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U IT D STATES D PA TM N O L B R
N E
E R E T F AO




•

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

• Bulletin No. 1635




LABOR in the
TEXTILE and
APPAREL
INDUSTRIES
Bulletin No. 1 6 35

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
George P. Shultz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ge offrey H. Moore, Commissioner

•~ ^ 5 T '

August 1 9 6 9

For sale

by

the




Supe rinte ndent

of

D ocum e nts,

U.S .

Governm ent

Pr in tin g Office,

W as h in g to n ,

D.C.,

20402.

P r ic e $1,00




Acknowledgments

The report is a product of the Department of Laborfs
Bureau of Labor Statistics in consultation with the Bureau
of International Labor Affairs. It was prepared under the
supervision of H. M. Douty of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Other principal contributors from the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics were David P. Lafayette (Office of Manpower and
Employment Statistics); Edgar Weinberg (Office of Productivity,
Technology, and Growth); William M. Davis (Office of Wages and
Industrial Relations); and Julian Frechtman (Office of Foreign
Labor and Trade). Herbert N. Blackman and Irving I. Kramer of
the Bureau of International Labor Affairs contributed signifi­
cantly to the planning and development of the project.




iii







Page
Summary ............................................

1

Employment, Unemployment and Labor Turnover....... .

11

A.

Textiles.... ..................................

11

Current Employment Situation ................
Employment Trends ...........................
Unemployment Trends .........................
Labor Turnover ..............................

11
11

A p p a r e l ...................... .................

14

Current Employment Situation ................
Employment Trends ...........................
Unemployment Trends .........................
Labor Turnover........ ......................

14
14
15
16

B.

Industry Location............ ..................

13
13

17

A.

Textiles ......................................

17

B.

Apparel .......................................

18

Establishment Size .................................

20

A.

Textiles ......................................

20

B.

Apparel .......................................

20

Labor Force Characteristics: Skill, Education, Race,
Sex and A g e ....... ...........................
A.

Textiles ............... ...................
Skill .......................................
Education ...................................
Race ........................................
Women Workers ...............................
A g e .........................................

v

22

22
22
23
24
25

Content s— Cont inued
Page
B.

25

Skill .......................................
Education...................................
Race .......
Women Workers ............
Age .........................................
V.

Apparel .......................................

25
26
26
27
27

Technological Change ...............................

29

Textiles ......................................

29

Operating Characteristics ...................
Manpower Utilization ........................
Interplant Differences in Performance .......
Some Factors Affecting IndustryPerformance ..
Adjustments to Technological Change .........

29
29
30
30
34

A p p a r e l .......................................

35

Operating Characteristics ...................
Manpower Utilization ........................
Some Factors Affecting IndustryPerformance ..
Adjustments to Technological Change .........

35
36
36
38

Wages and Industrial Relations ...................

39

A.

B.

VI.

A.

Textiles ......................................

39

Wage and Benefit Levels .....................
Wage and Benefit Trends .....................
Industrial Relations ........................

39
41
42

Apparel .......................................

44

Wage and Benefit Levels .....................
Wage and Benefit Trends .....................
Industrial Relations ........................

44
46
47

Textiles and Apparel in Puerto Rico ...............

49

B.

VII.




Employment and Unemployment .....................
Size of Establishment ...........................
Wage and Benefit Levels .........................
Industrial Relations .............................
vi

49
51
51
53

Contents— Continued
Page
Statistical Appendix .........................................
Table 1 - Total Employment: Manufacturing, Textiles,
and Apparel, 1947 to 1968 ..................
Table 2 - Unemployment Rates in Manufacturing, Textiles
and Apparel, 1958 to 1968 ............. .....
Table 3 - Labor Turnover Rates: Manufacturing, Tex­
tiles andApparel* 1958 to 1967 .............
Table 4 - Employment in Textiles, by Region and State,
June 1968 ..............
Table 5 - Employment in Apparel, by Region and State,
March 1968 .................................
Table 6 - Percent Distribution of Employment in Manu­
facturing, Textiles and Apparel, by Area,
First Quarter, 1967 .........................
Table 7 - Percent Distribution of Employment in Textiles
in Selected States, by Area, First Quarter,
1967 .......................................
Table 8 - Percent Distribution of Employment in Apparel
for Selected States, by Area, First Quarter,
1967 .......................................
Table 9 - Employment in Textiles and Apparel, as Percent
of Manufacturing Employment, by Selected
.
States and Areas,First Quarter, 1967 .......
Table 10- Percent Distribution of Employees, by Employ­
ment-Size Class, by Selected Industry, First
Quarter, 1967
.................
Table 11- Percent Distribution of Establishments, by
Employment-Size Class, by Selected Industry,
First Quarter, 1967 and 1962 ...............
Table 12- Percent Distribution of Employed Workers in
Selected Industries, by Broad Occupational
Group, 1968 ................................
Table 13- Percent Distribution of Years of School Com­
pleted by the Experienced Civilian Labor
Force in Manufacturing, Textiles, and Apparel,
1960 .......................................
Table 14- Percentage Distribution of Nonwhite Employment
in Manufacturing, Textiles and Apparel, by
Sex, 1962 to 1968 ...............
Table 15- Percent Employment of Negroes in the Textile
Industry, by Selected States,1966 .........
Table 16- Percent Employment of Negroes in the Apparel
Industry, by Selected States,1966 ..........




vii

54

55
56
57
58
59

60

61

62

63

66

67

68

69

70
71
72

Contents— Cont inued
Page
Table 17- Employment of Women in Manufacturing and in
Textile and Apparel Industries, 1960 and
1967 ..........................................
Table 18- Percent Distribution of Employed Persons by Age,
Manufacturing, Textiles, and Apparel, 1960
and 1950 ......................................
Table 19- Changes in Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings
and Average Weekly Hours of Production Workers
in Textile Manufacturing, October 1958 to
October 1968 ................
Table 20- Annual Earnings of Workers in the Textile Industry
and Selected Branches, 1964 ...................
Table 21- Estimated Proportions of Production Workers
Earning Less than $2.00 an Hour in Selected
Textile Industries, United States and Southeast,
October 1968 ..................................
Table 22- Paid Holiday Provisions for Production Workers in
Selected Textile Industries, United States and
Selected Regions ..............................
Table 23- Vacation Benefits in Selected Textile Industries,
United States and Selected Regions ............
Table 24- Health and Welfare Benefits for Production Workers
in Selected Textile Industries, United States
and Selected Regions ..........................
Table 25- General Wage Increases, Cotton and Synthetic Tex­
tile Industries, North and South, 1950-68 .....
Table 26- Annual Earnings of Textile Workers, 1946-64 .....
Table 27- Proportion of Workers Covered by Union Agreements
in Selected Textile Industries, United States
and Selected Regions ..........................
Table 28- Membership of the Major Unions in the Textile and
Apparel Industries, 1956, 1960, 1964 and 1966 ..
Table 29- Work Stoppages in the United States, All Indus­
tries and Textile, 1956-67 ....................
Table 30- Changes in Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings and
Average Weekly Hours of Production Workers in
Apparel Manufacturing, October 1958 to October
1968 ..........................................
Table 31- Annual Earnings of Workers in Apparel Industry
and Selected Branches, 1964 ...................
Table 32- Average Hourly Earnings in Selected Occupations,
Selected Apparel Industries ...................
Table 33- Estimated Proportions of Production Workers Earn­
ing Less than $2.00 an Hour in Selected Apparel
Industries, United States and Selected Regions,
October 1968 ..................................




viii

73

74

75
76

77

78
79

80
81
82

83
84
85

86
87
88

89

Contents— Continued
Page
Table 34- Annual Earnings of Apparel Workers, 1946-64 ..
Table 35- Major Collective Bargaining Agreements in the
Apparel Industry ..........................
Table 36- Work Stoppages in the United States, All
Industries and Apparel, 1956-67 ...........
Table 37- Employment in Puerto Rico in All Manufactur­
ing, Textiles, and Apparel, 1957-67 .......
Table 38- Employment in Puerto Rico in Selected Textile
and Apparel Industries, 1957-67 ...........
Table 39- Employment, Underemployment and Unemployment
in Puerto Rico, 1957-67 ...................
Table 40- Employment and Number of Plants by Plant Size
in Puerto Rico in Manufacturing, Textiles,
and Apparel, 1957, 1966 and October 1967 ...
Table 41- Employment and Number of Plants by Plant Size
in Puerto Rico in Manufacturing, Textiles,
and Apparel, 1957 and 1966 ................
Table 42- Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings, and
Average Weekly Hours, Manufacturing, Tex­
tiles, and Apparel, Puerto Rico, 1957-67 ...
Table 43- Average Hourly Earnings, Textiles and Apparel,
Mainland and Puerto Rico, 1957-68 .........




ix

90
91
92
93
94
95

96

97

98
99




L A B O R IN T H E T E X T I L E A N D A P P A R E L IN D U S T R IE S

SUMMARY

Textiles and apparel are among the oldest manufacturing industries
in the United States.!./

Together they employ a significant fraction

of the industrial labor force.

Each industry consists of a compara­

tively large number of firms and establishments which are widely dis­
persed geographically.

Either separately or in combination, the two

industries account for a sizable proportion of factory employment in
numerous small- and medium-sized communities.

Employment in apparel

is relatively important in several major metropolitan areas.

In the

United States market, both industries operate generally under condi­
tions of intense product competition, including competition from im­
ported yarns, fabrics, and garments from many parts of the world.
The purpose of the present report is to summarize available
information on labor and related economic conditions in the two indus­
tries.

The data presented are drawn largely from the Bureau of Labor

Statistics, the Bureau of the Census, and other governmental agencies.
Wherever possible, statistics are presented through 1968.

It is hoped

that the report, aside from such immediate interest as it may have, will
provide a convenient source of background information for the appraisal
of future labor developments in these industries.

1 / The textile industry, as used in this report, conforms to
major industry groups 22 of the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual; the apparel industry conforms to major industry group 23.




-

2

-

Employment and Unemployment
During 1968, the textile and apparel industries combined employed
an average of 2.4 million workers —
in apparel.

985,000 in textiles and 1,417,000

The two industries together accounted for about one-eighth

of all manufacturing employment.
Employment trends in the two industries differed significantly
during the postwar period.

Between 1947 and 1968, employment in tex­

tiles fell by 24 percent, with most of the decline occurring by 1958.
The rate of decline slowed between 1958 and 1963 and was reversed in
1964 under the stimulus of rapid national economic growth.

In the

case of apparel, employment was almost 23.percent greater in 1968 than
in 1947, with much of the increase occurring after 1961.

In manufac­

turing as a whole, employment was about 27 percent greater in 1968
than in 1947.
The ratio of employment in apparel to that in all manufacturing—
7.2 percent in 1968 - - has not changed markedly during the postwar
i
period; on the other hand, the textile proportion declined from more
than 8 percent in the late 1940's to 5 percent in 1968.
The unemployment rate in textiles generally has been somewhat
higher than the manufacturing rate in recent years, and the rate in
the apparel industry has been significantly higher.

In 1968, average

unemployment rates in manufacturing, textiles, and apparel were 3.2,
3.5, and 5.9, respectively.




- 3 Labor Turnover
Labor turnover rates (accessions and separations) have been sub­
stantially higher in apparel than in manufacturing as a whole since
1958, when these data first became available; in textiles, both separa­
tion and accession rates were lower than in manufacturing generally
until 1965.

The quit rate in both textiles and apparel has risen dur­

ing the past several years, suggesting that alternative employment
opportunities have widened.
Industry Location
The apparel industry is somewhat less concentrated regionally
than the textile industry.

Almost 70 percent of the textile labor

force was employed in the South in 1968, and the remainder was found
largely in the Northeast.

More than half of all textile employment

was accounted for by the three States of North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Georgia.
To a highly unusual extent among manufacturing industries, tex­
tile employment is found in small communities.

In 1967, the most recent

year for which these data are available, about 61 percent of the tex­
tile workers were employed in nonmetropolitan areas.
textile States the proportion was considerably higher.

In some major
For example,

the proportion of textile employment in nonmetropolitan areas was 70
percent in Georgia, 77 percent in South Carolina, and 86 percent in
North Carolina.

Textiles provided somewhat more than half of all

factory jobs in nonmetropolitan areas in North and South Carolina,




- 4 and about one-third in Georgia.

Additionally, textiles provided

one-fourth or more of all manufacturing jobs in a substantial number
of metropolitan areas.

The industry is thus of critical importance in

the economic life of many small and of some larger communities.
Regionally, about 46 percent of apparel employment in 1968 was in
the Northeast, 36 percent in the South, almost 11 percent in the North
Central States, and the remainder in the West.
urban industry than textiles.

Apparel is more of an

It is, of course, a major source of fac­

tory jobs in New York City, and a significant source of employment in a
number of other large communities.

However, about one-third of apparel

employment is found in nonmetropolitan areas.

In fact, apparel accounted

for more than 15 percent of all factory jobs in the nonmetropolitan areas
of six States:

Pennsylvania, Missouri, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama and

Mississippi.
The two industries combined account for a very high proportion of
all manufacturing jobs in some States.

In South Carolina, for example,

about 58 percent of manufacturing employment is found in these two indus­
tries; in North Carolina the proportion is almost half.

Even in the

industrially diversified State of New York, textiles and apparel combined
provide more than 18 percent of manufacturing employment.
Establishment Size
Both industries consist of large numbers of establishments —

in

1967, textile establishments numbered 7,083 and apparel establishments
25,498.2/

The two industries combined accounted for about 11 percent

of all manufacturing establishments.

2/




Based on Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns. 1967.

- 5 In terms of establishment-size distribution by number of employees,
textiles conformed much more closely than apparel to manufacturing as a
whole.

In 1967, 46 percent of the workers in manufacturing were em­

ployed in establishments with 500 or more employees.

The proportion of

workers in textiles in this establishment-size group was 45 percent and
in apparel only 17 percent.

On the other hand, almost 38 percent of

the workers in apparel were in establishments with fewer than 100 em­
ployees; the proportion for textiles was approximately 15 percent.
small establishments are numerous in both industries.

Very

In textiles, 37

percent of the establishments employed fewer than 19 workers; in apparel,
49 percent of the establishments were in this employment-size class.
The proportion of total employment in these small establishments, how­
ever, was only 2.3 percent in textiles and 6.4 percent in apparel.
Labor Force Characteristics
a.

Skill.

Both the textile and apparel industries have unusually

high proportions of semi-skilled (operatives and kindred) workers —
67 percent in textiles and 78 percent in apparel.

about

These proportions re­

flect the nature of the production processes in the two industries, prin­
cipally the existence of large numbers of highly specialized operations.
In manufacturing generally, about 44 percent of the employees are in the
semi-skilled category.

Skilled workers account for about 12 percent of

the employed labor force in textiles, 5 percent in apparel, and almost
19 percent in manufacturing as a whole.
b.

Education.

The educational attainment of workers in both in­

dustries, on the average, is below the level in manufacturing generally.




-

6

-

In 1960, the latest year for which this information is available, the
median years of schooling completed by textile workers was slightly
less than 8.0; by apparel workers, 9.7; and by workers in manufacturing
as a whole, 11.0.
c.

Race.

In textiles, in 1968, whites constituted 90.5, and non­

whites 9.5 percent, of total employment.
facturing generally was 9.7 percent.

The nonwhite proportion in manu­

The proportion of nonwhite employ­

ment in textiles doubled between 1962 and 1968 for a relatively greater
gain than in manufacturing as a whole, and the upward trend appears to
be continuing into 1969.

In absolute numbers, nonwhites held about

55,000 more jobs in textiles in 1968 than in 1962.

By State, nonwhite

employment in textiles in 1966, the most recent year for which State data
are available, ranged from 2 percent in Massachusetts to 13 percent in
New Jersey.

In the important textile States of North Carolina, South

Carolina, and Georgia, the range was from 8 to 10 percent.
In recent years, the employment of nonwhites has been proportionately
greater in apparel than in manufacturing generally.

Between 1962 and

1968, nonwhite workers increased from 9.3 to 12.7 percent of apparel em­
ployment —

a somewhat slower rate of increase than in textiles but greater

than for all manufacturing.

Preliminary data for early 1969 indicate that

the nonwhite employment ratio continues to grow.

In some labor markets,

the apparel industry employs large numbers of workers of other minority
groups, notably Puerto Ricans in New York City and Cubans in Miami.

By

State, nonwhite employment in 1966 ranged from 4 percent in Tennessee to
16 percent in South Carolina.




The rate was 10 percent in New York.

- 7 d.

Sex,

The employment of women in both industries is relatively

much greater than in manufacturing as a whole.

In 1967, women consti^

tuted about 45 percent of the labor force in textiles, compared with
approximately 27 percent in all manufacturing.

The proportion of women

employees in apparel is extraordinarily high —

almost 80 percent.

The

occupational requirements of these industries are such as to make each a
major source of factory employment for women.
e.

Age.

In 1960, the median age of workers in manufacturing gen­

erally was 39.5 years.
higher —

The median age in textiles was only moderately

40.7 years, largely reflecting the somewhat greater proportion

of workers over 44 years of age (39 percent in textiles compared with
35 percent in all manufacturing).
The median age level of workers in apparel was 41.7 years, the high­
est for any major manufacturing industry.

About 41 percent of the apparel

workers were over 44 years of age in 1960, and a relatively high propor­
tion —

9.1 percent —

were over 59 years.

The relatively high proportion of women in the textile and apparel
labor force probably has an effect on age distribution in these industries.
Women tend to leave the labor force at about 25 years of age and to return
soon after age 40, when family responsibilities become less burdensome.
In the case of textiles, contracting employment during the 1950fs presum­
ably affected age composition.

In apparel, the seasonal nature of the

industry may provide an opportunity for some older workers to supplement
their retirement incomes by employment during peak seasons.




-

8

-

Technological Change
During the past few years heavy capital expenditures in the tex­
tile industry have been made for the modernization of plant and equip­
ment, and for additional capacity.

Such expenditures are estimated at

$4.6 billion over the period 1964-68.

Improved managerial capacity and

changes in industry organization also have affected manpower utiliza­
tion.

Although definitive data on productivity are lacking, man-hour

output appears to have advanced substantially in recent years.

Levels

of performance among plants within the industry differ widely, reflect­
ing differences in capital investment, age of equipment, plant size, and
other factors.
In apparel, the scope for technological improvement and innovation
appears more limited^ than in textiles.

The industry1s expenditures in

recent years for new plant and equipment, although increasing, have been
among the lowest per production worker among manufacturing industries.
Research and development expenditures are on a small scale.

The tech­

nology of apparel manufacture is comparatively simple and highly labor
intensive.

The capital-labor ratio in apparel, based on 1963 data, was

about one-half of the ratio for textile mill products and about one-fourth
of the all manufacturing ratio.
While intense competition results in severe pressure on costs,
advances in mechanization remain difficult for the typical apparel firm.
The tendency for production runs to be short complicates the problem.
The use of mass production methods of standardization, simplification,




- 9 and specialization is limited by the demands of fashion for frequent
changes of style*

Reliance is placed largely on improved production

engineering techniques and on comparatively small improvements in
equipment to enhance efficiency in the use of manpower.
Wages and Industrial Relations
Production workers in textiles had straight-time average hourly
earnings of about $2.15 in October 1968; including premium pay for
overtime, earnings were $2.27 an hour.

Weekly earnings averaged $94.00.

Some sectors within the broad industry group had relatively large propor­
tions of workers below the $1.60 Federal minimum wage, which was intro­
duced February 1, 1968.

Employee benefits, such as paid holidays, vaca­

tions, and insurance and pension plans, tend to be less liberal in textiles
than in manufacturing generally.
Wage adjustments have accelerated in the textile industry in recent
years.

Six rounds of wage increases in southern textile mills occurred

between 1963 and 1968.

The first four each amounted to about 5 percent;

the 1967 increase was 6 to 6 1/2 percent; and the 1968 adjustment aver­
aged about 6 percent.

Wages continued upward in 1969.

Unionization is not extensive in the dominant southern division of
the textile industry.

The incidence of industrial disputes has been com­

paratively low in recent years.
In apparel, production workers averaged $2.22 an hour in straight-time
wages in October 1968; the addition of premium overtime pay raises the
average by 5 cents.




Average weekly earnings were about $83.00.

As in

-

10

-

textiles, wages in some sectors of the apparel industry were signifi­
cantly affected by the $1.60 Federal minimum wage.

The length of the

standard workweek in major divisions of the women's apparel industry is
35 hours; in men's apparel, the standard is typically 40 hours.

Average

actual weekly hours are subject to seasonal variation, but in recent
years have tended to fall below the level in manufacturing generally.
Employee benefit provisions vary considerably among industries in the
apparel group.
The pace of wage adjustments in apparel began to quicken in 1965.
Unionization is more extensive than in textiles, although some segments
of apparel are not well organized.

Work stoppages have not been exten­

sive in recent years.
Puerto Rico
Average factory employment in textiles in Puerto Rico exceeded
7,000 workers in 1968; in apparel the average was 37,000.

The two indus­

tries combined accounted for almost one-third of all factory employment
on the Island.

Puerto Rican textile employment was about 0.7 percent of

textile employment on the mainland; in apparel, the proportion was about
2.6 percent.
In 1968, average hourly earnings in the Puerto Rican textile indus­
try were $1.45 and in apparel $1.44.

In percentage terms, wage differ­

entials between Puerto Rico and the mainland have declined in both indus­
tries over the past decade; in cents-per-hour terms, differentials have
widened somewhat in the past several years.




-

I.

11

-

EMPLOYMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOR TURNOVER
A.

Textiles

Current Employment Situation
Employment in textile mills averaged 985,000 workers in 1968,
when the industry accounted for 5.0 percent of manufacturing em­
ployment. This represented an increase of about 2.9 percent over
average employment during 1967. During the same period, employment
in manufacturing as a whole increased by 1.5 percent.
The unemployment rate in textiles decreased from 3.8 to 3.5
percent between 1967 and 1968, while the rate in all manufacturing
declined from 3.6 to 3.2 percent.
The quit rate in textiles was slightly higher in November 1968
than in the corresponding month of 1967 — 3.1 as against 2.8 — ,
possibly signifying that alternative employment opportunities for
textile workers had experienced some improvement. However, the rate
for new hires was about the same in November of both years, suggest­
ing that the demand for workers had not altered.
Employment Trends
In 1967, nearly half of the total employment in textile mills
was divided almost equally between the two largest industry groups—
cotton broad woven fabrics and knit goods (including hosiery, fabric,
outerwear and underwear)• Three other industry groups combined— yarn
and thread, silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics, and finishing
textiles (except wool and knit)— accounted for nearly one-third of
all workers. The four remaining industry groups— weaving and finish­
ing broad woolens, floor covering, narrow fabrics and smallwares, and
miscellaneous textile goods— together employed one-fifth of the indus­
t r y ^ workers.
Employment in textile manufacturing establishments fell from about
1,300,000 in 1947 to approximately 985,000 in 1968, or by about 24 per­
cent (Appendix table 1). During the same period, total manufacturing
employment rose by 27 percent, to an all-time high of 19.7 million.
As a result, the proportion of manufacturing employment accounted for
by textiles fell from 8.4 percent to 5.0 percent. Most of the decline
in employment in the textile industry took place between 1947 and 1958.
Among the factors leading to this decline in textile employment
was a reorganization of the industry into larger, more efficient enter­
prises. The favorable business climate during the years immediately




12
after World War II led to considerable over-capacity, which in turn
created intense price competition among the small firms then dominat­
ing the industry. This climate encouraged mergers and the continued
migration of the industry to the South. The larger, more modern
capital-intensive plants in the South tended to reduce labor require­
ments in the industry over the period.
Other factors contributing to reduced employment in the industry
included the widespread acceptance and increased output of synthetic
fabrics, for which production processes were generally more highly
automatic than those used to manufacture textiles from natural fibers.
Imports of textile products also increased over the period, having
some influence on employment.
Between 1958 and 1963, employment in textile mills continued to
decline, but at a slower rate. The rapid growth of the economy in the
early 1960fs blunted this decline, and in 1964 textile employment began
to increase. Further stimulated by the Vietnam conflict, employment
rose between 1964 and 1968 by about 100,000 employees. The only other
period in the postwar era when the textile industry experienced employ­
ment growth of more than a yearfs duration was during the 1945-48 boom.
Employment rose in seven of the nine textile mill industry groups
between 1958 and 1967 .U
However, significant employment declines in
the two remaining groups— cotton broad woven goods and wool weaving and
finishing— nearly^ offset these gains. Rising production and use of syn­
thetic fabrics, as well as increasing consumer acceptance of blended
synthetic and natural fiber fabrics, resulted in decreased demand for
fabrics made solely of cotton or wool. As a result, employment in cot­
ton and wool textile mills has tended to decline.
Employment in the second largest industry subgroup, knitting, de­
clined between 1947 and 1958, from 242,000 to a low of 207,000. The
introduction of nylon seamless hosiery after World War II contributed
importantly to the decline, since the equipment used to make seamless
hosiery was more automatic than that which it replaced. Nevertheless,
by 1967 employment in knitting mills had returned to the level of the
early 1950fs, and accounted for about one-fourth of total industry
employment, compared to less than one-fifth in 1947. This recent
growth has been stimulated by increasing consumer preference for casual
wear, including knitted outerwear such as shirts and sweaters.

1/ BLS employment (payroll) data prior to 1958 are available
separately for only three industry groups— knitting; yarn and thread;
and finishing textiles (except wool and knit).




- 13
Unemployment Trends
Textile workers experienced a relatively high rate of unemployment
between 1958 and 1968 (Appendix table 2).
The unemployment rate for
textile workers was somewhat higher than that for all manufacturing for
every year between 1958 and 1968, except 1961 and 1962, but there is no
evidence of any significant change in the relationship over the years.
The percentage of the textile labor force that was unemployed ranged
from a high of 9.5 in 1958, to a low of 3.5 in 1968.
The high unemployment rates in the late 1950fs undoubtedly reflected
the sharp decline in textile employment during the decade ending in
1958, which left a relatively large pool of unemployed experienced tex­
tile workers. However, by 1968, many of these workers had either moved
to other industries or had been absorbed back into textile employment
in the tight labor markets of 1966-68. In recent years, some textile
manufacturers appear to have experienced labor shortages, especially
of male skilled workers. During 1968, the unemployment rate for male
textile workers averaged 1.7 percent for the year. This was 0.7 of a
percentage point lower than the unemployment rate for all male manu­
facturing workers in that year.
Labor Turnover
Separation rates in textile mills rose significantly between
1958 and 1967 (Appendix table 3). Although the layoff rate in 1967
was less than half the rate in 1958, the quit rate was more than 2 1/2
times higher. In 1967, the quit rate was higher in textile mills than
in all manufacturing.
The high quit rates and low layoff rates in the textile industry
in recent years appear to indicate that the industryfs workers found
alternative job opportunities increasingly abundant over the 1958 to
1967 period. Many of the industryfs workers probably shifted to higher
paying jobs, either in other industries or in other textile mills.
The accession rate2J in the textile industry also rose substantially
during the 1958-67 period, reflecting increaising labor requirements and
the availability of additional workers. Many of the accessions during
this period of growing employment probably represented workers moving
from one textile establishment to another in search of more attractive
jobs.

2/




The rate at which employees are hired

- 14 B.

Apparel

Current Employment Situation
In the apparel industry, an average of 1,417,000 workers were
employed in 1968, an increase of 1,2 percent over 1967. The employ­
ment increase in manufacturing as a whole was 1.5 percent, as pre­
viously indicated. The apparel industry accounted for 7.2 percent of
manufacturing employment in 1968, down from 7.5 percent in 1965.
The unemployment rate in apparel fell from 6.5 percent in 1967
to 5.9 percent in 1968. This was the lowest unemployment rate in
the industry over the past decade. It remained, however, ‘
substan­
tially higher than the rate for all manufacturing.
Voluntary quits in the apparel industry were at the same rate
in November of both 1967 and 1968. Total accession and separation
rates were slightly lower in November 1968 than a year earlier.
In apparel, as in textiles, no unusual change in the employment
picture was evident as 1968 came to an end.
Employment Trends
In the apparel industry, more than 35 percent of the workers in
1967 were engaged in making clothing for men and boys, about 30 per­
cent produced womenfs outerwear, and 12 percent turned out fabricated
textile products, such as curtains and housefurnishings. The remain­
ing workers (about 22 percent) were employed in establishments making
women1s and childrenfs undergarments; girls1 and children’s outerwear;
hats, caps, and millinery; and fur goods and miscellaneous apparel.
Employment in apparel manufacturing establishments increased from
less than 1,200,000 to more than 1,400,000 between 1947 and 1968 (Ap­
pendix table 1). Apparel industry employment increased at the same
average rate as all manufacturing over the period. However, signifi­
cantly different growth rates were experienced by the industry from
year to year. During the late 1940fs and throughout most of the
1950fs, the industry’s employment remained relatively stable, fluc­
tuating between 1,150,000 and 1,250,000 workers. Not until 1962, how­
ever, did apparel employment again achieve the high level reached in
1953, about 1,250,000 workers. Since 1958, apparel employment has
increased by more than 250,000, or by more than one-fifth, only
slightly less than the average growth for manufacturing as a whole.
Employment change varied considerably among the different apparel
industry groups between 1947 and 1967, reflecting such factors as




- 15
changes in the age composition of the population and the trend toward
casual wear. Employment increased most rapidly (nearly 50 percent)
in the industry group producing girls1, children*s, and infants1 out­
erwear. This rise was stimulated mainly by the increasing proportion
of children in the population. Moreover, employment in the industry
group manufacturing women1s, misses1, and juniorfs outerwear-rose by
25 percent during this period. Another industry group with more than
a proportionate growth in employment was menfs and boys1 furnishings,
which increased by about 40 percent. In contrast, the industry group
manufacturing menfs and boys* suits and coats suffered an employment
decline of nearly 15 percent, reflecting the relative decline in
popularity of formal wear. The most rapid increase in apparel industry
employment between 1958 and 1967— ' occurred in miscellaneous fabricated
textile products, whose products include curtains, draperies, and other
textile house furnishings, where demand was stimulated by the growing
number of young adults establishing new households.
Unemployment Trends
In the apparel industry, unemployment rates have been significantly
above the level for all manufacturing in recent years, ranging from a
high of 12.0 in 1958 to a low of 5.9 in 1968 (Appendix table 2). During
this period the unemployment rate for apparel workers as well as all
manufacturing workers fluctuated with changes in economic conditions;
the rapid growth of the economy since 1961 has been reflected in sig­
nificantly lower rates for both manufacturing and apparel. Neverthe­
less, the general nature of the apparel industry— many small firms,
an easy-to-train labor force composed mostly of women, seasonality and
other characteristics— has resulted in significantly higher unemploy­
ment rates for apparel workers than for other workers, even in periods
of strong demand for apparel products. In addition, the ratio of ap­
parel unemployment to that of all manufacturing has tended to rise in
the past few years, mainly because the apparel rate has not fallen as
rapidly as that of all manufacturing. This could indicate an inability
of apparel workers to find alternative employment opportunities as easily
as manufacturing workers in general. However, it could also indicate
that the "frictional1 unemployment rate in the apparel industry is con­
1
siderably higher than in manufacturing, due mainly to the nature of the
industry and its labor force. Consequently, it may be very difficult
to achieve an unemployment rate in apparel corresponding at all closely
with the rate for manufacturing as a whole, even in periods of high-level
activity.

3/ BLS employment (payroll) data prior to 1958 are not available
separately for three industry groups— miscellaneous fabricated textile
products; fur goods and miscellaneous apparel; and hats, caps, and
millinery.




Labor Turnover
Separation rates in the apparel industry, unlike in textile mills,
rose little between 1958 and 1967 (Appendix table 3). However, the
quit rate in the industry in 1967 was significantly higher than in 1958,
indicating expanding job opportunities for the industryfs workforce.
Throughout the period, however, separation rates in the apparel indus­
try have been considerably higher than in manufacturing generally,
indicating relative instability in the industry. Much of this instabil­
ity can be traced to the existence of numerous small firms, and the high
rate of business mortality for such operations. In addition, seasonal
fluctuations in activity, and the high proportion of women workers would
tend to result in relatively high separation rates.




- 17
II.

INDUSTRY LOCATION
A.

Textiles

Regionally, the textile industry is heavily concentrated in the
South and the Northeast. In 1968, almost 70 percent of the industryfs
workers were employed in the Southern States (Appendix table 4). Three
Southern States— North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia— accounted
for more than half of textile employment. The Northeast, however, also
employed large numbers of textile workers, accounting for more than
one-fourth of the industryfs employment in 1968. Within the Northeast,
New York and Pennsylvania had particularly large concentrations of tex­
tile workers (6 and 7 percent, respectively). The North Central and
Pacific States together accounted for less than 5 percent of the indus­
try’s workers.
The textile industry is predominately located outside metropolitan
areas, unlike the typical manufacturing industry. In 1967, 61 percent
of the industry’s employment was located in nonmetropolitan areas, as
compared with about 21 percent of manufacturing employment (Appendix
table 6). However, this proportion varies greatly by region and State
(Appendix table 7). In the Northeast, textile employment in nonmetro­
politan areas ranged from 2 percent in Massachusetts to 29 percent in
Pennsylvania. In the South, however, most of the industry is located
in nonmetropolitan areas. In the three Southern States containing over
half the industry’s workers, employment in nonmetropolitan areas ranged
from 70 percent in Georgia to 86 percent in North Carolina.
Employment in 1967 in textiles and apparel, and in the two indus­
tries combined, as percentages of manufacturing employment, is shown in
Appendix table 9 for selected States!/ and, within these States, for all
metropolitan areas, for selected specific metropolitan areas, and for
nonmetropolitan areas. These data are highly significant, for they show
the great importance of these industries as a source of employment in
many areas. Together, the two industries account for more than 12 per­
cent of total manufacturing employment.
The textile industry alone in 1967 provided almost 5 percent of
employment in manufacturing as a whole. In South Carolina, the industry
accounted for 46 percent of all-jobs in manufacturing, and for slightly
more than half of the factory jobs in the State’s nonmetropolitan areas.
In North Carolina, the proportions were 41 percent for the State as a
whole and 47 percent for nonmetropolitan areas. About a quarter of all
factory jobs in Georgia were in textiles, including almost a third of
those in nonmetropolitan areas.

1 / The selected States represent 84 percent of total textile
employment •




-

18

-

In a substantial number of specific metropolitan areas, textile
employment represents 25 percent or more of all jobs in manufacturing.
Such areas include Fayetteville, Greensboro-High Point, and WinstonSalem in North Carolina; Auguste and Greenville in South Carolina; and
Albany, Columbus, and Macon in Georgia.
Textile industry payrolls are of particular importance to the
economic health of many small communities in nonmetropolitan areas.
Such communities, because of their relatively small size, their depen­
dence on textile production, and their lack of industrial diversifica­
tion may be adversely affected to a more marked extent than large areas
by significant changes in textile output and employment.
B.

Apparel

The apparel industry is somewhat less concentrated regionally than
the textile industry. In 1968, about 46 percent of the apparel workers
were employed in the Northeast, mostly in New York and Pennsylvania
(Appendix table 5)• The South accounted for 36 percent and the North
Central States for 11 percent of the industryfs workers. Within these
two regions, however, no State accounted for more than 5 percent of total
apparel employment. More than 6 percent of apparel industry employment
was found in the West, with the largest concentration in California.
In terms of metropolitan areas, the location of the apparel indus­
try more nearly than textiles approximates that of manufacturing as a
whole (Appendix table 6). In 1967, about 35 percent of the apparel
industry’s workers were employed outside metropolitan areas, as com­
pared with about 21 percent of manufacturing employment. In the South,
however, as in the case of textiles, the apparel industry is located
predominantly in nonmetropolitan areas (Appendix table 8).
The data in Appendix table 92J show the great importance of apparel
employment in 1967 in several major metropolitan areas— notably New
York City, where apparel accounted for almost one-fourth of all jobs
in manufacturing, and Jersey City, where the proportion was about 17
percent. It was also highly significant in a number of smaller metro­
politan areas in both the North and South— for example, in Atlantic
City, New Jersey, where apparel contributed 40 percent of manufacturing
jobs; Binghamton, New York-Pennsylvania, 21 percent; Johnstown, Penn­
sylvania, 20 percent; Scranton and Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton, Pennsylvania,
32 and 38 percent, respectively; Wilmington, North Carolina, 22 percent;
Greenville, South Carolina, 17 percent; and El Paso and Laredo, Texas,
57 and 24 percent, respectively.

2/ The table contains data for States with about 83 percent of
total apparel employment.




- 19 In nonmetropolitan areas, apparel employment constituted a sig­
nificant proportion of total manufacturing employment in many of the
selected States represented in Appendix table 9. In fact, the pro­
portion exceeded 10 percent in 10 of the 14 selected States, and 20
percent in 4 of those States. These figures clearly suggest that
apparel manufacture constitutes a major source of employment in many
small communities over a broad geographic area.




-

III.

20

-

E S T A B L I S H M E N T SIZE
A.

Textiles

The dis t r i b u t i o n of textile w o r k e r s by size of e s t a b l i s h m e n t did
not differ m a r k e d l y in 1967 from the d i s t r i b u t i o n for m a n u f a c t u r i n g
as a w h o l e (Appendix table 10).
A somewhat g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of t e x ­
tile w o r k e r s w ere employed in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h 100 to 499 w o r k e r s
than in manuf a c t u r i n g , and a sligh t l y s m aller p r o p o r t i o n in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s w i t h 1 to 99 employees.
A b o u t the same p r o p o r t i o n of the i n d u s ­
try's w o r k e r s (45 percent) w e r e e m p l o y e d in large e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h
500 or m o r e workers.
The a v e ra g e textile mill, however, w a s c o n s i d e r ­
ably larger than the average m a n u f a c t u r i n g plant.
A l m o s t t wo-thirds
of all m a n u f a c t u r i n g establis h m e n t s in 1967 e m p l o y e d 19 or f ewer w o r k ­
ers, w h e r e a s in textiles only 37 per c e n t of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e of
this size (Appendix table 11).
T e xtile m i l l s w e r e almost three times
as l ikely to have 500 or m o r e e mployees than m a n u f a c t u r i n g plants in
1966.
One reason for the rela t i v e l y large size of textile p l a n t s is
that long p r o d u c t i o n runs are p o s s i b l e for m a n y of the p r o d u c t s of the
industry.
M a n u f a c t u r i n g p lants that h a v e long runs of s t a n d a r d i z e d
produ c t s tend to be large in size.
M u c h of the output of the i n d u s t r y
is sold to other m a n u f a c t u r e r s for fur t h e r fabrication.
In contrast,
m a n y m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries, e s p e c i a l l y those selling a large p r o ­
p o r t i o n of their products to consumers, cannot so r e a d i l y take a d v a n ­
tage of economies oir scale.
A n o t h e r r e a s o n for the r e l a t i v e l y large
size of textile plants is that it is r e l a t i v e l y simple to shift p r o d u c ­
tion runs among types of b l e n d e d fabrics.
A trend toward l a r g er-size es t a b l i s h m e n t s exists in m a n u f a c t u r i n g
generally.
Bet w e e n 1962 and 1967, a p e r i o d of r apid e c o n o m i c growth,
the p r o p o r t i o n of textile estab l i s h m e n t s w i t h 1 to 19 em p l o y e e s fell
2.9 p e r c e n t a g e points.
A similar d e c l i n e o c c u r r e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g as
a whole.
In b o t h m a n u f a c t u r i n g and textiles the recent trend in e s t a b ­
lishment size is in the d i r e c t i o n of pl a n t s w i t h 250 or m o r e employees.
B e t w e e n 1962 and 1967, textile p l ants w i t h 250 or m o r e w o r k e r s incr e a s e d
from 12.6 percent to 14.4 per c e n t of the total.
In m a n u f a c t u r i n g the
increase of these l arger-size p l a n t s w a s from 4 to 4.8 percent.
B.

Apparel

In the apparel industry, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of w o r k e r s b y size of
e s t a blishment is consid e r a b l y diff e r e n t t han in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
Ap­
p a rel w o r k e r s are m u c h m o r e l ik e l y to be e m p l o y e d in small e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s w i t h b e t w e e n 20 and 99 w o r k e r s (Appendix table 10).
In 1967,




-

21

almost one-third of the industry's w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d in these
small establishments, as compare d w i t h less than o n e - f i f t h in m a n u ­
facturing.
Moreover, only 1 of every 6 w o r k e r s in the apparel ind u s ­
try w a s employed in establishmen t s w i t h 500 or m o r e workers, as c o m ­
p a r e d w i t h almost 1 of every 2 w o r k e r s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g generally.
A p p a r e l plants tend to be rel a t i v e l y small for reasons the reverse
of those m a k i n g for c o m parativel y large plants in textiles.
Apparel
plants p r oduce a great v a r i e t y of products, w i t h fashion and de s i g n an
important ingredient.
P r o d u c t i o n runs are t y p i cally short.
M oreover,
t echnology in the apparel industry is simple.
O f t e n all that is n e e d e d
to set up a plant is an idea and a small i n v estment in equipment.
Many
employers b e gin p r o d u c t i o n w i t h only an investment in m a t e r i a l inven­
tories by u tilizing the facilities of apparel i ndustry contractors.
As in m a n u f a c t u r i n g and in the textile industry, apparel plants
are becom i n g larger, but the trend is not as p r o n o u n c e d in a p parel as
in m a n u fac turing, and c o nsiderab l y less so than in the textile industry.
In 1967, a slightly larger p r o p o r t i o n of apparel plan t s emplo y e d b e t w e e n
20 and 99 workers than in 1962 (Appendix table 11).
The p r o p o r t i o n of
plants w i t h 1 to 19 workers declined almost 3 p e r c e n t a g e points (from
51.8 to 49.1 percent), whe r e a s those w i t h m o r e than 250 employees in­
creased from 3.0 to 4.2 percent of the total.
T h e s e statistics seem to
indicate that w i t h the current state of techno l o g y and industry practice,
rela t i v e l y small 20-99 e m p l o y ee - s i z e plants r epresent the pr e d o m i n a n t
standard for the industry.
There is some tende n c y toward the g r o w t h
of large plants, and the very small plant is d eclining in importance.
The a b s olute n u m b e r of est a b l ishments in the apparel and textile
industries is impressive.
In 1967, apparel esta b l i s h m e n t s n u m b e r e d
25,498 and textile establishment s 7,083.
The two industries combined
a c counted for about 11 percent of all m a n u f a c t u r i n g establishments.!.'

1j
The data are f rom Bure a u of the Census, Co u n t y Business
P a t t e r n s . 1 9 6 7 . Technically, the n u m b e r s refer to "reporting unit s "
w h i c h for m a n u f a c t u r i n g are c o n c e p t u a l l y i d e n tical w i t h " e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s " as used in censuses of ma nufactures.




-

IV.

22

L A B O R FORCE CHARAC TERISTICS:
SKILL, EDUCATION,
RACE, SEX A N D A G E
A.

Tex t i l e s

Skill
Tex t i l e m i l l s h a v e a hig h p r o p o r t i o n of se m i s k i l l e d w o r k e r s for
a m a n u f a c t u r i n g i ndustry (Appendix table 12).
In 1968, t w o - t h i r d s
of the industry's w o r k force w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as operat i v e s , as c o m ­
p a r e d w i t h less than 45 percent in all m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
The proportions
of textile m i l l w o r k e r s in the r e m a i n i n g b l u e collar o c c u p a t i o n s —
craf t s m e n and l a b orers— w e r e b e l o w the a v e r a g e for m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
Blu e col l a r wor k e r s as a w h o l e m a d e up almost 85 p e r c e n t of emplo y m e n t
in the i ndustry in 1968, as c om p a r e d w i t h o n l y about 70 p e r c e n t in
manufacturing.
W h i t e collar work e r s (professional and technical, m a n a g e r s and
officials, clerical and sales) m a d e up about 14 p e r c e n t of emplo y m e n t
in textiles in 1968.
In the same year, w h i t e collar w o r k e r s in m a n u ­
facturing m a d e up about 30 per c e n t of total employment.
The small
share of jobs hel d by p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s is one r e a s o n for the l ow
p r o p o r t i o n of w h ite collar w o r k e r s in textiles.
The p r o p o r t i o n of
p r o f e s s i o n a l work e r s w a s four times h i g h e r in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (almost 10
percent) than in textile m i l l s (about 3 percent).
F e w scientists,
engineers, and technicians w e r e e m p l o y e d in the industry, r e f l e c t i n g
the r e l a t i v e l y l o w e mphasis on r e s e a r c h and development.
The h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of se m i s k i l l e d w o r k e r s in the t e xtile i n d u s ­
try is m a i n l y a result of the n a t u r e of the p r o d u c t i o n process.
Al­
though h i g h l y mechanized, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of wool, cotton, and s yn­
thetic fibers into y a r n and fabric involves m a n y d i s c r e t e operations,
w h i c h require large n u m b e r s of m a c h i n e tenders.
A l t h o u g h ski l l levels
h a v e b e e n rising in the textile i n d u s t r y in recent years, less skilled
w o r k e r s w i l l c ontinue to m a k e up a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the
industry's w o r k force in the f o r e s e e a b l e future.
Education
The educational a t t ainmen t level of textile m i l l w o r k e r s w a s si g ­
n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k e r s in 1960
(Appendix
table 13).
The m e d i a n school yea r s comp l e t e d for textile w o r k e r ^ w as
slightly less than 8.0 in 1960, as compa r e d w i t h 11.0 in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
The textile industry had a hig h e r p r o p o r t i o n of w o r k e r s w i t h 7 or fewer
yea r s of education, and a small e r p r o p o r t i o n of w o r k e r s w i t h 4 y e a r s of
h i g h school- or 1 or m o r e years of college.
M a n y c h a r a c t eristics of the t e xtile w o r k force c o n t r i b u t e to the
l o w edu c a t i o n a l a t tainment in the industry.
T h e ski l l r e q u i r e m e n t s of




- 23 the industry are r e latively low.
The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of opera t i v e s
contributes s ignificantly to the low educ a t i o n a l attainment, as does
the c omparatively small p r o p o r t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l and t echnical
workers, who typically h ave some college education.
The textile w o r k
force also tends to be older than that of the typical m a n u f a c t u r i n g
industry, further contributing to the l ow e d u c a tional attainment.
More­
over, the industry is largely lo cated ou t s i d e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.
In
general, u rban dwellers tend to h a v e h i g h e r ed u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t than
n o n - u r b a n residents.
A n ind i c a t i o n of the i m p o r t a n c e of the c o n t r i b u ­
tion of factors other than skill level to ed u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t is
that operatives (n.e.c.), w h o m a d e up almost ha l f of the i n d u s t r y ’s
w o r k e r s in 1960, h a d an aver a g e educa t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t of 8.5 years,
whe r e a s operatives (n.e.c.) in m a n u f a c t u r i n g h a d 9.4 years.
Race
In 1968, non w h i t e workers, as A p p e n d i x table 14 shows, m a d e up
about the same pro p o r t i o n of employ m e n t in text i l e m i l l s (9.5 percent)
as in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (9.7 percent).
N o n w h i t e women, however, he l d a
larger p r o p o r t i o n of the jobs in textiles (3.6 percent) than in m a n u ­
facturing (2.6 percent).
For n o n w h i t e men, the s i t u a t i o n w a s reversed;
a lower p r o p o r t i o n of employment in t e xtile m i l l s w a s compo s e d of n o n ­
whi t e m e n (6.0 percent) than in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (7.1 percent).
In recent years, the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s has b e e n in­
c r e a s i n g in the textile industry, signaling some b r e a k i n g d own of em­
ployment barriers.
B e t w e e n 1962 and 1968, the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n w h i t e
w o m e n in textiles m o r e than tripled, from 1.1 to 3.6 percent.
The change
represents an increase of about 30,000 jobs over the period.
Nonwhite
m e n also increased their share of jobs in the industry in the same p e r ­
iod, from about 3.7 to 6.0 percent.
T aken together, n o n w h i t e m e n and
w o m e n held about 55,000 m o r e jobs in textile m i l l s in 1968 than in 1962.
Over the 6-year period, gains for n o n w h i t e w o m e n w e r e steady, w h e r e a s
m o s t of the increase for n o n w h i t e m e n o c c u r r e d after 1965.
Although
increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of n o n w h i t e s was typical t h r oughout m a n u f a c t u r ­
ing during the period, the trend w a s m o r e p r o n o u n c e d in textiles.
Be­
tween 1962 and 1968, the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d from
7.4 to 9.7 percent in m a n u f actur i n g , as compa r e d w i t h a g a i n of f rom
4.8 percent to 9.5 percent in textiles.
The u p w a r d trend a p pears to be
continuing into 1969.
Several factors m a y hav e c o n t r i b u t e d to the recent n o n w h i t e gains
in employm ent in textiles.
The h i g h level of e c onomic a c t i v i t y in
recent years m a y have encour a g e d s ome w h i t e t e x t i l e w o r k e r s to seek
a l t e r n a t i v e employments.
At the same time, the d e m a n d for w o r k e r s by
the industry w a s expanding.
The m a r k e t for textile w o r k e r s tightened.
In this situation, n o n w h i t e workers, w i t h t y p i c a l l y lower labor force
p a r t i c i p a t i o n and h i g h e r u n e m p l o y m e n t rates, w e r e a v a i l a b l e to fill




- 24 the p r e s s i n g employment needs of the industry.
In addition, the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, gov e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s to end d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
in hiring, and p r ivate initiatives, p r o b a b l y all c o n t r i b u t e d to the
a c c e l e r a t e d flow of n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s into the textile industry.
W h e t h e r n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s can m a i n t a i n and i n c r e a s e their r e p r e s e n t a ­
tion in the industry remains to be seen.
Current da t a in d i c a t e that
n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s are continuing to m o v e into the text i l e i n d u s t r y at
a hig h e r rate than into m a n u f a c t u r i n g generally.
Emp l o y m e n t of N e groes a c c o u n t e d for a v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n of total
textile e m p loyment by State in 1966 J J
Neg r o e m p l o y m e n t rang e d from
about 2 percent of the textile w o r k force in M a s s a c h u s e t t s to about 13
percent in N e w J ersey (Appendix table 15).
N e g r o e s tended to m a k e up a
lar g e r p r o p o r t i o n of textile e m p l o y m e n t in m e t r o p o l i t a n (10 percent)
than in n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas (7 percent).
In the t hree l a rgest t e x ­
tile m a n u f a c t u r i n g States, N o r t h Carolina, S o uth Carolina, and Georgia,
the employment of non w h i t e s ran g e d from 8 to 10 percent.
Women Workers
W o m e n w o r k e r s m a k e up a m u c h h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t in the
t e xtile i n d ustry than in manuf a c t u r i n g .
In 1967, about 45 p e r c e n t of
textile w o r k e r s w e r e women, as com p a r e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 27 per c e n t
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (Appendix table 17).
The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n in
textiles can be a t t r i b u t e d in pa r t to the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e m i s k i l l e d
w o r k e r s in the industry.
W o m e n m a d e up n e a r l y one - h a l f of s e m i - s k i l l e d
w o r k e r s (operatives) in n o n d u r a b l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g in 1960.
M o r e o v e r , the
n a t u r e of d e m a n d for the p roduc t s of the ind u s t r y m a y help to e x p l a i n
the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of women.
Text i l e p r o d u c t i o n is r e s p o n s i v e to w i d e
seasonal and cyclical f l u c t uati o n s in demand.
Women, m o r e eas i l y than
men, can p r o v i d e a rese r v o i r of labor to m e e t the p e a k labor n e e d s of
the, industry.
Finally, h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t m a y pl a y a r ole in the
h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n in the industry.
Employ m e n t of w o m e n v a r i e d w i d e l y w i t h i n the v a r i o u s com p o n e n t s
of the textile ind u s t r y in 1967.
W o m e n w o r k e r s r a nged f rom 68 perc e n t
of employment in k n i t t i n g m i l l s to 25 p e r c e n t of e m p l o y m e n t in textile
f inishing (except w o o l and k n i t ) . The u n e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n of w o m e n in
the i n d ustry can be p a r t i a l l y expl a i n e d b y v a r i a t i o n s in the o c c u p a ­
tional s t r u cture of its vari o u s divisions.
The p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n
w o r k e r s in the industry increased b e t w e e n 1960 and 1967.

1/ Based on Equ a l E m p l o y m e n t O p p o r t u n i t y C o m m i s s i o n data.
Such
data are con t a i n e d in (1) repor t s from all em p l o y e r s subject to T i t l e
VII of the Civil Rights A c t of 1964 (generally those w i t h 100 or m o r e
employees) and from F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o n t r a c t o r s and s u b c o n t r a c t o r s
w i t h 50 or m o r e employees, and (2) v o l u n t a r i l y s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s b y
m e m b e r s of Plans for Progress.




- 25
Age
The m e d i a n age of textile m i l l w o r k e r s (40.7 years) was somewhat
h i g h e r than that of all m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k e r s (39.5 years) in 1960.
The age d i f f e rential was m a i n l y caused b y w o r k e r s over 44 years of age
(Appendix table 18).
N e a r l y 39 p e r c e n t of the t e xtile w o r k e r s w e r e
over 44 in 1960, as compared w i t h 35 p e rcent in m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
This
r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of wo r k e r s over 44 m a y reflect the c o n t r a c ­
tion of employment in the indus t r y b y m o r e than o n e - q u a r t e r b e t w e e n 1950
and 1960.
Y o u n g e r workers, eith e r laid off or fearing layoffs, m a y h ave
tended to find employment in other industries during this u n c e r t a i n
period.
A n o t h e r factor contribu t i n g to the h i g h m e d i a n age of textile
wor k e r s m a y be the relati v e l y hi g h p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n in the industry.
W o m e n usu a l l y leave the labor force at about 25 years of age, and b e g i n
to return soon after age 40, w h e n family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e c o m e less
burdensome.
The fact that the textile w o r k force has a low p r o p o r t i o n
of workers b e t w e e n the ages of 25 and 44 w o u l d tend to e m p h asize the
importance of w o m e n w o r k e r s on the age s t r u cture of the industry.
In
addition, the his t o r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n m i g r a t i o n from rural to u r b a n areas
also influences the age compos i t i o n of the industry.
L o c a t e d m a i n l y in
n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, the textile industry is p r o b a b l y m o r e a f fected
by the m i g r a t i o n of y o u n g e r w o r k e r s than m o s t other industries.
Yout h s under 19 y ears of age tended to h o l d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y
low n u m b e r of jobs in textile m i l l s in 1960.
The same p h e n o m e n a was
exhibited in 1950, a l t h o u g h somewhat less m a r k edly.
However, the share
of jobs held by youths under 25 years of age (13.9 percent) w a s similar
to that for the same age group in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (14.1 percent).
Al­
though the w o r k force of the textile i n dustry g r e w older b e t w e e n 1950
and 1960, the age s t ructure of all m a n u f a c t u r i n g also shifted upward.
In 1960, 4.5 percent m o r e work e r s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g w e r e over 44 than
in 1950, as compared w i t h 8.9 perc e n t in textiles.
B.

Apparel

Skill
The apparel industry has the hi g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of semi-s k i l l e d
jobs of any m a n u f a c t u r i n g indust r y (Appendix table 12).
In 1968, o p e r a ­
tives m a d e up almost 80 p e r cent of employ m e n t in the industry, as c o m ­
pared w i t h about 45 percent in m a n u f a c t u r i n g generally.
It is e s t i ­
m a t e d that n e a r l y half of the opera t i v e s in the appa r e l indus t r y w e r e
sewers, either sewing m a c h i n e operators, w h o predomi n a t e d , or ha n d
stitchers.
In apparel, as in textiles, the n a t u r e of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g pr o c e s s
a ccounts for the h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w - s k i l l e d workers.
T he n u m b e r of p r o d u c t i o n operat i o n s on a ga r m e n t is large, p r o d u c t i o n




- 26 runs are typically short, and firms tend to be small and f r e q u e n t l y
undercapitalized.
Such conditions are not co n d u c i v e to w i d e s p r e a d
use of s o p h i sticated p r o d u c t i o n equipment.
The ind u s t r y is one of
the least m e c h a n i z e d among m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries.
For example,
v e r y few m a c h i n e s are in oper a t i o n in the i n d u s t r y w h i c h l ink to­
gether v a r i o u s functions in the p r o d u c t i o n process.
As in the tex­
tile industry, the occupa t i o n a l patte r n s of the a p parel indus t r y wi l l
c ontinue to favor the u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d w o r k e r in the f o r e ­
seeable future.
Education
In the apparel industry, the e d u c a t i o n a l att a i n m e n t of w o r k e r s
was also s i g nificantly lower than for w o r k e r s in all m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,
but somewhat higher than for w o r k e r s in textiles.
In 1960, the a v e r ­
age schooling of apparel industr y w o r k e r s w as 9.7 years, as compared
w i t h 11.0 years in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (Appendix table 13).
As in the tex­
tile industry, a larger p r o p o r t i o n of the appa r e l w o r k force h ad 7 or
less yea r s of education, and a smaller p r o p o r t i o n ha d 4 years of h i g h
school or 1 or m o r e years of college, than for m a n u f a c t u r i n g w o r k e r s
as a whole.
M o s t of the factors that c o n t r i b u t e d to the l o w e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n ­
m e n t of textile workers are found also in the appa r e l industry.
As c om­
p a red w i t h textiles, however, the fact that the a p p a r e l i n dustry is m o r e
h e a v i l y r e p r e s e n t e d in m e t r o p o l i t a n areas p r o b a b l y a ccounts for m u c h of
the differ e n c e in educational levels b e t w e e n the two industries.
Race
In the apparel industry, no n w h i t e w o r k e r s in 1968 m a d e up a s o m e ­
w h a t larger share of employment (12.7 percent) than in all m a n u f a c t u r i n g
(9.7 percent) (Appendix table 14).
As in the t e xtile industry, the p r o ­
p o r t i o n of jobs hel d by n o n w h i t e w o r k e r s has in c r e a s e d in recent years.
Bet w e e n 1962 and 1968, non w h i t e e mployment incr e a s e d f r o m 9.3 to 12.7
percent in apparel, as compared w i t h an increase from 7.4 to 9.7 p e rcent
in m a n u facturing.
Pra c t i c a l l y all the g a i n in n o n w h i t e p e n e t r a t i o n of
the a p parel industry o c c urred after 1965.
P r e l i m i n a r y data i n dicate
that the gain continued into 1969.
N o n w h i t e m e n in the appa r e l i n d u s t r y h a v e a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d slightly
as a p r o p o r t i o n over the years.
The p r o p o r t i o n was 2.8 p e r c e n t in 1962
and 2.6 p e rcent in 1968.
In terms of numbers, n o n w h i t e m a l e e m p loyment
in a p p arel was about the same in 1962 and 1968.
Over the period, n o n ­
w h i t e m a l e w o r k e r s m a y have found m o r e a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e employment
o p p o rtunities in the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas w h e r e appa r e l firms are located.
The increased p r o p o r t i o n of n o n w h i t e w o m e n workers, w h i c h m o r e than
offset the p r o p o r t i o n a t e decline of n o n w h i t e men, p r o b a b l y res u l t e d f rom




- 27
the gene r a l l y tight labor m a r k e t s i t u a t i o n b e t w e e n 1965 and 1968.
A l t e r n a t i v e employment o p p o rtuni t i e s for w h i t e w o m e n m a y h a v e widened,
thus opening up o p p ortunities for n o n w h i t e w o m e n that w o u l d not o t h e r ­
w i s e h ave existed.
Negro employment by State in the a p parel industry in 1966 ranged
from about 4 percent in Ten n e s s e e to about 16 p e rcent in South C a r o l i n a
(Appendix table 16).
As in textile mills, N e groes in appa r e l also tended
to m a k e up a larger share of emp l oyment in m e t r o p o l i t a n than in n o n m e t r o ­
p o l i t a n areas.
About 12 percent of a p parel i n d u s t r y e mployment in m e t r o ­
p o l i t a n areas was composed of Negroes, as a g ainst only about 6 p e rcent
in n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.
In the three largest appa r e l m a n u f a c t u r i n g
States, Pennsylvania, N e w York, and Georgia, Negro e m p l o y m e n t ranged
b e t w e e n 9 and 11 percent.
Women Workers
In the apparel industry, w o m e n m a k e up an e x t r e m e l y h i g h p r o p o r ­
tion of emp l o y m e n t — n e a r l y 80 pe rcent in 1967 (Appendix table 17).
O p e r a t i v e jobs predom i n a t e in the industry, and their n a t u r e helps
largely to explain the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of women.
The m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n a l
group comprises sewing m a c h i n e o p e r ators and h a n d stitchers and is
staffed almost e n t irely by women.
More o v e r , like the textile industry,
the apparel industry is seasonal in n a t u r e and subject to c y clical
swings, and w o m e n p r o v i d e a flexible source of labor supply.
Bet w e e n 1960 and 1967, the p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n w o r k e r s in the
apparel industry increased by about 2 p e r c e n t a g e points.
This inc r e a s e
in the female p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate can be a t t r i b u t e d to a m o r e rap i d g r o w t h
of industry groups w i t h i n the ap parel i n d u s t r y that empl o y a l a rger than
a v erage p r o p o r t i o n of women.
Age
W o r k e r s in apparel had the h i g h e s t m e d i a n age level of any m a j o r
m a n u f a c t u r i n g industry in 196 0 — 41.7 years, as c ompared w i t h 39.5 years
for w o r k e r s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g (Appendix table 18).
A b o u t 41 p e rcent of
apparel w o r k e r s w e r e over 44 years of age in 1960; the com p a r a b l e f i g ­
ure in m a n u f a c t u r i n g was about 35 percent.
A s in the textile industry,
the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n w o r k e r s wa s p r o b a b l y the m a i n c ause of this
p e c u l i a r age structure.
A r e l at i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of app a r e l i n d u s ­
try w o r k e r s w e r e over 59 years of age (9.1 percent).
This m a y be p a r t l y
a refl e c t i o n of wage levels in the industry, a nd p a r t l y of its seaso n a l
nature, w h i c h provides an o p p o r t u n i t y for m a n y older w o r k e r s to s u p p l e ­
m e n t their retirement incomes by e m p l o y m e n t d u ring p e a k seasons.




- 28 Y o u t h s und e r 25 held a share of a p p a r e l e m p l o y m e n t e q u a l to that
in manufact u r i n g .
However, the apparel i n d u s t r y tended to ser v e m o r e
as a source of entry level j ob s in 1950 than it did in 1960.
Youths
und e r 25 m a d e up 2.5 percent m o r e of the w o r k f o rce in a p p a r e l in 1950
than in m a n u f a c t u r i n g in 1950.
In 1960, however, the d i f f e r e n t i a l h ad
b e e n reduced to 0.1 percent.
A l t h o u g h the w o r k force of the a p p a r e l in d u s t r y (like the textile
industry) g r e w older b e t w e e n 1950 and 1960, the age s t r u c t u r e of all
m a n u f a c t u r i n g similarly shifted.
B e t w e e n 1950 and 1960, the p r o p o r ­
tion of w o r k e r s over 44 years of age in c r e a s e d b y 4.5 pe r c e n t in m a n u ­
facturing and b y 7.8 percent in apparel.




- 29
V.

T E C H N O L O G I C A L CHANGE
A,

Textiles

Opera t i n g C h a racteristics
The basic p r o d u c t i o n proce s s e s of the t e xtile ind u s t r y are
carr i e d out on high l y m e c h a n i z e d p o w e r m a c h i n e r y such as s e m i a u t o ­
m a t i c spinning frames and autom a t i c looms.
M o d e r n m i l l s are laid
out on one floor w i t h w o r k m o v i n g read i l y from one stage to the
next.
M a n y m u l t i s t o r i e d plants, however, still exist in the industry.
The w o r k is m a c h i n e rather than w o r k e r paced.
The typical t e x ­
tile w o r k e r tends or m i n d s long rows of i dentical m a c h i n e s in carding,
spinning, weaving, and other rooms of a mill.
M o s t of the w o r k is
p h y s i c a l l y light.
The ope r a t i v e m a y feed y a r n to and remove ya r n
from the m a c h i n e w h e n n e c e s s a r y and w a t c h out for br e a k s in y a r n w h i c h
he m u s t repair quickly.
Tasks u s u a l l y can be lea r n e d in a short time
but p r o f i c i e n c y comes w i t h expe r i e n c e on the job.
A l t h o u g h textile p r o d u c t i o n w a s among the first industries to be
m e c h anized, the industry remains r e l a t i v e l y labor intensive.
Wages
of p r o d u c t i o n wor k e r s c onstitut e d 43 p e rcent of v a l u e added, compa r e d
w i t h 31 percent for m a n u f a c t u r i n g as a w h o l e in 1966.
D e s p i t e some
increase since 1948, capital in vested (book value) p e r p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r in 1963 (as e s t i mated by the N a t i o n a l Indus t r i a l C o n f e r e n c e
Board) was a little over half the ratio for all m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
This
relati o n s h i p p r o b a b l y still holds true for recent years.
Manpower Utilization

E f f o r t s t o im prove th e u t i l i z a t i o n o f manpower in th e t e x t i l e
in d u s t r y a re c o n s t a n t ly b e in g made th rou gh changes in t e c h n o lo g y ,
management, and o r g a n i z a t i o n .
The m o d e r n iz a tio n o f p la n t and e q u ip ­
ment in r e c e n t y e a r s has been advanced by s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t ­
m en t, and by th e em ergence o f v e r t i c a l l y in t e g r a t e d com panies w ith
more p r o f e s s i o n a l management.
D e f i n i t i v e f i g u r e s on tr e n d s in ou tp u t p e r m an-hour in th e t e x t i l e
in d u s t r y a re n o t a v a i l a b l e .
In a d d i t io n t o th e u su a l prob lem s o f d e t e r ­
m in in g th e b e s t m easure o f o u tp u t f o r in d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t s , a s s ig n in g
a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t s , and a c h ie v in g r e a s o n a b le c o m p a r a b ilit y betw een
m an-hours and o u t p u t , t h e r e a re e s p e c i a l l y com plex p rob lem s o f a c c o u n t­
in g f o r ch an ges in q u a l i t y and p r o d u c t m ix and in th e d e g r e e o f in t e g r a ­
t i o n o f p r o d u c t io n f a c i l i t i e s .
A gene r a l v i e w of changes in m a n p o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n in recent years
m a y b e obt a i n e d from estimates of the r ise in output and of the change




- 30 in m a n -hours.
Rou g h e stimates indic a t e an in c r e a s e in the r a n g e of
36-46 p e r c e n t in textile output b e t w e e n 1960 and 1966, and a rise in
all e m p loyee m a n - h o u r s in the n e i g h b o r h o o d of 8 percent.
These esti­
m a t e s relate to the textile indus t r y as a whole.
A m o n g the ind i v i d u a l
sectors of the industry, s u b s tant i a l v a r i a t i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y occurred.
Interplant Diff e r e n c e s in P e r f o r m a n c e
Levels of p e r f o r m a n c e differ w i d e l y among p l a n t s w i t h i n the
textile industry, bec a u s e of d iff e r e n c e s in capital investment, age
of equipment, m a n a g e r i a l and emplo y e e skill, size, type of o r g a n i z a ­
tion, and other factors.
A rough g a u g e of the d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r ­
formance is p r o v i d e d by D e partmen t of C o m m e r c e m e a s u r e s for m o r e e f f i ­
cient and a ve r a g e mills.
The "highest p r o d u c t i v i t y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s " are
d e f i n e d as those in a p p r o x i m a t e l y the first qu a r t i l e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
r anked in ascending order of the ratio of p a y r o l l s to v a l u e added.
In
the cotton b r o a d w o v e n fabric industry, for example, v a l u e added per
employee for the "highest p r o d u c t i v i t y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s " was 60 p e rcent
grea t e r than the indu s t r y ave r a g e in 1963.
A l t h o u g h the p r e c i s e extent
to w h i c h such differ e n c e s reflect v a r i a t i o n s in p r o d u c t m i x among plants
in each i nd ustry is unknown, sign i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r f o r m a n c e
p r o b a b l y ac c o u n t e d for m o s t of the disparity.
Some Factors A f f e c t i n g I ndustry P e r f o r m a n c e
I nvestment and R e s e a r c h . A d v a n c e s in t e c h n o l o g y and e f f i c i e n c y
ove r the next few yea r s w i l l be a f f e c t e d b y the m a g n i t u d e of recent
expe n d i t u r e s on larg e - s c a l e m o d e r n i z a t i o n of textile pla n t and e q u i p ­
ment.
In the p eriod 1964-68, e x p e n d i t u r e s on n e w p l a n t and equipment,
as r eported by SEC, amounted to a total of $4.6 billion, or an a v e r a g e
of about $916 m i l l i o n annually.
Duri n g the p r e c e d i n g five years, e x p e n d i ­
tures w e r e a little m o r e than half of this amount.
In 1968, total e x p e n d i ­
tures on n e w plant and equipment w e r e $820 mi l l i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l y b e l o w
the 1966 p e a k of $1.13 billion, but g r e a t e r than any y e a r p r i o r to 1965.
E s timates t h r o u g h 1970 antic i p a t e g r a d u a l l y rising expenditures.
The b u l k of capital e x p endit u r e since 1960 has b e e n for m o d e r n i ­
zation and replacement, but the p r o p o r t i o n for a d d i t i o n a l c a p a c i t y has
b e e n increasing.
T e x t i l e capacity, a c c o r d i n g to M c G r a w - H i l l reports,
i n creased by 31 p e r cent b e t w e e n 1962 and 1967.
A m u c h larger p r o p o r ­
tion of the i n d u s t r y ’s equipment is n o w five y e a r s o ld or less:
38
percent in D e c e m b e r 1966 compared w i t h 27 perc e n t in spring 1962.
This
improvement in the textile i n d u s t r y ’s e q uipment com p a r e s f a v o r a b l y w i t h
advances m a d e b y m a n u f a c t u r i n g generally:
about 36 p e r c e n t of m a n u f a c ­
turing c apa city w a s five yea r s old or less in 1966, c o m p a r e d w i t h 33
per c e n t in 1962.
By the end of 1968, ac c o r d i n g to M c G r a w - H i l l reports,




31
about 17 percent of the plant and equi p m e n t of larger textile c o m p a n ­
ies w a s outmoded compared w i t h 29 p e r c e n t in 1962.
It is like l y that
the p r o p o r t i o n of o u t - o f - d a t e facilities for smaller c ompanies w o u l d
be con s i d e r a b l y larger.
I n creased expenditures on r e s ear c h and d e v e l o p m e n t are anot h e r facet
of the i n d u s t r y ’s efforts to m o d e r n i z e its technology.
A c c o r d i n g to
N a t i o n a l Science F o u n d a t i o n estimates, R and D e x p e n d i t u r e s by t e xtile
and apparel firms totaled $42 m i l l i o n in 1966, c o m p a r e d w i t h $15 m i l l i o n
in 1957.
M o s t of these expendit u r e s w e r e by textile firms; r e s e a r c h
e x penditures by apparel m a n u f a c t u r e r s w e r e neglig i b l e .
(These figures
do n ot include expenditures by text i l e m a c h i n e r y m a n u f a c t u r e r s and
c h e mical suppliers.)
R and D e x p e n d i t u r e s in textiles and appa r e l as
a p e r c e n t a g e of sales are i nsign i f i c a n t in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e s
b y some other industries, such as paper, w h i c h also do not re c e i v e
Federal funds for this purpose.
It should be n o t e d that a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of e x p e n d i t u r e s for n e w plant
and equipment and for R and D is m a d e by a r e l a t i v e l y small n u m b e r of
large companies.
Abo u t three-fo u r t h s of n e w c a pital expe n d i t u r e s in
1963 w e r e m a d e by m u l t i p l a n t companies, w h i c h inclu d e d only about
o n e - f o u r t h of all establishments.
P r a c t i c a l l y all of the R and D is
done by large- and m e d i u m - s i z e d companies.
Small c ompanies u s u a l l y
lack the f inancial resources for e x t e n s i v e c a pital i n v e stment or r e ­
search and development programs.
T e c h n o l o g i c a l C h a n g e s . Capital i n v e stment w h e t h e r for e x p a n s i o n
or m o d e r n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s opport u n i t i e s for intr o d u c i n g the latest
types of textile equipment.
M o s t of the changes in textile t e c h n o l o g y
involve
improvements of existing m a c h i n e r y , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of
aux i l i a r y devices to improve output per m a n -hour.
1.
Faster, L a r g e r C a p a c i t y M a c h i n e s . O ne of the m o s t
important sources of grea t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y is the i n t r o d u c t i o n of faster
m a c h i n e speeds w i t h larger packages.
S uch advan c e s reduce the n u m b e r of
m a c h i n e s and the n u m b e r of m a c h i n e o p e r a t i v e s and m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k e r s
required for a g i ven output.
N e w c a rding m a c h i n e s , for example, o p e r a t e
at m o r e than four times the speed of 10 y e a r s ago, d r awing m a c h i n e s at
six times the speed.
Spindle speeds w e r e 10,000 r.p.m. in 1950 and
13,500 today; 20,000 r.p.m. are n o w possible.
W i n d i n g speeds are at
least double those of 10 to 15 yea r s ago.
C o n v e n t i o n a l l oom speeds in­
creased 25 to 50 percent in the past 15 yea r s and shutt l e l e s s looms m a y
soon dou b l e the speed of weaving.
M a c h i n e output of h o s i e r y and other
knit t i n g equipment, due to m u l t i p l e feeds, also is rising v e r y s i g n i f i ­
cantly.
Carpets are n o w p r o duce d m a i n l y by h i g h - s p e e d tufting m a c h i n e r y ,
rather than by the slower w e a v i n g process.




- 32 These types of m a c h i n e a d vances h a v e b e e n p a r t l y r e ­
spon s i b l e for the decl i n e in the amount of capital equi p m e n t n e e d e d
for a giv e n v o l u m e of production.
M o r e o v e r , incr e a s e d m a c h i n e r y u t i l i ­
zation w i t h three shift operat i o n s and better m a n a g e m e n t h a v e r e d u c e d
the n u m b e r of m a c h i n e s r e q uired for a g i v e n output.
In 1967, for
example, output of cotton and m a n m a d e fa b r i c w a s a bout 25 per c e n t above
1948, despite a 21 per c e n t decli n e in the n u m b e r of looms.
2.
M e c h a n i z a t i o n of M a t e r i a l s H a n d l i n g . R e q u i r e m e n t s for
m a n u a l labor for m a t e r i a l s hand l i n g are also r e d u c e d b y i m p r o v e d conveyor
systems and p n e u m a t i c chutes.
M o r e w i d e s p r e a d a d o p t i o n of m e c h a n i c a l
t ransfer of goods b e t w e e n the m a n y d i s c r e t e textile p r o c e s s e s is s i g n i f i ­
cant, since m a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g c omprises 5 to 15 per c e n t of p r o d u c t i o n
costs.
Improved p o w e r e d conveyors, hoists, m o n o r a i l s , tramrails, and
forklift trucks are being u t i l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y at all steps, from raw
m a t e r i a l to finished product.
M e c h a n i z e d h a n d l i n g is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r ­
tant in i m p r oving proc e s s f l o w in the o l d e r m u l t i s t o r y mi l l s , and in
h a n d l i n g h e a vier m a c h i n e packages, such as 80 to 90 p o u n d laps.
Pneu­
m a t i c sto c k conveyance, a m o r e a d v a n c e d m e t h o d m o v e s sto c k b y air and
g r e a t l y increases p r o d u c t i v i t y but is c o stly and still li m i t e d in use.
3.
M a i n t e n a n c e . Built-in maintenance reduces requirements
for m a i n t e n a n c e workers.
Cent r a l l u b r i c a t i o n and sealed a n t i f r i c t i o n
b e a r i n g s result in less d o w n t i m e and p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e s m a n u a l
lubrication.
Roller b e a r i n g s on n e w draw i n g frames r e q u i r e oiling only
once e very three years during overhaul, c o m p a r e d w i t h o nce a w e e k on
older m o d e l s .
In at least one of the n e w m ills, all p r o d u c t i o n m a c h i n e s
are e quipped w i t h an a utomatic l u b r i c a t i o n s y s t e m in w h i c h oi l enters
thr o u g h lines in the floor and is pum p e d to l u b r i c a t i o n p o i n t s on e a c h
m a c h i n e once every minute.
A u t o m a t i c devices for clean i n g and for a t m o s p h e r i c control,
n o w gaining i ndustry acceptance, free m a c h i n e tenders for m o r e p r o d u c t i v e
duties.
C l e aning m a y c o n s t i t u t e as m u c h as 20 p e r c e n t of total labor
costs in y a r n mills.
To r e d u c e the amount of lint and fly on h i g h speed
m a c h i n e r y , s u ction devices are i n s t a l l e d on the m a c h i n e at p o i n t s of
discharge.
In addition, a trave l i n g m o n o r a i l cleaner, w h i c h a u t o m a t i ­
cally b l o w s r e s i d u e off m a c h i n e frames, v a c u u m s the floor, and p n e u m a t i ­
c ally carries the w a s t e to the w a s t e room, e l i m i n a t e s the n e e d for m a i n ­
tenance laborers.
A p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l process, still lim i t e d to a f e w of
the n e w e s t plants, is the system of total air cleaning.
This s y stem
forces the air down f r o m o verhea d ducts, c a rrying the lint l a d e n air
w i t h it, to ducts u n d e r the floor.
The air, fil t e r e d of waste, is
ret u r n e d to the ove r h e a d ducts.
P l a n t e f f i c i e n c y is increased, but the
s ystem is said to b e too costly for the a v e r a g e mill.




- 33
4.
I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , E l e c t r o n i c i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n for
control of operations is limited, but g r o w i n g in importance.
Such
a u x i l i a r y devices as stop m o t i o n devices, a nd c ontinuous recording
and controlling instruments w h i c h rep l a c e v i s u a l s c anning or other
slower m e t h o d s of inspection, redu c e downtime, and permit m o r e e f f i ­
cient quality control.
Some of the n e w e r e l e c t r o n i c devices act i v a t e
m a c h i n e changes w h e n a defect is detected.
Fo r example, y a m t h i c k ­
ness is controlled by a photoe l e c t r i c cell o n a d r a w i n g m a c h i n e w h i c h
detects the d i f ference in light pas s i n g thro u g h the y a r n and signals
an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c clutch w h i c h adjusts the m a c h i n e automatically.
M e c h a n i c a l and e l e c tronic c ounters and central m o n i ­
toring systems are being u t i l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y for cost and qu a l i t y
control.
A n electronic m o n i t o r i n g system, for example, w h i c h records
the p e r f o r m a n c e of every loom on a central console, v i s u a l l y and in
pri n t e d reports, is n o w being u t i l i z e d in the n e w e s t mills.
Computers are u s e d by large c ompanies for d ata p r o c e s ­
s i n g accounting, inventory and p r o d u c t i o n control, and are bei n g ex ­
tended to control finishing processes.
Uses in finishing involve co n ­
trol of continuous b l e a ching and dyeing operations, and dye color
m a t c h i n g to determine the least e x p e n s i v e c o m b i n a t i o n of dyes t u f f s to
m a t c h colors, system a t i c a l l y rather than by trial and error.
5.
M a c h i n e and M a t e r i a l I n n o v a t i o n s . Several f a r - r eaching
innovations, such as a u tomatic creeling and dof f i n g i n crease p r o d u c ­
tivity sub s t a n t i a l l y but relati v e l y h i g h cost m a y limit their adoption.
Prog r e s s is being m a d e toward a system of conti n u o u s a u t o m a t i c p r o d u c ­
tion w h i c h w o u l d integrate several p r o c e s s e s and reduce the n u m b e r of
operations p e r f o r m e d by workers.
A n advan c e d s y stem of contin u o u s
m a n ufacture, first used in Japan, i ntegrates o p e r a t i o n s from opening
through carding and improves other operations.
Claims of expec t e d in­
creases in output per m a n - h o u r range from 70 pe r c e n t to 100 perc e n t
above c o nventional mills.
This innovation, however, m a y be e c o n o m i c a l l y
feasible only in high l y special i z e d plants.
In add i t i o n to m e c h a n i c a l changes in p r o d u c t i o n m ethods,
innovations in fibers, fabrics, and finishes, such as s t retch yar n s and
fabrics, l aminated and coated fabrics, and n o n w o v e n fabrics, could ha v e
an impact on textile production, o p ening n e w m a r k e t s or dis p l a c i n g m o r e
c o n v e ntional fabrics.
Some n e w types of fabric fo r m a t i o n (needle p u n c h
and bonded) bypass spinning, weaving, or k n i t t i n g proc e s s e s and h a v e
m u c h lower labor requi r e m e n t s than w o v e n fabrics.
Finally, continu i n g g r o w t h in u s e of m a n m a d e fibers, p a r ­
t i cularly noncellulosics, has an important effect o n r e d u c i n g m a n p o w e r
requirements.
M a n m a d e filament yarn, for example, does n o t r e q u i r e c o n ­
ven t i o n a l prep a r a t o r y m i l l operations.
By 1975, m a n m a d e fibers are




- 34 e xpected to account for as m u c h as 65 p e r c e n t of total fiber c o n s u m p ­
tion (cotton equivalent basis) compared w i t h 57 perc e n t in 1966,
A d j u s t m e n t s to T e c h n o l o g i c a l C h a n g e
P r ivate A r r a n g e m e n t s . Formal p r o v i s i o n s for w o r k e r adj u s t m e n t
to technological change are found p r i m a r i l y in plants w i t h u n i o n agr e e ­
m e n t s and even these are few in number.
C o ntracts u s u a l l y p r o v i d e for
the p r i n ciple of seniority as a m e a s u r e of p r o t e c t i o n for the e m ployee
d i splaced by t e c hnological developments, a l t h o u g h v a r i o u s limitations
m a y be included.
Some contracts c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e
advance n o t i c e to the union, u n i o n review, or a trial peri o d for the
proposed technological change.
Techn o l o g i c a l changes w h i c h affect the pa c e of w o r k — "speedup"
(i.e., the i n s t a llation of f a st e r m a c h i n e s or the speeding up of old
m a chines) and " s t retchout" (i.e., i n c reasing the n u m b e r of m a c h i n e s
assig n e d to the w o r k e r ) — are a m a j o r topic of l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t d i s c u s ­
sion.
In some contracts, w o r k l o a d as s i g n m e n t s are subject to a r e v i e w
by the u n i o n and m a y b e submitt e d to arbitration.
Industry training or retra i n i n g g e n e r a l l y involves the traditional
m e t h o d of learning on the job b y a s s i s t i n g an e x p e r i e n c e d employee.
Some mills, however, have adopt e d a m o r e formal a p p r o a c h to training,
involving the setting aside of training areas and the establi s h m e n t of
classes for i n s tructional purposes.
M a c h i n e m a n u f a c t u r e r s are also in­
volv e d in training, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the i n s t a l l a t i o n of radi c a l l y n e w
equipment•
G o v ernment P r o g r a m s . Under the M a n p o w e r Deve l o p m e n t and Train i n g
Act of 1962 and the A r e a Red e v e l o p m e n t A ct of 1961, the Fede r a l G o v e r n ­
m e n t has financed i n s titutional an d o n - t h e - j o b training p r o g r a m s for
u n d e r - e m p l o y e d and unempl o y e d w o r k e r s for e x isting job v a c a n c i e s in t ex­
tile m i l l s in several localities.
T hese programs inc l u d e former textile
workers, but are not limited to them, and no da t a a re av a i l a b l e on the
p r o p o r t i o n of trainees w h o w e r e p r e v i o u s l y in the textile industry.
B e t w e e n A ugust 1962, w h e n the M D T A p r o g r a m began, and J u n e 1968, almost
6,000 w o r k e r s w e r e trained for m a n y textile occupations.
Oc c u p a t i o n s
for training are d e t e r m i n e d on the basis of current local requirements,
and m a y (as in the case of laborers) b e on the d e c l i n e in the long run
for the n a t i o n a l industry.
The n u m b e r of trainees and the d u r a t i o n of
training in occupations w i t h over 100 trainees are p r e s e n t e d in the
following table:




35 -

Num b e r of
trainees

Occupa t i o n

W e a v e r .....................
L o o m fixer .................
Spinner .....................
Kni t t i n g m a c h i n e operator.
Doffer .....................
L a b orer ....................
Thrower ....................
Y a r n w i n d e r ...............
O t her ......................

1,273
537
907
347
375
276
266
108
1,092

D u r a t i o n of
training
(weeks)
5-39
9-52
4-30
4-26
5-20
4
4-52
4-20
—

Labor shortages for parti c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s in some plants and
localities continue to require training p r o g r a m s in spite of the p r o ­
spect of declining employment for the indus t r y as a whole.
Also, since
textile skills are not easily tran s f e r a b l e to other industries, u n e m ­
ployed textile workers often n e e d ret r a i n i n g in order to q u a l i f y for
other types of work.
In v i e w of the limited scope of formal industry a r r a n g e m e n t s for
adjustment to techno l o g i c a l change, g o v e r n m e n t instit u t i o n s for u n e m ­
ployment insurance, placement, and retra i n i n g pl a y a m a j o r role in
assisting the textile w o r k e r in the event of p l a n t closings and m a s s
layoffs.
B.

Apparel

O p e r ating C h a r a c teristics
A p p a r e l m a n u f a c t u r i n g involves a series of cutting, sewing, p r e s ­
sing and packing operations p e r f o r m e d p r i m a r i l y o n m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d
single p u r p o s e machines.
Some or all of these opera t i o n s are carried
on by m a nufacturers, jobbers or c o n t r a c t o r s w ho compr i s e the 25,900
e s tablishments in the industry.
A b o u t 73 per c e n t h ad fewer than 50
employees.
N u m erous styles and sizes of a p a r t i c u l a r type of appa r e l
are produced, g e n e r a l l y in small lots.
The simple t e c hnology of appa r e l m a n u f a c t u r i n g — m a i n l y sewing
m a c h i n e s — is high l y labor intensive.
E a c h m a c h i n e is o p e r a t e d b y a
worker.
Capital invested per p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r in 1963 a m o u n t e d to
$5,653, about half the ratio for text i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s and a bout a
f ourth of the m a n u f a c t u r i n g ratio.
Wag e s of p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s as a
p r o p o r t i o n of v a l u e added in 1966 a m o u n t e d to 44 percent, compa r e d w i t h
31 percent for m a nufacturing.




- 36 The apparel industry is m a r k e d b y easy entry, b o t h b y w o r k e r s
and owners.
W o m e n of all ages can q u i c k l y a c q u i r e the skill n e e d e d
to b e c o m e sewing m a c h i n e operators, the m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n a l group.
Since the equipment requires little e n g i n e e r i n g or te c h n i c a l k n o w l ­
edge, and the m a r k e t i n g and m a t e r i a l s are h a n d l e d by jobbers, it is
rela t i v e l y easy for an e n t r e pren e u r w i t h a m o d e s t amount of capital
to set up a plant as a contractor.
Manpower Utilization
D e f i n i t i v e figures are not a v a i l a b l e on outp u t per m a n - h o u r in
the apparel industry.
In a d d i t i o n to the u s u a l p r o b l e m s of d e t e r m i n ­
ing the best m e a s u r e of output of indivi d u a l products, a s s i g n i n g a p p r o ­
p r i a t e weights, and achieving r e a s o n a b l e c o m p a r a b i l i t y b e t w e e n m a n - h o u r s
and output, there are espec i a l l y c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s of a c c o u n t i n g for
changes in q u a l i t y and p r oduct mix.
A gen e r a l v i e w of the changes in m a n p o w e r u t i l i z a t i o n in recent
years m a y be obtained from estimates of the r i s e in ou t p u t and of the
c hange in man-hours.
R o u g h est i m a t e s indicate an i n c r e a s e of the order
of 30 to 34 p e rcent in apparel o u tput b e t w e e n 1960 and 1966 and a rise
in all e m p loyee m a n - h o u r s of less th a n 14 percent.
These es t i m a t e s r e ­
late to the apparel industry as a whole.
Substantial variations un­
do u b t e d l y occurred among the ind i v i d u a l sectors of the industry.
Some Factors A f f e c t i n g Industry P e r f o r m a n c e

ment,
among
($123
$89.7

I n v e s t m e n t . The i n d u s t r y fs exp e n d i t u r e s for n e w p l a n t a nd e q u i p ­
though increasing, is among the lowest per p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r
m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries.
E x p e n d i t u r e s a v e r a g e d $144.6 m i l l i o n
per p r o d u c t i o n worker) over the 1962-66 period, com p a r e d w i t h
m i l l i o n ($83 per p r o d u c t i o n worker) for the 195 7 - 6 1 period.

R e s e a r c h act i v i t i e s to impr o v e a p p a r e l t e c h n o l o g y are on a v e r y
small scale.
Onl y in recent years has the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t giv e n
a t t e n t i o n to the industry.
The N a t i o n a l B u r e a u of Stan d a r d s of the
U.S. Depart m e n t of Com m e r c e init i a t e d a p r o g r a m in 1963 to assi s t the
i ndustry to improve p r o d u c t i o n processes, exp a n d the c o l l e c t i o n and
d i s s e m i n a t i o n of technical information, inc r e a s e the tech n i c a l training
of personnel, and assist u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h deal i n g w i t h the a p p a r e l
industry.
In cooper a t i o n w i t h the A p p a r e l R e s e a r c h Foundation, a grant,
combining Fede r a l and industry funds, w a s a w a r d e d to an e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m
w h i c h d e v e loped p r o t o t y p e equipm e n t for the a u t o m a t i c conv e y i n g of m u l ­
tiple plys of limp fabric from stacks to the sewing m a c h i n e , a p r o c e s s
consid e r e d a b o t t l e n e c k in the m e c h a n i z a t i o n of sewing operations.
T he
N a t i o n a l B u r e a u of Standards also i n i t iated a series of i n - h o u s e p r o ­
j ects and g rants to u n i v e r s i t i e s to p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h studies for the
app a r e l industry.
The final obj e c t i v e of this j o i n t effort is to dev e l o p




- 37
a technical research p r o g r a m that can then be s u s t ained w h o l l y by the
industry, w h i c h so far has spent little for r e s e a r c h and development.
T e c hnological C h a n g e s . W h i l e intense c o m p e t i t i o n results in
severe pres s u r e to reduce labor costs, m e c h a n i z a t i o n remains d i fficult
for the typical apparel firm and in some cases u n economical, b e c a u s e
of short p r o d u c t i o n runs.
The u s e of m a s s p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d s of s t a n d ­
ardization, simplifi c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n is limited by dema n d s of
f a shion for frequent changes of style.
Recent trends in m e n fs and
w o m e n Ts apparel include m a n y changes in colors and a w i d e r ange o f
w o v e n and knit fabrics.
Techno l o g i c a l change is likely to be m o r e rapid among la r g e - s c a l e
prod u c e r s of standardized types of clothing.
Firms m a k i n g shirts,
pajamas, underwear, w o r k clothing, and similar staple goods, p r o d u c e
s t a n dardized goods for inventory as w e l l as for order, enabling long
p r o d u c t i o n runs for w h i c h m e c h a n i z e d e quipment can be economical.
These firms, w h i c h tend to be larger t han average, are among the m o s t
m e c h a n i z e d in the industry and are e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e to adopt im­
pro v e d equipment to raise their productivity.
1.
P r o d u c t i o n E n g ine e r i n g M e t h o d s . P r o d u c e r s l ook chiefly
to p r o d u c t i o n engineering techniques rath e r than m a c h i n e i m p r ovements
to increas e productivity.
The ne e d for exact p o s i t i o n i n g of w o r k in
the sewing m a c h i n e and frequent stopping to adjust the c loth m e a n s that
operators, not machines, largely dete r m i n e the v o l u m e of output in the
sewing department.
Since m a c h i n e s are run about a third of total w o r k i n g
time, changes in m e t h o d s of hand l i n g and p o s i t i o n i n g the c l o t h and in
m o v i n g the w o r k from one o p e r a t o r to a n o t h e r m a y h a v e a g r e a t e r i n f l u ­
ence on output per m a n - h o u r than improv e m e n t s in m a c h i n e speeds.
Pro­
ducers seek l a b or-savings through time study me t h o d s , improving the
a r r a ngement of equipment for a single operation, and of the w o r k f low
of an entire proc e s s in o rder to use a v a i l a b l e m a c h i n e r y to be t t e r
advantage.
For example, in the p r o d u c t i o n of styled gar m e n t s such as
suits and coats, a continuing shift is taking p l a c e f rom the trad i t i o n a l
hand tailoring system, w h i c h uses m a n y s k illed workers, to se c t i o n w o r k
w h i c h u t i l izes m a n y semi-skilled sewing m a c h i n e operators.
2.
E q uipment C h a n g e s . M e c h a n i c a l changes involve p r i n c i p a l l y
small a t tachments to b asic equip m e n t and u s e of w o r k h a n d l i n g aids rather
than any basic m o d i f i c a t i o n of the sewing operation.
Equi p m e n t such as
n e e d l e positioners, automatic thread cutters, and parts stackers, w h i c h
are design ed to reduce time spent by sewing m a c h i n e oper a t o r s in p o s i ­
tioning and adjusting tasks, are the p r i n c i p a l m e a n s of improving p r o ­
duct i v i t y in basic sewing operations.
In the cutting o perations, e l e c ­
tric cloth spreading m a c h i n e s and n e w systems of p a t t e r n m a k i n g are being
a d opted to a limited extent.




-

38

3.
Changes in A u x i l i a r y O p e r a t i o n s , A few lar g e a p p a r e l
firms are seeking g r eater e f f i c i e n c y thr o u g h impr o v e m e n t s in d i s t r i ­
b u t i o n and off i c e work.
Since fast d i s t r i b u t i o n of appa r e l is of m a j o r
impo r t a n c e in this compet i t i v e consu m e r industry, l arge m u l t i p l a n t
firms h a v e set up convey o r i z e d ord e r p r o c e s s i n g systems in w arehouses.
M a n y large apparel firms are using comp u t e r s for b u s i n e s s purposes,
such as sales analysis, allowing firms to adjust p r o d u c t i o n q u i c k l y to
styles m o s t in demand.
4.
Perma n e n t P r e s s . U t i l i z i n g improved c h e m i c a l l y treated
fabrics and heat curing techniques, m a n u f a c t u r e r s are g r e a t l y expanding
p r o d u c t i o n of garments that can hold their shape t h r o u g h a n u m b e r of
w a s h i n g s w i t h o u t pressing.
These n e w p r o c e s s e s are w i d e l y us e d for
such g a r m e n t s as m e n ’s and b o y s 1 trousers and shirts, m e n ’s c a sual w ear
and w o r k clothing, and w o m e n ’s sportswear.
T he fabrics u s e d a re m a i n l y
c o t t o n - s y n t h e t i c blends, a l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h is u n d e r w a y to a p p l y similar
techniques to other fabrics.
Pres e n t m e t h o d s consist of t r eating the
fabrics at the textile m i l l and curing eith e r at the t e xtile m i l l be f o r e
the garment is m a n u f a c t u r e d ( p r e c u r e ) , or at the a p p a r e l firm after m a n u ­
fac t u r e (postcure).
P r e c u r e techn i q u e s are us e d m a i n l y for light fabrics,
such as those u s e d in shirts; p o s t c u r e m e t h o d s are m o r e a p p l i c a b l e fqr
h e a v i e r fabrics, such as those u sed for trousers.
A p p a r e l firms u t i l ­
izing the p o s t c u r e p r ocess are r e q u i r e d to u s e spec i a l ovens or h i g h
t e m p e r a t u r e p r esses to cure garments.
Increased production worker
m a n - h o u r s m a y be r e q u i r e d for the m a n u f a c t u r e of g a r m e n t s u s i n g the
p o s t c u r e process beca u s e of the a d d i t i o n a l opera t i o n s needed.
A d j u s t m e n t to T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change
U n i o n s and m a n a g e m e n t conti n u e to c o o p e r a t e in improving efficiency.
Bot h m a j o r unions, the I n t ernati o n a l L a d i e s 1 Garm e n t W o r k e r s 1 U n i o n
(ILGWU) and the A m a l g a m a t e d Clothing W o r k e r s of A m e r i c a (ACWA) h ave
a ssisted in the i n t r o d u c t i o n of n e w m e t h o d s in u n i o n i z e d e s t a blishments,
as part of a continuing p r o g r a m to p r o m o t e s ound b u s i n e s s c o n ditions
in the industry.
This p o l i c y of c o o p e r a t i o n is stated s p e c i f i c a l l y in
the current m a s t e r agreement b e t w e e n the A C W A and The Clothing M a n u f a c ­
t u r e r s ’ A s s o c i a t i o n of the U n i t e d States, c o vering m o s t of the w o r k e r s
in the m e n ’s and b o y s ’ coats and suits b r a n c h of the industry.
An
exa m p l e of c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n the ILGWU and m a n u f a c t u r e r s is the v o l u n ­
tary e s t ablishment in 1964 of a c o n t i n u i n g labor r e l a t i o n s co m m i t t e e by
this u n i o n and a m a j o r w o m e n ’s s portswear firm.
One of the topics of
d i s c u s s i o n on the a g e n d a of this co m m i t t e e is the a d o p t i o n of n e w p r o ­
d u c t i o n systems.
L a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t c o ntracts t y p i c a l l y p r o v i d e for m e a s u r e s to a s s u r e
income p r o t e c t i o n and job security.
M o s t of the c ontracts in force in
1968 b e t w e e n the two m a j o r union s and a p p a r e l m a n u f a c t u r e r s cont a i n e d
p r o v i s i o n s assuring no r e d u c t i o n in w a g e s and rio loss of jobs b e c a u s e
of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.




- 39 VI.

W A G E S A N D I NDU S T R I A L R E L A TIONS
A,

Textiles

W age and Benefit Levels
Earnings in the textile i n d u s t r i e s — hourly, weekly, or a n n u a l — are
low compared w i t h those in m o s t oth e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries.
The average textile p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r in O c t o b e r 1968 e a r n e d about
$2.15 an hour at straight-time, or about $2.27 w i t h o v e r t i m e pay.
Weekly
earnings averaged about $94.00 a week.
H o u r l y p a y w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75
cents and w e e k l y pay about $30.00 b e l o w the aver a g e for all factory
workers

(Appendix table 19.1/

In 1964,

the latest y ear for w h i c h inf o r m a -

tion on annual earnings is available, the ave r a g e annual e arnings of w o r k ­
ers regularly employed in the textile indus t r i e s (that is, w i t h earnings
in eac h of four quarters) was about $4,300 a y ear (Appendix table 20).
This w a s less than in any other m a n u f a c t u r i n g industry group except apparel.
The d ata on annual earnings include b o t h w a g e earners a nd salaried workers.
Earnings, of course, v ary among textile i ndustries and, w i t h i n each
industry, among o ccupations and areas.
A m o n g the i n d ustries shown in A p ­
p e n d i x table 19, the level of s tr a i g h t - t i m e a v e r a g e h o u r l y earnings in
Octo b e r 1968 ranged from $1.98 in h o s i e r y (other than w o m e n ’s hosiery) to
$2.35 for m i s c e l l a n e o u s textile goods, w h i c h includes a w i d e ran g e of p r o ­
ducts not elsewhere classified.
In the bas i c b r o a d w o v e n c o t t o n and s y n ­
thetic fabric industries, s t r aigh t - t i m e h o u r l y earni n g s a v e r a g e d $2.15 and
$2.18, respectively.
Amo n g other important ind u s t r y divisions, the a v e r a g e
for w o o l textiles was $2.22, knit o u t e r w e a r $2.23, and dyei n g and f i n i s h ­
ing $2.28.
Part of the differ e n c e in earnings among textile i n d u s t r i e s — for e x ­
ample, betw e e n textile dyeing and finishing and the p r o d u c t i o n of b r o a d
w o v e n g o o d s — reflects d ifferences in o c c u p a t i o n a l composition.
Variations
in industry earnings also reflect to some extent di f f e r e n c e s in location.
Thus, the textile dyeing and fini s h i n g and w o o l textile indus t r i e s are
r e l atively m o r e important outside the S o u t h than cot t o n or s ynthetic bro a d
w o v e n goods.
Until recent years, earnings of textile w o r k e r s tended to be
somewhat lower in the South than elsewhere.
However, earnings for w o r k e r s
doing the same type of w o r k in co t t o n and m a n - m a d e fiber i n d ustries are
n o w at about the same level in the S outheast and N e w England; e a rnings are
still about 10 to 20 cents lower in the Southwest.
On F e b r u a r y 1, 1968, a m i n i m u m w a g e of $1.60 an h o u r b e c a m e e f f e c t i v e
under the Fair Labor Standards Act.
P r i o r to that date, an esti m a t e d
7 to 10 per c e n t of the w o r k e r s in textile dy e i n g and finishing,

1/
P r e l i m i n a r y data indicat e that in J a n u a r y 1969 a v e r a g e h o u r l y and
w e e k l y earnings in textiles w e r e 84 cents and $ 3 4 . 0 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , b e l o w
the levels in all manufacturing.




- 40 8 to 12 percent in w o o l textiles, and m o r e than 40 p e r c e n t in m e n fs
and c h i l d r e n ’s hosi e r y w e r e earni n g s less than $1.60 an hour.
In the
large cotton textile industry, r o u g h l y one out of eight w o r k e r s w as
earning less than the n e w m i n i m u m rate; and the p r o p o r t i o n i n syn­
thetic textiles was only s light l y higher.
It; is e s t i m a t e d that at
least half of all p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in textile i n d u s t r i e s (except
textile dyeing and finishing) a re c u r rently e a rning b e t w e e n $1.60
and $2.00 an hour.
The p r o p o r t i o n ranges fr o m a n e s t i m a t e d 50 p e r ­
cent in cotton and w o o l textiles and w o m e n ’s h o s i e r y to an esti m a t e d
65 to 75 percent in m e n ’s and c h i l d r e n ’s hosiery.
The p r e d ominant sche d u l e d w o r k w e e k in m o s t t e x t i l e i n d ustries is
40 hours.
Special surveys in c o t t o n and synt h e t i c t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r e
in 1965 i ndicated that a m a j o r i t y of w o r k e r s w e r e on 48-hour schedules.
Since that time, however, actual hours h a v e declined, and in O c tober
1968 the average w o r k w e e k for all textile m a n u f a c t u r e w as sl i g h t l y m o r e
than 41 hours, compared w i t h about 42 hou r s in O c t o b e r 1965.
P a i d leave and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s are less l i b e r a l in m o s t
textile industries than in m a n u f a c t u r i n g generally.
A special survey in
1966 indicated that employer e x p e n d i t u r e s for p aid l e a v e and for p r i v a t e
w e l f a r e plans averaged 13 perc e n t of total c o m p e n s a t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g
as a whole.
In c otton and synt h e t i c textiles, a s i milar study in 1965
i n dicated that e mployer expendi t u r e s for these b e n e f i t s a m o u n t e d to 5.5
percent.
Pai d h o l i d a y s — u s u a l l y 7 or m o r e a y e a r — are c o m m o n p r a c t i c e in
m o s t m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries, but a large p r o p o r t i o n of t e x t i l e w o r k e r s
rec e i v e fewer than 4 p aid holidays.
O n l y w o o l and the t e xtile dyeing
and finishing industries, of those for w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n is available,
p r o v i d e d m o s t p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s w i t h 4 or m o r e p a i d holidays, and less
than half of the w o r k e r s in all industries, except wool, recei v e d 5 or
m o r e (Appendix table 22).
As of the fall of 1967, from two-fi f t h s to
t hree-fourths of the w o r k e r s in the h o s i e r y i n d u s t r y r e c e i v e d no pa i d
holidays; there is no i n f o r m a t i o n indica t i n g that there has b e e n a s ub­
stantial change in this i n d ustr y since then.
In the m a n u f a c t u r e of c ott o n and m a n - m a d e fabrics, about one out
of six workers, including one - t h i r d of those in the Southwest, r e c e i v e d
no paid holidays in S e ptember 1968, but o n l y one out of ten w o r k e r s in
w o o l e n textiles and in textile dyeing and fi n i s h i n g h ad no holid a y s
w i t h pay.
For those w o r k e r s covered b y h o l i d a y provisions, the m o s t co m m o n
n u m b e r of days off w i t h pay is four (three in the Southwest) in c o t t o n
and m a n - m a d e fabrics production, an d six or six and one - h a l f (two in
the Southeast) in the m a n u f a c t u r e of w o o l e n textiles.
In hosiery, the
n u m b e r of holidays var i e s w i d e l y among e s t a b l i s h m e n t s from on e to
seven or seven and one-half, an d in t e x t i l e d y e i n g and finishing, the
n u m b e r v a ries from one to n i n e or more.




- 41 V acations are m o r e common than h o l i d a y s for textile workers.
The vast m a j o r i t y of w o rkers enga g e d in the p r o d u c t i o n of cotton,
man-made, or wool textiles, and textile dyeing and finishing, and
from 70 to 85 percent of those enga g e d in the m a n u f a c t u r e of ho s i e r y
r e c e i v e paid vacations.
The typical p r o v i s i o n is 1 w e e k after 1
y e a r ’s service and 2 weeks after 5 y e a r s ’ service.
In contrast to
m a n u f a c t u r i n g as a whole, v a c a ti o n s of m o r e than 2 weeks are unu s u a l
(Appendix table 23).
Life, hospital, and surgical i nsurance plans, financed at least
in part by employers,are w i d e s p r e a d in the textile industries.
They
apply to over nine-t e n t h s of the w o r k e r s emplo y e d in the cotton t e x ­
tile, synthetic textile, and dyeing and finishing industries (Appendix
table 24).
In the South, premiu m s are o f t e n paid for in part by the
employees.
Other types of insurance are less common.
In contrast to other benefits, N e w E n g l a n d lags b e h i n d the South
in the p r o v i s i o n of m o n t h l y p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s for cotton textile workers.
Instead, N e w England m a n u f a c t u r e r s p r o v i d e lu m p - s u m payments on r e t i r e ­
ment.
M o n t h l y pens i o n benefits are in effect for about seven out of
ten s o u thern cotton textile workers.
In the textile dyeing and f i n i s h ­
ing industry, some kind of p e n s i o n — either m o n t h l y benef i t s or lump- s u m
p a y m e n t s — apply to about three-f o u r t h s of the p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in the
M i d d l e A t l a n t i c region, two-thirds in N e w England, and about t h ree-fifths
in the Southeast, w h e r e the indus t r y is n o w concentrated.
W a g e and Benefit Trends
A f ter a period of infrequent w a g e changes, w a g e activ i t y in the
cotton and synthetic textile industries increased during the 1 9 6 0 ’s,
From Novem b e r 1963 to July 1968 there w e r e six rounds of w a g e increases
in s o u thern textile m i lls (Appendix table 25).
Each of the southern
w a g e increases since 1963, except those that we n t into effect in
September 1967 and July 1968, am ounted to about 5 percent.
The 1967
increase amounted to 6 or 6 1/2 percent, and the 1968 increase averaged
about 6 percent.
Wages continued upward in 1969.
The a c c e l e r a t i o n of w a g e ch ange a p p a r e n t l y r eflected the increased
p r o s p e r i t y of the industry.
This in turn w a s due to a nu m b e r of factors,
i n c l u d i n g the effect of the o ne- p r i c e c o t t o n law, h e a v y demands for t e x ­
tile products, and substantial improv e m e n t s in productivity.
Southern
difficulties in recrui t i n g wor k e r s w e r e also reported.
G e n e r a l w a g e changes since 1963 have b e e n somewhat larger in s outhern
than in the n o r t h e r n cotton and s y n thetic textile mills.
For cotton textiles, w h e r e comparisons of g e neral w a g e changes and
changes in hour l y earnings are possible, the increase in the two m e a s u r e s




- 42
has b e e n p r a c t i c a l l y identical since 1958.
Straight-time hourly earn­
ings of all textile workers h a v e incr e a s e d by about 48 p e r c e n t since
1958— m o r e than the increases for all f a ctory p r o d u c t i o n workers.
Be­
cause of a slightly greater increase in a v e r a g e w e e k l y hours, bo t h
h o u r l y earnings including p r e m i u m p ay for ov e r t i m e and w e e k l y earnings
adva n c e d slightly faster than s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y earnings.
Changes
in average annual earnings for w o r k e r s w i t h e a rnings in the textile
i ndustry in each of four quarters of a y ear are shown in A p p e n d i x table
26 from 1946 to 1964, the latest years for w h i c h these d ata are a v a i l ­
able.
Over the who l e period, average annual earnings i ncreased by about
123 percent.
Earnings at straig h t - t i m e r o s e at about the same r a t e in m o s t t ex­
tile industries b e t w e e n 1958 and 1968 (Appendix table 19).
E xceptions
w e r e the m a n u f a c t u r e of floor coverings, w h e r e h o u r l y earnings excluding
p r e m i u m pay for o v e r t i m e increa s e d by only about 32 percent, and h o s i e r y
(except w o m e n ’s hosiery) and bro a d w o v e n co t t o n fabrics, w h e r e they
rose b e t w e e n 55 and 60 percent.
S t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y earnings in
floor coverings w e r e h i g hest of all tex t i l e i n d ustries (except m i s c e l ­
laneous textile goods) in 1958, and thus w a g e increases sim i l a r to those
in other industries bet w e e n 1958 and 1968 r e s u l t e d in a r e l a t i v e l y
smaller perc e n t a g e increase in s t r a i g h t - t i m e a v e r a g e h o u r l y ea r n i n g s
for this period.
On the other hand, h o u r l y earnings in m e n ’s and
c h i l d r e n ’s h o s i e r y and cotton fabrics w e r e r e l a t i v e l y l o w in 1958,
and the same cents per hour w a g e increases over t hese y e a r s w o u l d be
h i g h e r in per c e n t a g e terms.
N o r t h e r n plants h a v e continued to l i b e r a l i z e benefits, and since
1965, substantial numbers of s o u t h e r n c o t t o n and s y n thetic plants have
libera l i z e d or introduced benefits, e s p e c i a l l y h o l i d a y and p e n s i o n p r o ­
visions.
I ndustrial Relations
Extent of U n i o n i z a t i o n . U n i o n agree m e n t s g o v e r n the w a g e s and
w o rking conditions of only a small m i n o r i t y of textile workers.
In m o s t
m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries, u n i o n agr e e m e n t s cover from 60 to 65 perc e n t
of the p r o d u c t i o n workers..?/ As A p p e n d i x table 27 indicates, only in
textile dyeing and finishing do u n i o n agreem e n t s cover m o r e than a third
of the p r o d u c t i o n workers, and in the S o u t h e a s t e r n States, as few as 1
or 2 percent of synthetic textile m a n u f a c t u r i n g and h o s i e r y employees
w o r k under union contracts.
The h i g h e s t contract c o v e r a g e in the S o u t h ­
east is recorded in cotton textiles, w h e r e an e s t i m a t e d 14 pe r c e n t of the

2/ Dat a refer to 1966, the latest ye a r for w h i c h this in f o r m a t i o n
is available.
There has b e e n r e l a t i v e l y little chan g e in u n i o n i z a t i o n
since these studies w e r e made.




- 43 w o r k e r s are under collec t i v e ba r g a i n i n g agreements, and in textile
dyeing and finishing, w h e r e agr e e m e n t s a p ply to one out of four
s o u thern workers.
W i t h the continued shift of t e xtile e m p l o y m e n t to the South in
the p o s t w a r period, u n i o n i z a t i o n has a c t u a l l y decli n e d in importance.
D u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 fs, there has b e e n little change in coverage of u n i o n
a g r eements in these industries.
W i t h i n the past two years u n ions have
w o n barg a i n i n g elections in a n u m b e r of south e r n textile plants, but
ver y f e w of these plants have signed col l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g agreements.
Consid e r i n g m e m b e r s h i p rather than the n u m b e r of w o r k e r s covered
by u n ion agreements, m e m b e r s h i p in m a j o r textile unions has dec l i n e d
p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y m o r e than employment.
B e t w e e n 1956 and 1966, textile
p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r employment fell b y about 87,000 w o r k e r s — about 9.2
p e r c e n t — w h i l e m e m b e r s h i p in the m a j o r textile unions declined by
about 83,000 or 27 p e rcent (Appendix table 28).
M e m b e r s h i p in the
p r i n c i p a l textile unions was about 33 percent of textile p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r employment in 1956 and 27 p e r c e n t in 1966..3/
B a r gaining P a t t e r n s . In recent years, the p a t t e r n of w a g e changes
in cotton and synthetic textile m a n u f a c t u r e has b een e s t a b l i s h e d by n o n ­
u n i o n establis h m e n t s in the South.
In contrast to the years be f o r e the
m i d - 1 9 5 0 fs, w h e n m e m b e r s of the N e w E n g l a n d T e xtile M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o ­
c i a tion b a r g a i n e d as a unit, u n i o n i z e d companies n o w n e g o t i a t e on an
individual basis.
The frequency of bargai n i n g and w a g e changes in the textile i n d u s ­
tries, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the m a n u f a c t u r e of b r o a d w o v e n goods, has a c c e l ­
e r a t e d in the 1 9 6 0 fs as the i n d u s t r i e s 1 p r o s p e r i t y increased.
W i t h the
economic difficulties and declines in e m p loyment in the 1 9 5 0 fs, there
w e r e a n u m b e r of years in w h i c h w a g e s w e r e not changed and one y e a r in
w h i c h they w e r e reduced by u n i o n i z e d mills.
Begi n n i n g in 1964, however,
n o r t h e r n cotton textile m a n u f a c t u r e r s b e g a n to n e g o t i a t e w a g e increases
each year, and, in 1966, 3-year a g r eements p r o v i d e d not only for a w a g e
increase in the first contract ye a r but for defer r e d w a g e i ncreases in
the second and third years.
This d e v e l o p m e n t p a r a l l e l e d an a c c e l e r a t i o n
of w a g e changes in southern textile plants.

3/ A n u m b e r of other u nio n s h a v e some m e m b e r s h i p in the textile
industries.
These include the Ind u s t r i a l Trades U n i o n (independent),
w h i c h represents some 1,700 empl o y e e s of 16 w o o l e n and worsted, dye,
and k n i t t i n g m i l l s in the Woons ocket, R h o d e Isla n d area.




- 44 Strike I d l e n e s s , The n u m b e r of m a n - d a y s of idleness resu l t i n g from
w o r k stoppages in the textile ind ustries has b e e n p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y smaller
than the average for all industries.
In each y e a r except two b e t w e e n 1956
and 1967, less than a tenth of 1 p e r c e n t of es t i m a t e d w o r k i n g time has be e n
lost b e c a u s e of w o r k stoppages in textile i n d ustries (Appendix table 29).
M o s t textile stoppages have b e e n c o n c e n t r a t e d in the Northeast.
De­
spite the loss of u n i o n m e m b e r s and c o v e r a g e of u n i o n a g r e e m e n t s w i t h the
shift of the industry to the South, strikes to o r g a n i z e plan t s ha v e n ot in­
creased in number.
B.

Apparel

W a g e and Benefit Levels
H o u r l y earnings in the a p par e l ind u s t r i e s are lower than in any other
m a n u f a c t u r i n g group except textiles and leather.
B e c a u s e of r e l a t i v e l y
short hours, w e e k l y and annual e a r n i n g s of a p p a r e l w o r k e r s are b e l o w those
of all other m a j o r industry groups.
The a v e r a g e a p p a r e l w o r k e r in O c t o b e r
1968 earned just over $2.20 an hour (about $2.27 if p r e m i u m p a y for o v e r ­
time is included), or slightly m o r e than $82.00 a w e e k — about 70 cents an
hour and m o r e than $43.00 a w e e k less t han the a v e r a g e f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n
work e r (Appendix table 30) .it/ The ann u a l earni n g s of w o r k e r s r e g u l a r l y
attached to the a p p arel industries (those w i t h ear n i n g s in e a c h of four
quarters) a v e raged about $3,650 in 1964 (Appendix table 31).
In O c t o b e r 1968, e s timated a v e r a g e strai g h t time h o u r l y earnings
v a r i e d among apparel industries from a l ow of abo u t $1.90 in the m a n u f a c ­
ture of such products as w o r k clothing, shirts, trousers, a nd w o m e n fs and
c h i l d r e n fs underwear, to about $2.72 in the m a n u f a c t u r e of w o m e n fs coats
and suits.
E arnings v a r i e d among i n d ustries for the same o c c u p a t i o n as
w e l l as for all occupations cons i d e r e d as a group.
Thus, even for j a n i ­
tors, earnings in the m e n ’s and b o y s T suit and coat i n d u s t r y a re s u b s t a n ­
tially high e r than those in m e n fs and b o y s 1 shirt or w o r k c l othing f a c ­
tories (Appendix table 32).
For p r o d u c t i o n occupa t i o n s , the d i f f e r e n c e s
in earnings are even greater.
W i t h i n an industry earnings v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y among o c c u p a t i o n s and
areas.
A survey of the w o m e n 1s and m i s s e s 1 dress i n d u s t r y in 11 m a j o r
p r o d u c t i o n centers in M a r c h 1966 r ecorded earni n g s rang i n g from $1.63
an h our in Dallas, Texas to $2.73 in N e w Y o r k City.
At that time, in
N e w Y o r k City, skilled cutters and m a r k e r s earned an a v e r a g e of $3.55
an hour, w h i l e the largest o c c u p a t i o n a l g r oup in the i n d u s t r y — w o m e n
sewing m a c h i n e operators (single h a n d - t a i l o r system) a v e r a g e d $2.81.
In the pro d u c t i o n of w o m e n ’s coats and suits, earni n g s in A u g u s t 1965

4/ P r e l i m i n a r y data indicate that in J a n u a r y 1969 a v e r a g e h o u r l y
and w e e k l y earnings in textiles w e r e 83 cents an d $45.00, r e s p e ctively,
b e l o w the levels in all manufacturing.




- 45
varied from $2.00 in Kansas City to $2.92 in New York City, with cut­
ters averaging $3.90 and sewing machine operators (single hand-tailor
system) $3.45 in New York City.5/
Prior to February 1, 1968, a substantial number of workers in the
apparel industries earned less than $1.60— the minimum which went into
effect for manufacturing establishments under the Fair Labor Standards
Act on that date. In Appendix table 33, estimates of the proportion
of workers currently earning less than $2.00 an hour are presented for
three apparel industries. On a nationwide basis, the estimates range
from 22 percent in the menfs and boys1 suits and coats industry to an
estimated 70 percent in the manufacture of work clothing, and 80 percent
in the shirt (except work shirts) and nightwear industry.
The scheduled workweek in most men's apparel industries is 40 hours,
with few establishments reporting longer schedules. Work schedules in
most major centers of the women's dress industry and all major centers
of the women's coat and suit industry, as well as in unionized plants
manufacturing infants' and children's wear, are typically 35 hours a
week— ' Most workers in other women's apparel industries are also on a
35-hour workweek. Average actual hours vary with the season in many
apparel industries, but typically are below 40 a week, whereas in recent
years the workweek in all manufacturing has averaged 40 hours or more.
Because in many apparel industries most establishments are small,
employee benefits are often financed by industry-area funds to which
unionized employers contribute specified amounts per man-hour worked.
The limited information that is available indicates that employer con­
tributions or direct expenditures for benefits were proportionately
smaller in apparel manufacture than in manufacturing as a whole. Bene­
fits are more generous in industries in which large numbers of establish­
ments have been organized than in such industries as work clothing and
shirt manufacturing, where union agreements cover only a minority of the
workers.
In the women's apparel industries and in the production of men's
coats and suits, most workers receive paid holidays, but in the manufac­
ture of men's and boys' shirts, about a third of the workers did not re­
ceive any paid holidays as of 1964.
(Available information does not indi­
cate any substantial subsequent change in practice. The predominant num­
ber of paid holidays is 7, 7 1/2, or 8, except in work clothing, where 6
or 7 days are equally common.

V
In the coat and suit
operators were more numerous
lower earnings.
6/ The only major dress
hours were common were mostly




industry, section system sewing machine
than tailor system operators and had
areas in which schedules in excess of 35
unorganized.

- 46 Most apparel workers receive paid vacations, but the length of
vacations varies among industries. Employees of the m enfs suit and
coat and shirt industries receive two weeks1 vacation after a yearfs
service and a third week after 1 1/2 years .U
In the work clothing
industry, most employees receive one week after a yearfs service and
a second week is added after 3 or 5 years1 service. Only about
one-fourth of the workers in work clothing have 3 weeks1 or more of
paid vacation, usually after 10 or 15 years of service. Vacation
benefits vary among major centers of the dress industry. In most
areas, employees with a yearfs service receive 2 or 4 percent of their
annual earnings as vacation benefits; this percentage does not vary
with length of service. Vacation practices in the womenfs coat and
suit industry varied, with payments ranging from 2 percent of annual
earnings, or about one week’s pay, to 3 3/4 percent, or pay for a second
week. One year’s service was generally required for payments.
In unionized plants in centers of women’s coat and suit production,
pensions of $50.00 or $65.00 a month are financed by employer payments
of 2 1/2 to 6 1/2 percent of payrolls. Most unionized producers of
dresses pay 4 1/2 percent of payrolls for pensions of $60.00 a month,
and in men’s apparel, most employers in the men’s and boys’ coats and
suits industry contribute 4.5 percent of payrolls for pension benefits
based on earnings and length of service, and in shirts and allied gar­
ments, 3.1 percent for pensions of $60.00 a month.
A number of apparel agreements provide for local medical care
facilities, often clinics that provide a variety of medical care serv­
ices. Other health benefits include hospitalization, ranging from full
coverage for a semi-private room for workers in women’s dresses and men’s
and boys’ coats and suits to $30.00 a day for workers manufacturing
women’s coats and suits and men’s shirts and cotton garments. Allowances
for surgical expenses are generally $300.00 for workers in men’s and boys’
shirts and allied garments and as high as $500.00 in the women’s dress
industry, and in both the women’s and men’s coats and suits industries.
Most union firms pay from 4 to 7 1/2 percent of gross payroll to finance
health and welfare benefits.
Wage and Benefit Trends
Because of the fragmented nature of bargaining and the number of
unilateral employer decisions, it is difficult to generalize about the
size of general wage increases and changes in benefits in the apparel

JJ

Two weeks are given in the summer after 1 year of service and
the third week is granted during Christmas week for employees with 1
year of service as of December 1. In effect then, only those employees
with at least 1 1/2 years of service as of December 1 would receive the
full 3 weeks of vacation for the year.




- 47 industries. Until 1965-66, wages were generally increased only once
every two or three years, but beginning in 1965, wage activity in­
creased. In 1965, after a lapse of two years, 1-year contracts nego­
tiated for the shirt and other menfs cotton garment industries provided
wage increases. In 1966, 3-year contracts were negotiated providing for
increases in both 1966 and 1967. Some work clothing plants put into
effect negotiated or deferred increases during 1965, 1966, and 1967.
There was a similar acceleration of wage changes in the women1s apparel
industries. Prior to the early 1960fs, wage reopenings were often trig­
gered by 5 percent increases in the Consumer Price Index, while recently
this has been reduced to about 2 or 2 1/2 percent. In 1967 and 1968,
many contracts in women1s apparel were reopened for wage negotiations,
based on an increase in the CPI. In general, provisions for deferred
wage increases and new contract negotiations will raise the wage level
in apparel in 1969.
Straight-time average hourly earnings increased by more than 40
percent in both the apparel industries and all manufacturing between
October 1958 and October 1968.il/ The percentage rise in average weekly
earnings was less in apparel than in all manufacturing, reflecting a
larger rise in average hours in manufacturing. Annual earnings in
these industries for regular workers rose less than in most other major
manufacturing groups (Appendix table 34). The rise between 1946 and 1964
(the latest year for which data on annual earnings are available), was 67
percent; for the period 1959-64 the increase was 14 percent.
There has been a relatively little variation among apparel industries
in the extent to which earnings have increased, with the exception of
womenfs suits, skirts, coats, and millinery. In those industries, hourly
earnings rose less than 30 percent between 1958 and 1968. Except for
reductions in weekly schedules in the millinery and fur industries in
1958, there has been little change in hours of work in apparel indus­
tries in recent years.
Many recent union agreements have liberalized benefits and increased
the percentage that employers contribute for vacations, holidays, and
health and welfare benefits.
Industrial Relations
Extent of Unionization. The proportion of workers covered by union
agreements varies widely among apparel industries, although generally it
is much higher than in the textile industries. Among three of the major

8/ The increase would be about the same if the average for 1958
were used as a base. October 1958 has been substituted because of
seasonal variations in some apparel industries.




- 48 menfs apparel industries for which data are available, coverage of
union agreements varies from about two-fifths of the production workers
in shirt manufacture to 90 percent in the manufacture of coats and suits.
In 9 out of 11 major metropolitan areas in the womenfs dress industry
and all areas studied in womenfs coat and suit production, about 7 out °f
8 workers were covered by union agreements.
(Exceptions were Dallas and
Los Angeles, where fewer than one-tenth of the dress workers were cov­
ered by agreements.) Union agreements also apply extensively to workers
in a number of other women1s apparel industries.
Despite a growth in apparel employment, there has been no sig­
nificant gain in union membership or coverage of union agreements in
recent years. Membership in the four major apparel unions considered as
a group actually declined slightly between 1956 and 1966. In the two
largest unions, membership was stable. At the same time, annual average
production worker employment in the apparel industries grew by 155,000.
The failure of union membership or coverage of union agreements to keep
pace with employment is apparently due to the fact that the growth has
occurred mostly in areas that have proved difficult to organize. Mem­
bership in the principal apparel unions has fallen from about 84 percent
of production worker employment in 1956 to 72 in 1966.
Bargaining Patterns. Large establishments are relatively rare in the
apparel industries; hence, most collective bargaining agreements cover
groups of establishments within metropolitan areas or, in some cases, even
broader areas (Appendix table 35). Some agreements, for example, cover
the New York metropolitan area or parts of several northeastern States.
Typically, contracts are negotiated for a period of two or three years.
Until the past several years, they normally provided for wage reopeners
on a certain date or if a specified increase occurred in the Consumer
Price Index. Specified deferred wage increases were not provided for.
Generally, increases were put into effect less often than annually. In
recent years, there has been a tendency to provide for specific deferred
wage increases, although there are still provisions for reopeners in
many Ladies1 Garment Workers contracts if the CPI increases by a speci­
fied amount, or if the statutory minimum wage increases. Many of the
women's garment contracts require that minimum occupational rates shall
be maintained at a specified level above the statutory minimum.
Strike Idleness. Except in 1958, when more than 150,000 workers in
the dress and millinery industries struck over new agreements, time lost
because of work stoppages has been proportionately much smaller in apparel
than the average for all industries (Appendix table 36). Despite the
failure of union membership and coverage of union agreements to keep pace
with the growth of employment in the industry, there has been no increase
in strikes to organize new plants.




- 49 VII.

TEXTILES AND APPAREL IN PUERTO RICQi/

Employment and Unemployment
In 1968, factory employment in Puerto Rico averaged 7,600 in textiles and 37,100 in apparel.2J Between 1957 and 1968, factory employment in textiles and apparel combined increased by 89 percent. In
apparel, the gain was 97 percent; in textiles, 58 percent (Appendix
table 37). In the balance of manufacturing industry, over the same
period, employment rose by 85 percent, and in all nonagricultural indus­
try (excluding textiles and apparel), by 62 percent.A/ Among the indi­
vidual textile and apparel industries, the largest single source of
employment was in women1s, misses’, children’s and infants1 undergarments
(Appendix table 38).
In 1968, almost one-third of all factory employment in Puerto Rico
was accounted for by apparel and textiles, as compared with almost
two-fifths in 1966.4/A significant aspect of the development of the ap­
parel industry has been the shift from home needlework to factory work.
In 1957, there were about 18,000 home needleworkers and 19,000 factory
apparel workers, a total of about 37,000. By 1968, there were only
about 2,000 home needleworkers, but factory employment had risen to
37,000 for a total employment only slightly greater than in 1957. These
figures suggest that the development of a strong factory industry has
gradually whittled away at the cottage industry, but this is probably
only partially true. No definite information is available on the subse­
quent employment of the displaced needleworkers, but there are indications
that some have become factory workers in apparel; others have left the
labor force or become domestic workers; and still others have moved into

1/ The definitions of the textile and apparel industries in
Puerto Rico correspond broadly to those used for the mainland of the
United States, but there are several major differences. Included in
the children’s dress and related products industry are establishments
primarily engaged in the manufacture of dolls, and included in the
hosiery and textile products industry are establishments primarily
engaged in the manufacture of mattresses and bedsprings.
2/ Wherever data for 1968 are used, they represent the average
for January through October unless otherwise specified.
3/ On the mainland, between 1957 and 1968, textile mill employ­
ment was virtually unchanged, but employment in apparel and in manu­
facturing as a whole rose by 15 and 17 percent, respectively.
4/ On the mainland, combined textile and apparel employment
accounted for 12 percent of manufacturing employment (Appendix table 1).




- 50 -

h ome p i e c e w o r k for other industries, such as glo v e m a n u f a c t u r i n g .
P o s s i b l y the single factor m o s t infl u e n c i n g the r e d u c t i o n in the n u m ­
ber of home nee d l e w o r k e r s has be e n the d w i n d l i n g importance, b o t h in
relative and absolute terms, of those appa r e l indus t r i e s in w h i c h hand
finishing was an important operation.
It is evident that, w h i l e the level of* appa r e l e m p l o y m e n t has r e ­
m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y stable, the shift f rom h o m e w o r k to f a c t o r y work, as
w e l l as the shift in industry patterns, has resul t e d in a h i g h e r level
of productivity, and c o n s e quent l y g r e a t e r output for the industry.
Separate data are not ava i l a b l e on u n e m p l o y m e n t in the textile
and a p par el industries in Puert o Rico.
For all n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s ­
tries, u n e m ployment over the last 12 y e ars has a v e r a g e d 11.2 percent,
double the u n e m p loyment rate for the m a i n l a n d (Appendix t able 39).
In
Oct o b e r 1968, the rate w as 11.3 percent, or about triple the m a i n l a n d
rate.
W i t h some v a r i a t i o n — as l o w as 9.9 per c e n t in 1960 and as h igh
as 13.5 in 1 9 5 8 — n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l u n e m p l o y m e n t has remai n e d r e l a t i v e l y
steady over the entire decade.
The f e male u n e m p l o y m e n t rate has g e n ­
e r ally b e e n m o r e favorable than the m a l e rate.
A f t e r a p e r i o d of
steady decline, followed by some u p w a r d mo v e m e n t , it dropped to a l ow
point of 7.3 percent in Octo b e r 1968.
In a d d i t i o n to unemployment, u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t — those w o r k e r s w h o
w o r k 34 hours or less per w e e k for i n v o l u n t a r y r e a s o n s — is also a
serious problem.
The rate for u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t has b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y
high, a p p r o x i m a t e l y at the same level as u n employment.
W h i l e employment during the p ast 12 y e a r s incr e a s e d b y 30 percent,
increases of 28 percent occurre d in the c i v i l i a n n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o p u ­
lation and in the labor force.
T here has thus b e e n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y
small gai n in relative employment.
This p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h has b e e n
influenced in the past several y e a r s b y the r e t u r n of a p o r t i o n of the
P uerto R i c a n p o p u l a t i o n that had m i g r a t e d to the m a i n l a n d , m a i n l y N e w
Y o r k City, and, in returning, e x erted a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e o n job o p p o r ­
tunities .
U n e m p l o y m e n t among young p e o p l e has b e e n and continues to b e a
s e rious .problem*
A p p r o x i m a t e l y half the u n e m p l o y e d o n the island are
less than 25 yea r s old.
T h e fact that the s i t u a t i o n is n o t i mproving
and is indeed w o r s e n i n g is indi c a t e d b y the d e c r e a s e of 4.8 y e a r s in
the ave r a g e age of the u n e m p l o y e d b e t w e e n 1960 a nd 1967.
This is in
part a refle c t i o n of the decrea s i n g a v e r a g e age of the population.
M o r e and more, as employme n t shifts from the " t r a d i t i o n a l ” sector
(agriculture, needlework, d omes t i c service, s e l f - e m p l o y e d m e r c h a n t s




- 51 -

and street peddlers, and sugar m i l l jobs) to the "modern" sector
(manufacturing, construction, trade, g o v e r n m e n t and services other
than d o m e s t i c ) , r e l atively low e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t beco m e s a v o c a ­
tional handicap for b o t h the young and o lder Pue r t o Rican,
A m o r e favorable aspect of the u n e m p l o y m e n t p i c t u r e is the r e l a ­
tively short duration of m o s t u n e m p loyment.
Two - t h i r d s of the p e rsons
seeking w o r k stay u n e m p l o y e d for a pe r i o d of 4 w e e k s or less.
Only
6.2 perc e n t of job seekers are u n e m p l o y e d for 3 1 / 2 m o n t h s or more.
L o n g - t e r m unemployment is often a r e f l e c t i o n of the shift from the
t r a d itional to the m o d e r n economy, from the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of industries
using r e l ative u n skilled labor to those w i t h g r e a t e r skill requirements.
Size of Establishment
Bet w e e n 1957 and O c t ober 1967, the n u m b e r of textile and apparel
plants in P u erto Rico increased from 415 to 500, or 22 percent, a c c o u n t ­
ing for about 20 percent of the island's m a n u f a c t u r i n g establis h m e n t s
(Appendix table 40).
B e t ween the two years, the ave r a g e apparel plant
increased in size from 51 to 83 workers, but the a v e r a g e textile plant
remained about the same siz e — 100 workers.
In 1957, 71 percent of the a p parel plants had fewer than 50 e m p l o y ­
ees, and 26 percent had betw e e n 50 and 250 (Appendix table 41).
By
Octo b e r 1967, this had shifted to 48 p e r c e n t in the smaller size, and
49 percent in the larger.
Over this peri o d the p r o p o r t i o n of w o r k e r s
in small plants was cut m o r e than half, fr o m 24.5 p e r c e n t in 1957 to
11.5 percent in O c tober 1967.
Un l i k e the s i t u a t i o n on the ma i n l a n d , the
a v erage apparel plant in Puerto Rico is larger than the a v e r a g e m a n u f a c ­
turing establishment.
P r e s u m a b l y this r eflects the t e ndency of m a n u f a c ­
turers of m a s s - p r o d u c e d articles, such as brassieres, to locate sizeable
plants on the island.
W age and Benefit Levels
In the p e r i o d from 1957 t h r o u g h 1968, av e r a g e h o u r l y e arnings in
Puerto R i c o fs textile industry rose 88 percent, from 77 cents to $1.45;
and in apparel by 118 percent, from 66 cents to $1.44 (Appendix table
42).
The increase in a p parel w a s at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same rate as in
Puerto Ric a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g g e n e r a l l y u n t i l 1966, but by 1968 h a d s u b ­
stantially exceeded the m a n u f a c t u r i n g incre a s e of 103 percent.
As a result of w a g e m o v e m e n t s o ccurring during the past decade,
d ifferentials bet w e e n m a i n l a n d and island h o u r l y earnings in textiles




- 52 -

and apparel hav e n a r r o w e d in p e r c e n t a g e terms; however, t hey h a v e
remai n e d about the same in terms of m o n e y (Appendix table 43).
If
anything, the gap in abs o l u t e terms has w i d e n e d somewhat in recent
years.
Since 1957, h o u r l y earni n g s in texti l e s in P u e r t o Ri c o ha v e
a v e raged about 68 cents less than on the main l a n d .
In two of these
years, they rose to w i t h i n 63 cents of the m a i n l a n d level, b ut since
1962, the gap has bee n increasing w i t h in d i c a t i o n s that it w i l l be
about 74 cents for 1968.
In apparel ma n u f a c t u r i n g , the d i f f e r e n c e
a veraged 75 cents over the 12-year span, w i t h a 76-cent d i f f e r e n c e
indicated for 1968.
Even m o r e than on the m a i n l a n d , m i n i m u m w a g e ch a n g e s u n d e r the
Fair Lab o r Standards Act h a v e exer t e d a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e on h o u r l y
earnings.
U n l i k e the m a i n l a n d ’s u n i f o r m m i n i m u m w a g e level, island
m i n i m a are set on an i n d u s t r y - b y - i n d u s t r y b a s i s b y indus t r y committees,
and are reviewed at a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 - year intervals.
M u c h of the rise
b e t w e e n 1967 and 1968 took p l a c e in the spring of 1968, after the Fair
Lab o r Standards Act m i n i m u m of $1.60 p e r h o u r we n t into effect on the
m a i n l a n d (February 1).
The Fair L a b o r S t a ndards A c t r e q u i r e d a c o r ­
r e s ponding p e r c e n t a g e increase in the island minim u m .
Ex c e p t for the
m a n u f a c t u r e of handkerchiefs, for w h ich a h a r d s h i p e x c e p t i o n w a s filed,
this p e r c e n t a g e i n c rease wen t into effect in A p r i l 1968.
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r nings in ap p a r e l h a v e r i s e n fr o m $21.98 in 1957
to $51.04 in 1 9 6 8 , ^ an 11-year i n c r e a s e of 132 percent, as c o m p a r e d w i t h
110 perc e n t in all manufact u r i n g . H o wever, the level of a v e r a g e w e e k l y
earnings in 1968 was lower in appa r e l than in m a n u f a c t u r i n g by $5.98,
or about 10 percent.
Whi l e the gap in terms of d o l l a r s has g r o w n s o m e ­
w h a t since 1957, it has decr e a s e d in p e r c e n t a g e terms b y a bout one-half.
A l t h o u g h w e e k l y earnings in the m u c h smal l e r t e xtile i n d u s t r y rose by
only 100 percent in the same period, their lev e l w a s $5.59 h i g h e r than
in apparel in 1968.
A b o u t two-thirds of this d i f f e r e n c e w a s due to
h igher average w e e k l y hou r s in textiles, and the r e m a i n d e r to a d i f f e r ­
ence in a v e rage h o u r l y earnings.
In m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries, isla n d a v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s tend to be
lower than on the m a inland.
This is p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue in textiles; in
apparel, the d i f f e r e n c e has b e e n slight.
However, it s h o u l d be n o t e d
that on the m a i n l a n d scheduled h o u r s in a p p a r e l ar e o f t e n 35 per week,
n o t a b l y in the w o m e n ’s b r a n c h of the industry.
O n the island, they are
40, indicating that there is a s u b s t a n t i a l s h o r t a g e of fu l l - t i m e w o r k
in the industry.
Over the past 12 years, t e x t i l e w e e k l y h o urs h a v e
a v e raged 2.4 h igher than in apparel.

ance,

In a d d i t i o n to l e gally r equ i r e d so c i a l security, u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r ­
and w o r k m e n ’s c o m p e n s a t i o n coverage, fema l e em p l o y e e s a r e e n t i t l e d




- 53 -

b y l a w to two mon t h s of m a t e r n i t y leave at half pay.
Pa i d holidays,
vacations, and m e d i c a l insuranc e are p r o v i d e d for in u n i o n a g r eements
and are found to some extent in u n o r g a n i z e d plants.
The p a y m e n t of
C h ristmas bonuses is not unusual.
Indus t r i a l Relations
E xtent of U n i o n i z a t i o n . The P u e r t o R i c a n D e p a r t m e n t of Labor
e s t i m a t e d that in Oct o b e r 1966 there w e r e 13,000 u n i o n m e m b e r s in
apparel, or 41 percent of perso n s employed, and 1,200 in textile
mills, or 21 percent of persons employed.
In f o r m a t i o n from other
sources indicates that r o u g h l y 12,000 w e r e in the I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a d i e s 1
Garm e n t W o r k e r s 1 Union, AFL-CIOfci/; 1.500 or m o r e in the A m a l g a m a t e d
Clothing Wor k e r s of America, AF L - C I 0 2 j
and anot h e r 1,200 in other
unions •
U
Of 287 textile and apparel plan t s covered in eco n o m i c analyses
p r e p a r e d in 1964 by the W a g e and Hour and P u b l i c C ontracts D i v i sions
of the U.S. Depart m e n t of Labor, 85, w i t h 10,252 w o r k e r s » or about
one - t h i r d of the ind u s t r y total, w e r e covered by u n i o n - m a n a g e m e n t
contracts.
These 85 plants ave r a g e d about 120 w o r k e r s each, as c o m ­
pared w i t h an average of 96 w o r k e r s in plants not covered b y contracts.
Industrial D isputes and W o r k S t o p p a g e s . In the course of the last
decade there h a v e bee n o nly three u n i o n - a p p r o v e d strikes in the a p parel
industry in Puerto Rico.
These strikes w e r e small and w e r e o r g a n i z a ­
tional rather than economic in nature.
In all the stoppages, the str i k
ing u n i o n has b e e n the A m a l g a m a t e d Clothing W o r k e r s of America, A F L - C I O
In addition, a small n u m b e r of w i l d c a t strikes, g e n e r a l l y of short dura
tion, hav e occurred.

5/
W i l l i a m Knowles, "Uni o n i s m and P o l i t i c s in Puer t o R i c o " in
Status of Puerto R i c o , S elected B a c k g r o u n d Studies, p r e p a r e d for the
U . S . - P u e r t o Rico C o m m i s s i o n on the Status of P u e r t o Rico, 1966.
6/
Informal esti m a t e p r o v i d e d b y the ACWA, AFL-CIO.
7/
Bas e d on a 1964 estima t e m a d e by the U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Labor,
W a g e and H o u r and Publ i c Contra c t s Divisions.







STAT I S T I C A L A P P E N D I X




Table 1--Total Employment in Manufacturing, Textiles, and Apparel, 1947 to 1968 J /
L
_________________________________(In thousands)__________________________________
Year

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

........... .........
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
2/...................

IV
2/
Source:

Manufacturing

15,545
15,582
14,441
15,241
16,393
16,632
17,549
16,314
16,882
17,243
17,174
15,945
16,675
16,796
16,326
16,853
16,995
17,274
18,062
19,214
19,434
19,734

Textiles

1,299
1,332
1,187
1,256
1,238
1,163
1,155
1,042
1,050
1,032
981
919
946
924
893
902
885
892
926
964
957
985

Apparel

1,154
1,190
1,173
1,202
1,207
1,216
1,248
1,184
1,219
1,223
1,210
1,172
1,226
1,233
1,215
1,264
1,283
1,303
1,354
1,402
1,400
1,417

Private wage and salary workers only,
Pr e 1iminary.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Ratios
Textiles to
Apparel to
manufacturing
manufacturing
8.4
8.6
8.2
8.2
7.6
7.0
6.6
6.4
6.2
6.0
5.7
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.0

7.4
7.6
8.1
7.9
7.4
7.3
7.1
7.3
7 -2
7.1
7.0
7.3
7.4
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.3
7.2
7.2

i
t
n

T

- 56
T able 2 --Unemployment R ates in M an ufactu rin g,
T e x tile s and A p p arel, 1958 to 1968
Year

M anufacturing T e x tile s A pparel

R a tio s
T e x tile to
A pparel to
m anufacturing m anufacturing

1958 ...............................

9.2

9.5

12.0

1.03

1.03

1959 ...............................

6 .0

7.2

9 .6

1.20

1.60

I960 ...............................

6.2

6.3

10.5

1.02

1.69

1961 ...............................

7.7

6.8

11.4

.88

1.48

1962 ...............................

5 .8

5 .2

9.8

.90

1.69

1963 ...............................
1964 ...............................

5 .7

6.7

9 .6

1.18

1.68

4.9

5 .7

8 .0

1.16

1.63

1965 ...............................

4 .0

4.3

7.3

1.08

1.83

1966 ...............................

3 .2

3.7

6 .0

1.16

1.88

1967 ...............................

3 .6

3 .8

6.5

1.06

1.81

1968 ...............................

3 .2

3.5

5.9

1.09

1.84

S ource: U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s .




Table 3--Labor Turnover Rates in Manufacturing, Textiles, and
Apparel, 1958 to 1967 1/

Manufacturing
Textiles
Apparel
Accessions
Accessions
Separations
Separations
Accessions
Separations
Total New Total Quits Layoffs Total New Total Quits Layoffs Total New Total Quits Layoffs
Hires
Hires
Hires

Year

1958

3.6

1.7

4.1

i.i

2.6

3.'2

1.6

3.5

1.3

1,8

5.2

2.5

5.7

1.7

3.5

1959

4.2

2.6

4.1

1.5

2.0

3.5

2.4

3.5

1.7

1.3

5.7

3.6

5.6

2.3

2.7

1960

3.8

2.2

4.3

1.3

2.4

3.2

2.0

3.7

1.6

1.5

5.4

3.2

6.1

2.3

3.2
•

3 1

1961

4.1

2.2

4.0

1.2

2.2

3.5

2.2

3.4

1.6

1.3

5.7

3.1

5.8

2.0

O . l

1962

4.1

2.5

4.1

1.4

2.0

3.6

2.5

3.7

1.9

1.2

5.5

3.5

5.8

2.3

2.7

1963

3.9

2.4

3.9

1.4

1.8

3.6

2.5

3.8

1.9

1.2

5.3

3.3

5.5

2.2

2.6

1964

4.0

2.6

3.9

1.5

1.7

3.8

2.7

3.8

2.1

1.1

5.5

3.3

5.6

2.2

2.6

1965

4.3

3.1

4.1

1.9

1.4

4.3

3.3

4.1

2.5

.8

5.8

3.7

5.8

2.6

2.4

1966

5.0

3.8

4.6

2.6

1.2

5.1

4.1

5.1

3.5

.7

6.1

4.2

6.1

3.3

2.0

1967

4.4

3.3

4.6

2.3

1.4

4.9

3.8

5.0

3.4

.8

5.6

3.7

6.0

2.9

2.3

i
u

v.

1

1/

Per hundred employees*

Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

- 58 Table 4.— Employment in Textiles, by Region and
State, March 19681./

T o t a l ........... .............

991,876

Percent
of
total
100.0

Northeast ............................
Maine ..............................
Massachusetts ......................
Rhode Island .......... .............
Connecticut ........................
New Y o r k ............... ............
New Jersey,..........................
Pennsylvania.......................
All o t h e r ...... ....................

261,414
12,689
36,192
22,614
13,834
59,674
30,003
69,521
16,887

26.4
1.3
3.6
2.3
1.4
6.0
3.0
7.0
1.7

North Central ........................
Ohio ...............................
All other ..........................

31,941
10,918
21,023

3.2
1.1
2.1

South ................... .............
Virginia ............................
North Carolina .....................
South Carolina .....................
Georgia ............................
Tennessee •••............ ...........
A l a b a m a .... ........................
All other ..........................

686,216
41,501
275,598
148,415
116,026
32,857
41,986
29,833

69.2
4.2
27.8
15.0
11.7
3.3
4.2
3.0

West .................................
California............... ..........
All o t h e r ...... ••••••.........,,,,,

12,305
8,933
3,372

1.2
.9
.3

State

Employment

1/ Employment covered by unemployment insurance (excludes
mainly self-employed workers)•
Source:




U,S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security,

- 59 Table 5.— Employment in Apparel, by Region and State,
March 19681./

State

Employment

Percent
distribution

1,442,330

100.0

Northeast ................
Massachusetts ................
Connecticut .................
New Y o r k ............... .... .
New Jersey ..................
Pennsylvania..... ...........
All o t h e r ................. ..

669,793
55,496
15,606
288,797
79,694
182,015
48,185

46.4
3.8
1.1
20.0
5.5
12.6
3.3

North Central .... .............
Ohio ............ ••••••••••••
Illinois ....................
M i c h i g a n ............. ......
Missouri .....................
All o t h e r .... ...............

154,595
19,181
39,057
21,766
33,920
40,671

10.7
1.3
2.7
1.5
2.4
2.8

South .........................
Maryland ....................
Virginia ....................
North Carolina ..............
South Carolina ..............
Georgia .....................
Kentucky............. .......
Tennessee ...................
Alabama .....................
Mississippi ..................
Texas .......................
All other ...................

524,496
24,813
35,062
68,471
40,370
67,375
28,914
67,030
42,594
37,785
52,661
59,421

36.4
1.7
2.4
4.7
2.8
4.7
2.0
4.6
3.0
2.6

West ................. .........
California ..................
All other ........... ........

93,446
72,162
21,284

6.5
5.0
1.5

Total ................

3.7

4.1

1/ Employment covered by unemployment insurance (excludes
mainly self-employed workers).
Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security.

- 60 Table 6.— Per c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n of Emp l o y m e n t in
Man u f a c t u r i n g , Texti l e s and Apparel,
by Area, First Qua r t e r 1967— '

Area

Percent2/
M e t r o p o l i t a n area

Manufacturing

T extiles

Apparel

.......

100

100

100

......

79

39

65

21

61

35

N o n m e t r o p o l i t a n are a

...

1/
Employment covered by old-age, survivors, and d i s a b i l i t y
insurance (excludes m a i n l y s el f - e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s ) .
2/ P ercents are roun d e d to near e s t w h o l e number.
Source:




U.S. D e p artment of Commerce,

B u r e a u of the Census.

- 61 -

Table 7.— Per c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n of Emp l o y m e n t in
Textile s in Selec t e d States, b y Area,
First Q u a r t e r 19671./

e2J

Total

Metropolitan
ar e a

.......

100

98

2

M i d d l e Atl a n t i c
N e w Y o r k .............
N e w Jer s e y ...........
P e n n s y l v a n i a ........

100
100
100

91
92
71

9
8
29

South
A l a b a m a ..............
G e o r g i a ..............
N o r t h C a r olina ......
South C a r olina ......
T e n n e s s e e ....... T . ..
V i r g i n i a ....... .

100
100
100
100
100
100

10
30
14
23
69
9

90
70
86
77
31
91

Stat

N e w England
Massachusetts

Nonmetropolitan
area

1/
Emp l o y m e n t covered by old-age, survivors, and d i s a b i l i t y
insurance (excludes m a i n l y s e l f - e m p l o y e d work e r s ) .
2V
The selec t e d States a c c o u n t e d for about 84 p e rcent of
employment in textile m i l l s in 1967.
(Percents are r o u n d e d to
nearest whole n u m b e r ) .
Source:




U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Commerce,

B u r e a u of the Census.

- 62 -

T able 8 . --Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n of E m p l oyment in A p p a r e l
in Selected States, by Area, First Q u a r t e r
1967 1/

Total

Metropolitan
area

...........

100

100

0

Middle A t l a n t i c
New Y o r k .................
New J ersey ..............
P e n n s ylvania ............

100
100
100

96
85
76

4
15
24

North Central
Illinois .................
Missouri .................

100
100

72
59

28
41

South
A l a b a m a ..................
Georgia ..................
M i s s issippi .............
North C a r olina .........
South Caro l i n a .........
Tennessee ...............
Texas ............ . ......
V irginia . .. ... .......... .

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

11
18
2
24
35
16
74
30

89
82
98
76
65
84
26
70

Pacific
Cal i f o r n i a

100

97

3

-State 2/
New England
M a s s a c husetts

..............

Non-metropolitan
ar e a

1/ E mployment covered by old-age, survivors, and d i s a b i l i t y insurance
(excludes m a i n l y self-employed workers).
2/ The selected States a cco u n t e d for about 83 percent of
employment in the apparel industr y in 1967.
(Percents are rounded
to nearest whole number).
Source:

U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Commerce,




Bureau of the Census.

- 63 Table

9

- - E m ployment in Textiles a n d Apparel, as P e r c e n t
of M a n u f a c t u r i n g E m p l o yment, by S e l e c t e d S t ates
and Areas, Fir s t Q u a r t e r 1967 1/

States and areas

Total

Textiles

Apparel

12.0

4.8

7.2

M a s s a c h u s e t t s ................ .............
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .......................
Boston, Lowell, Law r e n c e .............
Broc k t o n ................................
Fall R i v e r - N e w B e d f o r d ...............
W o r c e s t e r ...............................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ..................

12.5
12.6
9.4
10.1
35.4
11.4
9.4

4.7
4.7
3.2
2.2
9.7
6.9
8.6

7.8
7.9
6.2
7.9
25.7
4.5
.7

N e w Y o r k ............ ........................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas ......................
A l b a n y - S c h e n e c t a d y - T r o y ..............
N e w Y o r k ................................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ..................

18.4
19.9
15.0
27.3
7.4

2.9
3.0
6.9
3.7
2.0

15.5
16.9
8.1
23.6
5.4

N e w J ersey ..................................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas ......................
Allentown-Beth.-Easton,
Pa.-N.J. 2/ ..........................
A t l a n t i c City ..........................
Jer s e y City ............................
P a t e r s o n - C l i f t o n - P a s s a i c .............
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ..................

11.9
12.5

3.1
3.5

8.8
9.0

10.7
39.9
21.1
16.3
9.7

8.0
0.0
3.9
7.6
1.5

2.7
39.9
17.2
8.7
8.2

15.7
14.4

4.2
3.7

11.5
10.7

27.3
16.5
21.1
16.3
20.0

5.5
9.2

0.0

21.8
7.3
21.1
12.4
20.0

14.6
14.9
25.9
39.3
44.7
12.3
21.5

3.4
4.1
16.7
7.1
6.5
2.1
6.5

U n i t e d States

.................................

P e n n s y l v a n i a .................... ...........
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas ......................
Allentown-Beth.-Easton,
N.Y., Pa. 2/ .........................
A l t o o n a ....... ..........................
Binghamton, N.Y.-Pa. 2/ ..............
H a r r i s b u r g ..............................
J o h n s t o w n ...............................
L a ncaster ...............................
Philadelphia, Pa.-N.J. 2/ ............
R e a d i n g .................................
Scr a n t o n ................................
W i l k e s - B a r r e - H a z l e t o n .................
Y o r k .....................................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ..................




:
!

0.0
3.9

11.2
10.8
9.2
32.2
38.2
10.2
15.0

- 64 Table

9

- - Employment in T e xtiles a nd Apparel, as P e r c e n t
of M a n u f a c t u r i n g Employment, by S e l e c t e d States
and Areas, First Q u a r t e r 1967 1/ (continued)

States a nd areas

Total

T e xtiles

Apparel
7.7
5.6
16.5

M i s s o u r i 3 / .................................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .....................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas .................
V i r g i n i a ....................................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .....................
Lyn c h b u r g ..............................
R o a n o k e ............................... .
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas .................

20.9
9.0
17.2
23.2
29.9

11.5
2.4
8.5
8.8
18.3

9.4
6.6
8.7
14.4
11.6

N o r t h Carolina ............................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .....................
A s h e v i l l e ..............................
Charlotte ....... .. .................. .
D u r h a m .................................
F a y e t t e v i l l e ..........................
G r e e n s b o r o - H i g h Point ...............
R a l e i g h ................................
Wilmington
.......................... .
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas .................

49.8
24.4
26.7
26 . 4
25.1
53 . 4
21.4
18.4
34.9
62.1

39.6
16.8
15.6
19.6
21.2
30.8
15.7
10.7
12.7
50.7

10.2
7.6
11.1
6.8
4.0
22.6
5.7
7.7
22.2
11.4

S o u t h Carolina .................... ........
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .....................
Augusta, Ga.-S.C. 2 / .................
C h a rleston ............................
Columbia ...............................
Gree n v i l l e ..... .......................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ..................

58.3
46.5
46.3
22.5
18.5
61.1
64.0

45.6
32.7
40.9
8.8
6.5
44.3
51.8

12.7
13.8
5.4
13.7
12.3
16.8
12.2

G e orgia .....................................
M e t r o p o l i t a n areas .....................
A l b a n y .................................
A t l a n t a .................... ...........
Augusta, Ga.-S.C. 2/ .................
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n .- G a .................
Columbus, Ga.-Ala. 27 ...............
M a c o n ..................................
Sav a n n a h ...............................
N o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n areas .............. .

40.4
22.8
41.1
13.5
31.6
90.1
62.0
24.1
2.3
54.9

25.0
16.9
38.2
6.3
28.8
83.5
58.2
18.1

15.4
5.9
2.9
7.2
2.8
6.6
3.8
6.0
2.3
22.5




0.0
32 . 4

- 65 Table 9 --Employment in Textiles and Apparel, as Percent
of Manufacturing Employment, by Selected States
and Areas, First Quarter 1967 1 / (continued)

States and areas

Total

Textiles

Apparel

Tennessee ..............................
Metropolitan areas ...................
Chattanooga, Tenn.-Ga. 2/ ...........
Knoxville ...................... .
Nashville ..........................
Non-metropolitan areas ...............

23.3
14.9
14.0
24.3
14.8
3 1.8

7.1
9.8
12.0
21.7
5.5
4.4

16.2
5.1
2.0
2.6
9.3
27.1

Alabama ................................
Metropolitan areas ...................
Columbus, Ga.-Ala. 2/ ..............
Montgomery ............ .............
Non-metropolitan areas ...............

27.0
5.9
12.8
12.3
46.4

13.6
2.9
0.0
7.9
23.4

13.4
3.0
12.8
4.4
23.0

Mississippi 3/ ..........................
Metropolitan areas ...................
Non-metropolitan areas ...............

21.9
4.8
23.7

Texas 3/ ...............................
Metropolitan areas ...................
Abiline ............................
Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito ....
El Paso ....... - ...................
Laredo .............................
McAllen-Edinburg ...................
San Antonio ........................
Wichita Falls ......................
Non-metropolitan areas ...............

8.2
7.4
9.4
21.5
56.6
23.8
10.8
15.4
14.1
11.5

California 3/ ..........................
Metropolitan areas ...................
Non-metropolitan areas ................

4.4
4.5
3.3

1/ Employment covered by old-age, survivors, and disability
insurance (excludes mainly self-employed workers)*
2 / For metropolitan areas falling in two or more States, an attempt
was made to distinguish employment for each State involved.
3/ Textile employment in Missouri, Mississippi, Texas, and
California was relatively insignificant in 1967.
Source:




U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

-

Table

66

-

10.--Percent Distribution of Employees, by
Employment-Size Class, by Selected
Industry, First Quarter 1967 1/

Employment-size
of establishments

Manufacturing

Textiles

Apparel

i to 19 .................

6.2

2.3

6.4

20 to 49 .................

8.2

5.0

14.0

50 to 99 .................

9.3

7.4

17.4

100 to 249 ................

16.0

18.2

26.0

250 to 499 ................

14.3

22.4

19.3

500 or more ...............

46.0

44.9

16.9

JV Employment covered by old-age, survivors, and disability
insurance (excludes mainly self-employed workers).
Source:




U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

- 67 Table 11.--Percent Distribution of Establishments, by
Employment Size-Class, by Selected Industry,
First Quarter 1967 and 1962 1/

Employment-size
of Establishments

Manu fac tur ing
1967 1962

Textiles
1967
1962

Apparel
1967
1962

i to 19 ..................

62.9

65.7

37.2

40.1

49.1

51.8

20 to 49 ..................

17.0

16.5

19.9

19.5

23,9

24.1

50 to 99 ..................

8.7

7.9

13.6

13.5

13.7

12.9

100 to 249 .................

6.7

6.0

14.9

14.4

9.1

8.1

250 to 499 .................

2.7

2.3

8.3

7.4

3.1

2.3

500 or more ................

2.1

1.7

6.1

5.2

1.1

0.7

JL/ Employment covered by old-age, survivors, and disability
insurance (excludes mainly self-employed workers').
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




68
Table

-

12.--Percent Distribution of Employed Workers in
Manufacturing, Textiles, and Apparel, by Broad
Occupational Group, 1968

Occupational group
Total ....................

Manufacturing

Textiles

Apparel

100.0

100.0

100.0

ki ndrpH wnrlfprs ......................................

9.6

2.7

1.0

Managers, officials, and
proprietors ...................

6.2

3.0

3.9

Clerical and kindred workers ....

12.5

8.0

7.6

Sales workers ...................

2.4

.9

1.6

Craftsmen, foremen and
kindred workers ...............

18.9

12.1

5.2

Operatives and kindred
workers .......................

43.7

67.3

78.3

Service workers .................

1.5

1.7

1.0

Laborers, except farm ...........

5.2

4.2

1.4

Professional, technical and

Source:

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
(unpublished).




- 69 Table 13. --Percent Distribution of Years of School
Completed by the Experienced Civilian
Labor Force in Manufacturing, Textiles,
and Apparel, 1960

Years of school
completed

Manufacturing

Textiles

Apparel

Total.......................

100.0

100.0

100.0

Elementary
Less than 5 ................... .
5 to 7 ...........................
8 ......................... .......

4.7
12.8
16.8

9.4
25.1
16.8

7.4
17.2
21.8

High school
1 to 3 ....................... .
4 ................................

24.1
27.7

24.0
18.9

26.1
22.0

College
1 to 3 ...........................
4 ................................
5 or more........................

8.0
4.2
1.7

3.5
1.8
0.4

3.9
1.3
0.4

Source:

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.




- 70 Table 14 --Percentage Distribution of .Nonwhite
Employment in Manufacturing, Textiles
and Apparel, by Sex, 1962 to 1968

Year

’

Manufacturing
Total Men Women

Textiles
Total Men Women

Total

Apparel
Men Women

1962

7.4

5.9

1.6

4.8

3.7

i.i

9.3

2.8

6.5

1963

7.3

5.8

1.5

4.9

3.5

1.4

9.4

2.2

7.1

1964

7.5

5.8

1.7

5.5

3.8

1.6

9.1

2.0

7.1

1965

8.2

6.4

1.8

6.3

4.4

1.9

9.7

2.6

7.1

1966

8.6

6.7

1.9

8.0

5.6

2.3

11.1

2.3

8.9

1967

9.3

7.0

2.3

8.7

5.8

2.9

12.4

2.6

9.8

1968

9.7

7.1

2.6

9.5

6.0

3.6

12.7

2.6

10.2

Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics#

71
Table 15. --Percent Employment of Negroes in the
Textile Industry, by Selected States,
1966 1/

State

Total

Metropolitan
area

Non-metropolitan
$rea

Total........... .........

8

10

New England
Massachusetts.................

2

2

Middle Atlantic
New York......... .............
New Jersey....................

5
13

7
13

2
13

South
Alabama.......................
Georgia.......................
North Carolina.................
South Carolina................
Tennessee............ .........
Virginia......................

8
10
8
9
5
10

10
15
11
11
7
14

7
7
8
9
2
9

1/ The selected States accounted for about 80 percent of
employment in textile mills in 1966.
(Percents are rounded to
nearest whole number.)
2/ Less than 1 percent.
Source:

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)




7

2/

72
Table 16. --Percent Employment of Negroes in the
Apparel Industry, by Selected States,
1966 1/

Total

Metropolitan
area

Non-metropo1itan
area

Total.............

9

12

6

New England
Massachusetts..............

6

6

2/

Middle Atlantic
New York...................
New Jersey.................
Pennsylvania...............

10
14
11

11
15
11

4
10
2/

North Central
Illinois...................
Missouri...................

12
7

16
13

3
1

South
Alabama....................
Georgia....................
Mississippi................
North Carolina........... . .
South Carolina.............
Tennessee..................
Texas......................
Virginia...................

6
9
6
9
16
4
7
14

13
13

7
23

5
8
6
8
16
3
6
9

Pacific
California...... ...........

11

11

3

State

j

i
i
'

j
|
j

21
13
16

1

1/ The selected States accounted for about 80 percent of
employment in the apparel industry in 1966.
(Percents are rounded
to nearest whole number.)
2/ Less than 1 percent.
Source:

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)




Table 17. --Employment of Women in Manufacturing and in Textile and
Apparel Industries, 1960 and 1967.1/

Industry

SIC

1967
Number
(000)
Women
Total

Percent
distribution

1960
Number
(000)
Women
Total

Percent
distri­
bution

4,372.0 . 26.0

D

Manufacturing ..................................

19,434.0

5,348.0

27.5

16,796.0

22
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229

Textile mill products ..........................
Weaving mills, cotton broad woven fabrics ......
Weaving mills, synthetics .............. ......
Weaving and finishing mills, wool ..............
Narrow fabric mills ..........................
Knitting mills ...............................
Textile finishing, except wool ................
Floor covering mills .........................
Yarn and thread mills ......... ...............
Miscellaneous textile goods ...................

956.9
236.2
101.1
43.4
30.5
229.7
78.5
45.9
114.4
77.2

427.7
92.7
36.1
15.7
17.4
157.3
19.6
15.0
52.0
21.9

44.7
39.2
35.7
36.2
57.0
68.5
25.0
32.7
45.5
28.4

924.4
254.0
84.4
55.6
27.6
215.4
77.0
37.6
102.5
70.2

401.5
98.3
28.8
18.8
14.7
148.9
16.5
11.8
44.7
18.9

43.4
38.7
34.1
33.8
53.3
69.1
21.4
31.4 1
43.6 w
26.9 i

23
Apparel and other textile products ..............
231
Men*s and boy*s suits and coats ...............
Men*s and boy*s furnishings ...................
232
233
Women*s and misses* outerwear .................
234
Women*s and children*s undergarments ..........
235
Hats, caps, and millinery .....................
236
Childrens outerwear ..........................
237-8
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel ...........
239
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products ......

1,400.4
128.2
368.9
421.8
125.1
25.2
78.1
81.4
171.7

1,118.5
90.9
311.9
351.3
108.7
16.8
66.8
59.4
112.6

79.9
70.9
84.5
83.3
86.9
66.7
85.5
73.0
65.6

1,233.2
119.6
303.8
371.2
117.7
34.6
76.7
69.9
139.9

962.2
80.8
257.1
301.0
101.9
21.9
64.7
49.2
85.6

78.0
67.6
84.6
81.1
86.6
63.3
84.4
70.4
61.2

1/
Source:




Private wage and salary workers.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

74
Table 18* --Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in
Manufacturing, Textiles and Apparel, by
Age, 1960 and 1950

Age
14
18
25
35
45
60

to 17.......................
to 24.......................
to 34.......................
to 44.......................
to 59.......................
+ ...........................

Source:




1960
Manufacturing
1.8
12.3
23.7
26.7
28.4
7.0
1950

Textiles

Apparel

1.0

1.5
12.7
19.4
25.5
31.7
9.1

12.9
21.3
25.8
32.3
6.5

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Table 19--Changes in Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings and Average Weekly Hours of Production Workers in
Textile Manufacturing, October 1958 to October 1968

Industry

SIC

Gross average hourly
earnings

Gross average weekly
earnings

Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

Percent
change

Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

$2.11

$3.06

45.0

$83.77

$125.77

22

1.51

2.27

50.3

60.55

Broad woven cotton fabrics ------------

221

1.43

2.26

58.0

Broad woven silk and synthetic fabrics --

222

1.52

2.33

Weaving and finishing broad woolens ----

223

1.60

Narrow fabrics and smallwares ----------

224

Knitting ------------------------------

Average weekly hours

Average hourly earnings
excluding premium pay
for overtime work
Percent
Oct.
Oct.
change
1958
1968

Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

Percent
change

50.1

39.7

41.1

3.5

$2.05

$2.92

42.4

94.21

55.6

40.1

41.5

3.5

1.46

2.16

47.9

57.63

93.79

62.7

40.3

41.5

3.0

1.38

2.15

55.8

53.3

61.56

101.36

64.7

40.5

43.5

7.4

1.47

2.18

48.3

2.34

46.3

66.56

99.45

49.4

41.6

42.5

2.2

1.53

2.22

45.1

1.57

2.25

43.3

62.02

91.35

47.3

39.5

40.6

2.8

1.52

2.16

42.1

225

1.47

2.18

48.3

57.48

86.33

50.2

39.1

39.6

1.3

1.43

2.10

46.9

Women's full and knee length hosiery ---

2251

1.55

2.19

41.3

61.07

86.72

42.0

39.4

39.6

0.5

1.52

2.14

40.8

All other hosiery---------------------

2252

1.27

2.01

58.3

47.88

75.98

58.7

37.7

37.8

0.3

1.25

1.98

58.4

Knit outerwear ------------------------

2253

1.55

2.28

47.1

60.30

88.92

47.5

38.9

39.0

0.3

1.52

2.23

46.7

Knit underwear ------------------------

2254

1.41

2.04

44.7

55.98

81.40

45.4

39.7

39.9

0.5

1.38

1.99

44.2

Finishing textiles, except wool and
knit ------------------- r -----------

226

1.67

2.41

44.3

70.14

101.46

44.7

42.0

42.1

0.2

1.60

2.28

42.5

Floor covering ------------------------

227

1.70

2.31

35.9

71.57

100.25

40.1

42.1

43.4

3.1

1.64

2.17

32.3

Yarn and thread -----------------------

228

1.41

2.12

50.4

55.13

87.77

59.2

39.1

41.4

5.9

1.37

2.02

47.4

Miscellaneous textile goods -----------

229

1.71

2.49

45.6

69.26

106.82

54.2

40.5

42.9

5.9

1.65

2.35

42.4

All manufacturing --------------------- 19-39
All textiles --------------------------

Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Percent
change

- 76 Table

20--Annual E a r nings 1/ of W o r k e r s in the T e x t i l e I n d u s t r y
and Se lected Branches, 1964 2/

Item

N umber of workers
(in thousands):
T o t a l .....................
4 q u a r t e r s ...............
A nnual earnings, 1/
U n i t e d States:
M e a n .......................
Median. ..........
M i d d l e r a n g e .............

M e a n annual earnings 1/
in the:
S o u t h e a s t .................
S o u t h w e s t .................

Te x t i l e
mill
products

B r o a d w o v e n fabric
mills, cotton

1,067.3
790.0

263
211

$4,295
3,719
2,9734,755

$4,349
3,845
3 , 2564,681

$3,722
3,099
2,4814,146

$ 4 ,060
3,782

$4,364
3,733

$3,367
3,637

Knitting
mills

289.6
190.7

1/ Includes all p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n work e r s emp l o y e d in
the industry in each of the 4 c alendar quarters.
2/ M o s t current info r m a t i o n from this source.

Source:




Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, D i v i s i o n of T r e n d s in E m p l o y e e
Compensation, from the Social S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s
l»percent Continuous W o r k H i s t o r y Sample.

Table 21— Estimated Proportions of Production Workers Earning Less Than $2.00 an Hour in Selected Textile Industries, United States
and Southeast, October 1968

Industry and region

Cotton:
United S t a t e s .... .

SIC

2211; parts of
2281, 2282,
2284

Southeast ...........
Synthetic:
United States .........

Date of most
recent
survey

2/201.2

Sept. 1968

Straight-time: average hourly
earnings as of: date of survey-All pro­
Percent earning
duct ion
less than-workers
$2.00

$2.06

50.8

Estimated gen­
eral wage
change since
survey

-

Estimated current 1/ straighttime average hourly earnings-All pro­
Percent earning
duction
less than-workers
$2.00

$2.06

50.8

2.06

50.6

*
189.8

Southeast ......... ..

50.6

Sept. 1968

2.06

54.7

-

2.06

54.7

_

2.05

56.1

_

2.05

56.1

41.8

Nov. 1966

1.90

69.2

2.06-2.12

44.7-52.0

18.4

Part of 2231;
2283

2.06

113.0

2221; parts of
2281, 2282,
2284

Southeast ...........
Wool:
United States .........

No. of
production
workers
(000's)

-

1.82

79.4

10.0

2.00

59.0

3/139.0

8.4%

Women’s Hosiery:
United States .........
Southeast ............

2251

44.5
38.4

Sept. 1967
-

1.89
1.89

66.5
66.6

9.7
10.1

2.07-2.11
2.08-2.11

49.0-51.9
48.4-51.5

Men’s Hosiery:
United States .........
Southeast ...........

Part of 2252

20.1
16.2

Sept. 1967
-

1.71
1.69

81.9
83.5

11.4
11.4

1.90-1.94
1.88-1.92

66.0-69.6
58.3-71.8

Children's Hosiery:
United S t a t e s .... .
Southeast...... .

Part of 2252

15.3
14.8

Sept. 1967
-

1.66
1.66

87.2
87.0

11.4
11.4

1.85-1.89
1,85-1.89

71.4-75.0
71.2-74.8

54.8
31.7

Winter
1965-66

1.96
1.83

62.7
79.8

11,7
12.4

2.19-2.28
2.06-2.13

28.7-37.5
39.0-49.4

Textile dyeing and
finishing:
United States ..........
Southeast ............

226

1/ October 1968. Where general wage changes and changes in gross earnings differ substantially, two estimates of current earnings are presented;
one computed by adjusting earnings as of the date of the survey by general wage changes, and the second by adjusting these earnings by the percent
change in gross earnings.
2/ Excludes 19,564 workers in bleaching, cloth dyeing and finishing, and fabricating departments.
3 j Excludes 6,593 workers in bleaching, cloth dyeing and finishing, and fabricating departments.
Source:

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics




Table 22— Paid Holiday Provisions for Production Workers in Selected Textile Industries, United States and Selected Regions

Percent of workers covered by provisions for-Date of most
recent survey

Industry and selected
regions

1 holi­
day

2 holi­
days

3 holi­
days

4 holi­
days

5 holi­
days

6 to 6^
holidays

7 to 7 k
holidays

8 to 8%
holidays

9 holi­
days

Over 9
holidays

No holi­
days

1/

15
16
35

TEXTILES
Cotton and man-made:
United States ............
Southeast ..............
Southwest ..............

Sept. 1968

4
5
-

17
19
11

15
16
31

31
35
23

6
7

3
6

22
49

2
4

5
4

18
21

-

-

2
1/
-

1

1/

-

7
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

3
4

8
12

34
10

10
2

7
1

1
-

-

12
13

2
1/

16
16

1
-

-

-

-

-

14
18

5
6

1
2

7
1

4
-

-

-

-

Wool:
United States ............
Southeast ..............

Nov. 1966

Women's hosiery:
United States ............
Southeast ..............

Sept. 1967

Men's hosiery:
United States ............
Southeast ..............

Sept. 1967

Children's hosiery:
United States ......... .
Southeast ..............

Sept. 1967

7
7

4
4

9
9

4
4

-

1/

-

-

-

Winter
1965-66

8

8

16

7

3

9

13

14

14

28

12

5

9

1

Textile dyeing and finishing:
United States ............
Southeast .......... ....

’

1/ Less than 0.5 percent.
Source:

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics




y

4

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
13

43
46

62
73

-

-

76
76

9

14

1

11

-

-

-

17

-

Table 23— Vacation Benefits in Selected Textile Industries, United States and Selected Regions

Industry and selected
regions
TEXTILES
Cotton and man-made fib e rs :
United S tates ......................
Southeast ..........................
Southwest ..........................
Wool:
United S tates ......................
Southeast ..........................
Women*s hosiery:
United S tates ......................
Southeast ..........................
Men’s hosiery:
United S t a t e s ...........
Southeast ..........................
C h ild re n s hosiery:
United S tates ....................
Southeast ..........................
T extile dyeing and f in ­
ishing:
United S tates ......................
Southeast ..........................

Percent of workers receiving--

Date of survey

1 week or more 2 weeks or more 2 weeks a fte r 3 weeks a fte r
Paid
vacation a fte r
5 years'
15 y ears'
vacations 1/ 1 y e a r's service a fte r 1 y e a r's
service
service
service

September 1968

96
96
87

95
95
80

3
3
-

74
73
76

7
5
-

November 1966

97
98

93
94

6
10

76
85

18

September 1967

86
85

85
85

11
13

60
61

17
16

September 1967

70
64

61
56

1
-

45
43

10
8

September 1967

70
69

64
63

4
4

31
30

-

Winter 1965-66

96
93

96
93

4

86
85

22
7

1

4

1/ Vacation payments such as percent of annual earnings and flat-sum amounts were converted to an equivalent time
basis.
Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 24— Health and Welfare Benefits for Production Workers in Selected Textile Industries
United States and Selected Regions
*

Industry and region

Cotton and man-made fibers:
United States .........

Date and scope
of survey
(SIC code)

September 1968
2211; parts of 2281;
2282; 2284

96

62

62

97

97

64

68

97
97

63
21

61
80

97
97

97
97

63
51

72
65

91

60

74

95

94

62

40

99

44

82

99

98

46

59

88

70

41

91

92

61

28

92

73

42

93

94

60

31

76

51

32

69

68

32

21

78

54

27

66

66

27

22

September 1967
Part of 2252

74

51

28

80

80

39

Winter 1965-66
226

93

52

70

98

98

50

57

93

57

67

99

99

24

58

Southeast ............
Southwest ...........
Wool:
United States ........ .

November 1966
2231; 2283

Southeast ...........
Women*s hosiery:
United States ..........

September 1967
2251

Southeast ......... .
Men*s hosiery:
United States .........

September 1967
Part of 2252

Southeast ........ .
Children*s hosiery:
United States ..........

Textile dyeing and
finishing;
United S t a t e s ...... .
Southeast.... .......

Percent of workers covered by provisions paid for wholly or in part by
employers-Sickness and
accident
Accidental
Life
benefits
Hospital Surgical Medical
Pension
death and
insurance
(including
benefits benefits benefits
plan
dismemberment
paid sick
leave)

______
Source:

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics







Table 25—General Wage Increases,. Cotton and. Synthetic Textile Industries, North and South, 1950-68
South

North

Year
Period

Amount

Period

Amount

1968 ..........................

Summer

Est. approx, 6%

April

3.5% (avg. approx. 7c)

1967 ..........................

September

Est, approx, 6 ,
7

April

3.1% (avg. approx. 6c)

1966 ..........................

Summer

Approx, 4%%-5%

April

10c

1965 ..........................

Summer

5%

April

5% (avg. approx. 8%c)

1964 ..........................

September

5«
7

April

5%

1963 .........................

November

5.
7

1962 ..........................

February

Est, approx, 5$

April

3c
f%

1960 ..........................

February

Approx, 5c

April

5%

1959 ..........................

February

Upward adjustment
(est, approx. 10c)

April

7%

1958 ..... ....................

April

None

1957 ..........................

April

None
6h
%

1956 ..........................

October

Avg. 10c

April

1955 ..........................

August

Avg. 5C

April

None

1954 ..........................

April

None

1953 ..........................

April

None

1952 ..........................

July

Avg. 8%c decrease
Arbitrator's decision

March

6%% increase

Sept.

10% (avg. 12%c)

1951 ..........................

April

1950 ..........................

Fall

Total increase from—
October 1958-October 1968 ....
January 1950-October 1968 .....

Source:

2.
7
Approx. 8 .
7

Approx.
Approx.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

78c or 56%
$1.04 or 92%

Approx. 64C or 43%
Approx. 83c or 64^%

- 82 Tab l e 26--Annual Ear n i n g s of T e x t i l e Workers,
1946-64 2/

Year

1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964

............................................
......................... ..................
................................. . .........
............................................
........................... ................
............................................
...................................... .....
............................................
............................................
............................................
............................................
............................................
............................................
............................................
........ ...................................
............................................
.......................... * ................
............... ............................
............................................

P e r c e n t increase:
1946-64 ......................... .... ..........
1954-64 ........................................
1959-64 ........................................

1/

M e d i a n annual earni n g s

$1,670
2,030
2,250
2,140
2,390
2,450
2,530
2,580
2,470
2,730

NA
2,830
2,810
3,110

NA
3,180
3,360
3,430
3,716

122.5
50.6
19.6

1/ I n c l u d e s all p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n wor k e r s e m p l o y e d in
any industry in each of the 4 calen d a r qu a r t e r s who h a d some e m p l o y ­
m en t in the textile industry during one o r m o r e quart e r s of the year,
2/ M o s t current i n f o r m a t i o n from this source.

Source:

Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, D i v i s i o n of T r e n d s in E m p l o y e e
Compensation, from the Social S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s
1-percent C o ntinuous W o r k H i s t o r y Sample.







Table 27— Proportion of Workers Covered by Union Agreements in Selected Textile Industries,
United States and Selected Regions

Industry and region 1/

Date of survey

Major Unions

N ber of
um
production
workers in
industry

Percent of
workers
covered by
union
agreements

Textile Workers Union of America
-United Textile Workers of America

2/ 220,784

3/ 17

189,808
5,255

Scope of survey
(SIC code)

3/ 14
3/ 31

4/ 145,573

3/ 13

TEXTILES
Cotton:
United States

..............

2211; parts of
2281, 2282, 2284

Sept, 1968

Southeast ...........................
Southwest ............ ..............
Synthetic:
United States .......................

2221; parts of
2281, 2282, 2284

Sept, 1968

Textile Workers Union of America

Southeast.....................
Wool:
United States ................... , ,

113,264
Parts of 2231;
2283

Nov. 1966

United Textile Workers of America
Textile Workers Union of America

31

1
32

18,409

Southeast........ ..................

41,765

9

W en' s hos iery:
om
United States ........................
Southeast ..........................

2251

Sept. 1967

Textile Workers Union of America

44,545
38,428

5
4

Men's hosiery:
United S ta te s.................
Southeast............ ..............

Part of 2252

Sept. 1967

Textile Workers Union of America

20,078
16,238

9
2

Children's hosiery:
United States ..... .................
Southeast
..............

Part of 2252

Sept. 1967

Textile Workers Union of America

15,255
14,755

5
5

Textile dyeing and finishing:
United States ........................
Southeast ...........................

226

Winter 1965-66

Textile Workers Union of America

54,774
31,651

45
26

1 / The regions include: Southeast - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and
Virginia; and Southwest - Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas*
2/ Includes 19,564 workers in bleaching, cloth dyeing and finishing, and fabricating departments,
3 / 1968 data on union coverage were not available when this table was prepared; figures are for September 1965--the date of
the latest survey from which such data are available. Information indicates no substantial change in unionization since 1965,
4 / Includes 6,593 workers in bleaching, cloth dyeing and finishing, and fabricating departments.
Source:

U.S, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 28--Membership of the Major Unions in the Textile and Apparel Industries, 1956, 1960, 1964 and 1966^/

Estimated membership
in the industries 3/

Total union membership
Union 2/
1956

1960

1964

,1.232,982

1,138,262

1,109,978

385,000

377,000

377,000

382,000

United Garment Workers of America .................

40,000

35,000

26,000

27,000

International Ladies* Garment Workers* Union ......

450,802

446,554

442,318

455,164

434,072

448,000

40,000

40,000

40,000

30,000

40,000

30,000

3,500

975

2,050

2,225

2,050

2,225

980

1,400

1,400

1,300

NA

1,300

210

215

210

215

Totals ............................ ...........
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of A m e r i c a ...... .

United Hatters, Cap and Millinery Workers
International Union ............................
Amalgamated Lace Operatives of A m e r i c a ...... .
Machine Printers and Engravers Association of
the United States ........... ...................
Textile Foremen*s Guild, Inc.

4 / ...... .........................

1966

1964

1966

301,600

305,600

1,126,945 ,

NA

27,000

United Textile Workers of America .................

100,000

40,000

44,000

47,041

44,000

47,041

Textile Workers Union of A m e r i c a ...... ...........

202,700

192,000

177,000

182,000

168,150

172,900

American Federation of Hosiery Workers 5/ ........

10,000

5,333

1/ Unions with a majority of their membership in these industries. From the biennial survey of union membership.
Division of Industrial and Labor Relations, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
2/ List omits plant unions.
3/ Data are computed from union percentage estimates of members in the industries. Such estimates were not available
for 1956 and 1960.
4/ The Textile Foremen*s Guild first became a National Union in 1962.
5/ The American Federation of Hosiery Workers merged with the Textile Workers Union of America on April 15, 1965.
Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 29-- Work Stoppages in the United States, All Industries and Textiles, 1956-67

St<jppages
Year

All industries
Man-days idle during year...
Percent of
estimated
Per worker
Number
total pri­
involved
vate nonfarm
working time

Textile industries
f
Man-days idle during year
Percent of
estimated
Per worker
Workers
total
Number
involved
involved
working
time

Stoi’
Pages

Number

Workers
involved

1956 ••••

3,825

1,900,000

33,100,000

•29

17*4

70

18,200

426,000

.16

23.4

1957 ••••

3,673

1,390,000

16,500,000

.14

11.4

47

14,000

212,000

.08

15.1

1958 ••••

3,694

2,060,000

23,900,000

.22

11.6

51

6,370

111,000

.05

17.4

1959 •*••

3,708

1,880,000

69,000,000

.61

36.7

70

23,500

229,000

.09

9.7

1960 ••••

3,333

1,320,000

19,100,000

.17

14.5

30

4,770

34,000

.01

7.1

1961 ••••

3,367

1,450,000

16,300,000

.12

11.2

35

5,970

39,100

.02

6.5

1962 **«•

3,614

1,230,000

18,600,000

.16

15.0

50

6,990

99,900

.04

14.2

1963 ••••

3,362

941,000

16,100,000

.13

17.1

36

13,000

193,000

.09

14.8

1964 «• ••

3,655

1,640,000

22,900,000

.18

14.0

37

8,440

124,000

.05

14.6

1965 • •••

3,963

1,550,000

23,300,000

.18

15.1

44

21,300

174,000

.07

8.1

1966 ••••

4,405

1,960,000

25,400,000

.18

12.9

56

25,700

195,000

.08

7.5

1967 ••••

4,595

2,870,000

42,100,000

.30

14.7

54

15,900

328,000

.14

20.6

Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number




Table 30-- Changes in Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings and Average Weekly Hours of Production
Workers in Apparel Manufacturing, October 1958i/ to October 1968

Industry

SIC

Gross averag e hourly
earnin gs
Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

Percent
change

All manufacturing ....... ............

19-39

$2.11

$3.06

45.0

All apparel ..........................

45.5

23

1.56

2.27

Men's and boys' coats and suits .....

231

1.75

2.68

Men's and boys' furnishings .........

232

1.30

1. 95

Men's and boys' shirts and nightwear

2321

1.29

1.92

Men's and boys' separate trousers ....

2327

1.31

Work clothing .......................

Gross average weekly
earnings
Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

$83.77 $125.77

Percent
change

Average weekly hours

Avera ge hourly earnings
excl uding premium pay
fa r overtime work
Oct.
Oct.
Percent
1958
1968
change

Oct.
1958

Oct.
1968

Percent
change

50.1

39.7

41.1

3.5

$2.05

$2.92

42.4

47.9

35.8

36.4

1.7

1.53

2.22

45.1

10.6

1.74

2.61

50.0

55.85

82.63

53.1

60.90

103.18

69.4

34.8

38.5

50.0

42.84

71.96

68.0

36.8

36.9

0.3

1.28

1.92

50.0

48.$

48.63

69.89

43.7

37.7

36.4

-3.4

1.22

1.90

55.7

1.94

48.1

46.90

72.36

54.3

35.8

37.3

4.2

1.27

1.91

50.4

2328

1.24

1.92

54.8

45.26

70.66

56.1

36.5

36.8

0.8

1.19

1.90

59.7

Women's, misses', and juniors'
outerwear ..........................

233

1.76

2.45

39.2

58.43

83.30

42.6

33.2

34.0

2.4

1.73

2.41

39.3

Women's blouses, waists, and shirts .
.

2331

1.45

2.09

44.1

49.74

71.90

44.6

34.3

34.4

0.3

1.45

2.04

40.7

Women's, misses', and juniors'
dresses ............................

2335

1.72

2.55

48.3

56.07

84.66

51.0

32.6

33.2

1.8

1.70

2.51

47.6

Women's suits, skirts, and coats ....

2337

2.17

2.78

28.1

70.96

95.08

34.0

32.7

34.2

4.6

2.14

2.72

27.1

Women's and misses' outerwear, not
elsewhere classified .......... .

2339

1.42

2.08

46.5

51.12

74.05

44*9

36.0

35.6

-1.1

1.37

2.01

46.7

Women's and childrens' undergarments .

234

1.43

2.06

44.1

53.77

76.43

42.1

37.6

37.1

-1.3

1.40

2.02

44.3

Women's and childrens' underwear ....

2341

1.39

2.01

44.6

52.96

75.17

41.9

38.1

37.4

-1.8

1.31

1.91

45.8

Corsets and allied garments .........

2342

1.51

2.16

43.0

55.12

79.06

43.4

36.5

36.6

0.3

1.45

2.07

42.8

Hats, caps, and millinery ...........

235

1.75

2.12

21.1

61.25

75.26

22.9

35.0

35.5

1.4

1.70

2.08

22.4

Girls' and childrens' outerwear .....

236

1.42

2.07

45.8

51.69

74.93

45.0

36.4

36.2

-0.5

1.40

2.03

45.0

Childrens' dresses, blouses, and
shirts .............................

2361

1.40

2.04

45.7

49.42

72.62

46.9

35.3

35.6

0.8

1.36

1.97

44.9

Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel ..

237,8

1.74

2.38

36.8

64.90

87.58

34.9

37.3

36.8

-1.3

1.69

2.33

37.9

Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products .......... ................

239

1.53

2.39

56.2

59.82

93.21

55.8

39.1

39.0

-0.3

1.48

2.30

55.4

1.41

2.01

42.6

54.00

77.59

43.7

38.3

38.6

0.8

1.33

1.97

48.1

House furnishings .................. .

2391,2

1/ October 1958 is used rather than an annual average because of seasonality in some of the apparel industries.
average for 1957-59 because information was not available for 1957.
Source:

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

It is not possible to use an

- 87 Table 31*»*»Annual Earn i n g s 1/ of W o r k e r s in A p parel I n dustry
and Se lected Branches, 1964 2/

Item

Num b e r of workers
(in thousands):
Total .................
4 quarters ...........
Annual earnings, 1/
U n i t e d States:
M e a n ..................
M e d i a n ................
M i d d l e range ........

M e a n annual earnings 1/
in the:
S outh east ............
Sout h w e s t ............

Apparel

M e n fs youths*,
and boys*
furnishings,
w o r k clothing,
and allied
g a rments

1,739.2
1,143.3

419.7
269.2

$3,663
2,874
2,2953,819

$ 3 ,224
2,744
2,296-

$2,996
3,457

$2,928
3,046

3,309

W o m e n 1s ,
misses*,
and
juniors*
outerwear

521.9
334.1

$3,765
2,878
2,2503,828

$2,967
3,506

1/ Includes all p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s emplo y e d
in the industry in each of the 4 c a lendar quarters.
2/ M o s t current i n f o rmat i o n from this source.

Source:




Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, D i v i s i o n of T r e n d s in E m p l o y e e
Compensation, from the Social S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s
l»percent C o ntinuous W o r k H i s t o r y Sample.

Table

32--Average Hourly Earnings!/ in Selected Occupations, Selected Apparel Industries

Occupation and industry

Markers:
Men's and boys* suits and coats ....
Men's and boys* shirts ............
Work clothing ......................

Estimated
number of
workers

Estimated
General wage
Current average
changes since
hourly earnings 2/
survey
(October 1968)

Date of survey

Average hourly
earnings at
date of survey

441
348
312

April 1967
April-June 1964
February 1968

$3.06
1.88
2.25

$.389
.300
.135

$3.45-$3.50
$2.18-$2.41
$2.29-$2.39

942

April 1967

2.09

.350

$2.39-$2.44

Inspectors, final:
Men's and boys* suits and coats
(coat fabrication) .... ........ .
Men's and boys' shirts (end thread
trimmers) ........ ..............
Work clothing ................ .

3,850
2,730

April-June 1964
February 1968

1.36
1.84

.300
.110

$1.66-$1.74
$1.87-$1.95

Pressers, finish, machine:
Men's and boys' suits and coats
(coat fabrication) ...... .......
Men's and boys' shirts .... .......
Work clothing .....................

4,370
1,292
1,582

April 1967
April-June 1964
February 1968

3.00
1.51
1.92

.350
.300
.115

$3.35-$3.44
$1.81-$1.93
$1.95-$2.04

Sewing machine operators:
Men's and boys' suits and coats
(coat fabrication) ..............
Men's and boys' s h i r t s ......... .
Work clothing...... ..............

32,895
57,237
44,363

April 1967
April-June 1964
February 1968

2.31
1.44
1.82

.350
.300
.109

$2.64-$2.66
$1.74-$1.84
$1.85-$1.93

Janitors:
Men's and boys' suits and coats ....
Men's and boys' shirts ............
Work clothing .................... .

735
682
624

April 1967
April-June 1964
February 1968

1.74
1.33
1.68

.350
.300
.101

$1.99-$2.09
$1.63-$1.70
$1.71-$1.78

1/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts,
2/ Where general wage changes and changes in gross earnings d iffer substantially, two estimates of current earnings are pre­
sented, one computed by adjusting earnings as of the date of the survey by general wage changes and the second by adjusting these
earnings by the percent change in gross earnings. These estimates may d iffer from actual earnings because earnings levels change
not only as a result of wage-rate increases but also because of changes in the distribution of employment among firms and in the
average length of service. Earnings for piecework occupations also change with changes in output.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S ta tistics



Table 33-Esti”|t|dtProgortlons of^roduc^ign Workers Earning Less than $2.00 an Hour in Selected Apparel Industries. United States

Industry and region

Men's and boys' suits and coats:
United States ............................
Border S ta te s..................... .
Southeast ................................
Men's and boys' shirts (except
work shirts) and nightwear:
United States .............................

SIC

2311

2321

Border S ta tes........................
Southeast ................................
Southwest ................. ..............
W
ork clothing:
United States .............................
Border States .........................
Southeast ...............................
Southwest ........................... .

No. of
production
workers
(000's)

98.4
13.7
8.9

April 1967

96.9
8.7
55.1
2.5

2328

Date of most
recent
survey

62.8
9.0
23.0
15.4

Straight-time average hourly
earnings as of date of survey-All pro­
Percent earning
duction
less than—
workers
$2.00

Estimated gen­
eral w
age
changes since
survey

Estimated current 1/ straighttime average hourly earnings-All pro­
Percent earning
duction
less than-workers
$2.00

$2.28
2.11
1.83

42.5
48.3
71.3

$.350
.350
.350

$2.63
2.42-2.46
2.10-2.18

21.8
24.8-30.0
42.6-52.0

April-June
1964
June 1964
-

1.45

94.0

.300

1.75-1.86

76.2-85.1

1.42
1.38
1.30

96.2
97.4
99.6

.300
.300
.300

1.72-1.82
1.68-1.77
1.60-1.66

79.7-88.1
85.7-92.4
95.5-97.8

Feb. 1968
-

1.84
1.82
1.84
1.81

77.6
80.1
77.6
81.1

.110
.109
.110
.109

1.87-1.95
1.85-1.93
1.87-1.95
1.84-1.92

69.1-75.5
71.4-77.8
69.0-75.4
73.7-79.3

-

-

-

1/ October 1968. Where general wage changes and changes in gross earnings differ substantially, two estimates of current earnings are presented,
one computed by adjusting earnings as of the date of the survey by general wage change^ and the second by adjusting these earnings by the percent
change in gross earnings.
Source:




U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

90 Table 34--Annual Earni n g s of A p parel Workers,
1946-64 2/

Year

1946

1/

M e d i a n annual

e a rnings

$1,720
1,760

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1,860

1,780

1,860

1,950

2,110
2 , 120
2,090

2 ,2 0 0
NA
2,340
2,350
2.520
NA
2.520
2,680
2,750
2,870

Percent increase:
1946-64
1954-64
1959-64

66.9
37.3
13.9

JL/ I n c l u d e s all p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in
any industry in each of the 4 calen d a r q u a r t e r s who h a d some e m p l o y ­
men t in the apparel industry du r i n g one o r m o r e quarters of the year.
2/ M o s t current info r m a t i o n from this source.

Source:




Bureau of L a b o r Statistics, D i v i s i o n of Tr e n d s in Em p l o y e e
Compensation, f rom the Social S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s
1 -percent C o n tinuous W o r k H i s t o r y Sample.

91
Table 35—Major C ollective Bargaining Agreements in the Apparel Industry!./
Company or association
Clothing Manufacturers A ssociation of the U.S.A. - - - ------------------------------------Cluett Peabody and Company, Arrow D ivision ---------------------------------------------------Men's and Boys' Leisurewear A ssociation --------------------------------------------------------A ffilia te d Dress Manufacturers, In c.; National Dress Manufacturers Asso­
cia tio n , In c.; Popular Priced Dress Manufacturers' Group, Inc.; United
Better Dress Manufacturers' A ssociation, In c.; Popular Price Dress
Contractors' A ssociation, Inc. --------------------------------------------------------------------National Skirt and Sportswear A ssociation, I n c .; National A ssociation of
Blouse Manufacturers, In c.; and Greater Blouse, Skirt, and Neckwear
Contractors A ssociation, Inc. -----------------------------------------------------------------------New York Coat and Suit A ssociation, In c.; American Cloak and Suit Manufacturers A ssociation; Infants' and Children's Coat A ssociation -------------A llied Underwear A ssociation, In c.; Lingerie Manufacturers A ssociation of
New York, In c.; Negligee Manufacturers A ssociation of New York, In c.;
United Underwear Contractors Associition; and Undergarment Accessories
A ssociation, Inc. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Associated Corset and Brassiere Manufacturers, Inc. ----------------------------------American M illinery Manufacturers A ssociation, Inc. ------------------------------------Industrial A ssociation of Juvenile Apparel Manufacturers, Inc.;
Children's Dress, Cotton Dress, and Sportswear Contractors Association , I n c .; and New Jersey Apparel Contractors A ssociation, Inc. -----------Infants' and Children's Novelty A ssociation, Inc.; Manufacturers of Snowsu its , Novelty Wear, and Infants' Coats, In c.; and Infants' and
Children's Coat A ssociation, Inc. --------------------------------------------------------------Fashion Apparel Manufacturers A ssociation; and Philadelphia Apparel
Producers A ssociation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------A ssociation of Rain Apparel Contractors, In c.; and New York Raincoat
Manufacturers A ssociation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Slate Belt Apparel Contractors A ssociation -------------------------------------------------Associated Fur Manufacturers, In c.; and Master Furriers Guild ------------------P leaters. S titch ers and Embroiderers A ssociation, I n c .; National Hand
Embroidery and Novelty Manufacturers A ssociation, In c.; Associated
Manufacturers, Tubular Pipings and Trimmings, In c.; Covered Button
A ssociation of New York, I n c .; and Uniform Manufacturers Exchange,
United Knitwear Manufacturers League, In c.; A ssociation of Knitted
Fabrics Manufacturers, In c.; Knitted A ccessories Group; and Passementer ie and Trimming Manufacturers A ssociation --------------------------------------------Washable S u its, N ovelties, and Sportswear Contractors, Inc. ---------------------Boston Apparel Guild; and New England Sportswear Manufacturers
A ssociation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jonathan Logan, Inc. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------New York Raincoat Manufacturers A ssociation, The A ssociation of Rain
Apparel Contractors, and independent companies ------------------------------------------

Estimated
employment
covered by
agreement

Duration

125,000
9,000
8,500

3 years
3 years
2 years

5/71
8/69
8/69

Ladies Garment Workers

80,000

3 years

1/70

Ladies Garment Workers

33,000

3 years

5/70

Ladies Garment Workers

42,000

3 years

5/70

Ladies Garment Workers
Ladies Garment Workers
H atters, Cap and
M illinery Workers

20,000
6,500
7,000

3 years
3 years
3 years

6/69
12/71
12/71

Ladies Garment Workers

15,000

3 years

1/70

Ladies Garment Workers

9,500

3 years

5/70

Ladies Garment Workers

11,000

3 years

1/3/69

Ladies Garment Workers
Ladies Garment Workers
Amalgamated Meat Cutters

5,000
15,000
7,000

3 years
3 years
4 years

7/70
5/70
2/69

Ladies Garment Workers

8,000

3 years

2/70

Ladies Garment Workers
Clothing Workers

15,000
8,000

3 years
3 years

7/70
12/69

Ladies Garment Workers
Ladies Garment Workers

5,000
5,000

39 months
3 years

6/70
3/69

Ladies Garment Workers

5,000

3 years

7/70

Union
Clothing Workers
Clothing Workers
Clothing Workers

1/ Agreements covering 5,000 or more workers on f i le with the D ivision of Industrial R elations, Bureau of Labor S ta tis tic s ,
U.S. Department of Labor, in January 1969.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s




Expiration
date

Table 3 6 --Work Stoppages in the United S ta te s, A ll In d ustries and Apparel, 1956-1967
Stoppages
Year

Number

Workers
involved

A ll in d u stries
Man-days id le during year
Percent of
estimated
Per worker
Number
to ta l p r i­
involved
vate nonfarm
working time

A]spare! in d u stries
Man-days id le during year
Percent of
estim ated
Workers
Per worker
to ta l
Number
involved
involved
working
time

Stoppages
Number

17.4
11.4

129

13,800

16,500,000

.29
.14

128

23,900,000

.22

3,708

2,060,000
1,880,000

69,000,000

.61

11.6
36.7

3,333
3,367

1,320,000
1,450,000

19,100,000
16,300,000

.17
.12

1,230,000

18,600,000

1963 . . .
1964 . . .

3,614
3,362

941,000

3,655

1955 . . .

.06

16,400

173,000
215,000

.07

12.5
13.1

126
122

152,000
19,100

1,100,000
253,000

.37
.08

7.2
13.2

14.5
11.2

87
112

12,100
15,100

134,000
146,000

11.0
9.6

.16

15.0

16,100,000

.13

17.1

95
109

23,600
22,300

130,000
210,000

.04
.05
.04
.06

1,640,000

22,900,000

.18

14.0

106

24,700

225,000

.07

3,963

1,550,000

23,300,000

.18

15.1

100

9,760

199,000

.06

9.1
20.3

1966 . . .

4,405

1,960,000

25,400,000

.18

12.9

100

11,800

263,000

.07

22.2

1967 . . .

4,595

2,870,000

42,100,000

.30

14.7

96

21,200

238,000

.07

11.2

1956 . . .
1957 . . .
1958 . . .
1959 . . .
1960 . . .
1961 . . .
1962 . . .

Source:

3,825
3,673
3,694

1,900,000
1,390,000

33,100,000

U.S* Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics




5.5
9.4




Table 3

7

Employment In Puerto Rico in A l l M anufacturing,

Textiles,

and Apparel,

1957-1967

(In thousands)

All m a n u f a c t u r i n g

T e x t i l e m ill w orkers

Y ear/Month

Total

Female

Total

1957 .....................
1958 .....................
1959 .....................
1960 .....................
1961 .....................
1962 .....................
1963 .....................
1964 .....................
1965 .....................
1966 .....................
1967 .....................
Jan-Oct. 1968 average ..

71.4
69.5
77.2
80.7
85.2
93.5
96,6
102.4
110.4
118.0
124.2
132.9

32.6
30.6
35.2
36.4
38 . 8
43.7
44.4
47.6
51.5
55.5
59.3
64.4

4.8
4.5
5.2
5.0
4. 8
4.6
4.6
5.0
5.6
6.2
6.5
7.6

_1/
Source:

F e male

2.6
2.2
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.6
3. 0
3.2
3.9

App a r e l workers
Total

18.8
17.4
19.6
21.5
22.4
25.1
25.8
27.1
29.2
32.2
34.3
37.1

Fema l e

Ho m e
needleworkers

16.5
15.4
17.4
18.9
19.6
22.0
22.6
23.6
25.6
28.1
29.9
•32.3

Estimated.
Commonwealth of Puerto Ilico, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Employment Statistics Division, except for home n e e d l e w o r k e r s , for w h i c h the
source is Work E x p e r i e n c e in Pu e r t o R i c o .

18
16
15
16
13
12
12
10
9
7
2
1/ 2




Table 3&--.Employment in Puerto Rico in Selected Te x t i l e and A p p a r e l Industries,

1957-67

(In thousands)

October

1957 .....
1958 .....
1959 .....
1960 .....
1 9 6 1 .....
1962 .....
1963 .....
1964 .....
1965 .....
1966 .....
1967 .....

Source:

Broadwoven
fabric
mills

516
799
720
772
562
270
335
353
334
343
261

Kni t t i n g
mills

3,361
2,996
3,721
3,263
3,509
3,461
2,679
4,120
4,562
4,842
5,439

Women* s ,
M e n ’s , youths *,
misses1
and boys* suits
a nd juniors*
and coats a n d
o u terwear
furnishings

3,953
4,026
4,005
4,119
4 ,407
5,276
5,153
5,368
6,307
6,283
7,919

2,130
1,559
2,571
2,143
2,573
2,587
2,974
3,051
3,100
3 ,752
4 ,117

W o m e n 's ,
misses'
children's,
a n d infants'
underga r m e n t s
6,571
6,911
8,438
9,884
10,813
12,002
13,838
14,902
16,378
17,783
18,538

Girls'
children's,
and infants'
outerwear

1,231
1,303
1,282
1,283
1,249
1,246
1,052
982
927
1,117
1,124

Puerto Rico Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Manufacturing Industries
in Puerto Rico.

Table 39.— Employment, Underemployment and Unemployment in Puerto Rico, 1957-67
(Figures other than rates in thousands)

=
1957

=

f

1958j

f = f = = 1

= = (
= T
1962} 196s[ 1964 1965 1966
i
i

19591 I960) 1961
j
!
j

1967

Oct.
1968

Oct.
1967

__________ L

1
|
Civilian noninstitutional
population ......................
Labor f o r c e ............ ..........
Employed .................. .
Underemployed •••••...... .
Unemployed .....................
Male labor force .................
Employed ....................... •
Underemployed ............. .
Unemployed .............. .......
Female labor force ......... ......
Employed .......................
Underemployed ................
Unemployed ......................
Rates
Total:
Unemployment .................
Underemployment ..................... ...........
Nonagricultural industries:
Unemployment ..................................................................
Underemployment ................................................. ...
Manufacturing industries:
Unemployment ..................

i
1,341 1,363! 1,377 1,398:1 ,424
i
632
639
633
628 j 654
546
556 j 572
550
550,
104 i
98
95
93
94 \
82
89 j
87
82
72 |
j
1
456
475 1 464
482
471
410
408
401 j 416
397
88
79
80
79
77 i
61
67
67
55 1 66
i
i
161
164 j 169
172 j 172
142 j; 149
140
155 5 156
16
16
14
17 1
18
22
20
16
21
17
!

1,484 1,545ll,617 1,623 1,650 1,681 1,693 1,723
j

j
i
1
1
!
i
i
s
i
i
i
i
I

756
661
80
95

777
681
83
96

789
693
79
96

793
705
82
89

809
718
70
91

529
461
75
68

554
377
65
77

560
484
66
76

565
490
60
75

558
486
61
72

569
498
53
71

199
184
16
15

202
184
15
18

217
197 |
17 1
20 j

224
203
19
21

235
218
21
17

239
220
17
20

684
600
100
84

714
626
98
88

i 728
! 645
i
!
91
i
83

505
436
83
69

526
452
81
74

179
164
17
15

1
i
;
!
!
188 ;
174 j
17 i
14 i

1
£
i

i
i

14.9
14.7

16.2
16.3

15.9
15.0

13.1
15.0

| 12.5

115.0

12.7
14.7

12.3
11.3

11.4
12.5

12.6
10.6

12.4
10.7

12.2
11.5

11.2
11.6

11.2
9.8

11.9
NA

13.5
NA

12.9
7.6

9.9
7.8

10.5
7.8

10.6
7.5

10.0
7.4

10.3
6.9

11.0
6.5

11.0
NA
6.8 i 8.4

NA
8.1

NA
7.0

NA

NA

15.2

11.5

10.9

9.8 1 NA

NA

NA

NA

i

NA

;

NA

NA

!

!

-L:.
Source:




: f c

=

j

:l-----------------------

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Full Employment and Underemployment in
Puerto Rico and Employment and Unemployment in Puerto R i c o .




Tab l e

40.—

Employment and Number of Plants by P l a n t Size in Puerto Rico in M a nufacturing,
and Apparel, 1957, 1966, and October 1967

1966

1957
Industry

Plants w ith
All
plants

1-49
50-249
workers . workers

1967

Plants w i t h
All
plants

Textiles,

Plants w ith
All
plants

1-49
j 50-249
w o r k e r s | workers

1-49
work e r s

50-249
workers

NA
458
4,113

NA
3,631
24,976

Employment
All m a n u f a c t u r i n g . . 72,135
T e x t i l e mills .....
4,904
App a r e l ............ 13,791

17,985
464
4,601

35,403
3,065
10,715

119,335 22,485
6,196
662
3,878
33,447

| 62,770
i
2,313
i 23,297

Numt>er of p].ants
All manufacturing..
Tex t i l e m i l l s ......
Appa r e l ............

2,014
49
366

1,633
17
259

335
28
97

2,417
62
412

1,811
31
195

j
525
24
201

Empl o y e e s per plant
A ll m a n u f a c t u r i n g . .
T e x t i l e mills .....
A p p a r e l ............

36
100
51

11
27
18

106
110
110

49
100
81

12
21
20

NA
6,809
35,755

120
117
116

1 ____________1 _____ —
_
i,

NA

NA
29
205

69
431

NA

NA
16
20

NA
110
119

33
210

i
NA
99
83

i

L ______ _____

NA - Not available.
Source:

Puerto Rico Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Manufacturing Industries of Puerto Rico




Table 41.—

Employment and N u m b e r of Plants by Pla n t Size in Puerto Rico in Manufacturing,
Textiles, and Apparel, 1957 and 1966
(Percent)

Industry

1966
1957
s
Plants w i t h
Plants wi t h
All
| 1-49
50-249
‘ 50-249
1-49
plants
workers
work e r s
workers
workers

Al l
plants

All
plants

1967
Plants with
50-249
1-49
workers
workers

E m p l oyment
All manufacturing .
Textile mil l s .....
Apparel ............

100.0
100.0
100.0

24.9
9.5
24.5

49.1
62.7
57.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

18.8
10.7
11.6

52.6
45.4
69.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

NA
6.7
11.5

NA
53.3
69.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

NA
42.0
47.6

NA
47.8
48.7

Numlber of plaiits
A ll manufacturing .
Textile mills .....
App a r e l ............

81,1
34; 7
70.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.6
57.1
26.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

41.8
50.0
47.3

29.0
38.7
48.8

<
N A - Not available.
Source:

Puerto Rico Bureau of Lab o r Statistics, Census of M a n u f a c t u r i n g Industries of Puerto Rico

1

Table

42.— Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings,

a n d A v e r a g e W e e k l y Hours, Manufa c t u r i n g ,

and Apparel, Puerto Rico,

A v erage 1
iourly earnings
All m a n u ­
facturing

Year/M o n t h

1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
Jan. -Oct. 1968
a v e r a g e . .........

Source:




Textiles

$ .76
.83
.87
.92
.99
1.06
1.13
1.18
1.24
1.30
1.39

$ .77
.85
.90
.93
.98
1.05
1.08
1.12
1.19
1.22
1.33

$ .66
.74
.78
.83
.90
.98
1.04
1.09
1.14
1.17
1.27

1.54

1.45

1.44

Apparel

Aver a g e vjeekly earnings
All m a n u ­
facturing

Textiles

1957-67

Textiles

A p parel

$27.14
29.41
31.78
33.56
36.56
39.33
40.99
44.09
45.57
4 8.34
52.14

$28.33
30.45
33.29
33.70
3 5.84
3 8.28
38.77
42.22
44. 74
47.34

$21.98
24.53
27.06
28.25
3 1.77
34.52
36.12
38.70
40.28
41.73

51.63

57.02

56.63

Aver a g e we e k l y hours
All m a n u ­
facturing

Textiles

Apparel

44.87

37.1
36.4
37.3
36.9
37.3
37.4

36.6
35.7
37.2
36.2
36.5
36.6
36.0
37.8
37.6
38.9
38.7

33.2
33.2
34.6
34.2
35.3
35.4
34.7
35.6
35.3
35.7
35.3

51.04

37.1

39.0

35.4

35.9
35.6
36.7
36.4
37.0

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment
Statistics Division.

Table 43.— Average H o u r l y Earnings, Textiles and Apparel, M a i n l a n d and Puerto Rico
1957-1968

Year/M o n t h

Mainland
Textiles

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1969 O - 360-030

1957 ...... ................
1958 ......................
1959 ......................
1960 ......................
1961 ......................
1962 ......................
1963 ......................
1964 ......................
1965 ......................
1966 ......................
1967 ......................
Jan.-Oct. 1968 average ..




Source:

$1.49
1.49
1.56
1.61
1.63
1.68
1.71
1.79
1.87
1.96
2.06
2.19

Puerto Rico

Apparel

Textiles

Appa r e l

$1.51
,1.54
1.56
1.59
1.64
1.69
1.73
1.79
1.83
1.89
2.03
2.20

$ .77
.85
.90
.93
.98
1.05
1.08
1.12
1.19
1.22
1.33
1.45

$ .66
.74
.78
.83
.90
.98
1.04
1.09
1.14
1.17
1.27
1.44

Mainland-PuerTto
Rico difference
Textiles
$ .72
.64
.66
.68
.65
.63
.63
.67
.68
.74
.73
.74

Main l a n d data:
U.S. Dep a r t m e n t of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Employment and E a r n i n g s .
Puerto Rico Data:
C o m m o n w e a l t h of Puerto Rico D e p a r t m e n t of Labor, Bu r e a u of
Labor Statistics, E m p loyment Statistics Division.

Apparel

$ .85
.80
.78
.76
.74
.71
.69
.70
.69
.72
.76
.76

i
v
,




U.S. D EPA R TM EN T OF LABOR
B U R E A U O F L A B O R ST A T IST IC S
W ASHING TO N, D .C . 2 0 2 1 2
O F F IC IA L BU SIN E SS




P O S T A G E AND F E E S P A ID
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R

r

I TH IR D

n
CLASS

M A IL

I

I___________________________________ l