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76th Congress, 1st Session - House Document N o. 377

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R ST A TIS TIC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner

M an u al on In dustrial-Injury




Statistics
Prepared by
MAX D. KOSSORIS
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bulletin ?<[o. 667

U N IT E D S T A T E S
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
W A S H IN G T O N : 1940




CONTENTS

Page

L etter of transmittal_______________________________________________
P reface _______________________________________________________________
C hapter 1.—Purpose of the manual____________________________________
C hapter 2.—-Administrative statistics__________________________________
Volume of cases handled_____________________________
Disposition of cases__________________________________
Compensation awards and agreements________________
Controverted cases___________________________________
Time lag—-reporting and first payment________________
Time intervals in controverted cases__________________
Lump-sum settlements_______________________________
Comparative geographical records____________________
Medical costs________________________________________
Legal costs___________________________________________
C hapter 3.—-Compensation statistics___________________________________
Closed cases, by extent of disability__________________
Location of injury and extent of disability____________
Nature of injury and extent of disability______________
Nature and location of injury_________________________
Weekly wages and sex of injured_____________________
Weekly wages and compensation paid_________________
Age, sex, and extent of disability_____________________
Industrial injuries to minors:
Need for factual data____________________________
Need of comparison between sexes and with older
age groups_____________________________________
Suggested age groupings_________________________
Recommended tabulations_______________________
C hapter 4.—-Accident statistics________________________________________
Agency and extent of disability_______________________
Agency, agency part, and extent of disability_________
Accident type and extent of disability________________
Industry and accident type___________________________
Agency and accident type____________________________
Unsafe act and extent of disability____________________
Unsafe act and industry_____________________________
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition and extent of
disability__________________________________________
Agency and unsafe mechanical or physical condition _ _
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition and industry.
Unsafe act and type of accident_______________________
Type of accident and unsafe mechanical or physical con­
dition______________________________________________
Unsafe acts and unsafe personalfactors________________
C hapter 5.— Extent of disability_______________________________________




in

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IV

CONTENTS
Page

C hapter 6.-—Report forms____________________________________________________
Report of industrial injury________________________________
Need for adequate injury reports___________________
Details of report form________________________________
Obtaining complete information_____________________
Final report and settlement receipt______________________
C hapter 7.— Classifications and codes— 'general_____________________________
Administrative_____________________________________________
Report lag_____________________________________________
Payment lag__________________________________________
Compensation:
Extent of disability___________________________________
Nature of injury______________________________________
Location of injury____________________________________
Dependency___________________________________________
Conjugal condition and sex__________________________
Time employed in occupation in which injured in
employer’s establishment__________________________
Miscellaneous codes_______________________________________
C hapter 8.— Industry and occupation.classifications_______________________
Industry classification_____________________________________
Classification by industry divisions_________________
Classification by major industry groups____________
Detailed industry classification______________________
Code for occupation of injured workers__________________
Classification of occupations_________________________
C hapter 9.— Accident cause factor classification and codes________________
Purpose of classification___________________________________
Definition of accident_____________________________________
The accident and its causal factors______________________
Definitions of accident factors____________________________
Examples illustrating accident cause analysis___________
Agency and agency part:
Rules for selection____________________________________
Classification by major groups______________________
Classification by major and secondary groups_____
Detailed classification:
Machines:
By type--------------------------------------------------------Alphabetical list____________________________
Pumps and prime movers_______________________
Elevators_________________________________________
Hoisting apparatus______________________________
Conveyors________________________________________
Boilers and pressure vessels____________________
Vehicles__________________________________________
Animals__________________________________________
Mechanical power transmission apparatus____
Electric apparatus_______________________________
Hand tools_______________________________________
Chemicals________________________________________
Highly inflammable and hot substances_______
Dusts_____________________________________________




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CONTENTS

V
Page

C hapter 9.— Accident cause factor classification and codes— Continued.
Agency and agency part— Continued.
Detailed classification— Continued.
Radiations and radiating substances___________
Working surfaces, n. e. c________________________
Miscellaneous agencies__________________________
Agency unclassified— insufficient data_________
The unsafe mechanical or physical condition:
Rules for selection____________________________________
Classification by major groups______________________
Detailed classification________________________________
Accident type:
Rule for selection_____________________________________
Classification_________________________________________
The unsafe act:
Rules for selection____________________________________
Classification by major groups______________________
Detailed classification________________________________
Unsafe personal factor:
Rule for selection_____________________________________
Classification by major groups______________________
Detailed classification________________________________
_
C hapter 10.— frequency and severity rates and disability distribution_
Frequency and severity rates___________________________
Disability distribution___________________________________
A ppen d ix A.— Tabulating card_______________________________________________
A ppend ix B.— Employer-record card_________________________________________
A p pen d ix C.— Accident-cause statistics and accident prevention in Penn­
sylvania_____________________________________________________




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Letter o f Transmittal

U n it e d S t a t e s D

epartm ent

B ureau

of

of

L abor,

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

W a sh in g to n , D . C ., N o v em b er 1 5 , 1 9 3 9 .
The S e c r e t a r y of L a b o r :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a Manual on IndustrialInjury Statistics, prepared by Max D. Kossoris of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

I sa d o r L u b i n , C o m m issio n e r .

Hon.

F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,




S ecreta ry o j L a bor.
V II




PREFACE

Administrators of workmen’s compensation acts are well aware of
the multitude of problems which they must continually face in carry­
ing out their duties. The proceedings of their meetings and their dis­
cussions clearly indicate the great variety of vexing questions that
confront them. Increasing recognition is being given to the fact
that adequate statistics, based largely on the reports required for the
administration of workmen’s compensation acts, can be of great as­
sistance by pointing the way for informed action.
The primary purpose of this Manual is to make available to ad­
ministrators and their statistical staffs simple and practical methods
of statistical procedure. It goes without saying that these procedures
can be effective only in the hands of trained personnel provided with
adequate facilities.
Compensation laws, even at best, do not fully compensate injured
workers or their dependents for wages lost, to say nothing of loss of
life and limb. By far the largest number of injuries can be prevented
if the causes of accidents are known. Efficient accident prevention
can be promoted by administrators of workmen’s compensation laws
by prescribing types of reports to be submitted in cases of industrial
injuries which can be used in analyzing accident causes. Useful forms
into which accident-cause statistics can be cast are suggested in this
Manual. The appendix contains a description of how the data have
been developed specifically for the use of factory inspectors in one
State.
Those familiar with developments in the field of accident reporting
will appreciate the contribution of the American Standards Associa­
tion, especially through its Sectional Committee on the Standardiza­
tion of Methods of Recording and Compiling Accident Statistics,
under the chairmanship of Dr. Leonard W. Hatch; its Subcommittee
on Definitions and Rates, for which Dr. Hatch likewise served as chair­
man; and the Subcommittee on Cause Classification, under the chair­
manship of Mr. H. W. Heinrich. Without the notable reports of
these two subcommittees an important section of the present Manual
could not have been written.
In the development of the Manual, assistance was received from an
advisory committee consisting of Dr. Leonard W. Hatch, former
member of The Industrial Board, New York Department of Labor;




IX

X

PREFACE

Mr. H. W. Heinrich, Assistant Superintendent, Engineering and In­
spection Division, The Travelers Insurance Company; Dr. E. B.
Patton, Director, Division of Statistics and Information, New York
Department of Labor; Mr. A. Z. Skelding, Actuary, National Council
on Compensation Insurance; Professor S. B. Sweeney, Director, In­
stitute of Local and State Government, University of Pennsylvania,
and formerly Director, Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, Penn­
sylvania Department of Labor and Industry. The members of the
committee functioned as individuals and not as representatives of the
organizations with which they were connected. They are not to be
held responsible for the points of view expressed in this Manual on
which indeed there was some difference of emphasis or opinion. On
one thing, however, they were all and always in agreement— that in
the field of workmen’s compensation and accident prevention, statistics
could and should be useful tools towards practical ends.
Acknowledgment is also made of the valuable assistance of the late
Dr. A. D. Lazenby, Chief Surgeon of the Maryland Casualty Com­
pany, in the preparation of the data bearing on medical costs, and of
Miss Miriam Noll of the Children’s Bureau of the United States
Department of Labor, in the shaping of the material dealing with
injuries to minors. Mr. S. W. Wilcox, Chief Statistician of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, supervised the preparation of the manu­
script.
I sad o r L u b i n ,
C o m m is sio n e r o j L a b o r S ta tistics.

N

ovem ber




1939.

Bulletin 7\[o. 667 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

M anual on Industrial-Injury Statistics
Chapter 1.— Purpose of the Manual
The number of workers killed at their jobs during 1937 was more
than 4 times the number of soldiers killed during the entire Revolu­
tionary War. In addition to the 17,800 fatalities during 1937, 112,000
workers were permanently maimed and about 1,500,000 more tem­
porarily disabled. The wage loss, medical expense, and insurance
costs for the year have been estimated at about $660,000,000.1 The
incidental cost of these accidents— counted in terms of spoiled mate­
rials, damage to equipment, production loss, time lost by fellow work­
ers, cost of training new workers to replace those injured, etc.— is
estimated at about $1,600,000,000.2 The total cost of occupational
accidents for this single year, by no means a high spot in industrial
employment, may therefore be placed at over $2,000,000,000.
This cost of human life, limb, health, and money was as unwar­
ranted as it was staggering. Competent safety engineers are con­
vinced that more than half of all industrial accidents are practically
preventable, and any number of instances can be cited where intelli­
gent safety work has effectively decreased accidents and injuries in
industrial establishments.
The experience of a select group of iron and steel establishments
from 1913 through 1936 may be cited as one example. In 1913, for
every million employee-hours worked, 60 workers were either killed,
crippled, or temporarily disabled. By 1935, persistent and intelligent
safety work had reduced this ratio to about 6 such injuries per million
hours worked. In other words, over this sp a n o f y e a r s , the fr e q u e n c y
o f disabling in ju r ies w as reduced a p p ro x im a tely 9 0 p e r ce n t . For every 10
disabling injuries in 1913, only 1 occurred in 1935. (See chart, p. 2.)
In the petroleum-refining industry, the frequency rate of disabling
industrial injuries was cut to less than half the 1929 rate during the
comparatively brief period of 6 years. In 1930, the rate was 31.36.
By 1935 it was 10.46— a decrease of nearly 67 percent. There is no

1 Based on the National Safety Council estimate of the following losses: Wages, $510,000,000; medical
expense, $40,000,000; and overhead cost of insurance, $110,000,000.
2 Four times the estimated cost of $400,000,000 for compensation payments, insurance overhead, and medi­
cal services.




1

2

M A N U A L ON IN D U S T R IA L -IN J U R Y STATISTICS

question that careful, continuous, and comprehensive safety work
had much to do with this result.3
The shore establishments of the U. S. Navy, which engage in a large
variety of industrial activities, had a frequency rate of industrial
injuries of 20.32 in 1926. By 1932, this rate had been reduced to

FREQUENCY RATES FOR DISABLING INJURIES
IN A SELECT GROUP
OF IRON AND STEEL ESTAB LISHM EN TS
frequency

RATES

BY CAUSES OF INJURIES

freq uency

RATES

10.50, and by 1935 to 5.17. During this period safety work had de­
creased the frequency rate by nearly 75 percent. For every 4 disabling
injuries per million employee-hours in 1926, only 1 occurred during
1935.3
Similar figures could be cited for cement manufacturing, the public
utilities, automobile manufacturing, and a large number of other
industries. Of the membership of the National Safety Council,
several thousand firms reduced their disabling injuries by about 55
percent between 1927 and 1936. The Council has estimated that

3 Monthly Labor Review, March 1938, pp. 579-594: Industrial Injuries and the Business Cycle.




PURPOSE OF T H E

MANUAL

3

safety work has been largely responsible for the saving of 270,000
lives during the period 1913 to 1936. That accidents can be prevented
therefore appears to be beyond dispute.
The problem of prevention ties in closely with the administration of
workmen’s compensation. Broadly speaking, the basic philosophy of
workmen’s compensation embodies: (1) Care for the injured worker
during his disability, including both medical services and compensation
benefits; (2) the utmost restoration of the injured worker’s vocational
ability; and (3) the prevention of occupational injuries.
In some States workmen’s compensation agencies not only admin­
ister the workmen’s compensation law, but also formulate safety rules
and enforce them. In most of the States, however, safety work is
carried on as a separate activity, and often by a separate agency
within the State department of labor. But no matter what their
organizational structure may be, the agencies administering the
workmen’s compensation laws are in a position to contribute greatly
toward the elimination of industrial injuries to workers. They have
the authority to require the reporting of the causes which set in motion
the train of events which finally result in bodily injury, and conse­
quently are in a position to determine and analyze the accident-cause
factors and to pass this information on to the department or agency
concerned with accident prevention. Adequate information must
precede intelligent action.
Too often statistics have been attacked as “ bulky and ill-arranged
tomes” serving no practical function. Also the charge cannot be
overlooked that the compilers of such statistics often are ignorant
of the real nature of the material and problems with which they have
to deal, and that they are unable to select and classify facts and to
show their significant characteristics in an intelligible and interesting
manner. Whatever the justification of such charges may be, it must
be admitted that one major difficulty is the lack of a statistical tech­
nique flexible enough to meet the limitations, whether budgetary or of
personnel, of the workmen’s compensation administrations. The
problem, to a considerable extent, involves the adoption of proper
standards.
Statistics in themselves, it will be generally conceded, make dry
reading. Their primary function, however, is to furnish, not reading
material, but facts which may be utilized for intelligent and informed
action. For administrators of workmen’s compensation it is believed
that statistical facts are desirable along three directions: (1) The vol­
ume of work handled, the speed with which it is handled, and the
difficulties which cause delay; in short, facts concerning the efficiency
of administration; (2) the practical functioning of the medical and
benefit provisions of the law; i. e., how the law affects injured workers;
(3) the incidence and causes of accidents.




4

M A N U A L ON IN D U S T R IA L -IN J U R Y STATISTICS

The material in the Manual has been organized around these three
focal points. In the chapters which follow, suggestions are given
of the type of statistical tables to be developed, the codes to be utilized
for this purpose, and the objectives for which the statistical material
can be used.4 In the appendix specific illustrations are given of
significant practices in some of the States.
The techniques and codes suggested throughout the Manual are
flexible enough to meet the limitations or the needs of the individual
State administrations. The methods suggested can be carried through
on several levels of statistical activity, each more detailed than the
one preceding. The purpose of this device is to permit agencies
with limited facilities to operate on the most generalized and least
detailed level, while others, having the necessary staff and equipment,
may wish to carry their work into greater detail. Even such groups,
however, may not in all instances care to carry their work to the
greatest detail indicated, either in the coding process or in the pres­
entation of their reports. Where possible, it is urged that the
greatest amount of detail be coded so as to provide the data when
wanted. A person familiar with the codes will find that coding in
greater detail will not be much more of a task than limiting it to a
more general level.

4 This Manual is a successor to Bulletin No. 276, Standardization of Industrial Accident Statistics, pub­
lished by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1920. Bulletin No. 276 was the outgrowth of 5 years of work
by a committee of 13, having among its members such outstanding pioneers in the field of workmen’s com­
pensation as E. H. Downey, Leonard W. Hatch, and Carl Hookstadt. Although Bulletin No. 276 embod­
ied the most advanced and comprehensive thinking of the period, there has been so much progress since
then as to make desirable the development of a publication which reflects present standards and thinking.
In 1920, experience with workmen’s compensation in the States dated back scarcely a decade. During the
19 years which have elapsed since then, some of the conclusions and suggestions of the committee have
proved to be as sound in 1939 as they were in 1920, while others have become impracticable because of
subsequent developments.




Chapter 2.— Administrative Statistics
Managers of private business establishments are vitally interested
in data concerning their volume of production, the efficiency with
which this volume is produced, and the weak points in their opera­
tions which reduce efficiency and increase costs. Administrators of
workmen’s compensation laws also want to know the volume of work
handled by their administrations, the type of cases decided, the
problems involved, the speed with which the work is handled, the
quality of the work as reflected by decisions on appealed cases, and
the weak spots which slow down efficient operation.
The tables presented in this chapter have been built around this
idea. Some of these tables are believed to be more important than
others, and deserving of priority. They have therefore been labeled
“ priority.” Others are intended to give information which, though
valuable and desirable, is not so essential and in some States is too
well known to require study. Tables in this second group do not
carry the label “ priority.”
Needless to say, the number of tables and the scope suggested are
not exhaustive. Some agencies may find it desirable to go beyond
them. Other administrations, particularly those with small case loads,
may not feel the need for all of them. It is believed, however, that
the tables marked “ priority” are desirable for every administration,
regardless of size, while those not so marked provide a group from
which the various administrations can choose as their needs dictate.
Volum e o f Cases Handled

Table 1 presents a simple bookkeeping device for indicating the
volume of cases handled during a year or month, or any other period
of time. If the cases pending at the beginning of the year and the
number of cases received during the year are added, the total volume
to be acted upon is obtained. By deducting the number of cases dis­
posed of during the year, the amount of unfinished business at the
end of the year is determined. If more work is pending at the end
than at the beginning of the year, then obviously the pace must be
quickened. Table 2 presents the same table adjusted to the keeping
of monthly data.




5

6

M A N U AL ON INDUSTKIAL-INJUKY STATISTICS

T able

1.— Volum e o f cases handled 1

From

Disposition of compensation cases

--------- to

-

,

Priority

19

Pending
Pending at Received Total (cols. Disposed at end of
beginning during
1 and 2) of during year (col. 3
year
of year
year
— col. 4)
4
3
1
%
5

Cases handled:
(а ) Without adjudication 2___ _____
(б ) Through adjudication—
By referees or arbitrators 3____
By commissioners_____________
By courts________ ______ .
1 The data can be compiled by months or any other period of time, but the dates shown should be included
in the period.
2 If such cases are verified as to adequacy of payment, this fact should be stated in a footnote.
3 Or examiners, if performing the same function. Item to be omitted if cases are heard directly by com­
missioners.
N o t e . —Do not total columns vertically, as the same case may be handled by each of the groups shown
under (b).
T a b l e 2 .— Volum e of cases handled
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

CASES WITHOUT ADJUDICATION
Compensation
cases

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct Nov. Dec. Year

At beginning_____
Received_________
T o ta l.__ _
Disposed of_ __
Pending_________
CASES ADJUDICATED BY REFEREES i
At beginning_____
Received_____ __
Total _ _ __
Disposed of ____
Pending ________
CASES ADJUDICATED BY COMMISSIONERS
At beginning_____
Received___ __ _
Total- _____
Disposed o f _____
P ending__ _____
CASES ADJUDICATED BY COURTS
At beginning.____
Received. _ __ __
Total _____
Disposed of ____
Pending ____ ____
i Or arbitrators or examiners, depending on the terminology of the particular State. Where cases are
heard directly by commissioners, this part of the table is to be omitted.




AD M IN ISTRATIV E STATISTICS

7

The methods of claim settlement found in the various jurisdictions
present a considerable variety in processing the reports of industrial
injuries. These methods, briefly, may be summarized as follows:
(1) Agreement system: This method requires the filing of an agree­
ment for every compensable injury which does not require a decision
by the administrative agency to settle a controversy. Agreements so
filed, however, may or may not be examined for the adequacy of the
terms agreed to, so as to safeguard the rights of injured workers or their
dependents. Agreement cases should be shown as handled “ without
adjudication.” If the agreements are scrutinized by the compensation
administration, this fact should be indicated in a footnote (for instance,
this footnote might read: “ Every agreement submitted has been
checked by the board for accuracy” ), and the cases should be included
in column 4 as “ disposed of during year.”
(2) Direct settlement system: Under this system cases involving
no controversy may or may not be examined for adequacy of payment.
In some jurisdictions, final-settlement receipts which show the basis
of settlement are required to be filed with the administrative agency.
In other jurisdictions no such reports are required. But even where
such reports are filed, they may or may not be verified. Where veri­
fication does occur, it should be so noted in a footnote, because this
involves additional work which should be recorded. The footnote
applies to cases “ handled without adjudication” and should be related
to column 4, “ cases disposed of during year.”
(3) Hearing system: Only one jurisdiction uses the system under
which a hearing is provided automatically for every compensable injury
of more than a minor character. In this instance, the phrase “ without
adjudication” could be changed to “ hearings not appealed from,” and
the phrase “ through adjudication” to “ appeals from referee decisions.”
(4) Court administration: Under court administration, as a rule,
no accessible records exist of the majority of cases settled outside of
court. Where records of claim agreements are filed with courts for
approval, they are usually rubber stamped by the clerk who examines
them for the signature of the proper parties. Jurisdictions operating
under court administration may find it more difficult to compile accu­
rate, adequate statistics, which can be put to practical use.1
A d ju d ic a ted cases may involve hearings before referees, examiners,
or arbitrators, and decisions by these officials in turn may be subject
to review by commissioners. In many jurisdictions, particularly those
with small case loads, there are no referees or examiners, the commis­
sioners hearing cases directly. In such instances, the phrase “ by
referees or arbitrators,” or its equivalent, is to be omitted.

i Attention is called to the fact that there is a growing advocacy of the keeping of administrative statistics
by courts.
159726°— 40------2




8

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

In the United States jurisdictions, decisions by commissioners (or in
the case of the U. S. Employees’ Compensation Commission, by referees)
are subject to court review. Table 1 provides for keeping account
of the work of the courts, a relatively simple process because the admin­
istrative agency is always one of the parties involved in the suits
before the courts as one of the contesting parties.
Disposition o f Cases
Table 3 carries the analysis of the volume of work completed during
the year one step farther, and shows how the work was disposed of.
For the cases which were compensated, the number of cases and the
amounts of compensation paid, agreed to, or awarded are to be
shown. For the cases not compensated, a break-down is furnished to
indicate that these cases received no compensation either because the
period of disability did not exceed the waiting period, or for some
other reason. For jurisdictions which require the reporting of all
disabling injuries, whether compensable or not, and there are a con­
siderable number of such jurisdictions, it is important to know the
volume of noncompensable cases reported. Even if nothing further
is done with the reports than to scrutinize them to make sure that on
the basis of the information submitted they represent in fact non­
compensable injuries, they do represent a heavy volume of work
which should be recognized. Further, they are important in case the
question of shortening the waiting period arises. And finally, they
are very important in reflecting a fuller measure of the occurrence of
disabling injuries, regardless of the legal waiting period. In the
examination of accident causes, these noncompensable cases offer the
possibility of a clearer and more comprehensive conception of the
hazards involved. In the final analysis, it is often a mere matter of
chance that an accident results in a minor rather than a major injury.
A falling box may just as easily fracture a skull as bruise a hand, and
the one or the other may be a matter of only seconds or inches. The
hazard, however, is the same.
By far the largest number of cases, aside from those not com­
pensated, are usually disposed of without any formal hearing. It is
important, however, to indicate just what is included in the term
“ disposed o f” in this connection. In one jurisdiction, a case may be
considered disposed of if an agreement has been reached by the
parties concerned as to the amount of compensation involved. In
other jurisdictions, a case is not considered disposed of until a final
receipt has been filed.




ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

T able

3. — D isposition o f cases

9
Priority

F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Cases compen­
sated
Disposition of compensation cases

Cases not compensated 1—

Total, all
Because
cases
not ex­
Num­ Amount ceeding For other Total not
of com­
compen­
ber pensation waiting reasons 2 sated
period

Cases disposed of:
(а ) Without adjudication 3________
(б ) Through adjudication—
By referees or arbitrators. ___
By commissioners 4_______ _
By courts________ ____ _____
By decision of commission or board—
Upheld_______________________
Modified __ ___ __ _ ___
Reversed___ _ ______ ____
1 M eans no compensation paym ent even though medical aid m ay have been furnished.
2 Subject to further elaboration; m ay be subdivided.
3 Specify that closed cases have been verified, if that is the case.
4 Or members of board or commission handling appeals.
N ote .—D o not total columns vertically, as the same case m ay be handled by each of the groups shown
under (6).

It is, therefore, essential that the basis on which cases are considered
“ closed” be definitely specified in a footnote to the table. For
instance, the footnote for Pennsylvania, an agreement State, could
indicate: “ Table based on agreements approved by the Bureau of
Workmen’s Compensation” ; or, in the case of Illinois, a direct settle­
ment State: “ Table based on cases in which payments were verified
as correct by the Industrial Commission.”
In that part of the table dealing with court decisions, provision is
made for indicating whether such decisions upheld, modified, or
reversed the decision of the administrative agency.
Compensation Awards and Agreements

Another measure of the volume of work disposed of is furnished in
table 4, which shows by extent of disability the number of cases, and
the costs of benefits and services. The definitions of the five clas­
sifications of extent of disability are given in chapter 5. The item
of temporary partial disability may be omitted where not applicable.
The distinction between compensation awards and compensation
agreements or settlements is quite obvious— the former indicates a
hearing and decision on the part of some officer of the administration
and applies only to contested cases, while the latter indicates that
there was no such hearing. Whether the term “ agreement” is used
or “ direct settlement” depends, of course, on the practice prescribed
by the law or by the administration.




10

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

T able

Priority
4 .— Com pensation awards and settlements
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Extent of disability
Death:
No dependents ____ _
With dependents_____ _
Permanent total__ ___ ___
Permanent partial____
.
Temporary total __ _______
Temporary partial—- _____
Total-- __ --------------

Number of Compen­
cases
sation
$

Medical
$

Burial
$

Other
$

Total
$

Com pensation agreements or direct settlements 1
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Extent of disability
Death:
No dependents __ ______
With dependents_______
Permanent total____ ___ _ _
Permanent partial.__ ___ _
Temporary total— ____- —
Temporary partial- _ _
Total,— -------_

Number of Compen­
cases
sation
$

Medical
$

Burial
$

Other
$

Total
$

i Specify which, and omit the inapplicable.
—All dates shown for the period covered are to be included in the period. This rule should be
observed in all tables giving dates.
N ote .

No detail is shown for the number of dependents in death cases,
but this may easily be added if desired.
As in the case of table 1, this table may be compiled either on an
annual or monthly basis.
Controverted Cases

An analysis of controverted cases should serve at least three pur­
poses: (1) To show the frequency with which certain types of issues
are raised, so that the number of controversies may be curtailed by
adequate provisions in the compensation law itself or by the formula­
tion of specific rules by the administrative agency; (2) to indicate
who initiates the controversies before the administration; and (3) to
give the outcome of these controversies.
It is not unusual for a case to involve more than one issue. In such
instances it is suggested that the case be classified on the basis of the
major issue involved. The detail suggested is given in table 5.




Priority

T able 5 .— Issues in controverted cases
F r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Action started by—
Issues controverted

Injured or Self-insured Insurance
dependents employer company

Outcome of controversy
Decision for—
Case compromised
Case dropped by—
Injured or Employer or Without After hear­ Injured or Self-insured Insurance
dependents employer company
hearing
ing
dependents insurance
company

N ote .—Where more than one issue was controverted, tabulate the case according to the major issue. If, for instance, the issues raised were coverage by the act and average
weekly wage, the major issue is coverage by the act. If that issue is decided against the employee, the average weekly wage is not material.




ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

Coverage by act______ ______________ .
Industry... . ____ ... ________ ______
Occupation ... . . . ____ _______
Establishment size._____________________
Disease______ _________ _________ __ _
Causal relation. ... _ ... _____ _______ _
Extraterritoriality______ ______ _ ... ..
Interstate or intrastate commerce._____ _ .
Admiralty________ ______ ________
Others. _____ ... ________ _____
Notice of injury___ _ _ __________... _
Illegal employment.. _ ______ _____ _
Average weekly wage___ _
Extent of disability _. _____ __ ______
Need for medical treatment. _ _____
Need for artificial members, teeth, etc__..
Extent of disability_____________________
Termination of disability. _ _ ____
Dependency______ _
_ ________
Statute of limitation. ... _ _ . . . . . . .
Others. _ _. ___________________ _____

12

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Where the board or commission sets attorney’s fees, it may be
desirable to add three additional columns: (1) Amount of compensa­
tion awarded; (2) amounts of attorney’s fees, and other hearing costs;
and (3) net amount remaining for worker. The question of attorney’s
fees is important and deserving of special attention and study, for
ultimately these fees come out of the compensation paid to injured
workers. Some additional suggestions concerning attorney’s costs
are given subsequently.
Tim e Lag— Reporting and First Payment

It is important for the administrative body to know how promptly
disabling injuries are reported to it. There are several reasons for
this: (1) It enables the administration to bring about compliance with
the legal reporting requirements; (2) it enables the administration to
establish contact with the injured worker soon after the injury and
to advise him of his rights; and (3) the administration may make
clear to him soon after the injury that in the absence of controversy
there is no need to engage an attorney, and that he can save himself
the cost of attorney’s fees by writing for advice directly to the ad­
ministration. Table 6 was developed to show the promptness with
which insurance carriers or employers report industrial injuries to the
administration. The report lag is the time interval between the date
of the onset of disability and the date on which the report was filed
with the administration. This latter date is generally stamped on
the report when it reaches the office and consequently is readily
available. Needless to say, there can be added to the list of insur­
ance carriers a list of self-insured employers, and, if desirable, the
insurance carriers can be grouped as stock or mutual concerns.
This type of table, particularly if sent to the home office of insur­
ance carriers, has proved very effective in stimulating prompt report­
ing. It will be noted, however, that this table is not labeled “ pri­
ority,” indicating that, although desirable, it is not considered
essential.
Table 7 shows for first benefit payments the same information as
does table 6 for reports. The time lag of payments is important, for
promptness of benefit payments is an essential of workmen’s compen­
sation, and consequently an item which competent compensation ad­
mins trators watch carefully. The reason this table is not marked
“ priority” is because not all jurisdictions can compile it, owing to the
fact that a considerable number do not require the filing of first
receipts or any other information as to the first payment. Agencies
which have the data are urged to compile this table.




T a b l e 6.—

Time lag in reporting inju ries to workm en’ s com pensation board
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Number of reports filed within periods shown after onset of disability 1 Percentage of reports filed within periods shown after onset of disability1
Insurance carrier

XInsurance C o __ . ___ ___ .

AO

100

m

m

150

60

Total

800

Less 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks
than 7 less than less than less than less than and
2
6
over
3
4
days

5.0

12. A

1

1 The time periods may require adjusting to the provisions of workmen’s compensation act in the particular jurisdiction.




25.0

31.8

18.8

7.5

Total

100.0
ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

T otal____ _

Less 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks
than 7 less than less than less than less than and
4
6
over
days
2
3

CO

T able 7.— Time lag in making first com pensation paym ent
From----------- to------------ , 19—

Number of first payments made within periods shown after onset of
disability 1

Y Insurance Co __________

Less than 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks
less
less
less
and
less
2 weeks than 3 than 4 than 6 than 8
over

n

75

125

175

150

50

Total

600

Less than 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks
less
less
less
less
and
2 weeks than 3 than 4 than 6 than 8
over

12

12.5

Total. ____ . . _____
1 The time periods may require adjusting to the provisions of the workmen’s compensation act in the particular jurisdiction.




20.8

29.2

25.0

8.S

Total

100.0

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Insurance carrier

Percentage of first payments made within periods shown after onset of
disability 1

ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

15

Tim e Intervals in Controverted Cases

Two of the basic principles of workmen’s compensation are (1)
prompt medical attention and (2) prompt payment of compensation
benefits. In most compensation cases no dispute arises as to either
of these two services, and such cases can be disposed of by routine
handling. But where an employer denies all liability, or denies that
the medical services or compensation benefits in the amount claimed
by an injured employee are justified, the speed with which these
controverted issues are decided forms an important criterion of the
efficiency of workmen’s compensation administration.
The agency administering workmen’s compensation wants to know
at what points its machinery fails to function so as to insure speedy
rulings in controverted cases. Table 8 gives the structure of a statisti­
cal compilation showing at what points delays occur— whether between
the date of disability and filing of a claim, in which instance the
delay may not be the fault of the administrative agency; whether
between the filing of the claim and the first hearing; whether between
the date of this hearing and the date of the decision; whether between
the date of appeal and the decision of the reviewing board or commis­
sion, etc. Some delay, of course, must always occur. The question
therefore becomes one of how m uch delay there is, and at what p o in ts
of administration it occurs. By distributing the delay in terms of
time periods, it is possible to obtain quickly a picture of the situation.
If desirable, and in most instances it will be, there may be substituted
for the general classifications of referees and commissioners the names
of the individual officials concerned. Once the points at which undue
delays occur have been determined, it should not be difficult to deter­
mine the reasons for these delays and to take measures toward reducing
them.

T a b l e 8 .—

Time intervals in controverted cases

F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Time elapsed between date of—

2
1
2
3
4
6
Less weeks,
than 2 less month, months, months, months, months, Over 1
less
less
less
less year
less
weeks than 1 than 2 than 3 than 4 than 6 than 12
month

Disability and filing of claim_______
Filing claim and first hearing. _ _ ...
First hearing and making of award __
Appeal from award and hearing in
review ____ _______ _______
Hearing in review and award ...
Appeal to court and trial.
__
Court trial and court decision______
N o t e — Table can be expanded to include appeal to and decision by appeal bodies or courts. Depend­
ing on methods of insurance allowed, data can be tabulated by insurance carriers, self-insured, and State
funds.




16

M AN U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

The table is not suggested for priority because agencies with small
numbers of controverted cases may be so well aware of what causes
undue delays that no such tabulation is necessary, except, perhaps, to
demonstrate efficient handling or the short-handedness of the admin­
istration. Even such administrations, however, may find it desirable
to use this tabulation as a periodic check on their own performances.
Lump-Sum Settlements

During the last two decades there has been considerable discussion
pro and con as to the desirability of granting lump-sum settlements.
Recent studies have indicated the desirability of approving few such
settlements, and then under conditions that will guard against
squandering or unwise investment.2 In any case, the agency ad­
ministering workmen’s compensation may be interested in an analysis
of the reasons for which lump-sum settlements have been approved.
In some States, as in Illinois, the analysis of lump-sum settlements is
highly important in safeguarding the rights of injured workers, be­
cause the law provides that such settlements bar any future reopening
of these claims.
Table 9 suggests a convenient form for statistical data bearing on
this point. It provides not only for a tally of the number of applica­
tions made and the number approved and denied, but also the reasons
for which these applications are made. The table, although not
marked for priority, is of great significance and is strongly recom­
mended.
T able 9.—L u m p - s u m
From

s e ttle m e n ts

--------- t o ----------,

Reason for settlement given in
application
Compensation accrued_____________ _ _
To pay debts. _ __ ____ ___________
To go into business_______
____ _
To buy hom e________________ _ _
To take care of family’s needs. ________
For rehabilitation. _ _ _ _ _ _ ____
As compromise settlement, etc____ _ _ _
Others ___ ________________________
Total.......................................................

19

Applications
Number

Amount
$

—

Approved
Number

Amount

Number
denied

$

N ote.—If a settlement is approved for more than one reason, classify according to major reason, i. e.,
the one for which the largest part of the sum is allocated.
2 For instance, see Vocational Rehabilitation and Workmen’s Compensation, by Carl Norcross of the
Rehabilitation Division, New York State Education Department, New York, 1936. An abstract of this
publication appears in the Monthly Labor Review for December 1936 (pp. 1364-1369), under the title
“Lump-Sum Settlements in Workmen’s Compensation in New York.”




ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

17

Comparative Geographical Records

The discussion on administrative statistics would not be complete
without some attention to the problems of geographical performances
and comparative costs which are encountered in some jurisdictions.
In New York State, for instance, the administration of the workmen’s
compensation law is decentralized, with a regional office serving each
of five districts. Administratively, it is important to know how the
work progresses in each of these areas; whether, for instance, the
New York office operates at a slower tempo than the Albany office,
etc. To provide such comparisons, it is necessary to compile tables
for each district in addition to those for the State as a whole. As for
the relative cost of operation, the total cost of operating each office
can be compared easily with the case load handled, thus providing an
average cost per case for each district.
Medical Costs

It is recognized that medical-cost data (including cost of hospitali­
zation, drugs, etc.) have a bearing on compensable-injury costs gen­
erally, and that such data should provide the key to administrative
action regarding adequacy and quality of medical benefits. Medicalcost data have additional significance because of the light they can
throw on debated questions concerning the freedom of choice of
physicians by the injured worker. Is medical cost higher when the
injured worker chooses his own physician than when the carrier selects
and furnishes the physician? Is the period of recovery shorter when
he is treated by the physician of the insurance carrier or of the em­
ployer rather than by the physician of his choice? Still another
question is: Are medical costs rising faster than compensation benefits,
and if so, why?
The answers to these and similar questions are by no means simple.
They are complicated by differences due in some instances to the
qualifications which different industries require of injured workers
before reemploying them at their regular occupations. A man with
a healed arm fracture may be able to go back to work much sooner in
an industry requiring little physical strain than in one requiring
heavy muscular exertion. The seasons and general climatic differ­
ences exert similar influences. A doctor may not hesitate to pronounce
a worker with a healed leg fracture fit to return to work when there
is no danger of falling on ice, but he may well hesitate to do so in
February, when that danger exists. Similarly, there would be little
danger in returning such a man to work in Florida during March,
while it might be more desirable in Maine to wait several weeks longer




18

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

so as to remove the danger of slipping on ice and breaking the leg
again.
Nevertheless, it is possible to provide statistical data which can
throw considerable light on the problems of medical costs. Tables
10 to 13 are suggested as means toward this end. Table 10 provides
for major types of injuries classified according to the part of the
body affected and for an analysis of average cost per case, both medi­
cal and compensation, as well as the average healing period.3 It
may show, for instance, that for a given year the average medical
cost for arm fractures, not complicated by infection, was $155; that
the average compensation cost was $500; and that the average healing
period was 12 weeks. If the law limits medical costs to a maximum
of $100, then clearly it falls short of meeting this situation. If in a
given case the healing period is stated as 3 weeks and the medical
fee as $20, whereas the compensation ran to $500, then on the face
of it the medical service appears to have been inadequate, and the
case may require a thorough examination. On the other hand, if
the amount of compensation is $500, and the healing period is shown
to have been 20 weeks and the medical cost $250, then on the face
of it the medical treatment appears to have been excessively pro­
longed. A detailed check may prove this to be so, or may reveal a
severe, slowly healing compound fracture. But, in any case, the
data provide a yardstick by which to measure costs in individual
cases.
It would be a simple matter to provide for a ratio of medical to
compensation costs. This ratio has been omitted deliberately because
it serves no particular purpose in the analysis of the figures of any
given year, and is likely to mislead if used for a comparison of costs
over a series of years. If the time period, for instance, covers one or
more depression years, then the ratio may reflect an increase in medi­
cal cost, whereas in fact there may have been no such increase at all,
but a decrease in the average amount of compensation because of
the lower wage of the injured workers. In fact, there may even
have been a decrease in the average amount of medical cost, and the
ratio may still show an increase if the average compensation cost de­
creased more sharply than the medical cost. It is therefore suggested
that all comparisons be made in terms of the average costs themselves,
rather than in the medical-compensation ratio.

3 Individual jurisdictions may wish to make some changes in the items enumerated. For instance, it may
be found desirable to group together fractures with and without infections as “fractures,” and then to pro­
vide for “burns and scalds without infection” and “burns and scalds with infection.”




19

ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

T able

10. — Average com pensation and medical costs, by nature and location o f
in ju ry 1
F rom ,----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Nature and location of injury
Am putation (surgical or traum atic)—
W ithout infection:
Eye (enucleation)_____________________________
A rm ___________________________________________
H and__________________________________________
Fingers________________________________________

Num ber
of cases

Average cost per case
Compen­ M edical
sation
$

Average
healing
period
(days)

$

Toes______________________________________
With infection:
Eye (enucleation)__________________________
Arm______________________________________
Hand_____________________________________
Fingers____________________________________
Leg-----------------------------------------------------------Foot______________________________________
Toes______________________________________
Burns and scalds__________________________________
Cuts, lacerations, punctures, abrasions—
Without infection______________________________
With infection_________________________________
Strains,3 sprains, bruises—
Shoulder______________________________________
Arm__________________________________________
Elbow________________________________________
Wrist_________________________________________
Hand_________________________________________
Fingers_______________________________________
Back_________________________________________
H ip__________________________________________
Knee_________________________________________
Leg----------------------------------- -----------------------------Ankle_________________________________________
Foot---------------------------------------------------------------Toes__________________________________________
Other_________________________________________
Fractures—
Without infection:
Skull______________________________________
Spine_____________________________________
Ribs, breastbone, shoulder blade, collarbone__
Arm, above elbow__________________________
Elbow____________________________________
Arm, below elbow__________________________
Wrist_____________________________________
Hand_____________________________________
Fingers (including thumb)__________________
Leg, above knee____________________________
Knee______________________________________
Leg, below knee____________________________
Ankle_____________________________________
Foot______________________________________
Toes_________ ____________________________
Other_____________________________________
With infection:
Skull______________________________________
Spine_____________________________________
Ribs, breastbone, shoulder blade, collarbone__
Arm, above elbow__________________________
Elbow____________________________________
Arm, below elbow__________________________
Wrist_____________________________________
Hand_____________________________________
Fingers (including thumb)__________________
Leg, above knee____________________________
Knee______________________________________
Leg, below knee____________________________
Ankle_____________________________________
Foot______________________________________
Toes______________________________________
Other_____________________________________
Hernia___________________________________________
Industrial disease__________________________________
Nature of injury, n. e. c____________________________
1 If this includes compensable cases for which the total am ount of com pensation due is known, this fact
should be indicated in a footnote.
2 N ot including hernia.
N ote .—If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries w ith and without infection,
the nature of injury classifications are to be shown sim ply as am putation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.




20

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

The averages themselves, however, are open to objections. Obvi­
ously, there may be a considerable range between the figures included,
and for any given nature of injury and part of body affected a hun­
dred instances of medical fees of $150 per case will outweigh 200 cases
at $50 per case. Table 11 has been prepared to show the range of
medical costs in terms of convenient dollar intervals, which jurisdic­
tions may vary to suit their needs. It may be found, for instance,
that for a given nature of injury and part of body affected, a very
heavy concentration occurs within a very narrow dollar range, say
from $10 to $15. In such instances it may safely be concluded that
any marked deviations from this cluster, such as a medical fee of
$75, requires looking into. If, on the other hand, the clustering
occurs in a wider range, say between $25 and $100, medical charges
falling within that range probably would not require detailed check­
ing. A medical fee of $200, however, would require such checking.
Table 11 should be used as a check on the significance of the average
medical costs shown in table 10.
T able

11.— D istribution o f medical costs by nature and location of in ju ry 1
From — ------ - t o ----------- , 19— .

Total

Distribution of cases by medical cost
Aver­
Nature and location of injury
age cost Less $10, $15, $20, $25, $50, $100, $150, $200
less less less less less less less
Cases Cost per case than than than than than than than than and
$10 $15 $20 $25 $50 $100 $150 $200 over
Amputation (surgical or trau­
matic)—
Without infection:
Eye (enucleation) _ __
Arm__ ___ __ __ _ .
Hand __ ___ __ __
Fingers ____________
Leg-------------------------Foot_________
T o e s._______ - ___ _
With infection:
Eye (enucleation) _
Arm.- _ Hand _____ _ __
Fingers, __
_
Leg--------------------------Foot
__ ________
Toes________________
Burns and scalds___
Cuts, lacerations, punctures,
abrasions—
Without infection___ _
With infection, _ _
Strains,2 sprains, bruises:
Shoulder—. ____ _ ___
Arm___ _ ___
Elbow __ ___________
Wrist. _ _____________
Hand _ __ _ _ _ _ ___
Fingers
_ ___ __ _
Back. __ ______ _ _ ___
Hip _ ________ _ _ _ _
K n e e .___ _________ _
Leg-------------------------------Ankle____ __ _ _ ___
Foot__________________
Toes..
_______ _
Other _ ___ ______ _
See footnotes at end of table.




$

$

21

ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

T a b l e 11.—

D istribution o f medical costs by nature and location of in ju ry — Con.
F r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Total

Distribution of cases by medical cost

Aver­
Nature and location of injury
age cost Less
Cases Cost per case than
$10
Fractures—
Without infection:
Skull________________
Spine
_ ...
Ribs, b r e a s t b o n e ,
shoulder blade, col­
larbone. __ _____ _
Arm, above elbow. _
Elbow_________ _____
Arm, below elbow _
Wrist_______ __
Hand ______________
Fingers (including
thumb) ___________
Leg, above knee__ __
Knee____ _ _ _
Leg, below knee... _
Ankle____________ _
Foot. __ ____ ... _
Toes____ ____ _ _
Other. ___ . _ ..
With infection:
Skull________________
Spine _
Ribs, b r e a s t b o n e ,
shoulder blade, col­
larbone________
Arm, above elbow..
Elbow. ... _______ _
Arm, below elbow.
Wrist_______ __ _ _
Hand.. ______ .
Fingers (including
thumb)
.. .
Leg, above knee
Knee _ . . .
Leg, below knee______
Ankle __ . . .
Foot _
Toes_______ _
Other _ _ . ______
Hernia __ ______ ___ ___
Industrial disease __
__ _
Nature of injury, n. e. c _ ___

$

$10, $15,
less less
than than
$15 $20

$20, $25,
less less
than than
$25 $50

$50, $100, $150, $200
less less less and
than than than over
$100 $150 $200

$

1 If this includes compensable cases for which the total amount of compensation due is known, this fact
should be indicated in a footnote.
2N ot including hernia.
N ote.—If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries with or without infection, the
nature of injury classifications is to be shown sim ply as amputation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.

Considerable differences may exist in the liberality of insurance
carriers, whether private or State fund, in connection with medical
costs. Some may follow the enlightened policy of being liberal with
medical costs, because adequate medical care will minimize the cost of
compensation and will create good will toward the employer. Others
may feel that medical cost should be rigidly curtailed and held to a
bare minimum. Table 12 is suggested for developing significant
information bearing on this point. The insurance carriers (including
State funds) and the self-insured can be listed on the left-hand margin,
and the average cost of compensation and medical cost per case can
be shown for each of the nine types of injury. Aside from summarizing




to
to

T able 12.— Com pensation and medical costs, by nature o f in ju ry and individual insurance carriers
F r o m -----------t o -------------, 19—

Average cost per case, by nature of injury 1

Strains, 2
sprains,
bruises

Fractures
without
infection

Fractures
with
infection

Hernia

Industrial
disease

Nature of
injury,
n. e. c.

ComComComComComComComComComComCompen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­ pen- Med­
sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical sa- ical
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

1 If this includes compensable cases for which the total amount of compensation due is known, this fact should be indicated in a footnote.
2 N ot including hernia.
N ote .—If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries with and without infection, the nature of injury classifications are to be shown sim ply as amputation,
burns and scalds, cuts, etc.




M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-IN JURY STATISTICS

Insurance carrier

Cuts, lac­ Cuts, lac­
Amputa­ Amputa­
erations, erations,
tion (sur­ tion (sur­
gical or
gical or Burns and punctures, punctures,
abrasions abrasions
traumatic) traumatic) scalds
with
without
without
with
infection infection
infection infection

23

AD M IN ISTK ATIVE STATISTICS

the medical-cost experience of each carrier, the table permits a com­
parison by carriers. If the experience of any one of them appears to
be significantly out of line, it may be advisable to make for that
individual carrier a break-down according to tables 10 and 11, and then
compare these tables with those for the entire group. If the clusters
are significantly above or, what is more important, below the average
for the group, a further examination into the actual medical practices
of the carrier may be in order.
The discussion thus far has dealt with both medical and compensa­
tion costs, and obviously was restricted to compensated or compen­
sable cases in which compensation payments either had been completed
or, if uncompleted, had been definitely determined. But cases where
the period of disability was not sufficiently long to be compensable
also, as a rule, involve some medical expense. Table 13 is suggested
for tire compilation of this information, as well as to permit compari­
son with the medical cost of compensated cases. The data are to be
shown for each type of nature of injury. For such items as amputa­
tions and fractures, there will be, of course, very few cases under the
noncompensable group.

T able

13.— M edical costs o f compensated and uncom pensated cases, by nature of
in ju ry
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Compensated cases 1
Nature of injury
Amputation (surgical or traumatic)—
Without infection_____ __ ______
With infection___ ____ _____
Burns and scalds._ ______ __ ______
Cuts, lacerations, punctures, abrasions—
Without infection _ __________
With infection_________ ___________
Strains,2 sprains, bruises
_ ________
Fractures—
Without infection... _ ____ ____
With infection_______ ___ _______
Hernia___ _____________ ___ _____
Industrial disease----------- ---------------- _
Nature of injury, n. e. c------------- -----

Uncompensated cases

Total Average
Total Average
medical
medical
Number medical cost per Number medical cost per
cost
cost
case
case
$

$

$

$

1 If this includes compensable cases for which the total amount of compensation due is known, this fact
should be indicated in a footnote.
2 Not including hernia.
N ote .—If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries with and without infection, the
nature of injury classifications are to be shown simply as amputation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.
Although the items shown under “ nature of injury” are described
in detail in chapter 7, a few words are pertinent here as to the reasons
for the selections and groupings suggested in tables 10 to 13. Where
several types of injuries have been grouped, the injuries are similar.
There is relatively little difference, for instance, between cuts,, abra159726°— 40------ 3




24

M A N U A L ON IN DU STRIAL-INJU RY STATISTICS

sions, punctures, and lacerations. Similarly, from a medical view­
point, strains, sprains, and bruises fall essentially into similar cate­
gories. There are important differences, however, in the severity
of the injury and the length of the healing period when injuries to
body tissue are complicated by infection. In cases of amputation,
the infection may follow the traumatic or surgical amputation, or it
may be the cause for a surgical amputation. Fractures not com­
plicated by infection will, on the whole, involve shorter disability
periods than fractures complicated by infections. The basic emphasis
on the nature-of-injury items, therefore, has been the presence or
absence of infection.
The body locations shown under the nature-of-injury items have
been selected because they occur with sufficient frequency to be
shown. Body locations not shown are involved less frequently, but
may be added, if desirable, by use of the location-of-injury code in
chapter 7.
Legal Costs

In the discussions at the annual meetings of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions the
problem of legal fees and how to control them has been raised fre­
quently. In some States the administrators of workmen’s compen­
sation laws have set definite maximum amounts an attorney may
collect— such as 10 percent of the award, but not to exceed a total of
$100, in Wisconsin. In other States the commission or board has the
authority to set the fees, but in some jurisdictions only at the request
of the party engaging the attorney. And in still other States, the
commissions have no authority to do anything about legal fees, even
if they want to. But whatever the situation, many jurisdictions are
concerned over the problem, partly because they want to be informed,
partly because they want to know whether or not some degree of
control over fees is necessary and how to determine what are proper
fees in related or similar instances, and partly because they wish to
recommend legislative changes. Unlike medical cost, legal fees
come out of the pocket of the injured workers engaging the attorneys
and therefore decrease the net amounts they obtain for their injuries.
Tables 14 and 15 are suggested for the compilation of data which
should be of considerable assistance concerning the problem of legal
fees. Table 14 provides for each classification by extent of disability




25

ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS

the total amount and the average amount of compensation awarded,
as well as the total legal costs and the average legal cost per case. The
column showing legal fees as a percentage of compensation may be
found valuable in gaging individual charges. Legal fees are often
charged on the contingency basis, and the objections to the use of the
ratio urged in connection with medical costs do not hold here with
equal force. In many instances the percentage an attorney may
charge bears little relation to the amount of legal service performed.
A case involving a small amount of compensation may involve con­
siderable legal work, while, on the other hand, a case involving a large
amount of compensation may require very little legal work. That
absence of direct relationship is not true of medical costs. The use of
the ratio in this table and for purpose indicated therefore appears to be
proper.

T able

14.— Com parison o f legal fees and com pensation1
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Extent of disability
All cases, total, _ ___ _ _
Fatal______________________
Permanent total, _________
Permanent partial.
Temporary total
,_ _ __
Temporary partial________

Compensation

Number of
cases

Total
$

Legal fees

Average per
case
$

Total
$

Legal fees
as percent­
age of com­
Average per pensation
case
$

1 Covers only cases in which the injured was represented by an attorney or other agent to whom a fee
was paid.
Table 15 is suggested to show by a distribution of compensation
awards the total legal cost for each of these award groups, the average
fee per case, and also the legal fee as a percentage of compensation.
This table disregards extent of disability and is based entirely on the
amount of compensation awarded. As in table 14, the ratio shows the
percentage of the total award which the injured worker on the average pays out in legal fees. Individual fees can be measured against
the average per case for each of the compensation groups in order to
determine whether or not it is in line, and the percentage ratio can be
used to judge whether or not the entire fee structure is reasonable or
unreasonably high.




26

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

T able

15.— Com parison of legal fees and amount of com pensation award 1
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Amount of compensation award
Under $100____________________________
$100 to $199____________________________
$200 to $299____________________________
$300 to $399____________________________
$400 to $499____________________________
$500 to $599____________________________
$600 to $699____________________________
$700 to $799____________________________
$800 to $899____________________________
$900 to $999____________________________
$1,000 to $1,999_________________________
$2,000 to $2,999_________________________
$3,000 to $3,999_________________________
$4,000 to $4,999_________________________
$5,000 to $5,999_________________________
$6,000 to $6,999_________________________
$7,000 to $7,999_________________________
$8,000 to $8,999_________________________
$9,000 to $9,999_________________________
$10,000 to $14,999_______________________
$15,000 to $19,999_______________________
$20,000 to $24,999_______________________
$25,000 and over________________________
Total.

Legal fee

Average
amount
Number of awarded
cases
or agreed
upon
$

Legal fee as
percentage
compen­
Total Average per of sation
amount
case
$

$

1 Covers only cases in which the injured was represented by an attorney or other avent to whom a fee
was paid.




Chapter 3.— Compensation Statistics
This chapter is designed to provide for the presentation of data por­
traying the results of the workmen’s compensation act in actual prac­
tice. The objectives of these statistics may be enumerated as follows:
(1) To show how much has been paid, or has been awarded or agreed
to be paid, for compensable injuries; (2) to show compensation by
industry, type of injury, wage, age, and sex of injured, and in general
to indicate the incidence and extent of disabling injuries; (3) to per­
mit an analysis of the law in actual operation, i. e., just what the va­
rious provisions of the law mean in actual application; (4) to make
possible intelligent recommendations for changes in the act and to
provide the data from which the monetary cost of such changes can
be reasonably estimated, and consequently to permit intelligent appli­
cation of known facts to such problems.
Some of the table outlines in this chapter are also labeled “ priority.”
Among the tables not so labeled are those giving detailed cost break­
downs. These tables are actually preferable to those marked “ priority”
and covering the same subject matter, but are not so labeled only
because a considerable number of jurisdictions do not have the cost
information necessary to compile them. But nearly every jurisdic­
tion— except most court administrations— should be able to prepare
the “ priority” tables. Although these tables are simpler, the detailed
cost tables are more valuable. It is suggested that jurisdictions having
the data and the necessary staffs and equipment compile the detailed
tables, and that jurisdictions not so well situated compile the “ pri­
ority” tables.
As already indicated, there is considerable variation (see ch. 2) as to
the meaning of “ closed cases.” Whatever the basis for determining
when cases are considered “ closed,” pains should be taken to explain
what it is. This can be done by the addition of an explanatory foot­
note to each table presenting such material. For instance, in a State
using the direct-settlement system, this footnote might read, “ Closed
cases are those for which final receipts were filed during the year and
approved by the workmen’s compensation board” ; or in an agreement
State, “ Closed cases are those for which agreements were filed with the
workmen’s compensation board during the year and approved by the
board.” Other language will readily suggest itself for varying prac­
tices, but no m atter vjhat the p ra ctice , it should be clearly stated. In the
absence of such identifying material, the statistics of the various juris-




27

28

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

dictions may be subjected to incorrect comparisons and unjustifiable
conclusions.
In a considerable number of the tables shown in this chapter the
term “ compensation” is used. The term is intended to cover the total
compensation benefits paid by the time the cases are closed. In a
direct-settlement State, for instance, the amount to be tabulated would
be the total compensation paid in the cases closed during the year,
and not the compensation actually paid during the year. If, for in­
stance, a case is closed in which a total of $1,500 was paid, then the
amount of compensation to be shown is $1,500, even though only a
fraction of that total was actually paid in the year in which the case
was closed. In a jurisdiction using the agreement method, the amount
of compensation to be shown may be the total amount agreed upon.
If final receipts are requested, it is possible to use these as the basis
for closing cases. If this is done, the procedure will be the same as
for direct-settlement jurisdictions.
The statistical codes pertaining to the tables in this chapter will be
found in chapter 7.
Closed Cases, by Extent o f Disability

Tables 16, 17, and 18 give the number of injuries which resulted in
the specified types of disabilities shown. The terms used— death,
permanent total, permanent partial, temporary total, and temporary
partial— are standard, and definitions of them will be found in chapter
5. The column on noncompensable injuries is included so as to com­
plete the accident picture by giving the number of disabling injuries
which do not exceed the waiting period; provided, of course, the juris­
dictions enforce legal requirements for the reporting of such cases.
The number of noncompensable cases is important from the compen­
sation angle when considerations for shortening the waiting period
arise. Where it is not possible to obtain accurate and comprehensive
reporting of such cases, statistics based on them must be used with
caution.
Table 16 calls for the number of cases under each of the various
types of disability, by industry. Table 17 carries the analysis into
greater detail by showing, not only the number of such cases, but also
the total benefit costs. In table 18 these costs are given in still more
detail— compensation cost, medical and hospital cost, and funeral
cost for death cases. In permanent total and permanent partial
disability cases, the medical and hospital cost is to include the cost of
artificial appliances. Logically, tables 17 and 18 should be combined
in one table, but because the combined table would be unwieldy, the
two tables are presented.




29

COMPENSATION STATISTICS

T able

Priority
16.— Closed cases, by industry and extent o f disability 1
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Number of cases of specified disability
Industry

Perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ Tempo­
Death nent total nent par­ rary total rary par­
tial2
tial 3

Noncom­
pensable 4

Total

1 Closed cases are those-----------(specify meaning of ‘‘closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
ments, or completed payments).
2 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
3 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
4 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
N ote .—It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.
T able

17.— Com pensation, by industry and extent o f disability
Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19— 1

Extent of disability
Industry

Death and
permanent
total 2

Permanent
partial3

Temporary
total

NonTemporary All compen­ compartial4 sated injuries pensable 6

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com Num­
ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa- ber
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
$

$

$

$

$

Total_________
1 Closed cases are those-----------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
ments, or completed payments).
2 State the number of permanent total cases and their costs in ( ) after each of the combined figures. For
instance, to show that 7 out of 75 cases were permanent total disability, show as 75 (7). The number of fatal
cases for which payments are made into State funds should be given in a footnote, together with amounts
paid.
3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
4 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
5 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
N ote.—It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.




T a b l e 1 8 ,—

Compensation, by industry and extent o f disability

CO

Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19— 1

Extent of disability-

Medical
Compen­ and hos­
sation
pital 6
$

$

Permanent partial3

Temporary total

Temporary partial4

All compensated injuries

Medical
Medical
Medical
Medical
Funeral Compen­ and hos­ Compen­ and hos­ Compen­ and hos­ Compen­ and hos­
sation
sation
sation
pital 6 sation
pital
pital
pital
$

$

$

$

$

Funeral

Noncompensable 3
Medical
$

Total
1 Closed cases are those------------- (specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as
result of awards, agreements, or completed payments).
2 State the cost of permanent total cases in parentheses after each of the combined
figures. For instance, to show that $250 out of $2,750 medical and hospital costs was for
permanent total disability, show as $2,750 ($250).
The number of fatal cases for which payments are made into State funds should be
given in a footnote together with amounts paid.




3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
4 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
5 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of— days. Omit if
law does not require the reporting of such cases.
6 Include cost of artificial appliances.
N ote .—It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Death and permanent total2

industry

COMPENSATION STATISTICS

31

In each of the preceding three tables the data on extent of disability
are classified by industry, for which a standard code is suggested in
chapter 8.
In some jurisdictions the amounts of medical cost for individual
cases will not be known because such data are not reported by selfinsurers or insurance carriers having their own medical service. In
such instances, it may be necessary to omit the item of medical cost,
unless good estimates can be developed. Figures involving such
estimates, however, should be identified by appropriate footnotes.
Similarly, a considerable number of States do not provide for
temporary partial disability. Such jurisdictions will, of course, omit
this section. On the other hand, some States may wish to show
the item of disfigurement separately under extent of disability.
Death cases in which no payments were made to dependents, or
in which payments were made into a special State fund provided for
this purpose, should be referred to in a footnote, giving both the
number of cases and the amounts paid. It is important to segregate
these cases in order (1) to show payments made into such funds,
and (2) to permit a better analysis of payments actually made to
dependents. Because payments into such funds are generally much
lower than those made to dependents, the inclusion of payments to
the fund in the total will depress the average paid per case and also the
average amounts paid to dependents. Consequently it is necessary
to identify State-fund cases, which can be done easily in a footnote.
Location o f Injury and Extent o f Disability

Information as to the particular parts of the body injured and the
type of disability resulting from the injury are important partly
because of its bearing on the benefit provisions of the compensation
act, and partly because of its relevancy to accident prevention.
Tables 19, 20, and 21 are recommended for this type of analysis, the
choice of table depending on the amount of detail available and
considered desirable. The type of break-down represented by table
21 is a supplementary analysis of the type of data shown for table 20.
The general comments previously made regarding tables labeled
“ priority” and those not so labeled also apply here.
In these tables the various parts of the body are not listed in great
detail. For instance, no difference is made between the first digit of
a finger and the entire finger, or for that matter the specific finger
involved, e. g., index, middle, etc. The code furnished for this infor­
mation (see ch. 7) permits the coding of much of this detail, but in
turn omits such items as scapula, sternum, patella, fibula, etc.,
because it is believed that such detail is generally of no great signifi­
cance. If desirable, the data as to location of injury can be shown in
greater detail than indicated in the following tables—in fact, in as




32

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

much detail as the code permits. Unless some special purpose is to
be served, however, the suggested tables should be satisfactory for
most jurisdictions.

T able

Priority
19. — Location of in ju ry and extent of disability

Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19— 1

Location of injury 2

Death

Number of cases of specified disability
Perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ Tempo­
rary
nent
rary
nent
Total
total partial3 total
partial4

Non­
compen­
sable 8

Eye(s)--------------------------------Head, n. e. c_ _ __ _. . ...
Throat... ___ ______ __ _
Chest (lungs)_______________
B ack... ... __ ___ ____
Arm(s). _______ ____ ._
Hand(s). ... _____ _______
Finger (s)---------- ---------------Leg(s)--------------------------------Foot or feet_______ _______
Toe(s)___ _ ... ... . ..
Abdomen (hernia) . . . _ __
Body, n. e. c ___
1 Closed cases are those-----------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
ments, or completed payments).
2 When more than one part of the body is injured, tabulate that part which contributes most seriously
to the injury.
3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
* Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
5 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of— days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
T able

20.— Com pensation by location of in ju ry and extent o f disability
Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19— 1

Extent of disability
NonTemporary All compen­ compartial8 sated injuries penLocation of injury 2
sable 6
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­ com­ Num­
ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber pensa­ ber
tion
tion
tion
tion
tion
Eye(s)--------------------$
$
$
$
$
Head, n. e. c------- ...
Throat___ ______
Chest (lungs)_______
Back______ ________
Arm(s). ... --------Hand(s). __ _ _
Finger(s) _______ ...
Leg(s)--------------------Foot or feet-----------Toe(s)_____________
Abdomen (hernia)__
Body, n. e. c
___
Total_________
1 Closed cases are those-----------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
ments, or completed payments).
2 When more than one part of the body is injured, tabulate that part which contributes most seriously to
the injury.
3 State the number of permanent total cases and their costs in parentheses after each of the combined
figures. For instance, to show that 7 out of 75 cases were permanent total disability, show as 75 (7).
The number of fatal cases for which payments are made into State funds should be given in a footnote,
together with amounts paid.
4 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
8 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
6 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of— days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
Death and
permanent
total3

Permanent
partial4

Temporary
total

N ote.—It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.




T able

21.— Compensation by location of in ju ry and extent of disability
Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19— 1

Extent of disability
Death and permanent total3

Location of injury 2

Temporary total

Permanent partial4

Temporary partial5

All compensated injuries

Compen­ Medical Funeral Compen­ Medical Compen­ Medical Compen­ Medical Compen­ Medical
and
and
and
and
and
sation hospital 7
sation hospital7 sation hospital sation hospital sation hospital
$

$

$

$

1 Closed cases are those —--------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result
of awards, agreements, or completed payments).
2 When more than one part of the body is injured, tabulate that part which contributes
most seriously to the injury.
3 State the cost of permanent total cases in parentheses after each of the combined fig­
ures. For instance, to show that $250 out of $2,750 medical and hospital costs was for
permanent total disability, show as $2,750 ($250). The number of fatal cases for which
payments are made into State funds should be given in a footnote, together with amounts
paid.




$

$

$

$

$

$

Medical

Funeral
$

$

4 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
s Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
6 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit if
law does not require the reporting of such cases.
7 Include cost of artificial appliances.
N ote .—It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.

COMPENSATION STATISTICS

Eye(s)------------------------------ $
Head, n. e. c_____________
Throat__________________
Chest (lungs)____ _ ____
Back_____________________
Arm(s)_____________ ____
Hand(s)__________________
Finger(s)_________________
Leg(s)------------------------------Foot or feet ___ __ _ _ ___
Toe(s)_____________ •_____
Abdomen (hernia) __ . _ __
Body, n. e. c________
_
Total___ ___ _ __

Noncom­
pensable 6

CO
CO

34

M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Nature o f Injury and Extent o f Disability

In an analysis of industrial injuries, the nature of injuries and the
types of disabilities which result from them are pertinent details. In
how many instances, for example, did dismemberment result in death
or in permanent total disability? How many cases were there of
fractures, or hernias, or industrial diseases? And what kinds of dis­
abilities resulted from them? Table 22 was drawn to answer such
inquiries; and tables 23 and 24 show in some detail the cost of these
injuries, both as regards compensation benefits and medical expense,
table 24 being supplementary to table 23.
It will be noted that the term “ industrial disease” is used instead
of “ occupational disease.” The reason for this is that the cases tabu­
lated always arise out of the industrial environment of the injured
workers, but may have no relation at all to their occupations as such.
For instance, a machinist may be exposed to chemical fumes or to
various types of dusts, such as silica or asbestos, and contract a disease
not peculiar to machinists. When a stonecutter contracts silicosis,
he has contracted an occupational disease; but when a machinist in
the same plant contracts silicosis, he does not have a disease which
flows from his occupation of machinist. The term “ industrial disease”
is broad enough to include both types of cases.
T able 22. —

N a tu r e o f in ju r y

C a s e s c lo s e d f r o m

,

Priority
b y ex ten t o f d i s a b il i t y

---------t o ----------,

19

—1

Num ber of cases of specified disability
Nature of injury

D eath

Perm a­ Perm a­ Tem po­ Tem po­
nent
nent
rary
rary
total p artial2 total p artial3

Total

N oncom ­
pen­
sable 4

Am putation (surgical or trau­
m atic)—w ithout infection___
Am putation (surgical or trau­
m atic)—w ith infection-. _
Burns and scalds. . . . . . .
Cuts, lacerations, punctures,
abrasions—w ithout infection _
Cuts, lacerations, punctures,
abrasions—w ith infection___
Strains,5 sprains, bruises_____
Fractures—w ithout infection. _
Fractures—w ith infection. . . .
H ernia___
... . . . . .
Industrial disease_____________
N ature of injury, n. e. c ---------1 Closed cases are th ose------------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
m ents, or completed paym ents).
2 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Om it if such injuries are not compensable under law.
* “ N oncom pensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
« N ot including hernia.
N o t e .— If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries w ith and w ithout infection, the
nature-of-injury classifications are to be shown sim ply as am putation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.




35

COMPENSATION STATISTICS
T able 23. —

C o m p e n s a t i o n b y n a tu r e o f i n j u r y a n d ex ten t o f d i s a b i l i t y
C a s e s clo s ed f r o m

---------t o ----------,

19

—1

Extent of disability

N a t u r e o f in ju r y

D e a th an d
perm an en t
t o ta l2

Num ­
ber

A m p u t a t i o n (s u r g ic a l
or t r a u m a t ic ) — w i t h ­
o u t in fe c t io n ________
A m p u t a t i o n (s u r g ic a l
o r t r a u m a t i c ) — w it h
i n f e c t i o n _____ ___ _
B u r n s a n d s c a l d s . __ _
C u t s , la c e r a tio n s ,
p u n ctu res,
abra­
s io n s — w i t h o u t in ­
f e c t io n ____ ______ __ _
C u t s , la c e r a t io n s ,
p u n ctu re s,
abra­
s io n s — w it h
in fe c ­
t i o n . __ ______
______
S t r a i n s ,6
s p r a in s ,
b r u is e s ______________ _
F r a c tu re s— w ith o u t
i n f e c t i o n _____ __
F r a c tu r e s — w it h
in ­
fe c tio n . . . _ _ _ _ _
_
H e r n i a ___ __ _ __ ___
I n d u s t r ia l d is e a s e
___
N a t u r e o f i n ju r y , n .
e . c_
__ _
__ _
_

P erm anent
p a r tia l3

T o ta l
com ­
Num ­
p en sa­
ber
tio n

$

Tem porary
t o ta l

T o ta l
com ­
Num ­
p en sa­
ber
tio n

$

T em porary
p a r tia l4

T o ta l
com ­
Num ­
pen sa­
ber
tio n

$

A ll co m p en ­
s a te d in ju r ie s

T o ta l
com ­
Num ­
p en sa­
ber
tio n

$

T o ta l
com ­
p en sa­
tio n

N oncom pen s a b le 5

Num ­
ber

$

1 Closed cases are th ose------------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
m ents, or com pleted paym ents).
2 State the number of permanent total cases and their costs in parentheses after each of the combined
figures. For instance, to show that 7 out of 75 cases were permanent total disability, show as 75 (7).
The number of fatal cases for which paym ents were made into State funds should be given in a footnote
together w ith am ounts paid.
3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
4 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
5 “N oncom pensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days.
Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
6 N ot including hernia.
N o t e . —It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured. If it is impossible
or not feasible to distinguish between injuries w ith and w ithout infection, the nature of injury classifica­
tions are to be shown sim ply as am putation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.




T able 24. —

00

C o m p e n s a t i o n b y n a tu r e o f i n j u r y a n d ex ten t o f d i s a b il i t y
C a s e s clo sed f r o m

-------- t o ----------,

19

O*

—1

Extent of disability

P erm a n en t p a r tia l3

T e m p o r a r y to ta l

A l l c o m p e n s a te d in ju r ie s

T e m p o ra ry p a r tia l4

N oncom ­
p e n s a b le 5

C om pen­
sa tio n

A m p u ta tio n
(s u r g ic a l
or
t r a u m a t ic ) — w it h o u t
in ­
f e c t io n __________ ____________
A m p u ta tio n
(s u r g ic a l
or
t r a u m a t ic ) — w it h i n f e c t i o n ___________________ ______ __
B u r n s a n d s c a ld s __________
__
C u t s , la c e r a tio n s , p u n c tu r e s ,
a b r a s io n s — w it h o u t in fe c ­
t i o n _____
_ __ _ ____________
C u t s , la c e r a tio n s , p u n c t u r e s ,
a b r a s io n s — w it h in fe c tio n __
S t r a in s ,7 sp r a in s , b r u is e s _____
F r a c tu r e s — w it h o u t in fe c tio n
F r a c tu r e s — w it h in fe c t io n ____
H e r n i a _______
________________
I n d u s t r ia l d is e a s e ______________
N a t u r e o f in ju r y , n . e . c_ _ __

M e d ic a l
an d h os­
p ita l 6

$

$

F u neral

M e d ic a l

$

C om pen­
sa tio n

M e d ic a l
a n d h os­
p ita l •

C om pen­
sa tio n

M e d ic a l
a n d h os­
p ita l

C om pen­
sa tio n

M e d ic a l
a n d h os­
p ita l

C om pen­
sa tio n

M e d ic a l
an d h os­
p it a l 6

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

1 Closed cases are those------------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result
of awards, agreements, or completed paym ents).
2 State the cost of permanent total cases in parentheses after each of the combined
figures. For instance, to show that $250 out of $2,750 medical and hospital costs was for
permanent total disability, show as $2,750 ($250). The number of fatal cases for which
paym ents are made into State funds should be given in a footnote together with amounts
paid.
3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
4 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.




F u neral

$

$

5 “Noncom pensable” because not outlasting the w aiting period of — days. Omit if
law does not require the reporting of such cases.
6 Include cost of artificial appliances.
7 N ot including hernia.
N o t e —It is recommended that, if possible, this table be repeated by sex of injured.
If it is impossible or not feasible to distinguish between injuries with and without infection,
the nature of injury classifications are to be shown simply as amputation, burns and
scalds, cuts, etc.

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

D e a th an d p erm a n en t t o t a l2
N a t u r e o f in ju r y

37

COMPENSATION STATISTICS

Nature and Location o f Injury

A detail in the operation of the workmen's compensation law which
is of minor significance but of considerable general interest involves
the part of the body affected as related to the nature of the injury.
In a given number of dismemberments, how many involved arms, or
hands, or fingers, or enucleation of eyes, etc.? Or, in the more recently
discovered “ occupational” (i. e. industrial) diseases, in how many
instances was the throat affected, or lungs, or hands, etc.?
Although the break-down shown for the detailed cost tables already
suggested— i. e., by cost of compensation and medical expense— can
also be made here, it is not suggested. If desired, it can easily be
set up, following the structure of such table forms.
Similarly, the suggested detail for location of injury can be enlarged,
if so desired, to the full extent permitted by the code. The table can
be repeated to show separately cases involving male and female
workers, or minors.
T able

2 5 . — N a t u r e a n d lo c a tio n o f i n j u r y f o r c a s e s c lo sed
From

---------t o ----------,

19

1

—

Toe(s)

<
D

Abdomen

C
O

| Foot or feet

Finger(s)

Arm(s)

Hand(s)

Chest (lungs)

Back

Throat

i Eye(s)

Nature of injury

Head, n. e. c. J

Location of injury 2
c5
©

Am putation (surgical or traum atic)—
W ithout infection,, __ _ _ __ _
W ith infection___ _ _ ,,
Burns and scalds ___ _ _ _ ,
Cuts, lacerations, punctures, abrasions—
W ithout infection_____ ___ _
W ith infection___ __ ____________
Strains,3 sprains, bruises _ __ _ _ _
Fractures—
W ithout infection _ __ _ ________
W ith infection___ ___ ______________
H ernia, _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ _
Industrial disease___ _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Nature of injury, n. e. c_ _______ __
1 Closed cases are th ose------------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
m ents, or completed paym ents).
2 W hen more than one part of the body is injured, tabulate that part which contributes most seriously to
the injury.
3 N ot including hernia.
N ote .—If possible, this table should be repeated by sex of injured. If it is impossible or not feasible to
distinguish between injuries w ith and without infection, the nature of injury classifications are to be shown
sim ply as am putation, burns and scalds, cuts, etc.




38

M A N U AL ON IN DU STRIAL-INJU RY STATISTICS

W eekly Wages and Sex o f Injured

Data on weekly wages of injured workers are important because
they show the economic status of the worker at the time of injury,
and also permit deductions as to the effect of the benefit provisions of
the law. If, for instance, a law provides for benefit payments of 66%
percent of the weekly wages, an analysis of the wage distribution of
injured workers will show what the prevailing weekly benefit rates
are. Further, if the law contains maximum and minimum features,
it is possible to gage their effects. For instance, suppose a law pro­
vides that the weekly benefit rate shall be 66% percent, but that the
amount of weekly benefit shall not exceed $20. Then, obviously,
the maximum weekly wage compensated in full under this provision
is $30, and all earnings above $30 are disregarded. If the question
arises of permitting a higher maximum, say, up to $25, then it will
become important to know the proportion of injured workers in the
group between the old maximum wage of $30 which is fully com­
pensated and the new maximum of $37.50. By such a calculation it
is easy to determine what the absolute increase in compensation
benefits would have been in a given year, and in that way to determine
the percentage of increase which would have been necessary in insur­
ance premium rates to cover the additional cost. Such a calculation,
based on the experience of 1 or more years (preferably more), is far
superior to the unsupported claims as to cost increases which are often
raised when more liberal compensation provisions are under consider­
ation.
The same method can be applied to changes in rates generally. If
it is proposed, for instance, to raise the weekly benefit rate from 55
percent to 60, table 26 will permit a determination of the number of
cases involved in a particular year, and what the increased cost would
have amounted to for that year. The comparison of the increase with
the amount actually paid gives the relative increase in cost.
In all such calculations it is necessary to consider whether or not
present premium rates are sufficiently high to absorb the additional
cost. If they are not, then it is important to compute the necessary
increase on the basis of net premium, deducting from the over-all
premium the usual carrying charges. For instance, if the increased
cost is indicated as 10 percent, then the increase in premium rates
(supposing the carrying charge is 40 percent of the premium) is 6
percent, i. e., 10 percent of the 60 percent going toward the payment
of claims.
Table 26 would undoubtedly be more effective for the purposes
described if actual compensation costs were given. This, however, is
not possible in some of the States. Where the cost information is
available, and where it is desired to combine the wage distribution
with compensation cost, the item of sex can be omitted and the




C O M P E N S A T IO N

S T A T IS T IC S

39

detailed break-down as to cost shown in tables 20 or 21 substituted.
It is suggested, however, that such tables be compiled in addition to
the table suggested here.
Priority

T able

26. — In ju ries classified by weekly wages and sex of injured
Cases closed f r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19— 1

Extent of disability

Death

Weekly wages 2

Permanent Permanent Temporary Temporary
total
partial3
total
partial4

Total

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males
Less than $5.00_____ __ _
$5.00 to $5.99____________
$6.00 to $6.99____________
$7.00 to $7.99____________
$8.00 to $8.99____________
$9.00 to $9.99____________
$10.00 to $10.99__________
$11.00 to $11.99__________
$12.00 to $12.99__________
$13.00 to $13.99__________
$14.00 to $14.99__________
$15.00 to $15.99__________
$16.00 to $16.99__________
$17.00 to $17.99__________
$18.00 to $18.99__________
$19.00 to $19.99__________
$20.00 to $20.99__________
$21.00 to $21.99__________
$22.00 to $22.99__________
$23.00 to $23.99__________
$24.00 to $24.99__________
$25.00 to $25.99__________
$26.00 to $26.99__________
$27.00 to $27.99__________
$28.00 to $28.99__________
$29.00 to $29.99__________
$30.00 to $34.99__________
$35.00 to $39.99__________
$40.00 to $44.99__________
$45.00 to $49.99__________
$50.00 to $59.99__________
$60.00 to $69.99__________
$70.00 and over__________
1 Closed cases are th o se------------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result of awards, agree­
ments, or completed paym ents).
2 Use a c t u a l weekly wages at tim e of injury, regardless of m ethod of computing wages for purposes of com­
pensation benefits.
3 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
4 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
W eekly Wages and Compensation Paid

Another wage-distribution table considered of primary importance
is table 27, which gives for dollar wage intervals the distribution by
length of disability. The table is intended to cover only the p erio d
during which injured workers were actually disabled, i. e., the period
of recovery, at the end of which workers were able to resume work.
Obviously, then, both fatal and permanent total disabilities must be
omitted. States which do not require the reporting of the period of
disability for permanent partial injuries will be able to construct this
table only for temporary total disabilities, and should revise the title
of the table accordingly.
1 5 9 7 2 6 °— 40--------4




T able 27.— W eekly wages and com pensation paid for cases o f perm anent p a r tia l1 and tem porary total disability

O

Cases closed 2 f r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Weeks of disability
1 or less 4

2, less than 3

3, less than 4

4, less than 5

5, less than 6

6, less than 14

14 and over

Total

Noncompensable 5

Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­ Com­ Num­
ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of pensa­ ber of
cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases tion cases
$

$

$

$

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y
S T A T IS T IC S




$

ON

Total_________
Less than $5.00_
$
$
$
$
$5.00 to $5.99. __
$6.00 to $6.99.__
$7.00 to $7.99—
$8.00 to $8.99__.
$9.00 to $9.99. __
$10.00 to $10.99_
$11.00 to $11.99_
$12.00 to $12.99.
$13.00 to $13.99.
$14.00 to $14.99_
$15.00 to $15.99$16.00 to $16.99_
$17.00 to $17.99_
$18.00 to $18.99$19.00 to $19.99_
$20.00 to $20.99_
$21.00 to $21.99_
$22.00 to $22.99,
$23.00 to $23.99_
$24.00 to $24.99_
$25.00 to $25.99_
$26.00 to $26.99_
$27.00 to $27.99_
$28.00 to $28.99.
$29.00 to $29.99_
$30.00 to $34.99.
$35.00 to $39.99.
$40.00 to $44.99$45.00 to $49.99.
$50.00 to $59.99.
$60.00 to $69.99_
$70.00 and over.
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Closed cases are those-----------(specify meaning of “closed”—whether closed as result
of awards, agreements, or completed payments).
3 Tabulate according to actual weekly earnings at time of injury, and not the wage
basis used to arrive at the determination of benefits, if that basis differs from the actual

MANUAL

Weekly wages3

Over 1, less
than 2 4

weekly earnings at the time of injury. This table is intended to permit the calculation
of wage loss not covered by compensation benefits.
4 To be changed in conformance with the State’s waiting period.
5 “ Noneompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit
if law does not require the reporting of such cases.

C O M P E N S A T IO N

S T A T IS T IC S

41

The table serves three purposes: (1) It gives a wage distribution
for a large number of the injured workers (probably 90 percent of the
total) whose disabling injuries have been reported; (2) it gives a dis­
tribution of the time periods of disability; and (3) it permits a com­
putation of wage loss to injured workers. If no compensation is paid
for temporary total in cases of permanent partial disability, then such
cases will have to be*omitted. The title of the table should be changed
accordingly.
(1) Wage distribution: The wage distribution in table 27, as in
table 26, concerns wages actually earned at the time of the injury,
but, unlike table 26, does not show the wage distribution by extent
of disability and sex of injured.
(2) Period of disability distribution: This distribution is very
important because it shows the relative proportion of cases which
involve specified time periods for healing. It shows, for instance, the
number of cases which do not outlast the waiting period and conse­
quently are not compensable. It shows the number of cases which
last more than 1 week (i. e., 7 days) but less than 2 weeks in disability;
2 weeks and over but less than 3, etc. The first periods shown may
have to be modified in various jurisdictions, depending on reporting
requirements. If cases with disabilities of 7 days or less need not
be reported, then obviously the first time period shown on the table
has no significance and should be omitted, as should the column con­
cerning noncompensable cases. If the waiting period is 3 days, and
cases with disabilities not exceeding this period need not be reported,
then the first column should read, “ 4 to 7 days.” The same principle
should be followed whether the waiting period is 5 days, 7 days, 2
weeks, etc.
(3) Wage loss: It will be noted that the table calls for amount of
compensation as well as number of cases, and consequently jurisdic­
tions requiring no reports of total payments in each case in all prob­
ability will not be able to compile the table. To determine the wage
loss, it is necessary to estimate what workers would have earned had
they not been injured, and what they received in compensation
instead. To estimate the former, the midpoint of each wage group
should be multiplied by the total number of workers shown for that
group as well as by the midpoint of the time period. This will give a
close approximation of the wage loss in the particular wage group.
The total for all wage groups will give the estimated total wage loss.
The difference between the wage loss and compensation for the period
of disability measures the extent of the injured workers’ personal
monetary loss. If this amount is contrasted with the total wage loss,
the percentage of wage loss not compensated becomes apparent.
This table takes no account of losses due to amputation or impairment




42

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

of a member of the body. Techniques for evaluating such losses
adequately still remain to be developed.
Age, Sex, and Extent o f Disability

The significance of table 28 lies in the age distribution. The par­
ticular emphasis is on ages below 21, for which data are to be shown
separately for each age year. This permits an analysis of disabling
injuries to minors and is valuable in the light of either child-labor
laws or punitive provisions in workmen's compensation laws appli­
cable to illegal employment of children.
The number of disabling injuries, by extent of disability and by
sex of the injured, are to be shown for each age group. The age
groups, if too detailed, may be condensed as suggested on page 45.
As given here, the age groups permit ready comparison with basic
census population data.
Priority

T a b l e 2 8 .— In ju ries

classified by age, sexf and extent o f disability 1

F r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Extent of disability, by sex
Age (years)

D eath

Permanent Permanent Temporary Temporary Noncom ­
p artial2
total
total
partial3 pensable 4

Total

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males
Under
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

14

«___
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
to 2 4 _____
to 2 9 _____
to 3 4 _____
to 3 9 _____
to 4 4 _______
to 4 9 _____
to 5 4 _____
to 5 9 _______
to 6 4 _______
and over 8_

1 Indicate in footnote the character of case used for tabulation—whether cases for which payments have
been completed, awards made, agreements entered into, etc.
2 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
3 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
4 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting the waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
8 It is desirable to identify in a footnote the number of cases for each age under 14 and for each age over
65 years.
Table 28 can be prepared either for cases reported during the year
or for cases closed during the year. If the table is based on cases
reported during the year— and this may be the only method feasible
for jurisdictions which do not require the filing of final receipts or the
filing of agreements— then another column should be added for cases




C O M P E N S A T IO N

S T A T IS T IC S

43

for which the extent of disability cannot reasonably be determined
at the time the table is compiled. Statistical compilations by work­
men’s compensation administrations, as a rule, are not begun until
several months after the end of the fiscal or calendar year, and by
that time the extent of disability should be known for most of the
cases reported. But there usually are some cases for which this in­
formation is not known, and rather than delay the tabulation, such
cases should be shown in a column designated “ extent undetermined.”
Although few compensation acts make specific provisions for bene­
fit-rate changes on the basis of the age of the person killed or per­
manently injured, the age distribution has considerable significance.
Should compensation payments for young workers, whose earning
powers have not yet developed fully, be based on what they actually
earned, or on the earning power of adult workers? If a boy of 16
earning $14 a week loses his arm, shall his compensation rate be based
on $14 or on the earnings of an adult laborer making, for instance,
$28 a week? What would be the cost of adopting this latter type of
provision? To answer questions such as these, it is important to
know how many minors are injured, the extent of the injuries, the
wage groupings, etc. Table 28 provides a starting point.
There is also the problem of computing the economic cost to the
community of fatalities. If the average age of workers fatally in­
jured is found to be 35 years, and the average working-life termina­
tion may be placed at 60, then each fatality represents an average
loss of 25 working years to the State. In computing the value to
the State of adequate accident prevention, this item in itself may be
of great importance.
Industrial Injuries to Minors
Need for Factual Data

Information regarding industrial injuries to minors as a group,
although urgently needed, is either entirely lacking or very inadequate
in most States. A strong incentive for compiling such information
exists in the fact that both State and Federal Governments have
recognized the importance of safeguarding minors from employment
in particularly hazardous occupations, industries, or processes.
Many of the State child-labor laws set a higher minimum age for
employment in occupations which are considered dangerous than for
general employment. Sometimes these occupations are specified in
the law itself; in other cases the law provides that some State au­
thority— usually the agency which enforces the State child-labor
law— shall determine which occupations are hazardous and therefore
should be forbidden to minors under a specified age. To permit
making such determinations on a sound basis, statistical data based
on industrial-injury reports are essential.




44

MANUAL. ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

The need for such data exists also on the part of the Federal agency
which administers the child-labor provisions of the Fair Labor
Standards Act— the Children's Bureau of the United States Depart­
ment of Labor. The act specifies the absence of “ oppressive child
labor" as one of the conditions under which products may be shipped
in interstate commerce, and defines as one type of “ oppressive child
labor" employment in occupations found, and by order declared, by
the Chief of the Children's Bureau to be particularly hazardous for
minors between 16 and 18 years of age. Since there is no source of
Nation-wide statistics on industrial injuries to minors, the Chief of
the Children's Bureau, in making determinations as to hazardous
occupations, must rely to a great extent on the industrial-injury
statistics compiled by the various State industrial accident boards
and commissions.
Statistics on injuries to minors are also needed for administrative
purposes in those States in which workmen's compensation laws provide
for additional compensation for injuries to minors who were illegally
employed. As a growing number of States have adopted such a pro­
vision, they may be assumed to have the basis for compiling data
showing their experience with regard to industrial injuries to illegally
employed minors.
Tabulations of industrial injuries to minors serve as a variety of
practical uses. When they are made available to the agencies
responsible for enforcing State child-labor laws and the child-labor
sections of the Fair Labor Standards Act, they are valuable in point­
ing out industries and localities where more effective enforcement of
child-labor standards is needed. When they are employed in deter­
mining which occupations, industries, or processes are particularly
hazardous for the employment of minors, they serve an all-important
purpose in safeguarding young workers from possible death or
permanent disability. When they are analyzed by age and the
various causes of injury, they show the weak spots in the State childlabor or workmen's compensation laws which can be remedied by
amendment of the law or by change in administrative policies or pro­
cedures. When they are carefully compiled and properly interpreted,
they serve to direct public thinking along sound and constructive
lines in the support of legislation which will further safeguard the
young worker.
Need of Comparison Between Sexes and With Older Age Groups

Because of wide differences in the proportions of male and female
workers in different industries, an important break-down for all tables,
including those showing injuries to minors, is by sex,




C O M P E N S A T IO N

S T A T IS T IC S

45

Tabulation of all injuries by age groups greatly increases the use­
fulness of injury data for minors by making possible a comparison of
minors with all age groups or with older age groups. This is par­
ticularly true when the tabulation is intended to show which indus­
tries, occupations, or processes are more hazardous than others.
Suggested Age Groupings

Since the legal minimum age for employment of minors varies from
State to State, age classifications for minors should be sufficiently
detailed to enable each State to know how many injuries occur to
minors in specified age groups both within and without the range of
the State regulatory provisions, and at the same time to make possible
a comparison of injuries to minors in all States. The age standards
in the child-labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act are such
that comparable industrial accident statistics should show at least
the following age groupings: Under 14 years; 14 years and 15 years;
16 and 17 years; 18 years and over. Some States regulate employ­
ment in some occupations up to but not including 21 years. With
such a variety of age standards, the suggested age groupings for
minors are intervals of single years for ages 14 to 20 years, inclusive.
The more detailed the age groupings are, the more illuminating will
be the possible comparisons. For this reason it is recommended that
some tables, such as table 28, be prepared in considerable detail as
regards age.
Where more condensed age groups are desired, the following groups
are recommended: Under 16 years; 16-17 years; 18-20 years; 21-24
years; 25-34 years; 35-44 years; 45-54 years; 55-64 years; 65 years
and over. If it is necessary to make further condensation, the fol­
lowing groups may be used: Under 16 years; 16-17 years; 18-20
years; 21 years and over.
In making any condensations of age groups for minors, care must be
taken to adjust the age groupings to the standards of the State childlabor laws, as well as to preserve their comparability to the age groups
for minors suggested above.
Recommended Tabulations

The several specific tabulations here suggested for the study of
injuries to minors have been selected because of their practical use­
fulness to the agencies responsible for the administration of work­
men’s compensation legislation and child-labor laws. They represent
the bare minimum of statistical information on injuries to minors
which it is hoped the States will develop. Many States will undoubt­
edly wish to go beyond this minimum in order to meet the needs
already described. The suggested tabulations are grouped according
to the purpose for which they are most useful.




46

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

1.
For determining hazardous employments as indicated by extent
of disability or length of healing period:
(a) A table showing extent of disability for all age groups according
to sex. The table form shown is table 28, entitled “ Injuries classified
by age, sex, and extent of disability, fr o m --------- t o ---------- , 19— .”
(b ) A table showing average compensation cost and average healing
period for all compensated cases, by age group (preferably the most
detailed age groups described above, ending with 65 years and over).
This table would be similar to table 10, chapter 2, except that the stub
would show age groupings instead of nature and location of injury, and
average medical cost would not be given. Such a table would be use­
ful to indicate the seriousness of the injury for the various age groups
as shown by the length of healing period.
(c) Tables showing cause of accident in detail by age group (minors
and adults), sex, and extent of disability. These are the most impor­
tant of all suggested tables for revealing industrial injury hazards to
minors as compared with adults. Since the analysis of cause of
accident proposed in this Manual is broken into its various components
and cannot be shown in one table, this tabulation will consist of four
tables, in which the box headings will be the same but the stubs will be
different. The four stub headings will be: (1) Agency and agency part
involved; (2) accident type; (3) unsafe act; (4) unsafe mechanical or
physical conditions. It is recommended that the part of the cause
analysis entitled “ unsafe personal factors” be disregarded for the pur­
poses of this particular tabulation.
The table on agency and agency part involved is similar to table 31
(ch. 4) entitled “ Injuries classified by agency, agency part, and
extent of disability, from ----------- t o ------------ , 19— ,” except that age
groups are added. The form suggested is the following:

T a b l e 29a.— In ju ries

classified by agency and agency part involved, according to
extent o f disability and age

Extent of disability and age
All cases

Agency and agency part
involved
All
ages

Under 16-17
16
years years

Death
and
perma­
nent
21 years total
18-20 and
years over [same age
groups]

Tempo­
Perma­ rary
nent
total
partial
and
[same age partial
groups] [same age
groups]

It is recommended that this table be repeated for each sex. Of all
parts of the cause analysis, agency and agency part involved are the
most useful in showing hazards to minors as compared with adults.




C O M P E N S A T IO N

47

S T A T IS T IC S

The other parts of the cause analysis can advantageously be
tabulated by sex as well as by age group. They will resemble in form
that shown above, except for the difference in the stub. Instead of
“ agency and agency part involved,” the stub headings will read,
respectively, “ accident type,” “ unsafe act,” “ unsafe mechanical or
physical conditions.” The stubs will be the same as those in chapter 4,
tables 32, 35, and 37, respectively.
( d) A table showing industry in detail, by age group (minors and
<
adults), sex, and extent of disability. The age groupings suggested
are: Under 16 years, 16-17 years, 18-20 years, 21 years and over,
although individual States may wish to add greater detail, adapted
to the provisions of their own child-labor laws.
This is an important table for use in determining the industries in
which the more serious types of injury occur to minors. It is similar
to table 16, entitled “ Closed cases, by industry and extent of disa­
bility, fr o m --------- t o -----------, 19— ,” except that the age groups and
sex would be added as follows:

T able

39b.— Closed cases, by extent of disability and industry, according to sex
From — -— — t o ---------- , 19—

Extent of disability
Death

Age and industry

Permanent Permanent Temporary Temporary
total
partial
total
partial

All cases

Fe­ Both
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males males Males males Males males Males males Males males sexes

Males

Fe­
males

All ages—total____
Industry detail
Under 16 years___
Industry detail
16-17 years____ _
Industry detail
18-20 years______
Industry detail
21 years and over_
Industry detail
2.
For making comparisons between legally and illegally employed
minors as to seriousness of disability, average compensation cost per
case, and percentage of compensation spent for legal fees (these tabu­
lations can usually be made only in those States which provide for
additional compensation for illegal employment, since in other States
the basic information on legality of employment of injured minors will
probably not be available):
(a) The table suggested in 1 (b ) on page 46 on average compensa­
tion cost and average healing period might well include an additional
classification showing legality of employment for the appropriate age
groups of minors affected by the State child-labor law.




48

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

(ib) A table entitled “ Comparison of average legal fees and
average compensation per case for minors under ------ years, by
legality of employment and extent of disability, f r o m --------- to
--------- 19—
This table would be similar to table 14 in chapter 2,
except that only minors within the age range to which the State
child-labor law applies would be included and the total amounts of
compensation and of legal fees would be omitted. The table form
would be as follows:

T able

29 c.— Com parison of average legal fees and average com pensation per case
fo r m inors under — years, by legality of em ploym ent and extent of disability
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Extent of disability

compensa­
Number of cases Averageper case
tion

Average legal
fees per case

Legal fees as percent­
age of compensation

Legally Illegally Legally Illegally Legally Illegally Legally Illegally
employed employed employed employed employed employed employed employed

All types _________
Death _____ _ __
Permanent total___
Permanent partial...
Temporary total___
Temporary partial-3.
For showing types of illegal employment of minors injured while
illegally employed (this tabulation can be made only by those States
where information on legality of employment is available, usually
those which provide additional compensation for illegally employed
minors):
(a) A table based on cases reported during a given period showing
types of illegal employment of minors by age and sex, according to
extent of disability, as far as it is known when tabulated. The types
of illegal employment and the age groupings should be classified
according to the requirements of the State child-labor laws. Such a
table would be of great use to State factory inspectors and officials
who are responsible for enforcing the State child-labor law.




Chapter 4.— Accident Statistics
If the workers who were killed and injured during 1937, together
with their families, could have been assembled in one place, their num­
ber would have exceeded the population of any city in the United
States, except New York. If, because of some sudden catastrophe,
17,800 of these people had been killed, 112,000 maimed, and 1,500,000
more temporarily disabled, the attention of the entire Nation would
have been focused on the disaster. There certainly would have re­
sulted a most thorough investigation of the factors leading up to this
tremendous impairment of human lives and much thought would have
been given to preventing a repetition.
The figures cited are estimates of the number of disabling industrial
injuries in the United States during 1937, but because the accidents
leading to these injuries occurred day in and day out, they did not
crystallize the problem and did not focus the attention of the Nation
on methods of prevention. Experts in industrial-accident prevention
have estimated that as high as 95 percent of all occupational accidents
are preventable. It therefore follows that those individuals or officials
who have it within their power to probe and to disclose the causes of
industrial accidents can make contributions of far-reaching and im­
portant social and economic significance.
“ Industrial injuries don’t just happen. They are caused.” They
are the result of unsafe working practices and unsafe working condi­
tions. There are two possible causes for industrial accidents, under
which, broadly speaking, industrial diseases are included: (1) Unsafe
acts by workers, and (2) unsafe working equipment or environment.
With very few exceptions, one or both of these factors will be found
involved in every accident; and invariably, if these factors had been
eliminated, the accident would not have occurred and the resulting
injury would not have followed.
The tables suggested in this chapter are predicated on this idea.
The purpose to be served is to shed some light on the unsafe practices
and conditions which made the accidents possible, so as to focus atten­
tion on effective methods of prevention. A d eq u a te in form a tion m u st
;precede intelligent action.

Although the codes on which these tables are based are described
in considerable detail in chapter 9, it is advisable to refer to them
briefly at this point in order to make the tables which follow more
intelligible.




49

50

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

Basically, the cause analysis followed in this Manual is that de­
veloped by the Sectional Committee on Standardization of Methods
of Recording and Compiling Accident Statistics of the American
Standards Association and published in 1937. In this method of
analysis, which is considered the most advanced that has been de­
veloped to date, an accident is broken into its various components.
These are: (1) The agency, i. e., the defective object to which the
injury is most closely related; (2) the agency part, i. e., the particular
part of the agency most directly involved, such as the gears of a ma­
chine, the blade on a power saw, etc.; (3) the unsafe mechanical or
material conditions; (4) the accident type, i. e., whether a fall, or
struck by moving objects, or industrial disease, etc.; (5) the unsafe
act; and (6) the unsafe personal factor which may explain the reason
for the unsafe act. Applied illustrations of these rubrics are given
in chapter 9.
The various accident factors cited suggest that a considerable num­
ber of tables can be developed because of the variety of combinations
possible. The tables in this chapter, although by no means exhaus­
tive, are suggested as being the most revealing and practically useful.
They are all considered of primary importance, and none of them,
except table 31, involves any break-down of the general groupings.
It is obvious from an examination of the complete cause code that
the analysis can be carried into very much greater detail than is here
suggested, and officials interested in such break-downs may at times,
to meet specific needs, wish to have tables constructed in all the detail
given in the code. The tables given, however, are so general in their
nature that every workmen’s compensation administration or indus­
trial organization using the suggested cause code can construct them
without difficulty.
Additional significance is given to these tables by the endorsement
of competent safety engineers. The primary purpose of these tables,
to repeat, is to furnish adequate data on accident causes so that
safety men, i. e., factory inspectors, safety engineers, etc., may know
where to direct their efforts to the best advantage in preventing
accidents. If accidents are prevented, then injuries are prevented,
and accident prevention is preferable to workmen’s compensation
benefits.
Agency and Extent o f Disability

Table 30 classifies injuries by the agency group most directly
involved in accidents and by extent of disability. The purpose of
the table is to indicate the frequency and seriousness of industrial
injuries, including in that term industrial diseases. The number of
injuries shown for each agency indicates the relative frequency with
which such disabling injuries occur. Showing these disabilities by




A C C ID E N T

51

S T A T IS T IC S

extent, i. e., death, permanent total, etc., gives a measure of their
seriousness. The table permits a quick orientation as to the agencies
involved in disabling accidents and the relative seriousness of these
disabilities. If desirable, each group under extent of disability can
be subdivided further to show, in addition to the number of cases,
the compensation and medical costs.
Where the classification of temporary partial disability is not
recognized, this group must be omitted, but the kinds of cases classi­
fied should always be described properly either in the title or in an
explanatory footnote. Obviously, the table cannot be compiled ex­
cept from cases for which the extent of disability is known. Con­
sequently, most workmen’s compensation administrations may wish
to use closed cases, i. e., cases in which the extent of disability has
been definitely determined, either because compensation payments
have been completed or because an agreement has been entered into
by the parties involved. This, as pointed out earlier, requires that
the meaning of “ closed” be specifically stated; e. g., cases in which
compensation payments have been completed, cases in which agree­
ments have been approved, etc.
Priority
T

a b l e

30.— In ju ries classified by agency and extent o f disability
F r o m ----------- t o ------------- , 19—

Extent of disability
Agency involved

Death

Perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ Tempo­
nent
nent
rary Total
rary
total partial1 total partial2

Non­
compen­
sable 3

Total,
‘all re­
ported
cases

Machines... ... _____ .
Pumps and prime movers._
Elevators._ _ _ ______ ...
Hoisting apparatus. ____
Conveyors._. . ... _ ._
Boilers and pressure appa­
ratus ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Vehicles
_
Animals _
Mechanical power trans­
mission apparatus _
Electrical apparatus___ _
Hand tools. _____ _ ___
Chemicals ___ _ __ __
Highly inflammable and
hot substances______ _
Dusts. ___ ___ __ _ ._ _
Radiations and radiating
substances ___
__ __
Working surfaces, n. e. c___
Agencies, n. e. c__________
Unclassified_____________
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
3 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
In jurisdictions in which the coding of reported injuries is done
some considerable time after the reports have been received, it should
be possible to determine the extent of disability for most accidents




52

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

from the reports of the injuries. Injuries involving death or per­
manent disability are usually definitely known soon after the oc­
currence of the accidents, and employers usually describe them on
the first report to the workmen’s compensation administration. The
same is true of temporary total disability cases of short duration.
If the coding is delayed somewhat, i. e., is not done within a few
days after the report has been received, the extent of disability may
be ascertained in many cases from medical or other subsequent
reports. Consequently, it is possible to build the suggested tables
involving extent of disability on open cases, i. e., cases for which
compensation payments have not been completed or in which no
agreements have been reached between the parties involved.
Cases in which the report of the injury was accompanied by a final
receipt, or in agreement States by an agreement, should also be in­
cluded in the table. This has the tremendous advantage of providing
data on current experience. It should be noted that the d u ration of
disability is not important here. What matters is whether the
injury reported involves death or permanent or temporary disability—
factors which are relatively easy to determine.
Agency, Agency Part, and Extent o f Disability
Table 31 carries table 30 one step further, by showing for each
agency the agency part most directly involved. In the case of
accidents in which machines are most directly involved, the table will
show, for instance, the number of cases of deaths, permanent total,
permanent partial, temporary total, and temporary partial dis­
ability which are related to some particular p a rt of the machines.
The table will show for such injuries how many occurred in connection
with belts, pulleys or shafts, the frame or bed, or the point of opera­
tion, etc., and the type of disability which resulted. For elevators,
for instance, the table will show the number most directly concerned
with the car itself, or the car gates, the hoistway, platform, or steps,
etc., and how many of each of these resulted in death, or permanent
or temporary disability. In some of the agency groups no agencypart break-down is feasible, and consequently none is given. Ifc
would be next to impossible, for instance, to assign any agency part
to chemicals.
The table is particularly useful for accident prevention because it
identifies the agency parts most directly involved. The usefulness
of the table will be enhanced if a break-down is made for individual
industries, and, further, for individual types of agencies. Such
detailed studies, however, are recommended for special investigations
rather than for general tables. From the general table it should be
possible to determine whether the data warrant further break-down
and more detailed study, and at what points this expansion should




53

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

be undertaken. As in the case of table 30, tabulations on open cases
will be more timely than tabulations based on closed cases and
therefore of more practical value for accident prevention.
Priority
T a b l e 31. — I n ju r ie s classified by a g en cy, agency part, and extent o f d isa bility
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 1 9 —

Extent of disability
Agency and agency part involved

Death

Perma­ Perma­ Tem­ Tem­
nent nent porary porary Total
total partial1 total partial

Noncoinpensable 3

Total,
all re­
ported
cases

Machines:
Belts, pulleys, shafts, chains
and sprockets, cables, and
sheaves or gears____________
Chucks, vises, carriages, tool
posts, indicators, gages, and
other attachments__________
Ignition, heating, or cooling sys­
tem parts__________________
Frame, bed, etc______________
Point of operation____________
Safety devices________________
Parts, n. e. c_________________
Pumps and prime movers:
Belts, pulleys, chains and
sprockets, cables, and sheaves
or gears____________________
Moving parts, n. e. c__________
Ignition, heating, or cooling sys­
tem parts__________________
Frame, bed, etc______________
Valves_______________________
Gaskets, packing, etc_________
Safety devices________________
Flywheel____________________
Parts, n. e. c_________________
Elevators:
Belts, pulleys, chains and
sprockets, sheaves or gears___
Cables and cable fastenings____
Car_________________________
Car gates____________________
Hoistway____________________
Hoistway gates_______________
Safety devices________________
Operating machinery_________
Platform or steps_____________
Parts, n. e. c_________________
Hoisting apparatus:
Belts, pulleys, chains and
sprockets, cables, and sheaves
or gears____________________
Cab_________________________
Hooks or slings_______________
Magnet or bucket____________
Moving parts, n. e c__________
Frame, bed, etc_______________
Safety devices________________
Boom or mast or legs_________
Fixed parts, n. e. c____________
Conveyors:
Belts, pulleys, chains and
sprockets, cables, and sheaves
or gears____________________
Moving parts, n. e. c__________
Frame, bed, etc______________
Safety devices________________
Parts, n. e. c_________________
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
3 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.




54

M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Priority

T able

31.— In ju ries classified by agency, agency part, and extent of
disability— Continued
From

---------t o ----------,

19

—

E xtent of disability

Agency and agency part involved

Death

Perma­ Perma­ Tem­ Tem­
nent nent porary porary Total
total partial total partial

Noncompensable

Total,
all re­
ported
cases

Boilers and pressure apparatus____
Shell, drum, or header____
Tubes.________ _ ___ ____ _ _
Gage glass, water column, or
pressure and temperature
____________
gages
All other valves______________
Fusible plugs. _ ___ ______
Gaskets, packing, etc________ _
Safety valves or devices_______
Parts, n. e. c________ _________
Vehicles:
Belts, pulleys, chains and
sprockets, cables, and sheaves
or gears.______ _________
Coupler________________ _ __
Ignition, heating, or cooling sys­
tem parts___ _ _ ... ... .
Frame, bed, etc. (rigging, body).
Propeller or wheels___ _____ _
Safety device___ . . . _________
Hatchway___________________
Brakes ... _______ ______ _
Parts, n. e. c_________________
Animals:
Feet, or hoofs, claws, talons___
Mouth, stinger, teeth, etc____
H orn s___ _ _ _______ _
Tail_________________________
Parts, n. e. c_ _ _
____
Mechanical power transmission ap­
paratus. _____________ _ _
Electrical apparatus_____ _ __ ...
Hand tools ____ ________ ... __
Chemicals.______ ... . .. _______
Highly inflammable and hot sub­
stances_____ _ _______
Dusts . . . _____
Radiations and radiating substances.
Working surfaces, n. e. c ._ ____
Aeencies, n. e. c _____ ___________
Unclassified ____ _ __ . . . ____
Accident T ype and Extent o f D isability

An important aspect of accident analysis is the accident type.
The nine specific types listed in table 32 identify an accident as involv­
ing striking against objects, being struck by a moving object, being
caught in, on, or between objects, falls to different level, falls on the
same level, slips, etc., and the extent of the disability that resulted.
From this table it will be possible to determine, for example, how
many falls to different levels resulted in death or permanent dis­
ability, and how many industrial diseases resulted in the various
types of disability, as well as how the various types of accidents
compare in frequency of occurrence. It will be possible to determine
whether more accidental injuries are due to exposure to temperature




55

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

extremes than to strains, whether more are due to striking against
objects than being caught in, on, or between objects, etc., and how
the resulting injuries compare in severity. There may be fewer
injuries due to falls to a different level than to falls on the same
level, but proportionately more of the falls to a different level may
result in death or permanent impairment. Accidents of this latter
type, then, may be found to represent a more serious problem in
terms of disability.
The meaning of “ industrial disease” (usually called “ occupational
disease” ) should be made clear in a footnote. In some States the
term includes all industrial diseases, while in others it has reference
only to a limited and specifically described list of industrial diseases.
A footnote is therefore highly desirable, so as to avoid comparison
of data from various States when the data, as presented, are not
comparable.
Attention is also directed to the inclusion of noncompensable
cases. These, where available to any comprehensive degree, are
important because they reveal accident hazards. As already indi­
cated, it is often mere chance that an accident results in a minor
rather than a major injury. If the hazard exists, it should be recog­
nized and, if possible, prevented.
Priority

T a b l e 3 2 . — In ju ries

classified by accident typ e, and extent o f disability

F r o m ------ —

t o -----------, 19—

Extent of disability
Accident type

Death

Perma­
nent
total

Perma­ Tem­ Tem­
nent porary porary Total
par­
par­
tial 1 total tial 2

Non- Total,
com- all re­
pensa- ported
ble3 cases

Striking against _ __ ..
Struck by moving objects A,__ __ Caught in, on, or between, _ _ _ „
Falls to different level____ _____
Falls on same level___ ______ ,
Slips and overexertion, _ __ _ _
Contact with temperature extremes.
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion.
Contact with electric currents,__
Accident type, n. e. c _ ______ _
Unclassified ______________
Total_____________________
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
3 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting waiting period of days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
i Falling, flying, sliding, or moving objects.
As is true in all tables dealing with data on extent of disability,
the data suggested may be supplemented by further break-downs
to show amounts of compensation, and medical and hospital expense.
Such analyses, of course, must be based on closed cases. The advan1 5 9 7 2 6 ° — 4 0 -------- 5




56

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

tage of such a break-down is that total costs due to individual accident
types are brought out, permitting comparison in this additional field
of interest. Where this cost information is desired, it is recommended
that these tables be in duplicate— one for open cases, for current
accident-prevention purposes, and another for closed cases, for costanalysis purposes.
Industry and Accident T ype

It is important to know not only what ty p e s of accidents occur,
but also in what in d u stries they occur. Table 33 gives the analysis
of accident type by industry.
T able

Priority
33.— In ju ries classified by industry and accident type
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

The industries to be listed will depend in part on the importance
of industries in a particular State, and in part on the amount of
detail wanted. The same principle of flexibility has been followed in
the development of the industry code as was followed in the other
codes suggested. It is possible, if no further break-down is wanted,
to show only major divisions of industry, such as mining, manufac­
turing, wholesale and retail trade, etc., or, if more detailed informa-




ACCIDENT STATISTICS

57

tion is wanted, a further break-down may be made of each or as many
of these groups as may be desirable. Under manufacturing, for
example, may be shown the general major groups of food, textile,
iron and steel, automobile, etc. Each of these, in turn, may be
broken down into considerably more detail, and even to the full limit
of the suggested code.
The table is significant because it will show in what industries most
of the reported disabling injuries occur, and will indicate what further
analysis may be necessary. The analysis should also reveal the types
of accidents which are characteristic of certain industries, and the
results of such examination should make clear to the accident-preven­
tion personnel where to apply tbeir efforts most effectively.
The data can also be prepared in a 3-entry table in which are shown
for each industry the accident types subdivided by extent of disability.
Deaths and permanent total cases can be combined by the device
suggested for table 17.
A gency and Accident T ype

Table 34 is to show the frequency with which the various accident
types occur and the agencies most directly involved. When com­
pleted, it will show, for instance, the number of falls to different
levels involving elevators; the number of injuries in which workers
were struck by moving vehicles, or involved in falls from vehicles;
the number of injuries involving electrical apparatus or chemicals
and resulting from temperature extremes (hot or cold), etc. In other
words, it will show the occurrence of the types of accidents in relation
to the agency involved, as well as the types of accidents which stand
out for the individual agencies. Data for these agencies, of course,
can be broken down to furnish all the detail provided under the agency
code, as well as the agency parts. As suggested, the data to be pro­
vided will be of general interest, and, what is more significant, will
make possible the determination of the agency class or classes which
warrant more detailed analysis for accident-prevention purposes. For
instance, if a significantly large number of disabling injuries are shown
for machines, it will be desirable to determine the specific types of
machines involved in these machine injuries.
The table may be enlarged and shown as a three-entry table by
showing under “ accident type” the extent of disability, such as fatals
and permanent total and permanent partial disability, etc. A simi­
lar break-down by industry offers another three-entry table analysis.




58

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Priority
T able 34.— In ju ries classified by agency involved and accident type
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Total

Unclassified

Accident type, n. e. c.

ture extremes
Inhalation, absorption,
ingestion
Contact with electric
[
currents

i Contact with tempera- 1

| Slips and overexertion j

Falls on same level

Falls to different level

j Striking against

Agency involved

Struck by moving ob­
ject 1
Caught in, on, or be­
tween

Accident type

Machines __ _ ___
Pumps and prime movers.
Elevators____ ________
Hoisting apparatus_____
Conveyors____
Boilers and pressure ap­
paratus______ _____
Vehicles_______ - _ __
Animals_______ ___-__
Mechanical power trans­
mission apparatus___ _
Electrical apparatus ___ __
Hand tools--------------- __
Chemicals______________
Highly inflammable and
hot substances____
Dusts_____ ------------Radiations and radiating
substances____________
Working surfaces, n. e. c.
Agencies, n. e. c-------------Unclassified__ ______
Total_____________
i Falling, flying, sliding, or moving objects.
Unsafe A ct and E xtent o f D isability

The types of unsafe acts which are partly or wholly responsible for
the occurrence of disabling accidents are to be shown, by general
groupings, in table 35, which also gives the extent of disability which
resulted from these acts. For instance, workers operating at unsafe
speed brought about accidents resulting in a given number of fatalities
and cases of permanent or temporary disability. The use of defective
tools or equipment, or, equally important, the unsafe use of tools or
equipment, resulted in a certain number of cases of disability, to be
shown by extent. It will be apparent from the codes in chapter 9,
that the number of unsafe acts listed in table 35 may be enlarged
considerably. The table may also be prepared for individual indus­
tries, plants, or departments, either by preparing separate tables for
each, or by means of three-entry tables. The items of death and per­
manent total disability may be combined, if desirable, by the device
suggested for table 17.




59

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

Priority
T able 35.— In ju ries classified by unsafe act and extent o f disability
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Extent of disability
Unsafe act

Death

Perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ Tempo­
nent
nent
rary
rary Total
total partial i total partial
2

Non­ Total, all
compen­ reported
sable 3 cases

Operating without author­
ity, failure to secure or
warn__________ _____
Operating or working at
unsafe speed ________
Making safety devices in­
operative______________
Using unsafe equipment,
hands instead of equip­
ment, or equipment un­
safely__________________
Unsafe loading, placing,
mixing, combining, etc.__
Taking unsafe position or
posture __ __________
Working on moving or
dangerous equipment___
Distracting, teasing, abus­
ing, startling, etc_______
Failure to use safe attire or
personal protective de­
vices_____ _ _____
Unsafe act, n. e. c _____
Unclassified_____
___
No unsafe act of person___
Total, _ _ _________
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
3 “Noncompensable” because not outlasting waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require the
reporting of such cases.
2

Unsafe A ct and Industry

To facilitate accident prevention, it is essential that the types of
unsafe acts be shown by industries so as to make clear the type of
unsafe-act hazard to be guarded against in each of these.1 As indi­
cated in connection with table 35, the unsafe acts listed are general
types and may be enlarged, if desired, by following the detailed code
in chapter 9. Similarly, the industry classification can be made as
detailed as the industry code permits, or it may be expanded or con­
tracted to meet the needs or desires of individual jurisdictions. In
some States, for instance, the food industries may present no problem
requiring detailed analysis, so that this group of concerns or firms may
be treated without any other break-down than “ food industries.” In
other jurisdictions, however, further break-down may be desirable
into firms or concerns producing meat products, dairy products, baked
foods, beverages, etc. In some instances it may be desirable to break
down these groups into still greater detail. For instance, instead of
grouping all establishments manufacturing or processing milk, butter,
ice cream, condensed milk, etc., under the general classification of
“ dairy products,” they may be shown as individual industries.

i The same approach may be used for smaller industry subdivisions, or even for departments of a single
plant.




T able

Priority

O

36. — In ju ries classified by industry and unsafe act
F rom

-------- t o ----------,

19

—

Unsafe act

Total_________




Unsafe
loading, Taking
placing,
unsafe
mixing, position or
combining, posture
etc.

Working on Distracting,
teasing,
moving or abusing,
dangerous startling,
equipment
etc.

Failure to
use safe
attire or Unsafe act, Unclassi­ No
personal
n. e. c.
fied unsafe act Total
protective
devices

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Industry

Using un­
safe equip­
Operating
ment,
without Operating Making
in­
authority, or working safety hands of
stead
failure to at unsafe devices equipment,
secure or
speed inoperative or equip­
warn
ment un­
safely

61

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Condition and Extent o f D isability

As already indicated, information for safety purposes involves the
disclosure of unsafe mechanical or physical condition. It is impor­
tant to know how many disabling accidents involved improper guard­
ing, hazardous arrangement, improper illumination, improper venti­
lation, etc. Table 37 will show this information, as well as the extent
of disability, i. e., fatal, permanent, etc., that resulted from the
existence of these defects. As in the tables already discussed, the
data on extent of disability may, when compiled for closed cases, also
show compensation and medical and hospital costs. The items called
for under “ unsafe mechanical or physical conditions” are general and
may be broken down so as to show all the detail which is permitted
by the code given in chapter 9. Defects of agencies, for example,
may be broken into rough, slippery, sharp edged, poorly designed, low
material strength, poorly constructed, inferior composition, decayed,
aged, frayed, worn, cracked, etc. Improper illumination may be
broken into insufficient light, glare, and unsuitable location or arrange­
ment (producing shadows or contrasts).
Priority
T able 37.— In ju ries classified by unsafe mechanical or physical condition and
extent of disability
F r o m ----------- t o ------------, 19—

Extent of disability
Unsafe mechanical or
physical condition

Death

Perma­ Perma­ Tem­ Tem­
nent porary porary Tota
nent
total partial1 total partial2

Non- Total, all
compen- reported
sable 3 cases

Improperly guarded agen­
cies___________________
Defective agencies________
Hazardous arrangement,
procedure, etc., in, on, or
around the selected agen­
cy—
Improper illumination____
Improper ventilation_____
Unsafe dress or apparel____
Unsafe mechanical or phys­
ical condition, n. e. c____
Unclassified_____________
No unsafe mechanical or
physical condition______
Total______________
1 State whether disfigurement cases are included.
2 Omit if such injuries are not compensable under law.
3 ‘‘Noncompensable’’ because not outlasting waiting period of — days. Omit if law does not require
the reporting of such cases.
A gency and Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Condition

Aside from knowing the types of disabilities which resulted from
unsafe mechanical or physical conditions, factory inspectors and safety
engineers will need to know the types of agencies which were defective,




62

M ANU AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

and the frequency with which the injuries reported may be due to
given defects involving particular agencies. How many injuries, for
example, were due to machines which were improperly guarded?
How many disabling injuries were due to boilers which were defec­
tive? When the frequency with which these accidents occur is clearly
shown, it will be possible to determine at what points safety efforts
should be concentrated. The general table suggested here will serve
to indicate whether any break-down is desirable and along what par­
ticular points.
Priority

T able

38.— In ju ries classified by agency and unsafe mechanical or physical condition
F r o m ----------- t o ------------ , 19—

Unsafe mechanical or physical condition
Agency involved

Machines _ __ ____
Pumps and prime mov­
ers___________ ____
Elevators-.- _ _
Hoisting apparatus--- .
Conveyors_________
Boilers and pressure ap­
paratus - _______
Vehicles ____ ____
Animals ____
Mechanical power trans­
mission apparatus___
Electrical apparatus.__
Hand tools. __
Chemicals____ _ _ __
Highly inflammable or
hot substances _____
Dusts.
-_ ___
Radiations and radiat­
ing substances. _
Working surfaces, n. e. c_
Agencies, n. e. c..__
Unclassified_____ ___
Total___________




Im­
prop­
erly
guard­
ed
agency

De­
fective
agen­
cies

Haz­
ardous Im­
arrange­ proper
ment, illlumipro­
cedure, nation
etc.

Im­
proper
venti­
lation

No un­
safe me­
Unsafe
Un­ chani­
dress N. e.
cal or
or ap­ c. classi­ physi­ Total
fied
parel
cal con­
dition

63

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Condition and Industry

For purposes of accident prevention it is also necessary to know in
what industries the unsafe mechanical or physical conditions were
responsible for accidents. In table 39, the data to be shown cover
this point. Both the industry and unsafe mechanical or physical
condition classifications can be expanded to include considerable
detail. This more detailed analysis, of course, may be limited to
particular industries and to particular types of defects.
Priority

T able

3 9 .— In ju ries classified by industry and unsafe mechanical or physical
condition
F r o m ------- t o ----------- , 1 9 —

Unsafe mechanical or physical condition
Industry

Im­
prop­
erly
guard­
ed
agency

De­
fective
agen­
cies

Haz­
ardous
arrange­
ment,
pro­
cedure,
etc.

No un­
safe me­
Im­ Im­ Unsafe
Un­ chani­
proper proper dress N. e.
cal or
illumi­ venti­ or ap­ c. classi­ physi­ Total
fied
nation lation parel
cal con­
dition

Mining:
Coal_____________
Metal—______ _ _ _
Manufacturing:
Foods______ ______
Textiles _ _ ____
Etc ______________
Total___________
Unsafe A ct and Type o f Accident

The question as to what types of accidents result from the various
unsafe acts is answered by table 40. Here are to be shown the num­
ber of disabling injuries which resulted from striking against objects
because of operating at unsafe speeds, making safety devices inopera­
tive, etc. Similarly, data are to be shown for other unsafe acts and
the types of accidents resulting from them. As in earlier tables
involving unsafe acts, the types listed may be broken into greater
detail. The table, of course, can also be constructed for individual
industries, plants, departments, etc., either by being repeated for
each, or by the use of three-entry tables.




T able

Priority

0*
>

40.— In ju ries classified by unsafe act and type o f accident
F rom

-------- t o ----------,

19

—

Type of accident
Striking
against

Operating without authority, fail­
ure to secure or warn-------------Operating or working at unsafe
speed________________________
Making safety devices inoperative.
Using unsafe equipment, hands
instead of equipment, or equip­
ment unsafely________ ______
Unsafe loading, placing, mixing,
combining, etc_______________
Taking unsafe position or posture. _
Working on moving or dangerous
equipment____ ... . . . _____
Distracting, teasing, abusing,
startling, etc_________________
Failure to use safe attire or per­
sonal protective devices --------Unsafe act, n. e. c............. ..........
Unclassified____________________
No unsafe act of person_________
Total____________________
1 Falling, flying, sliding, or moving objects.




Contact
Contact
Struck by Caught in, Falls to Falls on Slips and with tem­ Inhalation, with elec­ Accident Unclas­
moving
on, or
different same level over­
type,
perature absorption, tric cur­ n. e. c. sified
exertion extremes ingestion
objects 1 between
level
rents

|

I

Total

!

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Unsafe act causing injury

ACCIDENT STATISTICS

65

T ype o f Accident and Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Condition

Table 41 is a companion to table 40, and is intended to show the
types of accidents that result, either wholly or in part, from unsafe
mechanical or physical conditions. It answers the question: What
types of accidents result from the various unsafe mechanical or
physical conditions? The table will show the number of disabling
agencies which resulted from striking against objects because of
improper guarding, hazardous arrangement, improper illumination,
etc. Similarly, it will reveal the frequency with which falls are
related to hazardous arrangements (of materials or equipment),
improper illumination, etc. The tabulation for unsafe mechanical
or physical conditions may be further subdivided, and the entire
table may be constructed for all reported injuries, or for individual
industries, departments, geographic locations, etc., either by repetition
or by the use of three-entry tables.
Priority

T able

41,— In ju ries classified by type o f accident and unsafe m echanical or physical
condition
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Unsafe mechanical or physical condition
Im­
prop­
erly
guarded
agency

Accident type

Haz­
ardous
De­ arrange­
fective ment,
agen­ proced­
cies ure,
etc.

No un­
safe me­
Im­ Im­ Unsafe
Un­ chani­
proper proper dress
cal or
illumi­ venti­ or N. e. c. classi­ physi­ Total
fied
nation lation apparel
cal con­
dition

Striking against _ _
Struck by moving ob­
jects 1____________ _
Caught in, on, or be­
tween- ______ ______
Falls to different level—
Falls on same lev e l-___
Slips and overexertion___
Contact with tempera­
ture extremes __ _
Inhalation, absorption,
ingestion,__
. _
Contact with electric
currents __ _____
Accident type, n. e. c__
Unclassified _ ____ _
Total____ ____
1 Falling, flying, sliding, or moving objects.
Unsafe A cts and Unsafe Personal Factors

The only suggested table involving unsafe personal factors is table
42. It can be compiled only by jurisdictions or organizations in a
position to determine the essential facts. Some of the unsafe personal
factors listed, and they are given in greater detail in chapter 9, are
not difficult to determine. The question whether an accident was
occasioned, either wholly or in part, by a workers’ lack of knowledge
or skill, or whether he was hard of hearing or had defective eyesight,




66

M ANU AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

may be determined with relative ease, although even here a considerable
amount of subjective judgment is involved. Improper attitudes, on
the other hand, are much more difficult to determine. For instance,
was the accident partly due to a worker’s willful disregard of instruc­
tions, or violent temper, or recklessness, or sluggish mental reaction?
A worker’s thoughts may wander for a moment, and at that very
moment and for that very reason the accident may have occurred.
But there are no visible facts to indicate that this happened, and the
problem then hinges on whether or not the worker, if he can be ques­
tioned, will admit that he was not paying attention to his job.
Because of the inherent difficulties in determining personal defects,
only one table is suggested. Such factors as can definitely be ascer­
tained, e. g., lack of skill or inexperience, disregard of instructions,
should be recognized.
Table 42 is intended to show the unsafe acts related to unsafe
personal factors. It should show how many injuries occurred because
inexperienced workers operated at unsafe speed or unnecessarily ex­
posed themselves to danger (such as standing under a loaded shovel
of a derrick); or how many injuries were due to workers with bodily
defects (such as impaired eyesight) working on moving or dangerous
equipment. Safety men are anxious for this type of information. It
can be compiled for all industry, individual industries, individual plants
or departments, etc. But, it is again pointed out, although these
data are very important, they will be difficult to obtain because of
the element of personal judgment involved, which, in many instances,
may be nothing more than guesswork.

T able

42.— In ju ries classified by unsafe act and unsafe personal factors
F r o m ----------- t o -------------, 19—

Unsafe personal factors occasioning unsafe act
Unsafe act
Operating without authority, fail­
ure to secure or warn. __ __ _
Operating or working at unsafe
speed _ ____________________
Making safety devices inoperative.
Using unsafe equipment, hands in­
stead of equipment, or equipment
unsafely_____ _. ___ ... ___
Unsafe loading, placing, mixing,
combining, etc___ __ __ __ _
Taking unsafe position or posture. _
Working on moving or dangerous
equipment______ __ ___
Distracting, teasing, abusing, star­
tling, etc____ ____________ .
Failure to use safe attire or personal
protective devices............ ..........
Unsafe act, n. e. c........................ __
Unclassified _ ____________ _ ...
No unsafe act____________ ____
Total_____________________




Lack of
Improper knowl­ Bodily
attitude edge or defect
skill

Unsafe
personal Unclassi­ No unsafe Total
factors,
fied personal
factor
n. e. c.

Chapter 5.— Extent of Disability
For a comprehensive analysis of accident causes it would undoubt­
edly be advisable to have available reports of all accidents, whether
or not they involved damage to person or to property. Such com­
prehensive reporting, however, obviously is not possible of attainment.
The question therefore arises as to how far accident reporting can be
carried.
For purposes of regulation, the Interstate Commerce Commission
requires the reporting, not only of disabling personal injuries, but
also of all accidents involving property damage to railway property
in excess of $150. Agencies administering workmen’s compensation
laws, however, are interested only in injuries to workers and do not
concern themselves with accidents which involve no personal injury.
The practices in the various States, however, vary widely. Some re­
quire the reporting of all injuries, including those involving only
medical first aid. Others require the reporting of all disabling in­
juries, and still others the reporting of only those injuries which exceed
the waiting period. In all reporting requirements, of course, only
injuries covered by the acts are reportable. Certain industries or
services— for example farming, domestic service, and casual employ­
ments— are entirely outside the coverage of most workmen’s compen­
sation acts. Moreover, in many of the States, employers are not
covered by the act if they have fewer workers than the prescribed
minimum number.
Because of the variety of reporting requirements, it is important
that the various injuries be clearly classified and described by extent
of disability. Unless this is done, persons not intimately acquainted
with all the reporting requirements of the various States, or even
with the reporting requirements of a single State, may draw unjustifi­
able conclusions from the data or make comparisons of things that are
unlike.
Since 1937 there has been available the American Standard Method
of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, which contains standard defi­
nitions of the various extents or types of disability. This standard
method was prepared under the auspices of the American Standards
Association and under the joint sponsorship of the International As­
sociation of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, the National
Safety Council, and the National Council on Compensation Insurance.




67

68

M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Six classifications of extent of disability are recognized in this stand­
ard. They are named and defined as follows:
1. Death: Death shall be the term applied to any injury which in­
volves the loss of the life of the injured.
2. Permanent total disability: Permanent total disability shall be
the term applied to any injury other than death which permanently
and totally incapacitates the injured from following any gainful occu­
pation. The loss of, or loss of use of, both hands, or both arms, or
both legs, or both feet, or both eyes, or any two [i. e., one arm and one
leg, etc.] thereof, suffered in one accident, shall be considered a per­
manent total disability.
3. Permanent partial disability: Permanent partial disability shall
be the term applied to any injury other than death or permanent total
disability which involves (a) the complete loss of any member of the
body or part thereof, or (b) the permanent impairment of any function
of any member of the body or part thereof.
4. Temporary total disability: Temporary total disability shall be
the term applied to any injury other than death, permanent total
disability, or permanent partial disability which, in the opinion of
the doctor, makes it impossible for the injured employee to return to
work on the calendar day following the day on which the injury oc­
curred, or on some later day.
5. Temporary partial disability: Temporary partial disability shall
be the term applied to any injury other than death, permanent total
disability, permanent partial disability, or temporary total disability
which in the opinion of the doctor makes it possible for the injured
person to return to work but not to his regular job on the calendar
day following the day on which the injury occurred, or some later day.
6. First-aid case: First-aid case shall be the term applied to any
injury, other than death, permanent total disability, permanent par­
tial disability, temporary total disability, or temporary partial dis­
ability, which receives at least first-aid or medical treatment but
which, in the opinion of the doctor, does not make it impossible for
the injured person to return to his regular job at or before the start of
the next calendar day following the day on which the injury occurred.
Little needs to be said here concerning death. It should be noted,
however, that every injury which directly leads to death is to be classi­
fied as such, regardless of whether or not considerable time elapses
between the date of injury and the date of death. There is no recog­
nition here of any difference between “ immediate death,” such as may
result from a broken neck caused by a fall from a ladder, and a “ sub­
sequent death” which may flow directly from an injury, such as the
amputation of a leg, 3 weeks after the occurrence of the accident.
It therefore follows that corrections may be called for in statistical




EXTENT OF DISABILITY

69

compilations when injuries classified as permanent total or permanent
partial, etc., disability subsequently result in death.
The items listed under permanent total disability are not intended
to be exclusive. The first sentence of the definition is controlling.
Consequently, any injury which permanently and totally incapacitates
a worker, whether because of a fractured skull, a broken back, an
industrial disease, a nervous derangement, etc., is classed as a per­
manent total disability, as is the total loss or total loss of use of both
hands, both arms, both legs, both feet, both eyes, or a combination
of any two of these, such as, for instance, the loss of one arm and one
eye. If the definition of permanent total disability in a tabulation
differs from that given above, a footnote should explain how the term
is used.
The classification of types of injuries as permanent partial by indi­
vidual jurisdictions depends in part on the provisions of the work­
men’s compensation laws. Some States, for instance, compensate for
disfigurement, while others do not. Of those which compensate for
disfigurement, a few do so for disfigurement of the head, face, neck,
and hands, while others do so only for disfigurement of the head and
face. Some compensate for loss of hearing, others do not, etc.
Obviously, statistical compilations in the various jurisdictions will be
based on the injuries recognized in the individual compensation acts
as permanent partial. Because of the differences in such provisions,
it is desirable to tie this classification by extent of disability to a
standard enumeration of items, so that jurisdictions which differ from
this standard may so indicate in a footnote, thus making possible
more accurate State-by-State comparisons. These items are: Arm or
arms; hand or hands; thumb or thumbs; finger or fingers; leg or legs;
foot or feet; toe or toes; eye or eyes; loss of hearing; and body generally.
When a tabulation includes cases of disfigurement under perma­
nent partial disability, this fact should be stated in a footnote, as
should the parts of the body for which the law provides compensation
for disfigurement. Preferably, the number of such cases should also
be stated. Permanent partial impairment of the body generally
may include back injuries or industrial diseases which have not reached
the stage of permanent total disability. In general, the extent of
such injuries will be rated as a percentage of permanent total dis­
ability. As in the case of disfigurement, any tabulation which includes
industrial diseases imder permanent partial disability should be pro­
vided with adequate footnotes explaining this inclusion.
Another point to be considered here relates to second injuries, i. e.,
a permanent partial injury which, because of an earlier permanent
partial injury, results in permanent total disability. For instance, a
worker who lost an arm in one accident may lose an eye, or a leg, or




70

M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

the other arm in a subsequent accident. The second injury in itself,
of course, is only a permanent partial injury. But because of the
earlier injury, the resulting disability is permanent and total. Such
injuries should be shown under permanent total disability, but the
number of such cases should be definitely identified in a footnote,
which should also include the cost of these cases when the table
includes cost data.
In any tabulation of temporary total disability which omits those
disabilities not exceeding a specified waiting period, it is essential to
indicate this fact in a footnote, which should also give the length of
the waiting period. If, for instance, the waiting period is 7 days, a
footnote might read: “ Includes only cases with disability exceeding
7 days.”
In counting days of disability, all calendar days, and not merely
working days, should be included. The term “ disability” means
inability to work, and this inability is true of every day in the dis­
ability period, including all Sundays and holidays. If, for instance, a
worker is injured on June 1, and is unable to return to work until
July 1, he is disabled for 29 days, even though the month contains
4 Sundays during which he normally would not have worked.
A considerable number of States do not recognize temporary partial
disability in their workmen’s compensation laws. In the tables
already suggested, the columns for temporary partial disability may be
included or excluded to accord with the classifications named in the
law.
The fact that the definition of temporary total disability uses the
phrase “ return to work,” whereas that for temporary partial dis­
ability uses the phrase “ return to work but not to his regular job,”
requires some explanation. Basic to this explanation is the difference
between these two types of disability. Temporary total disability
requires that a worker be unable to perform any work during his
period of disability. The disability ceases when the worker is phyically fit to resume work. If the work involves some other than his
regular job because he has not sufficiently recovered f r o m h is in j u r y to
p e rfo rm h is regular j o b , then his temporary total disability has merged
into temporary partial disability. In jurisdictions recognizing this
latter type of disability, it is often found to be preceded by temporary
total disability, which in turn may have been coupled with permanent
partial disability. Not infrequently, however, the temporary partial
disability is found by itself. If a worker cuts his hand, for instance,
and because of that injury is unable to continue with his regular job,
but is able to carry on some other work— usually at a lower wage rate—
then he has a temporary partial disability.
Practical considerations, however, require that the extent of dis­
ability of all cases to be included in a statistical tabulation be deter-




EXTENT OF DISABILITY

71

mined as of a given time. A ease of temporary disability may in
time become a case of permanent partial disability. If it does so
before “ the books are closed,” then the extent of disability to be
tabulated is the permanent partial injury. If it does so after “ the
books are closed,” then it is advisable to use the extent of disability
which is determined at the point of closing. A rule recently adopted
by a subcommittee of the American Standards Association provides
that all cases be tabulated for the extent of disability as ascertained
within a period of 1 month after the end of the year covered. If the
period is in the calendar year of 1939, for instance, then all cases are
to be tabulated for the extent of disability determined by January 31,
1940.
Some States require the reporting, not only of all disabling injuries
arising out of employment, but also of all nondisabling injuries which
require medical attention. In these jurisdictions the value of cause
analysis can be greatly enhanced by a consideration of these minor,
noncompensable injuries, which after all present accident hazards.
The fact that an accident results in a minor rather than in a major
injury is merely a matter of chance, sometimes a matter of a fraction
of an inch or a split second. For purposes of accident prevention it is
important to analyze all known accident-hazard data— regardless of
whether the type of injuries which resulted from these were minor or
major in character. If disabling injuries are to be prevented, then the
unsafe practices or conditions which lead to these injuries must be
recognized.

159726°— 40-




-6

Chapter 6.— Report Forms
The primary requisite of all statistics dealing with industrial in­
juries and accident causes is adequate reports of the injury. Basi­
cally, these consist of two reports: (1) The report of the injury, at
times supplemented by a medical report; and (2) the final receipt,
showing that payments have been completed, the amounts paid, and
for what.
Report o f Industrial Injury

Statistically, the report of an industrial injury is a very important
document. It specifies that a worker has been injured, states the
employer for whom he worked, the industry, the name, age, sex, and
wage of the worker, the cause of accident, and the injury that resulted
to specified parts of the worker’s body. It contains all of the infor­
mation necessary for workmen’s compensation and accident statistics,
except the element of costs and the period of disability or medical
treatment subsequent to the filling out of the report. It is therefore
important that this report be adequate, for it is impossible to obtain
accurate and useful statistics from inadequate reports.
Reports may be inadequate for two reasons: (1) The report form
itself may not call for the information necessary for proper analysis;
and (2) the report form, no matter how adequate, may not be filled
out accurately or completely by the reporting employer. The first
deficiency can be met only by a form developed to bring out the de­
sired information. The second can be met by the insistence of the
workmen’s compensation administration that reporting employers
furnish all the information requested. This problem and a suggested
method for solving it are considered later in this chapter.
Need for Adequate Injury-Report Form

As a rule, workmen’s compensation laws require the reporting of
industrial injuries to the workmen’s compensation boards. As indi­
cated in chapter 5, the reporting requirements vary widely. The fact
remains, however, that in a large majority of jurisdictions the report­
ing of accidental injuries, and more recently industrial (occupational)
diseases, is mandatory on employers under workmen’s compensation
laws.
Some twenty-odd States are now using an Employer’s First Report
of Injury form which has been approved by the International Asso­
ciation of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions (usually
72




REPORT FORMS

73

referred to as the I. A. I. A .B .C .), and which was developed by repre­
sentatives from a wide variety of interested groups, including the
National Council on Compensation Insurance.
The committee which developed this form voted, by a slender
majority, to confine it to the traditional fields and to favor the intro­
duction of another form for those jurisdictions which desired to utilize
the cause analysis along the lines recommended in this Manual.
There is much to be said for this point of view, because, obviously,
there is no object in providing a standard form embodying questions
relating to this method of cause analysis for jurisdictions either not
interested or not equipped to do much along the line of accident pre­
vention through the utilization of accident-cause statistics. The form
recommended here involves sufficient departure from the present
standard form to suggest that jurisdictions not concerned with acci­
dent prevention retain their present form and do not shift to the new
form until there is sufficient interest in accident prevention and the
necessary statistical information to guide such preventive activities.
The present standard form, as already indicated, does not meet the
needs of the accident-cause analysis recommended here. Additional
information is required. The form suggested for this purpose has
been developed to supply this information and at the same time to
provide the information necessary for workmen’s compensation pur­
poses and to meet the needs of insurance carriers.1 A comparison of
the form proposed here with the so-called I. A. I. A. B. C. standard
form shows clearly that the new form contains all the information
called for on the I. A. I. A. B. C. form, at times in a different phrasing
or location on the form, plus the information necessary for adequate
cause analysis.2
Before undertaking a detailed discussion of the new form, it is
necessary to indicate briefly the reasons for the adoption of a single
form, rather than a su p p lem en ta ry form to the present standard
report, a procedure suggested by various experts. This supplemen­
tary form was to be labeled “ Confidential— for accident-prevention
purposes,” was not to become part of the general record, and therefore
would not be involved in any of the formal hearings in contested cases.
In favor of this procedure it was pointed out that it would take some
time to obtain the accident-cause data and that consequently the
reporting of the accident would be delayed, as would the payment of
compensation. Further, it was urged that employers might be unwill­
ing to state correctly and honestly the facts involved in the accident,
partly because they did not wish to admit fault, and partly because

1 A variation of this new form has been in use in Pennsylvania since January 1, 1938.
2The proposed form can be used for industrial (occupational) diseases as well as for traumatic injuries.
It may be desirable, however, to use a different color paper for industrial-disease cases, so as to distinguish
such cases readily from those due to traumatic injuries.




74

M ANU AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

such statements might prejudice the officials of the workmen’s com­
pensation agency.
On the other hand, there are very strong reasons for asking for all
of the information on one form. Certainly an employer can at once
notify his insurance carrier of an accident to one of his employees—
and this is usually the practice— with a formal report following later.
And there is no reason why compensation, if due, must be delayed
pending the completion of the report. In most States no compensa­
tion is due until the injured worker has been disabled for 1 week—
and the report should be available within several days at the most.
As for the objection that an employer may be reluctant to admit that
he is at fault, it is pointed out that workmen’s compensation laws
disregard the question of fault, and that an employer has little, if
anything, to lose by admitting that equipment or environment were
not what they should have been; provided, of course, that he has not
violated a safety order in a State which exacts additional compensa­
tion for such violations. But, by and large, employers have more to
gain than to lose by permitting a good analysis of accident causes,
for accidents are costly, and can be prevented. An honest appraisal
of these cause factors may indicate to the employer the hazards to be
overcome in preventing a recurrence of accidents having the same
causal factors.
The strongest reason for a single form, however, lies in the fact that
workmen’s compensation administrators will insist on the submission
of a single report because it is essential for compensation purposes.
They may not have the same interest in a second report dealing essen­
tially with the causes of each accident, and consequently, there is a
strong likelihood that not nearly so much insistence will be placed on
the actual filing of this separate accident-cause report. Nor will
individual employers, for the most part, wish to be bothered by more
than one report. If they have reported once, they are apt to think that
they have complied with the law. In short, then, if the accidentcause facts are asked for on one report, there is a much greater chance
of their being reported than if they are asked for on a supplementary
form. As for their being reported accurately, that is a matter of
education, in which the fairness of administrators and the assistance
of factory inspectors will be exceedingly helpful.3
In the development of the form, it was recognized that the instruc­
tions for the filling in of the items called for could be handled in at
least two ways: (1) In a small bulletin or pamphlet giving specific
instructions as to the type of information called for; or (2) con­
densing these instructions and placing them on the report form in

3 It is to be noted that, at its worst, the new form will function as well as the present standard form. The
accident type and the agency can always be identified, even if the other data necessary for a more thorough­
going analysis cannot be obtained.




EMPLOYER’S REPORT OF INDUSTRIAL INJURY
(Answer every question fully to avoid further correspondence)

EMPLOYER
Employer’s or
Carrier’s file No__________ _____ ____________

(1) Name___________ _____ _____________________________________________ _______________ _
(Give name under which concern does business)
(2)

Office address: No. and Street_______ ________ ______ ___ _______ _

DO NOT WRITE IN
THIS COLUMN
CASE NO.

C ity..................................... ...........

State............ ........... ........................

(3) Nature of business _____ ___ __________ ________________________ ___________________________________ _________________ ________ ___________
(List principal product or service of the concern)

EMPLOYER NO.

ACCIDENT
(4) Accident occurred where?................................................ ................................................
(City and State)
(6) Date of accident: _________ _________19_____

Hour: ..........A. M.

(7) Date disability began:.........................................

(5) On employer’s premises?_________________________
(Yes or no)

PLACE OF
ACCIDENT

..............P. M.

(8) Was injured paid in full for this day?____________
(Yes or No)

INDUSTRY

INJURED EMPLOYEE
X9) Name.. . ............ ......... .........................................
.
__
........................................ .
...
___
(First name)
(Middle initial)
(Last name)
(10) Address: No. and street______ ___________ ____________________ _______ _
(11) Age:___

City ___________ _______________

(12) If under 18, did you have on file an age or employment certificate? ____________

(13) Check ( ): Single___

Married___

Divorced___

(14) Number of hours worked per day .........

Widowed___

Male-----

.

_

..............................

DATE OF
ACCIDENT

State.......................................

No. of certificate________ _____ ______________

Female............

AGE

(15) Number of days worked per week________ _____

(16) Wages: per hour ............ ...... per day $.........................per week $ ..-------- -----------

If board, lodging, fares or other advantages were furnished in ad-

dition to wages, give estimated value per week: $ ______________ per month: $ _______________

CONJUG. COXD.
AND SEX

CAUSE OF ACCIDENT
(17) What was employee doing when the accident occurred?......... ................................................... ........................................................................................
(Describe briefly, such as: loading truck;
operating a drill press; shoveling dirt; painting with spray gun; etc.)
<18) Occupation_______________________

TIME EMPLOYED

WEEKLY WAGE

_________________________________________________ _____ _______________________ _____ ____________

(19) How long employed by you at this occupation?_ _______ _____________________ _______ ________________________ _____ _____ _________ ____
_
(20) What machine, tool, substance or object was most closely connected with the accident?____________ ______ ______ _________ ____________ _______

OCCUPATION

(Name the machine, tool, appliance, gas, liquid, etc., involved)
(21) If machine or vehicle, what part oiit?----------------------------------- ---------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------- ----- ---------------------(State if gears, pulley, motor, etc.)
<22) How did the accident happen? ___________________ _______ ________________________________________________________ _______________________
(Describe the accident fully, stating whether the injured person fell

AGENCY

AGENCY PART

or was struck, etc., and all the factors contributing to the accident. Use other side of report for additional space.)
<(23) In what way was the machine, tool or object defective?............ ........... ............................... ..................... ............................. ........................................
<24) H ow can you prevent this type of accident?___ ____ _________________________ ____ ___________________________ ____ ______ ___________ ______
t
(Specify the remedial measure, such as: better illumination, better ventilation,
providing goggles, providing a better guard, better supervision, etc.)

ACCIDENT
TYPE

UNSAFE ACT

(25) Were mechanical guards, or other necessary safeguards (such as goggles) provided?........................... ...............................................................................

(26) Was injured using them?_____________________ _________________ _____________ ____ ____ ____________ ______ ___________ __________________

MECHANICAL
DEFECT

(27) How could the injured have prevented the accident?____________________ ______ _____________________________ ____ _________________________
(Do not say “by being more careful,” but specify what employee should or should not
have done.

For instance: should not have used defective ladder; should not have oiled machinery in motion; should have worn goggles; etc.)

PERSONAL
DEFECT

NATURE AND LOCATION OF INJURY
(28) ------------------ ------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- .--------------(Describe in detail the nature of the injury and the part of the body affected. For instance:

NATURE

amputation of right arm, crushing injury to chest, lead poisoning, dermatitis of right arm and hand, etc.)
<29) Name and address of physician........ ................................................................................................. ................ ................................................................
<30) Name and address of hospital________________________________ ____ _______ __________________________ _______________ ________________ ____
(31) Has employee returned to work?...................
(34) Did injury result in death?__________

(32) If so, give date .............................................

LOCATION

(33) At what weekly wage? $ ____________ _____

(35) If so, give date__________ ____ ______________ _____ ___ _____ _____________________ ______ _____

INSURANCE

(36) In case of death, give name and address of nearest relative ---------- -------------------- --------------------------- ------ --------- ------------------ ----------------------------

REPORT LAG

INSURANCE
(37) Name and address of workmen’s compensation insurance carrier........... ....................................... ............................................... .......... ........................

CODED BY
<38) Date of this report.............................................

Made out b y ...........................................................................................................................................
Official position.......................................................................................................................................

159726°— 40




( Face p. 75)

REPORT FORMS

75

small type directly below the spaces provided for the answers. As is
apparent from the proposed form, the second alternative was adopted,
for the reason that it will keep the instructions before the person
making out the report every time he has occasion to prepare one.
A pamphlet of instructions might be read once, and then be laid aside
or lost. If a new person chanced to make out a report, he might not
even know that such a pamphlet existed.
A word is in order concerning the general structure of the form,
before discussing in detail the questions asked. It will be noted that
the questions are grouped under the headings of “ employer,” “ acci­
d en t/’ “ cause of accident,” “ nature and location of injury,” and
“ insurance,” so as to permit quick orientation. Every question is
numbered to permit of easy reference. The right-hand margin has
been set aside for statistical coding, so as to make unnecessary a
duplicate code form, or coding on the report form without any special
coding space, a practice which encourages faulty statistical compila­
tion and generally detracts from the appearance of the report.
Details of Report Form

The report is called “ employer’s report of industrial injury” because
it is the injury which is reported rather than the accident. If the
report were of the accident, then one single report might cover as
many injuries as resulted from the one accident. If, for instance, a
scaffold collapsed, causing two deaths and three nonfatal injuries, a
single report could cover the accident, giving the names of the five
persons killed and injured. But for compensation purposes a report is
required for every injured worker; consequently, the report covers an
in j u r y , rather than an accident.
E m p lo y e r :

(1)
N a m e .— The name called for is that under which the concern
does business. Much confusion results in the files of workmen’s com­
pensation administrations by reports which, although pertaining to
the same injury, give the name of the concern differently. On the
report of the industrial injury, the name of the employer may be given
as “ John Smith, Jr.” On the final receipt it may be shown as the
“ X - Y - Z - Laundry.” The usual practice of the administration will
be to call for a final receipt for the injury to Tom Brown from em­
ployer “ John Smith, Jr.,” and to call for a report of injury to Tom
Brown from employer “ X - Y - Z - Laundry.” The difficulty, of course,
lies in the fact that the employer’s name is not uniformly reported.
It is desirable to have it reported as here indicated— the name under
which the employer or employing concern does business— so as to
avoid confusion and needless irritation.




M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

76

(2) Office a d d ress .— This address is wanted to facilitate any corre­
spondence that may be necessary, and to permit a better identification
of the employer.
(3) N a tu r e o f b u s in e ss .— What is desired here is sufficient informa­
tion to classify the concern according to its major industrial activity.
Any analysis of frequency of injuries, compensation costs, accident
causes, etc., must necessarily be placed within the framework of an
industry classification. The small print indicates that the information
wanted is the principal types of products manufactured or the prin­
cipal type of service of the concern, such as rolling mill; furniture
factory; wholesale dry goods; grocery store; advertising agency;
window cleaning; garage; etc.
It will also be noted that space has been provided for the em­
ployer’s or carrier’s file number, under which the case is indexed by
the employer, if self-insured, or the insurance carrier. Reference to
this file number in subsequent correspondence will facilitate the locat­
ing of the necessary papers and records on the part of the employer
or insurance carrier. Above the coding space, provision has been
made for the insertion of the industrial commission number for the
report.
A c c id e n t:

(4) A c c id e n t occurred w h ere ?— The information to be filled in is the
city and State. These data help to identify the accident and also
offer some clue as to whether the accident occurred within or outside
the State.
(5) O n e m p lo y e r ’s p r e m is e s ?— This question is to be answered by
either “ yes” or “ no” and is intended to throw more light on the cir­
cumstances concerning the accident for compensation purposes.
(6) D a te o f acciden t .— The day, month, and year are to be inserted,
as well as the hour at which the accident occurred.
(7) D a te d isa b ility began .— If the injury was so severe that work
was discontinued at once or soon after but on the same day on which
the accident occurred, the date to be shown here will be the date of
the accident. There are a considerable number of injuries, however,
which do not incapacitate a worker at once, so that he is able to remain
at work for some time. Particularly is this true of infections arising
out of minor injuries. In cases such as these, the date disability began
will be the first day on which the worker was unable to work because
of the injury.
(8) W a s w orker p a id in f u l l f o r this d a y f — This is to be answered
simply by “ yes” or “ no” and is essential for compensation purposes.
I n ju r e d e m p lo y e e :

(9) N a m e .
(10) A d d r e ss.




REPORT FORMS

(11)
(12)

A g e .— To

77

be given as of the last birthday.

I j u n d er 1 8 , did y o u have on file an age or e m p lo y m en t certificate ?

N u m b e r o j certificate .— This

question is prompted by the child-labor
provisions of a large number of the States, as well as those of the
Fair Labor Standards Act, under which the Chief of the Children’s
Bureau of the United States Department of Labor (1) has the author­
ity to issue age certificates certifying that a particular child is above
the oppressive child-labor age, i. e., that the child is at least 16 years
of age, and (2) has the authority to find certain occupations to be
hazardous and bar minors from being employed in them if under 18
years of age. (See pp. 43-48.)
(13) M a r ita l status and se x .— For compensation purposes the marital
status and sex of the injured worker are often significant.
(14) (15) (16) N u m b e r o f hours w orked p e r d a y , n u m b er o j d a ys
w orked p e r w e e k , w a g es .— These facts are important in the determina­
tion of compensation benefits, and also have some significance in
computing workers’ wage loss due to accidents, and to relate hours
per day and week to the frequency of accidents.
C a u se o j a cciden t:

It is in the questions in this section of the report that the proposed
form differs most radically from the forms now generally in use. The
aim of the questions included here is to throw light on the various
factors involved in the accident, as well as to bring out the unsafe act
or condition which must be remedied if similar accidents are to be
prevented.
(17) W h a t w as em p lo yee doing w hen the accident occu rred ?— What is
wanted here is a brief description of exactly what the injured worker
was doing when the accident occurred, so as to make possible a
reconstruction of the accident. This question is not the same as
question (18) “ Occupation.” The injured worker might be a drillpress operator, but he might have been loading castings from a truck
on his machine when one of the castings slipped and fell on his foot.
The proper answer in such a case would be: “ Loading castings from
truck onto drill press,” whereas the answer to question (18) would be:
“ Drill-press operator.”
(18) O ccu p a tion .— What is wanted here is the name of the occupa­
tion in which the injured worker was regularly employed by the
employer.
(19) H o w long e m p lo yed b y y o u at this occu p a tion ?— This question
is intended to indicate the worker’s familiarity with the job hazard,
and to permit some conclusions as to whether newly hired employees
have more disabling accidents than those with longer service and
experience.
(20) W h a t m a ch in e , tool , substance or object w as m ost closely con­
nected w ith the acciden t ?— If a machine was most closely connected




78

M ANU AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

with the accident, then, of course, the machine should be named. If,
for instance, the operator of a paper cutter had his hand caught under
the knife in the absence of a proper guard, or on a cutter equipped
with an improper guard, then the machine most closely connected
with the accident was the cutter. If, on the other hand, the truck
from which he was unloading paper was improperly blocked so that
it moved and struck and injured the operator, then the object to be
named here should be the truck. But if the accident was due to the
operator’s dropping of a load of paper on his foot, then the answer to
the question should be “ load of paper.” If a worker swinging a
sledge hammer receives a steel splinter in his eye from the sledge
hammer, then the answer to this question should be “ sledge hammer,”
etc.4
(21) I f m ach in e or vehicle, what pa rt o f i t ?— The parts to be named
may be belts, pulleys, gears, sprockets, point of operation, wheels,
crank, tires, etc.
(22) H o w did the accident h a p p en ? — This is the key question in this
section because it calls for the description of the accident itself. Such
brief descriptions as “ worker fell,” etc., should be rejected. What is
wanted here is a description of how the accident happened. For in­
stance, “ worker slipped on grease on the floor and struck head against
cement post.”
(23) I n what w a y w a s the m a ch in e, tool, or object defective? — There
may have been no defect, in which case the proper answer should be
“ none.” But if there were defects—if, for instance, the machine was
unguarded, or the sledge or chisel was mushroomed, etc,— this fact
should be stated.
(24) H o w can y o u prevent this ty p e o f acciden t? — This question, of
course, is directed at the employer. It should accomplish two things:
(1) Make clear the unsafe condition or unsafe act; and (2) focus the
employer’s attention on the unsafe condition or unsafe performance
which made the accident possible. As indicated, the answers may
be, “ by providing better illumination” ; “ by providing more adequate
safeguards” ; “ closer supervision and better safety training of work­
ers,” etc.
(25) W e r e m echanical guards or other n ecessa ry safegu ards (such as
goggles) p rovid ed ? — If no such safeguards were provided, then this fact
should be stated. If safeguards were provided, but the accident oc­
curred anyhow, then there is a possibility that the safeguards were in­
adequate or that someone, perhaps the injured worker himself, tam­
pered with them.
(26) W a s in ju r e d u sin g th em ? — If safeguards were provided but the
injured did not use them, an unsafe act on the part of the employee
4

See chapter 9 for the rules for the selection of the proper agency for coding purposes.




REPORT FORMS

79

is clearly indicated. The question, if applicable, should be answered
by either “ yes” or “ no.”
(27) H o w could the in ju red have prevented the a ccid en tf — This ques­
tion is intended to bring out the unsafe act which made the accident
possible or at least contributed to it. Answers such as “ by being more
careful” are meaningless. A proper answer should indicate what the
employee should or should not have done; for instance, “ by using
proper method for lifting” ; “ by wearing proper clothes” ; “ by wearing
goggles” ; “ employee should not have attempted to board moving
vehicle,” etc.
N a tu re and location o f in j u r y :

(28) N a tu re and location o f i n j u r y .— This question calls for a brief
description of the injury as well as the identification of the part of the
body affected; for instance, amputation of left index finger; severe
lacerations of right hand; fracture of left leg; dermatitis on both hands;
silicosis; lead poisoning; infection of right arm resulting from puncture
wound to right hand, etc.
(29) (30) N a m e and address o f p h y s ic ia n , h osp ita l.— These data are
of great value to insurance carriers.
(31) H a s em p loyee returned to w o r k f — If the employee has returned
to work, this fact should be indicated by “ yes” ; if not, by “ no.” It is
important, of course, to know the length of disability in order to deter­
mine whether, on the basis of this report, compensation benefits may
be in order.
(32) I f so, give date.
(33) A t what w eek ly wage f — If the wage is less than that indicated by
the answer in question (16), then there is a possibility that the injury
may be responsible for the difference, in which case compensation
benefits for temporary partial disability may be in order.
(34) D id in ju r y result in deathf
(35) I f so, give date.
(36) I n case o f death, give n am e and address o f nearest relative.— This
will enable the workmen’s compensation board to be of prompt assist­
ance to dependents at the time when such assistance is most needed.
In su ra n ce:

(37)

N a m e an d address o f w o rk m en ’s com pen sation

rier. — If

in su ra n ce car­

the employer is self-insured, he should state in answer to
this question: “ Self-insured.” If his insurance is carried by an insur­
ance company, it is likely that the name of the carrier will be printed
directly on the form, as will the carrier’s address. If this is not the
case, it should be written in by the employer.
(38) D a te o f this rep ort; m ade out b y ; official p o s itio n . — This informa­
tion indicates how soon after the injury the report was made out and
by whom.




80

MANUAL, ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Obtaining Complete Information

The point has already been made that if the report form is to
attain its stated objective, i. e., furnish data essential for compensa­
tion purposes and f o r accident p reven tio n , the form must be filled out
completely. Experience has proved, however, that it is not possible
to rely completely on the understanding or cooperation of employers,
and that reports will be submitted which are lacking in some im­
portant details. Particularly will this be true of questions (24)
through (27) which are aimed at unsafe conditions and unsafe acts.
A simple and convenient follow-up method is needed. A brief
mimeographed form letter may point out that the report submitted
concerning the accident was incomplete for the items checked on the
enclosed form of the Employer’s Report of Industrial Injury, and
request the employer to fill in the missing data checked on that form
and to return it promptly. The employer should be requested to
return the form sent him rather than to submit another report. 6
The report form to be enclosed should bear the name of the em­
ployee and the file or case number of the board or commission, so
that the report can be identified easily even if returned without any
accompanying letter. The items lacking on the report originally
submitted can be marked, preferably by the coder, by check marks
or circles around the number of the question, preferably in red pencil
so that the marking will stand out unmistakably.
When addressing the form letter, a carbon copy should be prepared
to serve as a file copy. The letter and copy should contain the em­
ployer’s name and address, the name of the employee, the date of
accident, and the commission’s or board’s file number. If the em­
ployer or insurance carrier gave a file number on the original report,
this number should be listed.
A t n o tim e , h ow ever , sh ou ld the origin al report its e lf be returned f o r
com p letion .
Doing so deprives the board or commission of the report

6 The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry used the following form letter:
[Copy]
D

G entlem en:

C o m m o n w e a l t h o f P e n n s y l v a n ia
epa r tm e n t of L abor an d In d ust ry

Harrisburg

Bureau Case No.
Your File N o. -

F-86-LBC

The report of industrial injury t o __________________________ _____o n ______________________ 19__
is incomplete. Please fill in the answers to the questions marked on the attached form and return it as
soon as possible to the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, Department of Labor and Industry, Harris­
burg, Pennsylvania.
Your attention is called to the fact that correspondence of this type can be avoided by answering fully
the questions called for on the Emplc yer’s Report of Industrial Injury.
Yours very truly,




A u s t in L . S t a l e y ,

D ir e c to r , B u r e a u o f W o r k m e n ’ s C o m p e n s a tio n .

Commission case number
(Do not use)

FINAL REPORT AND SETTLEMENT RECEIPT

( )

2

(3)
(4)

Employer File No.

Employer’s n a m e :________
Office a d d ress:____________
Name of injured employee:
Address: __________________

(1)

(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)

(City or town)

(Number and street)

(5)
(6)
(7)

(Number and street)

(City or town)

Date of injury: ____________________________________ 19 __
Last day employee worked: ______________________ 19 __
Date on which employee was able
to return to work_______________________________ 19__
Employee returned to work o n ___________________ 19 __
Did employee work between date of injury and last
day of disability?______________________________________
If so, give dates: ________________________________________
Length of temporary disability:
_________________________________ w eek s_____________ days
Average weekly w a g e :_____________________ $ __________
Rate of weekly com pensation:____________$ ____________

Compensation payments were made on following basis:
(14)
____ w e ek s_____ days temporary total disability
____ w e ek s_____ days temporary partial disability(15)
(16)
____ weeks permanent partial disability fof—
________
loss of
__
% loss of use of
(17)
weeks permanent total disability
(18)
weeks for death
(19)
Other (specify)

(20)
(21)
(22)

$_________

Total Compensation
Hospital expense
. . .
Medical expense
Other (specify)

$ _________

Total Cost , .

(23)

Were payments made on basis of (1) decision by commission?
Was there a lump-sum p a y m e n t? ____________

$ _ _ _ ____

(2) Settlement contract?

FIN AL RECEIPT
(24) Received f r o m ------------------------------------------------------------------------ - - - — ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the sum of
(Name of employer or insurance carrier)

dollars a n d _______cents ($_

-)

making in all, with payments already received, a total of
dollars a n d _______cents ($__________________ )
as compensation for the disability indicated above.
D a t e ________________________ , 19__
Witnessed b y * --------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Employee’s signature
(Or agent or beneficiary)

(*To be signed when injured employee is not able to sign his name)

Address

Insurance Co.
File N o . _____

(25)

Insurance carrier_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

(26)

If full compensation was not paid, explain w h y ______________________________________________________________________________________

Signed by
Position __
159726°— 40




(Face p. 81)

REPORT

81

FORM S

for some time, and the report may never be returned.

I t is a f a r

sa fer p roced u re , an d p erh a p s safer leg a lly , to retain the origin al report
an d ask f o r the m issin g in fo rm a tio n on another f o r m .

When the report with the additional information has been returned,
the carbon copy is to be drawn from the file and added to the record
of the case. As long as the carbon copy remains in the file, it indicates
that the employer has not replied and that further follow-up work is
necessary. In obstinate cases, factory inspectors may be utilized to
confer with employers to obtain the desired data and to prevent a
recurrence of the delay in future cases. In particularly obstinate
cases, legal proceedings may be threatened or instituted.
Final Report and Settlement Receipt

The final-settlement receipt proposed here serves two functions:
(1) It shows the amount of compensation paid and the disability
compensated; and (2) it serves as a final receipt, indicating the date
of the last payment and the total amount received by the worker
or his beneficiary. From the date on which the injury occurred,
the last day the employee worked, the date on which disability
ended, and the date on which the employee returned to work, it is
relatively simple to compute the actual period of disability. The
questions have been phrased so as to make clear whether or not the
employee continued at work after his injury and started to lose
time later. The question as to whether the employee worked between
the date of injury and the last day of disability specifically covers
this point. It also covers the possibility of the employee’s having
returned to work after some time out, only to be compelled again to
absent himself from work for an additional period as the result of
his injury.
The distinction between question (7) “ Date on which employee was
able to return to work” and question (8) “ Employee returned to work
on --------- ” may require some explanation. The disability ends on
the day preceding the one on which the employee was physically able
to return to work. If he was able to return to work on August 14,
then the last day of disability was August 13. An illustration of how
this section of the form is to be filled out may be helpful. Suppose a
worker is injured on August 1, works through August 2, but cannot
return to work on August 3. Suppose further that he works on August
8, cannot return to work on the 9th, but returns completely recovered
on August 14. His weekly wage is $24, and the law requires a com­
pensation rate of 66% percent and provides for a 3-day waiting period.
This section of the report should be filled out as follows:
Date of injury:
Last day employee worked:
Date on which employee was able to
return to work:




A ug. 1, 1938.
A ug. 3, 1938.
A ug. 13, 1938.

82

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
Employee returned to work on:
A ug. 14, 1938.
Did employee work between date of injury and
last day of disability?
Yes.
I f so, give dates:
A ug. 2 and 8.
Length of temporary disability:
1 week 3 days.
Average weekly wage:
$ 24 -00.
Rate of weekly compensation:
$16.00.

From this information it is clear that the employee was disabled
for 10 days and that, deducting the 3-day waiting period, he is entitled
to compensation for 1 week at the rate of $16, or a total of $16. This
should check with the information furnished under the section
“ Compensation payments were made on the following basis,” which
should indicate the payment for 1 week 0 days temporary total disa­
bility of $16. If the treatment involved two visits to a physician at
$3 per visit, then there should also be the entry of $6 for medical
expense, and a total cost of $22.
The items listed under the compensation-payment data require
little, if any, explanation. Data are to be inserted showing the num­
ber of weeks of compensation paid, the extent of disability involved
(whether temporary total, permanent partial, death, etc.), and the
total amounts paid. In a jurisdiction in which compensation is
payable for the healing period in addition to a permanent partial
disability, there will, of course, be entries under both items. Suppose
that in such a jurisdiction, with a waiting period of 3 days, a worker
is disabled for 3 weeks and 3 days because of an injury which results
in a loss of use of 20 percent of the hand. Suppose further that the
weekly compensation rate for this worker is $16 and that the law
specifies 300 weeks of compensation for the loss or complete loss of
use of the hand. Suppose also that medical costs amounted to $75.
The entries in this section of the report, in such case, should be:
3 weeks 0 days temporary total disability_______________
60 weeks permanent partial disability for—
20 percent loss of use of hand_______________________

$ 48. 00

Total compensation________________________________
Medical expense____________________________________________

1, 008. 00
75. 00

Total cost___________________________________________

1, 083. 00

960. 00

The questions pertaining to whether compensation payments were
made on the basis of a decision by the commission, or a settlement
contract, or a lump-sum settlement are intended to direct the atten­
tion of commission personnel verifying the accuracy of payments to
other commission records.




REPORT FORMS

83

The receipt section also requires little comment, except to point out
that it ties the amount received to the preceding statements con­
cerning the disability. The receipt should be signed by the worker
or his beneficiary. If he can only make a cross (X) for his signature,
then it is desirable to have it witnessed.
At the bottom of the form, space is provided for the insertion of the
name of the insurance carrier and the carrier’s file number of the case.
There is also a provision for stating why full compensation was not
paid, if such was the case. This statement should be signed and the
official position of the person making it should be shown.




Chapter 7.— Classifications and Codes— General
Most of the tables suggested require classification and statistical
codes. They are given in this chapter and in chapters 8 and 9,
together with explanatory detail concerning their uses.
Attention is called to the elastic structure of most of these classifi­
cations. They permit classifying in great detail as well as in more
general groupings. The numbering system is on the decimal basis,
with each successive number unit a more detailed break-down of the
subject matter. This structure lends itself to the varying needs and
statistical facilities of the workmen’s compensation administrations
in the various States. Some jurisdictions may want to carry all the
detail given. Others may wish to use only the general classifications.
Still other jurisdictions may wish to use detail for some items and
general classifications for others.
The classifications and codes which follow are grouped under (a)
administrative, (b) compensation, and (c) accident causes. Chapter
8 is devoted to industry and occupational classifications, and chap­
ter 9 to accident-cause analysis.
Adm inistrative

Of the 15 tables in chapter 2, 8 require the use of codes. Table 4,
Compensation Awards and Settlements, requires a code for extent of
disability and a code for dependency; table 6, Time Lag in Reporting
Injuries to the Workmen’s Compensation Board, requires a code for
report lag; table 7, Time Lag in Making First Compensation Payment,
requires a code for payment lag; tables 10 to 13, dealing with medical
costs, require codes for nature of injury and location of injury; and
table 14, Comparison of Legal Fees and Compensation, requires a
code for extent of disability. All of these codes, except those dealing
with time lag, are given in the “ compensation” group of classification
and codes because of their greater applicability there.
Report Lag

The report lag is the time interval between the date of the onset of
disability, usually the date of the accident, and the date the report of
industrial injury was received by the agency administering the work­
men’s compensation act. This last date is usually stamped on the
report as soon as it reaches the administering agency. By counting
the days which elapsed (including Sundays and holidays) between
84




CLASSIFICATIONS AND CODES---- GENERAL

85

the date of the accident and the date the report was received, the
applicable code number can be assigned for the interval.
In most instances, the day of the accident is the date on which an
injured worker is disabled, but this is not true of infections and strains.
Similarly, there is no date of accident for an industrial disease. In
instances in which there is no “ accident” because the disability is
developed over a period of time, the date of “ accident” is to be con­
strued as the last day on which the injured worked. The same rule is
applicable when the date of accident is unknown or not available.

R e p o r t L ag
Code

Code
0
1
2
3
4

Report
Within
Within
Within
Within
Within

filed—
1 week of onset of disability 5
6
2 weeks
7
3 weeks
8
4 weeks
9
5 weeks

Report
Within
Within
Within
Within
Over 4

filed—
6 weeks
8 weeks
3 months
4 months
months

R u l e : T o apply this code, count the days of lag, beginning with the first day
of disability and ending with the date on which the report was filed. To convert
to weeks, divide the total days of lag by 7; to convert to months, divide by 30.
No other explanations are required concerning the report-lag code,
except to call attention to the fact that some jurisdictions may wish
to alter some of the time intervals shown so as to have them conform
to peculiarities of their respective laws. Jurisdictions for which com­
pensation acts require the reporting of disabling injuries within 10
days of the injury, for example, may find it advisable to substitute
for “ within 1 week of onset of disability” the classification “ within
10 days of onset of disability.”
Payment Lag

In connection with the payment-lag code, it will be noted that 0
stands for “ paid full wages in lieu of compensation,” and that 1 stands
for the first payment made within 2 weeks. The reason for the 0
classification is that when wages are paid in lieu of compensation,
there usually is no payment lag. The reason why there is no classi­
fication for a period “ within 1 week” is that such speed is uncommon
and in most instances impossible because of the intervening waiting
period. As in the case of the report lag, the payment-lag period is
based on calendar days and therefore includes Sundays and holidays.
X indicates that the injury was not compensable because the result­
ing disability did not outlast the waiting period. Consequently, there
could have been no payment lag.
A problem arises as to what date is to be taken as the date of pay­
ment— the date on the check, the date the check was mailed, or the
date the check was received by the injured. It is, of course, possible




86

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

for a check to bear a given date and yet to be delivered to the injured
worker considerably later. Strictly speaking, the date of payment
should represent the date on which the injured worker received the
check. Unfortunately, however, it is impractical to keep accurate
records on the dates on which injured workers receive checks. The
date on the first check will therefore be the one to serve as the point
from which to calculate the payment lag.

P a y m e n t L ag
(I. e., time elapsed between the date of first day of disability and the date of
first payment of compensation)

Code

Code

0

5
6
7
8
9
X

1
2
3
4

Paid full wages in lieu
of compensation
Within 2 weeks
Within 3 weeks
Within 4 weeks
Within 5 weeks

Within 6 weeks
Within 8 weeks
Within 3 months
Within 4 months
Over 4 months
Noncompensable— no payment

R u l e : T o apply this code, count the days of lag, beginning with the first day
of disability and ending with the date on which the check or receipt was dated.
To convert to weeks, divide the total days of lag by 7; to convert to months,
divide by 30.

Compensation

Extent of Disability

The code provides for every possible type of disability, except for
combinations. When an injury involves more than one type of
disability, it is suggested that it be coded for the disability for which
the greater amount of compensation has been paid, or, in the cases of
settlement agreements, the greater amount payable. The amount of
compensation payable for each provides an easy solution. If, for
instance, permanent partial and temporary total disability exist for
the same injury, and the larger amount of compensation is payable
for the permanent injury, then the disability should be coded as per­
manent partial. (If the coding is done on open cases and in the
absence of settlement agreements, then it is suggested that an injury
with more than one type of disability be coded for the one most severe,
giving preference to permanent injuries.)
Code
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

E xtent

of

D is ia b il it y

Death
Permanent total disability— dismemberment
Permanent total disability— no dismemberment
Permanent partial disability— dismemberment
Permanent partial disability— loss of use
Disfigurement
Temporary total disability— exceeding waiting period




C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S

AND

CODES— G E N E R A L

87

Code

7
8
9
X

Temporary total disability— not exceeding waiting period
Temporary partial disability
Extent undetermined
Medical only— no time loss

Separate code numbers are given for permanent disabilities involv­
ing (a) dismemberment and (b) no dismemberment, loss of use. No
attempt has been made to show the latter in terms of percentages,
because percentage determinations for the same injury vary widely.
It appears to be sufficient to distinguish only between permanent
injuries involving dismemberment and those involving curtailment of
use but no dismemberment. A separate code number has been as­
signed to disfigurement to permit a segregation of these cases when
not complicated by more severe types of disability.
Temporary total disability has been divided into injuries (a) ex­
ceeding the waiting period and (b) not exceeding the waiting period,
to permit a classification of disabling injuries even if the resulting
disability did not outlast the waiting period. This last type of dis­
ability, even though involving no compensation, ordinarily does in­
volve some medical expense and some time and wage loss on the part
of the injured worker. Furthermore, such cases are important for
accident-cause analysis.
Injuries for which the extent of disability is undetermined are to be
coded 9, and cases involving medical attention only, but no disability
preventing continuation at work and no temporary partial disability,
are to be coded X .
Nature of Injury

The 12 items listed under Nature of Injury are sufficient for most
purposes and require only 1 column on a tabulating card. If, how­
ever, 2 columns can be spared, and if greater detail is desired, the
number of items listed can be increased to 99.

N ature

Code

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X
Y

of

I n ju r y

Amputation (traumatic or surgical)— without infection
Amputation (traumatic or surgical)— with infection
Burns and scalds
Cuts, lacerations, punctures, abrasions— without infection
Cuts, lacerations, punctures, abrasions— with infection
Strains, sprains, bruises
Fractures— without infection
Fractures— with infection
Hernia
Industrial (occupational) disease
Nature of injury, n. e. c.1 (heat exhaustion, sunstroke, frostbite, drowning,
asphyxiation, shock, etc.)
Nature of injury unknown

1Not elsewhere classified.
159726°— 10------ 7




88

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Some jurisdictions may find it advisable to combine the two fracture
items (6 and 7) and add an infection item for burns and scalds. The
changed sections of the code then would read: 2 Burns and scalds
without infection; 3 Burns and scalds with infection; and 7 Fractures.
Code numbers 3,4, and 5 would change respectively to 4, 5, and 6.
No industrial-disease classification is suggested here. Instead, it is
recommended that any analysis of such diseases be based on a tabula­
tion of the substances which gave rise to the various diseases. A list
of industrial diseases, if compiled at all comprehensively, might name
as many types of poisonings as there are harmful chemicals. The list
of such chemicals is constantly expanding as the science of chemistry
grows and develops. Many of the chemicals recognized as poisonous
today were not in use, and probably not even known, 5 years ago.
Lists of chemicals will be found in the agency classification groups 11,
chemicals; 12, highly inflammable and hot substances; and 13, dusts.
The suggested classifications can be extended and expanded by the
addition or inclusion of more items. To identify the nature of indus­
trial diseases due to benzol and benzol derivatives, for instance, it will
be necessary to tabulate the benzol items in the group of chemical
agencies. This chemical and its compounds will be found listed as
item 11210 when in the physical state of a vapor, gas, or fume, and as
item 11349 when in a solid or liquid state. Similarly, silicosis is identi­
fied by the segregation of item 13268, silica, in the agency group of
dusts.
Additional reasons for this recommended procedure are (1) that for
diagnostic purposes a physician must determine the chemical causing
the disease; (2) that for preventive purposes the health or labor official
must know the identity of the chemical; and (3) that diseases due to
chemicals usually contain the name of the chemical in their names—
such as lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, benzol poisoning, etc.
Location of Injury

In constructing the following location-of-injury code, two points
were observed: (1) The code was so constructed that coding or tabu­
lating by general body groups could be easily handled, while at the
same time considerable detail was given for more intensive coding,
making possible a more minute and thorough analysis; (2) the great
detail found in some codes, such as scapula, sternum, femur, radius,
ulna, metacarpals, etc., was omitted, and only such detail given as
appeared to have practical value. The numbering permits the in­
sertion of additional items if desired.
It will also be noted that considerably more combinations are
possible than are listed in the code. For instance, an injury may in­
volve the loosening of some teeth, a fractured elbow, and some bruised




CLASSIFICATIONS AND CODES---- GENERAL

89

toes. Where it is clear that one of these body locations is primarily
responsible for the disability, such as the fractured elbow in this
illustration, then that location should be coded and the others disre­
garded. Where it is impossible to follow this rule, then the injury
location should be coded 99, body n. e. c.

L o c a t io n

of

I n ju r y

Code

Code
00

Head, face, and neck

00
01
02
03
04
05

Brain or skull
Eye
Both eyes
Internal ear
Both internal ears
Nose

06
07
08
19

Mouth (lips, teeth, tongue)
Throat
Neck
Head, face, and neck, n. e. c.

20

Trunk

20
21
22
23
24
25

Spinal cord
Back, n. e. c.
Ribs, breastbone, shoulder blades
Lungs
Thoracic organs, n. e. c.
Thorax, n. e. c.

26
27
28
39

Abdominal organs, internal
Hip or pelvis
Abdomen, n. e. c.
Trunk, n. e. c.

40

Upper extremities

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

Both arms
1 arm and 1 hand
1 arm and 1 leg
1 arm and 1 foot
Arm, at or above elbow
Elbow
Lower arm (below elbow)
Wrist

48
49
50
51

Arm, n. e. c.
Both hands
Hand
Hand and thumb
other hand




52
53
54

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
69

Both thumbs
Thumb, more than first phalange
Index finger, more than first
phalange
Middle finger, more than first
phalange
Ring
finger,
more
than
first
phalange
Little finger, more than first
phalange
Thumb and index finger
Thumb and 2 or more fingers
2 fingers
3 fingers
4 fingers
Thumb, 1 phalange or less
Index finger, 1 phalange or less
Middle finger, 1 phalange or less
Ring finger, 1 phalange or less
Little finger, 1 phalange or less
Upper extremities, n. e. c.

70

Lower extremities

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
89

Both legs
1 leg and 1 foot
Leg, n. e. c.
Leg, at or above knee
Knee
Leg, below knee
Ankle
Both feet
Foot
Great toe
Great toe and 1 or more other toes
1 or more lesser toes
Lower extremities, n. e. c.

90

General

55
56

or fingers

57

on 98
99

Unclassified— insufficient data
Body, n. e. c.

90

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Dependency

The code for dependency is a single-digit code, and is of importance
not only for fatal cases, but also for nonfatal injuries, provided the
law of a jurisdiction allows for increases for dependents in the com­
pensation-benefit rate. The code substitutes the word “ spouse” for
husband or wife, widower or widow, because a sorting by sex will
indicate very easily whether the person killed or injured was male or
female, and consequently whether the surviving spouse was female
or male.
For most purposes, however, a break-down according to the sex
of the killed or injured worker will not be necessary in tables involving
dependency, and the term “ spouse” will be found to be sufficient.

D ependency
(Applies to fatal and nonfatal cases)

Code
0

1
2

3
4
5

6

7
8
9

No dependents
Spouse— no children
Spouse and 1 dependent child
Spouse and 2 dependent children
Spouse and 3 dependent children
Spouse and 4 or more dependent children
Spouse and dependents not children
No spouse— 1 or more dependent children
No spouse— dependent parent or parents
No spouse— dependents other than children or parents

N o t e .— Spouse

includes wife, widow, husband, widower.

Conjugal Condition and Sex

Usually the items of conjugal condition, or marital status, and
sex of the injured worker are treated in two separate codes. This,
however, unnecessarily uses up a column on the tabulating card.
Consequently, the two items have been combined into one single­
column code. The numbers from 0 to 4 cover all possible conditions
of marital status for male workers, as do the numbers from 5 to 9
for female workers.

C o n ju g a l C o n d it io n

Code
0

1
2
3
4
5

6

7
8

9

and

Sex

Male, single
Male, married (including separated but not divorced)
Male, divorced
Male, widower
Male, conjugal condition unknown
Female, single
Female, married (including separated but not divorced)
Female, divorced
Female, widow
Female, conjugal condition unknown




CLASSIFICATIONS AND CODES— GENERAL

91

Tim e Employed in Occupation in Which Injured in Employer’s Establishment

In the following code, the time periods for less than 5 years of
employment in the occupation in which a worker was injured are given
in greater detail than those for 5 years or more. The reason for this
lies in the fact that studies have indicated that workers with the
shorter experience are hurt more frequently and out of proportion to
the percentage such workers form of the total working force. The
reason for disregarding the job experience with employers other than
the one for whom the employee was working at the time of his injury
is that it will be difficult to obtain such data accurately. Further,
even though an employee worked at the same occupation for various
employers, the job hazard would in all probability be found to be
different at each place of employment, due to differences in plant
lay-out, routing and storing of materials, illumination and ventilation,
supervision, and a number of other elements which make up the job
hazard.
T

im e

E

m p l o y e d

(In occupation in which injured in employer’s establishment)
Code

0
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
X

Less than 3 months
Less than 6 months
6 months or more, but less than 1 year
1 year or more, but less than 2 years
2 years or more, but less than 3 years
3 years or more, but less than 4 years
4 years or more, but less than 5 years
5 years or more, but less than 10 years
10 years or more, but less than 20 years
20 years or more
Time unknown

Miscellaneous Codes
Some of the statistical codes which will be required cannot be fur­
nished here. No code can be given for county or city, for each State
must necessarily prepare its own code for these items. It is suggested,
however, that 99 or 999 (depending on the number of digits necessary)
be used to indicate that the accident occurred outside the State.
Similarly, it is not advisable to give here a code for insurance carriers,
because the number of such carriers may vary widely from State to
State, and there may be great differences in the identity of such
carriers. It is suggested, however, that self-insured employers be
coded 99 or 999 for “ insurance,” and that noninsured employers be
coded X X or X X X . The X coding on tabulating cards will cause
these cards to be rejected automatically in the sorting process. They
can then be excluded from any tabulation involving insurance car­
riers, and can be treated separately for any other purpose.




Chapter 8.— Industry and Occupation Classifications
Industry Classification
It is very desirable that in classifying disabling injuries by industry,
the various jurisdictions use a common standard of classification. In
the absence of such a standard, any comparison of the accident experi­
ences, costs, types of disabilities, etc., of individual industries in the
various States is risky and questionable. When, for instance, the
experiences of meat-packing establishments are compared for State
A and State B, the comparison should be between establishments
performing the same function on the same general industry level.
For instance, packers and butcher shops should not be combined.
The usual difficulty, however, is that the State reports do not define
the industries for which statistics are given, and anyone wishing to
use such compilations is at sea as to just what is included in each
industry shown. If all the States would use a standard classification,
and indicate in a footnote that this has been done, much uncertainty
would be removed, and the statistics of one State could be compared
more safely with those of another using the same standard.
The classification of industry given here is in essence the classifica­
tion prepared by a committee of experts from various Federal and
State organizations, and has been suggested as a standard to both
Federal and State agencies compiling statistics involving industry
classification.1 It is elastic in its structure, permitting coding on the
basis of two, three, or four digits. As in the other codes given in this
Manual, each additional digit encompasses a more detailed break­
down than the one preceding. In manufacturing, for instance, 20
stands for food industries, 21 for industries producing tobacco prod­
ucts, 22 for industries producing textile-mill products, etc. In a
three-digit code, each of the two-digit groups is in turn subdivided.
Under furniture and finished lumber products, for instance, 251
stands for household furniture, 252 for office furniture, 253 for public­
building furniture, 254 for partitions, shelvings, etc. In the four­
digit code, the three-digit codes are amplified further. For instance,
household furniture, 251, is divided into industries producing furniture
of wood, 2511; upholstered, 2512; reed and rattan, 2513; metal, 2514;
and mattresses and bedsprings, 2515.
1 T h e c o m p le t e c la s s ific a tio n , a s w e l l a s p r in c ip a l p r o d u c t c la ssific a tio n s a n d i n d u s t r y d e fin itio n s , m a y b e
o b t a in e d f r o m t h e C e n t r a l S ta t is t ic a l B o a r d , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C .

T h e c la s s ific a tio n s u g g e s te d h e re h a s b e e n

a d a p t e d t o a c c id e n t a n d w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a tio n s t a tis t ic s , a n d o m it s a c o n s id e r a b le a m o u n t o f d e ta il
w h ic h is u s e f u l in o th e r t y p e s o f st a tis t ic a l t a b u la t io n s .

C o d e r s w i ll f in d i t e x t r e m e ly u s e fu l t o h a v e at

h a n d a ll t h e m a t e r ia l d e a lin g w i t h t h is i n d u s t r y c la s s ific a tio n .

92




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

93

The purpose of this structure is to provide a code sufficiently elastic
to meet the needs of organizations with varying requirements and
facilities. In some States, facilities may not permit coding to greater
detail than indicated by the two-digit code. Other States may find it
possible and desirable to carry the coding to three digits, and still
others to four digits. Where three digits are used, the industries
listed in the fourth digit become explanatory of the industries in­
cluded in the larger three-digit groups. In some instances, also, it
will be found desirable to code some industries only as to general groups,
and others in greater detail. For instance, some States may have so
little mining that the use of a two-digit code may be sufficient for
mining industries. But certain types of manufacturing may be so
important as to make desirable the application of three- or four-digit
coding.
The industry code, as are all other codes given here, is based on
the decimal method, to facilitate mechanical sorting of tabulating
cards. Some points are worthy of particular mention in this con­
nection:
1. The digit 9 has been reserved to indicate miscellaneous groups
in the three- and four-digit codes.
2. A 0 in the third place of a three-digit code indicates that the
industry classification has not been broken into any of the third-digit
groups from 1 to 9. This may be either by design or because the data
are not reported in sufficient detail to permit a more accurate alloca­
tion: For instance, major group 22, textile-mill products, is divided
into the following three-digit groups: 221, cotton manufactures;
222, silk manufactures; 223, rayon manufactures; 224, woolen and
worsted manufactures; 225, knit goods; 226, dyeing and finishing
textiles (except woolen and worsted); 227, carpets, rugs, and other
floor coverings; 228, hats (except cloth and millinery); 229, miscella­
neous textile goods. If it is desirable to use only groups numbered
221, 225, 227, and 228, then all other industries in this major group
should be put into 220, which should be termed: Textile-mill products
not specified. The arrangement then would be: 220, textile-mill
products not specified; 221, cotton manufactures; 225, knit goods;
227, carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings; 228, hats (except cloth
and millinery). The same rule applies to fourth-digit industries
when the four-digit code is used.
It has been found necessary, for purposes of accident statistics,
to deviate at times from the standard code because the classification
given will be difficult to apply to reports of industrial injuries. The
deviations, however, are in no instance in violation of the basic struc­
ture of the standard code. Generally, the deviations have been in the
direction of combining several industries on the fourth digit in manu-




94

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

facturing, in combining industry groups on the third digit, and in the
omission of industry detail in the nonmanufacturing groups.
In its simplest and broadest form, the industry classification may be
used as follows:
C

l a s s if ic a t io n

b y

I

n d u st r y

D

iv is io n s

Code

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9
X

Agriculture, forestry, fishery
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities
Services (personal, business, recreational, public, professional, and other)
Government
Unclassified, insufficient information.

A more detailed classification involves the identification of major
industry groups within each division, and requires a two-digit code.
It should be noted that the first digit of this classification is not
identical with the single digit in the preceding classification.
C

l a s s if ic a t io n

b y

M

a jo r

I

n d u st r y

G

r o u ps

Agriculture, forestry, fishery
Code

00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09

Agriculture
General farms
Dairy farms
Cash grain farms
Cotton farms
Fruit and nut farms
Livestock and poultry farms
Truck farms, crop specialties, and miscellaneous agriculture
Services related to agriculture
Forestry
Fishery

Mining
10
11

12
13
14

Metal mining
Anthracite mining
Bituminous and other soft-coal mining
Crude-petroleum and natural-gas production
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying

Construction
16
17

Construction, general contractors
Construction, special trade contractors

Manufacturing
20
21
22

Food and kindred products
Tobacco manufactures
Textile-mill products




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

34
35
36
37
38
39

95

Manufacturing— Continued
Apparel and other finished products made from fabrics and similar
materials
Lumber and timber basic products
Furniture and finished lumber products
Paper and allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Chemicals and allied products
Products of petroleum, coal, and natural gas
Rubber products
Leather and leather products
Stone, clay, and glass products
Iron and steel and their products
Nonferrous metals and their products
Electrical machinery
Machinery (except electrical)
Transportation equipment (except automobiles)
Automobiles and automobile equipment
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Wholesale and retail trade

42
44
45
47
48

Wholesale
Service and limited-function wholesalers (includes the usual wholesaling
establishments)
Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices
Petroleum bulk-tank stations
Agents and brokers
Assemblers of farm products
Chain-store warehouses

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

Retail
Food
General merchandise
Apparel and accessories
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment
Automobile and automotive equipment
Filling stations
Drug stores
Eating and drinking places
Hardware
Lumber and building supplies
Liquor stores
Second-hand stores
Retail trade, n. e. c.

40

Finance, insurance, and real estate
62
63
65

66
67

68

Finance
Banking
Credit agencies other than banks
Investment trusts and companies
Holding companies
Security and commodity brokers, dealers, and exchanges
Finance, n. e. c.




96

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Code

Finance, insurance, and real estate— Continued
Insurance

69
70
71

Insurance carriers
Insurance agents, brokers, and service
Real estate

Transportation, communication, and other public utilities
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

Transportation
Railroads
Street, suburban, and interurban railways
Highway passenger transportation
Highway freight transportation
Water transportation
Air transportation
Pipe-line transportation
Warehousing and storage
Services incidental to transportation
Communication and other public utilities
' Communication
Heat, light, and power
Water and sanitary services

Services
84
85

86
87

88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

Hotels, rooming houses, and other lodging places
Personal services
Domestic service
Business services, n. e. c.
Automobile repair services and garages
Miscellaneous repair services and hand trades
Motion pictures
Amusement, recreation, and related services (other than motion pictures)
Medical and other health services
Legal services
Engineering and other professional services, n. e. c.
Educational services
Nonprofit membership, charitable, and religious organizations

Government
97

Government

99

Nonclassifiable establishments

Unclassified—Insufficient information

The detailed classification, permitting coding to four digits, follows.
It can be used as a three-digit code classification by disregarding the
detailed industry break-down on the fourth digit. When that is done,
the industries listed on the fourth digit become indicative of the con­
tent of the three-digit classification groups. It will be noted that in
a considerable number of industries no fourth-digit industry detail is
shown. At times the standard classification, on which the classifi­
cation here given was modeled, gives no such detail, and at other times
the detail given is of no significance in accident statistics and is there­
fore omitted.




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

97

D e t a il e d I n d u s t r y C l a s s if ic a t io n
Division A.— Agriculture, forestry, and fishery

Code
0000
0100
0200
0210

0220
0230
0240
0290
0300
0400
0410
0420
0430
0450
0460
0490
0500
0510
0520
0530
0540
0550
0560
0590
0600
0610
0620
0630
0640
0650
0660
0670
0680
0690
0700
0710
0711
0712
0713
0719
0720
0730
0800
0810
0820
0830
0840

A g ricu ltu re

General farms
Dairy farms
Cash grain farms
Corn farms
Wheat farms
Rice farms
Soybean farms
Miscellaneous cash grain farms
Cotton farms
Fruit and nut farms
Citrus fruit farms
Apple, peach, cherry, pear farms
Berry farms
General fruit farms
Farms producing edible nuts
Fruit and nut farms, n. e. c.
Livestock and poultry farms
Cattle farms
Sheep farms
Hog farms
Horse farms
Poultry farms
Fur farms
Miscellaneous livestock farms, n. e. c.
Truck farms, crop specialties, and miscellaneous agriculture
Truck farms
Sugar-beet farms
Sugar-cane farms
Tobacco farms
Potato farms
Nurseries and greenhouses
Peanut farms
Dried-bean farms
Miscellaneous agriculture
Service establishments related to agriculture, and similar services
Agricultural services except animal husbandry and horticultural
services
Cotton ginning and compressing
Custom grist mills (including custom flour mills)
Corn shelling, hay baling, and threshing services
Agricultural services, n. e. c.
Animal-husbandry services
Horticultural services
F o restry

Timber tracts
Forest nurseries
Reforestation
Hunting, trapping, game propagation, etc.




98
Code

0850

0890
0900
0990

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
F o r estry — Continued

Gathering of gums and barks
(Gathering of gums and barks (spruce, chestnut, cherry, etc.)
include distillation if carried on at the same establishment)
Forestry services, n. e. c.

may

F is h e r y

Fishery services, n. e. c.

Division B.— Mining
1000
1010
1011

1012
1013

1020
1021
1022
1023
1030
1031
1032
1040
1041
1042
1043

1050
1060
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1099

1100
1110

1120
1130
1140
1150

1200
1210
1211

1212

1213

1220
1230
1231

M e ta l m in in g

Iron-ore mines
Iron-ore mines, underground
Iron-ore mines, open pit
Iron-ore dressing plants not directly connected with the mine and
not reported with any mine production
Copper-ore mines
Copper-ore mines, underground
Copper-ore mines, open pit
Copper-ore dressing plants not directly connected with the mine
and not reported with any mine production
Lead- and zinc-ore mines
Lead- and zinc-ore mines
Lead- and zinc-ore dressing plants
Gold- and silver-ore mines (including production of bullion at site of
the mine)
Gold- and silver-lode mines
Gold placer mines
Gold- and silver-ore milling and beneficiating (concentrating) plants
not directly connected with the mine and not reported with any
mine production
Aluminum ores (bauxite and other)
Metal-mining contract services (including contract stripping)
Miscellaneous metal mining, n. e. c.
Mercury-ore mines
Manganese-ore mines
Ferro-alloying ore mines, other than manganese
Dressing plants for metal ores, n. e. c., not directly connected with
mines and not reported with any mine production
Miscellaneous metal mining, n. e. c.
A n th ra cite m in in g

Anthracite
Anthracite
Anthracite
mines
Anthracite
Anthracite

mining, underground
mining, open pit
breakers and preparation plants, operated separately from
dredges
stripping— contractors

B itu m in o u s and other soft-coa l m in in g

Bituminous-coal mining
Bituminous-coal mining, underground mines
Bituminous-coal mining, open-pit mines
Bituminous-coal preparation plants, operated separately from mines
Semianthracite mines
Lignite mines
Lignite mines (including peat)




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

99

Code

1300
1310
1311
1320
1321
1330
1331
1332
1339
1400
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1419
1420
1430
1440
1441
1442
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1459
1460
1470
1480
1481
1482
1489
1490

C ru d e-p etroleu m and n atu ral-gas prod u ction

Crude-petroleum production
Crude-petroleum production (including associated natural-gas pro­
duction)
Natural-gas production
Natural-gas production (operation of natural-gas wells only)
Oil and gas field service operations— contractors
Oil- and gas-well drilling— contractors
Oil-wells rig building— contractors
Miscellaneous oil and gas field service operations, n. e. c. (cleaning,
acidizing, shooting wells, etc.)
N o n m eta llic m in in g and q u a rryin g

Dimension-stone quarries
Limestone quarries (including dolomite)
Granite quarries
Slate quarries
Marble quarries
Miscellaneous dimension-stone quarries, n. e. c. (basalt, sandstone,
quartzite, etc.)
Crushed-stone quarries, other than limestone
Crushed limestone quarries
Sand and gravel (quarries, pits, and dredges)
Sand and gravel production for structural, paving, road making,
and other miscellaneous uses, n. e. c.
Special sands production (glass, molding, abrasive sands, etc.)
Clays, ceramic and refractory minerals
Kaolin and ball clay (including china clay, paper clay, rubber clay,
etc.)
Bleaching clays
Fire clay
Bentonite
Feldspar
Miscellaneous clays and refractory minerals, n. e. c.
Gypsum
Rock salt
Minerals used as chemical raw materials, n. e. c.
Phosphate rock
Sulphur
Miscellaneous minerals used as chemical raw materials, n. e. c.
(potash, borates and other salines, pyrites, fluor spar, barite, etc.)
Miscellaneous nonmetallic minerals, n. e. c.

Division C.— Construction
1600
1610
1620
1621

1630
1631

C on stru ction — general contractors

Building construction— general contractors
Highways and street construction
Highway construction— bridges, culverts, tunnels, and sewers when
combined with road, street, and sidewalk construction; highway
construction and grading (except elevated highways)
H eavy construction (except highway and marine construction)
H eavy construction (except highway and marine construction)—
sewers, water mains, tunnels, dams, subways, etc.




100
Code

1640
1641
1650
1690
1691

1700
1710
1711

1720
1730
1740
1741
1742
1743
1750
1751
1752
1760
1761
1770
1780
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1799

M ANUAL, ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

C o n s t r u c t io n — g e n e r a l c o n tr a c to r s —

Continued
Marine construction (not shipbuilding)
Marine construction (not shipbuilding)— cofferdams, dredging, dock
building, wharf construction, etc.
Water-well drilling
Miscellaneous general contractors
Miscellaneous general contractors— fence construction, tennis courts,
swimming pools, golf courses, coal pockets, airport construction,
etc.

C o n s t r u c t io n — s p e c i a l tra d e c o n tr a c to r s {s u b c o n tr a c to r s )

Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning, with or without sheet-metal work
Heating, plumbing, air conditioning, ventilating work (in combina­
tion or separately) with or without sheet-metal work (including
installation of heating equipment of all types, pipe covering, steam
fitting, installation of sprinkler systems, etc.)
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating
Electrical
Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and plastering
Masonry, stone setting, and other stonework
Plastering and lathing
Terazzo, tile, mantel, marble, and mosaic
Carpentering and wood flooring
Carpentering
Parquet and hardwood flooring (laying, scraping and finishing, and
other floor work, n. e. c.)
Roofing and sheet-metal work
Roofing and sheet-metal work contractors
Concreting work
General building maintenance (not including janitor and similar services)
Miscellaneous special trade contractors, n. e. c.
Structural-metal erection
Ornamental iron and steel work (including installation of fire escapes,
store, elevator, and building fronts)
Glass and glazing
Excavation and/or foundation work (including concrete work and
pile driving)
Wrecking and demolition, other than marine, of buildings or
structures
Installation of machinery and equipment, n. e. c.
Miscellaneous special trade contractors, n. e. c.
Division D.— Manufacturing

2000
2010

2011

2012
2013
2014

F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c ts

M eat products
M eat packing, wholesale: meat-packing establishments producing
dressed meats, fresh, frozen, cured, smoked, cooked, canned, or
otherwise preserved (including sausage and other prepared meats,
sausage casing, and animal byproducts; includes custom slaughter­
ing for wholesale)
Sausages, prepared meats, and other meat products— not made in
meat-packing establishments
Sausage casings— not made in meat-packing establishments
Poultry dressing and packing, wholesale




IN D U S T R Y

Code

2020
2021
2022

2023
2024
2025
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2050
2051
2052
2053
2060
2061
2062
2063
2070
2071
2072
2073
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2099

AND

O C C U P A T IO N

C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S

101

Food and kindred 'products— Continued
Dairy products
Creamery butter
Cheese, natural and processed
Condensed and evaporated milk
Ice cream and ices
Special dairy products: processed and ladle butter, milk and cream
powders, malted milk, and specially treated milk, etc.
Canning and preserving fruits, vegetables, and sea foods
Canning fish, Crustacea, and mollusks
Cured fish: salted, pickled, smoked, dried, etc. (including fish meal)
Canned and dried fruits and vegetables (including canned soups)
Preserves, jams, jellies, fruit butters, fruit juices, glazed and candied
fruits, fruit sirups, crushed fruits
Pickled vegetables and vegetable sauces and seasonings
Salad dressings
Quick-frozen foods
Grain-mill products
Flour and other grain-mill products
Prepared feeds for animals and fowl (including mineral)
Cereal preparations: breakfast foods, etc.
Rice cleaning and polishing
Blending flour and manufacturing prepared flour (from purchased
flour)
Bakery products
Bread and other bakery products (except biscuits, crackers, and
pretzels)
Biscuits, crackers, and pretzels
Macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli, ravioli, and noodles
Sugar
Cane sugar (not including refineries)
Cane-sugar refining
Beet sugar
Confectionery
Candy and other confectionery products (excluding chocolate bars)
Chocolate and cocoa products
Chewing gum
Beverage industries
Nonalcoholic beverages (including carbonated mineral water)
M alt liquors
M alt
Wines
Distilled, rectified, and blended liquors
Miscellaneous food and kindred products
Baking powder, yeast, and other leavening compounds
Edible and cooking fats and oils, n. e. c.
Oleomargarine— not made in meat-packing establishments
Corn sirup, corn sugar, corn oil, and starch
Flavoring extracts and flavoring sirups, n. e. c.
Vinegar and cider
Ice, manufactured
Food preparations, n. e. c.




102

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Code

2100
2110
2120
2130

2200
2210
2211

2212
2213
2214

2220
2221

2222
2223
2224
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2270
2271
2272
2273
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2290
2291
2292
2293

T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s

Cigarettes
Cigars
Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuff
T e x t i l e -m i l l p r o d u c ts

Cotton manufactures (in the gray)
Cotton broad woven goods (including fish nets)
Cotton narrow fabrics
Cotton yarn
Cotton thread
Silk manufactures
Silk broad woven goods (in the gray)
Silk narrow fabrics (in the gray)
Silk throwing and spinning
Silk yarn and thread
Rayon manufactures
Rayon broad woven goods (in the gray)
Rayon narrow fabrics (in the gray)
Rayon throwing and spinning
Spun and thrown rayon yarn and thread
Woolen and worsted manufactures
Woolen and worsted woven goods (including woven felts and
haircloth)
Woolen and worsted yarn
Dyeing and finishing woolen and worsted
Wool scouring
Wool combing
Knit goods
Hosiery
Knitted cloths
Knitted outerwear (except knit gloves)
Knitted underwear
Knitted gloves
Knit goods, n. e. c.
Dyeing and finishing textiles (except woolen and worsted)
Cotton fabrics
Silk and rayon fabrics
Fabrics not specified
Yarn
Sponging and shrinking cloths, waterproofing fabrics
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings
Wool carpets and rugs
Woolen and worsted carpet yarn
Carpets, rugs, and mats made from paper fiber, grass, rags, and jute
Linoleum, asphalted-felt-base and hard-surface floor coverings, n. e. c.
Hats (except cloth and millinery)
Hats, fur felt
Hats, wool felt
Straw hats, men’s
Miscellaneous textile goods
Felt goods, wool, hair, and jute (except woven felts and hats)
Lace goods
Batting, padding, and wadding; upholstery filling




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

Code
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2310
2311
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2349
2350
2351
2360
2361
2362
2363
2369
2370
2371
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387

103

Textile-m ill products— Continued
Miscellaneous textile goods— Continued
Processed waste and recovered wool fibers
Artificial leather
Oilcloths
Linen goods
Cordage and twine; jute goods (except felt)
Miscellaneous textile goods, n. e. c.
A ppa rel and other finished products made from fabrics and sim ilar materials
M en’s and boys’ tailored clothing
Suits, coats, and overcoats (not including work clothing)
M en’s and boys’ furnishings, work and sport garments
Shirts (except work shirts), collars, nightwear, and underwear
M en’s neckwear
Hats and caps (except felt and straw)
H at and cap materials: trimmings, etc.
Trousers, semidress; wash suits; and washable service apparel
Work shirts
Work clothing (not including work shirts); sport garments (except
leather); and other apparel, n. e. c.
W om en’s and misses’ outer clothing
Blouses and waists
Dresses (except house dresses)
House dresses, uniforms, and aprons— contract factories
Coats, suits, and skirts (not including fur coats)
W om en’s clothing, n. e. c. (including lounging garments, beach wear,
slacks, shorts, culottes, etc.)
W om en’s accessories (not including millinery)
Underwear and nightwear, women’s, children’s, and infants’
Corsets and allied garments
Neckwear and scarfs
W om en’s miscellaneous accessories: belts, etc., of fabric
Millinery
Millinery
Children’s and infants’ outerwear
Dresses (including housecoats and sportswear: middies, slacks, beach
wear, etc.)
Coats
Infants’ and children’s headwear, chiefly of cloth
Infants’ and children’s wear, n. e. c. (including novelties such as
bathrobes, buntings, etc.)
Fur goods
Fur coats and other fur garments, accessories, and trimmings
Miscellaneous apparel
Gloves and mittens, cloth and combination of cloth and leather
Handkerchiefs
Suspenders, garters, and other goods made from purchased elastic
material
Robes, lounging garments, and dressing gowns
Raincoats and other waterproof garments (except oiled cotton)
Clothing, leather and sheep-lined
Embroidery: bonnaz, hand-made, and schiffli— not made in textile
mills
159726°— 10------ 8




104

Code
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2399
2400
2410
2411
2420
2421

2422
2423
2424
2429
2430
2431
2432
2500
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2519
2520
2521
2522
2530
2540
2541
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2560
2561
2562
2563

M AN U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
A p p a rel and other finished products, etc.— Continued
Miscellaneous apparel-— Continued
Trimmings, pleating, stitching, stamped art goods, and art needle­
work— not made in textile mills
Miscellaneous apparel, n. e. c.
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
Curtains, draperies, and bedspreads
Housefurnishings (except curtains, draperies, and bedspreads)
Textile bags— not made in textile mills
Canvas products
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products, n. e. c.: horse blankets,
welts, fly nets, breast aprons, belting, flags, and banners
Lum ber and timber basic products
Logging
Logging (logging camps and contractors)
Sawmills and special-product sawmills
Sawmills (include sawmills combined with logging camps or sawmills
combined with planing mills, provided the sawmill is the major
activity)
Yeneer mills
Shingle mills
Cooperage-stock mills
Mills producing special products, n. e. c.
Planing and plywood mills
Planing mills
Plywood mills
Furniture and finished lumber products
Household furniture
W ood
Upholstered (including manufacture of frames)
Reed and rattan
Metal
Mattresses and bedsprings
Household furniture, n. e. c.
Office furniture
W ood
Metal
Public-building furniture (including public seating)
Partitions, shelving, cabinet work, and woodwork
Partitions, shelving, cabinet work, showcases, advertising and
display cases, office and store fixtures, store fronts
Wooden containers
Vegetable and fruit baskets
Rattan and willow ware (not including furniture and vegetable
and fruit baskets)
Cigar boxes, wooden and part wooden
Wooden boxes (except cigar boxes)
Cooperage
Window and door screens, shades, and blinds
Window and door screens and weather strip
Window shades
Venetian blinds




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

Code
2570
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2599
2600
2610
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2629
2630
2640
2641
2642
2643
2649
2650
2660
2661
2662
2669
2570
2671
2672
2673
2674
2679
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2699
2700
2710
2711
2712
2720
2721
2722

105

Furniture and finished lumber products— Continued
Caskets, coffins, burial cases, and other morticians’ goods
Miscellaneous wooden goods
Excelsior
Cork products
Matches
W ood preserving
Lasts and related products
Mirror and picture frames
Wooden goods, n. e. c.
P a p er and allied products
Pulp mills
Paper mills
N ewsprint
Book, writing, and cover paper
Wrapping paper
Tissue and absorbent paper
Building paper
Other papers, n. e. c.
Paperboard mills
Coated and glazed papers
Coated book paper
Waxed paper
Gummed paper (including gummed labels and paper and cloth tape)
Other (including glazed and fancy)
Envelopes
Paper bags
Grocery bags
H eavy-duty paper bags: cement, flour, coal bags, etc.
All other
Paperboard containers and boxes
Folded
Set-up
Corrugated and fiber
Liquid-tight containers
All other
Converted paper products, n. e. c.
Die-cut paper and paperboard: cards, boards, milk-bottle caps, etc.
Stationery, blank: ledger sheets, etc.
Wallpaper
Pulp goods: pressed and molded pulp products
Converted paper products, n. e. c. (including all paper patterns,
printed and unprinted)
P rin tin g, publishing, and allied industries
Newpapers
Newspapers, publishing only
Newspapers, publishing and printing
Periodicals
Periodicals, publishing only
Periodicals, publishing and printing




106
Code

2730
2731
2732
2733
2740
2741
2749
2750
2760
2761
2762
2770
2780
2781
2782
2783
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2800
2810
2811
2812
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2840
2850
2860
2861
2862
2863
2870
2871
2872
2879

M A N U A L ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
P rin tin g , publishing, and allied industries— Continued
Books and music
Books, publishing only
Books, publishing and printing (including specialized printing of
books only)
Music, printing and publishing, or publishing only
Publishing only, n. e. c.
Directories and special services
Other
General commercial (job) printing
Lithographing
Lithographing and photolithographing (including preparation of
stones or plates and dry transfers)
Greeting cards (except hand-painted)
Gravure, rotogravure, and rotary photogravure
Bookbinding
Bookbinding (edition, trade, job, library)
Blank-book making and paper ruling
Loose-leaf and library-binder manufacturing
Binding, n. e. c. (including special mounting, finishing, edging,
gilding, etc.)
Service industries for the printing trades
Machine and hand typesetting (including advertisement typesetting)
Engraving, steel and copper plate; plate printing; wood engraving
Photoengraving
Electrotyping and stereotyping
Chemicals and allied products
Paints, varnishes, and colors
Paints, varnishes, and lacquers
Colors and pigments
Animal and vegetable oils (not including lubricants or cooking and salad
oils)
Cottonseed products— oil, cake, meal, and linters
Linseed products— oil, cake, and meal
Soybean products— oil, cake, and meal
Essential oils
Marine oils
Vegetable oils, n. e. c.: coconut, peanut, etc.
Drugs, medicines, toilet preparations, insecticides, and related products
Drugs and medicines (including drug grinding)
Perfumes, cosmetics, and other toilet preparations
Insecticides, fungicides, and related industrial and household chemi­
cal compounds
Soap and crude glycerin
Rayon and allied products
Turpentine, rosin, charcoal, and wood-distillation products
Hardwood distillation and charcoal manufacture: natural methanol,
natural acetate of lime, natural acetone, etc.
Softwood distillation: turpentine, rosin, tar
Naval stores: processing but not gathering or warehousing
Fertilizers
Fertilizers (except dry mix)
Fertilizers, dry mix only
Fertilizer materials, n. e. c.: tankage, bone meal, fish scrap, etc.




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2899
2900
2910
2920
2921
2930
2931
2932
2940
2941
2950
2951
2952
2990
2991
2999
3000
3010
3020
3021
3022
3030
3031

3032
3040
3050

107

Chemicals and allied products— Continued
Industrial chemicals
Tanning materials; natural dyestuffs; mordants and assistants; and
sizes
Primary coal-tar products
Plastic materials
Explosives
Salt (excluding the mining of rock salt)
Compressed and liquefied gases— not made in petroleum refineries
or in natural-gas gasoline plants
Bone black, carbon black, and lampblack
Electrochemical and electrometallurgical products, n. e. c. (includ­
ing aluminum)
Industrial chemicals and other organic and inorganic chemicals, n. e. c.
Miscellaneous chemical products
Printing ink
Ammunition (including detonators)
Cleaning and polishing preparations, blacking, stains, dressings
Glue and gelatin
Grease, tallow, and stearic acid (not including lubricating greases)
Lubricating oils and greases— not made in petroleum refineries
Fireworks
Chemical products, n. e. c.: mucilage, paste, and other adhesives
(except glue and rubber cement); writing ink; bluing
Products o f petroleum , coal, and natural gas
Petroleum refining
Products of natural gas
Products of natural gas (except carbon black)
Coke and coke products
Beehive coke
Oven coke and byproducts
Gas, manufactured, other than coke-oven gas
Gas, manufactured, other than coke-oven gas (excluding distribu­
tion of gas)
Paving and roofing materials
Paving blocks: asphalt, creosoted wood, and composition
Roofing, built up and rolled; asphalt shingles; roof coating (except
paint)
Products of petroleum and coal, n. e. c.
Fuel briquets
Products of petroleum and coal, n. e. c. (including candles)
Rubber products
Tires and inner tubes
Rubber boots, shoes, soles, and heels
Rubber boots and shoes (including canvas rubber-soled shoes)
Rubber heels, soling strips, and soles (including composition or fiber)
Industrial rubber goods
Mechanical rubber goods and hard-rubber goods: belting, hose, indus­
trial tubing, packing, lining, cord and thread, plumbers’ specialties,
rubber and friction tape, jar rings, battery jars, boxes, etc.
Rubber flooring
Rubberized fabrics and vulcanized rubber clothing
Rubber sundries




108
Code
3051

3090
3091
3092
3093
3100
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3120
3130
3131
3132
3140
3141
3142
3150
3160
3161
3170
3171
3172
3190
3191
3192
3199
3200
3210
3211
3212
3219
3220
3221
3222
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3239
3240

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
Rubber products— Continued
Industrial rubber goods— Continued
Rubber sundries: bathing caps, suits, and shoes; medical and surgical
rubber goods and druggists’ sundries (including all rubber gloves);
rubber toys, balls, novelties, and sporting goods; stationers’ rubber
goods.
Miscellaneous rubber industries
Reclaiming rubber— in establishments not manufacturing rubber
goods
Retreading rubber tires— in establishments not manufacturing new
tires
Tire sundries and repair materials— in establishments not manufac­
turing new tires and tubes
Leather and leather products
Leather, tanned, curried, and finished
Sole and belting leather
Upper and lining leather
Leather (except sole, belting, upper, and lining)
Leather finishing, embossing, and japanning
Currying shops (except fur)
Industrial belts, belting, packing leather, and washers
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings
Boot and shoe cut stock— not made in boot and shoe factories
Boot and shoe findings— not made in boot and shoe factories
Footwear (except rubber)
Footwear (except house slippers and rubber footwear)
House slippers
Leather gloves and mittens
Luggage
Suitcases, brief cases, bags, trunks, and other luggage
Pocketbooks, handbags, and small leather goods
W om en’s pocketbooks, handbags, and purses
Small leather goods
Miscellaneous leather goods
Belts, apparel
Saddlery, harness, and whips
Miscellaneous leather products, n. e. c.
S tone, cla y, and glass products
Flat glass
Plate glass
Window glass
Other flat glass
Glassware, pressed or blown
Glass containers: bottles, jars, etc.
Tableware
Other pressed or blown glass and glassware: illuminating, scientific
technical, industrial, etc.
Mirrors and other glass products made of purchased glass
Mirrors, cut and beveled glass, and engraved glass
Stained, leaded, ornamented, and decorated glass
Glass novelties: glass fruit, trees, flowers, etc.
Glass products, n. e. c.
Cement




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

Code
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3269

3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3280
3281
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3300
3310
3311
3312
3313
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3330
3331
3339
3340
3341
3342
3349
3350
3351
3352

109

S tone, clay, and glass products— Continued
Structural clay products
Bricks: common brick, facebrick, hollow building tile, hollow brick,
vitrified brick for paving
Terra cotta
Tile: floor, wall, roofing, ceramic mosaic, enameled, etc.
Sewer pipe, drain tile, and kindred products: flue lining, chimney
and top, wall coping, segment blocks
Fire-clay products
Pottery and related products
Vitreous-china plumbing fixtures
Hotel chinaware
White ware
Porcelain electrical supplies
Other clay products, n. e. c.: stove lining, glass-house tank blocks,
refractory cement (clay), red earthenware, stoneware (including
chemical), art and garden pottery
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Concrete products
Gypsum products
Wallboard and wall plaster (except gypsum), building insulation,
and floor composition
Lime
Cut-stone and stone products
Monuments and tombstones
Other cut-stone products
Abrasives, asbestos products, and ground minerals
Abrasive wheels, stones, paper, cloth, and related products
Asbestos products (except steam packing and pipe and boiler covering)
Steam and other packing, pipe and boiler covering, gaskets, etc.
Natural graphites, ground and refined
Minerals and earths, ground or otherwise treated
Sand-lime brick
Nonclay refractories
Iro n and steel and their products
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills
Blast furnaces
Steel works
Rolling mills
Iron- and steel-foundry products
Gray-iron castings
Malleable-iron castings
Steel castings
Cast-iron pipe and fittings
Tin cans and other tinware
Tin cans
Tinware, n. e. c.
Wire products
Wire
Nails, spikes, etc. (including other than wire)
Wire work, n. e. c.
Cutlery, tools, and general hardware
Cutlery (except silver and plated cutlery) and edge tools
Tools (except edge tools, machine tools, files, and saws)




110
Code
3353
3354
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3380
3381
3382
3383
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3429
3430
3431
3432
3439

M AN U AL ON IN DU STRIAL-INJU RY STATISTICS
Iro n and steel and their products— Continued
Cutlery, tools, and general hardware— Continued
Files
Saws
Hardware, n. e. c.
Heating apparatus (except electric) and plumbers, supplies
Enameled-iron sanitary ware and other plumbers’ supplies (not in­
cluding pipe and vitreous and semi vitreous china sanitary ware)
Stoves, ranges, and hot-air furnaces (except electric)
Oil burners and stokers, domestic
Power boilers and associated equipment
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus (including hot-water fur­
naces) and steam fittings, regardless of material
Heating equipment, domestic, n. e. c. (including gas heaters)
Metal stamping, enameling, japanning, and lacquering
Enameled ware (except plumbers’ supplies)
Stamped and pressed metal products
Metal stamping and spinning combined
Enameling, japanning, and lacquering
Fabricated structural steel and ornamental metalwork
Fabricated structural steel
Ornamental metalwork
Doors, shutters, window sashes, frames, molding, and trim, made
of metal
Miscellaneous iron and steel products
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Forgings, iron and steel
Wrought pipes, welded and heavy riveted
Springs, steel (except wire)
Screw-machine products and wood screws
Steel barrels, kegs, and drums
Firearms
Safes and vaults
Iron and steel products, n. e. c.
N onferrous metals and their products
Primary smelting and refining
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Gold
Silver
Nonferrous metals, n. e. c.
Secondary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals and alloys
Copper, brass, and bronze
Lead and lead alloys
Zinc
Aluminum and aluminum alloys
Gold, silver, platinum
Secondary smelting and refining, n. e. c.
Nonferrous metal alloying, rolling, and drawing
Copper, brass, and bronze
Aluminum alloys
Other nonferrous metals and alloys




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code

3440
3441
3442
3443
3450
3451
3452
3453
3460
3470
3471
3472
3480
3481
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3510

3520
3530
3540
3550
3560
3570
3600
3610
3611
3612
3613
3619
3620
3621
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634

ill

N on ferrous metals and their 'products— Continued
Clocks and watches
Clocks, watches, and materials and parts (except watchcases)
Watchcases
Assembling of watches or clocks
Jewelry
Jewelry (not including costume jewelry)
Jewelers, findings and materials
Lapidary work
Silverware and plated ware
Engraving, plating, and polishing
Engraving on nonferrous metals (except for printing purposes)
Electroplating, plating, and polishing
Lighting fixtures
Electric-light fixtures
Lighting fixtures (except electric)
Nonferrous metal products, n. e. c.
Nonferrous metal foundries
Aluminum products
Nonferrous metalware: kitchen, household, and hospital utensils
(except foundry products and aluminum ware)
Metal novelties and specialties (except foundry products)
Collapsible tubes
Gold leaf and foil
Tin and other foils (not including gold foil)
Sheet-metal work not specifically classified
Nonferrous metal products, n. e. c.
Electrical m achinery
Electrical equipment for electric public utility, manufacturing, mining,
transportation (except automotive), and construction use, and for
incorporation in manufactured products
Electrical appliances
Wire and cable
Automotive electrical equipment
Electrical lamps
Communication equipment
All other electrical products
M a ch in ery {except electrical)
Engines and turbines
Steam engines and steam turbines
Diesel and semi-Diesel engines
Aircraft engines
Other internal-combustion engines
Agricultural machinery and tractors
Tractors
Agricultural machinery (except tractors)
Construction, mining, and related machinery
Construction and heavy lifting equipment: cranes, dredges, excava­
tors, hoists, derricks, road-building machinery
Heavy crushing and mixing machinery for stone, ore, etc.
Oil-field machinery and tools (including well-drilling machines,
except for oil wells)
Mining machinery and equipment




112
Code

3640
3641
3642
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673

3674
3675
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3689
3690
3699
3700
3710
3711
3712
3719
3720
3730
3731
3732

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

M a c h in e r y (excep t electrical) — Continued

Metalworking machinery
Machine tools: lathes, screw machines, bending machines, etc.
Machine-tool accessories, dies, and machinists* precision tools
Other metalworking machinery, equipment, and accessories (includ­
ing presses, forging machines, die-casting machinery, etc.)
Special industrial machinery (not including metalworking machinery)
Food-products machinery
Textile machinery
Woodworking machinery
Paper and pulp-mill machinery
Printing-trades machinery
Oil-refining machinery
Smelting and refining machinery and equipment
Special industrial machinery, n. e. c. (including foundry equipment)
General industrial machinery
Pumps, compressors, and pumping equipment
Conveyor systems
Elevators, escalators, and elevator equipment
Industrial and mining cars and trucks
Blowers and exhaust and ventilating fans
Measuring, recording, and control instruments (except electric
meters, watches, and clocks)
Mechanical power-transmission equipment and supplies: bearings,
gears, shafts, etc.
General industrial machinery, n. e. c.
Office and store machines, equipment, and supplies
Adding, calculating, tabulating, and bookkeeping machines, cash
registers, fare-recording devices, etc.
Typewriters and parts
Office duplicating devices and supplies: addressing, mailing, check­
writing machines; mimeographs, multigraphs, etc.; carbon paper,
paper stencils, and inked ribbons
Vending, amusement, and other coin-operated machines
Scales and balances (including coin-operated scales)
Office and store machines, n. e. c.
Household and service-industry machines
Domestic laundry equipment: washing machines, wringers, driers,
ironers, etc.
Commercial laundry, dry-cleaning, and pressing machines
Sewing machines, domestic and industrial
Household and service-industry machines, n. e. c.
Machine shops, n. e. c.
Machine shops, n. e. c.
T ra n sp o rta tio n eq u ip m en t (except autom obiles)

Railroad equipment
Locomotives (including frames) and parts: steam, electric, Diesel,
and Diesel-electric
Railroad, street, and rapid-transit cars, and car equipment
Railroad equipment, n. e. c.
Aircraft and parts
Ship and boat building
Shipbuilding (including ship repairs when combined with shipbuilding)
Boat building (including repairs when combined with building)




IN D U S T R Y

C
ode
3740
3790
3799
3800
3810
3820
3821
3822
3830
3840
3900
3910
3911
3912
3913
3920
3921
3922
3923
3930
3931
3932
3933
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3960
3961
3962
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3980
3981
3982

AND

O C C U P A T IO N

C L A S S IF IC A T I O N S

113

T ra n sp o rta tio n eq u ip m en t (except a u tom obiles) — Continued

Motorcyles, bicycles, and parts
Transportation equipment, n. e. c.
Transportation equipment, n. e. c.: carriages, wagons, sleighs, and
sleds (except children’s vehicles)
A u to m o b iles and a utom obile eq u ip m en t

Motor vehicles
Motor-vehicle bodies and body parts
Passenger-car bodies and passenger-car body parts
Truck bodies and truck body parts
Motor-vehicle parts and accessories
Automobile trailers (for attachment to passenger vehicles)
M is c ella n e o u s m an u fa ctu rin g in d u stries

Professional and scientific instruments: photographic apparatus and
optical goods
Professional and scientific instruments (except surgical and dental)
Photographic apparatus and materials and projection apparatus
(except lenses)
Lenses and other optical goods
Surgical and dental instruments, equipment, and supplies
Surgical and medical instruments
Surgical supplies and equipment, n. e. c., and orthopedic appliances
Dentists’ equipment and supplies
Musical instruments
Pianos
Organs
Piano and organ parts and materials
Musical instruments and parts and materials, n. e. c.
Toys and sporting and athletic goods
Games and toys (except dolls and children’s vehicles)
Dolls (except rubber)
Baby carriages, children’ s sleds, wagons, and other vehicles for
children
Sporting and athletic goods, n. e. c.
Pens, fountain and stylographic, pencils, stencils, and artists’ materials
Pens, mechanical pencils, and pen points
Pencils (except mechanical) and crayons
Hand stamps, stencils, and brands
Artists’ materials
Buttons and buckles
Buttons
Buckles
Costume jewelry and miscellaneous novelties
Costume jewelry
Novelties (except metal)
Jewelry cases and instrument cases
Lamp shades
Artificial flowers, feathers, and plumes
Brooms and brushes
Brooms
Brushes




114
Code

3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

M iscellaneous m anufacturing industries— Continued
Miscellaneous industries
Beauty-shop and barber-shop equipment and supplies
Fur, dressed and dyed
Signs and advertising displays
Fabricated plastic products, n. e. c.
Umbrellas, parasols, and canes
Tobacco pipes and cigarette holders
Handbag and luggage frames
Models and patterns (not including paper patterns)
Manufacturing establishments, n. e. c.

Division E.— Wholesale and retail trade

4000
4010
4011
4012
4013
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059

W holesale
Service and limited-function wholesalers (includes the usual wholesaling
establishments)
Automotive
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Automotive equipment
Tires and tubes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products
Drugs (full line)
Drug proprietaries and toiletries
Drug sundries
Dyestuffs
Explosives
Industrial chemicals
Naval stores
Paints and varnishes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products, n. e. c.
Dry goods and apparel
Dry goods (full line)
Piece goods
Hosiery and underwear
Notions and other dry goods
Clothing and furnishings (full line)
M en’s and boys’ clothing and furnishings
W om en’s and children’s clothing and furnishings
Millinery and millinery supplies
Shoes and other footwear
Petroleum and its products
Groceries and food specialties
Groceries (full line)
Canned goods
Coffee, tea, and spices
Confectionery
Fish and sea foods
Flour
Meats and provisions
Sugar
Groceries and food specialties, n. e. c.




IN D U S T R Y

Code

4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4090
4091
4092
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4120
4121
4122
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149

AND

O C C U P A T IO N

C L A S S IF IC A T I O N S

W holesale— Continued
Service and limited-function wholesalers— Continued
Farm products— consumer goods
Dairy products
Poultry and poultry products
Dairy and poultry products
Fruits and vegetables (fresh)
Farm products— consumer goods, n. e. c.
Farm products— raw materials
Cotton
Grain
Hides, skins, and furs (raw)
Horses and mules
Livestock
Silk (raw)
Tobacco (leaf)
W ool and mohair
Farm products— raw materials, n. e. c.
Tobacco and its products (except leaf)
Beer, wines, and liquors
Beer and other fermented malt liquors
Wines and liquors
Electrical goods
Electrical merchandise (full line)
Apparatus and equipment
Wiring supplies and construction materials
Radios, refrigerators, and appliances
Furniture and housefurnishings
China, glassware, and crockery
Floor coverings
Furniture (household and office)
Housefurnishings (except as specified)
Musical instruments and sheet music
Hardware
Hardware (full line)
Hardware (specialty lines)
Lumber and construction materials
Builders’ supplies (full line)
Lumber and millwork
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
Cement, lime, and plaster
Glass
Sand, gravel, and crushed stone
Lumber and construction materials, n. e. c.
Machinery, equipment, and supplies
Commercial machinery and equipment
Farm and dairy machinery and equipment
Industrial equipment and supplies
Oil-well and oil-refining machinery and equipment
Other industrial machinery
Professional equipment and supplies
Service equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment and supplies
Machinery, equipment, and supplies, n. e. c.




115

116
Code

4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4170
4171
4172
4173
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4210
4211
4212
4213
4220
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4228
4229
4230
4232
4233
4234
4235

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

W holesale— Continued
Service and limited-function wholesalers— Continued
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap)
Coal and coke
Iron and steel (except structural)
Structural iron and steel
Wire, wire fence, and wire rope
Copper
Sheet-metal products
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap), n. e. c.
Paper and its products
Wrapping or coarse paper and products
Fine or printing and writing paper
Stationery and stationery supplies
Wallpaper
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies
Plumbing and heating (full line)
Heating (including stoves and ranges)
Plumbing fixtures, equipment, and supplies
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies, n. e. c.
Waste materials
Iron and steel scrap
Junk and scrap (full line)
Waste paper, rags, and rubber
Nonferrous metals, scrap
Service and limited-function wholesalers, n. e. c.
Amusement and sporting goods
Farm supplies
Jewelry
Optical goods
General merchandise
F lo w e rs a n d n u rse ry sto c k

Forest products (except lumber)
Leather and leather goods
Miscellaneous kinds of business
Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices
Automotive
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Automotive equipment
Tires and tubes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products
Drug proprietaries and toiletries
Drug sundries
Dyestuffs
Explosives
Industrial chemicals
Paints and varnishes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products, n. e. c.
Dry goods and apparel
Piece goods
Hosiery and underwear
Notions and other dry goods
Clothing and furnishings (full line)




IN D U S T R Y

Code

4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4250
4251
4252
4254
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4269
4280
4290
4291
4292
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4320
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349

AND

O C C U P A T IO N

C L A S S IF IC A T I O N S

W holesale— Continued
Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices— Continued
D ry goods and apparel— Continued
M en’s and boys’ clothing and furnishings
Wom en’s and children’s clothing and furnishings
Millinery and millinery supplies
Shoes and other footwear
Petroleum and its products
Groceries and food specialties
Breakfast cereals
Canned goods
Confectionery
Flour
Meats and provisions
Sugar
Groceries and food specialties, n. e. c.
Farm products— consumer goods
Dairy products
Poultry and poultry products
Dairy and poultry products
Farm products— consumer goods, n. e. c.
Tobacco and its products (except leaf)
Beer, wines, and liquor
Beer and other fermented malt liquors
Wines and liquors
Electrical goods
Electrical merchandise (full line)
Apparatus and equipment
Wiring supplies and construction materials
Radios, refrigerators, and appliances
Furniture and housefurnishings
China, glassware, and crockery
Floor coverings
Furniture (household and office)
Housefurnishings (except as specified)
Musical instruments and sheet music
Hardware
Lumber and construction materials
Builders’ supplies (full line)
Lumber and millwork
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
Cement, lime, and plaster
Glass
Lumber and construction materials, n. e. c.
Machinery, equipment, and supplies
Commercial machinery and equipment
Farm and dairy machinery and equipment
Industrial equipment and supplies
Oil-well and oil-refining machinery and equipment
Other industrial machinery
Professional equipment and supplies
Service equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment and supplies
Machinery equipment and supplies, n. e. c.




117

118
Code

4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4370
4371
4372
4373
4379
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4397
4398
4399
4400
4500
4510
4511
4512
4513
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

W holesale— Continued
Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices— Continued
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap)
Coke
Iron and steel (except structural steel)
Structural iron and steel
Wire, wire fence, and wire rope
Copper
Sheet-metal products
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap), n. e. c.
Paper and its products
Wrapping or coarse paper and products
Fine or printing and writing papers
Stationery and stationery supplies
Wallpaper
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies
Plumbing and heating (full line)
Heating (including stoves and ranges)
Plumbing fixtures, equipment, and supplies
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies, n. e. c.
Manufacturers’ sales branches and offices, n. e. c.
Amusement and sporting goods
Farm supplies
Jewelry
Optical goods
Forest products (except lumber)
Leather and leather goods
Miscellaneous kinds of business
Petroleum, bulk-tank stations
Agents and brokers
Automotive
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Automotive equipment
Tires and tubes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products
Drugs (full line)
Drug proprietaries and toiletries
Drug sundries
Dyestuffs
Explosives
Industrial chemicals
N aval stores
Paints and varnishes
Chemicals, drugs, and allied products, n. e. c.
Dry goods and apparel
D ry goods (full line)
Piece goods
Hosiery and underwear
Notions and other dry goods
Clothing and furnishings (full line)
M en’s and boys’ clothing and furnishings
W om en’ s and children’ s clothing and furnishings
Millinery and millinery supplies
Shoes and other footwear




IN D U S T R Y

Code

4540
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4590
4591
4592
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4620
4621
4622
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635

AND

O C C U P A T IO N

C L A S S IF IC A T I O N S

W holesale— Continued
Agents and brokers— Continued
Petroleum and its products
Groceries and food specialties
Groceries (full line)
Canned goods
Coffee, tea, and spices
Confectionery
Fish and sea foods
Flour
Meats and provisions
Sugar
Groceries and food specialties, n. e. c.
Farm products— consumer goods
Dairy products
Poultry and poultry products
Dairy and poultry products
Fruits and vegetables (fresh)
Farm products— consumer goods, n. e, c.
Farm products— raw materials
Cotton
Grain
Hides, skins, and furs (raw)
Horses and mules
Livestock
Silk (raw)
Tobacco (leaf)
W o o l a n d m o h a ir

Farm products— raw materials, n. e. c.
Tobacco and its products
Beer, wines, and liquor
Beer and fermented malt liquors
Wines and liquors
Electrical goods
Electrical merchandise (full line)
Apparatus and equipment
Wiring supplies and construction materials
Radios, refrigerators, and appliances
Furniture and housefurnishings
China, glassware, and crockery
Floor coverings
Furniture (household and office)
Housefurnishings (except as specified)
Musical instruments and sheet music
Hardware
Hardware (full line)
Hardware (specialty lines)
Lumber and construction materials
Builders’ supplies (full line)
Lumber and millwork
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
Cement, lime, and plaster
Glass
159726°— 40----- 9




119

120

Code
4636
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4670
4671
4672
4673
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4750
4760
4761
4762

M A N U A L ON IN DU STRIAL-INJU RY STATISTICS
W holesale— Continued
Agents and brokers— Continued
Lumber and construction materials— Continued
Sand, gravel, and crushed stone
Lumber and construction materials, n. e. c.
Machinery, equipment, and supplies
Commercial machinery and equipment
Farm and dairy machinery and equipment
Industrial equipment and supplies
Oil-well and oil-refining machinery and equipment
Other industrial machinery
Professional equipment and supplies
Service equipment and supplies
Transportation equipment and supplies
Machinery equipment and supplies, n. e. c.
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap)
Coal and coke
Iron and steel (except structural)
Structural iron and steel
Wire, wire fence, and wire rope
Copper
Sheet-metal products
Metals and minerals (except petroleum and scrap), n. e. c.
Paper and its products
Wrapping or coarse paper and products
Fine or printing and writing paper
Stationery and stationery supplies
Wallpaper
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies
Plumbing and heating (full line)
Heating (including stoves and ranges)
Plumbing fixtures, equipment, and supplies
Plumbing and heating equipment and supplies, n. e. c.
W aste materials
Iron and steel scrap
Junk and scrap (full line)
Waste paper, rags, and rubber
Nonferrous-metals scrap
Agents and brokers, n. e. c.
Amusement and sporting goods
Farm supplies
Jewelry
Optical goods
General merchandise
Flowers and nursery stock
Forest products (except lumber)
Leather and leather goods
Miscellaneous kinds of business
Assemblers of farm products
Groceries and food specialties
Farm products— consumer goods
Dairy products
Poultry and poultry products




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

Code
4763
4764
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4790
4792
4796
4797
4799
4800
4810
4820
4830
4840
4850
4860
4890
4900
4910
4920
4921
4922
4923
4930
4940
4950
4951
4952
4990
4991
4992
4993
4999
5000
5010
5020
5030
5040

121

W holesale— Continued
Assemblers of farm products— Continued
Farm products— consumer goods— Continued
Dairy and poultry products
Fruits and vegetables (fresh)
Farm products— consumer goods, n. e. c.
Farm products— raw materials
Cotton
Grain
Hides, skins, and furs (raw)
Horses and mules
Livestock
Silk (raw)
Tobacco (leaf)
W ool and mohair
Farm products— raw materials, n. e. c.
Assemblers, n. e. c.
Farm supplies
Flowers and nursery stock
Forest products (except lumber)
Miscellaneous kinds of business
Chain-store warehouses
Grocery chain-store warehouses
General merchandise chain stores
Shoe chain-store warehouses
Furniture chain-store warehouses
Drug chain-store warehouses
Liquor chain-store warehouses
Chain-store warehouses, n. e. c.
Retail
Food
Grocery stores
M eat and fish markets (including sea food)
M eat and fish markets
M eat markets
Fish markets
Fruit stores and vegetable markets
Candy, confectionery, and nut stores
Dairy-products stores and milk dealers
Dairy-products stores
Milk dealers
Food stores (excluding restaurants and lunch rooms), n. e. c.
Egg and poultry dealers
Delicatessen stores
Bakeries and caterers, with retail stores
Food stores, n. e. c.
General merchandise
Department stores
Mail-order houses, general merchandise
Limited-price variety stores
Dry-goods stores




122
Cade

5050
5051
5053
5054
5060
5100
5110
5120
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5139
5140
5150
5160
5170
5190
5191
5192
5199
5200
5210
5211
5212
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5229
5230
5231
5232
5300
5310
5311
5312
5320
5330
5390
5400
5410
5411
5412
5500

M A N U AL ON IN DU STRIAL-INJU RY STATISTICS
R etail— Continued
General merchandise— Continued
General merchandise stores
General merchandise
Army and N avy goods stores
Industrial stores
General stores
Apparel and accessories
M en’s and boys’ clothing and furnishing stores
W om en’s ready-to-wear stores
W om en’s accessory and specialty stores
Millinery specialty shops
Corset and lingerie specialty shops
Hosiery specialty shops
Apparel accessory stores
W om en’s apparel n. e. c.
Children’s specialty and infants’ wear shops
Family-clothing stores
Shoe stores
Custom tailors
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories, n. e. c.
Furriers and fur shops
Umbrella shops (including parasols and canes)
Other apparel, n. e. c.
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment
Furniture stores (other than office furniture)
Furniture stores (other than office furniture)
Interior decorators, with new furniture
Specialized home furnishings and equipment stores
Floor-covering stores
Drapery, curtain, and upholstery stores
Lamp and shade shops
China, glassware, crockery, tinware, and enamel stores
Picture and framing stores
Awning, flag, banner, window-shade, and tent shops
Other home furnishings and equipment stores, n. e. c.
Electrical and gas household-appliance stores, including radio dealers
Electrical and gas household-appliance stores
Radio stores
Automobile and automotive equipment
Motor-vehicle dealers— new and used cars
Retail only
Retail and wholesale combined
Motor-vehicle dealers— used cars only
Accessory, tire, and battery dealers
Automotive dealers, n. e. c. (includes parts dealers, aircraft and
motorboat dealers, dealers of motorcycles, but not of bicycles)
Filling stations
Filling stations
Filling stations only
Filling stations with repair shops or unrelated merchandise
Drug stores




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

Code
5600
5610
5620
5630
5700
5710
5720
5800
5810
5820
5830
5840
5890
5900
6000
6010
6020
6030
6040
6090
6100
6110
6120
6130
6140
6150
6160
6170
6180
6181
6182
6183
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6199

R etail— Continued
Eating and drinking places
Restaurants, cafeterias, and lunchrooms
Lunch counters and refreshment stands
Drinking places
Hardware
Hardware stores
Farm-implement dealers, with or without hardware
Lumber and building supplies
Lumber and building material dealers
Heating and plumbing equipment dealers
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores
Electrical-supply stores
Building-equipment stores, n. e. c.
Liquor stores
Second-hand stores
Second-hand clothing and shoe stores
Second-hand furniture stores
Second-hand book stores
Second-hand tires, accessories, and automotive-part dealers
Second-hand stores, n. e. c.
Retail trade, n. e. c.
Book and stationery stores
Sporting-goods stores, including bicycle shops
Farm and garden supply stores
Florists
Cigar stores
News dealers and newsstands
Jewelry stores
Fuel and ice dealers
Coal and wood dealers
Fuel-oil dealers
Ice dealers
Retail stores, n. e. c.
Music stores (other than radio)
Photographic supply stores
Artist supply and material stores
Luggage and leather-goods stores
Antique stores
Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops
Opticians’ or optometrists’ stores
Retail stores, n. e. c.

Division F.— Finance, insurance, and real estate
6200
6300
6500
6600
6700
6800

Finance
Banking
Credit agencies other than banks
Investment trusts and investment companies
Holding companies
Security and commodity brokers, dealers, and exchanges
Finance, n. e. c.




123

124
Code
6900
6910
6920
6930
6940
6950
6960
7000
7010
7020
7030
7040

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
In su r a n ce

Insurance carriers
Life insurance
Fire and marine insurance
Casualty, fidelity, surety, etc.
Accident and health insurance
Title insurance
Financial obligation insurance
Insurance agents, brokers, and service
Insurance agents
Insurance brokers
Organizations servicing insurance companies
Policyholders consulting service
R eal estate

7100

Real estate

Division G.— Transportation, communication, and other public utilities
T ra n sp o rta tio n

7200
7210
7220
7230
7240
7300
7310
7320
7400
7410
7420
7430
7440
7490
7500
7510
7520
7530
7600
7610
7620
7630
7640
7650
7651
7652
7660
7661
7662
7663
7664
7700
7710
7720
7730

Railroads
Freight or freight and passenger railroads
Switching and terminal companies
Sleeping-car and other passenger-car service
Railway express service
Street, suburban, and interurban railways
Street and suburban railways
Interurban railways
Highway passenger transportation
Local bus lines
Bus lines other than local
Taxicabs
Fixed facilities
Miscellaneous highway passenger transportation, n. e. c.
Highway freight transportation
Local trucking
Trucking other than local
Fixed facilities for handling freight
Water transportation
Ocean-borne foreign trade
Coastwise and intercoastal trade
Great Lakes trade
Trade on rivers and canals
Local service
Ferries
Lighterage
Auxiliary services
Towing and tugboats
Piers and docks, including buildings and facilities
Loading, unloading, stevedoring, etc.
Canal operation
Air transportation
Common carriers
Other flying
Airports and flying fields




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code

7800
7810
7820
7900
8000
8010
8020
8030
8040
8050
8090

125

T ra n sp o rta tio n — Continued

Pipe-line transportation
Petroleum
Gasoline
Warehousing and storage
Services incidental to transportation
Forwarding
Packaging, crating, etc.
Arrangement of transportation
Stockyards
Renting of railroad cars
Other services incidental to transportation
C o m m u n ic a tio n and other p u b lic u tilities

8100
8110
8120
8130
8190
8200
8210
8220
8230
8300
8310
8320

Communi cation
Telephone (wire and radio)
Telegraph (wire and radio) and cable
Radio broadcasting and television
Other communication
H eat, light, and power
Electric light and power
Gas (including manufacturing)
Steam heat and power
Water and sanitary services
Water
Sanitary service

Division H.— Services (personal, business, recreational, public, profes­
sional, and other)
8400
8410
8420
8430
8500
8510
8511
8512
8513
8520
8521
8522
8530
8531
8532
8540
8550
8560
8570
8571
8572
8590
8591
8599
8600

H o tels, ro o m in g h ou ses, and other lodging places

Hotels
Rooming and boarding houses
Camps
P erso n a l services

Laundries and laundry services
Power laundries
Laundries other than power
Linen supply (including diaper service)
Cleaning and dyeing plants
Cleaning and dyeing plants (other than rug cleaning)
Rug cleaning and repairing plants
Photographic studios (including commercial photography)
Photographic studios (except commercial photography)
Commercial photography
Barber and beauty shops
Shoe-repair shops and shoeshine parlors (including hat cleaning)
Funeral service (including crematorium)
Cleaning, pressing, alteration, and garment-repair shops
Cleaning, pressing, alteration, and clothing repair
Fur repair and storage
Miscellaneous personal services
Turkish baths and massage parlors
Miscellaneous personal services, n. e. c.
D o m estic service




126

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

Code

8700
8710
8720
8730
8740
8750
8751
8752
8759
8760
8790
8800
8810
8820
8830
8840
8850
8860
8890
8891
8892
8893
8894
8899
8900
8910
8920
8930
8940
8950
8990
8991
8992
8993
8994
8999
9000
9010
9011
9012
9020
9030
9100
9110
9120
9130

B u s in e s s serv ices , n . e. c.

Advertising
Adjustment and credit bureaus and collecting agencies
Duplicating, addressing, blueprinting, photostating, mailing, and mailinglist services
Private employment agencies
Services to dwellings and other buildings
Window washing
Disinfecting and exterminating services
Other services to dwellings and other buildings
News syndicates
Other business services
A u to m o b ile rep a ir services and garages

Automobile rentals
Storage garages
Parking lots
Automobile tops and body repair
Battery and ignition service
General automobile repair shops
Other automobile repairs and services
Radiator repair shops
Tire repair shops
Automobile paint shops
Automobile laundries
Automobile specialized repair shops and services, n. e. c.
M is c ella n e o u s repair services and hand trades

Blacksmith shops
Electrical repair shops
Watch, clock, and jewelry repair
Upholstery and furniture repair
Musical instrument, piano, and organ repair (including piano and organ
tuning)
Repair shops and miscellaneous hand trades, n. e. c.
Bicycle repair shops
Harness and leather goods repair shops
Locksmith and gunsmith shops
Armature rewinding shops
Other repair shops and miscellaneous hand trades, n. e. c.
M o t io n pictu res

Motion-picture production and distribution
Motion-picture production (including distribution if from same
establishment)
Motion-picture distribution (exclusive of production)
Motion-picture service industries
Motion-picture theaters (including vaudeville)
A m u sem en t

, r e c r e a tio n , a n d

rela ted s e r v ic e s (o th er th a n m o t i o n p ic t u r e s )

Dance halls, studios, and schools
Theaters and theatrical producers (plays, concerts, operas, etc.)
Bowling, billiards, and pool




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code

9140
9141
9142
9143
9144
91 4 5
9 1 46
9149
9150
9160
9190
9200
9210
92 2 0
92 3 0
9240
9250
9260
9270
9280
9290

127

A m u s m e n t s , recreation , etc .— Continued

Sports (baseball, football, golf clubs, skating rinks, swimming pools,
riding academies, etc.)
Baseball and football clubs, sports and athletic fields, and sports
promoters
Golf clubs
Bathing beaches
Swimming pools
Skating rinks
Riding academies
Other sports
Bands, orchestras, and entertainers
Race-track operation (horse, dog, etc.)
Miscellaneous
M e d ic a l and other health services

Offices of physicians and surgeons
Offices of dentists and dental surgeons
Offices of osteopathic physicians
Offices of chiropractors
Nursing
Hospitals
Medical and dental laboratories
Veterinary services (including animal hospitals)
Miscellaneous health and allied services

93 0 0

L ega l services

9400

E n g in e er in g and other 'professional services , n . e. c.

9410
9420
9490
9500
9510
9511
9512
95 1 3
9514
9520
9530
9531
9532
9540
9550
9560
9561
9562
9563
9590
9600
9610
9620
9630
9640
9650

Professional engineering and architectural services
Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services
Professional services, n. e. c.
E d u ca tio n a l services

Elementary, secondary, and preparatory schools
Public schools
Parochial schools (Roman Catholic)
Denominational and sectarian schools (other than Roman Catholic)
Other
Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools
Vocational schools
Public vocational schools
Private vocational schools
Correspondence schools
Nonprofit educational and scientific research agencies
Libraries, museums, botanical and zoological gardens
Libraries
Museums
Botanical and zoological gardens
Other schools and related educational services
N o n p ro fit m em b e rsh ip , charitable , and relig iou s org a n iza tion s

Trade associations, chambers of commerce, boards of trade, and gen­
eral business associations
Professional organizations
Labor organizations
Civic, social, recreational, and fraternal associations
Political organizations




128
Code

9660
9670
9690

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
N onprofit m em bership, etc.— Continued
Religious organizations
Charitable organizations
Miscellaneous nonprofit membership organizations
Division I.— Governm ent2

9700

9700
9730
9750
9750
9760
9770
9780
9790
9800
9810
9899

Government
This group includes only regular governmental activities. Business
establishments owned by government are to be classified like other busi­
ness establishments, but m ay be identified as governmental by means of a
supplementary code.
The classification given here identifies the type of activity of govern­
mental units. The units themselves must be identified by an individual
“ employer number,” as is true of any other employer.
Each of the groups listed may be amplified to meet local needs.
Legislative bodies
Judicial bodies (including quasi judicial bodies whose function is not
primarily administrative)
Administrative bodies
Police departments
Fire departments
Health departments
Sanitation departments
Regulatory bodies
Taxing bodies
Advisory bodies
Administrative bodies, n. e. c.
Division J.— Unclassified— Insufficient information

9900

Nonclassifiable establishments

Code for Occupation o f Injured W orkers

At present there is no standard code for occupations, although a
committee sponsored jointly by the Central Statistical Board (Federal
Government) and the American Statistical Association is now engaged
in drafting such a code. The U. S. Employment Service has completed
an extensive survey of occupations by industries and is now preparing a
Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Other governmental agencies, such
as the Bureau of the Census, have, from time to time, developed occu­
pational codes for their own uses. This is the first time, however,
that a concerted and cooperative attempt is being made to establish
a standard classification and code.
The following classification is suggested for use until superseded
by the standard. The occupations are listed alphabetically, and code
number intervals are provided for additional occupations if such
additions are found necessary.
2 The classification detail given here is not part of the standard classification.




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
C

l a s s if ic a t io n

o f

O

c c u p a t io n s

Code
A

003
006
009
012
015
018
021
024
027
030
033
036
039
042
045
048
051
054
057
060
063

Accountants and auditors
Actors and actresses
Advertising agents
Agents, n. e. c.8
Apprentices to building and hand trades
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Plumbers
Building and hand trades, n. e. c.
Apprentices to printing trades
Apprentices to specified trades, n. e. c.
Apprentices to trades not specified
Architects
Artists, sculptors, and teachers of art
Athletes, and sports instructors and officials
Attendants, filling station, parking lot, garage, and airport
Attendants, hospital and other institutional
Attendants, professional and personal service, n. e. c.
Auctioneers
Authors, editors, and reporters
Aviators
B

066
069
072
075
078
081
084
087
090
093
096
099
102
105
108

Baggagemen, transportation
Bakers
Barbers, beauticians, and manicurists
Bartenders
Blacksmiths, forgemen, and hammermen
Blasters and powdermen
Boarding-house and lodging-house keepers
Boatmen, canalmen, and lockkeepers
Boilermakers
Bookkeepers and cashiers (except bank cashiers)
Bootblacks
Brakemen, railroad
Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters
Brokers and commission men
Buyers and department heads, store
C

111
114
117
120
123
126

Cabinetmakers
Canvassers and solicitors
Carpenters
Cement or concrete finishers
Chainmen, rodmen, and axmen, surveying
Charwomen and cleaners

3 Not elsewhere classified.




130

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-IN JURY STATISTICS

Code

129
132
135
138
141
144
147
150
153
156
159
162
165
168
171
174
177

Chauffeurs and drivers, bus, taxi, truck, and tractor 4
Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists
Chiropractors
Clergymen
Clerks and clerical workers, n. e. c.
Collectors, bill and account
College presidents, professors, and instructors
Commercial travelers and sales agents
Compositors and typesetters
Conductors, bus and street railway
Conductors, railroad
Cooks, except private family
Country buyers and shoppers of livestock and other farm products
County agents, farm demonstrators, etc.
Cranemen: derrickmen, hoistmen, etc.
Credit men
Crossing watchmen, railroad
D

180
183
186
189
192
195
198
201
204
207

Dancers and chorus girls
Decorators and window dressers
Delivery men and drivers, bakery, laundry, dry-cleaning establishment, and
store 5
Demonstrators
Dentists
Designers
Draftsmen
Draymen, teamsters, and carriage drivers
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory)
Dyers
E

210
213
216
219
220
223

Electricians
Electrotypers and stereotypers
Elevator operators
Engineers, stationary
Engravers (except photoengravers)
Express messengers and railway-mail clerks
F

226
229
232
235
238
241
244
247
250

Farmers
Farm laborers
Farm managers and foremen
Filers, grinders, buffers, and polishers, metal
Firemen, fire department
Firemen, except locomotive and fire department
Fishermen and oystermen
Floormen and floor managers, store
Foremen

* Except for bakeries, laundries, dry-cleaning establishments, and stores.
8Includes truck drivers for bakeries, laundries, dry-cleaning establishments, and stores.




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Code

253
256
259
262

Foresters, forest rangers, and timber cruisers
Fruit and vegetable graders and packers, except in cannery
Furnace men, smelter men, and pourers
Furriers
G

265
268
271

Garage laborers, car washers, and greasers
Glaziers
Grounds keepers of parks, cemeteries, etc.
H

274
277
280
283
286
289

Healers and medical-service occupations, n. e. c.
Heaters, metal
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers
Housekeepers, private family
Housekeepers, stewards, and hostesses, except private family
Hucksters and peddlers

I
292
295

Inspectors
Insurance agents and brokers
J

298
301

Janitors and sextons
Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths
K
L

304
307
310
313
316
319
322
325
328
331
334

Laborers
Laundry operatives and laundresses
Lawyers and judges
Librarians
Library assistants and attendants
Linemen and servicemen, telegraph, telephone, and power
Locomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Longshoremen and stevedores
Loom fixers
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and wood choppers
M

337
340
343
346
349
352
355
358

Machinists
Mail carriers
Managers and superintendents, building
Marshals and constables
M eat cutters, except slaughter and packing house
Mechanics and repairmen, airplane
Mechanics and repairmen, automobile
Mechanics and repairmen, railroad and car shop




131

132

M AN U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Code

361
364
367
370
373
376
379
382
385
388
391
394

Mechanics and repairmen, n. e. c.
Messengers, errand, and office boys and girls
Midwives and practical nurses
Millers, grain, flour, feed, etc.
Milliners and millinery dealers
Millwrights
Miners and operatives, extraction of minerals
Molders, metal
Motion-picture projectionists
Motormen, street, subway, and elevated
Motormen, vehicle (except railroad, railway, and bus)
Musicians and teachers of music
N

397

Newsboys

0
400
403
406
409
412
415

Office-machine operators
Officials of lodges, societies, unions, etc.
Oilers of machinery
Operatives, n. e. c.
Opticians and optometrists
Osteopaths
P

418
421
424
427
430
433
436
439
442
445
448
451
454
457
460
463
466
469
472
475
478
481

Painters, construction and maintenance 8
Painters, except construction and maintenance 7
Paperhangers
Pattern and model makers, except paper
Pharmacists
Photoengravers and lithographers
Photographers
Photographic reproduction occupations
Physicians’ and dentists’ assistants and attendants
Physicians and surgeons
Plasterers
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters
Policemen and detectives, public service
Policemen and detectives, except public service
Porters
Baggage
Pullman
Porters, n. e. c.
Postmasters
Power-station operators
Pressmen and plate printers, printing
Professional occupations, n. e. c.
Proprietors, managers, and officials

e Includes painters, varnishers, lacquerers, and enamelers, building, bridge, shipyard, railroad, etc.
7 Includes painters, varnishers, lacquerers, and enamelers of factory products and those in shops.




INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS

133

Code

484
487

Public officials, n. e. C.
Purchasing agents and buyers, n. e. c.8
Q
R

490
493
496
499
502
505

Radio and wireless operators
Real-estate agents and brokers
Religious workers
Retail dealers and managers
Rollers and roll hands, metal
Roofers and slaters

8
508
511
514
517
520
523
526
529
532
535
538
541
544
547
550
553
556
559
562

Sailors and deck hands
Sales clerks and salespersons
Sawyers
Semiprofessional and recreational occupations, n. e. c.
Servants, except private family
Servants, private family
Sheriffs and bailiffs
Ship officers, pilots, pursers, and engineers
Shipping and receiving clerks
Shoemakers and repairers (not in factory)
Showmen
Skilled occupations, n. e. c.
Social and welfare workers
Soldiers, sailors, and marines, U. S.
Stenographers and typists
Stonecutters and stone carvers
Structural- and ornamental-metal workers
Surveyors
Switchmen, railroad
T

565
568
571
574
577
580
583
586
589
592
595
598
601

Tailors and tailoresses
Teachers, school
Teachers, trade school, business school, etc.
Technical engineers
Chemical
Civil (excluding surveyors)
Electrical
Industrial
Mechanical
Mining and metallurgical
Technicians and assistants, laboratory
Technicians, except laboratory
Telegraph messengers
Telegraph operators

•Includes most buyers of commodities except commission brokers; buyers for stores; and country
buyers and shippers of livestock and other farm products.




134

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Code
604

T elep hon e operators

60 7

T ick et, station, and express agents, transportation

610

T in sm iths, coppersm iths, and sheet-m etal workers

613

T o o l m akers and die m akers and setters

616

Trained nurses

U
619

Undertakers

622

Upholsterers

625

Ushers, am usem ent place or assem bly
V

628

Veterinary surgeons
W

631

W aiters and waitresses

634

W eighers

637

W elders and burners

640

W holesale dealers and managers
X -Y -Z




Chapter 9.— Accident Cause Factor Classification
and Codes
A poster published by the National Safety Council defines “ acci­
dent” as “ a word used to excuse neglect; to hide our weakness; ease
our conscience and cover our failure.” The point has already been
made that accidents “ don’t just happen,” that they are caused and
that they can be prevented if the causes are known. (See chapter 1.)
The comprehensive classification and codes for accident-cause
analysis given here are based on a revision of the “ Proposed American
Recommended Practice for Compiling Industrial Injury Causes,”
more popularly known as the “ Heinrich Cause Code.” 1 This clas­
sification was designed to supersede the provisions relating to causes in
Bulletin No. 276, Standardization of Industrial Accident Statistics,
published by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1920. Under the
auspices of the American Standards Association a sectional committee
was set up, sponsored jointly by the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, the National Safety
Council, and the National Council on Compensation Insurance. A
subcommittee of this sectional committee, under the chairmanship of
Mr. H. W. Heinrich, a well-known safety engineer, prepared the acci­
dent-cause code.
The subcommittee recognized the need for accident data of more
value for purposes of accident prevention than those now available.
It also recognized that an entirely new approach was necessary, and
that existing codes, generally, were faulty in not bringing out the
necessary facts in such a fashion as to be easily handled statistically
and in such a form as to be practically useful for accident prevention.
The basic philosophy of the proposed code is that accidents happen
because of an unsafe act or a condition, or both, which, if eliminated,
should prevent a recurrence of such accidents.
To make the unsafe act and unsafe condition intelligible and mean­
ingful, however, they must be related to the framework or setting in
which the accident occurred. Knowing that the unsafe act was the
removal of a guard is not sufficient. It must be clear that the guard
was removed from the gears of a machine, say a lathe, and that as a

1 1937 edition, American Standards Association. The version presented here is patterned after a prelimi­
nary draft of the subcommittee of the Sectional Committee on Standardization of Methods of Recording
and Compiling Accident Statistics, 1939.
159726°— 40------- 10




135

136

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

consequence the worker’s hand was caught between the gears. Chang­
ing somewhat the order of the items named, we must know: (1) the
defective object most closely connected with the accident, which may
be a machine, a tool, a device, a vehicle, an animal, a substance, etc.,
and which in this code is called the “ a g e n c y ” ; (2) the p a rt o f the a g e n c y ;
(3) the u n sa fe m ech an ical or p h y sic a l c o n d itio n ; (4) the ty p e o f
a cciden t , i. e., whether a fall, a slip, being struck by an object, an
industrial disease, etc.; (5) the u n sa fe a ct; and (6) the u n sa fe p erso n a l
fa c to r .
This method of analysis breaks an accident into its component
parts, which may then be combined in whatever way will best serve the
purpose of accident prevention. The application of the classification
will be made clearer by tracing a given accident through the various
stages of analysis. The accident selected is one occurring on a lathe
and resulting in an injury to the worker’s hand because it was caught
between the unguarded inrunning end gears. The guards were
removed by the worker, contrary to instructions, to facilitate cleaning.
The coding for this accident is as follows:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Agency: Lathe.
Part of agency: Gears.
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition: Unguarded.
Accident type: Caught in , on, or between.
Unsafe act: R em oving safety devices.
Unsafe personal factor: W illfu l disregard o f instructions.

From these coded facts the accident can be reconstructed as follows:
A worker was injured because he was caught between the gears of a
lathe which was unguarded because he had removed the safety devices
(i. e. the guard) in willful disregard of instructions.
If this accident were coded in keeping with the prevailing practice,
the cause of the accident would be coded as a lathe—with probably no
further information. Nothing would be reflected in the coding to show
that the lathe was unguarded, that the worker had removed the guard,
and that he had done so in violation of instructions. The contrast
between the analysis under the proposed code and the bare indication
under the prevailing practice that the accident involved a lathe amply
illustrates the differences between the two methods of approach. It
should be equally clear that the coding method proposed here furnishes
important information for the direction of safety efforts, whereas
present coding methods most decidedly fail to do so.
All the refinement of coding, however, is useless if the coder does
not have the necessary insight into accident hazards to permit a clear
recognition of the unsafe practices and unsafe conditions involved in




ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

137

the accidents reported. In the absence of such insight, which can
come only from practical experience, the coding is wasted, the result­
ing statistics most likely will be wrong, and the data submitted to
guide factory inspectors and safety engineers may be faulty. With
faulty coding, statistics based on the accident-cause analysis proposed
here are not worth the paper they are printed on, let alone the time,
effort, and expense involved. Experience has shown that the person
best fitted for this part of the coding is a safety engineer or an expe­
rienced factory inspector who through years in the work has absorbed
the facts pertinent to analysis of accident hazards. To repeat, and
the point cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often, i f accurate
coding o j accident causes is desired along the lin es p r o p o se d here , the
coder should be a n experien ced sa fety en gineer or fa c to r y in sp ector w ho
has learned the coding p roced u re ,

or a statistician who has had adequate

safety experience.
Purpose of Classification

The purpose of this classification is to provide a statistical method
of analysis of accident factors, from which information essential for
accident prevention can be compiled.
This classification is predicated on the proved theory that nearly
all industrial accidents are preventable. The accident-cause factors
are recognized as an unsafe condition, an unsafe act, or a combination
of both. The analysis proposed here is aimed at bringing out those
unsafe factors which are most closely related to the injury and which
lend themselves to correction. The classification is not intended to
deal with obscure causative factors, or factors too far removed in the
accident sequence to be definitely ascertainable.
Definition of Accident

An accident is an event involving the contact of a person with an
object, or a substance, or another person, or the exposure of the person
to objects or conditions, or the movement of a person, which results
in a personal injury.

N o t e .— Certain single occurrences, such as explosions, may result in injuries
to a num ber o f persons.
This code requires that an accident be coded and tabulated
fo r each in ju ry . The term “ accident,” as here defined, includes industrial (occu­
pational) diseases.
The Accident and Its Causal Factors

The analysis outlined here matches the method followed by a safety
engineer when investigating an accident. He begins with the injury
and determines that a certain machine, tool or other object,




138

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

substance or exposure was most closely associated with the injury,
and that a particular part of the machine or object was closely
associated with the injury. His interest centers chiefly about those
agencies and agency parts which are unguarded or unsafe. As a
next step, he identifies the particular accident type which occurred,
this being a fall, struck by, caught in, on, or between, etc. He then
seeks for an unsafe act of a person which brought about the accident
resulting in the injury and determines also the unsafe personal factor
which brought about the unsafe act.
The accident factors, therefore, are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The
The
The
The
The
The

agency.
agency part.
unsafe mechanical or physical condition.
accident type.
unsafe act.
unsafe personal factor.

The rules for selection pertaining to each of those factors will be
found with the appropriate classification for each factor.
Definitions of Accident Factors
The A g en c y.

The agency is the object, substance, or exposure which is most
closely associated with the injury and which could have been properly
guarded or corrected.
T h e A g e n c y P a r t.

The agency part is the particular part of the selected agency which,
chiefly because it could have been guarded or corrected, is most
closely associated with the injury.
T h e TJnsaje M ec h a n ic a l or P h y s ic a l C on d ition .

The unsafe mechanical or physical condition is the condition of the
selected agency which could and should have been guarded or cor­
rected.
T h e A c c id e n t T y p e .

The accident type is the manner of contact of the injured person
with an object, substance, or exposure, or the movement of the injured
person, which resulted in the injury.
T h e U n sa fe A c t .

The unsafe act is that violation of a commonly accepted safe pro­
cedure which resulted in the selected accident type.
T h e U n sa fe P e r so n a l F a cto r .
The unsafe personal factor is the mental or bodily characteristic
which permitted or occasioned the selected unsafe act.




ACCIDENT CAUSE EACTOR CLASSIFICATION

139

Examples Illustrating Accident Cause Analysis

1. A painter fell from a ladder having a split rung. The ladder was
used contrary to instructions. The rung broke and the painter fell
to the floor, breaking his leg.
The defective agency most closely related to the injury is the ladder.
No agency parts are given for ladders in this classification, and there­
fore none is to be named. The unsafe mechanical or physical condi­
tion is the defective condition of the ladder. The accident type which
resulted in the injury is a fall to a different level. The unsafe act is
using defective equipment. The unsafe personal factor is the willful
disregard of instructions. The selected accident factors, therefore,
are as follows:
Agency: Ladder.
Agency part: N one.
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition: D efective agency.
Accident type: Fall to a different level.
Unsafe act: Using unsafe equipment.
Unsafe personal factor: W illfu l disregard o f instructions.

2. A painter fell as in example 1, and in falling struck against an
inexperienced oiler who was oiling the unguarded gears of a moving
lathe. The man falling from the ladder was not injured, but the
oiler’s fingers were caught between the gears.
There are two defective agencies in this example, the ladder and
the unguarded lathe. The rules require that the lathe is to be named
because it is most closely associated with the injury in point of time
and place. The agency part is the gears. The unsafe mechanical or
physical condition is the absence of a guard. The injury resulted
because the oiler’s fingers were caught between the gears, and the
accident type therefore is “ caught in, on, or between.” The unsafe
act resulting in this accident type is oiling equipment in motion. The
unsafe personal factor resulting in the unsafe act is the inexperience of
the oiler.
The selected accident factors therefore are as follows:
Agency: Lathe.
Agency part: Gears.
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition: Unguarded.
Accident type: Caught in , on, or between.
Unsafe act: Oiling moving equipment.
Unsafe personal factor: In experien ce.

If the man who fell from the ladder had also been injured, two
accidents would have to be tabulated— the accident to the oiler and
the accident to the painter.




140

MANUAL ON INDUSTBIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Agency and Agency Part
R u le s f o r selection .— 1. Select the unsafe object, substance, or expo­
sure which resulted in the injury, and which could have been guarded
or corrected.

2. In the absence of an agency as described in rule 1, select as the
agency that object, substance, or exposure which was most closely
associated with the injury.
N o t e .— The term “ closely associated” requires consideration of both location
and time as well as cause. If more than one agency is related to the injury, select
the one on, in, or about which the person was injured (closely related by location).
If two or more agencies are remotely located from the place of injury, select the
one nearest the injury in point of time.

3. A person is to be selected as an agency o n ly when there is no
other.
4. No object or substance shall be named as the agency when it is
structurally and physically a part of some other object or substance
at the time of injury, or when it flies or breaks off the parent object or
substance immediately prior to the injury. For example:
(a) A flywheel is properly part of an engine. It may be named as
the agency itself, however, if it was not an integral part of the engine
immediately prior to the injury.
(b) A fragment of a burred chisel flies off and causes injury. The
chisel is to be named as the agency.
5. The rules for selecting the agency parts are the same as rules 1
and 2 for the selection of agency.
C la ssification o f a gen cy an d a gen cy p a rt. — There are 16 major
agency groups, each of which is developed in considerable detail. If
so desired, classifications or tabulations may be made on the basis of
these major groups. These groups are:
Code

00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09

10

A g e n c y C l a s s if ic a t io n b y
Machines
Pumps and prime movers
Elevators
Hoisting apparatus
Conveyors
Boilers and pressure vessels
Vehicles
Animals
Mechanical power transmission apparatus
Electric apparatus
Hand tools




M a jo r G r o u p s

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

141

Code

11

12
13
14
15
19
XX

Chemicals
Highly inflammable and hot substances
Dusts
Radiations and radiating substances
Working surfaces, n. e. c.2
Agencies, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data

The agency parts for each of these groups will be found with the
detailed classifications of the respective group.
Each of these major groups in turn is developed in further detail.
A secondary and more detailed classification than the one above, and
which may be used to bring out more detail, but not as much as is
given in the most detailed classification, is as follows:
Code
0000
0000
0004
0008
0013
0017
0021
0024
0026
0029
0038
0042
0046
0048
0055
0056
0060
0100
0110
0120
0200
0210
0220
0300
0310
0320
0330
0400

A g e n c y C l a s s if ic a t io n b y M a jo r a n d S e c o n d a r y G r o u p s
Machines
Agitators, mixers, tumblers, etc.
Buffers, polishers, sanders, grinders
Casting, forging, and welding machines
Crushing, pulverizing, etc., machines
Drilling, boring, and turning machines
Packaging and wrapping machines
Picking, carding, and combing machines
Planers, shapers, molders
Presses
Rolls
Saws
Screening and separating machines
Shears, slitters, slicers
Stitching and sewing machines
Weaving, knitting, spinning machines
Miscellaneous machines, n. e. c.
Pumps and prime movers
Engines and prime movers
Pumps
Elevators
Passenger
Freight
Hoisting apparatus (except elevators)
Cranes
Shovels, derricks, dredges
Other hoisting apparatus
Conveyors
(No group detail)

2 N . e. c. = not elsewhere classified.




142

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

C
ode
0500
0510
0520
0600
0610
0620
0630
0640
0650
0690
0700
0710
0720
0730
0740
0750
0790
0800

Boilers and pressure vessels
Boilers
Pressure vessels

Vehicles
Motor
Animal drawn
Railway
Water
Aircraft
Vehicles, n. e. c.

Animals
Domestic
Insects
Snakes and reptiles
W ild animals
Fish
Animals, n. e. c.

Mechanical power transmission apparatus
(No group detail)

0900
0900
0910
0920
0930
0950
0960
0970
0990

Electric apparatus

1000

Hand tools

1010

Motors and generators
Transformers and converters
Conductors
Switchboard, switches, breakers, fuses, etc.
Rheostats, starters, rectifiers, etc.
Magnetic and electrolytic apparatus
Heating appliances, lamps, and tubes
Electric apparatus, n. e. c.
Hand motive power
Mechanical motive power
Electrical motive power

1050
1080

1100
1100
1110

Chemicals

1130
1140
1199

Explosives
Explosive gases or vapors
Noxious vapors, gases, fumes
Noxious or corrosive chemicals
Poisonous vegetation
Chemicals, n. e. e.

1200

Highly inflammable and hot substances

1300
1300
1310
1320
1399

Dusts

1120

(No group detail)




Explosive dusts
Organic dusts
Inorganic dusts
Dusts, n. e. c.

S T A T IS T IC S

A C C ID E N T

CAUSE

F A C T O R C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

143

Code

1400

Radiations and radiating substances

1500

Working surfaces, n. e. c.

1900

Miscellaneous agencies

xxOO

Agency unclassified—insufficient data

(No group detail)
(No group detail)
(N o group detail)

The agency parts for the respective major groups will be found with
the detailed classifications.
If desired, the analysis can be made in all the detail provided in
the following classification. It is suggested that, where possible,
this be done, even though the tabulations to be developed are to be
shown by major and secondary groups rather than in all the detail
given here. The advantage of this procedure is that it makes avail­
able when wanted the detail data along any particular line of inves­
tigation. The complete detailed classification and code follow.

D e t a il e d A g e n c y
Code
00000
00000
00001
00002
00003
00004
00005
00006
00007
00008
00009

00010

00011
00012
00013
00014
00015
00016
00017
00017
00018

and

A g e n c y P a r t C l a s s if ic a t io n

Machines8

Machines— Continued

A gitators, m ixers, tumblers, etc. Code
00020
Agitator
00021
00022
Beaters (including rag wash­ 00023
00024
er) , paper products
00025
Blender
00026
Blower (felt manufacturing)
00027
00028
Churn
Churn, n. m. (butter, etc.)
Compounder
Compounding mill— rubber

Dissolver
Drum— tanning, beating
D ust drum
D ye mixer and blender (dry)
(horizontal type)

00019

00029
00030
00031
00032
00033
00034
00035
00036
00037
00018
00038
00017
00039

A gitators, mixers, etc.— Con.

Emulsifier

Mill— pug
Mixer— concrete
Mixer— dough
Mixer— felt manufacturing
(the devil)
Mixer, n. e. c.
Mixer— pony or paint
Mixer— sand
Reducer
Saponifier
Sulphonators
Tumbler, n. e. c. (barrel, etc.)
Washer— drum (leather)

s The notation “n. m.” stands for “not mechancal,” and therefore hand operated.




144

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

M achines— Continued

M achines— Continued
Code

00040

B u f f e r s , p o l i s h e r s , s a n d e r s , g r in d ­
ers— w ith

a b r a s iv e

w h e e ls ,

d i s c s , or belts

00040
00041
00042
00043
00044

Buffer

E m ery-w h eel

stand

(auto­

00051
00052
00053
00044

Em ery-w h eel stand (hand fed)
E m ery-w h eel stand, n. m .

(abrasive

wheels)

(autom atic or power fed)

00045

00080
00081
00082
00083

00084
00085
Floor polisher— scraper, scrub­ 00086
ber, cleaner, finisher, etc.
00087
00088
00089
Glazer— leather
00090
Grinder
Grinder

(abrasive

wheels)

(hand fed)

B u ffe r s, polish ers, etc.— Con.

Trimmer or buffer— shoe
V al ve-grinding machines, n. m .
C a stin g ,

fo r g in g ,

a nd

w eld ing

m a ch in es

E m ery-w h eel dresser, n. m .
m atic or power fed)

00045
00046
00047
00048
00049
00050

Code

00076
00077
00078
00079
00080

00091
00092

Bender, n. m.
Bender and straightener
Blower— glass
Bolt, nut, and rivet header,
pointer, and maker, n. e. c.
Brazer
Casting machine— die
Casting machine— pig
Casting machine— type
Chain maker, n. e. c.
Charger— open-hearth furn­
ace, cupola, etc.
Coke pusher
Core maker

00093

00054

Grinder and polisher— plate 00094
glass
00095

00055
00056
00057
00061
00058
00054

G rindstone

Polishers and buffers, n. e. c.
Pouncing m achine (hat m an ­
ufacturing)

00064
00065
00066
00067
00068
00069
00070
00044
00071
00072

Foundry machines, n. e. c.
Forge (hammers, trip ham­

etc.)

mers, etc.)

00102
00103
00101

Sander— belt
Sander— disc
Sander, n. e. c.
Sharpener (abrasive)
Stone-products

m achines,

00104
00105
00106
00107
00108
00109

Surfacer— woodwork, n. e. c.

Hammer— drop
Header
Leaf spring machine
Linotype

00110
00111
00092

Monotype
Molder — crucible
n. e. c.)

Stropper, m etalworker, n. e. c.




Hammer— helve, trip, or Brad­
ley

R u bbin g bed

n. e. c.— stone rubbing bed

00073
00074
00075

Former— hat manufacturing
Flanger and expander (pipe,

Polisher and grinder— plate
glass

00059
00060
00062
00063

Expander
Extruder (not hydraulic)

00092
00101

G um m er (saw)

00096
00097
00098
00099
00100

G rindstone, n. m .

00092

00112

Molder— foundry

(foundry,

A C C ID E N T

CAUSE

FACTOR

Machines— Continued
Code

00113
00114
00115
00116
00117
00118
00119

00120
00107

00121
00122
00123
00124
00113
00125
00126
00105
00127
00128
00129
00130
00130
00131
00132
00133
00134
00135
00136
00137
00138
00139
00140
00141
00142
00143
00144
00145
00146
00147
00148
00149
00150
00151
00152
00153
00154
00154

Machines— Continued

Code
Con.
Nail maker (cut)— tack mak­ 00155
er (wire)
00156
00157
Press— forge (hydraulic)
00153
Riveter— hydraulic or pneu­ 00158

C a s t i n g , f o r g i n g , e tc . —

matic
00159
Riveter, n. e. c. (not punch00160
press type)
00161
00162
Spring maker— coiled
00163
Spring maker— leaf
00164
00165
Stereotype
00166
Straightener
00167
Swaging machine
00168
Tack maker
00169
00170
Tube caster
Upsetter (hot metal)
00170
Welder, n. e. c.
00170
Welder, n. m. (oxyacetylene)
C ru sh ers, p u lv e rizer s

, etc.

Breaker— candy

Chopper, n. m .— ice
Coal crushers and screws
Cracker, n. e. c.
Crusher— ball
Crusher— gyratory
Crusher, ice
Crusher— jaw
Crusher— roll

Disintegrator
Grinder— bark
Grinder— coffee, n. m.
Grinder— meat
Grinder— meat, n. m.
Grinder, n. e. c. (soap, etc.)

Masticator
Mill— ball
Mill— burrstone
Mill— clay grinder




145

C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

00171
00172
00173
00174
00175
00176
00177
00178
00179
00180
00179
00181
00179
00182
00183
00184
00185
00186
00187
00188
00189
00190
00190

C r u s h e r s , p u l v e r i z e r s , etc . —

Con.
M ill (cottonseed and linseed
grinder)
Mill— emery grinder
Mill— fruit grinder or presser
Mill— pebble
Mill— roller (flour, cereal, su­
gar, etc.)
Miller and grinder combined

Tobacco stem crusher

D r illin g ,

b o rin g ,

and

t u r n in g

m a c h in es

(a) Metalworking
Borer or drill (n. e.
(metal)
Boring bar, n. m.
Breast drill, n. m.

c.)

Drill— multiple spindle
Drill— radial
Drill and tapper combined
Lathe— automatic, metal,
multispindle
Lathe— metalwork, n. e. c.
Lathe, n. e. c.
Lathe— ring— j ewelers
Lathe— roll turner, engine,
hollow spindle
Lathe— screw cutter, n.
e. c.
Lathe— spinner— metal
Lathe— turret (hand and
semiautomatic)
Press— drill, n. m.
Tapper and threader—
tapper, n. e. c.
Taps and dies, n. m.
(5) All others
Borer or drill, n. e. c. (wood)

146

Ma n u a l

on

in d u s t r ia l -in j u r y

Machin e s— Continued

Machines— Continued

D r i l l i n g , b o r i n g , e tc —

Code

00191
00192
00193
00194
00195
00196
00197
00198
00199
00200
00200

00201

00201
00202

00203
00204
00205
00206
00207
00208
00209
00210

Code

Con.
All others— Continued
Boring bar, n. m.

00229
00230
00231
00232
Drill— well
00233
Driller or borer— stone or 00234
rock
00235
00236
00220

Lathe— automatic, n. e. c.
(wood)
Lathe— back knife, wood
Lathe— hat cleaning and
blocking
Lathe— hat finisher
Lathe— stone
Lathe— stone turner and
polisher
Lathe— veneer

00237
00238
00239
00240

P a c k a g in g

and

w r a p p in g

P a c k a g i n g , w r a p p i n g , etc . —

Con.

Labeler
Labeler, n. m.
Sealer— carton
Stuffer— food
Tire wrapper
Weigher
Wrapper, n. e. c.
Wrapper— tube and hose
P ick in g ,

c a r d in g ,

and

c o m b in g

m a c h in es

00240
00241
00242
00243
00244

Miller and driller
bined
Mortiser— chain
Mortiser— chisel
Mortiser, n. e. c.

s t a t is t ic s

com­ 00240

00245
00246
00247
00248
00249
00240
m a­

00250
00251
00252
00240
Canning machine, n. e. c. (can- 00240

Breaker— bale

Card breaker, intermediate,
etc.
Comber
Duster (willower type)

Gin— cotton
Garnett
Lapper— textile
ate, etc.)

(intermedi­

c h in e s

00210

00211
00212
00213
00214
00215
00216
00217
00218
00219
00220

00221
00222

00223
00224
00225
00226
00227
00228

Bottle capper, n. m.

ner and food packer)
Capper and closer— cans
Capper, corker, and crowner
(not filling bottle)
Coverer, box
Coverer, n. e. c.

00253
00254
00255
00256

00257
00258
Filler, barrel, automatic bag
00240
Filler— bottle
(combination 00259
filling and capping)
00260
Filler— can
00260
Filler— collapsible tubes
00260
00261
Filler, n. e. c.
00268
00262
Gelatin and dynamite packer 00263
00264




Napper
Opener or cleaner— textile
Picker— textile, cotton inter­
mediate, shoddy burr

Shredder— carpet or rag
Shredder, n. e. c. (cotton
waste, etc.)

Willower
P l a n e r s , s h a p e r s , m o ld e r s
(a )

Woodworking only
Barker— disc
Crozer
Cooperage stock maker
Dovetailer
Fluter— wood
Gainer— not saw— wood

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION
Machines-Continued

Machines— Continued

Code

P la n ers, shapers, molders— Con.
Woodworking only— Con,
Heel turner— wood

00265
00266
Jointer, n. e. c.
00267
Jointer— stave
00268
00269
Leveler or molder
00270
Matcher
00270
Matcher— boxboard
00270
00271
Matchmaker
00272
Planer— buzz
00267
Planer— wood (pony)
00273
00274
Router
00275
Sash sticker
00270
Shaper— wood
00276
Sticker
00270
00277
Tenoner, automatic
00278
Tongue and groover
00270
Wood-heel turner
00265
00279
00280 (6) All other
Cutter— gear (notmillii
00280
00281
Planer— metal
00282
00283
00284
Shaper— metal
00285 *
Slotter
00286
Stone planers
00287
00288
00289
00290 P resses
(a) Metal
00290
Arbor press
00290
Assembling press
00291
Axle straightener
00292
00293
00294
Banding and nosing
00295
Blanking press
00291
Bulldozer
00296
00297
00298
Corrugator (not rolls)
00299
00300
Drawing press
00301
00302




147

Code
00303
00304
00305
00306
00307
00308
00309
00310
00311
00312
00291
00313
00314
00291
00315
00316
00317
00318
00319
00320
00320
00321
00322
00323
00324
00325
00326
00327
00328
00329

00330
00331
00332

Presses— Continued
Metal— Con.
Eyelet affixer
Eyelet maker
Folders and brakes
Hydraulic noser, bender,
metal work
Plate punch and shear
Press— foot kick or pedal
Punch and shear
Punch press
Sprue cutter
Stamping and forming
Stencil cutter

(6) Plastic molding
Brick molder
Brick press
Briquet press— also tile
and concrete block

Candy molder

Hydrating press
Hydraulic— c la y , g la s s ,
stone products, food
produ cts, cider, oil,
grease, extruding, etc.

Molder— celluloid, bakelite, condensite, shellac,
and synthetic resins

00333
00334
00335

Soap press

00335
00336

Soap stamper

00337
00338
00339

148

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
Machines— Continued

Code
00340
00340
00341
00342
00343
00344
00345
00346

P resses— Continued
(c) Leather, composition, fabric,
paper
Baling press
Baling press, n. m.
Bookbinder and backer
Box-ending machines
Button press

Code

00382
00386
00387
00388
00389
00390
00391
00392
Cloth stamper and prin­ 00393
00394
ter— head type
Clothing or garment press 00385
Cork press
00395
Corner stayer
00396

00347
00348
00349
00350
00351
00352
00353

Crating press
00397
Die cutter— not dinker or 00398
clicker
00399
Doming press
00400
Felt press
00400
Folder— box maker
00401
Molding press
00402
00403
Perforator
Platen press, printing
00404
Press, cloth type
00405
00400
Press,
platen
type—
00406
creaser, scorer, folder, or 00407
embosser
00408
Press— upholstery (textile) 00409
00410
Sole molder and leveler
00411
00380

00354
00355
00356
00357
00358
00359
00360
00361
00362
00347
00363
00364

00365
00366
00367
00368
00369
00370
00370
00370
00371
00372
00373
00374
00375
00380
00385
00380
00381

Machines— Continued

(d)

Wood products
Veneer press
Wagon-wheel press
Wood bender and former

Rolls
Calender
Corrugating rolls




00405
00412

00413
00414
00415
00416
00385
00417
00418
00419

Rolls— Continued
Crimper— sheet metal

Cylinder press— flat bed
Dough brake
Embosser— roll or calender

Finisher— roll (paper)
Glass rolls
Grinder, washer, miller, and
cracker, n. e. c. (rubber
and composition products)

Ironer (body type), collars,
etc.
Ironer (flat type), collar
Ironer — flatwork — mangling
(sheets, etc.)
Ironer, n. e. c. (neckbands,
etc.)

Kneader— dough
Kneader— rolls— rubber
Mangle
Moire— textiles
„
Molder— dough

Rolls— beading, knurling, and
flanging
Rolls— kneading (rubber)
Rolling mill ( c o l d ) — l e a d ,
brass, and copper plate,
rail, rod, sheet, foil
Rolling mills (hot)

Supercalender (paper)
Wringer

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Code

00420
00420
00420
00421
00422
00423
00424
00425
00426
00427
00430

Machines— Continued
Saws
(a) Woodworking
Grader— heel
Log carriage

Saw— band— resaw
Saw— band— wood
Saw— bolter (crosscut)
Saw— b o l t e r ( m a n u a l
feed)

00427

Saw—brier—block grader
(crosscut)

00427
00428
00429
00427
00432

Saw— butting (crosscut)

00434

Saw— circular— cut-off
Saw— circular— mill (me­
chanical feed)
S a w—c i r c u 1a r— wood,

00430
00430
00431
00432
00427
00427
00434
00427
00432
00427
00427
00427
00432
00427
00427
00432
00427
00432
00433
00427
00435
00427

Machines— Continued

Code
00427
00435
00430

00427
00427
00436
00434
00437
00438
00439
00440
00440
00441

00442
00443
Saw— circular— wood, rip 00444
00445
(manual feed)
Saw— circular — wood,
00446
variety (manual feed)
00447
Saw— circular, rip or cross­ 00448
00449
cut (mechanical feed)
00450
Saw— dado
00450
Saw— dovetailer
00451
Saw— drag
00452
Saw— drawside
Saw — edger — self-feed 00453
00454
(mechanical feed)
00455
Saw— end matcher
00456
Saw— equalizer
00457
Saw— gainer
Saw— gang ripper (me­ 00458
00459
chanical feed)
00460
Saw— groover
Saw— head
rounder or 00460
00461
turner
Saw— hog mill (mechan­ 00462
00463
ical feed)
00464
Saw— jump or inverted
Saw — lath (mechanical
00465
feed)
00466
00466
Saw— mitre
00468
Saw, n. e. c. (wood)
00470
Saw— overhead trimmer

cut-off, swing




149

Saws— Continued
W oodworking— Continued
Saw— rabbet
Saw— scroll and jig
Saw— slab (manual feed)
shook ripper, shingle,
knit, knee bolter, log,
edger, stave, variety, ve­
neer, barrel stave
Saw— slasher
Saw— spline
Saw— stave
Saw— wood, swing, cut-off

(ib) Metal
Saw— band (metal)
Saw— circular— cold met­
al
Saw— circular— hot metal
Saw— friction
Saw— hack
Saw — trimmed ("metal)
n. e. c.

(c) All other
Saw— button and comb
Saw— diamond— circular
Saw, n. e. c.
Scorer— ice

Screening and separating
Absorber

Barker— mill
Bolting machine— flour, cornmeal, etc.
Centrifugal (extractor)
Centrifuge
Cleaner— grain
Cutter and screener—
"-sand

150

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

Machines— Continued

Code
00466
00466
00467
00471
00472
00473
00474
00475
00466
00476
00477
00478
00478
00468
00466
00479
00480
00480
00480
00481
00482
00483
00484
00485
00486
00487
00488
00489
00490
00491
00492
00493
00494
00495
00496
00497
00498
00499
00500
00501
00502
00503
00504

Screening and separating— Con.
Dryer— centrifugal, extractor, Code
or whizzer
00505
Extractors, whizzer, or cen­ 00506
trifugals
00507
00508
Filter
00509
Huller
00510
Husker— corn
00510
Precipitator
00511
00512
Separator— centrifugal, etc.
(cream, oil, etc.)
00513
Separator— magnetic or me­ 00514
chanical— not centrifugal
00515
Separator, n. m. (cream, etc.) 00516
Screen, n. e. c. (not bolting)
00517
Sifter, n. e. c. (not bolting)
Sheller— corn
00518
Whizzer
00519
00520
00521
Shears, slitters, and slicers
(a) Alligator, guillotine, or head 00522
type
00523
00524
Clipper— hair
Clipper or mower— grain 00525
Clipper, n. m. (corner)
00518
Clipper, n. m. (hair)
00526
Clipper, n. e. c.
00527
Clipper— veneer, corners 00528
00529
00530
Cutter— cigar
00531
00532
Cutter— corner
Cutter— corner, n. m.
00518
Cutter— die, dinker, click­ 00533
00534
er
Cutter— excelsior
00518
Cutter, n. e. c.
Cutter— paper, n. m.
00535
Cutter— sole (not dinker 00536
00537
type)
Cutter— tobacco, n. e. c. 00522
Cutter and trimmer— pa­ 00538
per— guillotine
00539
Cutter— veneer, n. e. c.
00540
00541
00542
00518
00518




S T A T IS T IC S

Machines— Continued
Shears, slitters, and slicers— Con.
Alligator, etc., type— Con.

(6) Circular, rotary, or disc type
Cake cutter
Channeler— leather
Circular knife— c o r k or
cloth
Clipper— hair (fur picking)
Cutter or threader— pipe
Cutter— bias
Cutter— bone
Cutter— candy and nou­
gat
Cutter— disc type
Cutter— ensilage
Cutter— kraut
Cutter— pipe, n. m.
Cutter or shear— pile
Cutter— shoe welt
Cutter— tail
Cutting machine, n. e. c.
Cutter— tube paper slitter

Flesher— hide
Mower— lawn, n. m.
Mower— n. m ., n. e. c.
Perforator (disc type)
Pinker
Scorer or
type
Shaver

creaser— d i s c

Shear— circular
Shear— cloth
Skiver— splitter— station­
ary leather knife
Slicer and carver— meat
Slitter— caramel
Slitter— cardboard
Slitter and rotary cutter—
paper

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION
Machines— Continued

Code
00522
00543
00544
00545
00546
00547
00548
00549
00550
00550
00551
00552
00551
00553
00554
00555
00556
00557
00558
00559
00560
00560
00561
00562
00563
00564
00565
00566
00567
00568
00569
00570
00571
00572
00573
00574
00575
00576
00577
00578
00579
00580
00581
00582
00583
00584
00585
00586
00587

Shears, slitters, and slicers— Con. Code
00588
Circular, etc., type — Con.
00589
Trimmer— cloth
00590
Unhairer
00591
00592
00593
00594
00595
00596
00597
Stitching and sewing
Seamer, n. e. c. (double, etc.) 00598
00599
Sewing machine
00600
Sewing machine, n. m.
00600
Stitcher
00601
00602
00603
00604
00605
00606
W eavin g, knittin g, and sp in ning 00607
00608
Braider and knitter
00609
00610
Crocheter
00611
00612
Draw frames
00613
Drum winder
00614
00615
Embroidery
00616
00617
Fringe maker
00618
00618
Jacks and mules— textiles
00619
00620
00621
Knitter— body
Knitter— hose— seamless hose— 00622
00623
full-fashioned
00624
Knitter, n. e. c.
00625
00626
Loom— carpet and rug
00627
Loom— jacquard
00628
Loom, n. e. c.
00629
00630
N et maker
00631
00632
00633
Reel
00634
Rewinders
Rope maker
00635
159726°— 40------ 11




151

Machines^ -Continued
W eavin g, knitting, etc.— Con.

Slubber
Spooler
Twine maker, n. e. c.
Twister
Winder, n. e. c.

M iscellaneou s, n. e. c.
Acidifier
Assorter— cards (Hollerith,
Powers)
Autoclave

Bag and envelope maker
Basket maker
Blancher— blender (flour)
Blaster, n. m.
Bleacher and blancher
Block and falls, n. m.
Blue-print maker
Box maker, n. e. c.
Breaker— scrap
Broacher
Broom maker, n. e. c.
Brush maker, n. e. c.
Brushing machine (felt mfg.)
Button coverer
Button maker, n. e. c.

Cable maker, n. e. c.
Candy maker, n. e. c.
Capsule maker
Causticizer
Cementer

152

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

Machines— Continued
Code

00636
00637
00638
00639
00640
00641
00640
00642
00643
00644
00645
00646
00647
00648
00649
00650
00651
00652
00653
00654
00655
00656
00657
00631
00658
00659
00639
00660
00661
00662
00663
00664
00665
00666
00667
00616
00668
00669
00665
00670
00671
00672
00673
00674

M iscellaneous— Continued
Channeler, n. e. c.
Channeler— stone
Chaser (cotton and linseed
grinding)
Chemical-products machines,
n. e. c.
Chipper— log, etc.
Chopper—food products, meat
Choppers— logs, etc.
Chopper, n. e. c.
Cigar maker, n. e. c.
Cigarette maker
Clamp, n. m.
Clay, glass, and stone products
machines, n. e. c.
Clean and block— hat
Cleaner— barrel
Cleaner— boiler
Cleaner— carpet
Cleaner— hat
Cleaner, n. e. c. (vacuum, etc.)
Cloth doubler
Cloth worker, n. e. c.
Clothes maker, n. e. c.
Clothespin maker
Coating and inlaying machine
Coating machine— candy
Comb maker, n. e. c.
Compresser
Concentrator (chemical prod­
ucts, n. e. c.)
Continuous treater
Contracting and engineering
machines, n. e. c.
Contractor
Cooperage-stock maker, n. e. c.
Corer— fruit
Cork (band knife) slicer
Cork worker, n. e. c.
Coverer— cable (hydraulic
press)
Cracker (skull)
Cracker and sheller— nuts
Crackers, n. m., nut
Cutter— band knife or saw
(cloth, cork, meat, wood)
Cutter— brick
Cutter— coal
Cutter— gear (milling)
Cutter— rag, hurl
Cutter— stave




S T A T IS T IC S

Machines— Continued
Code

00675
00676
00677
00678
00679
00680
00681
00682
00683
00684
00685
00686
00687
00688
00689
00690
00691
00692
00693
00694
00695
00696
00697
00698
00699
00700
00701
00702
00703
00704
00705
00706
00707
00708
00709
00710
00711
00712
00713
00714
00715
00716
00717
00718
00719
00720
00721
00722
00723
00724

M iscellaneous— Continued
Cutter— type, n. m.

Dampener
Depositor
Digester— paper and pulp
Digger— ditch or trench
Divider
Doctor
Doughnut maker
Dowel
Dredge
Drill— button
Druggists and pharmaceutists
machine, n. e. c.
Dryer, n. e. c.
Dryer, rotary
Dryer, steam jacketed
Dryer, vacuum
Dust collector
Dryer and finisher, n. e. c.

Edge setter
Edge trimmer

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION
Machines— Continued
Code

00725
00726
00727
00728
00729
00730
00731
00732
00733
00734
00735
00736
00737
00738
00739
00740
00741
00704
00742
00743
00744
00745
00746
00747
00748
00749
00750
00751
00752
00753
00754
00755
00756
00646
00757
00758
00759
00760
00761
00762
00763
00764
00765
00766
00767
00768
00769
00770
00771
00772

M is c ella n e o u s — Continued

Electrical generator
Electroplater
Engraver
Enrober (chocolate)
Envelope maker
Etcher
Evaporator

Machines— Continued

Code
00773
00774
00775

00776

00640
00777
00663
00778

Fans
Farm machinery, n. e. c.
Fastener— button
Fishing reel
Flexible-shaft maker
Fluter— metal
Food-products m a c h i n e s ,
n. e. c.
Fumigator
Fur worker, n. e. c.
Furnace (mechanical feed)
Furnace, n. e. c.

00639

00779

M is c ella n e o u s — Continued

Header— barrel, keg, etc.
Heat exchanger
Heat treating and tempering
machine
Heeler—leather manufactur­
ing
Hog—paper and pulp
Hoist— chain, n. m.
Hoop maker
Hose maker (rubber)
Humidifier (chemical prod­
ucts, n. e. c.)
Hydrator

00780
00781
00782
00783
00784
00785
00786
00787
00788

00789
00657
00790

00791

Gainer— mine
Galvanizer— sherardizer, etc.
Gas inductor
Gatherer (bookbinding)
Gig mill
Glassmaker, n. e. c.
Glove maker
Grader (road)

153

Ice breaker and harvester
Ice-cream freezer, n. m.— agi­
tated
Ice-cream maker
Inlayer—textile
Ironer (hat manufacturing)
(brim or crown)
Ironer (manual or pedal),
n. m.

00792
00793
00794
00795
00796
00797
00798

Jack—mitre
Jack, n. m.
Jack— tannery

00663

Groover, n.
Grouter

e. c.

00799

Jordan

00800
00801
00802
00803
00804
00805
00665

Hair curler, n. m.
Hairdresser
Harvester
H at maker, n. e. c.
Hatchet, n. m.




Key—seater
Kiln—rotary
Knife—band

00806
00807
00808
00809
00810

Last maker
Laundry machines, n. e. c.

154

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

Machines— Continued
Code

00811
00812
00813
00814
00815
00816
00817
00818
00819
00820
00821
00822
00823
00654
00824
00825
00826
00827
00828
00829
00830
00673
00831
00832
00833
00834
00835
00836
00837
00838
00839
00840
00841
00842
00843
00844
00845
00846
00847
00848
00849
00850
00851
00852

M iscellaneou s— Continued
L eath er-produ cts machines,
n. e. c.
Lehr— glass manufacturing.
Loader
Loader, n. m.
Logger, n. e. c.— logging ma­
chines
Loom— wire weaving

Macaroni and noodle maker
Marker, n. e. c.
M easurer— -cloth
M e c h a n i c a l l y - d r i v e n ma­
chines, n. e. c.
Metal worker, n. e. c.
Milker— all types
Mill (sugar), n. e. c.
Miller, n. e. c.
Mills, n. e. c.
Miscellaneous, n. e. c.
Mixer— picker
Motion-picture projectors and
cameras
Molder— chalk
Molder, n. e. c.

Machines— Continued
Code

00853
00854
00855
00856
00857
00858
00859
00860
00861
00862
00863
00864
00865
00866
00867
00868
00869
00667
00870
00871
00872
00873

00874
00875
00876
00877
00878
00879
00880
00881
Nail puller, n. m.
00882
Nailer and tacker
Nitrifier
00883
Nonmechanically driven tools 00884
00885
or machines, n. e. c.
00886
00887
00888
00889
00890
Office machines, n. e. c.
Oven— mechanical feed (auto­ 00891
00704
matic) (enamel, etc.)
00892
Ovens, revolving
00893




S T A T IS T IC S

M iscellaneous— Continued

Paper-cup maker
Paper maker and paper-prod­
ucts machine, n. e. c.
Parer and peeler
Pearl-composition machines,
n. e. c.
Pie maker
Pile driver
Pill and tablet maker
Pipe threader, n. m.
Pitter— ’fruit
Pliers and pincers, n. m.
Plows, harrows, etc.— power
driven
Pneumatic tools and appli­
ances
Portable machines, n. e. c.
Potter's wheel or lathe
Press (hydraul ic), cable coverer
Press— 'printing— flat bed, cyl­
inder
Press— prin ting— woo d
Press— printing, n. e. c.
(wall paper, etc.)
Printing and bookbinding ma­
chine, n. e. c.
Profiler
Proofer
Puller

Reel— dough
Rendering machine
Ribbon finisher (textile), n. e. c.
Road roller
Roaster— food products, n. e. c.
Roaster— nuts
Rosser

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION
Machines— Continued
Cade

00858

00894
00895
00896
00897
00898
00899
00900
00901
00902
00903
00656
00904
00905
00906
00668
00907
00908
00908
00909
00910
00911
00912
00913
00914
00915
00916
00917
00918
00744
00919
00920
00921
00922
00923
00924
00925
00926
00927
00928
00929
00930
00931
00932
00933
00934
00935
00936

Machines— Continued

Code
Miscellaneous— Continued
Rubber, celluloid, composi­ 00842
tion, pearl, bone, and tor­ 00937
toise shell, n. e. c.
00938
Rucher
00939
Ruler
00940
00890
00941
00942
00943
00944
Sand blast
Scraper (woodworking), n. e. c.
Setter and filer— saws, etc.
Sheeter
Sheller or cracker— nuts
Sheller, n. e. c.
Shoe-heel nailer
Shoe maker, n. e. c.
Soldering machine
Spinner— metal, n. e. c.
Spinner— musical string
Splitter— band, knife (leather)
.belt knife
Sprayer, n. e. c. (paint, etc.)
Spreader— eotton waste
Stapler
Starcher
Still
Stock and die, n. m.
Stoker
Stoker— tannery
Straightener, n. m.
Stranding machine— cable
Stripper— leather
Stump puller, n. m.




155

00945
00946
00947
00948
00949
00950
00951
00952
00953
00954
00955
00956
00957
00958
00959
00960
00961
00962
00963
00964
00965
00966
00967
00968
00969
00908
00970
00971
00972
00973
00974
00975

Miscellaneous— Continued
Tacker and nailer
Tamp
Taperer— cork
Teasels, textile
Tester, n. e. c.
T e x t i l e finisher— textile ma­
chines, n. e. c.
Thrasher
Thrashingbag (for paper mills)
Thread roller
Threader and cutter— bolt,
nut, rivet, pipe (threader,
n. e. c.)
Tire builder and tube maker
Tire pump, n. m.
Tobacco machine, n. e. c.
Treadmill, n. m.
Treater
Trimmer— carpet
Trimmer, n. e. c.
Tube drawing
Tube-making machine— paper
Turn buckle, n. m.

Universal woodworker
Upholsterer, n. e. c.

Vamper
Y ender
Vibrator— massager, etc.
Vise, n. m.

00976
00977
00978

W asher— -clothes

00979

W asher— dishes

00980

Washer— grain

156

M A N U A L ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
Machines— Continued

Machines— Continued

Code
00981
00982
00983
00984
00985
00986
00952
00987

00656
00988
00989
00990
00991
00992
00993
00994
00995
00996
00997
00998
00999

M iscellaneou s— Continued
Washer or scourer— barrel and
keg
Washer— soaking and rinsing
bottles, cans, etc.
Washer or wringer— clothes,
n. m.
Washers, n. e. c. (metal parts,
etc.)
W et or dry pan
Winder— armature
Wire and tube drawing
Wireworking and wire-prod­
ucts manufacturing, n. e.
c. (not wire-drawing)
Woodworker, n. e. c.

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES— COn.
Code
00601
00602
00292
00607
00340
00341
00295
00260
00463
00608
00003
00081
00080
00609
00291
00610
00611
00004
00612
00005
00082
00613
00083

PAKTS OF M A C H IN E S

00464
0

1
2
3
4
5

6

Belts, pulleys, shafts, chains and
sprockets, cables and sheaves, or
gears
Chucks, vises, carriages, tool parts,
indicators, gages, and other at­
tachments
Ignition, heating, or cooling system
parts
Frame, bed, etc.
Point of operation
Safety devices

7

8
9

Machine parts, n. e. c.
A L P H A B E T IC A L L IS T OF M A C H IN E S

00460
00600
00000
00290
00291

Absorber
Acidifier
Agitator
Arbor press
Assembling press




00342
00170
00190
00171
00191
00210
00343
00615
00560
00084
00240
00130
00616
00172
00320
00321
00322
00617

Assorter— cards (Hollerith,
Powers)
Autoclave
Axle straightener
Bag and envelope maker
Baling press
Baling press, n. m.
Banding and nosing
Barker— disc
Barker— mill
Basket maker
Beaters (incl. rag washer), paper
products
Bender and straightener
Bender, n. m.
Blancher— blender (flour)
Blanking press
Blaster, n. m.
Bleacher and blancher
Blender
Block and falls, n. m.
Blower (felt manufacturing)
Blower— glass
Blue-print maker .
Bolt, nut, and rivet header,
pointer, and maker, n. e. c.
Bolting machine— flour, cornmeal, etc.
Bookbinder and backer
Borer or drill, n. e. c. (metal)
Borer or drill, n. e. c. (wood)
Boring bar, n. m.— metalwork­
ing
Boring bar, other than metal­
working
Bottle capper, n. m.
Box-ending machines
Box maker, n. e. c.
Braider and knitter
Brazer
Breaker— ball
Breaker— candy
Breaker— scrap
Breast drill, n. m.
Brick molder
Brick press
Briquet press— also tile and
concrete block
Broacher

157

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Machines— Continued

Machines—

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES----COn.

AL P H A B E T IC A L LIST

Code

Continued

C
ode

00618

B room m aker, n. e. c.

00618

Brush m aker, n. e. c.

0 0 61 9

Brushing machine

OF

M A C H IN E S — COn.

00 64 6
00 64 7

Clean and block— hat

0064 8

(felt m an u ­

facturing)

C la y , glass, and stone products
m achines, n. e. c.
Cleaner— barrel

00040
0 0 29 6

Buffer
Bulldozer

00649

Cleaner— boiler

00 65 0

Cleaner— carpet

00620

B u tto n coverer

00468

Cleaner— grain

00 621

B u tto n m aker, n. e. c.

00651

Cleaner— hat

00344

B u tton press

00652

Cleaner— n. e. c. (vacuum , etc.)

00 480

Clipper— hair

00630

C able m aker, n. e. c.

00513

Clipper— hair (fur picking)

00510

Cake cutter

00 482

Clipper, n. m . (corner)

00 38 5

Calender

00483

Clipper, n. m . (hair)

00631

C an d y m aker, n. e. c.

00 484

Clipper, n. e. c.

00 3 2 5

C an d y molder

00481

Clipper or mower— grain

0 0 21 3

Canning m achine, n. e. c. (can-

00485

Clipper— veneer, corners

ner and food packer)

00653

C loth doubler

00 2 1 4

Capper and closer— cans

00 34 6

C loth

00 21 5

Capper, corker, and
(not filling bottle)

0065 4

C loth worker, n. e. c.

0 0 63 3

Capsule m aker

00655

Clothes m aker, n. e. c.

0 0 24 3

Card breaker, interm ediate, etc.

00656

Clothespin maker

0 0 08 6

Casting machine— die

00 347

Clothing or garm ent press

00087
00088

Casting m achine— pig
Casting m achine— typ e

00634
0063 5
00 4 6 6
00 46 6
00 08 9

Causticizer
Cem enter
Centrifugal (extractor)
Centrifuge
Chain m aker, n. e. c.

00 134
00657
00631
00091

C oal crushers and screws
Coating and inlaying machine
C oating machine
Coke pusher

00 65 8
00 244
00011

C om b m aker, n. e. c.
C om ber
Com pounder

00012
00659

Com pounding mill— rubber
Compresser

0063 9

Concentrator (chemical prod­

00 66 0

Continuous treater

00661

Contracting

00662

machines, n. e. c.
Contractor

00511

Channeler— leather

00 6 3 6

Channeler, n. e. c.

00 63 7

Channeler— stone

00 0 9 0

Charger— open-hearth

0 0 63 8
0063 9

Chaser
(cotton
grinding)

and

C h em ical-products

linseed

machines,

and

printer—

ucts, n. e. c.)

furnace,

cupola, etc.

stam per

head typ e

crowner

and

engineering

00663

Cooperage-stock maker, n. e. c.

0 0 64 0

Chipper— log, etc.

00092

Core maker

00641

Chopper— food products, m eat

00 664

Corer— fruit

00640

Choppers, logs, etc.

00665

C ork (band knife) slicer

00 13 3

Chopper, n. m .— ice

00 64 2

Chopper, n.

00 348
00666

C ork press
Cork worker, n. e. c.

n. e. c.

e. c.

00 00 9

Churn

00349

Corner stayer

00 0 1 0
00 64 3
0 0 64 4

Churn, n. m . (butter, etc.)
Cigar m aker, n. e. c.
Cigarette maker

00 380

Corrugating rolls

00299

Corrugator (not rolls)

00216

Coverer, box

0 0 51 2

Circular knife— cork or cloth

00667

Coverer— cable

00 645

C lam p , n. m .




press)

(hydraulic

158

M A N U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Machines—

M achines— C ontinued

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES----COn.
Code

Continued

AL P H A B E T IC A L LIST OF M AC H IN ES-----COU.
C ode

00 217

Coverer, n. e. c.

00 668
00669

Cracker and sheller— nuts
Crackers, n. m .— nut

00 135

Cracker, n. e. c.

00698
00699

D am pener
D epositor

00 35 3

D ie cutter— not
clicker

D igester— paper and pulp

dinker

00 616

Cracker (skull)

0 0 70 0

00351

Crating press

00701

D igger— ditch or trench

00382

Crimper— sheet metal

00 14 3

or

D isintegrator
D issolver

00562

Crocheter

0 0 01 6

00261

Crozer

00 70 2

D ivider

00136

Crusher— ball

00 70 3

D octor

00137

Crusher— gyratory

00 3 5 4

D om in g press

00 138

Crusher, ice

0 0 39 0

D ou gh brake

00139

Crusher— jaw

0 0 70 4

D ou ghn u t m aker

0 0 14 0
0 0 47 0

Crusher— roll
C utter and screener— sand

00 26 2

D ovetailer

00 70 5

D ow el

00 49 7

Cutter

0 0 56 4

D raw frames

and

trim m er— paper—

guillotine

00301
knife

or

saw

D raw ing press

00 70 6

D redge

00665

Cutter— band

00 176

D rill and tapper com bined

00515

Cutter— bias

00 7 0 7

D rill— button

00516

Cutter— bone

00174

D rill— m ultiple spindle

00 670

C utter— brick

0 0 17 5

D rill— radical

00 517

C utter— candy and nougat

00 1 9 4

D rill— well

(cloth, cork, m eat, wood)

00488

Cutter— cigar

00 19 5

Driller or borer-— stone or rock

00671

Cutter— coal

0 0 70 8

D ruggists

00489
00490

Cutter— corner
Cutter— corner, n. m .

00 0 1 7

m achine, n. e. c.
D ru m — tanning, beating

00491
00518

C utter— die, dinker, clicker
C utter— disc type

0056 5
00 466

00519
00492
00672
00 280

Cutter— ensilage
Cutter— excelsior
C u tter— gear (milling)
Cutter-— gear (not milling)

00 520

and

pharm aceutists

00 70 9

D ru m winder
D ryer— centrifugal, extractor, or
whizzer
D ryer, n. e. c.

00 71 0

D ryer— rotary

Cutter— kraut

00711
00 71 2

D ryer— steam jacketed
D ryer— vacuum

00493
00522

Cutter, n. e. c.
Cutter or shear— pile

00 71 3

D u st collector

0 0 01 7

D u st drum

00 514

Cutter or threader— pipe

00 24 0

D uster (willower type)

00494

Cutter— paper, n. m .

00 01 8

D ye

00521

Cutter— pipe, n. m .

00673

C u tter— rag, hurl

00523

Cutter— shoe welt

00495

Cutter— sole (not dinker type)

00 723

E dge setter

00674

Cutter— stave

00 72 4

E dge trim m er

00524

Cutter— tail

00 72 5

Electrical generator

00496

Cutter— tobacco, n. e. c.

00 726

Electroplater

00518

Cutter— tu be paper slitter

00 392

Em bosser— roll or calender

00675
00 49 8

Cutter— typ e, n. m .
Cutter— veneer, n. e. c.

0056 7
00 04 3

Em broidery
E m ery-w heel dresser, n. m .

00525

C utting m achine, n. e. c.

0 0 04 4

E m ery-w heel stand (autom atic

00388

Cylinder press— flat bed




mixer and blender

(dry)

(horizontal type)
0 0 71 4

D ye r and finisher, n. e. c.

or power fed)

159

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Machines— Continued

Machines—

Continued

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES----COn.

A L P H A B E T IC A L LIST OF M ACHINES'---- COn.

Code

Code

00045
00 0 4 6

E m ery-w h eel stand (hand fed). 0 0 7 5 3
E m ery-w h eel stand, n. m .
00249

Galvanizer— sherardizer, etc.
G arnett

00022

Emulsifier

00754

G as inductor

00727

Engraver

0 0 75 5

Gatherer (bookbinding)

00 7 2 8
0 0 72 9

Enrober (chocolate)
E nvelope maker

00227
00 75 6

G elatin and dynam ite packer
G ig m ill

00 7 3 0

Etcher

0 0 24 8

Gin— cotton

00731
00 09 6

E vap orator
E xpander

00 64 6

Glassm aker, n. e. c.

00 39 5

Glass rolls

00 46 6

Extractors, whizzer, or centrif­

00 05 3

Glazer— leather

ugals
Extruder (not hydraulic)

0 0 75 7

G love maker

00097

0 0 42 0

Grader— heel

00 30 3

E y elet affixer

00 75 8

Grader (road)

0 0 30 4

E y elet maker

0 0 04 4

Grinder (abrasive wheels) (auto­

00 73 6

Fans
00 04 5

Grinder (abrasive wheels) (hand
fed)

0 0 05 4

Grinder

00 14 5

glass
Grinder— bark

m atic or power fed)

0 0 73 7

F arm m achinery, n. e. c.

0 0 73 8

Fastener— bu tton

00356
0 0 22 0

F elt press
Filler, barrel, autom atic bag

00221

Filler— bottle (com bination

and

polisher— plate

00 146

Grinder— coffee, n. m .

00147
00148

Grinder— m eat
Grinder— m eat, n. m .

00 14 9
00 39 6

filling and capping)

Grinder, n. e. c. (soap, etc.)
Grinder, washer, miller, and
cracker, n. e. c. (rubber and

00 22 2
00 22 3
00224

Filler— can
Filler— collapsible tubes
Filler, n. e. c.

00471
0 0 38 5

Filter
Finisher— roll (paper)

00739
00100

Fishing reel, n. m .
Flanger and expander

00528
00740
00050

etc.)
Flesher— hide
Flexible-shaft m aker
Floor polisher— scraper, scrub­

0 0 76 8

H air curler, n. m .

00741

Fluter— m etal

00 76 9

Hairdresser

00263

Fluter— wood

00 10 4

H am m er— drop

00 30 6

Folders and brakes

00101

H am m er— helve, trip, or B rad­

00357

Folder— box m aker

00704

Food -p rodu cts machines, n. e. c.

00 77 0

ley
H arvester

00101

Forge (ham m ers, trip ham m ers,

00771

H a t m aker, n. e. c.

0077 2

H atch et, n. m .

00099

etc.)
Form er— hat m anufacturing

0010 5

H eader

0 0 09 2

Fou nd ry machines, n. e. c.

00 77 3

H eader— barrel, keg, etc.

00569

Fringe m aker

00 77 4

H ea t exchanger

00742

Fum igator

00 77 5

H eat

00743

Fur worker, n. e. c.

(pipe,

ber, cleaner, finisher, etc.

00744

Furnace (m echanical feed)

00 7 4 5

Furnace, n. e.

c.

00 05 5
00 05 6
0076 0
00761

com position products)
Grindstone
Grindstone, n. m .
Groover, n. e. c.
Gr outer

00057

G um m er (saw)

treating

and

tem pering

machines
00 265

H eel turner— wood

Gainer— mine
Gainer— n ot saw— wood




Heeler— leather m anufacturing

00 64 0
0 0 75 2
00264

00776

Hog — paper and pulp

00 77 7

H oist— chain, n. m .

00 663

Hoop maker

160

M AN U AL ON IN DUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Machines—

Machines— Continued

ALPHABETICAL. LIST

OF

MACHINES— COn.

Code

a l p h a b e t ic a l l is t
Code

Continued
of

m a c h i n e s — con.

00778

H ose m aker (rubber)

00199

L a th e— back knife, wood

00472

H uller

00200

00639

Hum idifier
n. e. c.)

L ath e— h at cleaning and block­
ing

00200

L ath e— h at finisher

0 0 47 3

H usker— corn

00179

L ath e— m etalw ork, n. e. c.

00328

H yd ra tin g press

00180

L a th e, n. e. c.

0 0 77 9

H yd ra tor

00179

L athe— ring— jew eler’ s

00329

H yd rau lic— clay, glass,
stone
products, food products, cider,

0018 1

L athe— roll turner, engine, hol­

00179
00182

L ath e— screw cutter, n. e. c.
L athe— spinner— m etal

(chemical products,

oil, grease, extruding, etc.
00 308

H yd rau lic noser, bender, m etal­
work

00787

0020 1

Ice breaker and harvester

00 7 8 8

Ice-cream freezer, n .m ., agitated

00789

Ice-cream m aker

00657

Inlayer— textile

00 3 9 9

Ironer (body ty p e ), collars, etc.

00400

Ironer (flat ty p e ), collar

00400

Ironer— flatwork — m a n g l i n g
(sheets, etc.)

00790

Ironer

low spindle

(h at

m anufacturing)

(brim or crown)
00791

Ironer (m anual or p e d a l), n. m .

00401

Ironer, n. e. c. (neckbands, etc.)

00571

Jacks and m ules— textile

00 79 6

Jack— mitre

00 7 9 7
00798

Jack, n. m .
Jack— tannery

L athe— stone

00201

L ath e— stone
isher

00183

L athe— turret (hand and sem i­
autom atic)

turner

and

00 2 0 2

L athe— veneer

00810

pol­

L aund ry m achines, n. e. c.

00107

L eaf spring m achine

00811

L eather-products m achines,
e. c.

00 8 1 2
00270

Lehr— glass m anufacturing
Leveler or m older

00108
0 0 81 3

L in otyp e
Loader

00814

Loader, n. m .

00421

L o g carriage

0 0 81 5

Logger, n.
chines

n.

e.

c., logging m a­

00578

L o om — carpet and rug

0 0 57 9
0 0 58 0

L oom — jacquard
L o om , n. e. c.

00 8 1 6

L o om — wire weaving

K neader— dough
K neader— rolls— rubber

0 0 82 2
00400
0 0 82 3

M acaroni and noodle m aker
M angle
M arker, n. e. c.

00665

K n ife— band

00152

M asticator

00574

K n itter— bod y

0 0 27 0

M atcher

0 0 57 5

K n itter— hose— seamless hose—

00270

M atcher— boxboard

00 2 6 7

Jointer, n. e. c.

00 2 6 8

Jointer— stave

00 7 9 9

Jordan

00804
0 0 80 5

K e y — seater
K iln — rotary

00404
0 0 40 5

0 0 27 2

00230

M echanically-driven
n. e. c.

0 0 82 5

K n itter, n. e. c.

M easurer— cloth

00824

00 57 6

M atch m ak er

00654

full-fashioned

M etalw orker, n. e. c.

Labeler

00 231

Labeler, n. m .

00240

Lapper— textile

00809

etc.)
L a st m aker

00178

L ath e— autom atic, m etal, m u l­

(intermediate,

tispindle
0 0 19 8

L ath e— autom atic, n. e. c., wood




00 82 6

M ilker— all typ es

00 15 3
00154

m achines,

M ill— ball
M ill— burrstone

00 1 5 4

M ill— clay grinder

0 0 15 5

M ill

(cottonseed

grinder)

and

linseed

161

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Machines—

Machines— Continued

Continued

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES---- COn.
Code

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES— COn.
Code

00156

M ill— em ery grinder

00240

Opener or cleaner— textile

00157

M ill— fruit grinder or presser

00850

O ven— m echanical

00153

M ill— pebble

feed

(auto­

m atic) (enam el, etc.)
00851

O vens, revolving

00855

P aper-cup m aker

00856

Paper

00025

M ill— pug

00158

M ill— roller (flour, cereal, sugar,

00827

M ill— sugar, n. e. c.

00829
00204

M ills, n. e. c.
M iller and driller— com bined

00857

Parer and peeler

00159

M iller and grinder— com bined

00858

00828

M iller, n. e. c.

Pearl-com position m a c h i n e s ,
n. e. c.

00830

M iscellaneous, n. e. c.

00361

Perforator

00026

M ixer— concrete

00518

Perforator (disc type)

00027

M ixer— dough

00240

Picker— textile,

00028

M ixer— felt m anufacturing (the

00029

M ixer, n. e. c.

00 8 5 9
00860

00673

M ixer— picker

00861

Pill and tablet m aker

00030

M ixer— p on y or paint

00 03 1
00406

M ixer— sand
M oire— textiles

00 5 3 3
00862

Pinker
Pipe threader, n. m .

00332

M old er —

etc.)

devil)

m aker and paper-prod­

ucts m achine, n. e. c.

cotton

inter­

m ediate, shod dy burr
Pie m aker
Pile driver

00863

Pitter— fruit

bakelite,

00267

Planer— buzz

condensite, shellac, and syn­

00282

Planer— m etal

00287
00273
00310
00362

Planer— stone
Planer— w ood (pony)
P late punch and shear
Platen press— printing

00864
00 8 6 5

Pliers and pincers, n. m .
Plow s,
harrows, etc.— power
driven

celluloid,

00832
00092

thetic resins
M old er— chalk
M old er— crucible

00408
00092

n. e. c.)
M old er— dough
M old er— foundry

(fou n dry,

00833

M old er, n. e. c.

00359
00 11 1

M o ld in g press
M o n o ty p e

00 8 6 6
00062

Pneum atic tools and appliances
Polishers and buffers, n. e. c.

00205

M ortiser— chain

0 0 05 4

Polisher

00206

M ortiser— chisel

00207

M otion -p ictu re

grinder— plate

00868
and

cam eras
00530

M ow er— n. m ., n. e. c.

P otter’ s wheel or lathe
Pouncing m achine (hat m an u ­
facturing)
Precipitator

M ow er— law n, n. m .

0 0 53 1

P ortable m achines, n. e. c.

00474

projectors

0 0 86 9
00 0 6 3

M ortiser, n. e. c.

00 83 1

and

glass

00347
tack

m aker

Press— cloth typ e

0 0 18 5

Press— drill, n. m .

00113

N a il m ak er (cut)

00 841

N a il puller, n. m .

00842

N ailer and tacker

00 6 6 7

Press (hydraulic), cable coverer

00252

N ap per

00364

00583

N e t m aker

Press— platen ty p e — c r e a s e r ,
scorer, folder, or embosser

00870

Press— printing, flat bed, cylin­

or m achines, n. e. c.

00872

Press— printing, n. e. c. (wall­

Office m achines, n. e. c.

00 871

Press— printing, w ood

00311

00843

Nitrifier

00844

N onm echanically

driven

Press— foot kick or pedal

0 0 11 5

(wire)

Press— forge (hydraulic)

der

tools

paper, etc.)
00849




162

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Machines—

Machines— C ontinued

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MACHINES----COn.

A L P H A B E TIC A L LIST

Code

Continued

Code

OF

brier

M A C H IN E S — COn.

00427

Saw —

00427

(crosscut)
Saw— butting (crosscut)

—

block

0 0 45 0

grader

Saw— button and comb

00 3 6 5

Press— upholstery (textile)

00873

Printing and bookbinding m a­

00874

Profiler

00875

Proof er

00441

Saw— circular— cold m etal

0 0 87 6
00 3 1 2

Puller
Punch and shear

00 4 2 7

Saw— circular— cut-off

0 0 442

Saw— circular— hot m etal

00291

Punch press

00 43 2

Saw— circular— m ill

chine, n. e. c.

(m echani­

cal feed)
0 0 43 2

or

crosscut

0 0 43 4

Saw— circular— wood,
swing

cut-off,

00 43 0

Saw— circular— wood, rip (m an­

pneu­

0 0 43 0

Saw — circular— wood, variety
(m anual feed)

(not punch-

00427
00451

Saw— dado
Saw— diam ond— circular

00891
0 0 70 4
00 89 2

R o ad roller
R oaster— food products, n. e. c.
R oaster— nuts

00427

Saw— dovetailer

0 0 38 0

R olls— beading,
flanging

00 40 5
00 41 2

00033

R educing

00585

R eel

00888
00889

R eel— dough
Rendering m achine

Saw— circular, rip
(mechanical feed)

00 58 6

Rewinders

00890

R ibbon finisher (textile), n. e. c.

00117

R iveter— hydraulic
m atic

0 0 11 8

R iveter, n.

e.

c.

or

press type)

ual feed)

00 43 4

Saw— drag

00427

Saw— drawside

00 43 2

Saw— edger— self-feed (m echan­
ical feed)

R olls— kneading (rubber)

0 0 42 7

Saw— end m atcher

R olling m ill (cold)— lead, brass,

0 0 42 7

Saw— equalizer

0044 3

Saw— friction

and

knurling,

copper plate,

and

rail, rod,

00 41 3

sheet, foil
R olling m ills (hot)

0 0 42 7
0 0 43 2

00587
00 8 9 3
0 0 27 5
00 8 5 8

R ope m aker
Rosser
R outer
R ubber, celluloid, com position,

Saw — gainer
Saw— gang ripper
feed)

00427
00444
00427

Saw— groover
Saw— hack
Saw— head rounder or turner

0 0 06 5

pearl, bone, and tortoise shell,
n. e. c.
R u b bin g bed

00 43 2
00 42 7
00 43 2

Saw— hog mill (mechanical feed)
Saw— jum p or inverted
Saw— lath (mechanical feed)

00894

Rucher

00 4 2 7

Saw— m itre

00895

Ruler

00 452

Saw, n. e. c.

00 43 5

Saw, n. e. c. (wood)

(mechanical

00 90 2

Sand blast

00427

Saw— overhead trim m er

0006 8

Sander— belt

00 4 2 7

Saw— rabbet

00 069

Sander— disc

00 4 3 5

Saw— scroll and jig

00 0 7 0

Sander, n. e. c.

00 430

Saw— slab— m anual feed— shook

00 03 5

Saponifier

ripper,

00270

Sash sticker

bolter, log, edger, stave, va ­

0 0 44 0

Saw— band (m etal)

00 42 5

Saw— band— resaw

0 0 42 7

shingle,

knit,

knee

riety, veneer, barrel stave
Saw— slasher

00 42 6

Saw— band (wood)

00 4 2 7

Saw— spline

00427

Saw— bolter (crosscut)

00436

Saw— stave

0 0 43 0

Saw— bolter (m anual feed)

00 44 5

Saw—




trim m ed (m etal), n. e. c.

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Machines— Continued

Machines— Continued
A L P H A B E T IC A L LIST OF M AC H IN E S---- COn.

Code

00434
00453
00518
00656
00478
00233
00550
00466
00476
00477
00905
00551
00552
00285
00276
00044
00535
00537
00522
00906
00468
00907
00668
00908
00908
00255
00256
00478
00539
00540
00518
00541
00518
00286
00590
00335
00335
00909
00367
00910
00911
00912
00591
00913

AL P H A B E T IC A L LIST OF M AC H IN ES---- COn.

Code

00914
Saw—wood, swing, cut-off
00120
Scorer—ice
00107
Scorer or creaser—disc type
00314
Scraper (woodworking), n. e. c. 00291
Screen, n. e. c. (not bolting)
00915
Sealer— carton
00916
Seamer, n. e. c. (double, etc.)
00315
Separator— centrifugal, etc. 00122
(cream, oil, etc.)
00270
Separator—magnetic or me­ 00917
chanical—not centrifugal
00551
Separator, n. m. (cream, etc.)
00918
Setter and filer—saws, etc.
00744
Sewing machine
00919
Sewing machine, n. m.
00287
Shaper—metal
00072
Shaper—wood
Sharpener (abrasive)
00123
Shaver
00920
Shear— circular
00921
Shear— cloth
00922
Sheeter
00073
Sheller— corn
00234
Sheller, n. e. c.
00923
Sheller or cracker—nuts
00036
Shoe-heel nailer
00385
Shoe maker, n. e. c.
00074
Shredder—carpet or rag
00124
Shredder, n. e. c. (cotton waste,
00113
etc.)
00842
Sifter, n. e. c. (not bolting)
Skiver — splitter — stationary 00937
00938
leather knife
00188
Slicer and carver—meat
Slitter and rotary cutter— 00187
paper
00939
Slitter—caramel
00278
Slitter— cardboard
00940
Slotter
00890
Slubber
Soap press
00941
Soap stamper
00942
Soldering machine
00943
Sole molder and leveler
00944
Spinner—metal, n. e. c.
Spinner—musical string
Splitter— band knife (leather), 00945
00946
belt knife
Spooler
00236
Sprayer, n. e. c. (paint, etc.)
00947




163

Spreader— cotton waste
Spring maker— coiled
Spring maker—leaf
Sprue cutter
Stamping and forming
Stapler
Starcher
Stencil cutter
Stereotype
Sticker
Still
Stitcher
Stock and die, n. m.
Stoker
Stoker—tannery
Stone planers
Stone-products m a c h i n e s ,
n. e. c.—stone rubbing bed
Straightener
Straightener, n. m.
Stranding machine— cable
Stripper—leather
Stropper, metalworker, n. e. c.
Stuffer—food
Stump puller, n. m.
Sulphonators
Supercalender (paper)
Surfacer—woodwork, n. e. c.
Swaging machine
Tack maker
Tacker and nailer
Tamp
Taperer— cork
Taps and dies, n. m.
Tapper and threader— tapper,
n. e. c.
Teasels, textile
Tenoner, automatic
Tester, n. e. c.
Textile finisher— textile ma­
chines, n. e. c.
Thrasher
Thrashing bag (for paper mills)
Thread roller
Threader and cutter— bolt, nut,
rivet, pipe (threader, n. e. c.)
Tire builder and tube maker
Tire pump, n. m.
Tire wrapper
Tobacco machine, n. e. c.

164

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Machines— Continued

Machines— Continued
A L P H A B E TIC A L LIST OF M A C H IN E S---- COn.

00163
00270
00948
00949
00950
00522
00951
00076
00126
00952
00953
00018
00954
00593
00594

Tobacco-stem crusher
Tongue and g r o o v e r
Treadmill, n. m.
Treater
Trimmer—carpet
Trimmer—cloth
Trimmer, n. e. c.
Trimmer or buffer—shoe
Tube caster
Tube drawing
Tube-making machine—paper
Tumbler, n. e. c. (barrel, etc.)
Turn buckle, n. m.
Twine maker, n. e. c.
Twister

00543
00965
00966
00105
00078
00908
00970
00370
00971
00972

Unhairer
Universal woodworker
Upholsterer, n. e. c.
Upsetter (hot metal)
Valve-grinding machines, n. m.
Vamper
Vender
Veneer press
Vibrator—massager, etc.
Vise, n. m.

00370
00978
00979
00017
00980
00984

Wagon-wheel press
Washer—clothes
Washer—dishes
Washer—drum (leather)
Washer—grain
Washers, n. e. c. (metal parts,
etc.)
Washer or scourer—barrel and
keg
Washer or wringer— clothes,
n. m.
Washer—soaking and rinsing
bottles, cans, etc.
Weigher and bagger, etc.
Welder, n. m.— (oxyacetylene)
Welder, n. e. c.
Wet or dry pan
Whizzer
Willower
Winder—armature
Winder, n. e. c.
Wire and tube drawing

00981
00983
00982
00220
00128
00127
00985
00466
00240
00986
00596
00952

A L P H A B E TIC A L LIST OF M AC H IN E S-----COn.

Code

Code




00987

00371
00265
00656
00237
00238
00417

Wireworking and wire products
manufacturing, n. e. c. (not
wire-drawing)
Wood bender and former
Wood heel turner
Woodworker, n. e. c.
Wrapper, n. e. c.
Wrapper— tube and hose
Wringer

01000

Pumps and prime movers

01100
01101
01102
01103
01104
01105

E n g in e s and p rim e m overs

01200
01201
01202
01203
01204
01999

Pum ps

Steam engine
Internal-combustion engine
Steam turbine
Air-driven motor
Water motor, turbine, and
waterwheels
Reciprocating pump
Centrifugal pump
Air compressors
Fans and blowers
P u m p s a n d p r i m e m o v e r s , n . e. c.

PARTS OF PUMPS AN D PRIME M OVERS

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Belts, pulleys, chains and sprockets,
cables, and sheaves or gears
Moving parts, n. e. c.
Ignition, heating, or cooling system
parts
Frame, bed, etc.
Valves
Gaskets, packing, etc.
Safety devices
Flywheel

8

9

Parts of pumps and prime movers,
n. e. c.

02000

Elevators

02100
02101
02102
02103
02104
02105
02106

P a s s e n g e r elev a to rs

Electric—not push button
Electric—push button
Belt driven
Steam
Hydraulic—not plunger
Hydraulic—plunger

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Elevators—Continued
A L P H A B E T IC A L LIST OF M A C H IN E S---- COn.

Code

02107
02108
02109
02110
02111
02200
02201
02202
02203
02204
02205
02206
02207
02208
02209
02210
02211
02999

P a s s e n g e r elev a to rs

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

AL P H A B E TIC A L LIST OF M AC H IN E S-----COn.

Electric—not push button
Electric—push button
Belt driven
Steam
Hydraulic—not plunger
Hydraulic—plunger
Dumb waiter
Hand power
Mine or quarry cage
Material hoist
Sidewalk elevator
E l e v a t o r s , n . e . c.

Belts, pulleys, chains and sprockets,
sheaves or gears
Cables and cable fastenings
Car
Car gates
Hoistway
Hoistway gates
Safety devices
Operating machinery
Platform or steps
Parts of elevator, n. e. c.

Other h o istin g a p p a ra tu s — Con.

03305
03306
03307
03999

Jammer (logging)
Mine buckets
Electric hoist
H o is tin g a p p a ra tu s, n. e. c.

PARTS OF H OISTING A P PA R ATU S

F r e ig h t elev a to rs

PARTS OF ELEV ATO R S

0

Hoisting apparatus—Continued

— Continued Code

Double compartment
Hand power
Mine or quarry cage
Escalator
Man lift

165

0

Belts, pulleys, chains and sprockets,
cables, and sheaves or gears
1 Moving parts, n. e. c.
2 Cab
3 Frame, bed, etc.
4 Hooks or slings
5
6 Safety devices
7 Boom or mast or legs
8 Magnet or bucket
9 Parts of hoisting apparatus, n. e. c.
04000
04001
04002
04003
04004
04005
04006
04007
04008
04010

Conveyors
Belt type
Sprocket type
Monorail type
Overhead trolley
Screen type
Screw type
Pneumatic type
Apron type
Drag line, car puller, windlass,
sweep, etc.
Chain type
Car loader and unloader
Tiering or piling machine
Log jack
Line rolls, smooth or spiked

04011
04012
03000 Hoisting apparatus (n o t i n c l u d ­ 04013
i n g eleva tors)
04014
04015
03100 C r a n e s
03101
Locomotive tractor or truck 04999 C on v eyors, n. e. c.
crane
PARTS OF C ON VE YO RS
03102
Jib and pillar crane
03103
Traveling crane (overhead and 0 Belts, pulleys, chains and sprockets,
cables, and sheaves or gears
gantry)
1 Moving parts, n. e. c.
03200 S h o v e l s , d e r r i c k s , d re d g es
2
03201
Power shovel
3 Frame, bed, etc.
03202
Derricks
4
03203
Dredge
5
03300 O th e r h o i s ti n g a p p a r a t u s
6 Safety devices
03301
Chain hoist or chain blocks
7
03302
Air hoist
8
03303
Hydraulic jacks
9 Conveyor parts, n. e. c.
03304
Gin poles




166

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Vehicles— Continued

Code

05000

Boilers and pressure vessels

05100
05141
05165
05171
05178
05199
05200
05205
05213

B o ile r s

05216
05220

05227
05231
05242
05256
05267
05270
05280
05285
05290
05299
05999

Code
06103
Economizers
06104
Mercury boiler
06105
Steam boilers
06199
Superheaters
06200
Boilers, n. e. c.
06300
P r e s s u r e v e s s e ls
06301
Accumulator
06302
Compressed air and gas con­ 06303
tainers or receivers
06304
Condensers
06305
Cooking and processing ves­ 06309
sels (not jacketed), diges­ 06400
ters, etc.
06401
Devulcanizers
Digesters (pulp cooking in 06402
pulp and rayon plants)
06403
Hydraulic apparatus
06404
Pressure piping
06405
Receiver
06406
Rendering tanks
06500
Steam jacketed vessels
06501
Storage tanks
Trap
06502
Pressure vessels, n. e. c.
B o i l e r s , 'p ip es a n d p r e s s u r e v e s ­
06900
s e l s , n . e. c .
06901
N o t e . —Pressure lines are t o
be included under pressure ves­
06902
sels.

PARTS OF B OILER S

(PIPES OR PRESSURE

VESSELS)

0 Shell, drum, or header
1 Tubes
2 Gage glass, water column, or pres­
sure and temperature gages
3 All other valves
4 Fusible plugs
5 Gaskets, packing, etc.
6 Safety valves or devices
7 Furnace and fire doors
8 Runways and ladders
9 Boiler or pressure-vessel parts, n. e. c.
06000 Vehicles
06100
06101
06102

M o t o r v e h ic le s

Passenger automobiles
Truck




06999

M o t o r v e h ic le s — Continued

Bus
Motorcycle
Tractor
Motor vehicles, n. e. c.
A n im a l draw n
R a ilw a y

Streetcar
Locomotive—steam
Locomotive—electric
Locomotive— Diesel-electric
Car or tender
Railway vehicles, n. e. c.
W a t e r v eh ic les

Watercraft, m e c h a n i c a l l y
driven (not motorboats)
Motorboats
Sailing vessels
Rowboats, punts, canoes
Barges, lighters (no power)
Watercraft, n. e. c.
A ir c r a ft

Lighter than air (blimps, bal­
loons, etc.)
Heavier than air (airplanes,
etc.)
V e h i c l e s , n . e. c.
Mine or quarry (regardless of
type of power)
Vehicles, hand or foot oper­
ated—on land (wheelbar­
rows, etc.)
Vehicles, n. e. c.
PARTS OF VEH ICLES

0 Belts, pulleys, chains and sprockets,
cables, and sheaves or gears
1 Coupler
2 Ignition, heating, or cooling system
parts
3 Frame, bed, etc. (rigging, body)
4 Propeller or wheels (including tires
on motor vehicles)
5 Crank
6 Safety device
7 Hatchway
8 Brakes
9 Vehicle parts, n. e. c.

167

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION
Code

07000
07100
07101
07102
07103
07104
07105
07199
07200
07300
07400
07401
07402
07500
07999

Transmission apparatus— Continued
Animals

Code

08070
08080
Draft animals (horse, mule, 08090
ox, camel, etc.)
08100
Cow, sheep, goat, and other 08110
grazing animals (not draft) 08120
Dogs
08130
Cats
08140
Birds and fowl
08150
Domestic animals, n. e. c.
08160
In sec ts
08170
S n a k e s a n d r e p tiles
08180
W i l d a n im a ls
08200
In captivity, n. e. c.
08999
Not in captivity, n. e. c.
D o m e s tic a n im a ls

F ish

Gears
Sheaves
Pulleys
Drums
Ropes and cables
Chains
Sprockets
Belts
Lacing and fastenings
Belt shifters
Safety devices
Counterweights
Set screws, set bolts, and keys

,

T r a n s m i s s i o n a p p a r a t u s n . e. c.

PARTS OF TR ANSM ISSION APPARATU S

A n i m a l s , n . e. c.

None
PARTS OF AN IM AL S

0
1
2
3
4
5

Feet or hoofs, claws, talons, 09000
etc.
Mouth, stinger, teeth, etc.
Horns
Tail
09000

6

7
8

9

Parts of animal, n. e. c.

08000

Mechanical power transmission
apparatus

08010
08020
08030
08040
08050
08060

N o t e . —Transmission equip­
ment shall include all mechani­
cal means of transmitting power
from a prime mover up to but
not including a shaft (and the
pulleys and gears on the shaft),
the bearings of which form an
integral part of a machine.
Directly connected prime movers
are defined as having no trans­
mission apparatus.
Main shaft
Countershaft
Friction clutches
Collars and couplings
Bearings
Hangers

159726°— 40------ 12




09010
09011
09012
09013
09014
09015
09020
09021
09022
09023
09024
09025
09100
09110
09111
09112
09113
09114
09115
09120
09121
09122
09123

Electric apparatus
(Use rated capacities for identi­
fying voltages. The limits
provided here are outside the
customary operating volt­
ages.)
M o t o r s a n d g e n e r a to r s
(not of
hand tools)
Motors
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Generators
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
T r a n s f o r m e r s a n d co n v e r te r s

Transformers
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Converters (rotary)
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts

168

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Electric apparatus— Continued
T ra n sfo rm ers and converters —

Code
09124
09125
09200
09210
09211
09212
09213
09214
09215
09220
09221
09222
09223
09224
09225
09230
09231
09232
09233
09234
09235
09300

09310
09311
09312
09313
09314
09315
09320
09321
09322
09323
09324
09325
09400

09410
09411
09412
09413
09414
09415

Continued
Converters (ro ta ry) —Con.
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
C on d u ctors

Conductors—overhead
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Conductors—underground
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Conductors—in buildings
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts

Electric apparatus—Continued

Code

R h eo sta ts , etc.— Con.

09420
09421
09422
09423
09424
09425
09430
09431
09432
09433
09434
09435
09440
09441
09442
09443
09444
09500

09510
09511
Sw itchboard and bus structures; 09512
sw itch es , circuit breakers , and 09513
09514
fu ses
Switchboard and bus struc­ 09520
09521
tures
09522
Less than 150 volts
09523
150 to 300 volts
09524
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
09600
Over 7,500 volts
Switches, circuit breakers, 09610
fuses, and other safety
09611
devices
09612
Less than 150 volts
09613
150 to 300 volts
09614
300 to 750 volts
09620
750 to 7,500 volts
09621
Over 7,500 volts
09622
R h eosta ts , starters , and control
a p p a ra tu s; capacitatorSj recti­ 09623
09624
fie rs , batteries {storage)
Rheostats, starters, and con­ 09625
09630
trol apparatus
09631
Less than 150 volts
09632
150 to 300 volts
09633
300 to 750 volts
09634
750 to 7,500 volts
09635
Over 7,500 volts




Capacitators
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Rectifiers
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Batteries (storage)
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
Over 750 volts
M a g n e tic

a nd

electrolytic

ap­

paratus

Magnetic apparatus
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
Over 750 volts
Electrolytic apparatus
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
Over 750 volts
H ea tin g a p p lia n ces , la m p s ,
tubes

Heating appliances
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
Over 750 volts
Lamps
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts
Tubes
Less than 150 volts
150 to 300 volts
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
Over 7,500 volts

and

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Electric apparatus—Continued
Code
09900 E lectric a ppa ra tu s, n . e. c.
Less than 150 volts
09910
150 to 300 volts
09920
09930
300 to 750 volts
750 to 7,500 volts
09940
Over 7,500 volts
09950

169

Hand tools— Continued
Code
10181
10182
10183
10184
10185

H

Hammer
Hatchet
Hoe
Hook, n. e. c.
Household tools, n. e. c.
/

PARTS

OF ELECTRIC

AP PA R ATU S

None
10000
10100

10191
J

10201

Hand tools
m otive pow er —wh<
use, carried by a person

Hand

A

Abrasive shave
Adz
Anvil
Auger
Awl
Axe

10101
10102
10103
10104
10105
10106
B

Bale hook
Belt shifter
Blowtorch
Boiler-tube expander
Brake club
Broom and brush
Bucket

10111
10112
10113
10114
10115
10116
10117

K

10211
10221
10222
10223
10224

D

Dies and taps
Drawknife
Drift pin and nail set
Drill
E

10151

M

10231
10232
10233
10234
N

Nail and tack puller
Needle
0

10251

Oil can

10261
10262
10263
10264
10265
10267
10268
10269
10270
10271
10272
10273

Pen or pencil
Paving tool
Pick and pickaxe
Pile
Pinch bar
Pin
Pitchfork
Plane
Plier, pincer, tong
Poker
Pump
Punch
Q

File
Fire extinguisher
Fork, n. e. c.
G

10171
10172

Mallet
Maul
Metalworker's tools, n. e. c.
Mop

10241
10242

F

10161
10162
10163

Ladle
Lantern
Level
Lever

P

Can opener
Cleaver
Climbing spur
Chisel
Crowbar

10141
10142
10143
10144

Knife
L

C

10131
10132
10133
10134
10135

Iron—pressing

Gage
Glass cutter




10281
R

10291
10292
10293
10294

Rake
Razor
Rope, chain
Rule, ruler

170
Code

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Hand tools— Continued

Hand tools— Continued
Code

10800

S

10301
10302
10303
10304
10305
10306
10307
10308
10309
10310
10311
10312

Sandpaper
Saw
Scale
Scissors and shears
Scoop
Scraper
Screw driver
Scythe
Shovel and spade
Sickle
Sledge
Slice bar

10810
10820
10825
10830
10835
10840
10845
10850
10855
10860

T

10321
10322
10323
10331
10341
10351
10352
10353
10499
10500
10510
10520
10530
10540
10550
10560
10570
10580
10590
10600
10610
10620
10630
10640
10650
10660
10670
10680
10690
10700
10799

10865
10870
10875
10880
U
10885
10890
V
10895
10900
W
10905
Wedge
10910
Woodworker’s tools, n. e. c.
10915
Wrench
10920
Hand tools, n. e. c.
10925
M ec h a n ic a l m otive 'power—not
10930
electrical—when in use, car­ 10935
ried and held by a person. 10940
Abrasive stone or wheel
10945
Chisel
10950
Drill
10955
File
10960
Fire extinguisher
10965
Hammer
10999
Hydraulic tool, n. e. c.
Knife, n. e. c.
Nozzle and hose
Pneumatic tools, n. e. c.
Press
Pump
Punch
Riveter
Sandblaster
Saw
11000
Scoop
11000
Scraper
Screw driver
Torch
11005
Hand tools, n. e. c.—mechani­ 11010
cally driven
11015
Tamper
Tire iron
Trowel




m otive p ow er — when
in use, carried and held by
a person.
Abrasive stone or wheel
Buffer
Channeler
Chisel
Circular knife
Curling iron
Drill
Dryer
File
Floor polisher, waxer, or
scraper
Hair clipper
Hammer
Heater
Ironer
Knife, n. e. c.
Loader
Milker
Pipe cutter or threader
Press
Pump
Punch
Riveter
Sand blaster
Saw
Scoop
Scraper
Screw driver
Soldering iron
Toaster
Vibrator, massager
Welding tools
Electrically driven hand tools,

E lectrica l

PARTS OF H AN D TOOLS

The motors and generators
connected with these hand tools
are considered a part of the tool
and are not listed under electrical
apparatus.
Chemicals
(use only for explo­
sions)
Ammonium explosives
Ammunition—large
Ammunition—for small arms

E x p lo sives

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Chemicals— Continued

Chemicals— Continued

Code

E x p lo s iv e s — Continued

Code

11020

Chlorate and perchlorate mix­
tures
Dynamite, n. e. c.
Fireworks and pyrotechnics
Firing caps and cap ingredi­
ents (fulminates, n. e. c.)
Fuses
Guncotton (nitrocellulose)
Gunpowder (inch black pow­
der)
Liquid oxygen explosives
Nitroglycerine
Picric acid and picrates
Toluene compounds (trinitro­
toluene, etc.)
Explosives, n. e. c.
E x p lo siv e gases or vapors
(use
only for explosions)
Acetates (methyl, ethyl, propyl,
etc.)
Acetylene
Alcohols (methyl, ethyl, pro­
pyl, etc.)
Ammonia
Carbon disulphide
Gas, manufactured (for light or
heat)
Gas, natural (for light or heat)
Hydrogen
Methane
Mine gas
Sewer gas
Explosive gases and vapors,
n. e. c.
N o x io u s va p o rs , g a ses , fu m e s
Acid
Benzol and its compounds and
derivatives (aniline, etc.)
Carbon bisulphide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlorine
Cyanogen and its compounds
Ether
Hydrogen sulphide
Lead
Methanol
Mercury
Nitrogen oxides
Refrigerants

11290

11025
11030
11035
11040
11045
11050
11055
11060
11065
11070
11090
11100

11105
11110

11115
11120

11125
11130
11135
11140
11145
11150
11155
11190

11200
11205
11210

11215
11220

11225
11230
11235
11240
11245
11250
11253
11255
11260
11265
11270




171

11300
11303
11305
11307
11309
11312
11315
11319
11323
11325
11327
11330
11339

11343
11346
11349
11352
11355
11358
11361
11365
11368
11371
11374
11377
11380
11383
11386
11388
11399
11400
11405
11410
11415
11420
11425
11499
11999

N o x io u s va p o rs , etc. — Continued

Noxious vapors, gases, fumes,
n. e. c.
N o x io u s or corrosive chem icals

Acids
Formic
Hydrochloric (muriatic)
Hydrocyanic
Hydrofluoric
Nitric
Sulphuric
Acids, n. e. c.
Alkalies (caustics)
Ammonia
Lime (calcium oxide)
Caustic potash (potassium
hydroxide)
Caustic soda (sodium hy­
droxide)
Alkalies, n. e. c.
Miscellaneous noxious and
corrosive chemicals (solids
and liquids, but not dust)
Alcohol
Benzine
Benzol, its compounds and
derivatives
Cyanogen and its com­
pounds
Carbon tetrachloride
Creosote
Other
Gasoline
Grease
Kerosene
Naphtha
Oils
Paraffin
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Miscellaneous noxious and
corrosive chemicals,n.e. c.
P o iso n o u s vegetation

Hemlock
Ivy
Oak
Sumac
Tamarack
Poisonous vegetation, n. e. c.
C h em ica ls , n. e. c.

172

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Code

12000

Dusts— Continued
Highly inflammable
substances

and hot

Code

13200

(Use only for injuries resulting
from fire and flame)

12100
12150

12200
12250
12300
12350
12400
12405
12410
12415
12420
12425
12430
12499
12500
12550
12999

13000
13000
13005
13010
13015
13020
13025
13030
13035
13040
13045
13050
13055
13060
13100
13105
13110
13115
13120
13125
13130
13135
13140
13145
13199

13204
13208
Alcohol
13212
Artificial leather
13216
Film (photographic)
13220
Fire and flame
13224
Lacquers
13228
Paints, varnishes, shellacs
13232
Petroleum and its products
13236
Petroleum
13240
Benzine
13244
Fuel oil
13248
Gasoline
13252
Kerosene
13256
Naphtha
13260
Petroleum products, n. e. c.
13264
Pyroxylin products (celluloid)
13268
Steam
Highly inflammable and hot
13272
substances, n. e. c.
13276
13299
Dusts
13999
Explosive dusts (use only for
14000
explosions)
Coal
Cocoa
14100
Flour
Grain
14200
Leather
Metal (aluminum, magnesium, 14300
14999
etc.)
Spices
Starches
15000
Sugars
Textile (wool, cotton, flax,
hemp, etc.)
15101
W ood
Explosive dusts, n. e. c.
Organic dusts (for injuries not
15141
resulting from explosions)
Flour
Fur
15181
Grain
15182
Hair
15183
Leather
Rubber
15221
Straw
Tobacco
Wood
15261
Organic dusts, n. e. c.




In organ ic dusts (for injuries not
resulting from explosions)
Arsenic compounds
Asbestos
Barium and its compounds
Cadmium compounds
Corundum (carborundum)
Cement
Chalk
Chromium compounds
Clay
Coal
Emery
Enameling powder
Granite
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Silica (quartz, sand, sand­
stone, etc.)
Silicates
Stone, n. e. c.
Inorganic dusts, n. e. c.
D u sts, n. e. c.

Radiations and radiating sub­
stances
Radium and radioactive sub­
stances
Ultraviolet rays
X-rays, fluoroscope, etc.
Radiations and radiating sub­
stances, n. e. c.

Working surfaces, n. e. c.
A

B

C
Coal— roof
Coal— sides
Coal— floor
D

E

ACCIDENT CAUSE FACTOR CLASSIFICATION

Code

Working surfaces, n. e. c.—
Continued
F

or

Code

Floors— steel

15805
15810
15820
15821
15822
15829
15830

Floors — stone
Floors — n. e. c.

Floors— tem porary

1530 2

Floors— wood

15303

Floors— linoleum covered

15304
15 30 5

un­

FI oors— concrete

finished

Floors— carpet covered

1530 9

Working surfaces, n. e. c.—
Continued
S
Shelves
Staging or scaffold
Stairs or steps— wood
Stairs or steps— metal
Stairs or steps— concrete
Stairs or steps— n. e. c.
Sidewalks

15841

15301

15306
15 30 7

173

T

G

U

15341

15881
H

V

15381

15921
I

15421

W
Ice (when not part of another

15941

surface)

J

X , Y, Z
15981
15999

15461

Working surfaces, n. e. c.

K
PARTS OF W O R K IN G SU R FACES

15501
L

None

15541
M

19000

Miscellaneous agencies

15581
N o t e .—

N

used as
agency.

15621
O

Name only when not
part of some other

A

15661

19101

P

Air— compressed as in caisson
or tunnel work
Athletic equipment, n. e. c.

15681

19102

Q

13

15721

R
R am p s

15761
1 5 76 2

R oofs

15 763

R u n w a ys or platform s

15780

R oads — con Crete

15781
15782

R oad s — m acadam

15 783
15 784

R oads — gravel
R oad s — dirt
R oad s — w ood block

15785

R oads — granite block

15786
15789

19141
19142
19143
19144
19145
19146
19147

R oads — brick
R oads — n. e. c.




19148

19149

Balconies and platforms
Barrels, kegs, etc.
Baseball equipment
Basketball equipment
Bins, pockets, pits, etc.
Bottles
Boxes, benches, chairs, tables,
etc.
Buildings or structures — in
course of construction or
demolition, n. e. c.
Bricks, rocks, stones, etc.

174

M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

Miscellaneous agencies— Continued
Code

Miscellaneous agencies— Continued

Code

C

N

Cans
Cellars— outside openings
Cement— not hardened
Chimneys
Chutes
Clothing, n. e. c.

19181
19182
19183
19184
19185
19186

19223
19224

E

O bjects— fixed

19622

Fire escapes
Firearms (not cartridges)
Floor openings
Football equipment
Fungus, n. e. c.

19661

Persons— other than injured
Person— injured
Poles and ties — railroad

Piles of m aterials, n. e. c.—
dum ps

Q

R
Racks, shelves, and hooks
R unw ays

19743

R oofs

19744

Rails and switches

19745

Radiators

19746

Reservoirs, tanks, vats
S

19781

Scaffolds and stagings

19782

Skylights

19783

Stairways

19784

Safety

G
19341
19342
19343
19344

c.

O b jects— m oving, n. e.

P

19663

F
19301
19302
19303
19304
19305

19621

Dams and docks
19664
Doors, windows, and gates—
trap doors
Ditches and trenches
19701
Dusts and particles, n. e. c.
(eye injuries from dust par­
19741
ticles or rock particles)
19742
Excavations, n. e. c.
Elevations, n. e. c.

19261
19262

N ails, spikes, tacks, etc.
O

19662

D
19221
19222

19581

appliances

—

safety

belts, goggles, etc.

Gangplanks
Glass, n. e. c.
Golf equipment
Goggles

19785

Stoves
T

19821
19822

Tow ers
T ram w ays

19823
19824

Trees, branches, etc.
Trestles, bridges, etc.

I

19825
19826

T un n els, shafts, n. e. c.
Tires— pneum atic — when not

J

19746

T a n k s, vats, reservoirs

K

19841

H
Hockey equipment
Hides

19381
19382
19421

on vehicle

19441

U

Kilns— drying

19461
L
19501
19502
19503

Ladders
Loading platforms
Lumber or woodworking ma­ 19921
terial, n. e. c.
19922
M

19541

19542
19543
19544

V

19881
19746

19923

Manholes, ropes, cables, etc.
(not as part of hoisting ap­ 19961
paratus)
19999
Metal— sheet
Metal— rod
Metal— stock, n. e. c.
xxOOO




V a ts, tan k s, reservoirs
W

W ires, not electrical
W orkbenches
W ater

X , Y, Z
M iscellaneous materials
objects, n. e. c.

or

Agency unclassified — insufficient
data

A C C ID E N T

CAUSE

FACTOR

C L A S S IF IC A T I O N

175

The Unsafe Mechanical or Physical Conditions
R u le s j o r selection . — 1. Select the unsafe mechanical or physical
condition of the agency or agency part which is chiefly responsible
for the injury, and which could have been guarded or corrected.
2.
Name the unsafe mechanical or physical condition, if one ex­
isted, regardless of whether or not an unsafe act was committed.
As in the case of the agency, unsafe mechanical or physical condi­
tions may be classified and coded in general categories or in detail.
The general categories are as follows:

C l a s s if ic a t io n b y M a jo r G r o u p s
C ode

0
1
2
3
4
5
9
x
y

Improperly guarded agencies
Defects of agencies
Hazardous arrangement, procedure, etc., in, on, or around the selected agency
Improper illumination
Improper ventilation
Unsafe dress or apparel
Unsafe mechanical or physical condition, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
No defective agency

As is apparent from the following, each of these items can be
classified in greater detail.
D e t a il e d C l a s s if ic a t io n
Code

00
00
01
02
09
10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
19
20
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
29

Improperly guarded agencies
Unguarded
Inadequately guarded
Lack of, or improper, shoring in mining, construction, excavating, etc.
N . e. c.

Defects of agencies
Rough
Slippery
Sharp-edged
Poorly designed
Low material strength
Poorly constructed
Inferior composition
Decayed, aged, worn, frayed, cracked, etc.
N . e. c. (including hidden defects)

Hazardous arrangement, procedure, etc., in, on, or around the selected agency
Unsafely stored or piled tools, materials, etc.
Congestion of working spaces
Inadequate aisle space, exits, etc.
Unsafe planning and/or layout of traffic or process operations
Unsafe processes
Overloading
Misalining
N . e. c.




176

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

Code
30

Improper illumination

30
31

Insufficient light
Glare

32
39

Unsuitable location or arrangement (producing shadows or contrasts)
N . e. c.

40
40
41
42
49

50
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
61
62
63
64
79

99
xx
yy

Improper ventilation
Insufficient air changes
Unsuitable capacity, location, or arrangement of system
Impure air source
N . e. c.

Unsafe dress or apparel
No goggles
Goggles defective, unsafe, or unsuited for work
No gloves
Gloves defective, unsafe, or unsuited for work
No apron
Apron defective, unsafe, or unsuited for work
No shoes
Shoes defective, unsafe, orunsuited for work
No respirator
Respirator defective, unsafe,or unsuited for work
High heels
Loose hair
Loose clothing
Inadequately clothed, n. e. c.
N . e. c.

Unsafe mechanical or physical condition, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
No unsafe mechanical or physical condition

Accident Type
R u le f o r selection . — Select the accident type that is most immedi­
ately associated with the selected agency.
Code
C l a s s if ic a t io n o f A c c id e n t T y p e
0 Striking against
(refers generally to contacts with sharp or rough objects, resulting in
cuts, slivers, punctures, etc., due to striking against, kneeling on or
slipping on objects)
1 Struck by
(falling, flying, sliding or moving objects)
2 Caught in, on, or between
3 Fall on same level
4 Fall to different level
5 Slip (not fall) or overexertion
(resulting in strain, hernia, etc.)
6 Contact with temperature extremes
(resulting in burning, scalding, freezing, heat exhaustion, sunstroke,
frostbite, etc.)
7 Inhalation, absorption, ingestion
(asphyxiation, poisoning, drowning, etc., but excluding contact with
temperature extremes)




A C C ID E N T

CAUSE

FACTOR

C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

177

Code
8
9
x

Contact with electric current
(such as results in electrocution, shock, etc.)
Accident type, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data

The Unsafe Act
R u les j o v selection . — 1. Select that violation of a commonly ac­
cepted safe procedure which resulted in the selected accident type.

N o t e .— The unsafe act may have been committed by the person injured, a
fellow worker, or some other person.

2. If more than one unsafe act was committed, select the one most
closely associated with the selected accident type.
3. Name the unsafe act, if one existed, whether or not an unsafe
mechanical or physical condition existed.
As in the case of the unsafe mechanical or physical condition, the
classification of unsafe acts may be used in general groups or to all
the detail given here.
The general classification is as follows:
C l a s s if ic a t io n b y M a jo r G r o u p s
Code

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
x
y

Operating without authority, failure to secure or warn
Operating or working at unsafe speed
Making safety devices inoperative
Using unsafe equipment, hands instead of equipment, or equipment unsafely
Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc.
Taking unsafe position or posture
Working on moving or dangerous equipment
Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling, etc.
Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices
Unsafe acts, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
No unsafe act

The following classification gives these items in detail.
D e t a il e d C l a s s if ic a t io n
Code

00
00
01
02

03
04
05
09

Operating without authority, failure to secure or warn
Starting, stopping, using, operating, firing, moving, etc.
W ithout authority
W ithout giving proper signal
Failing to lock, block, or secure vehicles, switches, valves, press rams,
other tools, materials and equipment against unexpected motion, flow
of electric current, steam, etc.
Failing to shut off equipment not in use
Releasing or moving loads, etc., without giving warning
Failure to place warning signs, signals, tags, etc.
N . e. c.




178

M ANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

C
ode

10
10
11
12
13
14
15
19
20
20
21
22
23
24
29

Operating or working at unsafe speed
Running
Feeding or supplying too rapidly
Driving too rapidly
Driving too slowly
Throwing material instead of carrying orpassing
Jumping from vehicles, platforms, etc.
N . e. c.

it

Making safety devices inoperative
Removing safety devices
Blocking, plugging, tying, etc., of safety devices
Replacing safety devices with those of improper capacity (higher am­
perage electric fuses, low capacity safety valves, etc.)
Misadjusting safety devices
Disconnecting safety devices
N . e. c.

30

Using unsafe equipment, hands instead of equipment, or equipment un­
safely

30
31

Using defective equipment (mushroom headchisels, etc.)
Unsafe use of equipment (e. g. iron bars for tamping explosives, operating
pressure valves at unsafe pressures, volume, etc.)
Using hands instead of hand tools (to feed, clean, adjust, repair, etc.)
Gripping objects insecurely; taking wrong hold of objects
N . e. c.

32
33
39

40
40
41
42
43

44

45

49

50
50
51
52
53
54
55

56
57
58
59

Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc.
Overloading
Crowding
Lifting or carrying too heavy loads
Arranging or placing objects or materials unsafely (parking, placing,
stopping, or leaving vehicles, elevators, and conveying apparatus in
unsafe position for loading and unloading)
Injecting, mixing, or combining one substance with another so that ex­
plosion, fire, or other hazard is created (injecting cold water into
hot boiler, pouring water into acid, etc.).
Introducing objects or materials unsafely (portable electric lights inside
of boilers or in spaces containing inflammables or explosives; moving
equipment in congested workplaces, smoking where explosives or in­
flammables are kept, etc.)
N . e. c.

Taking unsafe position or posture
Exposure under suspended loads
Putting body or its parts into shaftways or openings; standing too
close to openings
Entering vessel or enclosure when unsafe because of temperature, gases,
electric, or other exposures
Working on high tension conductors from above instead of below.
Lifting with bent back, while in awkward position, etc.
Riding in unsafe position (on platforms, tailboards, and running boards
of vehicles; tailing on or stealing rides; riding on apparatus designed
only for materials, etc.)
Exposure on vehicular right-of-way
Passing on grades and curves, cutting in and out, road hogging, etc.
Exposure to falling or sliding objects
N . e. c.




A C C ID E N T

CAUSE

F A C T O R C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

179

Code

60

Working on moving or dangerous equipment

60

Getting on or off moving equipment (vehicles, conveyors, elevators,
animals, etc.)
Cleaning, oiling, adjusting, etc., of moving equipment
Calking, packing, etc., of equipment under pressure (pressure vessels,
valves, joints, pipes, fittings, etc.)
Working on electrically charged equipment (motors, generators, lines,
and other electrical equipment)
Welding, repairing, etc., of equipment containing dangerous chemical
substances
N . e. c.

61

62
63
64
69

70

Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling, etc.

70
71
72
73
74
79

Calling, talking, or making unnecessary noise
Throwing material
Teasing, abusing, startling, horseplay
Practical joking, etc.
Quarreling
N . e. c.

80

Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices

80
81
89

Failing to wear goggles, gloves, masks, aprons, shoes, leggings, etc.
Wearing high heels, loose hair, long sleeves, loose clothing, etc.
N . e. c.

99

Unsafe acts, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
No unsafe act

xx
yy

Unsafe Personal Factor
R u le f o r selection . — Select the unsafe personal factor which resulted
in the selected unsafe act.
In keeping with the general structure of this classification, the
unsafe personal factors may be classified in general groups or in
specific detail. The general group classification is as follows:

C l a s s if ic a t io n b y M a jo r G r o u p s
Code

0
1
2
9
x
y

Improper attitude
Lack of knowledge or skill
Bodily defects
Unsafe personal factors, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
N o unsafe personal factor

The detailed classification is as follows:
D e t a il e d C l a s s if ic a t io n
C ode

00
00
01
02
03
04
05
09

Improper attitude
Willful disregard of instructions
Violent temper
Absentmindedness
Willful intent to injure
Nervous, excitable, etc.
Failure to understand instructions
Improper attitude, n. e. c.




180

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

Code

10
10
11
19
20
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
29
99
xx
yy

Lack of knowledge or skill
Unaware of safe practice
Unpracticed or unskilled
Lack of knowledge or skill, n. e. c.
Bodily defects
Defective eyesight
Defective hearing
Muscular weakness
Fatigue
Existing hernia
Crippled
Existing heart or other organic weakness
Intoxicated
Bodily defects, n. e. c.
Unsafe personal factors, n. e. c.
Unclassified— insufficient data
No unsafe personal factor




S T A T IS T IC S

Chapter 10.—Frequency and Severity Rates and
Disability Distribution
Frequency and Severity Rates

The determination of uniform, adequate units of exposure to
measure the frequency of accident occurrence and the severity of
the resulting disabilities is an indispensable basis for the intelligent
compiling of accident statistics. The methods used prior to the
development of the present standard frequency and severity rates
were far from satisfactory and have been generally discarded. Fre­
quency today is rarely measured per 1,000 employees, because it is
clearly recognized that the hours worked by 1,000 employees may
vary widely from week to week for different plants and even within
the same plant. The length of time workers are exposed to the
occupational hazards of their jobs is as important as the number of
workers exposed. For instance, it is generally agreed that the fre­
quency of disabling injuries will be less for 1,000 employees working
20 hours per week than for the same 1,000 employees working 40
hours per week. Similarly, the concept of the “ full-time annual
worker” has been generally discarded in the United States, because
the number of hours which constituted the working time of a “ full­
time” worker shifted considerably from time to time, and when fixed
at any given number of hours often failed to reflect prevailing practice
and experience, becoming little more than a statistical abstraction.
The standard which is more acceptable than either of these two,
and which is most generally used, is the frequency rate. T h e fr e q u e n c y
rate is

the n u m b er o f d isablin g in ju r ies p e r

m illio n

e m p lo yee-h o u rs

w o rk ed .

The companion rate to the frequency rate is the severity rate.
T h e severity rate is the average d a y s o f d isa bility p e r thou san d e m p lo y e e -

The reason for not stating this rate in terms of a
million employee-hours is that the resulting rate would be so large as
to be unwieldy.
In arriving at these rates, three items are important: (1) The type
of disabling injury to be included in the injury count (see ch. 5);
(2) the method of evaluating the time charges for permanent inju­
ries; and (3) the method of computing the rates. These three items
are taken up, in the order named, in the American Standard Method
of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, as approved by the American
Standards Association in 1937. The standard was sponsored by the

h ou rs w orked.




181

182

MANUAL

ON

I N D U S T R I A L -I N J U R Y

S T A T IS T IC S

International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Com­
missions, the National Council on Compensation Insurance, and
the National Safety Council. A large number of other interested
organizations participated in the deliberations.
The sections of the standard dealing with methods of evaluating
injuries and the methods of computing rates are here given verbatim,
together with explanatory rules.1 It is emphasized at the outset,
however, that these sections are concerned primarily with disabling
injuries, and with disability measured in calendar d a ys rather than in
days lost from work.
A m e r ic a n S t a n d a r d M e t h o d o f C o m p il in g I n d u s t r ia l I n j u r y R a t e s
Section 3.— Time charges
3.1. T im e charges.— The time charge is the measure of disability stated in days,
as specified in sections 3 and 4 of this code.
3.2. T im e charge f o r death.— Six thousand (6,000) days shall be charged for
each death. See section 4, also R5 and RIO.
3.3. T im e charge f o r perm anent total d isa bility. — Six thousand (6,000) days
shall be charged for each permanent total disability. See section 4, also R5
and R10.
3.4. T im e charge f o r perm anent partial disa bility. — The time charge for perma­
nent partial disability shall be as follows:
(a) The time charge for any injury resulting in the complete loss or complete
loss of use of any member of the body shall be the number of days specified in
the Scale of Time Charges. See section 4, also R5, R9, and R10.
(b) The time charge for any injury resulting in the loss of a part of a member
or the permanent impairment of any function of any part of the body or part
thereof shall be a percentage of the number of days specified in the Scale of Time
Charges. See section 4. The percentage to be used shall be the percentage
loss or loss of use sustained by the injured worker, as determined by the local
compensation authorities. See R5, R8, and R10.
3.5. T im e charge f o r tem p o ra ry total d isa b ility. — The time charge for each tempo­
rary total disability shall be the total number of calendar days of disability, ex­
cluding the day on which the injury occurred and the day on which the employee
returned or in the opinion of the doctor was able to return to work. See R6, R7,
R 9, and R l l .
3.6. T im e charge f o r tem p o ra ry partial d isa b ility. — The time charge for each
temporary partial disability shall be the total number of calendar days of such dis­
ability multiplied by a factor not exceeding unity. Such factor shall be developed
by the agency computing the time charge and shall be clearly stated. The total
number of calendar days shall exclude the day on which the injury occurred and
the day on which the employee returned, or in the opinion of the doctor was able
to return, to his regular job.
3.7. T im e charge f o r fir st-a id cases.— No methods are specified for determining
time charges for first-aid cases. Any agency computing such time charges shall
indicate the method used.
1Reproduced with permission of the American Standards Association.




FREQUENCY

AND

S E V E R IT Y

RATES

183

Section 4.— Scale of time charges
4.1. Scale o f tim e charges.— The accompanying scale shall be used to determine
the time charges in number of days as specified in definitions 3.2, 3.3, 3.4a, and
3.4b.
Death____________________________________________________________ 6, 000
Permanent total disability_____________________________________ 6, 000
Arm, at or above elbow________________________________________ 4, 500
Arm below elbow________________________________________________ 3, 600
H and_____________________________________________________________ 3 ,0 0 0
Thum b___________________________________________________________
600
Any one finger______________________________________________
300
Two fingers, same hand________________________________________
750
Three fingers, same hand_______________________________________ 1, 200
Four fingers, same hand________________________________________ 1, 800
Thumb and one finger, same hand____________________________ 1, 200
Thumb and two fingers, same hand___________________________ 1, 500
Thumb and three fingers, same hand__________________________2, 000
Thumb and four fingers, same hand___________________________ 2, 400
Leg, at or above knee__________________________________________ 4, 500
Leg, below knee_________________________________________________ 3, 000
F oot_______________________________________________________________ 2 ,4 0 0
Great toe or any two or more toes, same fo o t__________________
300
Two great toes__________________________________________________
600
One toe, other than great toe_______________________________
See R9
One eye, loss of sight___________________________________________ 1, 800
Both eyes, loss of sight_________________________________________ 6, 000
One ear, loss of hearing__________________________________________
600
Both ears, loss of hearing_______________________________________3, 000

1

N o t e .— Days shown in table are charged for complete dismemberment or
complete loss of use of member. Definition 3.4a. For partial dismemberment
or partial loss of use of member a percentage of these figures is charged, as ex­
plained in definition 3.4b.
N o t e 2.— The charge for any permanent injury other than those specified in
the scale shall be a percentage of the charge for permanent total disability corres­
ponding to the ruling of the governing workmen's compensation commission.
See R9.
Section 5.— Injury rates
5.1. F req u e n c y rates. — The frequency rates shall be the number of injuries per
one million man-hours of exposure. See R12.
5.2. S ev er ity rate.— The severity rate shall be the total time charges per 1,000
man-hours of exposure. See R13.
5.3. G eneral co m p a ra b ility. — In the interest of general comparability, every
agency shall, as a minimum, compute frequency and severity rates based on
classes of injuries as defined in paragraphs 2.2 to 2.5 inclusive. Such rates shall
be designated as “ four-class" rates. The computation of additional rates based
on classes of injuries as defined in paragraphs 2.2 to 2.6 inclusive is recommended
for such agencies as can secure dependable data on temporary partial disabilities.
Such rates shall be designated as “ five-class" rates and shall in all cases be in
addition to “ four-class" rates. Rates based on classes of injuries as defined in
paragraphs 2.2 to 2.7 inclusive, if computed, shall be designated as “ six-class"
rates.
159726°— 40------ 13




184

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS
Section 6.— Rulings and interpretations

R l. Basis o f reports.— Any report made on any basis other than the all-inclusive
basis provided in definition 1.1 shall state which groups or departments are in­
cluded and which are excluded.
R2. Average number of em ployees.— To obtain average, count names on pay roll
and salary roll of those at work for each day during period covered and divide the
aggregate number of names by the number of working days. For example, 25
working days in November; aggregate number of names of those on pay roll and
salary roll and at work— 15,000. Divide 15,000 by 25 and the quotient 500 repre­
sents the average number of employees.
R 3. Total man-hours exposure.— This figure should preferably be calculated
from the time clock, or foreman’s card, or pay-roll records. If such records are
not available the man-hours exposure should be estimated from the average
number of employees. Assume a plant with 600 average number of employees
working 50 hours per week for 52 weeks. The total man-hours exposure for the
year, all employees, would be 600 x 50 x 52 or 1,560,000 man-hours.
R4. The number o f in ju ries.— Th e number of injuries, not the number of acci­
dents, shall be recorded. For example, if 10 employees are killed in one boiler
explosion, 10 injuries shall be recorded.
R5. Perm anent partial disability.— Every permanent partial disability as well
as every death and permanent total disability shall be counted as an injury even
though the injured does not lose any time from work.
R6. Method o f classifying in ju ries.— -No matter at what time of day the employee
is injured, if no permanent disability exists and if at the beginning of the next
calendar day he is unable in the opinion of the doctor to perform his ordinary
duties or the normal duties of some other regularly established job, i. e., a job
which is not set up solely to avoid counting the case as a temporary total dis­
ability, the injury shall be counted as a temporary total disability. On the other
hand, if he is able to perform the normal duties of some other regularly established
job, the injury shall be counted as a temporary partial disability.
R7. E xam ple o f time charge.— Example 1: Employee is injured March 5 and
returns March 22. Calendar days of disability— 16. Time charge— 16 days.
Example 2: Employee is injured April 2 and returns April 9. He again was
unable to work on April 15 due to same injury and returns M ay 1. Calendar
days of disability— 22. Time charge— 22 days.
R8. Perm anent im pairm ent o f fu n ction .— Example: If a complete loss of a
hand is compensated by payment for 150 weeks, any impairment of function of
the hand which is compensated by payment for 75 weeks shall rate as one-half
of the complete loss of the hand or one-half of 3,000 days as specified in the
Scale of Time Charges, section 4, or 1,500 days of disability. See also R10.
R9. Tem porary disability.— Hernia, loss of teeth, and loss of any toe other than
the great toe, are considered temporary disabilities only. For details see R6.
R10. A ctual tim e lost.— The actual time lost due to injuries specified in defini­
tions 3.2, 3.3, 3.4a, and 3.4b shall not be charged.
R l l . Calendar period charges.— All injuries should preferably be charged to
the calendar period in which they occurred. For example, man scratches hand
on July 31. He reports for first aid on August 2, but on August 3 infection sets
in, causing several days’ disability. The injury should be charged to July 31. An
exception may be made if the change affects an annual summary. Thus, if an
injury in December 1931 does not cause any disability until February 1932, after
the 1931 summary has been prepared, the work involved in changing the annual




185

FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES

s u m m a r y is h a r d l y w o r t h w h i l e , a n d i t is b e t t e r t o c o n s id e r t h e i n j u r y a s o c c u r r i n g
in 1 9 3 2 .2

R12. Frequency rate.— To obtain the frequency rate multiply by 1,000,000
the total number of injuries and divide by the total man-hours of exposure.
Form ula:
No. of injuries X 1,000,000
Frequency r a t e = ~ ------ -----------r---------- ----------------’
No. of man-hours of exposure
R13. Severity rate.— To obtain the severity rate, multiply by 1,000 the total
time charges in days and divide by the total man-hours of exposure.
Form ula:
Severity rate =

Total time charges in days X 1,000
Number of man-hours of exposure

R14. W orkm en ’ s com pensation rulings.— When in doubt as to whether or not
to count a specific injury case, the decision shall be made in accordance with the
ruling of the governing workmen's compensation commission on this or similar
cases.
R15. Ship operations.— For ship operations, compute man-hours of exposure
by using eight (8) hours daily for each employee, regardless of actual length of
time worked. Man-hours of exposure for longshoremen should be computed
from pay roll.
R16. Ship operations.— For ship operations, count all injuries occurring on
shipboard, or off ships while on duty. For injuries to longshoremen count only
those cases occurring while on duty.
R17. Tim e charges.— If at the time rates are to be computed the time charge
for any injury is not definitely determinable, the doctor shall estimate the time
charge to be used.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Several items in the American Standard Method of Compiling
Industrial Injury Rates require some elaboration. The numbers
used identify the rule in the Standard.
3.
6: No definite method is laid down for the determination of
time charges for temporary partial disability. The rule merely
states that the number of calendar days shall be multiplied by some
factor not exceeding unity, the factor to be developed by the agency
computing the time charge. The principle involved is the same as
evaluating permanent partial disability in terms of permanent total
disability. If a permanent total disability is to be charged as 6,000
days, what, for example, shall be the charge for the loss of an arm?
Similarly, temporary partial disability is computed in terms of tem­
porary total disability. The employee can work, but because of his
disability he cannot perform his regular job. What shall be the time
charge?
In workmen’s compensation jurisdictions which recognize temporary
partial disability and compensate it, the time charge can be de-

2 A revision of this rule is now under consideration. See subsequent discussion.




186

MANUAL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

termined simply and without the development of a factor. The time
charge is the total time period, less the period multiplied by the ratio
of the worker’s earnings after the injury to those he received before
the disability.
Total days of
temporary
Time charge =
partial
disability

'Total days of
temporary

Weekly w a g e after injury

partial
. disability

Weekly wage
before in;jury_

Suppose the disability lasts 30 days, and that the worker’s earnings
during this period were $18 per week as against $27 at the time of the
injury. The ratio factor in such case will be 18/27 or 2/3. Multiply­
ing the entire period of 30 days by this factor, we arrive at 20 days,
the equivalent of full time worked. Deducting this from the total
of 30 days, the time loss is found to be 10 days, which is the time
charge.
Agencies or establishments which cannot use the wage-ratio method
probably will find it necessary to use a physician’s evaluation of the
percentage by which the injured worker’s capacity to perform his
regular job has been diminished. In the application of this factor,
the following formula may be helpful.
Time charge =

Total days of
Percentage of impairment of worktemporary
X ing capacity to perform worker’s
partial
regular job
disability

If, for instance, a worker has a temporary partial disability lasting
30 days, and the doctor determines the percentage of impairment to
be 40 percent, then—
Time charge = 30 days X 0. 40 =

12 days

R5: This rule merely provides that every permanent partial injury
shall be counted as an injury even though the injured loses no time
from work. For example, a worker may lose the first phalange of his
little finger, but lose no time from work. The usual procedure would
be to count this as an injury and charge against it 50 percent of the
standard time loss of 300 days. The reference in this rule to “ death
and permanent total disability” is not intended to convey the impres­
sion that a worker can experience either of these without loss of any
time from work.
R9: There are no standard time charges for hernia, loss of teeth,
or loss of any toe other than the great toe. It will be noted that the
standard provides a time charge of 300 days for the great toe or any
two or m ore toes.
But charges are to be made for any temporary
total or partial disability which accompanied the hernia, loss of teeth,
or loss of any toe other than the great toe.




FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES

187

RIO: The standard time charge for permanent partial disability is a
flat charge without allowance for a healing period. It differs in this
respect from the compensation procedure in many jurisdictions.
R u le 1 1 .

A recently proposed revision of this rule reads as follows:
R l l . Calendar period charges.— Each injury should preferably be charged to
the calendar period in which the accident occurred and its time charge should
preferably be according to the disability finally developed and determined. When,
as usually occurs, rates are compiled before complete information to achieve this
is possible or available, it is necessary for comparative purposes that there be a
uniform interval between the close of the period and the date of compilation.
The occurrence of injuries and the time charges for them shall be charged to the
period according to the information at the expiration of that interval. For an
annual period such interval shall be one month. Injuries first reported later
than that date shall be charged to the period in which they are reported. Where
a change of status as to time charge occurs, whether with or without change as
to class of disability, or is reported subsequent to the compilation of rates accord­
ing to this rule, each agency may make such compilation of these changes or
revision of rates as it may desire. However, such compilation or revision shall
be separate from and in addition to standard rates according to this rule.

The effect of this change is as follows: Industrial injury rates for
any calendar year would be compiled on the basis of information
available up to February 1 of the following year. Included in the
rate computations would be all injuries for the preceding year which
at that time (i.e., February 1) are known to have occurred, as well as time
charges for these injuries according to the best information available.
If an injury which occurred during the preceding calendar year is not
reported until February 1 or thereafter, then the injury is to be
charged to the new year. This rule is to govern for comparative pur­
poses, but any establishment may, on its own records, charge the injury
back to the year in which it occurred.
The purpose of the proposed modification is to provide uniformity
in rate computations for cases not reported or not resulting in disabil­
ity until after the year is closed. An important aspect of this rule is
that no establishment would be required to break a continuous “ no­
accident record” by the inclusion of one of these earlier cases. For
example, John Smith may have sustained a hernia in December 1938,
but continued at work. No disabling injury is charged on his account
during 1938. By August 1939, an operation becomes necessary, and
John Smith is disabled for 3 weeks. The plant has had a continuous
no-accident record since January 1, 1939. Under the newly pro­
posed rule, John Smith’s accident would be charged to 1939 for the
purpose of computing the frequency and severity rates. But the
accident would not be considered as having broken the continuity of
the no-accident record established since January 1, 1939.




188

M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

The rule also implies that if an injury has been charged to a given
year, but becomes more severe after February 1 of the following
year— such as a temporary total disability turning into a permanent
partial or even death— the establishment may make whatever
changes it wishes to make on its own records, but is not to make any
changes for comparative rate purposes.
It has also been suggested that first-aid cases and temporary partial
disabilities be counted as disabling injuries as of the time when a
more severe type of disability, such as temporary total, begins.
Disability D istribution3

From the foregoing rules and definitions formulated under the
auspices of the American Standards Association, it is clear that the
frequency and severity rates indicate relatively how often, on the
average, disabling injuries occur per unit of exposure (i. e., per million
employee-hours) and the severity of these injuries (measured in time
loss per thousand employee-hours). The severity rate, however, fails
to indicate how severe or serious the injuries really are. Because the
rate is dependent on exposure, several fatalities may result in a severity
rate no larger than that resulting from a large number of permanent
injuries or a still larger number of temporary total injuries.
One way of overcoming this difficulty is to compute a separate
severity rate for deaths, permanent total, permanent partial, tempo­
rary total, and temporary partial disabilities. But such a method
also has its drawbacks, because, although it gives the relative time
charge for each type of disability, it does so in terms of employee-hours
of exposure.
The method suggested as a supplement is the disability distribution,
which shows the number of disabling injuries for each type of disability
per thousand injuries and the average time charge per disability. In
the study of the iron and steel industry for 1936, for example, the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics computed a severity rate of
2.10— i. e., 2.10 days of time loss for every 1,000 hours worked— as against
a rate of 2.15 for the same establishments in 1935. On the face of it,
there was practically no change in the severity experience of the
industry. But an analysis of the disability distribution showed that,
per thousand injuries, there had been in 1936 11 deaths and permanent
disabilities as against 10 in 1935 and 71 permanent partial disabilities
as against 60 in 1935. The average time charge per permanent
partial disability in 1936 was 801 as against 843 in 1935. Conse­
quently, the conclusion was drawn that for the industry as a whole
there was during 1936, as compared with 1935, a shift toward rela­
tively more permanent injuries, but that on the average these injuries
were of a less serious character than those occurring in 1935.

3 Not part of the American Standard Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates.




189

FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES

The portrayal becomes more graphic when, instead of an entire
industry group, specific types of departments in the iron and steel
industry are considered. Heavy rolling mills, for instance, had per
1,000 disabling injuries 14 deaths and permanent total disabilities in
1935 and 30 such injuries in 1936. But permanent partial disabilities
per 1,000 disabling injuries declined from 130 to 80, and the average
time loss per injury from 897 to 752 days. There was no change in
the average duration of cases of temporary total disability of 36 days
per case.
The following table for 30 manufacturing industries, covering the
years 1935 and 1936, serves to illustrate the point further.
D isability D istribution per 1,000 In ju ries and Average D ays Lost per D isability
fo r Id en tica l Establishments in 80 M anu factu rin g Industries, 1935 and 1986

Death and
permanent
total dis­
ability 1
Industry

Number
per 1,000
injuries

Permanent partial
disability
Number
per 1,000
injuries

Average
days lost
per dis­
ability

Temporary total
disability
Number
per 1,000
injuries

Average
days lost
per dis­
ability

1935 1936 1935 1936 1935 1936 1935 1936 1935 1936
All industries_________________ ____
7
Agricultural implements__________ __ 2
6
A utom obiles.-_____________ ___
Automobile tires and rubber goods _ __ 5
2
Boots and shoes- __ _ _____ ______
Brick, tile, and terra cotta___ ______ 10
3
Carpets and rugs ______ ______
22
___ ___
Chemicals _ _ _ ____
4
Cotton goods. _____ ___ _____
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and
8
supplies__________________________
Fertilizers____ ___ __ ---------- ___ _ 15
Flour, feed, and other grain-mill prod­
ucts ______ ____ _____________ __ _ 12
Foundry and machine-shop products-..
5
7
Furniture_______________
____
6
Glass____________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
0
Hardware___________ _____ ________
Iron and steel___ __________ _ _ ___ 10
4
Leather.. ____ ______ _ __ __ __
Logging------------------------------------------- 19
Lumber:
6
Planing mills______ _________
7
Sawmills_____ _________ _____
Machine tools.
___ __ ___ ___ _ 10
Paper and pulp.. ________ ___ ___ _ 7
Petroleum refining _____ _ _______ 13
6
Pottery------ ------- ___--------- _ _
Shipbuilding, steel and wood______ _ 16
Slaughtering and meat packing_____ _ 6
Stamped and enameled ware. _______
7
Steam fittings, apparatus, and sup­
6
plies ________________________
4
S to v es____
_ __
3
Woolen goods____ _____ _ ___

7
5
6
7
2
7
0
17
2
8
17
10
6
3
8
2
11
3
15
10
7
6
5
20
6
15
4
4
9
5
2

74
92
98
41
56
26
119
94
55
127
52
62
76
121
36
105
71
62
52
70
68
61
57
108
29
87
67
113
62
62
66

67
95
94
44
47
27
123
92
47
108
32
57
64
114
27
111
60
61
32
80
57
56
61
115
19
65
58
124
38
58
86

923
802
734
821
825
681
891
1,194
1,037
777
1,325
1, 516
906
815
851
488
843
1,009
1,487
1,058
1,384
722
1,115
1,237
390
879
884
841
830
940
1,168

902
600
705
899
927
852
882
1,115
1,080
742
1,646
1, 219
858
850
1,016
575
801
1,005
1,408
1,077
1,297
791
1,216
856
960
915
965
713
565
830
1,174

919
906
896
954
942
964
878
884
941
865
933
926
919
872
958
895
919
934
929
924
925
929
936
879
965
897
927
880
932
934
931

926
900
900
949
951
966
877
891
951
884
951
933
930
883
965
887
929
936
953
910
936
938
934
865
975
920
938
872
953
937
912

19
18
23
24
16
17
15
20
16
19
14
20
18
15
17
13
24
15
26
17
21
17
19
23
17
19
15
16
17
19
16

18
16
21
18
16
15
13
21
18
16
16
17
17
14
17
14
21
15
23
15
20
15
18
25
15
16
14
14
14
17
18

1 Each death or permanent total disability is charged with a time loss of 6,000 days.
The disability distribution, however, is best used in combination
with frequency rates. If the disability distribution is used by itself,
it may indicate that in a given industry, such as petroleum refining




190

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

for instance, the relative number of deaths and permanent injuries
is high, from which the conclusion may be drawn that the industry is
highly hazardous. Actually, the frequency rate for petroleum refining
for 1936 was only 10.42, indicating a relatively good accident experi­
ence. Going back for a number of years, it is found that the industry,
through safety work, has steadily reduced its frequency rate from
31.36 in 1930 to 10.42 in 1936. The high proportion of serious dis­
abilities, therefore, is due primarily to an absence of minor injuries,
which apparently have been prevented.
The disability distribution, if used intelligently, will disclose shifts
away from or toward serious injuries, and will permit comparisons
between industries concerning the actual seriousness of the injuries
incurred. Caution must be exercised in the conclusions drawn from
such rates, and, of course, no such distribution should be compiled
for a particular industry when the total number of disabling injuries
for that industry is small.




Appendix A .— Tabulating Card
Jurisdictions with facilities for mechanical tabulating will be
interested in the type of tabulating card necessary to bring out the
data suggested in the tables. The card reproduced here is that used
by the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation of Pennsylvania. This
Bureau has been employing since January 1, 1938, essentially the
statistical method proposed in this Manual for accident cause analysis,
using a report form similar to, although somewhat more detailed, than
the one suggested in chapter 6.
In discussing this tabulating card, it will be necessary at times
to describe briefly the present or anticipated practices of the Penn­
sylvania Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation.
C a se n u m b e r .— The tabulating card columns for the case number
permit a serial number as high as 999,999—not because that number
indicates the size of the report volume received annually by the
Bureau, but because of the likelihood that the volume may reach or
exceed 100,000, and therefore require 6 columns on the card. The
first of the 7 digits is used to indicate the year during which the
report of industrial injury was filed with the Bureau. All reports
received in 1938, for instance, begin with 8, those filed in 1939 start
with 9, those for 1940 with 0, and so on. The number assigned to
the 58,865th case filed with the Bureau during 1938 therefore had the
serial case number of 8,058,865. This procedure is aimed at facili­
tating tabulations on the basis of reports received during the year,
the method adopted recently by Pennsylvania. A single sorting
operation on this first digit will sort out all cases reported during the
year, regardless of the year of injury.
Jurisdictions with a smaller annual case load, and which follow or
wish to follow this method of individual case numbers, need use
only as many columns as will suffice to meet the maximum case
load anticipated.
E m p lo y e r n u m b e r .— The employer number used by Pennsylvania’s
Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation contains 8 digits. The first 4
of these are to identify the major industrial activity of an employer.
The 4-digit code proposed as standard is to be used in this connec­
tion. The last 4 digits are to identify the individual employer within
the field of his major economic activity. The numbers to be used
for this purpose are assigned serially to the employer, depending on
the order in which his first accident report is received after the system
191




to
ACCIDENT

CESCO— 5 3 7 6 4 9

CASE NUMBER

0000000

ACCIDENT CAUSE

AGENCY

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 00 0

00

0 00 0
11111

1111111 1111111 1 1 1111 1 1 1

TIME
LOST

00000

II

00 00 000 00

£o

000

w eek:

COMP.

000 00000

MED. OTHER

000

TOTAL

000 00000 0

11111111 11111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 1 1111111111111111
22 2 2 22 2 2222 222 22 222 2222 22 22 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2222 22

2 22

3333333 33333333
4444444 44444444

3 3 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3
4 44 4 444 4 4 4

3 3 3 33 3 3 3 33
4 44 44
4 44

5555555 55555555

5 55 5

555

555

5 5 5 55

33 33 3 3 3 33 33 33 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
44 44 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 444 4 4 44 44
55 55 5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 55 55 5 5 55 5 5 55 5 5 ?

6666666 66666666

6 66 6

66

666

6 6666

66 66 6 6 6 6 6 6

7777777 77777777

7 77 7

8888888 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

8 88 8

999999999999999

9 99 9

2222222

22222222

INJURY

DATE

EMPLOYER NO.

7 7 7 77 7 7 7 77
888 83

6666

6 66 6

66666666666666666

77 77 7 7 7 7 77 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8888 888 8 8

8 88 8

88888888888 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 919 9 9 9 99 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 S 8 10 1112 1314 1511 17 1819202122 23242S2S21282930 313233 34 35363738 3940 4142 434446 48 4?4<4850 5152 5354 5556 575859 6081f26X64 S566 B788M7Q 7172 7374 ?SIS 77 ?8 7980




BUREAU OF WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION

Tabulating Card Used by Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation of Pennsylvania

M AN U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

ACC1D.

A P P E N D IX

A

193

has gone into operation. The number, once assigned, identifies the
employer 'p erm a n en tly. The John Smith Packing Co., engaged in
wholesale meat packing, may be the 346th firm to report an indus­
trial disabling injury in the meat-packing industry. Under the 4digit code, the concern's industry classification is 2011. The em­
ployer number for the company therefore would be 2011-0346, to be
shown on the card as 20110346. This number identifies the John
Smith Packing Co. as long as it does business in the State.
Again, States in which the workmen's compensation act does not
extend to all the industries shown in the industry code, or which do
not contain all these industries, may not require a number with 8
digits. The 4 digits for the employer's identification within his
industry classification allow for a total of 9,999 individual employer
listings. Some jurisdictions may find that 999 are sufficient, and may
therefore cut the number of digits to 3. Similarly, if the industry
classification is to be carried to only 3 digits, another digit can be cut
off there. It should be borne in mind, however, that broadening the
industry classification automatically tends to increase the number
of firms that wull fall into any given classification. For illustration,
when using the 4-digit industry-classification code, 3 digits may be
sufficient to cover the maximum number of concerns in wholesale
meat packing. But if a 3-digit industry classification is used, the
group of meat products (code 201) will contain, in addition to “ meat
packing, wholesale," the industries of sausages, prepared meats, etc.;
sausage casings; and poultry dressing and packing. Obviously, more
firms will fall into such a general classification than into “ meat
packing." It is likely that what may be gained by contracting the
industry code may have to be expended by allowing for additional
serial numbers.
C o u n t y .— Some jurisdictions prefer to publish accident and work­
men's compensation data by counties. The most important justifica­
tion for such a classification is that factory-inspection districts are
often arranged by counties, and that the county identification for
each reported injury permits allocating these injuries to individual
factory-inspection districts, for the information of the inspectors. As
a general rule, 2 digits will suffice, allowing for a maximum of 99 coun­
ties. Jurisdictions in States with a larger number of counties, if they
want data by counties, will have to use 3 columns, providing for a
maximum of 999 counties. Another justification is the fact that local
safety organizations commonly request statistical information on a
local basis.
I n d u s t r y .— The industry classification in use when the system was
introduced was a 4-digit code, which was to be replaced by the
standard code when completed. In most instances, it will coincide
with the first 4 digits of the employer number, but it will differ if the




194

M A N U A L ON IN D U S T R IA L -IN J U R Y STATISTICS

accident involved occurred in a type of activity not identical with the
major activity of the concern. For instance, the accidental injury or
industrial disease may have occurred in a coal mine of a steel corpora­
tion, or in a retail store of a clothing manufacturer. The industry
in which the injury occurred is in this way specifically identified, in
addition to the major economic activity to which it is tied. The
advantage of this type of analysis is that it permits a determination
of whether the accident experience of captive or subsidiary establish­
ments is better or worse than those of establishments operated inde­
pendently. The point, of course, is that the operations of captive or
subsidiary establishments may be subject to the safety regulations
covering the large firm’s operations, where no such program may cover
the independent concern which may be as large or even larger, in terms
of employment, than the captive or subsidiary plant, mine, etc., in
itself.
Accident date.— The month of the year is punched in the first 2
columns, from 01 for January to 12 for December. The year is indi­
cated by the last digit, 1938, for instance, being indicated by 8, 1939
by 9, etc. The difference between this number and the first digit of
the employer number is that the number here represents the year in
which the disability was incurred , whereas the first digit of the em­
ployer number indicates the year in which the injury was reported to
the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation. Injuries sustained in
November or December of 1938, for instance, may not be reported
until early in 1939. Particularly will delays of this type be true of
contested cases. The tabulations of Pennsylvania, as already stated,
are on the “ year in which reported” basis, rather than on the “ year
in which the accident occurred” basis.
Hours worked.— This item will not be found in the proposed report
form. In addition to asking for the hour of the accident, the Penn­
sylvania form has the additional question: Hour injured began work­
ing. The difference between the hour the injured began working and
the hour at which the accident occurred measures the number of hours
the employee worked before being injured. The data are intended to
throw some light on the incidence of disabling injuries as related to
the hours of the working day.
This item will be found of secondary importance in most jurisdic­
tions, and has not been provided for on the proposed report form.
A ge. — The two columns for age allow for 99 years.
C. C. (<
conjugal condition) and sex.— Marital status and sex are
provided for in this column.
Dependency. — Two columns are provided for this item on the
Pennsylvania card in keeping with a code somewhat more complex
than the one suggested in chapter 7. The code suggested as standard
requires only one column.




195

APPENDIX A

O ccu p a tion . — Three columns are required by the occupation code
now used by the Bureau.
T im e e m p lo y e d . — The single column meets the requirements of the
code given in chapter 7. The purpose of this information is to de­
termine whether employees new to jobs have relatively higher pro­
portions of disabling injuries than workers who have been working
at their jobs for longer periods of time.
W a g e . — The wage is punched to the nearest dollar and is the wage
actually earned per week at the time of injury. The purpose of this
information is to furnish data for the computation of wage loss.
A c c id e n t

cause

{A g e n c y ;

ag en cy

p a r t;

m echanical defect; p erson a l d efect). — The

accident

typ e;

u n sa fe

act;

provisions on the card meet
the requirements of the complete proposed cause code. The coding
is carried to the full detail allowed by the code. Jurisdictions wishing
to delete some of these items or to contract some of the codes will be
able to reduce the number of columns required accordingly.
I n j u r y . — Nature: The one column meets the requirements of the
proposed code.
Location: The two columns are required by the proposed code.
They may be reduced to one if the contracted code for location of
injury is used. Generally, however, such a contraction will not be
found to be desirable.
R e p o rt lag. — All jurisdictions need report-lag information, but,
because of deficient staffing or pressure of work, some may not be
able to tabulate such data. It is urged that, where possible, provision
be made for this item.
In su r a n ce carrier. — As a general rule, two digits, allowing for the
listing of 99 carriers, will be found sufficient. Jurisdictions with
exclusive State funds, of course, will not require this information at all
and consequently may omit this item from the card, or may wish to
use it to identify self-insuring employers.
D is a b ilit y . — The proposed code requires only one column.
P a y m e n t lag. — Jurisdictions unable to compile data on payment lag
will want to omit this item from the card.
T im e lost. — The time lost because of the disability is to be shown in
weeks and calendar days. The three columns for weeks allow for a
total of 999 weeks on any one card, and the “ days” column allows for
another 6 days. It is unlikely that more than three columns will be
required for “ weeks” in any jurisdiction, because 999 weeks are
equivalent to more than 19 years. Should it be necessary, an extra
column may be added. The “ days” column is to be used for fractions
of weeks. If a disability, for instance, lasts only 4 days, the punching
will be 0004. If, on the other hand, it is 67 weeks and 0 days, then the
punching will show 0670. The “ time lost” item, incidentally, should




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M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

reflect the actual period of disability, and not the period for which
compensation is payable or has been paid.
C ost (com p en sa tion ; m ed ica l; other; total ).— Under these items are to
be punched the costs for each reported injury. If no compensation
payment is involved, but only medical cost, and that is reported, then
zeros are to be punched in the compensation columns, and the amount
paid as medical, rounded to the nearest dollar, should be punched in
the appropriate columns. The number of columns used for each of
these items will, of course, depend on the maximum amounts payable
under the given State law and should be so adjusted.
Statu s o f ca se .— The column utilized for the item of “ status of case”
is a “ left-over” and serves for a problem peculiar to the Pennsylvania
Bureau organization and otherwise would remain blank. The proposed
method of coding, therefore, even when carried to all possible detail
allowed by the proposed codes, and including one extra column for
dependency and two more for hours worked than the proposed codes
require, still leaves one vacant column. If the three extra columns are
not necessary, the 80-column card will care for all of the proposed code
detail and still leave 4 columns to spare.




Appendix B .— Employer-Record Card
Some jurisdictions have found it desirable to keep an employerrecord card on which every injury reported by an employer is recorded.
In some instances the record card carries no more than the name of
the injured worker, the date of injury, and the case number. Other
jurisdictions have gone further and use the card to give some indica­
tion of the injury and the compensation costs involved. A card with
this more comprehensive information serves four purposes:
1. It furnishes an office record of case numbers of the employer,
making possible the location of a given record (if filed by case number)
if the employer and employee names are known.
2. It furnishes a current and complete record of reported disabling
injuries, which a factory inspector may utilize to inform himself
thoroughly before making his visit to a plant or shop.
3. It furnishes complete compensation costs for each employer in
connection with problems of insurance costs.
4. It furnishes a record of the insurance-policy termination date,
making possible a timely follow-up.
Em ployer:________________ Address:____________________ Employer N o _______________
Industry:__________________Insurer:_____________________Policy expires:______________

Disability
Cost
Acci­ Case Na­ Injury
Employee name dent No. ture location
Com­
date
Type Weeks Days pensa­ Med­ Other Total
tion ical

The form reproduced here was designed for the Florida Industrial
Commission. It is intended to be used on both sides, which are to
be printed identically, except that the part of the card forming the
top on one side will form the bottom on the other, i. e., the so-called
“ tumble arrangement.” ^ If the individual entries are to be made on a
197




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M ANU AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

typewriter, no additional lines are required on the form. But if the
entries are to be made by hand, then it will be desirable to have the
card ruled with the lines about %e.of an inch apart. The suggested
dimensions of the card are 8 K "X 1 1 ".
The items at the head of the card require little explanation. If the
employer is insured by a casualty carrier, then the name of the carrier
is to be shown. If the employer is self-insured, the entry should be
“ self-insurer.” If the carrier is changed, the first entry is to be
crossed out and the new carrier to be shown directly above.
Similarly, the “ policy expires” date is to be corrected as a new
policy is written or an old one renewed. The correction can be made
by crossing out the old number and writing the new number above it.
For the individual disabling injuries reported, the following items
are to be shown: The injured employee’s name; the date of the acci­
dent, or, in the case of an industrial disease, the date on which the
disability began; the case number; the nature of the injury, to be
shown, where necessary, in abbreviated form, such as: amp. for amputa­
tion, cone, for concussion, punc. for puncture, fract. for fracture, etc.;
the type of disability to be shown as: D. for death, P. T. for per­
manent total, P. P. for permanent partial, T. T. for temporary total,
T. P. for temporary partial, and M. for medical only (noncompensable); injury location to be described briefly as hand, index and
middle fingers, left eye, right leg, toes (right foot), etc. Under
“ weeks” and “ days” is to be shown the actual (not the compensable)
period of disability; and under the various items shown under “ cost,”
the amounts paid as compensation benefits, medical expense, other
expenses (such as funeral, artificial appendages, etc.), and the total
cost.
The entries through “ injury location” are to be made from the
injury report. The remaining entries are to be made from the finalsettlement receipt. If the employer card is used to furnish the case
number for reports filed subsequent to the injury report, then the
disability and cost entries can be made on the card at the same time
that the case number is copied from the card onto the final report.




Appendix C.—Accident>Cause Statistics and Accident
Prevention in Pennsylvania
On January 1, 1938, the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation of
Pennsylvania put into effect a method of statistical analysis aimed
at providing the accident prevention section of the Bureau of Inspec­
tion with adequate information concerning the frequency and causes
of industrial injuries. The procedure was based essentially on a
modification of the Heinrich Cause Code, and was patterned closely
after the version presented in chapter 9. It utilized also an employer’s
report of industrial injury patterned closely after the report form
suggested here, but carrying more detail. The Pennsylvania report
form was adopted after it had been submitted to the criticisms of
employer and insurance company representatives at an open meeting,
and various changes had been made in the original draft in keeping
with these criticisms.
The coding is done directly by an experienced factory inspector, a
graduate engineer.1 He analyzes the incoming reports of injuries and
assigns the proper cause-code items, indicating agency, agency part,
accident type, unsafe act, unsafe mechanical or physical conditions,
and, in certain instances, personal fault. These code items, together
with all the other information coded, are transferred to tabulating
cards, which are afterward verified for accuracy of punching. These
cards are then sent to the tabulating section for the monthly tabula­
tions.
The monthly statistical tabulations are of two kinds: (1) Those for
publicity, and (2) those for the accident prevention section. The
first of these tabulations comprise 4 tables monthly. Table 1 gives
a distribution by major industry groups of all injuries reported during
the month, classified by the “ object causing injury” ; i. e., the agency,
for which the major groups in the agency code are utilized. Table 2
distributes these reported injuries by accident cause (both unsafe act
and unsafe material or physical conditions) and “ object causing
injury.” In the cause classifications, the major cause groups given
in chapter 9 are used. Table 3 gives accident types as well as nature
of injury by “ object causing injury,” and table 4 gives a distribution
of reported injuries by accident cause, accident type, and nature of
injury.

i Replaced July 1939.
199
159726°— 40-




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M A N U AL ON INDUSTRIAL-INJURY STATISTICS

The tabulations for the accident prevention section are divided into
(1) those which are made monthly or quarterly, and (2) those which
are to be utilized for special safety drives or for publicity activities
aimed at specific accident causes.
In the first of these categories, the following tables are to be com­
piled regularly, the first three monthly and the fourth quarterly:
(1) Table 1 is to present monthly, for each of the 7 factory-inspection
districts, the number of reported disabling injuries by extent of dis­
ability (i. e., fatal, permanent total, permanent partial, and temporary
total), as well as the percentage which each of these is of the total
reported injuries. For instance, in a given month district No. 1 had
7 fatalities, which amounted to 15 percent of the total fatalities for
the State. The table is also to contain cumulative total and cumula­
tive percentage figures, to give a running summation from the begin­
ning of the year through the last month covered.
(2) Table 2 is to give monthly for each district a summation of
accident causes (using major cause groups) by industry. The num­
ber of injuries, as well as the percentage which each number is of the
total, is to be shown. The industries listed will vary according to
those found in each particular district.
(3) Table 3 is to show monthly for each district the “ agency”
involved in the accident cause and the type of disability that resulted
from it. These disabilities are to be classified by extent, i. e., fatal,
permanent total, etc.
(4) Table 4, compiled quarterly, is to show for each district b y in ­
dividual em p lo yers the number of fatal, permanent, and temporary
injuries.
Upon request, the accident prevention section is to be furnished,
on several days’ notice, the experience of any employer.
The purpose of all these data, of course, is to acquaint the safety
men in each district with the injury experiences of employers, to indi­
cate the important accident causes, and to make possible the identifi­
cation of establishments whose accident records warrant investigation.
Instead of making routine inspections, spending time on good as well
as bad accident-record plants, safety men will be able to determine
where their work will be most effective. The statistics are to tell
them where to go and what accident causes to look for.
In this connection, it is pertinent to indicate briefly the changes
that were made in the organization of the section to enable it to utilize
the statistical analysis and to function more effectively. The factory
inspectors of Pennsylvania are required to inspect plants not only
for hazards, but also for compliance with wage and hour laws, childlabor laws, etc. These burdens leave little time for any intensive
and intelligently planned safety work. It was therefore thought




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201

advisable to select from the ranks of the factory inspectors of each
district a competent and trained safety man, who was to be freed of
all duties except safety work. The functions of each of these special­
ized safety men are: To work with other inspectors in making accident
investigations; to train these factory inspectors in safety; to promote
safety organizations in plants; to promote local safety councils; to
make surveys of accident problems in particular industries; to study
the accident statistics and to determine from them where action is
necessary and what types of unsafe acts and conditions are to be
guarded against, and to communicate this information to the other
inspectors in the district; to act as clearing centers for safe practices
in their districts; and finally, to cooperate closely with local safety
movements.
Special drives are to be organized periodically to meet specific
accident hazards, such as improper illumination or ventilation, unsafe
ladders and scaffolds, etc. Each drive is to be based on the statistics
of disabling injuries due to the particular hazard, and is to have the
cooperation of manufacturers interested in proper equipment, of
safety groups, etc., and to utilize the press, the radio, the meeting
hall, and any other avenue that will spread the gospel of safety.
It is believed that the cost of this entire program will be but a
fraction of the savings to the employers and employees of the State
in terms of prevented accidents.




o