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THE

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE,
Established July?

1 8 3 9,

BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

VOLUM E X X I .

D E C E M B E R , 1849.

CONTENTS

NUMBER VI.

O F N O . V I ., V O L . X X L

ARTICLES.
ART.

PAGE.

I. A REVIEW OF THE COTTON TRADE. By Professor C. F. M’Cay, o f the University
o f Georgia..................................................................................................................................... 595
II. THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE. By J o s h u a L e a v i t t ,
Corresponding Secretary o f the Boston Cheap Postage Association..................................... 601
ID. THE ASTRONOMICAL EXPEDITION TO CHILI. By J a m e s F e r g u s o n , Esq., o f the
National Observatory, Washington............................................................................................ 611
IV. CONNECTION OF THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS BY RAILS ACROSS
NORTH AMERICA. Ay an O f f ic e r o f E n g i n e e r s ........................................................... 616
V. RELATION OF RAILROAD CORPORATIONS TO THE PUBLIC. By R. G. H a z a r d ,
Esq., of Rhode Island.................................................................................................................. 622
VI. THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AMERICAN COTTON MANUFACTURES IN
1849. By A. A . L a w r e n c e , Esq., of Massachusetts............................................................. 628
VII. THE COTTON GIN. By J. B l u n t , Esq., of the New York Bar.............................................. 633
Vin. THE POPULATION OF NEW ENGLAND. By W il l i a m B r ig h a m , Esq., o f Massachusetts. 639
IX. COMMERCIAL CODE OF SPAIN—No. X —CONCERNING PERSONS WHO MAY
INTERVENE IN MARITIME COMMERCE. Translated from the Spanish b y A. N a s h ,
Esq., o f New Y ork..................................................................................................................... 644

M E R C A N T I L E L A W CASES.
Agents and Factors—an Important Decision.................................................................. ....................
Liabilities of Railroads for Personal Injury............................................................................................
Action to recover o f Sureties for bonds given for faithful Performance o f Trusts...........................
Question o f Signature...............................................................................................................................

646
649
649
650

C O M M E R C I A L C H R O N IC L E AND R E V I E W :
EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL R E V IE W OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC., ILLUSTRA­
TED W IT H TABLES, ETC., AS FOLLOWS :

The Money Market—Banks of New York City—Export o f United States Stocks from 1842 to 1848
—Receipts of California Gold at the United States Mint—Imports and Exports o f Specie from
New York and Boston for last ten months—Movement of Specie at the Port o f New York from.
1847 to 1849—United States Revenue and Expenditure—Business o f the Port o f New York for
ten months—Increase of Imports and Exports of the United States—Breadstuffs entered for
Consumption in Great Britain for 1849—Sales of Cotton in Liverpool—Increasing demand, for
Corn—Prices of Farm Produce in Great Britain—Banks o f New Orleans—The general Aspect
o f Banking Capital—Annual arrivals of Immigrants at the Port o f New York for thirty years—
Emigration to California, etc., etc.................................................................................... ............ 651-653

VOL. XXI.----NO. VI.




38

594

CONTENTS OF NO. V I., VOL. XXI.
PAGE

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
United States Revenue and Collection Laws: a Treasury Circular o f Instructions......................... 658
The new Spanish Tariff on Cotton Goods, etc........................................................................................ 660
Of Statements of Insurance Companies in the State of New Y ork: Controllers Report................. 662

NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.
Hurl Gate: Surveys for the Removal o f the Rocks...............................................................................
Lights on Sea Reach, River Thames.......................................................................................................
Signal Staff at Cape Agulhas...................................................................................................................
Lights on Ringholmen and Terningen...................................................................................................

664
665
665
665

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.
Imports of Boston in 1848 and 1849.........................................................................................................
Foreign and Coastwise arrivals at Boston from 1830 to 1848, inclusive..............................................
Commerce of Cleveland, (Ohio,) imports and exports.........................................................................
Tonnage owned at Cleveland....................................................................................................................
Exports o f Coffee, Hides, Indigo, etc., from Laguayra, Venezuela.....................................................
Export o f Breadstuflfs from United States in 1848-9..............................................................................
Production of Hogs and Beef Cattle in Ohio in 1848-9........................................................................

JOURNAL

666
668
668
669
669
670
670

OF M I N I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S .

The Graniteville (S. C.) Cotton Manufactory of William Gregg, Esq................................................. 671
Statistics o f Inventions in the United States........................................................................................... 672
Receipts, Expenses, fees, salaries, etc., of the Patent Office, from 1828 to 1848................................ 673
Patents o f each class issued to citizens o f the several States, from 1790 to 1849............................... 674
Ratio of inventions to the population of each State.............................................................................. 676
Cumberland and Cannel Coal Trade.............................................. .'........................................................ 476
Manufacture of Cotton in the Southern States, with reference to an article in the November num­
ber o f this Magazine........................................................................................................................... 677
Cotton and W oolen manufacturing establishments o f New Hampshire............................................ 680
Production o f the mines o f Chili............................................................................................................... 681
Improvement in the manufacture of Hemp—Chicopee Cotton Mills—Hogs packed in the W est.. . 682

R A I L R O A D , C A N A L , AND S T E A M B O A T S T A T I S T I C S .
Progress of Railroads in Georgia.................................................................................................... .........684
Number of persons employed on Railroads in Europe......................................................................... 685
Railroad accidents in Europe.................................................................................................................... 685
Vastness o f Railway works....................................................................................................................... 686
Reduction o f Railroad capital in England.............................................................................................. 686

J O U R N A L OF B A N K I N G , C U R R E N C Y , A N D F I N A N C E .
Debt and Finances of Alabama................................................................................................................
Francis’ Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange.................................................................
Constitution and Terms of the London Stock Exchange......................................................................
Finances o f the East India Company......................................................................................................
Banks of Maine, Cashiers, Capital etc......................................................................................................
A Treasury Circular to Receivers of Public M oney...............................................................................
Land Revenue of the British Crown.......................................................................................................
Royal Money Borrowing in England.......................................................................................................
British Loans from 1780 to 1783...............................................................................................................
Bill of Exchange—Bankruptcy—Banking...............................................................................................

687
688
689
689
690
690
690
691
691
691

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
Commercial importance o f Agriculture...................................................................................................
Inland Commerce and Communication...................................................................................................
Habit as related to Business......................................................................................................................
Washing and Bathing Establishments.....................................................................................................
Mutual Life Insurance...............................................................................................................................

692
694
694
696
696

TI I E B O O K T R A D E .
Notices of 35 New Works or New Editions, etc........................................................................... 697—704.




HUNT’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE
AND

COMMERCIAL REVIEW.
D E C E M B E R , 1 8 4 9.

Art. I.— A R E V I E W OF T H E C O T T O N T R A D E .
T he price o f cotton, during the past season, has been continually upward.
A bout the first of November it reached the lowest point, and, from that time
forward, there has been a uniform advance. A t first, the rise was slow, with
occasionally a backward m ovem ent; but recently it has been so rapid, that
the rates have already risen (see table I., at the end o f this article) from
35 per cent below, to 35 per cent above the average. The causes o f this ad­
vance are plain and evident. There is no mystery, no combination o f plant­
ers or sellers, no forced or unnatural efforts o f speculators, bringing about
the results. The pacification o f Europe, the revival o f business in France,
the fine harvest in England, the large consumption, the small stocks, and the
discouraging prospects o f the new crop, are all powerful influences favorable
to an advance ; and it is difficult or impossible to name a single cause in the
opposite direction. O f these influences, most powerful is the promise o f a
short crop. After the largest production ever before known, we see the stocks
on hand lowTer than they were at the beginning o f the year. (Table II.)
W ith a decrease in the amount produced, below the wants o f the manufac­
turers, prices necessarily rise above the average, until the high rate o f the
raw material lessens the consumption and brings the demand within the sup­
ply. It is this cause, more than all others combined, that has brought about
the recent advance. The triumph o f the Austrians in Lombardy, and of
the Neapolitans in Sicily; the establishment o f order in Paris and Vienna ;
the cessation o f hostilities in Schleswig-IIalstein, and in Hungary, have all
produced but a slight effect; while the late frost in April, the heavy rains in
summer, the rust, the worm, and the caterpillar, in the autumn, have told
with great power on the market. The splendid harvest in England has been
next in influence ; but next only, after a great interval. A ll have, however,
combined to produce the effect, and they have done it fairly, legitimately,
and, therefore, permanently. In considering, therefore, the probable supply
and demand for the coming year, we must base our calculations on high pri­




596

A Review o f the Cotton Trade.

ces. This will increase the shipments from India, and, by encouraging late
picking, increase the production o f the United States. It will, at the same
time, discourage consumption, generally, and especially in England. A l­
ready have the spinners at Manchester commenced working short time, and
this is not to be regarded as a combination to prevent the rise in prices, but
the necessary consequence o f a short crop. A diminished supply o f cotton
causes an advance in the price, and a diminished consumption is indispensa­
bly necessary to bring up the price o f the manufactured article. In this way,
the equilibrium between demand and supply is established, and price must be
considered, before either the supply or the demand can be properly estiniated.
The supply from the United States will this year be undoubtedly small.
But small and great are comparative words, having no meaning o f themselves.
W e mean, that the crop will fall off largely from the receipts o f last year.
It will do this at every principal sea-port, and for two causes. Because the
production is less, and because the large stocks in the hands o f the planters
had much to do with the extraordinary receipts o f last season.
The crop o f South Carolina and Georgia will be shortened by the late frost
in the spring, by the excessive rains in June and July, and by the drought
in August. The worm, also, has done considerable damage in some portions
o f these States. The season is very much protracted, but this was the case
last year. The amount planted is not larger, as a greater breadth o f land
was devoted to wheat than ever was done before. Near Macon, a consider­
able force was turned to the construction o f the South-Western Railroad.
These causes have none o f them been very fatal, or serious ; but they have
had their influence. The effect o f all may be estimated to produce a falling
off o f 75,000 bales in these two States. A like decline, compared with last
year, may be anticipated, on account o f the large supply o f old cotton, which
was carried forward, to swell the receipts o f last season. The amount re­
ceived at Charleston and Savannah, will thus be reduced from 850,000 bales
to 700,000. The extension o f railroads further west will attract to these
ports some cotton, formerly sent to the Gulf o f Mexico, and thus keep up the
receipts higher than they would have been in former years, w'hen the pros­
pects o f the crop were the same as they now are.
A t Apilachicola and Mobile the receipts must fall off largely. Besides the
causes operating in the Atlantic States, they have had the rust and the cater­
pillar in many places. The ball worm has also been much more destructive
than in Georgia. On the Tombigbee, the disasters have been greater than
in the worst seasons we have ever had. Twenty per cent on the receipts o f
last year may be deducted for the amount o f the new crop. This may seem
small, to those who have heard the reports from the western and southern
portion o f Alabama and Georgia. But when the price is as high as it now
is, the planters will keep their hands picking till February. Many a field
that would have been ploughed up or neglected, will now be gone over a
fourth or a fifth time. This cotton will be poor, but it will swell the receipts
as much as any other.
From New Orleans we have more disastrous reports than from any other
portion o f the cotton region. Besides all the injuries before mentioned, they
have suffered from the overflowings o f the Mississippi and the Red River.
This damage has been especially severe on the Red, where the loss from this
cause alone, has been estimated as high as 100,000 bales. This is exagger­
ated, doubtless, but the injury .has been very serious. The prevalence o f




A Review o f the Cotton Trade.

597

cholera in the summer, along the Mississippi, by diminishing the force at work,
permitted the grass to grow, and thus injured the prospects o f the crop.
Throughout Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, the deficiency will be large;
but in Tennessee and North Alabama, it will be slight. A falling off o f 20
per cent may be anticipated at New Orleans; but not more than this, because
the disasters o f last year had already reduced their receipts 10 per cent be­
low those o f the preceding year.
Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia, will produce about as much as last
year. The increased cultivation in Texas will make up for the ravages o f the
worm. These estimates bring up the whole production of the United States
to 2,250,000 bales. (Table III.)
The supply from India is very much dependant on the price. There has
been a report from Bombay o f a failure in the crop, but this has not been
confirmed by subsequent advices. The discouraging news from the shipments
to China will balance the effect o f any slight deficiency in the production. A
considerable increase may be anticipated over the imports o f 1849, on account
o f the rise in prices; but they will not much exceed the average o f the last
seven years. This has been 208,000 bales, and I would estimate the imports
into England for 1850, at 230,000 bales. (See table IV .)
The receipts from Egypt, Brazil, and the W est Indies, are small, and nearly
stationary. The rise in prices will probably prevent any falling off from the
receipts o f 1849. These will doubtless reach 220,000 bales, (table V .,) and
the same amount may be expected for the next year.
The summary o f these supplies gives a total o f 2,700,000 bales, (table
V I.,) which is less than the crop o f the United States, for the year that has
just closed. This falling off in the supply must cause a decrease in the con­
sumption, else all the present stocks would be exhausted— a result which can­
not possibly occur.
This decrease will not take place in the United States. It would seem,
from the published statements, (table V II.,) that the wants of our manufac­
turers have declined in the past year. This is, beyond doubt, only apparent.
The very low price at which cotton was sold at the close o f 1848, induced
the manufacturers to lay in large stocks, while the advancing rates o f 1849
produced an opposite effect. Hence the extraordinary increase that appeared
to take place in 1848, and the apparent decrease in 1849. The advance in
the consumption o f the United States has been so uniform and unvarying,
that no fears need be indulged that this increase will not continue. W e
have already become the largest consumer o f cotton in the world, and this
rank we will continue to hold, without dispute, hereafter. Our people now
manufacture more cotton, and purchase more cotton goods, than are con­
sumed by Great Britain and all her dependencies, in the four quarters o f the
globe, (table V III.,) and the next year will witness no change in this matter.
H igh prices o f the raw material have no power to check consumption here.
Our people are not so poor as to deny themselves necessary clothing, when
prices rise, and almost all cotton goods are necessaries, not luxuries, o f life.
H igh prices o f cotton, besides, favor our consumption, to some extent, by in­
creasing the ability o f the South to buy, and by keeping down the price of
exchange, and preventing the exportation o f specie. Our consumption for
1850 may safely be put at 550,000 bales, the average for 1847 and 1848
being 520,000. A decline must take place in Great Britain. The favorable
prospects presented by a fine harvest, cheap food, and general prosperity, will
fail to neutralize the influence o f high prices o f the raw material. Peace in In­




598

A Review o f the Cotton Trade.

dia, in Germany, in Italy, in the whole world, cannot enable the European
laborers to consume their usual amount o f goods, when prices advance beyond
their usual limit. The fund out o f which the great mass purchase their
clothing, is limited, jmd this constant sum will buy a smaller number of
yards, when the cost per yard is increased. W ith average rates for cotton,
the consumption o f England would exceed that o f any former period. Ire­
land is q u iet; the chartist agitation has ceased ; food is abundant; trade is
active; the currency in fine order ; money at a low rate o f interest; the
stocks o f goods in the hands o f manufacturers sm all; the demand for labor
on railroads, mines, and iron works, g o o d ; and everywhere the elements o f
prosperity are visible. The foreign market is not less promising than the
home market. From Europe, India, and America, the demand for English
exports is alike favorable. But in spite o f all these considerations, the ad­
vance in the raw material must inevitably check the consumption.
The deliveries to the trade this year have exceeded every former year. The
excess over 1845 (table I X .) is slight— over last year it is considerable. The
stocks in the hands o f manufacturers are now small, because they have been
buying, for some time, less than they have consumed. The whole consump­
tion, in 1848, was 1,464,000 bales, and in 1845, it was 1,574,000. For the
present year, it will probably reach 1,600,000 bales ; but for 1850, it cannot
safely be estimated at higher than 1,450,000.
In France the consumption is now largely in advance o f last year, and up
to the 1st of August it exceeded the amounts o f 1845 and 1846. (Table
X .) The increased stability o f Louis Napoleon’s government, for the last
half o f the present year, promises that this excess will be maintained, and
that the close o f the year will witness the largest delivery o f American cot­
ton ever made. The whole amount o f American cotton consumed in France
was 351,000 bales, in 1845, and 277,000 in 1848. For 1849, it’will pro­
bably reach 400,000 bales ; and, unless .political troubles, not now foreseen,
should injure the prospects o f trade, the high price o f cotton will not bring
the demand for 1850 below 350,000 bales.
On other parts o f the continent, besides France, the consumption o f cotton
has been regularly increasing. The average demand, for the last five years,
has been 442,000 bales, and this period includes the disastrous harvest o f
1847, and the revolutionary excitement o f 1848 and 1849. The demand
for 1850 cannot fall as low as this average. It will be almost certain to ex­
ceed 450,000 bales, even if the present advance in prices is sustained.
W e have thus a total demand (table X II.) o f 2,800,000 bales, which ex­
ceeds the supply (table Y I.) 100,000 bales. A s the stocks were lower in
January last (table X III.) than they had been for the last ten years, and as
they are now lower (table II.) than they were a year ago, this deficiency o f
the supply must keep up prices much above the average. They are now 30
or 40 per cent above, middling fair being quoted in Charleston (October 19th)
at 1Of cents. This advance must be maintained, unless the lateness o f the
frost should carry up the United States crop above 2,250,000 bales, or unless
serious political troubles should arise in Europe, to darken the prospects of
business. The day o f prosperity to the planters has at last come. The
promise for the future is bright. The crop is not small, though much re­
duced from last year. It is the increased consumption during the last year,
as much as the short crop, which has advanced prices. The prospect is,
therefore, that even a large crop from the next planting will bring fair prices,
while a failure would carry up prices to the high range o f 1835 and 1836.
The present crop, though small, will bring a much larger amount o f m on ey




A Review o f the Cotton Trade.

599

than the last. The disasters being uniformly distributed, every part o f the
country will receive the benefit. The planters have deserved this prosperity,
and at last they have received their reward. Let them continue their en­
deavors to divert their labor to other pursuits ; let their extra capital be de­
voted to the building o f railroads, mills, and factories ; let them extend the
cultivation o f sugar, wheat, and corn ; let them raise at home their own
pork, mules, and horses ; let them encourage domestic manufactures o f all
kinds. And, by thus transferring a portion o f their labor from the producduction o f cotton, it will be easy to keep up the price above the low limits to
which it has fallen, for the last few years.
TABLE I.
AMERICAN EXPORTS, VALUE, AND AVERAGE PRICE.

Exports in lbs.

1840 to 1848
1849.............

Value in the
Whole Orop
Custom-House. Price in cts.
in lbs.

Value o f whole
crop.

6,050,200,000 1478,930,000
8.0 7,451,000,000 $592,041,000
...............................................ab’t 6.0 1,140,000,000
68,400,000

Total for ten years, from 1840 to 1849, inclusive, 8,591,000,000 $660,441,000
Average price..............................................................................
7.7 cents.
((
35 per cent below, is ___
___
5
And 35 per cent above, is
___
10.4
TABLE II.
PEE CENT STOCKS.

1819.

1848.

United States, 1st of September, 1849...............
Liverpool, 5tli of October, 1849.
Havre, 1st of August, 1849........

155,000
547,000
64,000

171,000
533,000
95,000

Total, for these three places.................

766,000

799,000

TABLE III.
UNITED STATES CROP.

1847.

Receipts.

1848.

1849.

Estimate.

1850.

Texas.........................................
New Orleans...........................
Mobile.......................................
Florida......................................
Georgia.....................................
South Carolina.........................
Other places............................

8,000
706,000
324,000
128,000
243,000
350,000
20,000

40,000
1,191,000
436,000
154,000
255,000
262,000
10,000

39,000
1,094,000
519,000
200,000
391,000
458,000
28,000

40,000
900,000
420,000
170,000
325,000
375,000
20,000

Total.............................

1,779,000

2,348,000

2,729,000

2,250,000

TABLE IV.
ENGLISH IMPORTS FROM THE EAST INDIES.

Years.

1825 to 1833, average bales..
1833 to 1841
“
“ ..
1841 to 1843
“
* ..
1843 to 1846
“
“ ..
1841 to 1849
“
“ ..
1846 ..........................................
1847 ..........................................
1848 ..........................................
1848, first six m onths.........
1848, Octo ber 6th, Liverpool.
1849, first six m onths.............
1849, October 5th, LiverpooL.
1849, whole year, a b o u t........
1850,
“
“
“
........




Import.
73,000
140,000
265,000
192,000
208,000
50,000
223,000
227,000
102,000
93,000
38,000
69,000
150,000
230,000

Remarks.
Declining prices.
High prices.
Chinese war.
Peace, and low prices.
Moderate prices.
Low prices, and repeal of duty.
Advance in prices.
Moderate prices.
Moderate prices.
Moderate prices.
Yery low prices.
Very low prices.
Y ery low prices.
High prices.

600

A Review o f the Cotton Trade.
table

v.

ENGLISH IMPORTS FROM BRAZIL, EGYPT, ETC.

1844
............. bales
1845 ................................
1846 . . , .........................
1847 ................................
1848 ................................
Average.........................

191,000
201,000
153,000
136,000
137,000
165,000

1848, first six months........
1848, October 6th, Liverpool.
1849, first six months...........
1849, October 5th, Liverpool,
1849, whole year, about........
1850, whole year, about........

55.000
93.000
135.000
180.000
220,000
220,000

TABLE VI.
SUPPLY.

Crop o f the United States............................................. bales
English import from East Indies, about................................
English import from all other places, about.........................
Total

1849.

1850.

2,729,000
151.000
220.000

2,250,000
230.000
220.000

3,100,000

2,700,000

TABLE VII.
AMERICAN CONSUMPTION.

Years.
1844....................
1845.....................
1846.....................
1847.....................
1848.....................
1849.....................

American
consumption.
............................
...........................
............................
...........................

Average for
three years.
321,000
354,000
386,000
413,000
458,000
490,000

389,000
423,000
428,000
523,000

Increase
per cent.
5.2
10.3
9.0
7.0
10.9
7.0

TABLE VIII.
ENGLISH MANUFACTURES---- AVERAGE ESTIMATE OK BURNS AND HOLT, IN MILLIONS OF POUNDS.

1846.

1845.
Weight
Weight
Weight
W eight

511
348
163
85

of manufactured goods..............
of goods exported.......................
retained at home.......................
exported to British Possessions.

514
366
148
87

1847. 1848. Average.
377
300
77
67

509
335
174
79

478
337
141
72

Total amount retained for Great Britain and her dependencies...........................
A dd I f ounce for waste in manufacturing each pound..........................................

213
26

Total amount of raw material consumed...................................'...............

239

Number o f bags consumed in the whole United States, in 1849.................
628,000
Weight o f these, in millions of pounds, at 417 lbs. per bag................................
263
Excess of United States consumption over English..............................................
24
TABLE IX.
D ELIVERIES TO THE TRADE AT LIVERPOOL.

October 5.......... ....................................... bales
Septem ber]........................................
August 3............................................................
July 6................................................................

1849.

1848.

1,220,000
1,123,000
989,000
835,000

1,032,000
921,000
812,000
665,000

1845.
1.187.000
1.070.000
958.000
826.000

TABLE X.
DELIVERIES AT HAVRE.

August 1

.bales




1849.

1848.

1847.

1846.

1845.

242,000

151,000

142,000

217,000

231,000

601

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.
TABLE XI.
CONSUMPTION ON THE CONTINENT.

English
exports.

Years.

1844 .........................
1845
.................
1846...........................
1847...........................
1848...........................

.............
.............
.............
.............
___

1849, about............... .............

American
exports, omitting
Stocks
France and
on the
Apparent
Great Britain. 31st December, consumption.

121,000
194,000
208,000
190,000
115,000
170,000
240,000

144.000
285.000
205,000
169,000
255,000

120,000
90,000
39,000
76,000
60,000

436,000
450,000
340,000
461,000

322,000

100,000

522,000

TABLE XII.
DEM AND.

1849.
■bales
Consumption o f the United States.............
Consumption of Great Britain, about..........
Consumption in France o f United States cotton, about... .
English and American exports to other countries.. .
Total..........

1850.

518,000
1,600,000
400,000
562,000

550,000
1,450,000
350,000
450,000

3,080,000

2,800,000

TABLE XIII.
STO CK S.

Liverpool.

1844, December 31.
1845...........................
1846..........................
1847...........................
1848...........................

..bales
...........
...........
...........

741,000
885,000
439,000
364,000

Great
Britain.

France.

Rest of
Continent.

Total.

903,000
1,060,000
549,000
452,000
496,000

78,000
69,000
30,000
63,000
29,000

120,000
90,000
39,000
76,000
60,000

1,101,000
1,219,000
618,000
591,000
579,000

Art. II.— THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE.
C h e a p Postage is no longer an experim ent; its success lias justified the
anticipations o f its promoters, and silenced the cavils o f incredulity. The
principles on which it rests are no longer theoretical. The arguments and
calculations, which seemed so conclusive, when only seen on paper, have now
been subjected to a trial-process, which must satisfy even those over-cautious
minds that believe nothing they do not see. “ Rowland Hill’s-System of
Postage ” is now as distinct a subject o f study and o f history, as Professor
Morse’s System o f Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs ; and the principles and rules
o f operation are as necessary to be understood, in order to successful applica­
tion in practice. Dr. Franklin’s system o f electricity will afford as much
help in one case, as Dr. Franklin’s system o f postage in the other.
It is Rowland Hill’s system which has wrought the wonders o f cheap
postage in Great Britain ; and that will do the same here, if applied accord­
ing to Rowland Hill’s principles. That the expense o f postage per letter is
inversely as the number o f letters, is seen in the fact that in 1839, under
the old system, 76,000,000 letters cost, on an average, two-pence half­
penny per letter ; while in 1840, the first year o f the new system, 169,000,000




602

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

costless than a penny— a farthing, per letter; and, in 1847, the -whole
322.000. 000 cost only three and a half farthings per letter. The distance,
greater or less, which a letter is carried, is matter o f small consequence. Ten
letters carried a hundred miles may cost the government a dollar per letter;
when 10,000 letters could be carried the same distance, and the transporta­
tion cost only one mill per letter. A n d if government runs one mail from
Boston to New York, and another from New York to Philadelphia, it costs
no more to carry the Boston letters to Philadelphia. Hence, distance is laid
out o f the calculation, and uniformity becomes the rule o f postage. Hence,
also, the productiveness o f the post-office is proportioned to the increase o f
numbers ; and therefore the interest o f the department requires it to do .eve­
rything to increase the number o f letters, by increasing the public accommo­
dation. The genius o f the new system is public accommodation ; and the
measure o f success in administration is the number o f letters it induces the
people to write, by the facilities it affords for their conveyance.
The increase of letters in Great Britain, from 76,000,000 in 1839, to
169.000. 000 in 1840, and 346,000,000 in 1848, shows something o f what
the system is capable o f doing ; while the fact that the addition o f 93,000,000
letters the first year added only £ 1 01 ,6 78 to the expense, which is only at
the rate o f one farthing per letter, shows that the great increase o f expendi­
ture, £5 28 ,1 76 , added between 1840 and 1848, was caused by increased
public accommodation, rather than the increase in the number o f letters.
Our own “ reduced postage,” established by the act o f Congress o f 1845,
contained only one solitary feature o f Rowland Hill’s system— that o f rating
letters solely by weight— a great improvement, it is true. A n d in regard to
letters going not more than thirty miles, which make up one-fifth of the whole,
and were before carried for six cents, the reduction to five cents was too trifling
to produce any considerable effect in increasing the number sent. And yet the
results o f the act o f 1845 all go to confirm the soundness o f Rowland H ill’s
principles, and show that his system is just as applicable, and will prove
quite as successful and beneficial in this country, as in Great Britain.
It is quite remarkable, that while the whole cost o f management o f the
British post-office is §6,712,368, that of the United States is only §4,346,850
— a difference of $2,365,518. A nd the cost o f transportation, in which we
should naturally expect the difference to be very great, on account o f the
immense distances traversed by our mails, is $2,229,763 in Great Britain,
and $2,448,756 in the United States, which is only $210,993 more. There
is, therefore, no shadow o f a reason why the rate o f postage on letters should
be greater here than there.
This system has been in operation for ten years, in Great Britain, before
the eyes o f the people o f the United States. Thousands o f our citizens,
visiting England, have witnessed its facilities, and experienced its benefits,
and have wished that our own country might enjoy the same blessing. Its
practicability and adaptedness to this country have been demonstrated over
and over again ; and yet we do not get cheap postage. None o f our lead­
ing statesmen have made the cause their own, or have shown that they had
taken pains to understand the elementary principles of the system. Congress
meets and adjourns, without passing the bill, and the men by whose apathy
or opposition so great a good is lost, hold up their heads before the people,
and are reelected. W h y does not Congress pass a bill establishing Rowland
Hill’s system o f cheap letter postage ? The true and only reason is, that
th q people — the p e o p l e have never willed it, with that energy o f purpose
which Congressmen always understand and obey.




The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

603

The truth is, the people at large have hardly begun to be impressed with
the real value o f cheap postage. They like the idea very well, o f sending
their letters at a cheaper rate ; but the few letters which they now write, do
not make their hill for letter postage much o f a burden ; or, if their busi­
ness requires many letters, the postage amount is a per centage so small, as
to be but little thought of. The public mind has been too much occupied
with'the financial and pecuniary bearings o f the question. On the first in­
troduction o f the subject, it found our public men so deeply imbued with the
old saw that the “ j>ost-office must support itself”— a principle grounded on no­
thing in the constitution, and contradicted by its own histoiy for two years
out o f five, that the first objection everywhere to be met was, “ W ill it pay ?”
A n d we were obliged to wait until the department became convinced, by full
experiment, that the old system could not be made to pay, before we could
get the partial and unskillful reduction o f postage, granted by the act o f
1845.
That reduction was made, avowedly, not with the idea o f copying Rowland
Hill’s system, but mainly for the purpose o f putting down the private mails,
by underbidding them. That reduction also relieved the business community
so far, that it was impossible, for a time, to obtain the attention o f the public
to the claims o f the true system o f cheap postage. A nd when, at length,
the question came up, early last year, in a form to awaken interest, the friends
o f cheap postage found themselves embarrassed by a strong prejudice, in the
people and representatives o f the more thinly settled parts o f the country,
who had imbibed the notion that the call for cheap postage came only from
the cities, and was a mere scheme for the great merchants and manufacturers
o f the East, and in a strong impression, hastily taken up in high quarters, that
the length o f our routes was a good reason for insisting that cheap postage,
in this country, should be three cents, rather than two cents, which is the
nearest equivalent for Mr. Hill’s penny sterling. In meeting these and other
minor difficulties, we have too much lost sight o f the real object in view, the
grand social and moral benefits o f cheap postage, which make it one o f the
beneficent wonders o f the age.
It was a conviction o f these benefits which, in the early part o f last year,
led a few individuals, in Boston and Hew York, themselves mostly discon­
nected either with the commercial or the publishing interest, to associate to­
gether for the purpose o f awakening the public mind to the greatness o f the
loss which our country is suffering every year that we remain without cheap
postage. It is in this light that we wish the people to regard it. A nd when
they once begin to consider what cheap postage will do for society, they will
be so earnest in demanding it that their rulers cannot choose but yield and
grant the boon.
The post-office is, by its very constitution, a great social machine, intended
to weave a net-work o f personal intercourse between the people all over the
country. The authors o f the Federalist so understood it. In their decisive
plea for our present constitution, (N o. 42,) they argue for the establishment
o f a post-office by this simple consideration, that “ N o t h i n g w h i c h t e n d s t o
FACILITATE INTERCOURSE BETWEEN THE STATES, CAN BE DEEMED UNWORTHY
o f t h e p u b l i c c a r e .”
That ought to be the spirit o f all legislation and ad­
ministration for the post-office— to facilitate intercourse. W hen the post-of­
fice does this most effectually, it best subserves the object o f its creation.
To facilitate intercourse is to advance society, in all its great interests. The
interchange o f thought is the advancement o f society. W here this inter­




604

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

change is hindered or clogged, thought is stifled, inquiry suppressed, affection
chilled, enterprise hampered, freedom chained. In proportion to the actual
exercise o f this interchange, mankind rise, and advance, and grow, in all that
constitutes the glory o f humanity. To “ facilitate intercourse” is about the
only positive act for the advancement o f society which the constitution em­
powers our national government to put forth. To this power alone it has
interposed no limitations, but those which bound the resources o f the gov­
ernment, and the capacities o f the people.
Congress has, from the beginning, acted in the spirit o f this principle, in
one remarkable particular— the postage of newspapers. To “ facilitate inter­
course among the States,” the charge for newspapers has approached to uni­
formity, and has been fixed at a rate very far below the expense incurred.
Even with the very great increase o f newspapers, within the last five years,
they do not pay above two-thirds o f what they cost the department. Y et
Congress has carried them from one end o f the country to the other, and the
sole reason has been, that by this liberality, the government could “ facilitate
intercourse among the States.” Rowland Hill’s system itself, glorious as it
is, may be considered as little more than an application with a slight emen­
dation o f our plan o f newspaper postage to the postage on letters. A s he
has demonstrated, and experience in England has proved, that the application
o f the same principle to letters is practicable, and within the reasonable
ability o f the government, what the friends o f cheap postage now ask is, that
Congress will apply their own principle to letters, as they have always done
to newspapers. The chief emendation is the adoption o f absolute uniformity
o f rate, which is grounded on the discovery that there is no practicable differ­
ence in the expense.
Cheap postage on newspapers has made us a newspaper-reading people ;
cheap postage on letters would make us a letter-writing people. The power
and practice o f writing one’s thoughts is itself an advanced stage o f educa­
tion. The mere ability to read the Bible, to write one’s name, and to tell
the numbers on a bank-note, is an achievement o f great value, compared with
the absence o f that ability. And one reason why so many remain without
even this medium o f learning, in this land o f schools and Bibles, can be no
other but the lack o f an operating motive to learn, brought to bear upon
the mind in early life, when the opportunity was enjoyed. Cheap postage
furnishes that motive. A ll the educational systems in the world cannot be
a substitute for it. The proverb says— “ A child can lead a horse to the wa­
ter, but ten men cannot make him drink.” Neither can legislation compel
the youthful mind to dip and drink at the fountain o f knowledge. The ex­
pectation o f writing letters, to be sent by mail for two cents, will make mil­
lions o f young eyes glisten with enthusiastic determination to master the
mysteries o f reading and penmanship. A nd the practice o f writing thus en­
couraged, and o f course commenced with the first ability to shape a letter
with a pen, will train, and stimulate, and discipline, and strengthen the minds
o f a rising generation to a pitch of intellectual advancement far beyond their
predecessors.
A n d then, the practice o f writing will keep knowledge always bright, and
the intellectual powers continually advancing. Vast multitudes o f people
never advance in the knowledge o f letters beyond their attainments at school.
Perhaps at that time they would indite a letter, in tolerable English. But
the cost o f postage has stood in the way o f frequent letter-writing ; and, in
fact, the man or woman o f five-and-thirty finds it an irksome task to write a




The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

605

few lines o f necessary information, and, at sixty, lias lost the faculty alto­
gether. Cheap postage would have made them good letter-writers in youth,
and would have kept them continually improving in that faculty, even to
old age.
Lord Bacon tells us that “ Reading makes a full man, conversation a ready
man, and writing an exact man.” There is no more salutary discipline o f
the mind than the exercise o f mastering its thoughts, and arranging them in
order, so as to express them to its own satisfaction with the pen. Conceive o f
a whole community trained to this exercise, and continuing in it always, and
you have the idea o f a people more intellectual than ever lived. A n d cheap
postage will do it.
It is impossible to give in books, or magazines, or newspapers, that preci­
sion and particularity o f information which is necessary for the practical ap­
plication o f the knowledge they disseminate. Individuals have their own
questions to ask, and their own difficulties to remove. A single word o f per­
sonal inquiry would often save much laborious study, preserve from embar­
rassing mistakes, and make knowledge practically available, in cases where
now it comes to no fruit. In the prosecution o f philosophical investigations,
in historical research, in the construction o f machinery, in the application o f
useful improvements, in looking up evidence for the support o f just claims,
every facility given to correspondence is o f immense value. B y cheap post­
age, the minutire o f knowledge will bo diffused among mankind, as they
never can be by printing. And the collection o f knowledge will be equally fa­
cilitated. The number o f seekers and o f dispensers will be indefinitely in­
creased. Innumerable researches will be set on foot. Truths, buried in the
minds o f obscure individuals, will be brought out. Facts that will soon be
beyond the reach o f human inquiry, will be gathered up and preserved. All
the treasures o f wisdom— even the golden sands will be collected and added
to the common stock o f useful knowledge. W h o can tell how much o f the
advancement o f science in Great Britain is to be traced to the influence of
the 350,000,000 letters annually written there ? •Cheap postage will do
more for us than it has done for them, because it will act upon a more active
and inventive people.
Cheap postage is much more essential to the cultivation o f the affections
than o f the intellect. The wise statesman will carefully cherish the social
affections among the people, for there courage and honor, patriotism and pub­
lic spirit, the vital energies o f the republic, have their seat. In this eager
and money-getting age, we are in no small danger of suffering a deteriora­
tion o f the kindly sympathies, which bind man to man, and sweeten life, and
keep the mind from sinking into sordid avarice, or unrelenting ambition.
The government has the power, by the grant o f cheap postage, to rekindle
and preserve, in glowing freshness, the warm sympathies o f millions o f hearts
towards each other, which are now languishing and ready to die, for the
mere want o f personal intercourse. Distance, and other difficulties, render
visiting impossible. But the frequent interchange o f letters, which would
certainly take place if the postage was “ only two cents,” would be a pre­
cious and effectual substitute. It would be hazarding nothing to predict that
a million o f persons, who now write but rarely, would write letters to dis­
tant friends within the first week after they became acquainted with the ex­
istence o f cheap postage. A nd the still continuing increase o f letter-writing in
Great Britain, from 169,000,000 the first year, to 195,000,000, to 200,000,000,
to 220,000,000, and 242,000,000, and 211,000,000, and 299,000,000, and




606

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

322,000,000, and, finally, to 346,000,000 in the ninth year, while the very
latest reports show an increase o f £100 ,0 00 in the net revenue o f the postoffice, for the tenth year ending the 5tli o f October, requiring an addition
o f 24,000,000 letters for its production ; these facts prove that when once the
impulse o f cheap postage is begun to be felt, it will g o on indefinitely; or, in
other words, the more letters people write, the more they wish to write. From
writing annually, they will wish to correspond monthly, and from monthly, week­
ly, and from weekly, daily. W h en the number o f letters shall have increased
in this country to 300,000,000, or only four times the present number, what
freights o f love and friendship will be continually borne from one extremity
o f the land to another, thrilling every day a million o f hearts with kind and
pure sympathies ! Cheap postage will do this.
A gentleman of eminence in the legal profession, who has been employed
professionally in a large number o f divorce cases before the courts, re­
marked that a large proportion o f those unhappy marriages originated in some
slight interruption o f affection, occasioned by temporary absence, during
which there was not a constant intercourse kept up by letter. A n d he had
no doubt that the establishment o f cheap postage would, in thousands o f cases,
forestall these little alienations, by the facility it would afford for the continued
interchange o f sympathies, by frequent correspondence. W h at father, driven
by the demands o f business or benevolence, or in the public service, to be absent
from his home, would not feel the frequent letters o f his sons, his daughters,
the childish first scrawls o f his little ones, coming by every mail, to be like
guardian angels, hovering around him to keep off every contaminating breath,
and fanning with their wings the pure flame o f domestic love in his heart l
Children, too, absent at school, boys put to trades, or in counting-rooms,
young persons pushing their fortunes in any o f the thousand forms o f enter­
prise created by our busy Anglo-Saxon race, would find that the frequent “ letters
from home ” — the kind greetings o f father and mother, o f sister and brother,
would surround them as with a continual presence o f home, with all its
blessed restraints and genial influences. It would so strengthen the stakes o f the
paternal tent, that the heart could never be torn from its hold ; and it would
so lengthen its cords, that it would cover every member o f the household,
however far removed. The old roof-tree would send its fibres, and spread
out its shadow, to embrace and shelter every wanderer who had been born
at its root.
Preserve the domestic affections, and you have almost a
sure guaranty for the domestic virtues, the foundation o f all good morals.
A n d even if a young man should be led by temptation away from the path
o f virtue, these incessant letters from home will find their way to his heart,
and win him back to the hallowed circle, because they have never allowed
him to sink into the cold isolation o f confirmed vice. A ll this ministry o f
heavenly beneficene is the effect o f cheap postage.
The usefulness o f cheap postage, in aiding the various enterprises o f be­
nevolence and reform, should not be lost sight of, in this recital. Hun­
dreds o f thousands o f our citizens are interested in behalf o f some one or other
o f these objects ; and will welcome anything as a boon to themselves which
will make them more efficient. The power o f the newspaper press to advance
these enterprises, has apparently reached its acme. W e have secured about
as much newspaper material as can be read. Nearly every attempt to crowd
in new papers to sustain new movements is a failure, or, at best, short lived,
and o f limited influence. But cheap postage, by making these efforts direct
and personal, carrying their message from an individual to an individual, will




The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

607

open a new surface to the influence o f truth ; will awaken to activity new
and deeper tissues o f sensibility; and, by combining as well as arousing, by
union as well as action, will reduplicate, to a thousand fold, the benevolent
and moral energies thus produced. A pleasant illustration of the working
o f this sort o f “ mind-machinery,” may be seen in Mr. Burritt’s description
o f the preparatory process which preceded Mr. Cobden’s motion in Parlia­
ment, in favor o f the great Peace measure o f international arbitration :—
First o f the dynamics o f this mind-machinery o f popular opinion, planted in
“ a little upper room,” and opened upon the Legislature o f the greatest empire in
the world, was the P enny P ost. For the six months’ “ agitation” o f the national
mind, which the Peace Congress Committee had originated and conducted, in fa­
vor o f the measure to be brought forward by Mr. Cobden, the Penny Post had
been plied with unremitting activity. Nearly 50,000 letters, and other missiles,
in manuscript or lithograph, had been sent out in every direction, like radiating
veins o f thought, through which “ the one idea” was kept in lively circulation.
Thus it acquired a constituency o f earnest minds, in almost every town in the
kingdom, which sent a representative to Parliament; and that representative had
perhaps been surprised to receive at St. Stephen’s by the Penny Post, communi­
cations from his own constituents, requesting him, with the emphasis o f electors,
to give his voice and vote for Mr. Cobden’s motion. Then hundreds of thousands
o f printed leaves, elucidating “ the one idea,” had been scattered with a sower’s
hand among the masses o f the people, which they had read eagerly on their way
to the field or factory; and the silent conviction o f myriads o f men, women and
children o f the laboring classes, who had no votes to give or withhold, had
strengthened the pressure of the people’s mind upon Parliament, Then every
night, for six months, a public meeting in some city, town, or village, had given
an utterance to “ the one idea,” which the press echoed and re-echoed among the
populations far and near. Thus, one hundred and fifty assemblies o f the people,
from Land’s End to John O’Groat’s, embracing the active minds o f as many com­
munities, had thrown into the gathering tide o f public opinion the force o f their
sympathies. And the great meeting in Exeter Hall was to give a great voice to
these convictions and sympathies o f the people, and to speak to Parliament the
last words o f the nation in favor o f the measure to be discussed in the House o f
Commons on the ensuing evening.
There is one other social interest on which cheap postage will bear with a
benign effect, which should secure its speedy adoption, and the favor o f every
lover o f his country and her institutions. It will ensure forever the continu­
ance o f our glorious Union. This precious interest has ever been a subject
o f the most tender solicitude to every patriotic bosom. The Father o f his
Country, in his Farewell Address to the People o f the United States, gives
utterance to his solicitude in these memorable words :—
It is o f infinite moment, that you should properly estimate the immense value
o f our National Union; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immova­
ble attachment to i t ; accustoming yourself to think and speak o f it as o f the
palladium o f your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation
with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion
that it can, in any event, be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first
dawning o f every attempt to alienate any portion o f our country from the rest,
or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.
Since these oracular exhortations were given, fifteen States have become
thirty, and others are already pressing for admission to the Union. The mul­
tiplication o f interests, the expansion o f our territory to so vast an extent, and
the convulsions with which the world is agitated, have multiplied the dan­
gers o f disunion, and increased the solicitude o f the statesman. One o f the




608

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

foremost o f our senators has not hesitated to commit his reputation to the
prophecy, that it is impossible to extend the cords o f our Union so as to em­
brace the new empire which is to rise on the shores o f the Pacific. But we
must surely try ; and no man deserves the confidence of the American peo­
ple, as a legislator, who is not ready to do all and everything that is within
the constitutional power and the reasonable ability o f the government, to
make our Union as lasting as time, whatever may be its extent. Canals and
railroads, commerce and education, the circulation o f newspapers, and the
habit o f meeting b y our representatives in the halls o f national legislation,
may do much to preserve the Union. But no intelligent citizen will affirm
that these ties o f political connection and pecuniary interest afford a satisfac­
tory guaranty for the perpetuity o f the Union in all contingencies, or make
it what all wish it to be— i n d i s s o l u b l e . W e need a more intimate inter­
course o f individuals ; such interchange o f individual thoughts and feelings
as will make our nation “ E Pluribus Unum,” all one heart. The strength o f
the three-fold cord, proverbial from the time o f Solomon, is derived from the
intertwining o f innumerable small fibres. A nd this principle has received
a new illustration, in the wire cables, which have just completed a solid com­
munication at W heeling, between the oldest o f the “ Old Thirteen,” and the
“ Territory north-west o f the Ohio.” W here solid bars o f iron would fall
assunder by their own weight, these twisted wires easily sustain the tread o f
an army. Cheap postage will strengthen the fibres and twist the cables o f
living thought and feeling, which will make our Union as lasting as human
nature on earth.
Cheap postage, in its various forms o f influence, secures our Union from
danger, by its operation upon all the causes o f danger. The safety-lamp, in­
vented by Sir Humphrey Davy, renders the explosive gases o f the coal
mine harmless, by dividing them, and forcing them through the fine meshes
o f the wire screen. The flames that light our city are not dangerous, because
the inflammable gas is made to pass through capillary tubes. Cheap postage
will perform the same function in regard to all noxious principles, and all
enlightening processes in the body politic. The agitations o f controversy,
the measures o f reform, even the machinations o f the malcontents o f every
description, will become innocuous ; while the true advancement o f society
will advance with steady course, aided, not endangered, by every wind that
blows, and every wave that rolls and rocks.
This has been its effect in England. W h ile it quickens all the elements
o f political and social reform, it has made the government and social order
o f the country stable and secure, while all the rest of Europe has been
tossed upon the billows o f revolution and civil strife. Cheap postage dis­
armed Chartism, and brought the friends o f the written charter to strive for
their object solely by peaceful agitation through the forms o f the constitution.
Cheap postage repealed the Corn-Laws, and gave the starving millions the
blessings o f free bread. Cheap postage has just repealed the Navigation
Laws. Cheap postage has repeatedly interposed the veto o f the minority,
and defeated favorite schemes for consolidating the power o f the aristocracy,
in legislating for the benefit o f the few against the many. In the year 1843,
the writer o f this spent a few weeks in England, where his attention was
turned to the examination o f the workings o f cheap postage. Shortly after
his return home, he penned the following description, and published it as an
editorial leader, in a daily paper, o f which he then had the control. The
pledge with which it concludes has never been lost sight of. From that day




The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

609

to this, he has lost no opportunity o f urging upon the community, and upon
Congress, by all means in his power, the importance o f the adoption o f
R o w lan d H

ill ’ s

S ystem

of

C h e a p P o stage .

(From the Boston M orning Chronicled)
No person can realize the value o f the “ British system ” o f postage, who has
not experienced its benefits. It is the most beautiful manifestation o f pure be­
neficence in human government, that can be found upon earth. By it, the gov­
ernment comes to every man, every woman, every child, every day in the year,
(Sundays excepted,) and for a compensation so small as hardly to differ from
mere gratuity, offers to carry all their letters o f business, affection, or philanthrophy, to any and every spot in the empire, with the utmost speed and the most
unfailing certainty that human ingenuity and power can attain. It is a complete
leveler. The poorest peasant, the factory-girl, the match-vender, the beggar, even,
enjoy the benefits o f the cheap postage, as they do o f the vital air, on precisely
the same terms with the richest banker, the proudest peer, or royalty itself.
It is the grand conservative power o f the realm, as well as one o f the most ef­
fective instruments o f reform. It equalizes excitement in all parts o f the body
politic. It draws the thunder from every threatening cloud by innumerable con­
ducting points. It allows the blazing gas to burn with complete freedom, because
the millions o f capillary orifices create no danger o f an explosion. It is a system
full formed, and all but perfect, at its first trial. No invention, no deduction of
science, no experiment in legislation, was ever brought forth so complete in all its
results. And then it is so simple, in every one o f its parts and movements,
bringing out so many effects with so little complication o f causes, that in this re­
spect it approximates more nearly to the works o f the infinite Creator than any
other human device or discovery on record. Indeed, its wording and its effects
are so much in conformity to the mind o f God, that we are bound to place it high
among those “ good and perfect gifts which are from above, and come down from
the Father o f rights.”
Now the simple question is, whether the people o f this republic shall continue
to have the channels o f business and social intercourse obstructed by an enormous
tax, or shall be allowed by our rulers to enjoy the same privileges that the British
monarchy allows to its taxed and pitied subjects. W e shall aim to hold the publie
mind to this question. The American system has failed, and cannot be restored.
The British system has been tried, and proved to be both practicable and capable
o f self-support. In Great Britain it is already, in four years, a source o f revenue.
With our wide-spread territory, but lower salaries, we have no doubt in four years
it 'will support itself, with all the privileges now afforded.
A system which is proved to be so simple, so economical, so perfectly prac­
ticable, and fraught with such vast benefits to the highest interests o f the
nation, ought to enlist the earnest support o f every good citizen, both to
secure its adoption by Congress, and to aid its working, when it goes into
effect. B y the uniformity and cheapness o f rate, it is made dependent for
its success entirely upon the perfect accommodation it affords to the public,
so as to induce the greatest possible number o f letters to be sent by the mail.
A n d this necessarily leads to the utmost simplicity and economy in the de­
tails, the most compact and methodical arrangements in all branches o f the
service, and inspires every faithful functionary with its own spirit, which is to
diffuse its utmost advantages to every citizen, with the fewest possible disap­
pointments and failures.
The British post-office, though very far from perfection, and though load­
ed still with many cumbrous appendages retained from the old system, is
yet in its practical working as a means o f conferring benefits upon the peo­
ple, the most complete piece o f governmental machinery ever adopted
by man. It is the glory o f the government o f God, to accomplish num erVOL. XXI.----NO. VI.




39

610

The M oral and Social Benefits o f Cheap Postage.

ous and complicated results, by few and simple means— as seen in the man­
ifold operations o f electricity, gravitation, &c. Men, on the contrary, are
forced to combine numerous and complicated instrumentalities for the pro­
duction o f isolated effects. In the establishment o f cheap postage, human
government seems to approach toward this glorious model, and shows itself
in some measure worthy o f its claims to a divine origin, for it presents itself
as a wise and benificent dispenser o f impartial favors upon all its subjects.
It is the best answer that can be given to the allegation that all government
is usurped and tyrannical, and will go far to justify the position taken in
Scripture, that “ the powers that be are ordained o f God.” W h o can limit
the good effects o f a system, which every day presents the government o f
the country traversing every village in the land with its visits o f kindness,
and rendering its services to every family at a rate so cheap as to be all but
gratuitous ?
Unless the bill to establish cheap postage is passed by Congress early in
the session, it will be impossible to complete all the arrangements for work­
ing the new system with success, in time for the act to go into operation on
the first o f July, the beginning o f the “ fiscal year,” as it is termed, by which
it is convenient to regulate all the business o f the government. W h a t is
needed, therefore, is such a general expression o f earnest desire, on the part
o f the people, as shall convince Congress that, in adopting cheap postage,
they shall be giving effect to the public will. It is desirable, especially, that
all the classes o f citizens who take an interest in the advancement o f society,
in education, in social happiness, in morals and religion, should give
utterance to their views through every appropriate channel. The press,
and especially those portions o f it particularly devoted to the general inter­
ests o f mankind, should speak out, with fervor and force, with frequency and
constancy, as if resolved to be heard and to make an impression. Petitions
may well g o to Congress from every college, academy, and school, every lit­
erary institution, every professional seminary, every learned society, every li­
brary and lyceum, every association o f men for any purpose o f mutual ben­
efit or public improvement, with the simple request that we may have letter
postage at two cents for half an ounce. Individual citizens, in every path
o f life, can help, by addressing letters to their representatives. There is not
half pains enough taken in this way to keep members o f Congress acquaint­
ed with the minds o f their constituents. It is for this very purpose that
they have the franking privilege, and now is a favorable opportunity for the
people to use it for so great an object. Let Congress give us cheap post­
age for the people, and the continuance or repeal o f the franking privilege
becomes o f small account. A union o f effort and influence, to do one thing
at a time, cannot fail to succeed. A n d a new era to our free republic and
happy Union, will commence the day that we begin to enjoy
THE MORAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF CHEAP POSTAGE




The Astronomical Expedition to Chili.

611

Art. III.— T H E A S T R O N O M I C A L E X P E D I T I O N TO C H I L I * •
T he document whose title we have given below, contains a brief statement
o f the origin and objects o f the astronomical expedition recently prepared by
our government, and sent to Chili, under the direction o f Lieutenant James
M. Gillis, a description o f the instruments with which it has been furnished,
the observations which are to he made with them, and directions to insure
the more satisfactory cooperation o f astronomers in other parts o f the world.
The success o f this undertaking concerns both the honor o f the country,
and the progress o f science. W e therefore submit such notice o f it as our
space will allow, and the subject being one with which the majority o f our
readers may not be familiar, involving, also, scientific principles o f some in­
tricacy, we have deemed it not improper to preface our remarks with a brief
explanation o f the object'to be attained, a history o f the different expeditions
heretofore set on foot for similar purposes, their results, and the reasons which
render such an undertaking, at the present time, both desirable and necessary.
Some o f the most important elements o f astronomy, as it exists at present,
have been derived from observations o f the two planets o f our system which
are nearest to us— Venus and Mars. It was from the analysis and discussion
o f observations previously made upon the last named planet, by Tycho
Brahe, that Kepler succeeded in discovering and demonstrating the fact o f
the motion o f the planets in elliptical orbits, and the principal laws by which
that motion is governed. The treatise in which these laws (still bearing the
name o f their sagacious discoverer) were first announced to the world, “ Astronomia nova de motibus stellse Martis,” indicates, by its title, the planet
whose appearances had been the object o f first and most attentive considera­
tion, and. the development o f whose true motion was to solve forever a long
disputed question, and afford a basis for the splendid discoveries which soon
after followed. In giving the title o f the new astronomy to his treatise on
the motion o f Mars, Kepler seems to have been aware o f the extent and
character of the superstructure for which he had provided so secure a founda­
tion. In this work he traces, not indistinctly, the course o f the investigations
which were to follow, and defines, generally, the character o f the single force
which produces all the apparently complicated motions o f the universe.
The earlier astronomers also availed themselves o f the appearances pre­
sented by this planet, for obtaining the value o f the solar parallax, and the
distance between the sun and earth— two quantities having a constant rela­
tion to each other, and the latter o f which is the unit o f all lineal measures
in the higher astronomy. But it has been from the other planet, Venus, that
in later times the more accurate determinations o f these values has been de­
rived, and it is for the purpose of arriving at still greater precision in regard
to them, that the present expedition to Chili has been planned and appointed.
The word parallax, in its technical sense, signifies the angular difference
between the position o f a body, as seen from the surface o f the earth, and
the position o f the same body, if it had been seen from the center. For a
proper estimation o f the positions o f the hearenly bodies, or such o f them
as have discernible diameters, it is necessary to refer them to their respective
* Circular prepared by direction of the Hon. W . Ballard Preston, Secretary o f the Navy, in rela­
tion to the Astronomical Expedition to Chili, by Lieutenant M. F. Maury, Superintendent o f Na­
tional Observatory.




612

The Astronom ical Expedition to Chili.

centers, or to suppose their masses condensed into a point, as without this
correction, it would be impossible to fix their places with certainty. The dif­
ference, therefore, between the observed place o f a planet, as seen from the
surface o f our earth, and its true place referred to the earth’s center, is called
its parallax. The mean value o f this quantity is different for each individual
body, depending upon its distance from the earth, being greatest in the bodies
which are nearest to us, and least in those which are most remote ; so that
the parallax o f the nearest fixed star has, until recently, been considered al­
together immeasurable, and its distance infinite.
Parallax is also affected by the position o f the observer upon the surface o f
the earth, and it is by this difference that its absolute value becomes deter­
minable. It is, except for the .moon, always a small quantity, and its great­
est value, termed, technically, the horizontal parallax, is the angle which the
semi-diameter o f the earth subtends at the body whose position is under con­
sideration.
The solar parallax, though amounting, at its maximum, only to eight se­
conds o f a degree, is o f constant use in the ordinary operations o f practical
astronomy ; but it is not in this view that its accurate determination is most
important, but as affording the only data from which to determine the dis­
tance between the sun and earth, the unit in all astronomical computations.
It will be evident that two observers at different points o f the earth’s sur­
face, would refer the position o f a body near them, to different places, among
bodies which are more remote. And, when this reference is made to the
concave o f the starry heavens, considered as at an infinite distance, the angu­
lar difference between the two places to which the body is referred, expresses
the angular difference at the planet, between the places o f the two observers.
If, then, the absolute distance between the two observers be known, also, it
becomes the base o f a triangle, which, with the angle at the planet, and one
or both of the other angles which are derivable from the observations, furnish
the data requisite for determining the distances between each o f the observers
and the body observed. This is the general principle used in the determina­
tion o f parallax and distance. The solution o f a plane triangle, one side o f
which, and all the angles, are'known. The question thus simply presented,
becomes complicated and laborious in its solution, from the motion o f the
earth, from its spheroidal figure, from the relative positions o f the observers,
and from the small proportion which the known side bears to the other two.
But these conditions it would exceed our limits to explain, and it is only the
more general features o f the subject which we wish to present to our readers.
In pursuing the subject, it must be observed that the parallaxes o f all
bodies have a certain relation to each other; that is, they are inversly in pro­
portion to the distances o f the respective bodies from the earth, and are all
referred to the same base— the radius o f the earth. The relative values of
their distances are also known from the theory o f planetary motion, so that,
from an accurate determination o f the parallax o f one body, the parallaxes
o f all the rest are immediately derived. This being the case, and the base
being always relatively small, astronomers would naturally direct their atten­
tion to that body whose parallax, in any one position, is largest, and most
susceptible o f determination. This was found to be Mars, near its opposition,
when its distance from the earth is to its distance from the sun, as 52 to 152.
The efforts o f the earlier astronomers, until the middle o f the last century,
including the labors o f Cassini, La Caille, and their distinguished cotempo­
raries, were all aimed at perfecting the details o f this method, and in this




The Astronomical Expedition to Chili.

613

way the horizontal parallax o f the sun had been fixed at ten seconds o f a
degree, exceeding, by about one-fifth, the value derived from subsequent and
more accurate determinations.
A new direction was, however, soon to be given to these attempts. Be­
tween 1660 and 1742, the transits o f Mercury over the disk o f the sun, had
been observed by .the astronomers o f different nations, for the purpose o f
perfecting the theory of that planet, which (from the time o f Kepler, who
was advised to let Mercury alone, if he wished to preserve his repose, to the
time o f Le Verrier, who has given us the last paper on this subject) has
been the subject o f more investigation and labor than any other body o f the
system. In 1667 the celebrated Edmund Halley was sent to St. Helena, for
the express purpose o f observing the transit o f Mercury o f that year. It is
probable that the observation o f this transit, and the time necessarily spent
in its discussion, first suggested to Halley the use which might be made o f
the transits o f the inferior planets in the determination o f the solar parallax.
For though Mercury, the planet then used, does not present the most favor­
able conditions for this purpose, still the consideration o f the desiderata in
this case would naturally suggest where to look for circumstances more fa­
vorable. These were found in the transits o f Venus, and, though the two
phenomena o f this kind next succeeding the time o f Halley (occurring, as
they do, only twice in a century) had been predicted by Kepler, and compu­
ted by others, Halley was the first to announce to the world the advantage
which might be gained from the use o f them in the determination o f the
parallax o f the sun.
The method devised by Halley is one o f those happy artifices to which
the exact sciences in modern times owe, in a great measure, their so rapid
advancement, and the discovery or application o f which contributes always so
much o f enjoyment to the cultivators o f these branches o f knowledge. It
will occur, at once, to every one, that, during the transit o f an inferior planet
between us and the sun, the planet will present itself upon the sun as a dark,
circular spot, and that this dark spot will be referred, by different observers,
to different parts o f the sun, according to their relative positions on the surface
o f the earth, thus affording an accurate measure o f the parallactic angle upon
a bright circular surface o f well determined dimensions. But this is not the
only advantage o f the method o f Halley. During the time o f the transit,
the path o f the planet will be sensibly a straight line, and its motion may be
regarded as uniform. The apparent paths o f the planet, as seen by each ob­
server, become, therefore, two chords o f the same circle, determining, by their
lengths, the value o f the arcs to which they belong. The lengths o f these
chords are determined by the duration o f the transit, or interval between the
ingress and egress o f the planet, as seen by each observer, and the difference
between these arcs thus determined by their chords, gives the value o f the
angle at the planet, between the two observers. The quantity thus found,
after some reductions required by the circumstances already spoken of, gives
the absolute difference between the parallax o f the planet and the parallax
o f the sun, and as the theory o f planetary motion gives the ratio between
these two quantities, they are, therefore, both determined, as two quantities
are know when we have their difference and their ratio. Speaking o f the
method, Herschel says :— (Astron. page 245) “ It affords an admirable ex­
ample of the way in which minute elements in astronomy may become
magnified in their effects, and, by being made subject to measurement on
a greatly enlarged scale, or by substituting the measure o f time for space,




614

The Astronomical Expedition to Chili.

may be ascertained with a degree o f precision adequate to every purpose, by
only watching favorable opportunities, and taking advantage o f nicely adjusted
circumstances.”
But two transits o f Yenus have occurred since the announcement of Hal­
ley. The first in 1761, and the second in 1769. The two next will happen
in 1874 and 1882. Halley’s papers on this subject appeared in 1667, 1691,
and 1716, so that ample time had been given for the discussion o f principles,
the perfecting o f details, and making the necessary preparations. On the
approach o f the first transit, in 1761, astronomers were sent by all the na­
tions o f Christendom, to the stations the most favorable for observation.
A m ong these, Maskelyne went to St. Helena, Pingre to Isle Rodriguez—
and there were also many other observers. A computation and analysis of
these observations, made principally by Maskelyne, Pingre, and La Lande,
gave the limits o f the solar parallax at 8 ", 5 ", and 10 ", 2 " and 9 " was
adopted as the approximate value.
In the meantime, the transit o f 1769 was waited for impatiently, and more
extensive preparations made for its proper observation than had been found
practicable in 1761. The experience acquired in the first observation, and
subsequent interchange o f opinion, had enabled the scientific world to accord
as to the points requiring the nicest attention. Greater perfection in the in­
struments had been attained, and, as in the first transit some o f the observa­
tions, after years o f preparation, had been lost by unfavorable weather, such
contre temps was, as far as possible, provided against by increasing the num­
ber o f stations. The results derived were proportionally numerous, and, after
long and laborious computations and comparisons, gave the limits o f the solar
parallax as 8 ", 40712, and 8 ", 68556. In concluding a detailed exposition
o f these different results, Delambre says:— (Astron. Tome 2, 506.) “ Our
first conclusion is, that the parallax is sufficiently well known for all purposes of
practical astronomy, and that it is most probably included between the limits
8 ", 5, and 8 ", 7— we will make it 8 ", 6.” These same observations have been
recalculated with immense labor and improved methods, by the most distin­
guished astronomers o f the present day, the last and most critical discussion
having been performed by the celebrated Encke. The value thus arrived at
is 8 ", 5776.
A n d here we might suppose the matter to have rested, at least till the oc­
currence o f the next transit o f Venus, in 1874. But in this progressive age,
no department of science stands still. The labors o f Bessel have approxima­
ted to a determination o f the parallax and distance of the fixed stars. Han­
dler, by an analysis o f their proper motions, has attempted the determination
o f a central sun to our system, and the one-hundredth part o f a second has
become a measurable quantity. In such circumstances, it would be deroga­
tory to wait twenty-five years longer, and other methods have been devised
as a substitute for the still distant transit o f Venus. The expedition to Chili
is an important part o f the process commenced for a new determination.
Since the last recomputation by Encke, o f the observations o f 1761 and
1769, the uncertainty still left in the sun’s parallax, amounting to about g i 7
o f its whole value, has been regarded as a serious defect, to remove which
seems more obligatory upon astronomers o f the present day, when we re­
gard the very great improvements which have been made in the construction
o f telescopes, and all other astronomical instruments since the date o f the
last observation. To arrive at greater precision, observations have recently
been made upon Mars, during its opposition. W e have already stated that




The Astronomical Expedition to,' Chili.

615

the first attempts o f Cassini and La Caille, to determine the parallax o f the
sun, was by means o f this planet observation, and the instrumental improve­
ments o f the present day, would undoubtedly give much greater precision to
results thus derived. To direct attention to this point, and acquire a sufficient
number o f observations, there have been published, in the Nautical Almanac,*
“ lists o f stars proper to be observed with Mars near its opposition,” but, as
yet, no results o f these observations have been presented, nor do the proper
measures seem to have been taken to make them available.
The attempt now about to be commenced, was first proposed by Dr. Gerling, in Schumacher’s Astronomical Notices for 1847. It is to be based upon
observations made upon Venus, during the inferior opposition, and near her
stationary points, by comparing her position with the nearest fixed stars.
These observations to be made at stations at the greatest practical distance
from each other, or approaching as nearly as possible to a diameter o f the
earth. A n d in operations o f so much delicacy, the condition o f the problem
will be much improved by a judicious location o f the observers. Thus, ob­
servations made at Greenwich might (as is suggested by Dr. Gerling) be
combined with similar ones made at Paramatta, in New Holland, the places
being nearly antipodal. W h ile Chili, finding its most direct opposite in
China, would combine advantageously with any o f the observations o f the
old world— and, joined with Washington, has the advantage o f being very
nearly in the same meridian, and is more than a semi-diameter distant.
The observations are o f the same kind as those for Mars, upon which plan­
et, at its opposition, observation^ are also to be made, and consist pf continued
measurements between the planets and the nearest stars, thus determining
their places as seen by each observer, and from thence deducing their paral­
lax, from which finally is deduced the parallax o f the sun. The conditions
are most favorable when the parallax o f the planet is greatest, as compared
with that o f the sun, the quantity to be determined. Dr. Gerling has the
following statement o f the relative advantages o f the different methods.
Designating by P the parallax o f the planet, and by p that o f the sun, we
have—
For the opposition of Mars at the mean distance.................
For the opposition of Mars at the perehelion distance.........
For the interior conjunction of Venus at the distance..........
For Venus stationary at the distance......................................

0.52
0.365
0.28
0.34

P
P
P
P

=
=
=
=

1.92p
2.74p
3.57p
2.94p

From this it appears that Venus, at its interior conjunction, presents the
most favorable condition ; but unfortunately, at this stage, the planet is close
to the sun, and as it cannot then, even with the best telescopes and clearest,
atmospheres, be compared with stars less than the first or second magnitude,
observations may be considered, at this point, nearly impracticable. The
stationary points afford the next best condition, and it is upon these that the
most important observations are to be made.
The advantage o f the method now proposed is, that it does not depend
upon a single phenomenon, as the transit o f Venus, (in which thef effect of
* Such lists are found in the Nationol Almanac, June, 1841. Speaking o f observations o f Mars, near
the opposition, Dr. Gerling says:—“ But it appears that, after the brilliant results o f the last transit of
Venus, or indeed,, since 1751, this second method has never seriously been brought into us, although
it affords a very proper occasion to test the new methods o f observation, and the Nautical Almanac
have prepared an Ephemesis for that purpose.” — Astron. Nachrichten, No. 599.
f W e have heard it stated that either Mr. Riltenhouse, or Mr. Ellicott, both o f whom observed the
transit o f 1769 in America, sent invitations to some of his neighbors to be present on the occasion,
and was answered by one of them that he was very much engaged, but would certainly avail himself
o f the next opportunity.




616

Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

years o f preparation may be lost by a cloud,) but that corresponding observa­
tions are continued for months, the accuracy o f the final results increasing
proportionally to the number o f measurements.
Another advantage to be derived from the expedition, will be to awaken
interest to the subject, and undo the palsied feeling, which sometimes creeps
over even the scientific world, consoling itself, for lack o f exertion, with the
reflection that the subject is minute— o f too little importance, and has been
sufficiently settled for all practical purposes. W herever this feeling becomes
paramount, either in great or little masses, the wheels o f knowledge are hindered, or stopped altogether.
In the expedition— continuing, as it does, for two years— Lieutenant Gillis
will have an opportunity o f increasing, very considerably, the catalogues o f
southern stars— a contribution o f no small consequence to the astronomical
world. Besides, it is not at all improbable, that, properly managed, the
present expedition may result in the establishment o f a permanent observatory
in Chili, whose climate and atmosphere are said to be o f rare purity and
clearness.
The circular prepared by Lieutenant Maury, in regard to the expedition
and its objects, is brief and perspicuous, stating clearly the part which the
government has undertaken in this matter, and the cooperation which it ex­
pects from the scientific world. It has the character most appropriate to
such papers-— is plain, and to the point. The eplremerides and charts pre­
pared by Lieutenant Gillis, and which accompany the circular, supply the ne­
cessary details. W e sincerely wish him success, and that the results may be
such as shall do honor to the country and to himself.

Art. IV.— CONNECTION OF THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS BY RAILS
ACROSS NORTH AMERICA.
F rom British America in the north, to New Granada, in the south,
there are many lines o f fair direction, and gentle acclivities, affording prac­
ticable routes for railways leading from the waters o f one great sea, to the
shores o f the other. Those lines which are entirely within the United States,
need only start from the right bank o f the Mississippi, or the western shore
o f the Gulf o f Mexico. But they must all cross the main dividing ridge o f
the continent through some o f those passes o f the Rockey Mountains, found
between the 39th and 42d parallels o f north latitude. One such route,
under the auspices o f Col. Benton, the indefatigable Senator from Missouri,
may, notwithstanding its great length, meet with such patronage and as­
sistance from the Federal Government, as to secure its construction within
no very remote time. But this in common with all those routes still further
north, will ever prove impassible in winter, from the immense falls o f snow
which invariably fill up their mountain gorges, at that season o f the year.
The valley o f the Rio Gila, the southern limit o f the United States, on the
western slope o f the continent, can only be rendered partially available for
a railway; and that by deflecting its course so far to the southward as to
carry it for many miles entirely within Mexican territory. But after all,
such a route would find its natural terminus on the G ulf o f California ; a nd




B y B ails across N orth America.

617

being at the head o f that long gulf, this terminus will not be as accessible
from the ocean, as ports farther down the coast towards Mazatlan.
Between the parallel o f the Bio Gila, 32° North, and that o f the head
stream o f the Arkansas, 39° North, all the mountain ranges and rallies on
the Pacific side, run transversely to a western course, and present such bold
and formidable accidents o f ground, as to forbid the hope that even the
closest researches might lead to the discovery o f a practicable line for a rail­
way running directly across this part o f the continent. On the eastern side
o f the great back bone o f America, the rallies o f the Arkansas and Nebraska,
or Platte Bivers, and those o f their numerous tributaries, are alone likely to
afford the natural lines o f approach to the noted passes o f the Bocky M oun­
tains. It is moreover probable, that the most natural debouch from those
passes towards the Western Ocean, is that following the emigrants trail, by
the Great Salt Lake, into the Valley o f St. Mary’s, or Humbolt’s Biver, and
thence on to the eastern foot o f the Sierra Navada, o f Alta California, which
Sierra will have to be crossed at one o f its greatest depressions, so as to enter
some one o f the rallies which discharge their waters into the Bay o f San
Francisco. The total distance by such a route from the Mississippi Biver to
the Bay o f San Francisco, would not be far from two thousand miles. A ll
routes south o f this, and north o f either Isthmus, have their natural termini
on the respective gulfs o f Mexico and California.
The Isthmus routes, Panama, Nicaragua, and Tehuantepec, all present the
common advantages o f short lines. The first not necessarily exceeding fifty,
nor the last two hundred miles in extent. Consequently the first cost o f the
construction o f either o f these lines would be relatively small, and the subse­
quently yearly expense o f keeping such a railway in good order, would be­
come a matter o f trifling moment. Indeed, the cost o f transhipment from
ocean to ocean, by such a line, would but little exceed that o f unloading one
vessel, and transferring its cargo into another, lying at a different dock o f
the same port. If, therefore, the advantages o f a connection by rails be­
tween the two oceans were confined to the mere portage across from sea to
sea o f goods and persons passing between Europe and Asia, then no argu­
ment would be necessary to show that the consideration o f other routes than
the Isthmus ones would be mere waste o f time, and that the hope o f finding
any capitalist willing to venture his money, in such an undertaking, would
prove to be a visionary speculation. The railway statistics o f any country
will show that long lines are not always as profitable from the transportation
o f things and persons, going through from one extreme to another, as from
that only passing between the intermediate points o f the railway. Or, in
other words, that the way business is often more advantageous than the
through business. Should a line o f rails be so placed as to afford some pro­
fits on the investment from its way business, then such a line might readily
enter into competition with a shorter one, for a through business o f such a
character as to seek either line.
During the long time that the Spaniards owned Florida, Mexico, and
South America, and whilst they had the complete control o f the trade o f the
Pacific, it would seem that the galleons from the Philippine Islands, and
those from Chili and Peru, would naturally have met at the Isthmus o f
Panama to tranship their cargoes into the fleet destined to transport them
from the eastern shore o f America to Spain ; yet we know that this short
portage, and apparently direct line, was early abandoned for the longer one
across the continent, from Acapuleo through the city o f Mexico to Vera




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Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Cruz; thereby, at the very least, decupling the distance o f the land route.
Undoubtedly political as well as economical reasons influenced the Council
o f the Indies in making such a change. But, assuredly, if all economical
reasons should have proved themselves to be opposed to the change, the old
Isthmus route must have been again resorted to in the long period which
intervened before the Colonies were separated from Spain. It should be
further borne in mind, that all vessels crossing from Asia to America, are led
by the prevailing winds o f the Pacific, to sail so far to the northward as to
make the western coast o f America along the shores o f California; and that
the distance thence to Panama is still very great, whereas Panama itself is
not as near Europe as Tampico, or any other port on the Gulf o f Mexico.
Although the most direct and shortest line from China, or Japan, to Europe,
would cross the continent north o f the United States, still a railway from the
G ulf o f California to the G ulf o f Mexico, would be sufficiently near a direct
route to shorten greatly the voyage, and would certainly be enough so to
compete with the short portages far to the South, over the Isthmus routes.
Such a line would in fact bring Canton and London ten days closer together
than can be done by the Panama route.
The character o f the population, and that o f the government o f a country
through which a route passes, must have a great influence upon the prop­
erty value o f a railway, both in the security o f the investment, and in that
part o f the regular increase o f the local profits o f the railway depending upon
the advance and progress o f the people dwelling along its line. Neither the
people nor the government o f a pure Mexican race would now offer any o f
those securities.
A s it is not the through business o f a railway which is always the most
profitable to its owners, neither is it likely that the more remote traffic be­
tween Europe and Asia will prove as profitable to a railway across the con­
tinent o f America, as that arising between the United States and their grow­
ing territories on the Pacific. Indeed, but few o f those who may be led to
investigate this subject, will be found unwilling to admit that the mere short­
ness o f a railway connecting the two oceans, and the cheapness o f its first
cost, are not such overwhelming advantages as to drive all longer lines from
competition with it. However, before the longer one can be adopted, even
in this case, it must be shown to combine, in a fair degree, all the advanta­
ges o f accessibility, directness o f course, and perfect freedom from all inter­
ruption caused by rigor o f climate, and, moreover, to afford that security o f
property in the investment, without which the most alluring enterprise
would fail in attracting the sagacious capitalist,
A great work o f this cosmopolitan character, should draw the attention of
all Christendom, and can very properly elicit in its support the zeal and en­
thusiasm o f the statesmen o f many nations. I f such a work could be con­
structed under the practical guaranty o f the pecuniary and commercial in­
terests o f the trading people o f the two great maritime powers o f the world,
then retired capitalists would seek its stock as the most secure and profitable
investment which could be made o f the proceeds o f the labor o f their early
years. The consummation o f such an enterprise, would be well worthy the
united efforts o f the people o f America and England. To the British states­
man especially, this enterprise should hold forth a great charm ; for it may
be so conducted as to free a large part o f that vast capital which was so con­
fidingly invested, a quarter o f a century since, by British subjects in Mexican
bonds and m ines; but which now, to all appearances, is hopelessly involved,




B y Rails across N orth America.

619

for the eventual release o f this capital seems only to depend upon the means
and faith o f the insolvent government o f a retrogressing race. This retro­
gression of the Mexican race, before the inroads o f the wild and indigenous
tribes roaming over their northern frontier, has been so constant and rapid,
throughout the last half century, as to attract the attention of all persons
familiar with the people or history of Mexico. Intelligent British and Am er­
ican officers without any communication or interchange o f opinions with one
another, have been led to fix the speedy limit, brought on by these encroach­
ments, which is soon to confine that race to about the 24th parallel o f lati­
tude, which is in fact much about the same boundary Cortez found to
limit the cultivation of the soil, under the rude application o f the arts o f hus­
bandry used by the semi-civilized subjects o f Montezuma. If this pressure
meets with -no check from the people o f another race, all that great extent o f
country lying north o f Mazatlan, Durango, San Luis Potosi, and Tampico,
up to the southern boundary o f the United States, will, in a few years be
turned into a howling wilderness, left free to the range o f the savage, the
buffalo, and the deer, and where in equal wildness the ox and horse, every
domestic tie to man being sundered, will be seen roaming in countless num­
bers. Such is the deplorable fate imminently pending over the devoted
heads of the people of the Mexican States o f Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila, and from which, if left alone to their own resources, nothing short o f
divine interposition can save them. But the timely introduction o f the
American and European, would change the scene. Most o f this northern
part o f Mexico, as far as nature’s laws alone operate in restraining man, is
now, in truth, as fairly open to colonization as any part o f North America
w'as, when Sebastian Cabot carried the flag o f the first Tudor to its shores ;
or when that gallant adventurer, Capt. John Smith, put foot on the banks o f
James River, at the head of his little band o f cavaliers. The settlement or
colonization of this region by Americans, or Europeans, is the best, if not the
only hope for the Mexican race. Indeed, such colonization o f their waste
and abandoned lands, is o f late ardently advocated by some o f the best wri­
ters and purest patriots o f Mexico.
The colonists would soon impress upon the Indians such a correct sense
o f their power and will, to resent wrongs, as to make the chiefs o f the sava­
ges dread the ills and dangers attending the existence o f a hostile state.
After establishing this conviction in the minds o f the Indians, the colo­
nists themselves would not only become secure in their possessions, but
would find no difficulty in restraining the Indians from making further de­
predations upon those who should fall under their protection. The Mexican
Vaquiero, and Ranchero, returning in safety and quiet to the care o f their
flocks and herds, would do their humble part in adding to the material
wealth and greatness o f the Mexican nation. The busy miner, then freed
from all alarm for his personal safety, would again delve into the bowels o f
the earth, turning out the measureless riches now buried in the long un­
worked mines o f Sonora, and Chihuahua, which are as reputedly rich in gold
as any other mine in Mexico.
I f it were equally practicable to cross the continent at all points, the rail­
ways being forced to the southward by the frosts and snows which obstruct
the passage o f the mountains in the winter, and again to the northward by
the great length o f the sea voyages to the Isthmus, its best position would,
therefore, be about the latitude o f Cape San Lucas, the southern extremity
o f lower California. The distance across from Mazatlan to Tampico, in a




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Connection o f the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

straight line, is between five and six hundred miles ; but there are no two
points on the opposite shores o f the continent, separated by more insur­
mountable obstacles. The same difficulties offer themselves against the
adoption o f any other line crossing the southern part o f the great wilderness
o f Northern Mexico, but would not, however be found in going from Tam­
pico to San B ias; which latter points are respectively situated near the out­
lets o f the two great rivers draining both water sheds o f this section o f the
continent. Their sources interlock where all the spurs and branches o f the
great Sierra Madre, coming from the South, are compressed together, as by
a knot, before spreading out again towards the northward. It is the great
bifurcation o f this Sierra to the northward, which gives the characteristic
features to the region styled the Mexican Wilderness. The main chain o f
the Sierra, sweeping around to overlook the Pacific, tends to the northwest­
ward, whilst the Sierra Garda runs nearly directly north towards Saltillo,
Monterey and Linarez, leaving between these mountain ranges that vast
table land which is now overrun and desolated by the Camanches. A rail­
way following up one o f these rivers from Tampico, and down the other to
San Bias, would traverse the famous Bajia, and necessarily pass through
some o f the richest and most populous districts o f Mexico. It would, con­
sequently, be within that region which it is most likely will the longest re­
main under the control o f the Mexican race. To avoid this it will be neces­
sary to go several degrees north to find good posts which can be connected
by a railway running a tolerable direct course, and having easy grades.
Such a line may, however, be established about latitude 28° North, and will
not necessarily exceed in extent one-half of the distance o f the great internal
route through the United States, from the Mississippi River to San Francisco.
It will traverse the American State o f Texas, and the Mexican States o f
Chihuahua and Senora, and will pass over a country, although now almost
a perfect wilderness, rich in undeveloped wealth, and one in every aspect
adapted to rapid settlement and colonization. Pass Caballo, one o f the best
inlets on the G ulf o f Mexico, will afford the entrance to its eastern port in
Matagorda Bay. Guayamas, probably equal to any harbor in the world,
will be its western port. From Matagorda Bay, one o f several routes would
follow up the valley o f the Colorado, o f Texas, and that o f its tributary, San
Saba, crossing over into the valley o f the Pecos, and thence by one o f those
characteristic vallies o f Northern Mexico, not the Thalweg o f any drainage,
to Presidio del Norte, where the Rio Conehos empties itself from the South
into the Rio Grande. Here leaving the territories o f the United States, and
crossing into those o f Mexico, the route would follow up the valley o f the
Rio Conehos, if necessary, to clear some broken and mountainous country
bordering on the Rio Grande, but deflecting westward at the proper time to
reach one o f the Puertos, or Passes o f the Sierra Madre, which would give
an easy passage across that summit into a tributary valley o f the Rio ITiaqui,
and thence tracing down that stream to tide water at Guayamas. The bot­
toms o f the Colorado o f Texas are covered with an inexhaustible supply o f
the finest red cedar in the world. Every engineer will at once appreciate
this as one o f the most valuable acquisitions possible for a company building
a railway.
There are other routes from Matagorda Bay to the Rio Grande, at the
mouth o f the Conehos; a close examination might prove one o f them better
fitted than that here designated for a railway. The extreme southern one
would cross over to the San Antonio River, and follow up that river and its
tributary, the Medina, to the foot of the mountains, thence running parallel




B y R ails across N orth America. *

521

to the mountains along the foot o f the slopes, to where the Rio Grande
comes forth into the plains o f Texas, thence tracing up that river itself. The
intermediate routes would naturally present themselves to the observation o f
the exploring engineer. From the mouth o f the Conchos to the Hiaqui, it
is by no means certain whether it would be better to turn off directly up the
valley of the Conchos, or to trace still further up that o f the Rio Grande,
before making for the Sierra Madre. A general designation o f the direction
o f the line between the extreme points is now alone pretended to be offered.
A few brief remarks may suffice to show by what combination o f divers
interests such an extensive work might be undertaken so as to save that
unity and harmony in the conduct o f it, without which it would be vain to
hope for its completion. The State o f Texas should in the first place grant
the unrestricted right o f way over her territories, under a liberal charter,
which should at the same time cede to the company a large portion o f the
unlocated lands along the line o f the road. Her people are too sensible o f
the many advantages they would derive from such a road, to call for any
arguments to induce her to make the necessary grant. It will readily be
given on any fair evidence o f the probability that the railway would be con­
structed. To get the same right o f way privileges, and protection from the
Mexican government, State and Central, may prove much more difficult. It
is in this, however, that the claims o f the Mexican bond holders may be effi­
ciently brought to bear. The sanction o f the Central government might be
demanded by these claimants, and should be granted by that government as
a slight mark evincing a disposition to render to its injured creditors some
tangible acknowledgement o f their long withheld dues. Some o f the sepa­
rate State governments have heretofore repeatedly made engagements with
American hunters and trappers, to defend their people from the inroads o f
the Indians. A railway company could be so organized as to undertake to
discharge the same duty towards the people o f the States through which the
railway might run, in return for adequate privileges granted to the company
by the government o f those States.
W hilst the Mexican bond holders obtain the grant o f the right o f way, &c.
for a railway company organized for building the railway, they must se­
cure something more substantial for themselves. This might be effected by
getting themselves converted into a company o f Empresarios, with the full
authority o f such over all vacant and abandoned lands, bordering upon
the line o f railway, and lying to the northward, between it and the south­
western boundary o f the United States; agreeing for the Mexican govern­
ment to impose upon the company o f Empresarios, the usual obligations o f
colonizing and settling the lands, and further that o f eventually disposing of
them at limited rates to the heads o f families, and other actual settlers. The
bond holders receiving the lands at a low rate, in lieu o f their bonds, would
turn the present worthless paper o f the Mexican government, into real and
convertible property.
The charter, the right o f way, and lands necessary for stations, and other
railway purposes, to be transferred by the company o f Empresarios, to the
railway company, for no further consideration than the incidental advanta­
ges the railway would afford in bringing their other lands more speedily into
market.
The foregoing is intended merely as an outline o f the most prominent
reasons in favor o f the selection o f the route, herein roughly designated, as
the most proper for connecting the two great oceans by rails across North
America.




622

Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public.

Art. V.— RELATION OF RAILROAD CORPORATIONS TO THE PUBLIC.
T he introduction o f railroads, is making changes in the business o f the
world, o f which we cannot yet appreciate the importance, or predict the
consequences.
The fact, obvious on slight investigation, that in the aggregate, the cost
o f distribution bears a large ratio to the original cost o f production, suggests
the magnitude o f the results which may be expected from this new mode o f
transportation, and its probable effects on human industry. A change so
momentous, in a cardinal department o f trade, will probably require some
alteration, or some modification in the application o f the laws which have
heretofore regulated this branch o f business. The law o f “ common carri­
ers,” has, however, been so perfected by the thought o f profound civillians,
aided by the results o f long experience, that it now embodies an amount o f
well settled principles, which will go far to enable the judiciary to meet the
emergency created b y railroads, though it can hardly be expected that they
will meet every case arising under a system so different from that which they
were intended to regulate.
A prominent and very important difference, which at once presents itself,
is the absence o f competition on the line o f a railroad. This deprives the
system o f the rrsual and best means o f fixing the rates o f charges, and o f
protecting the public from imposition. A railroad is in fa c t a monopoly o f
the transportation on and near its lin e; for it will be long before rival roads
■null be built side by side, so as to compete for the same local business, and
the question arises, in what way shall this inherent difficulty be obviated ? It
is important to railroad companies, as well as to the public generally, that
this problem should be settled with as little delay as possible, or as soon as
we shall have obtained the pre-requisite experience.
A t present we can only hope that our suggestions may tend to its solu­
tion, and direct attention to some collateral questions involved in the in­
quiry. A m ong these, there are two arising from claims made by some
companies, which we deem it important at once to discuss. First, they
alledge that they have the right to manage their roads as they would any
other property, solely with a view to making the largest profits, and without
any other reference to public accommodation than their own interest dic­
tates. And, secondly, that they can rightfully charge as high rates as they
choose, and vary their charges, carrying for some persons at one price,
and demanding more or less o f others, for similar service.
If these claims are well founded, a legislative grant o f a railroad charter
confers on the grantees the power o f controlling the collective and individual
business o f the whole section which their road traverses; for railroad facili­
ties have become a part o f the general progress o f the civilized world, and
that portion which only derives a partial benefit from them, cannot compete
in business with those which have all the advantages arising from their use.
A company with such powers could say, we will do the transportation at
such price as will just give our road the preference over the old modes o f
carriage, so that the advantages to the community shall be the minimum,
which will insure to us the maximum o f profit. It is evident that in such
case the public might be debarred nearly all the advantages consequent on
railroad improvements, and the business o f a community be destroyed by
competition with those more favored by such improvements. A nd yet it is




Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public.

623

seriously argued, that inasmuch as the public will not change from the old
mode unless the new be more advantageous, that still the public are bene­
fited , and the company fulfil their obligations. This argument would be
better grounded, if the mechanical improvement, and the right to use it on
their route, were the exclusive and earned property o f the company, as well
as the road itself. But this improvement is the common property o f the
age, in the advantages o f which all have an equal right to participate ; and
the natural advantages o f the route belonged to the community, the right o f
appropriating them having been granted to the company by the legislative
power, which itself had no right to make such grant— and especially when
including the power to take individual property for the use o f the road— on
any other ground than that o f public benefit.
In the very nature o f the grant, then, there is an obligation on the part
o f the grantees, to use their franchise for public accommodation. The right
o f the public in such cases, and, indeed, the whole subject is yet new, and
opinions have hardly been reduced to principles. Let us test these claims
by analogies presented by older discoveries. As we have before observed,
the grant o f a railroad charter, is in effect a grant o f a monopoly, from the
nature o f the case. Suppose, then, a legislature should confer upon a com­
pany o f publishers the exclusive right o f furnishing, upon their own terms,
printed books and papers to any designated community, and that under this
grant, the company should adopt the rule o f selling at a price which should
just give the printed a preference over manuscript copies— could there be
any possible justification for thus cutting off a community from their share
o f the advantages resulting from the discovery o f printing, now the common
property o f mankind ? W e can hardly bring ourselves to imagine such an
outrage upon the rights o f a people; and yet to make the case parallel to
that o f a railroad company having the power to charge at pleasure, we must
give the publishing company the additional power o f taking, for the accom­
modation o f their presses and store-houses, the private property o f any indi­
vidual o f the community, paying him, not what he may agree to sell for,
but what others may award him.
The effect, then, o f a grant to a railroad company, with power thus claim­
ed, upon the business o f the community generally, might be to arrest all
progress, or to make any progress merely subservient to the income o f the
road ; for as fast as business sprung up, and particularly business requiring
permanent investments, the company could absorb all the profits o f labor
and capital, in the charges for transportation.
But the exercise o f the second claim, o f the right to make distinctions in
the charges to individuals, or communities, would be attended with conse­
quences still more disastrous and dangerous to the public. This would give
the company not only the control o f the whole business to be done, but
would enable them to say who should do it. They could say to the town o f
A ., disposed to favour them in turn, we will transport for you for one-half
the charge to your rivals in the town o f B., who do not choose to submit
with a good grace to our requisitions. A n d they can say to any individual
o f this favored town, who may be disposed to question the propriety o f their
conduct, we will charge you more for transportation than you can afford to
pay, and as the road has now taken the place o f all other modes o f carriage,
you cannot pursue your business at all, unless you submit to our terms, or
by a more conciliating course, obtain our favor. They can say to the pro­
prietors o f one line o f stages running to their road, we will convey your pas-




624

Relation o f Railroad Corporations to the Public.

sengers for less than those o f the rival line ; and in this way it is manifest
that the business must soon fall into the hands o f those who would he most
subservient to the company holding such extraordinary powers. This control
o f the business would almost o f necessity run into a controlling influence in
politics, and the legislators who made the grant, might soon be made sensi­
ble that they must become the humble servants o f the board, perhaps mere
stock gamblers whom they have armed with such formidable power, or yield
their places to more pliant occupants.
W hen, during the recent revolution in France, it was proposed that the
government should take into its charge the industrial pursuits o f the coun­
try, did not every one here perceive that it would lead to a despotism o f the
most intolerable character— to a system under which those in power could
always present the alternative o f submission or starvation ? Against a rail­
road company exercising a similar control over the industry o f the country,
we should not even have the doubtful remedy o f the ballot-box.
W e have already seen one State struggling for supremacy with a com ­
pany whose road traverses a small portion o f its territory. W e saw its
citizens suddenly awakened to a sense o f their danger, by an apprehension
that the company would get the control o f the judicial appointments. The
State trembled, yet made an energetic effort to avert such an overwhelming
calamity. But no sooner had they pointed a spear at the iron horse, than
they found that the coils o f the serpent had already been insidiously thrown
around them, and the effort now making by the State to extricate itself and
offspring from the crashing embrace o f the monster, appears as convulsive
and almost as hopeless as that o f Laocoon. W h at then may be the influ­
ence o f a railroad, or a combination o f roads, running so as to control the
business o f a large portion o f a State, and under the management o f some
talented, energetic, and unprincipled autocrat o f W a ll street, with his plot­
ting, subtle advisers.
It evidently behooves us, at this early stage o f the railroad movement, to
seek a remedy, or, rather, a preventive, o f such dangerous perversion o f char­
tered power ; for when it has once gone so far as to control the official ap­
pointments o f a State, including the judiciary, there is no remedy short o f
revolution. Having reached that point, the company is as absolute as the
Emperor Nicholas, and without his responsibilities and ambitious aspirations
for the improvement o f his dominions. Those who come under the yoke o f such
petty tyrants, will find themselves in much the same condition as were the na­
tives o f the conquered provinces o f Hindostan, who, under the direction of
the East India Company, were ruled by nabobs, having no feeling in com ­
mon with the governed, and no love or pride o f country, to neutralize their
baser feelings, using their power merely to extort from a subjugated people,
every shilling which toil and privation could yield, to gratify the rapacity o f
their principals, who, actuated by the conflicting influences o f public indig­
nation and private avarice, instructed their officials to “ be merciful, but send
the rupees ” — “ do not treat the cringing natives so cruelly, but be sure to
send the rupees.”
In the case already alluded to, public indignation, long since excited, ap­
pears, as yet, to have gained from the company little, if anything, more than
a diminution o f the rudeness to which passengers have long been subjected,
by the agents o f the road, but who seem now to be acting under the new or­
ders to “ be civil to travelers, but take their m on ey ; be less insolent and
abusive, but be sure to get the dollars.”




R elation o f R ailroad C o lo ra tio n s to the P u blic.

625

W e say, then, it behooves us, at this early stage, to seek the preventive of
such abuses; and this, we apprehend, is to be found only in holding the rail­
road companies rigorously to the performance o f their duties, and to a strict
impartiality in fulfilling them. W ith regard to these duties, the time has,
probably, not yet arrived, to fix them with that precision, which longer ex­
perience will dictate, but on this point we would remark, that the companies
deriving their privileges from the public, on the very ground o f public ac­
commodation, makes it their duty to give such accommodation in return ; and
the grants being in the nature o f a monopoly, requires that the interests of
the public should be carefully protected. A ll the circumstances, indeed,
seem to point to the necessity o f such protection. Individuals who carry for
hire, are, more or less, under the influence o f those reciprocal, social obligations
and moral considerations, which have no little effect in harmonizing conflict­
ing interests, and establishing customs in conformity to justice. Standing
face to face with those for whom they perform the services, they are ashamed
to be extortionate, even when circumstances would permit them to be so with
impunity. The mysterious “ board ” which constitutes the soulless activity,
the unmoralized will o f a corporation, knows no such ameliorating influences.
The measure o f accommodation, and the rates o f compensation, would, at
first, appear to depend very much upon the circumstances o f each particular
road, as the necessary expenses o f construction, the necessity o f high grades
when constructed, and the amount o f business which the location affords. A ll
differences, arising from these circumstances, will, however, be found to be
embraced within very narrow limits, for the sagacity o f those interested will,
and for the greatest benefit o f the community ought, to seek out those loca­
tions where the business indicates that the expenditure o f the same capital
will give the greatest return on the most reasonable rates o f transportation.
A road will not be built through a sparse population, doing little business,
unless it connects important points furnishing a large amount o f transporta­
tion, or makes one o f the links o f a chain between such points, and to with­
hold from the residents on such a route the usual accommodation, or to
charge them extraordinary prices, would be to take from them the natural
and incidental advantages o f their position, and transfer them to the railroad
company, without any equivalent. Besides the tendency o f business to con­
centrate on the lines o f railroads where the proper facilities are given, is such,
that the interest o f a road so located, would obviously, in the end, be pro­
moted by a liberal policy. I f it will not pay at reasonable rates, it probably
will not pay very well at higher, and with no chance o f improvement by
increase o f business. The profits o f the company, on capital invested, will not
always furnish a criterion for compensation, for they may have expended a
much larger amount than necessary, and to allow them, in such cases, to
charge in proportion to their outlay, would be making their imprudence or
extravagance a burthen on the public, or would be allowing them to take
and squander a portion o f the advantages which o f right belong to the com­
munity. If, then, the cost is to be an element o f charge, it should be with
allowances only for such injudicious expenditure, as with ordinary prudence
and skill will still enter into the cost o f construction-. Besides, as we have
already intimated, the very reason why the road does not yield a better in­
come, may be, that the small amount o f accommodation, and the high char­
ges, as compared with other roads, has destroyed the business on its line, on,
at least, prevented its increase.
W e do not mean to say that there should be no difference on different
VOL. xxi.— no. vi.
40




626

R elation o f R ailroad Corporations to the P u blic.

routes, but only that until the routes have been more closely culled, those
which capitalists select, will not vary so materially as might at first appear.
On some o f them, the transit o f cars will not be reqired so frequently as on
others ; and this difference in the expense o f the company, for accommoda­
tion to the public, furnishes a means o f equalizing the rate o f compensation,
admitting o f much latitude in its application, and going far to neutralize the
variations in the' amount o f business. This view is important, as showing
that the customs and charges established on roads where there is competi­
tion, may properly be used to determine what they should be on roads where
no such competion exists. But, whatever the proper amount o f accommo­
dation and rates o f compensation may be, we apprehend there can be no
good reason for allowing the proprietors to make invidious or arbitrary dis­
tinctions among those dependent on them for transportation, the injurious
and dangerous consequences o f which we have already endeavored to point
out. Even in the case o f common carriers, with all the facilities for compe­
tition, it has been found expedient to make it legally obligatory upon them
to carry for all persons applying under the same circumstances, and for a
reasonable price. In the absence o f any specific law on the subject, these,
with some additional obligation upon railroad companies, might be inferred
from the very nature o f their grant. This grant is for the benefit o f the
community, and to this benefit each individual o f the community has the
same right. To suppose that the legislative power grapted such privileges
as an equivalent for benefits to be unequally distributed at the pleasure o f the
grantees, involves a monstrous absurdity. That all the individuals o f a com­
munity have equal rights to the advantages given in return for a railroad
grant, seems indeed too obvious to require argument or illustration. Some
general rules o f difference in articles requiring, from their nature or quantity,
more or less labor to transport, or involving greater or less risk o f loss or
damage, may be permitted; but all mere arbitrary distinctions are forbidden
by public policy, as otherwise a road might often, by a general rule, extort from
a few persons, or from a single individual, whose business required the trans­
portation o f materials different from all others carried on it. W e arrive,
then, at the conclusion that public policy and justice, both, require that the
charges to each person having business done on a road, should, as nearly as
practicable, be in proportion to the services rendered, the charge for carriage
being in proportion to the distance conveyed, adding a fixed sum for loading
and unloading, where this is done at the expense o f the road proprietors.
W e will now consider how far the great regulating principle o f competi­
tion may be made available in fixing the amount o f accommodation to be
given by railroad companies, and the charges for services rendered by them.
They have not unfrequently claimed the right o f charging much higher
rates o f compensation for way-travel and freight, than for that carried over
the whole road. This distinction has sometimes been carried to the extent
o f charging more for a portion o f the distance, than for the whole. For
this they attempt to justify themselves, by saying that competition between
the ends o f their road reduces the rate, but that no such competion can ex­
ist at the intermediate points, and therefore the communities at those points
have no claims to the advantages which result from this competition. It is
surprising to what an extent reasoning so preposterous has been admitted,
and the result acquiesced in.
I f a country merchant, having no competitor within several miles, should
say to one o f his customers, you, having no horse, cannot procure your goods




R elation o f R ailroad Corporations to the P ublic.

627

except from me, and I therefore charge you more than I do your neighbor,
who has a good team, would he not shock all our common-sense notions o f
honesty and propriety ? W ou ld not a serious direct avowal o f such princi­
ples seem to be downright impudence ? A nd yet it would not quite equal
the principle avowed by the railroad companies just alluded to, for if they
made any distinction, it should obviously be in favor o f the community
whose property has been taken for the convenience o f the road, and who, on
the other principle, might be compelled to give up the natural advantages of
their position for a railroad, and to surrender their private property for its
use, to give to others in the same business an advantage over them. But,
though such discrimination in favor o f those on the line o f the road would
be more just and reasonable than to vary the charges to their disadvantage,
yet even this is forbidden by liberal views o f public policy. It might deprive
the public o f the most effectual guardianship of its rights, and, with our na­
tional organization, would be particularly liable to abuse. A road carrying
cheaply for the citizens o f the State in which it was located, might be left
at liberty to prey on all others at discretion. For the very reason that there
can be no competition at each particular point to regulate the rates o f charge,
public policy, no less than justice, requires that this competition between the
two ends o f the road where it exists, should regulate the rates for the other
points o f the route. W h en it does not exist between the termini o f the
road, it sometimes exists between the termini o f two or more roads taken as
one chain, and the price to which this competition reduces the transportation
o f the competing freight or passage, should govern the price o f the local
business. In this way, the great governing principle o f business competition
would be brought into exercise on a very large proportion o f the railroads,
and these would furnish data from which to deduce the rates proper for those
where no competition existed either at their termini, or at intermediate sta­
tions. This is the rate which thecompanies themselves fix, as one at which they
are willing and desirous to carry ; and it is not to be presumed that they
will seek the business at less rates than justice to themselves and the public
requires, and if they do, public policy demands that they should not be per­
mitted to give those not on the line o f the road a business advantage over
those whose domain has been taken from them under the pretext o f a com ­
mon benefit. The necessity o f direct competition on the lines o f the roads
being thus obviated, the companies might be protected from such competi­
tion with advantage to the public. The rules, then, demanded by public
policy and justice, are, that railroad companies should extend all reasonable
accommodation to the communities dependent on their roads for transporta­
tion ; this accommodation to be judged o f and regulated by the usages and
customs which have been established on those roads where competition ex­
ists, due allowance being made for any other difference in the circumstances.
That the compensation should be governed, when practicable, by the price
received on the same road for freight subject to open competition ; and, when
this cannot be done, by the price o f competing freight on other roads under
similar circumstances ; and that the benefits o f the road should be equally
free to every member o f the community, on the same terms.




The Condition and P rospects o f

628

Art. VI.— THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF AMERICAN COTTON
MANUFACTURES IN 1849.
I n an article in the Merchants' Magazine for the last month, upon the
“ Production and Manufacture o f Cotton,” there appeared some statements,
which, if correct, are new to many persons familiar with the subject to which
they relate. I f they are incorrect, a brief examination o f them may be use­
ful in dispelling the visions o f wealth so vividly brought to the view o f the
Southern planters, now urged to become manufacturers. W e hope that no­
thing will be said or done to discourage manufacturing at the South ; far
from i t : it is legitimate, and must steadily g o on increasing. A t the same
time, we shall consider it to be doing good service to them and to us at the
North, if we can bring to light errors which might deceive those who are
beginning to inquire into this business, with reference to pursuing it.
W ithout commenting upon the remarks made at the commencement of
the article, in regard to the elements o f wealth, and the causes o f the une­
qual distribution of property in Great Britain, about which some o f the best
informed statesmen have expressed opinions entirely different from those o f
the writer, we pass to the first suggestion made for a remedy to the great
evil under which we now suffer— of sending our cotton to Great Britain for
manufacture, instead o f securing to the cotton-growing States all the benefits
which arise from that process.
The remedy proposed is to withhold the cotton from the European mar­
kets, and manufacture it at the South ; to curtail the production, until it can
all be manufactured where it is grown. W e should not have presumed that
this is to be done suddenly, and at once, did the writer not tell us that “ if
we wish for more labor and skill, they can readily be procured, to any
amount.”
But from what source can the labor and the skill be derived, to set in ope­
ration an amount o f machinery so vast as is here contemplated ? Certainly
not from the North, where every good agent, sub-agent, and overseer, is
prized and retained, and where operatives are not to be had to run the ma­
chinery now built. Agents and overseers may be brought from E ngland;
but unless the Southern men and girls, who are to be under their control,
have less independence, or, if one choose to call it so, less prejudice, against
obeying foreigners than the girls and men in New England, it will he neces­
sary to bring the operatives also from the manufacturing districts o f Eng­
land ; not a desirable population at home, much less so here.
But supposing this difficulty were overcome, from what quarter is to pro­
ceed the capital required for the enterprise ? Have our Southern friends such
resources o f money now at their command as to create these immense works,
or are they borrowers ? W e have always supposed the latter to be the case.
W e sell our fabrics, which are made at the North, to the Southern buyers,
on a credit o f from six to ten months. Neither do we receive a similar
credit in return, for the reason that they are not in a condition to grant it.
A ll the great staples sent from the Southern market are sold for cash, or on a
credit o f sixty days. It is in this way that the foreign and the home man­
ufacturers supply themselves with cotton. Though there are many rich men in
the large cotton-growing States, the number o f moneyed men is very small, and
they are not usually the projectors o f new enterprises. The planters are
generally in debt, more or less, either from having extended their business




Am erican Cotton M anufactures in 1 8 4 9 .

629

beyond their means, or from the habit o f anticipating their incomes, by bor­
rowing o f their cotton factors, the banks, or by credits at the stores.
This lack o f capital is forcibly shown, in the amount of land still unsold
and uncultivated in the great cotton-growing States
Acres.

Unsold.

Owned.

Louisiana has.............................................
Mississippi."___ : .......................................
Alabama....................................................
Arkansas....................................................

29,115,840
30,174,080
32,462,080
33,406,720

28,052,018
14,326,430
17,450,560
27,464,603

6,263,872
15,811,650
15,911,520
5,942,117

T ota l..........................................

125,758,720

82,693,611

43,929,109

Or almost two-thirds o f the land still laying waste for want o f the means
and the population to bring it into use.
I f it were not an unpleasant subject, we might allude to the State debts o f
some o f them, still unpaid, principal and interest, as another evidence o f in­
ability to command the use o f money.
To carry out this plan o f withholdidg the cotton, it will be necessary to
obtain the passage o f a law imposing an export duty. W ithout this, it
would be impossible to prevent it from going abroad, as soon as the with­
drawal o f a portion had produced its effect o f raising the price in Europe.
This duty must be prohibitive, or it will not answer the purpose in view. O f
course this would be met by retaliative duties from other countries. But
the scheme appears to be wholly impracticable, and we will not introduce any
farther objections to it.
The writer o f the article to which we refer, starts upon the supposition
that the production o f cotton is in excess. “ There is too much produced.
True, a great deal too much. Make a proper distribution o f labor and
sk ill: produce no more cotton than can be manufactured at home.” The
crop o f the United States, in 1843, was 2,378,875 bales ; in 1844, 2,030,409 ;
in 1845, 2,394,503 ; in 1846, 2,100,537 ; in 1847, 1,778,651 ; in 1848,
2,3 47,634; and it has not reached the amount o f 1843, (excepting in the
year 1845,) until this year o f 1849, when the crop is 2,728,596 bales. Mean­
time, there has been a large increase in the number o f manufacturing estab­
lishments in Europe, and in this country. Our own factories required, in
1843, 346,744 bales ; in 1844,
389,006 bales ;
in 1845,422,597 bales ; in
1846, 427,967 bales; in 1847,
531,772 bales;
in 1848,518,039 bales; in
1849, if it were not for the depression which exists in this business, and
which prevents many new mills from starting, and lessens the product o f
others, there would have been required more than 600,000 bales for our
own use. The increase abroad, though not in the same proportion, has been
very great. This explains, in a great measure, the cause o f the present high
price o f cotton,* which, with the large crop of last year, is not sufficient to
supply the machinery when in full operation.
The production of cotton, for the last five years, has been 11,323,000
bales ; and the consumption has been 11,939,000 bales ; showing an excess
o f consumption o f 616,000 bales, which has been supplied by the surplus on
hand at the commencement o f the time. The present price renders the
manufacture o f all descriptions o f coarse goods impossible, except at a loss ;
a state o f things which cannot continue long, and will be followed, during
* The great rise in the price, 9ince last year, is to he attributed partly to speculation; but this is
based upon the fact here referred to. Notwithstanding the immense importations into England, dur­
ing the past year, the stock on hand (October 27th) was 112,000 bales less than in 1848.




630

The Condition and P rospects o f

the coming season, b y a rise in the price o f goods, or by a fall in the rawmaterial ; perhaps by both.
The argument which has been used, that the manufacturer receives a very
much larger rate o f interest on his capital invested, than the cotton-grower,
now brought forward by the writer o f the article before referred to, will not
bear investigation. It is asserted that the cotton planters have received, for
that part o f their crop sent to Great Britain in 1841, but $29,000,000 ;
whereas, if they had received as much in proportion to their outlay o f cap­
ital, as the manufacturer, it would have been $150,000,000 ; leaving a de­
ficit o f $121,000,000, which the planter may save, by adopting the plan
before named.
It may be useless to undertake to prove that the planters o f this country
receive and are satisfied with a lower rate o f interest than the British man­
ufacturers, or even than our own ; but in this case it is easily done. It is
asserted that the capital required to raise as much cotton as is used in Great
Britain, is $150,000,000, and that it is from this outlay that $29,000,000 only
is received ; whereas the vast amount o f other produce raised on the cotton
estates is kept entirely out o f v iew ; the com , potatoes, pork, &c., which
comprise almost the whole living o f the planter and his hands, and some o f
which are forwarded in large quantities to New Orleans, and the other mar­
kets, are not mentioned. Another error in this calculation is, that the price
o f cotton is put at 6 cents, when, if we should take the present price, for the
purpose o f making the comparison, fair cotton as high as 12 a 13 cents,* and
middling fair at 11 cents, after deducting the expense o f selling, this would
leave for the planters $50,000,000, to which add $20,000,000 for farm pro­
duce, and we obtain the result o f $70,000,000, instead o f $29,000,000. I f
the estimates given o f the cost o f cotton lands and slaves, and the yield per
acre, are as incorrect as the other data, the result will be still more unlike
that which is given.
The estimate o f the investment in cotton manufactures in Great Britain
($149,600,000) is wholly incorrect. The real capital used in this business
is more than $250,000,000 ; since, besides the investment in buildings and ma­
chinery, there is required a large amount o f cash capital, which the manufactu­
rer must either own or borrow. In N ew England, a manufacturing establish­
ment is supposed to require one-third as much cash capital as the amount invest­
ed in land, buildings, and machinery. One is called “ the floating,” and the
other the “ fixed capital,” and the one is as necessary to success as the other.
The proportions vary in the different kinds o f manufacture; none should
have less than one-third in cash, unless they are willing to depend upon fa­
cilities granted by their commission merchants, and for which they must pay
a high price, or upon banks and money-lenders, who generally call in their
loans in times o f scarcity, when most wanted by the borrower.
The next comparison introduced by the writer o f the article in question,
to show the inequality in the compensation received by the cotton planter,
and by the manufacturer, is that in which he contrasts the labor o f 57,000
persons in the New England factories, in 1839, upon a capital o f $42,000,000,
with the labor o f the planters and their hands, in the same year, (1839,)
upon a capital o f $150,000,000 ; and the conclusion drawn from it is that
the New England manufacturers and operatives received as much for their
* The price, in 1847, when the estimate was made of the value of British manufactures, averaged
rather lower than this.




A m erican Cotton M anufactures in 1 8 4 9 .

C31

labor as tbe planters received for their whole cotton crop o f that year,
namely, “ $27,278,762.” But, as the crop o f that year was 61,442,900 lbs.,
and as the price was fourteen cents in the Southern ports, or 13 cents to the
planter, they must have received $80,005,770. There is another error in the
same comparison, in regard to the amount allowed for materials used in man­
ufacturing, which would increase the discrepancy o f the results.
The next argument introduced, is to show by figures that a factory requir­
ing an investment o f $250,000, is better property, and will yield a larger
income than ten plantations, costing, with the hands, $738,000. The net
income o f the plantations is put at $80,000, or 11 per cent, (a much higher
rate o f interest than ever has been received, for a series o f years, from the
best average investments in manufacturing establishments, as we shall here­
after show,) and the net profit o f the cotton-mill is stated at $90,000, or 35
per cent per annum. W e have never heard o f any such rate o f profit, and
to a manufacturer it would seem to be enough to state this result, to have
its correctness doubted.
The first error in the calculation is found in the cost o f the mill, and the
capital required to run it, which is stated 60 per cent too sm all; that is, it
should be $400,000 instead o f $250,000 ; or $270,000 for the mill, and the
balance for floating capital. The firs t cost o f a steam mill would be rather
less, but not much, with the houses for the operatives, cotton house, and other
buildings, &c.*
The cloth produced is valued at 7 i cents a yard, which is a higher price
than has been received for N o. 14 or 15 plain or twilled cottons, for
two years past. For the iast nine months it has averaged 5.90 cents for
sheetings and drills, which would yield, upon the estimated production,
4,500,000 yards, (a large allowance for 10,000 spindles,) $265,000 instead
o f $337,500, the sum stated. But we will take the goods at a fair average
price— say 7 cents net, and they will yield $315,000. From this we are told
to deduct the cost o f cotton, labor, steam-power, interest on capital, &c.—
“ $247,000.” Omitting the interest, ($15,000,) this will be 232,000, which,
taken from $315,000, leaves $83,000 profit, or 2 0 f per cent on a capital of
$400,000.
This extraordinary result (w7hich has not been obtained b y any o f the New
England mills making these goods, for the past three years) indicates another
error, which wre soon discover to be in the price o f the cotton, which is again
taken at 6 cents, though it has not been as low as that in the New Y ork
market for 20 days, during the last twenty years.f Supposing we calculate
* In reckoning the cost o f manufacturing establishments, it is frequently the case that the cost of
the mill and machinery only is given, whereas the whole of the buildings required to carry on the
business should be included, since they are as necessary as the mill itself. It is this omission which
has given rise to much trouble and embarrassment to those who have commenced manufacturing
with capital supposed to be ample, but which has been expended in the erection o f the works, and it
has been necessary to mortgage the establishment, to obtain the means to carry it on, or even to com­
plete it. Where the owners have been in companies incorporated, they have resorted to the creation
o f new shares, at a half, or even a quarter o f the original price. This operation has been, and is now
going on, through the whole o f New England, to a large extent, not only in manufacturing, but in
railroad, and other corporations.
Among the manufacturing establishments, none have been more remarkable for their creation of
new stock than those at Newburyport abd Salem, for which the estimates were made by General
James, the stockholders being unacquainted with manufacturing. The “ James Steam Mill,” the
“ Bartlett,” and the “ Globe,” at Newburyport, and the “ Naumkeag Mill,” at Salem, have all been
found without cash capital, and, in some instances, in debt when completed, and all have been obliged
to call in more, and they are still deficient, with the exception, perhaps, o f the Bartlett.
+ If we take the cotton at a fair a average price of 9 cents, $03,000 o f the $83,000 profits will be
taken away; leaving a profit o f 5 per cent per annum, on $400,000, which is as high as the average
profits of the present year. The goods are still at a lower price than the average, though higher than
they were six months ago.




632

The Condition and P rospects o f dec.

the cotton at the present price, which is 111 cents, and the goods at the
present price, it would take away all the profit o f 883,000, and leave a loss
o f $16,000, which gives the actual state o f all the cotton-mills working new
cotton in this country, at the present time. The mills with ample capitals
have been, and some are still, working cotton bought at a low price, and for
the present six months will show a small profit, but all others are making,
and must continue to make, a loss, until there is a change.
The profits o f manufacturing are so often over-rated, that it is with diffi­
culty that the truth can be believed. The well-managed New England mills
have been as successful, during the last ten years, as any in the world— cer­
tainly more successful than in any other section o f the United States ;
though for many years after their first establishment, they brought great
losses upon the stockholders. The following table will show the results o f
the business o f the best establishments :*—
DIVIDENDS OF THE NEW ENGLAND COTTON MILLS OF THE FIRST CLASS.

oo

Name and location.
Capital.
Appleton, Low ell....................... 600,000 5
Atlantic, Lawrence................... 1,300,000 x
Boott, Lowell............................. 1,200,000 11
Boston,f Waltham...................
450,000 6
Cocheco,! Dover, N. H ............. 1,300,000 6
Cabot, Springfield....................
690.000 6
Chicopee, Springfield...............
340,000 9
Dwight, Springfield.................
730,000 x
Great Falls, Somersw’rth, N.H. 1,500,000 o
Hamilton, Low ell..................... 1,200,000 o
Jackson, Nashua, N. H ............. 480,000 5
Lawrence, Lowell..................... 1,500,000 10
Laconia, Saco, Maine................ 1,000,000 x
Lancaster, Clintonville............. 1,000,000 x
Massachusetts, Lowell............. 1,800,000 x
Mancli’sterM’ls,|| Manch., If. H. 1,200,000 x
Merrimac, Low ell..................... 2,500,000 11
Nashua, Nashua, N. H .............. 1,000,000 10
Otis, W are.................................
450,000 o
Palmer, Three Rivers..............
160,000 20
Perkins, Springfield.................
700,000 5
Salm’n Flls,§Salm ’nF'ls,N .H . 1,000,000 x
Stark, Manchester, N. H .......... 1,250,000 x
Suffolk, Lowell..........................
600,000 11
Thorndike, Three Rivers..........
375,000 o
Tremont, Lowell.......................
600,000 11
York, Saco, Maine.................... 1,200,000 16

-

H -t

H -

1^3

N iH—-

M—•

K—
&\

>— t

H-*

K—
CTi

------

I— 1

on

5

6

0

6

6

12

12

3

5

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

o
5
25
3

9
8
3
7

3 5 10
o 3 8
o o 3
5 11 20
o 0 7
3 11 18
5 3 17
o 6 7
2 3 516
2 7 16

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

0

3

4 14

X

X

X

X

4 11
8 6
6
0
9
3
o 3

X

8 12
0 8
0 0
8 10
5 6

9 16 10
3 6 8
0 10 10
6 9 16
0 9 20

X

X

X

X

X

8
11
11
8
9

2
3
3
2
7

o 14
6 14
5 14
6 16
6,A7

8
o
7
12

X

18 16 8 5
6 10 6 4
6
6 6 6
20 16 4 3
12
9 3 0
20 16 9 6
20 cl 2 10 8
14 10 6 5
20 18f 9 8
14 15 10 3
X
8 3 0
X
X
o 0
20 20 19 6
X
. .loss 0
30 16 9 7
20 18 6 3
12
8 13 6
25 21 9 3
20 13 9 6
X
25 8 8
18 20 llloss
20 18 8 6
15 15 7 3
18 16 7 2
18 20 11 6

3a 6
o
2
4
6
6
3a6
4a 8
6
3a 6
4a7
6
o
o
6
o
r25
4a8
18
0
2a 6
4a8
3
5
6
3
.

* Almost all these were taken from the books of the companies, or furnished by the treasurers,
t These dividends are upon $1,000 a share. The valuation has been reduced, and the shares are
now valued at $750.
J The original investment of $1,000,000 was all lost.
| W ool is mixed
with cotton in the greater part o f their goods.
§ This company became embarrassed and the prop­
erty was sold to the present proprietors at one-third o f the cost.
(a) Also a dividend in stock of 25 per cent. The shares in this company were originally $1,000;
but, owing to embarrassments, new shares were created at $200, which is now considered par. Upon
the cost these dividends would be much smaller.
(5) Also 10 per cent from profits made previous­
ly.
( r ) This was principally in new stock, and was not earned this year.
The dividends o f this
company have been much larger, owing to having reserved their profits in years previous to these,
(e) Also a dividend from previous profits o f 10 per cent. ( / ) And a dividend in stock o f 20 per
cent. Manufacture fancy wove goods.
The mark “ x ” in the statement of dividends o f New England mills signifies that the mills were
not in operation during those years. In many cases there were losses where the mark is “ o.” There
are other establishments as large as these, which have been embarrassed by deficient water and other
causes, which prevent their being placed in this list of first class mills.




The Cotton Gin.

G33

The following table, prepared by Messrs. Head and Perkins, Stock Bro­
kers, shows the present price o f shares, and when there have been no sales,
the price they would bring if put into the market. The difference between
the par and the present price is just so much loss, which should be sub­
tracted from the dividends, in order to judge fairly o f the business.
MARKET AND P A R VALUE OF SHARES IN FIRST CLASS COTTON MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS.

Market
price.
Appleton..............
Atlantic.................
Boott.....................
Boston....................
Cabot.....................
Chicopeee.............
Cocheco.................
D w igh t.................
Great Falls...........
Hamilton................
Jackson.................
Laconia..................
Lancaster..............
Lawrence..............

670
850

500
770
850

Par
value.
1,000
1,000
1,000
750
1,000
1,000
650
1,000
200
1,000
800
1,000
450
1,000

Manchester Mills........
Massachusetts............
Merrimac....................
Nashua.........................
Otis...............................
Palmer.........................
Perkins.......................
Stark...........................
Suffolk.........................
Salmon Falls...............
Thorndike....................
Tremont......................
Y o r k ...........................

Market
price.
750
900
1,120
450
1,050
750
750
800
900
450
650
875
930

Par
value.
1,000
1,000
1,000
500
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
500
1,000
1,000
1,000

Many smaller mills have been equally successful, and many have embar­
rassed the owners, and passed into other hands during the same period.
.,
W e defer to another number the examination o f some o f the other calcu­
lations in the article on “ Cotton and its Manufacture,” and shall hereafter
give some facts in regard to the value of water-power at the present time in
the coal districts o f England, which will show that, after long experience,
the English manufacturers prefer to buy water at a higher price than is paid
in any part o f this country, though they can have coal for their steam-power
at from 4 to 5 shillings a ton, certainly as low as in any o f the cotton-grow­
ing States.
Some facts will also be given, in regard to the steam-mills built under the
Superintendence o f General James, which will exhibit the unexpected result
that they have not yet yielded to their proprietors simple interest upon their
investments:—

Art. TIL— T H E

COTTON

GIN.

T he names o f men distinguished for natural endowments, or for hav­
ing conferred, by their services or inventions, signal benefits upon their
country, form the treasure o f which a nation is justly proud. The manner
in which those services are requited, not unfrequently becomes its most
lasting reproach.
This country is not without some illustrations o f this remark, and among
them, that o f Eli W hitney, the inventor o f the Cotton Gin, is most prominent.
Mr. W hitney was a native o f Worcester County, Massachusetts, and in
1792 he was a guest in the house o f the widow o f General Green, near
Savannah. H e was then about twenty-seven years o f age, and one day,
when a number o f distinguished men were on a visit at the house, a conver­
sation arose on the cotton plant, then recently introduced on their plantations.
The soil was well suited to its growth, and the necessity o f devoting them ­
selves to the cultivation o f something besides rice, tobacco, and indigo, was
universally admitted.
The difficulty of separating the seed from the staple, was, however, deem ed




634

The Cotton Gin.

inseparable, as it was a day's work for a woman to clean one pound o f cotton
for market.
A s W hitney was well known to have a remarkable genius for mechanics,
Mrs. Green recommended the visitors, who were expressing their regret at
this obstacle, to apply to her young friend, who, as she expressed herself,
“ could make anything.” This conversation called W hitney’s attention to
the subject. H e procured some cotton in the seed from Savannah, and
commenced his task. From the tin o f an old coffee-pot, iron wire drawn by
himself, and 'with such tools as a Georgia plantation could furnish, he con­
structed the first Cotton Gin, and Mrs. Green, who proved a most efficient
friend, caused a building to be erected for its exhibition, and invited her
friends from different parts o f the State to witness its operations.
Its success was complete. The assembled planters saw with astonishment
and delight, that more cotton could be cleaned in one day, by a single hand,
than in one month in the usual mode. The cultivation o f cotton was now
placed within the reach o f American labor, and visions o f wealth were sud­
denly opened to the planters o f the South. It was impossible to have any
invention made more susceptible o f proof than that o f the Cotton Gin. The
subject was suggested in a large company, and the first machine constructed
and exhibited in the presence o f an assemblage o f respectable men from
different parts o f the State.
The obstacle to be overcome was a subject o f general remark. The com­
munity acknowledged the difficulty that stood in its way. It seemed in­
superable to ordinary minds, and mechanical genius was publicly appealed to,
to lend its aid to remove it.
Fame and wealth were held out by the laws o f the country as the fitting
rewards to the intellectual Hercules who should accomplish the task. This
appeal was answered in the construction o f the Cotton Gin. Steps were taken
to obtain a patent, and a factory opened for the construction o f the machine.
Before this, however, was accomplished, the first violation o f W hitney’s
right occurred, and this was followed up by a systematic attempt among the
planters to possess themselves o f the machine, which must always reflect
lasting dishonor and reproach upon the people o f Georgia. The knowledge
o f the invention spread through the State, and crowds o f people came from
all quarters to see the machine, but it was not deemed prudent to gratify
their curiosity, until a patent had been obtained. This restraint excited their
passions, and they broke open the building in the night, carried off the
model, and forthwith commenced to make machines, with some slight de­
viations from the original, with the hope o f avoiding the penalty for violating
the patent. This was to be expected, and so far no responsibility could at­
tach to the community. Individuals, regardless o f the rights o f others, and
ready to invade their privileges and property, are to be found in all coun­
tries. It is only where no law exists for the punishment o f such crimes, or
where the courts o f justice prove inadequate to the vindication o f the law,
that society can be justly charged with participating in the offence.
This was the aspect that the State o f Georgia soon assumed, in relation to
W hitney’s invention.
W h en suits were commenced for violations o f the patent, the jurors ar­
rayed themselves against the patentees, and in spite o f the charge o f the
court, acquitted those who violated their rights.
Private interest was now so strongly enlisted against the claims o f the in­
ventor— the violations were so multiplied, that public sentiment became cor-




The Cotton Gin.

635

rupted, and arrayed itself on the side o f what seemed a general interest.
This, however, could not be effected upon the hold footing o f a direct inva­
sion o f private property, for the benefit of the public. In order to bring this
about, the public mind must be deceived, before it could be corrupted. Be­
fore the community could be induced to sacrifice its benefactor, it must be
taught to believe him an impostor. Great exertions were therefore made to
create a belief that "Whitney was not the inventor o f the Cotton G in ; but
that somebody in Switzerland had commenced the idea o f it before him, and,
especially, that one Hodgin Holmes was entitled to the credit o f introducing
saws, instead o f wire teeth.
Upon these grounds ostensibly, but in reality because the cotton planters
in Georgia were unwilling to pay for the use o f an invention that had covered
the State with cotton plantations, and raised their owners to affluence, W h it­
ney & Miller, who was his partner, were unable to obtain a favorable de­
cision in that State for the infringement o f their patent, until December,
1807, when thirteen years o f the patent had expired.
Nor was this the whole extent to which this unprincipled opposition was
carried.
The States o f North and South Carolinahad entered into agreements with the
patentees for the people o f those States. In the honest old North State, a
tax o f five shillings and sixpence was laid upon every saw employed in gin­
ning cotton, which for five years was collected, and after deducting the ex:
penses o f collection, was paid over to the patentee.
The State o f South Carolina agreed to give fifty thousand dollars for the
use o f the patent; but after paying twenty thousand dollars, the Legislature
was induced, by representations from the Legislature o f Georgia, not only to
suspend the payment o f the residue, but to commence a suit for the sum
paid, and to arrest W hitney until after full examination. Feelings o f indig­
nation o f the deception practised by the demagogues o f Georgia, prompted
them to withdraw the suit, and to carry into effect the original contract.
The Legislature o f Tennessee also agreed to pay twenty-seven and a half
cents for each gin saw used in the State for a period o f four years. The
State o f Georgia, however, did not relax its opposition to W hitney, nor its
citizens cease to violate his patent. On the contrary, they sought to pre­
vent the citizens o f the adjoining States from making the compensation, that
their feelings o f justice induced them to offer.
The governor o f Georgia, in 1803, in his message to the Legislature, took
strong ground against W hitney’ s right, and a committee o f the Legislature
recommended resolutions, asking the cooperation of North and South Caro­
lina and Tennessee, in this unprincipled crusade against the legal rights and
property of a private citizen.
There is, perhaps, nowhere to be found in the annals o f the violation o f
private rights by public bodies— certainly not in this country— not even in
the dark history o f repudiation, a more unblushing avowal o f the sordid m o­
tives, than those avowed by the State o f Georgia in the following reso­
lutions :—
“ Resolved, that the Senators and Representatives o f this State in Congress be,
and they hereby are, instructed to use their utmost endeavors to obtain a modifi­
cation o f the act, entitled an act to extend the privilege o f obtaining patents for
useful discoveries and inventions, to certain persons therein mentioned, and to en­
large and define the penalties for violating the rights o f patentees, so as to pre­
vent the operation o f it to the injury o f that most valuable staple, cotton, and the
cramping of genius in improvements, in Miller & Whitney’s Patent Gin, as well as




636

The Cotton Gin.

to limit the price o f obtaining a right o f using it, the price at present being un­
bounded, and the planter and poor artificer altogether at the mercy o f the patent­
ees, who may raise the price to any sum they please.”
“ And, in case the said Senators and Representatives o f this State shall find
such modification impracticable, that they do then use their best endeavors to in­
duce Congress, from the example o f other nations, to make compensation to
Miller & Whitney for their discovery, take up the patent-right, and release the
Southern States from so burdensome a grievance.”
The effect o f these resolutions was to induce Tennessee to suspend the
payment o f the tax laid upon Cotton Gins, and a similar attempt was made
in North Carolina. The good old North State proved true to her unstained
character. She repudiated not her pledged faith, but the sordid temptation
held out to her integrity, and stands, as she always has stood, an example to
her neighbors o f undeviating fidelity to all her public engagements, whether
to individuals, or to the Constitution, which she was slow to approve, and has
hitherto shown herself incapable o f violating.
In the other States, the example o f Georgia prevented W hitney from re­
ceiving the just reward o f his ingenuity, and although South Carolina after­
wards repented o f her precipitancy, and carried out her contracts, the incon­
venience, embarrassment, and positive loss resulting from this opposition,
prevented any decision on the merits o f his patent until December, 1807,
when in a suit brought against Arthur Frost, on a violation o f the right in
Georgia, Judge Johnson gave a decision, from which we make the follow­
ing extracts:—
The defendant, in violation o f the patent-right, has constructed, and con­
tinues to use, this machine ; and the object o f this suit is to obtain a perpet­
ual injunction, to prevent a continuance o f this infraction of complainants’
right.
Defendant admits most o f the facts in the bill set forth, but contends that
the complainants are not entitled to the benefits o f the act o f Congress on
this subject, because—
1st. The invention is not original.
2d. Is not useful.
3d. That the machine which he uses is materially different from their in­
vention, in the application o f an improvement, the invention o f another
person.
To support the originality o f the invention, the complainants have pro­
duced a variety o f depositions o f witnesses, examined under commission,
whose examination expressly proves the origin, progress, and completion of
the machine by W hitney, one o f the co-partners. Persons who were made
privy to his first discovery, testify to the several experiments which he made
in their presence, before he ventured to expose his invention to the scrutiny
o f the public eye.
But it is not necessary to resort to such testimony to maintain this point.
The jealousy o f the artist to maintain that reputation which his ingenuity
has justly acquired, has urged him to unnecessary pains on this subject.
There are circumstances in the knowledge o f all mankind, which prove the
originality o f this invention more satisfactorily to the mind, than the direct
testimony o f a host o f witnesses. The cotton plant furnished clothing to
mankind, before the age o f Herodotus. The green seed is a species much
more productive than the black, and by nature adapted to a much greater
variety o f climate. But by reason o f the strong adherance o f the fibre to




The Cotton Gin.

637

the seed, without the aid o f some more powerful machine for separating it
than any formerly known among us, the cultivation o f it would never have
been made an object. The machine, o f which Mr .W hitney claims the in­
vention, so facilitates the preparation o f this species for use, that the cultiva­
tion o f it has suddenly become an object o f infinitely greater national im­
portance than that o f the other species ever can be. Is it, then, to be ima­
gined, that if this machine had been discovered, the use o f it would ever
have been lost, or could have been confined to any tract or country left un­
explored by commercial enterprise ? But it is unnecessary to remark further
on this subject. A number o f years have elapsed since Mr. W hitney took
out his patent, and no one has produced or pretended to prove the existence
o f a machine o f similar construction or use.
2d. W ith regard to the utility o f this discovery, the Court would deem
it a waste o f time to dwell long upon this topic. Is there a man who hears
us who has not experienced its utility ? The whole interior of the Southern
States was languishing, and its inhabitants emigrating, for want o f some ob­
ject to engage their attention, and employ their industry, when the invention
o f this machine at once opened views to them, which set the whole country
in active motion.
From childhood to age it has presented to us a lucrative
employment. Individuals who were depressed with poverty, and sunk in
idleness, have suddenly risen to wealth and respectability. Our debts have
been paid off. Our capitals have increased, and our lands trebled them­
selves in value. W e cannot express the weight o f the obligation which the
country owes to this invention. The extent o f it cannot now be seen.
Some faint presentiments may be formed, from the reflection that cotton is
rapidly supplanting wool, flax, silk, and even furs in manufactures, and may
one day profitably supply the use o f specie in our East India trade. Our
sister States, also, participate in the benefits o f this invention ; for, besides
affording the raw material for their manufactures, the bulkiness and quantity
o f the article afford a valuable employment o f their shipping.
3d. The third and last ground taken by defendant, appears to be that
upon which ho mostly relies. In the specification, the teeth made use o f
are o f strong wire, inserted into the cylinder. This is certainly a meritorious
improvement in the mechanical process o f constructing this machine. But,
at last, what does it amount to, except a more convenient mode o f making
the same thing ? Every characteristic o f Mr. W hitney’s machine is pre­
served. The cylinder, the iron tooth, the rotary motion o f the tooth, the
breast work and brush, and all the merit that this discovery can assume, is
that o f a more expeditious mode o f attaching the tooth to the cylinder.
After being attached, in operation and effect they are entirely the same. Mr.
W hitney may not be at liberty to use Mr. Holm e’s iron plate, but certainly
Mr. Holme’s improvement does not destroy Mr. W hitney’s patent-right.
Let the decree o f a perpetual injunction be entered.
Out o f sixty suits instituted for violations o f his patent, this was the first
in which a decision was had upon the merits o f his invention. This was
followed up at the next term, by verdicts for damages in two other cases, o f
fifteen hundred dollars, and two thousand dollars.
Thirteen years o f his patent, however, had now expired, and it was too
late for him to expect any remuneration for his invention. The expenses o f
establishing his right had swallowed up the sums received from those ac­
knowledging their obligation to remunerate him, and the interest against
a further extension o f his patent was too general to permit him to hope for




638

The Cotton Gin.

success in such an application. The opposition, therefore, had virtually suc­
ceeded in depriving him o f his property. The combination had triumphed
in appropriating the invention, -without compensating the inventor. The
State o f Georgia could boast that she had opened the way to wealth to all
the planting States, in preventing the inventor o f the Cotton Gin from reap­
ing any substantial reward for his discovery. She had, in the language o f
her resolutions, “ prevented the operation o f the patent act, to the injury o f
that most valuable staple, cotton, and the cramping o f genius in improve­
ments in Miller & W hitney’s Patent Gin.” “ The planter and poor artificer
were no longer at the mercy o f their patentees.” “ The Southern States
were released from so burdensome a grievance,” without the intervention of
Congress. B y the energy and unity o f her citizens, she had succeeded in
trampling upon the patent laws, as a few years later she did upon the Cher­
okee treaties.
Glorious achievement! Georgia was indeed an independent State; indepen­
dent not only o f all federal obligations, but o f all rules that right-minded
men obey and reverence.
Let her enjoy that reputation. N o other State will claim any share in the
achievement. The sole glory must always belong to her, and so long as the
invention continues to meliorate the toil o f her slaves, and to add to the
wealth o f her citizens, so long will be the memory o f the injustice practised
towards the greatest practical benefactor o f the Southern States, cast a dark
shadow upon the character o f the State. The moral o f this history should
not, however, be confined to Georgia ; much may be learned by other States.
Everywhere the temptation to oppose the execution o f the law, where its
enforcement operates against the many, and to the advantage o f the few, is
too readily listened to. It requires moral principle and self-control to with­
stand the suggestions o f self-interest, especially when public opinion seems
on that side. It is the weak point o f our institutions. The remonstrances
o f one seem so insignificant when opposed to the demands o f the many,
that it requires an incessant guard to prevent injustice, when the rights o f an
individual come in collision with the temporary interest o f the mass. A nd
yet those rights must be vindicated. The permanent interests o f the com ­
munity are best subserved by perfect protection being extended to the rights
o f the humblest individual— where the laborer and mechanic, denizens o f a
crowded metropolis, and the industrious cottager, remote from all police and
armed sentinels, can repose in safety under the invisible but all-powerful
egis o f the law. This is the great object o f government. It is to guard
individual rights that our own constitutions were formed. The provisions
relating to the writ o f habeas corpus, trial by jury, the restriction o f the right
o f eminent domain, the prohibition o f expost fa cto laws, and all laws impair­
ing the obligation o f contracts, what are they but muniments erected by
our ancestors for the protection o f private rights. They form the bulwark
o f our freedom. The independence o f the country, and its protection from
foreign aggression and violence, rest upon the valor and strength o f the
American people, but these are restraints imposed by themselves for the safe­
guard o f personal right. A self-imposed compact, solemnly entered into by
the whole community, that it will not exercise that authority which it re­
sumes after centuries o f despotic abuse, for the oppression o f a private cit­
izen. Arm ed with that safe-guard, an American citizen may stand on his
own domain, and call upon the whole countiy to protect him in the exercise
o f his rights, and make his cause its own. Upon the promptitude with




P opulation o f N ew E ngland.

639

which it responds to that call depends the existence o f the government in
its pristine spirit. If it heed not the call, if it leave that one man unaided
in the assertion o f his unquestioned right, if it put not forth its strength
when thus invoked, the character o f our institutions is changed. It is no
longer a government o f law, but o f power.
The citizen thus suffering unredressed injustice from the majority, no mat­
ter under what pretence, whether that his patent checks the growth o f cot­
ton, or that his manorial rights extract rente from the hard-working farmer,
that man is subjected to an exercise o f despotic power as clearly as if he
had been sent to the Bastile by the mandate o f an arbitrary monarch. The
injustice being sanctioned or enjoined by the voice o f the community, so far
from being a mitigation, is rather an aggravation o f his suffering. His sole
hope, then, is in the returning reason o f the people. W h en the excitement
is over, when the voice o f passion is stifled, and the contest has been ended,
then it is that justice is vindicated. This, however, is too often postponed,
until the immediate actors in the scene have passed from the stage, and an­
other generation appears to sit in judgment upon their motives and actions.
Then, when it is too late to mete out practical justice, either by rewarding
the benefactors o f mankind, or punishing those who slandered and persecu­
ted them, then it is that impartial history assumes the duty o f setting forth
the facte in their true colors, and stamping upon them the character they
must forever hold in the estimation o f mankind.
The true interest o f Georgia would have been as essentially promoted by
her making full conrpensation for the use o f the Cotton Gin, as by the illegal
violation o f W hitney’s patent; but nothing can erase from her records the
part taken by the community in the perpetration o f that injustice, or remove
the stain upon the reputation o f the State,
J. b .

Art. VIII.— P O P U L A T IO N OF N E W E N G L A N D .
T he six States commonly known as Hew England, comprise a territory o f
65,000 square miles, and lie between 41° and 48° 12' north latitude, and
65° 55' and 74° 10' west longitude. The greatest length o f this territory
is about 575 miles, and its breadth is from 150 to 300 miles. Its area is
less than that o f Virginia, and but little larger than that o f Illinois. This
region o f country has become, to all who have breathed its air, or been nur­
tured upon its soil, an object o f deep interest. It was among the earliest set­
tled portions o f the North American continent— the chosen home o f the ex­
iled Puritans, and the place where American independence originated, and
was most firmly maintained.
Its growth in population, though less rapid than many other portions o f
the country, has been constant, and in every period since the settlement at
Plymouth, has been increasing, though not at a uniform rate, owing to emi­
gration, wars, and other causes.
The earliest settlers o f New England did not find the country abandoned
by the natives, nor did they seek a soil entirely fitted or prepared for cultiva­
tion, as does the present emigrant to some parts o f the W est and North ;
but for more than a century they had to fight, not for an extension o f ter­
ritory, but to maintain even those which have already been made. It was a
lon g and serious struggle between the races, and o f such a characrer that, at
the end o f the first century from the settlement at Plymouth, a large portion




640

P opulation o f N ew England.

o f New England was still in possession o f the natives o f the soil, the wild
Indians and beasts. In 1720, but a small portion o f Maine had been set­
tled by the English, and New Hampshire had an English population o f only
about 10,000, who were mostly settled in a few southern and south-western
towns. Vermont was but a wilderness; Massachusetts had hardly been settled
beyond Worcester, and that could scarcely be called a permanent settlement;
Connecticut had a population o f some 40,000, but this was not scattered
over half her present territory : and Rhode Island had then no settlement o f
consequence beyond the borders o f Narragansett Bay. The whole number
o f the inhabitants o f New England, at that time, was supposed to number
130,000 or 140,000. The wars with the Eastern and New Hampshire In­
dians, in 1722 and 1725, and the success o f the colonists over them, gave a
new impulse to settlements in that direction, and we find that in 1750 the
population o f New Hampshire had increased to 30,000, and that o f Maine
to 10,000 or 12,000.
During the early settlements o f New England, no accurate census was ta­
ken, and though we cannot get the exact amount, yet data do exist, which
enable us to estimate pretty nearly its progress. For the first 23 years, to
the union o f the New England colonies, in 1643, the increase o f population
was chiefly owing to emigration from the mother country. During a part o f
this time, it was very great. In 1635 it is said that 3,000 settlers came to
Massachusetts, and about the same number in 1638. In 1639, there were
three regiments in Massachusetts, and about 1,000 soldiers. It must be
borne in mind that emigrants w’ere leaving, as well as coming, to New Eng­
land, at this period ; and even as early as 1631 or 1632, a company removed
from Lynn to Long Island, and in 1630, some o f the Massachusetts people,
finding themselves straightened for land, crossed the wilderness, and settled
on the Connecticut River. In 1642, there had been settled, in New England,
50 towns and villages, about 40 churches established, and 77 ministers set­
tled, who came out from England, and about 16 students, who afterwards
entered the ministry.
In 1643, at the time o f the union o f the colonies, the proportion o f men
which each agreed to furnish for their common defense, was 100 for Massa­
chusetts, and 45 for each o f the other colonies. I f this proportion is a true
indication o f the comparative strength o f the United Colonies, as it un­
doubtedly was, and if the population o f Massachusetts was then 6,000, that
o f Plym outh alone would have been 2,700, and that o f Connecticut and
New Haven 5,400, the whole amounting to nearly 15,000.
H ow near this estimate comes to the truth, we do not pretend to sa y ; but
it seems to give too great a population to Connecticut and New Haven, for
in 1655 there were but eight towns settled in the colony o f Connecticut, a n d '
five in New Haven. In 1655, the ratable polls in Connecticut were 753, wdiich
would give a population o f upwards o f 3,000. In 1650, the whole popula­
tion o f New England has been estimated at 50,000.
In 1665, the militia in Massachusetts were about 5,000 strong, from which
we may infer the whole population must have been nearly 30,000.
In 1671, the number o f males in Connecticut and New Haven, between
the ages o f 16 and 60, was 2,050, which gives the population for that colony
about 10,000.
In 1693, the whole population o f New England was estimated at 100,000,
and there were then 130 churches, or one church for every 750 persons.
In 1673, a writer gives the following account o f Boston :— “ It has,” says




Population o f N ew England.

641

he, “ 1,500 families, five iron works, which cast no guns, 15 merchants, worth
£ 5 ,000 each, 500 persons worth £3 ,000 each, that no house in New Eng­
land has above 20 rooms, and not 20 in Boston that had 10 rooms ; there
were no beggars, and not three persons were annually put to death for th eft;
a dancing school was set up, but put dow n ; a fencing school was allowed.
In 1700, the whole population o f New England was supposed to be
120.000, o f which—
Massachusetts had.........................
Connecticut....................................

'70,000
30,000

I
|

Rhode Island
New Hampshire.

had.
10,000

This shows an increase on the population o f 1660, in 40 years, o f 70,000,
or 140 per cent. From this statement, it appears that the population dou­
bled in about 28 years.
In 1759, the whole population o f New England is supposed to have been
345.000, o f which—
Massachusetts h ad... . . . . . . .
200,000 I Rhode Island had......................
New Hampshire...........................
30,000
|
Connecticut.

35,000
80,000

which would give an increase, in 49 years, o f 225,000, or nearly 200 per
cent. This gives nearly the same rates o f increase between 1700 and 1749,
as there was between 1660 and 1 7 0 0 ; and it also gives nearly the same
rate of increase in each o f the four colonies— that o f Connecticut being the
smallest, and that o f Rhode Island the largest.
This is, however, but an estimate o f the population, though probably
nearly correct. In 1730, a census was taken in Rhode Island, by which it
appears that the whole population was then 17,935, o f which 15,302 were
whites, 985 were Indians, and 1,648 were negroes. I f the population, in
1750, had become 35,000, as was estimated, it must have doubled in about
20 years.
In 1735, a valuation in Massachusetts was taken, by wliich it appears its
white male inhabitants o f 16 years o f age, and upward, was 35,427, which
would give an entire population o f 140,000.
In 1752, the ratable polls were 41,000, which would give a population o f
165.000.
A t the beginning o f the old French W ar, in 1754, the population o f New
England was about 420,000, and in 1763 it is supposed to have increased to
500.000. During this year, a census o f Massachusetts was taken, and the
whole white population was 235,810, and 5,214 blacks. This includes about
20,000 in the district of Maine.
In 1762, a census o f Connecticut was taken, by which it appears that there
was 151,000 whites, and 4,590 blacks, in that State.
In 1775, at the beginning o f the Revolution, the population o f New Eng­
land was as follow s:—
New Hampshire had...................
Massachusetts................ .............
Rhode Island................................

80,000
345,000
60,000

Connecticut had.................
Making, in all.....................

200,000
---------685,000

being an increase o f 270,000 in 20 years, or 65 per cent.
Estimates and censuses were made at the close o f the war in 1783, by
which it appeared that the increase o f population, for the nine years previous,
had been about 20,000.
On the adoption o f the Federal Constitution, a new census was taken, b y
which it appears that in 1790, the whole population o f the New England
vol. x xi. — no. v i.
41




10,000

642

1

P opu lation o f N ew England.

States was 1,009,522, o f which 3,886 were slaves— 2,764 o f whom were in
Connecticut.
This would give an increase o f population from 1775 to 1790, o f 325,500,
equal to 471 per cent.
In 1800, the population was 1,233,011, making an increase, for ten years,
o f 233,589, or a trifle more than 23 per cent.
In 1810, the whole population was 1,491,973, making an increase, for
ten years, o f 258,973, or 21 per cent.
In 1820, it was 1,659,808, making an increase, in ten years, o f 167,836,
or a little above 11 per cent.
In 1830, the whole population was 1,955,704, making an increase, in ten
years, o f 304,909, or 18-i per cent.
In 1840, the population was 2,233,950, making an increase o f 278,691,
or 141 per cent, in ten years.
From the above, it will be seen that the greatest increase o f the per centage o f population under the Federal Government, has been between the
years 1790 and 1800, and the least between 1810 and 1820, and the great­
est actual increase was.between the years 1820 and 1830.
It will be seen that the increase o f population, from 1700 to 1750, was
nearly 200 per cent, and from 1750 to 1800, 250 per cent, and from 1830
to 1840, about 82 per cent, which would be equal to about 100 per cent for
50 years.
The increase o f population, from 1750 to 1800, was 883,000, and from
1800 to 1840, it was 1,000,000, showing a greater actual increase, but a
much less per centage.
A t the same rate o f increase for the next half century, which has actually
taken place in the last 50 years, the population o f New England, at the ex­
piration o f it, will be 5,000,000.
B y the last census, the number o f inhabitants to a square mile, in Massa­
chusetts, was 98 ; in Bhode Island, 8 0 ; Maine, 16 ; New Hampshire, 31 ;
Vermont, 31 ; and Connecticut, 66. W ere the whole o f New England
densely peopled, as in Massachusetts, it would have a population o f above

6, 000, 000.
The rate o f increase has been different, in the different States. That of
Maine has been, for each ten years the last fifty years, 50, 50, 31, 33, and 25
per cent.
That o f New Hampshire has been 29, 17±, 18, 10, 16>J- per cent.
That o f Vermont has been 80, 40, 8, 18J, and 4 per cent.
That o f Massachusetts has been 131, 12, 11, 17, and 19-’ - per cent.
That o f Connecticut has been 6, 4, 5, 8, and 4-J- per cent.
That o f Rhode Island has been i , 11, 8, 17, and 111 per cent.
It will be seen that during the last ten years, the greatest increase has been
in Maine, and the least in Vermont. During the first ten o f the last fifty
years, it was the greatest in Vermont, and the least in Rhode Island. Mas­
sachusetts stands next to Maine, in its ratio o f increase.
The rate o f increase in each o f the New England States will probably
hereafter be relatively more uniform than heretofore. The same causes which
will promote the prosperity o f one, will operate upon all. Maine and V er­
mont will no longer have the advantage, as before, o f being new States. The
establishment o f manufactories in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connec­
ticut, has had a tendency to change the tide o f emigration, and its present
tendency is rather to, than from , the old States. The more intimate connec­




P opulation o f N ew E ngland.

643

tion now made between them, by means o f railroads, will tend to give them
a more uniform prosperity, and to develope more equally tbeir resources.
The change, however, from an agricultural to a manufacturing people, has
undoubtedly had a tendency to increase the growth o f large towns and cities
at a greater rate than the country. Boston affords a good illustration o f this
fa ct:—
In 1700
1722
1742
1752
1765
1790

her population was__
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................

7,000 In 1800 .....................
10,567
1 8 1 0 .....................
16,382
1820 ..................... ...............
17,574
1830 ..................... ...............
15,520
1840 ..................... ...............
18,088

43,298
61,392
93,470

The increase from 1700 to 1750, was about 100 per cent, and from 1750
to 1800, about 46 per cent— while the increase o f New England, during the
same period, was 250 per cent. The increase o f Boston did not equal that
o f the State, or o f New England, till 1790. Since that time, and until 1820,
its rate o f increase was some greater than that o f Massachusetts, or New
England. From 1820 to 1840, its increase was about 110 per cent, while
that o f all New England was only about 33 per cent.
The rate o f increase o f the New England population, for the last 40 years,
has been little more than that o f some o f the old countries in Europe. From
1801 to 1811, England gained 144 per cent, and W ales and Scotland 13
per cent each. From 1811 to 1821, the gain o f England was 18 per cent,
and in Scotland, 15-f. Germany is said to have increased about 1£ per cent
per annum, since the peace o f Europe, and such is supposed to have been
nearly the increase in France.
The above facts show that notwithstanding the great emigration from New
England, and more especially for the last 50 years, and notwithstanding the
constant wars in which she was engaged, for a century and a half from the
time o f her settlement, and the consequent drain upon her population caused
b y it, yet she has made constant progress in her numbers, as well as in her
wealth, and in the extension o f her enterprise. It was said by Burke, more
than 60 years ago, in speaking o f the people o f New England, “ that there
was no sea that was not vexed by their fisheries, and no climate that was
not a witness to their toils.” Since then, her own population, now living
and laboring on the soil, has nearly quadrupled, while, at the same time,
she has been sending forth emigrant after emigrant, and colony after
colony, spreading themselves over every portion o f the country, and forming
no unimportant part o f the population o f half o f the States o f the Union.
N or is this progressive growth likely to cease, at least for centuries to come.
Never was there a time when more successful efforts were making for the
development o f her resources, nor when her sons had stronger reasons to be
attached to her hills and vallies, and to the institutions which have made ,
them glorious and worthy the residence o f freemen.
Hutchinson tells us that the only regret expressed by many o f the fathers
o f New England, in closing their earthly career, was, that they could not live
to see her future glory 1 May not we— nay, may not generations yet to
come, express the same regret, and not live to see her greatest and noblest
triumphs ?




Commercial Code o f Spain.

644

Art. IS.— C O M M E R C I A L C O D E OF S P A I N .
NUM BER

X.

CONCERNING PERSONS WHO MAY INTERVENE IN MARITIME COMMERCE.

Section 1st. O f Navieros, or the Managing Owners o f Ships, or the
person who controls their destination.
This person is called an Exercitor in the Civil Law, and in the English
Law usually denominated the ship’s husband. H e may be a part owner or
a stranger. See Bell’s Law o f Scotland, p. 449. In the Spanish law he is
called a Naviero, which term we shall adopt in our translation. D e L o-N aviero.
A rticle 616. N o person shall be a Naviero, who does not possess the le­
gal capacity which the exercise o f commerce demands.
617. A ll Navieros must be necessarily enrolled in the registration o f com ­
merce, within the province where they reside, and without this requisite they
cannot control their ship for navigation.
618. To the Naviero, personally, pertains to make all the respective con­
tracts concerning the vessel, its administration, its freights, its voyages, and
the captain and mate o f the ship ought to conform themselves to the in­
structions and orders which they receive from the Naviero, being responsible
for whatever they may do in contravention o f such orders and instructions.
619. Also it corresponds to the Naviero to nominate to them, the captain o f
the ship, but if he should have part owners in the part o f the vessel,
said appointments shall be made by a majority o f all the part owners.
620. The Navieros can, for themselves, discharge the offices o f captain and
mate o f their own vessel, without being prevented by the objection o f any
part owner, at least by one who has not been matriculated, which gratifica­
tion shall confer a preference.
In case o f two part owners, who have both been matriculated, concurring
to solicit such appointment or command o f the vessel, he who holds the
greatest interest in the vessel shall be preferred ; and if both hold an equal
portion in the vessel, it shall be determined by lot who shall have the com­
mand o f the vessel.
621. The Naviero is responsible for the debts and obligations which the
captain o f the ship may contract for repairing her, fitting her out, and fur­
nishing her with provisions : and he cannot avoid this responsibility by al­
leging that the captain exceeded his powers, or acted contrary to his orders
and instructions.
Always it being understood that the creditor shall justify himslf that the
amount for which he demands payment was employed for the benefit o f the
ship.
622. Also there shall fall upon the Naviero the responsibility o f the in­
demnifications in favor o f a third party, which may have been occasioned by
the conduct o f the captain, in custody o f the effects which have been
loaded into the vessel by the Naviero, but he can save himself from this re­
sponsibility by making an abandonment o f the vessel, with the whole o f her
appurtenances and height, which have been earned on the voyage.
623. The Naviero is not responsible for any contract which the captain has
made for his own particular benefit, although the captain has made use o f
the ship for its fulfillment.




Commercial Code o f Spain.

645

N or for the obligation 'which the captain may have contracted outside o f
the limits o f his functions, without a special authority to do so— nor for those
contracts which the captain may have made without the solemnities prescribed
b y the laws as conditions essential for their validity.
624. Neither is the Naviero held responsible for the excesses which, dur­
ing the navigation, the captain and ship’s company may com m it; and a right
only is had on account o f these excesses to proceed against the persons and
goods o f those who shall commit these faults.
625. The Naviero shall indemnify the captain for all the supplies which
he shall furnish for the use o f the ship, with his own funds, or those o f other
persons, always when he shall have acted according to his instructions, or in
use o f the powers which legitimately are competent.
626. Before the sailing o f the vessel, the Naviero can dismiss, at his
pleasure, the captain and individuals composing the ship’s company, when
the hiring shall not be made for any particular time, or determined voyage,
paying them their wages which they have earned, according to their contract,
and without any other indemnification than what shall be founded in an ex­
pressed and determined agreement.
627. The captain, and any other individual o f the ship’s comyany, being
discharged during the voyage, shall be paid their salary until they return to
the port where they were hired and shipped, unless they shall have commit­
ted a fault which may have given a just cause for discharging them, or may
have incapacitated them for discharging their duties.
628. W h en the agreement o f the captain and the individuals o f the ship’s
company, with the Naviero, shall be made for a determinate time or voyage,
they cannot be discharged until the completion o f their contracts, except for
cause o f insubordination, o f a grave and dangerous nature, habitual drunk­
enness, or damage caused to the vessel or her cargo, by deceit or negligence,
manifest or proved.
629. The captain o f the ship being a part owner in the vessel, cannot be
discharged, unless the Naviero shall reimburse the value o f his portion solicial, which, in defect o f an agreement between the parties, shall be estimated
by skillful persons named by both parties, or officially, if they shall not make
a verification o f it.
630. I f the captain who is part owner has obtained command o f the ves­
sel b y a special agreement in the acts o f the company, he cannot be deprived
o f his station, without a grave cause.
631. The Naviero cannot contract for nor admit more cargo on board than
what corresponds to the capacity which shall be declared to his ship in her
matriculation, and if he should do this, he shall be responsible for the damages
which may residt to the shippers.
632. I f a Naviero should contract for more cargo than what the vessel
ought to carry, with reference to her capacity, he shall indemnify the ship­
pers with whom he has failed to fulfill their contracts, for all the damages
which has happened to them by the want o f such fulfillment.
633. Every contract between the Naviero and the captain fails in case of
the sale o f the vessel, reserving to the latter his rights for indemnification,
which shall correspond to him according to the stipulated agreement with
the Naviero.
The vessel being sold, shall remain obligated as security for the payment
o f this indemnification, if, after a demand has been made against the seller,
he should turn out to be insolvent.
a. k.




646

M ercantile Law Cases.

MERCANTILE LAW CASES.
AGENTS AND FACTORS.

Superior Court, New York. Before Hon. L. H. Sanford, and a jury. J. & R.
Milbank & Co. vs. A. Dennistonn & Co.
This was an action for the misconduct o f the defendants, as agents o f the
plaintiffs, in their sale o f 5,000 barrels o f flour, at Liverpool, in the summer o f
1846. T he allegations were, that the sale was in violation o f orders, and also
that it was not made with reasonable care and diligence.
Milbank & Co., who were merchants at New York, with a branch o f their
house at New Orleans, on the 25th o f June, 1646, wrote to Dennistonn & Co.,
at Liverpool, having a branch o f their house at New York, announcing tw o ship­
ments o f flou r; one o f 5,000 barrels, by ship Nicholas Biddle, and 3,000 barrels
by the Georgians, both then on their voyage from New Orleans to Liverpool.
Referring to arrangements intended by them with Dennistonn’s New Y ork house,
Milbank & Co. w rite:— “ Y ou will please make no disposition o f the flour, until
w e give you ourwishes per Caledonia, unless 22s. in bond is obtainable; in which
case, if, in your judgment, you deem it our interest to accept that figure, please
do so. Our R. W . Milbank designs visiting your city soon, and we trust our
correspondence may be extended.”
T he Caledonia, sailing soon afterwards, took out another letter from Milbank
& Co., to Dennistonn & Co., dated 27th June, in which, enclosing invoices o f the
tw o shipments, and alluding to the good quality and condition o f the flour, they
write as fo llo w s :— “ W e fear the first introductions for consumption may tend to
continue low prices, as they will probably be large immediately on the passage o f
the new bill. Believing that after the stocks now in bond shall have been reduced
by consumption, &c., an improvement may ensue, w e would express our desire
that these parcels may be withheld from the market until the operation o f the
Corn Law shall have produced its results. W e hope w e may not err in assum­
ing its passage. Though if 22s. in bond is obtainable on arrival, and you think
our interest dictates such sale, please so dispose o f it. Our R . W . Milbank de­
signs visiting your city, by steamer o f the 16th o f July, and will confer with you.”

R. W . Milbank was detained until the middle o f August, and did not reach
Liverpool until the 4th o f September.
Dennistonn & Co., on the 18th o f July, acknowledged the receipt o f Milbank’s
letters, and that the Nicholas Biddle, with 5,000 barrels, had arrived. They w rite:
— “ Y ou seem to think that 22s. per barrel should be taken for it in b on d ; but
this is 25s. free, at present, and this figure is not obtainable for New Orleans
flour. I f o f good quality, and sweet, 24s. might be obtained. In tw o days w e
hope to get a sample, and have it valued; but as we have little expectation o f
getting an offer at the price you allude to, w e shall likely store the flour, and
await the arrival o f Mr. R . W . Milbank, with whom we can confer as to the fu­
ture proceedings.”
On the 3d o f August, Dennistonn & Co. inform Milbank & Co. o f the arrival
o f the Georgians, with the 3,000 barrels. They proceed:— “ W e much fear that
this shipment, as well as that per Nicholas Biddle, will disappoint y o u ; as, in
com mon with almost all the flour from the Gulf, this year, if not sour, it will only
bring the price o f sour. Our market has been at a stand for some days; but as
the last tw o or three days have been unsettled, there may possibly be some activ­
ity to-morrow.”
Accompanying the letter was a circular, in which, after stating the dullness o f
the grain market, the commencement and favorable appearance o f the harvest in
England, they say that “ Indian corn had risen in price, in consequence o f very
alarming accounts o f a blight o f the potatoe crop in Ireland.”
The cargo o f the Nicholas Biddle was put in charge o f a brother at Liverpool,




M ercantile L aw Cases.

647

on the 21st o f July. The ship began discharging July 27th, and the flour was
put in store.
On the 4th, 5th, and 7th o f August, the 5,000 barrels ex Nicholas Biddle were
all sold at 21s., duty paid.
On the 18th o f August Dennistonn &. Co. announce the sale, but state that in
consequence o f a rise in the market, owing to the harvest in England turning out
badly, and the continued information, both from England and Ireland, o f the
blight o f the potatoe, they regretted the sale, and that they should hold the
Georgiana’s cargo, which, they hoped, would make up the deficiency.
On receiving news o f the sale, Milbank & Co. refused it, and complained that
their orders had not been conformed to.
Previously, however, on the 31st o f July, the Milbanks at New York wrote to
Messrs. Dennistonn:— “ W e suppose that, ere this, the crop o f wheat has been
ascertained as to its probable yield, and the grain and flour market conformed to such
results. W e therefore ask you to exercise your discretion in effecting sales for
us.” This letter arrived at Liverpool during an excitement produced by bad
weather and potatoe blight, say August 12th.
The cargo o f the Georgiana was proved to be in the same condition, and o f
the same quality as that by the Nicholas Biddle. It was kept till the end o f Sep­
tember, and then, and in October, it was sold at 29s., and 29s. 9d. per barrel.
The Corn Law went into operation on the 27th o f June.
The plaintiffs claimed that they had lost the difference between this price and
that for which the Nicholas Biddle’s cargo was sold, by the defendants’ selling the
latter as they did; insisting that the same was unwarranted by the orders, and
was negligent.
The defendants sold some similar flour o f their own, about the time o f the
sale o f the Nicholas Biddle’s flour, at the same price, and gave evidence that the
rise o f price was not contemplated at the time o f that sale. No bad faith was in
any manner imputed to the defendants.
By the account current, including the proceeds o f the sales o f the cargoes, the de­
fendants were charged with advances on the 14th o f July, due on the 15th o f Septem­
ber, leaving a balance o f about $1,400, which the defendants paid, and also they ten­
dered and paid into court about $180, accruing from some small items o f account
between the parties. The sales o f the flour ex Nicholas Biddle, yielded about
$2 30 per barrel, and the loss, according to the price o f the flour ex Georgiana,
was about $9,500.
Mr. L o r d , on part o f the plaintiff, contended, 1st. That the orders to sell were
to depend on the results o f the Corn L aw ; that the letters o f the plaintiffs plainly
showed the expectation o f a fall in the prices, as a first result, but a rise as soon
as the stocks thus thrown on the market should have been decreased by consump­
tion ; and there was no evidence that any such result had happened, or had been
waited for. That the defendants’ determination to store the flour, expressed on
the 18th o f July, and actually carried into effect by storing the cargo, begun to
be landed on the 27th o f July, and which could but just have been got into store
by the 4th o f August, when the sales were made, showed the defendants’ own
judgment that the time for selling, indicated by the plaintiffs’ orders, had not ar­
rived. 2d. That under these circumstances, the sale was evidently made through
inattention and neglect. There was no necessity calling for the sale. One o f
the Milbanks was announced as on his passage, who should have been waited for
before a sale, so much below expectation, was made. That the defendants, in
their correspondence, put the subsequent rise o f price on the potatoe blight, and
the short harvest; which potatoe blight had been announced by the defendants
themselves, in their letter o f the 3d o f August, the very day before the sale;
which letter also contained statements showing the harvest in England yet to be
doubtful. That these facts, in connection with the absence o f any intimation, on
the 3d o f August, o f the purpose o f selling, and the sale immediately made on
the 4th o f August, gave satisfactory evidence that the defendants had wholly
neglected the matter, and had left it all to the brokers, who had sacrificed the
property.




648

M ercantile Law Cases.

Mr. B idw ell , for the defendants, insisted that the orders were not explicit; and,
in the absence o f all imputation o f bad faith, the fact o f the defendants’ selling
was p roof that they took them, not to restrain them from selling, and that for
such honest mistake, even if such, they were not responsible. That the results
o f the Corn Law had taken place when the sale was m ade; it had been in opera­
tion more than a month, and all the Liverpool witnesses examined by the defend­
ants proved that the eifect was to reduce the prices. That the rise o f prices
afterwards was not a result o f the Corn Law, but o f the potatoe blight, and de­
ficient harvest, which both became known only after the sale. That the potatoe
blight mentioned in the letter o f the 3d o f August was in Ireland only, and it
was not then affecting the English flour and grain m arket; that the sale was made
b y a competent broker, in the way proved to be usual, and was justified by the
opinions o f the experienced witnesses who had been examined.
S a n d f o r d , Justice.— After stating the several dates and material facts, and the
contents o f the letters, charged the ju ry :—

That the letters o f the 25th and 27th o f June were orders to withhold the
flour from market until the results o f the Corn Law, then expected to be passed,
should be known, unless 22s. in bond could be obtained. T h e defendants, re­
ceiving the consignment, accompanied, at the time, with these instructions, were
bound to obey them. Did they obey them ?

What were the results meant by the plaintiffs’ letter ? It appears that in ex­
pectation of the Corn Law, large stocks o f bread stuffs had accumulated in Eng­
land in bond, in expectation o f the reduction o f duty. This was known to the
defendants, and, as appears by the letters o f the plaintiffs, was supposed by them also.
The letters express the expectation o f the immediate results being a fall o f pri­
ces, but that the further results would be a rise, from the consumption being in­
creased, and shipments, in the face o f low prices, being diminished; that a reac­
tion would take place. The plaintiffs insist that this was the result to which the
letters referred. The defendants insist, that the immediate results were referred
to, and that they had taken place before the sale. It is for the jury to say,
under the facts known to the defendants, how they ought to have understood the
letters in these respects, as men o f reasonable skill and knowledge o f business.
If they were warranted in understanding the letters as they contend, they would
not be liable. I f not, they will be liable, unless it appears that time had been
given for the results, according to the plaintiffs’ construction o f the letters. There
does not seem to be proof that it had. If, on this part o f the case, you find that
the defendants violated instructions, then they are liable, and you need not further
consider the case.
But if the plaintiffs have not satisfied you o f this, then they place their claim
on the ground o f the defendants’ negligence, inattention, and want o f skill in
making the sale when they did. As factors, the defendants were bound for good
faith, and reasonable skill and diligence, such as a prudent man managing his own
affairs would exhibit. Exhibiting this, they would not be liable for mere error o f
judgment. The sale o f their own flour, at the same time, and for a similar price,
is evidence as to their good faith, which, indeed, is not denied; but it is not evi­
dence o f their skill or dilligence, for they may exhibit a want o f these in their
own business.
It is for you to decide, upon the whole evidence, whether such skill and dili­
gence have been bestowed on this sale. On the one hand, it is in proof, by some
o f their witnesses, that the price o f breadstuffs was declining; that the results o f
the Corn Law had been to depress them ; that the prospect o f the new crop was
favorable. On the other hand, are the plaintiffs’ letters o f the 25th and 27th o f
June, showing their wishes to hold on to the flour, the expected arrival, in a short
time, o f one o f the plaintiffs at Liverpool, with whom they might con fer; the in­
creased consumption to arise from a reduction o f prices, the diminution o f im­
ports, the potatoe blight, as then known, the landing and storing o f the goods,
and the sale so nearly follow ing on it. A ll these circumstances on each side, bear
on the question, and you are to say if the defendants, in this sale, acted as a pru­
dent man would have acted in the management o f his own affairs; if they have,
they are not liable; if not, they are.




M ercantile Law Cases.

649

If, on either o f the grounds, the defendants are liable, it is then for you to say
when the sale should have been made, so as to determine the price at which the
plaintiffs’ damages are to be assessed. They claim that the sale o f the cargo o f
the Georgiana shows the time and the price. Perhaps that is a fair criterion, as
the plaintiffs actually did hold this cargo, and the results are given to you. Bu t
this is a question for you.
The jury found for the plaintiffs, and assessed their damages, inclusive o f the
amount tendered, and also allowing interest, at §11,136 37.

LIABILITIES OF RAILROADS.

H. C o r n in g . The Connecticut River Railroad Company had
recently the amount o f $9,040 damages awarded against them at the recent trial
in favor o f E. H. Corning, E sq , for personal injury sustained while a jiassenger
in one o f the cars o f the Company. The facts are thus stated:—
At the time o f the accident, the engine which did the mischief, and which was
running on trial, without any cars attached, was running about fifteen miles an
hour, but the down train had so nearly stopped that it was moving at a very slow
rate. No other persons beside Mr. E. H. Corning were much injured.
The plaintiff did not experience much immediate inconvenience from his bruises. ‘
He came down to Springfield, went about town some time, attended to his
business the next day, went to church the day following, it being Sunday, and
some weeks after took a journey by railroad to Greenfield, and on his return,
went from Northampton to Chicopee Falls by way o f Amherst, in a private con­
veyance.
During the whole of this time, however, he suffered more or less inconvenience.
Soon after, his sufferings increased, and his symptoms grew more alarming, and
he has since been wholly incapacitated to attend to his ordinary business, and he
has been under medical treatment. He has had palpitation o f the heart, a high
pulse, dizziness, and one o f his eyes and one o f his legs have been seriously af­
fected.
His attending physician did not, at first, deem his case alarming, nor was the
plaintiff himself, nor his friends, much concerned about it. Several medical wit­
nesses were called during the trial, and they all seemed to agree that the best
course for the plaintiff, at the outset, would have been to keep still and quiet, and
be careful about his diet, but that the prescriptions actually made for him were
wise, under the circumstances, considering how little was then known about his
real condition, compared with what was developed by subsequent symptoms.
The Court instructed the jury that they were to view the plaintiff’s constitu­
tion as it was when the suit was commenced, which was on the 21st o f August
last, and not as it is at the present time. They were to award such damages as,
in their opinion, would compensate him, so far as dollars and cents could do, for
the injuries received. They were not to pay any attention to the fact that he
might be a poor man, and the defendants a rich corporation, but consider only
what amount of damage has been done, and what amount o f money would pay
for it. The golden rule had nothing to do with the case, for if juries were to do
as they would be done by, it would be impossible ever to get a man hung’.
C ase

of

E zra

ACTION TO RECOVER OF SURETIES FOR BONDS GIVEN FOR FAITHFUL PERFORMANCE
OF TRUSTS.

In the Supreme Judicial Court o f Massachusetts, 1849, Edward G. Loring,
Judge o f Probate, vs. Simon Willard. Same vs. W o . Bacon.
These were two suits against two different sureties, on two different bonds,
given for the faithful performance o f his duties, by Charles Fox, guardian o f John
W . Furness, a minor. The bond on which Willard was surety was given May
23d, 1832. In June, the guardian represented to the Judge o f Probate that a
legacy o f $500 had been bequeathed to the ward, and that as the penalty o f the




050

M ercantile Law Cases.

first bond was merely nominal, the bond was insufficient security. The Judge
accordingly ordered a new bond, in the penal sum o f $1,000, which was given ac­
cordingly, with Mr. Bacon as surety. The former bond was not cancelled. The
legacy was paid into the guardian’s hands. The guardian duly accounted for the
interest up to the year 1838. In 1838, it appeared that he had neglected to ac­
count for the funds in his hands, and the Judge, at the instance o f the adminis­
trator o f the ward, ordered the bonds to be put in suit.
M e t c a l f J., delivered the opinion o f the Court. It was objected, 1st, that the
legacy to the ward was not a vested legacy, or one which the ward was entitled
to receive, and that the guardian was not bound to account for it. But the same
question came up in a former suit, in which the present administrator o f the ward,
as executor o f the testator, sued Fox, the guardian, to recover back the legacy.
That case, Furness vs. Fox, was decided in 1848, and it was there held that the
legacy belonged to the ward. The guardian was clearly bound to account for it ;
and his failure to do so was a breach o f the bond.' 2d, It was contended, that the
second bond was void, because the Judge had no right to require i t ; and that the
first bond was void, because it was superseded by the second. The Court, how­
ever, were clearly o f opinion that both bonds were valid. Whether the Judge
could have required the second bond if objected to at that time by the guardian,
it was not now necessary to decide; though it would seem that there ought to
be such a power, where an insufficient bond was taken in the first instance. But
here, the guardian o f his own motion suggested that the first bond was insuffi­
cient, and the execution o f the bond by the surety was entirely voluntary. There
is no legal objection to filing several bonds with a single surety on each. The
filing o f a second bond 'does not impair the first, judgment for the plaintiff
against each defendant, for the penalty o f their respective bonds; with liberty to
the defendants to be heard in chancery as to the amount; each defendant to con­
tribute towards the satisfaction o f the amount, in proportion to the penalty o f their
respective bonds.
QUESTION OF SIGNATURE.

In the Court o f Common Pleas (Boston, Mass.), before Judge Perkins (August,
1849), Churchill vs. Donaldson.
This was a suit originally commenced in the Justice’s Court, to recover the
price o f a bureau, claimed to have been sold and delivered to the defendant.
Jpdgment was entered against the plaintiff in the Justice’s Court, and ho appealed.
When the case was first taken up in the Court o f Common Pleas, the plaintiff
called, as a witness, his clerk, who swore to the sale and delivery o f the bureau.
The defendant’s counsel, on cross-examination, handed this witness a bill o f par­
cels, purporting to be signed by Wm. Churchill, and on inquiry, the witness pro­
nounced the signature to be Wm. Churchill’s. The bill o f parcels was receipted,
and contained the charge for the bureau. The plaintiff declared himself surprised
by this evidence, and asked for delay on that ground; and the Court granted him
a continuance.
At the next term the cause was tried. The same witness was called, and tes­
tified that the signature was not Churchill’s. Both parties produced signatures
to different papers purporting to be Wm. Churchill’s, and went to the jury on a
comparison o f handwriting. The jury, after being out some time, came in for
instructions, saying, through their foreman, that they were satisfied that many o f
the specimens that had been produced by the witnesses were not Churchill’s hand­
writing, but that they were equally certain that the signature at the bottom was
executed by the same hand that wrote the capping to the bill; and they requested
to be instructed, whether, if they believed that the signature was executed by
Churchill’s clerk, it was to have the same force and effect as if executed by
Churchill. The Court told the jury that there was no evidence that it was exe­
cuted by Churchill’s clerk, and took the papers from the jury and dismissed them.
At this term, the case came up again for trial. The same clerk was on the
stand, and testified to the sale and delivery o f the bureau. On cross-examination,




Commercial Chronicle and Review .

651

he testified that the hill was made in Churchill’s store, and issued therefrom.
There was other testimony in the case, to the effect that money had been paid by
the defendant to the plaintiff. Both parties avoided asking the clerk whether the
signature to the bill was Churchill’s, evidently considering it unsafe on either side
to do s o ; the defendant fearing he would say “ no,” and the plaintiff being aware
that if he said “ no,” he would be asked if he had not before said “ yes.”
The defendant contended, that, as the bill was made in, and issued from,
Churchill’s store, and the handwriting o f thp signature resembled that o f the
capping o f the bill, and no claim was made for the other articles in the bill besides
the bureau, and some money had been paid, the jury might infer that Churchill
had issued the receipted bill as a genuine receipt, and that he had been paid.
The jury returned a verdict for the defendant.

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.
T H E M ONEY M A R K E T — BANKS OF N E W Y O R K

1848— R E C E I P T S

O F C A L IF O R N IA

GOLD A T

C I T Y — E X P O R T O F U N IT E D S T A T E S S T O C K S F R O M
TH E

U N IT E D

S P E C IE F R O M N E W Y O R K A N D B O S T O N F O R L A S T T E N
OF N E W Y O R K FROM

1847 T O 1849—

STATES

M IN T — I M P O R T S

AND

1842 T O

EXPORTS

OF

M O N T H S — M O V E M E N T O F S P E C IE A T T H E P O R T

U N I T E D S T A T E S R E V E N U E A N D E X P E N D IT U R E — B U S IN E S S O F T H E

P O R T O F N E W Y O R K F O R T E N M O N T H S — I N C R E A S E O F I M P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S OF T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S
— B R E A D S T U F F S E N T E R E D F O R C O N S U M P T IO N IN G R E A T B R IT A I N F O R

1849— S A L E S

OF C O T T O N IN L I V ­

E R P O O L — I N C R E A S I N G D E M A N D F O R C O R N — P R I C E S O F F A R M P R O D U C E IN G R E A T B R IT A I N — B A N K S OF
N E W O R L E A N S — T H E G E N E R A L A S P E C T O F B A N K IN G C A P IT A L — A N N U A L A R R I V A L S OF IM M IG R A N T S A T
T H E P O R T O F N E W Y O R K F O R T H I R T Y Y E A R S — E M I G R A T I O N T O C A L IF O R N I A , E T C ., E T C .

T h e general state o f prosperity which we alluded to in our last number, has
been undisturbed by any conflicting elements. The money market remains quite
easy, and good short paper is rather in demand than otherwise. The general
prosperity o f business has been such as to keep the merchants o f the city well
supplied with funds, and the deposits o f the city banks show an unusual
amount on hand. The quarterly returns o f the' banks, as ordered by the con­
troller, give the leading features, as follow s:—
BANKS OF N E W YO EK CITY.

Loans.

September SO, 1848.
December 31, 1848.
February
9, 1849.
June
30, 1849.
September 22, 1849.

Specie.

Circulation.

Deposits.

Balances
due banks.

$40,097,890 $4,740,847 $5,726,891 $20,353,365 $4,337,134
41,031,247 5,850,424 5,783,498 21,443,148 5,528,941
43,521,441 4,523,775 5,460,399 22,928,554 5,864,022
48,515,471 9,586,308 5,539,572 27,227,134 9,804,973
49,922,265 8,022,246 5,990,100 28,482,228 8,536,794

These figures present an extraordinary increase in the leading items. Thus
the balances due banks, and the individual deposits, are, together, $12,328,523 o f
means at the disposal o f the banks, more than at the same period last year; and
this has been employed $3,281,399, in specie, and $9,824,375 in increased loans,
which have gradually swollen in amount during the whole year. The large ex­
ports have paid for the considerable importations, and these have found remuner­
ating sales and prompt payment in the interior. The means thus placed at the
disposal o f the banks have been loaned so as to produce a constant excess o f
supply upon the market. That is to say, the amount o f money paid out by the
banks, on discounts, has constantly exceeded the amounts paid in on matured
paper, thus keeping the borrowers well supplied. It is however the case, that
the institutions have been wary in their movements, and no class o f paper similar




•

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

652

to those old long dated renewable notes, which laid the foundation o f a disas­
trous revulsion in by gone years, has found favor. The importations o f goods
have been very considerable, but have been paid for in produce, stocks, and
specie. The amount o f produce has much exceeded that o f last year, supplying
the bill market with good paper. This supply has been enhanced, however, by
the exportation o f United States stocks, o f which we learn from official resources
the amounts held abroad at the close o f September, was nearly as follows:—
Loan of
“
“
“

1842...........................
1843...........................
1846...........................
1841...........................

$110,313
466,300
512,100
5,310,530

Loan of 1848.......................
“ 1848, coupon.........

$4,891,150
8,500,000

Total XJ. S. st’k held abr'd

$20,391,593

This considerable amount, reaching nearly one-third part o f the whole federal
debt, has gone abroad, mostly in the last eighteen months greatly increasing the
supply o f bills; some specie has also been required, but not larger than the re­
ceipts from other quarters, mostly California, have been. The amount received
at the mint from that quarter is now, altogether, $3,800,000. The imports and ex­
ports o f specie from the ports o f New York and Boston, for ten months, ending
with October, are as follow s:—
Boston.

New York.

Total both ports.

Imports.....................................
Exports.....................................

$1,250,914
303,862

$3,559,183
4,024,519

$4,810,091
4,328,441

Excess of imports...........
“
exports...........

$841,052
...............

...............
$1,083,486

$490,656

The receipts from California and the United States mines, have exceeded this
by some millions. The money market o f New York, at this time last year, was
tight, and in our number for November, we had occasion to describe it as fol­
lows :—
“ The money market has been tight during the month, and many dealers in
New York and other cities have felt the pressure intensely; and lately it has be­
come facile. It has resulted from the course o f business during the past year,
that the indebtedness o f the city to the country, which was last year large, by
reason o f the moderate sales o f manufactured goods to the interior in return for
the immense quantities o f produce which came down for sale and export, is this
year reversed, and the city dealers have not been able to collect as largely as the
necessity o f meeting their own obligations required. The consequence was, a
great diminution in the amount on deposit with the several banks, leaving them
but little means to meet the usual demand for discount which arises from the
dealers in cotton and farm produce at the beginning o f a new crop year.”
The circumstances that induced an easy market in the fall o f 1848, again con­
spired to produce the same result this year. At that time, however, a consider­
able exportation o f specie sprang up, which drew heavily upon the banks o f the
city, at the same moment that the balances due the interior were rigorously called
for. The pressure thus produced was severe towards January, and a few small
banks suspended. This year the exportation o f specie has been checked by the
stock movement, and the inconvenience it might have occasioned, by the receipts
from California. The following table will show the monthly movement o f specie
at the port o f New York for two years:—




653

Commercial Chronicle and Review .
MOVEMENT OF SPECIE IN PORT OF N EW YORK, AUGUST

August,
1847
September, 1847
October,
1847
November, 1847
December, 1847
January,
1848
February, 1848
March,
1848
April,
1848
May,
1848
June,
1848
July,
1848
August,
1848
September, 1848
October,
1848
November, 1848
December, 1848
January,
1849
February, 1849
March,
1849
April,
1849
May,
1849
June,
1849
July,
1849
August,
1849
September, 1849
October,
1849

1, 1847. TO

NOVEMBER,

1849.

Specie in
Net
Net
Total
Assistant ^Specie
Import.
Export, export,
import. Duties,
demand. Treasury, in banks.
Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
Dollars. Dollars.
195,555
66,000
............... 3,337,341 3,207,786 3,521,763 .............
94,546 350,925
256,379
2,096,604 2,352,983 5,291,554 .............
100,773
674,548
573,775
1,213,983 1,787,758 1,893,908 .............
58,915 1,455,946 1,397,031
........ 1,024,766 2,421,797 ....................... .........
39,712 1,888,867 1,849,155
........
856,576 2,705,731
734,060 .............
48,030 1,183,517 1,135.485
........ 2,305,017 3,440,502 ................................
49,502 433,226 383,724
........ 2,416,497 2,800,221 ................................
22,781
452,507 429,726
1,553,003 1,982,729
536,754 6,722,326
65,917 1,180,422 1,124,505
........ 1,686,506 2,811,011 ................................
18,280 1,000,000 l,681f720
554,875 2,236,595
105,569 .............
69,532 1,871,972 1,802,440
1,143,497 2,945,937
159,036 6,751,338
64,631
744,983 680,352
1,794,236 2,474,588
199,958
......
133,855
331,031 197,176
2,533,343 2,730,520
563,312
......
197,098
501,445 304,347
2,119,571 2,423,918 1,433,387 4,740,847
127,998
832,423 704,425
1,328,833 2,033,258
855,330
......
104,971
482,156 377,185
1,122,549 1,499,734 2,223,593
......
70,488
365,878 295,350
806,620 1,101,970 1,184,931 5,850,424
57,700
122,582
64,882
1,911,465 1,976,347 1,277,303
......
21,322
106,851
85,529
2,070,447 2,155,976 1,693,790 4,523,775
130,895
86,506
44,3892,043,3951,999,006
1,822,091 .............
638.746
85,691
553,0551,497,445 964,390
1,917,470 ............
1,137,932
373,916
764,0161,452,617 688,601
1,863,081 ..........
122.746 596,411
473,665
1,347,898 1,821,563 1,701,972 9,586,308
327,007
138,353
188,6541,994,3601,815,706
1,234,097 ............
60,739
357,368 296,629
3,461,511 3,758,190 2.630,491
.......
489,485
326,384
163,1011.583,7131,420,612
3,701,0468.022,246
572,614 1,830,518 1,257,904
1,560,553 2,818,457 3,811,533
.......

The apparent movement at the port o f New York has been one o f continuous
efflux, according to these official custom figures, and yet the amount in the city,
including banks and assistant treasury, was, at the close o f September, 1849,
$11,723,292, being as large an amount as ever before accumulated in the city.
This as well as the export demand, has been supplied by the action o f commerce,
and it becomes all the more abundant, that its course is not restricted. On
the other hand the government action creates a current for it towards those
points where the largest commercial operations require the greatest payments
under the law. It happens under our system o f government, that the revenues
can seldom exceed the current expenditures, though this has been the case for
the quarter ending September 30, which forms the first quarter o f the fiscal year
1850. The revenue and expenditure o f the federal government, under leading
heads, have for five quarters been as follow s:—
UNITED STATES REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE, QUARTERLY.

,--------------------------------------------- Quarters ending------------------

Customs.........
Lands............
Miscellaneous.
Loans..............
Total rev’uc

Sept. 30, 1848. Dec. 31, 1848. March 31,18497 June 30, 1849. Sept. 30, 1849.
$8,991,935 $5,181,870 $8,374,628 $5,794,256 $11,450,000
494,498
482,209
389,566
279,685
370.000
934,269
133,211
2,181,350
63,500
175.000
7,599,950
3,734,500
10,127,200
5,004,000
1,246,500
$19,735,114 $14,211,348

$14,680,044 $11,141,490

$13,241,500

EXPENDITURE.

Civil...............
W ar................
N a v y .............
Interest..........
Loans. . . . . . .
Total..........

$3,371,231
8,064,851
2,979,022
181,176
3,268,850

$3,864,669
3,803,990
2,680,269
1,510,659
2,403,950

$2,873,030
2,498,259
2,091,291
167,308
3,510,208

$3,909,143
3,001,428
2,041,912
1,765,224
3,700,523

$2,678,760
3,302,315
2,052,435
34,499
842,176

$17,866,104 $14,263,517 $11,140,096 $14,418,230

$8,910,186

The ordinary revenue o f the quarter has exceeded the ordinary expenditure by




Commercial Chronicle and R eview .

654

$3,961,481, mostly derived from the large customs revenue. O f the loans re­
ceived and paid, $839,450 appears to be merely a funding of Treasury notes in the
coupon stock o f 1847, and the balance o f the loan o f 1848 was paid in apparently.
It will he observed that the customs revenues for the quarter September 30,
1849, exceeded those o f the corresponding period last year, by the sum o f
$2,458,000, or nearly 30 per cent. This is a larger amount than was received in
any quarter under the tariff o f 1842. The considerable importations which yield
these large revenues have sold well, and the stocks on the shelves o f Atlantic
merchants are quite small for the season. The means for purchasing such quan­
tities o f goods, in addition to the large manufactures o f domestic goods, were de­
rived from those exports o f breadstuffs to which in our last we alluded, as so far
exceeding those o f the previous year, added to an enormous crop o f cotton which
sold at advancing prices under the spur o f speculation, based upon short crop es­
timates as the season advanced.
The business o f the port o f New York for the ten months ending with Octo­
ber, has been, as compared with last year, as follow s:—
BUSINESS OF THE PORT OF N EW YO EK FOE TEN MONTHS.

1848.
1849.

Imports.
Specie.
Free.
Dutiable.
Total.
928,260 7,838,219 71,235,766 80,002,245
3,552,119 8,605,951 75,924,438 88,082,508

Increase . 2,623,859
Decrease..................

Specie.
9,886,749
4,026,579

767,732 4,688,972 8,080,343 .............
.................................................... 5,860,170

Exports.
Foreign. Domestic.
Total.
2,961,103 24,690,305 37,538,157
4,273,344 24,245,949 32,045,872
1,312,241
444,356

5,492,285

There has been an apparent increase o f imports o f $8,080,343, and a decrease
o f exports o f $5,492,285, making an apparent difference o f $13,580,000. This
state o f things was remarked upon in a New York daily print as indicative o f ap­
proaching revulsion, and appeals based on it were made to the fears o f the mer­
chants; a little examination shows that the decrease in exports is altogether
specie, brought about by a subsiding o f those elements o f distrust which existed
last year on the continent o f Europe, and o f the increased imports, $2,623,859, is
specie. The actual exportation o f goods from the port, is nearly $1,000,000
more than last year, and the importation o f goods to be paid for but $500,000,
increase, showing an apparent adverse balance o f but $4,000,000, instead o f
$13,580,000. This balance is apparent only because as the city o f New York
imports for the Union, and New Orleans exports for the Union, the bills o f
the latter are exported from New York in payment o f its imports. These with
stocks have been sufficient to sustain the commercial balance, and the excess o f
specie exported, is unimportant.
The importations o f breadstuffs into Great Britain for the year ending with
August, and showing the proportion sent from the United States, are seen in
the following table:—
BEEADSTUFFS ENTEEED FOE CONSUMPTION IN GREAT BRITAIN, YE AR ENDING AUGUST,

1849.

Export from U.
States to G. Britain,
same time.

W heat................ qrs.
B a rley.....................
O a ts.........................
R y e ...........................
Peas...........................




4,323,645 equal to bush.
1,323,827
“
1,221,883
“
220,829
“
266,475
“

33,589,160
10,588,616
9,774,664
1,766,836
2,131,800

$1,084,385
...............
...............
...............

Commercial Chronicle and Review .

655

Beans.........................
Indian corn...............
Flour.........................

531,177
2,281,283
1,002,393

“
“
“

4,249,416
18,298,264
8,019,144

T o t a l.-.................

11,177,512

“

89,420,096

.................
12,721,626
5,570,080
$19,375,091

These large supplies o f foreign breadstuffs consumed in Great Britain, in ad­
dition to the local crops, kept prices low, and with abundance o f money, favored
a large demand for manufactured goods. This favorable aspect o f the cotton
trade, combined with the growing quietude o f Europe, the brisk markets o f the
East, and the abundance o f money at home, early stimulated a speculation in
cotton.
The low price o f cotton doubtless induced a large actual consump­
tion, and induced many spinners to take advantage o f the cheapness o f money, to
lay in stock at those low prices. This naturally had a tendency to advance prices,
and the position o f affairs favored a simultaneous short crop cry, which has had the
effect o f sending prices to a point from which there must be a reaction. W e
find, from the Liverpool brokers’ circular, that the deliveries for consumption for
three years, ending January 1st, 1849, were 3,864,666 bales, or 24,773 per week;
but it should be borne in mind that the year 1847 was one in which short time
was extensively in operation, and that year should, consequently, be thrown out
o f the calculation. In 1846 and 1848, then, the total quantity delivered for con­
sumption was 2,839,478 bags, or 27,302 bags average per week. It appears, also,
that the quantity taken by spinners, January 1st to June 22d, 1849, was 31,115
bales per week, and from June 22d to August 17th, 46,616 bales per week. Say
January 1st to August 17th, 1,075,045 bales, against 857,970 in the same period
o f 1848. Now, notwithstanding that the low prices augmented the production o f
coarse yarns, that the actual improvements in machinery and increase o f spindles
enhanced the actual consumption, there is but little doubt that the stocks o f the
spinners were considerably augmented. The fact, however, that a United States
delivery of 2,700,000 bales had left a diminished stock o f raw material, while the
export returns showed a considerable increase in goods sent out o f the country,
naturally prepared the way for much activity on receipts from the United States,
o f estimates varying from 2,000,000 to 2,200,000 bales. The excitement which
prevailed is manifest in the following figures:—
SALES IN LIVERPOOL.

Prices o f fair, upland,
and Mobile.

Sales in week ending October 5 ................
“
“
“
12 .................
“
“
“
19 .................

28,990
116,770
191,009

5£ a . .
6 a ..
6 f a 6£

At the close o f the last week, accounts reached Liverpool, o f enlarged estimates
for the crop. Fine weather, it was stated, was remedying the alleged previous
damage, and the possibility o f a crop as large as the actual growth last year, was
hinted at. It was at once evidence that such crop, even with cheap food and
abundant money, could not be consumed at the high rates current, being nearly
100 per cent over those o f last year. The money market already began to feel
the influence o f the speculation, and the spinners, by falling back on their reserved
stocks, and checking purchases, had it in their power to bring on a disastrous re­
vulsion, and the market began to give way. It is possible that under the general
combination o f circumstances favorable to a large consumption, a crop o f 2,500,000




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

656

bales might not seriously have depressed prices, had not the speculation, by rais­
ing prices too high, checked the consumption, and thus subjected the market to
serious reaction. Many holders will doubtless realize in season, and the fact that
receipts at the ports are rapidly increasing, would show a desire, on the part o f
growers, to realize present rates.
The prospect o f an Irish demand for corn is improving, and also that the depend­
ence o f England, on foreign supplies, will gradually increase. The land mono­
poly o f England, by adding the item o f rent to be paid by the occupier and pro­
ducer, made requisite a tax on the foreign article, which should protect him against
the proprietary producers abroad, who had no rent to pay. The removal o f this
tax has now thrown directly upon the English farmer the whole burden o f his
rent, which was before borne by all consumers o f bread. This burden will be
enhanced, by the abrogation o f the navigation laws, which, by diminishing freights,
will make the competition between the cheap rentless lands o f other countries,
and the landlord burdened soil o f England, more severe, and, as a consequence,
much o f the poorer soils will be abandoned, while the expensive system o f cul­
ture before resorted to, to increase the quantity o f protected corn, must be relin­
quished as unprofitable. A considerable diminution in the product o f a good
English harvest, as compared with former years, may then freely be looked for.
W e have given above an official table o f the quantity o f food taken for consump­
tion in England, for the year ending August, 1849. That was in aid o f the har­
vest o f 1848, which was “ good,” but the accreable product, from causes alluded,
could not have been as large as usual. The result o f this is, that the small farm­
ers, with small crops at low prices, cannot meet tithes, taxes, poor-rates, and rent,
the last the most onerous; and their capital and numbers are annually diminishing,
swelling the numbers o f bread consumers in other employments. The diminished
means o f all the farmers prevent them from holding to the usual price in those months
which immediately succeed harvest. They are compelled to sell, to raise money,
and the lowest range o f prices for the year precedes January. These are circum­
stances likely annually to increase the English demands upon the United States
for food, the supply o f which will be facilitated by the removal o f the restraints
o f the navigation act. The products o f the lake States, as well as those o f the
soil watered by the tributaries o f the Mississippi, will find a market o f constantly
increasing capacity ; and the volume o f farm produce which will pour down the
Mississippi, may rival the value o f cotton and sugar at New Orleans. The move­
ment o f the banks at New Orleans have been as follows
BANKS OF NEW ORLEANS.

August, 1848.
June,
1849.
July,
1849.
August, 1849.
October, 1849.
October 7,1849

Loans.
$6,232,359
8,309,938
7,554,224
7,122,420
8,215,471
8,811,023

Specie.
$7,590,655
7,353,527
6,876,355
6,588,441
7,470,291
7,322,775

Exchange.
$3,005,193
6,049,623
4,801,067
3,103,984
1,924,273
1,722,948

Circulation.
$3,963,689
5,380,027
3,868,185
4,709,038
4,490,023
4,25e,300

Deposits.
$7,320,079
8,511,231
7,710,027
6,626,051
6,583,042
6,842,281

The specie held by the banks at that point has not varied much. The particu­
lar circumstances o f the Canal Bank caused a decrease in the figures, as shown
by that institution, for the month o f August. In consequence o f the mal-administration o f its affairs, a movement has been made, among leading stockholders, to
change the direction.




Commercial Chronicle and Review .
The general aspect is that o f great prosperity.

G5 7

The accumulation o f capital in

the country, continues very rapid, as well from influx from abroad, as from regular
earnings. There has now, for many years, not supervened one o f those seasons
o f speculation, the effects o f which are rapidly to consume accumulated capital,
as was the case some ten years since. There is a spirit o f great enterprise abroad,
however, which mostly takes the form o f building houses and railroads. These,
although they promote the transfer o f floating to fixed capital, yet they do not
curtail the volume o f the former to an extent greater than is probably made good
by the influx o f capital from abroad, as well in the hands o f immigrants, as for
employment. W hen we reflect that the arrivals at the port o f N ew York, for
the current year 1849, have already reached a number as large as the entire pop­
ulation o f the city, according to the census four years ago, say 350,000, w e may
form some idea o f the extraordinary rapidity with which the capital they bring
with them suffices to make profitable that invested in means o f communication
and improved avenues o f trade. I f these emigrants all go W est, their traveling
expenses alone will reach $6,000,000, scattered along the routes, and being speed­
ily taken up in the channels o f trade. In order to show the progress o f this im­
migration, w e have compiled the follow ing statement o f arrivals at the port o f
N ew York, for each o f the last thirty years:—
ANNUAL ARRIVALS OF IMMIGRANTS AT THE PORT OF NEW YORK.

Passen’s. Years.

Years.

1819...............
1820...............
1821...............
1822...............
1823...............
1824...............
1825...............
1826...............
1827...............
1828...............

9,442
4,420
4,452
4.811
4,999
5,452
8,779
9,764
22,000
19,023

Passen’s.

1829...............
1830...............
1831...............
1832...............
1833...............
1834...............
1835...............
1836...............
1837...............
1838...............

Years.

Passen’s.

1839...............
1840...............
1841...............
1842...............
1843...............
1844...............
1845...............
1846...............
1847...............
1848...............

48,152
62,795
57,337
74,949
46,302
61,002
82,960
115,230
166,110
191,909

392,878 Third 10 years

906,746
1,392,776

16,064
30,224
31,739
48,589
41,752
48,110
35,303
60,441
54,975
25,681

First 10 years
93,152 Second 10 y ’rs
Total in 30 years.......

T he arrivals for 1849 will be over 350,000. T he table gives the number at
N ew York only. In the year 1847, the arrivals in the United States were over
250,000, or 90,000 more than at New York. In 1848 they were nearly 300,000,
and this year may reach 500,000. A considerable proportion o f these are desti­
tute Irish. The British Emigrant Commissioners state that three-fourths o f the
expense o f the migration from Ireland is paid by friends in America, and this
circumstance, together with the competition o f the packet ships, has brought in­
creasing numbers to the United States. It is to be observed that by far the lar­
gest number who arrive leave the city, as thus— the arrivals, from 1840 to 1845,
were 302,385, and the population o f New York and Brooklyn, in that period, in­
creased b y 80,000. The greater proportion must, therefore, seek other localities,
mostly at the W est.
T he migration to California, great and ostentatious as it was, b y no means equal
that which is constantly taking place in New York. This population is enough,
if properly placed, to create six new States annually, and in the proportion o f
food producers to food consumers, in Great Britain, if they become farmers, to
VOL.

xxi.— n o . vi.




42

Commercial Regulations.

658

raise enough from the virgin soil o f the new States to supply 840,000 persons, or
the whole population o f the State o f Massachusetts. The coming year is not
likely to show any diminution in this flood o f human beings sweeping through
the Atlantic cities, to take possession o f the fair and fertile lands o f the W est,
and rapidly as are means o f communication and facilities o f intercourse being
constructed, they will not exceed the wants.

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
OF THE UNITED STATES REVENUE AND COLLECTION LAWS.
CIRCULAR INSTRUCTIONS TO COLLECTORS AND OTHER OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS.
T reasury D epartm en t,

O c to b e i

12t h , 1849.

The following instructions and regulations are issued for the government of the offi­
cers o f the customs, with a view to insure uniformity at the respective ports in the
practical execution of certain provisions of the Revenue and Collection laws, deemed
essential for the proper security of the revenue.
F ir s t . It is represented that importers are in the practice of omitting to produce in­
voices of merchandise on the alleged ground that none have been received, and asking
entry to be allowed on appraisement under the provisions of the 2d section of the sup­
plemental Collection act of 1st March, 1823.
The frequency of these occurrences forbid the idea, that the non-reception of an in­
voice usually proceeds from mistake or accident, as contemplated by the act, but in­
duces the belief of intention and design, probably with the view of evading the addi­
tional duty imposed by the 17 th section of the act of 30th August, 1842, and the 8th
section of the existing Tariff act of 30th July, 1846. In all cases of this kind, applica­
tion by the owner or importer must be made in writing, through the collector, to the
Department, for permission to enter any such goods on appraisement, said application
to be authenticated by the oath or affirmation of the party, setting forth that no in­
voice of said goods has been received, and the cause, £o the best of his knowledge and
belief, to be accompanied by a statement of the collector of all the circumstances at­
tending the transaction within the knowledge of said collector.
Where permission to make entry shall be refused by the department, the goods,
wares, and merchandise must be deposited in public store, there to remain at the ex­
pense and risk of the owner, until such invoice be produced, subject to the provisions
of existing laws.
Where entry may be permitted by the Department, bond must first be taken with
due security for the production of a proper invoice of the same, within the time pre­
scribed in the 2d section of the act of 1st March, 1823, in a penal sum equal to double
the amount of the estimated duties on the entire importation; whereupon entry on ap­
praisement may take place, and on due payment of the duties, permit for delivery of
the goods may be granted. Upon production of the invoice, the importer must, in
pursuance of his bond aforesaid, pay any amount of duty to which it may appear by
such invoice the said goods, wares, and merchandise are subject over and above the
amount of duties estimated on said appraisement.
No entry for warehousing can be allowed, where no invoice accompanies the impor­
tation.
Second. Additions to entries of purchased goods, under the 8th section of the Tariff
act o f 30th July, 1846. Where goods have been actually purchased, the law requires
the invoice to state the true cost , and not the market value abroad, on which value,
with certain added charges, the duties are to be assessed. The privilege, therefore,
given in the 8th section of the act referred to, is to enable importers of any goods that
have been actually purchased, on making entry of the same, to add to the cost given
in the invoice to bring it up to the true m arket value abroad, and by so doing, exempt
the goods from the additional duty imposed by said section. The additions contem­
plated by the law in such cases must take place at the time of making entry, and canpot be allowed at any subsequent period.
Where imported goods have been obtained by the owner in any other way than by




Commercial R egulations.

659

actual purchase, the law requires the invoice to exhibit the fair market value abroad,
consequently the privilege of the 8th section, before referred to, does not inure in such
cases, and no addition to the market value declared in the invoice can be allowed at
the time of making entry. If the appraised value in these cases shall exceed by ten
per centum or more the invoice value, then the additional duty imposed by the 17th
section of the Tariff act of 30th August, 1842, must be exacted.
In cases where on proper ascertainment there shall prove to be an excess of quan­
tity of any article or articles over the quantity stated in the invoice, and the United
States appraisers shall be of opinion that such excess does not arise from mistake, ac­
cident. or other excusable cause, but from fraudulent intent and design on the part of
the shipper, and the collector concurring in such opinion, the invoice and importation
should be deemed fraudulent, and seizure and proceeding to confiscate the goods
should immediately take place. But where no intention of fraud is manifested in the
opinion o f the appraisers and collector, the proper duty should be exacted on the full
quantity ascertained, together with the additional duty where the same may accrue by
reason o f any excess in quantity over that given in the entry.
Where the value declared in the entry shall, on due appraisement of the goods, be
found to be so far below the foreign cost or market value as to raise the presumption
of being fraudulently invoiced, seizure and confiscation of the goods should take place
under the provisions of the act of 2d March, 1799 ; and prosecution of the offending
party, under the 19th section of the Tariff act of 30th August, 1842, instituted.
T hird. Invoices presented on entry of any merchandise must, in pursuance of law,
be deposited in the custom-house, and should not be delivered to the importer or his
agent for any purpose whatsoever ; and no merchandise that may be consigned “ to
order” can be admitted to entry without an invoice, verified according to law.
Invoices produced on entry, sworn to and duly certified as required by the 23d sec­
tion of the act of 1st March, 1823, must be immediately sent to the United States ap­
praisers, and be properly registered in their office. The appraisers will then deliver
them to such examiner as they may think proper; but in no case should the owner or
importer be allowed to indicate or designate the examiner or appraiser of his goods.
The course prescribed in the second paragraph of the circular instructions of the 12th
June, 1848, in reference to appraisements to ascertain damage, is to be observed in all
other cases of appraisement.
Fou rth . Bonds required by the provisions of the 10th section of the act of 1st March,
1823, for the production of a duly authenticated invoice, must be exacted in all cases,
irrespective of the value of the merchandise embraced in the importation; and on fail­
ure to produce the verified invoice within the specified time, payment of the bond
must be promptly enforced. The same course must be pursued in respect to bonds
taken for the production of consular certificates of the value of depreciated currencies,
as well as all bonds taken in cases of transportation or exportation of merchandise
under the Warehousing or Drawback acts.
F ift h . Where goods in any package or packages ordered to appraisers’ stores may,
on appraisement, be advanced in value boyond the value declared in the entry, the en­
tire importation should be appraised, and the duties assessed accordingly, except
where the importer may consent that the advanced value on the portion of goods so
appraised shall apply to the residue of the same description of goods embraced in the
importation, in which case an appraisement of the entire importation need not be
made.
S ix th . In respect to oaths or affirmations required to be taken under any Collection
or Revenue law of the United States, it is to be remarked, where any person shall
knowingly and willingly swear or affirm falsely, or shall procure any person to swear
or affirm falsely, the person so offending should be prosecuted under the provisions of
the 13 th section o f the act entitled “ An act more effectually to provide for the pun­
ishment of certain crimes against the United States, <&c.,” approved 3d March, 1825.
Seventh. Wherever a vessel may be used as a warehouse constructively, an officer
of the customs must be placed on board such vessel, and remain day and night, at the
expense of the party desiring the privilege, during the time the vessel remains in port.
In addition to the regulations prescribed in the 16th, 17th, and 18th sections of the
Warehousing instructions of the 17th February, 1849, in the case of merchandise with­
drawn from public warehouse to be transported, and re-warehoused in another dis­
trict, the following requirements are to be observed:—
1st. Permits issued for withdrawal of any such merchandise from warehouse must
be placed in the hands of an inspector of the customs to superintend the lading of the




660

Commercial R egulations .

same, and a return to that effect made by said inspector upon the transportation
entry.
2nd. Upon receipt, by the collector of the port to which the merchandise may be
destined for re-warehousing, of the triplicate copy of entry and certified invoice, said
collector shall, on the arrival of the merchandise, direct an inspector of the customs to
take charge of the same, and deposit it in public store.
E ig h th . It is represented, that, at some of the ports, clerks of commercial firms, bro­
kers, and agents of express lines, are permitted to make oath and entry of merchandise
imported by other persons. On this point it is to be observed, that where the owner
or consignee is present at the port of importation, oath and entry must be made by
such owner or consignee, and no entry can be permitted to be made by any clerk
or agent, except where duly authorized to act during the necessary absence of the
owner or consignee. Nor can any clerk or hired person in the constant employment of
another, become principal or surety to any bond to which his employer is a party.
N in th . It is alleged that persons employed in duties in relation to the collection of
the revenue at some of the custom-houses are in the practice of preparing papers, re­
turns, <fcc., for importers and others, transacting business with the custom-house, and
receiving for such services compensation or pay not authorized by law. This practice
is illegal, and collectors are enjoined, in all cases of the kind coming to their knowledge,
to enforce the provisions of the 73d section of the act of 2d March, 1799, and the 17th
section of the act of 7th May, 1822.
Tenth. The United States appraisers, and other persons employed in their depart­
ment, should be careful not to express opinions in regard to the value of any goods not
submitted for their official action.
E leven th . Clerks or other persons employed in the appraisers’ or other public stores,
are expressly prohibited from appropriating to their use, or selling or disposing of any
article that may have been used for covering or securing any imported merchandise,
as also the drainage of sugar, leakages of molasses, liquors, <fcc.
Tw elfth. The particular attention of collectors is called, and a strict observance re­
quested, to the circular instructions issued by the Department, under date of the 20th
August, 1845, respecting the proper verification of invoices, it being represented by
some o f the Consuls, that the law and instructions are frequently disregarded by for­
eign shippers, and are not duly enforced by Collectors at some of the ports.
W . M. MEREDITH,

S e c r e ta r y o f th e T r e a s u r y .

THE JVEVV SPANISH TARIFF.
The following is a corrected list of the new Spanish tariff which relates to cotton
goods, specifying the articles admitted, the duties levied when imported in Spanish or
foreign bottoms, (the duty when imported by land being the same as under a foreign
flag,) and the goods prohibited to be imported:—
[The Spanish real is equal to 2£d. English; the Spanish pound is a small fraction
heavier than the pound avoirdupois.]
Spanish
Flag.
rls. c.

Cotton yarn, from No. 60 to 80..........................................................
“
from No. 80 upwards, per pound.........................
Two-cord thread, for sewing and embroidering, from No. 60 up­
wards ................................................................................................
Three-cord, ditto, from No. 60 upward..............................................

Foreign
Flag,
rls. c.

4 00
4 55

4 80
5 45

6 00

7 20
9 60

8 00

ARTICLES OF PURE COTTON.




5 60
6 30
8 40

10 10

10 50

12 60

t-*

Grey or white, from 26 threads upwards, in the J inch Spanish,
in both directions.............................................................................
Ditto, dyed............................................................................................
Ditto, striped, figured, or printed......................................................
Handkerchiefs, white, colored, or printed, from 20 threads up­
wards, plain or figured....................................................................
Ditto, embroidered by the hand, to pay each 35 per cent ad va­
lorem in Spanish, and 42 in foreign ships.
Dutch muslins and Scotch cambrics, plain, striped, or printed,
from 15 to 25 threads in the warp................................................
Ditto, from 26 threads upwards..........................................................

00
21 00

6 70
7 55

16 80
25 20

Commercial R egulations.

661
Spanish
flag.
rls. c.

Muslins, open worked, or embroidered by machinery, up to IS
threads...............................................................................................
9 80
Ditto, from 15 to 25 threads.............................................................
13 30
Ditto, from 26 threads upwards.......................................................
17 50
2100
Muslins embroidered by the hand, up to 15 threads............................
Ditto, from 16 to 25 threads.............................................................
35 00
Ditto, from 26 threads upwards.......................................................
56 00
Open fabrics, as linens, organdies, muslins, transparent cambrics,
jacconets, Ac., plain or worked, white orprinted, upto 15 threads
17 50
Ditto, from 16 to 25 threads.............................................................
24 40
Ditto, from 26 threads upwards.......................................................
28 00
Ditto, embroidered, to pay the same as embroidered muslins.
Quilted fabrics and piques, white or colored, of all classes............
17 50
Ditto, embroidered....................................................................................
3500
Fustians, plain or embroidered................................................................
800
Cotton velvets............................................................................
Plain gauze................................................................................................
2100
Embroidered ditto.....................................................................................
2800
Net, plain, printed, open worked, or figured........................................
3500
Ditto, embroidered by the hand, to pay 35 per cent ad valorem
in Spanish, and 42 in foreign ships.
Cotton lace, plain, worked, or figured....................................................
4375
Ditto, embroidered by hand.....................................................................
8750
Percalinas, lustrinas, cristalinas, and other fabrics which are used
for the manufacture of artificial flowers, from 20 threads up­
wards ......................................................................
Ditto, cut and prepared in leaves or other forms for thesame. . .
49 00

Foreign
flag,
rls. c.

11 75
15 95
21 00
25 20
42 00
67 20
21 00
29 40
33 60
21 00
42 00
9 60
12801535
25 20
33 60
42 00
52 50
105 00
24502940
58 80

Cotton fabrics of new invention, which cannot be brought by analogy under the pre­
ceding heads, to pay 40 per cent ad valorem in Spanish, and 48 in foreign ships.
M IXED GOODS.

Fabrics o f silk, wool, hemp, and flax, which contain a mixture of cotton in less
quantity than one-third part of the weight, shall pay the duties corresponding to the
material which predominates, according to the corresponding part of the general tariff.
Fabrics of cotton, with admixture of other materials, of 20 or more threads, counted
with the warp, and in which the cotton does not exceed seven-eighths o f the whole,
should pay as follows:—
Plain or serged, in squares or otherwise worked, with mixture of silk or wool, or
with both materials, destined generally for waistcoats, called kerseymeres, goats’ hair,
or otherwise:
First kind: I f the silk or wool evidently predominates, to pay the duties appointed
for fabrics of those respective materials.
Second kind: I f the cotton should predominate, containing oneeighth part of silk or wool at least, per squareyard..................
4 90
5 85
Fabrics, plain, serged, striped, or worked, with mixture of linen
or hemp, destined generally for pantaloons, or other summer
wear, called drills, ducks, or by any othername,per pound.. .
5 60
6 70
Ditto, with mixture of wool, called kerseymeres, patencures, Ac.,
per square yard...............................................................................
10 50
12 60
Fust kind: I f the wool should predominate, they shall pay as
the fabrics of that material.
Second kind: If the cotton should predominate, but not form
more than seven-eighth parts..........................................................
2 80
3 35
N o t i c e .— The duties established in this tariff shall be levied on the fabrics com­
prised in their respective classes, whether they come in pieces, cuts, handkerchiefs, or
in whatever other form.
ARTICLES THE IMPORTATION OF W H IC H IS PROHIBITED.

Cotton yam up to No. 59 inclusive.
Cotton thread, for sewing or embroidery, up to 59 inclusive.




Commercial Regulations.

662

Fabrics, grey or white, dyed, striped, worked by machinery or printed, up to 25
threads inclusive, counted in the warp, in the quarter-inch Spanish.
Handkerchiefs, white, colored, or printed, up to 19 threads inclusive.
Muslins and Scotch cambrics, plain, white, striped, or printed, up to 14 threads in­
clusive.
Percalinas, lustrinas, cristalinas, and other fabrics, used for the manufacture of artifi­
cial flowers, up to 19 threads inclusive.
Double fabrics, destined generally for pantaloons, jackets, and other clothes of men,
and for other uses, plain or serged, done in squares, or otherwise worked, which con­
tain more than seven-eighth parts of cotton.
Fabrics of silk, wool, flax, and hemp, which contains a mixture of cotton in greater
quantity than one-third part of the weight, up to 19 threads, inclusive.
Fabrics o f cotton, with mixture of silk, wool, flax and hemp, of 20 and more threads,
if the cotton exceed seven parts out o f the eight.
Knit fabrics (Tejidos de Punto) in stockings, pantaloons, camisettes, or in any other
form.
Fringes, and small wares of cotton of every kind.
Some changes have been made in the duties, which are worthy of notice. In the
first place, then, all importation of cotton yarn and thread below No. 60, and all plain,
printed, and dyed calicoes, containing less than 26 Threads in the quarter-inch, are ab­
solutely prohibited. On those counts o f yarn, and descriptions of calicoes proposed to
be admitted, the following rates of duty will be levied, on each Spanish pound weight,
(a small fraction heavier than the pound avoirdupois,) when imported in Spanish
vessels:—
Cotton yarn, No. 60 to 8 0 ... ..............................................................
“
No. 80 and upwards......................................................
Two-cord sewing-thread, 60 and upwards.......................................
Three-cord
“
“
............................... ..
Calico, 26 threads and upwards per f inch (per pound)...............
“
“
“
dyed...............................................
“
“
“
figured or printed.........................

Os.
0
1
1
1
1
1

10c?.
Ilf
3
8
2
3£
9

On muslins, and other light fabrics, o f which there are many classes, the duties vary
from about 2s. to nearly 12s. per pound weight. So far as we can judge, figured mus­
lins, with less than 26 threads to the quarter-inch, the duty on which will be about 2s.
9d. per pound, are almost the only class likely to pay the duties. Plain muslins, with
26 threads, and upwards, to the quarter-inch, which would include the great bulk of
the Blackburn and Chorley manufacture, are subjected to a duty of 4s. 4fd. per pound,
which, we imagine, would be prohibitory of all except the very finest qualities. In­
deed, the facilities of smuggling such fabrics are so great that, in all probability, very
few indeed will pay the duty, and then, perhaps, only as a cover for a larger illicit
import.
When the tariff was first proposed in the Spanish chamber, in the month of May
last, the duties affixed to a description of goods of large consumption in Spain, namely,
fustians and velvets, were comparatively moderate ; and considerable advantage was
expected to be derived from the rate at which those fabrics were proposed to be ad­
mitted. On this point, however, we are sorry to say, the Catalan manufactures have
succeeded but too well in their efforts to render the tariff abortive. The duties con­
tained in the first draft of the tariff were, on fustians, Is. lfd ., and on cotton velvets,
Is. 5fd. per pound weight, rates which would probably have been paid to some ex­
tent, rather than encounter the risk of smuggling. By the tariff, as officially promul­
gated, however, the duties have been increased to Is. 8d. per pound, on fustians, and 2s. 8d.
per pound on velvets, which, we conceive, will be likely to prove prohibitory, except
as to small quantities for the purpose of covering a contraband trade.

OF STATEMENTS BY INSURANCE COMPANIES.
S tate of N ew Y ork , C ontroller’ s Office , )
A lbany, November 10, 1849.
)

The provisions of the act passed April, 10, 1849, make it necessarv that insurance
companies incorporated by other States, and desiring to transact the business o f insu­
rance, through agencies, in this State, shall prove to the satisfaction of the Controller,




Commercial R egulations.

663

that they possess the amount of actual capital required of companies in the State form­
ed under the authority of said act. The fifth section provides that every Joint Stock
Company, organized under the act, if located in the city of New York or the county of
Kings, shall have a capital of at least $150,000, and if located in any other county in
this State, at least $50,000 ; and Mutual Insurance Companies, (Fire, Marine, Inland,
and Navigation Insurance,) if located in the city of New York, or the county of Kings,
are not authorized to commence business until agreements have been entered into for
insurance with at least one hundred applicants, the premiums on which, if it be Marine,
shall amount to $300,000; or, if it be Fire or Inland Navigation, shall amount to
$200,000, for which premium notes must be received, payable at, or within twelve
months from date. The sixth section requires that companies formed for doing
the business of Life and Health Insurance, on the plan of Mutual Insurance, shall
have a cash capital of $100,000 paid in, and actually invested in stocks of the
United States, of this State, or its incorporated cities, or in bonds and mortgages on
cultivated farms worth double the amount.
Companies incorporated in other States, and doing business here, are placed virtually
on an equality with our own institutions, and the law aims to subject them to the
same general principles and restrictions. They must show that they possess an equal
amount of actual capital. Joint Stock Companies in other States proposing to do bu­
siness by agents in New York city or Kings county, must have $150,000, and in other
counties, $50,000. It must appear that this capital is unimpaired, and invested in safe
and unquestionable securities. Mutual Life and Health Insurance Companies in other
States, before creating agencies in this State, must have a cash capital invested of
$ 100, 000.
In the month of January next, and annually thereafter, every such company having
an agent or agents in this State, will be required to furnish to the Controller a new
statement, under the oath of the president or secretary, exhibiting the amount of its
capital, the maimer in which the same is invested, and showing whether it is impaired,
and if so, to what extent.
The Controller deems it his duty to prescribe such regulations in respect to these
statements as will make them uniform, and ensure a full exhibit, not only of the capi­
tal of the company, but its liabilities, and its actual condition. Some of the state­
ments heretofore furnished are defective in details of investments, and in omitting to
present such an exposition of the affairs of the company, as will enable the Controller
and the public to form a correct judgment of the soundness and sufficiency of re­
sources.
It will be required in future that the statement shall exhibit:
1st. The amount of capital stock paid in.
2d. The manner in which the same is invested, specifying the amount secured by
bonds and mortgages; the amount, description and actual value of stocks held by the
company, absolutely; the amount, description and value of stocks held as col­
lateral security ; the amount of loans secured otherwise than by mortgage and stocks;
the value of the real estate, if any, owned by the company; and the amount of avail­
able funds on hand.
3d. The number and amount of policies outstanding; and the amount of all other
claims and liabilities against the company, specifying the amount of claims against the
company which are not acknowledged by it as debts, and the amount of contingent
liabilities otherwise than on policies.
4th. The amount of premiums received by the company during the previous years;
and the amount received during the same period for interest on loans and investments.
5th. The amount of losses incurred; and the amount paid during the same period.
6th. The amount of profits on hand ; or if there be no profits, the amount o f losses
chargeable upon capital on the first of January.
7th. Dividends which have been made during the preceding year.
As it is impracticable for the Controller to form an accurate estimate of the value
o f distant investments and securities, he will require, in addition to the foregoing state­
ment, a certificate from the Mayor or Recorder of the city, or a Judge of a Court of
Record, in the State where the company is located, (having no interest in the com­
pany,) showing that he has examined the investments of the company, and giving his
estimate of the securities, and the amount o f their actual value.
It is required also that each company furnish a copy of its charter, to be placed on
file in the Controller’s office.
The law requires that a counterpart or copy of the statement on which the Con­
troller’s certificate of authority is issued, shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the




664

N au tical Intelligence.

county in -which the agency shall be established; and it is therefore necessary that
each company prepare duplicate statements for t1is purpose, with as many copies as
shall be requisite to furnish one to each county in which an agency is located.
In the execution of the law the Controller will aim to afford every reasonable fa­
cility to responsible companies complying with its provisions ; but he conceives it to
be his duty to interpose such precautions and restrictions as shall protect the public
from corporations of a different character, having no substantial capital, and furnishing
no sufficient guaranty for the performance of their obbgations.
WASHINGTON HUNT, Controller.

NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.
HURL GATE ROCKS.
There has been recently completed a series of very minute surveys of Hurl Gate,
and Little Hurl Gate, made by Lieutenants Davis, Porter, and Woodhull. The first
survey was made by Lieut. Davis, in 1841, continued by Lieut. Porter, in 1848, and
completed by Lieut. ‘Woodhull, in 1849, by means of which it is well ascertained that
that dangerous strait can be made o f safe navigation, for a comparatively small ex­
pense. M. Maillefert, a French engineer, who has been engaged for near eighteen
months in removing the reef of rocks from the entrance of the harbor of Nassau, (New
Providence, Bahamas,) offers to contract for the removal of the rocks in Hurl Gate, and
the harbor of New York, by means of blasting under water, without drilling, using
the surface water for a fulcrum, and igniting the powder by means o f a wire attached
to a galvanic battery. M. Maillefert removed from the entrance of the harbor of Nas­
sau, upward of nine hundred tons of rock by this new process, at an expense of about
five thousand dollars, which is a very small sum for so important a work.
It seems certainly necessary that Congress should make an appropriation for the
removal of the rocks at Hurl Gate, and the harbor of New York, and it is very de­
sirable that this appropriation should be made early in the Session, that no delay may
take place in accomplishing this important work. It is a matter of surprise that these
rocks have remained so long in the very center of a channel through which hundreds
of vessels pass daily.
The Board of Underwriters have recently had the subject of the removal of these
rocks before them, and the following proceedings were had by that b od y :—
A t a meeting of the Board of Underwriters of the city of New York, held Novem­
ber 2, 1849, the following resolution was adopted unanimously:— “ On motion it was
R esolved, that a memorial be prepared by the Board, asking an appropriation by
Congress of a sufficient sum to remove the rocks and other obstructions at Hurl Gate,
Little Hurl Gate, and places in that vicinity, at and near Corliers’ Hook, off the Bat­
tery, and in, or near Buttermilk Channel, Diamond Reef, Prince’s Reef, and others in
that vicinity, part or all of which have been surveyed by the Coast Surveyers, under
the direction of Professor Bache, whose services have been productive of many and
great benefits to the commerce o f the country.”
Subsequently the Chamber of Commerce of the city of New York had this matter
before them, and the following were their proceedings in the premises —
A t a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, held in the Directors’ Room o f the
Merchants’ Bank, November 6, 1849, the following resolutions were unanimously
adopted:—




N autical Intelligence.

665

“ On motion it was Resolved, that a memorial be prepared by the Chamber of Com­
merce, asking an appropriation by Congress of a sufficient sum to remove the rocks
and other obstructions at Hurl Gate, Little Hurl Gate, and places in that vicinity, at
and near Corliers Hook, off the Battery, and in or near Buttermilk Channel, Diamond
Reef, Prince’s Reef, and others in that vicinity, part or all of which have been sur­
veyed by the Coast Surveyers, under the direction of Professor Bache, whose services
have been productive of many and great benefits to the commerce of the country.
“ R esolved, that James Depuyster Ogden, Joseph Blunt, and Simeon Balwin, be ap­
pointed a committee to draft a suitable memorial to Congress on the subject.”
The respective reports of Lieut. Davis, Porter, and Woodhull, have been printed
and will be laid on the desks of members of Congress, at the commencement o f the
Session, and copies of these reports will be forwarded to insurance companies and
commercial men in the Eastern cities, inviting co-operation in this important move­
ment. These rocks should have been removed long since, and now as the fact has
been ascertained that they can be removed at a very small expense, it is hoped no de­
lay will take place in the action of Congress in the premises.

LIGHTS ON SEA REACH, RIVER THAMES.
Notice is hereby given, that two lights are now exhibited nightly on the north side
of the navigable channel of Sea Reach, that is to say, one off the Chapman Head, near
to the spot on which the Beacon stands, and one at Mucking Flat.
Mariners are to observe—that the light off the Chapman Head is exhibited on
board a vessel, pending the erection of a permanent structure, and is of the usual or
natural color of a Floating Light; and that the Light at the Mucking, which is shown
for the present from a temporary erection close to the Land Side of the Sea Wall, and
bears from the Westernmost Beacon of the Blyth Sand, about N. -J- W., burns at 25
feet 6 inches above the level of high water spring tides; this light is also of the nat­
ural color, until it strikes the Spit of the Ovens Shoal, a short distance outside the
nine feet mark of low water spring tides, and on the bearing of S. W. by W. nearly, to
the westward of which the color of the light is red.
N o t e .— A black Beacon Buoy of large size will be forthwith placed on the Spit of
the Ovens Shoal, respecting which farther particulars will be published in a few days.

SIGNAL STAFF AT CAPE AGULHAS.
A Signal Staff has been erected at Cape Agulhas by the government of the Colony,
and all the necessary arrangements have been made for signalising vessels passing
that place.
The Staff has been placed on a small eminence on the north-western side o f the
light-house, and about three hundred yards from it. It stands eighty-nine feet high,
and has been painted white, in order to make it as conspicuous as possible. A code of
Marryatt’s Signals has been established at Cape Agulhas, and the light-house keeper
instructed to signalise all vessels passing, and to transmit to Cape Town all informa­
tion respecting the vessels’ names, destination, dec., together with remarks upon the
state of the weather, direction of the wind, dec.

LIGHTS ON RINGHOLMEN AND TERNINGEN.
Notice is hereby given, that the lights on Ringholmen, and Terningen, in the Chan­
nel leading to Trondhjen (Drontheim,) are changed thus :— That the intensity of the
lights are equal on every side from which they are visible, and the distance, under or­
dinary circumstances, at which they are visible is 12 English miles; also, that the
light on Ringholmen is now fixed on a tower 52 feet high above high water mark.




Commercial Statistics.

666

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.
IMPORTS OF BOSTON IN 1848-49.
The Boston S h ip p in g L i s t furnishes the following table of the imports of Boston
in 1849 as compared with 1848, years ending on the 31st of August:—
Articles.

1849.

1848.

949
2,081
Ashes, p’t & p'rlbbls.
250
1,223
Barilla................ tons
525
275
Brimstone................
11,792
18,192
Brimstone___cantars
2,666
1,115
Brimstone........ bbls.
6,591
3,642
Candles........... boxes
36,245
32,368
Cassia............... mats
498
750
Cassia............... cases
6,347
6,786
C ocoa............... bags
Coffee —
22,553
49,075
, Batavia......... bags
2,747
2,667
Batavia.. . . piculs
54,476
85,592
H a y ti........... bags
1,012
474
Cuba.....................
31,419
37,994
Rio Janeiro.........
925
Porto R ico...........
3,279
8,154
Porto Cabello___
2,468
243
Manilla.................
171
Africa. . . .............
4,650
2,587
Oth: foreign ports.
3,531
4,994
Coastwise ports. .
Cotton, f r o m —
New Orleans.bales 111,390 140,929
43,678
37,147
M ob ile.................
17,035
25,896
Charleston...........
18,269
26,545
Savannah.............
22,141
31,138
Apalachicola........
2,718
2,468
Galveston............
1,164
3,279
Other places........
Coal —
69,225
26,400
Virginia....... bush.
Philadelphia. tons 253,668 266,806
18,487
Other places........
20,197
7,798
5,506
Eng. & Scotch.. . .
1,406
450
Eng. &, Scotch.chaL
38,333
49,529
Nova Scotia.............
1,148
1,335
Cop’r, sheath’g . cases
1,435
776
Yellow metal.......
4,999
718
Copper................pigs
37,702
30,795
Copper...............bars
29,470
46,585
Corn meal......... bbls.
C orn, f r o m —
69,662 268,878
New Orleans.sacks
Ports in Virginia. 1,054,183 492,254
Ports in Maryland 861,067 588,949
Ports in Pen’lvan’a 452,734 448,126
Ports in Delaware 125,396 130,004
21,890
27,800
Ports in N. Jersey
394,307 472,526
Ports in N. York.
69,638
16,328
Other p o rts.........
1,485
2,546
D u ck .............. bales
23,654
18,368
D uck............... bolts




Articles.
H yew oods —

Logwood........ tons
Logwood____qtls.
Logw ood... . .pcs.
Fustic.............tons
Fustic............. pcs.
Sapan wood..pels.
Sapan wood..tons
F lo u r , wheat, f r o m —
New York.. ..bbls.
Albany.................
Western Railroad.
New Orleans........
Fredericksburg . .
Georgetown.........
Alexandria..........
Richmond. . . . . . .
Oth. pts. in Virg’a
Philadelphia........
Baltimore.............
Other places........
Flour, r y e ........ bbls.
F r u it —
Lem ons.. . .boxes
Oranges................
Figs............ drums
Figs...............cases
Raisins........casks
Raisins........drums
Raisins........ boxes
Glass.........................
Gunny bags........No.
Gunny bags.. .bales
Gunny bags.. . . bdls.
H em p—
Russia...........tons
Other places........
Manila.........bales
New Orleans. . . .
Other places........
H id es, f r o m —
Buenos Ayres .No.
Rio Grande..........
Monte V id eo__ _
Truxillo................
California..............
West Indies.........
Pem ambucco.. . .
Porto Cabello.. . .
Central America &
Valparaiso.. . .
Rio Janeiro.........

1849.
4,783|
6,964
420
2661
7,661
9,634
96
100,166
76,849
293,760
323,318
41,252
18,361
18,375
70,893
559
31,692
53,236
5,416
9,579

1848.
4,0451
22,936
9,083
470
14,370
13,847

66

194,776
63,989
383,593
193,094
23,183
3,808
15,8471
16,836
4,021
11,917
24,687
1,395
4,145

42,814
34,895
75,332
62,547
115,341 306,771
971
485
25,4981 17,631
1,100
1,729
152,0761 156,953
48,429
55,785
296,112 468,483
14,082
16,779
6,670
6,477
1,205
196
29,095
6,761
3,306

1,065
841
32,7821
11,878
4,901

255,730
36,712
4,566
675
29;800
1,429
2,000
3,737

12,692
58,090
178,072
5,807
50,925
323

25,452
37,671

34,735
70,142

195

Commercial Statistics.
Articles.

Cape of G. Hope.
Baliia....................
Batavia................
Oth. foreign ports.
Coastwise ports. .
Calcutta___ bales
Manilla..,
H orns......... . . . .No.
Indigo..........
Ir o n —
Bar..........
P ig ..........
Boiler....................
Bloom..................
Bars.......................
Bundles...............
Sheet & hoop.bdls.
Blooms.................
Plates ..................
Railroad...
Railroad . . . .bars
Lac dye.........
L e a d ............. •-pigs
W hite.........
White . . . . ,
Leather..........
Leather..........
L in seed , f r o m Calcutta___
Russia........
S icily ...................
Other places........
Mackerel, If. S. .bbls.
M ola sses , fr o m .—
Foreign p’ts.hhds.
Domestic ports . .
Foreign ports.trcs.
Domestic ports ..
Foreign p’ts..bbls.
Domestic ports . .
N a v a l stores —
Bosin.............bbls.
Turpentine...........
Spirits turpentine.
Pitch....................
Tar........................

1849.
206
19,942
3,218
46,838
92,375
3,700
763,856
1,178
3,618
44,0571

1848.
1,262
6,264
30,728
105,758
3,693
106
496,899
2,209
5,134
45,722*
57*
96
543,787
99,885
39,346
3,804
18,386
14,121
105,317
2,986
155,163
52,890

25
942,413
153,182
34,986
2,489
17,741
23,180
88,820
2,042
153,151
45,868
15*
482,479 578,782
33,086
24,909
81,780
3,665
1,961
371
40,479

65,721
2,141
3,028
53,932*

59,584
11,673
3,585
153
1,429
2,691

63,906
13,283
4,288
252
1,879
5,222

23,437
28,665
9,980
2,181
22,752

8,615
43,670
6,361
1,005
19 579

24,500
839
641
3,169
688
379,534
13,898

29,420
881
527
3,407
220
437,290
25,604

31,898
110,317
12,945
5,485
51,195

27,428*
100,045
8,766
5,528
47,667

O il—

Whale <Sc sperm ..
Linseed . . . .casks
Palm.....................
O liv e ___ baskets
Olive.............casks
Oats.................. bush.
Pepper..............bags
P r o v isio n s —
Beef...............bbls.
Pork..................
Hams.. .csks. <fctcs.
H am s........... bbls.
Butter........... kegs




Articles.

667

1849.

1848.

1,461
1,183
Butter........... bbls.
9,282
7,193
Cheese......... casks
52,076
62,561
Cheese.........boxes
513*
604f
Cheese............tons
48,618*
58,409
L a rd............. bbls.
53,432
55,634
Lard............. kegs
29,914
32,867
Hogs, W. R’d.. No.
8,452 ■ 7,046
Rags.................bales.
34f
5
Rags...................tons
11,730
15,432
Rice..................casks
48,995
51,648
Rye...................bush.
47,993
70,675
Shorts.......................
Salt —
4,046*
6,376*
Liverpool.. . . . tons
69,039
Liverpool___sacks
92,413
5,075*
451*
Cadiz............ .lasts
........
Cadiz.............. tons
900
23,549
Curacoa........ bbls.
Trapani and Ivaca
600
1,773
tons
St. Martins.. .bush. 200,954
39,781
19,120
Bonaire.........bbls.
Turks’ Isl’ds. bush. 120,869 350,491
378
St. Ubes.. . . moys.
787
81,495
91,895
Other place, .bush.
66,289
69,181
Saltpeter......... bags
6,700*
6,671
Skins, goat___ bags
23,600
49,039
Skins, goat.........No.
Sugar, f r o m —
54,405
61,918
Foreign ports..bxs.
9,852
3,658
Domestic ports . .
9,338
8,017
For. ports__ hhds.
2,533
3,737
Domestic ports . .
59,212
75,171
For.ports... .bags
1,011
1,666
Domestic ports . .
1,102
993
For. ports.. . . bbls.
14,150
4,645
Domestic ports . .
899
700
For. ports . .bskts.
170*
107
S teel................. tons
19,094
23,068
Steel.. . .cases &. bdls.
156
6
Steel...................bars
3,946
7,839
Spelter........... plates
2,038
989
Spelter.............slabs
35
S p elter..............tons
Sumac...............bags
28,092
29,347
5
3
Sumac................ tons
26,084
S h o t................. bags
16,945
37,415'
66,050
T e a .....packages
5,825
4,248
T in ....................slabs
3,464
T in .....................pigs
5,048
26,346
29,728
Tin plates.. . .boxes
34,378
29,595
Tobacco.....................
3,224
1,991
Tobacco............hhds.
6,156
4,887
Tobacco............ bales
6
2,078
Whalebone . . . .bdls.
Wheat...............bush. 416,010 280,458
W ool, f r o m —
18,613
11,767
For. ports.. ..bales
23,808
25,749
Domestic ports . .
10,346
For. ports . . . qtls.
5,289

Commercial Statistics.

668

NAVIGATION OF THE PORT OF BOSTON.
W e are indebted to Hon. G eorge S. B outwell, of Groton, Massachusetts, for the
following tabular statement of the number of foreign and coastwise arrivals at the
port of Boston, in each year, from 1830 to 1848, inclusive. Mr. Wellman, the coast­
wise clerk at the Custom-House in Boston, states that there are a large number of ves­
sels employed in the coasting trade, which do not enter or clear at the Custom-House,
and that that number may be confidently stated at 4,000 each, every year.
STATEMENT OF THE FOREIGN AND COASTWISE ARRIVALS AT THE PORT OF BOSTON, FROM
TO

Years.
1830..............
1831.............. .........
1832............... .........
1833...............
1834..............
1835.............. .........
1836.............. .........
1831.............. .........
1838.............. .........
1839.............. .........

1848,

1830

INCLUSIVE.

Foreign. Coastwise.
2,938
166
2,946
1,064
3,538
4,020
3,521
3,819
1,302
4,844
1,452
4,000
1,591
4,018
1,313
1,563
4,251

Years.
1840 .............
1841.............
1842 .............
1843 .............
1844 .............
1845 .............
1846 .............
1841.............
1848 .............

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

Foreign. Coastwise.
4,406
4,514
1,138
3,862
4,914
5,909
2,305
5,631
2,000
6,132
2,156
1,125
3,012
6,002

COMMERCE OF CLEVELAND, OHIO.
W e published in the November number of the M erch a n ts’ M a g a zin e , some statistics
of the commerce of Chicago, prepared by W i l l i a m M i l f o r d , Esq., collected by him as
the agent of the United States Topographical Bureau To the same source we are in­
debted for the following tabular statement of the exports, imports, and tonnage of
Cleveland, Ohio, as follows:—
e x p o r t s f o r 1848.
Articles.

Quantity.

Articles.

Value.

Flour........
493,816 $2,311,339
W h e a t... . .bush. 1,232,621 1,195,648
Corn..........
662,162
111,486
Pork........ .bbls.
28,801
259,263
3,010
3,461
S a lt ..........
Whisky.. . .
2,095
16,160
Lard..........
8,332
66,414
22,406
211,119
Butter . . . .
S eed s.. . . .bbls.
1,491
11,900
149
14,980
A shes___
B eef..........
6,886
68,860
1,431
Cheese. . . . .lbs. 148,625
Tobacco..
19,139
956
Bacon. . . .
190,265
9,513
Staves___
113
30,920
Wool........ . .lbs. 528,380
132,095
Feathers..
31,621
9,405
Nails........
15,400
61,600
428,000
lr’n,n’ls&grs.t’ns
4,281

68
19
42
00
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
25
95
25
00
00
00
00
00

Quantity.

C o a l... ............. 131,200
Glass.............bxs.
11,595
1,129
Fruit............ bbls.
OiL.......................
111
Sakeratus___ lbs.
63,300
Mereha'dise. pkgs.
3,201
Merchandise, tons
290
Oats............ bush. 254,101
Lard..............tons
118^
Hi’hw’ns k Wh’sy
28,565
Iron............pieces
16,284
Pig iron ___ tons
2,181
11,511
Cheese.......... bxs.
Wool........... sacks
5,130
232
Lard............ bbls.
8,605
F u r................ lbs.
Miscellaneous.......

Value.

360,800
14,499
1,600
4,425
3,165
48,000
81,000
16,412
14,220
228,635
19,110
80,830
23,000
128,250
3,480
8,605
600,000

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
10
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

$6,113,244 34

Total...............

IMPORTS.

Articles.

Salt.......... . .bbls.
Lumber.. . M. feet
Shingles.. . . .M.
F ish ......... . .bbls.
Merchandise. tons
Mercha’dise. pkgs.
Pig iron..




Quantity.

Value.

105,608 §121,449 20
46,469 00
6,641
4,304 00
2,152
28,292 00
1,013
29,022 5,804,400 00
139,000 00
13,861
6,080 00
236

Articles.

Furniture., .pkgs.
Water lime .bbls.
Shingle wood.c’ds
Staves..............M.
Miscellaneous.......
Total...............

Quantity.

Value.

251
1,550
269
300

25,000
2,268
1,125
12,000
216,000

00
00
00
00
00

$1,006,988 20

Commercial Statistics.
EXPORTS TO CANADA IN

Articles.
Flour..........
W heat___ bush.
Corn..........
Pork.......... .bbls.
Salt............
Whisky.. . .
Lard..........
Clover seed
Beef........... casks.

Quantity.
6,571
35,186
29,415
1,885
280
50
109
81
150

Value.
$29,642
31,607
11,982
15,986
356
400
1,090
891
1,950

669

1848.

Articles.
C o a l............. tons
Tallow......... bbls.
Corn meal...........
Fruit trees. . bdls.
H em p.........bales
Miscellaneous . . .

Value.
6,622
26,728
1,967
211
450
12,431

Quantity.
2,648
1,420
787
75
55

Total...............

IMPORTS FROM CANADA IN

$142,312

1848.

Articles.
Quantity.
Value.
Articles.
Value.
Quantity.
§363 87 Pine spars...........
Salt........... bbls.
402
250 24
205
Lumber . . . .feet. 2,995,113
12,841 05 Cedar posts.........
147 89
2,441 13 Fish o il........bbls.
Shingles .. . .M.
2,257
1,783 92
146
Fish........... bbls.
300
905 48 Stone...........tons
32
68 65
Plaster . . . .
92
285 18 Mercliadise. pkgs.
106 59
3
Iron............
59
1,095 51 Potatoes . . .bush.
11 41
43
Shingle wood.c’ds
1,070
3,303 30 Sundries................
141 63
Liq’r & wines.csks
3
223 30
Total
$23,969 15
Total imports coastwise..................................................................
7,006,988 20
Total exports coastwise.................................................................
6,713,244 34
Total imports and exports coastwise....................................
Total imports and exports foreign........................................

113,720,232 54
166,281 15

Total imports and exports.............................................

§13,886,513 69

TONNAGE OWNED AT CLEVELAND.

Number.
2
7
21
57
7

Steamboats .
Propellers.. .
Brigs............
Schooners__
Scow s..........
Total

94

Tonnage.
1,231 69-95ths.
3,740 02-95
4,755 59-95
7,687 26-95
406 52-95
16,821 18-95

Besides this, there are owned in the remainder of the “ Cuyahoga District,” two
steamboats, two propellers, two brigs, nineteen schooners, three scows, with a tonnage
of 5,226 12-95ths tons, valued at §230,165.
COMMERCE OF LAGUAYRA, VENEZUELA,
EXPORTS OF COFFEE, HIDES, AND INDIGO TO DIFFERENT PLACES.

The following is a statement of exports of coffee, hides, and indigo, produce of
■Venezuela, from the port of Laguayra, for the year ending 31st July, 1846 :—
Coffee.
Hides.
Indigo.
2,680,286
675
Great Britain....................... ___ lbs.
6,208,564
2,498
Hamburg and Bremen........ ...........
2,600
39,909
United States................... .
55,800
517
France....................................
19,860
....
St. Thomas and A lton a .. . .
....
183,000
Genoa.................................... .............
290,000
Trieste................................... .............
Spain......................................
16,790
2,116
460
Amsterdam...........................
—
Total.....................................




20,459,817

60,849

80,376

/

670

Commercial Statistics.

' Independent of the above products, there are large shipments of cocoe made to
Spain, France, and England; in fact, the value of the export of this article may be
considered as next to that of coffee.

EXPORT OF BREADSTUFFS
FKOM THE UNITED STATES TO GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, FROM 1ST SEPTEMBER, 1 8 4 8 , TO
1ST SEPTEMBER, 1 8 4 9 .

Flour.
From

B b ls.

New Y ork .........................
New Orleans....................
Philadelphia......................
Baltimore.........................
Boston................................
Other ports.......................

718,189
161,027
76,113
75,043
15,649
12,095

Total.............................
Same time last year . .

1,118,116
183,533

Meal.

Wheat.

B b ls.

B u sh .

34,932
5,703
25,493
7,407
4,520
8,003

585,946
127,651
209,154
120,300
9,728
38,606

Corn.

Oats.

Barley.

B u sh .

B u sh .

B u sh .

6,593,104
1,856
2,647,469 1,000
1,383,928 . . . .
....
872,305 ....
530,084 ....
702,736 . . . .
....

86,058 1,091,385 12,729,626
105,350 251,622 4,581,367

1,000 1,856
—

....

PRODUCTION OF HOGS AND BEEF CATTLE IN OHIO.
TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER AND VALUE OF HOGS AND BEEF CATTLE, IN FIFTY-NINE
COUNTIES IN OHIO, AS RETURNED FOR TAXATION BY THE TOWNSHIP ASSESSORS, AND EQUAL­
IZED BY THE COUNTY BOARDS, FOR THE TEARS

Counties.
Ashland...
Brown . . .
Butler___
Clark........
Clinton. . .
Coshocton.
Columbia..
Cuvahoga.
Delaware..
Fairfield..
Franklin...
Greene___
Guernsey.
Hamilton..
H enry___
Hocking...
Holmes. . .
Jefferson..
Knox . . . .
Logan. . . .
Mahoning.
Medina. . .
Marion___
Meigs.......
Miami. . . .
Monroe. . .
Morgan. . .
Portage . .
Preble . . .
Richland..
Seneca.. . .
Summit.. .
Tuscarawas
Union.......
Williams..

1848.

Value.
Hogs.
21,950 $23,170
39,851 48,478
64,067 97,514
24,937 36,994
38,955 50,748
25,306 28,112
22,111 25,641
13,029 22,462
30,148 33,665
40,054 45,050
51,983 72,154
35,401 50,741
27,186 28,487
34,607 55,778
2,209
2,234
12,304 10,902
19,878 17,393
19,130 28,483
26,037 26,779
22,038 20,476
14,048 19,983
14,419 18,924
24,319 26,596
9,366 12,689
27,020 33,656
20,495 23,345
21,324 27,616
11,344 20,125
42,533 48,961
27,142 23,695
24,563 22,629
16,231 24,436
23,758 22,115
20,853 22,606
6,109
4,879




1849.

1848-9.

1848.

1849.

Hogs.
Value. Beef.
Value.
Beef. Value.
24,108 $22,936 12,410 $99,724 14,292 $111,719
59,025
9,876
43,077
72,353 10,051 76,339
63,425 116,466 11,838 103,358 12,420 107,329
25,543 40,536 14,122 146,417 14,031 150,231
40,538 65,687 10,600 96,301 11,485 107,811
28,358 30,735 12,279 98,006 13,694 113,904
21,234 20,730 13,606 121,314 14,970 130,972
11,151 17,493 16,367 207,709 19,000 236,164
30,573 82,689 11,144 98,670 12,725 113,706
42,444 48,496 15,862 116,097 16,724 125,144
54,516 75,365 14,501 158,897 15,007 161,782
36,484 62,323 12,547 114,944 12,530 117,064
30,771 31,338 13,175 90,727 14,182 103,642
36,048 60,566 12,116 121,151 11,972 121,605
2,308
2,157 1,548 16,554 1,910 19,370
14,979 12,633 6,524 41,707 7,012 45,740
20,976 16,945 10,511 77,936 12,023 85,533
20,233 24,512 8,513 73,841 9,727 80,693
24,657 24,567 12,411 -95,093 14,377 105,792
21,784 21,489 9,196 78,172 10,114 82,708
13,751 16,822 14,932 159,153 16,325 175,874
13,188 17,359 15,262 173,599 18,292 197,826
22,534 24,262 11,784 120,352 11,151 103,144
11,439 11,369 7,022 61,078 7,537 66,544
26,390 36,759 10,437 78,125 10,799 82,600
27,607 27,099 9,372 66,923 10,160 72,966
26,097 31,092 11,379 85,012 12,397 97,090
11,319 16,042 23,060 337,588 26,691 345,935
38,744 58,230 11,055 81,872 11,167 83,850
26,687 22,468 13,945 107,797 16,811 129,741
25,376 22,341 14,214 124,457 15,598 130,955
15,316 20,971 14,899 106,002 17,169 211,200
25,167 21,574 14,749 99,742 15,626 117,039
19,245 22,451 8,004 80,047 8,445 83,807
5,244
4,460 4,509 44,716 3,621 33,738

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

Hogs.

Wood.......
Wvandott.
Adams... .
Clermont.
Crawford.
Hardin___
Highland.
Morrow . .
Musking’m
Paulding .
Sandusky.
Van Wert.
Harrison..
Allen........
Ashtabula.
Relm ont..
Carroll___
Ch'mpa’ne.
Lawrence.
Ottowa. . .
Perry.. . . .
R osa........
Scioto / . . .
W arren . .

1848.

8,442
11,295
25,085
44,730
21,735
11,033
46,509
21,162
35,825
1,931
13,513
5,141
18,585
10,481
7,660
26,804
16,924
21,844
9,840
3,742
21,579
62,279
13,150
40,912

Value.
6,727
11,013
28,603
71,509
20,885
8,402
54,172
20,292
43,318
1,952
12,533
2,698
23,288
8,096
13,334
38,033
15,255
39,841
13,586
3,681
20,477
98,039
17,818
59,613

Hoga.

1849.

7,845
12,917
29,752
21,076
20,922
9,982
53,286
19,962
37,645
1,954
14,017
5,952
19,005
12,566
7,309
31,323
15,589
27,093
14,641
4,049
20,578
66,483
17,245
41,717

Value.
5,759
12,429
35,935
87,513
19,046
7,584
63,480
18,123
47,350
1,917
11,496
4,473
25,698
9.273
11,584
43,486
13,623
34,322
13,414
3,614
22,491
115,427
19,094
73,732

1848.

671

1849.

Beef.
Value.
Beef.
Value.
6,520
56,299
59,665 6,584
6,590
76,001
60,789 7,649
7,812
57,767 8,434
65,447
10,535
91,664 10,687
96,427
10,982 107,867 13.488 122,258
38,930 4,715
39,015
14,023
11,022
86,529 12,024
97,647
98,894
10,886
85,417 12,929
17,913 143,690 19,676 171,188
841
7,053
914
7,917
87,590
8,213
79,346 9,484
20,026
2,405
17,574 2,649
84,084
8,394
73,954 9,392
46,263
5,672
38,509 6,410
30,714 389,361 35,202 421,221
12,454 108,019 13,449 122,501
9,033
74,436 10,115
82,133
11,842 112,130 12,758 122,221
5,315
63,900 5,757
74,551
27,320
2,625
25,827 2,866
75,324
10,653
69,793 11,018
22,705 365,606 24,129 359,813
75,222
6,653
72,274 6,595
11,533 101,778 17,149 109,137

T otal... 1,336,367 1,690,308 1,410,377 1,876,622 637,284 6,063,284 688,248 6,658,269

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.
THE GRANITEVILLE (S. C.) COTTON MANUFACTORY.
W e have great pleasure in laying before our readers the foHowing letter from
W illiam G regg , E sq., the intelligent and enterprising founder of the Graniteville
Cotton Manufactory. The introduction of manufactories into the Southern States, will
form an interesting chapter in the industrial history of the country ; and we rejoice to
find our southern friends advocating the importance of “ bringing the cotton mill to the
cotten field.”
K a l m ia , S. C, October 22, 1849.
To F reem an H u nt , F sq .,

E d i t o r o f th e M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a z in e , e tc .

D ear S ir :— Your favor of the 12tli inst. was received in course.

It will always
afford me pleasure to contribute any thing within my power to add to the useful stock
of knowledge contained in the pages of your valuable journal. I cannot promise you
much at present, but will take a more leisure time to extend my present remarks in
answer to your inquiries respecting the advances making in the mechanic arts, and do­
mestic industry of South Carolina, and particularly a history of the rise and progress
of our Graniteville manufacturing village, which many persons are looking to for a
clear demonstration, that cotton manufacturing can be made a lucrative branch of
industry in our State.
W e in common with the manufacturing world are laboring under an unprecedented
state of things just now. Cotton has advanced upon us 100 per cent in eight months.
The raw material which we are now using costs us at the rate of $65,000 per annum
more than it did in February last, while manufactured goods have advanced but a
shade : this state of things cannot last, for goods will have to go up, or cotton go down
to enable the spinners of the world to continue in operation.
Our Graniteville factory buildings are made of hammered granite, contain 8,400
spindles and 300 looms, of the most improved machinery. W e turn out daily about




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

672

12,000 yards of cloth, sheeting, shirting and drills, of No. 14 yarn, according to the
judgment of the merchants of Charleston, New York and Philadelphia, equal in point
of quality to any of the kind made in the United States or any other country. We
employ in and about the mill 325 persons, and support a village of nine hundred white
people. Our superintendent, and a few owners are Eastern m en; all the laborers,
South Carolinians, said to be equal in point of industry and efficiency to any set of
hands o f similar number and age in the Northern and Eastern States— wages 20 per
cent lower than in Massachusetts, and a fraction lower than in Rhode Island.
The village covers about 150 acres of ground, contains two handsome Gothic
churches, an academy, hotel, ten or twelve stores, and about one hundred cottages be­
longing to the company, and occupied by persons in their service. The houses vary in
size from three to nine rooms each, nearly all built after the Gothic cottage order,
gives tire place quite a novel appearance to a stranger.
The use of alcohol is not permitted in the place— young people, particularly males,
not allowed to remain in the place in idleness— the maintenance of a moral character
is necessary to a continued residence in the place. A ll parents are required to keep
their children, between the ages of six and twelve, at school— good teachers, books, Ac.
furnished by the company, free of charge. The restraints above named are willingly
acquiesced in by the people, and we have one of the most moral, quiet, orderly, and
busy places to be found any where.
Our female help is all taken from resident families under the protection and care of
arents. This is a great moral restraint, and gives us an advantage over those who
ave to rely on the boarding-house system for help, where large numbers of youug fe­
males are collected together from a wide range of country, away from parents care.
The property cost $300,000, and I have no doubt will prove to he a profit­
able investment, soon to be followed by millions of our capital seeking similar
channels.
We have a large class of white people in South Carolina who are not slave holders,
and who are compelled to work for a livelihood The good lands are generally owned
by the wealthy, and cultivated by negroes, affording but little employment to the poor,
who readily come into factory service. They are frugal and economical in their habits;
our mild climate, cheap breadstuff's, fuel, and other substantials of life, render living
much cheaper here than in colder countries. In the interior of this State, we have
cotton 1-J cents cheaper than it can be obtained in the East, and 2 cents cheaper than
in England, or any part of Europe. A ll these advantages, added to the superabun­
dance of labor, must operate for many years so favorably on cotton manufacturing in
the South, as to render it only necessary to make judicious outlays in erecting mills,
and to exercise tolerable management afterwards, to render profitable results certain.
In lieu of a more extended article, I send you an address which I recently delivered
to the South Carolina Institute, which, if you think worthy of a place in your Maga­
zine, you are at liberty to publish.
I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

E

W ILLIAM GREGG.

Since receiving the foregoing letter, we learn that the Graniteville Manufacturing
Company, of South Carolina, have been awarded the first premium by the Frank­
lin Institute of Philadelphia, for some sheetings, shirtings, and drillings, as submitted
in competition, at the recent exhibition. This is quite a triumph for oar southern
friends. The editor of the P e n n sy lv a n ia E n q u ir e r has seen specimens of the goods
alluded to, and speaks of them in the highest terms of commendation.

STATISTICS OF INVENTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.
The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1848, laid before
the thirtieth Congress, at its second session, (in February, 1849,) has just been pub­
lished. It is the last report of the Hon. E dmund B urke, who entered upon the duties
of the office in May, 1845, and continued to fill the station, until the appointment of
his successor by the present administration in 1849, with distinguished ability, as an
examination of his voluminous, well-considered, and faithfully prepared reports, which
have become matter of history, will most conclusively show. The report now before




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

673

us is one of more than ordinary interest, exhibiting, as it does, not only a complete his­
tory of the progress of inventions during the last year of the Commissioner’s adminis­
tration of the affairs of the Patent Office, but a clear and comprehensive statistical and
financial history of the Patent Office from 1790 to 1849.
W e regret that our limits will not permit us, at this time, to furnish a complete an­
alysis o f the vast amount of valuable information it embodies. Our readers must,
therefore, be content with a condensed view of its statistical and financial history,
abridged from the report, and with the promise of resuming the subject from time to
time until we have included or embraced such portions of it as fall within the scope of
the M erch a n ts’ M agazine. Passing over, for the present, an abstract of the legislation
o f Congress in relation to patents and the Patent Office, from the commencement of
the government to the present time, the admirable introductory report of Mr. Burke,
and other matters of interest and importance, we proceed at once to exhibit, in as con­
densed a form as the subject will admit, the statistical history of the Patent Office, and
the progress o f invention in the several States of the Union from 1790 to 1849 :—
STATEMENT OF THE RECEIPTS FROM PATENT AND OTHER FEES, AND OF PAYMENTS FOR SALA RYES, AND THE CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF THE PATENT OFFICE, (INCLUDING THE ERECTIOtf
OF THE BUILDING,) FROM ITS ESTABLISHMENT TO JANUARY

1, 1849.

,--------------------------------------------------------------- P A Y M E N T S .---------------------------------------------------------------- ,

Years.

1828a......
1829........
1830........
1831........
1832........
1 8 8 3 .........

1834........
1 8 3 5 ...

1 8 3 6 6 ....
1836c___
1837........
1838........
1839........
1840........
1841........
1842........
1843d___
1844e___
1 8 4 5 /....
1845cr.. . ..
1846.........
1847........
1848........,

Withdrawing
Contingencies,
applications for
books, fixtures,
patents, and
For salaries, preparing statis- Restoring repayment of
recording
tical informa- mdls., draw’gs, money paid by
tion, &c.
patents, &c.
records, &c.
mistake, &c.
Receipts.
SI 60 659 37 S62.654 73 *17.808 10

12,990
16*350
1 7 /8 0
14^160
17/730
23,160
28*320
1 7 /0 0
14,579
28,901
41,490
39,061
38,405
33,938
35,670
16,390
39,145
48,472
27,278
50,264
63,111
67,576

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
58
08
45
95
39
76
96
40
19
44
67
16
19
69

4*130
4*300
5*388
15*400
6*850
8 /5 7
5,375
2 /5 8
5,300
13,400
12,500
16,735
18,163
18,764
19,350
9,675
19,450
18,824
10,443
21,828
23,287
31,541
.........

55
00
85
00
02
03
13
04
00
00
00
00
51
82
00
00
00
71
06
58
57
70

3 /0 0
4,630
1,890
1,500
2,175
2 /7 5
1,500
2 /0 0
2,600
7,500
8,100
9,159
2,500
5,312
6,800
3,750
6,950
8,297
5,599
11,871
10,272
15,289

00
42
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
22
00
38
00
00
00
87
31
83
35
91

17,950
11,337
8 /0 0
6,880
18,019
14,570
3,000
4,250
4,680
257
1,371
310
44

00
00
00
00
59
00
00
00
47
68
31
00
00

540
3,180
3,020
6,409
7,733
10,753
6,500
3,500
8,703
7,995
4,030
11/86
8,008
1 2 /30

00
00
00
99
31
33

Total.

8,440
42,030
34,957
40,404
35,316
52,850
00 47,220
00
19,925
28 39,353
02 39,798
00 20,330
99 46,158
43 41,878
23 58,905
.. j-108,000

00
00
00
21
82
12

00
00
28
07
05
71
35
84
00

T o t a l.. 8852,036 28 239,263 95 104,002 87 $90,770 05 $93,530 58 635,567 45
(a) Patent fees to December 31, 18128, as per statement rendered to the Secretary o f the Treasury
September 16,1829. (ft) To July 4. (c) Receipts from July 4 to December 31, 1836. (d) To June 30.
(e) In the year ending June 30. ( / ) In the year ending June 30. ( g ) From June 30 to December 31.
* Exclusive o f contingent expenses prior to January 1,1814; the amount o f which could not be
ascertained, the accounts having been lost when the public buildings were burned in 1814.
+ Appropriated out of this fund and paid for the building.
VOL. X X I.---- NO. V I.
43




1790

TO

1849

; PRE­

SENTING A RECORD OF THE INVENTIVE GENIUS OF AMERICA DURING THAT PERIOD.

K
1
at
A

•ct

A

a,
P
3

Total.........................................................................




P?

w
o_

a
*
C-i

A

A

3
30
*1
-<

i

•<

i.

p

3
1
*3
5!
p"

g
I
A

s
p
g

w
EL
|
3

a
©

$

c

B

B

t?
3
5'
p

§

o,
5‘

p.

NUM BER OF PA TE N T S.

113
22

23
13
34
5
16
4
7
13

33
33

44
28
38
14
37
11

7
3
10
11
25
8

37
35
36
13
36

16
57
3
18
16

1

4

7
5
4

4

6
4

3
3

52
28
55
12

34
3
3
7
4
14
19
27
17
25
8
17
9
8

4
5
1
1

8
103
275 72
366 66
127 38
229 96
51 27
87 41
35 15
60 22
68 17
122 28
35 15
46
9
151 21
45 10
118 29
84 30
96 65
39
4
26 12
34
8
24
6

9
25
102

3
16
11

3
6
9

6
8

2
6
5
4
6
8
2

3
7
16

115
139
160
56
107
20

27
36
31
48
42
17
46
77

8
31
65
28
21
12
64
43

565
407
370
333
593
207
204

66
209
146
339
123
200
304
73
129
226
155
57
83
76
39

93
159
112

162
218
105
82
30
86
41
105
53
48
65
20
37
75
121
29
50
52
14

56
47
61
36
30
27
26
5
16
21
25
8

9
17
10
17
10
11
4
7
12
25

272 37 12 84
186 77 4 34
129 54 6 30
183 91 2 45
189 115 1 59
123 79 4 47
89 52 2 38
31 15 1 11
88
29 3 39
102 35 10 57
128 50 1 46
31 16 1 14
105 18 7 25
88 83
24
68 23 1 16
80 37 4 20
95 30 3 35
15
99 78
4
30 19 2
14
48 38
35
13
44
4 7
8
14

26
24
19
39
43
44
24
5
31
46
35
7
20
11
14
7

27
14

4
12
11
15

494 366 353 2,221 639 257 1,193 4,904 1,757 480 2,222 965 71 678 477

134
28
28
42
17
12
21
9
25
9
41
22
30
18
14
27
31

4
10
6

30
17
10

8
6

8

3

5
3
4
10

4

6

8

7
9
3
4
1
1
2
2
3
2

2
1

20
15
1
11
2
1

3
1

39
3
7
5
4

1

12
6
10

5
1
5
6

3
1
4
3
5
4
2
2
1

1

3
4

3

532 140 131

78

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

IN V E N T IO N S E M B R A C E D IN E A C H C L A S S .

Agriculture, including instruments and operations
Metallurgy.........................................................
Manufactures of fibrous and textile substances, die.
Chemical processes...........................................
Calorific— stoves, grates, furnaces, <fec.................
Steam and gas engines....................................
Navigation—maritime implements, <fcc...........
Mathematical, philosophical, and optical instrum’ts
Civil engineering and architecture...................
Land conveyance— carriages, cars, die...............
Hydraulics & pneumatics— water & wind mills, <tc.
Mechanical pow’r applied to pr’ssing, weighing, die.
Grinding mills and mill gearing...................
Lumber and implements for its manufacture, die.
Stone and clay manufactures— potterv. dre..........
Leather—tanning, boot making, saddlery, & c ...
Household furniture, domestic implements, d ie ...
Arts— polite, fine, and ornamental.........................
Fire-arms and implements of w ar.........................
Surgical and dental instruments...................................................
Wearing apparel and articles for the toilet..........
Miscellaneous........................................................

a
a
*

a

CL

3!
3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

a
$

9
3
3
a
o
S’
3

og
cl

Gcorgij

A
o3

Virgini

<

Boston.

2
a
3
a
3

2
g_
3’
"S

674

TABLE EXHIBITING A COMPARATIVE V IE W OF THE NUMBER OF PATENTS OF EACH CLASS ISSUED TO CITIZENS OF THE SEVERAL STATES FROM

g
£
o
o

Foreign ..

Wisconsin

*-3
3
S

Iowa......

Florida...

5
2.'
3’

Missouri .

Indiana...

S'

Michigan.

Kentucky.

Tennessee

Arkansas.

Louisiana

Mississippi

Alabama .

0
3*

p

Io*
p'
IN V E N T IO N S E M B R A C E D IN E A C H C L A S S .

4
2
3
5
4
4
6
10
3
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1

Total...................................... ...................................

71

7

4
8
1

8

1

4
1
4
17
2
5
1
3
10
2
5
7
2
3
4
2
2
3
1
2

2

•

4
4
1
1
2
7

2
1
3
1

37 80

,,
,,

..
.,
,,
..
,.
i

29
3
14
5
3
8
2
2
1
15
9
15
8
5
5
.
.
8
•

i

28
4
32
16
6
10
7
3
3
2
11
6
1
8
4
9
16
2
4
12
2
1

NUMBEROFPATENTS.
46 18 27 22
41
6 4
3
4
1
46
42
1
4 3
72
4
4 3
36
2
5
14
1
3 i
11
1
1
15
2
6 9
1 2
17
59
5 11 6
19
6 1
55
2
6 5
68
8 15 4
# 4
17
1
34
5 1
1
44
1
5 1
2
7
2
.
12
1
2
7
3
1
9
1 1
4
•

132 197 775

53 117

4

7

12 , .
2 i
1 ..
8
1
1
4 ,,
6
.

i

.,
1

i

V.
.,
t.

i

i
i

,.

i

1

,.

1
1

1
2
2

1

i

1

i

69 49

1

4

14
15
8
20
20
13
27
4
16
9
11
,.
6
6
11
5
11
13
15
2
1

2 10 227

2 *i 956
1,355
25
21
1,551
1,035
35
12
1,479
658
26
609
15
250
4
590
6
563
6
986
8
404
2
697
3
2
950
335
i
553
3
722
4
474
1®
230
4
,
254
284
2
1
202
e*
lI i—
os
(

Agriculture, including instruments and operations
Metallurgy..................................................................
Manufactures of fibrous and textile substances, Ac.
Chemical processes...................................................
Calorific— stoves, grates, furnaces, A c...................
Steam and gas engines............................................
Navigation— maritime implements, A c.................
Mathematical, philosophical, A optical instrum’ts.
Civil engineering and architecture.........................
Land conveyance— carriages, cars, Ac...................
Hydraulics A pneumatics— wat’r A wind mills, Ac.
Mechanical pow’r applied to pressing, weighing, Ac.
Grinding mills and mill gearing..............................
Lumber and implements for its manufacture, A c.
Stone and clay manufactures— pottery, A c ..........
Leather— tanning, boot making, saddley, A c ___
Household furniture, domestic implements, A c .. .
Arts— polite, fine, and ornamental.........................
Fire-arms and implements of w a r.........................
Surgical and dental instruments.............................
Wearing apparel and articles for the toilet.........
Miscellaneous............................................................

fl6,137

* The cities o f Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, as given in the table, are excluded from these totals, being embraced in the numbers for their respective States,
f This total does not show the exact number of patents that have been issued; for, in cases where there were joint inventors residing in different States, credit was given to
each State, and in a considerable number o f cases the official digest does not give the residence o f patentees.




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

o

- r
Cn

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

676

The following table shows the year in which each State was admitted into the Union,
the estimated population in 1848, and the ratio of inventions to the population:—
States.
M aine...............................
New Hampshire...............
Vermont............................
Massachusetts..................

Admission

into the Union.
1820
1791
1789

Ratio of
inventions to

Population.
61,500
308,000
310,000
875,000

population.
i
124
i
841
i
878
i
394

135,000
340,000
2,880,000

i
i
i

525
285
465

New Jersey.......................
Pennsylvania...................

425,000
2,220,000

i
i

885
999

Delaware.........................
Maryland.........................

85,000
510,009

i
i

1,197
752

Virginia.............................
North Carolina.................
South Carolina.................
Georgia.............................
Alabama...........................
Mississippi.......................
Louisiana.........................
Arkansas...........................
Tennessee..........................
Kentucky..........................
Ohio....................................
Michigan...........................
Indiana.............................
Illinois...............................
Missouri.............................
F lorida.............................
Texas..................................
Iow a..................................
Wisconsin.........................
District of Columbia.. . .

1,295,000
780,000
620,000
825,000
716,000
670,000
490,000
200,000
980,000
890,000
1,980,000
420,000
1,000,000
800,000
589,000
80,000
150,000
150,000
250,000
48,000

i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i

2,434
5,571
4,733
10,706
10,084
18,108
6,125
200,000
7,424
4,517
2,554
7,924
8,547
11,594
1,220
80,000
37,500
76,000
25,000
211

Rhode Island....................
Connecticut......................
Hew York.........................

1789
1789

1789

1792
1816
1845
1845
1846

THE CUMBERLAND AND CANNEL COAL TRADE.
To F reeman H unt, E sq., E d ito r o f the M erch a n ts' M agazine, etc.
In your number for September last, is an article on the “ Coal Trade of the United
States,” and, with the exception of a brief mention of coal in other States, is wholly
confined to the coal trade of Pennsylvania, which has grown to be of an immense
amount My object in this note is to mention that, in addition to the anthracite coal of
Pennsylvania, and the bituminous coal of Pittsburg, of Virginia, and of the Western
States, there is, also, the semi-bituminous coal of Maryland, near Cumberland, of which
large quantities will come down to Washington and Alexandria next year, when the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal will be finished to Cumberland. This coal is very supe­
rior for steam purposes, and is preferred by most of our ocean steamers. With this
coal for fuel, why is not the immense water-power of the Great Falls of the Potomac,
of 78 feet, 165 miles from Washington, brought into use ?
In addition to the above three varieties of coal, we have, also, the cannel coal, wliich
burns so freely with a full blaze. Previous to 1844, cannel coal was discovered at
Hawesville, Kentucky, said to be equal to English cannel coal. The vein extends under
the Ohio River, and is worked at Cannelton, on the opposite bank in Indiana, where a
manufacturing village has lately sprung up. A vein of cannel coal was discovered in
1844 at Genevieve, Missouri, on the banks of the Mississippi, below St. Louis, and
.more recently very extensive veins of cannel coal are found on the Missouri River. One




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures. ,

677

vein, about 120 miles above St. Louis; another vein near Boonville, above the Osage
River, and about 200 miles above St. Louis. This coal is very good for making gas,
and, as the country increases in population and capital, will be brought to market. This
coal is probably found in other places than those above mentioned.
O bserver.

TH E MANUFACTURE OF COTTON IN TH E SOUTHERN STATES.

Our readers are referred to an article in a former part of the present number of
on “ T h e Condition and P ro sp ects o f A m er ic a n Cotton M a n ­
ufactures in 1849,” elicited by a communication on “ T h e P ro d u ctio n and M a n u fa ctu re
o f C o t t o n : with R eferen ce to its M a n u fa ctu re in the C otton -G row in g States,” by
General 0. T. James, CivH Engineer of Providence, Rhode Island, published in the
November number of the Magazine. The article in the present number deserves the
careful consideration of our Southern friends, about to engage in the manufacture of
cotton goods, coming, as it does, from a gentleman of large experience, and a thorough
practical knowledge of the whole subject. In publishing the article of General James
— a gentleman supposed to be one of the leading manufacturers at the North, and
from the circumstance of his having erected steam factories for individuals or compa­
nies, in different sections of the country, supposed to understand the details of the bu­
siness, in all its bearings— we did not vouch either for the accuracy of his statements
or the correctness of his conclusions. The pages of the M erch a n ts’ M agazine, as we
have frequently had occasion to remark, are open to the free and fair discussion of all
topics falling within its original design, or such as an independent journal, devoted to
the great industrial and commercial interests of the country and the world, may legit­
imately embrace in its wide range of subjects. W e published the communication in
question under the signature, and with the name of the author in our table of contents,
in accordance with our uniform custom with all articles voluntarily contributed to the
pages o f our journal; and we as freely give place to the able article from another pen,
in the present number. To this course, no one, we think, can reasonably object. It
appears to us the best that can be devised to elicit the truth. Although not practicaUy acquainted with the subject of manufactures, we thought, at the time— and our
opinion remains unchanged— that some of the statements made by the author of that
article were exaggerated, and the data furnished by the writer of the article in this
number, only tends to confirm our impression in that respect. But we must leave the
decision of the whole subject, when fully and fairly discussed, to the more enlarged
knowledge and better judgment of such of our readers as may take an interest in it.
I f the tables in Mr. Lawrence’s paper are reliable— and of that we think there can be
no reasonable doubt, as they were obtained from official sources—the profits of man­
ufacturing establishments have been overstated or exaggerated by the writer o f the ar­
ticle in the November number.
th e M ercha nts’ M agazine,

It is foreign to our purpose to make our Magazine instrumental in misleading the
sanguine to attempt what must prove disastrous if founded in mistake. And if the
statements of General James wfil not bear examination— such examination as aU who
propose to engage in the enterprise should give the subject, they can do little or no
harm. I f General James feels agrieved in regard to the preceding remarks, which
have been elicited by the publication of an article designed to invalidate the correct­
ness of his statements, we wiH cheerfully permit him to be heard through the same
medium.
As the article referred to has been extracted from our Magazine into most of the
leading journals in the South, we trust our brethren of the press in that section of the




678

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

Union will adopt our course, by publishing both sides of the question, and thus place
their readers in possession of the means of coming to a correct decision in the matter.
The article o f General James has also been commented upon in the newspaper press
of the North, and a variety of conclusions drawn from its statements. An anonymous
writer in the B o ston Courier , commenting upon the article, in reply to another anony­
mous writer, who, it would seem, had taken a different view of the subject, says
“ The whole tenor of the article is so absurd, and many of its statements are so en­
tirely at variance with all experience, that it seemed hardly possible for one having
any business acquaintance with cotton manufacturing, to be misled by it. It was evi­
dently intended for some other latitude than this ; and if, through its influence, we are
not entirely outdone by Southern competition, it will be because the more discrimina­
ting o f the Southern capitalists prefer an immediate investment in some of our Northern
manufacturing stocks, now selling at so great a discount, yet paying such enormous
dividends.”
In reference to the steam mills erected by General James, the writer in the
goes on to say:—

Courier

“ The ‘ Globe,’ the last mill designed, built and started by Mr. James, at Newbury port, commenced running in 1846, and although it has been in constant operation since
that time, it has never divided one per cent. The last sale of the stock that came to
our knowledge was 1180 per share, upon an original par value of $500.
“ I f these, as your correspondent asserts, are ‘ among the most prosperous in the
country,’ they lend but feeble confirmation to the glowing statements o f General
James as to manufacturing profits in New England, and hardly sustain his own repre­
sentations as to the ‘ immense fortunes acquired ’ through this branch of industry, in
‘ this State and Rhode Island.’ ”*
The writer in the Courier says “ it is not surprising that so little notice should have
been taken of an article written by General C. T. James, ‘ Civil Engineer of Rhode
Island,’ which appeared in the last number of H u n t's M erch a n ts’ M a g a z i n e and yet
this same writer informs us that, should his antagonist “ carry out his intention of ma­
king further reference to the same article, he shall feel compelled to descend more into
particulars, at some future day.”
A gentleman residing in Massachusetts, for whose character and opinions we enter­
tain the utmost respect, in a private letter, referring to the article of General James,
says:—
“ Our Southern neighbors are disposed to go into the business of manufacturing fully
fast enough; and if they are not urged on beyond their means, it will be advantageous
to them and to us. The effect of such statements as are made by General James,
will be to deceive those who are not practically informed on the subject to which they
relate; and coming, as they do, through a journal so much relied upon as yours, they
are calculated to do much harm. Many persons here have read them with surprise,
but m ore f r o m the circumstance o f their being in y o u r M agazine, than f o r a n y oth er
reason'.’

To the first sentence of our correspondent’s remarks, we heartily assent; and we
feel flattered with the compliment conveyed in the sentences that follow. It is, how­
ever— and we say it with a full consciousness of our defects— but the natural results
of more than ten years’ honest and persevering study and effort to render our journal
an authentic depository of facts bearing upon all the great commercial interests o f
every section of the Union. Our brethren in the Southern States will not, we trust,
infer from the foregoing observations, that we would discourage their laudable and ju ­
dicious efforts to diversify their pursuits. They should continue the production of cot­
ton, and the great staples indigenous to their soil and climate, and at the same tune

* Whatever may be the profits of manufactories, it will not, we venture to say, be denied, that
large fortunes have been acquired in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, &c., “ through this branch of in
dustry,”




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

679

introduce such branches of manufactures as promise even a moderate remuneration for
the capital invested. The influence of such a course will tend to equalize and improve
the condition of the entire people, and cement our Union, by bands that will “ grow
with the growth, and strengthen with the strength,” of a common interest and a com­
mon industry.
W e have already occupied more space than we can well spare, but in justice to
several correspondents in this section of country, who consider the statements of Gen.
James erroneous, and in accordance with the principles we shall ever pursue in the
conduct of our journal, we take the liberty of laying before our readers the following
statement, embraced in a private letter to the editor, but not intended for publication.
It will not be improper to remark, in this place, that the respectability and intelligence
o f the writer should secure for his criticism a fair and candid examination.
According to Gen. James, ten plantations, with a capital of $738,000 in land,
slaves, <fcc., would be required to produce 1,800,000 lbs. of cotton, which one mill of
10,000 spindles, with a capital of $250,000, would use up in a year, leaving the man­
ufacturer a profit of $90,500 clear, besides interest on capital, which is something over
40 per cent in all o f annual profit. If this is so, the planter may well rise from read­
ing the article in a state of such discontent as would tempt him to a radical-change in
his pursuits. But if it is so, how does it happen that the factories at Lowell have not
made, on an average, a profit equal to one-fourth of what is thus held out to the plan­
ter to tempt him to turn manufacturer! How does it happen that there is but one
establishment at Lowell so prosperous that the par value can be obtained for its stock ?
How does it happen that it was a subject of congratulation among the stockholders
there to find, the last summer, that they were likely to get a dividend of 3 per cent
for six months on most of them ?
I f it be said to this that they are not well-managed, in the opinion of Gen. James
and others, it will probably be conceded by all that some of the most sagacious men
in New England have been concerned in directing them— men as sagacious as any at
the South or West who are likely to engage in the business.
I f it be said that there is such a vast preference in the use of steam over water­
power as will account for the apparent failure at Lowell, how comes it that we see it
announced in the paper of to day, [November 20, 1849,] that the Jam es (steam) Mills
at Newburyport have just made a dividend for six months of only three per cent, and
that the stockholders of the Naumkeag (steam) Mills at Salem, erected under the par­
ticular charge of Gen. James, are looking forward to a semi-annual dividend of f o u r
per cent as a great achievement.
Gen. James contends that the raw cotton should be worked where it is raised, and
asserts that the cost of transporting 1,800,000 lbs. of cotton (being $18,000) might be
saved annually to the planter, who should manufacture his own. Now, if the planters
are going to use up all their own goods and pay themselves the 40 per cent o f profits
out of their own pockets, dropping all exchange of products with the rest of the world,
it is needless to gainsay the statement. But if they are going to send goods to market,
instead of cotton, they will probably find that though the weight may be diminished
by leaving the waste behind, the baling or boxing, and additional care required in
transportation, offset that advantage, and that the saving mentioned will turn out to be
nearer eighteen hundred than eighteen thousand dollars, and, therefore, of little im­
portance.
Gen. James says that, “ should the number of mills in the United States be doubled
in twelve months, probably no one would be compelled to suspend operations for a
day, because of deficiency of labor and skill.” He estimates the number of operatives
in five of the New England States, at 57,000. If this number can be doubled in a
year, and, as he says, “ without calling for aid from Europe,” one is at a loss to know
how it is that nearly one-fith of the looms at Lowell have been left idle for a part of
this year, though the highest wages were offered that would leave the stockholders
six per cent per annum on their capital. Such an assertion tends to diminish confidence
in Ms statements generally.
If there be good ground for encouraging planters to engage in manufacturing, and to
diminish the product of their great staple, it will only be made more sure by a tho­
rough examination of such points as these.




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

C80

MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE,
W e give below a tabular statement of the cotton, woolen, etc., manufacturing estab­
lishments of New Hampshire, showing the name and location of each company, capi­
tal invested, kind of goods manufactured, and the annual amount of goods manufac­
tured :—
Annual amount
Capital.
Kind of goods.
in yards.
Name and location.
Shirtings, Cotton Flan­
nels, Denims........... 13,500,000 *$2,500,000
Amoskeag Manuf. Co., Manchester
480,000
30,000
Bascom A. & Co., East Jaffrey... Sheetings and Drillings
1,000,000
100,000
Belknap Manuf. Co., Meredith Br. Sheetings, No. 1 .........
400,000
Besse, Tilton <fc Co., Meredith___
265,612
Brown, E., New Ipswich...............
Sheeting and Printing
C loth .......................
2,120,000
Brown, H. H. & J. S., Fisliersville.
10,000
Chesterfield Factory, Chesterfield. 31 inch Sheeting.........
1,300,000
Cocheco Manuf. Co., Dover........... Printing Cloths............ 10,000,000
180,000
Columbian Manuf. Co., N. Ipswich Colored Cottons...........
1,900,000
162,500
1,450,000
Exeter Manuf. Co., Exeter ........... Cotton Sheetings.........
Franklin Manuf. Co., Franklin__ _
3§0,000
Lewis <fe Gaylord, Franklin........... Cotton Batting . . . .lbs.
240,000
Gilford Manuf. Co., Gilford...........
250,000
Goodnow, Peter, Franklin............. Wick’g & Warp Y ’n lbs
93,600
Sheetings, Drillings, &
16,000,000
1,500,000
Great Falls Mf. Co., Somersworth
Shirtings.................
30,000
Home Manuf. Co., Claremont........ 39 inch Sheetings........
364,000
480,000
Jackson Co., NashviHe.................. Sheetings <Sr Shirtings.
5,300,000
Merrimack Mills, Manchester___
Delanes tfe Print’g Cl’th
5,000,000 f l , 200,000
Milford Cotton and Woolen Man30,000
$21,000
facturing Co., Milford................. Tickings.......................
120,000
Monadnock Mills, Claremont. . . . Shirtings & Sheetings.
1,300,000
20,000
Munroe, A., East Jaffrey............... Heavy Sheetings.........
400,000
10,000
Munson, Alvin, N elson................. 30 inch Sheetings.........
190,000
Sheetings, Shirtings, &
1,000,000
Drillings..................
13,000,000
Nashua Manufac. Co., Nashua.. . .
Now Market Manufacturing Co., Cotton Sheetings and
Shirtings.................
4,000,000
600,000
New Market................................
Peterborough Manufacturing Co.,
No 16 Drillings...........
Peterborough.............................
230,000
10,000
Peterborough Co., Peterborough . Drillings & Sheetings.
343,125
Phoenix Factory, Peterborough . . Sheetings & Drillings.
580,000
Rockingham, Hampton Falls........ Cotton Batting . . .lbs.
200,000
Sagamore Steam Power Manufac­
turing Co., Portsmouth.............. Cotton Yarn.................
32,500
52,500
Salmon Falls Manufacturing Co., No. 14 Sheetings and
Somersworth ...........................
No. 14 Drillings___
1,000,000
1,000,000
Souhegan Manuf. Co., Milford__ _ 14 Drillings.................
100,000
Sheetings, Shirtings, &
Drillings................... 11,000,000
Stark Mills, Manchester...............
1,250,000
Sunapee Mills, Claremont............. Fine Twills..................
415,000
200,000
Swanzey Manuf. Co., Sw anzey.. . Shirtings and Drills... .
200,000
40,000
339,456
Union Factory Co., Gilmanton.. . No. 16 Sheetings.........
30,000
Sheeting and Printing
Union Manuf. Co., Peterborough..
C loth .......................
415,000
Weare Cotton and Woolen Manu­
facturing Co., Weare.................. * Drillings......................
* 264,000
12,000
* Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., the whole capital o f the four departments given,
t Merrimack Mills, whole capital given, including printworks.




681

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.
W OOLEN

GOODS.
Y e a r ly a m o u n t

Name and location.
Adams, Seth & Son, Washington----Amoskeag Manuf. Co., Hookset.........
Ashuelot Manuf. Co., Winchester__ _
Balch, A. & Co., B ath;.......................
Belknap Mills, Rochester....................
Bean, Canney & Co., Rochester.........
Briggs & Brooks, Holderness.............
Busiel, J. W., Meredith.......................
Currier & Martin, Canaan...................
Davis <fc Holden, Walpole...................
Fulton & Barton, Effingham...............
Gerould,Wetherbee & Nichols, Gilsum
Gonic Factory, Rochester...................
Hale, E. J. M. & Co., Littleton...........
Harris it Hutchinson, Harrisville.. . .
Hams, Milan, Harrisville...................
Harris, Almon, Fishersville................
Holden, B. F. & D., Concord...............
Holden, James M., Acworth...............
Ingram <Sc Parks, Newport.................
Johnson & Colby, W ilm ot.................
Lisbon Manufacturing Co., Lisbon. . .
Livermore, C. G., Alstead...................
Marvin, G. P., W alpole.......................
Merrimack Carpet Fac., Merrimack...
Milton Mills, M ilton...........................
Moore & Smith, Winchester...............
Norway Plains Company, Rochester..
Noone & Cochron, Peterborough.. . .
Patterson, J. & D. N., Hopkinton___
Portsmouth Steam Fac., Portsmouth.
Puleifer, L. B., Meredith. .................
Ripley <Sc Willard, Hinsdale...............
Ripley, D. H., Hinsdale......................
Sawyer, Alfred I., D over...................
Sanford <fc Rossiter, Claremont..........
Shaker Mills Manuf. Co., Enfield.. . .
Silsby, M. & R. W., Gilsum................
Tilton, A. H., Sanbornton...................
Tilton, J. & J. C., Northfield...............
Twichell, T. A., Newport...................
Townsend, C. T., Gilsum.....................
Turner, J. B. & A., Winchester..........
Weare Woolen Mill, W eare...............
Winn, A. B., Fishersville....................
Wilson & Earl, Claremont..................
Woods, Imri & Sons, Henniker..........

Kind o f goods.

Cassimeres.......................
Mousline de Lanes...........
Fancy and Plain Cassini’s
Cassim’s, Sat’ts, <fc Flan’ls .
Woolen G oods.................
Cassimeres & Doeskins . .
Satinet & Stocking Tarn.
Cassim’s, Tw’ds, & Flan’ls
Cassimeres.......................
Woolen Goods..................
Broadcloth........................

in yards. Spindles .

5,400
1,539,052

15.000
30.000
13,000
21,000
14,000
20,000

Flannels............................
Satin Doeskins.................
Fancy & Plain Cassimeres
Black and Mixed Doeskins
Flannels and Blankets. . .
Cassimeres.......................
Broadcloth.........................
Cassimeres.......................
Cassim’s, Flan’ls & Bl’nk’ts

300,000
25,000
50,000
28,000

Ing’n & Venitian Ca’p’ting
Flannels.............................

99,000
235,000

12,000
13,500
12,000

Blankets and Coatings.. .
Broad and Narrow Cloth.
13,000
20,000
Cassim’s, Sat’n’ts & Flan’ls
Muslins and Lawns........... 2,400,000
34,000
Woolen Y a r n ...................
24,000
Satin Janes.......................
150,000
Cassimere and Satin Janes
150,000
Woolen Flannel...............
45,000
Cassimeres........................
18,000
Cassim’s, Satin’ts & Flan’ls
60,000
Cashmerett and Cassim’s .
40,000
Tweeds...............................
30,000
Satinets.............................
Br’dcl’s & Fancy Doeskins
40,000
100,000
Flannels.............................
Woolen Cloths.................
42,000
Cassimeres.........................
*75,000
W oolen Flannels...............
36,000
Woolen Cloths.................
16,000
Cassimeres and Satinets. .

120
*7,368
*752
*720
1,000
120
750
400
264
180
156
350
1,080
1,600
....
....
400
900
144
240
168
....
252
240
....
1,000
140
2,500
200
300
21,250
468
160
860
615
420
288
340
324
200
507
344
528
450
260
330
264

PR0DUCTI01V OF THE MINES OF CHILL
A late number of the V alparaiso N eig h b o r furnishes the following statement o f the
value of copper, gold, and silver, produced at these mines for 1811 —IT, as follows :—
The value o f the copper produced in 1844 was 18,929,898, in 1845, $2,503,825, in
1841, $2,353,405 ; the silver mines in 1844 produced $1,310,996, in 1846, $1,116,815,
in 1841, $1,801,111; the gold mines in 1844, $91,091, in 1846, $211,984, and in 1841,
$301,415.
A great obstacle to be contended with by the miners, is the transportation of their
ores to the seaboard, and then, in return, the transportation of provisions inland for the




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.

682

workmen. A ll must be carried by pack mules. This greatly augments expenses, es­
pecially in the northern provinces, which, while agriculturally most barren, are in min­
eral deposits most abounding. The animals are scarce there, and of necessity must
continue to be so, from the difficulty in procuring food for them.
IM PROVEM ENT IN TH E MANUFACTURE OF H EM P.

Considerable attention has been excited by the MaysviUe establishment for manu­
facturing hemp without rotting. Frequent attempts before have failed on account of
inefficient machinery, and especially on account of the great liability o f this kind of
hemp to most offensive putrefaction and speedy decay. Now these difficulties seem
to be entirely overcome. The hemp is broken out and cleaned without making tow
or waste, and the product is carried through a chemical process called k yanizing, by
which it is rendered indestructible from ordinary exposure to weather. This kyanised
rope is said to be superior to the ManiHa for river purposes, being stronger, more flex­
ible, more durable, wearing smoother, and being more pleasant for boatmen to handle.
A t the same time, it must be admitted, that before it is used it does not look so weU
as Manilla, and there is no cordage in the world that does. It is said to improve in
appearance however by wear, while the ManiHa f r a y s down and wears rough. Here
then is a use American hemp is applied to, which heretofore required a foreign article.
The kyanized rope and kyanized bagging too, must probably come into use in covering
cotton bales. The dew-rotted rope and bagging gives way too soon by the exposure
which a great deal of the cotton is subjected to, and it arrives at its place of destina­
tion in bad order, the rope being often broken and the bagging torn off by cotton hooks.
W e understand that a company is about being formed in Mason county to manufacture
bale rope and bagging in this way. W e have watched this hemp movement with
great interest since its commencement. W e know something of its history and of the
men engaged in it, and we think the enterprise must succeed. It has succeeded, as its
projectors assure us, and we incline to believe them, from the evidence furnished. It
constitutes an important epoch in the history of hemp culture and manufacture in this
country. It is stated that hemp can be worked so economicaUy and perfectly as to
render it certain that the usual manner of working it cannot be much longer used—
that rope and bagging can be made cheaper in this way than by the usual mode. There
is one very material difficulty in the way of so great a change in the manner of work­
ing hemp, and that is the great expense that is necessary to fit up an establishment
that will pay, requiring a series of newly invented machinery and processes, driven by
powerful engines, and requiring investments of capital similar in amounts to those used
in the cotton manufacture. However, when sufficient demonstration can be made to
capitalists that the business is profitable, establishments enough may be set in opera­
tion in a few years to supply all the river eordage, bale rope, and bagging that may be
wanted. The navy, too, wiH probably ere long be supplied with this kind of cordage.
It is said to take tar remarkably well, remaining much more flexible and for a longer
time, than rope made of any other kind of hemp; while for ru n n in g rigg in g it is the
very article wanted— a desideratum.— L o u is v ille jo u r n a l.
T H E CHICOPEE COTTON M ILLS.

The eleven miUs at Chicopee, Massachusetts, as we learn from the Hampshire
Gazette, owned by the Chicopee, Cabot, Perkins and Dwight Corporations, give em­
ployment to 2,400 operatives. The Chicopee Corporation has four mills, 24,544 spin­
dles, with a capital of $700,000 ; the Cabot Corporation has two mills, 14,000 spindles,
with a capital of $500,000; the Perkins Corporation has two miUs, 14,000 spindles,
with a capital of $500,000 ; the Dwight Corporation has three miUs, 24,920 spindles,
with a capital of $700,000.
<< HOGS PACKED IN TH E W E S T .”

A correspondent under date “ Clinton, Fulton County, Illinois,” has called our atten­
tion to an article in the October number of the M erchants' M aga zin e , headed as above,
“ as calculated to convey very erroneous impressions to those not famHiar with the
pprk trade in that section of the country.” “ The table given,” he says, “ purports to
show the number packed in the States of Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois, when, in




R ailroad, Canal, and Steam boat Statistics.

6S3

fact, it only shows the number packed on the Missouri and Illinois Rivers, and the
Mississippi River above S t Louis,” and adds, “ as the pork trade is an important one
in this State (Illinois) it is very desirable that all statements and tables, particularly
in y o u r Journal, should be accurate.” We are extremely desirous of securing the ut­
most accuracy in our statistical statements, but whatever erroneous impression that
statement conveyed must be referred to the St. Louis R epublican, as our correspondent
will notice, by reference to the article, that it was derived from that journal.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF T H E NEW ENGLAND RAILROADS.

The “ P ath fin d er R a ilw a y G uide f o r the N ew E n g la n d States," one of the most
minute and accurate manuals of the kind ever published in this country, for November,
1849, contains the rules and regulations adopted by all the principal railroad com­
panies in the New England States.* As the result of the experience of our New Eng­
land Railroad managers and superintendents, these rules and regulations may be useful to
persons interested in railroads in other parts of the United States. W e therefore
transfer them to this department of the M erch a n ts' M a ga zin e.
RULES

AND

R E G U L A T IO N S

OF

THE

NEW

ENGLAND

R A IL R O A D S .

F i r s t :— In regard, to P assengers. — Passengers

must procure tickets before taking
their seats in the cars. They must not smoke in the cars or station houses. They are
not allowed, under any circumstances, to stand on the platforms of the cars. They
must not take or leave the cars when in motion, nor put their heads or arms out of the
car windows. S ec o n d :— I n regard to baggage, a nd articles carried on the P a ssen g er
Trains. — A ll baggage must be delivered to the Baggage Master or other person au­
thorized to receive it, before the passenger takes his seat in the cars. Baggage must
be accompanied in the same train by its owner; and when not so accompanied, no
agent o f the company is authorized to put it on board the train, and the company will
not hold itself responsible as common carriers in regard to it. The liability of the
company as com m on carriers in regard to baggage and other articles transported upon
a passenger train, will not commence till such baggage or other articles are put or re­
ceived on board the train; and the same liability will terminate when such baggage or
other articles are unladen from the train at tlieir place o f destination. Baggage will
not be taken to include money, merchandise, or other articles than those of personal
use; and when o f higher value than the highest sum advertised by the company as the
limit o f its liability, notice must be given of that fact, and an extra price paid, or the
company wiU not hold itself liable beyond that amount. The company will not hold
itself liable for any valise, package, or other article of personal property, taken by the
assenger with him into the cars, or carried at all upon a passenger train, unless devered to the baggage master, or other person authorized to receive and take charge
o f such articles. The company expressly reject any liability for the care of articles
in the keeping of Express Agents, who pass over their road under special contract;
whether any such limitation of the company’s liability is published in such Express
Agents’ advertisement or not. T h i r d :— A s to F reigh t, g oin g b y F reigh t Trains. — A ll
articles of freight must be plainly and distinctly marked, or they will not be received by
the company; and when designed to be forwarded, after transportation on the railroad,
a written order must be given, with the particular line of boats or teams marked on
the goods, if any such be preferred or desired. The company will not hold itself liable
for the safe carriage or custody of any articles of freight, unless receipted for by an au-

E

* The companies which have adopted these regulations, enumerated in the Pathfinder Railway
Guide, are as follows:—Boston and Lowell, Western, Boston and Providence, Providence and W or­
cester, Northern, Eastern, Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth, Fitchburg, Ilousatonic, Concord, Conecticut River, Vermont Central, Fall River, Boston and Maine, Old Colony, Norwich and Worcester
Nashua and Lowell, Stony Brook, Wilton, Cape Cod Branch &c..




684

R ailroad, Canal, and Steam boat Statistics.

thorized agent; and no agent o f the company is authorized to receive, or agree to
transport, any freight which is not thus receipted for. Duplicate receipts, in the form
prescribed by each company, ready for signing, must accompany the delivery of any
freight to that company. No responsibility will be admitted, under any circumstances,
to a greater amount upon any single article of freight than $200, unless upon notice
being given of such amount, and a special agreement therefor. Specie, drafts, bank
bills, and other articles of great intrinsic or representative value, will only be taken upon
a representation of their value, and by a special agreement assented to by the super­
intendent. The company will not hold themselves liable at all for any injury to any
articles of freight, during the course o f transportation, arising from the weather or acci­
dental delays. Nor will they guarantee any special despatch in the transportation of
such articles, unless made the subject of express stipulation. Nor will they hold them­
selves liable as com m on carriers for such articles, after their arrival at their place of
destination and unlading in the company’s warehouses or depots. Machinefy, furniture,
stoves, and castings, mineral acids, all liquids put up in glass or earthen ware, unpacked
fruit, and live animals, will only be taken at the owner’s risk of fracture or injury during
the course of transportation, loading and unloading, unless specially agreed to the con­
trary. Gunpowder, friction matches, and like combustibles, will not be received on any
terms; and all persons procuring the reception of such freight by fraud or concealment,
will be held responsible for any damage which may arise from it while in the custody
o f the company. A ll articles of freight, arriving at their place of destination, must be
taken away within twenty-four hours after being unladen from the cars,— the com­
pany reserving the right of charging storage on the same, or placing the same in
store at the risk and expense of the owner, if they see fit, after the lapse of that
time.
In the November number of the M erch a n ts' M a ga zin e, w e published an abstract of
the Report of the Boston and Maine Railroads, which extends from Boston to South
Berwick. In connection with our abstracts of the report, we gave some additional in­
formation, including a table of the principal places, distances, rates of fare, <&c., derived
from that authentic little manual, the “ P a th fin d er R a ilw a y Guide.” In a note, how­
ever, w e stated that the places between South Berwick and Portland were omitted in
the R a ilw a y G u id e ; but we find, on examination, that we were mistaken: the Port­
land, Saco, and Portsmouth road, which connects the Boston and Maine, extending
to South Berwick is a distinct corporation, and is given by itself in the Guide.
The error, a trifling one, originated from our not referring to the table in the Rail­
way Guide, giving the distances from South Berwick to Portland. W e make the
correction, in justice to the editor and proprietors of the Guide; as an error, however
trifling, would tend, if suffered to pass, to invalidate the semi-official character, or the
accuracy of that valuable manual.

PROGRESS OF RAILROADS IN GEORGIA.

The Western and Atlantic Railroad is now nearly completed. The great tunnel
through the Blue Ridge, 1,417 feet long, having been opened with imposing ceremo­
nies on the 1st of November, 1849.
It is calculated this road will be ready for traffic on the 1st January, 1850. It
commences at Atlanta, and runs northwesterly to Chattanooga, in Tennessee, on the
Tennessee River. It is the connecting link for the Central Railroad from Savannah to
Macon, and the Macon and Western Road from Macon to Atlanta, and also of the
Charleston and Hamburg and Georgia Railroads from Charleston to Atlanta. There
is now a steam communication from the seaboard to the Mississippi, and if we look at
the map we see finished the
Central Railroad, from Savannah to Macon..................................................miles
Macon & Western Railroad from Macon to Atlanta.................................... “
Western <t Atlanta Railroad, from Atlanta to Chattanooga, Tenn................“
Tennessee River to mouth of the Ohio, about.............................................. “




192
101
140
400
833

R ailroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

685

NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED ON RAILROADS IN ENGLAND.

Few are perhaps aware, says a Liverpool paper, of the immense number of people
to whom the railway system of this country has given employment during the last few
years. According to a British Parliamentary return, the number of persons employed
on the railways of the United Kingdom, in the capacities mentioned, was as follows :—

Secretaries.....................
Managers........................
Treasurers.......................
Engineers.......................
Superintendents.............
Storekeepers...................
Accountants...................
Cashiers..........................
Draughtsmen.................
Clerks..............................
Foremen..........................
Enginemen, or drivers..
Assistant enginemen.. . .
Conductors, or guards...
Artificers.........................

Railways
Railways in the
open for course of
traffic, const’n.
81
102
30
93
29
21
95
405
343 1,897
125
243
70
145
48
88
106
306
4,360
887
1,011
685
,.
1,752
..
1,809
1,464
10,814 29,087

Switchmen...................
Inspectors......................
Policemen.....................
Land surveyors.............
Porters...........................
Miners, or quarry men.
Messengers....................
Platelayers...................
Laborers.......................
Gatekeepers.................
Wagoners and carters.
Breaksmen....................
Miscellaneous emply’nt
Total number of men

Railways
Railways in the
open for course of
traffic, const’n.
___
1,058
....
119
2,475
71
26
7,362
10
....
6,250
197
4,391
256
14,297 147,325
401
141
45
32
197
116
52,688

188,177

Thus there were 52,688 persons employed on 4,252 miles of railway open for traffic,
and having 1,321 stations; and 188,177 persons employed on 2,956 miles of railway,
in the course of construction, making together the total number of persons employed
about railways—
Open for traffic....................................................................................... 52,688
In construction...............................
188,177
Total persons...................................................................

240,865

RAILROAD ACCIDENTS IN EUROPE.

The N o r th B ritish R eview , for August, contains an elaborate and very interesting
article on the railway system of England, and in the course of it gives the following
comparative table of casualties which occurred on the railways in England, France,
Belgium, and Germany, between the 1st of August, 1840, and July, 1845. It is the
result of calculations made by Baron Yon Reden:—
England...............
France..................
Belgium...............
Germany.............
England...............
France..................
Belgium...............
Germany.............
England...............
France..................
Belgium...............
Germany.............

1 passenger out of 869,000 killed by own neglect.
1
“
“ 2,157,000
“
“
1
“
“
670,000
“
“
1
“
“ 25,000,000
“
“
1 official out o f
800,000 killed and wounded from misconduct.
1
“
“
5,000,000
“
“
“
1
“
“
280,000
“
“
“
1
“
“
9,000,000
“
“
«
1 person out of
852,000 killed from defective management.
1
“
“
3,465,906
“
“
“
1
“
“
1,690,764
1
“
“
12,251,858
“
“
“

It will be observed that, as regards safety, the difference is strikingly in favor of
Germany; and it is accounted for by the fact, that while the officials stationed along
the road are greater in number than in any other country, the police regulations are of
such a nature that passengers cannot, by heedlessness or rashness, incur the chance of
danger to life and limb.
In England, in 1847, 211 persons were killed, and 174 injured, out of 54,854,019
passengers; and in 1848, 202 were killed, and 219 injured, out of 57,855,133.
W e should like to see a careful estimate of the casualties on roads in the United
States. They are not, we believe, any greater than those of England; while in that
country the guards set up against danger are much more complete than in our own.




R ailroad , Canal, and Steam boat Statistics.

686

VASTNESS OF RAILWAY WORKS.

The great Pyramid of Egypt, was, according to Diodorns Siculus, constructed by
three hundred thousand— according to Herodotus, by one hundred thousand men. It
required for its execution twenty years, and the labor expended on it has been esti­
mated as equivalent to lifting 15,733,000,000 (fifteen thousand seven hundred and
thirty-three millions) of cubic feet of stone one foot high. How, in the same measure,
if the labor expended in constructing the southern division only of the present London
and Horth-westem Railway be reduced to one common denomination, the result is
25,000,000,000 (twenty-five thousand millions) of cubic feet of similar material lifted
to the same height, being 9,267,000,000 (nine thousand two hundred and sixty-seven
millions) of cubic feet more than was lifted for the pyramid, and yet the English work
was performed by about 20,000 men only, in less than five years. Again it has been
calculated by Mr. Lecount, that the quantity of earth moved in the single division
(112 miles in length) of the railway in question, would be sufficient, to make a foot­
path, a foot high and a yard broad, round the whole circumference o f the earth; the
cost of this division of the railway, in penny pieces, being sufficient to form a copper
kerb or edge to it. Suppose, therefore, the same proportionate quantity of earth to
be moved in the 7,150 miles of railway sanctioned by Parliament at the commence­
ment of 1848, our engineers, within about fifteen years, would, in the construction of
our railways alone, have removed earth sufficient to girdle the globe with a rod one
foot high and one hundred and ninety-one broad.— S ir F r a n c is H ea d ’s S tokers and
P o k ers .

HAMBURG TUNNEL ON TIIE HUDSON R IV ER RAILROAD.

The great tunnel at Hew Hamburgh, says the E v en in g P o s t, connected with the
Hudson River Railroad, is nearly completed. It is a gigantic work, measuring 830
feet in length; at the south end is a cut 500 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 50 feet deep,
all through the solid rock before reaching the tunnel, which is 19 feet high and 24 feet
wide. Through the tunnel the passage is gloomy enough to represent the most dan­
gerous regions, darkness being relieved only by the light of candles, and through two
shafts sunk to it, one 70 feet in depth, the other 56, through which a glimpse of dayHght may be obtained, but on emerging at the north end, one other deep cut is found,
nearly as formidable as that at the south, being 200 feet long, and 70 feet deep, mak­
ing the entire deep cutting through the rock, all inclusive, no less than 1,530 feet.
One who has not seen the work, can form no conception o f its magnitude, and it may
be put down as one of the greatest curiosities in this part of the country. There are
400 men employed on this great work, under the supervision o f Messrs. Ward, Wells
<t Co., the contractors. Six thousand kegs o f powder, of 25 lbs. each, have been used
for blasting, in fourteen months, and nine blacksmith’s shops are constantly occupied
with repairing the tools, <&c. The work goes on night and day, with great expedition.
REDUCTION OF RAILROAD CAPITAL IN ENGLAND,.

It is thought by some that this is a favorable time for railway companies to pur­
chase up their shares in the market, with the view o f reducing the number of their
shares, and the amount on which they would have to pay dividend. It is proposed to
use the surplus receipts or profits for this purpose. Thus a company, whose shares
are at a fearful discount, could advantageously employ their receipts in buying up the
shares in the market. Many of them could buy a million of capital for £500,000, and
so for half a million reduce the capital receiving dividend by a million, in other words
save half a million for the benefit of the legitimate holders.— H era p a th ’s Journal.

PATHFINDER RAILWAY GUIDE FOR NEW ENGLAND.

W e have received the sixth monthly issue of this valuable manual. It gives, in a
compact form, official tables, corrected monthly, of the hours of departure from each
station, and the distances and fares, on all the railway lines in Hew England; and each
number is illustrated with a complete map of the several railroads included in the ta­
bles. W e have found it exceedingly useful, as a book of reference, and the traveler
wiU find it indispensable.




Journal o f B anking , Currency, and Finance.

687

JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE.
DEBT AND FINANCES OF ALABAMA.

give below a statement of the debt and finances of Alabama, derived from the
last annual message of the Governor of that State:—
W e

For the two years since the meeting of the last Legislature the receipts into the
Treasury and disbursements have been as follows:—
Balance in the Treasury, November 26, 1847...........................................
Receipts during the year ending November 1, 1848...............................

§528,251 86
288,640 92

Total means for 1848.......................................................................

§816,892 78

Paid out during the same time, including the sum of §485,965 35, in­
terest on State debt..................................................................................

644,628 03

Balance in Treasury, November 1, 1848 ..............................

§172,264 75

Receipts during the year ending November 1, 1849.............................

487,987 58

Total means for 1849.......................................................................

§660,252 33

Paid out during the same period, excluding Treasury drafts...............

122,235 75

Balance in Treasury, November 1, 1849................................

§538,016 58

Estimated receipts of funds in the hands of tax collectors, not paid into
the Treasury................................................ .............................................
Making the total means of the State up to the present ti me. . .

415,000 00
§953,016 58

Mostly in notes of the late State Bank and branches, of which the State is the only
stockholder.
The bank has been represented to be in liquidation for five years past, but the cir­
culation is still used by the Controller to pay off demands against the Treasury, and
these notes are in turn receivable for all dues to the State, including taxes.
The debt of Alabama is as follows :—
Outstanding bonds, §7,800,000, applied to banking.....................................
University fund..................................................................................................
The sixteenth section (school) fund.................................................................
Surplus revenue fund, about...........................................................................

§9,000,000
250,000
1,015,856
1,500,000

Total debt..............................................................................................

§11,765,856

To this must be added the loss to the State in winding up the State Bank and
branches. It will be seen that—
§100,000, bearing 6 per cent interest, falls due, and is payable at the Phoenix Bank
on the 1st April, 1850.
824,000, bearing 5 per cent inrerest, falls due on the 1st June, 1850, payable to Reid,
Irving and Company, London.
§924,000, total State debt falling due in 1850.
The governor thinks it would be burdensome on the people of the State to liquidate
the whole debt within the period suggested, (in ten years,) and recommends to the
General Assembly, a renewal of the bonds falling due in 1850, for 20 years.
On the subject of legislating for the ultimate liquidation of the public debt, the gov­
ernor continues:—




Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance.

688

The great question appears to be, -whether we should raise an amount of revenue
that would enable us to pay not only the interest, but such a portion of the principal
as would lead to a speedy liquidation o f the entire debt; or, postponing for the pre­
sent the payment of the principal, raise only so much as would be necessary to pay
the regular interest on that debt, in addition to the expenses of the State Government,
leaving its final liquidation for a period more propitious, when the energy of our
young State will be more matured and better directed— when her vast agricultural
and mineral resources, and her manufacturing capacities will be more fully developed,
and her population more numerous and better able to share the burden of taxation
among them. Which course of policy should be adopted by the State, as might be
expected, gives rise to much difference o f opinion. It must be remembered that the
question of postponement can, in nowise, affect the honor or financial credit of the
State, for, b y the terms of the contract which created our foreign debt, the right was
reserved to the State to continue her indebtedness for an indefinite period, provided
the interest on that debt continued to be regularly paid The payment of the princi­
pal is, therefore, with us a question of expedience, and, in determining upon the time,
we should be led to adopt that course of policy which, after due consideration, we
should feel satisfied would best serve the interests of the State.
« CHRONICLES AND CHARACTERS OF TH E STOCK EXCHANGE.” *

As we were closing the present number of the M ercha nts' M agazine, we received
from England a copy of a new work, with the above title, just published in London.
J o h n F r a n c i s , Esq., the author, is a clerk in the Bank of England.
His history of
that Bank, in two large octavo volumes, published some two years since, has already
reached a third edition, and is the only book, so far as our knowledge extends, about
banking, that can be considered entertaining. In that work the author 1-as exhibited
great industry and taste in the selection of striking anecdotes, touching upon all the
prominent financial movements of the past and present century, and at the same time
elucidating, with clearness, those epochs in the history of the bank, “ by which funda­
mental principles were first suggested, and antiquated errors are corrected.” To use
the language of the London B a n k ers' M a ga zin e, the history of the Bank of England
“ is as interesting as a fairy tale.” He has adopted the same popular plan in the pres­
ent work, the object o f which is, as modestly set forth in his preface to the volume,
“ to gather the many remarkable incidents connected with the national debt, to pre­
sent an anecdotical sketch of the causes which necessitated its principal characters—
to detail the many evils of lotteries— to relate the difficulties in the early history of
railways— to popularize the loans, of which the Poyais, with its melancholy tragedy,
and the Greek, with its whimsical transactions, were such striking examples, and
finally to group these objects around the Stock Exchange.
W e consider it a most interesting as weU as valuable contribution to the financial
literature of the commercial world, and shaU take occasion, in a future number of our
journal, to review it more at length, and, at the same time, transcribe, for our pages,
some of its attractive reading. W e have space, at present, for only two random ex­
tracts, touching the constitution of the Stock Exchange, and an explanation o f its
terms.
C O N S T IT U T IO N

OF

THE

LONDON

STOCK

EXCHANGE.

The constitution o f the Stock Exchange is simple. Governed by a committee of
twenty-eight, with a chairman and deputy-chairman, annually elected by the members,
their power to expel, suspend, or reprimand, is absolute; their decision final ; and that
decision, adds one of the rules, “ must be carried out forthwith.” In cases of expulsion,
the committee should not consist of less than twelve; and of these, at least two-thirds
* Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange. By John Francis, author o f the History o f the
Bank of England, its Times and Traditions. L ondon: Willoughby & Co.




Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance.

<589

must concur in tlie sentence. No bill or discount broker, no clerk in any public or pri­
vate establishment— excepting those to the members of the Stock Exchange— no one
in business, either in his own name or in that of his wife, can be received as member.
Every applicant must be recommended by three members of two years’ standing, who
must each give security for £300 for two years. The committee meets every alternate
Monday, at one o’clock; but a special meeting may at any time be called by the chair­
man and deputy chairman, or by any five members. Brokers and jobbers, or dealers,
as they are politely termed, are not allowed to enter into partnership ; and, when a
defaulter is excluded, his clerk is excluded with him.
Directly the books are closed at the Bank of England, the price of stocks, excepting
only Bank stock, is quoted without the dividend.
When a defaulter, or one who cannot or will not pay the just claims on him, is posted,
a libel is avoided by the following words: “ Any person transacting business with
A. B., is requested to communicate with C. D.”
E X P L A N A T IO N

OF

THE

TEEM S

USED

ON

THE

LONDON

STOCK

EXCHANGE.

The terms used on the Stock Exchange have been in vogue for more than a century ;
and the origin of many may be traced to the early transactions in the stock o f the
East India Company. Buying for the account has been described; but “ bull,” and
“ bear,” “ backardation,” and “ continuation,” are understood only by the initiated.
“ Bull” is a term applied to those who contract to buy any quantity of government
securities, without the intention or ability to pay for i t ; and who are obliged, therefore,
to sell it again, either at a profit or loss, before the time at which they have contracted
to take it.
• “ Bear” is a term applied to a person who has agreed to sell any quanity of the
public funds, of which he is not possessed, being, however, obliged to deliver it against
a certain time.
“ Lame Duck” is applied to those who refuse, or are unable to fulfil the contracts
into which they have entered.
“ Backardation” is a consideration given to keep back the delivery of stock, when the
price is lower for time than for money.
“ Continuation” is a premium given when the price of funds in which a person has a
jobbing account open is higher for time than for money, and the settling day is arrived,
so that the stock must be taken at a disadvantage. In this case a per centage is paid,
to put off the settlement, and continue the account open.
“ Jobber” is applied to those who accommodate buyers and sellers of stock with any
quantity they require. The dealer or jobber’s profit is generally one-eighth per cent.
The “ Broker” is the person employed by the public to sell or purchase stock, at a
certain per centage.
“ Omnium” is a term used to express the aggregate value of the different stocks in
which a loan is usually funded.
“ Scrip” is embryo stock, before the whole of the instalments are paid.

FINANCES OF TH E EAST INDIA COAIPANY.

The official returns just published and presented to the British Parliament, show
that the gross total receipts of the home treasury of the East India Company from the
1st of May, 1848, to the 30th of April, 1849, amounted to £5,618,921, and the total
disbursements to £4,214,495, leaving a balance in favor of the treasury, on the 30th of
April, of £1,344,431. The receipts of the home treasury for the year ending 30th of
April, 1850, are estimated at £5,201,931, and the disbursements at £4,239,885, leav­
ing an estimated balance, on the 30th of April, 1850, of £962,046. The debts of the
Government of India, in England, on the 1st of May last, amounted to £5,054,283, and
the credits to £2,891,108, leaving an excess o f debt of £2,156,515. The total number
of em ployes of the Company, in England, on the 1st of May, amounted to 514, whose
salaries amounted to £126,121. The gross total amount of the revenues o f the several
Presidencies and Governments of India for the year 1841-48 was estimated at
11,619,391 rupees, and the gross total charges at 15,619,251 rupees; which latter,
added to 3,016,012 rupees, (the charges disbursed in England,) made the grand total
charges of India, for the year 1841-48, amount to 18,635,309 rupees, leaving a defi­
ciency on the general account of 1,015,968 rupees.
VOL. X X I.---- NO. V I.




44

Journal o f Banking, Currency , and Finance.

690

BANKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Name.

Location.

Ashuelot Bank....................
Belknap County Bank.........
Cheshire Bank.....................
Connecticut River B ank...
Derry Bank.........................
Dover Bank.........................
Granite Bank.......................
Great Falls Bank.................
Lancaster Bank...................
Lebanon, Bank of................
Manchester Bank................
Mechanics’ Bank..................
Mechanics’ & Traders’ Bank
Merrimack County Bank . .
New Ipswich Bank.............
Nashua Bank.......................
I’iscataqua Exchange Bank
Rochester Bank...................
Rockingham Bank...............
Strafford Bank.....................
Winchester Bank.................

Keene...........
Meredith.......
Keene...........
Charlestown.
D erry...........
Dover...........
E xeter.........
Somersworth
Lancaster...
Lebanon. . . .
Manchester..
Concord__ _
Portsmouth .
Concord . . . .
J\ew Ipswich
Nashua.........
Portsmouth .
Rochester.. .
Portsmouth .
Dover...........
Winchester. .

Cashiers.

Capital. Shares.

Par val.

T. H. Leveret.. §100,000 $ . . . . § . . . .
J. T. Coffin.. . . 100,000 1,000 1,000
Z. New ell........
100 1,000
100,000
600
George Olcott.
150
90,000
100
James Thom -. 100,000 1,000
Andrew Pierce 200,000 2,000
100
50
James Burley.. 100,000 2,000
D. II. Buffum . 100,000 1,000
100
50
Geo. A. Cossitt
50,000 1,000
J. H. Kendrick. 100,000 1,000
100
....
....
N. Parker......... 150,000
100
George Minot . 100,000 1,000
100
Jas. F. Shores. 110,000 1,100
500
E. S. Towle. . .
80,000
160
100
George Barrett. 100,000 1,000
100
John M. Hunt. 100,000 1,000
100
Samuel Lord. . 200,000 2.000
100
John McDuffee. 100,000 1,000
50
J. S. Pickering.. 143,000 2,860
100
Asa A. Tufts. . 100,000 1,000
100
Wm. B. H ale.. 100,000 1,000

CIRCULAR TO RECEIVERS OF PUBLIC MONEY,
T r e a su r y D e pa rtm e n t ,

O c to b e r 2 5 th ,

1849.

S ir — Tlie gross receipts of your office, of which you have heretofore been required

to make duplicate monthly returns to the Commissioner of the General Land Office
and to this Department, being identical, under the provisions of the act o f Sd March
last, with the sums to be returned at the same date in your w eekly account with the
Treasurer of the United States, the latter are superseded. From the receipt of this,
you will transmit a triplicate copy o f your m on th ly retu rn to the Treasurer of the
United States, including therein such of the drafts of that officer upon you which may
have been taken up during the preceding month.
A s the act in question requires that the gross receipts of the revenue be carried into
the Treasury, and the expenses of collection be paid from appropriations for that pur­
pose, your monthly accounts should contain no charges except for payments upon the
Treasurer’s drafts, deposits made under the directions of this Department, canceUed
land scrip, or forfeited land stock, or Treasury notes.
In making such deposits, you will be careful to make those of amounts received in
different quarters, i n separate sum s, and that they be so receipted by the depositary,
in order that the revenue for each quarter may be readily distinguished.
This series of accounts to be rendered to the Treasurer, should commence with the
month of October, bringing forward the balance of cash on hand (not including any
portion of advances made to you as disbursing agent, by Treasurer’s drafts) on the 30th
September, and should be on quarto-post paper, not larger than the form which has
been furnished, and endorsed as heretofore directed.
W . M. MEREDITH,

S e c r e ta r y o f th e T r e a s u r y .

LAND REVENUES OF TH E BRITISH CROWN.

A return, published in October, on the motion of Mr. Hayter, M. P., gives some
statistical particulars relative to the receipts and expenditure o f the Commissioners of
Woods and Forests. It appears that in the year ended 31st o f March, 1849, the total
income o f the land revenue amounted to £463,463, and the gross total concurrent ex­
penditure to £288,485, leaving a net available balance of income on the 31st of March,
1849, o f £174,977. The expenditure includes the following items (amongst many
others too numerous to quote.) viz.: £27,010 for the office of W oods; £2,820 for law
charges; £3,841 for the repairs and improvements of Crown estates; £7,934 for rates
and taxes on Crown property; £34,682 for the royal forests and woodlands; and
£71,346 for the royal parks and gardens.




Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance.

691

ROYAL MONEY BORROWING IN ENGLAND.

Charles I. seized the money of his merchants ; and his bonds -were hawked about
the streets, were offered to the people as they left the church, and sold to the highest
bidder. The Commonwealth were debtors, on the security of the forfeited estates.
Charles II. took money from France, shut up the Exchequer, borrowed from his
friends, and did anything rather than run the risk of being again sent on his travels.
Thus it would seem, the exchequer of the earlier monarchs was in the pockets of the
people; that of Henry VIII. in the suppressed monasteries ; Elizabeth in the corpora­
tions; and Charles II. wherever he could find it. The abdication of James II., and
the arrival of William III., form an era in the history of the monetary world. The
plans adopted by the latter to crush the power of France, and raise the credit of
England, were the commencement of that great accumulation known as the national
debt, and the origin, though remote, of that building, celebrated throughout Europe, as
the Stock Exchange. The rapid sketch now presented of the mode in which money
was supplied, confirms the remark of Mr. Macaulay, that “ there can be no greater
error than to imagine the device of meeting the exigencies of the State by loans was
imported into our island by William III. From a period of immemorial antiquity, it
had been the practice of every English Government to contract debts. What the
Revolution introduced was the practice of honestly paying them.”
,
BRITISH LOANS FROM 1780 TO 17S3.

Half -was given to the members of the House of Commons, more than three millions
was allotted to one person; and, without regard to the welfare of the nation, the price
was determined at a ratio so favorable to the contractors, that from no cause save the
low terms on which it had been taken, the scrip arose at once to 11 premium. In 1781
it was said Lord North had made an infamous bargain in a bungling manner, and that
in 1782, he had made a bungling bargain in an infamous manner. * * In 1783, out
of a loan of twelve millions, £7,700,000 were given to bankers. So disgraceful was
the whole affair, that Lord John Cavendish was compelled to apologise for the terms
on which it had been granted, because “ the former minister had left the treasury
without a shilling.” By attempting to please men of all parties, Lord John, as usual,
pleased none. He was abused by some for dividing it among so small a number; he
was rated by others for allowing so many to have a share. Mr. Smith— of the house
of Smith and Payne— made a formal complaint that he had been neglected in the
allotment; that his firm was the only one left out. * * Although this gentleman saw
no harm in receiving a portion of the loan, other bankers had higher views. Mr.
Martin believing that, as a senator, he ought not to contract, lest it might bias his
votes, conscientiously refused to accept any portion of loan or contract; and thus sac­
rificed his pocket to his principle.
“ TH E BILL OF EXCHANGE.”

We published in the M ercha nts' M a ga zin e, for October, 1849, (vol. xxi., page 456,)
an anecdote, with the above heading, remarking at the time, that the incident was
weU calculated to call forth the admiration of our mercantile readers; and further, that
the gentleman who appeared to so much advantage in it was well known in Wallstreet. These statements were made on what we presumed to be good authority.
W e have since learned from the quarter most likely to be correctly informed, that the
anecdote in question “ has no foundation in f a c t a t least, so far as Mr. W., “ an
Englishman and a Quaker,” is concerned.
“ BANKRUPTCY— BANKING.”

“ G. B.” in reply to a communication in the November number of the M erch a n ts’
with the above title, is informed that his article came to hand too late for
the present number. It will probably appear in our January issue. As we are not in
the habit of publishing a communication from an anonymous source without some per­
sonal knowledge of the writer, our correspondent, “ G. B.,” will see the propriety o f
favoring the editor with a caU.
M a ga zin e,




092

Mercantile Miscellanies.

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
TH E COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE.*

[W e have been favored with the manuscript o f the following paragraphs, the con­
cluding portion of an article of much greater length on “ Agricultural Wealth,” from
“ T h e Farm er’ s E v e r y -d a y B o o k ” etc., by the Rev. J ohn L. B lake, D. D., which will
probably make its appearance early in the spring of 1850. Forming our opinion from
portions of the work which we have seen, and from some twenty years acquaintance
with the character and habits of the author’s mind, we have no hesitation in commend­
ing the forthcoming Volume to the large class of persons designated in the title. We
apprehend that it will not only be an “ every-day book ” for every farmer in the land,
but one that will interest the political economist, and, indeed, all who take an interest
in the social and moral welfare of our common country. The liberal and comprehensive
views o l the learned author, and his large experience and practical common sense, are
strikingly exhibited in the preparation of the work, as all who read the following brief
extract from a single chapter of it, will readily admit.]— E d . M e r . M a g .
Oor present purpose, however, in showing the amount of agricultural wealth in the
country, is to show, also, its commercial importance. It is not apparent to ordinary
visional organs, that there would be, as it were, no commerce without agriculture; and,
if no commerce, of course no vessels and no cities. Vessels and cities are the incidents
o f commerce, and the latter is mainly the incident of agriculture; for if every product
of the soil was excluded, what would there be left for merchandise ? It is granted that
salted and pickled fish of every sort, iron and steel in every form, grindstones too, all
the products of the ocean not before included, all mineral productions found on the sur­
face or in the bowels of the earth, make exceptions ; but we scarcely can think of any­
thing else. These, truly, are not the result of agricultural labor, and the merchant is
not dependent on this labor for all he can make out o f these things. A second thought
suggests, however, that there should be a little qualification to the admission. You
may reply, surely the farmer has nothing to do with the production o f cod fish, or
mackerel, or halibut, or smoked herring, or salmon, or whale oil. True, he had nothing
to do in their production. He never nurtured or fed these inhabitants of the briny
deep. Their instinct led them to their own procreation; and, also, to roam at large
from north to south, and from east to west, procuring as they went their own food.
The fanner neither fed nor clothed them, or built them houses or barnes. As they
exist in the ocean, they are wholly independent of his agency. But, when we find
them in the marts o f trade, as objects of merchandise, it is not quite so. On what did
the mechanics live, while building the ships which went in search of these marine ele­
ments of wealth; and, on what did the sailors subsist during their voyages in securing
them! On shipbread made from the farmers flour, and beef and pork, which the far­
mer fatted and sent to market.
The admission is particularly applicable to iron and steel, as we see them exhibited
among the useful implements of civilized society. W e admit, as we did above, that
as crude minerals, when existing in their native quarries, they were as God made them.
Man had no agency in their existence. But, it is not to be overlooked, that as crude
minerals they had comparatively no value. They are so abundant as to be but little
more precious than a rich garden loam. Their whole value is given to them by labor.
It is said that steel made into the main-springs of the watch is augmented in value
more than a thousand per cent. And who does not know what increased value is
given to it, when made into fine cutlery ? A piece of steel that might conveniently be
carried in one pocket, converted into surgical instruments, or highly finished penknives,
* The Farmer’s Every-day B ook ; containing the Popular Elements o f Theoretical and Practical
Agriculture; also, a Catalogue of Books for a Farmer’s Library ; a System o f education for Agricul­
tural L ife; and Hints on the Means of Promoting Health, Temperance, and correct Moral Principles
among the Laboring Classes; including also, as an Introduction, a Dictionary of Terms ; and as an
Appendix, Five Hundred Receipts relating to Rural and Domestic Economy. By the Rev. J o h n L
B l a k e , D. D., author of a General Biographical Dictionary, etc.




Mercantile Miscellanies.

693

will probably be worth one hundred dollars. Hence it will be seen that it is merely
the labor of the artist applied to these raw materials, from which the merchant de­
rives his profit, and not from the materials themselves. And the artist, as in the case
o f ship building, and the sailors in catching fish, receive their sustenance from the
hand o f the agriculturist. It is much the same even with grindstones. They do not
leap self-formed, like living animals, from their hard made beds. Coarse as they are,
the application of labor was requisite to mould them into the shape demanded for
mercantile and mechanical uses.
I f such demonstrations come from the exceptions first made from one main hypothe­
sis, how conclusive will be the argument when directed to cases of a more obvious and
palpable description. The great staples of agricultural production set down in our
tabular paragraph, if viewed in all their remote relation to commerce, will assume an
importance which they do not there present. As there exhibited in one mass, they do
indeed show an enormous amount of wealth; over one thousand millions of dollars.
Let it as one mass become an article of merchandise, to what a host of persons will it
give occupation and support. How many ships would be required to transport it ?
What a multitude of sailors to man those ships ? And for ought we know, it might
require a chain o f railroad cars that would reach around the globe to transport the
whole o f it at once across the two continents. Dividing this into parcels of one hun­
dred thousand dollars each, it will make a business for ten thousand wholesale mer­
chants ; and if each has ten subordinates, clerks, porters, and carmen, it makes a busi­
ness for one hundred thousand persons, and giving support, including their families, to
at least five hundred thousand souls. Yet, this is but a shadow of the reality— but a
mere fragment of the entire mercantile process.
These agricultural products, like other merchandise, do not pass directly from the
wholesale merchant to the consumer. In almost every instance, the retailer makes
treble the profit on them that is made by the former. Sometimes they pass through
two or three different hands, before their transit is complete, each as a matter of course
receiving his per centage. Take as a sample, the article of flour, passing from the
merchant to the retailer, from the retailer to the baker, and frequently from the baker
back to the retailer in the form of bread, and then to the consumer. A ll that exercise
any agency or employ capital in these transitions are to be duly paid; so that when
in the hands o f the consumer it must be estimated at nearly one hundred per cent
above the sum paid to the producer for it. Take also the article of cotton, passing
from the producer to the wholesale merchant, from him to the manufacturer, from the
manufacturer to the commission merchant, from the latter to the retailer, and from
him to the consumer. Here are five different transits, each attended with carrying
expenses, in addition to the mercantile per centage each party is entitled to receive.
And in all cases of exportation to foreign countries, and sometimes in our own country,
there are additional transits. Thus our agricultural producers mainly support our
railroads, and freight steamboats. They support our mercantile establishments, the
factors, the clerks, the porters, and the carmen. They in fact support the landlords in
paying rent, and not less the masons and carpenters who erect city buildings; the
street pavers and the street cleaners, together with the various incumbents of office in
the city government; for were it not for the agricultural productions, but few of these
things would be needed ; not, indeed, as charities, but as fair business remunerations,
giving regular employment to all having agency therein.
The magnitude of the agricultural interests of a country, demand the paternal su­
pervision of its government, as well as the respectful consideration of all its citizens.
In our own country, it is passing strange that our government has so little realized a
feeling of corresponding responsibility. What has our government ever done to stimu­
late its yeomanry to the most enlightened and efficient means for rendering agriculture
honorable and profitable ? Has it held out inducements to open new sources of profit,
or even to secure in the greatest perfection those already opened ? Has it spread over
our wide domain, as it were broadcast, the illuminations of science, relating to this
subject ? It might easily have done s o ; it might have sent scientific tracts on agri­
culture to every farm house in our land, as well as to print and send out the steam­
boat loads of Congressional speeches, interesting generally to but few save those who
make them. And how easy it would be for our national vessels, every now and then
to return home freighted with improved breeds of farm animals, to be gratuitously
placed on model farms, wherever established in connection with our colleges, or other
endowed and incorporated institutions ; the produce of these animals held within the
reach of small operators as well as the rich. Such a paternal agency in our national




694

Mercantile Miscellanies.

government would raise American agriculture to its proper elevation, rendering it
vastly more lucrative than it now is ; and in addition to the benefits conferred on in­
dividuals, adding much to our national wealth, independence, and aggrandizement.
To secure an end of such utility to the increased prosperity of the country, there
should be at Washington, in the national government, a bureau, or department of ag­
riculture. It matters not by what name it is called, but the thing itself should exist,
established upon the most liberal and comprehensive principles. It may be the Home
Department, in name; if the reality is there, that is of the most importance; it should
be a branch of the government for the increase and the protection of American pro­
ductive industry, in all its ramifications. It should be for the benefit of the people—
the citizens of the whole country, and for nothing else. Compared with such a de­
partment, of little consequence to the masses of the people are the naval and army de­
partments. Where these benefit one person, the other would enrich hundreds. Why
not have it ? If the people pay for it, have they not a right to it ? Besides, in its re­
sults, it would pay for itself a hundred, perhaps a thousand times over, in the aug­
mented agricultural resources of the country. Nor is this a ll; it would lead to the
development of intellect, to the elevation of social character in rural life. Has not this
already been done, to a limited extent, by our local agricultural institutions ? Most as­
suredly it has. Do the tens of thousands that annually attend the fairs of the Ameri­
can Institute, receive no social elevation, in addition to a participation in the more le­
gitimate benefits for which it was principally designed ? Do they learn nothing of
life, and manners, and of the world, by meeting those of all the various grades of hu­
manity, on these occasions ? Do they not almost instinctively learn to sympathize
with those inferior to themselves, and to assimulate to those superior to themselves ?
To avoid the errors of the more ignorant, and to become wiser on thus beholding the
more enlightened ? Had we a complete system of ethical, social, and metaphysical
algebra to embody all the facts relating to this subject, it would appear, we have no
doubt, that for every dollar expended upon the American Institute, and other kindred
institutions, the country has been benefitted in a tenfold ratio. And if the general
government of the country were to carry out the proposed suggestion, the benefit
would be to the cost in a hundred fold ratio.
INLAND COMMERCE AND COMMUNICATION.

W e quote from Dr. Bethune’s oration before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, of Har­
vard University, delivered July 19, 1849, the following eloquent and appropriate par­
agraph :—
The products of our immense inland territory must find vent for the surplus through
the ports of the sea-board, through which, again, must come the luxuries or necessaries
we require from abroad. The agricultural States offer the best markets for the manu­
factures of those whose soil is less fertile, yet dearer, and labor more abundant; while
these, in their turn, are rewarded with plenty of breadstuffs and other provision. Iron,
lead, coal, Gopper, gold, pass each other on their way to distant localities. There are
no empty return wagons, rail-cars, or coasting vessels; each carries back wealth pur­
chased by the wealth which it brought. Our immense lakes, with their rich teeming
borders thousands of miles about, act like inner impelling arteries to the trade of the
whole country. Our great navigable rivers, with their numerous tributaries, ramify,
like veins, for the circulation of a common life through leagues none pretends to count,
and millions whose increase none dares to guess. Nay, by the wonderful inventions of
recent years, we are no longer dependent upon the watery ways of nature, and wellnigh annihilate distance. On the wings of steam, the population and wealth of whole
towns may speed, swifter than a bird, along the roads which, binding us together by
iron sinews, pierce mountains, span valleys, and measure the continuous level by min­
utes, not miles, so that we say, “ How long ?” instead of “ How far ?” The slender
wires, now stretching like network over the land, quickly as living nerves, thrill thought
and feeling between correspondents the most remote. And, by the admirable working
o f our confederate unity, is felt through all, like the beating of a central heart, the
power of one national will. In a word, we realize more fully than Rome, with its
Senate and JPlebs, could do, the fable of old Menenius Agrippa, and are as virtually
connected as the several parts of the human anatomy,— “ that there may be no schism
in the body, but that the members should have the same care one for another ; and
whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it, or one member be honored




Mercantile Miscellanies.

695

all the members rejoice with it.” Suppose, for one melancholy moment, that this
healthful economy of exchanges was broken up— that the western valley was shut out
from the sea by adverse governments— that those on the coast were hemmed into their
own narrow limits by hostile forts along the mountain ridges— that between the North
and the South there was neither commercial nor moral sympathy— that at every State
line passports were demanded and a tariif set— who must not shrink from describing
the terrible consequences, the stagnation of trade, the silence of brotherly council, the
constant feuds, the multiplication of armies, the Cain-like, exterminating wars, the
overthrow o f law by military dictators, the utter ruin of all that makes ns prosperous
at home and respected abroad, the sure catastrophe, moral and national death.
HABIT AS RELATED TO BUSINESS,

W e cut from a late number of the D r y Goods R ep orter , the foHowing brief but com
prehensive essay on “ Habit as related to business,” commending its valuable sugges­
tions to the serious attention of the readers of the M erchants' M a g a z in e :—
The power of habit is very well indicated by the saying, “ Habit is second nature.’
There is no exaggeration in the adage, as we shall be forced to admit if we consider
. facts. Take the frequently occurring case of individuals born blind, or early deprived
o f sight, and observe how the habit of nice observation through the sense of feeling
will often astonish you by his accurate descriptions of things which he has examined
by means of his exquisitely practised touch.
The wonderful accuracy of the forest bred Indian in detecting and describing the
number and character of a party who have preceded him through the woods, and the
certainty with which he will determine the time since they left any particular spot,
have often astonished white men, who could see no signs on which to predicate an
opinion. Y et the Indian is rarely, if ever, at fault. The reason is, that he has schooled
his senses into unering habits of nice and accurate observation. His success in war
and hunting, his life, and the safety of his tribe, depend upon his correctness of obser­
vation of those minute signs.
Now can any one doubt that habits of patient and accurate observation, such as the
savage exhibits, would be of incalculable value if brought to bear upon all the minute
details of business life ? Or can it be doubted that habits of negligence and inatten­
tion in regard to the minutre of business, will prove detrimental, if not fetal ?
There is this additional thought, which is important and worthy to be considered,
that the habit of closely observing, once formed, is seldom at fault, and performs its
office spontaneously. To recur again to the Indian habit of minutely marking all the
indications of a trail, he is not obliged to force his mind, it is his pleasure, and it forms
one o f the attractions of forest life, to watch every indented leaf, every faint foot-print,
and every minute sign that some one has passed before him. So when a man in any
department of business has once made it the habit of his life to watch closely and mi­
nutely all that bears upon and relates to his business operations, it becomes a plea­
surable excitement instead of a laborious effort. W e hardly ever knew a man who had
formed habits of nice and detailed order, who did not make them a hobby which he
delighted to ride as much as any child his New Year’s present. The reason is, that
when once habits of any kind, and especially those which we know and feel are im­
portant and valuable, have been formed, we take pleasure in acting conformably
thereto.
The case of Bulwer, the great novelist, is sometimes quoted as illustrative o f the
advantage of habits of order. Bentley’s Miscellany says he w orked his way to emi­
nence, worked it through failure, through ridicule. His facility is wonderful, but it is
only the result of practice, study, habit. He wrote at first slowly and with great diffi­
culty, but he resolved to master the stubborn instrument of thought, and he did mas­
ter it. He has practised writing as an art, and has re-written some of his essays un­
published nine or ten times over. He only works about three hours a day, from ten
in the morning till one— seldom later. The evenings when alone, are devoted to read­
ing, scarcely ever to writing. Y et what an amount of good hard labor has resulted
from these hours!
These are thoughts worthy of the consideration of all men, but especially of young
men in business, who have the most of life before them. It may be considered as an
indubitable principle that he who succeeds in early life in establishing good business




696

Mercantile Miscellanies.

and moral habits, disposes thereby of the heavy end of the load of life; all that re­
mains he can cany easily and pleasantly. On the other hand, bad habits, once formed,
will hang forever on the wheels of enterprise, and in the end will assert their suprem­
acy to the ruin and shame of their victim.

WASHING AND BATHING ESTABLISHMENTS.

W e have received a report presented by Aldermen Shultz, Allen, and Kelly, to the
Common Council, on the subject of public baths and wash houses, furnishing much
interesting information in regard to these beneficent establishments in England; and
we have also seen some statistical reports from one of them, all tending to show, not
only the eagerness with which the labouring and poorer classes avail themselves of the
privileges these establishments offer, but also the practicability of making them (fre­
quented as they are by the million, instead of the wealthy few) pay handsome divi­
dends on their cost, even though the tariff of prices for bathing, and for washing clothes,
is low enough to come within the reach o f the poorest— less even than the cost of fuel
required for doing the same work at home.
The connection between c l e a n l i n e s s o f personal habits and of the dwellings of the
poor, and the health, morals, and business prosperity of a great commercial city, is too
obvious to require argument.
A system of public baths and wash houses esta­
blished and in operation throughout the different wards in the city of New York,
most needing them, during the past summer, would, in all probability, have saved to
the city much more than then cost; and the loss in consequence of the cholera panic,
to the various branches of business depending upon our trade with the whole country,
must be computed by thousands— we had almost said millions. Shall we not, then,
without waiting for another similar visitation to stir up our public spirit, make an
effort to introduce this system into our city 1 W e are glad to learn that a project is
on foot for the purpose. We have seen a subscription book, with the names of some
of our most respected merchants and other citizens, appended to liberal sums, as stock
subscriptions and donations, amounting in all to some ten thousand dollars, and under­
stand that about an equal additional amount is wanted, before proceeding to organise
a company, under a charter obtained from the Legislature last winter. We have a
copy of the subscription paper at our office, and shall be glad to receive the names o f
such as may wish to subscribe. W e sincerely hope the project may not fall through
for want of sufficient public spirit in this community to make up the small sum required.
The stock will probably pay as weU as good bank stock.

MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE,

Ten years ago Life Insurance was scarcely known in this country. Not over one in
30,000 of the American people had resorted to it; very little knowledge of the sys­
tem had been diffused among our people up to that time— there were few who had
any definite idea of the system— the masses gave no thought to the subject, and oth­
ers equally ignorant of its true character, regarded it with pious horror, as implying a
distrust of God’s providence in the affairs of men. The error and this prejudice have
passed away, and thousands and tens of thousands of our citizens, in all parts of the
Union, are steadily resorting to Life Insurance, as the best and surest method of pro­
tecting their families from a precarious dependance upon the life of an individual
In the estimation of well informed and thinking men, this institution now holds a
front rank among the benevolent enterprises which modem philanthropy has origina­
ted for mitigating the evils, and for enhancing the enjoyments of social life.
Every good citizen, every man whose means are taxed to relieve the wants of
others— in short, every member of the community, be his position what it may, is in­
terested in the extension of the system of Life Insurance; inasmuch as the diffusion of
its moral influence, and of the substantial benefits which result from it, are eminently
calculated to strengthen the bonds of social life, and to avert the destitution and suf­
fering which otherwise would too often fall to the lot of the helpless and dependant.
Business enterprises carried to successful issues in a right direction, always afford
ground for congratulation; and especially, as in the present instance, where all the
advantages resulting from it, instead of enriching a privileged few, are reserved to be
distributed among the many, for whose benefit the insurance was originally intended.




The B ook Trade .

697

THE BOOK TRADE.
1.— M e m o ir s o f the L i f e o f W illia m W i r t , A tto r n e y -G e n e r a l o f the U n ited S tates.
By J ohn P. K ennedy. In Two Volumes. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
It is no more than justice that the eloquent biographer of Patrick Henry should have
the history o f his own life and triumps, recorded in the spirit of warm appreciation.
Wirt’s life of Patrick Henry has become one of the classics of American literature.
His general criticism, or rather glowing enthusiasm, secured for the ‘‘ forest-born D e­
mosthenes ” the place that belonged to him, in the estimation of America and Europe,
as the first of popular transatlantic orators. It was the tribute of an orator to an or­
ator, and as such, although too extravagant, perhaps, in the claims advanced, not the
less creditable, on that account, to him who advanced them. W e are glad, therefore,
that the delicate task of portraying the life and character of William Wirt has been
entrusted to a biographer like Mr. Kennedy, whose ability, whose opportunities for ac­
quiring the necessary information, and whose trustworthiness and warm appreciation
ensure a faithful biography of the eloquent advocate. The author’s previous experi­
ence in public life, and as a writer, in which he has met with much success, has been
of the right kind to qualify him for the duty he has so adroitly performed in these two
beautiful octavos. They should be placed by the side of Wirt’s life of Henry, on the
shelf of the library. A finely-engraved portrait of Mr. Wirt, whose German features,
as Mr. Kennedy remarks, remind one of some of the portraits of Goethe, adorns the
first volume. Prefixed to the second, is a fac-simile of an interesting letter addressed
to Mr. Wirt, by John Adams, in 1818. Mr. Kennedy has evidently had access to nu­
merous sources of information, to private documents, and, above all, to the ample cor­
respondence o f Mr. Wirt. The letters of a great man, if he was in the habit of fre­
quently writing, if that habit was kept up through life, and if his disposition, and the
character of those to whom he wrote, encouraged free communication of views and
wishes, constitutes, after all, the best biographer, being the most reliable of autobiog­
raphies. They form an autobiography, written, not aforethought, with an awkward
m alice p rep en se , if we may so speak, but p ro re nata , evolved and thrown out from
the whirl o f life, and of the fortunes of him it portrays. It is a daguerreotype, painted
from the living features by the sunlight of daily life. Mr. Kennedy, like Lockhart, in
his life o f Scott, and all the better class of biographers, attaches their true value, and
gives due prominence to letters. Mr. Wirt’s letters seem to have been placed, almost
without restriction, at the author’s disposal, and he has used them freely, but with taste
and judgment. His labors, as an editor, have been directed to their true object, of
bringing before the reader not the writer’s opinions, but the life and character of him
whose biography he writes. W e have the necessary amount of explanation to clear
up doubtful allusions, and enough narrative to connect the numerous letters with which
the two volumes are filled, into a continuous narrative. W e are much mistaken, if Mr.
Wirt’s letters do not prove a great, as well as unexpected, treat to many readers. His
correspondence, not on business merely, but with liis friends, was voluminous. Begun
early, it was kept up steadily to the end. His was a nature to make many friends, and
to retain them. Mr. Wirt wrote an admirable letter— easy, flowing, full of spirit and
fun, and, at the same time, correct, and elegant. His epistolary ease and readi­
ness remind one of Scott’s off-hand effusions. W e certainly do not know of a better
collection of American letters, and they may take their place with Cowper, Scott, De
Sevigne, and other masters of letter-writing. The author’s labors have not been con­
fined to the mere task of annotation. His remarks on the public events of the times
in which Wirt lived, with many of which he was connected, as Attorney-General of
the United States, or as counsel in cases growing out of them, and upon the political
aspects of those times, and the course of parties, give the work an interest and value
for the student of political history.
2.— F iresid e F a ir ie s ; or, Christm as at A u n t E lsies.

By S usan P indor. New Y o rk :
D. Appleton & Co.
The author of this beautiful little volume has succeeded to a charm in decking fa­
miliar yet important truths, and the home duties of every-day life, in the pleasin g
drapery of fairy land. That it will serve, in some measure, to anchor a seasonable
thought, leading ultimately to an active principle, we do not entertain a doubt.




698

3.

The Book Trade.

— A Treatise on the P ra ctice o f the Courts o f the State o f N ew Y o r k , adapted to the
Code o f P rocedu re, as amended by the A c t s o f A p r i l 11, 1849, and the R u le s o f the
S u p erior Court.
T o which is added, the P ra ctice in Courts o f Justices o f the P eace.
W ith an A p p e n d ix o f P ra ctica l F orm s. By C laudius L. M onell, Councellor at

Law. Albany: Gould, Banks, and Gould, 104 State-street. New York: Banks,
Gould, & Co.
The difficulty with the practising lawyer in New York, under the New Code, is not
so much to find out what changes have been made, and what the new law is, as to de­
termine how much and what parts of the old law remain unaltered. For the new
system, he has only to refer to the code, which is (generally speaking) worded with
clearness and precision. The more important question is how, and how far, existing
forms have been modified or suspended by the new law, and how far they remain un­
touched : what, in short, is the existing practice as a whole, the old with the new.
This question is ably and as fully answered as the present undeveloped state of the
system allows, in Mr. Monell’s Treatise, which is published in Gould & Bank’s usual
good style, on good paper, with clear and large type, and those still more important
requisites in a book of practice, full indexes and tables of contents. A glance at the
analytical table of contents, at the beginning of the book, shows the extent of ground
the treatise covers, and the correctness and convenience of its arrangement. In Part
First, the subject of remedies is considered with reference to the distinctions of the
Code, of Actions and Special Proceedings, of Actions Civil and Actions Criminal, and
to its provisions on the subject of parties and the rules of pleading. In Part Second,
the proceedings in an action are methodically considered, in the order in which they
occur, from the service of the summons to the enforcement of execution, and including
incidental proceedings, which more or less frequently occur. Appended to the work is
a collection of such practical forms as the recent changes chiefly call for. On the
whole, we think this work decidedly the best Treatise on the New Practice in New
York which has yet appeared. It at once presents a correct analysis of the contents
of the code, and its relation to, and bearing upon, the previous practice of the State.
4.

— Illustrated E d itio n s o f
Y ork. New Y o rk : George

Irvin g 's Traveler.

K n ickerbocker s H is to r y o f

N ew

P. Putnam.
Besides the handsome uniform edition of Washington Irving’s works, recently pub­
lished by Mr. Putnam, and heretofore noticed in our Magazine, we have now before
us two splendid volumes, selected from that series, printed on the finest paper, and
copiously illustrated with a great number of Mr. Darley’s admirable designs, engraved
by some of our most eminent artists. “ The Tales of a Traveler ” has seventeen, and
Knickerbocker’s History of New York sixteen, engraved illustrations, that would do
credit to the skill and genius of England’s best artists. Among the many works designed
for presents, either among the annuals or perennials— and these belong to the latter—
there are none, we venture to say, more appropriate for that purpose— certainly none
more elegant and beautiful in design or execution.
5.

— F a m ily P ictu re s f r o m the B ible. By Mrs. E llet, author of “ The Women of the
American Revolution.” New York : George P. Putnam.
Mrs. Ellet’s agreeable and graphic pen pictures of the men, women, and children,
referred to by the inspired historians, biographers, and poets, of the Old and New Testa­
ments, as the books of the Bible are termed, have been beautifully illustrated by several
o f the best European artists. The illustrations, twelve in number, are engraved from
paintings of Pousson, Mola, Coning, Guercino, Copley, Wlieatly, Rubens, Guido, and
Veit, and embrace “ The Holy Family,” “ The Deluge,” “ Hagar in the Wilderness,”
“ Isaac blessing Jacob,” “ Joseph before Pharaoh,” “ The Calling of Samuel,” “ Ruth
and Boaz,” “ Meeting of David and Abigail,” “ The Nativity,” “ The Marys at the
Sepulchre,” and “ Martha and Mary.” The volume is published in a style that har­
monizes well not only with the literary excellence of the letter-press pictures, but with
the masterly engravings of the artists who have contributed to make it one of the most
desirable “ gift books” for this and all seasons.

9.—

T h ou gh ts o f L i f e , D ea th , a nd Im m orta lity. By E d ­
New York: Robert Carter Brothers.
A new and beautiful edition of one of the most celebrated poems in the English
language. It is printed, in the usual style of those publishers, on fine white paper,
and in a clear and handsome type.
The

mund

C o m p la in t; or, N ig h t

Y oung, LL. D.




The B ook Trade .
V— . G lim pses o f S p a i n ; or, N otes
12mo. Harper & Brothers.

o f an Unfinished T our in

699

184*7.

By S. T. W allis .

These very lively and readable sketches present the observations made during a
three months visit to Spain. The author apparently carried with him an acquaint­
ance with the Spanish character and language, and, above all, a disposition to be
pleased with what he might see, even though it should differ from the habits of his
own country, which went far to compensate for the shortness of his stay. He presents
the national character, and the condition and prospects of Spain, in a light mucli more
favorable than that in which we have been accustomed to regard them. The state of
things there, he says, is changing steadily, and for the better. He “ commends the
Spanish people to his reader, assuring him that he will like them better on acquaint­
ance. He can travel among them generally with comfort, always witli pleasure. If
they rob him on the highways, poison him in the kitchens, or burn him in a Plaza, as
a heretic, he will have worse luck than has befallen any body lately, out of the pages
of a traveler’s story.” The book is written in a genial spirit, and in a style of rare fe­
licity. The appendix contains some curious particulars respecting Columbus, which
have not before been published.
8— B o y d e lls Illu stra tion s o f Shakspeare. New York: S. Spooner.
W e droped in at Dr. Spooner’s, a few days ago, to see how he progressed with his
great enterprise of restoring the world renowned work, Boydell’s 100 Illustrations of
Shakspeare. His success is truly astonishing. He lias restored thirty of the most dif­
ficult plates to all the beauty of the earliest proofs struck by Boy dell himself. W e
are borne out in this opinion by more than two hundred of our most distinguished ar­
tists, engravers, and literary men, who have personally examined the work, and have
given their certificate to that effect to the proprietor. Few persons in this country
are aware of the intrinsic merit of this magnificent work. Boydell was upwards of
twenty years in getting it out, and employed none but the most distinguished artists of
the age. The original cost of the work is said to have been the enormous sum of
£1,000,000 sterling, and sunk the vast fortune of the proprietor in irretrievable ruin.
In 1842, all the original copperplates fell into the hands of Dr. Spooner, who, since
that time, has been constantly employed in making preparations for the successful
restoration of the work. It is printed on fine, thick linen paper, 24 by 30 inches, ac­
companied by an elegant letter-press description of the plates, of the same size as the
print, which is original with Dr. S., and is a distinguishing feature of the American
edition, and adds greatly to its interest and beauty. Fifteen parts (thirty plates) are
now before the public. This great work, when completed, will not only add to our
natural reputation in enterprise, but it will have a good effect in elevating the public
taste for the higher works of art. W e know of no way by which a man can obtain so
valuable a collection of beautiful engravings, as by subscribing for this work.
9.— Leaflets

of

M em ory:

R eynell C oates, M. D.

an

Illu m in a ted A n n u a l f o r M D C C C L .
& Co.

Edited by

Philadelphia : E. H. Butler

The present is the sixth volume of this popular annual. It surpasses, if possible, all
its predecessors, in beauty of execution, and in the variety and excellence of its con­
tents. The discriminating judgment and fastideous taste of Dr. Coates, a gentleman
as distinguished for his literary accomplishments as for his scientific attainments, is as
apparent in the selection of writers and subjects, as in the elegant and chaste produc­
tions of his own pen, scattered here and there over its magnificent pages. W e do not
mean to say that the contributions are faultless, or that there is no chance for improve­
ment in other respects. But as a whole, we repeat, it surpasses its predecessors, at
least in artistic effect, and in all that constitutes the material of a “ gift book” for the
holydays. The illuminated illustrations, including the presentation plate, title page,
and the vignette are beautiful specimens of that style of art, and, in our judgment,
nearly faultless. They were designed by Devereux, and printed by Sinclair. The
other plates in the number, illustrated with letter-press descriptions, “ Hero and Leander,” “ The Fair Dreamer,” “ Gabrielle d’Etrees,” “ The Voyage of Eros,” “ Phantasise,”
“ The Surprise,” “ Rustic Nobility,” and •*Night,” are all from the burin of Mr. Sartain,
of whose skill in mezzotints, it would be a work of supererogation to speak. The
binding o f the volume, an important feature in an annual, although not gaudy, has an
air of English durability, and at the same time Parisian elegance, in keeping with the
gems o f art, taste, and literature within.




The B ook Trade.

'700

— G eneral F ren ch a nd E n g lish D ictio n a ry. N e w ly com posed froen the F ren ch D i c ­
tion aries o f the F ren ch A ca d em y, La vea u x, B oiste, Beschererellc, etc., f r o m the E n g ­
lish D ictio n a ries o f Johnson, W ebster, R ich ardson , etc., a nd the S pecial D iction a ries
a nd W o r k s o f both La nguages, etc. By A. S piers , Professor o f tlie National Col­

10.

lege of Bonahaste, (Paris,) at the National School of Civil Engineers, etc., and au­
thor of the “ Study of English Poetry,” and of the “ Manual of Commercial Terms
in English and French.” 8vo., pp. 716. Paris: Baudry’s European Library. Bos­
ton : Charles C. Little and James Brown.
This is unquestionably the most comprehensive and valuable dictionary of the
French and English languages that has ever been published. It will be found espe­
cially useful to the merchant, manufacturer, and all persons in any way connected with
the arts and sciences, as special pains has been taken to collect and introduce the words
and phrases employed in the army and navy, the sciences, the arts, the manufactures,
and trade. With a very imperfect knowledge of the French language, we have found
it of great value in the conduct of our journal, receiving, as we constantly are, all
the important statistical and commercial documents emulating from the French admin­
istration, and the writings of the French political economist. The English and French
dictionaries, heretofore published, are extremely meager in the words and terms relat­
ing to subjects not purely literary. It, therefore, fills an important space in the literaature o f the two languages, and one which will be duly appreciated by scientific and
practical men iu every profession. The plan of the dictionary, as we learn from the
author’s preface, was conceived and matured some fourteen years since, and was sub­
mitted to the Minister o f Public Instruction o f France, (M. Guizot,) and the Minister
of Public Works, who approved it highly, and promised it encouragement. Under
these auspices it was commenced, and it has been prosecuted, notwithstanding innu­
merable difficulties, until brought to a successful completion. So highly do we appre­
ciate the value and importance of the work, that we can scarcely think of the pecu­
niary consideration that would induce us to part with the copy in our possession. We
hope to speak of the work more fully and critically in a future number of the M e r ­
chants' M a g a zin e ; hut, in the meantime, we have no hesitation in commending it, es­
pecially to the professions, indicated above, as just what they want on the subject.
11. — T h e

By T homas
Edited by Mrs

R om a n ce o f N a tu r e ; or the P o etica l L a n gu a g e o f F low ers.

M iller , author of “ Pictures of Country Life,” Rural Sketches,” etc.
E. O akes S mith. New Y ork : J. C. Riker.

The name of our fair countrywoman as the editor of this volume will be sufficient to
secure for it the favor of all who know her personally, or by the varied productions of
her prolific and versatile pen. The same may be said of the author of the book, which
she has edited and endorsed in the appropriate preface added to the American edition.
The engravings of flowers are highly colored, and the letter-press, illustrative of their
language, the best that we have seen in any o f the books devoted to the same subject.
It is designed in its present form as a “ gift-book.” That it will find purchasers for that
purpose we have no doubt.
12. — B o o h s f o r Children. New Y ork: J. C. Riker.
Among the many books published this season for children, we have seen none more
beautiful than those produced by Mr. Riker, five of which are. now before us, namely,
“ The Waldorf Fam ily; or, Grandfather’s Legends,” by Mrs. Emma C. Embury. “ A
New Ilieroglyphical Bible,” with four hundred cuts, by Adams. “ Sayings and Doings;
or, Proverbs and Practice,” by Jane Strickland. “ Pebbles from Jordan; or, Bible Ex­
amples of Everyday Truth,” by Mi's. Graham; and “ Lillies from Lebanon,” by the same
author. They are well done up in an exceedingly neat and attractive style, and copi­
ously illustrated with engravings by good artists; and, what is of far more importance,
they inculcate the purest lessons of wisdom and virtue in the most agreeable manner.
— C hristm as B lossom s, a n d N ew Year's W rea th , f o r 1 8 5 0 . By U n c l e T h o m a s .
Philadelphia: E. H. ButlerA Co.
Among the many seasonable and beautiful annuals, or books for children, published
during the last five or six years, we have seen none that surpass the “ Christmas Blos­
soms” of Uncle Thomas. But those of our young friends who have enjoyed the plea­
sure of his acquaintance in former years, will doubtless regard our encomiums as alto­
gether unnecessary, if not antiquated. It is to those who have not profited by the
perusal o f his delightful tales, that we would commend the present volume, with its
simple and agreeable narratives, and its clear and pretty engravings.
13.




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14. — T h e Snow F l a k e ; a H o lid a y G i f t f o r 1850. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler & Co.
Although less pretending and costly than the “ Leafletts of Memory,” from the same
liberal and enterprising publishers, it is really a very attractive and beautiful annual.
The engravings, “ May Morning,” “.Vignette,” “ The Impending Mate,” “ Mated,” “ The
Captives,” “ Birth of Venus,” “ Emily de Vere,” “ Gipsy Children,” “ Francesca,” nine
in number, are all mezzotint, from the burin of that clever and successful artist, Mr.
Sartain. and engraved expressly for this work. W e are unable to discover any tiling
in the literary contents of the volume that will offend the most fastideous taste, al­
though a pleasing variety is exhibited in the selection of subjects. Some of our most
popular writers have contributed to the value and interest of the volume; and not the
least attractive feature, is the series o f tales, illustrative of life and manners in Ire­
land, France, Austria, Scotland, and other countries, from different pens. In this vol­
ume, the fair reader, be she grave or gay, sad or sentimental, will find something to
enlist her sympathies, or suit her humor.
15. — S igh ts in the G o ld R eg io n s , a nd Scenes b y the W a y . By T heodore T. J ohnson.
12mo., pp. 278. New York; Baker & Scribner.
Mr. Johnson, the author of the present work, like some thousands of his countrymen,
was “ seized with the g o ld fever'd and being resolved to judge of the wealth of El Do­
rado by actual observation, embarked in the “ Crescent City,” (in February, 1848,) one
of the fast steamers that sailed from New York after the announcement of the won­
derful and extensive gold discoveries became public. The information and experience
gathered from his wanderings and sojourn in California and the gold region, are em­
braced in the present narrative, written since his return home. Aside from the inci­
dents of the narrative, and sketches o f scenes and character, the reader who contem­
plates emigrating to that “ bourne,” from which some travelers may and some may not
return, will find scattered over its pages, details that will doubtless be of service to
him on his way, and when he reaches the “ Land of Promise.” As a succinct and cor­
rect account of the author’s experience and observation, it will also interest the great
mass of readers who are content to stay at home, and “ read the news.”
16. — L i f e , IIealthy and D isease. By E dward J ohnson, M. D., author of “ Hydropathy,”
etc. 12mo., pp. 172. New York: John Wiley.
This excellent treatise was written, and eight editions of it published, before the
new mode of treating certain diseases had been introduced into England, un^ler the
name of Hydropathy. It, however, in its principles, harmonized so well with that
mode of treatment, that the author, after visiting Grfefenberg, and observing the effects
of it as practised by Priessnitz, soon became most thoroughly convinced, though not
capable of curing all diseases, nor of entirely taking the place of medicine and the
lancet, to the total exclusion of both, yet, as a whole, it formed a system infinitely su­
perior to all other systems of cure, and more generally applicable, safe, and successful.
The design of the present work is to explain in common language the nature of the
animal economy— the mechanics of the internal man— the mechanism of life—and
give, step by step, what actually takes place in the performance of each of the func­
tions concerned in the preservation of life and health, and how and by what cause life
is sustained. To all who would understand the elementary principles of the physical
man, and what are the habits of life which are most likely to conduce to a sound mind
and a sound body, we heartily commend this valuable and deservedly popular work.
17. — T he A rt-J o u rn a l f o r October, 1849. London and New York : George Virtue.
The present number of this model art-work contains two beautiful engravings on
steel from pictures in the Vernon Gallery, “ Malzolio,” engraved by Staines from the
picture of D. Maclise, R. A., and “ The Truant,” by T. Phillabrown from the picture of
T. Webster, R. A., besides “ Salrina,” engiaved from the statute in marble by W. C.
Marshall The exposition of manufactured art, recently exhibited in Birmingham, is
treated at considerable length in the present number, and is illustrated by one hundred
and fifty engravings on wood, comprising a large majority of the leading works con­
tained in the exposition. It includes works in silver, electro-silver, bronze, brass, iron,
porcelain, eartliernware, and glass; objects in papier-mache, japanned goods, carvings
iu wood, and the various productions in metal, which constitute the main staple of
British industry. A journal so ornamental and useful, should include in its list of pa­
trons not only those who appreciate the Beautiful in Art, but those who would excel
in its Industrial development.




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18. — P o em s. By A melia , (Mrs. W elby, of Kentucky.) A new enlarged edition, illus­
trated with original designs by R obert W. W eir . New Y ork : D. Appleton A Co.
The present, the seventh edition that has been published, has been enlarged by the
introduction of several new poems, written, we presume, at intervals since the publica­
tion of previous editions. It must be a source of gratification to the publishers that they
have been instrumental in making so widely known the beauties of this sweet poetess o f
the West, and that they are encouraged to present a volume illustrated by one of the
most distinguished artists in the East, Robert W. Weir, Esq., thus rendering it still more
worthy of preservation among the choice collections of American literature. It con­
tains, besides an artist like portrait of Mrs. Welby, six of Mr. Weir’s happiest illustra­
tions, very cleverly engraved on steel.
19. — G if t L ea ves o f A m e r ic a n P o e tr y . Edited b y R ufus W. G riswold . 8vo. New
Y ork: J. 0. Riker.
This volume includes some o f the best poems of our best poets—the most beautiful
illustrations of the thought and fancy, and feeling of the country— the finest specimens
of its literary art. It is designed as a gift book, suitable for every season, and for the
finest intelligencies; embracing, instead of the ephemera usually found in gift books,
such productions as have received the final approval of criticism, and have become
classics. It is embellished with seven engravings on steel, that will compare, not un­
favorably, with many that appear in the annuals. A friend remarked in our hearing,
that it was “ just the book to put into the hands of a foreigner, as it would give him a
good idea of the genius of our American poets.”
20. — M r s . Colem an's N e w Juvenile Series. New York : Samuel Raynor.
This series consists of four beautiful little volumes, designed for children, from five
to ten or twelve years. They are in a style at once clear and simple, without the too
frequent accompaniment of purility. Under the garb of the pleasing narrative, the
child is taught the difference between good and evil; or, in the words of the
amiable and accomplished authoress, to “ see and understand clearly what is good and
what is evil.”
21. — Innocence o f Childhood. By M rs . C oleman, Editor of “ The Youth’s Sketch
Book,” “ Lu Lu Books,” Ac. New Y ork : D. Appleton.
Mrs. Coleman possesses the happy faculty of conveying the most salutary lessons of
wisdom and goodness to the youthful mind and heart, in the most attractive and
agreeable form. She impresses the lessons of piety and truth without the alloy of
that sectarian spirit that so often mars and defaces the pure form of the religion of
love, so beautifully pourtrayed in the life and precepts of Jesus.
22. — T h e Com plete W o r k s o f H e n r y K i r k W h i t e , o f N ottin gh a m , late o f St. John’s
College, Cam bridge, w ith an A c c o u n t o f h is L i f e . By R obert S outhey, LL. D.
8vo., pp. 420. New York: Robert Carter A Brothers.
Henry Kirk White, whose life and literary remains, including poems, extracts from
his diary and letters, and a beautiful and truthful memoir by his friend and admirer,
Southey, died at the early age of twenty-one, thus blasting the hopes that his virtues
and his genius had inspired in the bosom of his friends and associates. Rarely has one
whose departure to the unseen world was so premature, left behind so many evidences
of future promise. Few works have had a more extended circulation in England or
our own country, and we thank the American publishers for giving us a new and hand­
some edition of a work so generally and so highly prized.
23. — C la ren ce; or, a Tale o f ou r m m T im es. By the author of “ Hope Leslie,” etc.
A u t h o r ’s Revised Edition. Complete in one volume. 12mo., pp. 515. New York:
George P. Putnam.
This first volume of a new and revised edition of Miss Sedgwick’s works appears in
a style corresponding with the new and beautiful edition of Washington Irving’s works,
just completed, by the same enterprising publisher. The other works of this favorite
author are to appear at short intervals, and when completed, will include not only her
novels, but the smaller works, written for the larger class of readers, and for children.
“ Clarence ” is one of the sweetest and purest domestic tales in the English language;
and we trust it will find a new and large class of readers. We heartily thank Mr. Put­
nam for his efforts to produce new and beautiful editions of our best American writers.
It would be difficult to select better books of the kind for a family library, and we
feel quite sure that the volumes o f this series will find a welcome in every pure and
refined family circle.




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24. — N a t u r e : A d d resses a nd Lectures. By R. W. E merson. 18mo. Boston: James
Munroe & Co.
The present volume contains nine lectures or addreses delivered by their author be­
fore literary and other institutions, namely, the “ American Scholar,” an oration before
the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, August 31st, 1837 ; an address to the Sen­
ior Class in Divinity College, Cambridge, July 15, 1838; “ Literary Ethics,” an address
to the literary societies in Dartmouth College, July 24,1838 ; the “ Method of Nature,"
an address to the Society of the Adelphi, in Waterville College, Maine, August 11,
1841; “ Man the Reformer,”.a lecture read before the Mechanics’ Apprentices’ Library
Association, Boston, January 25, 1841; “ Introductory Lecture on the Times,” read in
the Masonic Temple, Boston, December 2, 1841; the “ Conservative,” a lecture read in
the Masonic Temple, Boston, December 9, 1841; the “ Transcendentalist,” a lecture
read in the Masonic Temple, Boston, January, 1842 ; and the “ Young American,” a
lecture read to the Mercantile Library Association in Boston, February 7, 1844. Mr.
Emerson belongs to a school of writers and thinkers extremely limited in number.
Transcendental in Iris philosophy, whatever he touches is more or less tinged or colored
with the spirit of that philosophy. Few, if any writers have more originality in their
compositions or thoughts, or are destined to exert a more marked influence in the world
of letters or of mind.
25. — Frontenac ; or, the A to ta rh o o f the Iroquois. A M etrica l R om ance. By A lfred
B. S treet. From Bentley’s London Edition. 12mo., pp. 324. New York: Baker
& Scribner.
This tale is based on a chapter in the history o f the Iroquois, which, at the time,
consisted of five nations, the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, and the Senecas, occupy­
ing a territory which they figuratively called “ Long House,” extending from east to
west over which is now the State of New York, from Lake Erie and Ontario to the
Hudson River. W e have long esteemed Mr. Street as one of the best poets our coun­
try has produced. His descriptions of natural scenery, and nature in its varying as­
pects, and moods, are always true to life, and exceedingly fresh and graphic. The
British press, which is generally quite charry in its praise of American writers, and
particularly poets, has spoken, as far as our knowledge extends, in terms of high com­
mendation of this production. One of the British reviews says that “ Mr. Street is es­
pecially distinguished for the fidelity of his descriptions of Indian life and scenery
and “ the decorum,” he adds, “ o f the present poem lies in its skillful combination of
plot and description,” and even D’lsraeli says of this work, he has “ found in its
pages originality and poetic fire.”
26. — E ven in g s at W o o d La w n . By Mrs. E llet, author of the “ Women of the Amer­
ican Revolution.” 12mo., pp. 348. New York: Baker A Scribner.
This selection of traditions from European countries possesses one great merit in
this day of book-making, that its contents have never before been presented in an Eng­
lish dress. The collection of Syser and other German writers of eminence have fur­
nished the materials out of which Mrs. Ellet has contrived to furnish a very interesting
collection of traditions and sketches. The book is not, however, made up of mere trans­
lations ; but in constructing a form in which to embody the legend, Mrs. Ellet has care­
fully excluded all embellishments that could in any manner impair its simplicity. Tile
only liberty taken bv the translator is in the arrangement of the incidents in an ar­
tistic shape, and a little indulgence in description where it seemed allowable.
27. — Shakspeare's D ra m a tic W ork s. Boston: Philips, Sampson & Co.
Number three of this beautiful serial edition of Shakspeare contains the “ Merry
Wives of Windsor,” with a highly finished engraving of Mrs. Ford. It will form, when
completed, the handsomest and most readable edition of the great poet ever published
in this country.
— A n A d d le s s D elivered before the M a in e H istorica l Society at B ow d oin College,
on the A fte r n o o n o f the A n n u a l Commencement, Septem ber 5, 1849. B y R obert

28.

C. W inthrop. 8vo., pp. 68. Boston: Ticknor, Reed <fc Fields.
This address commemorates the history and virtues of the author’s worthy ancestors
of the Bowdoin family. Although historical detail furnishes slight scope for oratorial
display, yet we can trace the strongly marked characteristics of the accomplished
scholar and the dignified statesman on every page of Mr. Winthrop’s judicious and
well-considered address.




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29.— P ro v erb ia l P h ilo s o p h y ,: a B o o k o f T houghts and A r g u m en ts , origin a lly treated.
By M artin F arqukau T opper , Esq., D. C. L., F. R. S. From the Eighth London
Edition. With a Portrait. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler.
Some half a dozen editions of this work have been issued by different publish­
ers in almost every variety of style. The present edition, illustrated with a fine en­
graved portrait of the author, is, perhaps, the most costly and beautiful edition that
has yet been produced in this country. It is printed on a fine white paper, and a bold
and beautifully clear type, and altogether forms as fine a specimen of book-making as
we have ever seen. A better or more appropriate book for a Christmas or New Year’s
remembrancer it would be difficult to select, for its “ thoughts and arguments,” deserve
to be had in “ everlasting remembrance.”
SO.— L ib e rty's Trium ph. A P o e m . By R obert W. S ands. 12mo., pp. 544. New
Y o rk : George P. Putnam.
This appears to be a sort of poetical history of the “ Model Republic,” from the
Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, to the resignation of the commission of Wash­
ington as commander-in-chief. The trials and triumphs of the Republic, in its battles
for liberty, are portrayed with considerable skill and pow er; and although some pas­
sages are rather tame, there are others of great beauty.
81.— M e m o ir s

o f the R ev . Joseph B u ckm in ster, I h H ., and h is S on , R ev . Joseph S te­
ven s B u ckm in ster. By E liza B uckminster L ee . Boston: William Crosby & H. P.

Nichols.
The name of Buckminster is identified with the early pulpit eloquence o f New En_
land. The present memoirs, prepared by a relative, consists of the letters and extracts
from the diary of the father and son, skillfully woven together, and thus forming an
harmonious and beautiful tribute to their memory, that cannot fail to “ teach o® )r
hearts,” “ and as the dews and rains do not return merely to the fountains and ljytjrs
from which they are drawn, but are diffused in showers which revive distant placed so
these letters, also, intended only for private instruction, may council some other son, o y .
encourage the heart of some other parent.” The volume contains much interesting in-' ,
formation, and not only exhibits the most prominent, but the more minute lineament s - r V.
of the respective characters. It is on many accounts one of the most instructive works'
of its class.
32.— Illu stra tion s o f L y i n g i n a ll its Bran ches. By A melia Opie. N ew Y ork : Car­
ter & Brothers.
W e know not how many editions of this excellent work have been published in our
own or other languages; but in our judgment it should be printed and reprinted until
every man, woman, and child in Christendom is in possession o f a copy. The Tract
Societies would do well to circulate it as a work of higher utility in promoting the
cause o f religion, and morality, than many of the publications issued from their repos­
itories.
33. — T h e

Singers’ M a n u a l: f o r Teachers, P u p ils , and P r iv a te Students.

A . A dams, A M., G. F. R oot, and J. E. S weetseu.

18mo., pp. 254.

By F rederic
New Y ork :

John Wiley.
The leading character- of this work seems to be practical. Each elementary princi­
ple is seen alone, and its true relation, in the progress of the art, is learned through
the process of discovery and practice. The special aim of the work— the training of
the singer— is carried steadily forward, being made the leading object at every step.
The lessons are thrown into the form of class exercises, and the work appears well
adapted to promote the objects of the. authors.
34. — H u m e's H is t o r y o f E n g la n d . Boston: Philips, Sampson & Co.
The fourth volume of this new and handsome library edition of Hume’s Engfand
was published in November. ’ Two volumes more will complete the work. The sixth
volume is to contain a complete index of the whole w ork; an addition to its value,
made by the discriminating liberality of the enterprising publishers.
35.— F r a n k F a r l e i g h ; or, Scenes f r o m the L i f e o f a P r iv a te P u p il.
Mr. Virtue has received from London the tenth part of this interesting and instruc­
tive tale. Each part is illustrated with tw o of the inimitable etchings of George
Cruikshank.
/I





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