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® Workers: An Update
fi
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
May 1983




Special Labor Force Report

Marital and Faroolf Patterns
©I
An Update
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
May 1983
Bulletin 2163

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402






Pr@
fa<§@

This bulletin on marital and family patterns of
workers in 1981 is part of the Special Labor Force
Reports series. It discusses over-the-year changes in
labor force activity of women and men and family earn­
ings. This article was first published in the Monthly
Labor Review, May 1982, and is reprinted with addi­
tional tabular material and explanatory notes.
The data were compiled from supplementary ques­
tions to the March 1981 Current Population Survey




conducted and tabulated by the Bureau of the
Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The data for
1980 were rerun from the March 1980 CPS using 1980
census population weights. Therefore, the 1980 data in
this report may differ from that previously published.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced
without permission.
(CPS),

iii




Page

Marital and family patterns of workers: An up d ate.................................................................................. . ...............

1

Appendixes:
A. Explanatory n o te ............................................................................................................................. .....................

5

B. Supplementary tables for March 1981:
B- 1. Employment status of the population 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, race,
and Hispanic origin, March 1981...........................................................................................................
B- 2. Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, and
age, March 1981.......................................................................................................................................
B- 3. Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, and
age, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1981 ..........................................................................................
B- 4. Major occupation on group of employed persons 16 years old and over by full- or
part-time status, marital status, sex, and race, March 1981..................................................................
B- 5. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age and presence
and age of own children, March 1981 ...................................................................................................
B- 6. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age, presence
and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin March 1981 ........................................................
B- 7. Labor force participation rates of married women, husband present, 16 years old and
over by 1980 income of husband, age, and presence and age of own children,
March 1981...............................................................................................................................................
B- 8. Work experience in 1980 of married women, husband present, 16 years old and over
by presence and age of own children, and race, March 1981.......................... .......................................
B- 9. Work experience in 1980 of married women, husband present by work experience of
husband in 1980; presence and age of own children and race, March 1981.............. .........................
B-10. Number of earners 16 years old and over and relationship by family income in 1980;
type of family and race, March 1981 .....................................................................................................
B -ll. Families by presence and number of own children under 18, number and relationship
of earners in 1980, and family type, March 1981 ...........................................................................

9
10
11
13
15
17

19
20
21
23
24

C. Revised tables for March 1980:
C- 1. Employment status of the population 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, race,
and Hispanic origin, March 1980 ..................................................................................................... ..
C- 2. Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, race,
and Hispanic origin, March 1980 ...........................................................................................................
C- 3. Major occupation group of employed persons 16 years old and over by marital
status, sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980 ......................................................................
C- 4. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age and presence
and age of own children, March 1980 ................................................................................................... ..
C- 5. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age, presence
and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980........................................................
C- 6. Number of earners 16 years old and over and relationship by family income in 1979;
type of family, and race, March 1980.....................................................................................................



V

25
26
28
29
31
33

Marital and family patterns
o f workers: an update

H ow ard Hayghe

Table 1. Employment status of persons 16 years and
over by marital status and sex, March 1980, and March
1981

A record 18.4 million women with children under
age 18 were in the labor force in March 1981, includ­
ing nearly half of all mothers with preschool children.
The high level indicates the continuing impact that
women of the “baby boom” generation are having on
the job market. Now in their 20’s and early 30’s, many
of these women are returning to work while their chil­
dren are still infants. This is also one reason why today
every other married-couple family is in the dual-earner
category.1

[Numbers in thousands]
C iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e

M a rc h 1980

M a rc h
1981

M a rc h

R e v is e d

1981

63.2

63.2

63.6

61,306
15,799
39,674
1,777
544
3,532

76.8
70.7
81.0
79.2
28.7
80.3

76.6
70.6
80.9
79.0
27.9
79.4

76.4
70.6
80.5
78.9
27.9
80.9

46,414
11,628
25,460
2,076
2,416
4,835

51.1
61.2
50.2
59.4
22.5
74.5

51.1
61.5
50.1
59.4
22.5
74.5

52.0
62.3
51.0
60.8
22.3
75.0

R e v is e d

Both sexes ................

103,339

105,449 107,721

Men' ......................................
Never m arried................
Married, wife present . . .
Married, wife absent . . .
Widowed ......................
Divorced.........................

59,376
15,134
38,962
1,628
565
3,087

60,514
15,590
39,647
1,629
552
3,097

Women .................................
Never m arried................
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Widowed ......................
Divorced.........................

Wives. Labor force changes during the 12 months end­
ing with March 1981 were typical of those that have
been observed in recent years in connection with the en­
try or re-entry into the job market of women born after
World War II. About 25.5 million wives, or 51 percent,
were working or looking for work in March, 560,000
above the previous year’s level. More than 2 of 3 of
these net additions were mothers, and most of them had
children under 6 years old. (See table 1 and 2.)
The rise in the number and proportion of working
mothers, especially those with preschool children, is
partly related to a small rebound in births among wom­
en 20 to 34 years old.2During the 1970’s, women in this
age group tended to delay marriage and >
postpone
childbearing, often acquiring lengthy job experience and
strong ties to the labor force. Now most afe married

M a rc h 1980
O r ig in a l

O r ig in a l

Over-the-year changes

43,963
10,911
24,466
1,881
2,359
4,347

44,934
11,242
24,900
1,928
2,421
4,443

’ Population includes male members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their fami­
lies on post.

Note: Estimates of the civilian noninstitutional population have been recalculated using
updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population; therefore, the 1980 revised
data differ from 1980 data previously published.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal, totals.

and many are having children. But, unlike the preceding
generation of mothers whose early marriage and
childbearing was followed by prolonged withdrawal
from the labor force,3 women are now either remaining
in the work force or returning to it shortly after
childbirth.
Reflecting these events, the labor force participation
rate of wives with preschool children increased from
45 percent in March 1980 to nearly 48 percent a year
later. Even though there was no change in their partici-

Howard Hayghe is an economist in the Division of LabpnForce Stud­
ies, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




L a b o r f o r c e p a r t ic ip a t io n
r a t e (in p e r c e n t )

M a r it a l s t a t u s a n d s e x

1

Race and Hispanic origin. Although white wives are still
less likely to be in the labor force than black ones, their
participation rate has been rising faster in recent years,
narrowing the difference between the two groups. By
March 1981, more than 50 percent of white wives and
nearly 60 percent of black wives were in the work force.
Ten years earlier, the proportions were about 40 and 53
percent. In contrast, the participation rate, for white
husbands and black husbands were nearly identical;
both rates have declined by roughly 6 percentage points
since March 1971.
Hispanic men were more apt than whites or blacks to
be in the labor force regardless of their marital catego­
ry. This is partly because Hispanic men are, on average,
younger; in March 1981, their median age (for those 16
years and over) was 32.1 years, compared with 34 years
for blacks and 38 years for whites. In contrast to the
men, Hispanic women traditionally have had lower par­
ticipation rates than whites or blacks.4(See table 3.)

TabSe 2 . Labor force status of women 16 years and over,
by marital status and presence and age of youngest child,
March 1980 and March 1981
[Numbers in thousands]
L a b o r f o r c e p a r t ic ip a t io n

L a b o r fo rc e

r a t e (in p e r c e n t )

M a r it a l s t a t u s a n d p r e s e n c e
a n d a g e o f c h ild r e n

M a rc h 1980

M a rc h

O rig in a l

R e v is e d

1981

Women, 16 years and over ..
No children under 1 8 .........
With children under 18 . . . .
Children 6 to 17, none
younger ......................
Children under 6 years ..

43,963
26,470
17,493

44,934
27,144
17,790

11,168
6,325

Married, husband present .. .
No children under 1 8 .........
With children under 18 . . . .
Children 6 to 17, none
younger ......................
Children under 6 years ..

M a rc h 1980

M a rc h

O r ig in a l

R e v is e d

1981

46,414
27,992
18,422

51.1
48.0
56.6

51.1
48.1
56.6

52.0
48.7
58.1

11,252
6,538

11,490
6,933

64.4
46.6

64.3
46.8

65.5
48.9

24,466
11,019
13,447

24,900
11,246
13,654

25,460
11,426
14,035

50.2
46.1
54.2

50.1
46.0
54.1

51.0
46.3
55.7

8,381
5,067

8,428
5,227

8,432
5,603

61.8
45.0

61.7
45.1

62.5
47.8

Note: Estimates of the civilian noninstitutional population have been recalculated using
updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population; therefore, the 1980 revised
data differ from 1980 data previously published.
Children are defined as “ own” children. Included are never-married daughters or sons,
stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded, are; other related children such as
grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and unrelated children.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Earners, income, and poverty
During the past decade, the dramatic increase in the
proportion of working wives has led to substantial gains
in the number of married-couple families where both
spouses were earners during the same year. In 1980,
there were approximately 25.6 million such dual-earner
families, 25 percent more than in 1970.5 Over the same
period, the traditional-earner family (married-couple
families where the husband, but not the wife, was an
earner) declined in importance— falling from 44 percent
of all married couples in 1970 to less than 31 percent in
1980.6
However, despite the ongoing rise in the number of

pation rate, divorced mothers (regardless of their youn­
gest child’s age) remained considerably more likely than
mothers in any other marital status category to be in
the labor force. About 78 percent of all divorced moth­
ers were working or looking for work in March 1981,
compared with around 60 percent of widowed, separat­
ed, or never-married mothers and 56 percent of married
mothers. Even when they were childless, divorced wom­
en were more apt to be in the labor force than other
women with no children under age 18.
Single, divorced, and separated persons. Like wives, sin­
gle persons also accounted for 25 percent of the labor
force growth over the year ending with March 1981.
The number of single men in the labor force reached
15.8 million while that of single women grew to 11.6
million. These increases were largely because of a rise in
the number of persons in their early 20’s and the con­
tinuing tendency among them to delay marriage. The
labor force participation rates: of single men (71 percent)
and of women (62 percent) remained relatively stable.
As was the case for singles, the number of divorced
and separated persons in the labor force rose, primarily
because the divorce rate remained high. The labor force
participation rates of separated and divorced men were
about the same as for husbands (80 percent) while the
rates for divorced (75 percent) and separated (61 per­
cent) women continued to be higher than for wives.
In contrast to the other marital groups, the number
of husbands who were working or looking for jobs re­
mained steady over the year ending in March 1981. The
participation rate of husbands continued its long-term
downward drift.



Table 3. Labor force participation rates by marital status,
sex, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980 revised and
March 1981
[In percent]
W h it e
S e x a n d m a r it a l s t a t u s

R e v is e d

B la c k

1981

1980

R e v is e d

H is p a n ic

1981

1980

R e v is e d

1981

1980

M en

T o ta l...........................
Never married ......................
Married, wife present ...........
Married, wife a b s e n t.............
Divorced ...............................
Widowed ...............................

77.6
72.6
81.1
83.6
80.7
27.3

77.4
72.7
80.6
82.3
82.4
27.3

68.0
60.4
78.1
67.4
69.9
31.6

68.8
60.5
78.8
71.9
72.8
29.6

80.6
70.0
87.5
85.3
78.3
( ’)

80.6
71.6
86.3
83.7
84.5

50.9
64.2
49.3
60.4
75.6
22.3

51.8
65.0
50.3
61.8
76.0
21.7

52.1
49.4
59.0
58.0
68.8
24.3

53.2
50.3
59.5
59.9
68.8
26.6

48.0
53.9
46.1
45.3
64.7
26.3

47.5
51.4
47.0
39.9
65.8
22.3

(’)

W om en

T o ta l...........................
Never married ......................
Married, husband present . . .
Married, husband absent . . . .
Divorced ...............................
W idow ed...............................

'Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Estimates of the civilian noninstitutional population have been recalculated using
updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population; therefore, the 1980 revised
data differ from 1980 data previously published.

Note :

2

wives in the labor force, there was no change in either
the number or proportion of dual-earner families from
1979 to 1980. Several factors interacted to produce this
result. One was the sluggish economic climate that pre­
vailed during 1980 which led to greater levels of unem­
ployment than in 1979. Another was the continuing
high level of divorces and the consequent breakup of
many married-couple families. Also, the number of mar­
ried couples without earners continued its long-term
climb. From 1970 to 1980, the number of married per­
sons 65 years and over rose by about a third, and the
number of families with no earners reached 5.9 million.
(See table 4.)

Table 5. Families in poverty in 1980 by family type and
number of earners, March 1981

M a rc h 1980

r e la t io n s h ip ,
a n d t y p e o f f a m ily

O r ig in a l

R e v is e d

Married-couple fam ilies.........
No earners........................
One earner........................
Husband only ...............
Wife o n ly ........................
Other relative o n ly .........
Two earners or m o re .........
Husband and wife .........
Husband and others,
not w ife ......................
Husband non-earner . . .

48,199
5,420
13,598
11,667
1,463
468
29,180
25,148

49,132
5,559
13,912
11,934
1,499
480
29,660
25,595

3,448
585

Maintained by women1 .........
No earners'........................
One earner........................
Two earners or m o re .........
Maintained by men1 .............
No e a rners........................
One earner........................
Two earners or m o re .........

M a rc h

1981

3,380
576

29,146
20,343

29,121
20,361

9,009
2,084
4,391
2,534

9,416
2,216
4,612
2,589

9,773
4,267
9,567
16,973

9,719
4,245
9,513
16,937

10,233
4,494
10,350
18,673

1,742
219
778
745

1,769
225
788
755

1,969
244
891
835

16,600
7,217
14,388
23,040

16,533
7,241
14,347
22,936

17,743
7,790
15,577
23,785

'Divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married persons.

Note: Estimates of the civilian noninstitutional population have been recalculated using
updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population; therefore, the 1980 revised
data differ from 1980 data previously published.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




6.2
16.9
9.3
8.1
13.9
19.7
2.6
2.1
4.1
11.8

3,142
1,617
1,267
1,034
233
258

100.0
51.5
40.3
32.9
7.4
8.2

33.4
73.0
27.5
28.6
23.5
10.0

224
76
115
32

100.0
33.9
51.3
14.3

11.4
31.1
12.9
3.8

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Poverty. The presence of earners does not guarantee a
family freedom from poverty. In 1980, about 6.4 million,
or 10.5 percent, of the Nation’s families had incomes be­
low the poverty level.8These families were approximately
equally divided between married couples (47 percent)
and those maintained by women (49 percent), with rela­
tively few maintained by men. (See table 5.)
The majority of married-couple families in poverty
had income from the earnings of one member or more
during 1980. In most of these families, the husband was
an earner, but for an unusually large proportion— 21
percent compared with 6 percent for families not in
poverty— the earner was the wife or some other mem­
ber, such as a son or daughter, whose wages were typi­
cally lower than those of the husband.
A third of all families maintained by women had
incomes below the poverty level in 1980, with children
in more than four-fifths of them. Less than half of these
families had earnings and only 8 percent contained
more than one earner.
As expected, large families face a greater likelihood of
poverty than small ones with the same number of earn­
ers. For instance, among one-earner families in 1980,
about 10 percent with only two members were in pover­
ty, compared with 20 percent of five-member families.
The proportions in poverty were less for families with
more than one earner.

31,031
22,684

8,834
2,041
4,290
2,503

100.0
32.8
42.6
31.1
7.8
3.7
24.5
17.8
4.5
2.2

an was more than $31,000 where the husband (but not
the wife) was among the earners, but only $22,700
when the husband had no earned income.

$23,263
10,187
19,368
20,472
13,612
16,148
28,025
27,745

3,476
591

3,036
996
1,294
945
237
113
745
540
137
68

'Includes only divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married persons.

1980

$21,545
8,855
18,073
18,850
12,527
17,072
25,501
25,167

10.5

Note:

R e v is e d

$21,621
8,833
18,092
18,874
12,504
17,061
25,594
25,263

-

Families maintained by m e n '................
No e a rners....................................
One earner....................................
Two earners or m o re ....................

1979

49,316
5,903
13,900
11,621
1,707
573
29,513
25,557

6,402

Families maintained by women1 ...........
No e a rners....................................
One earner....................................
Householder .............................
Other ........................................
Two earners or m o re ....................

M e d ia n f a m ily in c o m e

O r ig in a l

As percent
of
all families

Married-couple fam ilies........................
No e a rners....................................
One earner....................................
Husband ....................................
Wife ..........................................
Other m ember...........................
Two earners or m o re ....................
Husband and wife ....................
Husband and other(s), not wife .
Husband nonearner ..................

Table 4. Number of earners in families, relationship, and
median family income in 1979 and 1980, by type of family,
March 1980 and March 1981
N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s )

Percent
distribution

Total fam ilies.........................

Income. Overall, median income in 1980 was $23,300
for married-couple families, compared with $10,230 for
families maintained by women and $17,740 for those
maintained by men (no spouse present). A major reason
for the differences is that almost 60 percent of all mar­
ried-couple families contained at least two earners, com­
pared with 28 percent of the families maintained by
women and 42 percent of those maintained by men.
(This is not the entire explanation; even when there
were two earners or more, families maintained by men
or women had lower median annual incomes.)7Who the
earners are—husband, wife, children, and so forth—is
also an important determinant of family income. To il­
lustrate, median income of married-couple families in
1980 was $20,500 where the husband was the only
earner, but only $13,600 where the wife was the sole
earner. For families with two earners or more, the medi­

N u m b e r o f e a rn e rs ,

Number in pov­
erty
(in thousands)

Type of family, number and
relationship of earners

T h is

3'

report h as pr esented

some recent data on the

marital-family characteristics of workers. However, the
situation may change under the pressure of demograph­
ic and other trends that are already underway. For ex­
ample, recent increases in the birth rate indicate that
the number of dual-earner families with young children
will continue to increase. Thus, the need for adequate

child care in the working parents’ absence will probably
expand rather than diminish. In addition, if marital
breakups—currently at record levels— rise, the demand
for child care will grow even further as the number of
one-parent families increases.

FOOTNOTES

vision of Vital Statistics, Natality Statistics. Also see Allyson
Sherman Grossman, “More than half of all children have working
mothers,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 1982, pp. 41-43, for infor­
mation on trends in numbers of children whose mothers work.
3See Howard Hayghe, “Families and the rise of working wives— an
overview,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , May 1976, pp. 12-19; Janet L.
Norwood and Elizabeth Waldman, W o m en in th e L a b o r F orce: S o m e
N e w D a ta S eries, U.S. Department of Labor, Report 575; and George
Masnich and Mary Jo Bane, T h e N a tio n 's F a m ilie s, 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 9 0 (Cam­
bridge, Mass., Joint Center for Urban Studies of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology and Harvard University, 1980), pp. 52-85.
4 For a discussion of some of the factors underlying the labor force
patterns of Hispanic women, see Morris J. Newman, “A profile of
Hispanics in the U.S. work force,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , December
1978, pp. 3-14.
5Only about two-fifths of the gain in the number of dual-earner
families was because of the increase in the number of married-couple
families.
6 See Howard Hayghe, “Husbands and wives as earners: an analysis
of family data,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 1981, pp. 46-53.
7A forthcoming M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w article will focus on women
who maintain families.
‘ The average poverty threshold for a nonfarm family of four was
$8,414 in 1980. The level varied depending on family size, sex and age
of householders, family composition, and farm-nonfarm residence. For
further details, see C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n R e p o r ts , Series P-60, No. 124.

' Unless otherwise indicated, data are based on tabulations from the
March 1981 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted for the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census. The data have
been inflated using population weights based on results from the 1980
Census of the Population. The March 1980 data discussed in this re­
port also have been revised to bring them in line with the new popu­
lation weights and to make them comparable with the March 1981
data. Previously published 1980 data (as they appear in Beverly L.
Johnson and Elizabeth Waldman, “Marital and family patterns,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , October 1981, pp. 36-38) reflected population
weights projected forward from the 1970 Census of the Population.
As shown in table 1, the number of married women in the labor
force in March 1980 was revised upward by 434,000. Despite this,
and similarly significant changes in other data for 1980, the various
relationships and percentages based on new estimates are nearly the
same as those based on previously published estimates.
For a more complete description of changes in labor force data
stemming from the use of 1980 census population weights in the CPS,
see Kenneth D. Buckley, Jennifer Marks, and Ronald J. Statt, “Revi­
sions in the Current Population Survey Beginning in January 1982,”
E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s, February 1982, pp. 7-15.
Estimates based on a sample, such as those shown in the tables,
may vary considerably from results obtained by a complete count in
those cases where the numbers are small. Therefore, differences based
on them may not be significant. For more detail on the interpretation
of such differences, see M a r ita l a n d F a m ily C h a r a c te r istic s o f W o rk ers,
M a r c h 1 9 7 9 , Special Labor Force Report 237 (Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, 1981).
2 Final Natality Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Di­




4

Appendix A„ Explanatory Note

C h ild ren . Data on children refer to “own” children of
the husband, wife, or person maintaining the family and
include sons and daughters, stepchildren, and adopted
children. Excluded are other related children, such as
grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and
unrelated children.

Estimates in this bulletin are based on supplementary
questions in the March 1981 and 1980 Current Popula­
tion Survey conducted and tabulated for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census. Basic
labor force concepts, sample design, estimating
methods, and reliability of the data are described briefly
in the following sections.1

The age classification is based on the age of the
person at his/her last birthday.

A ge.

Definitions and Concepts

In March 1980 and 1981, trained
interviewers collected information from a sample of
about 65,000 households in 629 areas in 1,133 counties
and independent cities with coverage in every State and
the District of Columbia. Estimates in this bulletin in­
clude persons 16 years old and over in the civilian
noninstitutional population in the calendar week ended
March 14, 1981. Male members of the Armed Forces
living off post or with their families on post (817,000 in
March 1981) were also included, but all other members
of the Armed Forces were excluded.
P o p u la tio n coverage.

The population is divided into three groups on the
basis of race: White, black, and “ other races.” The last
category includes Indians, Japanese, Chinese, and any
other race except white and black.

R a ce .

Persons of Hispanic origin in this
report are those persons who indicated that their origin
was Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South
American, or some other Hispanic origin. The latter
category includes persons from Spain as well as persons
with combinations of types of Spanish origins. Persons
who reported that they were of one of the specific
Hispanic-origin categories and a non-Hispanic category
were included in the specific category. Persons of
Hispanic origin may be of any race.
H isp a n ic origin.

Persons are classified into the following
categories according to their marital status at the time of
interview: Single; married, spouse present; and other
marital status. The classification “married, spouse pres­
ent,” applies to husband and wife if both are reported
as members of the same household even though one
may be temporarily absent on business, vacation, on a
visit, in a hospital, and the like at the time of interview.
The term “other marital status” applies to persons who
are married, spouse absent, widowed, or divorced.

M a r ita l s ta tu s.

Employed persons are all those who during
the survey week (a) did any work at all as paid
employees or in their own business or profession, or on
their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid
workers in an enterprise operated by a member of the
family; or (b) did not work but had jobs or businesses
from which they were temporarily absent because of
illness, bad weather, vacations, labor-management
dispute, or personal reasons, whether or not they were
paid by their employers for the time off, or were seek­
ing other jobs.

E m p lo y e d .

A family is a group of two or more persons
residing together who are related by blood, marriage, or
adoption. The number of families as shown in this
report includes both primary families and unrelated
subfamilies. A primary family includes among its
members the married couple or person maintaining the
household and all other related individuals within the
household. An unrelated subfamily includes no
members related to the person or persons maintaining
the household and may include lodgers, guests, or resi­
dent employees.
F a m ily .

U n e m p lo y e d . Unemployed persons are all those who
did not work during the survey week, made specific ef­
forts to find a job within the preceding 4 weeks, and
were available for work during the survey week or
would have been available except for temporary illness.
Also included as unemployed are those who did not
work at all, were available for work, and (a) were
waiting to be called back to a job from which they had
been laid off, or (b) were waiting to report to a new
wage .or salary job within 30 days.

1 For a more complete description o f methodology, see C on cepts
a n d M e th o d s U sed in L a b o r F orce Statistics D e riv ed F rom the C ur­
rent P o p u la tio n Survey, U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S.
Department o f Labor, BLS Report 463, October 1976.




5

not living in the same household, net royalties, and
other periodic income. The amount received represents
income before deductions for personal taxes, social
security, savings bonds, union dues, health insurance,
and the like. The total income of a family is the
algebraic sum of the amount received by all persons in
the family.

Labor force. The labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed according to the
above definitions.
N ot in the labor force. All persons not classified as
employed or unemployed are defined as “ not in the
labor force.” Persons doing only incidental, unpaid
family work (less than 15 hours) are also classified as
not in the civilian labor force.

Earnings. Earnings are all money income of $1 or more
from wages and salaries, and net money income of $1 or
more from farm and nonfarm self-employment.

Full-time and part-time workers. Full-time workers are
persons who worked 35 hours or more during the survey
week, or who usually work full time but worked 1 to 34
hours during the survey week. Part-time workers are
those who usually work 1 to 34 hours and worked 1 to
34 hours during the survey week. Persons with a job but
not at work during the survey week are classified ac­
cording to whether they usually work full or part time.

Median. The median is the value which divides the
distribution into two equal parts; one part having values
above the median, and the other having values below
the median.
The medians as shown in this bulletin are calculated
from the corresponding distributions by linear inter­
polation within the interval in which the median falls.
Therefore, because of this interpolation, the median
value depends not only on the distribution of income
but also on the income intervals used in calculating the
median.

Work experience. Persons with work experience are
those who worked as civilians at any time during the
preceding calendar year at full-time or part-time jobs.
Weeks worked. Persons with work experience are
classified according to the number of weeks in which
they did any work during the preceding calendar year as
civilians for pay or profit (including paid vacations and
sick leave) or worked without pay on a family-operated
farm or business.

Sums o f distribution. Sums of individual items, whether
absolute numbers or percentages, may not equal totals
because of independent rounding of totals and com­
ponents. Percentage totals, however, are always shown
as 100 percent.
Reliability of the estimates

Year-round full-tim e workers. Year-round full-time
workers are persons who worked primarily at full-time
jobs for 50 weeks or more during the preceding calendar
year.

Estimating procedure. The estimating procedure used
in this survey inflates weighted sample results to in­
dependent estimates of the civilian noninstitutional
population by age, sex, and race. These independent
estimates are based on statistics from the 1980 Census of
Population and other data on births, deaths, immigra­
tion, emigration, and strength of the Armed Forces. To
these figures were added the male members of the Arm­
ed Forces living off post or with their families on post.

Part-year workers. Part-year workers are persons who
worked either full time or part time for 1 to 49 weeks
during the preceding calendar year.
Occupation, industry, and class o f worker. Data on oc­
cupation, industry, and class of worker refer to the job
held in the survey week. Persons with two jobs or more
are classified in the job at which they worked the
greatest number of hours in the survey week. The oc­
cupation and industry categories in this bulletin are the
major groups used in the 1970 Census of Population.

Variability. Since the estimates are based on a sample,
they may differ somewhat from the figures that would
have been obtained if a complete census had been taken
using the same schedules and procedures. As in any
survey, the results are also subject to errors of response
and reporting. These may be relatively large in the case
of persons with irregular attachment to the labor force.
Particular care should be exercised in the interpretation
of figures based on relatively small estimates as well as
small differences between estimates.
The standard error is primarily a measure of sampling
variability, that is, of the variations that might occur by
chance because a sample rather than the entire popula­
tion is surveyed. As calculated for this bulletin, the

Income. Income is the total amount of money received
in the preceding calendar year from (1) money wages
and salaries; (2) net income from self-employment; (3)
social security; (4) dividends, interest (on savings and
bonds), net rental income, and income from estates and
trusts; (5) public assistance; (6) unemployment and
workers’ compensation, government employee pen­
sions, and veterans’ payments; and (7) private pensions,
annuities, alimony, regular contributions from persons



6

standard error also partially measures the effect of
response and enumeration errors but does not measure
any systematic biases in the data. The chances are about
68 out of 100 that an estimate differs from a complete
census by less than the standard error. The chances are
about 95 out of 100 that the difference would be less
than twice the standard error.

tors must be applied to the standard errors in order to
adjust for the combined effect of sample design and
estimating procedure on the value of the characteristic.
The determination of the proper factor for a percentage
depends upon the subject matter of the numerator of
the percentage, not the denominator.
The following examples illustrate the use of the
standard error tables. An estimated 25,460,000 married
women, husband present, were in the labor force in
March 1981. Two steps, using both tables A-l and A-3
are required to derive an estimate of the standard error
for this figure. First, from table A -l, a preliminary
estimate of the error (278,000) is found by interpola­
tion. Next, this estimate is multiplied by the factor 1.0
from tablg A-3. Thus, the chances are about 68 out of
100 that the difference between the sample estimate and
a complete census count would be less than 278,000.
The chances are about 95 out of 100 that the difference
would be less than 556,000. The 25,460,000 married
women represented 51.0 percent of all married women
in the population. The standard error for this percent is
found by multiplying the standard error (0.4) from table
A-2 by the appropriate factor from table A-3 (1.0): 0.4 x
1.0 = 0.4. Thus, the chances are 68 out of 100 that a
complete census count would have resulted in a figure
between 51.4 and 50.6 percent, and 95 out of 100 that
the figure would have been between 51.8 and 50.2.

Note when using small estimates. Nummary measures
(such as medians, means, and percent distributions) are
shown in this bulletin only when the base of the
measure is 75,000 or greater. Because of the large stand­
ard errors involved, there is little chance that summary
measures would reveal useful information when com­
puted on a smaller base. Estimated numbers are shown,
however, even though the relative standard errors of
these numbers are larger than those for corresponding
percentages. These smaller estimates are provided
primarily to permit such combinations of the categories
as serve each user’s needs.
Computation o f standard errors. Tptie figures presented
in tables A-l and A-2 provide approximations of the
standard errors of estimated numbers and percentages.
Standard errors for intermediate values may be found
by interpolation. Estimated standard errors for specific
characteristics cannot be obtained from tables A-l and
A-2 without the use of factors in table A-3. These fac­




Table A-1. Standard errors of estimated numbers
(68 chances out of 100. Numbers in thousands)
Size of
estimate

Standard
error

Size of
estimate

Standard
error

2 5 ................................
50
100
250
500 .
1,000
2,500............................

9
13
19
30
42
59
93

5,000..........................
10,000.......................
15,000.......................
25,000........................
50,000........................
100,000.....................

131
182
221
277
364
424

NOTE: For a particular characteristic, see table A-3 for the appropriate factor
to apply to the above standard errors.

7

Table A-2. Standard errors of estimated percentages
(68 chances out of 100)
Base of

Estimated percentage

percentage
(thousands)

1 or
99

2 or
98

5 or
95

10 or
90

25 or
75

50

7 5 .........................
1 0 0 .......................
250 .......................
500 .......................
1,000 ...................
2,500 ...................
5,000 ...................
10,000 .................
15,000 .................
25,000 .................
50,000 .................
100,000 ...............

2.1
1.9
1.2
.8
.6
.4
.3
.2
.15
.12
.08
.06

3.0
2.6
1.7
1.2
.8
.5
.4
.3
.2
.2
.12
.08

4.7
4.1
2.6
1.8
1.3
.8
.6
.4
.3
.3
.2
.13

6.5
5.6
3.5
2.5
1.8
1.1
.8
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2

9.4
8.1
5.1
3.6
2.6
1.6
1.1
.8
.7
.5
.4
.3

10.8
9.4
5.9
4.2
3.0
1.9
1.3
.9
.8
.6
.4
.3

NOTE: For a particular characteristic, see table A-3 for the appropriate fac­
tor to apply to the above standard errors.

Table A-3. Factors to be applied to generalized standard errors in tables A-1 and A-2
CPS data collected January 1967 to present
Persons
Characteristic

Some household members
secondary individuals

Families and unreleated
individuals, households,
householders, or primary
individuals

All household members

Total or
white
Total or nonfarm:
Total, regional or metropolitan . .
N onm etropolitan..........................
Education, te n u r e ........................
Employment status and
occupation ................................
F a r m ......................................................




Black

Hispanic
origin

Total or
white

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total or
white

Black

Hispanic
origin

1.00
1.22
1.0

1.20
1.47
1.0

1.13
1.38
1.0

1.10
1.35
1.0

1.45
1.78
1.0

1.60
1.95
1.0

0.63
.77
.63

0.60
.73
.60

0.64
.78
.64

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.38

1.66

1.56

1.52

2.01

2.21

8

.85

.81

.86

Appendix B. Supplementary tables for March 1981
Table B-1. Employment status ©f the population 16 years old and over m arital status, sex, race, and
Hispanic origin, March 1981

(Numbers in thousands)
MAR I T A L STATUS,

SEX AND RACE

POPULA­
TION

TOTAL

LABOR
FORCE
PARTIC­
IPATION
RATE

C I V I L I A N LAB O R FORCE
E 1PL0YED
PART
FULL
TOTAL
TI M E 1/ TI M E 2/

UNEMPL OYED
UNEM­
PLOY­
MENT
RATE

TOTAL

NOT IN
LABOR
FORCE

ARMED
F O R C E S 3/

A LL PERSONS
BO T H SEXES, TOTAL

. .

170,269 107,721

WOMEN,

17,999

8,487

7.9

61,731

817

56,349

5 0 ,439

5,909

4,958

8.1

18,887

817

15,779
39,674
5,852
1,777
544
3,532

70.6
80.5
68.3
78.9
27.9
80.9

13,302
37,739
5,307
1,610
510
3,187

9,713
35,861
4,865
1,473
402
2,991

3,589
1,878
442
137
109
196

2,477
1,936
545
167
33
3.45

15.7
4.9
9.3
9,4
6.1
9.8

6,574
9,602
2,711
474
1,405
832

137
619
61
32
«
.
29

46,414

52.0

42,8 8 5

30,795

12,090

3,529

7.6

42,8 4 4

18,679
99,883
20,702
3,912
57
10,81*5
6,945

11,628
25,460
9,327
2,076
44
2,416
4,835

62.3
51.0
45.1
60.8
( *)
22.3
75.0

10,291
23,995
8,600
1,816
36
2,276
4,508

6,8 3 0
17,028
6,938
1,481
30
1,516
3,941

3,461
6,9 6 7
1,662
335
6
760
567

1,337
1,465
727
260
8
139
328

11.5
5,8
7.8
12.5
<< )
5.8
6.8

7,046
24,4 2 3
11,375
1,336
12
8,429
1,610

198,048

9 4 ,303

64.0

87,7 4 3

71,5 8 7

16,156

6,560

7.0

53,0 6 8

677

70,831

54,328

77.4

50,373

45,1 7 0

5,203

3,955

7.3

15,825

677

18,555
45,337
6,939
1,603
1,608
3,728

13,415
36,125
4,788
1,296
439
3,054

72.7
80.6
69.5
82.3
27.3
82.4

11,529
34,473
4,372
1,193
416
2,762

8,352
32,800
4,019
1,096
327
2,595

3,177
1,673
353
96
89
167

1,886
1,652
417
103
22
292

14,1
4.6
8.7
7.9
5.1
9.5

5,028
8,695
2,102
279
1,169
654

112
517
48
28
20

7 7 ,217

39,9 7 5

51.8

37,370

26,417

10,953

2,605

6.5

3 7 ,242

14,999
45,351
16,867
2,147
30
9,371
5,348

9,744
22,807
7,424
1,327
21
2,031
4,066

65.0
50.3
44.0
61.8
M>
21.7
76.0

8,858
21,587
6,925
1,179
16
1,927
3,819

5,766
15,070
5,580
964
11
1,270
3,346

3,092
6,516
1,344
215
5
657
473

886
1,220
499
149
5
104
247

9.1
5.3
6.7
11.2
(4 )
5,1
6.1

5,255
22,545
9,443
819
10
7,341
1,282

18,211

10,894

60.2

9,158

7,661

1,497

1,737

15.9

7,211

107

8,172

5,549

68.8

4,651

4,107

544

898

16.2

2 , 517

107

3,184
3,470
1,517
591
309
618

1,917
2,675
957
422
91
444

60.5
78.8
63.6
71.9
29.6
72.8

1,381
2,436
834
361
81
392

1,074
2,282
750
323
63
365

307
153
84
39
18
27

536
239
123
61
11
52

28.0
8.9
12.9
14.4
11.7
11.7

1,249
719
549
165
217
166

18
77
12
4

10,039

5,346

53.2

4,507

3,554

953

839

15.7

4,6 9 4

3,2 0 6
3,379
3,454
1,171
18
1,307
976

1,614
2,010
1,721
702
17
348
671

50.3
59.5
49.8
59,9
<4 >
26.6
68.8

1,192
1,810
1,505
596
16
313
596

903
1,442
1,209
478
15
217
514

289
367
296
118
1
97
81

422
201
216
105
1
35
76

26.1
10.0
12.5
15.0
M>
10.1
11.3

1,592
1,369
1,733
469
1
959
305

8,906

5,616

63.4

4,987

4,270

716

630

11.2

3,246

44

4,299

3,429

80.6

3,047

2,770

277

382

11.1

826

44

1,378
2,443
478
229
71
178

986
2,075
367
190
28
149

71.6
86.3
77.5
83.7
<M
84.5

798
1,922
327
170
26
130

611
1,852
306
161
23
122

187
70
20
10
3
8

188
153
41
19
2
19

19.1
7.4
11.1
10.2
(4 )
12.9

391
329
107
37
42
27

1
40
4
2

4,607

. .

8 1 ,235

76.4

89,259

TOTAL ..................

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, H U S B A N D P R E S E N T .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, HU S B A N D ABSENT.
MARRIED, H U S B A N D ABSENT IN ARMED FORCES.
WIDOWED. . . . . . . . .
D I V O R C E D ..................

99,234

61,306

22,990
99,896
8,629
2,282
1,91(9
9,393

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, WIFE A B SENT . .
W I D O W E D ....................
D I V O R C E D .................

63.6

81,010

MEN, TOT A L ....................

2,187

47.5

1,940

1,501

439

248

11.3

2,4 2 0

...

1,104
2,487
1,016
369
3
283
363

568
1,170
450
148
1
63
239

51.4
47.0
44.3
39.9
<<>
22.3
65.8

490
1,055
394
121
1
60
213

. 343
831
327
99
1
45
184

147
224
67
23

77
115
55
26

15
29

3
26

13.6
9.8
12.3
17.8
(4 >
M)
10.9

537
1,317
566
222
2
220
124

...

WHITE
BO T H SEXES,
MEN, TOTAL

TOT A L

. .

....................

NEVER-M A R R I E D . . . . . . .
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, WIFE A B SENT . .
WIDOWED. ..................
DIVO R C E D ..................
WOMEN, TOT A L

. . . . . . . .

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, HU S B A N D P R E S E N T .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, H U SBAND ABSENT.
MARRIED, HU S B A N D ABSENT
WIDOWED. . . . . . . . .
DIVORCED . . . . . . . .

IN ARMED FORCES.

. .

...

BLACK
BO T H SEXES,
MEN,

TOT A L

. .

TOTAL . . . . . . . . .

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, WIFE A B SENT . .
WIDOWED. . . . . . . . .
D I V O R C E D ..................
WOMEN, TOT A L

..................

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, H U S B A N D PR E S E N T .
OTHER EV E R MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, H U S B A N D ABSENT.
MARRIED, H U S B A N D ABSENT
W I D O W E D ....................
D I V O R C E D ..................

IN ARMED FORCES.

. .

-

8

...

HISPANIC ORIGIN
BO T H SEXES, TOT A L
MEN, TOTAL

. .

....................

N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, WIFE A B S E N T . .
WIDOWED. . . . . . . . .
DIV O R C E D . . . . . . . .
WOMEN, TOT A L ..................
N E V E R - M A R R I E D ...............
MARRIED, H U S B A N D P R E S E N T .
OTHER EVER MARRIED, TOTAL.
MARRIED, HU S B A N D ABSENT.
MARRIED, H U S B A N D ABSENT
W I D O W E D ....................
D I V O R C E D .................

IN ARMED FORCES.

. .

-

-

-

2

1Full-time workers are persons who during the survey week worked 35 hours or more and those 4Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.
who usually work full time but worked 1 to 34 hours.
2 Part-time workers are persons who usually work 1 to 34 hours and worked 1 to 34 hours during NOTE: The number in the labor force and the labor force participation rates and unemployment
the survey week. Persons with a job but not at work are classified by whether they usually work rates for males shown in this set of tables excludes male members of the Armed Forces living off
full or part time.
post or with their families on post. Therefore, the numbers and rates in these tables are not com3Includes only male members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post, parable to those published for March 1975 and prior years.



9

Table B-2. Population and civilian labor force 18 years old and over by marital status, sex, and age, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
WOMEN

MEN
P O PULATION,
C I V I L I A N LAB O R FORCE;
AND ASE

TOTAL

NEVER
married,
MARRIED SPOUSE
TOTAL
P R ESENT

OTHER E V E R - M A R R I E D
MARRIED,
DI­
W I DOWED VORCED
SPOUSE
ABSENT

TOTAL

NEV E R MARRIED,
MA R R I E D SPOUSE
P R ESENT

TOTAL

OTHER E V E R - M A R R T E
MARRIED,
DI­
WID O W E D V O RCED
SPOUSE
ABSENT

POPULATION
. .

81,010

22,490

49,896

8,624

2,282

1,949

4,393

89,259

18,674

49,883

20,702

3,412

16 TO 19 YEARS; T O T A L .............
16 AND 17 Y E A R S ..................
18 AND 19 Y E A R S ..................
20 TO 24 YEARS . . ...............
25 TO 34 YEARS; T O T A L ............
25 TO 29 YEARS . . . . 1 . . .
30 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . . . .
35 TO 44 YEA R S . . . . . . . . .
45 TO 54 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 64 YEARS; T O T A L .............
55 TO 59 YEARS .................
60 TO 64 YEARS ..................
65 YEA R S AND OVER; T O TAL . . . .
65 TO 69 YEARS .................
70 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

8,201
4,134
4,067
10,300
18,625
9,713
8,912
12,806
10,839
10,131
5,430
4,700
10,108
3,878
6,229

7,981
4,090
3,892
7,163
4,741
3,278
1,463
1,085
548
520
285
235
452
194
257

164
19
145
2,747
11,910
5,617
6,293
10,035
8,982
8,275
4,459
3,816
7,783
3,196
4,587

56
26
30
390
1,975
818
1,157
1,686
1,309
1,335
686
649
1,873
488
1,385

51
24
27
196
645
282
364
484
361
310
182
129
234
95
139

_

4
22
9
13
61
156
410
160
250
1,296
236
1,059

4
2
3
190
1,307
527
780
1,141
792
615
345
271
343
157
186

8,184
4,022
4,163
10,685
19,204
9,978
9,225
13,381
11,653
11,575
6,099
5,475
14,578
4,857
9,721

7,3 9 7
3,873
3,524
5,543
3,139
2,179
960
728
546
486
251
235
834
260
574

670
123
548
4,327
12,918
6,359
6,559
10,038
8,657
7,762
4,246
3,516
5,511
2,571
2,940

116
25
91
815
3,146
1,441
1,706
2,615
2,450
3,326
1,602
1,724
8,233
2,026
6,207

80
19
62
391
1,064
512
552
765
502
371
231
140
237
94
143

22
132
49
83
294
795
2,128
887
1,241
7,474
1,664
5,809

36
7
29
401
1,950
880
1,070
1,555
1,153
827
484
343
522
268
255

37.6

22.3

45.1

46.6

40.1

70.0

41.1

39.9

21.7

42.0

58.8

37.2

70.0

40.4

. .

61,306

15,779

39,674

5,852

1,777

544

3,532

46,4 1 4

11,628

25,4 6 0

9,327

2,076

2,416

4,835

16 TO 19 YEARS; TOTAL. . . . . .
16 AND 17 Y E A R S ..................
18 AND 19 YEARS. . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
25 TO 34 YEARS; T O T A L .............
25 TO 29 YEARS ..................
30 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 TO 44 YEARS ....................
45 TO 54 YEA R S ....................
55 TO 64 YEARS; T O T A L .............
55 TO 59 YEARS . . . . . . . .
60 TO 64 YEARS ..................
65 YEARS AND OVER, T O TAL . . . .
65 TO 69 Y E A R S ............... .
70 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

4,531
1,799
2,732
8,537
17,312
8,882
8,431
11,982
9,847
7,222
4,465
2,757
1,875
1,098
777

4,355
1,763
2,592
5,662
4,155
2,856
1,298
896
385
265
184
81
62
36
25

139
19
120
2,534
11,342
5,295
6,047
9,577
8,366
6,169
3,782
2,388
1,547
928
619

37
17
20
341
1,815
730
1,085
1,508
1,096
788
499
288
267
134
132

36
17
19
171
578
244
334
426
301
215
139
76
51
35
16

4
14
8
7
48
124
202
106
96
152
64
88

1

1
167
1,223
479
744
1,035
671
371
254
116
64
35
29

3,978
1,600
2,378
7,282
12,945
6,754
6,191
8,904
7,189
4,872
2,999
1,873
1,244
753
491

3,611
1,548
2,063
4,053
2,593
1,800
793
576
406
275
164
111
114
56
57

308
43
264
2,665
7,955
3,894
4,061
6,279
5,019
2,833
1,817
1,016
402
279
123

59
9
50
564
2,398
1,060
1,338
2,049
1,763
1,764
1,018
746
729
418
311

42
5
37
240
713
333
379
543
328
182
132
50
29
18
11

11
85
28
57
193
537
997
519
478
593
328
265

17
4
13
313
1,600
698
902
1,314
898
586
368
219
107
72
35

35.2

23.1

41.1

39.9

37.4

58.9

38.6

34.2

22.7

37.9

43.0

35.8

58.7

38.7

68.3

78.9

27.9

80.9

45.1

60.8

22,3

75.0

(1 )

-

52.0

-

(1 )

-

50.4
(11
55.0

TOTAL;

M E D I A N AGE

16 YEARS AND OVER.

(YEARS)

...............

10,845
•

6,445

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
TOTAL;

M E D I A N AGE

16 YEARS AND OVER.

(YEARS)

...............

-

-

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION R A T E
. .

76.4

70.6

80.5

16 TO 19 YEARS, T O T A L ............
16 AND 17 Y E A R S .................
18 AND 19 Y E A R S .................
20 TO 24 YEARS ....................
25 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L .............
25 TO 29 YEARS .................
30 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 TO 44 YEARS ....................
45 TO 54 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 64 YEARS, TOTAL. . . . . .
55 TO 59 YEARS . . . . . . . .
60 TO 64 YEARS . ............. ..
65 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . . .
65 TO 69 YEARS .................
70 YEA R S AND O V E R ...............

55.6
43.6
67.9
84.6
94.7
93.3
96.2
95.0
91.0
71.3
82.3
58.7
18.5
28.3
12.5

54.7
43.1
67.0
79.9
88.3
87.9
89.3
82.7
70.2
50.9
64.6
34.4

94.3

TOTAL,

16 YEA R S AND OVER.

13.6
18.7
9.8

( ')

93.5
96.7
97.5
96.8
98.1
97.2
93.3
74.6
84,9
62.6
19.9
29.0
13.5

( 1>
( 1)
(' )

90.3
93.4
91.2
94.9
90.1
83.9
59.0
72.7
44,5
14.2
27.5
9.6

(' )

89.5
92.5
90.8
93.8
88.5
83.8
69,3
76,4

(' )
(' )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
79.5
49.3
66.2
38.5
11.7

59.1
21.7
37.1
11.3

27.1

8.3

1Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.




10

>
( 1)
(’ )
(1

91.1
94.2
91.6
96.0
91.5
84.9
60.3
73.8
43.0

18.6
22.2
15.5

52.0

62.3

51.0

48.6
39.8
57.1
68.2
67.4
67.7
67.1
66.5
61.7
42.1
49.2
34.2
8.5
15.5
5.1

48.8
40,0
58.5
73.1
82.6
82.6
82.6
79.1
74.3
56,5
65.2
47.1
13.6

45.9

21.7
9.9

35.4

48.3
61.6
61.6
61.2
61.9
62.5
58.0
36.5
42.6
28.9
7.3
10.8
4.2

69.2
76.2
73.6
78,4
78.4
72.0
53.0
63,6
43.3
8.9
20.6
5.0

(' )
( 1)

61.3
66.9
65.1
68.7
70.9
65.4
48 o9
57.1

35.4
12.3
18.9
7.9

(ii)
64.6
ill

68.3

65.6
67.6
46 o8
58,5
38,5
7,9
19.7
4.6

(O

<1 )
(1 )

78.1
82.1
79.4
84.3
84,5
77.9
70.9
75,9
63.8
20,5

27.1
13.6

Table B-3. Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, age, race, and
Hispanic origin, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
WOMEN

MEN
POPULATION,
C I V I L I A N LABOR FORCE,
AND AGE

married,

TOTAL

SPOU S E
NEVER
M A RRIED PR E S E N T

OTHER E V E R - M A R R I E D
MARRIED,
DI­
WI D O W E D VORC E D
TOTAL S P OUSE
ABSENT

TOTAL

MARRIED,
NEV E R SPOUSE
MA R R I E D PR E S E N T

TOTAL

OTHER EVE 3-MARRlEC
DI­
8&51RIED,
W I DOWED VORCED
S P OUSE
ABSENT

W H I T E

POPULATION
. .

70,831

18,555

45,337

6,939

1,603

1,608

3,728

77,217

14,999

45,351

16,867

2,147

9,371

5,348

Y E ARS ....................
YEARS . ..................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS . . .
.............
Y E ARS ....................
AND O V E R ..................

6,837
8,781
16,169
11,205
9,588
9,136
9,115

6,643
5,936
3,849
860
439
453
377

146
2,494
10,700
9,022
8,180
7,616
7,180

49
351
1,621
1,323
970
1,067
1,558

44
166
470
316
232
216
159

_

2
17
39
109
329
1,113

4
184
1,135
969
629
522
286

6,840
8,942
16,287
11,481
10,129
10,329
13,210

6,120
4,377
2,358
527
424
426
768

624
3,901
11,580
9,034
7,883
7,193
5,137

97
665
2,349
1,920
1,822
2,709
7,305

61
294
655
445
285
244
165

18
87
211
610
1,759
6,688

36
353
1,608
1,264
928
707
452

38.2

22.2

45.4

46.3

38.9

70.0

40.6

40.7

21.6

42.3

61.0

36.4

70,0

40.4

. .

54,328

13,415

36,125

4,788

1,296

439

3,054

39,975

9,744

22,807

7,424

1,327

2,031

4,066

YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS . ..................
YEARS ....................
AND O V E R .................

4,001
7,403
15,209
10,601
8,824
6,609
1,682

3,842
4, 773
3,443
737
326
238
57

123
2,319
10,247
8,652
7,653
5,723
1,407

36
310
1,518
1,212
845
648
219

35
145
423
287
206
164
36

2
12
36
94
165
130

1
164
1,083
889
545
320
52

3,542
6,263
10,946
7,563
6,218
4,328
1,114

3,202
3,372
2,050
437
338
244
102

291
2,418
7,047
5,572
4,526
2,592
360

49
473
1,850
1,554
1,354
1,492
652

33
194
447
327
190
122
14

7
63
144
420
854
542

17
272
1,339
1,082
744
515
96

35.5

23.0

41.2

39.4

36.6

59.3

38.1

34.3

22.5

38.0

43.6

34.8

59,4

38.7

. .

77.4

72.7

80.6

69.5

82.3

27.3

82.4

51.8

65.0

50.3

44.0

61.8

21.7

76.0

YEA R S ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
AND O V E R ..................

58.8
86.0
95.7
96.0
92.2
72.4
18.5

58.0
81.2
90.2
85.8
74.3
52.5

(1 )

(1 )

(1 )

91.2
95.0
92.2
87.5
60.7
14.0

90.1
93.7
91.9
89.4
75,7
22 .7

86.2
50.2
11.7

18 .3

51.8
70.0
67.2
65.9
61.4
41.9
8.4

52.3
77,0
86.9
83.0
79.7
57.3
13.3

46.7
62.0
60.9
61.7
57.4
36.0
7.0

5 1 .2

15 .0

94.8
97.0
97.9
97.5
93.7
75.2
19.6

. .

8,172

3,184

3,470

1,517

591

309

618

10,039

3,206

Y E A R S ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
Y E ARS ....................
Y E ARS ....................
AND O V E R ..................

1,116
1,208
1,939
1,232
1,004
843
830

1,097
969
733
185
96
61
43

14
206
891
714
609
327
308

5
32
315
333
298
255
279

5
26
147
152
107
92
62

-

2
4
19
40
75
169

4
164
162
151
88
48

1,183
1,445
2,348
1,519
1,255
1,065
1,224

1,134
994
677
173
110
56
63

34.0

22.6

43.7

47.5

42.7

66.8

43.7

35.3

. .

5,549

1,917

2,679

957

422

91

444

YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
AND O V E R ..................

429
925
1,656
1,057
818
502
162

415
719
581
126
49
23
4

13
181
80S
698
549
390
116

2
25
267
272
220
129
42

1
21
132
126
79
50
12

_
2
2
10
25
32
20

2
133
137
116
47
9

33.5

23.8

40.1

41.8

39.5

56.9

. .

68.8

60.5

78.8

63.6

71.9

29.6

YEARS ....................
YEARS . . . . . . . . .
YEARS ....................
YEA R S ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
AND O V E R ..................

38.6
78.7
87.6
87.3
81.5
59.6
19.5

37.9
75.1
79.6
68.0

P>

(’ )
(' )

(1)
<1 )

86.6
82.9
73.9
§0^5

91.3
82.9
74,2

1 5 .0

(' )

TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
Y E ARS

16 Y E ARS AND OVER.

M E D I A N AGE (YEARS)

...............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

16 Y E ARS AND OVER.

M E D I A N AGE (YEARS)

...............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION R A T E
TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
Y E ARS

16 YEARS AND OVER.

_
( )
( 11
)
( )

92.1
95.9
92.3
87.0
61.2

(1 )

71.1
78.7
80.9
74.3
55.1
8.9

66.1
68.3
73.5
66.7
50.1

3,379
35
320
954
699
579
468
324

22.4

5,346
378
865
1,647
1,070
793
471
121

41.4

72.8

_

(i >

8.7

68,4
68,9
48.6
8.1

77.0
83.3
85,6
80.2
72.8
21 J

3,454

1,171

1,307

976

15
131
717
646
566
541
838

15
87
381
304
199
118
68

5
45
75
167
314
702

39
292
267
201
109
68

40.4

48.8

38.4

66.2

40.9

1,614

2,010

1,721

702

348

671

358
583
461
117
58
29
9

13
203
693
497
369
198
38

7
42
250
204
127
57
15

„

4
21
43
107
123
49

=
33
222
209
133
64
10

33.6

23.9

36.9

41.2

37.5

54.8

38.8

53.2

50.3

59.5

49.8

59.9

26.6

68.8

32.0
59,9
70.1
70.5
63.1
44.2
9.9

31.5
58.6
68.1
67.7
(B)

P~>

(JJ

P )
48 .2

-

'

PJ
7 3 .3

BLACK
POPULATION
TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEA R S

16 YEARS AND OVER.

M E DIAN AGE

(YEARS)

...............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

16 YEARS AND OVER.

M E DIAN AGE (YEARS)

...............

7
79'
494
456
366
244
74

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION R A T E
TOTAL,
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

16 YEARS AND OVER.

5 0 .6

(D
P)

97.2
94.7
94.5
90.1
66.4
22.8

5 4 .0

See footnote at end of table.




11

-

(1)
(')
(<)
P I
4 2 .5
12 .1

_

P>

83.0
86.5
76.7
5 3 .6

<1 >

(1 )
(1)

63.5
72.6
71.0
63.6
42.3
11 .6

60 .5

68.8
70.6
64.7
45.2
8.9

65.7
67.1
63.9
48 .4

( ’)

< 1)
<1!
50 .-2

64.2
39.2
7.0

_
V

)

76.1
78.1
65.9
5 9 .0

PJ

Table B-3. Continued—Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, sex, age, race, and
Hispanic origin, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands}
MEN
POPULATION,
C I V I L I A N L A BOR FORCE/
AND AGE

married.
married

TOTAL

SPOUSE
P R E SENT

NEVER

OTH E R EVEF -M A R R I E
MARRIED,
DI­
S P OUSE
WI D O W E D V O RCED
TOTAL
A B SENT

TOTAL

(OMEN
MARRIED,
OTHER EVER -MARRIED
DI­
MARRIED,
N E VER
SPOUSE
w i d o w e d VORCED
MA R R I E D PR E S E N T
SPOU S E
TOTAL
ABSENT

H IS P A N IC O R IG IN
POPULATION
. .

4/299

1/378

2/443

478

229

YEARS . . . . . . . . .
YEA R S . . . . . . . . .
YEARS .................. .
YEARS . ..................
YEA R S ....................
YEA R S ....................
AND O V E R ..................

592
715
1/150
728
504
332
278

563
461
238
58
21
23
14

23
227
760
572
409
261
192

5
27
152
98
74
48
72

5
26
82
47
33
23
13

3
6
10
8
43

32.1

21.4

38.7

40.5

35.3

3/429

986

2/075

367

190

336
625
1/067
665
449
233
54

310
391
212
42
18
11
3

22
211
710
534
370
191
37

4
23
145
90
61
32
14

4
21
78
40
26
16
5

31.9

22.3

36.8

36.4

34.2

. .

80.6

71.6

66.3

77.5

83.7

YEA R S ....................
YEA R S ....................
YEA R S .................................
YEARS ....................
Y E ARS . . . . . . . . .
YEARS . . . . . . . . .
AND O V E R ..................

56.9
88.4
94.7
92.6
89.5
70.3
19.4

55.1
85.0
89.0

(’ )

P>
( 1)

TOTAL/
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

16 Y E ARS AND OVER.

M E D I A N AGE

(YEARS)

...............

178

4/607

1/104

2/487

1/016

369

283

363

_
2
67
45
31
18
16

572
719
1/247
806
541
418
303

482
308
187
46
34
24
24

75
337
809
568
352
232
114

15
74
251
193
156
161
166

14
51
126
76
47
43
11

5
11
16
38
75
139

1
17
114
101
70
44
15

P>

39.5

32.9

21.1

35.4

43.7

34.4

64.7

39.9

28

149

2/187

568

1/170

450

148

63

239

3
6
9
4
6

2
64
43
26
12
3

208
403
687
444
285
143
18

172
207
122
32
20
10
3

30
165
422
305
168
77
4

6
30
143
107
97
56
10

6
17
54
34
22
14
1

( .’ )

37.0

31.8

22.7

34.2

39.2

34.5

-

38.6

-

84.5

47.5

51.4

47.0

44.3

39.9

-

65.8

36.4
56.1
55.1
55.1
52.6
34.1
5.8

35.7
67.3
65.5
P )
P )
P )

3 9 .9

<1 )
( )

P)

_

< )

( 1>
<1)
<1>
( 1)

71

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
TOTAL/
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEA R S

16 YEA R S AND OVER.

. .

YEA R S ....................
YEA R S ....................
YEARS ....................
YEARS ....................
Y E A R S ....................
YEARS ....................
AND OVER. ...............

M E D I A N AGE

(YEARS)

...............

-

«
,
7
7
25
17
7

14
82
67
50
24
3

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION R A T E
TOTAL/
16
20
25
35
45

TO 19
TO 24
TO 34
TO 44
TO 54
55 TO 64
65 YEA R S

16 Y E A R S A N D OVER.

(D
(D
P )

(' )

96.0
96.1
95.0
90.7
73.2
19.3

96.3
91.0

( 1)
<1 )
P>

( 1>
( )
9 4 .7

<i)
(' >
(1 >
e >

'•Rate not shown where base Is less than 75,000.




12

-

(' )
P>

P>
P>
(')

_
P>

( 1)
<1 )
<1 >
( 1)
( 1)

P )

49.1
52.1
53.6
47.7
33.0
3.5

57.0
55.7
62.1
34 .4
6.3

4 2 .4
4 4 .5

ip
(' >
to

22.9
4.9

P )
P>
7271
6 5 .9

P )
P )
P>

Table B-4. Major occupation] group ©f employed persons 16 years old and ©wer by full- or part-time status, marital status,
sex, and race, March 1981

(Percent distribution)

M A JOR O C C U P A T I O N GROUP
AND F U L L - T I M E OR P A R T - T I M E
E M P L O Y M E N T S T ATUS

A LL

MARRIED.
SPOU S E
NEVER
MARRIED PRESENT

TOTAL

WOMEN

MEN
OTHER EVER M A RRIED
MARRIED,
DI­
SPOUSE
W I DOWED VORCED
TOTAL
ABSENT

TOTAL

MARRIED,
SPOUSE
NEV E R
M A R R I E D PR E S E N T

TOTAL

OTHER EVER M A RRIED
DI­
MARRIED,
SPOUSE
W I DOWED VORCED
ABSENT

EMPLOYED PERSONS

A L L O C C U P A T IO N

GROUPS

ALL O C C U P A T I O N GROUPS
N U MBER (THOUSANDS)
P E R C E N T ............

56,349
100.0

13,302
100.0

37,739
100.0

5,307
100.0

1,610
100.0

510
100.0

3,187
100.0

42,885
100.0

10,291
100.0

2 3 ,995
100.0

8,600
100.0

1,816
100.0

2,276
100.0

4,508
100,0

16.1

13.9

17.1

14.2

12.4

10.9

15.5

17.2

16.7

18.3

14.6

15.6

9.4

16.9

15.1
6.1
6.3
20.8
11.0
5.4
6.4
0.1

7.3
6.0
8.8
15.2
12.1
4.8
12.1
0.2

17.9
6.1
5.5
22.8
10.5
5.5
4.3

*

14.6
6.2
5.4
20.9
12.1
6,3
7.1
0.2

14.0
5.3
4.9
17.6
14.7
6,8
8,5
0,2

12.3
7.5
6.7
18.0
6.0
6.7
9.5
1.0

15.3
6.4
5.5
23.1
11.8
5.9
6.1

"

7.4
6.6
35.0
1.8
9,4
0.7
1.1
2.5

5.4
7.6
36.5
1.2
6.7
0,3
1.4
3.1

7.8
6.5
35.3
1.9
10.2
0.8
1.0
1.9

8.9
5.7
32.2
2.2
10.4
0.7
1.3
3.6

6.4
3.5
32.2
2.0
9.9
1.0
1.4
4.2

8.6
9.6
28.9
1.7
11.6
0.3
0.9
6.7

10.0
4.7
33.8
2.5
9.9
0,7
1,4
1.9

9.1
2.2
1.4

15.8
1.1
2.5

6.6
2.7
1.0

10,5
1.0
1.4

12.2
0.8
2.4

14.4
3.3
3.7

9.0
0.8
0.5

17,4
0.3
0.6

20.6
0.1
0.4

15.1
0.4
0.8

20.0
0.2
0.3

23.2
0.2
0.4

21.5
0.5
0.2

17.9
0.1
0.2

.

89.5

73.0

95.0

91.7

91.5

78.7

93.8

71.8

66.4

71.0

80.7

81.5

66.6

87.4

PROFESSIONAL-TECHNICAL . . . . .
M A N A G E R S AND ADMINIST R A T O R S ,
E X CEPT FARM ....................
SALES. ..............................
C L E R I C A L ............................
C R A F T .................................
O PERATIVES, E X C E P T T R A N S P O R T . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
LABORERS, EXCE P T F A R M .............
P R I V A T E H O USEHOLD. . .............
SERVICE, EXCEPT
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD . . . . . .
FA R M E R S AND FARM MANA G E R S . . . .
FARM L A B O R E R S AND SUPE R V I S O R S . .

14.9

11.8

16.2

13.0

11.9

8.9

14.2

13.5

14.2

13.4

13.0

13.6

7.6

15.4

14.5
5.3
5.3
19.8
10.3
4.8
4.9

”

6.7
4.1
6.0
13.4
9.9
3.8
7.2
0.1

17.4
5.7
5.1
22.0
10.2
5.1
4.0

“

13.9
5.6
4.7
20.0
11.5
5.6
5.9
0.1

13.3
4.7
4.0
16.7
13.9
6.2
7.1
0.1

10.3
6.1
4.5
15.5
5.4
4.5
7.5
0.6

14.7
6.0
5.1
22.4
11.3
5.4
5.0

"

6.5
3.2
26.7
1.4
8.5
0.3
0.8
0,9

4.9
3.2
26.0
0.9
5.6
0.2
0.8
0.9

6.5
3.1
26.7
1.5
9.2
0.3
0.7
0.6

8.1
3.4
27.6
1.9
9.6
0.5
1.1
1.6

6.0
2.2
27.3
2.0
9.2
0.6
1.3
1.8

6.9
3,9
22.1
1.0
9.7
0.1
0.7
2.7

9,6
3.6
30.5
2.3
9.6
0.6
1.3
1.0

6.6
2.0
1.1

7.5
0.9
1.5

5.9
2.5
0.9

9.2
0.9
1.3

10.3
0.8
2.3

10.4
1.9
3.3

8.4
0.7
0.5

9.5
0.2
0.3

9.4
0.1
0.1

8.2
0.2
0.5

13.6
0.1
0.2

17.1
0.1
0.3

11.5
0,3
0.2

13,3

.

10.5

27.0

5.0

8.3

8.5

21.3

6.2

28.2

33.6

29.0

19.3

18.5

33.4

12.6

P R O F E S S I O N A L - T E C H N I C A L ..........
M A N A G E R S AND ADMIN I S T R A T O R S ,
E X CEPT FA R M . . . . . . . . .
SALES. . . . . . .
...............
CLE R I C A L . . .......................
C R A F T ......................... ..
O P ERATIVES, E X CEPT T R A N S P O R T . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
LABORERS, E X CEPT F A R M .............
PRI V A T E H O U S E H O L D ..................
SERVICE, EXCEPT
PR I V A T E H O U S E H O L D .............
F A R M E R S AND FARM M A NAGERS. . . .
FARM L A B O R E R S AND SUPER V I S O R S . .

1.2

2.1

0.9

1.2

0.5

2.1

1.3

3.7

2.5

4.9

1.6

2.0

1.8

1.4

0.6
0.8
1.0
1.0
0.7
0.6
1.5
0.1

0.6
1.9
2.8
1.8
2.2
1.0
4.9
0.2

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.3
0.4
0.3

0.7
0,6
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.6
1.4
0,1

2.1
1.4
2.3
2.4
0.5
2.2
2.0
0.4

0.6
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.5
1.1

1.0
3.4
8,3
0.3
0.9
0.4
0.3
1.6

0.4
4.4
10.5
0.3
0.9
0.2
0.7
2.3

1.3
3.4
8.7
0.4
1.0
0.5
0.3
1.2

0.8
2.4
4.5
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.1
2.0

0.4
1.3
4.8

-

0.8
0.5
0.7
1.0
0.6
0.7
1.3
0.1

0.7
0.4
0.1
2.3

1.7
5.6
6.9
0.6
1.9
0.2
0.2
4.0

0.4
1.1
3.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.9

2.6
0.2
0.3

8.3
0.2
1.0

0.7
0.3
0.1

1.3
0.2
0.1

1.9

4.0
1.5
0.5

0.6

7.9
0.2
0.2

11.2
0.1
0.3

7.0
0.2
0.3

6.4
0.1
0.1

6.1
0.1
0.1

10.1
0.2
0.1

4.6

0.1

P R O F E S S I O N A L - T E C H N I C A L ..........
M A N A G E R S AND ADMIN I S T R A T O R S /
E X C E P T FARM . ..................
SALES, ..............................
C L E R I C A L ............................
C R A F T .................................
OPERATIVES/ EXCEPT T R A N S P O R T . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
LABORERS/ E X C E P T FARM. . . . . .
PRI V A T E HOUSEH O L D . . . . . . . .
SERVICE, EXCE P T
PR I V A T E H O U S E H O L D .............
FAR M E R S AND FARM M A NAGERS. . . .
FAR M L A B O R E R S AND SUPER V I S O R S . .
F U L L -T IM E '

ALL O C C U P A T I O N GROUPS, TOTAL

0.2

P A R T -T IM E 2

ALL O C C U P A T I O N GROUPS, TOT A L

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

•

-

-

Tabl® B-4. Continued—IMajor ©eouipation group of employed persons 16 years old and over by full- or part-time status,
marital status, sex, and race, March 1981

(Percent distribution)

WOM E N

MEN
MAJ O R O C C U P A T I O N GROUP
AND F U L L - T I M E OR PART - T I M E
E M P L O Y M E N T S T ATUS

TOTAL

MARRIED.
SPOUSE
NEVER
M A RRIED P R ESENT

O' HER EVE R M A RRIED
MARRIED,
DI­
SPOU S E
WIDOWED VORCED
TOTAL
ABSENT

MARRIED,
SPOUSE
NEVER
MA R R I E D P R ESENT

TOTAL

TOTAL

O' HER EVER MARRIFt
DI­
MARRIED,
SPOUSE
W I DOWED V O RCED
ABSENT

W H IT E
ALL O C C U P A T I O N G R O U P S
NUMB E R (THOUSANDS)
P E R C E N T ............
P R O F E S S I O N A L - T E C H N I C A L ..........
M A N A G E R S AND ADMI N I S T R A T O R S ,
E X C E P T FA R M . ..................
SALES, .......... ..................
C L E R I C A L ............................
C R A F T .................................
O PERATIVES, E X CEPT T R A N S P O R T . .
T R A N S P O R T E Q U I P M E N T OP E R A T I V E S .
LABORERS, E X CEPT F A R M .............
P R I V A T E H O U S E H O L D ..................
SERVICE, EXCE P T
P R I V A T E H O U S E H O L D .............
FAR M E R S AND FARM M A NAGERS. . . .
FARM L A B O R E R S AND SUPER V I S O R S . .

34,4 7 3
100.0

4,372
100.0

1,193
100.0

17.4

15.7

14.1

16.1
6.8
5.3
21.6
11.2
6.0
6.1

0.1

8.4
15.7
12.0
4.7
12.2
0.2

18.7
6.5
5.4
23.1
10.1
5.1
3.9
-

-

15.7
6.5
4.1
18.3
12.9
5.6
7.8
0.2

8.2
2.A
1.3

14.4
1.2
2.6

6.0
2.9
0.9

8.9
1.2
1.2

A , 651
100.0

1,381
100.0

2,436
100.0

834
100.0

50,373
100.0

11,529
100.0

16.6

14.3

16.0
6.5
6.0
21.3
10.6
5.1
6.0

7.7

6 .6

416
100.0

2,762
100.0

3 7 ,370
100.0

8,858
100.0

21,587
100.0

13.1

16.8

17.5

17.2

14.8
8.7
7.3
18.0
5.5
7.2
7.1
-

16.4
6.6
5.5
23.5
11.3
5.9
5.2
-

7.9
7.1
35.7
1.8
9.0
0.7
1.1
2.0

5.6
7.9
36.1
1.2
6.1
0.3
1.5
3.0

11.5
1.1
2.2

11.8
3.5
2.9

7.4
0.9
0.4

16.3
0.4
0.6

361
100,0

81
100.0

392
100.0

6,925
100.0

1,179
100.0

18.4

15.0

16.5

9,8

17.2

8.2
6.9
36.1
1.9
9.8
0.9
1.5

10.0
6.6
33.8
2.4
10.1
0.7
1.2
2.2

7.8
4.5
35.9
2.2
8.6
1.1
1.7
1.5

9,7
10.8
30.9
1.9
12.1
0.3
0.9
4.3

10.9
5.2
34.6
2.7
9,6
0.8
1.2
1.3

20.5
0.2
0.4

14.3
0.5
0.8

17.3
0.2
0.3

19.4
0.3
0.5

18.5
0.6
0,2

16.2
0.1
0.3

4,507
100.0

1,192
100.0

1,810
100.0

1,505
100,0

596
100.0

313
100.0

596
100.0

1.0

1,927
100,0

3,819
100,0

B LA C K
ALL OCCUPATION G R O U P S
N U M B E R (THOUSANDS)
PERCENT. . . . . .
P R O F E S S I O N A L - T E C H N I C A L ..........
M A N A G E R S AND A D M I N I S T R A T O R S ,
E X C E P T FA R M ....................
S A L E S .................................
C L E R I C A L ............................
C R A F T .................................
O PERATIVES, E X C E P T T R A N S P O R T . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
LABORERS, E X C E P T F A R M .............
PRI V A T E H O U S E H O L D ..................
SERVICE, EXCEPT
PR I V A T E H O U S E H O L D .............
FA R M E R S AND FARM M A NAGERS. . . .
FARM L A B O R E R S AND SUPE R V I S O R S . .

8.6

10.3

9.0

4.5

3.4

-

6.4

14.3

11.7

17.1

12.9

14.1

7.5

14.6

6.4
2.2
8.1
17.4
15.4
9.8
11.5
0.3

3.7
1.9
11.3
11.5
13.4
6.9
12.4
0.4

7.4
2.0
7.2
20.7
15.9
12.2
10.4

9.6
1.2
6.9
16.3
21.1
11.1
12.3
-

1.7
2.4

7.8
5.4
6.0
19.9
15.7
5.5
11.8

3.4
3.0
30.6
1.4
11.6
0.6
1.1
7.3

3.7
4.7
39.1
0.8
11.5
0.4

3.0
2.7
29.1
1.7
12.5
0.8
0.8
6.7

3.8
2.0
25.7
1.4
10.6
0.5
1.4
10.3

3.2
1.5
25.8
1.7
11.8
0.9

0.1

8.0
3.3
5.8
17.8
17.4
7.8
13.0
0.6

9.3

2.2
2.7
18.5
0.7
7.9
0.4
0.8
20.6

5.3
2.0
29,5
1.3
10.7
0,1
2.2
5,8

17.9
0.3
2.0

26.4
0.1
1.6

12.6
0.5
2.0

18.9
0.2
2.6

15.3

26.5

22.3

25.3
0.4

31.3

30.3
■
=
0.4

38.7
-

28.4
*

14.3
9.2
4.4
22.6
6.1
29.2
1.5
8.6

-

2.8

' Full-time workers are persons who during the survey week worked 35 hours or more and those who
usually work full time but worked 1 to 34 hours.




-

-

20.2
0.1
1.2

1.0
4.5

-

-

0,2

0.2

-

0.2

1.0

1
Part-time workers are persons who usually work 1 to 34 hours and worked 1 to 34 hours during the
survey week. Persons with a job but not at work are olassitied by whether they usually work full or part time.

14

Tab!© B-5. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age and
presence and age of own children, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
LAB O R F O R C E AND MA R I T A L S T ATUS
ALL E V E R - M A R R I E D WOMEN

NEVER-MARRIED
WOMEN

MARRIED, H U SBAND
PR E S E N T
LABOR
FORCE
LABOR
PARTIC­
F O RCE
IPATION
RATE

TOTAL
P R E S E N C E AND ASE OF OWN
C H I L D R E N AND ASE OF WOMEN
POPULA­
TION

LABOR
FORCE
PARTIC­ POPULA­
TION
IPATION
RATE

L A BOR
F O RCE

LABOR
FORCE

LABOR
FOR C E
POPULA­
P A R T I C ­ TION
IPATION
RATE

A LL PERSONS
18,674

11,626

62.3

70,585

34,787

49.3

49,883

2 5 ,460

51.0

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 Y E ARS , .
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L ............
16 TO 19 YEARS ..................
20 TO 24 YEA R S . . . . . . . .
25 TO 34 YEA R S . . . . . . . .
35 Y E ARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . . .
35 TO 44 Y E A R S .......... .. . .
45 Y E ARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . .
45 TO 54 Y E ARS ...............
55 Y E ARS AND O V E R ............

17,567
15,126
7,321
5,176
2,628
2,441
613
1,829
511
1,317

11,048
9,763
3,581
3,893
2,288
1,286
509
777
391
387

62.9
64.5
48.9
75.2
87.1
52.7
83.0
42.5
76.4
29.4

39,964
6,031
411
2,168
3,453
33,932
2,555
31,378
7,158
24,219

16,944
5,037
237
1,791
3,009
11,907
1,922
9,985
4,507
5,479

42.4
83.5
57.7
82.6
87.1
35.1
75.2
31.8
63.0
22.6

24,666
4,681
346
1,814
2,521
19,985
1,704
18,281
5,456
12,824

11,426
3,890
202
1,507
2,181
7,535
1,209
6,326
3,250
3,077

46.3
63.1
58.3
83.1
86.5
37.7
70.9
34.6
59,6
24,0

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOT A L . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 Y E A R S .......... .. . .
25 TO 34 Y E A R S .......... .. . .
35 Y E A R S AND OVER, TOTAL . . . .
35 TO 44 YEA R S .................
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . .
45 TO 54 YEA R S . . . . . . .
55 YEA R S AND OVER. ..........

1,107
954
76
367
511
153
115
38
35
3

579
495
30
160
304
84
67
17
16
1

52.3
51.9
39.7
43.6
59.6
55.2
58.5
P )
<1 >

30,621
15,962
376
2,974
12,612
14,660
10,098
4,561
3,948
613

17,843
8,911
130
1,438
7,343
8,932
6,406
2,526
2,276
249

58.3
55.8
34.5
48.3
58.2
60.9
63.4
55.4
57.6
40.7

25,217
13,234
324
2,513
10,398
11,982
8,334
3,649
3,200
448

14,035
7,037
106
1,158
5,773
6,997
5,070
1,928
1,770
158

55.7
53,2
32,7
46.1
55,5
58,4
60.8
52,8
55.3
35,3

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17 YEARS,
NONE YOUNGER, TOTAL . . . , .
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS ...............
25 TO 34 YEA R S . . . . . . .
35 Y E ARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . .
35 TO 44 Y E A R S .......... .. .
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . .
45 TO 54 Y E ARS . . . . . .
55 YEARS AND O V E R ..........

389
268
3
28
237
121
84
37
34
3

252
187
1
18
168
65
48
16
15
1

64.6
69.7
(’ )
P )
70.8
53.3
57.2
<1 >
P>
(1 >

17,158
4,542
18
119
4,405
12,616
8,189
4,427
3,821
607

11,238
3,233
6
90
3,137
8,005
5,543
2,462
2,215
248

65.5
71.2
75.4
71.2
63.4
67.7
55.6
58.0
40.8

13,492
3,314
16
83
3,214
10,178
6,6 3 8
3,540
3,096
445

8,432
2,244
5
57
2,182
6,188
4,311
1,877
1,720
156

62.5
67.7
(1 )
69,2
67,9
60.8
65.0
53,0
55.6
35,2

717
686
74
339
273
32
31
1
1

328
308
29
142
136
20
19
1
1
-

45.7
44.9
P 1
42.0
49.9
(1 >
<1 )
P )
P )

13,463
11,420
359
2,855
8,207
2,043
1,909
134
128
6

6,605
5,678
124
1,348
4,207
927
864
63
62
2

49.1
49.7
34.5
47.2
51.3
45.4
45.2
47.3
48.2
P )

11,725
9,921
308
2,430
7,183
1,804
1,696
108
105
4

5,603
4,793
101
1,101
3,591
809
758
51
49
2

47,8
48.3
32.9
45.3
50.0
44,9
44,7
47.2
47.1
P >

245
231
6
105
120
14
13
1
1
*

134
128
3
59
67
6
5
1
1
-

54.7
55.4

5,290
3,996
17
595
3,384
1,293
1,189
104
98
6

2,973
2,349
4
358
1,987
624
577
47
45
2

56.2
58.8

4,351
3,2 1 4
13
421
2,781
1,137
1,052
85
82
3

2,383
1,843
2
242
1,599
540
503
38
36
2

54,8
57.3

472
454
68
234
153
18
18
-

193
180
26
83
70
14
14

8,174
7,424
342
2,260
4,823
750
720
30
30
*

3,633
3,329
120
990
2,220
304
287
17
17
“

7,374
6,707
295
2,009
4,402
667
644
23
23

3,219
2,950
99
859
1,993
269
256
13
13
*

TOT A L

...........................

WITH OWN CHIL D R E N UNDER
6 YEARS, T O T A L ....................
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L ..........
16 TO 19 YEA R S . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEA R S . . . . . . .
25 TO 34 YEA R S . . . . . . .
35 YEA R S AND o v e r , TOTAL . . .
35 TO 44 YEA R S ...............
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . .
45 TO 54 YEARS . . . . . .
55 YEARS AND OVER. . . . .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 3 TO 5
YEARS, NONE U N DER 3 . . . .
.
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . .
16 TO 19 Y E ARS . . . . . .
20 TO 24 Y E ARS ............
25 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . .
35 YEA R S AND OVER, TOTAL . .
35 TO 44 YEARS .............
45 YEARS AND OVER, T O TAL .
45 TO 54 YEARS . . . . .
55 YEA R S A n d OVER. . . .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
3 YEA R S .......... . . . . . .
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . .
16 TO 19 YEA R S .............
20 TO 24 YEARS .............
25 TO 34 YEARS ............
35 YEA R S AND OVER, TOTAL . .
35 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . .
45 YEA R S AND OVER, TOTAL .
45 TO 54 YEA R S . . . . .
55 YEARS A n d OVER. . . .

P>

P>

55.9
55.4
P )
P )
P )
P >

41.0
39.5

<11,

35.7
45.6
P )

P>

-

.

-

See footnote at end of table.




15

P )

P )
60.3
58.7
48.2
48.5
44.7
45.9
P)
44.4
44.8
35.1
43.8
46.0
40.5
39.8

P)
Pl>

( 1)
57,5
57.5
47,5
47,8
44,5
44.4
(4)

43,7
44.0
33.6
42,7
45.3
40,3
39,7
P i)
(IP

Table B-5. Continued-Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age and presence
and age of own children, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)

“

““

,

L A BOR f o r c e a n d m a r i t a l s t a t u s
ALL OTHER E V E R - H A R R I E D WOMEN
, SPOUSE ABSENT
W I DOWED
DIV O R C E D
labor
LABOR
LABOR
LABOR
P O P U L A ­ LABOR
P O P U L A ­ LABOR
FORCE
FORCE
FORCE
POPULA­
LABOR
FORCE
P A R T I C ­ TION
FORCE
P A R T I C ­ TION
P A R T I C ­ TION
FORCE
PARTIC­
FORCE
IPATION
IPATION
IPATION
IPATION
RATE
rate
RATE
RATE

TOTAL
P R E S E N C E AND AGE OF OWN
C H I L D R E N AND AGE OF WOMEN

POPULA­
TION

married

LABOR
FORCE

A LL PERSONS
............................

20,7 0 2

9,327

45.1

3,412

2,076

60.8

10,845

2,416

22.3

6,445

4,835

75.0

NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 YEA R S . .
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L .............
16 TO 19 YEARS ..................
20 TO 24 Y E ARS ..................
25 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 Y E ARS AND OVER, T O TAL . . . .
35 TO 44 Y E ARS .................
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . .
45 TO 54 YEA R S ...............
55 Y E ARS AND O V E R .............

T O TAL

15,297
1,350
64
354
932
13,947
850
13,097
1,702
11,395

5,518
1,147
35
284
828
4,372
713
3,659
1,257
2,402

36.1
84.9
P>
80.3
88.8
31.3
83.8
27.9
73.8
21.1

1,601
479
47
178
253
1,122
218
905
328
577

959
372
25
133
214
587
172
415
222
194

59.9
77.6
( 1)
74.7
84.3
52.3
79.0
45.9
67.6
33.6

10,196
32
8
24
10,164
107
10,057
545
9,513

2,024
26
5
21
1,998
75
1,923
374
1,549

19.9
P )
P)
(i)
19.7
70.5
19.1
68.7
16.3

3,500
839
16
168
655
2,661
526
2,135
830
1,305

2,535
749
9
146
593
1,786
466
1,320
661
659

72.4
89.2
P)
87.2
90.5
67.1
88.5
61.9
79.7
50.5

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOTAL ..............................
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L .............
16 TO 19 YEARS ..................
20 TO 24 Y E ARS ..................
25 TO 34 Y E ARS ..................
35 Y E ARS AND OVER, T O TAL . . . .
35 TO 44 YEARS ..................
45 Y E ARS AND OVER, TOTAL . . .
45 TO 54 Y E ARS ...............
55 YEARS AND O V E R .............

5,405
2,727
52
461
2,214
2,677
1,765
913
748
165

3,808
1,874
24
280
1,570
1,934
1,337
598
506
91

70.5
68.7
P )
60.7
70.9
72.3
75.8
65.5
67.7
55.3

1,811
1,057
33
213
811
753
548
206
174
32

1,116
623
17
107
499
494
371
123
107
17

61.7
58.9
(1 )
50.2
61.5
65.5
67.6
60.0
61.2
(1 )

649
123
15
108
527
188
339
250
89

392
70

60.3
57.2
P )
(1 )
59.4
61.0
62.8
60.0
65.2
45.3

2,945
1,547
19
233
1,295
1,397
1,029
368
324
45

2,300
1,181
7
167
1,007
1,119
848
271
237
34

78.1
76.3
P >
71.6
77.8
80.1
82.4
73.6
73.2

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17 YEARS,
NO N E YOUNGER, T O TAL ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L ..........
16 TO 19 Y E ARS ...............
20 TO 24 Y E ARS ...............
25 TO 34 Y E ARS . .............
35 Y E ARS AND OVER, T O TAL . . .
35 TO 44 Y E ARS ...............
45 YEARS AND OVER, T O TAL . .
45 TO 54 Y E ARS .............
55 YEA R S AND O V E R ..........

3 , 667
1,228
1
36
1,191
2,439
1,552
887
725
162

2,806
989
1
33
955
1,817
1,231
586
494
91

76.5
80.5

1,016
356
10
345
660
457
203
171
32

711
258
7
251
452
329
123
106
17

70.0
72.7

356
46
-

63,0

46
310
108
201
161
40

2,086
805
1
26
778
1,281
930
352
309
42

1,740
685
1
25
658
1,055
793
262
227
34

83.4
85.0
(1)

P )

565
68
.
.
.
68
497
164
333
245
88

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
6 YEARS, T O T A L ..................
16 TO 34 YEARS, T O T A L ..........
16 TO 19 YEA R S ...............
20 TO 24 YEA R S ...............
25 TO 34 YEARS ...............
35 YEA R S AND OVER, TOT A L . . .
35 TO 44 YEARS ...............
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL . .
45 TO 54 YEA R S .............
55 YEARS AND O V E R ..........

1,738
1,499
51
425
1,023
239
213
26
23
3

1,003
885
23
247
615
118j
105
12
12
-

795
702
33
203
466
93
90
3
3

406
364
17
100
248
42
41
1
1

51.0
51.9

85
55

36
24

P)
P )
P >
P )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

65.4
66.9
( 1)
68.4
67.5
55.6
55.3

-

6
18
12
9
2
2

561
496
6
141
349
65
55
10
10

-

15
41
29
23
6
5
1

858
742
18
207
517
116
99
17
15
2

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 3 TO 5
YEARS, NONE UND E R 3 . . . .
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS .............
20 TO 24 YEA R S ............
25 TO 34 YEA R S ............
35 YEARS AND OVER, T O TAL . .
35 TO 44 YEA R S .....................
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOT A L .
45 TO 54 YEARS .................
55 YEARS AND OVER. . . .

936
782
5
174
603
157
137
19
16
3

589
506
2
116
388
83
74
9
9

191
163
2
36
125
28
28

53.9
54.0
(1 1

56
34

30
20
4
16
10
8
2
2

76
248
45
38
7
7

75.2
72.3
55.2

-

9
25
22
17
4
4
1

527
446
3
101
342
82
68
14
11
2

69.9
72.6

P )

P )
P )
( 1)
t 1)
P)
<1)
( 1)
( 1)
P)

368
323

< )
1
P >
P >

355
302
2
64
236
53
52
1
1
-

800
717
47
251
420
82
76
7
7

413
379
21
131
227
34
31
4
4
“

51.7
52.8
(1 )
52.2
54.1
41.9
40.9
t1 )
(' )
<1 )

440
400
31
139
230
40
38
2
2
"

214
201
15
64
123
13
13

28
21

6
4
_
2
2
2
2

P )
P )

331
297
16
106
175
34
31
3
3
“

192
173
6
66
102
20
16
3
3

58.1
58.3
(1 )
61.8
58.0
P )
(')
P )
P )

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R
3 Y E ARS .......................
16 TO 34 YEARS, TOTAL. . . .
16 TO 19 YEA R S .............
20 TO 24 Y E A R S ............
25 TO 34 YEARS ............
35 YEARS AND OVER, TOT A L . .
35 TO 44 YEA R S .............
45 YEARS AND OVER, TOTAL .
45 TO 54 YEARS ..........
55 YEARS AND OVER. . . .

P )
P >
80.2
74.5
79.4
66.0
68.2
56.3

57.7
59.0

P>
58.2
6 0 .1

49.3
49.5

P >
P >
P )
6 2.8

64.8

P >
67.0
64.3
53.1
54.2

«
.

-

-

"

Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.




16

-

P )
72.7
68.5
72.0
60.6
62.0

P)
49.1
53.2
44.5
45.4

P )
P )
-

52.9

( 1)
P )
P )
P )
48.7
50.4
P )
45.7
53.6
(1 )
P )
P )
P )
“

-

6
15
7
6
2
2
“

6
64
321
118
203
163
40

_

_

-

_
~

(t )
“I
P )
62.3
66.0
60.4
65.7
45.7

42.2

P )

P )
P )
>
)
)
)

P
P
P
P

P )

P>
84,6
82.3
65.3
74.4
73.5

P )

( 1)
( 1)
p)

P )

( 1)
(1)
p j
pi

Table B-6. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age, presence
and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin, SViareh 1981
(Numbers in thousands)

L A B O R F O RCE AND M A R I T A L S T ATUS
ALL E V E R - M A R R I E D WOMEN

NE V E R - M A R R I E D
___ WOMEN

TOTAL

AGE OF WOM E N BY P R ESENCE AND
AGE OF OWN C H I L D R E N AND RACE
POPULA­
TION

LABOR
FORCE

LABOR
FORCE
PARTIC­ POPULA­
IPATION
TION

LABOR
FORCE

rate

MARRIED* HU S B A N D
PR E S E N T
LABOR
LABOR
FORCE
F O RCE
PARTIC­
IPATION
RATE

LABOR
FORCE
POPULA­
P A R T I C ­ TION
IPATION
RATE

W H IT E
14*999

9*744

65.0

62*218

30*2 3 0

48.6

45*351

22*807

50,3

NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 Y E ARS . .
16 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
35 YEA R S AND O V E R .................

14*577
12*473
2*104

9*537
8*439
1*098

65.4
67.7
52.2

35*775
5*480
30*295

15*075
4*630
10*446

42.1
84.5
34.5

22*811
4*330
18*481

10*476
3*627
6*849

45.9
83,8
37,1

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 YEARS*
TOTAL . ............... ..
16 TO 34 Y E A R S ............... .. .
35 YEA R S AND O V E R .................

422
381
41

207
185
22

49.0
48.4
<1 )

26*443
13,735
12*708

15*155
7*499
7,656

57.3
54.6
60.2

22*541
11*775
10*766

12*330
6*130
6*201

54,7
52.1
57,6

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17*
NO N E YOUNGER* TOTAL ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . . . .
35 Y E ARS AND O V E R ...............

136
101
35

86
67
19

63.1
65.9
<1 )

14*822
3*833
10*989

9*616
2*690
6*926

64.9
70.2
63.0

12*136
2*929
9*206

7*508
1*955
5*553

61,9
66,7
60,3

WITH OWN
Y E ARS
16 TO 34
35 YEA R S

286
280
6

121
118
3

42.3
42.1
(1 )

11*621
9,902
1*719

5*539
4*808
730

47.7
48.6
42.5

10*405
8*8 4 5
1*560

4*822
4*174
648

46,3
47.2
41,5

T O TAL

................................. .

C H I L D R E N UNDER 6
.................... ..
Y E A R S ............ ..
AND OVER. . . . . . . .

BLACK
............................ ..

3*206

1*614

50.3

6*833

3*731

54.6

3*379

2*010

59,5

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEA R S „ .
16 TO 34 YEA R S ............. ..
35 YEA R S AND O V E R ..................

2*541
2*250
292

1*253
1*101
152

49.3
49.0
51.9

3*533
391
3*141

1*555
305
1*250

44.0
77.9
39.8

1*455
231
1*225

733
189
545

50.4
81.8
44,5

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS*
TOT A L ....................... ..
16 TO 34 YEA R S .................. ..
35 Y E ARS AND O V E R .................

664
554
110

361
300
62

54.4
54.0
56.0

3*301
1*781
1*519

2*176
1*185
992

65.9
66.5
65.3

1*924
1*078
846

1*277
721
556

66,4
66,9
65,7

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17*
NO N E YOUNGER* TOTAL ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS . . . ..........
35 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

248
164
84

162
117
45

65.4
71.5
53.5

1*918
614
1*304

1*333
480
853

69.5
78.2
65.4

1*025
318
707

699
247
452

68,2
77,9
63.9

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER 6
Y E A R S ................. ..
16 TO 34 YEARS .................. ..
35 YEA R S AND OVER. . . . . . . .

417
391
26

199
182
17

47.8
46.7

(V )

1*383
1*168
216

843
705
138

61.0
60.4
64.2

899
761
139

578
474
104

64.3
62.3
75,1

TOTAL

H IS P A N IC O R IG IN
.

1*104

568

51.4

3*503

1*620

46.2

2,487

1*170

47,0

NO OWN CHI L D R E N U N D E R 18 YEA R S . .
16 TO 34 Y E ARS . . . . . . . . .
35 YEA R S AND OVER. . . . . . . .

1*001
895
106

535
480
55

53.5
53.6
52.2

1*260
262
997

543
183
360

43.1
69.8
36.1

746
201
544

347
139
208

46,5
69,1
38,2

103
82
22

32
22
10

31.2
26.9
(1 )

2*243
1*299
944

1*077
613
464

48.0
47.2
49.1

1*741
1*020
721

823
478
345

47.3
46,9
47,9

TOTAL .............................. ..

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS*
TOT A L . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
35 Y E A R S AND O V E R .................
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17*
none younger* total . . . . .
16 TO 34 Y E A R S ............... .
35 YEA R S AND OVER. . . . . . .

32
12
19

13
4
9-

(O
<1 )
l' >

1*019
286
733_

555
173
382

54.4
60.4
52*1

736
186
-551

WITH OWN
Y E ARS
16 TO 34
35 Y E A R S

71
69
2

20
18
2

(1 >
(1 >
<1 >

1*224
1*012
212

522
441
82

42.7
43.5
38.7

1*005
835
171

C H I L D R E N UNDER 6
. . . .
.................
Y E ARS ....................
AND O V E R .................

See footnote at end of table.




17

387
52,6
110
59,5
271- . 50,2
436
368
69

43,4
44,0
40.2

Table B-6. Continued—Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age, presence
and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)

AGE OF WOM E N BY P R E S E N C E AND
AGE OF OWN C H I L D R E N AND RACE

LABOR F O RCE AND MA R I T A L STATUS'
____________________________________________ ALL OTHER EV ER-MARRIED WOMEN
TOTAL
MARRIED, SPOUSE ABSENT
W I DOWED
D I VORCED
labor
LABOR
LABOR
LABOR
POPULA­
P O P U L A ­ LABOR
LABOR
force
FORCE
P O P U L A ­ LABOR
FORCE
P O P U L A ­ LABOR
FORCE
TION
FORCE
partic­
TION
FORCE
P A R T I C ­ TION
FORCE
P A R T I C ­ TION
FORCE
PARTIC­
ipation
IPATION
IPATION
IPATION
rate
RATE
RATE
RATE

W H iTE
T O T A L ......................................

16*867

7*424

44.0

2*147

1*327

61.8

9*371

2*031

21.7

5*348

4*066

76.0

NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 YEARS . .
............
15 TO 34 YEARS . . .
35 YEARS AND O V E R ..................

12*964
1*150
11*814

4*599
1*003
3,596

35.5
67.2
30.4

1*070
369
701

661
304
357

61.8
82.5
51.0

8,915
29
8*885

1*751
24
1*728

19.6
(1 >
19.4

2*980
752
2*228

2 / 187
675
1*511

73.4
89.8
67,8

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER 18 YEARS,
TOTAL . . . .
....................
16 TO 34 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
35 YEARS AND O V E R ..................

3*902
1*960
1*942

2*825
1*369
1*456

72.4
69.8
75.0

1*077
641
437

666
370
296

61.8
57.8
67.8

457
75
382

279
47
233

61.2
62.5
60.9

2*368
1*245
1*123

1^879
952
927

79.4
76.5
82.5

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17,
NONE YOUNGER, TOTAL ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS .................
35 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

2*686
904
1*782

2*108
735
1*373

78.5
81.3
77.1

594
211
383

420
151
269

70.6
71.3
70.3

407
43
364

263
33
230

64,8
P )
63.3

1*685
649
1*036

1*425
551
874

64.6
84.9
84.4

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N U N D E R 6
y e a r s ............................
16 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 YEA R S AND O V E R ...............

1*216
1*057
160

716
634
82

58.9
60.0
51.7

483
430
54

246
219
27

51.0
51.1
(1 )

50
32
18

16
13
2

<1 )
(' )
P>

683
595
87

454
401
53

66.5
67.4
60.7

T O T A L ......................................

3*454

1*721

49.8

1*171

702

59.9

1*307

348

26.6

976

671

68.8

NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N D E R 18 YEA R S . .
16 TO 34 YEA R S ....................
35 YEARS AND O V E R .................

2*077
161
1*917

822
116
705

39.6
72.4
36.8

483
92
391

276
58
217

57.1
63.3
55.6

1*133
2
1*130

244
2
242

21.6
P >
21.4

461
66
396

302
55
246

65.3
P >
62.2

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 YEARS,
TOTAL ..............................
16 TO 34 YEARS ....................
35 YEA R S AND O V E R ..................

1*377
703
674

899
464
436

65.3
66.0
64.7

688
390
298

426
240
185

61.9
61.6
62.3

174
47
127

104
23
81

59.6
(’)
63.6

515
265
249

370
200
170

71.8
75.4
68.1

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17,
NO N E YOUNGER, TOT A L ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 Y E A R S AND O V E R ...............

893
296
597

634
232
401

71.0
78.5
67.3

397
137
260

277
106
172

69.9
77.1
66.1

141
25
116

84
13
72

59.9
(1 )
61.6

355
134
221

272
114
158

76.6
84.8
71.6

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 6
Y E ARS ............................
16 TO 34 YEARS .................
35 Y E ARS AND O V E R ...............

484
407
77

266
231
34

54.9
56.8
44.6

291
253
38

148
135
14

51.0
53.2
P )

34
23
11

19
10
9

P )
P )
P )

160
131
28

98
86
11

BLACK

61.2
65.8
(1 )

HISPAN IC ORIGIN
1*016

450

44.3

369

148

39.9

283

63

22.3

363

239

65.8

NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 18 YEA R S . .
16 TO 34 YEARS ....................
35 YEARS AND O V E R .................

514
61
453

196
44
152

38.1
P )
33.5

127
34
93

57
23
34

44.7
P )
36.7

233
1
232

42
1
41

18.2
17.7

154
26
128

97
20
77

63.1
P )
59.9

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOTAL ..............................
16 TO 34 YEARS ....................
35 Y E ARS AND O V E R ..................

502
279
223

254
135
118

50.6
48.6
53.1

243
158
85

91
54
37

37.5
34.3
43.3

50
15
35

21
6
15

P )
P )
P )

209
106
103

142
75
67

67.9
70.9
64.8

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17,
NONE YOUNGER, TOTAL ..........
16 TO 34 YEARS ..................
35 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

283
101
182

167
62
105

59.3
62.1
57.7

104
40
63

52
19
32

49.7
P )
<1 )

37
6
31

17
3
14

P )

P )
P )

142
55
87

99
40
58

69.4
P )
66.9

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER 6
YEARS ............................
16 TO 34 YEA R S ..................
35 YEARS AND O V E R ...............

219
178
41

86
73
13

39.4
**1.0
P >

139
117
22

39
35
4

28.4
29.8
P )

13
9
4

4
3
1

P )
P )
P )

67
51
15

43
35
8

P )
P )
P )

T O T A L ......................................

' Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.




18

(R)

Table B-7. Labor force participation rates of married women, husband present, 16 years ©id and
over by 1980 income of husband, age, and presence and age of own children, March 1981
(Participation rate)
AND AGE OF OWN C H I L D R E N

$3,000

$3,000
TO
$9,999

$5,000
TO
$6,999

$7,000
TO
$9,999

under

TOTAL

INCOME OF HU S B A N D
$10,000 $ 1 3,000 $ 1 5,000 $ 2 0,000 $25,000 $ 3 5,000 $ 5 0,000
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
AND
TO
$12,999 $19,999 $ 1 9,999 $2 9 , 9 9 9 $ 3 9,999 $ 9 9,999
OVER

A LL PERSONS

TOTAL, 16 YEARS AND
OVER. . . . . . . .

51,0

96.2

33.8

36.8

99.5

53.9

57.9

59.6

57.6

53.9

96,9

39.9

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18
YEARS, T O T A L .............

96.3

91.2

28.9

30.9

37.8

98.1

53.3

58.3

57.7

53.7

95.0

33.7

16 TO 3<* YEARS,
TOTAL 1 / ...............
16 TO 19 YEA R S 1/. . .
20 TO 29 YEA R S . . . .
25 TO 39 Y E A R S . . . .
35 YEARS AND OVER. . . .
95 Y E ARS AND OVER. . .

83.1
58.3
83.1
86.5
37.7
39.6

72.8
(2)
78.5
78.7
33.8
30.5

76.1
(2)
(2)
<2 >
29.6
23.3

73.9
(2 )
80,6
75.6
29.5
22.9

80.8
(2)
89.8
82.3
29.5
27.1

85.2
(2)
85.6
89.8
36.9
33.9

83.7
(2)
81.7
87.5
92.3
38.9

87.5
(2 )
89.5
90.8
96.8
99.0

85.9
(2)
83.6
87.0
99.0
95.7

86.6
(2)
79.0
89.9
97.7
99.9

77.7
(2)
(2)
76.3
91,6
37.1

(?)
(2)
(2)
(2 >
31.0
29.1

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N U N DER
18 YEARS, TOTAL . . . .

55.7

53.5

99.9

50.0

55.9

59.8

61.6

60.6

57.5

53.3

98.9

39.9

16 TO 39 YEARS,
T O TAL 1/. . . . . .
.
16 TO 19 Y E ARS 1/. . .
20 TO 29 Y E ARS . . . .
25 TO 39 Y E ARS . . . .
35 Y E ARS AND OVER. . . .
95 YEARS AND OVER. . .

53.2
32.7
96.1
55.5
58.9
52.8

50.7
(2)
(2)
57.7
56.6
50.5

50.5
(2)
(2)
53.9
98.1
(2)

97.0
(2)
(2)
53.3
59,6
59.1

52.9
(2 )
98,3
56.8
59,8
59.1

57.0
(2 )
53.1
59.9
69.3
58.6

60.5
(2 )
99.8
69,5
63.3
56,8

58.7
(2)
97.7
61.7
63.9
59.5

59.0
(2)
92.7
56.0
61.2
53.8

99.9
(2)
(2)
96,2
59.5
52.9

93.5
(2)
(2 )
99.1
50.6
97,3

31.9
(2)
(2)
(2 >
36.2
39.1

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO
17 YEARS, NONE
YOUNGER, TOTAL. . . .

62.5

59.8

53.2

57.9

69,9

67.7

66.7

68.2

65.2

62.2

• 53,9

39.9

16 TO 39 YEARS,
TOTAL 1 / ............
16 TO 19 YEARS 1/. .
20 TO 29 YEA R S . . .
25 TO 39 YEA R S . . .
35 YEARS AND OVER. . .
95 YEARS AND OVER. .

67.7
(2)
(2)
67.9
60.8
53.0

tTl
>
(2)
(2 )
<2 )
58.1
52.3

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
50.9
(2 )

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
56.1
53.9

73^7
(2 )
(2 >
72.9
60.9
53.6

72.2
( 2)
(2)
72.3
65.7
58.9

72,3
(2)
(2)
73.3
69.9
56.3

73.6
(2)
(2 >
73.8
65.9
59.1

69,5
(2)
(2)
69.9
63.7
53.9

61.1
(2)
(2)
61.6
62.9
53.2

51.9
(2 )
.
(2)
(2)
53.7
98.3

(?)
(2)
(?)
(2 >
39.8
39.8

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 19
TO 17, NONE
Y O UNGER . . . . . .

63.3

58.6

(2)

63.7

69.2

68.1

66.5

69.9

69.9

62.1

58.0

95.2

16 TO 39 YEARS,
TOT A L 1/. . . .
16 TO 19
YEA R S 1/. . . .
20 TO 29 YEARS . .
25 TO 39 YEARS . .
35 YEARS AND OVER. .
95 YEARS AND
O V E R .............
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 6
TO 13, NONE
YO U N G E R .............
16 TO 39 YEARS,
TOTAL 1/. . . .
16 TO 19
YEA R S 1/. . . .
20 TO 29 Y E ARS . .
25 TO 39 Y E ARS . .
35 YEARS AND OVER. .
95 Y E A R S AND
O V E R .............

<2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

( 2>

(2)

(2)

(?)

(?)

(2)
(2 )
78.0
62.8

(2)
(2)
(2)
58.8

(2)
(2)
(2)
<2)

(2)
(2)
(2)
62.2

(2)
(2)
(2)
62.9

(2)
(2)
<2 >
67.9

(?)
(2)
(2)
69.9

( 2)
(2)
( 2>
69.6

(?)
(2)
(2>
69.9

(?)
(2)
(2)
62.1

(?)
(2)
(2)
57.2

(?)
(2)
(2)
99.7

55.9

(2)

(2)

<2 )

56,8

59.6

(?)

62.7

56.7

53.8

98.9

(2)

62.1

60.9

53.5

59.2

69,5

67.9

66.8

67.5

65.5

62.2

51.2

36.1

.
.
.
.
.
.

67.9

(2)

(2)

(2 )

72.9

72.1

71.0

73.5

69.5

61.1

(2)

(2)

(2J
(2)
67.9
59.9

(2)
(2)
<2)
57.7

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2 )

("2)
(2)
< 2>
50.5

(2)
(2)
71.8
58.9

(2)
(2)
72.2
63.9

(?)
(2 )
71.5
69.0

(2)
(2 )
73.8
63.3

(?)
(2 )
69.9
63.2

(?)
(2)
61.7
62.6

(2)
(2)
(2)
51.7

(2)
(2)
(.2)
36.6

99.0

(?)

(?)

(2)

(2)

(J )

(2)

52.2

99.6

52.3

(2 )

(2)

97.8

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N
UND E R 6 Y E ARS . . . .
16 TO 39 YEARS,
TOTAL 1/. . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS 1/.
20 TO 29 Y E ARS . .
25 TO 39 Y E ARS . .
35 YEARS AND OVER. .
95 YEARS AND OVER.

75.9

96.5

95.2

93.5

98.1

53.0

57.9

53.2

97.7

39.3

37.8

25.7

98.3
(2)
95.3
50.0
99,9
(2)

96.1
(2)
(2)
53.1
(2)
(2)

97.1
(2)
(2)
(2)
( 2)
< 2>

93,5
(2 )
(2)
99,5
(2)
(2)

97.2
(2)
96.0
99.7
( 2)
( 2)

52,6
(2 )
52.9
53.2
56.8
(2 )

57.3
(2)
99.3
61.2
(2)
(2)

53.7
(2)
97.0
56.5
99.0
( 2)

98.0
(2 )
91.2
99.8
96.3
(2)

38.5
(?)
(2 )
39.9
92.3
(2 )

39.9
(2)
(2 )
90.7
(2 )
(2 )

(?)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2 >

1May include wives 14 and 15 years old.




2Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.

19

Table B-8. Work experience in 1980 of married women, husband present, 16 years o!d and over by
presence and age of own children, and race, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
ITEM
T O TAL
W I VES

_________________ WO R K E X P E R I E N C E OF WIFE D U R I N G YEAR_____________________________
W I VES WITH WORK
PE R C E N T D I S T R I B U T I O N OF W I V E S WI T H WO R K E X P E R I E N C E
E X P E R I E N C E _____________________ _______________________________
FULL TIME 1/
WITH NO
PART TIME 2/
PE R C E N T
50 TO
27 TO
WORK
1 TO
27
1 TO
OF P O P ­ TOTAL
EXPERI­ n u m b e r
TOTAL
52
49
26
WEEKS
TOT A L
26
UL A T I O N
WEEKS
WEEKS
WEEKS
ENCE
OR
WEEKS
MORE

A LL PERSONS
49,8 8 3

21,194

28,689

57.5

100.0

67.2

44.1

12.5

10.6

32.8

21.3

11.4

24,666
4 , 223
5 , 683
14,761

11,960
378
1,770
9,812

12,706
3,845
3,913
4,949

51.5
91.0
68.9
33.5

100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

73.1
82.8
74.8
64.4

52.5
57,1
55.6
46,4

12.3
16.5
11.2
10.0

8.3
9.1
7,9
8.0

26.9
17.2
25,2
35,6

19.2
10.4
19.0
26.2

7.7
6.8
6.3
9,5

2 5 ,217

9,234

15,983

63.4

100,0

62.6

37.4

12.7

12.5

37,4

23.0

14,4

13,492

4,316

9,176

68.0

100,0

63.2

42.5

11.3

9.4

36,8

25.4

11.4

11,725

4,918

6,807

58.1

100.0

61.8

30,5

14.6

16.7

38,2

19.8

18.5

4,351

1,737

2,614

60.1

100.0

62.4

37,8

12.1

12.6

37.6

22.4

15.2

7,3 7 4

3,181

4,192

56.9

100,0

61.4

25.9

16.1

19.3

38.6

18.1

20.5

45,351

19,503

25,849

57.0

100.0

66.3

43.3

12.4

10.6

33.7

21.9

11.9

22,811
3,911
5,180
13,719

11,128
318
1,631
9,179

11,683
3,593
3,549
4,540

51.2
91.9
68.5
33.1

100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0

73.2
82.8
74.4
64.6

52.6
57,4
55.3
46.8

12.3
16.4
11.2
9.9

8.3
9.1
7.9
7.9

26.8
17.2
25.6
35.4

19.1
10.4
19.2
25.8

7.8
6.8
6.4
9.6

22,541

8,375

14,166

62.8

100.0

60.5

35,6

12.5

12.5

39.5

24.2

15.3

12,136

3,915

8,221

67.7

100.0

61.4

40.9

11.1

9.4

38.6

26.4

12.2

10,405

4,460

5,945

57.1

100,0

59.4

-28.2

14.4

16.8

40.6

21.1

19.5

3,833

1,595

2,238

58.4

100.0

59.0

34,6

11.6

12.7

41.0

24.3

16.7

6 , 572

2,865

3,707

56.4

100,0

59.6

24.4

16.0

19.2

40.4

19.2

21.2

.

3,379

1,248

2,131

63.1

100,0

74.9

51.2

13.3

10.5

25.1

17.5

7.6

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOTAL .......................
HUS B A N D UNDER 35 YEA R S ..........
HUS B A N D 35 TO 54 YEARS ..........
H U S B A N D 55 YEA R S AND OVER. . . .

1,455
200
396
859

666
29
105
533

789
171
291
327

54.2
85.6
73.5
38.0

100.0
100,0
100,0
100.0

69.2
79.4
76.6
57.2

49.1
54.8
57.3
38.9

12.3
16.8
11.5
10.6

7.8
7.9
7.7
7.8

30,8
20.6
23,4
42.8

23.3
10.3
18.8
34.1

7.5
10.3
4.6
8.7

1,924

582

1,342

69.8

100,0

78.3

52,4

13.8

12.0

21.7

14.0

7.7

1,025

310

715

69.8

100,0

79.3

57.6

13.2

8.5

20.7

16.4

4.3

899

272

627

69.8

100.0

77.0

46.5

14.5

16.1

23.0

11.4

11.6

370

90

281

75.8

100,0

83.5

56.0

15.6

11.9

16.5

10.2

6.3

529

182

347

65.6

100.0

71.8

38,7

13.6

19.5

28.2

12.3

15.9

T O T A L ..............................
NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N D E R 18 YEARS,
T O TAL . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HU S B A N D UND E R 35 YEARS ..........
HU S B A N D 35 TO 54 YEA R S . . . . .
HU S B A N D 55 Y E ARS AND OVER. . . .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOTAL. ......................... .
WITH O W N C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17 YEARS
ONLY. . . . . . .
............
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 6 YEARS,
T O T A L ............................
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N 3 TO 5
YEARS, NONE UND E R 3 YEA R S .
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
3 Y E A R S ......................

WHITE
T O T A L ..............................
NO OWN C H I L D R E N U N D E R 18 YEARS,
TOT A L . . . .......................
H U S B A N D U N DER 35 YEA R S ..........
H U S B A N D 35 TO 54 YEA R S ..........
H U S B A N D 55 YEA R S AND OVER. . . .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 18 YEARS,
TOTAL. . . .......................
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17 YEARS
O N L Y .........................
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 6 YEARS,
TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . .
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N 3 TO 5
YEARS, NONE U N D E R 3 YEA R S .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
3 YEA R S . . ..................
BLACK
T O T A L ......................... ..

WITH OWN CHIL D R E N UNDER 18 YEARS,
T O T A L ..............................
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N 6 TO 17 YEARS
O N L Y ..............................
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R 6 YEARS,
TOT A L ............................
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N 3 TO 5
YEARS, NONE U N DER 3 YEARS .
WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
3 YEARS .......................

1Usually worked 35 hours or more per week during a majority of weeks worked.




1
Usually worked less than 35 hours per week during a majority of weeks worked.

20

Table B-9. Work experience in 1980 of married women, husband present, by work experience of husband
in 1980; presence and age of own children and race, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
WORK E X P E R I E N C E OF H U S B A N D AND
P R E S E N C E AND AGE OF OWN C H I L D R E N

TOT A L
WIVES

W DRK E X P E R I E N C E OF WIFE D U R I N G YEAR
P E R C E N T D I S T R I B U T I O N OF W I V E S WITH WO R K E X P E R I E N C E
W I V E S W TH WORK
EXPER ENCE
PART TIME 2/
FU L L TIME 1/
WITH NO
1 TO
27 TO
27
50 TO
1 TO
PERCENT
WORK
WEEKS
26
26
49
TOTAL
TOT A L
52
OF p o p ­ TOTAL
E X P E R I ­ NUMBER
WEEKS
WEEKS
OR
WEEKS
WEEKS
ulation
ENCE
MORE

A L L W IV E S
.

4 9 ,883

21,194

28,689

57.5

100.0

67.2

44,1

12.5

10.6

32,8

21.3

11.4

HU S B A N D W O R K E D D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 W E EKS ....................
F U L L - T I M E 1/ ....................
P A R T - T I M E 2/ ....................
1 TO 49 WEEKS, T O T A L .......... ..
27 TO 49 WEE K S . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. , . .
1 TO 26 W E E K S ....................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
HU S B A N D DID NOT WOR K D U R I N G YEAR .

4 0 ,810
32,372
31,322
1,049
8,438
5 , 606
3,166
2,832
1,237
8,454

14,504
11,254
10,760
494
3,250
2,020
1,054
1,230
410
6,473

26,306
2 1 ,118
20,562
556
5,188
3,586
2,112
1,602
827
1,981

64.5
65.2
65.6
53.0
61.5
64.0
66.7
56.6
66.9
23.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

67.2
66.2
66.5
56.0
71.2
70.5
71.8
72.7
73.3
67.4

44.2
45.7
45.8
41.6
38.2
37.3
37.2
40.2
40.1
45.1

12.5
11.3
11.4
8.8
17.4
19.1
18.9
13.6
14.2
11.8

10.5
9.2
9.3
5.6
15.6
14.1
15,8
18.9
19.0
10.5

32,8
33,8
33.5
44,0
28.8
29.5
28,2
27,3
26.7
32.6

21.4
22.7
22.5
32.6
15.8
16.5
14.4
14.4
13.3
22.5

11.4
11.0
11.0
11.4
13.0
13.0
13.7
12.9
13.5
10.1

2 4 ,666

11,960

12,706

51.5

100,0

73.1

52.5

12.3

8.3

26,9

19.2

7.7

16,989
13,095
12,347
748
3,894
2,346
1,000
1,548
422
7,525

5,945
4,400
4,017
383
1,545
825
246
720
107
5,977

11,044
8,695
8,330
365
2,349
1,522
754
827
315
1,547

65.0
66.4
67.5
48.8
60.3
64.9
75.4
53.4
74.7
20.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0

74.1
73.8
74.6
55.7
75.3
75.7
78.8
74.7
76.6
65.7

53,7
55.9
56.5
42.6
45.7
45.2
45.7
46.6
51.2
45.1

12.4
11.1
11.2
9.4
17.0
19.6
20.4
12.1
11.4
10.9

8.0
6.7
6.9
3.7
12.7
10.9
12.7
16.0
14.0
9.7

25,9
26.2
25,4
44.3
24,7
24,3
21.2
25.3
23.4
34.3

18.5
19.5
18.8
35.4
14.8
14,8
12.1
14.7
11.7
24.5

7.4
6.7
6.6
8.8
9.9
9.5
9.1
10,6
11.7
9.7

2 5 ,217

9,234

15,983

63.4

100.0

62.6

37.4

12.7

12.5

37,4

23.0

14.4

23,821
19,276
18,975
301
4,544
3,260
2,166
1,285
815
929

8,559
6,854
6,743
111
1,705
1,195
808
510
303
495

15,262
12,423
12,232
191
2,839
2,064
1,358
775
512
434

64.1
64.4
64.5
63.3
62.5
63.3
62.7
60.3
62.8
46.7

100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

62.2
60.9
61.0
56.5
67.8
66.7
68.0
70.6
71.2
73.4

37.3
38,5
38,5
39,6
32.0
31,4
32,4
33.4
33,3
45,0

12.6
11.4
11.5
7.8
17.8
18.8
18.0
15.1
15.9
15.0

12.3
11.0
11.0
9.2
18.0
16.5
17.5
22.1
22.0
13.3

37.8
39,1
39.0
43.5
32,2
33.3
32,0
29,4
28,8
26,6

23.4
25.0
24.9
27.2
16.7
17.7
15.7
14.0
14.3
15.1

14.4
14.1
14.1
16.3
15.6
15.6
16.3
15.4
14.5
11.6

TOTAL,

16 YEA R S AND OVER 3/.

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
18 YEARS, T O T A L 3 / ..........
HU S B A N D W O R K E D D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . .
..........
F U L L - T I M E 1/ ....................
P A R T - T I M E 2/ ....................
1 TO 49 WEEKS, T O TAL .............
27 TO 49 WEEKS ..................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 WEEKS. . . .............
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
H U SBAND DID NOT WORK D U R I N G YEAR .
WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UND E R
18 YEARS, T O TAL 3 / ..........
H U S BAND W O RKED D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ . . . . . . . .
.
P A R T - T I M E 2/ ....................
1 TO 49 WEEKS, T O TAL .............
27 TO 49 WEEKS . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 W E E K S ....................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
H U SBAND DID NOT WORK DURI N G YEAR .
WHITE
.

45,351

19,503

25,8 4 9

57.0

100.0

66.3

43.3

12.4

10.6

33.7

21.9

11.9

H U SBAND W O RKED D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ ....................
P A R T - T I M E 2/ ....................
1 TO 49 WEEKS, T O TAL . . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEE K S . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 W E E K S ....................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
HU S B A N D DID NOT WORK D U R I N G YEAR .

TOTAL,

16 YEA R S AND OVER 3/.

37,271
2 9 ,743
2 8 ,799
944
7,528
5,004
2,780
2,524
1,089
7,586

13,418
10,461
10,003
459
2,956
1,839
949
1,117
366
5,915

23,8 5 3
19,281
18,796
485
4,572
3,165
1,832
1,407
723
1,671

64.0
64.8
65.3
51.4
60.7
63.2
65.9
55.7
66.4
22.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

66.1
65.0
65.3
55.4
70.4
69.4
70.6
72.6
72.6
68.7

43.3
44.7
44,7
41.4
37.6
36.6
36,1
40.1
39,4
45,6

12.3
11.2
11.3
9.1
17.1
18.6
18.5
13.7
14.1
12.5

10.4
9.2
9.3
4.9
15.6
14.2
15.9
18,9
19.1
10.7

33.9
35.0
34.7
44.6
29.6
30,6
29.4
27,4
27,4
31,3

22.0
23.5
23.2
33.6
16.0
16.9
14.4
14.1
13.3
21.2

11.9
11.5
11.5
11.0
13.6
13.8
15.0
13.3
14.1
10.0

. . . .

22,811

11,128

11,683

51.2

100.0

73.2

52.6

12.3

8.3

26.8

19.1

7.8

HU S B A N D W O R K E D D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ . . . .............
P A R T - T I M E 2/ ....................
1 TO 49 WEEKS, TOT A L .............
27 TO 49 WEEKS .................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 WEEKS. . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
HU S B A N D DID NOT WORK D U R I N G YE A R .

15,812
12,231
11,537
695
3,581
2,157
907
1,424
384
6,872

5,553
4,115
3,752
363
1,438
764
219
673
100
5,548

10,260
8,116
7,785
332
2,143
1,393
688
751
284
1,323

64.9
66.4
67.5
47.7
59.8
64.6
75.9
52.7
74.0
19.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0

73.8
73.5
74.2
55.7
75.3
75.0
78.3
75.8
78.3
67.8

53.6
55.6
56.2
43.0
46.1
45,5
46.0
47.3
51.8
46.1

12.2
11.1
11.2
9.2
16.3
18.5
19.2
12,4
11.1
11.9

8.0
6.7
6.8
3.5
12.8
11.0
13.1
16.2
15.3
9.7

26.2
26.5
25.8
44.3
24.7
25.0
21,7
24,2
21.7
32.2

18.7
19.8
19.1
34.6
14.6
14.9
11.7
13.9
10.3
22.7

7.5
6.8
6.7
9.7
10.2
10.1
10.0
10.3
11.5
9.6

WITH OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
18 YEARS, TOT A L 3/. . . . .

22,541

8,375

14,166

62.8

100.0

60.5

35,6

12.5

12.5

39.5

24.2

15.3

HU S B A N D WORKED D U RING YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1 / ...............
P A R T - T I M E 2/ . . ............. ..
1 TO 49 WEEKS, TOT A L .............
27 TO 49 WEEKS .................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 T'O 26 W E E K S ....................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
H U SBAND DID NOT WORK DURI N G YEAR .

2 1 ,459
17,512
17,262
250
3,9 4 7
2,847
1,874
1,100
705
715

7,865
6,347
6,251
96
1,518
1,075
730
444
266
367

13,593
11,165
11,011
154
2,428
1,772
1,144
656
439
348

63.3
63.8
63.8
61.6
61.5
62.2
61.0
59.7
62.2
48.7

100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.2
58.9
59.0
54.6
66.0
65.0
65.9
68.9
69.0
72.4

35.5
36,7
36,7
38.1
30.2
29,5
30.2
31.8
31.4
43,4

12.4
11.3
11.3
8,8
17.7
18.7
18.1
15.1
16.0
14.6

12.2
11.0
11.0
7.8
18.1
16.7
17.6
21.9
21.5
14.3

39,8
41.1
41.0
45,4
34.0
35,0
34.1
31.1
31,0
27,6

24.6
26.1
26.1
31.6
17.3
18.4
16.1
14.3
15.3
15.9

1 5 03
14.9
15.0
13.8
16.7<»
16.7
18.0
16.8
15.7
11.7

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
18 YEARS, TOT A L 3/.

See footnotes at end of table.




21

Table B-9. Continued-Work experience in 1980 of married women, husband present, by work experience
©f husband in 1980; presence and age of own children and race, March 1981
(Numbers in thousands)
WORK E X P E R I E N C E OF HUS B A N D AND
P R E S E N C E AND AGE OF OWN CHIL D R E N

TOTAL
WIVES

WORK EX P E R I E N C E OF WI F E D U R I N G YEAR
WIVES WITH WORK
PE R C E N T D I S T R I B U T I O N OF W I V E S WITH WORK E X P E R I E N C E
EXPERIENCE
WITH NO
FU L L TIM E 1/
PART TIME 2/
PE R C E N T
WORK
50 TO
27 TO
1 TO
27
1 TO
OF POPTOTAL
52
26
EXP E R I - NUMBER
TOTAL
49
WEEKS
TOTAL
26
WEEKS
WEEKS
WEEKS
UL A T I O N
OR
ENCE
WEEKS
MORE

BLACK
.

3,379

1,248

2,131

63.1

100.0

74.9

51.2

13.3

10.5

25.1

17.5

7.6

HU S B A N D W O RKED D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ . . . . . . . .
.
P A R T - T I M E 2/ . . . . . . . .
.
1 TO 49 WEEKS, TOT A L . . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEEKS . . . . . . . .
WIT H U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 WEEKS. . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
H U S B A N D DID NOT WO R K D U R I N G YEA R .

2,621
1,929
1,852
77
692
456
290
236
121
692

792
575
545
30
217
132
76
84
35
434

1,829
1,354
1,307
47
476
324
214
152
86
258

69.8
70.2
70.6
60.7
68.7
71.0
73.9
64.3
71.2
37.3

100,0
100,0
100,0
<6 >
100.0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0

77.9
79.0
79.7
(5 )
74.7
77.2
77.1
69.5
78.1
57.0

53,3
56,7
57,1
(5 )
43,6
44,3
44,9
42,0
44,9
40.3

14.1
12.5
12.5
(5)
18.7
21.8
19.8
12.0
15.2
7.1

10.5
9.8
10.0
(5 )
12.5
11.0
12.4
15.5
17,9
9.6

22,1
21,0
20,3
(5 )
25,3
22,8
22,9
30,5
21.9
43.0

15.6
15.1
14.5
<5)
17.0
15.8
17.9
19.4
13.9
31.7

6.6
5.9
5,7
(5)
8.3
7.0
5.0
11.1
8.0
11.3

. . . .

1,455

666

789

54.2

100,0

69.2

49,1

12.3

7.8

30,8

23.3

7.5

H U S B A N D W O R K E D D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 WEE K S . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ . . . . . . . .
.
P A R T - T I M E 2/ . . . . . . . .
.
1 TO 49 WEEKS, TOT A L . . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEE K S . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 47. . . .
1 TO 26 W E E K S ....................
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
H U S B A N D DID NOT WO R K D U R I N G YEAR .

898
655
614
41
243
146
71
97
31
544

313
226
207
19
87
48
22
39
4
351

585
429
406
23
156
98
48
58
27
193

65.2
65.5
66.2
(5 3
64.3
67.2
t5 >
60.1
C 6>
35.5

100,0
100,0
100,0
<6 )
100.0
100,0
<s >
(«■>
(5)
100.0

75.2
76.4
78.1
(= )
71.8
81.3
{*•>
<6 )
(5)
51,5

52.8
57.0
58,6
(5 )
41,4
43,8
(5)
(5 )
(5 >
38,4

14.8
11.1
10.7
(5)
25.0
33.3
(5)
!= )
(5)
4.2

7.5
8.3
8.8
(5)
5.3
4.3
(5)
(5)
(5 )
9.0

24,8
23,6
21,9
(5)
28,2
18,7
(5)
(5)
(5)
48,5

18.8
18.1
16.1

6.1
5,6
5.9
(5)
7.5
2.8
(5)
(5)
(5)
11.1

TOTAL,

16 Y E ARS AND OVE R 3/.

NO OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
18 YEARS, T O T A L 3/.

WI T H OWN C H I L D R E N UNDER
18 YEARS, T O T A L 3 / ..........
H U S B A N D W O R K E D D U R I N G YEAR, TOTAL.
50 TO 52 W E EKS . . . . . . . . .
F U L L - T I M E 1/ . . . . . . . .
.
P A R T - T I M E 2/ . . . . . . . .
.
1 TO 49 WEEKS, T O T A L . . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEE K S . . . . . . . .
WI T H U N E M P L O Y M E N T 4/. . . .
1 TO 26 WEEKS. . . . . . . . .
WITH U N E M P L O Y M E N T 47. . . .
H U S B A N D DID NOT WO R K D U R I N G YEAR .

1,924

582

1,342

69.8

100,0

78.3

52,4

13,8

12.0

21,7

14.0

7.7

1,723
1,273
1,238
35
449
310
219
139
90
148

479
349
338
11
130
84
53
46
31
83

1,244
925
901
24
319
226
166
94
59
65

72.2
72.6
72.7
<5 )
71.1
72.8
75.6
67.2
65.6
43.8

100,0
100,0
100,0
<5 >
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
(5)
(5)

79.1
80.2
80.4
(5)
76.2
75.4
76,4
78,2
<5 )
<5 >

53,5
56,5
56,5
(5)
44,6
44,6
44,2
44,7
(5 )
(5)

13.8
13.2
13.4
(5 )
15,6
16.9
16.7
12.6
(5)
(5 )

11.9
10.5
10.6
(5)
15.9
13,9
15.5
20.8
(5)
(5)

20.9
19,8
19,6
(5 )
23,8
24.6
23.6
21.8
(5)

14.1
13.7
13.9
(5)
15.1
15,8
17.1
13.4
(5)
(5)

6,8
6.1
5,7
(5)
8.7
8.8
6.5
8.5
(5)
(5)

' Usually worked 35 hours or more per week during a majority of weeks worked.
2Usually worked less than 35 hours per week during a majority of weeks worked.
“Total includes wives whose husbands are in the Armed Forces living with their families.




(5)

20,8
15,8
<5 >
<5 )
!5 )
37.3

4Unemployment major reason for part-year work.
5 Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

22

(5)

Table B-10. Number of earners 16 years and over and relationship by family income in 1980; type of family and race, March 1981

(Numbers in thousands)

INCOME OF FAMILY
number

of

earners

AND R E L A T I O N S H I P

TOTAL

UNDER
$1,000

$2,000
TO
$2,999

$1,000
TO
$1,999

$3,000
TO
$4,999

$7,000
TO
$9,999

$5,000
TO
$6,999

$10,000
TO
$12,999

M E DIAN
$1 3 , 0 0 0 $ 1 5,000 $ 2 0,000 $ 2 5,000 $35,000 $50,000 FAMILY
TO
TO
INCOME
TO
TO
AND
TO
DOLS.)
OVER
$ 1 4,999 $ 1 9,999 $ 2 4,999 $ 3 4,999 $49,999

A LL FAM ILIES
TOTAL.

. . . . . . . . . . .

6 0 ,702

620

402

665

2,207

2,979

4,767

5,279

3,318

8 , 454

8,277

11,978

7,727

4,030 $21 003

49,316
5,903
13,900
11,621
1,707
573
22,446
19,742
2,285
419
7,067
5,815

350
198
130
39
67
25
19
11
1
8
1

140
38
73
55
13
5
25
22
2
1
3
3

198
92
76
62
9
5
29
28
2
1
1

925
491
280
201
66
13
150
129
11
10
4
1

1,717
835
580
417
125
39
279
241
20
19
22
13

3,199
1,231
1,193
910
236
47
703
620
58
25
72
43

3,900
1,019
1,587
1,224
289
75
1,171
1,031
98
41
122
86

2,594
456
976
764
160
52
1,044
933
88
23
118
94

6 , 933
688
2,351
1,952
288
111
3,454
3,064
326
65
440
364

7,206
352
2,263
1,988
207
68
3,909
3,530
307
73
681
582

11,025
279
2,451
2,192
173
86
6,401
5,649
666
86
1,894
1,574

7,275
131
1,113
1,023
50
41
3,756
3,292
419
44
2,275
1,912

3,855
93
825
796
24
6
1,504
1,193
288
24
1,433
1,141

1,095
157

-

-

-

"

“

3

9

1

26
3

23
13

17
7

60
16

77
22

274
46

334
29

274
17

1,969
244
891
726
165
835
792
43

35
29
5
3
2
1
1
“

7
4
3
1
2
-

25
12
11
11

74
16
46
40
6
12
11

135
51
61
42
20
23
16
7

216
40
122
93
29
54
51
3

211
38
125
107
18
48
44
4

122
18
54
39
15
50
50
“

292
17
156
126
30
118
109
9

279
9
126
105
21
144
140
4

301
7
110
99
11
185
174
11

183
4
40
35
5
139
137
3

89
31
25
6
59
56
3

17
7
15
16
13
23
23

743
790
577
066
822
785
928
(2)

9,416
2,216
4,612
3,620
992
2,589
2,269
320

235
163
63
51
12
9
6
3

256
147
99
88
11
10
8
1

442
262
161
142
20
18
15
3

1,208
695
451
357
94
62
50
12

1,127
417
603
489
114
107
79
28

1,352
259
838
658
180
254
220
34

1,168
111
787
650
137
270
239
31

601
53
364
293
71
184
166

1,230
58
654
496
159
517
472
45

792
23
316
222
93
454
397
57

652
15
207
140
67
430
385
45

269
13
43
19
24
213
184
29

85
25
15
10
60
47
14

10
4
10
10
11
18
18
18

233
494
350
117
586
673
712
270

53,041

483

247

416

1,560

2,213

3,835

4,485

2,8 7 9

7,480

7,474

10,998

7,154

3 , 817

21 956

4 4 ,878
5,452
12,724
10,775
1,466
483
20,290
17,808
2,128
354
6,412
5,284

307
172
116
35
61
21
18
11
1
7
1

115
29
60
48
7
5
24
21
2
1
2
2

167
70
69
57
7
5
28
26

766
402
229
167
55
8
131
112
9
10
3
1

1,439
724
475
357
92
26
222
190
19
13
18
11

2,792
1,151
1,003
795
178
30
582
519
51
12
55
36

3,500
969
1,407
1,108
243
56
1,017
901
82
34
107
78

2,328
438
876
696
138
42
920
821
81
18
95
71

6,260
658
2,153
1,796
258
99
3,064
2,719
292
53
385
317

6,612
346
2,138
1,886
191
61
3,543
3,206
273
64
585
501

10,176
276
2,341
2,093
165
84
5,848
5,140
631
77
1,711
1,438

6,759
128
1,076
988
48
41
3,460
3,017
402
40
2,096
1,758

3,656
91
779
749
24
6
1,434
1,125
285
23
1,352
1,070

23
10
19
20
14
17
26
25
29
22
36
36

2

7
*

17
2

18
11

16
7

53
15

66
18

237
36

317
21

268
14

57
11
35
32
3
11
11
*

100
42
42
29
13
16
11
5

161
34
85
64
21
42
39
3

161
36
93
78
15
32
28
4

99
16
45
31
14
38
38
“

254
17
133
106
27
104
98
6

233
7
102
87
15
124
119
4

273
7
100
89
11
166
156
10

158
4
36
31
5
118
116
3

80
31
25
6
49
46
3

18
9
16
17
14
24
24

782
374
706
258
664
302
396
(2 )

737
407
293
239
54
36
31
5

673
242
371
307
63
60
45
15

882
166
564
430
134
152
135
17

823
86
557
459
98
180
167
13

452
49
267
210
57
136
122
13

966
56
512
372
140
398
372
26

629
23
261
176
85
346
313
33

549
15
178
116
62
356
318
38

237
13
41
17
24
183
159
24

81

11
4
11
10
13
19
19
21

695
855
127
694
075
710
586
160

H U S B A N D - W I F E FAMILIES
T O T A L .................................
NO E A R N E R S .................... ..
ONE E A R N E R . . . . . . . . . .
HUS B A N D ONLY . . . . . . . .
wife o nly . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO e a r n e r s ...............
H U S B A N D AND WIFE . . . . . .
H U S B A N D AND OTHER R E L A T I V E .
HU S B A N D NOT AN EARNER. . . .
THREE EA R N E R S OR M O R E ..........
HU S B A N D AND WIFE .............
HU S B A N D AN EARNER,
NOT W I F E ............... .. .
h u s b a n d is n o n e a r n e r . . . .

-

23
10
19
20
13
16
25
25
28
21
36
36

263
187
368
472
612
148
684
466
462
142
152
147

37 734
27 951

O T H E R FAMILIES
Maintained by m e n 1
TOTAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NO E A R N E R S .......... ..
ONE EARNER, T O T A L ...............
HEAD O N L Y .................... ..
OTHER R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO e a r n e r s OR MORE, TOTAL . .
HEAD A n d OTH E R R E L A T IVE(S) .
HEAD IS N O N E A R N E R .......... ..

-

2
2
“

Maintained by w o m e n 1
T O T A L .................................
NO E A R N E R S .......................
ONE EARNER, T O T A L ...............
h e a d o n l y .......................
OTHER R E LATIVE, ONLY . . . .
TWO E A R N E R S OR MORE, TOTAL . .
HEAD A n d OTH E R R E L A T IVE(S) .
HEAD IS NONEAR N E R . . . . . .

W HITE
T O T A L ...........................
H U S B A N D - W I F E FAMILIES
T O T A L .................................
NO E A RNERS .......................
ONE E A RNE R ......................
H U SBAND ONLY .................
w i f e o n l y . . ..................
OTHER R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO E A R N E R S .................... ..
H U SBAND AND WIFE . . . . . .
H U SBAND AND OTHER R E L A T I V E .
HUSBAND NOT AN EARNER. . . .
THREE EA R N E R S OR MORE. . . . .
H U S BAND AND WIFE ............
H U S BAND AN EARNER,
NOT W I F E ....................
H U SBAND i s n o n e a r n e r . . . .

-

-

2
1
1

1,001
127

-

-

-

1

*

“

1,612
196
714
580
134
702
664
38

20
15
3
1
2
1
1
"

4
1
2
1
2
-

12
6
6
6
-

-

-

-

6,551
1,357
3,265
2,513
752
1,929
1,731
197

157
106
43
37
6
7
6
1

128
67
53
48
5
8
8
-

603
538
935
870
305
472
020
737
035
126
733
589

39 005
26 910

O T H E R FAMILIES
Maintained by m e n 1
TOTAL. . ............................
NO E A RNERS ......................
ONE EARNER, T O T A L .......... .. .
head o n l y . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO EA R N E R S OR MORE, TOTAL . .
HEAD AND O T HER RELATIVEtS) .
HEAD IS N O N E A R N E R .............
Maintained by w o m e n 1
T O T A L ............ ..
NO E A RNERS . . . . . . . . . .
ONE EARNER, TOTAL. . . . . . .
h e a d o n l y .................... ..
OTHER RELATIVE, ONLY . . . .
TWO e a r n e r s OR MORE, TOTAL . .
HEAD A n d OTHER R ELATIVE(S) .
HEAD IS N O N E A R N E R ............

237
126
100
87
13
10
9
1

See footnotes at end of table.




23

-

25
15
10
56
45
11

Table B-10. Continued—Number of earners 16 years old and over and relationship by family income in 1980; type of family
and race, March 1981
(Number thousands)
INCOME OF F A M I L Y
number

of

UNDER
$1,000

earners

AND R E L A T I O N S H I P

TOTAL

$3,000
TO
$4,999

$2,000
TO
$2,999

$1,000
TO
$1,999

$5,000
TO
$6,999

$7,000
TO
$9,999

MEDIAN
$ 1 3,000 $15,000 $ 2 0,000 $25 , 0 0 0 $35,000 $ 5 0,000 F A M I L Y
TO
TO
TO
INCOME
AND
TO
TO
(DOLS.)
$ 1 4,999 $ 1 9,999 $2 4 , 9 9 9 $ 3 4,999 $ 4 9,999
OVER

$10,000
TO
$12,999

BLA C K FA M ILIES
T O T A L ...........................

6,371

107

143

236

591

697

818

693

377

810

645

745

400

3,400
363
889
617
205
68
1,687
1,506
128
53
462
375

25
15
9
4
3
2
~

25
20
5
4
1

137
80
42
29
8
5
13
12
2
1
-

237
93
87
46
32
9
53
47
1
5
4
2

336
60
164
97
53
14
98
81
6
12
14
7

322
44
141
93
31
17
123
102
16
5
15
8

217
13
84
57
19
7
103
95
4
4
17
17

535
23
156
120
28
8
313
274
30
10
44
39

461
3
90
73
12
4
294
258
29
6
74
63

634
3
68
60
8

-

17
7
10
4
6
-

426
393
25
7
137
104

356
2
17
14
2
221
205
13
2
117
103

43
39
2
1
40
33

70
17

-

-

-

1

2

6
1

5
2

-

4

"

9
2

28
5

10
3

6
2

<2 )
<2 >

297
37
147
117
30
113
108
5

10
8
2
2
-

3
3
-

11
6
5
5
-

16
5
11
7
4
-

45
4
29
22
7
13
13

34
20
18
3
13
10
3

19

8

19
14
6
17
17
-

9
9

“

23
2
9
8
1
12
12
“

20

”

46
2
28
25
3
16
16
-

37

"

27
8
14
8
7
5
4
2

11
11
“

19
19
“

7
7
-

12 557
(2 )
11 042
11 409
<2 )
19 266
20 058
<2 >

2,673
819
1,250
1,023
227
604
490
113

73
51
20
14
5
2
2

123
79
43
37
6
1
1

200
133
59
52
7
8
6
2

438
274
138
102
36
26
19
7

432
165
222
172
50
46
33
12

437
88
248
205
44
100
83
17

325
23
221
-184
37
81
65
16

138
3
90
76
14
45
41
3

241
2
132
116
16
107
89
18

148
_
51
44
7
97
76
21

91

25

2

25
20
4
66
60
7

2
2
_
23
18
5

_
.

109 $12 589

H U S B A N D - W I F E FAMILIES
T O T A L .................................
NO E A R N E R S .......................
ONE E A RNER .......................
HU S B A N D ONLY ..................
w i f e o n l y ......................
OTHER R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO E A R N E R S .......................
H U S B A N D AND WIFE . . . . . .
HU S B A N D AND OTHER R E L A T I V E .
HU S B A N D NOT AN EARNER. . . .
THREE EA R N E R S OR MORE. . . . .
HU S B A N D AND WIFE . . . . . .
HU S B A N D AN EARNER,
NOT WIFE. ............... ..
HU S B A N D i s n o n e a r n e r . . . .

-

-

-

”

-

99
«
16
16

18
5
12
14
9
22
22
21
29
30

596
893
632
126
891
<2 )
375
768
060
<2
625
005

O T H E R FAMILIES
Maintained by m e n 1
T O T A L ................................
NO EA R N E R S . . . . . . . . . .
ONE EARNER, T O T A L ............ ..
head o nly . . . . . . . . . .
OTH E R R E L A T I V E ONLY. . . . .
TWO EA R N E R S OR MORE, TOTAL . .
HE A D AND O T H E R R E L A T I V E (S ) .
HEAD IS NONEA R N E R . . . . . .
Maintained by w o m e n ’
T O T A L ................................
NO EA R N E R S ......................
ONE EARNER, TOTAL. . ..........
HEAD ONLY. . . . . . . . . .
OTHER R E LATIVE, ONLY . . . .
TWO e a r n e r s OR m o r e , TOTAL . .
HEAD A n d OTH E R R ELATIvE(S) .
HEAD IS N O N E A R N E R .......... ..

1Includes only persons who are divorced, separated, widowed, or never married.

2 Median not shown where base is less than 75,000.

Table B-11. Families by presence and number of own children under 18, number and
relationship of earners in 1980, and family type, March 1981

(Numbers in thousands)

With children under 18
Number and relationship of earners by family type

No
children
under 18

Total

4 or
more

3

2

1

29,140
6,406
8,033
14,701

Tota
Q
Tw
tlarri

p

H

f

b

d

0
Tw
1
1

b d
b d
U^b^d

d wife
d th r( ) not wife
r r
*

. .
Famllleo mai 1
-

.

.

.

.

y

_

Tw
Fam
_

y

_

31,562
1,957
11,369
18,234

12,984
677
4,383
7,925

11,688
674
4,338
6,657

4,635
313
1,807
2,514

2,275
294
842
1,139

24,381
5,492
6,375
4,581
1,341
453
12,514
10,637
1,511
365

24,935
411
7,525
7,039
366
119
16,998
14,919
1,868
211

9,739
121
2,376
2,172
154
50
7,242
6,317
804
119

9,526
147
3,058
2,875
144
38
6,322
5,717
546
59

3,843
62
1,406
1,341
46
19
2,374
2,068
289
18

1,828
82
685
650
22
12
1,062
817
229
14

3,482
'728
1,246
1,508

5,935
1,488
3,366
1,081

2,839
519
1,740
580

1,949
518
1,132
299

728
246
353
129

419
204
141
173

1,278
186
412
679

692
58
478
155

407
37
267
103

193
9
148
36

64
5
48
11

28
8
16
4

11ncludes only families where householder Is a divorced, separated (married,
spouse absent), widowed, or never-married person.




24

2
2

7
3
8
8
7
14
14
12

435
881
624
865
865
704
890
870

Appendix C. R@
¥is@ tables for liareh 1980
d
Table C-1. Employment status of the population 16 years old and over by marital status,
sex, race, and Hispanic origin, Wiarch 1980

(Numbers in thousands)

Civilian labor force

Marital status, sex, race, and Hispanic origin

ALL P E R S O N S

I
I
Employed
Unemployed
I
I
Labor |
|Popula-|
| tion |
force |
1
| UnemI
I Total |partic-|
pationl Total | Full | Part | rotal | ployI
I
rate |
time_l/ |timej2/ |
| ment
I
I
I rate
I
I
1
i
i
1
1

Not
in
labor
force

|
| Armed
|Forces3/
|

Both sexes, total..

105,449|

63.2

98,314| 80,850|

17,464| 7,134|

6.8

61,505|

889

Men, total....................

79,903| 60,514|

76.6

56,4131

50,470|

5,9431 4,101|

6.8

18,500|

889

22,191| 15,5901
49,714| 39,647|
7,999| 5,2771
2,094| 1,629|
1,977|
552|
3 , 928| 3,097|

70.6 13,5401
9,837|
80.9 |38,038l 36,212|
66.5
4,835| 4,4211
79.0
1,494| 1,381|
27.9
530|
416|
79.4
2,624!
2,8111

13.1
4.1
8.4
8.2
4.0
9.2

6,486|
9,356|
2,658|
432|
1,423!
803|

115
711
63
33
2
28

87,939| 44,934|

51.1

18,273| 11,242|
49,6991 24,9001
19,9671
8,792|
3,2431
1,9281
921
48|
10,758|
2,421|
5,966| 4,443|

61.5
50.1
44.0
59.4
51.9
22.5
74.5

Never-married...............
Married, wife present......
Other ever married, total..
Married, wife present....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................
Women, total..................
Never-married............ .
Married, husband present...
Other ever married, total..
Married, husband absent..
Married, husband absent in Armed Forces....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................

141,9011 30,3811
10,087|
6,785|
23,590| 16,912|
8,225|
6,683|
1,737| 1,450|
411
321
2,328|
1,571|
4,160|
3,662|

3,703| 2,0491
1,8261 1,610|
414|
442|
1341
113|
221
113|
188|
286|
11,521| 3,0331
3,3011 1,156|
6,6781 1,311|
1,541|
567|
287|
191|
8|
71
757|
931
497|
283|

WHITE

Never-married...............
Married, wife present......
Other ever married, total..
Married, wife present....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................
Women, total......... ........
Never-married...............
Married, husband present...
Other ever married, total..
Married, husband absent..
Married, husband absent in Armed Forces....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................

Both sexes, total..

Never-married...............
Married, wife present......
Other ever married, total..
Married, wife present....
Widowed...................
Divorced............ .
Women, total..................
Never-married...............
Married, husband present...
Other ever married, total..
Married, husband absent..
Married, husband absent in Armed Forces....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................

Both sexes, total..

Never-married..............
Married, wife present......
Other ever married, total..
Married, wife present....
Widowed...................
Divorced..................
Women, total..................
Never-married............. .
Married, husband present...
Other ever married, total..
Married, husband absent..
Married, husband absent in Armed Forces....
Widowed.......... ........

-

63.6 187 ,1041 71,4611

15,6431 5,589|

6.0

52,9781

744

77.6 |50,580| 45,2981

5,2821 3,303|

6.1

15,555|

744

18,4741 13,3431
45,243| 36,197|
6,466| 4,342|
1,472|
1,209|
1,642|
448|
3,351|
2,6851

8,512|
72.6 111,790|
81.1 |34,785| 33,112|
67.7
3, 67 4|
4,0051
83.6
1,1251
1,047!
27.3
4 2 81
338|
80.7
2,289|
2,4521

3,2781 1,554|
1,674| 1,412|
331|
338|
78|
841
90|
201
2341
1631

11.6
3.9
7.8
7.0
4.4
8.7

76,2321 38,810|

50.9 13 6,5241 26,163!

14,689|
9,429|
45,181| 22,286|
16,362|
7,095|
2,076|
1,253|
721
341
9,296|
2,070|
4 , 990| 3,772|

64.2
8,647|
5,735|
49.3 121,176| 14,9851
43.4
6,701| 5,443|
60.4
947|
1,141|
211
291
(4)
22.3
1,997| 1,359|
75.6
3,563|
3 , 137|

10,3611 2,286|
2,912|
781|
6,191| 1,110|
394|
1,258!
194|
112|
71
51
638|
721
426|
210|

5, 03 4|
8,451|
2,070|
237|
1,193|
640|

97
594
53
26
2
26

5.9

37,423|

-

8.3
5.0
5.6
9.0
(4)
3.5
5.6

5,260|
22,895|
9,267|
823|
381
7,226|
1,2181

_
-

-

1
17,820| 10,472|

59.2

9,0701

7,600|

13.4

7,229|

119

8,0031

5,3601

68.0

4,640|

4,1071

533|

7201

13.4

2,523|

119

3,123|
3,495|
1,384|
558|
3081
519 j

1,875|
2,654|
831|
373|
971
361|

60.4
78.1
60.3
67.4
31.6
69.9

1,413|
2,494|
734|
326|
95|
312|

1 ,073|
2,375|
659|
296|
731
290!

339|
119|
75|
30|
221
22 f

463|
160|
971
461
2|
491

24.7
6.0
11.7
12.5
2.1
13.5

1,230|
74 6 1
5471
180|
211|
156|

9,817|

5,1121

52.1

4,430|

3,4931

936|

682|

13.3

4,706|

-

3,1131
3,4131
3,291|
1,092|
16|
1,3191
880|

1,5381
2,014|
1,5601
634|
11|
320|
605|

49.4
59.0
47.4
58.0

1,188|
1,848!
1,3931
556|
9|
301|
535|

894|
1,463|
1,1361
471|
9|
189|
477|

295|
385|
257|
86|

349|
166|
167|

2i
19
70|

6.0
11.6

1,576|
1,399|
1 ,731|
458|
5|
998|
275|

_

7|

22.7
8.2
10.7
12.2

(4)

24.3
68.8

1,4701 1 ,402|

-

|

112|
591

(4)

17
96
6
4
2

-

-

-

1
8,431|

5,348|

63.7

4,857|

4,1461

711|

491|

9.2

3,045|

37

4,080|

3,2591

80.6

2,988|

2,688|

300|

271|

8.3

784|

37

1,324|
2,3551
402|
191|
601
151|

922|
2,034|
30 3 1
163|
231
117|

70.0
87.5
75.7
85.3
(4)
78.3

805|
1,901|
2821
156|
191
106|

613|
1,8181
257|
141|
171
991

193|
82|
25|
15|
21
7|

117|
133|
221

12.6
6.5
7.1
4.2
(4)
9.5

396|
29 1 1
971
281
37 |
331

6
30
1
1

4,351|

2,089|

48.0

1,869|

1,458|

412|

1,098|
2,345|
908|
307|
71
291|
310|

591|
1,082|
416|
139|
31
76|
201|

53.9
46.1
45.8
45.3

______ i
1Full-time workers are persons who during the survey week worked 35 hours
or more and those who usually work full time but worked 1 to 34 hours.
2Part-time workers are persons who usually work 1 to 34 hours and worked 1
to 34 hours during the survey week. Persons with a job but not at work are
classified by whether they usually work full or part time.
3Includes only male members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their
families on post.



_
-

92,6931

H I S P A N I C ORIGIN

Men, total....................

-

7,031|
24,7991
11,175|
1,3151
441
8,337|
1,523l

70,1821 53,883|

BLACK

Men, total.................. .

43,0051

1

Both sexes, total..
Men, total....................

6.7
10.3
5.3
6.4
9.9
(4)
3.8
6.4

25

(4)

26.3
64.7

5 1 41
983|
372|
115|

H

741
184|

369|
770|
319|
961
1|
561
166|

145|
213|
531
191
11
17|
181

7|

41
111
I
220|
771

99|

441
241
21
31
171

10.5

2,262|

13.0
9.1
10.6
17.4

507|
1 ,263|
492|
168|

(4)

3.6
8.5

4|

21 4 1
10 9 1
1

-

-

i _ _L
X ______L
Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: The number in the labor force and the labor force participation rates and
unemployment rates for males shown in this set of tables exclude male
members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post.
Therefore, the numbers and rates of these tables are not comparable to those
published for March 1975 and prior years.
*

Table C-2. Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital status, age,
sex, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980

(Numbers in thousands)

Population,
civilian labor force,
and age

TOTAL
POPUL A T I O N

1
1
1
i
1
1
1
|Total
1
I
1
1
1
i

1
I
1
1Never
| mar­
1 ried
1
I
1
1
1

1

1

Hen

Total, 16 years and over...
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

1

1

1

8,110
223|
471
6,968 2,8011
3641
4,501 11,7461 1,804|
929 10,0151 1,491|
667 9,029| 1 ,242|
530 8,327] 1,156|
485 7,572| 1 ,896|

Median age (years)........ ..

22.1
1

1

45.1|
1

47.4|

_
43]
202|
2
612|
20
432|
47
348|
168
263]
397
194| 1,342
39.4|

1

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

4,582
207|
261
ye ar s..................
5,501 2,570|
326|
years..................
3,894 11,1121 1,6621
ye ar s..................
737 9,519| 1,344 |
years..................
494 8,4161
99 7 1
years..................
284 6,281|
years..................
676|
97 1,541|
and ov er............... ..| 1,885|
246]

Median age (years)............ .

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION RATE

1

1
1

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

41.2|
1
1

39.6|

241
181|
559|
378|
280]
1641
42]
36.3|

1
1

1

750|
142|
106|
32
3]
M 8,362] 7,470]
160| 10,557| 5,298| 4,437|
822|
413|
241
385
141| 1,813
1,171] 18,564| 2,871|12,719] 2,974| 1,020]
1,012|12,991|
720] 9,898| 2,374|
668|
293| 1,412
725| 11,7601
556] 8,817| 2,387|
478|
824| 1,085
496| 11,462|
521| 7,6851 3,257|
319| 2 , 176|
761
359| 14,241|
837] 5,393| 8,012]
239| 7,2951
477
41.2]

40.0|

21.6]

42.0|

59.2|
1

36.2]

70.0|

1

552

3,097| 44,934| 11,242| 24,9001 8,792| 1,928 | 2,421| 4,443

_

2| 4,090] 3,660|
358|
721
144| 7,071] 3,824] 2,684|
563|
1,0831 12,258] 2,417| 7,547 | 2,293]
928| 8,5681
565| 6,188| 1,814]
392| 4,9101 1,704]
5871 7,007|
2 8 4 1 2,824| 1,652]
296| 4 , 760|
100|
69 2 1
5 8 1 1,1811
389|

1
20
37
130
216
147
59.6

38.4|

34.2|

22.6|

38.0|

43.1]
1
1

1
1

521
20
257|
293
12|
9 4 1 1,524
676]
456|
178| 1,180
2871
543]
875
158| 1,016]
478
421
577|
73
34.7|

58.9|

1
1

years........... .
ye ar s..................
ye ar s..................
ye ar s..................
ye a r s ......... ........
years......... ........
and over........ ......

76.6|

70.6

80.9]

66.5|

79.0|

27.9

79.4|

51.1|

61.5]

50.1|

44.0]

59.4|

22.5]

74.5

56.7
79.5
87.2
79.8
74.4
53.5
20.0

97.2|
96.6|
97.4|
97.0|
93.4|
75.4]
20.4|

U) 1
92.6|
93.8|
91.0|
80.5|
58.5|
13.0|

a) i
94.2|
93.9]
88.6|
80.3|
62.3|
21.8|

_

a) i
91.4|
93.6|
92.4|
81.3]
59.7|
16.0|

48.9|
67.0|
66.0|
66.01
59.61
41.5|
8.3 ]

49.0]
72.2|
84.2|
78.5]
70.5]
54.5|
12.0|

47.7|
60.5|
59.3|
62.5]
55.7|
36.7|
7.2]

51.0]
68.5|
77.1]
76.4|
71.4|
50.7]
8.6 |

48.9|
62.3]
66.31
68.3|
60.0|
49.61
17.51

u) i
(i) i
66.4 |
60.81
65.9]
46.7|
7.9|

(i)
76.3
84.1
83.6
80.6
62.8
15.2

(i)
a)
a)
77.6
54.5
10.9

WHITE

1

1

1

1

1

i

1

i

1

1

1

i

1

1

i

i

18,474 45,243| 6,4661 1,472|

Total, 16 years and over...
to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

6,814
2131
401
5,844 2,569|
313|
3,645 10,523] 1,498]
731 9,0721 1,167]
540 8,213|
949]
471 7,692|
906|
428 6,960] 1,592|

ye a r s .................
years..................
ye ar s..................
years............ .
years....... ...........
years..................
and over........... .

22.1

Median age (years).............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E

1

1

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

22.8

Median age (years).......... .
i
1

Total, 16 years and over... ..|
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years




1
1
77.6|

47.3|

41.4|
1

l

37.6|

1

39.3|

1

1

1,2091
23]
151|
417|
284]
183|
121]
291
35.5|

687|
124 ]
2] 6,965| 6,155|
693|
145! 8,893| 4,196| 4,005]
1,0311 15,768| 2,118] 11,3981 2,251|
834] 11,1591
534| 8,902| 1,723]
614| 10,2691
451| 8,0341 1,7 8 4 1
419| 10,2611
453| 7,134] 2,674|
307| 12,9181
782| 5,021| 7,1151
41.01

40.8]

21.4|

42.3|

448
_
1
13
25
91
189
128
60.7

67.7|

97.1|
96.9|
97.8|
97.3|
93.8|
75.9|
20.3|

a) i a) i

83.6]

95.2|
94.7|
94.4|
83.2|
72.0|
24.3|
1

26

31
30
91]
329|
181
346
104] 1,527
6191
370|
195| 1,157
277|
627|
880
21 7 1 1,8211
635
416
1731 6,5261
35.0|

70.01

2 1 3,637| 3,247|
621
329]
132| 6,117] 3,194] 2,431|
491|
967| 10,324| 1,860| 6,6631 1,801]
776| 7,312|
437| 5,497] 1,378]
495| 6,115|
336] 4,4351 1,344|
262| 4,2431
257| 2,584| 1,402|
5 1 1 1,061|
98|
346|
617|
38.1|

34.3]

22.3]

38.11

43.7|

441
212]
423|
260]
181]
1031
28|
33.7|

-

|
18
71
272
79] 1,299
982
135|
431|
731
891|
408
5271
62
59.4|

1
1
27.3

80.7|

50.9]

64.2]

49.3|

-

CD
93.1]
95.0|
93.8|
81.1|
62.5|
16.8|

52.2]
6c.8|
65.5]
65.5|
59.6|
41.3|
8.21

52.7|
76.1|
87.8|
81.9|
74.5]
56.6|
12.5]

47.9|
60.7|
58.5|
61.7|
55.2]
36.2]
6.91

(i)
(i)
a)
79.6
59.4
11.0

40.1

1

1

2,6851 38,8101 9,4291 22,2861 7,0951 1,2531 2,070| 3,772

1

81.1|

61.3|
1

1

72.6

1

70.0

3,351| 76,232| 14,6891 45,1811 16,362] 2,076] 9,296| 4,990

1

1
i

93.8|
94.9|
93.9|
81.4|
63.11
13.1|
1

1,642

_
381
166|
2
454|
13
305|
29
221|
115
169]
319
121| 1,164

60.1
80.7
89.0
82.4
77.5
53.5
21.0

years..................
years..................
years......... .......
years........... .
years............. .
years..................
and over.............

See footnote at end of table.

1

4,086
197|
251
2841
4,683 2,380]
3,218 10,022] 1,397|
599 8,654| 1,0851
416 7,6901
770|
252 5,8401
572]
90 1,414|
209|

ye ar s..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
ye ar s..................
years......... ........
years..................
and over........... .

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION RATE

45.3]

13,343 36,197| 4,342|

Total, 16 years and over...
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

38.3

1
1

POPULA T I O N

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

40.3

1

57.7'

Total, 16 years and over... ..|
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

22.9
1
1

70.0

1

3,9281 87,9391 18,2731 49,699] 19,967| 3,243]10,758| 5, 9 6 6 ’

1

Total, 16 years and over... ..|60,514I15,590 39,6471 5,277| 1,6291
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

1

22,191 49 ,714| 7,999] 2,094| 1,977

years..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
years........... .
ye ar s..................
years..................
and over.......

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E

Women

1
Other ever-married
|
Other ever-married
1
Mar- |
Mar- ]
Tied, |
|
|
|Never ]ried, I
|
|
1
spouse|
| Mar- |
Total | mar- |spousel
| Mar- |
1
pres- |Total |ried, | Wid­
Di- |
ried | pres- ]Total Iried, ] Wid- | Dient |
|spouse| owed vorced|
ent |
|spouse| owed |vorced
|
|absent]
]
|absent|
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
i
1
1

1
1

43.4|
1
49.91
70.9|
80.0|
80.0|
75.3|
5 2 .41
8.7 |
1

60.4|

22.3|

48.51
64.6|
68.3]
70.3|
65.6|
47.6|
16.5 ]
1

75.8|
69.2|
68.7]
48.9|
8.1|
1

38.0

1
i

(i) i

75.6
CD
78.7
85.0
84.9
83.1
64.2
15.0

Table C-2. Continued—Population and civilian labor force 16 years old and over by marital
status, age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980

(Numbers in thousands)

Population,
civilian labor force,
and age

BLACK
POPULA T I O N

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
iTotal
|
1
i
i
1
1
1

1
1
1
|Never
| mar| ried
1
1
1
1
1
1

1

1

Men

Total, 16 years and over...
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

1,108|
922|
702|
180|
117|
481
471

Median age (years).............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E

22.5|
1

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

23.8|
1
i

1
1

41.4|

|
28|
122J
831
891
381
131

39.4|

|
71
1 |
46|
711
165|

66.6|

2|
10|
125|
166|
951
741
471
42.4|

1,196| 1,1301
1,412|
9671
2,241|
650|
1,4781
1581
961
1,251|
1,0501
601
1,189|
531
35.4|

22.2|

491
333|
925|
726|
6061
452|
322|

171
111|
5941
550|
539|
8141

40.51

49.71

6661

151
76 1
3691
282|
190|
961
641
38.01

1

1

971
-

361| 5 , 112|

,
|
7|
121
351
261
171

-

53.31

1

1,0921 1,3191

1,5381 2,014|

|
367|
8|
808|
101| 1,6001
139| 1,029|
771
745|
321
4471
4|
115|

40.1|

3321
539|
481|
110|
51|
22J
31

33.5|

24.01

25|
205|
6611
523|
371|
190|
401
37.2|

1,5601
10|
641
459|
396|
323|
2351
72)
41.21

634|
8|
401
237 |
187|
971
511
131
36.7’
|

5|
351
811
181|
32 4 1
6921
65.81
1
1
320|
_

5|
141
331
102|
118|
49|
55.6|

1

67.4|

31.6|

69.9|

52.11

49.41

59.01

47.4|

58.01

a) 1
94.8|
94.8|
94.1|
88.7|
68.6|
20.6|

a) 1
a) 1
88.1|
79.11
77.4|
40.8|
12.0|

(o 1
a) 1
93.8|
72.5|
75.5|
42.51
a) 1

_ |
- |
a) 1
a) 1
a) 1
a) 1
10.2|

(i) 1
a) 1
81.4|
84.9|
80.5|
(i) 1
(i) 1

30.7|
57.3|
71.41
69.6|
59.5|
42.6|
9.61

29.4 |
55.7|
73.9|
69.6|
53.0|
(i) 1
CD 1

Cl) 1
61.6|
71.4|
72.01
61.3|
42.01
12.4|

CD 1
57.4|
68.9|
66.7|
58.8|
43.7|
8.9 |

CD 1
52.2|
64.3|
66.41
51.1|
53.6|
a) 1

a) 1
a) 1
40.6|
56.3|
36.4|
7.11

1

1

1

541

261
215|
743|
563|
400|
237|
1711
38.4|

1
1

31
331
112|
871
62|
441
621
41.2|

191|
21
28)
611
381
341
171
HI
36.1|

55.5!

1

601

241
198|
691|
539|
369|
173|
401

310|
333|
203|
341
271
10|
5|

36.9|

303 1
11
301
1041
771
55|
28|
91

-

|
41
41
71
111
331

a)

37.2|

34.5|

231

87.5|

75.7|

85.3|

53.7|
83.6|
88.2|
a) 1
(i) 1
a) 1
(i) 1

(i) 1
96.4|
94.8|
96.0|
92.81

(i) 1
a) 1
93.2|
89.1|
a) 1
a) 1
(i) 1

a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)

73.01

23.51

1Rate or median not shown where base is less than 75,000.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

L

27

40.3|

33.0|

-

117| 2,089|

1

41
41
51
71

3|
a)

1

4641
299|
1971
551
381
27J
161
21.4|

631
3281
7461
5431
3511
204|
111|
35.7|

908|
151
731
195)
1641
1521
119|
189|
45.41

!
_

1
1

i

1

1,0981 2,345|

I
542|
5|
700|
4 7 1 1,139)
441
762|
2 |
5421
350|
1 |
181
316|

1

163|
1|
261
58
351
291
121
11

151| 4,351|
-

1

70.0|

Total, 16 years and over...
ye ar s.................. ..1
years..................
years..................
years..................
years.................
years..................
and over..............
1

402|

1

1

1

22.3|
i
1

2
30
262
231
179
119
57
41.3

605
2
19
208
176
125
66
10
39.2

j
41
42
38|
201
91
5|

38.4|

2091
4011
6181
433|
283)
120|
261
31.8|

307|
141
49|
961
621
451

281
13|
34.3|
1

5911 1,0821
.1761
2041
135|
36|
241
131
3|
22.9|

26|
169|
362|
292|
162|
651
6|
34.6|

416|
71
281
121|
105|
97 |
421
16|
40.0|

139|

1

1

171
48|
341

271
6|
1|
34.7|

1

~

1

(i)
a)
a)
(i)
a)

1
1
1
1
1

_L_

(X)

310
1
17
90
87
60
36
19

61
91
15|
481
551
157|
66.2|

40.3

1
761

201
-

1|
71
7|
311
1 |
121
52.5|

10
67
63
39
17
4

38.6

1
1

48.0|

53.91

46.11

45.81

45.3|

26.31

|

38.61

a)
a)
CD
(i)
a)
a)

1
1
1
1
1
1

54.3|
56.8|
52.21
34.2|
8.11

37.9|
68.1|
68.6|
(i) 1
(i) 1
(i) 1
(i) 1

CD 1
51.6|
48.5|
53.8|
46.1|
31.9|
5 . 41

CD 1
CD 1
61.81
63.9|
63.81
35.01
8.7 |

a) 1
a) 1
49.6|
a) 1
CD 1
a) 1
a) 1
1

a) 1
a) 1
(X) 1
(1) 1
(1) 1
7.61

57.31

a)
a)
79.4
76.2
69.5
55.8

1
291|

-

a)

78.3|

-

61

1
1

1

24.3|

68.8

1

9 2 2 1 2,034|
335|

880

1
1

1
1

1

,

60.3|

i

Median age (years).... ........

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION RATE

-

373|
-

|
361
231|
2341
200|
961
341

1
519| 9,817| 3,1131 3,413| 3,2911

1
1

78.1|

21.0|
1

ye ar s.................. ..|
years..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
ye a r s .... .............
ye ar s....... ...........
and o v er............... ••I




831|
-

1

1
3081

1
1

578|
401|
232|
421
321
131
251

Total, 16 years and over...

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 4 4
to 54
to 64
years

40.4|

1,324| 2,355|

years..................
years..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
ye ar s..................
ye ar s..................
and over...............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

9|
163|
798|
659|
559|
358|
108|

1

Median age (years)..............

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

44.61

1

PO P U L A T I O N

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

48.2J

1
Other ever-married
1
1 Mar- |
|ried, |
1
1
|spousel
Mar- |
1 pres- I ’0 tal |ried, | Wid- | Dispousel owed (vorced
1 ent |
absentl
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

37.9|
73.8|
80.9|
67.9|
59.0|
(i) 1
(i) 1

ye ar s..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
years..................
ye ar s..................
years..................
and over...............

Total, 16 years and over...
to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

4|
321
130|
116|
117|
901
671

1
1
1
(Never
| marI ried
1
1
1

60.4|

HISPANIC

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

6|
431
262|
300|
259|
236|
279|

1
I

Total, 16 years and over...
to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

5581

1

418|
677|
561|
1221
691
211
61

Median age (years).............

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

44.0|

1,875| 2,654|

years..................
years..................
ye ars..................
years..................
years..................
years..................
and over...............

CIVILIAN L A B O R F O R C E
PARTICIPATION RATE

91
197|
892|
7201
629|
521|
526|

1,384|

i

Total, 16 years and over...
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

1
3,123| 3,495|

ye ar s ..................
years..................
years..................
years..................
years............ .
years..................
and over...............

Women

1
Other ever- marriec
1
1 Mar- |
|ried, |
|
1
1
1
!spousel
| Mar- |
1
1 total
| pres- ITotal |ried, | Wid- | Di- |
|spousel owed |vorced|
i ent |
I
|absent|
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

64.7
CD
(X)
73.8
73.0
(X)

(X)

(X)

Table C-3. Major occupation group of employed persons 1® years ©Id and over by marital
status, sex, raee, and Hispanic origin, March 1980
(Percent distribution)

Other ever-married

Other ever-married

Major occupation group

ALL EMPLOYED PERSONS

|
jTotal
|
l
I
I
I
I

|Never
| mar| ried
|
I
I
i
I

|ried, |
|spouse|
| pres-|Total
| ent |
i
I
I
I

|
|
|
|
| Mar- |
|
|Total
|ried, | Wid- | Di- |
|spouse| owed 1vorced|
[absent|
1
1
t
i
l
I
I
I
I

|Never
| mar| ried
|
1
l

|
|
|
|
1

ied, |
pousel
pres- (Total
ent |
1
1

|
|
| Mar- 1
|ried, 1 Wid- 1 Di­
|spouse| owed |vorced
|absent|
1
1

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS:

I
I
1
Number (Thousands)...... 156,413113,540138,0381 4,835| 1,4941
530| 2,811141,9011 0,087|23,590| 8,2251 1,737| 2,328| 4,160
Percent.................. | 100.01 100.01 100.0| 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.0

Professional and technical.......
Managers and administrators,
except f a rm.....................
Sales............................. .
Clerical...........................
Craft..............................
Operatives, except transport.....
Transport equipment operatives...
Laborers, except fa rm............
Private household.................
Service, except private
household......................
Farmers and farm managers........
Farm laborers and supervisors....

WHITE

l 15.8|
i
i
1 14.3|
1
6 . 01
1
6.6|
| 21.0|
| 11.2|
1
5.6|
1
6.9|
i CD i
1
1
1
9.0|
1
2 . 31
1
1.41
1

12.9|

16.9|

14.7|

14.5|

12.01

6.5|
6.0|
9.1|
15.2|
13.2|
4.6|
12.8|
.11

17.2|
5.9|
5.8|
23.0|
10.41
5.9|
4.81
a) i

13.0|
6.4 |
5.8 |
21.9|
11.3|
7. 0 1
.1|

11.8|
5.0|
3.91
21.7|
13.8|
6.21
9.2[
- l

13.01
8.8|
8.41
16.5|
7.71
6.21
8.11
.8]

15.6|
1.2|
2.81

6.41
2.8 |
•9|

10.6|
1.41
1.21

10.8|
1.31
1.9 |

13.5|
3.01
1 . 91

6.61

1

15.3|
1
13.7|
6.8 1

6.31
22.91
10.71
6.91
5.7)
- 1
l
9.91
1.21
.6|

17.21

17.2|

18.41

13.71

12.5|

10.11

16.1

7.01
6.5 1
35.31
1.61
10.01
.71
1.21
2.41

5.91
7.1|
36.4|
1 .5|
7 . 21
•3|
1.41
3.21

7.1|
6.51
35.71
1.7 |
10.6|
.81
1.01
1.9|

8. 2 1
5.91
32.8|
1.7 |
11.81
.81
1.31
3.11

6.71
4.61
30.7|
1.91
12.81
1.31
1.01
2.9|

7.71
8.11
29.3|
1.7 |
12.21
.6|
1.0|
6.0(

9.1
5.3
35.6
1.7
11.1
.8
1.5
1.6

17.21
.31
.6|

19.3|
.11
.51

15.21
.51
.81

20.2|
.21
.21

24.81
.21

22.51
,6|
•3|

17.1
.1
.1

.6 1

1

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS:

1
1
1
Number (Thousands).... . |50,580|11,790|34,7 8 51 4,0051 1,1251
4281 2,452136,524| 8,647|21,176l 6,701| 1,141| 1,9971 3,563
Percent.................. | 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.0| 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.0l 100.0| 100.0

Professional and technical.......
Managers and administrators,
except farm................... .
Sales.................... .........
Clerical................. .........
Craft............ ................
Operatives, except transport.....
Transport equipment operatives...
Laborers, except farm............
Private household........... .
Service, except private
household............... .
Farmers and farm managers........
Farm laborers and supervisors....

BLAQK

| 16.3|
1
1
1 15.2|
1
6.3|
1
6.5|
1 21.4|
1 10.7|
1
5.31
1
6.3J
i a) i
1
1
1
8.1|
1
2.51
1
1.31
1

13.7|

17.3|

15.9|

16.71

14.8|

7.0|
6.4 |
8.8 |
15.6|
13.0|
4.5|
12.2|
.11

18.0|
6.21
5.71
23.2|
10 .01
5.51
4.41
a) i

14.3|
7.1|
6.0|
22.3|
10.2|
6.31
5.9|
- |

13.41
5 . 31
3.31
23.4|
12.4|
5.0|
7.61
- |

15.5|
10.1|
9.5|
15.81
6.61
6.41
5.81
- |

14.5|
1.31

5. 8 1
2. 9 1
.8|

9. 4 1
1.6|
1.0 [

9.6)
1.71
1.6|

10.9|
3.21
1.21

2 .8 1

1

15.81
1
14.51
7. 4 1
6.6 |
22.91
9.9J
6 . 81
5.1|
- |
i
9.1|
1.41
.61

17.61

17.8|

18.51

7.61
7.01
36.0|
1.7 j
9 .5|
•7|
1.11
1 . 91

6. 3 1
7.51
36.11
6.2 |
.31
1.41
3.11

7.51
6.9)
36.51
1.71
10.21
.91
1.0|
1.31

34.4]
1 . 81
11.31
.71
1.31
1.9|

16.0|
.41
.6|

19.0|
.11
.51

14.11
.51
.81

17.7[
•3|
•2 1

1.61

14.41

13.9|

10.51

16.8

9.31

8.81

6.81

6.0|
33.5]
2.0!
11.51

8. 4 1
9.01
31.71

9.9
5.9
36.3
1.6
10.7
.8
1.5
1.0

.6 1

1.1|
1.01
20.6|
.31
•7|

1.81

12.11
.51
1.11
4.0)
20.01
.61

.21

15.4
.1
.1

1

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS:

1
1
1
5561
3011
Number (Thousands)...... | 4,640| 1,413| 2, 49 4|
734|
326|
95|
3121 4,430| 1,1881 1,8481 1,393|
535
Percent.................. | 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.0J 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.0

Professional and technical.......
Managers and administrators,
except f a rm........ .............
Sales..............................
Clerical................ ...........
Craft..............................
Operatives, except transport.....
Transport equipment operatives...
Laborers, except fa rm.... .......
Private household.................
Service, except private
household.....................
Farmers and farm managers........
Farm laborers and supervisors....

HISPANIC

1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1

7.9 |
1
5.21
7.51
18.5|
15.7|
9 . 71
13.2|
.21
1
16.6|
.3|
2.51

1

6.7|

8. 6 1

7.8|

7.11

2.81
2.9|
11.4|
12.1|
14.2|
5.7 |
17.8|
.11

6.51
2.5[
5.91
21.8|
16.2|
12.3|
10.5|
.1|

5.71
3.51
5.01
19.8|
17.0|
8.6 |
13.3|
•5|

5 . 81
4.61
5.01
16.51
18.6J
9.41
15.41
- 1

1.41
3.11
4.01
21.11

23.3|
•11
3.0|

12.8|
•5|
2.3 |

16.51
•2|
2.1|

15.11
- |

23.7|
1.31
4.9 |

1

2 .8 1

2 .6 1

1
1
805| 1,901|
282[
156|
Number (Thousands)...... | 2,988|
Percent.................. | 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01

‘ rr Less than 0.05 percent.’;




1
7 . 71
1
1
1
7 . 31
1
3 . 21
1
7.0|
| 20.3|
1 17.3|
1
6 . 41
| 12.1|
1
*11
1
1
1 13.9|
1
.4|
1
4.3|
1
- 1

11.61

5.71
18.8|
4.21

10.91
i
7.01
2 . 51
5.31
22.9|
16.81
8.6 1

9. 4 1
1
1
15.81
- |
•7|

13.4|

12.9|

16.11

10.21

9.6|

8.51

11.7

2.5|
2.4}
28.61
1.01
13.31
.21
1.01
8.31

3.21

30.1|
1.31
13.51
.7|
1 . 21
7 . 41

2.91
3.6|
37.9|
1.3|
13.81
.71
1.41
4.11

13.61
1.5|
1.31
9.11

2.81
2.1|
26.0|
1.9|
14.7|
2.4 |
1.11
6. 5 1

2. 4 1
2.5|
14.41
.81
12.41
1.01
.51
19.4|

3.9
1.3
31.1
2.2
13.1
1.0
2.0
5.9

26.41
a) i
.51

21.31
- 1
.3|

25.71
- 1
.91

31.71
.11
.21

32.51
- 1
.41

37.81
- 1
•4 |

27.5
.3

2.8 |
2 .6 1

1. 8 1

25.4|
1.8 1

1

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS:

Professional and technical.......
Managers and administrators,
except farm........ .............
Sales..................... ........
Clerical...........................
Craft................. ............
Operatives, except transport.....
Transport equipment operatives...
Laborers, except fa rm............
Private household...............
Service, except private
household....................
Farmers and farm managers.......
Farm laborers and supervisors...

.21

1
106| 1,8691
514|
983|
191
(2) 1 100.01 100.01 100.01 100.01

6. 8 1

7.71

6.31

-

|

3.9|
3. 6 1
10.1|
13.3|
17.1|
3. 6 1
14.3|
“ 1

9.0|
3.0|
6.21
23.7|
17.2|
7.81
10.5|
.11

5.8 [
3.1|
4.1|
16.8|
18.5|
4.41
16.61
- |,

4.6 |
1.71
3.31
15.3|
25.8|
2.4)
19.01
- l

“
-

1
1
|
1
|
|
1
1

21.9|
.21
5.21

10.0|
•6|
4.21

17.6|
(l) 1
2.71

18.6|
.11
3.01

~

1
1

'

|

10.5|

17.61
1
8.6|
5.8)
4.61
19.91
9.6 1
7.51
11.5|
- l
1
13.91
- 1
1.0|
1

741
184
(2) 1 100.0

9 . 11

10.0)

6.1|

-

|

12.8

5.11
4.8|
31.4|
2.71
23.5|
.41
1.3|
4.31

4.7 |
5.51
37.0|
1.61
18.41
1
1.0|
6.5|

5.1|
4. 5 1
29.31
3.11
26.31
.6|
1 . 71
2.6(

5.3J
4.71
29.01
3.01
22.81
.51
.71
5.51

3.41
3.1|
27.7|
3.9|
27.21
I
•8 1
6.3 |

“
~

1
|
1
1
1
1
1
1

5.2
5.4
32.2
2.4
20.0
1.0
.9
2.8

16.41
a) i
1.11

14.81
- |
.41

16.2|
.11
1.71

19.11
- 1
.41

21.0|
- 1
.51

-

1
1

17.3
-

"

|

8 . 81

2Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

28

372|
1151
100.0| 100.01
8.9 |

Table C-4. Labor force and marina! status of women 16 years old and over by age and
presence and age ©f own children, March 19Q0
(Numbers in thousands)
Total women

Presence and age of own children and age
of women
Popula- |
tion
|

Labor
force

Never married

Labor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

1
Popula- |
tion
|
i
1
1
1
18,273 |

Labor
force

Married, husband
present

Labor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

Popula- |
tion
|

Labor
force

Labor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

87,939 |

44,934 |

51.1

11,242 |

61.5

49,699 |

24,900 |

50.1

No own children under 18 ye ar s...........
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ar s.................. ......
20 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and over...................

56,483
20,932
7,865
7,233
5,834
35,551
2,928
32,623
7,569
25,054

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

27,144
14,484
3,916
5,539
5,029
12,660
2,262
10,398
4,690
5,708

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

48.1
69.2
49.8
76.6
86.2
35.6
77.3
31.9
62.0
22.8

17,211
14,722
7,383
4,924
2,415
2,489
604
1,885
530
1,355

|
|
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|

10,690
9,420
3,628
3,668
2,124
1,269
503
766
385
382

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

62.1
64.0
49.1
74.5
88.0
51.0
83.3
40.6
72.5
28.2

24,473
4,834
409
1,911
2,514
19,639
1,623
18,016
5,421
12,594

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

11,246
3,893
245
1,552
2,097
7,353
1,192
6,161
3,114
3,047

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

46.0
80.5
59.9
81.2
83.4
37.4
73.4
34.2
57.4
24.2

With own children under 18 years, total..
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years............ *...........
25 to 34 years........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 ye ar s........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years............. ........
55 years and ov er...................

31,456
16,552
498
3,324
12,730
14,904
10,063
4,841
4,192
649

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

17,790
8,934
174
1,532
7,228
8,856
6,306
2,550
2,317
233

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
i

56.6
54.0
35.1
46.1
56.8
59.4
62.7
52.7
55.3
35.9

1,063
918
88
374
456
145
116
28
26
3

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1

553
481
32
156
293
72
62
10
8
3

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
I
1

52.0
52.4
36.4
41.7
64.1
49.9
53.3
a)
a)
Cl)

25,226
13,073
341
2,527
10,205
12,153
8,274
3,879
3,396
483

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

13,654
6,696
113
1,132
5,450
6,958
4,996
1,962
1,797
165

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
|

54.1
51.2
33.1
44.8
53.4
57.3
60.4
50.6
52.9
34.2

With own children 6 to 17 years, none
younger, total................ ...........
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ar s........................
20 to 24 ye ars........................
25 to 34 ye ar s.........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years.................... .
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years.......................
55 years and ov er...................

17,489
4,648
17
129
4,502
12,842
8,136
4,705
4,072
633

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

11,252
3,293
13
85
3,195
7,959
5,458
2,502
2,270
232

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

64.3
70.9
a)
65.8
71.0
62.0
67.1
53.2
55.7
36.6

359
248
6
25
217
111
83
28
26
3

1
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
|
I

243
184
5
14
165
59
49
10
8
3

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
I
1

67.6
74.0
CD
a)
76.0
53.3
59.0
CD
CD
a)

13,649
3,266
8
73
3,184
10,383
6,610
3,773
3,299
473

|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

8,428
2,212
5
49
2,158
6,216
4,292
1,924
1,758
165

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

61.7
67.7
a)
CD
67.8
59.9
64.9
51.0
53.3
35.0

With own children under 6 years, total...
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ar s........................
20 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years.........................
35 years and over, total...............
35 to 44 years...................... .
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years............ .........
55 years and over...................

13,966
11,904
481
3,194
8,229
2,062
1,927
136
120
16

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

6,538
5,641
162
1,447
4,033
896
848
48
47
1

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

46.8
47.4
33.6
45.3
49.0
43.5
44.0
35.7
39.3
a)

703
670
82
349
239
34
33

310
297
27
142
128
13
13

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

44.1
44.4
33.2
40.8
53.4

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

5,227
4,484
108
1,083
3,293
743
704
38
38

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

45.1
45.7
32.4
44.1
46.9
42.0
42.3
36.1
39.8
a)

With own children 3 to 5 years, none under|
3 ........................................
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years.........................
25 to 34 years................... .....
35 years and over, total...............
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 ye ar s......................
55 years and over..................

5,459
4,167
30
708
3,428
1,292
1,196
97
89
7

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

2,972
2,384
8
412
1,964
589
552
36
35
1

|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
|
1

54.5
57.2
a)
58.1
57.3
45.5
46.2
37.5
38.9
a)

232
215
8
103
104
18
18

With own children under 3 years..........
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ar s.........................
20 to 24 years.... ...... .............
25 to 34 years........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and ov er...................

8,508
7,737
451
2,486
4,800
770
731
39
30
9

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
I

3,365
3,257
154
1,035
2,0C8
308
296
12
12

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

41.9
42.1
34.1
41.6
43.1
40.0
40.4
a)

471
455
74
246
135
16
16

1

a)

Total women....................

C D

See footnote at end of table.




29

|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
|

1

-

11,577
9,807
333
2,454
7,021
1,770
1,664
106
96
10

113
110
1
47
61
4
4

|
|
I
|
1
1
I
|
|
1

48.8
51.1
a)
46.3
58.5
a)
a)
“

4,310
3,211
17
454
2,740
1,099
1,024
75
72
3

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
I

2,223
1,737
3
260
1,474
486
457
29
29

197
187
26
95
67
9
9

|
|
|
|
|
1
1
|
1
1

41.7
41.2
a)
38.5
49.4
a)
a)
-

7,267
6,596
316
1,999
4,281
671
640
32
24
7

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

3,004
2,747
105
824
1,819
257
247
9
9

1
1
|
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
|
1
1

a)
u)
-

1
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
|
|
l
|
|
|
1
1
1

51.6
54.1
a)
57.2
53.8
44.2
44.6
38.8
CD
“
41.3
41.6
33.1
41.2
42.5
38.2
38.7
a)
( u

~

Table 0-4. Continued—Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by
age and presence and age of own children, March 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

[___________
Married, husband
absent

Presence and age of own children and age
of women

Total wo me n................... .

3,243

1
1
|

1,928

1
1
1

59.4

|
l Popula| tion
|
|
1
1
1
1
1 10,758 |

No own children under 18 ye a r s ...........
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ars........................
20 to 24 years.........................
25 to 34 years.........................
35 years and over, total.............. .
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 ye ar s......................
55 years and ov er...................

1,502
518
62
195
262
983
176
808
284
524

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

884
393
36
147
209
491
123
369
182
187

1
1
i
1
i
1
1
1
1
1

58.9
75.7
a)
75.6
79.8
50.0
69.9
45.6
64.0
35.7

1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1

10,054
39
2
7
30
10,015
76
9,940
556
9,385

With own children under 18 years, total..
16 to 34 years, total.............. .
16 to 19 ye ar s................. .......
20 to 24 years.........................
25 to 34 years....... .................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 ye ar s......................
55 years and ov er............ ......

1,742
1,021
45
218
758
721
493
228
194
34

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

1,044
593
16
no
467
452
334
118
105
13

1
i
1
i
i
1
1
1
i

60.0
58.0
a)
50.4
61.6
62.7
67.7
51.9
54.2
a)

1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
i
1

703
129
2
16
111
574
218
357
270
87

With own children 6 to 17 years, none
younger, total...........................
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 ye ar s.........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and ov er...................

957
318
1
15
301
639
417
222
190
32

1
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

634
226
1
12
213
408
291
117
104
13

1
1
i
1
i
1
i
i
1
1
1

66.3
71.2
CD
a)
70.8
63.9
69.8
52.8
54.9
a)

With own children under 6 years, total...
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye a r s ........................
20 to 24 years............ ............
25 to 34 years.........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 ye ar s..................... .
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and ov er...................

785
703
A3
203
457
81
76
6
A
2

|
|
|
|
|
I
|
1
I
i

1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1

52.2
52.1
o)
48.6
55.5
53.6
56.4
a)
a)
"

Popula- |
tion
|

With own children 3 to 5 years, none under|
3 ......................................... |
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 ye ar s.........................
20 to 24 years........ ................
25 to 34 ye ar s.........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years........ .. ...............
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 ye ar s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over...................
With own children under 3 years..........
16 to 34 years, total...................
16 to 19 years................... .
20 to 24 ye ar s.........................
25 to 34 ye ar s.........................
35 years and over, total................
35 to 44 years.........................
45 years and over, total.............
45 to 54 years......................
55 years and over...................

1Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.




Labor
force
participation
rate

Labor
force

336
282
3
56
222
54
A9
5

3

1
|
|
1
|
|

|
|
|

2

1
|

A49
421
40
147
235
27
26
1
1

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1

410
366
14
99
254
44
43
1
1

220
190
2
36
154
30
29
1

1

“
190
177
12
65
100
13
13
-

-

1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Divorced

Widowed

65.4
67.3
a)
a)
69.2

a
a
a
a

)
)
)
)
“

42.4
41.9
(i)
44.1
42.5
to
u)
-

“

30

2, A21

1
1
1

22.5

|
| Popula| tion
|
|
i
i
1
1
1 5,966
1

|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

2,010
27
5
22
1,983
A9
1,934
373
1,561

1
1
1
1
i
1
i
1
i
1

20.0
(i)
a)
(i)
19.8
64.5
19.5
67.2
16.6

1
1
1
1
i
i
i
i
1
1

3,244
820
10
196
613
2,424
450
1,974
779
1,195

|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

411
79
7
72
332
130
203
170
32

1
1
i
i
i
i
1
1
i
i

58.4
60.8
CD
64.6
57.9
59.5
56.9
63.1
37.5

1
1
i
1
1
1
i
i
i
1

1
1
1
1
i
1
i
1
1
1
1

1
602 |
77 |
|
|
77 |
525 |
186 |
340 |
258 |
82 |

366
55
55
311
114
197
166
31

1
1
1
i
1
1
i
i
i
i
1

60.7
71.1
71.1
59.2
61.7
57.8
64.2
37.9

1
1
1
1
1
1
i
i
1
1
1

1
1
1
l
1
1
i
1
1
1

102
52
2
16
34
50
33
16
12
5

1
1
1
1
i
i
1
i
i
i

44.7
a)
(i)
a)
u)
a)
a)
a)
u)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
i
i
i
i
1
1

|
|
1
1
|
|
|
|
|
I

1
60 |
27 |
|
6 I
21 1
33 |
23 |
11 |
8 |
3 I

41 I
1
25 |
1
2 I
1
11 |
1
13 |
1
16 |
1
11 |
1
5 |
1
A i
1
2 I
1
.1 ______L

Labor
force
participation
rate

Labor
force

45
24
7
17
22
16
6
5
1

29
12
3
9
17
13
4
2

1
1
1
i
1
i
1
1
i

a)
a)
(i)

a
a
a
a
a

)
)
)
)
)

1

1

a)

17
12

1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1

a)
a)
a)
u)
a)
(i)
a)
a)

4
8

5
3
2
2

"

1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I

Labor
force
partic­
ipation
rate

Labor
force

4,443

1
1
1

74.5

1
1
i
i
1
1
1
i
1
1

2,315
751
7
167
578
1,564
395
1,168
638
530

1
1
i
1
1
i
1
i
i
i

71.A
91.6
a)
8A.9
9A.2
6A.5
88.0
59.2
81.9
44.4

2,722
1,410
22
188
1,200
1,312
962
349
306
43

1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2,128
1,087
14
127
947
1,041
784
257
237
20

1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1

78.2
77.1
a)
67.3
78.9
79.4
81.5
73.6
77.4
a)

1,922
739
1
16
722
1,184
842
342
299
43

1
1
1
1
1
i
1
i
1
1
1

1,582
617
1
11
605
965
712
254
234
20

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
i
i

82.3
83.5
a)
a)
83.8
81.6
84.6
74.2
78.2
a)

800
672
21
173
478
128
121
7
7
“
521
432
2
89
341
‘ 88
82
6
6
“
279
240
19
83
137
40
39
1
1

i
1
1
i
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1

J

546
470
13
116
342
76
72
3
3
”
387
335
2
68
266
52
49
2
2
“
159
135

11
48
76
24
23
1
1

i
1
1
i
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
i
i

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

68.3
70.0

CD

67.1
71.5
59.1
60.0

CD
(1)
"
74.4
77.6

CD
75.8
78.0
58.7
60.3

CD
CD
“
56.8.
56.3

CD
57.8
55.3

CD
CD
CD
CD
"

Table C-5. Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by age,
presence and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1960
(Numbers in thousands)

Age of women by presence and age of own
children, race, and Hispanic origin

WHITE

1
|
1
1
1
i
1 Populas tion

i
1
1

i
1
|
|

Labor
force

Married, husband
present

Never married

Total women

Labor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

Popula- |
tion
1

Labor
force

Labor
force
partic­
ipation
rate

Popula- |
tion
|

Labor
force

La bor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

1
1
1

Total.....................................

38,810 |

50.9

14,689 |

9,429

64.2

45,181

|

22,286 |

49.3

No own children under 18 years.......
16 to 34 years......................
33 years and ov er...................

23,924 |
12,808 |
11,116 |

48.3
72.0
35.0

14,310 |
12,130 |
2,180 |

9,236
8,130
1,106

64.5
67.0
50.7

22,605 |
4,461 |
18,144 |

10,298 |
3,639 |
6,658 |

45.6
81.6
36.7

14,886 |
7,271 |
7,615 |

55.8
52.6
59.2

379 |
339 |
40 |

193
171
22

51.0
50.5

22,576 | 11,988 |
11,629 | 5,784 |
10,947 | 6,204 |

53.1
49.7
56.7

9,604 i
2,691 |
6,913 |

64.0
70.1
61.9

117
84
33

|
|
|

83
64
19

71.3
75.8

5,282
4,580
702

|
|
|

45.2
45.8
41.4

262
255
7

|
|
|

110
108
2

41.9
42.2

5,112

|

With own children under 18 years,
total..............................
16 to 34 years......................
35 years and over.......... ........

1

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger...........................
16 to 34 years....................
35 years and ov er.................

1

1

1

With own children under 6 years....
16 to 34 ye ar s....................
35 years and ov er.................

BLACK

1
1

1
i

a)

a)

12,341
2,923
9,418

|
|
|

7,544
1,950
5,593

|
|
|

61.1
66.7
59.4

10,235
8,707
1,529

|
|
|

4,444
3,834
610

|
|
|

43.4
44.0
39.9

1

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger. .......................................
16 to 34 years....................
35 years and ov er.................

1

i

1,538

49.4

3,413

|

2,014 |

59.0

2,449 | 1,188
2,185 | 1,051
264 |
137

48.5
48.1
51.8

1,493 |
255 |
1,239 |

760 |
190 |
570 |

50.9
74.7
46.0

2,421
1,420
1,001

|
|
|

62.0
62.8
61.0

665
562
102

|
|
|

350
301
49

52.7
53.6
47.8

1,919
1,053
867

|
|
|

65.3
66.5
63.9

|
|
|

66.4
75.4
61.8

240
163
77

|
|
|

158
119
39

65.7
72.9
50.4

988 |
265 |
722 |

674 |
210 |
463 |

68.2
79.2
64.2

|
|
|

56.9
56.9
56.6

425
399
25

|
|
|

193
182
10

45.3
45.7

932
787
144

|
|
|

580
490
90

|
|
|

62.3
62.3
62.5

1,098

2,345

|

1,082

1

With own children under 6 years....
16 to 34 years....................
35 years and over.................
1

3,113

1,027
882
145

With own children under 18 years,
total ................................. ..........
16 to 34 years ..................................
35 years and o v er ............................

52.1
45.5
52.4
40.1

1,393
538
856

No own children under 18 years ..........
16 to 34 years......................
35 years and ov er...................

|

2,691 |
1,356 |
1,335 |

Total........................ ............

HISPANIC ORIGIN

a)

(1)

|
|
|

1,254
700
554

1

Total......................................................

2,089 l

48.0

|

591

53.8

|

46.1

No own children under 18 ye ar s.......
16 to 34 ye ar s......................
35 years and over........ ...........

1,078 |
665 |
414 |

48.8
58.8
38.4

978 |
864 |
114 |

544
478
66

55.6
55.3
58.2

728 |
201 |
527 |

332 |
138 |
194 |

45.6
68.7
36.8

1,011 |
564 |
447 |

47.2
45.1
50.1

120 |
96 |
23 |

47
37
10

39.5
38.9
(i)

1,617 |
935 |
682 |

749 |
419 |
331 |

46.3
44.8
48.5

532 |
163 |
369 |

55.5
61.5
53.2

35 |
15 |
19 |

16
7
9

a)
a)
a)

693 |
179 |
514 |

374 |
108 |
266 |

53.9
60.6
51.6

479 |
401 |
78 |

40.5
40.7
39.4

85 |
81 I
4 I

31
30
1

36.4
37.2
a)

923 |
756 |
167 |

375 |
310 |
65 |

40.6
41.0
38.9

With own children under 18 years,
total..............................
16 to 34 years......................
35 years and over...................

1

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger...........................
16 to 34 years....................
35 years and ov er.................

1

1

1

With own children under 6 years....
16 to 34 years....................
35 years and over......... .......
1

1

See footnote at end of tableJ




31

Table C-5. Continued—Labor force and marital status of women 16 years old and over by
age, presence and age of own children, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
|
|
Age of women by presence and
age of own children, race,and Hispanic
origin

WHITE

Married, husband
absent

1
i
1
1
1 Popula- |
| tion
|
1
1
1
1
i
1
i
i
i
i

Labor
force

Widowed

Labor
force
partic­
ipation
rate

1
1
Popula- |
tion
|
1
1
1
1
1

Labor
force

Divorced

Labor
| force
| partic­
ipation
rate

1
1
Popula- |
tion
|
1
1
1
1
1

Labor
force

Labor
force
partic­
ipation
rate

1

2,076

|

1,253

60.4

9,296

|

2,070

|

22.3

4,990

|

3,772

75.6

No own children under 18 years........ 1
16 to 34 years....................... 1
35 years and over.................... 1

1,043
421
622

|
|
|

631
327
304

60.5
77.5
49.0

8,785
34
8,751

|
|
|

1,749
24
1,725

|
|
|

19.9
a)
19.7

2,791
748
2,042

|
|
|

2,011
688
1,323

72.1
91.9
64.8

With own children under 18 years,
total....... ........................
16 to 34 years.......................
35 years and over................

1
1

|

622
353
269

60.2
57.2
64.8

511
93
419

|
|

321
62
259

|

1

62.8
67.0
61.9

2,200
1,154
1,045

|
|

1

1,033
617
416

1,762
901
861

80.1
78.0
82.4

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger................... ........
16 to 34 ye ar s......................
35 years and ov er..................

1
1
1
1

534
161
373

|
|
|

364
116
249

68.2
72.0
66.6

453
57
396

|
|
|

294
47
247

|
|
|

64.9

a)

1,566
614
951

|
|
|

1,319
514
805

84.2
83.7
84.6

With own children under 6 years..... |
16 to 34 years..................... 1
35 years and ov er.................. I

499
456
42

|

258
237
21

51.7
52.0
a)

58
35
23

|

a)

|

(i)
a)

634
540
94

|

|
|

27
15
12

|

|
|

443
387
56

69.8
71.6
59.6

1

1

| .1,092

|

634

58.0

1,319

|

320

|

24.3

880

|

605

68.8

No own children under 18 ye ar s........
16 to 34 ye ar s....... ................
35 years and over....................

1
1
1

|
|
|

234
57
177

55.2
68.8
51.9

1,145
5
1,140

|
|
|

241
3
239

1
|

21.1
(i)
20.9

403
59
344

|
|
|

268
54
213

66.4
(i)
62.1

With own children under 18 years,
total...............................
16 to 34 years........ ........ ......
35 years and over...................

i
|
1

400
228
171

59.9
60.4
59.1

174
35
139

79
16
63

45.3

|
|

|

|

668
378
290

|
|

477
234
243

338
174
163

70.8
74.4
67.3

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger..................... ......
16 to 34 ye ar s.....................
35 years and over.......... .......

1
1
1
1

407
151
256

|
|
|

259
107
152

63.5
70.6
59.4

136
19
117

|
|
|

63
7
56

|
|
|

46.4

With own children under 6 years.... 1
16 to 34 ye ar s..................... 1
35 years and over...... ............ 1

261
227
34

|

141
121
20

54.1
53.6
a)

38
16
22

|

a)

|
|

16
9
7

|

|
|

1
|

Total................................ .

BLACK
Total.................. ...................

HISPANIC ORIGIN

1

1
|
1

1

425
83
342

i
|

|
|

|

1

1

|

i
|

62.4

|
|
1

1

1

|
1

1

1

1

1

a)
45.4

1
|

|
|
1

327
114
213

|
|
|

240
94
146

73.4
82.9
68.4

150
120
30

|

a)
a)

|
|

97
80
18

65.0
66.3
(i)

26.3

310

|

a)
47.9

l

1

1

307

|

139

45.3

291

|

76

201

64.7

No own children under 18 years........ 1
16 to 34 ye ar s........ .
1
35 years and over.................... 1

108
36
72

|
|
|

51
22
29

46.8
a)
a)

244
4
241

|
|
|

55
4
51

|
I
I

22.6
(i)
21.3

148
25
123

|
|
|

96
23
73

64.6
a)
59.5

With own children under 18 years,
total...............................
16 to 34 years.......................
35 years and over....................

1
1
1
1

199
123
76

I
|
|
|

88
49
40

44.5
39.6
52.5

46
12
34

1
|
|
|

21
4
17

|
I
I

(i)
a)
a)

162
83
78

1
|
|
|

105
55
50

64.8
65.8
63.8

With own children 6 to 17, none
younger............................
16 to 34 years......................
35 years and over..................

i
1
1
1

90
25
65

1
|
1
|

51
13
38

56.1
(1)
(1)

35
3
31

1
|
|
I

17
2
15

|
I

(i)
CD
a)

106
42
64

1
|
|
|

74
32
42

69.8
a)
(i)

With own children under 6 years....
16 to 34 ye ar s.....................
35 years and over..................

1
1
1
1

38
36
2

34.8
36.6
(i)

12
9
3

4
2
3

I
I
I

a)
a)
a)

56
42
14

31
23
8

a)
a)
a)

Total......................................

1Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.




108
98
10

|
|
|
1

32

|
1
1
1

|
|
|
1

Table C-6. SMumber of earners 16 years old and over and relationship by family income
in 1979; type of family and race, March 1980

(Numbers in thousands)

Number of earners and
relationship

ALL FAMILIES
Total ...................

1
1
1
1
1
1
|Total |
|
|Under |1,000
i
i1,000 | to
1,999
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
|59,9101
584 | 465

ARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES I

Income of family (In dollars)
1
1
2,000 |3,000 15, 000 |7,000 |10,0001 13 ,000| 15,000| 20,0001 25,0001 35,000| 50,000|Median
to
|
to 1 to 1 to | to 1 to | to 1 to | to | and
(family
2,999 |4,999 |6, 999 19,999 |12,9991 14 ,999| 19,999| 24,9991 34,9991 49,9991 over 1income
1
1
1
i
1
i
731 | 2,523

I

Total................... .
14 9,1321
No earners............. 1 5,559|
One earner............. |13,912|
Husband on ly......... |11,934|
Wife only............ 1 1,499|
Other relative only.. |
480|
Two earners............ 122,3591
Husband and w i fe.... |19,645|
Husband and other
1
1
relative........... 1 2,287|
Husband not an earner 1
4281
Three earners or more.. 1 7,301|
Husband and wi fe..... 1 5,950|
Husband an earner, not|
|
wife.............. . 1 1,1891
Husband is nonearner. 1
1631

,060| 5,119| 5,8441 3 ,561| 8,9581 8,551| 11,376| 6,067| 3,070|19,503
1

289
163
105
61
37
7
19
13
-

-

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
6 I
2 I
1 1
|
1 i

147
50
71
50
19
2
20
19

267
128
89
72
15
2
46
38

1

2
6
3
2

6
4
1

1

-

| 1,227|
|
670|
|
358|
|
264|
791
|
151
1
|
177|
|
153|
i
191
1
51
1
221
1
141
I
i
|
3|
|
5|

OTHER FAMILIES

1

1

1

I

3,5931
1 ,297|
1,344|
1,0431
2 4 41
571
8 741
755|

35J
9|
311
211

85|
331
781
591

51
51

17 |
1|

4,352|
926|
1,716|
1,391|
275|
511
1,533|
1,355|
122|
561
1771
139|

2 ,805|
3901
1,059|
852|
160|
48|
1,219|
],101|
841
341
1371

112|

23 1
151

201
5|

7,6341
4561
2,5951
2,2851
2331
761
3,9991
3,574|
343|
811
5851
4741
861

251

7,642|
252|
2,223|
1,9701
1611
91|
4,275|
3,8311

10,5681 5,782| 2,936|21,545
163|
971
4 8 | 8,855
2,1601
887 |
686)18,073
1,9761
829|
666|18,850
109|
331
16|12,527
751
251
4 117,072
6,084| 2,692| 1,099123,474
5,360| 2,2991
867123,308
i
364|
6441
365|
222|26,361
801
801
281
9 |18,957
892| 2,161| 2,107| 1,103132,958
7 3 4 1 1,8131 1,749|
829|32,811
1
1341
312|
3281
258|34,725
241
15|24,964
361
301

1

Maintained by m e n 1

1
,8891
917|
618|
475|
116|
271
32 2 1
279|

1

Total.....................
No earner........ .
One earner, total......
Householder only.....
Other relative only..
Two earners or more,
total........ .......
Householder and other
relative(s)........
Householder is
nonearner..........

1 1,769|
1
225|
1
788|
1
634|
1
1541
1
1
1
7551
1
1
1
710|
1
1
1
451

Maintained by w o m e n '

1

Total........... .........
No earner...............
One earner, total......
Householder only.....
Other relative only..
Two earners or more,
total................
Householder and other
relative(s)........
Householder is
nonearner..........

|
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
|

WHITE

1

1

19
8
10
10
-

2 1

1

2 1
-

-

|
|
1
|
I
|

1

i

27
18
9
7
3

|

-

i

1
9,009|

2 ,084|
4,3911
3,4551
9361
1
2,5341
1
2,246|
1
288|

270
209
59
46
13

|
|
|
|
|

298
166
127
99
28

1061
301
611
491
1 |

178|
461
931
74
191

15|

391

201
1

151

2|

-

i

236|
321
132|
108|
241

117|
9|
68|
501
171

266|
171
1341
95
401

2261
7|
971

721

401

1151

123|

169|

143|
21
361
291
7|
1
105|

361

701

40|

1001

120|

158|

100|

3|

3|

-

1

151

881

9|

31

255|
4|
821
72)
101

HI

2 I

6

2 1

6

-

i

-

53|22,936
1
49123,001
i
31 (2)

5|
1

437
255
161
130
31

| 1,201 1,065| 1,3491 1,2571
l
6301
352|
20 4 1
121)
|
597|
8901
495|
791|
|
422|
479|
7371
649|
741
119|
152|
142|
I
1
22 |
75
345|
115|
255)
1
18 |
661
2181
3201
911
1
101
241
4 |
381
251

638| 1,0581
441
381
348|
503|
2451
388|
102|
115|

6831
441
2271
1581
68|

5531
131
1551
801
75|

142|
81

-

23

246|

5171

412|

384|

111
1 |
1
nil

229|

459|

380|

3331

881

581

321

511

231

171

5 9 | 9,719
| 4,245
151 9,513
101 9,181
6111,157
43116,937
1
36|16,889
1
7 |17,316
1

1
470 |

290

421 | 1,775| 2 ,3361 4,1921 4,997| 3 123| 8,0571 7,803|10,466| 5,671| 2,933|20,388

254
138
98
57
34
7
17
10

124
37
61
42
17
2
20
19

209
95
73
62
9
2
38
30

1

Total...................... 144,7661
No earners............... 1 5,150|
One earner............... |12,7851
Husband on ly.......... 111,061|
Wife only............. 1 1,2901
Other relative only... 1
434|
Two earners............. 120,1681
Husband and wife...... 117,6801
Husband and other
1
1
relative............ 1 2,135|
Husband not an earner. 1
353|
Three earners or more... | 6,663|
Husband and wife...... 1 5,4171
Husband an earner, not 1
1
wife................. 1 1,1141
Husband is nonearner.. 1
132|

951
351
381
301
71
1
22|

1

1

Total ..................... |52,534|

ARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES

|
|
|
1
1

25
18
5
2
2

1
1
1
1
75116,533
- 1 7,241
2 2 |14,347
20114,436
3|14,089

1

i

-

-

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
6 1
2 1
1 1
|
1 1

1

2
6

6
4

3

-

1

2
1

-

| 1,0191 1 605| 3,1681 3,8881 2 524]
8881
|
5751
818| 1,221|
381|
954|
|
2791
500| 1,1431 1,5531
8971 1,2651
7731
|
388|
211|
2401
57 |
881
2021
140)
1
111
24
441
491
411
1
7341 1 ,302| 1 080|
|
148|
2591
|
1261
2221
633| 1,1601
9831
1
171
301
741
1031
721
1
51
71
1
28|
40|
261
|
171
281
109|
69
1441
201
101
501
111|
881
l
1
|
21
171
221
51
19|
51
31
121
3|
1
1|

6,9491
443|
2,4261
2,1411
210|
741
3,580|
3,192|
319|
68|
5001
4031
741
2 |

7,0291
2471
2,098|
1 ,873|
144|
811
3,8991
3,4981
334|
661
7851
645|
1221
181

9,768| 5,425| 2,806|21,881
961
481 9,160
163|
666|18,569
2,066|
868|
1,891|
8131
646|19,283
16112,989
1021
311
7 |
2 |
4 117,576
5,5721 2,4751 1,043|23,726
4,8891 2,1031
815|23,523
1
219|26,867
619|
3451
64
271
9119,288
1,050|33,494
1,966| 1,986|
788133,333
1,650| 1,6461
1
249|35,363
2871
316|
281
241
14)24,870

OTHER FAMILIES

1

1

1

1

Maintained by men'

1

1

1

1

Total......................
No earner................
One earner, total.......
Householder only......
Other relative only...
Two earners or more,
total.................
Householder and other
relative(s).........
Householder is
nonearner...........

Maintained by w o m e n '
Total......................
No earner................
One earner, total.......
Householder o n ly......
Other relative only...
Two earners or more,
total........ ........
Householder and other
relative(s).........
Householder is
nonearner...........

1 1,467|
1
190|
1
647|
1
520|
1
127
1
1
1
630|
1
1
1
590|
l
1
1
401
1

6,302|
1,299|
3,100|
2,415|
68 4 1
1
1,903|
1
1,716|
1
187
1

|
|
1
1
1

16
6
9
9
-

2 1
-

i

1

-

|

-

1

2 1

19 |
11 1
9 1
7 |
2 I

|

-

i

731
30
271
20
71
1
161
1
151
1
2|

2271
17
117|
861
311

1941
71
871
791
8|

231|
41
7 |
6 |
10|

49|

331

931

100|

151|

871

4 |

331

821

971

141|

831

111

31

91

51

881|
361
430|
3241
106[

5791
391
1971
135|
631

468|
131
138|
691
701

12 3 1
81
231
11|
121

188)

415|

343|

316|

92|

1801

3791

317|

2721

751

141|
361
721
571
1 |

141

321

141

30|

1

3|

3|

655|
2201
3701
2971
73 1

8 8 41
1581
574)
4721
102|

934|
99|
591|
484|
106|

499|
291
281|
1981
831

651

1521

2441

531

1351

230J

"

192
109
75
68
7

|
|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|
|

151
79
69
53
15

2 1

3

8 I

2 1

3

7

198
159
37
30
7

|

1 1

683|
348|
2991
2651
341
1
35
1
291
1
6|

175|
32)
941
751
191

"

1

124(
21
341
271
71

-

7 2 117,518
| 8,111
21|15,518
18|15,952
3 11A ,423
1
5 2 |23,738
1
48|23,816
1
31 (2)
1

55|11,291
- 1 4,722
15|10,641
10|10,137
6|12,924
1
40|18,058

1
121

1

See footnote at end of table.



100|
91
571
421
151

771
231
401
331
71

1

1

|
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1

18
13
3
2

33

171

141

8|

361

261

4 |

171

3 4 l17,895
1
5119,772
1

Table C-6. Continued— Number of earners 16 years old and over and relationship by fam ily
income in 1979; type of family and race, March 1980

(Numbers in thousands)1

Number of earners and
relationship

B L A C K
Total.....................

1
1
1
(Total
|
1
1
I
I
i
i
i

1
1
1
|
|Under
11,000
1
i
i
i

i 6,238|

MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES 1

Income of family (In dollars)
|
1
|1,000 |2,000
,000 |5 ,000
| to | to | to | to
11,999 |2,999 |4 ,999 |6 ,999
1
1
1
1
1

90 |

161 |

295 |

1

To ta l..................... | 3,436|
No earners............. 1
3421
One earner......... .
|
9 0 41
Husband only......... 1
673|
Wife only........
1
190|
Other relative only.. 1
401
Two earners............ 1 1,731|
Husband and wife..... 1 1,546|
Husband and other
1
1
relative........... 1
120|
Husband not an earner 1
651
Three earners or more.. 1
4591
Husband and w i f e ..... 1
391|
Husband an earner, not|
|
wife.......
1
501
Husband is nonearner. 1
181

690|

1
|7 ,000
| to
|9 ,999
1
1
1
1

657|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
|10,000|13,000|15 000|20,000|25,000|35,000|50,000|Median
1 to 1 to 1
:o | to | to | to | and |family
|12,999|14,999|19 ,999|24,999|34,999|49,999| over lincome
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

838|

729|

376|

761|

1
22
16
4
2
2
2
2

|
|
I
1
I
|
1
I

16
8
8
6
2
-

|
I
I
I
I
|
|
|

51
27
15
9
6
8
8

I
|
|
1
1
|
I
I

-

|
|
|
|

-

|
|
|
|

-

|
|
|
|

-

|

-

|

-

|

“

1

-

1

-

i

1

l

1

1

1

184|
90|
671
441
191
4|
241
241
i
- |
- |
3|
2|
1
1|
- 1

241|
801
103|
7 |
271
3|
5 |
49|
1
5|
2|
3|
1|
1
- |
2|

360|
621
170|
121|
361
121
119|
105|
1
91
5|
8|
8|
1
- |

232|
91

5 6 41
91
139|
116|
211
2|
350|
314|
i
241
13|
65|
591
1

i

386|
351
136|
100|
341
21
189|
157|
1
171
151
271
221
1
2|
31

-

861

621
181
6|
ini
96|
i
7|
8|
261
24
1
- |
21

61

-

i

600|

701|

2841

L

1

476|
5|
101|
7 |
1 1
8|
2901
255|
1
241
10|
801
68|
1
101
2|

604|
- |
56|
481
7|
2|
405|
379|
i
1 |
121
143|
121|
1
17|
51

2471
- |
13|
10|
11
2|
150|
133|
i
161
|
841
741
1
8|
21

57|U,490

1

OTHER FAMILIES

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Maintained by men'

1

I

i

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

l

To ta l.....................
No earner........ ......
One earner, total......
Householder only.....
Other relative only..
Two earners or more,
total................
Householder and other
relative(s)........
Householder is

1
1
1
l
l
i
1
1
1
1

265|
301
126|
99
271
i
1091
1
1031
1

1 |
4|
HI
10|
- |
1
41
1
41
1

271
6|
1 |
141
5|
1
2|
1
21
1

291
9|
151
121
3|
i
5|
1
51
1

521
- |
351
30|
5|
i
18|
i
1 |
1

|
10|
71
3|
i
61
1
6|
1

381
- |
181
9|
91
i
201
i
171
1

281
- |
81
71
1|
1
201
i
20|
i

221
- |
3|
3|
- |
1
181
i
161
1

191
|
21
2|
- |
1
171
1
171
1

Maintained by women'

1
I

1
I

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

487|
269|
181|
142|
39|
1
36|
i
33
1
3|
1

389|
126|
215|
172|
431
i
481
i
361
i
121
i

4491
45|
303|
254|
481
i
101|
1
811
1
201
i

290|
1 |
181|
151|
30|
i
93|
i
821
1
111

128|
15|
62
44
181
1
52|
1
45
1
7|
. L
.

159|
- |
70|
61|
9|
1
901
1
69 1
1
211
i

961
5|
28|
221
6|
i
63|
1
58|
i
5|
i

1
51116,988
H 5,734
4111,778
4 |12,375
- 110,225
- 1 (2)
28|20,114
24|20,359
i
3|19,669
- 1 (2)
19|26,181
12|25,922
1
51
(2)
21
(2)

3
2
1
1
-

I
i
1
|
|

-

|

-

|

3
2
2
2
-

1
I
I
I
|

8 I
7 |
1 |
- |
1 |

-

|

-

|

-

|

-

|

16
-

1
1

-

-

To ta l.....................
No earner...............
One earner, total......
Householder only.....
Other relative only..
Two earners or more,
total........
Householder and other
relative(s)........
Householder is
nonearner..........

1 2,537|
1
7461
1 1,212|
1
9751
1
237|
1
1
1
580|
1
1
|
484|
1
1
1
96
i
- i

141
84
56
43
12

|
l
1
|
|

237
142
81
59
22

|
|
I
|
|

65
43
22
16
5

|
|
|
|
|

-

|

2 I

13 |

-

|

2 I

11 |

-

|

|

3 I

-

11ncludes only families where householder Is a divorced, separated, widowed,
or never-married person.




34

i

-

7 |
|
141
101
5|
i
611
1
541
i
6|
1

2Median not shown where base is less than 75,000.

181
|
|
|
|
1
18|
i
13|
i
5|
. i

-

-

2 |12,119
1 (2)
2 | 11,059
2|10,929
1 (2)
1
|20,167
1
120,297
i
1 (2)
1
1
3 | 6,722
| 3,680
| 7,473
| 7,609
| 6,788
1
3|12,872
1
1112,912
i
2 |11,981
1

©©©graphic Profile of Employment and Unemployment,, 1981
Here, in a single easy-to-use volume, are
complete pictures of the labor force in four
Census regions and nine divisions, all 50
States, 30 large metropolitan areas, and
11 central cities. The data report on the labor
force by race, sex, age groups, occupation,

The following BLS regional
offices will expedite your
order:

Order form

industry, full- and part-time status, reasons
for unemployment, and reasons for part-time
work. The volume includes charts, a description
of sampling and estimation procedures, and
sampling errors.

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9th Floor
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Chicago, IL 60604
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911 Walnut Street
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_________________________ ________________________________________________________

BLS Handbook of Methods

1982 Edition, Volume I*

© Labor force, employment, and
unemployment

© Negotiated wage and benefit
changes

BLS statistics are used for many
purposes, and sometimes data
well suited to one purpose may
have limitations for another. This
Handbook aims to provide users
of BLS data with the information
necessary to evaluate the
suitability of the statistics for their
needs. Included are program
descriptions for:

© Occupational employment
statistics

© Employment Cost Indexes
© Productivity measures

© Consumer expenditures and
income
© Producer Price Indexes

© Occupational safety and health
statistics
0 Economic growth studies

© International Price Indexes
^Volume II, a detailed explanation of methods
used to prepare Consumer Price Indexes, is
in preparation.

© Occupational pay and
supplementary benefits

1603 JFK Federal Bldg.
Boston, Mass, 02203

1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Bldg.
Dallas, Tex. 75202

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036

The following BLS
regional offices will
expedite orders.

9th Floor
Federal Office Bldg.
230 Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

P.O. Box 13309
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You may also send your
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U.S. Government Printing
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Bureau off Labor S tatistics
Regional O ffices

Region S
V
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Regions V S and VIII
S
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region S
i
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region SS
S
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Region S
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Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761