produce which will pour down the Mississippi, may rival the value o f cotton and sugar at New Orleans. The move ment o f the banks at New Orleans have been as follows BANKS OF NEW ORLEANS. August, 1848. June, 1849. July, 1849. August, 1849. October, 1849. October 7,1849 Loans. $6,232,359 8,309,938 7,554,224 7,122,420 8,215,471 8,811,023 Specie. $7,590,655 7,353,527 6,876,355 6,588,441 7,470,291 7,322,775 Exchange. $3,005,193 6,049,623 4,801,067 3,103,984 1,924,273 1,722,948 Circulation. $3,963,689 5,380,027 3,868,185 4,709,038 4,490,023 4,25e,300 Deposits. $7,320,079 8,511,231 7,710,027 6,626,051 6,583,042 6,842,281 The specie held by the banks at that point has not varied much. The particu lar circumstances o f the Canal Bank caused a decrease in the figures, as shown by that institution, for the month o f August. In consequence o f the mal-administration o f its affairs, a movement has been made, among leading stockholders, to change the direction. Commercial Chronicle and Review . The general aspect is that o f great prosperity. G5 7 The accumulation o f capital in the country, continues very rapid, as well from influx from abroad, as from regular earnings. There has now, for many years, not supervened one o f those seasons o f speculation, the effects o f which are rapidly to consume accumulated capital, as was the case some ten years since. There is a spirit o f great enterprise abroad, however, which mostly takes the form o f building houses and railroads. These, although they promote the transfer o f floating to fixed capital, yet they do not curtail the volume o f the former to an extent greater than is probably made good by the influx o f capital from abroad, as well in the hands o f immigrants, as for employment. W hen we reflect that the arrivals at the port o f N ew York, for the current year 1849, have already reached a number as large as the entire pop ulation o f the city, according to the census four years ago, say 350,000, w e may form some idea o f the extraordinary rapidity with which the capital they bring with them suffices to make profitable that invested in means o f communication and improved avenues o f trade. I f these emigrants all go W est, their traveling expenses alone will reach $6,000,000, scattered along the routes, and being speed ily taken up in the channels o f trade. In order to show the progress o f this im migration, w e have compiled the follow ing statement o f arrivals at the port o f N ew York, for each o f the last thirty years:— ANNUAL ARRIVALS OF IMMIGRANTS AT THE PORT OF NEW YORK. Passen’s. Years. Years. 1819............... 1820............... 1821............... 1822............... 1823............... 1824............... 1825............... 1826............... 1827............... 1828............... 9,442 4,420 4,452 4.811 4,999 5,452 8,779 9,764 22,000 19,023 Passen’s. 1829............... 1830............... 1831............... 1832............... 1833............... 1834............... 1835............... 1836............... 1837............... 1838............... Years. Passen’s. 1839............... 1840............... 1841............... 1842............... 1843............... 1844............... 1845............... 1846............... 1847............... 1848............... 48,152 62,795 57,337 74,949 46,302 61,002 82,960 115,230 166,110 191,909 392,878 Third 10 years 906,746 1,392,776 16,064 30,224 31,739 48,589 41,752 48,110 35,303 60,441 54,975 25,681 First 10 years 93,152 Second 10 y ’rs Total in 30 years....... T he arrivals for 1849 will be over 350,000. T he table gives the number at N ew York only. In the year 1847, the arrivals in the United States were over 250,000, or 90,000 more than at New York. In 1848 they were nearly 300,000, and this year may reach 500,000. A considerable proportion o f these are desti tute Irish. The British Emigrant Commissioners state that three-fourths o f the expense o f the migration from Ireland is paid by friends in America, and this circumstance, together with the competition o f the packet ships, has brought in creasing numbers to the United States. It is to be observed that by far the lar gest number who arrive leave the city, as thus— the arrivals, from 1840 to 1845, were 302,385, and the population o f New York and Brooklyn, in that period, in creased b y 80,000. The greater proportion must, therefore, seek other localities, mostly at the W est. T he migration to California, great and ostentatious as it was, b y no means equal that which is constantly taking place in New York. This population is enough, if properly placed, to create six new States annually, and in the proportion o f food producers to food consumers, in Great Britain, if they become farmers, to VOL. xxi.— n o . vi. 42 Commercial Regulations. 658 raise enough from the virgin soil o f the new States to supply 840,000 persons, or the whole population o f the State o f Massachusetts. The coming year is not likely to show any diminution in this flood o f human beings sweeping through the Atlantic cities, to take possession o f the fair and fertile lands o f the W est, and rapidly as are means o f communication and facilities o f intercourse being constructed, they will not exceed the wants. COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. OF THE UNITED STATES REVENUE AND COLLECTION LAWS. CIRCULAR INSTRUCTIONS TO COLLECTORS AND OTHER OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS. T reasury D epartm en t, O c to b e i 12t h , 1849. The following instructions and regulations are issued for the government of the offi cers o f the customs, with a view to insure uniformity at the respective ports in the practical execution of certain provisions of the Revenue and Collection laws, deemed essential for the proper security of the revenue. F ir s t . It is represented that importers are in the practice of omitting to produce in voices of merchandise on the alleged ground that none have been received, and asking entry to be allowed on appraisement under the provisions of the 2d section of the sup plemental Collection act of 1st March, 1823. The frequency of these occurrences forbid the idea, that the non-reception of an in voice usually proceeds from mistake or accident, as contemplated by the act, but in duces the belief of intention and design, probably with the view of evading the addi tional duty imposed by the 17 th section of the act of 30th August, 1842, and the 8th section of the existing Tariff act of 30th July, 1846. In all cases of this kind, applica tion by the owner or importer must be made in writing, through the collector, to the Department, for permission to enter any such goods on appraisement, said application to be authenticated by the oath or affirmation of the party, setting forth that no in voice of said goods has been received, and the cause, £o the best of his knowledge and belief, to be accompanied by a statement of the collector of all the circumstances at tending the transaction within the knowledge of said collector. Where permission to make entry shall be refused by the department, the goods, wares, and merchandise must be deposited in public store, there to remain at the ex pense and risk of the owner, until such invoice be produced, subject to the provisions of existing laws. Where entry may be permitted by the Department, bond must first be taken with due security for the production of a proper invoice of the same, within the time pre scribed in the 2d section of the act of 1st March, 1823, in a penal sum equal to double the amount of the estimated duties on the entire importation; whereupon entry on ap praisement may take place, and on due payment of the duties, permit for delivery of the goods may be granted. Upon production of the invoice, the importer must, in pursuance of his bond aforesaid, pay any amount of duty to which it may appear by such invoice the said goods, wares, and merchandise are subject over and above the amount of duties estimated on said appraisement. No entry for warehousing can be allowed, where no invoice accompanies the impor tation. Second. Additions to entries of purchased goods, under the 8th section of the Tariff act o f 30th July, 1846. Where goods have been actually purchased, the law requires the invoice to state the true cost , and not the market value abroad, on which value, with certain added charges, the duties are to be assessed. The privilege, therefore, given in the 8th section of the act referred to, is to enable importers of any goods that have been actually purchased, on making entry of the same, to add to the cost given in the invoice to bring it up to the true m arket value abroad, and by so doing, exempt the goods from the additional duty imposed by said section. The additions contem plated by the law in such cases must take place at the time of making entry, and canpot be allowed at any subsequent period. Where imported goods have been obtained by the owner in any other way than by Commercial R egulations. 659 actual purchase, the law requires the invoice to exhibit the fair market value abroad, consequently the privilege of the 8th section, before referred to, does not inure in such cases, and no addition to the market value declared in the invoice can be allowed at the time of making entry. If the appraised value in these cases shall exceed by ten per centum or more the invoice value, then the additional duty imposed by the 17th section of the Tariff act of 30th August, 1842, must be exacted. In cases where on proper ascertainment there shall prove to be an excess of quan tity of any article or articles over the quantity stated in the invoice, and the United States appraisers shall be of opinion that such excess does not arise from mistake, ac cident. or other excusable cause, but from fraudulent intent and design on the part of the shipper, and the collector concurring in such opinion, the invoice and importation should be deemed fraudulent, and seizure and proceeding to confiscate the goods should immediately take place. But where no intention of fraud is manifested in the opinion o f the appraisers and collector, the proper duty should be exacted on the full quantity ascertained, together with the additional duty where the same may accrue by reason o f any excess in quantity over that given in the entry. Where the value declared in the entry shall, on due appraisement of the goods, be found to be so far below the foreign cost or market value as to raise the presumption of being fraudulently invoiced, seizure and confiscation of the goods should take place under the provisions of the act of 2d March, 1799 ; and prosecution of the offending party, under the 19th section of the Tariff act of 30th August, 1842, instituted. T hird. Invoices presented on entry of any merchandise must, in pursuance of law, be deposited in the custom-house, and should not be delivered to the importer or his agent for any purpose whatsoever ; and no merchandise that may be consigned “ to order” can be admitted to entry without an invoice, verified according to law. Invoices produced on entry, sworn to and duly certified as required by the 23d sec tion of the act of 1st March, 1823, must be immediately sent to the United States ap praisers, and be properly registered in their office. The appraisers will then deliver them to such examiner as they may think proper; but in no case should the owner or importer be allowed to indicate or designate the examiner or appraiser of his goods. The course prescribed in the second paragraph of the circular instructions of the 12th June, 1848, in reference to appraisements to ascertain damage, is to be observed in all other cases of appraisement. Fou rth . Bonds required by the provisions of the 10th section of the act of 1st March, 1823, for the production of a duly authenticated invoice, must be exacted in all cases, irrespective of the value of the merchandise embraced in the importation; and on fail ure to produce the verified invoice within the specified time, payment of the bond must be promptly enforced. The same course must be pursued in respect to bonds taken for the production of consular certificates of the value of depreciated currencies, as well as all bonds taken in cases of transportation or exportation of merchandise under the Warehousing or Drawback acts. F ift h . Where goods in any package or packages ordered to appraisers’ stores may, on appraisement, be advanced in value boyond the value declared in the entry, the en tire importation should be appraised, and the duties assessed accordingly, except where the importer may consent that the advanced value on the portion of goods so appraised shall apply to the residue of the same description of goods embraced in the importation, in which case an appraisement of the entire importation need not be made. S ix th . In respect to oaths or affirmations required to be taken under any Collection or Revenue law of the United States, it is to be remarked, where any person shall knowingly and willingly swear or affirm falsely, or shall procure any person to swear or affirm falsely, the person so offending should be prosecuted under the provisions of the 13 th section o f the act entitled “ An act more effectually to provide for the pun ishment of certain crimes against the United States, <&c.,” approved 3d March, 1825. Seventh. Wherever a vessel may be used as a warehouse constructively, an officer of the customs must be placed on board such vessel, and remain day and night, at the expense of the party desiring the privilege, during the time the vessel remains in port. In addition to the regulations prescribed in the 16th, 17th, and 18th sections of the Warehousing instructions of the 17th February, 1849, in the case of merchandise with drawn from public warehouse to be transported, and re-warehoused in another dis trict, the following requirements are to be observed:— 1st. Permits issued for withdrawal of any such merchandise from warehouse must be placed in the hands of an inspector of the customs to superintend the lading of the 660 Commercial R egulations . same, and a return to that effect made by said inspector upon the transportation entry. 2nd. Upon receipt, by the collector of the port to which the merchandise may be destined for re-warehousing, of the triplicate copy of entry and certified invoice, said collector shall, on the arrival of the merchandise, direct an inspector of the customs to take charge of the same, and deposit it in public store. E ig h th . It is represented, that, at some of the ports, clerks of commercial firms, bro kers, and agents of express lines, are permitted to make oath and entry of merchandise imported by other persons. On this point it is to be observed, that where the owner or consignee is present at the port of importation, oath and entry must be made by such owner or consignee, and no entry can be permitted to be made by any clerk or agent, except where duly authorized to act during the necessary absence of the owner or consignee. Nor can any clerk or hired person in the constant employment of another, become principal or surety to any bond to which his employer is a party. N in th . It is alleged that persons employed in duties in relation to the collection of the revenue at some of the custom-houses are in the practice of preparing papers, re turns, <fcc., for importers and others, transacting business with the custom-house, and receiving for such services compensation or pay not authorized by law. This practice is illegal, and collectors are enjoined, in all cases of the kind coming to their knowledge, to enforce the provisions of the 73d section of the act of 2d March, 1799, and the 17th section of the act of 7th May, 1822. Tenth. The United States appraisers, and other persons employed in their depart ment, should be careful not to express opinions in regard to the value of any goods not submitted for their official action. E leven th . Clerks or other persons employed in the appraisers’ or other public stores, are expressly prohibited from appropriating to their use, or selling or disposing of any article that may have been used for covering or securing any imported merchandise, as also the drainage of sugar, leakages of molasses, liquors, <fcc. Tw elfth. The particular attention of collectors is called, and a strict observance re quested, to the circular instructions issued by the Department, under date of the 20th August, 1845, respecting the proper verification of invoices, it being represented by some o f the Consuls, that the law and instructions are frequently disregarded by for eign shippers, and are not duly enforced by Collectors at some of the ports. W . M. MEREDITH, S e c r e ta r y o f th e T r e a s u r y . THE JVEVV SPANISH TARIFF. The following is a corrected list of the new Spanish tariff which relates to cotton goods, specifying the articles admitted, the duties levied when imported in Spanish or foreign bottoms, (the duty when imported by land being the same as under a foreign flag,) and the goods prohibited to be imported:— [The Spanish real is equal to 2£d. English; the Spanish pound is a small fraction heavier than the pound avoirdupois.] Spanish Flag. rls. c. Cotton yarn, from No. 60 to 80.......................................................... “ from No. 80 upwards, per pound......................... Two-cord thread, for sewing and embroidering, from No. 60 up wards ................................................................................................ Three-cord, ditto, from No. 60 upward.............................................. Foreign Flag, rls. c. 4 00 4 55 4 80 5 45 6 00 7 20 9 60 8 00 ARTICLES OF PURE COTTON. 5 60 6 30 8 40 10 10 10 50 12 60 t-* Grey or white, from 26 threads upwards, in the J inch Spanish, in both directions............................................................................. Ditto, dyed............................................................................................ Ditto, striped, figured, or printed...................................................... Handkerchiefs, white, colored, or printed, from 20 threads up wards, plain or figured.................................................................... Ditto, embroidered by the hand, to pay each 35 per cent ad va lorem in Spanish, and 42 in foreign ships. Dutch muslins and Scotch cambrics, plain, striped, or printed, from 15 to 25 threads in the warp................................................ Ditto, from 26 threads upwards.......................................................... 00 21 00 6 70 7 55 16 80 25 20 Commercial R egulations. 661 Spanish flag. rls. c. Muslins, open worked, or embroidered by machinery, up to IS threads............................................................................................... 9 80 Ditto, from 15 to 25 threads............................................................. 13 30 Ditto, from 26 threads upwards....................................................... 17 50 2100 Muslins embroidered by the hand, up to 15 threads............................ Ditto, from 16 to 25 threads............................................................. 35 00 Ditto, from 26 threads upwards....................................................... 56 00 Open fabrics, as linens, organdies, muslins, transparent cambrics, jacconets, Ac., plain or worked, white orprinted, upto 15 threads 17 50 Ditto, from 16 to 25 threads............................................................. 24 40 Ditto, from 26 threads upwards....................................................... 28 00 Ditto, embroidered, to pay the same as embroidered muslins. Quilted fabrics and piques, white or colored, of all classes............ 17 50 Ditto, embroidered.................................................................................... 3500 Fustians, plain or embroidered................................................................ 800 Cotton velvets............................................................................ Plain gauze................................................................................................ 2100 Embroidered ditto..................................................................................... 2800 Net, plain, printed, open worked, or figured........................................ 3500 Ditto, embroidered by the hand, to pay 35 per cent ad valorem in Spanish, and 42 in foreign ships. Cotton lace, plain, worked, or figured.................................................... 4375 Ditto, embroidered by hand..................................................................... 8750 Percalinas, lustrinas, cristalinas, and other fabrics which are used for the manufacture of artificial flowers, from 20 threads up wards ...................................................................... Ditto, cut and prepared in leaves or other forms for thesame. . . 49 00 Foreign flag, rls. c. 11 75 15 95 21 00 25 20 42 00 67 20 21 00 29 40 33 60 21 00 42 00 9 60 12801535 25 20 33 60 42 00 52 50 105 00 24502940 58 80 Cotton fabrics of new invention, which cannot be brought by analogy under the pre ceding heads, to pay 40 per cent ad valorem in Spanish, and 48 in foreign ships. M IXED GOODS. Fabrics o f silk, wool, hemp, and flax, which contain a mixture of cotton in less quantity than one-third part of the weight, shall pay the duties corresponding to the material which predominates, according to the corresponding part of the general tariff. Fabrics of cotton, with admixture of other materials, of 20 or more threads, counted with the warp, and in which the cotton does not exceed seven-eighths o f the whole, should pay as follows:— Plain or serged, in squares or otherwise worked, with mixture of silk or wool, or with both materials, destined generally for waistcoats, called kerseymeres, goats’ hair, or otherwise: First kind: I f the silk or wool evidently predominates, to pay the duties appointed for fabrics of those respective materials. Second kind: I f the cotton should predominate, containing oneeighth part of silk or wool at least, per squareyard.................. 4 90 5 85 Fabrics, plain, serged, striped, or worked, with mixture of linen or hemp, destined generally for pantaloons, or other summer wear, called drills, ducks, or by any othername,per pound.. . 5 60 6 70 Ditto, with mixture of wool, called kerseymeres, patencures, Ac., per square yard............................................................................... 10 50 12 60 Fust kind: I f the wool should predominate, they shall pay as the fabrics of that material. Second kind: If the cotton should predominate, but not form more than seven-eighth parts.......................................................... 2 80 3 35 N o t i c e .— The duties established in this tariff shall be levied on the fabrics com prised in their respective classes, whether they come in pieces, cuts, handkerchiefs, or in whatever other form. ARTICLES THE IMPORTATION OF W H IC H IS PROHIBITED. Cotton yam up to No. 59 inclusive. Cotton thread, for sewing or embroidery, up to 59 inclusive. Commercial Regulations. 662 Fabrics, grey or white, dyed, striped, worked by machinery or printed, up to 25 threads inclusive, counted in the warp, in the quarter-inch Spanish. Handkerchiefs, white, colored, or printed, up to 19 threads inclusive. Muslins and Scotch cambrics, plain, white, striped, or printed, up to 14 threads in clusive. Percalinas, lustrinas, cristalinas, and other fabrics, used for the manufacture of artifi cial flowers, up to 19 threads inclusive. Double fabrics, destined generally for pantaloons, jackets, and other clothes of men, and for other uses, plain or serged, done in squares, or otherwise worked, which con tain more than seven-eighth parts of cotton. Fabrics of silk, wool, flax, and hemp, which contains a mixture of cotton in greater quantity than one-third part of the weight, up to 19 threads, inclusive. Fabrics o f cotton, with mixture of silk, wool, flax and hemp, of 20 and more threads, if the cotton exceed seven parts out o f the eight. Knit fabrics (Tejidos de Punto) in stockings, pantaloons, camisettes, or in any other form. Fringes, and small wares of cotton of every kind. Some changes have been made in the duties, which are worthy of notice. In the first place, then, all importation of cotton yarn and thread below No. 60, and all plain, printed, and dyed calicoes, containing less than 26 Threads in the quarter-inch, are ab solutely prohibited. On those counts o f yarn, and descriptions of calicoes proposed to be admitted, the following rates of duty will be levied, on each Spanish pound weight, (a small fraction heavier than the pound avoirdupois,) when imported in Spanish vessels:— Cotton yarn, No. 60 to 8 0 ... .............................................................. “ No. 80 and upwards...................................................... Two-cord sewing-thread, 60 and upwards....................................... Three-cord “ “ ............................... .. Calico, 26 threads and upwards per f inch (per pound)............... “ “ “ dyed............................................... “ “ “ figured or printed......................... Os. 0 1 1 1 1 1 10c?. Ilf 3 8 2 3£ 9 On muslins, and other light fabrics, o f which there are many classes, the duties vary from about 2s. to nearly 12s. per pound weight. So far as we can judge, figured mus lins, with less than 26 threads to the quarter-inch, the duty on which will be about 2s. 9d. per pound, are almost the only class likely to pay the duties. Plain muslins, with 26 threads, and upwards, to the quarter-inch, which would include the great bulk of the Blackburn and Chorley manufacture, are subjected to a duty of 4s. 4fd. per pound, which, we imagine, would be prohibitory of all except the very finest qualities. In deed, the facilities of smuggling such fabrics are so great that, in all probability, very few indeed will pay the duty, and then, perhaps, only as a cover for a larger illicit import. When the tariff was first proposed in the Spanish chamber, in the month of May last, the duties affixed to a description of goods of large consumption in Spain, namely, fustians and velvets, were comparatively moderate ; and considerable advantage was expected to be derived from the rate at which those fabrics were proposed to be ad mitted. On this point, however, we are sorry to say, the Catalan manufactures have succeeded but too well in their efforts to render the tariff abortive. The duties con tained in the first draft of the tariff were, on fustians, Is. lfd ., and on cotton velvets, Is. 5fd. per pound weight, rates which would probably have been paid to some ex tent, rather than encounter the risk of smuggling. By the tariff, as officially promul gated, however, the duties have been increased to Is. 8d. per pound, on fustians, and 2s. 8d. per pound on velvets, which, we conceive, will be likely to prove prohibitory, except as to small quantities for the purpose of covering a contraband trade. OF STATEMENTS BY INSURANCE COMPANIES. S tate of N ew Y ork , C ontroller’ s Office , ) A lbany, November 10, 1849. ) The provisions of the act passed April, 10, 1849, make it necessarv that insurance companies incorporated by other States, and desiring to transact the business o f insu rance, through agencies, in this State, shall prove to the satisfaction of the Controller, Commercial R egulations. 663 that they possess the amount of actual capital required of companies in the State form ed under the authority of said act. The fifth section provides that every Joint Stock Company, organized under the act, if located in the city of New York or the county of Kings, shall have a capital of at least $150,000, and if located in any other county in this State, at least $50,000 ; and Mutual Insurance Companies, (Fire, Marine, Inland, and Navigation Insurance,) if located in the city of New York, or the county of Kings, are not authorized to commence business until agreements have been entered into for insurance with at least one hundred applicants, the premiums on which, if it be Marine, shall amount to $300,000; or, if it be Fire or Inland Navigation, shall amount to $200,000, for which premium notes must be received, payable at, or within twelve months from date. The sixth section requires that companies formed for doing the business of Life and Health Insurance, on the plan of Mutual Insurance, shall have a cash capital of $100,000 paid in, and actually invested in stocks of the United States, of this State, or its incorporated cities, or in bonds and mortgages on cultivated farms worth double the amount. Companies incorporated in other States, and doing business here, are placed virtually on an equality with our own institutions, and the law aims to subject them to the same general principles and restrictions. They must show that they possess an equal amount of actual capital. Joint Stock Companies in other States proposing to do bu siness by agents in New York city or Kings county, must have $150,000, and in other counties, $50,000. It must appear that this capital is unimpaired, and invested in safe and unquestionable securities. Mutual Life and Health Insurance Companies in other States, before creating agencies in this State, must have a cash capital invested of $ 100, 000. In the month of January next, and annually thereafter, every such company having an agent or agents in this State, will be required to furnish to the Controller a new statement, under the oath of the president or secretary, exhibiting the amount of its capital, the maimer in which the same is invested, and showing whether it is impaired, and if so, to what extent. The Controller deems it his duty to prescribe such regulations in respect to these statements as will make them uniform, and ensure a full exhibit, not only of the capi tal of the company, but its liabilities, and its actual condition. Some of the state ments heretofore furnished are defective in details of investments, and in omitting to present such an exposition of the affairs of the company, as will enable the Controller and the public to form a correct judgment of the soundness and sufficiency of re sources. It will be required in future that the statement shall exhibit: 1st. The amount of capital stock paid in. 2d. The manner in which the same is invested, specifying the amount secured by bonds and mortgages; the amount, description and actual value of stocks held by the company, absolutely; the amount, description and value of stocks held as col lateral security ; the amount of loans secured otherwise than by mortgage and stocks; the value of the real estate, if any, owned by the company; and the amount of avail able funds on hand. 3d. The number and amount of policies outstanding; and the amount of all other claims and liabilities against the company, specifying the amount of claims against the company which are not acknowledged by it as debts, and the amount of contingent liabilities otherwise than on policies. 4th. The amount of premiums received by the company during the previous years; and the amount received during the same period for interest on loans and investments. 5th. The amount of losses incurred; and the amount paid during the same period. 6th. The amount of profits on hand ; or if there be no profits, the amount o f losses chargeable upon capital on the first of January. 7th. Dividends which have been made during the preceding year. As it is impracticable for the Controller to form an accurate estimate of the value o f distant investments and securities, he will require, in addition to the foregoing state ment, a certificate from the Mayor or Recorder of the city, or a Judge of a Court of Record, in the State where the company is located, (having no interest in the com pany,) showing that he has examined the investments of the company, and giving his estimate of the securities, and the amount o f their actual value. It is required also that each company furnish a copy of its charter, to be placed on file in the Controller’s office. The law requires that a counterpart or copy of the statement on which the Con troller’s certificate of authority is issued, shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the 664 N au tical Intelligence. county in -which the agency shall be established; and it is therefore necessary that each company prepare duplicate statements for t1is purpose, with as many copies as shall be requisite to furnish one to each county in which an agency is located. In the execution of the law the Controller will aim to afford every reasonable fa cility to responsible companies complying with its provisions ; but he conceives it to be his duty to interpose such precautions and restrictions as shall protect the public from corporations of a different character, having no substantial capital, and furnishing no sufficient guaranty for the performance of their obbgations. WASHINGTON HUNT, Controller. NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. HURL GATE ROCKS. There has been recently completed a series of very minute surveys of Hurl Gate, and Little Hurl Gate, made by Lieutenants Davis, Porter, and Woodhull. The first survey was made by Lieut. Davis, in 1841, continued by Lieut. Porter, in 1848, and completed by Lieut. ‘Woodhull, in 1849, by means of which it is well ascertained that that dangerous strait can be made o f safe navigation, for a comparatively small ex pense. M. Maillefert, a French engineer, who has been engaged for near eighteen months in removing the reef of rocks from the entrance of the harbor of Nassau, (New Providence, Bahamas,) offers to contract for the removal of the rocks in Hurl Gate, and the harbor of New York, by means of blasting under water, without drilling, using the surface water for a fulcrum, and igniting the powder by means o f a wire attached to a galvanic battery. M. Maillefert removed from the entrance of the harbor of Nas sau, upward of nine hundred tons of rock by this new process, at an expense of about five thousand dollars, which is a very small sum for so important a work. It seems certainly necessary that Congress should make an appropriation for the removal of the rocks at Hurl Gate, and the harbor of New York, and it is very de sirable that this appropriation should be made early in the Session, that no delay may take place in accomplishing this important work. It is a matter of surprise that these rocks have remained so long in the very center of a channel through which hundreds of vessels pass daily. The Board of Underwriters have recently had the subject of the removal of these rocks before them, and the following proceedings were had by that b od y :— A t a meeting of the Board of Underwriters of the city of New York, held Novem ber 2, 1849, the following resolution was adopted unanimously:— “ On motion it was R esolved, that a memorial be prepared by the Board, asking an appropriation by Congress of a sufficient sum to remove the rocks and other obstructions at Hurl Gate, Little Hurl Gate, and places in that vicinity, at and near Corliers’ Hook, off the Bat tery, and in, or near Buttermilk Channel, Diamond Reef, Prince’s Reef, and others in that vicinity, part or all of which have been surveyed by the Coast Surveyers, under the direction of Professor Bache, whose services have been productive of many and great benefits to the commerce o f the country.” Subsequently the Chamber of Commerce of the city of New York had this matter before them, and the following were their proceedings in the premises — A t a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, held in the Directors’ Room o f the Merchants’ Bank, November 6, 1849, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:— N autical Intelligence. 665 “ On motion it was Resolved, that a memorial be prepared by the Chamber of Com merce, asking an appropriation by Congress of a sufficient sum to remove the rocks and other obstructions at Hurl Gate, Little Hurl Gate, and places in that vicinity, at and near Corliers Hook, off the Battery, and in or near Buttermilk Channel, Diamond Reef, Prince’s Reef, and others in that vicinity, part or all of which have been sur veyed by the Coast Surveyers, under the direction of Professor Bache, whose services have been productive of many and great benefits to the commerce of the country. “ R esolved, that James Depuyster Ogden, Joseph Blunt, and Simeon Balwin, be ap pointed a committee to draft a suitable memorial to Congress on the subject.” The respective reports of Lieut. Davis, Porter, and Woodhull, have been printed and will be laid on the desks of members of Congress, at the commencement o f the Session, and copies of these reports will be forwarded to insurance companies and commercial men in the Eastern cities, inviting co-operation in this important move ment. These rocks should have been removed long since, and now as the fact has been ascertained that they can be removed at a very small expense, it is hoped no de lay will take place in the action of Congress in the premises. LIGHTS ON SEA REACH, RIVER THAMES. Notice is hereby given, that two lights are now exhibited nightly on the north side of the navigable channel of Sea Reach, that is to say, one off the Chapman Head, near to the spot on which the Beacon stands, and one at Mucking Flat. Mariners are to observe—that the light off the Chapman Head is exhibited on board a vessel, pending the erection of a permanent structure, and is of the usual or natural color of a Floating Light; and that the Light at the Mucking, which is shown for the present from a temporary erection close to the Land Side of the Sea Wall, and bears from the Westernmost Beacon of the Blyth Sand, about N. -J- W., burns at 25 feet 6 inches above the level of high water spring tides; this light is also of the nat ural color, until it strikes the Spit of the Ovens Shoal, a short distance outside the nine feet mark of low water spring tides, and on the bearing of S. W. by W. nearly, to the westward of which the color of the light is red. N o t e .— A black Beacon Buoy of large size will be forthwith placed on the Spit of the Ovens Shoal, respecting which farther particulars will be published in a few days. SIGNAL STAFF AT CAPE AGULHAS. A Signal Staff has been erected at Cape Agulhas by the government of the Colony, and all the necessary arrangements have been made for signalising vessels passing that place. The Staff has been placed on a small eminence on the north-western side o f the light-house, and about three hundred yards from it. It stands eighty-nine feet high, and has been painted white, in order to make it as conspicuous as possible. A code of Marryatt’s Signals has been established at Cape Agulhas, and the light-house keeper instructed to signalise all vessels passing, and to transmit to Cape Town all informa tion respecting the vessels’ names, destination, dec., together with remarks upon the state of the weather, direction of the wind, dec. LIGHTS ON RINGHOLMEN AND TERNINGEN. Notice is hereby given, that the lights on Ringholmen, and Terningen, in the Chan nel leading to Trondhjen (Drontheim,) are changed thus :— That the intensity of the lights are equal on every side from which they are visible, and the distance, under or dinary circumstances, at which they are visible is 12 English miles; also, that the light on Ringholmen is now fixed on a tower 52 feet high above high water mark. Commercial Statistics. 666 COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. IMPORTS OF BOSTON IN 1848-49. The Boston S h ip p in g L i s t furnishes the following table of the imports of Boston in 1849 as compared with 1848, years ending on the 31st of August:— Articles. 1849. 1848. 949 2,081 Ashes, p’t & p'rlbbls. 250 1,223 Barilla................ tons 525 275 Brimstone................ 11,792 18,192 Brimstone___cantars 2,666 1,115 Brimstone........ bbls. 6,591 3,642 Candles........... boxes 36,245 32,368 Cassia............... mats 498 750 Cassia............... cases 6,347 6,786 C ocoa............... bags Coffee — 22,553 49,075 , Batavia......... bags 2,747 2,667 Batavia.. . . piculs 54,476 85,592 H a y ti........... bags 1,012 474 Cuba..................... 31,419 37,994 Rio Janeiro......... 925 Porto R ico........... 3,279 8,154 Porto Cabello___ 2,468 243 Manilla................. 171 Africa. . . ............. 4,650 2,587 Oth: foreign ports. 3,531 4,994 Coastwise ports. . Cotton, f r o m — New Orleans.bales 111,390 140,929 43,678 37,147 M ob ile................. 17,035 25,896 Charleston........... 18,269 26,545 Savannah............. 22,141 31,138 Apalachicola........ 2,718 2,468 Galveston............ 1,164 3,279 Other places........ Coal — 69,225 26,400 Virginia....... bush. Philadelphia. tons 253,668 266,806 18,487 Other places........ 20,197 7,798 5,506 Eng. & Scotch.. . . 1,406 450 Eng. &, Scotch.chaL 38,333 49,529 Nova Scotia............. 1,148 1,335 Cop’r, sheath’g . cases 1,435 776 Yellow metal....... 4,999 718 Copper................pigs 37,702 30,795 Copper...............bars 29,470 46,585 Corn meal......... bbls. C orn, f r o m — 69,662 268,878 New Orleans.sacks Ports in Virginia. 1,054,183 492,254 Ports in Maryland 861,067 588,949 Ports in Pen’lvan’a 452,734 448,126 Ports in Delaware 125,396 130,004 21,890 27,800 Ports in N. Jersey 394,307 472,526 Ports in N. York. 69,638 16,328 Other p o rts......... 1,485 2,546 D u ck .............. bales 23,654 18,368 D uck............... bolts Articles. H yew oods — Logwood........ tons Logwood____qtls. Logw ood... . .pcs. Fustic.............tons Fustic............. pcs. Sapan wood..pels. Sapan wood..tons F lo u r , wheat, f r o m — New York.. ..bbls. Albany................. Western Railroad. New Orleans........ Fredericksburg . . Georgetown......... Alexandria.......... Richmond. . . . . . . Oth. pts. in Virg’a Philadelphia........ Baltimore............. Other places........ Flour, r y e ........ bbls. F r u it — Lem ons.. . .boxes Oranges................ Figs............ drums Figs...............cases Raisins........casks Raisins........drums Raisins........ boxes Glass......................... Gunny bags........No. Gunny bags.. .bales Gunny bags.. . . bdls. H em p— Russia...........tons Other places........ Manila.........bales New Orleans. . . . Other places........ H id es, f r o m — Buenos Ayres .No. Rio Grande.......... Monte V id eo__ _ Truxillo................ California.............. West Indies......... Pem ambucco.. . . Porto Cabello.. . . Central America & Valparaiso.. . . Rio Janeiro......... 1849. 4,783| 6,964 420 2661 7,661 9,634 96 100,166 76,849 293,760 323,318 41,252 18,361 18,375 70,893 559 31,692 53,236 5,416 9,579 1848. 4,0451 22,936 9,083 470 14,370 13,847 66 194,776 63,989 383,593 193,094 23,183 3,808 15,8471 16,836 4,021 11,917 24,687 1,395 4,145 42,814 34,895 75,332 62,547 115,341 306,771 971 485 25,4981 17,631 1,100 1,729 152,0761 156,953 48,429 55,785 296,112 468,483 14,082 16,779 6,670 6,477 1,205 196 29,095 6,761 3,306 1,065 841 32,7821 11,878 4,901 255,730 36,712 4,566 675 29;800 1,429 2,000 3,737 12,692 58,090 178,072 5,807 50,925 323 25,452 37,671 34,735 70,142 195 Commercial Statistics. Articles. Cape of G. Hope. Baliia.................... Batavia................ Oth. foreign ports. Coastwise ports. . Calcutta___ bales Manilla.., H orns......... . . . .No. Indigo.......... Ir o n — Bar.......... P ig .......... Boiler.................... Bloom.................. Bars....................... Bundles............... Sheet & hoop.bdls. Blooms................. Plates .................. Railroad... Railroad . . . .bars Lac dye......... L e a d ............. •-pigs W hite......... White . . . . , Leather.......... Leather.......... L in seed , f r o m Calcutta___ Russia........ S icily ................... Other places........ Mackerel, If. S. .bbls. M ola sses , fr o m .— Foreign p’ts.hhds. Domestic ports . . Foreign ports.trcs. Domestic ports .. Foreign p’ts..bbls. Domestic ports . . N a v a l stores — Bosin.............bbls. Turpentine........... Spirits turpentine. Pitch.................... Tar........................ 1849. 206 19,942 3,218 46,838 92,375 3,700 763,856 1,178 3,618 44,0571 1848. 1,262 6,264 30,728 105,758 3,693 106 496,899 2,209 5,134 45,722* 57* 96 543,787 99,885 39,346 3,804 18,386 14,121 105,317 2,986 155,163 52,890 25 942,413 153,182 34,986 2,489 17,741 23,180 88,820 2,042 153,151 45,868 15* 482,479 578,782 33,086 24,909 81,780 3,665 1,961 371 40,479 65,721 2,141 3,028 53,932* 59,584 11,673 3,585 153 1,429 2,691 63,906 13,283 4,288 252 1,879 5,222 23,437 28,665 9,980 2,181 22,752 8,615 43,670 6,361 1,005 19 579 24,500 839 641 3,169 688 379,534 13,898 29,420 881 527 3,407 220 437,290 25,604 31,898 110,317 12,945 5,485 51,195 27,428* 100,045 8,766 5,528 47,667 O il— Whale <Sc sperm .. Linseed . . . .casks Palm..................... O liv e ___ baskets Olive.............casks Oats.................. bush. Pepper..............bags P r o v isio n s — Beef...............bbls. Pork.................. Hams.. .csks. <fctcs. H am s........... bbls. Butter........... kegs Articles. 667 1849. 1848. 1,461 1,183 Butter........... bbls. 9,282 7,193 Cheese......... casks 52,076 62,561 Cheese.........boxes 513* 604f Cheese............tons 48,618* 58,409 L a rd............. bbls. 53,432 55,634 Lard............. kegs 29,914 32,867 Hogs, W. R’d.. No. 8,452 ■ 7,046 Rags.................bales. 34f 5 Rags...................tons 11,730 15,432 Rice..................casks 48,995 51,648 Rye...................bush. 47,993 70,675 Shorts....................... Salt — 4,046* 6,376* Liverpool.. . . . tons 69,039 Liverpool___sacks 92,413 5,075* 451* Cadiz............ .lasts ........ Cadiz.............. tons 900 23,549 Curacoa........ bbls. Trapani and Ivaca 600 1,773 tons St. Martins.. .bush. 200,954 39,781 19,120 Bonaire.........bbls. Turks’ Isl’ds. bush. 120,869 350,491 378 St. Ubes.. . . moys. 787 81,495 91,895 Other place, .bush. 66,289 69,181 Saltpeter......... bags 6,700* 6,671 Skins, goat___ bags 23,600 49,039 Skins, goat.........No. Sugar, f r o m — 54,405 61,918 Foreign ports..bxs. 9,852 3,658 Domestic ports . . 9,338 8,017 For. ports__ hhds. 2,533 3,737 Domestic ports . . 59,212 75,171 For.ports... .bags 1,011 1,666 Domestic ports . . 1,102 993 For. ports.. . . bbls. 14,150 4,645 Domestic ports . . 899 700 For. ports . .bskts. 170* 107 S teel................. tons 19,094 23,068 Steel.. . .cases &. bdls. 156 6 Steel...................bars 3,946 7,839 Spelter........... plates 2,038 989 Spelter.............slabs 35 S p elter..............tons Sumac...............bags 28,092 29,347 5 3 Sumac................ tons 26,084 S h o t................. bags 16,945 37,415' 66,050 T e a .....packages 5,825 4,248 T in ....................slabs 3,464 T in .....................pigs 5,048 26,346 29,728 Tin plates.. . .boxes 34,378 29,595 Tobacco..................... 3,224 1,991 Tobacco............hhds. 6,156 4,887 Tobacco............ bales 6 2,078 Whalebone . . . .bdls. Wheat...............bush. 416,010 280,458 W ool, f r o m — 18,613 11,767 For. ports.. ..bales 23,808 25,749 Domestic ports . . 10,346 For. ports . . . qtls. 5,289 Commercial Statistics. 668 NAVIGATION OF THE PORT OF BOSTON. W e are indebted to Hon. G eorge S. B outwell, of Groton, Massachusetts, for the following tabular statement of the number of foreign and coastwise arrivals at the port of Boston, in each year, from 1830 to 1848, inclusive. Mr. Wellman, the coast wise clerk at the Custom-House in Boston, states that there are a large number of ves sels employed in the coasting trade, which do not enter or clear at the Custom-House, and that that number may be confidently stated at 4,000 each, every year. STATEMENT OF THE FOREIGN AND COASTWISE ARRIVALS AT THE PORT OF BOSTON, FROM TO Years. 1830.............. 1831.............. ......... 1832............... ......... 1833............... 1834.............. 1835.............. ......... 1836.............. ......... 1831.............. ......... 1838.............. ......... 1839.............. ......... 1848, 1830 INCLUSIVE. Foreign. Coastwise. 2,938 166 2,946 1,064 3,538 4,020 3,521 3,819 1,302 4,844 1,452 4,000 1,591 4,018 1,313 1,563 4,251 Years. 1840 ............. 1841............. 1842 ............. 1843 ............. 1844 ............. 1845 ............. 1846 ............. 1841............. 1848 ............. ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... Foreign. Coastwise. 4,406 4,514 1,138 3,862 4,914 5,909 2,305 5,631 2,000 6,132 2,156 1,125 3,012 6,002 COMMERCE OF CLEVELAND, OHIO. W e published in the November number of the M erch a n ts’ M a g a zin e , some statistics of the commerce of Chicago, prepared by W i l l i a m M i l f o r d , Esq., collected by him as the agent of the United States Topographical Bureau To the same source we are in debted for the following tabular statement of the exports, imports, and tonnage of Cleveland, Ohio, as follows:— e x p o r t s f o r 1848. Articles. Quantity. Articles. Value. Flour........ 493,816 $2,311,339 W h e a t... . .bush. 1,232,621 1,195,648 Corn.......... 662,162 111,486 Pork........ .bbls. 28,801 259,263 3,010 3,461 S a lt .......... Whisky.. . . 2,095 16,160 Lard.......... 8,332 66,414 22,406 211,119 Butter . . . . S eed s.. . . .bbls. 1,491 11,900 149 14,980 A shes___ B eef.......... 6,886 68,860 1,431 Cheese. . . . .lbs. 148,625 Tobacco.. 19,139 956 Bacon. . . . 190,265 9,513 Staves___ 113 30,920 Wool........ . .lbs. 528,380 132,095 Feathers.. 31,621 9,405 Nails........ 15,400 61,600 428,000 lr’n,n’ls&grs.t’ns 4,281 68 19 42 00 50 00 00 00 00 00 00 25 95 25 00 00 00 00 00 Quantity. C o a l... ............. 131,200 Glass.............bxs. 11,595 1,129 Fruit............ bbls. OiL....................... 111 Sakeratus___ lbs. 63,300 Mereha'dise. pkgs. 3,201 Merchandise, tons 290 Oats............ bush. 254,101 Lard..............tons 118^ Hi’hw’ns k Wh’sy 28,565 Iron............pieces 16,284 Pig iron ___ tons 2,181 11,511 Cheese.......... bxs. Wool........... sacks 5,130 232 Lard............ bbls. 8,605 F u r................ lbs. Miscellaneous....... Value. 360,800 14,499 1,600 4,425 3,165 48,000 81,000 16,412 14,220 228,635 19,110 80,830 23,000 128,250 3,480 8,605 600,000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 $6,113,244 34 Total............... IMPORTS. Articles. Salt.......... . .bbls. Lumber.. . M. feet Shingles.. . . .M. F ish ......... . .bbls. Merchandise. tons Mercha’dise. pkgs. Pig iron.. Quantity. Value. 105,608 §121,449 20 46,469 00 6,641 4,304 00 2,152 28,292 00 1,013 29,022 5,804,400 00 139,000 00 13,861 6,080 00 236 Articles. Furniture., .pkgs. Water lime .bbls. Shingle wood.c’ds Staves..............M. Miscellaneous....... Total............... Quantity. Value. 251 1,550 269 300 25,000 2,268 1,125 12,000 216,000 00 00 00 00 00 $1,006,988 20 Commercial Statistics. EXPORTS TO CANADA IN Articles. Flour.......... W heat___ bush. Corn.......... Pork.......... .bbls. Salt............ Whisky.. . . Lard.......... Clover seed Beef........... casks. Quantity. 6,571 35,186 29,415 1,885 280 50 109 81 150 Value. $29,642 31,607 11,982 15,986 356 400 1,090 891 1,950 669 1848. Articles. C o a l............. tons Tallow......... bbls. Corn meal........... Fruit trees. . bdls. H em p.........bales Miscellaneous . . . Value. 6,622 26,728 1,967 211 450 12,431 Quantity. 2,648 1,420 787 75 55 Total............... IMPORTS FROM CANADA IN $142,312 1848. Articles. Quantity. Value. Articles. Value. Quantity. §363 87 Pine spars........... Salt........... bbls. 402 250 24 205 Lumber . . . .feet. 2,995,113 12,841 05 Cedar posts......... 147 89 2,441 13 Fish o il........bbls. Shingles .. . .M. 2,257 1,783 92 146 Fish........... bbls. 300 905 48 Stone...........tons 32 68 65 Plaster . . . . 92 285 18 Mercliadise. pkgs. 106 59 3 Iron............ 59 1,095 51 Potatoes . . .bush. 11 41 43 Shingle wood.c’ds 1,070 3,303 30 Sundries................ 141 63 Liq’r & wines.csks 3 223 30 Total $23,969 15 Total imports coastwise.................................................................. 7,006,988 20 Total exports coastwise................................................................. 6,713,244 34 Total imports and exports coastwise.................................... Total imports and exports foreign........................................ 113,720,232 54 166,281 15 Total imports and exports............................................. §13,886,513 69 TONNAGE OWNED AT CLEVELAND. Number. 2 7 21 57 7 Steamboats . Propellers.. . Brigs............ Schooners__ Scow s.......... Total 94 Tonnage. 1,231 69-95ths. 3,740 02-95 4,755 59-95 7,687 26-95 406 52-95 16,821 18-95 Besides this, there are owned in the remainder of the “ Cuyahoga District,” two steamboats, two propellers, two brigs, nineteen schooners, three scows, with a tonnage of 5,226 12-95ths tons, valued at §230,165. COMMERCE OF LAGUAYRA, VENEZUELA, EXPORTS OF COFFEE, HIDES, AND INDIGO TO DIFFERENT PLACES. The following is a statement of exports of coffee, hides, and indigo, produce of ■Venezuela, from the port of Laguayra, for the year ending 31st July, 1846 :— Coffee. Hides. Indigo. 2,680,286 675 Great Britain....................... ___ lbs. 6,208,564 2,498 Hamburg and Bremen........ ........... 2,600 39,909 United States................... . 55,800 517 France.................................... 19,860 .... St. Thomas and A lton a .. . . .... 183,000 Genoa.................................... ............. 290,000 Trieste................................... ............. Spain...................................... 16,790 2,116 460 Amsterdam........................... — Total..................................... 20,459,817 60,849 80,376 / 670 Commercial Statistics. ' Independent of the above products, there are large shipments of cocoe made to Spain, France, and England; in fact, the value of the export of this article may be considered as next to that of coffee. EXPORT OF BREADSTUFFS FKOM THE UNITED STATES TO GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, FROM 1ST SEPTEMBER, 1 8 4 8 , TO 1ST SEPTEMBER, 1 8 4 9 . Flour. From B b ls. New Y ork ......................... New Orleans.................... Philadelphia...................... Baltimore......................... Boston................................ Other ports....................... 718,189 161,027 76,113 75,043 15,649 12,095 Total............................. Same time last year . . 1,118,116 183,533 Meal. Wheat. B b ls. B u sh . 34,932 5,703 25,493 7,407 4,520 8,003 585,946 127,651 209,154 120,300 9,728 38,606 Corn. Oats. Barley. B u sh . B u sh . B u sh . 6,593,104 1,856 2,647,469 1,000 1,383,928 . . . . .... 872,305 .... 530,084 .... 702,736 . . . . .... 86,058 1,091,385 12,729,626 105,350 251,622 4,581,367 1,000 1,856 — .... PRODUCTION OF HOGS AND BEEF CATTLE IN OHIO. TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER AND VALUE OF HOGS AND BEEF CATTLE, IN FIFTY-NINE COUNTIES IN OHIO, AS RETURNED FOR TAXATION BY THE TOWNSHIP ASSESSORS, AND EQUAL IZED BY THE COUNTY BOARDS, FOR THE TEARS Counties. Ashland... Brown . . . Butler___ Clark........ Clinton. . . Coshocton. Columbia.. Cuvahoga. Delaware.. Fairfield.. Franklin... Greene___ Guernsey. Hamilton.. H enry___ Hocking... Holmes. . . Jefferson.. Knox . . . . Logan. . . . Mahoning. Medina. . . Marion___ Meigs....... Miami. . . . Monroe. . . Morgan. . . Portage . . Preble . . . Richland.. Seneca.. . . Summit.. . Tuscarawas Union....... Williams.. 1848. Value. Hogs. 21,950 $23,170 39,851 48,478 64,067 97,514 24,937 36,994 38,955 50,748 25,306 28,112 22,111 25,641 13,029 22,462 30,148 33,665 40,054 45,050 51,983 72,154 35,401 50,741 27,186 28,487 34,607 55,778 2,209 2,234 12,304 10,902 19,878 17,393 19,130 28,483 26,037 26,779 22,038 20,476 14,048 19,983 14,419 18,924 24,319 26,596 9,366 12,689 27,020 33,656 20,495 23,345 21,324 27,616 11,344 20,125 42,533 48,961 27,142 23,695 24,563 22,629 16,231 24,436 23,758 22,115 20,853 22,606 6,109 4,879 1849. 1848-9. 1848. 1849. Hogs. Value. Beef. Value. Beef. Value. 24,108 $22,936 12,410 $99,724 14,292 $111,719 59,025 9,876 43,077 72,353 10,051 76,339 63,425 116,466 11,838 103,358 12,420 107,329 25,543 40,536 14,122 146,417 14,031 150,231 40,538 65,687 10,600 96,301 11,485 107,811 28,358 30,735 12,279 98,006 13,694 113,904 21,234 20,730 13,606 121,314 14,970 130,972 11,151 17,493 16,367 207,709 19,000 236,164 30,573 82,689 11,144 98,670 12,725 113,706 42,444 48,496 15,862 116,097 16,724 125,144 54,516 75,365 14,501 158,897 15,007 161,782 36,484 62,323 12,547 114,944 12,530 117,064 30,771 31,338 13,175 90,727 14,182 103,642 36,048 60,566 12,116 121,151 11,972 121,605 2,308 2,157 1,548 16,554 1,910 19,370 14,979 12,633 6,524 41,707 7,012 45,740 20,976 16,945 10,511 77,936 12,023 85,533 20,233 24,512 8,513 73,841 9,727 80,693 24,657 24,567 12,411 -95,093 14,377 105,792 21,784 21,489 9,196 78,172 10,114 82,708 13,751 16,822 14,932 159,153 16,325 175,874 13,188 17,359 15,262 173,599 18,292 197,826 22,534 24,262 11,784 120,352 11,151 103,144 11,439 11,369 7,022 61,078 7,537 66,544 26,390 36,759 10,437 78,125 10,799 82,600 27,607 27,099 9,372 66,923 10,160 72,966 26,097 31,092 11,379 85,012 12,397 97,090 11,319 16,042 23,060 337,588 26,691 345,935 38,744 58,230 11,055 81,872 11,167 83,850 26,687 22,468 13,945 107,797 16,811 129,741 25,376 22,341 14,214 124,457 15,598 130,955 15,316 20,971 14,899 106,002 17,169 211,200 25,167 21,574 14,749 99,742 15,626 117,039 19,245 22,451 8,004 80,047 8,445 83,807 5,244 4,460 4,509 44,716 3,621 33,738 Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. Hogs. Wood....... Wvandott. Adams... . Clermont. Crawford. Hardin___ Highland. Morrow . . Musking’m Paulding . Sandusky. Van Wert. Harrison.. Allen........ Ashtabula. Relm ont.. Carroll___ Ch'mpa’ne. Lawrence. Ottowa. . . Perry.. . . . R osa........ Scioto / . . . W arren . . 1848. 8,442 11,295 25,085 44,730 21,735 11,033 46,509 21,162 35,825 1,931 13,513 5,141 18,585 10,481 7,660 26,804 16,924 21,844 9,840 3,742 21,579 62,279 13,150 40,912 Value. 6,727 11,013 28,603 71,509 20,885 8,402 54,172 20,292 43,318 1,952 12,533 2,698 23,288 8,096 13,334 38,033 15,255 39,841 13,586 3,681 20,477 98,039 17,818 59,613 Hoga. 1849. 7,845 12,917 29,752 21,076 20,922 9,982 53,286 19,962 37,645 1,954 14,017 5,952 19,005 12,566 7,309 31,323 15,589 27,093 14,641 4,049 20,578 66,483 17,245 41,717 Value. 5,759 12,429 35,935 87,513 19,046 7,584 63,480 18,123 47,350 1,917 11,496 4,473 25,698 9.273 11,584 43,486 13,623 34,322 13,414 3,614 22,491 115,427 19,094 73,732 1848. 671 1849. Beef. Value. Beef. Value. 6,520 56,299 59,665 6,584 6,590 76,001 60,789 7,649 7,812 57,767 8,434 65,447 10,535 91,664 10,687 96,427 10,982 107,867 13.488 122,258 38,930 4,715 39,015 14,023 11,022 86,529 12,024 97,647 98,894 10,886 85,417 12,929 17,913 143,690 19,676 171,188 841 7,053 914 7,917 87,590 8,213 79,346 9,484 20,026 2,405 17,574 2,649 84,084 8,394 73,954 9,392 46,263 5,672 38,509 6,410 30,714 389,361 35,202 421,221 12,454 108,019 13,449 122,501 9,033 74,436 10,115 82,133 11,842 112,130 12,758 122,221 5,315 63,900 5,757 74,551 27,320 2,625 25,827 2,866 75,324 10,653 69,793 11,018 22,705 365,606 24,129 359,813 75,222 6,653 72,274 6,595 11,533 101,778 17,149 109,137 T otal... 1,336,367 1,690,308 1,410,377 1,876,622 637,284 6,063,284 688,248 6,658,269 JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. THE GRANITEVILLE (S. C.) COTTON MANUFACTORY. W e have great pleasure in laying before our readers the foHowing letter from W illiam G regg , E sq., the intelligent and enterprising founder of the Graniteville Cotton Manufactory. The introduction of manufactories into the Southern States, will form an interesting chapter in the industrial history of the country ; and we rejoice to find our southern friends advocating the importance of “ bringing the cotton mill to the cotten field.” K a l m ia , S. C, October 22, 1849. To F reem an H u nt , F sq ., E d i t o r o f th e M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a z in e , e tc . D ear S ir :— Your favor of the 12tli inst. was received in course. It will always afford me pleasure to contribute any thing within my power to add to the useful stock of knowledge contained in the pages of your valuable journal. I cannot promise you much at present, but will take a more leisure time to extend my present remarks in answer to your inquiries respecting the advances making in the mechanic arts, and do mestic industry of South Carolina, and particularly a history of the rise and progress of our Graniteville manufacturing village, which many persons are looking to for a clear demonstration, that cotton manufacturing can be made a lucrative branch of industry in our State. W e in common with the manufacturing world are laboring under an unprecedented state of things just now. Cotton has advanced upon us 100 per cent in eight months. The raw material which we are now using costs us at the rate of $65,000 per annum more than it did in February last, while manufactured goods have advanced but a shade : this state of things cannot last, for goods will have to go up, or cotton go down to enable the spinners of the world to continue in operation. Our Graniteville factory buildings are made of hammered granite, contain 8,400 spindles and 300 looms, of the most improved machinery. W e turn out daily about Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 672 12,000 yards of cloth, sheeting, shirting and drills, of No. 14 yarn, according to the judgment of the merchants of Charleston, New York and Philadelphia, equal in point of quality to any of the kind made in the United States or any other country. We employ in and about the mill 325 persons, and support a village of nine hundred white people. Our superintendent, and a few owners are Eastern m en; all the laborers, South Carolinians, said to be equal in point of industry and efficiency to any set of hands o f similar number and age in the Northern and Eastern States— wages 20 per cent lower than in Massachusetts, and a fraction lower than in Rhode Island. The village covers about 150 acres of ground, contains two handsome Gothic churches, an academy, hotel, ten or twelve stores, and about one hundred cottages be longing to the company, and occupied by persons in their service. The houses vary in size from three to nine rooms each, nearly all built after the Gothic cottage order, gives tire place quite a novel appearance to a stranger. The use of alcohol is not permitted in the place— young people, particularly males, not allowed to remain in the place in idleness— the maintenance of a moral character is necessary to a continued residence in the place. A ll parents are required to keep their children, between the ages of six and twelve, at school— good teachers, books, Ac. furnished by the company, free of charge. The restraints above named are willingly acquiesced in by the people, and we have one of the most moral, quiet, orderly, and busy places to be found any where. Our female help is all taken from resident families under the protection and care of arents. This is a great moral restraint, and gives us an advantage over those who ave to rely on the boarding-house system for help, where large numbers of youug fe males are collected together from a wide range of country, away from parents care. The property cost $300,000, and I have no doubt will prove to he a profit able investment, soon to be followed by millions of our capital seeking similar channels. We have a large class of white people in South Carolina who are not slave holders, and who are compelled to work for a livelihood The good lands are generally owned by the wealthy, and cultivated by negroes, affording but little employment to the poor, who readily come into factory service. They are frugal and economical in their habits; our mild climate, cheap breadstuff's, fuel, and other substantials of life, render living much cheaper here than in colder countries. In the interior of this State, we have cotton 1-J cents cheaper than it can be obtained in the East, and 2 cents cheaper than in England, or any part of Europe. A ll these advantages, added to the superabun dance of labor, must operate for many years so favorably on cotton manufacturing in the South, as to render it only necessary to make judicious outlays in erecting mills, and to exercise tolerable management afterwards, to render profitable results certain. In lieu of a more extended article, I send you an address which I recently delivered to the South Carolina Institute, which, if you think worthy of a place in your Maga zine, you are at liberty to publish. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, E W ILLIAM GREGG. Since receiving the foregoing letter, we learn that the Graniteville Manufacturing Company, of South Carolina, have been awarded the first premium by the Frank lin Institute of Philadelphia, for some sheetings, shirtings, and drillings, as submitted in competition, at the recent exhibition. This is quite a triumph for oar southern friends. The editor of the P e n n sy lv a n ia E n q u ir e r has seen specimens of the goods alluded to, and speaks of them in the highest terms of commendation. STATISTICS OF INVENTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1848, laid before the thirtieth Congress, at its second session, (in February, 1849,) has just been pub lished. It is the last report of the Hon. E dmund B urke, who entered upon the duties of the office in May, 1845, and continued to fill the station, until the appointment of his successor by the present administration in 1849, with distinguished ability, as an examination of his voluminous, well-considered, and faithfully prepared reports, which have become matter of history, will most conclusively show. The report now before Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 673 us is one of more than ordinary interest, exhibiting, as it does, not only a complete his tory of the progress of inventions during the last year of the Commissioner’s adminis tration of the affairs of the Patent Office, but a clear and comprehensive statistical and financial history of the Patent Office from 1790 to 1849. W e regret that our limits will not permit us, at this time, to furnish a complete an alysis o f the vast amount of valuable information it embodies. Our readers must, therefore, be content with a condensed view of its statistical and financial history, abridged from the report, and with the promise of resuming the subject from time to time until we have included or embraced such portions of it as fall within the scope of the M erch a n ts’ M agazine. Passing over, for the present, an abstract of the legislation o f Congress in relation to patents and the Patent Office, from the commencement of the government to the present time, the admirable introductory report of Mr. Burke, and other matters of interest and importance, we proceed at once to exhibit, in as con densed a form as the subject will admit, the statistical history of the Patent Office, and the progress o f invention in the several States of the Union from 1790 to 1849 :— STATEMENT OF THE RECEIPTS FROM PATENT AND OTHER FEES, AND OF PAYMENTS FOR SALA RYES, AND THE CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF THE PATENT OFFICE, (INCLUDING THE ERECTIOtf OF THE BUILDING,) FROM ITS ESTABLISHMENT TO JANUARY 1, 1849. ,--------------------------------------------------------------- P A Y M E N T S .---------------------------------------------------------------- , Years. 1828a...... 1829........ 1830........ 1831........ 1832........ 1 8 8 3 ......... 1834........ 1 8 3 5 ... 1 8 3 6 6 .... 1836c___ 1837........ 1838........ 1839........ 1840........ 1841........ 1842........ 1843d___ 1844e___ 1 8 4 5 /.... 1845cr.. . .. 1846......... 1847........ 1848........, Withdrawing Contingencies, applications for books, fixtures, patents, and For salaries, preparing statis- Restoring repayment of recording tical informa- mdls., draw’gs, money paid by tion, &c. patents, &c. records, &c. mistake, &c. Receipts. SI 60 659 37 S62.654 73 *17.808 10 12,990 16*350 1 7 /8 0 14^160 17/730 23,160 28*320 1 7 /0 0 14,579 28,901 41,490 39,061 38,405 33,938 35,670 16,390 39,145 48,472 27,278 50,264 63,111 67,576 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 58 08 45 95 39 76 96 40 19 44 67 16 19 69 4*130 4*300 5*388 15*400 6*850 8 /5 7 5,375 2 /5 8 5,300 13,400 12,500 16,735 18,163 18,764 19,350 9,675 19,450 18,824 10,443 21,828 23,287 31,541 ......... 55 00 85 00 02 03 13 04 00 00 00 00 51 82 00 00 00 71 06 58 57 70 3 /0 0 4,630 1,890 1,500 2,175 2 /7 5 1,500 2 /0 0 2,600 7,500 8,100 9,159 2,500 5,312 6,800 3,750 6,950 8,297 5,599 11,871 10,272 15,289 00 42 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 22 00 38 00 00 00 87 31 83 35 91 17,950 11,337 8 /0 0 6,880 18,019 14,570 3,000 4,250 4,680 257 1,371 310 44 00 00 00 00 59 00 00 00 47 68 31 00 00 540 3,180 3,020 6,409 7,733 10,753 6,500 3,500 8,703 7,995 4,030 11/86 8,008 1 2 /30 00 00 00 99 31 33 Total. 8,440 42,030 34,957 40,404 35,316 52,850 00 47,220 00 19,925 28 39,353 02 39,798 00 20,330 99 46,158 43 41,878 23 58,905 .. j-108,000 00 00 00 21 82 12 00 00 28 07 05 71 35 84 00 T o t a l.. 8852,036 28 239,263 95 104,002 87 $90,770 05 $93,530 58 635,567 45 (a) Patent fees to December 31, 18128, as per statement rendered to the Secretary o f the Treasury September 16,1829. (ft) To July 4. (c) Receipts from July 4 to December 31, 1836. (d) To June 30. (e) In the year ending June 30. ( / ) In the year ending June 30. ( g ) From June 30 to December 31. * Exclusive o f contingent expenses prior to January 1,1814; the amount o f which could not be ascertained, the accounts having been lost when the public buildings were burned in 1814. + Appropriated out of this fund and paid for the building. VOL. X X I.---- NO. V I. 43 1790 TO 1849 ; PRE SENTING A RECORD OF THE INVENTIVE GENIUS OF AMERICA DURING THAT PERIOD. K 1 at A •ct A a, P 3 Total......................................................................... P? w o_ a * C-i A A 3 30 *1 -< i •< i. p 3 1 *3 5! p" g I A s p g w EL | 3 a © $ c B B t? 3 5' p § o, 5‘ p. NUM BER OF PA TE N T S. 113 22 23 13 34 5 16 4 7 13 33 33 44 28 38 14 37 11 7 3 10 11 25 8 37 35 36 13 36 16 57 3 18 16 1 4 7 5 4 4 6 4 3 3 52 28 55 12 34 3 3 7 4 14 19 27 17 25 8 17 9 8 4 5 1 1 8 103 275 72 366 66 127 38 229 96 51 27 87 41 35 15 60 22 68 17 122 28 35 15 46 9 151 21 45 10 118 29 84 30 96 65 39 4 26 12 34 8 24 6 9 25 102 3 16 11 3 6 9 6 8 2 6 5 4 6 8 2 3 7 16 115 139 160 56 107 20 27 36 31 48 42 17 46 77 8 31 65 28 21 12 64 43 565 407 370 333 593 207 204 66 209 146 339 123 200 304 73 129 226 155 57 83 76 39 93 159 112 162 218 105 82 30 86 41 105 53 48 65 20 37 75 121 29 50 52 14 56 47 61 36 30 27 26 5 16 21 25 8 9 17 10 17 10 11 4 7 12 25 272 37 12 84 186 77 4 34 129 54 6 30 183 91 2 45 189 115 1 59 123 79 4 47 89 52 2 38 31 15 1 11 88 29 3 39 102 35 10 57 128 50 1 46 31 16 1 14 105 18 7 25 88 83 24 68 23 1 16 80 37 4 20 95 30 3 35 15 99 78 4 30 19 2 14 48 38 35 13 44 4 7 8 14 26 24 19 39 43 44 24 5 31 46 35 7 20 11 14 7 27 14 4 12 11 15 494 366 353 2,221 639 257 1,193 4,904 1,757 480 2,222 965 71 678 477 134 28 28 42 17 12 21 9 25 9 41 22 30 18 14 27 31 4 10 6 30 17 10 8 6 8 3 5 3 4 10 4 6 8 7 9 3 4 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 20 15 1 11 2 1 3 1 39 3 7 5 4 1 12 6 10 5 1 5 6 3 1 4 3 5 4 2 2 1 1 3 4 3 532 140 131 78 Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. IN V E N T IO N S E M B R A C E D IN E A C H C L A S S . Agriculture, including instruments and operations Metallurgy......................................................... Manufactures of fibrous and textile substances, die. Chemical processes........................................... Calorific— stoves, grates, furnaces, <fec................. Steam and gas engines.................................... Navigation—maritime implements, <fcc........... Mathematical, philosophical, and optical instrum’ts Civil engineering and architecture................... Land conveyance— carriages, cars, die............... Hydraulics & pneumatics— water & wind mills, <tc. Mechanical pow’r applied to pr’ssing, weighing, die. Grinding mills and mill gearing................... Lumber and implements for its manufacture, die. Stone and clay manufactures— potterv. dre.......... Leather—tanning, boot making, saddlery, & c ... Household furniture, domestic implements, d ie ... Arts— polite, fine, and ornamental......................... Fire-arms and implements of w ar......................... Surgical and dental instruments................................................... Wearing apparel and articles for the toilet.......... Miscellaneous........................................................ a a * a CL 3! 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 a $ 9 3 3 a o S’ 3 og cl Gcorgij A o3 Virgini < Boston. 2 a 3 a 3 2 g_ 3’ "S 674 TABLE EXHIBITING A COMPARATIVE V IE W OF THE NUMBER OF PATENTS OF EACH CLASS ISSUED TO CITIZENS OF THE SEVERAL STATES FROM g £ o o Foreign .. Wisconsin *-3 3 S Iowa...... Florida... 5 2.' 3’ Missouri . Indiana... S' Michigan. Kentucky. Tennessee Arkansas. Louisiana Mississippi Alabama . 0 3* p Io* p' IN V E N T IO N S E M B R A C E D IN E A C H C L A S S . 4 2 3 5 4 4 6 10 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 Total...................................... ................................... 71 7 4 8 1 8 1 4 1 4 17 2 5 1 3 10 2 5 7 2 3 4 2 2 3 1 2 2 • 4 4 1 1 2 7 2 1 3 1 37 80 ,, ,, .. ., ,, .. ,. i 29 3 14 5 3 8 2 2 1 15 9 15 8 5 5 . . 8 • i 28 4 32 16 6 10 7 3 3 2 11 6 1 8 4 9 16 2 4 12 2 1 NUMBEROFPATENTS. 46 18 27 22 41 6 4 3 4 1 46 42 1 4 3 72 4 4 3 36 2 5 14 1 3 i 11 1 1 15 2 6 9 1 2 17 59 5 11 6 19 6 1 55 2 6 5 68 8 15 4 # 4 17 1 34 5 1 1 44 1 5 1 2 7 2 . 12 1 2 7 3 1 9 1 1 4 • 132 197 775 53 117 4 7 12 , . 2 i 1 .. 8 1 1 4 ,, 6 . i ., 1 i V. ., t. i i i ,. i 1 ,. 1 1 1 2 2 1 i 1 i 69 49 1 4 14 15 8 20 20 13 27 4 16 9 11 ,. 6 6 11 5 11 13 15 2 1 2 10 227 2 *i 956 1,355 25 21 1,551 1,035 35 12 1,479 658 26 609 15 250 4 590 6 563 6 986 8 404 2 697 3 2 950 335 i 553 3 722 4 474 1® 230 4 , 254 284 2 1 202 e* lI i— os ( Agriculture, including instruments and operations Metallurgy.................................................................. Manufactures of fibrous and textile substances, Ac. Chemical processes................................................... Calorific— stoves, grates, furnaces, A c................... Steam and gas engines............................................ Navigation— maritime implements, A c................. Mathematical, philosophical, A optical instrum’ts. Civil engineering and architecture......................... Land conveyance— carriages, cars, Ac................... Hydraulics A pneumatics— wat’r A wind mills, Ac. Mechanical pow’r applied to pressing, weighing, Ac. Grinding mills and mill gearing.............................. Lumber and implements for its manufacture, A c. Stone and clay manufactures— pottery, A c .......... Leather— tanning, boot making, saddley, A c ___ Household furniture, domestic implements, A c .. . Arts— polite, fine, and ornamental......................... Fire-arms and implements of w a r......................... Surgical and dental instruments............................. Wearing apparel and articles for the toilet......... Miscellaneous............................................................ fl6,137 * The cities o f Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, as given in the table, are excluded from these totals, being embraced in the numbers for their respective States, f This total does not show the exact number of patents that have been issued; for, in cases where there were joint inventors residing in different States, credit was given to each State, and in a considerable number o f cases the official digest does not give the residence o f patentees. Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 o - r Cn Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 676 The following table shows the year in which each State was admitted into the Union, the estimated population in 1848, and the ratio of inventions to the population:— States. M aine............................... New Hampshire............... Vermont............................ Massachusetts.................. Admission into the Union. 1820 1791 1789 Ratio of inventions to Population. 61,500 308,000 310,000 875,000 population. i 124 i 841 i 878 i 394 135,000 340,000 2,880,000 i i i 525 285 465 New Jersey....................... Pennsylvania................... 425,000 2,220,000 i i 885 999 Delaware......................... Maryland......................... 85,000 510,009 i i 1,197 752 Virginia............................. North Carolina................. South Carolina................. Georgia............................. Alabama........................... Mississippi....................... Louisiana......................... Arkansas........................... Tennessee.......................... Kentucky.......................... Ohio.................................... Michigan........................... Indiana............................. Illinois............................... Missouri............................. F lorida............................. Texas.................................. Iow a.................................. Wisconsin......................... District of Columbia.. . . 1,295,000 780,000 620,000 825,000 716,000 670,000 490,000 200,000 980,000 890,000 1,980,000 420,000 1,000,000 800,000 589,000 80,000 150,000 150,000 250,000 48,000 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 2,434 5,571 4,733 10,706 10,084 18,108 6,125 200,000 7,424 4,517 2,554 7,924 8,547 11,594 1,220 80,000 37,500 76,000 25,000 211 Rhode Island.................... Connecticut...................... Hew York......................... 1789 1789 1789 1792 1816 1845 1845 1846 THE CUMBERLAND AND CANNEL COAL TRADE. To F reeman H unt, E sq., E d ito r o f the M erch a n ts' M agazine, etc. In your number for September last, is an article on the “ Coal Trade of the United States,” and, with the exception of a brief mention of coal in other States, is wholly confined to the coal trade of Pennsylvania, which has grown to be of an immense amount My object in this note is to mention that, in addition to the anthracite coal of Pennsylvania, and the bituminous coal of Pittsburg, of Virginia, and of the Western States, there is, also, the semi-bituminous coal of Maryland, near Cumberland, of which large quantities will come down to Washington and Alexandria next year, when the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal will be finished to Cumberland. This coal is very supe rior for steam purposes, and is preferred by most of our ocean steamers. With this coal for fuel, why is not the immense water-power of the Great Falls of the Potomac, of 78 feet, 165 miles from Washington, brought into use ? In addition to the above three varieties of coal, we have, also, the cannel coal, wliich burns so freely with a full blaze. Previous to 1844, cannel coal was discovered at Hawesville, Kentucky, said to be equal to English cannel coal. The vein extends under the Ohio River, and is worked at Cannelton, on the opposite bank in Indiana, where a manufacturing village has lately sprung up. A vein of cannel coal was discovered in 1844 at Genevieve, Missouri, on the banks of the Mississippi, below St. Louis, and .more recently very extensive veins of cannel coal are found on the Missouri River. One Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. , 677 vein, about 120 miles above St. Louis; another vein near Boonville, above the Osage River, and about 200 miles above St. Louis. This coal is very good for making gas, and, as the country increases in population and capital, will be brought to market. This coal is probably found in other places than those above mentioned. O bserver. TH E MANUFACTURE OF COTTON IN TH E SOUTHERN STATES. Our readers are referred to an article in a former part of the present number of on “ T h e Condition and P ro sp ects o f A m er ic a n Cotton M a n ufactures in 1849,” elicited by a communication on “ T h e P ro d u ctio n and M a n u fa ctu re o f C o t t o n : with R eferen ce to its M a n u fa ctu re in the C otton -G row in g States,” by General 0. T. James, CivH Engineer of Providence, Rhode Island, published in the November number of the Magazine. The article in the present number deserves the careful consideration of our Southern friends, about to engage in the manufacture of cotton goods, coming, as it does, from a gentleman of large experience, and a thorough practical knowledge of the whole subject. In publishing the article of General James — a gentleman supposed to be one of the leading manufacturers at the North, and from the circumstance of his having erected steam factories for individuals or compa nies, in different sections of the country, supposed to understand the details of the bu siness, in all its bearings— we did not vouch either for the accuracy of his statements or the correctness of his conclusions. The pages of the M erch a n ts’ M agazine, as we have frequently had occasion to remark, are open to the free and fair discussion of all topics falling within its original design, or such as an independent journal, devoted to the great industrial and commercial interests of the country and the world, may legit imately embrace in its wide range of subjects. W e published the communication in question under the signature, and with the name of the author in our table of contents, in accordance with our uniform custom with all articles voluntarily contributed to the pages o f our journal; and we as freely give place to the able article from another pen, in the present number. To this course, no one, we think, can reasonably object. It appears to us the best that can be devised to elicit the truth. Although not practicaUy acquainted with the subject of manufactures, we thought, at the time— and our opinion remains unchanged— that some of the statements made by the author of that article were exaggerated, and the data furnished by the writer of the article in this number, only tends to confirm our impression in that respect. But we must leave the decision of the whole subject, when fully and fairly discussed, to the more enlarged knowledge and better judgment of such of our readers as may take an interest in it. I f the tables in Mr. Lawrence’s paper are reliable— and of that we think there can be no reasonable doubt, as they were obtained from official sources—the profits of man ufacturing establishments have been overstated or exaggerated by the writer o f the ar ticle in the November number. th e M ercha nts’ M agazine, It is foreign to our purpose to make our Magazine instrumental in misleading the sanguine to attempt what must prove disastrous if founded in mistake. And if the statements of General James wfil not bear examination— such examination as aU who propose to engage in the enterprise should give the subject, they can do little or no harm. I f General James feels agrieved in regard to the preceding remarks, which have been elicited by the publication of an article designed to invalidate the correct ness of his statements, we wiH cheerfully permit him to be heard through the same medium. As the article referred to has been extracted from our Magazine into most of the leading journals in the South, we trust our brethren of the press in that section of the 678 Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. Union will adopt our course, by publishing both sides of the question, and thus place their readers in possession of the means of coming to a correct decision in the matter. The article o f General James has also been commented upon in the newspaper press of the North, and a variety of conclusions drawn from its statements. An anonymous writer in the B o ston Courier , commenting upon the article, in reply to another anony mous writer, who, it would seem, had taken a different view of the subject, says “ The whole tenor of the article is so absurd, and many of its statements are so en tirely at variance with all experience, that it seemed hardly possible for one having any business acquaintance with cotton manufacturing, to be misled by it. It was evi dently intended for some other latitude than this ; and if, through its influence, we are not entirely outdone by Southern competition, it will be because the more discrimina ting o f the Southern capitalists prefer an immediate investment in some of our Northern manufacturing stocks, now selling at so great a discount, yet paying such enormous dividends.” In reference to the steam mills erected by General James, the writer in the goes on to say:— Courier “ The ‘ Globe,’ the last mill designed, built and started by Mr. James, at Newbury port, commenced running in 1846, and although it has been in constant operation since that time, it has never divided one per cent. The last sale of the stock that came to our knowledge was 1180 per share, upon an original par value of $500. “ I f these, as your correspondent asserts, are ‘ among the most prosperous in the country,’ they lend but feeble confirmation to the glowing statements o f General James as to manufacturing profits in New England, and hardly sustain his own repre sentations as to the ‘ immense fortunes acquired ’ through this branch of industry, in ‘ this State and Rhode Island.’ ”* The writer in the Courier says “ it is not surprising that so little notice should have been taken of an article written by General C. T. James, ‘ Civil Engineer of Rhode Island,’ which appeared in the last number of H u n t's M erch a n ts’ M a g a z i n e and yet this same writer informs us that, should his antagonist “ carry out his intention of ma king further reference to the same article, he shall feel compelled to descend more into particulars, at some future day.” A gentleman residing in Massachusetts, for whose character and opinions we enter tain the utmost respect, in a private letter, referring to the article of General James, says:— “ Our Southern neighbors are disposed to go into the business of manufacturing fully fast enough; and if they are not urged on beyond their means, it will be advantageous to them and to us. The effect of such statements as are made by General James, will be to deceive those who are not practically informed on the subject to which they relate; and coming, as they do, through a journal so much relied upon as yours, they are calculated to do much harm. Many persons here have read them with surprise, but m ore f r o m the circumstance o f their being in y o u r M agazine, than f o r a n y oth er reason'.’ To the first sentence of our correspondent’s remarks, we heartily assent; and we feel flattered with the compliment conveyed in the sentences that follow. It is, how ever— and we say it with a full consciousness of our defects— but the natural results of more than ten years’ honest and persevering study and effort to render our journal an authentic depository of facts bearing upon all the great commercial interests o f every section of the Union. Our brethren in the Southern States will not, we trust, infer from the foregoing observations, that we would discourage their laudable and ju dicious efforts to diversify their pursuits. They should continue the production of cot ton, and the great staples indigenous to their soil and climate, and at the same tune * Whatever may be the profits of manufactories, it will not, we venture to say, be denied, that large fortunes have been acquired in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, &c., “ through this branch of in dustry,” Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 679 introduce such branches of manufactures as promise even a moderate remuneration for the capital invested. The influence of such a course will tend to equalize and improve the condition of the entire people, and cement our Union, by bands that will “ grow with the growth, and strengthen with the strength,” of a common interest and a com mon industry. W e have already occupied more space than we can well spare, but in justice to several correspondents in this section of country, who consider the statements of Gen. James erroneous, and in accordance with the principles we shall ever pursue in the conduct of our journal, we take the liberty of laying before our readers the following statement, embraced in a private letter to the editor, but not intended for publication. It will not be improper to remark, in this place, that the respectability and intelligence o f the writer should secure for his criticism a fair and candid examination. According to Gen. James, ten plantations, with a capital of $738,000 in land, slaves, <fcc., would be required to produce 1,800,000 lbs. of cotton, which one mill of 10,000 spindles, with a capital of $250,000, would use up in a year, leaving the man ufacturer a profit of $90,500 clear, besides interest on capital, which is something over 40 per cent in all o f annual profit. If this is so, the planter may well rise from read ing the article in a state of such discontent as would tempt him to a radical-change in his pursuits. But if it is so, how does it happen that the factories at Lowell have not made, on an average, a profit equal to one-fourth of what is thus held out to the plan ter to tempt him to turn manufacturer! How does it happen that there is but one establishment at Lowell so prosperous that the par value can be obtained for its stock ? How does it happen that it was a subject of congratulation among the stockholders there to find, the last summer, that they were likely to get a dividend of 3 per cent for six months on most of them ? I f it be said to this that they are not well-managed, in the opinion of Gen. James and others, it will probably be conceded by all that some of the most sagacious men in New England have been concerned in directing them— men as sagacious as any at the South or West who are likely to engage in the business. I f it be said that there is such a vast preference in the use of steam over water power as will account for the apparent failure at Lowell, how comes it that we see it announced in the paper of to day, [November 20, 1849,] that the Jam es (steam) Mills at Newburyport have just made a dividend for six months of only three per cent, and that the stockholders of the Naumkeag (steam) Mills at Salem, erected under the par ticular charge of Gen. James, are looking forward to a semi-annual dividend of f o u r per cent as a great achievement. Gen. James contends that the raw cotton should be worked where it is raised, and asserts that the cost of transporting 1,800,000 lbs. of cotton (being $18,000) might be saved annually to the planter, who should manufacture his own. Now, if the planters are going to use up all their own goods and pay themselves the 40 per cent o f profits out of their own pockets, dropping all exchange of products with the rest of the world, it is needless to gainsay the statement. But if they are going to send goods to market, instead of cotton, they will probably find that though the weight may be diminished by leaving the waste behind, the baling or boxing, and additional care required in transportation, offset that advantage, and that the saving mentioned will turn out to be nearer eighteen hundred than eighteen thousand dollars, and, therefore, of little im portance. Gen. James says that, “ should the number of mills in the United States be doubled in twelve months, probably no one would be compelled to suspend operations for a day, because of deficiency of labor and skill.” He estimates the number of operatives in five of the New England States, at 57,000. If this number can be doubled in a year, and, as he says, “ without calling for aid from Europe,” one is at a loss to know how it is that nearly one-fith of the looms at Lowell have been left idle for a part of this year, though the highest wages were offered that would leave the stockholders six per cent per annum on their capital. Such an assertion tends to diminish confidence in Ms statements generally. If there be good ground for encouraging planters to engage in manufacturing, and to diminish the product of their great staple, it will only be made more sure by a tho rough examination of such points as these. Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. C80 MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, W e give below a tabular statement of the cotton, woolen, etc., manufacturing estab lishments of New Hampshire, showing the name and location of each company, capi tal invested, kind of goods manufactured, and the annual amount of goods manufac tured :— Annual amount Capital. Kind of goods. in yards. Name and location. Shirtings, Cotton Flan nels, Denims........... 13,500,000 *$2,500,000 Amoskeag Manuf. Co., Manchester 480,000 30,000 Bascom A. & Co., East Jaffrey... Sheetings and Drillings 1,000,000 100,000 Belknap Manuf. Co., Meredith Br. Sheetings, No. 1 ......... 400,000 Besse, Tilton <fc Co., Meredith___ 265,612 Brown, E., New Ipswich............... Sheeting and Printing C loth ....................... 2,120,000 Brown, H. H. & J. S., Fisliersville. 10,000 Chesterfield Factory, Chesterfield. 31 inch Sheeting......... 1,300,000 Cocheco Manuf. Co., Dover........... Printing Cloths............ 10,000,000 180,000 Columbian Manuf. Co., N. Ipswich Colored Cottons........... 1,900,000 162,500 1,450,000 Exeter Manuf. Co., Exeter ........... Cotton Sheetings......... Franklin Manuf. Co., Franklin__ _ 3§0,000 Lewis <fe Gaylord, Franklin........... Cotton Batting . . . .lbs. 240,000 Gilford Manuf. Co., Gilford........... 250,000 Goodnow, Peter, Franklin............. Wick’g & Warp Y ’n lbs 93,600 Sheetings, Drillings, & 16,000,000 1,500,000 Great Falls Mf. Co., Somersworth Shirtings................. 30,000 Home Manuf. Co., Claremont........ 39 inch Sheetings........ 364,000 480,000 Jackson Co., NashviHe.................. Sheetings <Sr Shirtings. 5,300,000 Merrimack Mills, Manchester___ Delanes tfe Print’g Cl’th 5,000,000 f l , 200,000 Milford Cotton and Woolen Man30,000 $21,000 facturing Co., Milford................. Tickings....................... 120,000 Monadnock Mills, Claremont. . . . Shirtings & Sheetings. 1,300,000 20,000 Munroe, A., East Jaffrey............... Heavy Sheetings......... 400,000 10,000 Munson, Alvin, N elson................. 30 inch Sheetings......... 190,000 Sheetings, Shirtings, & 1,000,000 Drillings.................. 13,000,000 Nashua Manufac. Co., Nashua.. . . Now Market Manufacturing Co., Cotton Sheetings and Shirtings................. 4,000,000 600,000 New Market................................ Peterborough Manufacturing Co., No 16 Drillings........... Peterborough............................. 230,000 10,000 Peterborough Co., Peterborough . Drillings & Sheetings. 343,125 Phoenix Factory, Peterborough . . Sheetings & Drillings. 580,000 Rockingham, Hampton Falls........ Cotton Batting . . .lbs. 200,000 Sagamore Steam Power Manufac turing Co., Portsmouth.............. Cotton Yarn................. 32,500 52,500 Salmon Falls Manufacturing Co., No. 14 Sheetings and Somersworth ........................... No. 14 Drillings___ 1,000,000 1,000,000 Souhegan Manuf. Co., Milford__ _ 14 Drillings................. 100,000 Sheetings, Shirtings, & Drillings................... 11,000,000 Stark Mills, Manchester............... 1,250,000 Sunapee Mills, Claremont............. Fine Twills.................. 415,000 200,000 Swanzey Manuf. Co., Sw anzey.. . Shirtings and Drills... . 200,000 40,000 339,456 Union Factory Co., Gilmanton.. . No. 16 Sheetings......... 30,000 Sheeting and Printing Union Manuf. Co., Peterborough.. C loth ....................... 415,000 Weare Cotton and Woolen Manu facturing Co., Weare.................. * Drillings...................... * 264,000 12,000 * Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., the whole capital o f the four departments given, t Merrimack Mills, whole capital given, including printworks. 681 Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. W OOLEN GOODS. Y e a r ly a m o u n t Name and location. Adams, Seth & Son, Washington----Amoskeag Manuf. Co., Hookset......... Ashuelot Manuf. Co., Winchester__ _ Balch, A. & Co., B ath;....................... Belknap Mills, Rochester.................... Bean, Canney & Co., Rochester......... Briggs & Brooks, Holderness............. Busiel, J. W., Meredith....................... Currier & Martin, Canaan................... Davis <fc Holden, Walpole................... Fulton & Barton, Effingham............... Gerould,Wetherbee & Nichols, Gilsum Gonic Factory, Rochester................... Hale, E. J. M. & Co., Littleton........... Harris it Hutchinson, Harrisville.. . . Hams, Milan, Harrisville................... Harris, Almon, Fishersville................ Holden, B. F. & D., Concord............... Holden, James M., Acworth............... Ingram <Sc Parks, Newport................. Johnson & Colby, W ilm ot................. Lisbon Manufacturing Co., Lisbon. . . Livermore, C. G., Alstead................... Marvin, G. P., W alpole....................... Merrimack Carpet Fac., Merrimack... Milton Mills, M ilton........................... Moore & Smith, Winchester............... Norway Plains Company, Rochester.. Noone & Cochron, Peterborough.. . . Patterson, J. & D. N., Hopkinton___ Portsmouth Steam Fac., Portsmouth. Puleifer, L. B., Meredith. ................. Ripley <Sc Willard, Hinsdale............... Ripley, D. H., Hinsdale...................... Sawyer, Alfred I., D over................... Sanford <fc Rossiter, Claremont.......... Shaker Mills Manuf. Co., Enfield.. . . Silsby, M. & R. W., Gilsum................ Tilton, A. H., Sanbornton................... Tilton, J. & J. C., Northfield............... Twichell, T. A., Newport................... Townsend, C. T., Gilsum..................... Turner, J. B. & A., Winchester.......... Weare Woolen Mill, W eare............... Winn, A. B., Fishersville.................... Wilson & Earl, Claremont.................. Woods, Imri & Sons, Henniker.......... Kind o f goods. Cassimeres....................... Mousline de Lanes........... Fancy and Plain Cassini’s Cassim’s, Sat’ts, <fc Flan’ls . Woolen G oods................. Cassimeres & Doeskins . . Satinet & Stocking Tarn. Cassim’s, Tw’ds, & Flan’ls Cassimeres....................... Woolen Goods.................. Broadcloth........................ in yards. Spindles . 5,400 1,539,052 15.000 30.000 13,000 21,000 14,000 20,000 Flannels............................ Satin Doeskins................. Fancy & Plain Cassimeres Black and Mixed Doeskins Flannels and Blankets. . . Cassimeres....................... Broadcloth......................... Cassimeres....................... Cassim’s, Flan’ls & Bl’nk’ts 300,000 25,000 50,000 28,000 Ing’n & Venitian Ca’p’ting Flannels............................. 99,000 235,000 12,000 13,500 12,000 Blankets and Coatings.. . Broad and Narrow Cloth. 13,000 20,000 Cassim’s, Sat’n’ts & Flan’ls Muslins and Lawns........... 2,400,000 34,000 Woolen Y a r n ................... 24,000 Satin Janes....................... 150,000 Cassimere and Satin Janes 150,000 Woolen Flannel............... 45,000 Cassimeres........................ 18,000 Cassim’s, Satin’ts & Flan’ls 60,000 Cashmerett and Cassim’s . 40,000 Tweeds............................... 30,000 Satinets............................. Br’dcl’s & Fancy Doeskins 40,000 100,000 Flannels............................. Woolen Cloths................. 42,000 Cassimeres......................... *75,000 W oolen Flannels............... 36,000 Woolen Cloths................. 16,000 Cassimeres and Satinets. . 120 *7,368 *752 *720 1,000 120 750 400 264 180 156 350 1,080 1,600 .... .... 400 900 144 240 168 .... 252 240 .... 1,000 140 2,500 200 300 21,250 468 160 860 615 420 288 340 324 200 507 344 528 450 260 330 264 PR0DUCTI01V OF THE MINES OF CHILL A late number of the V alparaiso N eig h b o r furnishes the following statement o f the value of copper, gold, and silver, produced at these mines for 1811 —IT, as follows :— The value o f the copper produced in 1844 was 18,929,898, in 1845, $2,503,825, in 1841, $2,353,405 ; the silver mines in 1844 produced $1,310,996, in 1846, $1,116,815, in 1841, $1,801,111; the gold mines in 1844, $91,091, in 1846, $211,984, and in 1841, $301,415. A great obstacle to be contended with by the miners, is the transportation of their ores to the seaboard, and then, in return, the transportation of provisions inland for the Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. 682 workmen. A ll must be carried by pack mules. This greatly augments expenses, es pecially in the northern provinces, which, while agriculturally most barren, are in min eral deposits most abounding. The animals are scarce there, and of necessity must continue to be so, from the difficulty in procuring food for them. IM PROVEM ENT IN TH E MANUFACTURE OF H EM P. Considerable attention has been excited by the MaysviUe establishment for manu facturing hemp without rotting. Frequent attempts before have failed on account of inefficient machinery, and especially on account of the great liability o f this kind of hemp to most offensive putrefaction and speedy decay. Now these difficulties seem to be entirely overcome. The hemp is broken out and cleaned without making tow or waste, and the product is carried through a chemical process called k yanizing, by which it is rendered indestructible from ordinary exposure to weather. This kyanised rope is said to be superior to the ManiHa for river purposes, being stronger, more flex ible, more durable, wearing smoother, and being more pleasant for boatmen to handle. A t the same time, it must be admitted, that before it is used it does not look so weU as Manilla, and there is no cordage in the world that does. It is said to improve in appearance however by wear, while the ManiHa f r a y s down and wears rough. Here then is a use American hemp is applied to, which heretofore required a foreign article. The kyanized rope and kyanized bagging too, must probably come into use in covering cotton bales. The dew-rotted rope and bagging gives way too soon by the exposure which a great deal of the cotton is subjected to, and it arrives at its place of destina tion in bad order, the rope being often broken and the bagging torn off by cotton hooks. W e understand that a company is about being formed in Mason county to manufacture bale rope and bagging in this way. W e have watched this hemp movement with great interest since its commencement. W e know something of its history and of the men engaged in it, and we think the enterprise must succeed. It has succeeded, as its projectors assure us, and we incline to believe them, from the evidence furnished. It constitutes an important epoch in the history of hemp culture and manufacture in this country. It is stated that hemp can be worked so economicaUy and perfectly as to render it certain that the usual manner of working it cannot be much longer used— that rope and bagging can be made cheaper in this way than by the usual mode. There is one very material difficulty in the way of so great a change in the manner of work ing hemp, and that is the great expense that is necessary to fit up an establishment that will pay, requiring a series of newly invented machinery and processes, driven by powerful engines, and requiring investments of capital similar in amounts to those used in the cotton manufacture. However, when sufficient demonstration can be made to capitalists that the business is profitable, establishments enough may be set in opera tion in a few years to supply all the river eordage, bale rope, and bagging that may be wanted. The navy, too, wiH probably ere long be supplied with this kind of cordage. It is said to take tar remarkably well, remaining much more flexible and for a longer time, than rope made of any other kind of hemp; while for ru n n in g rigg in g it is the very article wanted— a desideratum.— L o u is v ille jo u r n a l. T H E CHICOPEE COTTON M ILLS. The eleven miUs at Chicopee, Massachusetts, as we learn from the Hampshire Gazette, owned by the Chicopee, Cabot, Perkins and Dwight Corporations, give em ployment to 2,400 operatives. The Chicopee Corporation has four mills, 24,544 spin dles, with a capital of $700,000 ; the Cabot Corporation has two mills, 14,000 spindles, with a capital of $500,000; the Perkins Corporation has two miUs, 14,000 spindles, with a capital of $500,000 ; the Dwight Corporation has three miUs, 24,920 spindles, with a capital of $700,000. << HOGS PACKED IN TH E W E S T .” A correspondent under date “ Clinton, Fulton County, Illinois,” has called our atten tion to an article in the October number of the M erchants' M aga zin e , headed as above, “ as calculated to convey very erroneous impressions to those not famHiar with the pprk trade in that section of the country.” “ The table given,” he says, “ purports to show the number packed in the States of Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois, when, in R ailroad, Canal, and Steam boat Statistics. 6S3 fact, it only shows the number packed on the Missouri and Illinois Rivers, and the Mississippi River above S t Louis,” and adds, “ as the pork trade is an important one in this State (Illinois) it is very desirable that all statements and tables, particularly in y o u r Journal, should be accurate.” We are extremely desirous of securing the ut most accuracy in our statistical statements, but whatever erroneous impression that statement conveyed must be referred to the St. Louis R epublican, as our correspondent will notice, by reference to the article, that it was derived from that journal. RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS. RULES AND REGULATIONS OF T H E NEW ENGLAND RAILROADS. The “ P ath fin d er R a ilw a y G uide f o r the N ew E n g la n d States," one of the most minute and accurate manuals of the kind ever published in this country, for November, 1849, contains the rules and regulations adopted by all the principal railroad com panies in the New England States.* As the result of the experience of our New Eng land Railroad managers and superintendents, these rules and regulations may be useful to persons interested in railroads in other parts of the United States. W e therefore transfer them to this department of the M erch a n ts' M a ga zin e. RULES AND R E G U L A T IO N S OF THE NEW ENGLAND R A IL R O A D S . F i r s t :— In regard, to P assengers. — Passengers must procure tickets before taking their seats in the cars. They must not smoke in the cars or station houses. They are not allowed, under any circumstances, to stand on the platforms of the cars. They must not take or leave the cars when in motion, nor put their heads or arms out of the car windows. S ec o n d :— I n regard to baggage, a nd articles carried on the P a ssen g er Trains. — A ll baggage must be delivered to the Baggage Master or other person au thorized to receive it, before the passenger takes his seat in the cars. Baggage must be accompanied in the same train by its owner; and when not so accompanied, no agent o f the company is authorized to put it on board the train, and the company will not hold itself responsible as common carriers in regard to it. The liability of the company as com m on carriers in regard to baggage and other articles transported upon a passenger train, will not commence till such baggage or other articles are put or re ceived on board the train; and the same liability will terminate when such baggage or other articles are unladen from the train at tlieir place o f destination. Baggage will not be taken to include money, merchandise, or other articles than those of personal use; and when o f higher value than the highest sum advertised by the company as the limit o f its liability, notice must be given of that fact, and an extra price paid, or the company wiU not hold itself liable beyond that amount. The company will not hold itself liable for any valise, package, or other article of personal property, taken by the assenger with him into the cars, or carried at all upon a passenger train, unless devered to the baggage master, or other person authorized to receive and take charge o f such articles. The company expressly reject any liability for the care of articles in the keeping of Express Agents, who pass over their road under special contract; whether any such limitation of the company’s liability is published in such Express Agents’ advertisement or not. T h i r d :— A s to F reigh t, g oin g b y F reigh t Trains. — A ll articles of freight must be plainly and distinctly marked, or they will not be received by the company; and when designed to be forwarded, after transportation on the railroad, a written order must be given, with the particular line of boats or teams marked on the goods, if any such be preferred or desired. The company will not hold itself liable for the safe carriage or custody of any articles of freight, unless receipted for by an au- E * The companies which have adopted these regulations, enumerated in the Pathfinder Railway Guide, are as follows:—Boston and Lowell, Western, Boston and Providence, Providence and W or cester, Northern, Eastern, Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth, Fitchburg, Ilousatonic, Concord, Conecticut River, Vermont Central, Fall River, Boston and Maine, Old Colony, Norwich and Worcester Nashua and Lowell, Stony Brook, Wilton, Cape Cod Branch &c.. 684 R ailroad, Canal, and Steam boat Statistics. thorized agent; and no agent o f the company is authorized to receive, or agree to transport, any freight which is not thus receipted for. Duplicate receipts, in the form prescribed by each company, ready for signing, must accompany the delivery of any freight to that company. No responsibility will be admitted, under any circumstances, to a greater amount upon any single article of freight than $200, unless upon notice being given of such amount, and a special agreement therefor. Specie, drafts, bank bills, and other articles of great intrinsic or representative value, will only be taken upon a representation of their value, and by a special agreement assented to by the super intendent. The company will not hold themselves liable at all for any injury to any articles of freight, during the course o f transportation, arising from the weather or acci dental delays. Nor will they guarantee any special despatch in the transportation of such articles, unless made the subject of express stipulation. Nor will they hold them selves liable as com m on carriers for such articles, after their arrival at their place of destination and unlading in the company’s warehouses or depots. Machinefy, furniture, stoves, and castings, mineral acids, all liquids put up in glass or earthen ware, unpacked fruit, and live animals, will only be taken at the owner’s risk of fracture or injury during the course of transportation, loading and unloading, unless specially agreed to the con trary. Gunpowder, friction matches, and like combustibles, will not be received on any terms; and all persons procuring the reception of such freight by fraud or concealment, will be held responsible for any damage which may arise from it while in the custody o f the company. A ll articles of freight, arriving at their place of destination, must be taken away within twenty-four hours after being unladen from the cars,— the com pany reserving the right of charging storage on the same, or placing the same in store at the risk and expense of the owner, if they see fit, after the lapse of that time. In the November number of the M erch a n ts' M a ga zin e, w e published an abstract of the Report of the Boston and Maine Railroads, which extends from Boston to South Berwick. In connection with our abstracts of the report, we gave some additional in formation, including a table of the principal places, distances, rates of fare, <&c., derived from that authentic little manual, the “ P a th fin d er R a ilw a y Guide.” In a note, how ever, w e stated that the places between South Berwick and Portland were omitted in the R a ilw a y G u id e ; but we find, on examination, that we were mistaken: the Port land, Saco, and Portsmouth road, which connects the Boston and Maine, extending to South Berwick is a distinct corporation, and is given by itself in the Guide. The error, a trifling one, originated from our not referring to the table in the Rail way Guide, giving the distances from South Berwick to Portland. W e make the correction, in justice to the editor and proprietors of the Guide; as an error, however trifling, would tend, if suffered to pass, to invalidate the semi-official character, or the accuracy of that valuable manual. PROGRESS OF RAILROADS IN GEORGIA. The Western and Atlantic Railroad is now nearly completed. The great tunnel through the Blue Ridge, 1,417 feet long, having been opened with imposing ceremo nies on the 1st of November, 1849. It is calculated this road will be ready for traffic on the 1st January, 1850. It commences at Atlanta, and runs northwesterly to Chattanooga, in Tennessee, on the Tennessee River. It is the connecting link for the Central Railroad from Savannah to Macon, and the Macon and Western Road from Macon to Atlanta, and also of the Charleston and Hamburg and Georgia Railroads from Charleston to Atlanta. There is now a steam communication from the seaboard to the Mississippi, and if we look at the map we see finished the Central Railroad, from Savannah to Macon..................................................miles Macon & Western Railroad from Macon to Atlanta.................................... “ Western <t Atlanta Railroad, from Atlanta to Chattanooga, Tenn................“ Tennessee River to mouth of the Ohio, about.............................................. “ 192 101 140 400 833 R ailroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. 685 NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED ON RAILROADS IN ENGLAND. Few are perhaps aware, says a Liverpool paper, of the immense number of people to whom the railway system of this country has given employment during the last few years. According to a British Parliamentary return, the number of persons employed on the railways of the United Kingdom, in the capacities mentioned, was as follows :— Secretaries..................... Managers........................ Treasurers....................... Engineers....................... Superintendents............. Storekeepers................... Accountants................... Cashiers.......................... Draughtsmen................. Clerks.............................. Foremen.......................... Enginemen, or drivers.. Assistant enginemen.. . . Conductors, or guards... Artificers......................... Railways Railways in the open for course of traffic, const’n. 81 102 30 93 29 21 95 405 343 1,897 125 243 70 145 48 88 106 306 4,360 887 1,011 685 ,. 1,752 .. 1,809 1,464 10,814 29,087 Switchmen................... Inspectors...................... Policemen..................... Land surveyors............. Porters........................... Miners, or quarry men. Messengers.................... Platelayers................... Laborers....................... Gatekeepers................. Wagoners and carters. Breaksmen.................... Miscellaneous emply’nt Total number of men Railways Railways in the open for course of traffic, const’n. ___ 1,058 .... 119 2,475 71 26 7,362 10 .... 6,250 197 4,391 256 14,297 147,325 401 141 45 32 197 116 52,688 188,177 Thus there were 52,688 persons employed on 4,252 miles of railway open for traffic, and having 1,321 stations; and 188,177 persons employed on 2,956 miles of railway, in the course of construction, making together the total number of persons employed about railways— Open for traffic....................................................................................... 52,688 In construction............................... 188,177 Total persons................................................................... 240,865 RAILROAD ACCIDENTS IN EUROPE. The N o r th B ritish R eview , for August, contains an elaborate and very interesting article on the railway system of England, and in the course of it gives the following comparative table of casualties which occurred on the railways in England, France, Belgium, and Germany, between the 1st of August, 1840, and July, 1845. It is the result of calculations made by Baron Yon Reden:— England............... France.................. Belgium............... Germany............. England............... France.................. Belgium............... Germany............. England............... France.................. Belgium............... Germany............. 1 passenger out of 869,000 killed by own neglect. 1 “ “ 2,157,000 “ “ 1 “ “ 670,000 “ “ 1 “ “ 25,000,000 “ “ 1 official out o f 800,000 killed and wounded from misconduct. 1 “ “ 5,000,000 “ “ “ 1 “ “ 280,000 “ “ “ 1 “ “ 9,000,000 “ “ « 1 person out of 852,000 killed from defective management. 1 “ “ 3,465,906 “ “ “ 1 “ “ 1,690,764 1 “ “ 12,251,858 “ “ “ It will be observed that, as regards safety, the difference is strikingly in favor of Germany; and it is accounted for by the fact, that while the officials stationed along the road are greater in number than in any other country, the police regulations are of such a nature that passengers cannot, by heedlessness or rashness, incur the chance of danger to life and limb. In England, in 1847, 211 persons were killed, and 174 injured, out of 54,854,019 passengers; and in 1848, 202 were killed, and 219 injured, out of 57,855,133. W e should like to see a careful estimate of the casualties on roads in the United States. They are not, we believe, any greater than those of England; while in that country the guards set up against danger are much more complete than in our own. R ailroad , Canal, and Steam boat Statistics. 686 VASTNESS OF RAILWAY WORKS. The great Pyramid of Egypt, was, according to Diodorns Siculus, constructed by three hundred thousand— according to Herodotus, by one hundred thousand men. It required for its execution twenty years, and the labor expended on it has been esti mated as equivalent to lifting 15,733,000,000 (fifteen thousand seven hundred and thirty-three millions) of cubic feet of stone one foot high. How, in the same measure, if the labor expended in constructing the southern division only of the present London and Horth-westem Railway be reduced to one common denomination, the result is 25,000,000,000 (twenty-five thousand millions) of cubic feet of similar material lifted to the same height, being 9,267,000,000 (nine thousand two hundred and sixty-seven millions) of cubic feet more than was lifted for the pyramid, and yet the English work was performed by about 20,000 men only, in less than five years. Again it has been calculated by Mr. Lecount, that the quantity of earth moved in the single division (112 miles in length) of the railway in question, would be sufficient, to make a foot path, a foot high and a yard broad, round the whole circumference o f the earth; the cost of this division of the railway, in penny pieces, being sufficient to form a copper kerb or edge to it. Suppose, therefore, the same proportionate quantity of earth to be moved in the 7,150 miles of railway sanctioned by Parliament at the commence ment of 1848, our engineers, within about fifteen years, would, in the construction of our railways alone, have removed earth sufficient to girdle the globe with a rod one foot high and one hundred and ninety-one broad.— S ir F r a n c is H ea d ’s S tokers and P o k ers . HAMBURG TUNNEL ON TIIE HUDSON R IV ER RAILROAD. The great tunnel at Hew Hamburgh, says the E v en in g P o s t, connected with the Hudson River Railroad, is nearly completed. It is a gigantic work, measuring 830 feet in length; at the south end is a cut 500 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 50 feet deep, all through the solid rock before reaching the tunnel, which is 19 feet high and 24 feet wide. Through the tunnel the passage is gloomy enough to represent the most dan gerous regions, darkness being relieved only by the light of candles, and through two shafts sunk to it, one 70 feet in depth, the other 56, through which a glimpse of dayHght may be obtained, but on emerging at the north end, one other deep cut is found, nearly as formidable as that at the south, being 200 feet long, and 70 feet deep, mak ing the entire deep cutting through the rock, all inclusive, no less than 1,530 feet. One who has not seen the work, can form no conception o f its magnitude, and it may be put down as one of the greatest curiosities in this part of the country. There are 400 men employed on this great work, under the supervision o f Messrs. Ward, Wells <t Co., the contractors. Six thousand kegs o f powder, of 25 lbs. each, have been used for blasting, in fourteen months, and nine blacksmith’s shops are constantly occupied with repairing the tools, <&c. The work goes on night and day, with great expedition. REDUCTION OF RAILROAD CAPITAL IN ENGLAND,. It is thought by some that this is a favorable time for railway companies to pur chase up their shares in the market, with the view o f reducing the number of their shares, and the amount on which they would have to pay dividend. It is proposed to use the surplus receipts or profits for this purpose. Thus a company, whose shares are at a fearful discount, could advantageously employ their receipts in buying up the shares in the market. Many of them could buy a million of capital for £500,000, and so for half a million reduce the capital receiving dividend by a million, in other words save half a million for the benefit of the legitimate holders.— H era p a th ’s Journal. PATHFINDER RAILWAY GUIDE FOR NEW ENGLAND. W e have received the sixth monthly issue of this valuable manual. It gives, in a compact form, official tables, corrected monthly, of the hours of departure from each station, and the distances and fares, on all the railway lines in Hew England; and each number is illustrated with a complete map of the several railroads included in the ta bles. W e have found it exceedingly useful, as a book of reference, and the traveler wiU find it indispensable. Journal o f B anking , Currency, and Finance. 687 JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE. DEBT AND FINANCES OF ALABAMA. give below a statement of the debt and finances of Alabama, derived from the last annual message of the Governor of that State:— W e For the two years since the meeting of the last Legislature the receipts into the Treasury and disbursements have been as follows:— Balance in the Treasury, November 26, 1847........................................... Receipts during the year ending November 1, 1848............................... §528,251 86 288,640 92 Total means for 1848....................................................................... §816,892 78 Paid out during the same time, including the sum of §485,965 35, in terest on State debt.................................................................................. 644,628 03 Balance in Treasury, November 1, 1848 .............................. §172,264 75 Receipts during the year ending November 1, 1849............................. 487,987 58 Total means for 1849....................................................................... §660,252 33 Paid out during the same period, excluding Treasury drafts............... 122,235 75 Balance in Treasury, November 1, 1849................................ §538,016 58 Estimated receipts of funds in the hands of tax collectors, not paid into the Treasury................................................ ............................................. Making the total means of the State up to the present ti me. . . 415,000 00 §953,016 58 Mostly in notes of the late State Bank and branches, of which the State is the only stockholder. The bank has been represented to be in liquidation for five years past, but the cir culation is still used by the Controller to pay off demands against the Treasury, and these notes are in turn receivable for all dues to the State, including taxes. The debt of Alabama is as follows :— Outstanding bonds, §7,800,000, applied to banking..................................... University fund.................................................................................................. The sixteenth section (school) fund................................................................. Surplus revenue fund, about........................................................................... §9,000,000 250,000 1,015,856 1,500,000 Total debt.............................................................................................. §11,765,856 To this must be added the loss to the State in winding up the State Bank and branches. It will be seen that— §100,000, bearing 6 per cent interest, falls due, and is payable at the Phoenix Bank on the 1st April, 1850. 824,000, bearing 5 per cent inrerest, falls due on the 1st June, 1850, payable to Reid, Irving and Company, London. §924,000, total State debt falling due in 1850. The governor thinks it would be burdensome on the people of the State to liquidate the whole debt within the period suggested, (in ten years,) and recommends to the General Assembly, a renewal of the bonds falling due in 1850, for 20 years. On the subject of legislating for the ultimate liquidation of the public debt, the gov ernor continues:— Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance. 688 The great question appears to be, -whether we should raise an amount of revenue that would enable us to pay not only the interest, but such a portion of the principal as would lead to a speedy liquidation o f the entire debt; or, postponing for the pre sent the payment of the principal, raise only so much as would be necessary to pay the regular interest on that debt, in addition to the expenses of the State Government, leaving its final liquidation for a period more propitious, when the energy of our young State will be more matured and better directed— when her vast agricultural and mineral resources, and her manufacturing capacities will be more fully developed, and her population more numerous and better able to share the burden of taxation among them. Which course of policy should be adopted by the State, as might be expected, gives rise to much difference o f opinion. It must be remembered that the question of postponement can, in nowise, affect the honor or financial credit of the State, for, b y the terms of the contract which created our foreign debt, the right was reserved to the State to continue her indebtedness for an indefinite period, provided the interest on that debt continued to be regularly paid The payment of the princi pal is, therefore, with us a question of expedience, and, in determining upon the time, we should be led to adopt that course of policy which, after due consideration, we should feel satisfied would best serve the interests of the State. « CHRONICLES AND CHARACTERS OF TH E STOCK EXCHANGE.” * As we were closing the present number of the M ercha nts' M agazine, we received from England a copy of a new work, with the above title, just published in London. J o h n F r a n c i s , Esq., the author, is a clerk in the Bank of England. His history of that Bank, in two large octavo volumes, published some two years since, has already reached a third edition, and is the only book, so far as our knowledge extends, about banking, that can be considered entertaining. In that work the author 1-as exhibited great industry and taste in the selection of striking anecdotes, touching upon all the prominent financial movements of the past and present century, and at the same time elucidating, with clearness, those epochs in the history of the bank, “ by which funda mental principles were first suggested, and antiquated errors are corrected.” To use the language of the London B a n k ers' M a ga zin e, the history of the Bank of England “ is as interesting as a fairy tale.” He has adopted the same popular plan in the pres ent work, the object o f which is, as modestly set forth in his preface to the volume, “ to gather the many remarkable incidents connected with the national debt, to pre sent an anecdotical sketch of the causes which necessitated its principal characters— to detail the many evils of lotteries— to relate the difficulties in the early history of railways— to popularize the loans, of which the Poyais, with its melancholy tragedy, and the Greek, with its whimsical transactions, were such striking examples, and finally to group these objects around the Stock Exchange. W e consider it a most interesting as weU as valuable contribution to the financial literature of the commercial world, and shaU take occasion, in a future number of our journal, to review it more at length, and, at the same time, transcribe, for our pages, some of its attractive reading. W e have space, at present, for only two random ex tracts, touching the constitution of the Stock Exchange, and an explanation o f its terms. C O N S T IT U T IO N OF THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE. The constitution o f the Stock Exchange is simple. Governed by a committee of twenty-eight, with a chairman and deputy-chairman, annually elected by the members, their power to expel, suspend, or reprimand, is absolute; their decision final ; and that decision, adds one of the rules, “ must be carried out forthwith.” In cases of expulsion, the committee should not consist of less than twelve; and of these, at least two-thirds * Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange. By John Francis, author o f the History o f the Bank of England, its Times and Traditions. L ondon: Willoughby & Co. Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance. <589 must concur in tlie sentence. No bill or discount broker, no clerk in any public or pri vate establishment— excepting those to the members of the Stock Exchange— no one in business, either in his own name or in that of his wife, can be received as member. Every applicant must be recommended by three members of two years’ standing, who must each give security for £300 for two years. The committee meets every alternate Monday, at one o’clock; but a special meeting may at any time be called by the chair man and deputy chairman, or by any five members. Brokers and jobbers, or dealers, as they are politely termed, are not allowed to enter into partnership ; and, when a defaulter is excluded, his clerk is excluded with him. Directly the books are closed at the Bank of England, the price of stocks, excepting only Bank stock, is quoted without the dividend. When a defaulter, or one who cannot or will not pay the just claims on him, is posted, a libel is avoided by the following words: “ Any person transacting business with A. B., is requested to communicate with C. D.” E X P L A N A T IO N OF THE TEEM S USED ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE. The terms used on the Stock Exchange have been in vogue for more than a century ; and the origin of many may be traced to the early transactions in the stock o f the East India Company. Buying for the account has been described; but “ bull,” and “ bear,” “ backardation,” and “ continuation,” are understood only by the initiated. “ Bull” is a term applied to those who contract to buy any quantity of government securities, without the intention or ability to pay for i t ; and who are obliged, therefore, to sell it again, either at a profit or loss, before the time at which they have contracted to take it. • “ Bear” is a term applied to a person who has agreed to sell any quanity of the public funds, of which he is not possessed, being, however, obliged to deliver it against a certain time. “ Lame Duck” is applied to those who refuse, or are unable to fulfil the contracts into which they have entered. “ Backardation” is a consideration given to keep back the delivery of stock, when the price is lower for time than for money. “ Continuation” is a premium given when the price of funds in which a person has a jobbing account open is higher for time than for money, and the settling day is arrived, so that the stock must be taken at a disadvantage. In this case a per centage is paid, to put off the settlement, and continue the account open. “ Jobber” is applied to those who accommodate buyers and sellers of stock with any quantity they require. The dealer or jobber’s profit is generally one-eighth per cent. The “ Broker” is the person employed by the public to sell or purchase stock, at a certain per centage. “ Omnium” is a term used to express the aggregate value of the different stocks in which a loan is usually funded. “ Scrip” is embryo stock, before the whole of the instalments are paid. FINANCES OF TH E EAST INDIA COAIPANY. The official returns just published and presented to the British Parliament, show that the gross total receipts of the home treasury of the East India Company from the 1st of May, 1848, to the 30th of April, 1849, amounted to £5,618,921, and the total disbursements to £4,214,495, leaving a balance in favor of the treasury, on the 30th of April, of £1,344,431. The receipts of the home treasury for the year ending 30th of April, 1850, are estimated at £5,201,931, and the disbursements at £4,239,885, leav ing an estimated balance, on the 30th of April, 1850, of £962,046. The debts of the Government of India, in England, on the 1st of May last, amounted to £5,054,283, and the credits to £2,891,108, leaving an excess o f debt of £2,156,515. The total number of em ployes of the Company, in England, on the 1st of May, amounted to 514, whose salaries amounted to £126,121. The gross total amount of the revenues o f the several Presidencies and Governments of India for the year 1841-48 was estimated at 11,619,391 rupees, and the gross total charges at 15,619,251 rupees; which latter, added to 3,016,012 rupees, (the charges disbursed in England,) made the grand total charges of India, for the year 1841-48, amount to 18,635,309 rupees, leaving a defi ciency on the general account of 1,015,968 rupees. VOL. X X I.---- NO. V I. 44 Journal o f Banking, Currency , and Finance. 690 BANKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. Name. Location. Ashuelot Bank.................... Belknap County Bank......... Cheshire Bank..................... Connecticut River B ank... Derry Bank......................... Dover Bank......................... Granite Bank....................... Great Falls Bank................. Lancaster Bank................... Lebanon, Bank of................ Manchester Bank................ Mechanics’ Bank.................. Mechanics’ & Traders’ Bank Merrimack County Bank . . New Ipswich Bank............. Nashua Bank....................... I’iscataqua Exchange Bank Rochester Bank................... Rockingham Bank............... Strafford Bank..................... Winchester Bank................. Keene........... Meredith....... Keene........... Charlestown. D erry........... Dover........... E xeter......... Somersworth Lancaster... Lebanon. . . . Manchester.. Concord__ _ Portsmouth . Concord . . . . J\ew Ipswich Nashua......... Portsmouth . Rochester.. . Portsmouth . Dover........... Winchester. . Cashiers. Capital. Shares. Par val. T. H. Leveret.. §100,000 $ . . . . § . . . . J. T. Coffin.. . . 100,000 1,000 1,000 Z. New ell........ 100 1,000 100,000 600 George Olcott. 150 90,000 100 James Thom -. 100,000 1,000 Andrew Pierce 200,000 2,000 100 50 James Burley.. 100,000 2,000 D. II. Buffum . 100,000 1,000 100 50 Geo. A. Cossitt 50,000 1,000 J. H. Kendrick. 100,000 1,000 100 .... .... N. Parker......... 150,000 100 George Minot . 100,000 1,000 100 Jas. F. Shores. 110,000 1,100 500 E. S. Towle. . . 80,000 160 100 George Barrett. 100,000 1,000 100 John M. Hunt. 100,000 1,000 100 Samuel Lord. . 200,000 2.000 100 John McDuffee. 100,000 1,000 50 J. S. Pickering.. 143,000 2,860 100 Asa A. Tufts. . 100,000 1,000 100 Wm. B. H ale.. 100,000 1,000 CIRCULAR TO RECEIVERS OF PUBLIC MONEY, T r e a su r y D e pa rtm e n t , O c to b e r 2 5 th , 1849. S ir — Tlie gross receipts of your office, of which you have heretofore been required to make duplicate monthly returns to the Commissioner of the General Land Office and to this Department, being identical, under the provisions of the act o f Sd March last, with the sums to be returned at the same date in your w eekly account with the Treasurer of the United States, the latter are superseded. From the receipt of this, you will transmit a triplicate copy o f your m on th ly retu rn to the Treasurer of the United States, including therein such of the drafts of that officer upon you which may have been taken up during the preceding month. A s the act in question requires that the gross receipts of the revenue be carried into the Treasury, and the expenses of collection be paid from appropriations for that pur pose, your monthly accounts should contain no charges except for payments upon the Treasurer’s drafts, deposits made under the directions of this Department, canceUed land scrip, or forfeited land stock, or Treasury notes. In making such deposits, you will be careful to make those of amounts received in different quarters, i n separate sum s, and that they be so receipted by the depositary, in order that the revenue for each quarter may be readily distinguished. This series of accounts to be rendered to the Treasurer, should commence with the month of October, bringing forward the balance of cash on hand (not including any portion of advances made to you as disbursing agent, by Treasurer’s drafts) on the 30th September, and should be on quarto-post paper, not larger than the form which has been furnished, and endorsed as heretofore directed. W . M. MEREDITH, S e c r e ta r y o f th e T r e a s u r y . LAND REVENUES OF TH E BRITISH CROWN. A return, published in October, on the motion of Mr. Hayter, M. P., gives some statistical particulars relative to the receipts and expenditure o f the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. It appears that in the year ended 31st o f March, 1849, the total income o f the land revenue amounted to £463,463, and the gross total concurrent ex penditure to £288,485, leaving a net available balance of income on the 31st of March, 1849, o f £174,977. The expenditure includes the following items (amongst many others too numerous to quote.) viz.: £27,010 for the office of W oods; £2,820 for law charges; £3,841 for the repairs and improvements of Crown estates; £7,934 for rates and taxes on Crown property; £34,682 for the royal forests and woodlands; and £71,346 for the royal parks and gardens. Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance. 691 ROYAL MONEY BORROWING IN ENGLAND. Charles I. seized the money of his merchants ; and his bonds -were hawked about the streets, were offered to the people as they left the church, and sold to the highest bidder. The Commonwealth were debtors, on the security of the forfeited estates. Charles II. took money from France, shut up the Exchequer, borrowed from his friends, and did anything rather than run the risk of being again sent on his travels. Thus it would seem, the exchequer of the earlier monarchs was in the pockets of the people; that of Henry VIII. in the suppressed monasteries ; Elizabeth in the corpora tions; and Charles II. wherever he could find it. The abdication of James II., and the arrival of William III., form an era in the history of the monetary world. The plans adopted by the latter to crush the power of France, and raise the credit of England, were the commencement of that great accumulation known as the national debt, and the origin, though remote, of that building, celebrated throughout Europe, as the Stock Exchange. The rapid sketch now presented of the mode in which money was supplied, confirms the remark of Mr. Macaulay, that “ there can be no greater error than to imagine the device of meeting the exigencies of the State by loans was imported into our island by William III. From a period of immemorial antiquity, it had been the practice of every English Government to contract debts. What the Revolution introduced was the practice of honestly paying them.” , BRITISH LOANS FROM 1780 TO 17S3. Half -was given to the members of the House of Commons, more than three millions was allotted to one person; and, without regard to the welfare of the nation, the price was determined at a ratio so favorable to the contractors, that from no cause save the low terms on which it had been taken, the scrip arose at once to 11 premium. In 1781 it was said Lord North had made an infamous bargain in a bungling manner, and that in 1782, he had made a bungling bargain in an infamous manner. * * In 1783, out of a loan of twelve millions, £7,700,000 were given to bankers. So disgraceful was the whole affair, that Lord John Cavendish was compelled to apologise for the terms on which it had been granted, because “ the former minister had left the treasury without a shilling.” By attempting to please men of all parties, Lord John, as usual, pleased none. He was abused by some for dividing it among so small a number; he was rated by others for allowing so many to have a share. Mr. Smith— of the house of Smith and Payne— made a formal complaint that he had been neglected in the allotment; that his firm was the only one left out. * * Although this gentleman saw no harm in receiving a portion of the loan, other bankers had higher views. Mr. Martin believing that, as a senator, he ought not to contract, lest it might bias his votes, conscientiously refused to accept any portion of loan or contract; and thus sac rificed his pocket to his principle. “ TH E BILL OF EXCHANGE.” We published in the M ercha nts' M a ga zin e, for October, 1849, (vol. xxi., page 456,) an anecdote, with the above heading, remarking at the time, that the incident was weU calculated to call forth the admiration of our mercantile readers; and further, that the gentleman who appeared to so much advantage in it was well known in Wallstreet. These statements were made on what we presumed to be good authority. W e have since learned from the quarter most likely to be correctly informed, that the anecdote in question “ has no foundation in f a c t a t least, so far as Mr. W., “ an Englishman and a Quaker,” is concerned. “ BANKRUPTCY— BANKING.” “ G. B.” in reply to a communication in the November number of the M erch a n ts’ with the above title, is informed that his article came to hand too late for the present number. It will probably appear in our January issue. As we are not in the habit of publishing a communication from an anonymous source without some per sonal knowledge of the writer, our correspondent, “ G. B.,” will see the propriety o f favoring the editor with a caU. M a ga zin e, 092 Mercantile Miscellanies. MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES. TH E COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE.* [W e have been favored with the manuscript o f the following paragraphs, the con cluding portion of an article of much greater length on “ Agricultural Wealth,” from “ T h e Farm er’ s E v e r y -d a y B o o k ” etc., by the Rev. J ohn L. B lake, D. D., which will probably make its appearance early in the spring of 1850. Forming our opinion from portions of the work which we have seen, and from some twenty years acquaintance with the character and habits of the author’s mind, we have no hesitation in commend ing the forthcoming Volume to the large class of persons designated in the title. We apprehend that it will not only be an “ every-day book ” for every farmer in the land, but one that will interest the political economist, and, indeed, all who take an interest in the social and moral welfare of our common country. The liberal and comprehensive views o l the learned author, and his large experience and practical common sense, are strikingly exhibited in the preparation of the work, as all who read the following brief extract from a single chapter of it, will readily admit.]— E d . M e r . M a g . Oor present purpose, however, in showing the amount of agricultural wealth in the country, is to show, also, its commercial importance. It is not apparent to ordinary visional organs, that there would be, as it were, no commerce without agriculture; and, if no commerce, of course no vessels and no cities. Vessels and cities are the incidents o f commerce, and the latter is mainly the incident of agriculture; for if every product of the soil was excluded, what would there be left for merchandise ? It is granted that salted and pickled fish of every sort, iron and steel in every form, grindstones too, all the products of the ocean not before included, all mineral productions found on the sur face or in the bowels of the earth, make exceptions ; but we scarcely can think of any thing else. These, truly, are not the result of agricultural labor, and the merchant is not dependent on this labor for all he can make out o f these things. A second thought suggests, however, that there should be a little qualification to the admission. You may reply, surely the farmer has nothing to do with the production o f cod fish, or mackerel, or halibut, or smoked herring, or salmon, or whale oil. True, he had nothing to do in their production. He never nurtured or fed these inhabitants of the briny deep. Their instinct led them to their own procreation; and, also, to roam at large from north to south, and from east to west, procuring as they went their own food. The fanner neither fed nor clothed them, or built them houses or barnes. As they exist in the ocean, they are wholly independent of his agency. But, when we find them in the marts o f trade, as objects of merchandise, it is not quite so. On what did the mechanics live, while building the ships which went in search of these marine ele ments of wealth; and, on what did the sailors subsist during their voyages in securing them! On shipbread made from the farmers flour, and beef and pork, which the far mer fatted and sent to market. The admission is particularly applicable to iron and steel, as we see them exhibited among the useful implements of civilized society. W e admit, as we did above, that as crude minerals, when existing in their native quarries, they were as God made them. Man had no agency in their existence. But, it is not to be overlooked, that as crude minerals they had comparatively no value. They are so abundant as to be but little more precious than a rich garden loam. Their whole value is given to them by labor. It is said that steel made into the main-springs of the watch is augmented in value more than a thousand per cent. And who does not know what increased value is given to it, when made into fine cutlery ? A piece of steel that might conveniently be carried in one pocket, converted into surgical instruments, or highly finished penknives, * The Farmer’s Every-day B ook ; containing the Popular Elements o f Theoretical and Practical Agriculture; also, a Catalogue of Books for a Farmer’s Library ; a System o f education for Agricul tural L ife; and Hints on the Means of Promoting Health, Temperance, and correct Moral Principles among the Laboring Classes; including also, as an Introduction, a Dictionary of Terms ; and as an Appendix, Five Hundred Receipts relating to Rural and Domestic Economy. By the Rev. J o h n L B l a k e , D. D., author of a General Biographical Dictionary, etc. Mercantile Miscellanies. 693 will probably be worth one hundred dollars. Hence it will be seen that it is merely the labor of the artist applied to these raw materials, from which the merchant de rives his profit, and not from the materials themselves. And the artist, as in the case o f ship building, and the sailors in catching fish, receive their sustenance from the hand o f the agriculturist. It is much the same even with grindstones. They do not leap self-formed, like living animals, from their hard made beds. Coarse as they are, the application of labor was requisite to mould them into the shape demanded for mercantile and mechanical uses. I f such demonstrations come from the exceptions first made from one main hypothe sis, how conclusive will be the argument when directed to cases of a more obvious and palpable description. The great staples of agricultural production set down in our tabular paragraph, if viewed in all their remote relation to commerce, will assume an importance which they do not there present. As there exhibited in one mass, they do indeed show an enormous amount of wealth; over one thousand millions of dollars. Let it as one mass become an article of merchandise, to what a host of persons will it give occupation and support. How many ships would be required to transport it ? What a multitude of sailors to man those ships ? And for ought we know, it might require a chain o f railroad cars that would reach around the globe to transport the whole o f it at once across the two continents. Dividing this into parcels of one hun dred thousand dollars each, it will make a business for ten thousand wholesale mer chants ; and if each has ten subordinates, clerks, porters, and carmen, it makes a busi ness for one hundred thousand persons, and giving support, including their families, to at least five hundred thousand souls. Yet, this is but a shadow of the reality— but a mere fragment of the entire mercantile process. These agricultural products, like other merchandise, do not pass directly from the wholesale merchant to the consumer. In almost every instance, the retailer makes treble the profit on them that is made by the former. Sometimes they pass through two or three different hands, before their transit is complete, each as a matter of course receiving his per centage. Take as a sample, the article of flour, passing from the merchant to the retailer, from the retailer to the baker, and frequently from the baker back to the retailer in the form of bread, and then to the consumer. A ll that exercise any agency or employ capital in these transitions are to be duly paid; so that when in the hands o f the consumer it must be estimated at nearly one hundred per cent above the sum paid to the producer for it. Take also the article of cotton, passing from the producer to the wholesale merchant, from him to the manufacturer, from the manufacturer to the commission merchant, from the latter to the retailer, and from him to the consumer. Here are five different transits, each attended with carrying expenses, in addition to the mercantile per centage each party is entitled to receive. And in all cases of exportation to foreign countries, and sometimes in our own country, there are additional transits. Thus our agricultural producers mainly support our railroads, and freight steamboats. They support our mercantile establishments, the factors, the clerks, the porters, and the carmen. They in fact support the landlords in paying rent, and not less the masons and carpenters who erect city buildings; the street pavers and the street cleaners, together with the various incumbents of office in the city government; for were it not for the agricultural productions, but few of these things would be needed ; not, indeed, as charities, but as fair business remunerations, giving regular employment to all having agency therein. The magnitude of the agricultural interests of a country, demand the paternal su pervision of its government, as well as the respectful consideration of all its citizens. In our own country, it is passing strange that our government has so little realized a feeling of corresponding responsibility. What has our government ever done to stimu late its yeomanry to the most enlightened and efficient means for rendering agriculture honorable and profitable ? Has it held out inducements to open new sources of profit, or even to secure in the greatest perfection those already opened ? Has it spread over our wide domain, as it were broadcast, the illuminations of science, relating to this subject ? It might easily have done s o ; it might have sent scientific tracts on agri culture to every farm house in our land, as well as to print and send out the steam boat loads of Congressional speeches, interesting generally to but few save those who make them. And how easy it would be for our national vessels, every now and then to return home freighted with improved breeds of farm animals, to be gratuitously placed on model farms, wherever established in connection with our colleges, or other endowed and incorporated institutions ; the produce of these animals held within the reach of small operators as well as the rich. Such a paternal agency in our national 694 Mercantile Miscellanies. government would raise American agriculture to its proper elevation, rendering it vastly more lucrative than it now is ; and in addition to the benefits conferred on in dividuals, adding much to our national wealth, independence, and aggrandizement. To secure an end of such utility to the increased prosperity of the country, there should be at Washington, in the national government, a bureau, or department of ag riculture. It matters not by what name it is called, but the thing itself should exist, established upon the most liberal and comprehensive principles. It may be the Home Department, in name; if the reality is there, that is of the most importance; it should be a branch of the government for the increase and the protection of American pro ductive industry, in all its ramifications. It should be for the benefit of the people— the citizens of the whole country, and for nothing else. Compared with such a de partment, of little consequence to the masses of the people are the naval and army de partments. Where these benefit one person, the other would enrich hundreds. Why not have it ? If the people pay for it, have they not a right to it ? Besides, in its re sults, it would pay for itself a hundred, perhaps a thousand times over, in the aug mented agricultural resources of the country. Nor is this a ll; it would lead to the development of intellect, to the elevation of social character in rural life. Has not this already been done, to a limited extent, by our local agricultural institutions ? Most as suredly it has. Do the tens of thousands that annually attend the fairs of the Ameri can Institute, receive no social elevation, in addition to a participation in the more le gitimate benefits for which it was principally designed ? Do they learn nothing of life, and manners, and of the world, by meeting those of all the various grades of hu manity, on these occasions ? Do they not almost instinctively learn to sympathize with those inferior to themselves, and to assimulate to those superior to themselves ? To avoid the errors of the more ignorant, and to become wiser on thus beholding the more enlightened ? Had we a complete system of ethical, social, and metaphysical algebra to embody all the facts relating to this subject, it would appear, we have no doubt, that for every dollar expended upon the American Institute, and other kindred institutions, the country has been benefitted in a tenfold ratio. And if the general government of the country were to carry out the proposed suggestion, the benefit would be to the cost in a hundred fold ratio. INLAND COMMERCE AND COMMUNICATION. W e quote from Dr. Bethune’s oration before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, of Har vard University, delivered July 19, 1849, the following eloquent and appropriate par agraph :— The products of our immense inland territory must find vent for the surplus through the ports of the sea-board, through which, again, must come the luxuries or necessaries we require from abroad. The agricultural States offer the best markets for the manu factures of those whose soil is less fertile, yet dearer, and labor more abundant; while these, in their turn, are rewarded with plenty of breadstuffs and other provision. Iron, lead, coal, Gopper, gold, pass each other on their way to distant localities. There are no empty return wagons, rail-cars, or coasting vessels; each carries back wealth pur chased by the wealth which it brought. Our immense lakes, with their rich teeming borders thousands of miles about, act like inner impelling arteries to the trade of the whole country. Our great navigable rivers, with their numerous tributaries, ramify, like veins, for the circulation of a common life through leagues none pretends to count, and millions whose increase none dares to guess. Nay, by the wonderful inventions of recent years, we are no longer dependent upon the watery ways of nature, and wellnigh annihilate distance. On the wings of steam, the population and wealth of whole towns may speed, swifter than a bird, along the roads which, binding us together by iron sinews, pierce mountains, span valleys, and measure the continuous level by min utes, not miles, so that we say, “ How long ?” instead of “ How far ?” The slender wires, now stretching like network over the land, quickly as living nerves, thrill thought and feeling between correspondents the most remote. And, by the admirable working o f our confederate unity, is felt through all, like the beating of a central heart, the power of one national will. In a word, we realize more fully than Rome, with its Senate and JPlebs, could do, the fable of old Menenius Agrippa, and are as virtually connected as the several parts of the human anatomy,— “ that there may be no schism in the body, but that the members should have the same care one for another ; and whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it, or one member be honored Mercantile Miscellanies. 695 all the members rejoice with it.” Suppose, for one melancholy moment, that this healthful economy of exchanges was broken up— that the western valley was shut out from the sea by adverse governments— that those on the coast were hemmed into their own narrow limits by hostile forts along the mountain ridges— that between the North and the South there was neither commercial nor moral sympathy— that at every State line passports were demanded and a tariif set— who must not shrink from describing the terrible consequences, the stagnation of trade, the silence of brotherly council, the constant feuds, the multiplication of armies, the Cain-like, exterminating wars, the overthrow o f law by military dictators, the utter ruin of all that makes ns prosperous at home and respected abroad, the sure catastrophe, moral and national death. HABIT AS RELATED TO BUSINESS, W e cut from a late number of the D r y Goods R ep orter , the foHowing brief but com prehensive essay on “ Habit as related to business,” commending its valuable sugges tions to the serious attention of the readers of the M erchants' M a g a z in e :— The power of habit is very well indicated by the saying, “ Habit is second nature.’ There is no exaggeration in the adage, as we shall be forced to admit if we consider . facts. Take the frequently occurring case of individuals born blind, or early deprived o f sight, and observe how the habit of nice observation through the sense of feeling will often astonish you by his accurate descriptions of things which he has examined by means of his exquisitely practised touch. The wonderful accuracy of the forest bred Indian in detecting and describing the number and character of a party who have preceded him through the woods, and the certainty with which he will determine the time since they left any particular spot, have often astonished white men, who could see no signs on which to predicate an opinion. Y et the Indian is rarely, if ever, at fault. The reason is, that he has schooled his senses into unering habits of nice and accurate observation. His success in war and hunting, his life, and the safety of his tribe, depend upon his correctness of obser vation of those minute signs. Now can any one doubt that habits of patient and accurate observation, such as the savage exhibits, would be of incalculable value if brought to bear upon all the minute details of business life ? Or can it be doubted that habits of negligence and inatten tion in regard to the minutre of business, will prove detrimental, if not fetal ? There is this additional thought, which is important and worthy to be considered, that the habit of closely observing, once formed, is seldom at fault, and performs its office spontaneously. To recur again to the Indian habit of minutely marking all the indications of a trail, he is not obliged to force his mind, it is his pleasure, and it forms one o f the attractions of forest life, to watch every indented leaf, every faint foot-print, and every minute sign that some one has passed before him. So when a man in any department of business has once made it the habit of his life to watch closely and mi nutely all that bears upon and relates to his business operations, it becomes a plea surable excitement instead of a laborious effort. W e hardly ever knew a man who had formed habits of nice and detailed order, who did not make them a hobby which he delighted to ride as much as any child his New Year’s present. The reason is, that when once habits of any kind, and especially those which we know and feel are im portant and valuable, have been formed, we take pleasure in acting conformably thereto. The case of Bulwer, the great novelist, is sometimes quoted as illustrative o f the advantage of habits of order. Bentley’s Miscellany says he w orked his way to emi nence, worked it through failure, through ridicule. His facility is wonderful, but it is only the result of practice, study, habit. He wrote at first slowly and with great diffi culty, but he resolved to master the stubborn instrument of thought, and he did mas ter it. He has practised writing as an art, and has re-written some of his essays un published nine or ten times over. He only works about three hours a day, from ten in the morning till one— seldom later. The evenings when alone, are devoted to read ing, scarcely ever to writing. Y et what an amount of good hard labor has resulted from these hours! These are thoughts worthy of the consideration of all men, but especially of young men in business, who have the most of life before them. It may be considered as an indubitable principle that he who succeeds in early life in establishing good business 696 Mercantile Miscellanies. and moral habits, disposes thereby of the heavy end of the load of life; all that re mains he can cany easily and pleasantly. On the other hand, bad habits, once formed, will hang forever on the wheels of enterprise, and in the end will assert their suprem acy to the ruin and shame of their victim. WASHING AND BATHING ESTABLISHMENTS. W e have received a report presented by Aldermen Shultz, Allen, and Kelly, to the Common Council, on the subject of public baths and wash houses, furnishing much interesting information in regard to these beneficent establishments in England; and we have also seen some statistical reports from one of them, all tending to show, not only the eagerness with which the labouring and poorer classes avail themselves of the privileges these establishments offer, but also the practicability of making them (fre quented as they are by the million, instead of the wealthy few) pay handsome divi dends on their cost, even though the tariff of prices for bathing, and for washing clothes, is low enough to come within the reach o f the poorest— less even than the cost of fuel required for doing the same work at home. The connection between c l e a n l i n e s s o f personal habits and of the dwellings of the poor, and the health, morals, and business prosperity of a great commercial city, is too obvious to require argument. A system of public baths and wash houses esta blished and in operation throughout the different wards in the city of New York, most needing them, during the past summer, would, in all probability, have saved to the city much more than then cost; and the loss in consequence of the cholera panic, to the various branches of business depending upon our trade with the whole country, must be computed by thousands— we had almost said millions. Shall we not, then, without waiting for another similar visitation to stir up our public spirit, make an effort to introduce this system into our city 1 W e are glad to learn that a project is on foot for the purpose. We have seen a subscription book, with the names of some of our most respected merchants and other citizens, appended to liberal sums, as stock subscriptions and donations, amounting in all to some ten thousand dollars, and under stand that about an equal additional amount is wanted, before proceeding to organise a company, under a charter obtained from the Legislature last winter. We have a copy of the subscription paper at our office, and shall be glad to receive the names o f such as may wish to subscribe. W e sincerely hope the project may not fall through for want of sufficient public spirit in this community to make up the small sum required. The stock will probably pay as weU as good bank stock. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE, Ten years ago Life Insurance was scarcely known in this country. Not over one in 30,000 of the American people had resorted to it; very little knowledge of the sys tem had been diffused among our people up to that time— there were few who had any definite idea of the system— the masses gave no thought to the subject, and oth ers equally ignorant of its true character, regarded it with pious horror, as implying a distrust of God’s providence in the affairs of men. The error and this prejudice have passed away, and thousands and tens of thousands of our citizens, in all parts of the Union, are steadily resorting to Life Insurance, as the best and surest method of pro tecting their families from a precarious dependance upon the life of an individual In the estimation of well informed and thinking men, this institution now holds a front rank among the benevolent enterprises which modem philanthropy has origina ted for mitigating the evils, and for enhancing the enjoyments of social life. Every good citizen, every man whose means are taxed to relieve the wants of others— in short, every member of the community, be his position what it may, is in terested in the extension of the system of Life Insurance; inasmuch as the diffusion of its moral influence, and of the substantial benefits which result from it, are eminently calculated to strengthen the bonds of social life, and to avert the destitution and suf fering which otherwise would too often fall to the lot of the helpless and dependant. Business enterprises carried to successful issues in a right direction, always afford ground for congratulation; and especially, as in the present instance, where all the advantages resulting from it, instead of enriching a privileged few, are reserved to be distributed among the many, for whose benefit the insurance was originally intended. The B ook Trade . 697 THE BOOK TRADE. 1.— M e m o ir s o f the L i f e o f W illia m W i r t , A tto r n e y -G e n e r a l o f the U n ited S tates. By J ohn P. K ennedy. In Two Volumes. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard. It is no more than justice that the eloquent biographer of Patrick Henry should have the history o f his own life and triumps, recorded in the spirit of warm appreciation. Wirt’s life of Patrick Henry has become one of the classics of American literature. His general criticism, or rather glowing enthusiasm, secured for the ‘‘ forest-born D e mosthenes ” the place that belonged to him, in the estimation of America and Europe, as the first of popular transatlantic orators. It was the tribute of an orator to an or ator, and as such, although too extravagant, perhaps, in the claims advanced, not the less creditable, on that account, to him who advanced them. W e are glad, therefore, that the delicate task of portraying the life and character of William Wirt has been entrusted to a biographer like Mr. Kennedy, whose ability, whose opportunities for ac quiring the necessary information, and whose trustworthiness and warm appreciation ensure a faithful biography of the eloquent advocate. The author’s previous experi ence in public life, and as a writer, in which he has met with much success, has been of the right kind to qualify him for the duty he has so adroitly performed in these two beautiful octavos. They should be placed by the side of Wirt’s life of Henry, on the shelf of the library. A finely-engraved portrait of Mr. Wirt, whose German features, as Mr. Kennedy remarks, remind one of some of the portraits of Goethe, adorns the first volume. Prefixed to the second, is a fac-simile of an interesting letter addressed to Mr. Wirt, by John Adams, in 1818. Mr. Kennedy has evidently had access to nu merous sources of information, to private documents, and, above all, to the ample cor respondence o f Mr. Wirt. The letters of a great man, if he was in the habit of fre quently writing, if that habit was kept up through life, and if his disposition, and the character of those to whom he wrote, encouraged free communication of views and wishes, constitutes, after all, the best biographer, being the most reliable of autobiog raphies. They form an autobiography, written, not aforethought, with an awkward m alice p rep en se , if we may so speak, but p ro re nata , evolved and thrown out from the whirl o f life, and of the fortunes of him it portrays. It is a daguerreotype, painted from the living features by the sunlight of daily life. Mr. Kennedy, like Lockhart, in his life o f Scott, and all the better class of biographers, attaches their true value, and gives due prominence to letters. Mr. Wirt’s letters seem to have been placed, almost without restriction, at the author’s disposal, and he has used them freely, but with taste and judgment. His labors, as an editor, have been directed to their true object, of bringing before the reader not the writer’s opinions, but the life and character of him whose biography he writes. W e have the necessary amount of explanation to clear up doubtful allusions, and enough narrative to connect the numerous letters with which the two volumes are filled, into a continuous narrative. W e are much mistaken, if Mr. Wirt’s letters do not prove a great, as well as unexpected, treat to many readers. His correspondence, not on business merely, but with liis friends, was voluminous. Begun early, it was kept up steadily to the end. His was a nature to make many friends, and to retain them. Mr. Wirt wrote an admirable letter— easy, flowing, full of spirit and fun, and, at the same time, correct, and elegant. His epistolary ease and readi ness remind one of Scott’s off-hand effusions. W e certainly do not know of a better collection of American letters, and they may take their place with Cowper, Scott, De Sevigne, and other masters of letter-writing. The author’s labors have not been con fined to the mere task of annotation. His remarks on the public events of the times in which Wirt lived, with many of which he was connected, as Attorney-General of the United States, or as counsel in cases growing out of them, and upon the political aspects of those times, and the course of parties, give the work an interest and value for the student of political history. 2.— F iresid e F a ir ie s ; or, Christm as at A u n t E lsies. By S usan P indor. New Y o rk : D. Appleton & Co. The author of this beautiful little volume has succeeded to a charm in decking fa miliar yet important truths, and the home duties of every-day life, in the pleasin g drapery of fairy land. That it will serve, in some measure, to anchor a seasonable thought, leading ultimately to an active principle, we do not entertain a doubt. 698 3. The Book Trade. — A Treatise on the P ra ctice o f the Courts o f the State o f N ew Y o r k , adapted to the Code o f P rocedu re, as amended by the A c t s o f A p r i l 11, 1849, and the R u le s o f the S u p erior Court. T o which is added, the P ra ctice in Courts o f Justices o f the P eace. W ith an A p p e n d ix o f P ra ctica l F orm s. By C laudius L. M onell, Councellor at Law. Albany: Gould, Banks, and Gould, 104 State-street. New York: Banks, Gould, & Co. The difficulty with the practising lawyer in New York, under the New Code, is not so much to find out what changes have been made, and what the new law is, as to de termine how much and what parts of the old law remain unaltered. For the new system, he has only to refer to the code, which is (generally speaking) worded with clearness and precision. The more important question is how, and how far, existing forms have been modified or suspended by the new law, and how far they remain un touched : what, in short, is the existing practice as a whole, the old with the new. This question is ably and as fully answered as the present undeveloped state of the system allows, in Mr. Monell’s Treatise, which is published in Gould & Bank’s usual good style, on good paper, with clear and large type, and those still more important requisites in a book of practice, full indexes and tables of contents. A glance at the analytical table of contents, at the beginning of the book, shows the extent of ground the treatise covers, and the correctness and convenience of its arrangement. In Part First, the subject of remedies is considered with reference to the distinctions of the Code, of Actions and Special Proceedings, of Actions Civil and Actions Criminal, and to its provisions on the subject of parties and the rules of pleading. In Part Second, the proceedings in an action are methodically considered, in the order in which they occur, from the service of the summons to the enforcement of execution, and including incidental proceedings, which more or less frequently occur. Appended to the work is a collection of such practical forms as the recent changes chiefly call for. On the whole, we think this work decidedly the best Treatise on the New Practice in New York which has yet appeared. It at once presents a correct analysis of the contents of the code, and its relation to, and bearing upon, the previous practice of the State. 4. — Illustrated E d itio n s o f Y ork. New Y o rk : George Irvin g 's Traveler. K n ickerbocker s H is to r y o f N ew P. Putnam. Besides the handsome uniform edition of Washington Irving’s works, recently pub lished by Mr. Putnam, and heretofore noticed in our Magazine, we have now before us two splendid volumes, selected from that series, printed on the finest paper, and copiously illustrated with a great number of Mr. Darley’s admirable designs, engraved by some of our most eminent artists. “ The Tales of a Traveler ” has seventeen, and Knickerbocker’s History of New York sixteen, engraved illustrations, that would do credit to the skill and genius of England’s best artists. Among the many works designed for presents, either among the annuals or perennials— and these belong to the latter— there are none, we venture to say, more appropriate for that purpose— certainly none more elegant and beautiful in design or execution. 5. — F a m ily P ictu re s f r o m the B ible. By Mrs. E llet, author of “ The Women of the American Revolution.” New York : George P. Putnam. Mrs. Ellet’s agreeable and graphic pen pictures of the men, women, and children, referred to by the inspired historians, biographers, and poets, of the Old and New Testa ments, as the books of the Bible are termed, have been beautifully illustrated by several o f the best European artists. The illustrations, twelve in number, are engraved from paintings of Pousson, Mola, Coning, Guercino, Copley, Wlieatly, Rubens, Guido, and Veit, and embrace “ The Holy Family,” “ The Deluge,” “ Hagar in the Wilderness,” “ Isaac blessing Jacob,” “ Joseph before Pharaoh,” “ The Calling of Samuel,” “ Ruth and Boaz,” “ Meeting of David and Abigail,” “ The Nativity,” “ The Marys at the Sepulchre,” and “ Martha and Mary.” The volume is published in a style that har monizes well not only with the literary excellence of the letter-press pictures, but with the masterly engravings of the artists who have contributed to make it one of the most desirable “ gift books” for this and all seasons. 9.— T h ou gh ts o f L i f e , D ea th , a nd Im m orta lity. By E d New York: Robert Carter Brothers. A new and beautiful edition of one of the most celebrated poems in the English language. It is printed, in the usual style of those publishers, on fine white paper, and in a clear and handsome type. The mund C o m p la in t; or, N ig h t Y oung, LL. D. The B ook Trade . V— . G lim pses o f S p a i n ; or, N otes 12mo. Harper & Brothers. o f an Unfinished T our in 699 184*7. By S. T. W allis . These very lively and readable sketches present the observations made during a three months visit to Spain. The author apparently carried with him an acquaint ance with the Spanish character and language, and, above all, a disposition to be pleased with what he might see, even though it should differ from the habits of his own country, which went far to compensate for the shortness of his stay. He presents the national character, and the condition and prospects of Spain, in a light mucli more favorable than that in which we have been accustomed to regard them. The state of things there, he says, is changing steadily, and for the better. He “ commends the Spanish people to his reader, assuring him that he will like them better on acquaint ance. He can travel among them generally with comfort, always witli pleasure. If they rob him on the highways, poison him in the kitchens, or burn him in a Plaza, as a heretic, he will have worse luck than has befallen any body lately, out of the pages of a traveler’s story.” The book is written in a genial spirit, and in a style of rare fe licity. The appendix contains some curious particulars respecting Columbus, which have not before been published. 8— B o y d e lls Illu stra tion s o f Shakspeare. New York: S. Spooner. W e droped in at Dr. Spooner’s, a few days ago, to see how he progressed with his great enterprise of restoring the world renowned work, Boydell’s 100 Illustrations of Shakspeare. His success is truly astonishing. He lias restored thirty of the most dif ficult plates to all the beauty of the earliest proofs struck by Boy dell himself. W e are borne out in this opinion by more than two hundred of our most distinguished ar tists, engravers, and literary men, who have personally examined the work, and have given their certificate to that effect to the proprietor. Few persons in this country are aware of the intrinsic merit of this magnificent work. Boydell was upwards of twenty years in getting it out, and employed none but the most distinguished artists of the age. The original cost of the work is said to have been the enormous sum of £1,000,000 sterling, and sunk the vast fortune of the proprietor in irretrievable ruin. In 1842, all the original copperplates fell into the hands of Dr. Spooner, who, since that time, has been constantly employed in making preparations for the successful restoration of the work. It is printed on fine, thick linen paper, 24 by 30 inches, ac companied by an elegant letter-press description of the plates, of the same size as the print, which is original with Dr. S., and is a distinguishing feature of the American edition, and adds greatly to its interest and beauty. Fifteen parts (thirty plates) are now before the public. This great work, when completed, will not only add to our natural reputation in enterprise, but it will have a good effect in elevating the public taste for the higher works of art. W e know of no way by which a man can obtain so valuable a collection of beautiful engravings, as by subscribing for this work. 9.— Leaflets of M em ory: R eynell C oates, M. D. an Illu m in a ted A n n u a l f o r M D C C C L . & Co. Edited by Philadelphia : E. H. Butler The present is the sixth volume of this popular annual. It surpasses, if possible, all its predecessors, in beauty of execution, and in the variety and excellence of its con tents. The discriminating judgment and fastideous taste of Dr. Coates, a gentleman as distinguished for his literary accomplishments as for his scientific attainments, is as apparent in the selection of writers and subjects, as in the elegant and chaste produc tions of his own pen, scattered here and there over its magnificent pages. W e do not mean to say that the contributions are faultless, or that there is no chance for improve ment in other respects. But as a whole, we repeat, it surpasses its predecessors, at least in artistic effect, and in all that constitutes the material of a “ gift book” for the holydays. The illuminated illustrations, including the presentation plate, title page, and the vignette are beautiful specimens of that style of art, and, in our judgment, nearly faultless. They were designed by Devereux, and printed by Sinclair. The other plates in the number, illustrated with letter-press descriptions, “ Hero and Leander,” “ The Fair Dreamer,” “ Gabrielle d’Etrees,” “ The Voyage of Eros,” “ Phantasise,” “ The Surprise,” “ Rustic Nobility,” and •*Night,” are all from the burin of Mr. Sartain, of whose skill in mezzotints, it would be a work of supererogation to speak. The binding o f the volume, an important feature in an annual, although not gaudy, has an air of English durability, and at the same time Parisian elegance, in keeping with the gems o f art, taste, and literature within. The B ook Trade. '700 — G eneral F ren ch a nd E n g lish D ictio n a ry. N e w ly com posed froen the F ren ch D i c tion aries o f the F ren ch A ca d em y, La vea u x, B oiste, Beschererellc, etc., f r o m the E n g lish D ictio n a ries o f Johnson, W ebster, R ich ardson , etc., a nd the S pecial D iction a ries a nd W o r k s o f both La nguages, etc. By A. S piers , Professor o f tlie National Col 10. lege of Bonahaste, (Paris,) at the National School of Civil Engineers, etc., and au thor of the “ Study of English Poetry,” and of the “ Manual of Commercial Terms in English and French.” 8vo., pp. 716. Paris: Baudry’s European Library. Bos ton : Charles C. Little and James Brown. This is unquestionably the most comprehensive and valuable dictionary of the French and English languages that has ever been published. It will be found espe cially useful to the merchant, manufacturer, and all persons in any way connected with the arts and sciences, as special pains has been taken to collect and introduce the words and phrases employed in the army and navy, the sciences, the arts, the manufactures, and trade. With a very imperfect knowledge of the French language, we have found it of great value in the conduct of our journal, receiving, as we constantly are, all the important statistical and commercial documents emulating from the French admin istration, and the writings of the French political economist. The English and French dictionaries, heretofore published, are extremely meager in the words and terms relat ing to subjects not purely literary. It, therefore, fills an important space in the literaature o f the two languages, and one which will be duly appreciated by scientific and practical men iu every profession. The plan of the dictionary, as we learn from the author’s preface, was conceived and matured some fourteen years since, and was sub mitted to the Minister o f Public Instruction o f France, (M. Guizot,) and the Minister of Public Works, who approved it highly, and promised it encouragement. Under these auspices it was commenced, and it has been prosecuted, notwithstanding innu merable difficulties, until brought to a successful completion. So highly do we appre ciate the value and importance of the work, that we can scarcely think of the pecu niary consideration that would induce us to part with the copy in our possession. We hope to speak of the work more fully and critically in a future number of the M e r chants' M a g a zin e ; hut, in the meantime, we have no hesitation in commending it, es pecially to the professions, indicated above, as just what they want on the subject. 11. — T h e By T homas Edited by Mrs R om a n ce o f N a tu r e ; or the P o etica l L a n gu a g e o f F low ers. M iller , author of “ Pictures of Country Life,” Rural Sketches,” etc. E. O akes S mith. New Y ork : J. C. Riker. The name of our fair countrywoman as the editor of this volume will be sufficient to secure for it the favor of all who know her personally, or by the varied productions of her prolific and versatile pen. The same may be said of the author of the book, which she has edited and endorsed in the appropriate preface added to the American edition. The engravings of flowers are highly colored, and the letter-press, illustrative of their language, the best that we have seen in any o f the books devoted to the same subject. It is designed in its present form as a “ gift-book.” That it will find purchasers for that purpose we have no doubt. 12. — B o o h s f o r Children. New Y ork: J. C. Riker. Among the many books published this season for children, we have seen none more beautiful than those produced by Mr. Riker, five of which are. now before us, namely, “ The Waldorf Fam ily; or, Grandfather’s Legends,” by Mrs. Emma C. Embury. “ A New Ilieroglyphical Bible,” with four hundred cuts, by Adams. “ Sayings and Doings; or, Proverbs and Practice,” by Jane Strickland. “ Pebbles from Jordan; or, Bible Ex amples of Everyday Truth,” by Mi's. Graham; and “ Lillies from Lebanon,” by the same author. They are well done up in an exceedingly neat and attractive style, and copi ously illustrated with engravings by good artists; and, what is of far more importance, they inculcate the purest lessons of wisdom and virtue in the most agreeable manner. — C hristm as B lossom s, a n d N ew Year's W rea th , f o r 1 8 5 0 . By U n c l e T h o m a s . Philadelphia: E. H. ButlerA Co. Among the many seasonable and beautiful annuals, or books for children, published during the last five or six years, we have seen none that surpass the “ Christmas Blos soms” of Uncle Thomas. But those of our young friends who have enjoyed the plea sure of his acquaintance in former years, will doubtless regard our encomiums as alto gether unnecessary, if not antiquated. It is to those who have not profited by the perusal o f his delightful tales, that we would commend the present volume, with its simple and agreeable narratives, and its clear and pretty engravings. 13. The B ook Trade . 701 14. — T h e Snow F l a k e ; a H o lid a y G i f t f o r 1850. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler & Co. Although less pretending and costly than the “ Leafletts of Memory,” from the same liberal and enterprising publishers, it is really a very attractive and beautiful annual. The engravings, “ May Morning,” “.Vignette,” “ The Impending Mate,” “ Mated,” “ The Captives,” “ Birth of Venus,” “ Emily de Vere,” “ Gipsy Children,” “ Francesca,” nine in number, are all mezzotint, from the burin of that clever and successful artist, Mr. Sartain. and engraved expressly for this work. W e are unable to discover any tiling in the literary contents of the volume that will offend the most fastideous taste, al though a pleasing variety is exhibited in the selection of subjects. Some of our most popular writers have contributed to the value and interest of the volume; and not the least attractive feature, is the series o f tales, illustrative of life and manners in Ire land, France, Austria, Scotland, and other countries, from different pens. In this vol ume, the fair reader, be she grave or gay, sad or sentimental, will find something to enlist her sympathies, or suit her humor. 15. — S igh ts in the G o ld R eg io n s , a nd Scenes b y the W a y . By T heodore T. J ohnson. 12mo., pp. 278. New York; Baker & Scribner. Mr. Johnson, the author of the present work, like some thousands of his countrymen, was “ seized with the g o ld fever'd and being resolved to judge of the wealth of El Do rado by actual observation, embarked in the “ Crescent City,” (in February, 1848,) one of the fast steamers that sailed from New York after the announcement of the won derful and extensive gold discoveries became public. The information and experience gathered from his wanderings and sojourn in California and the gold region, are em braced in the present narrative, written since his return home. Aside from the inci dents of the narrative, and sketches o f scenes and character, the reader who contem plates emigrating to that “ bourne,” from which some travelers may and some may not return, will find scattered over its pages, details that will doubtless be of service to him on his way, and when he reaches the “ Land of Promise.” As a succinct and cor rect account of the author’s experience and observation, it will also interest the great mass of readers who are content to stay at home, and “ read the news.” 16. — L i f e , IIealthy and D isease. By E dward J ohnson, M. D., author of “ Hydropathy,” etc. 12mo., pp. 172. New York: John Wiley. This excellent treatise was written, and eight editions of it published, before the new mode of treating certain diseases had been introduced into England, un^ler the name of Hydropathy. It, however, in its principles, harmonized so well with that mode of treatment, that the author, after visiting Grfefenberg, and observing the effects of it as practised by Priessnitz, soon became most thoroughly convinced, though not capable of curing all diseases, nor of entirely taking the place of medicine and the lancet, to the total exclusion of both, yet, as a whole, it formed a system infinitely su perior to all other systems of cure, and more generally applicable, safe, and successful. The design of the present work is to explain in common language the nature of the animal economy— the mechanics of the internal man— the mechanism of life—and give, step by step, what actually takes place in the performance of each of the func tions concerned in the preservation of life and health, and how and by what cause life is sustained. To all who would understand the elementary principles of the physical man, and what are the habits of life which are most likely to conduce to a sound mind and a sound body, we heartily commend this valuable and deservedly popular work. 17. — T he A rt-J o u rn a l f o r October, 1849. London and New York : George Virtue. The present number of this model art-work contains two beautiful engravings on steel from pictures in the Vernon Gallery, “ Malzolio,” engraved by Staines from the picture of D. Maclise, R. A., and “ The Truant,” by T. Phillabrown from the picture of T. Webster, R. A., besides “ Salrina,” engiaved from the statute in marble by W. C. Marshall The exposition of manufactured art, recently exhibited in Birmingham, is treated at considerable length in the present number, and is illustrated by one hundred and fifty engravings on wood, comprising a large majority of the leading works con tained in the exposition. It includes works in silver, electro-silver, bronze, brass, iron, porcelain, eartliernware, and glass; objects in papier-mache, japanned goods, carvings iu wood, and the various productions in metal, which constitute the main staple of British industry. A journal so ornamental and useful, should include in its list of pa trons not only those who appreciate the Beautiful in Art, but those who would excel in its Industrial development. *702 The B ook Trade. 18. — P o em s. By A melia , (Mrs. W elby, of Kentucky.) A new enlarged edition, illus trated with original designs by R obert W. W eir . New Y ork : D. Appleton A Co. The present, the seventh edition that has been published, has been enlarged by the introduction of several new poems, written, we presume, at intervals since the publica tion of previous editions. It must be a source of gratification to the publishers that they have been instrumental in making so widely known the beauties of this sweet poetess o f the West, and that they are encouraged to present a volume illustrated by one of the most distinguished artists in the East, Robert W. Weir, Esq., thus rendering it still more worthy of preservation among the choice collections of American literature. It con tains, besides an artist like portrait of Mrs. Welby, six of Mr. Weir’s happiest illustra tions, very cleverly engraved on steel. 19. — G if t L ea ves o f A m e r ic a n P o e tr y . Edited b y R ufus W. G riswold . 8vo. New Y ork: J. 0. Riker. This volume includes some o f the best poems of our best poets—the most beautiful illustrations of the thought and fancy, and feeling of the country— the finest specimens of its literary art. It is designed as a gift book, suitable for every season, and for the finest intelligencies; embracing, instead of the ephemera usually found in gift books, such productions as have received the final approval of criticism, and have become classics. It is embellished with seven engravings on steel, that will compare, not un favorably, with many that appear in the annuals. A friend remarked in our hearing, that it was “ just the book to put into the hands of a foreigner, as it would give him a good idea of the genius of our American poets.” 20. — M r s . Colem an's N e w Juvenile Series. New York : Samuel Raynor. This series consists of four beautiful little volumes, designed for children, from five to ten or twelve years. They are in a style at once clear and simple, without the too frequent accompaniment of purility. Under the garb of the pleasing narrative, the child is taught the difference between good and evil; or, in the words of the amiable and accomplished authoress, to “ see and understand clearly what is good and what is evil.” 21. — Innocence o f Childhood. By M rs . C oleman, Editor of “ The Youth’s Sketch Book,” “ Lu Lu Books,” Ac. New Y ork : D. Appleton. Mrs. Coleman possesses the happy faculty of conveying the most salutary lessons of wisdom and goodness to the youthful mind and heart, in the most attractive and agreeable form. She impresses the lessons of piety and truth without the alloy of that sectarian spirit that so often mars and defaces the pure form of the religion of love, so beautifully pourtrayed in the life and precepts of Jesus. 22. — T h e Com plete W o r k s o f H e n r y K i r k W h i t e , o f N ottin gh a m , late o f St. John’s College, Cam bridge, w ith an A c c o u n t o f h is L i f e . By R obert S outhey, LL. D. 8vo., pp. 420. New York: Robert Carter A Brothers. Henry Kirk White, whose life and literary remains, including poems, extracts from his diary and letters, and a beautiful and truthful memoir by his friend and admirer, Southey, died at the early age of twenty-one, thus blasting the hopes that his virtues and his genius had inspired in the bosom of his friends and associates. Rarely has one whose departure to the unseen world was so premature, left behind so many evidences of future promise. Few works have had a more extended circulation in England or our own country, and we thank the American publishers for giving us a new and hand some edition of a work so generally and so highly prized. 23. — C la ren ce; or, a Tale o f ou r m m T im es. By the author of “ Hope Leslie,” etc. A u t h o r ’s Revised Edition. Complete in one volume. 12mo., pp. 515. New York: George P. Putnam. This first volume of a new and revised edition of Miss Sedgwick’s works appears in a style corresponding with the new and beautiful edition of Washington Irving’s works, just completed, by the same enterprising publisher. The other works of this favorite author are to appear at short intervals, and when completed, will include not only her novels, but the smaller works, written for the larger class of readers, and for children. “ Clarence ” is one of the sweetest and purest domestic tales in the English language; and we trust it will find a new and large class of readers. We heartily thank Mr. Put nam for his efforts to produce new and beautiful editions of our best American writers. It would be difficult to select better books of the kind for a family library, and we feel quite sure that the volumes o f this series will find a welcome in every pure and refined family circle. The Book Trade. 703 24. — N a t u r e : A d d resses a nd Lectures. By R. W. E merson. 18mo. Boston: James Munroe & Co. The present volume contains nine lectures or addreses delivered by their author be fore literary and other institutions, namely, the “ American Scholar,” an oration before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, August 31st, 1837 ; an address to the Sen ior Class in Divinity College, Cambridge, July 15, 1838; “ Literary Ethics,” an address to the literary societies in Dartmouth College, July 24,1838 ; the “ Method of Nature," an address to the Society of the Adelphi, in Waterville College, Maine, August 11, 1841; “ Man the Reformer,”.a lecture read before the Mechanics’ Apprentices’ Library Association, Boston, January 25, 1841; “ Introductory Lecture on the Times,” read in the Masonic Temple, Boston, December 2, 1841; the “ Conservative,” a lecture read in the Masonic Temple, Boston, December 9, 1841; the “ Transcendentalist,” a lecture read in the Masonic Temple, Boston, January, 1842 ; and the “ Young American,” a lecture read to the Mercantile Library Association in Boston, February 7, 1844. Mr. Emerson belongs to a school of writers and thinkers extremely limited in number. Transcendental in Iris philosophy, whatever he touches is more or less tinged or colored with the spirit of that philosophy. Few, if any writers have more originality in their compositions or thoughts, or are destined to exert a more marked influence in the world of letters or of mind. 25. — Frontenac ; or, the A to ta rh o o f the Iroquois. A M etrica l R om ance. By A lfred B. S treet. From Bentley’s London Edition. 12mo., pp. 324. New York: Baker & Scribner. This tale is based on a chapter in the history o f the Iroquois, which, at the time, consisted of five nations, the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, and the Senecas, occupy ing a territory which they figuratively called “ Long House,” extending from east to west over which is now the State of New York, from Lake Erie and Ontario to the Hudson River. W e have long esteemed Mr. Street as one of the best poets our coun try has produced. His descriptions of natural scenery, and nature in its varying as pects, and moods, are always true to life, and exceedingly fresh and graphic. The British press, which is generally quite charry in its praise of American writers, and particularly poets, has spoken, as far as our knowledge extends, in terms of high com mendation of this production. One of the British reviews says that “ Mr. Street is es pecially distinguished for the fidelity of his descriptions of Indian life and scenery and “ the decorum,” he adds, “ o f the present poem lies in its skillful combination of plot and description,” and even D’lsraeli says of this work, he has “ found in its pages originality and poetic fire.” 26. — E ven in g s at W o o d La w n . By Mrs. E llet, author of the “ Women of the Amer ican Revolution.” 12mo., pp. 348. New York: Baker A Scribner. This selection of traditions from European countries possesses one great merit in this day of book-making, that its contents have never before been presented in an Eng lish dress. The collection of Syser and other German writers of eminence have fur nished the materials out of which Mrs. Ellet has contrived to furnish a very interesting collection of traditions and sketches. The book is not, however, made up of mere trans lations ; but in constructing a form in which to embody the legend, Mrs. Ellet has care fully excluded all embellishments that could in any manner impair its simplicity. Tile only liberty taken bv the translator is in the arrangement of the incidents in an ar tistic shape, and a little indulgence in description where it seemed allowable. 27. — Shakspeare's D ra m a tic W ork s. Boston: Philips, Sampson & Co. Number three of this beautiful serial edition of Shakspeare contains the “ Merry Wives of Windsor,” with a highly finished engraving of Mrs. Ford. It will form, when completed, the handsomest and most readable edition of the great poet ever published in this country. — A n A d d le s s D elivered before the M a in e H istorica l Society at B ow d oin College, on the A fte r n o o n o f the A n n u a l Commencement, Septem ber 5, 1849. B y R obert 28. C. W inthrop. 8vo., pp. 68. Boston: Ticknor, Reed <fc Fields. This address commemorates the history and virtues of the author’s worthy ancestors of the Bowdoin family. Although historical detail furnishes slight scope for oratorial display, yet we can trace the strongly marked characteristics of the accomplished scholar and the dignified statesman on every page of Mr. Winthrop’s judicious and well-considered address. The Book Trade. •704 29.— P ro v erb ia l P h ilo s o p h y ,: a B o o k o f T houghts and A r g u m en ts , origin a lly treated. By M artin F arqukau T opper , Esq., D. C. L., F. R. S. From the Eighth London Edition. With a Portrait. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler. Some half a dozen editions of this work have been issued by different publish ers in almost every variety of style. The present edition, illustrated with a fine en graved portrait of the author, is, perhaps, the most costly and beautiful edition that has yet been produced in this country. It is printed on a fine white paper, and a bold and beautifully clear type, and altogether forms as fine a specimen of book-making as we have ever seen. A better or more appropriate book for a Christmas or New Year’s remembrancer it would be difficult to select, for its “ thoughts and arguments,” deserve to be had in “ everlasting remembrance.” SO.— L ib e rty's Trium ph. A P o e m . By R obert W. S ands. 12mo., pp. 544. New Y o rk : George P. Putnam. This appears to be a sort of poetical history of the “ Model Republic,” from the Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, to the resignation of the commission of Wash ington as commander-in-chief. The trials and triumphs of the Republic, in its battles for liberty, are portrayed with considerable skill and pow er; and although some pas sages are rather tame, there are others of great beauty. 81.— M e m o ir s o f the R ev . Joseph B u ckm in ster, I h H ., and h is S on , R ev . Joseph S te ven s B u ckm in ster. By E liza B uckminster L ee . Boston: William Crosby & H. P. Nichols. The name of Buckminster is identified with the early pulpit eloquence o f New En_ land. The present memoirs, prepared by a relative, consists of the letters and extracts from the diary of the father and son, skillfully woven together, and thus forming an harmonious and beautiful tribute to their memory, that cannot fail to “ teach o® )r hearts,” “ and as the dews and rains do not return merely to the fountains and ljytjrs from which they are drawn, but are diffused in showers which revive distant placed so these letters, also, intended only for private instruction, may council some other son, o y . encourage the heart of some other parent.” The volume contains much interesting in-' , formation, and not only exhibits the most prominent, but the more minute lineament s - r V. of the respective characters. It is on many accounts one of the most instructive works' of its class. 32.— Illu stra tion s o f L y i n g i n a ll its Bran ches. By A melia Opie. N ew Y ork : Car ter & Brothers. W e know not how many editions of this excellent work have been published in our own or other languages; but in our judgment it should be printed and reprinted until every man, woman, and child in Christendom is in possession o f a copy. The Tract Societies would do well to circulate it as a work of higher utility in promoting the cause o f religion, and morality, than many of the publications issued from their repos itories. 33. — T h e Singers’ M a n u a l: f o r Teachers, P u p ils , and P r iv a te Students. A . A dams, A M., G. F. R oot, and J. E. S weetseu. 18mo., pp. 254. By F rederic New Y ork : John Wiley. The leading character- of this work seems to be practical. Each elementary princi ple is seen alone, and its true relation, in the progress of the art, is learned through the process of discovery and practice. The special aim of the work— the training of the singer— is carried steadily forward, being made the leading object at every step. The lessons are thrown into the form of class exercises, and the work appears well adapted to promote the objects of the. authors. 34. — H u m e's H is t o r y o f E n g la n d . Boston: Philips, Sampson & Co. The fourth volume of this new and handsome library edition of Hume’s Engfand was published in November. ’ Two volumes more will complete the work. The sixth volume is to contain a complete index of the whole w ork; an addition to its value, made by the discriminating liberality of the enterprising publishers. 35.— F r a n k F a r l e i g h ; or, Scenes f r o m the L i f e o f a P r iv a te P u p il. Mr. Virtue has received from London the tenth part of this interesting and instruc tive tale. Each part is illustrated with tw o of the inimitable etchings of George Cruikshank. /I