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76th Congress, 3d Session

H ouse D ocum ent N o. 848

Labor in the
Territory o f Haw aii
1 9 3 9

B u lletin

7S[o. 687

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R




B U R E A U O F L A B O R ST A T IS T IC S

U N ITED STATES D E PA R TM E NT OF LABOR
F r a n c e s P e r k in s ,

Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
I s a d o r L u b i n , C o m m is sio n er

A. F.

H

in r ic h s ,

A s s is ta n t C o m m issio n er

+

Donald Davenport, Chief, Em­
ployment and Occupational
Outlook Branch
Henry J. Fitzgerald, Chief,
Business M a n a g e m e n t
Branch
Hugh S. Hanna, Chief, Edito­
rial and Research

Aryness Joy, Chief, Prices and
Cost of Living Branch
N. Arnold Tolies, Chief, Work­
ing Conditions and Indus­
trial Relations Branch
S i d n e y W. Wi l c o x , Chi ef
Statistician

CHIEFS OF DIVISIONS

Herman B. Byer, Construction
and Public Employment

Charles F. Sharkey,
Law Information

J. M . Cutts, Wholesale Prices

Boris Stern, Labor Informa­
tion Bulletin

Swen Kj a er ,
Accidents

I nd u s t r i a l

Labor

Stella Stewart, Retail Prices

John J. Mahaney, Machine
Tabulation

Lewis E. Talbert, Employment
Statistics

Robert J. Myers, Wage and
Hour Statistics

Emmett H. Welch, Occupa­
tional Outlook

Florence Peterson, Industrial
Relations

Faith M. Williams, Cost of
Living




76th Congress, 3d Session

House Document No. 848

Labor
In the Territory of Hawaii, 1939




By

James H. Shoemaker

o f the U. S. Bureau o f Labor Statistics

☆

Washington, D. C.
June 1939

United States
Government Printing Office
Washington : 1940

HOUSE RESOLUTION NO. 519
[Su bm itte d b y M

r

. K in g ]

I n t h e H ouse of R e p r e s e n t a t iv e s ,
June 22, 1940.

That the letter of the Secretary of Labor, transmitted to
the House and referred to the Committee on Territories on June 4,
1940, together with the report on “ Labor in the Territory of Hawaii” ,
which was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics pursuant to the
organic law of the Territory of Hawaii in 1900, as granted April 8,
1904, be printed as a document.
Attest:
R eso lv ed ,

S o uth T r im b l e ,
C lerk.
ii




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
D epa r tm e n t of L a b o r ,
O ffice of th e S e c r e t a r y ,
W a s h in g to n , J u n e 5 , 1 9 4 0 .

The Honorable W il l ia m

B. B ankhead,

S p ea k er o f the U n ited States H o u s e o f R ep resen ta tives.

S i r : I have the honor of transmitting herewith to the Congress of

the United States a report on “ Labor in the Territory of Hawaii.”
This report was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics under a
special appropriation of the Seventy-fifth Congress, third session. It
is one of a series of such reports which were called for in the organic
law of the Territory of Hawaii in 1900, as amended April 8, 1904.

The report, prepared under the direction of Isador Lubin, Com­
m
issioner of Labor Statistics, is of particular interest at the present
time in view of pending legislation with reference to sugar.
Respectfully yours,




F ran ces P e r k in s .
iii




CONTENTS
Page

Preface__________________________________________________________________________
xm
Introduction________________________________________________________________________

1

P art I. T he S ug ar I nd ustr y
Chapter 1. Sugar production_____________________________________________________
Relative position of Hawaii_________________________________________________
Plantation organization______________________________________________________
Methods of production______________________________________________________
Chapter 2. Organization of the industry_____________________________________
Development of the large-scale plantation______________________________
The adherent-planter system_____________________________________________
The agency system ________________________________________________________
Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association___________________________________
Sugar refining and marketing organization________________________________
Chapter 3. Employment and labor supply___________________________________
Efficiency as related to employment_____________________________________
The labor supply__________________________________________________________
Chapter 4 Methods of wage paym ent_______________________________________
Piece work_________________________________________________________________
Cultivation agreements______________________________________________________
The bonus system _________________________________________________________
Wage determinations of the Sugar Division of the Agricultural Adjust­
ment Administration___________________________________________________
Chapter 5. Earnings of day and piece-rate workers_________________________
Scope and method_________________________________________________________
Distribution of hourly earnings, by type of work_______________________
Distribution of hourly earnings, by race___________________________________
Monthly earnings of nonsalaried workers, by type of work-----------------Distribution of monthly earnings of all workers, by type of work—
Monthly earnings of nonsalaried workers, by race______________________
Monthly earnings of salaried workers, by race__________________________
Monthly earnings of all workers, by race_______________________________
Earnings of women and minors in the sugar industry__________________
Chapter 6. Seasonality, annual earnings, and wage trends--------------------------Seasonality________________________________________________________________
Turn-over__________________________________________________________________
Annual earnings, by type of work__________________________________________
Annual earnings, by race____________________________________________________
Wage trends_______________________________________________________________
Chapter 7. Earnings of long-term cultivators________________________________
Chapter 8. Working conditions, perquisites, and general summary-----------Working conditions_______________________________________________________
Perquisites____________________________________________________________________
Pensions____________________________________________________________________
Comparative position of Hawaiian labor________________________________
General summary____________________________________________________________

11
11
13
16
23
23
24
26
28
31
32
32
33
36
36
37
38
39
41
41
42
45
48
49
52
53
53
56
57
57

59
61
62
63
66
70
70
71
74
74
78

P art II. T he P in eapple I n d ustr y
Chapter 9. The development and organization of the industry----------------------Developm ent______________________________________________________________
Structural organization______________________________________________________
Chapter 10. Pineapple plantations______________________________________________
Labor supply_________________________________________________________________
Types of operations__________________________________________________________




v

83
83
84
86
86
87

VI

CONTENTS
P age

Chapter 11. M ethods of paym ent and earnings___________________________
M ethods of paym ent__________________________________________________
Earnings on pineapple plantations____________________________________
Effect of seasonality on earnings______________________________________
Chapter 12. Perquisites, working conditions, and sum m ary_______________
Perquisites_____________________________________________________________
Pineapple plantations: Sum m ary_______________________________________
Chapter 13. Pineapple canneries: Labor supply and types of op era tion s.,
Labor su pply____________________________________________________________
Types of operations in the canneries____________________________________
Chapter 14. Pineapple canneries: M ethod of paym ent and earnings; the
present position of the industry___________________________________________
M ethod of paym ent_____________________________________________________
D istribution of hourly and weekly earnings_____________________________
Seasonality______________________________________________________________
Present position of the pineapple industry______________________________
Part

III.

N o n p l a n t a t io n

P a r t IV. T o u r i s t T r a d e
Chapter 18. Tourist trade___________________________________________________

V.

VI.

T he

O r g a n iz a t io n o f M a n a g e m e n t
L e g is l a t io n

and

126
131

137
140
140
142
143
151
151
152
152
153
158
159
159
166
171
171
172
174
174
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
186
188

Labo r; L abor

Chapter 25. The organization of management_______________________
Chapter 26. D evelopm ent of labor unions_________________________________
Labor organization on the plantations________________________________
Nonplantation unions___________________________________________________




121

S u b s id ia r y I n d u s t r ie s

In trodu ction _________________________________________________________________
Chapter 19. Public utilities__________________________________________________
Earnings_________________________________________________________________
W orking conditions______________________________________________________
Summ ary________________________________________________________________
Chapter 20. The construction industry______________________________________
Governm ent construction________________________________________________
Governm ent appropriations and em ploym ent___________________________
W orking conditions and methods of paym en t___________________________
Wages and hours________________________________________________________
Seasonality and turn-over_______________________________________________
Chapter 21. M anufactures___________________________________________________
Printing and publishing_________________________________________________
Miscellaneous m anufacturing____________________________________________
Chapter 22. Longshore w ork_________________________________________________
L abor____________________________________________________________________
Earnings_________________________________________________________________
Chapter 23. Trade and service industries____________________________________
Mercantile establishments_______________________________________________
H otels___________________________________________________________________
Restaurants_____________________________________________________________
Laundries______________________________________________________________
Tailoring and garment manufacture_____________________________________
Dressmaking_____________________________________________________________
Dom estic service________________________________________________________
Beauty parlors__________________________________________________________
Barber shops__________________________________________________________
M otion pictures_____________________________________
Oil distribution and service stations_________________________________
Chapter 24. W hite-collar workers__________________________________________
Part

105
105
105
109
117

A g r ic u l t u r e

Chapter 15. C offee___________________________________ .!____________________
Chapter 16. Truck farm ing______________________________
Chapter 17. Cattle raising___________________________________________________

Part

90
90
90
96
98
98
100
101
101
102

195
199
199
201

VII

CONTENTS

Page

Chapter 27. Labor legislation__________________________________________________
Child labor________________________________________________________________
Wages and hours________________________________ __________________________
Protection, etc., in employments_________________________________________
Labor relations____________________________________________________________
Social insurance___________________________________________________________
Summary__________________________________________________________________
P art V II.

W

orking

C onditions and E mploym ent
in the T erritory as a W hole

204
205
205
206
206
207
208

O pportunities

Chapter 28. Some generalizations respecting wages and working condi­
tions in Hawaii_______________________________________________________________
211
214
Chapter 29. Standards of living______________________________ 1----------------------Climate and family expenditures________________________________________
215
Health_____________________________________________________________________
216
D iet________________________________________________________________________
216
Chapter 30. New occupational opportunities________________________________
218
Chapter 31. Economic stability----------------------221
Factors tending toward economic stability__________________________________ 221
Factors tending toward economic instability____________________________
222
Chapter 32. Economic and social stability as related to employment_____
225
A P P E N D IX E S
Appendix A. Territorial department of labor________________________________
Appendix B. D ebt problems of wage earners________________________________
Appendix C. Tables___________________________________________________________
Table

TABLES

1. Population of Hawaii______________________________________________________
2. Filipino sugar-workers’ savings deposited for them by the Hawaiian
Sugar Planters’ Association by draft to Manila at the time of their
return from H awaii_____________________________________________________
3. Population of Hawaii, by racial origins, 1938____________________________
4. Hawaiian sugar production (in tons of 2,000 pounds), 1837 to 1939-------5. Hawaiian sugar plantations, by islands, with acreage and production
for 1938__________________________________________________________________
6. Sugar plantation land, 1938________________________________________________
7. Number of adherent planters______________________________________________
8. The agencies in Hawaii, with the plantations they represent and their
output in short tons of commercial sugar, as of 1938___________________
9. Sugarcane: Production of Hawaii, 1925-38, showing increase in peracre production__________________________________________________________
10. Increase in sugar production, by tons per acre, 1895 to 1939_____________
11. Growth in employment and production on Hawaiian sugar plantations12. Number and racial origin of employees on sugar plantations in Hawaii,
1872 to 1939______________________________________________________________
13. Plantation population as of June 30, 1939_______________________________
14. Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by type of
work, March 1939_______________________________________________________
15. Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in
the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by race,
March 1939______________________________________________________________
16. Average hours worked per month and average monthly earnings of non­
salaried male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands,
by type of work, March 1939____________________________________________
17. Distribution of all male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian
Islands according to monthly earnings, by type of work, March
1939__________________________________________________________
18. Average hours worked per month and average monthly earnings of non­
salaried male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands,
by race, March 1939_________________________________________________
19. Distribution of all male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian
Islands according to monthly earnings, by race, March 1939_________




231
232
235

4
6
7
12
13
23
25
27
32
33
33
34
35
43
46
48
50
52
54

VIII
Table

CONTENTS
Page

20. Employment, by months, showing seasonality, and percentage of
citizens on sugar-plantation pay rolls, 1931 to 1938_________________
21. Distribution of all male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian
Islands according to total annual earnings, by days worked, 1938____
22. Average annual earnings of male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands, by type of work, 1938_____________________________
23. Average annual earnings of male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands, by race, 1938______________________________________
24. Average daily earnings with and without bonus of unskilled men em­
ployees in Hawaiian sugar plantations, 1924 to 1938________________
25. Average daily earnings of short-term contractors (piece-rate workers)
on Hawaiian sugar plantations, by operations, 1934-38______________
26. Plantation labor and pay rolls, 1929 to 1938__________________________
27. Settlements with long-term cultivators on a typical Hawaiian sugar
plantation, crop of 1938______________________________________________
28. Average payment per man-day, excluding bonus, made under all long­
term cultivation contracts settled, 1928-38__________________________
29. Percentage of plantations equipped with various recreational facilities,
by islands____________________________________________________________
30. Land owned or leased by pineapple plantations, 1909, 1920, and 1937_
31. Pineapple pack of Hawaii, 1922 to 1938_______________________________
32. Distribution of nonsalaried workers on pineapple plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by sex,
August 1938_________________________________________________________
33. Average hourly and monthly earnings of male nonsalaried workers on
pineapple plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, by race, August 1938_
34. Distribution of nonsalaried workers on pineapple plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands, according to monthly earnings, by sex and race,
August 1938_________________________________________________________
35. Comparison of average hourly and monthly earnings in 1929 and 1938
of pineapple-plantation workers in the Hawaiian Islands, by sex___
36. Racial distribution of workers in representative Hawaiian pineapple
canneries, July and August 1938_____________________________________
37. Distribution of male nonsalaried workers in pineapple canneries in the
Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, July and
August 1938___________________________________________________________
38. Distribution of female nonsalaried workers in pineapple canneries in
the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, July and
August 1938___________________________________________________________
39. Average hourly and weekly earnings of male nonsalaried workers in
pineapple canneries in the Hawaiian Islands, by race, July and
August 1938___________________________________________________________
40. Average hourly and weekly earnings of female nonsalaried workers in
pineapple canneries in the Hawaiian Islands, by race, July and
August 1938_________________________________________________________
41. Distribution of male nonsalaried workers in pineapple canneries in the
Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings, July and August
1938_________________________________________________________________
42. Distribution of female nonsalaried workers in pineapple canneries in
the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings, July and August
1938_________________________________________________________________
43. Average hourly and weekly earnings of workers in pineapple canneries
in the Hawaiian Islands, by type of work, by race and sex, July and
August 1938_________________________________________________________
44. Average annual earnings of workers in pineapple canneries in the
Hawaiian Islands, by sex and race, 1938_____________________________
45. Distribution of all workers in pineapple canneries in the Hawaiian
Islands according to annual earnings, by weeks worked, 1938______
46. Distribution of male workers in pineapple canneries in the Hawaiian
Islands according to annual earnings,by weeks worked, 1938_______
47. Distribution of female workers in pineapple canneries in the Hawaiian
Islands according to annual earnings, by weeks worked, 1938______
48. Green-coffee production, 1922-38_____________________________________
49. Diversified crops, 1938_________________________________________________
50. Distribution of male ranch workers in the Hawaiian Islands according
to earnings in 1 month of 1939, by race______________________________




58
60
62
63
64
65
65
68
69
72
83
84
91
92
94
97
102
106
106
107
107
108
108
109
110
112
114
116
122
123
128

IX

CONTENTS
Table

Page

51. Number of through passengers and tourist arrivals, 1922-39-------- 131
52. Percentage distribution of persons gainfully employed, by socialeconomic groups, Territory of Hawaii, State of Louisiana, and con­
tinental United States, 1930________________________________________
138
53. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to average hourly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939:
All workers__________________________________________________________
143
54. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to average hourly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939:
Salaried workers_____________________________________________________
144
55. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to average hourly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939:
Nonsalaried workers_________________________________________________
145
56. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to weekly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939: All
workers______________________________________________________________
145
57. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to weekly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939: Salaried
workers______________________________________________________________
146
58. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
according to weekly earnings, by sex, April and May 1939: Non­
146
salaried workers_____________________________________________________
59. Average hours worked per week, and average weekly earnings of
workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands, by race and sex,
April and May 1939______________________________________________
147
60. Average annual earnings of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian
Islands, by race and sex, 1938_________________________ „ ____________
147
61. Average annual earnings of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian
Islands, by sex, 1938________________________________________________
148
62. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings,
149
by sex, 1938: All workers___________________________________________
63. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings,
by sex, 1938: Salaried workers______________________________________
149
64. Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings,
by sex, 1938: Nonsalaried workers______________________________________ 150
65. Distribution of workers in the construction industry in the Hawaiian
Islands according to average hourly earnings, by type of construc­
tion, 1938 and 1939______________________________________________ - —
154
66. Distribution of workers in two selected occupations in the construction
industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earn­
ings, by type of construction, 1938 and 1939____________________ 154
67. Distribution of workers in the construction industry in the Hawaiian
Islands according to weekly earnings, by type of construction,
1938 and 1939_____________________________________________ ________
156
68. Average hours worked per week and average weekly earnings of
workers in the construction industry in the Hawaiian Islands, by
race, 1938 and 1939________________________________________________
156
69. Average hourly earnings, weekly earnings, and average hours worked
per week of workers in selected occupations in the construction
industry, in the Hawaiian Islands, according to type of construction,
1938 and 1939_________________
157
70. Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the
Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by sex and
race, spring of 1939________________________________________________
161
71. Average hourly earnings of male workers in selected occupations in the
printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian Islands, May 1939162
72. Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the
Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings, by sex and race,
spring of 1939_______________________________________________________
163
73. Average hours worked per week and average weekly earnings of
workers in the printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian
Islands, by race and sex, spring of 1939_____________________________
164




X

CONTENTS

Table

Page

74. Average annual earnings of workers in the printing and publishing
industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to sex and race, 1938__
165
75. Average annual earnings of workers in selected occupations of the
printing and publishing industry, by sex, in the Hawaiian Islands,
1938 _______________________________________________________________
165
76. Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the
Hawaiian Islands whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according
to annual earnings, by sex, 1938_____________________________________
166
77. Average hours worked per week and average weekly earnings of workers
in miscellaneous manufacturing industries in the Hawaiian Islands,
by sex and race,1938 and 1939_____________________________________
167
78. Distribution of male workers in miscellaneous manufacturing industries
in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings, 1938 and 1939.
168
79. Distribution of female workers in miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings, 1938 and
1939 _______________________________________________________________
168
80. Distribution of male workers in miscellaneous manufacturing industries
in the Hawaiian Islands according to annual earnings, 1938________
169
81. Average annual earnings of workers in miscellaneous manufacturing
industries in the Hawaiian Islands, by race and sex, 1938__________
170
82. Distribution of nonsalaried longshore workers in the Hawaiian Islands
according to average hourly earnings, May 1939____________________
172
83. Distribution of longshore workers in the Hawaiian Islands according
to weekly earnings, May 1939_______________________________________
172
84. Distribution of longshore workers in the Hawaiian Islands according
to annual earnings, 1938_____________________________________________
173
85. Distribution of salaried workers in motion-picture theaters in the
Hawaiian Islands according to earnings in half-month period, June
185
1939____ ____________________________________________________________
86. Distribution of nonsalaried workers in motion-picture theaters in the
Hawaiian Islands according to earnings in half-month period, June
1939__________________________________________________________________
185
87. Distribution of workers in motion-picture theaters in the Hawaiian
Islands whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual
earnings, 1938_______________________________________________________
186
88. Distribution of workers engaged in the merchandising of oil products
in Honolulu, T. H., according to earnings in half-month period, May
and June 1939_______________________________________________________
.187
89. Distribution of workers whose work was spread over 52 weeks in the
merchandising of oil products in Honolulu, T. H., according to
annual earnings, 1938___________________________ I ___________________
187
90. Distribution of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian Islands according
to monthly salaries, by sex and race, 1938 and 1939________________
190
91. Average annual earnings of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian
Islands, by sex, 1938__________________________________________________
191
92. Distribution of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian Islands whose
work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings, by sex
and race, 1938_________________________________________________________
192
A P P E N D IX TABLES
A. Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands according to monthly earnings, by type of work,
March 1939__________________________________________________________
B. Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands according to monthly earnings, by race, March
1939_________________________________________________________________
C. Long-term cultivator earnings on a typical sugar plantation, 1938
and 1939____________________________________________________________
D. Distribution of male nonsalaried workers in 2 occupations in pine­
apple canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly
earnings, July andAugust 1938______________________________________
E. Distribution of nonsalaried supervisory workers in pineapple canneries
in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by sex,
July and Auglist1938________________________________________________




235
237
239
240
240

CONTENTS
Table

XI
Page

F. Distribution of male nonsalaried inside cannery laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly
earnings, July and August 1938_______________________________________
G. Distribution of male nonsalaried inside cannery laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings,
July and August 1938_________________________________________________
H. Distribution of male nonsalaried warehouse laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly
earnings, July and August 1938_______________________________________
I. Distribution of male nonsalaried warehouse laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings,
July and August 1938_________________________________________________
J. Distribution of female nonsalaried inside cannery laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earn­
ings, July and August 1938___________________________________________
K. Distribution of female nonsalaried inside cannery laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earnings,
July and August 1938_______________________________________________
L. Distribution of female nonsalaried warehouse laborers in pineapple
canneries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly
earnings, July and August 1938_____________________________________
M. Distribution of male workers in miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings,
1938 and 1939______________________________________________________
N. Distribution of female workers in miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings,
1938 and 1939_____________________________________________________

241
241
241
242
242
242
243
243
244

CHARTS
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Organization chart of a typical Hawaiian sugar plantation____________
Structural organization of the Hawaiian sugar industry________________
Seasonal variation in farm employment-------------------------------------------------Wage trends_____________________________________________________________
Officers of one of the five large sugar agencies of Hawaii----------------------Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, Territory of Hawaii___




15
30
75
76
197
245




PREFACE

On April 30, 1900, the organic law of the Territory of Hawaii
entitled “ An Act to Provide a Government for the Territory of
Hawaii” was approved. This was amended on April 8, 1904 (33
Stat. 164) to provide that—
It shall be the duty of the United States Commissioner of Labor to collect, assort,
arrange, and present in reports in nineteen hundred and five, and every five years
thereafter, statistical details relating to all departments of labor in the Territory
of Hawaii, especially in relation to the commercial, industrial, social, educational,
and sanitary condition of the laboring classes, and to all such other subjects as
Congress may by law direct. The said Commissioner is especially charged to
ascertain the highest, lowest, and average number of employees engaged in the
various industries in the Territory, to be classified as to nativity, sex, hours of
labor, and conditions of employment, and to report the same to Congress.

The last report on labor conditions in Hawaii was rendered in
April 1930. In accordance with the provisions of the act an ap­
propriation was requested for such an investigation in 1935, but was
not approved by the Bureau of the Budget. The need for a survey of
labor conditions as they prevail in Hawaii was evidenced by the many
requests addressed to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, including the
Territorial Legislature, the Governor of the Territory, and the
Delegate o f Hawaii, as well as representatives of both labor groups and
employer groups.
There is a marked dearth of official information bearing upon labor
conditions in Hawaii. Since 1930, there have been important changes
in the economic life of the islands and many new problems have arisen
that have a definite bearing upon both the earnings and the working
conditions of workers. They have culminated in controversies be­
tween ship operators and longshoremen and in labor difficulties in the
field of agriculture. It has been impossible for either agencies of the
Federal Government or private agencies interested in industrial peace
to use disinterested official statistical data in seeking the solution of
such problems.
Therefore, on June 25, 1938, an appropriation was made (52 Stat.
1139) for $14,900 for the fiscal year 1939 to cover “ expenses necessary
to collect, assort, arrange, and present in reports, statistical and other
details relating to all departments of labor in the Territory of Hawaii;
especially in relation to commercial, industrial, social, educational,
and sanitary conditions” as directed in the act approved April 8,
19°4 .

The field work in the Territory of Hawaii for this study covered the
period M arch 22 to July 7, 1939. It included visits to all of the
Hawaiian Islands, conferences with the representatives of the labor
groups and employer groups in the Territory, the direct observation of
the techniques and working conditions in the industries covered, and
the scheduling of wages and hours by race, sex, and occupation of ap­
proximately one-fourth of all gainfully employed workers in the
Territory.




X III

XIV

PREFACE

The method followed in the wage survey was that of obtaining
a representative sample in each industry. The statistical tables,
therefore, should not be taken to indicate the total number employed
in the industry, but rather the total included in the samples which
range from as low as 20 percent to as high as 80 percent of total
employment in the industries covered.
In the compilation of the data the utmost cooperation was afforded
by all organizations in the Territory, including representatives
of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, the American Federation
of Labor, the Chamber of Commerce, the University of Hawaii, the
leading social-service agencies, and the central offices maintaining
records of Hawaiian firms. Without such cooperation this study could
not have been made.
Credit is also due to Mr. E. K. Frazier, of the Wage and Hour Sta­
tistics Division of the Bureau, who provided technical assistance in the
completion of the statistical aspects of the study, and who, together
with Mr. John F. Laciskey of the same Division, compiled the statis­
tical tables. This survey is also indebted to Miss Ethel Erickson of
the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor, who collaborated in
the gathering of materials and who made a separate report on the
work of women in Hawaiian i n d u s t r y , to be published by the Women's
Bureau. A summary of some sections of her report is included in
this survey.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

IN T R O D U C T IO N

The word Hawaii, to the average person, conveys two ideas— a
tourist paradise, and a powerful national outpost. Although these
impressions are not incorrect, they are decidedly incomplete.
The purpose of this study is to portray an aspect of these islands
concerning which there are many misconceptions. It has to do with sig­
nificant features of the econom y of the islands; with the relations be­
tween those who live there and the basic industries, and, in particular,
with statistical details regarding wages, hours, and working conditions.
Hawaii owes much of its development to the fact that, to a greater
extent than any other habitable area, it constitutes the “ cross­
roads of the Pacific.” The whole history of the discovery and sub­
sequent development of the Islands covers only a century and a half.
N ot until the publication of C ook’s Voyages in 1784 describing his
discoveries of 1778, did the Islands even find a position on the charts
of navigators. Thus they were among the last of the Pacific island
groups to be discovered. But their strategic position caused them
to be more quickly settled and more completely industrialized than
any other oceanic islands.
Although Hawaii is separated by over 2,000 miles from any other
industrialized area and contains only 414,000 people, it is far from
being a simple economy.
Because of its geographic position, it is cosmopolitan in character;
because of its climatic and other natural features, its basic industries
are devoted to the production of sugar and pineapples; and because
the bulk of its people are directly or indirectly dependent on these two
products, it is necessarily related to, and heavily dependent upon, fardistant markets.
The statistical and other details in this report provide a picture of
the complexity of the industrial life of the islands. An interpretation
of these conditions, however, necessarily rests on an understanding of
the basic resources, the historic growth of the labor supply, and the
general economic expansion of the Territory.
resources

1

The total area of the Territory is 6,435 square miles, which is about
one-third larger than the State of Connecticut. Due to the volcanic
origin of the Islands, the central area of each island is mountainous
and much of the soil is rocky, or is covered with lava or ash. Hence
a relatively small proportion, amounting to only about 10 percent of
the land, is arable.
i A detailed analysis of the resources oi Hawaii is contained in the First Progress Report of the Territorial
Planning Board, February 1939, Honolulu, T . H.
I




2

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

In common with the other islands of the central Pacific area, mineral
resources are lacking. There are no ores or metals, no mineral fuels
of any sort, and only a very small amount of clay, insufficient for com ­
mercial exploitation. Even building stones are very limited in variety.
These facts place very strict limits upon the industrial possibilities of
the Territory. Aside from the canneries and the sugar mills, there is
little in the way of manufacturing.
In spite of the small percentage of arable land, it has been possible
for Hawaii to develop a significant agricultural economy. This is
because such lands as are available can be farmed with extraordinary
intensity. The presence of a large supply of ground water makes
possible a scientific control of cultivation by virtue of irrigation sys­
tems which are used, not only to provide water, but also to distribute
fertilizer.
An even greater boon to Hawaiian agriculture is the remarkably
equable climate. The average temperature is 72 degrees Fahrenheit
and shows less than 6.5 degrees difference between the average of the
warmest and the coolest months. This even climate makes it possible
to plant crops any day in the year. It is not uncommon for small
truck gardeners to raise six to eight crops on the same land in a single
year. W ith a controlled water supply and a warm, even climate of
this sort, remarkable results can be achieved.
URBAN CONCENTRATION

There has been a marked tendency toward city dwelling in Hawaii,
paralleling that of the United States. In 1890, of a total population
of 89,190, 25.5 percent was urban and 74.5 rural. B y 1938, 41.2 per­
cent was urban and 58.8 rural. The city of Honolulu contains a
population of 153,073 persons (1938), or 37 percent of the total popula­
tion of the Territory. Thus Honolulu dominates the financial and
industrial life of the islands, the next largest city being Hilo on the
Island of Hawaii, which is only one-seventh the size of Honolulu.2
In addition to the fact that ranches and plantations maintain central
offices in Honolulu and that it is the normal business center for the
islands as a whole, there are four factors which tend to increase its
size.

(1) Hawaii is separated from the markets on which it must depend
by more than 2,000 miles. Honolulu is the point of contact for the
whole Territory with the rest of the world.
(2) It has become an increasingly important tourist center, which
contributes to its size, not only because of a continuous and fluctuating
tourist population, but also because of the many occupational oppor­
tunities which the presence of these tourists creates.
(3) Our most important military and naval outposts are situated
in and near the corporate limits of Honolulu. They provide occupa­
tional opportunities for those enterprises which serve the military and
naval personnel, as well as for large numbers of skilled workers to
service military and naval equipment and to provide new construction.
(4) The unemployed of the Territory tend to concentrate in
Honolulu because this is the best place to make contacts for new jobs.
2
Urban population is defined as that living in places with 10,000 or more inhabitants. Population figures
for 1890 from census made by Hawaiian government; for 1938 from estimates of the board of health, Bureau
of Vital Statistics, Territory of Hawaii.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

3

The industrial conditions of the city of Honolulu, therefore,
represent a significant aspect of a survey of working conditions in the
Territory as a whole. In its physical equipment and municipal
services it is not unlike other American cities. One is impressed with
the width and cleanliness of the streets and of the housing areas in
most parts of the city. There are, however, some districts which are
a marked exception to this statement. In those areas in which mixed
oriental populations live, conditions bordering on those of the worst
slums of large mainland cities are to be found. Because of the extremely
favorable climate and the fact that throughout the whole year the
life and activity of Hawaii is out-of-doors, this congestion is not as
serious as it would otherwise be.
The city has shown a strong social viewpoint in its policies relative
to social-service agencies, as well as in the provision of public parks,
playgrounds, and recreation fields. In Greater Honolulu there are
94 parks and playgrounds, comprising 2,847 acres. As might be
expected in an area of relatively constant temperatures in which
out-of-doors life is characteristic of all parts of the year, Honolulu is
better supplied with a large variety of recreational facilities for all
classes than is the average city on the American mainland.
The population of Honolulu is essentially oriental. Both resi­
dential areas and business districts show some degree of segregation
along racial lines. However, there is a much larger measure of inter­
racial cooperation than might be expected where markedly different
racial groups live in such close proximity, particularly in view of the
fact that in some occupations the races show a differential strati­
fication along economic lines.
RACIAL COMPOSITION 3

Racially Hawaii is highly complex. Due to gradually rising immi­
gration barriers, however, it has now become an isolated labor market.
During the transition from a self-contained economic system to one
geared to the markets of the American mainland, there was also a
transition from a rapidly expanding labor market dependent upon the
importation of alien workers to a stabilized self-contained labor mar­
ket isolated by immigration restrictions from the sources from which
most new workers had been recruited. As a natural result of these
restrictions there is now occurring a rapid change in the character of
the labor supply on which Hawaiian industries must depend, from
uneducated alien workers to native-born citizen workers educated, in
an American school system. W ith this shift there is inevitably im­
plied a corresponding change in the character of labor-management
relations.
The population of Hawaii has passed through three distinct periods:
(1) 1778 to 1872, a period which witnessed (a) a sharp decline in the
number of native Hawaiians due to the excess of deaths over births,
and (b) the small beginnings of a foreign population (largely American
and British); (2) 1872 to 1930, a period of rapid increase in population
due to the influx of non-Hawaiian peoples (particularly oriental), to­
gether with a gradually accelerating growth of mixed racial groups;
(3) 1930 to date, marking the beginning of a tendency toward popula3
For a comprehensive treatment of the racial composition of the Territory, see Lind, Andrew W.:
An Island Community, The University of Chicago Press, 1938.
241404— 40------ 2




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

4

19 3 9

tion stabilization, accompanied by an effort toward an economic
stabilization based on competition and cooperation between the
various racial elements now present in the islands.
The migration to the islands was at first meager and consisted of
transient traders, missionaries, and a few pioneer farmers. This was
accompanied by a very sharp drop in the native population due in
part to exploitation, and in part to the lack of immunity to foreign
diseases. Between 1778, the time o f the discovery, and 1880, the
Hawaiian population declined from an estimated 300,000 to less than
50,000. Since 1880 the decline in the pure Hawaiian stock has been
more moderate. Today there are only 21,268 pure Hawaiians, con­
stituting about 5 percent of the present population. Hawaiians tend
to intermarry freely, however. The number of part Hawaiians is on
the increase. There are 40,867 of them, representing about 10 per­
cent of the population, half o f them being Caucasian-Hawaiian and
half Asiatic-Hawaiian.
The lowest point in the total population of the Islands during this
period was reached in 1872 when it is estimated they contained
only 56,897 persons (table 1). Up to that time the principal
immigrants were American, British, and Chinese.4

T
Year

1832... ___________
1836_____ ___________
1850 ...........................
1860________ _______
1872........................ 1878............................

a

— Population l of Hawaii e1
b
1
.

Total popu­
lation

Change from
preceding
census

124,449
107,954
84,165
69,800
56,897
57, 958

-16,495
-23,789
-14,365
-12,903
+1,088

Year

1890........................ .
1900............................
1910______________
1920................... ..........
1930________________
1939..........................

Total popu­ Change from
preceding
lation
census
89,990
154,001
191,909
255, 912
368,336
414,988

+32,005
+64,011
+37,908
+64,003
+112,424
+46, 652

1 1832 to 1890, inclusive, are estimates of the Territorial Planning Board; 1900 to 1930, inclusive, Depart­
ment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The figure for 1939 is an estimate as of June 30, by the board
of health, bureau of vital statistics, Territory of Hawaii.

From then on the great volume of immigration was in direct response
to the labor demands of a rapidly expanding plantation system. The
plantation policy of those years was simple and consisted in obtaining
young and vigorous unmarried males (largely low-wage oriental
laborers) for the period of their most productive years, after which
they were returned to their homelands. Thus the problems of the
support of families and the care of the aged were avoided and a
maximum of labor was obtained per unit of expenditure. The part
played by the sugar plantations in stimulating and controlling immi­
gration is discussed in greater detail in the chapter on the sugar
industry.
The first wave o f imported immigrants of this period were the
Chinese (now constituting 6.9 percent of the population), who have
since achieved some o f the economic and social advantages which
accrue to the early settler. Soon after there followed a fairly large
< It should be noted that, strictly speaking, it is incorrect to use the terms “ Japanese,” “ Chinese,” “ Port­
uguese,” etc. The majority of the workers in the Territory are properly referred to only as “ American
citizens of Japanese descent,” “ American citizens of Chinese descent,” etc., and rightly resent being called
aliens. On the other hand, a part of them are aliens. To use the phrase, “ Japanese and American citizens
of Japanese descent,” etc., each time it is necessary to refer to a racial group is impossibly clumsy. Therefore,
it will be understood that wherever a racial group is mentioned the term includes both citizens and non­
citizens unless otherwise stated.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

5

importation of Portuguese, between 1878 and 1900, now constituting
7.4 percent of the population. Close on their heels came the Japanese,5
who, due to their industry (and consequent continued importation) as
well as to the practice of bringing “ picture brides” to the islands,
rapidly assumed a major position in the population. For the past 35
years their numerical superiority has never been seriously threatened,
although the immigration of Japanese sharply declined with the
“ gentlemen’s agreement” of 1908. There are now 153,539 Japanese,
constituting 37.3 percent of the total population. Three-quarters of
them (75.9 percent) are citizens.
Due to the decline in this and other oriental sources of supply, the
sugar planters of Hawaii entered into arrangements with steamship
companies to bring Filipino laborers to the islands in slowly increasing
numbers from 1908 to 1920.
In 1920 the Japanese plantation workers in Oahu, with the support
of the Japanese on the other islands, organized a strike which was very
costly to the planters. In 1924 the Exclusion Act entirely prohibited
the Japanese from entry to the United States, including the Territory.
For these reasons Filipino immigration increased considerably after
1920.
The average annual immigration from the Philippines to Hawaii
during the first half of the decade from June 30, 1920, to June 30,
1930, was 5,300, and during the second half of this decade was 7,700.
B y way of comparison, the average annual migration of Filipinos to the
mainland during the first half of this same decade was 1,500, and
during the second half, 6,400.6 It should also be noted that the aver­
age annual migration of Filipinos from Hawaii to the mainland during
the first half of the decade was 700, and for the second half, 1,800.
Following 1930 the immigration movement was greatly reduced
while at the same time emigration of Filipinos developed considerable
proportions. The estimates of the Board of Health of Hawaii show
that the Filipino population declined from 63,052 in 1930, to 52,810
in 1938.
The decline since 1930, due to the depression, is likely to remain
permanent. In 1935, when the Philippines became a Common­
wealth, the immigration of Filipinos to Hawaii and to the mainland
was limited to 50 a year. When the Commonwealth becomes a free
Republic in 1946, the annual maximum will become 100.7
The causes of the Filipino immigration to Hawaii are obviously the
desire for higher wages on the part of the Filipinos and the desire for
lower labor costs on the part of the plantations. M ost of the laborers
from the Philippines came with the intention of staying a few years to
build up a fund for the purchase of a farm or small business upon their
return.
A partial check on the profitableness of such a sojourn in Hawaii
is to be found in the transfers of savings of Filipinos returning to
Manila. The Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, in order to safe­
guard such workers from losses due to theft and gambling, has devel­
oped a method whereby each returning worker is fingerprinted for
8 During the period of Japanese immigration Koreans were also recruited in small numbers. There are
now about 7,000 in Hawaii constituting less than 2 percent of the total population.
8 Based on the Reports of the Commissioner General of Immigration of the United States.
7 It should be noted, however, that these quotas provide an arrangement whereby the Secretary of the
Interior of the United States may admit Filipinos to work in Hawaii under contract conditions. No
Filipinos have been admitted under this provision, however.




6

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

identification, and a draft for his total savings balance (without deduc­
tions for this service) is given him to be cashed after he has identified
himself by being fingerprinted in Manila. This service is voluntary
and not all repatriates use it (table 2).
The sums vary greatly, from as little as $20 to as much as $5,000 or
more. The 222 Filipinos who received such payments between
January and June (inclusive) in 1939 averaged $534.95. Of these, 36
received between $20 and $100, 136 received $100 to $1,000, and 50
received $1,000 or more, the highest amount being $5,600.

T

a

— Filipino 2 sugar-workers1 savings deposited for them by the Hawaiian
b
l
. e
Sugar Planters’ Association by draft to M anila at the time of their return from
Hawaii
Year

1935____________________
1936.____ ______________
1937____________________

Number of
depositors
1,006
580
548

Amount

Year

$329, 975. 66
252,079. 50
276, 524.00

1938____________________
1939____________________

Number of
depositors

Amount

759 $428,845. 00
222 i 129, 760. 00

1Jan. 1 to July 1.

Caucasians were the earliest migrants to Hawaii and throughout
the whole of the modern period show a slow, continuous growth in
numbers, but they constitute only 26 percent of the total population.
If the 30,406 Portuguese, the 7,639 Puerto Ricans, and the 1,248
Spaniards (who are largely plantation and industrial workers) are
subtracted, the remaining Caucasians represent only 16.5 percent of
the total population. This latter group (largely from the American
mainland) maintains financial control and management of the bulk of
the Island industries.
Because of the restriction on oriental immigration, the American
mainland now constitutes the only significant source of migrants to
the Territory, the excess of arrivals over departures being about 2,100
per year. Since practically all of these are already citizens, they
constitute an accelerating influence on the rapidly mounting per­
centage of citizens who now represent over four-fifths of the total
population.
The labor supply of Hawaii today is thus a heterogeneous mixture,
both racially and politically. The percentage of native-born citizens
of oriental parentage is increasing rapidly, as indicated in table 3.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

7

19 3 9

T a b l e 3 . — Population of Hawaii by racial origins, 1938

Total P t of C s
ercen
itizen
P
opulation w
hole

R
ace
Japan
ese________ _____
H aiiana dpart H aiian2
aw
n
aw
.
C casian2_ _________
au
_
Filipino. _ ___________
C
hinese_____ ________
Korean._______ _____
A others__ __________
ll
Total............ ......

13 5 9
5, 3
6 ,1 5
23
16 99
0, 9
5, 8 0
21
2, 3 0
8 8
60
,7 7
95
1
41 4 5
1, 8

3 .3
71
1 .1
50
2. 0
6 0
1. 8
23
69
.0
16
.3
.22
9. 9
99

P
ercent
citizen
s

16 5 4
1, 8
6 ,1 5
23
13 9 8
0, 8
1, 2 1
60
2 ,07
4 9
45
,3 5
85
2
38 8
2 ,1 5

7 .9
53
10 0
0 .0
9 .1
77
3 .6
08
8 .9
41
6. 9
43
9 .1
06
7. 7
96

A
liens
3 ,9 5
65
3O
, il
3, 69
6 0
4 23
,8
2 32
,5
9
0
8,30
3 0

P
ercent
a s
lien
2 .0
47
2.8
3
6. 3
9 2
1. 0
59
3. 0
57
9.84
2 .2
04

1T
erritorial B of H
oard ealth— u of V S
B reau ital tatistics.
2S follow table:
ee
ing
CAU
CASIAN GRO P
U
Total P
ercent of
population w
hole

R
ace
Spanish..................
P gu
ortu ese ___ ___
P
uerto R
ican
O er C u sia s a
th a ca n ___
Total____ ___

128
,4
3 ,4 6
00
73
,6 9
6 ,7 6
70
16 9 9
0, 9

0.30
79
.3
1
.86
1. 4
65
2 .0
60

C s
itizen
16
,0 9
2, 88
89
73
,6 9
6, 3 2
6 8
13 8
0 ,9 8

P
ercent
citizen
s
8 .6
57
9 .0
54
10 0
0 .0
9 .0
83
9 .1
77

A
liens
19
7
10
,5 8
134
,2
3O
, il

P
ercent
alien
s
1. 3
43
4.96
1.9
7
2.83

H AIIAN AND PART H AIIAN G U
AW
AW
RO P
H aiian
aw
C casian-H aiian__
au
aw
A
siatic-H aiian____
aw
Total..

2, 2 8
1 6
2, 57
0 0
2, 30
0 6
6 ,1 5
23

57
.1
4.98
4.95
1 .1
50

2, 2 8
1 6
2, 57
0 0
2, 3 0
0 6
6 ,1 5
23

10 0
0. 0
10 0
0 .0
10 0
0. 0
10 0
0. 0

» P arily A erican fromth m lan
rim
m
s
e ain d.
PRESENT POPULATION TRENDS
Some racial groups, such as the Japanese, have tended to resist
racial intermarriage, whereas others, such as the Hawaiians, have
freely intermarried with other races. The fundamental tendency
over time, however, has been toward a general break-down in inter­
racial barriers. Part Hawaiians are twice as numerous as Hawaiians,
and even the Japanese now show an increasing number of outmar­
riages.
An outstanding abnormality of the population of Hawaii is the
predominance of males, particularly among the Filipinos. This is,
of course, due to the plantation policy, in previous years, of importing
single males. With the passage of time, however, the abnormality is
gradually being eliminated, partly because of the return of unmarried
Filipinos to their homes, but primarily because as unmarried males
die (there being no further importations), their places are being taken
by the children of those now living in the Territory. The second
generation shows a normal sex distribution. However, the number of
men of working age is expected to continue to increase during the
next two decades, though at a lower rate than in the past. The
increase will be partially offset by workers returning to the Orient.8
8A s, R anzo: M pow in H aii (anunpublished report).
dam om
an er aw




8

LABOR m

THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

Contrary to popular opinion, the prospective growth trends of
the population of Hawaii are approaching a period of stability.9
There was a total population increase of 112,424 in the decade of 192030, whereas for the decade of 1930-40 it was considerably less than
half that figure, and did not exceed 50,000.1 While this decrease in the
0
rate of population expansion is due largely to the sharp restriction of
immigration, to the decline in the average size of families, and to the
emigration of Filipinos, it is also evident that the rising pressure of
population against the subsistence resources of the Territory is
playing a gradually increasing role.
SUMMARY
The outstanding features of the framework within which the
modern Hawaiian economy has grown have determined the extent and
character of its development. These features are:
(1) Its central position in the Pacific, which provides constant
contact with world commerce and gives a cosmopolitan character to
its economic and social life.
(2) Its natural limitations, which circumscribe the character of
Hawaiian industry, the lack of minerals sharply restricting the de­
velopment of manufacture, and the marked variations in altitude,
rainfall, and soil restricting the basic agricultural industries to onetenth of the total land area.
(3) The combination of a large supply of ground water and a
remarkably equable climate, which makes possible a continuous and
extremely intensive cultivation of agricultural products in the areas
that are arable.
(4) Its complex population of widely variant races, which provides
the manpower on which its fundamental industries must rely.
9Lind, A
ndrewW An Islan C m
.:
d om unity, ch VI, pp. 1 8 3 , The U
.
1 -1 3
niversity of C
hicago P 1 3 .
ress, 9 8
The in
creasefromJan ary 1 1 3 , to July 1 9, w 4 ,6 2 The in
u , 90
,193 as 6 5 .
creaseduringtheyearJuly1 9 8
,1 3 ,
to July 1 1 3 , w reportedby th T
, 9 9 as
e erritorial B of H
oard ealth a being 3 0 .
s
,5 3







Part I
T h e S u g a r In d u s tr y

9




CHAPTER 1. SUGAR PRODUCTION
RELATIVE POSITION OF HAWAII

The annual world production of sugar, which was less than 20 million
short tons in 1920, ranged between 34 and 36 million tons yearly
during the period 1936-39. Of this, roughly two-thirds was cane
sugar and one-third beet sugar. Due to the International Sugar
Agreement of M ay 7, 1937, only one-tenth of the world’s sugar is sold
in an open or so-called world market. The remainder is sold in
closed or partially closed markets under quota systems.
The American market absorbs over 6,000,000 tons annually.
Under the domestic quota system, Hawaiian producers, who are
completely dependent on American consumers, were allotted 14.1
percent of the American market, or 918,038 short tons.1
In addition to this, about 30,000 tons are annually consumed in
the Territory itself, about half of it as brown (unrefined) sugar.
Three percent of total production, or 38,000 tons, is refined in Hawaii,
but of this about 23,000 tons are marketed outside of the Islands.
The remaining 97 percent is shipped as raw sugar to be refined and
marketed on the mainland. Roughly, 60 percent of it is refined by the
California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining Corporation, 10 percent by
the Western Sugar Refinery, and 30 percent by the National Sugar
Refining Co. in New York. Practically all of it is marketed coopera­
tively through a pooling agreement between the Hawaiian producers.
The production of this sugar involves far more labor than does any
other industry in Hawaii. The sugar plantations alone require 31.1
percent of the total number of gainfully employed and provide wage
payments amounting to over 28 millions annually.
In addition to this there are many workers outside of the plantations
who are engaged in occupations directly and solely dependent on sugar
production. Thus the industry represents well over one-third of the
total employment in the Territory.
Although sugar was indigenous to Hawaii at the time of its discovery,
as late as 1837 only 2 tons of sugar were produced during the year
(table 4). Thereafter the industry passed through three stages:
(1)
The years 1837 to 1876 represent a period of gradual increase in
production largely under native labor. During this time the sugar
industry expanded from a very minor place to a significant position in
the economy of the islands; from an annual output of 2 tons to 13,036
tons.
1 This w revisedfromtim to tim an stood a 9 8 1 ton onS
as
e
e d
t 4 ,2 8 s eptem 1 , 1 3 , w th P
ber 1 9 9 hen e residen
t
su dedth en qu systembecau ofth w It w resu edinD ber, h ever. Thequotas
spen
e tire ota
se e ar.
as m
ecem
ow
an ou cedby th S
n n
e ecretary of A ltu D ber 2 , 1 3 , allotted9 3 6 ton to H aii, a th T
gricu re, ecem 9 9 9
4 ,9 7 s aw s e erri­
torial quota for 1 4 .
90
11




12

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

T a b l e 4. — Hawaiian sugar production (in tons of 2,000 pounds), 1837 to 1939

Y
ear
1 3 _____
87
1 3 _____
88
1 3 .... .....
89
1 4 _____
80
1 4 ..... .
81
1842-3.......
1 4 ..... .
84
1 4 _____
85
1 4 _____
86
1 4 _____
87
1 4 _____
88
1849..........
1 5 ..........
80
1 5 ..........
81
1 5 _____
82
1 5 _____
83
1 5 .....
84
1855.........
1 5 ..........
86
1 5 ..........
87
1 5 . .........
88
1 5 .....
89
1 6 ...... .
80
1 6 ...... —
81
1 6 _____
82
1 6 ..... .
83

N ber
um
of ton
s
i2
4
4
5
0
10
8
3
0
52
7
27
5
11
5
10
5
27
9
20
5
37
2
35
7
1
1
30
5
31
2
28
8
15
4
27
7
30
5
62
0
93
1
52
7
18
,2 1
10
,5 3
24
,6 6

Y
ear
1 6 ...... .
84
1 6 ...... .
85
1 6 ..... .
86
1 6 _____
87
1 6 _____
88
1 6 _____
89
1 7 _____
80
1 7 ..........
81
1872....... .
1 7 _____
83
1874....... .
1 7 _____
85
1 7 ....... .
86
1 7 .... .....
87
1 7 ..........
88
1879..........
1 8 _____
80
1 8 ..........
81
1882.........
1883.........
1 8 _____
84
1 8 ..........
85
1 8 .........
86
1 8 _____
87
1 8 ..........
88
1 8 ..........
89

N ber
um
of ton
s
50
,2 7
75
,6 9
86
,8 5
8 54
,6
90
,1 6
95
,1 1
99
,3 2
1 ,8 0
08
89
,4 8
1, 5 5
16
1, 2 3
28
1, 50
24
1 ,0 6
33
1 ,7 8
28
1 ,2 5
91
2, 50
41
3,72
1 9
4 ,8 5
69
5 ,0 8
78
5 ,0 3
75
7 ,3 7
12
8,65
59
18 1
0 ,1 2
16 6
0 ,3 2
17 4
1 ,9 4
11 8
2 ,0 3

Y
ear

N ber
um
of ton
s

19 9
2 ,8 9
1 9 _____
80
1891.......... 1 7 9
3 ,4 2
1 9 _____
82
11 3 8
3, 0
1893...... .
15 1
6 ,4 1
1 9 _____
84
13 3 2
5, 4
1 9 ..... .
85
17 2
4 ,6 7
1 9 ..... .
86
21 8 8
2, 2
1 9 .........
87
21 2
5 ,1 6
1 9 ..... .
88
29 1
2 ,4 4
1 9 .......... 2 2 0
89
8 ,8 7
1 0 _____ 2 9 5 4
90
8, 4
6 ,0 8
1 0 _____ 3 0 3
91
1 0 .........
92
35 1
5 ,6 1
1 0 _____ 4 7 9
93
5 ,9 1
1 0 ..... .
94
37 7
6 ,4 5
1 0 _____ 4 6 2
95
2 ,4 8
1 0 ...... .
96
4 9 23
2, 1
1 0 ..... .
97
40 1
4 ,0 7
2 ,1 3
1 0 _____ 5 1 2
98
1 0 .......... 25 5 5
99
3 ,1 6
‘ 1 ,0 0
1 1 _____ 3 5 7 9
90
1 1 .........
91
5 6 81
6, 2
1 1 _____
92
55 3
9 ,0 8
1 1 .......... 5 6 5 4
93
4, 2
62 0
1 ,0 0
1 1 ...... .
94
1 1 .......... 6 6 0
95
4 ,0 0

Y
ear
11.
96
11.
97
11.
98
11.
99
12.
90
12.
91
12.
92
12.
93
12.
94
12.
95
12.
96
12.
97
12.
98
12.
99
13.
90
13.
91
13.
92
13.
93
13.
94
13.
95
13.
96
13.
97
13.
98
13.
99

N ber
um
of ton
s
52 73
9, 6
64 63
4, 6
56 70
7, 0
60 1
0 ,3 2
55 2
5 ,7 7
51 59
2, 7
69 7
0 ,0 7
55 0
4 ,6 6
71 43
0, 3
76 7
7 ,0 2
77 26
8, 4
8 1 33
1, 3
86 1
9 ,9 8
89 0
9 ,1 1
92 37
1, 5
98 1
8 ,6 2
1 2 ,34
,0 5 5
1 3 , 58
,0 5 4
3 99 3
6 5 ,3 7
96 4
8 ,8 9
1 4 ,3 6
,0 2 1
94 8
4 ,3 2
9 1 23
4, 9
n, 0 3 0
0 ,0 0

1F record of exportation
irst
.
2H aiian S ga P
aw
u r lanters’ A
ssociation, 1 3 to 1 0 .
87 99
3U
nited S D
tates epartm of A
ent griculture, A
gricultural S
tatistics, (a) 1 1 to 1 3 incropyears; (b) 1 3
9 0 93
94
to 1 3 incalen years converted to 9 ° rawbasis (1tonof 9 ° rawsu is assu edto be the equivalent
99
dar
6
6
gar
m
of 0 3 6ton of refined).
.9 4
* 1 3 estim
99
ate.
(2) The period from 1876 to 1933 witnessed a rapid expansion of
output, largely produced by alien labor. In 1876 a reciprocal trade
agreement with the United States was signed. In 1898 the Territory
was annexed. Both events gave a sharp impetus to production.
During this time successive waves of immigrants (primarily oriental)
were induced by the plantations and the Government to come to
Hawaii to meet the labor demands of the expanding industry. By
1933 the industry had reached a high of 1,035,548 short tons.
(3) The recent years from 1933 to the present show evidence of the
beginning of a period of stabilization in respect to both production and
labor. The industry has occupied practically all of the land on which
sugar could be raised. In 1934 the Jones-Costigan Act put the sugar
industry under a quota system. The exclusion of the Chinese upon
the annexation of Hawaii in 1898, and the “ gentlemen’s agreement” 2
with Japan a decade later, had long before prevented any significant
importation of orientals other than Filipinos. Even this labor market,
upon which the plantations drew so heavily after 1908, is now effec­
tively closed by the act of 1935, which provides for a quota of only 50
Filipinos per year.3 Thus Hawaii has completed the transition from
an open world market for labor to one which is confined to the limits
of the United States. The sugar industry is, therefore, approaching
a period of complete dependence upon native-born citizen laborers
who are rapidly taking the place of imported alien labor.
2Thelawof 1 8 prohibited th im igrationof C in after 1 8 , but exem
86
e m
h ese
88
ptionsperm theim
itted
porta­
tion of over 1 ,0 0inth n eties. U
50
e in
nder the “gen en agreem the Japan G
tlem 's
ent”
ese overnm vol­
ent
untarily agreed to restrict th num of Jap ese em
e
ber
an
igratin to th U
g
e nited S tes.
ta
3The num m be in
ber ay
creased at the discretion of the D
irector of In lar A
su ffairs should conditions
appear tojustify it, but th pow h never beenu
is er as
sed.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

13

PLANTATION ORGANIZATION
Sugar is now produced on 38 plantations in Hawaii. In 1938 there
were 238,302 acres under cane cultivation on four large islands
(table 5). In addition they held 510,097 acres not under cultivation,
consisting largely of timberland and uplands, in many cases consti­
tuting sources of water supply for irrigation purposes.
T a b l e 5. — Hawaiian sugar plantations, by islands, with acreage and production

for 1938

Islan
d
H aii___ _________________ . _ ______ ____
aw
M
aui____________ _______ ____ __________
O
ahu___________________________ ________
K ai_ ______________ ____________ _______
au
G d total___ _______ ________ _________
ran

N ber of
um
plan
tation
s
1
6
5
7
1
0
3
8

A
creage

P
roduction
(sh ton
ort s)

17 0
0 ,5 9
4, 96
02
4, 89
24
4 ,0 8
71
28 32
3, 0

38 6
1 ,1 3
17 9
8 ,9 1
28 36
2, 2
13 5 3
8, 0
97 93
1, 8

S rce: H aiian S ga P ters’ A
ou
aw
u r lan
ssociation S ga M
, u r anual, H
onolulu, T. H 1 4 , p. 1 .
., 9 0 2
Plantations vary widely in their outward appearance. On some of
them much of the housing is new, and the plantation community, in
respect to its general plan as well as such details as sanitation, fire
protection, hospitalization, recreation, and electric lighting, is quite
modern. Others, particularly on those plantations in which the
working community is broken up into small separate “ camps,” have
some housing that is comparable to that in the worst slum districts
and that lacks proper sanitation and other conveniences.
There are wide differences in the technical problems faced by planta­
tions, due to extreme variations in both topography and rainfall.
Variations in rainfall result in fundamental differences in technique as
between those plantations which are irrigated (representing twothirds of all cane production) and those that are unirrigated.
In spite of all these differences, however, life on all of the planta­
tions follows a substantially similar pattern. This is the result of
several generations of experimentation. Due to the coordinating
influence of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, whenever a
good workable method was found by one plantation, it was quickly
adopted by all the others, thus gradually developing a common
pattern for plantation organization.
The head of the plantation is the manager, who is generally ap­
pointed by the controlling “ factor” or agency. He has wide authority,
not only over the agricultural and industrial production, but also
over the general recreational program and other activities of the
community. The plantations range in value from about 4 to 10 mil­
lion dollars each, and the managers must be men of training and
ability.
# There is no “ typical plantation manager.” Some of them, par­
ticularly on the Hamakua coast, are of Scotch descent, others are New
Englanders, still others come from the Louisiana cane area. The
majority of them, whether Island born or not, have been trained on
the American mainland. In most cases they occupy large and
comfortable homes, surrounded by beautiful lawns and gardens.




14

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

They are clearly recognized as the final source of authority in all
aspects of plantation life.
The structural organization of the plantation under such a manager
generally falls into four main divisions: (1) the field operations of
cultivation, harvesting, irrigation, etc., (2) the sugar mill and the
maintenance divisions of the plantation, (3) the central office in
which detailed records of every phase of plantation operations are
maintained, (4) the division of industrial relations. In addition to
these there are a number of smaller departments having to do with
medical care, truck transport, railroad transport, and the various
divisions which service the plantation community itself.
The timing of each step in the process of sugar production is
extremely important. There is a definite optimum time for each
operation, when the expenditure of man-days of labor, the use of
machines, or of materials such as fertilizer or irrigation water, will be
more productive in terms of yields and cost than if the work is done
at any other time. It must also be remembered that, since cane
cannot be stored for more than 2 or 3 days without spoiling, the
planting and production schedule must be such that enough cane will
continue to appear at the mill, day after day, to keep it operating on
a full schedule.
In addition to this, the problems of topography are such that the
plantation must be separated into fields of widely different sizes, alti­
tudes, and conditions. Moreover, since cane requires from 14 to 22
months to reach maturity, plans must be projected a year and a half
or more in advance. Thus the organization and planning of plantation
operations is an exceedingly detailed and complicated problem.
Partly because of this, and partly due to the fact that in the earlier
days plantations were dependent upon uneducated and untrained
groups of imported oriental workers, the lines of authority stemming
from the plantation manager downward are clearly and rigidly defined.
The central business offices, usually located in the heart of the plan­
tation community, maintain detailed records not only of the costs of
production by fields, but also of the operations that have already been
applied to each field, as w
rell as a projected plan for future operations,
with indications of the exact time when they must be undertaken.
Taking into account the many details of information which are con­
stantly flowing into this central office, the manager formulates his
plans. Such plans must include not only decisions regarding opera­
tions, but also regarding piece rates for various types of plantation
operations. Such rates vary with weather conditions, density of the
cane, difficulties due to topography, etc. The decisions of the mana­
ger are given to the heads of the various departments and are trans­
lated into action by gang foremen, called “ lunas,” who supervise the
workers in the field.
Thus the structural organization and functioning of a plantation is
not unlike that of an army, with its clear-cut lines of authority and
its careful program for attaining given objectives. The accompanying
chart indicates the way in which a typical plantation is organized.




CHART I.

ORGANIZATION CHART OF A
TYPICAL HAWAIIAN SUGAR PLANTATION
LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,
19 3 9

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Oi

16

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

1939

M
ETHODS OF PRODUCTION
The operations on a typical plantation include: (1) Preparation for
planting; (2) planting; (3) weeding and cultivating; (4) fertilizing;
(5) irrigating; (6) harvesting; (7) transporting (field to mill); (8) manu­
facturing raw sugar; (9) shipping; and (10) general maintenance.
P rep a ra tio n o f la n d . — Diesel-powered crawler tractors of 70 to 90
horsepower are used for this purpose. Both disk and moleboard
plows are used. Moleboard plows are fitted with 24-inch bottoms
and hydraulic lifts. They are used for the primary plowing which
usually extends to a depth of 20 to 24 inches.
The disk plows are fitted with 32-inch disks and are used for sec­
ondary plowing. Large 28-inch cutaway disk harrowrs are used for
final preparation of field before planting. These harrows are often
also used just before the moleboard plows to level off furrows and
chop up debris or cane “ trash” left on the field at the time of the
last harvest. Since the land is plowed and replanted only once in
10 or more years, plowing is done more carefully and over a longer
period than in ordinary farming operations.
Due to lack of silica in the soil, Hawaiian tillage implements do
not “ scour,” that is, the soil does not slip smoothly over the surface
of the plow, but sticks to it. Twice as much power is therefore
required for tillage operations as is needed for tilling mainland soils.
The heavy-tillage plowT of today were first effectively developed in
s
1929, high-powered Diesel crawler tractors following soon after, about
1931.
“ Stone boats” (flat steel plates for pulling large rocks to the edge of
the field) have long been used but the advent of the Diesel tractor has
made them far more efficient. Obviously the primary labor require­
ment is for tractor operators and their helpers in this work.
P la n tin g . — “ Seed,” in the language of the Hawaiian planter, refers
to cuttings from the cane stalk. These cuttings are about a foot long
and contain three “ eyes,” located at the joints in the cane, which
sprout when planted. This method of planting insures that any
given variety will remain true to type and is used in all cases with
the exception of experimental work in cross breeding. Cuttings are
made near the top of the stalk because the sugar content is low there
and because the top joints, being fresher and less dried out than the
lower joints, will germinate better.
Planting machines have long been used, although planting by
hand was not uncommon even in the early post-war period.
The “ direct-connected planter,” now generally used, first appeared
in 1931. This planting machine is directly mounted upon a large
Diesel-powered crawler tractor. It will make the furrow, drop the
seed, apply fertilizer, and cover the seed in one operation.
Five men are required to operate it. Such a crew can plant 12
acres in an 8-hour working day. Most of the planting is done between
February and August. As previously indicated, cane is replanted
only once in 10 or 12 years. During this period the fields are har­
vested at from 15- to 23-month intervals, depending on the decision of
the management. By controlling irrigation and fertilization, cane
may be brought to harvest in 15 months, though the long plant will
produce more and better cane syrup. The new growth starts immed­
iately from the roots of the old so that, for a decade at a time, cane is
continuously in some stage of growth.




LABOR 11T THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,
S

19 3 9

17

C u ltiv a tion .— Cultivation on the sugar plantations is primarily a
matter of weed control. On irrigated plantations the cultivation
equipment is also used to keep irrigation furrows in the right con­
dition for irrigation.
Crawler tractors are used for these purposes. They have a high
clearance and the cultivation equipment is directly attached.
In a few instances where steep rocky hillsides make the use of trac­
tors difficult or dangerous, mules and horses are used with lighter
equipment.
F e r tiliz in g .— The plant food requirements of Hawaiian cane are
enormous and consist primarily of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and
potash. The Hawaiian sugar industry has been a pioneer in the
use of chemical fertilizers. The heavy yields of sugar that have
been obtained are in no small measure due to the careful scientific
testing of soil to determine what plant foods are lacking and the
generous use of fertilizers. This costs the plantations on the average
three and a quarter million dollars annually. During one period,
1924-28, 22 plantations spent an average of $8.48 per ton of sugar
produced, or $5,018,508, annually. The range in cost was from
$4.57 to $13.91 per ton of sugar. This averaged 13 percent of the
total cost of producing the raw sugar.4 These demands upon soil
fertility are explained by the fact that as much as 90 tons of cane,
not counting the weight of seed and blade, may be taken from an acre
in a single harvest, which is over 30 times the average weight of corn
taken from an acre of Iowa farm land.
In spite of the very heavy demands of sugarcane upon the soil,
fertility has increased rather than diminished. One field on which
cane has been continuously grown since 1835 produced a larger yield of
cane in 1936 than at any time in its history.
Fertilizing materials are applied in three ways, by mechanical dis­
tributors, by hand with the use of applicators, and by dissolving the
plant food in the irrigation water. A large quantity of fertilizer is
applied by mechanical distributors at the time the field is prepared
for a first planting and in the cultivation period following each har­
vesting. The hand applicators are used after the cane has been grow­
ing for 5 or more months. This work is sometimes performed by
women. The bulk of the fertilizer, however, reaches the soil by way
of the irrigation water which is usually handled by the long-term
cultivators.
Ir r ig a tio n .— Sugarcane demands great quantities of water.
In
Hawaii one frequently hears the statement that “ it takes a ton of
water to produce a pound of sugar.” Strictly speaking, the amount
of water required varies considerably and may greatly exceed a ton
per pound of sugar where the cane is exposed to continuous winds, as
in Maui.
In some sections, on the Hamakua coast of the island of Hawaii in
particular, the water problem is one of drainage rather than irrigation.
On February 20, 1918, a rainfall of 31.95 inches in 24 hours was
recorded there.
Because of the marked variation in rainfall in various island areas,
however, many plantations find water to be a valuable and costly
commodity. Two-thirds of the total cane tonnage must be produced
under irrigation.
4 J B P inR
. . ratt eports of H aiianS ga T
aw
u r echnologists, vol. 8 p. 1 6
, 7.




18

LABOR m

TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

Over 10 percent of the total capital invested in the Hawaiian sugar
industry, or $39,700,000, is in irrigation alone. Irrigation water is
generally provided by the plantations themselves, though in a few
cases independent corporate units have been organized to take over
water development and distribution. The water is obtained from two
sources— deep wells and gravity systems. As a rule, an irrigated
plantation obtains water from both sources. Interesting engineering
feats including dams, tunneling of mountains, inverted siphons, and
artesian wells have been employed in these projects. The Olokele
Ditch in Kauai, for instance, furnishes 60,000,000 gallons of water
daily and includes a continuous 6-mile tunnel through a cliff. One
plantation on the island of Oahu has a system of 61 artesian wells
with a pumping capacity of over 100,000,000 gallons daily. On the
island of Maui there is available from the wells and gravity systems of
a single plantation 300,000,000 gallons every 24 hours. By way of
comparison, it may be stated that the city of San Francisco uses only
65,000,000 gallons daily.
The job of achieving the most effective distribution of this water is
one which requires experience and judgment regarding weather, soil
needs, and condition of the cane.
The amount of water represented by 1 man-day varies greatly with
topography, soil conditions, and with the types of irrigation equip­
ment. Where there is a steady breeze, an acre will require 350,000
gallons in a single irrigation. Under these conditions, one man can
irrigate over 3 acres a day, involving over 1,000,000 gallons of water.
The plantations are carrying on constant experimentation with
siphons, gates, and ditches to reduce labor requirements and conserve
water. The orchard or long-line system of irrigation, which was
developed in 1921, considerably reduced the man-days required.
The principal recent development is the “ slip-joint pipe” made of
galvanized iron with slide openings every 4 }{ feet into the shallow
depressions between the lines of cane. Hawaiian soil is very porous
and ditch linings, often of concrete, are increasingly used to conserve
water.
The labor for irrigation work must be dependable, watchful, and
experienced. For this reason the older and more reliable of the plan­
tation laborers are given long-term cultivation contracts for this work.
H a r v e stin g .— Harvesting operations include (1) burning, (2) cutting
(or in some instances mechanical harvesting), and (3) loading. These
operations are the most important in terms of occupational oppor­
tunity, representing over 40 percent of the total number of man-days
devoted to plantation (as distinguished from mill) work. They are
also among the most demanding upon the energy and skill of the
ordinary field laborer.
(1)
B u r n in g is the Hawaiian method of ridding the fields of “ trash”
(that is, leaves and undergrowth). This is a source of surprise to
agriculturalists *from other parts of the world and is sometimes
condemned on the assumption that this material should be plowed
under for humus. The planters’ answer to this criticism is that after
each harvest new roots grow and the old roots die, thus furnishing all
of the humus needed. In any case, the very considerable saving in
labor which would otherwise have to be devoted to stripping the leaves
from the stalks more than offsets any loss.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

19

(2) C u ttin g is hand work. For this, a very broad, thin-bladed
machete with a hook at the end of the blade is used. It weighs 2 or 3
pounds and is very sharp. Each cutter has his own “ cane knife” and
his own ideas as to weight, balance, and shape. A glance at the picture
of mature cane will indicate the difficulties involved in handling it.
The lower part of the stalk frequently lies along the ground twisting
upward in snakelike fashion. It is heavy with a very hard rind and is
not easily bent. It grows 18 or more feet long in good soil. The stalk
must not only be cut at the ground, but also cut into two 9-foot
lengths. Cane cutting is a laborious and costly process, requiring
more man-days than any other process in sugar production. There
are also more accidents in this work than in any other on the planta­
tion.
Consequently frequent efforts have been made to devise a cane
harvester. In 1939, a highly powered harvester costing over $50,000
with huge wheels encased with the largest pneumatic tires ever made
was tried out on the Island of Oahu, but did not prove successful.
From the earliest days of the industry until 1937, hand labor with
the cane knife was standard practice for harvesting. Early in that
year, however, the “ grab harvesting” method was developed and has
since been adopted by a number of plantations, though it is still in an
experimental stage. The method is simple. A large crawler crane
is fitted with a wide cane grab. The “ grab” when suspended over the
cane looks like an open hand ready to be closed, and is dropped over
the standing cane and closed up. As the weakest spot in the stalk is
that section which joins the roots, a grabful of cane can be broken off
and loaded on the waiting truck or rail car with little difficulty. The
soil must be dry and firm for this method to be successful. It is there­
fore not feasible on many of the plantations—particularly the unirri­
gated ones. But it has already greatly reduced labor requirements
on those plantations on which it is used. The cutting, piling, and
loading operations formerly done by hand, can now be handled by a
single machine.
Still more recently, beginning in 1938, the rake harvester appeared.
This is a machine mounted on wheels drawn back and forth across
the field to break off the cane. It has not had as wide an acceptance
as the grab harvester— but is still in process of development.
In 1939, about 2,000,000 tons of cane, or 20 percent of the Hawaiian
crop, was mechanically harvested by the grab or rake method.
(3) P ilin g a n d lo a d in g .— This used to be done by hand. Grabs
as loaders appeared in Hawaii in July 1934, from Louisiana, where they
had been used for some time. Small ones were imported at first, but
within a year much larger grabs attached to crawler cranes were
developed. These, together with the piling rake, have largely elimi­
nated the hand labor in piling and loading operations.
T ra n sp o rta tio n .—About 9,000,000 tons of cane must be transported
from the fields to the plantation mills each year. Because of the
varying conditions there is no universal type of transport. Each
plantation has adopted that method or combination of methods best
suited to its conditions.
These methods may be classified as (1) railroads with both perma­
nent and portable track; (2) flumes; (3) tractors pulling wagon trains;
(4) cableways; and (5) motortrucks.
241404—40




20

LABOR 1ST TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

(1) R a ilroa d s transport 65 percent of the cane. Permanent
narrow gage railroads run to the field edges. At the time of the
harvest these are augmented with portable track laid into the fields.
Because of sharp curves, cane cars are short, never over 14 feet in
length. On the portable track in the fields, cars are hauled by
tractors, as locomotives cannot negotiate the steep curves and grades.
Locomotives up to 30 tons in weight are used for hauling between the
field and the mill. Diesel locomotives appeared in 1926 and electric
locomotives in October 1936. Hydraulic-drive Diesels were under
consideration in 1939, as a future possibility.
There are 39 separate railway systems in Hawaii. Seven are
independently owned railroads with 64 locomotives, 1,400 freight cars,
and over 100 passenger cars, but over 90 percent of their business is
in direct services to sugar plantations.
The 32 plantation systems maintain an average of 30 miles of
permanent track each. Altogether, they own 142 locomotives and
300 miles of portable track. Investment in plantation railroads
exceeds $5,000,000.
The same technical ability needed for the operation of any small
railroad is required here. Many of the salaried workers of the
plantations are to be found in the operation and maintenance of rail­
roads, trucks, and tractors.
(2) F lu m in g as a method of transporting cane can be used only
where there is a large supply of water on the upper levels of the
plantation and a steep gradient between the fields and" the mill.
These conditions obtain on the Hamakua coast of Hawaii where Huming is extensively used.
Flumes are made of wood in a V-shaped trough through which
swiftly flowing water floats the cane. Portable flumes are laid
through the fields at harvest time. Permanent flumes carry the cane
from the field edge to the mill.
(3) Tractor tr a in s .— The Athey crawler wagons appeared in 1925.
They consist of 6 to 10 wagons in a train with 4 tons of cane per
wagon, pulled by a 60 horsepower crawler tractor. Since they are
expensive and slow, attaining a maximum speed of only 2 }{ miles per
hour, these trains are gradually being abandoned.
(4) C a b le w a y s .— Deep ravines and sharp rocky formations are
common in Hawaii. When no other form of transportation is feasible,
cableways are constructed. Cable is stretched on supporting towers,
through the fields. A hook hanging from a trolley wheel running on
the cable is the cariying unit. Cane is made up into 200-pound
bundles, attached to the hooks, and allowed to travel down the cable
by gravity. There is usually a steep slope from fields to mill on those
plantations on which this system is used and cane bundles attain a
very high speed. The system is costly, however, because of the small
units and the additional labor of bundling.
(5) M o t o r tru ck s .— Until 1936, trucks were considered to be im­
practical for the haulage of cane because of insufficient traction in the
field where they were frequently mired. But with the multiple axle
drive powering four rear wheels (each with double tires) in addition
to the front wheels, this difficulty was overcome. Such trucks are
custom built with large tires and big Diesel engines. The bodies,
are 24 feet long and will carry 8 tons of cane. They provide rapid
haulage directly from the field to the mill at reasonable cost. An




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

21

expansion in their use involving a reduction in the amount of labor
required for transporting cane seems probable.
All field operations described above (including railway and truck
crews as well as field laborers) represent three-fourths (74.8 percent)
of all plantation labor.
M i l l op era tio n s .— The plantation mill, with few exceptions, operates
on a 24-hour schedule of three 8-hour shifts. There must therefore
be a constant flow of cane into the mill. The careful planning of
the planting and harvesting schedules involving the many operations
described above is all designed to that end.
The milling of cane and the manufacture of raw sugar may be
divided into eight operations: (1) Unloading; (2) grinding and press­
ing; (3) clarification; (4) evaporation; (5) crystallization; (6) drying;
(7) bagging; and (8) shipping.
(1) U n lo a d in g .— On the typical plantation, long lines of small cars
loaded with cane stand outside the mill. These move slowly into
the factory where the cane is pushed onto the mill conveyor by
mechanical rakes.
(2) G rin d in g a n d p r e s s in g .— The milling plant is composed of
a crusher, and four three-roller presses in tandem, through which the
crushed cane is passed for further juice extraction. The top roller
of these presses is under hydraulic pressure of 75 to 100 tons per foot
of length. The grinding rate varies from 25 to 100 tons of cane per
hour at a single tandem mill. A double tandem mill will grind up
to 150 tons per hour. One plantation mill has a capacity of 150 tons
per hour. The average for all mills, however, is 55 tons per hour.
(3) C la rifica tion .— The pressed juice must be heated and limed. It
then goes to a settling tank or tray-type clarifier. The clear juice
is drawn off and goes to evaporators. The muddy settlings are then
piped to filters. The Oliver Campbell Filter, now generally used,
appeared in 1927. It consists of a drum covered with extremely
fine holes constantly revolving in the settlings. A vacuum inside
the drum draws juice through the holes but leaves mud and extraneous
material deposited outside where it is scraped off the revolving drum
and is then used as fertilizer.
(4) E v a p o r a tio n .— Excess liquid is removed from the juice by
simply boiling it in quadruple evaporators. Exhaust steam from the
main mill engines provides the heat, and all boiling is under vacuum
to increase the drying efficiency.
(5) C rysta lliza tio n .— After boiling, the thick sirup flows into tanks
where it is kept slowly moving by mechanical paddles until it crystal­
lizes. Since all operations in the milling process are mechanical up
to this point, relatively little labor is required beyond that necessary
to check on the progress of the cane sirup through the various processes.
Such laborers as are needed, however, must be highly trained tech­
nicians.
(6) D r y i n g .— As soon as the proper degree of crystallization has
developed, drying (or “ purging” ) is accomplished by the use of rapidly
revolving metal cylinders (or “ centrifugals” ). They are 30 to 40
inches in diameter and revolve at the rate of 900 to 1,400 revolutions
per minute.
(7) B a g g in g .—Automatic machinery drops the raw sugar into
jute bags, weighs it, sews the bag, and delivers it to the conveyor.




22

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

The time required to make cane into raw sugar is not great. The
operations are checked at every step by continuous chemical analysis
of juices, syrups, and sugars.
Much of the machinery, for example, steam pressure regulators,
liming regulators, temperature regulators, juice level regulators, den­
sity indicators, and the like, is automatic, requiring only occasional
inspection and control.
Electrification of the mills has proceeded rapidly. The use of new
materials, such as stainless steel, has also aided efficiency.
For these reasons the cost of manufacturing raw sugar from cane
is less than one-fifth of the total cost, the remaining four-fifths being
expended on field operations.
In respect to both cane tonnage per acre and juice extraction per
ton, Hawaii shows a high degree of efficiency and compares favorably
with any other sugar-producing area.
(8)
S h ip p in g .— Transportation to port is by rail or truck.
All
sugar shipping ports are equipped with warehouse sugar conveyors
for loading ships. Two plantations in Hawaii are so located that
their raw sugar is loaded directly into steamers from shore by cableways.
Only 7.4 percent of the total labor force on the plantations is in the
mill. Much of this is used in the last three operations; that is, drying,
bagging, and shipping.
M a in te n a n c e a n d other services .— In addition to field and mill labor­
ers, a large number are engaged in foundry and repair work, carpen­
try, painting, servicing of pumps, repairing roads and irrigation
ditches, and the like. There are additional special services represented
by hospitalization, sanitation, and various types of experimentation.
Hawaiian plantations also maintain a continuous system of detailed
information on all aspects of their operations, involving a large cleri­
cal force in their central offices. These various services constitute a
significant part of the total occupational opportunity on the planta­
tions, representing on the average about 17.8 percent of the total
labor force.
P e r io d f o r gen eral r e p a ir s .— Since the mills operate 24 hours a day in
three 8-hour shifts, it becomes necessary once a year to close the mill
for a thorough overhauling. This generally occurs in October, No­
vember, and December, requiring a month and a half to two and a
half months depending on the plantation. During this off season the
entire character of the work changes. Harvesting ceases. The bulk
of the labor is then paid a per diem rate, and is assigned to general
clean-up and repair jobs, including road, track, and irrigation ditch
construction and repairs, painting, carpentering, and odd jobs. At
this time the maintenance division works intensively on mill machin­
ery, tractors, trucks, and railway engines. Its numbers are consider­
ably increased by helpers from the field labor force.




CH APTER

2.

O R G A N IZ A T IO N

OF

TH E

IN D U S T R Y

DEVELOPMENT OF THE LARGE SCALE PLANTATION

The Hawaiian sugar industry is more completely integrated than
that of other sugar-producing areas. There are a number of reasons
for this. In Louisiana, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and even in the
sugar-beet areas, a farming system existed prior to the growth of the
sugar industry. Farmers already controlled the land and turned to
cane or beets because they became profitable crops. Sugar production
in those areas thus grew along the lines of the established small
farming system.
The Hawaiian sugar industry, however, began on land which was
relatively undeveloped. The taro patches cultivated by the native
Hawaiians were on lands unsuitable for sugar. The areas now
occupied by the 38 sugar plantations were, for the most part, (1)
forest land, (2) useless arid land, or (3) semiarid pasture land.
The land tenure system is quite different from that in any other
part of the United States and is a legacy of the feudal system under
native royalty which preceded annexation. At that time such lands
as were suitable for sugar cultivation were owned in large tracts and
were, therefore, leased or purchased in large tracts for plantation
purposes. Nearly half of the land is still leased (table 6). Hawaiian
sugar production from its very inception was on a larger scale than is
typical of mainland farming. As the plantations have decreased in
number, the output of the industry as a whole has increased in value.
T able 6.— S u g a r

p la n t a ti o n la n d , 1 9 3 8

Plantation land
in cane
Acres
Fee simple _ - _
Leased land 2____

__
__ ___
____ _______________

T ota l...

________

Percent
of total

Plantation land
not in cane 1
Acres

Percent
of total

Total
Percent
of total

Acres

120,265
112,037

16.9
14.9

279,939
230,158

37.4
30.8

406,204
342,195

54.3
45.7

238,302

31.8

510,097

68.2

748,399

100.0

1 Consists of area in which plantation town is located, forest lands which protect water supply, grazing
land often used for raising cattle to supply the plantation, or land unsuitable for cultivation because of
topography.
2 Of the leased land, nearly H (29 percent) is leased from the government of the Territory, and over % (71
percent) is leased from 061 private lessors (much of this from a few large holdings, however, since 10 owners
own half of all privately owned land in Hawaii).
Source: Territorial Planning Board, First Progress Report, February 1939, p. 89.

The value of Hawaiian sugar plantations, estimated at only
2 millions of dollars in 1867, increased to 9 millions in 1880. About
the time of the revolution in 1892, 33 millions of dollars of additional
capital were invested. Of this, 25 millions (nearly three-quarters)
were American, 6 millions were British, and the remaining 2 millions




23

24

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

were German* investments. A total of 85 millions of dollars had been
invested in the industry by 1901, though the market value was then
considered to be only 76 millions. Most of the increase in the value
of the plantations since that time has come from reinvested surpluses
built up within the industry. Because of the sharp variations in
sugar prices in recent years, the estimated value of the plantations is
subject to constant revision. In 1929 the planters estimated it to be
between 150 and 175 millions of dollars. It has increased very little
since that time, due to the relatively lower price of sugar in the thirties.
The present estimated value ranges from 155 to 180 millions.
For the following reasons the trend is toward even larger plantation
units:
(1)
In Hawaii the growing of cane and manufacturing of raw sugar
are combined in a single plantation, based on a carefully planned
planting and harvesting program to provide a continuous flow of cane
into the mill. Under these conditions small scale operations are
inefficient. In other sugar-producing areas, where small scale farming
persists, there is naturally a sharp line of demarcation between the
growing of sugarcane and its processing, the farmers selling to the
processors.
^ (2) The arid and semiarid lands, which constitute over half of
the area now under cane cultivation, required the construction of
large irrigation systems too costly to be undertaken except by largescale enterprises, or by governmental or collective action.
(3) Unlike other areas, the cane crop of Hawaii takes 14 to 22
months to mature. It needs a much greater quantity of fertilizer
per acre. Because of the topography, it requires expensive systems
of transportation between field and mill. To accomplish these ends
requires a large capital outlay and involves risks more readily carried
by large-scale corporate units.
(4) The lack of a sufficient labor supply during the period of
expansion of the industry led to joint action to induce immigration
as well as to meet other labor problems, which has been an added
factor tending toward integration.
THE ADHERENT-PLANTER SYSTEM

Because of the topography of Hawaii, it often happens that small
areas of land suitable for growing sugarcane are isolated by deep
ravines or small rivers from the main body of the plantation land.
When, for these or other reasons, it is not practicable to put a piece
of land under the direct management of the plantation, it is the
usual practice to provide for the cultivation of such land under what
is known as “ the adherent-planter system.” This system covers a
great diversity of contractual relations which vary in accordance with
local conditions and which have developed with experience over time
as an accepted framework of agreement for regulating the relations
between the adherent planter and the plantation. Some of these
agreements make the adherent planter little more than a long-term
cultivator with his compensation dependent upon the price of sugar




25

LABOR IX THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

Instead of the volume of cane. Other contracts provide a somewhat
greater measure of freedom of action.1
But in all of them, the plantation management rather than the
adherent planter determines the time of planting, the irrigating, the
extent to which fertilizer will be used, and the precautions that are to
be taken against insects and plant diseases.
There are approximately 3,500 such adherent planters in the
Territory, cultivating about 13 percent of the total cane area on more
than 5,000 separate parcels of land, and producing about 10 percent
of the total sugar cane grown in Hawaii (table 7).
T a b l e 7.-— N u m b er o f adherent 'planters 1

Hawaii:
Hakalau____________________
Hamakua__________________
Hawaiian Agricultural_____
Hilo________________________
Honokaa___________________
Honomu___________________
Hutchinson_________________
Kaiwiki____________________
Kohala_____________________
I ^aupahoehoe_______________
Olaa________________________
Onomea____________________
Paauhau___________________
Pepeekeo___________________

Hawaii— Continued.
263
Waiakea____________________
503
Wailea______________________
49
15
26 Kauai:
Lihue_______________________
13
476
15
Waimea____________________
8
115 Oahu:
5
Ewa________________________
11
7
Honolulu___________________
1
102
Kahuku____________________
32
307
Oahu_______________________
1
Waialua____________________
6
633
1
Waimanalo_________________
340
55
555
Grand total______________ 3, 539

1 As of January 1939. Because of the nature of tt e adherent-planter system these figures vary rapidly
■over time.
Source: Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Honolulu office.

Fifty-nine percent of the area under such agreements is operated
by what are known as “ plantation planters/7 who have various forms
of leases or subleases and cane-purchase agreements. Under these
they grow cane on lands owned or controlled by the plantation.
1 “ Adherent planters” and the laborers employed by them work under such a wide range of conditions
and such a great variety of contracts that it seemed impracticable to attempt a detailed analysis cf wages,
hours, and working conditions in this field. Conferences with “ adherent planters” and visits to various
“ adherent-planter areas” indicate that, broadly speaking (with many exceptions), “ adherent planters”
are in a better position than is the average worker on the plantation. Laborers employed by “ adherent
planters” also work under widely varying conditions, but, broadly speaking, they appear to work longer
hours at somewhat lower rates than the workers on the plantations.
These statements reflect only the conditions in those areas visited, and are not based upon scientific
sampling or detailed statistical data. Because of the complicated character of the problem, the time and
funds necessary to make a detailed study were more than could be justifiably allotted to this segment of
the Hawaiian industry.
N u m b e r o f laborers e m p lo y e d by adherent p la n te r s , p e r io d fr o m S ep t. 1 - D e c . 8 1 ,1 9 3 7

Hawaii:
Hakalau_________________
296
Hawaiian Agricultural________ 820
Hilo_________________________ 2, 736
Honokaa_____ ____
4
Honomu_____________________
84
Hutchinson__________________
2
Kohala___________
57
Laupahoehoe_________________ 162
Olaa__________________________1,371
Onomea_________
1,479
Paauhau___ ____
331
Pepeekeo________ ______ _____
78
* Most of these laborers are part-time workers.
Source: Adherent Planters' Association.




a

Hawaii—Continued.
Waiakea_______
1,817
W ailea.................
50
Kauai:
Lihue........... .........................
49
Waimea.........................
15
Oahu:
Ewa______ _____
1
Honolulu____ _______________
2
Kahuku__________
25
Waialua.____ „ _____ _________
13
Grand total........................... 9,392

26

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

Forty-one percent of the area is operated by “ outside planters.**
A few of these own their own lands, the remainder lease lands not
owned by the plantations.
“ Plantation planters” live in plantation houses and may be em­
ployed by the plantations when not working on their own small
fields. Many “ outside planters” have homes on their own land, but
some of them live in plantation houses. Very few of them are able
to finance themselves, and most of them are in debt to the plantation
to which they have contracted to deliver their cane. The average
area of land cultivated by all adherent planters is 7.6 acres.
The adherent-planter system is not feasible on irrigated planta­
tions. Hence very few of such planters are to be found in Oahu or
Kauai, and none in Maui.
On the unirrigated plantations of the Hamakua coast, however,
where the land stands well above sea level and is broken by deep
ravines cut by the many small rivers flowing to the sea, this system
is widely used. As the accompanying table indicates, 98 percent of
all “ adherent planters” are on the island of Hawaii. A number of
the plantations there are dependent upon such planters for a large
proportion of the cane which feeds their mills.
THE

AGENCY

S Y ST E M

An understanding of the structural organization of the Hawaiian
sugar industry begins with the agency system and the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters’ Association.
The present agency system grew out of the trading concerns of the
nineteenth century. These “ factors,” as they are still called in
Hawaii, dealt with whalers and trading ships, providing them with
supplies and often acting as middlemen in the sale of such commodities
as were then brought to Hawaii. During the latter half of the nine­
teenth century, the collapse of the whaling industry, combined with a
sharp decline in Hawaiian exports to California, diverted the capital
of the factors to the plantations. As late as 1860 Hawaiian planters
generally arranged for transporting and selling their sugar through
captains of trading ships. But the rapid expansion of the sugar in­
dustry after the adoption of the reciprocal trade agreement with the
United States in 1876 made the commercial functions of the plantations
so important and pressing that the factors were encouraged to concen­
trate upon them. The extreme isolation of Hawaii and the difficulties
of maintaining contacts between the plantation management and the
distant markets of the American mainland also tended in this direction.
In time, five factors came to handle practically everything the plan­
tations bought or sold.
Gradually the}r also took over the financing of the industry. In
fact, the mobilization and control of capital for the sugar industry
has become their major function.
Under the existing conditions, this appeared to be a normal develop­
ment. Plantation agriculture is designed for the most effective
production of sugar within the limitations which the land, labor,
and capital of Hawaii impose, but it is not organized to meet the
problem of merchandising with the wide orientation relative to world
markets which that implies.
A plantation involves a large outlay of capital, including long­
term investment in buildings, equipment, and labor, as well as a




27

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

considerable risk of crop and market fluctuations. Yet the individual
planter seldom possessed either the business acumen to handle these
matters or the capital to carry him through difficult times. By
putting his purchasing, marketing, and financing problems into the
hands of a concern specializing in these fields, the planter could focus
upon his primary problem, that of maximizing production.
The long-run result of this policy, however, was to deprive the
plantation of its independence and to develop a highly integrated
system which centered authority in the factors. The simple, inde­
pendent plantation under an owner-manager persisted until 1880.
About this time, under the guidance of the factors, there was a marked
movement toward incorporation in order to provide a better mobili­
zation of capital and a larger scale of production. By 1900, virtually
all of the capital in the Hawaiian sugar industry was in corporate
plantations. This period also witnessed a sharp rise in the authority
of the factors, together with a trend toward consolidation on the part
of both factors and plantations.
In the period of financial stringency of the early nineties, the
weaker plantations were faced with a choice of going into bank­
ruptcy or yielding control to the factor to which they were indebted.2
Subsequent depressions accelerated this process. The factors were
quick to take advantage of the reduction in costs which could be
obtained by combining adjacent plantations into larger units. In 1883
there were 90 plantations which produced 57,053 tons of sugar. In
1938 there were only 38 plantations but they produced 941,293 tons
of sugar. Meanwhile, the number of factors diminished to 5. Today,
35 of the 38 plantations are managed by these 5 factors. These
agencies, together with the plantations they control, are listed in table 8.
'T a b l e 8. — T h e a g e n c ie s i n H a w a i i , w ith the p la n t a ti o n s t h e y r e p r e s e n t a n d th e ir
o u t p u t i n sh o rt to n s o f c o m m e r c i a l s u g a r , a s o f 1 9 3 8

Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd.:
Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co_________________________________
73,
Hawaiian Sugar Co_________________________________________________
28,
Kahaku Plantation Co______________________________________________ 20,
Maui Agricultural Co________________________________________________ l 39,
McBryde Sugar Co., Ltd___________________________________________
19,
Total_____________________________________________________________
American Factors, Ltd.:
Grove Farm Co., Ltd_______________________________________________
Kekaha Sugar Co., Ltd_____________________________________________
Kipu Plantation____________________________________________________
Koloa Sugar Co_____________________________________________________
Lihue Plantation, Ltd_______________________________________________
Oahu Sugar Co., Ltd________________________________________________
Olaa Sugar Co., Ltd________________________________________________
Pioneer Mill Co., Ltd_______________________________________________
Waianae Co_________________________________________________________
Waimea Sugar Mill Co_____________________________________________
Total_____________________________________________________________

041
997
377
395
678

181,488
10,
36,
3,
12,
52,
65,
42,
46,
8,
3,

529
096
051
285
090
712
069
725
002
299

279, 858

1 Includes 2,242 tons refined.
2 Sharp changes in the market price of sugar and manipulation in sugar securities (particularly by the
Spreckels interests) involving the corporate control of plantations and mainland refineries were significant
factors. The technical advantages of large-scale operations, however, constituted the primary reason for
consolidation.




28
T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

able

8 .— T he agencies in H a w a ii , with the plantations they represent and th eir
ou tp u t in short tons o f com m ercial su ga r , as o f 1 9 3 8 — Continued

C. Brewer & Co., Ltd.:
Hakalau Plantation Co_____________________________________________
Hawaiian Agricultural Co__________________________________________
Hilo Sugar Co_______________________________________________________
Honolulu Plantation (Refined)_____________________________________
Honomu Sugar Co__________________________________________ „ _______
Hutchinson Sugar Plantation Co___________________________________
Kaeleku Sugar Co., Ltd____________________________________________
Kilauea Sugar Plantation Co_______________________________________
Onomea Sugar Co__________________________________________________
Paauhau Sugar Plantation Co______________________________________
Pepeekeo Sugar Co_________________________________________________
Wailuku Sugar Co__________________________________________________
Waimanalo Sugar Co_______________________________________________
Total_____________________________________________________________

17,
32,
25,
25,
10,
13,
7,
9,
25,
12,
13,
21,
7,

223,323

Castle & Cooke, Ltd.:
Ewa Plantation Co_________________________________________________
Kohala Sugar Co____________________________________________________
Waialua Agricultural Co., Ltd______________________________________
Total

813
489
577
560
142‘
784
135
878
975
664
254
695
357

54, 477
35, 2895
46, 841
136, 607

T. H. Davies & Co., Ltd.:
Hamakua Mill Co___________________________________________________
Kaiwiki Sugar Co., Ltd_____________________________________________
Laupahoehoe Sugar Co_____________________________________________
Waiakea Mill Co____________ _______________________________________
Total_____________________________________________________________

14,
10,
19,
16,

498
470'
424
019

60,411

Source: Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, Sugar Manual, Honolulu, T. H., 1940, pp. 9, 10.

In addition to the five factors shown in the table, there were: The
Bishop Trust Co., representing Gay & Robinson, which produced
7,600 short tons; F. A. Schaefer & Co., Ltd., representing the Honokaa
Sugar Co., which produced 24,224 short tons; and F. L. Waldron,
Ltd., representing the Wailea Milling Co., which produced 4,472 short
tons. These three plantations are not officially in the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters' Association. It is noteworthy that these plantations also
operate through an agency system. The Bishop Trust Co. is one o f
the largest banking houses, for example.
The individual owner-managed plantation of the early eighties has
thus been displaced by a corporate mass-production plantation con­
trolled by one or another of the central agencies in Honolulu. It
is managed by a trained agricultural executive with a staff of tech­
nical experts, all hired and directed by the controlling agency.
HAWAIIAN SUGAR PLANTERS' ASSOCIATION

The Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association represents a further step
in coordination. Its function is to unify policies in the Hawaiian
sugar industry as a whole relative to (a) the discovery and adoption
of new agricultural techniques; (6) the invention and adoption of laborsaving equipment; (c ) effective representation of the Hawaiian view­
point relative to Territorial and Federal legislation affecting sugar;
(d) the formulation of a general labor program relative to wages,
hours, and working conditions, including plans for the promotion o f




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

29

general welfare on the assumption that the welfare of Hawaii is the
welfare of the sugar industry.
These functions are organized as follows:
A g ricu ltu ra l tech n iq u es .— Prior to the formation of the Hawaiian
Sugar Planters’ Association in 1895, there was a great diversity of
method in both field and factory and a general adherence to haphazard
rule-of-thumb procedures. The introduction of new varieties of sugar­
cane was dependent upon the chance visit of some traveler who
brought them in for friends. The most elementary facts regarding
the nature and growth of cane, known today to even an unskilled field
laborer, were still unknown.
Immediately after its inception, the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ As­
sociation established an experiment station for agricultural research.
It was comparatively easy for scientifically trained men to demonstrate
that many plantation practices were inefficient, or even harmful, and
to bring about increased yields.
As a result, in 1904 the experiment station was reorganized on an
ambitious and expanding scale. It now represents an annual expendi­
ture of a half million dollars and deals with every aspect of sugar
production, including departments for dealing with pests, plant
diseases, sugar chemistry and technology in the mills, and the develop­
ment of new species of cane.
L a b o r-sa v in g d evices .—A special division of the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters’ Association conducts experiments and maintains a con­
tinuous check-up on inventions in other parts of the world to provide
improved equipment for the industry. Many inventions of farreaching importance to the sugar industry as a whole have originated
in Hawaii. Recent technical developments are explained in the
description of operations on a typical plantation.
L a b o r p o l i c y .— The sugar industry acts as a unit in dealing with its
labor problems. Its policies are best described as paternalistic.
Labor is relatively unorganized, and collective bargaining is not
recognized as a method of procedure.
Closely linked with labor relations are policies affecting general
welfare. Since 1876 the sugar industry has played a dominant role in
the economic, political, and even social life of the Territory. The
Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association has initiated broad policies
linking general welfare with that of the sugar industry, and affecting
many aspects of the life of the Territory.
Chart 2 indicates the structural organization of the industry.
Minor enterprises serving the industry are purposely omitted since
most of their services are performed by the factors. Even those
separate corporate enterprises which provide such services are often
controlled by the factors as subsidiaries or through interlocking
directorates.
To make certain that the chart will not be misinterpreted, it should
be clear that the five factors, rather than the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’
Association, dominate the industry. The Hawaiian Sugar Planters’
Association provides a convenient medium for unifying and imple­
menting the policies of the factors. It is governed by five trustees,
each representing one of the five factors, who elect a president from
their own number to serve for 1 year. They also appoint the other
administrative officers. The Association is financed by the plantation
members on the basis of the sugar tonnage each produces.




CO
O
STRU CTU RAL
OF

THE

H A W A IIA N

O R G A N IZ A T IO N
SUGAR

IN D U S T R Y

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

4.0 PERCENT OF TOTAL PRODUCTION
UNITED

STATES




BUREAU

OF LABOR

STATISTICS

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

31

The percentages of total production shown in the chart for the
factors are those of the quota system. They will probably change
slightly with the reorganization of the quota system growing out of
its suspension by the President on September 11, 1939. The reestab­
lished quota of December 29, 1939, allotted Hawaii 4,251 tons less
than that of September. A continuation of the trend toward con­
solidation to effect the economies of large-scale production may be
expected, reducing the total number of plantations but increasing
their efficiency.
It should be noted that in a few instances there is a sufficiently
large absentee ownership of plantation stock so that the factor holds
only the position of an agency-management relative to the plantation.
In most cases, however, the factors have additional controls by virtue
of (1) direct stock ownership, (2) indebtedness of the plantation to
the factors, (3) interlocking directorates, and (4) less technical but
nevertheless effective controls such as intrafamily holdings.
SUGAR REFINING AND MARKETING ORGANIZATION

A further step in the integration of the Hawaiian sugar industry
was taken when three of the large sugar agencies instituted a joint
program for refining and marketing the bulk of the Island sugar.
Under this plan over half of the total production (about 550,000 tons
annually) is refined by the California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining
Corporation. The stock in this corporation is owned by 33 of the
Hawaiian plantations, and its management is under the direction of
officials of the sugar agencies in Honolulu. About 100,000 additional
tons are annually refined by the Western Refinery and 300,000 tons
by the National Sugar Refineries in New York. But all of it is
marketed under an agreement whereby all sugar producers in the
Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association use the same marketing organi­
zation and receive the same price per ton. Thus the integration of the
Hawaiian sugar industry has been carried to its ultimate step in the
refining and marketing of the product on the mainland.




CH APTER

3.

E M PLO Y M E N T

AN D

LABO R

SU PPLY

EFFICIENCY AS RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT

Because of the highly unified structure of the sugar industry, its
techniques have been constantly improved and standardized. The
result has been a remarkable increase in efficiency. Table 9 shows
an increase from an average of 53.1 tons of cane per acre in 1925 to
65 tons per acre in 1938; table 10 indicates an increase from 3.114
tons of sugar per acre in 1895 to 7.919 toils of sugar per acre in 1939.1
No accurate measures of output per man-day are available for the
earlier periods of production. In 1930, 0.0716 tons of sugar were
produced per man-day; in 1938 the figure was 0.0892. Hawaii is
considerably above the average in efficiency and will compare favor­
ably in this respect with any of the areas within the American sugarquota system. Table 11 indicates between 1872 and 1938 over a
hundred-and-ten-fold increase in total raw-sugar production was
obtained with only an eleven-fold increase in the total labor force.
About the same number of workers produced two and a half times
as much sugar in 1938 as in 1902.
It appears probable that employment in this leading Hawaiian
industry will continue to decline unless there is a marked expansion
of output. Output per acre may be expanded further, but it would
probably be at the expense of acreage, since the total amount of sugar
that can be sold is at present controlled by quotas. In fact, after
the Jones-Costigan Act was adopted in 1934, 24,238 acres were
abandoned. An expansion of acreage, such as occurred up to the
last decade, is not likely in any event. Practically all of the good
sugar land is already utilized.
T

able

9 . — S u g a rca n e: P r o d u c tio n o f H a w a ii , 1 9 2 5 - 3 8 , sh ow in g increase in p er-a cre
prod u ction

Sugarcane
Year

Beginning October 1—
1925_____________________ ________ _____________
1926___________________________________________
1927___________________________________________
1928___________________________________________
1929___________________________________________
1930___________________________________________
1931___________________________________________
1932-33______________________________ __________
Beginning Jan. 1 (calendar year)—
1934______________________________ _____ _______
1935______________________________ _______ _____
1936_________________________________ __________
1937__________________________________ _________
1938___________________________________________

Total
acreage
in cane

A cres

237,774
234,809
240, 769
239,858
242, 761
251, 533
251,876
254, 563
252, 237
246,491
245,891
240,833
238, 302

Acreage
harvested
during
the year

Produc­
tion of
cane

Average
yield of
cane per
acre 1

A cres

S h ort ton s

S h ort ton s

122,309
124, 542
131, 534
129,131
133,840
137,037
139, 744
144,959

6,495,686
6,992, 082
7, 707,330
7,447,494
7,853, 439
8,485,183
8, 865, 323
8,566,781

53.1
56.1
58.6
57.7
58.7
61.9
63.4
59.1

134, 318
7,992,260
126,116
8, 555,424
130,828 j 9,170, 279
8,802,716
126,671
135,978 j 8,835, 370

59.5
67.8
70.1
69.5
65.0

1 The growth of 14 to 22 months in tons of cane.
1These figures, as well as the other statistical and historic material in chap. 3, were taken from the
records of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.
32




LABOR
T a b l e

m

33

THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

10.— Increase in sugar production, by tons per acre, 1895 to 1989

Year

Tons

1 8 9 5 _____________
1900
_____
1 9 0 5 _____________
1 9 1 5 _______
1 9 2 0 _____________

147,
289,
426,
646,
555,

627
544
428
000
727

A c re s
h a rv e ste d

4 7 ,4 0 0
6 3 ,8 1 6
95. 444
117, 079
1 1 5 ,1 1 9

Tons
p e r a cre

3 .1 1 4
4 . 537
4. 467
5 .5 1 7
4 .8 2 7

Year

1 9 2 5 ______________
1 9 3 0 _____________
1 9 3 5 ______________
1 9 3 9 ______

Tons

7 7 6 ,0 7 2
912, 357
9 8 6 ,8 4 9
1 ,0 0 3 , 0 0 0

1

A c re s
h a rv e ste d

121, 385
1 3 3 ,8 4 0
1 2 6 ,1 1 6
1 126, 6 50

Tons
p e r a cre

6 .3 9 3
6 .8 1 6
7. 824
7. 9 1 9

1

1E s t i m a t e s .
T a b l e

11.— Growth in employment and production on Hawaiian sugar plantations

Year

T o ta l n u m b er
o f p la n t a tio n
w o rk e rs

T o ta l p ro d u c ­
t io n o f r a w
s u g a r (in s h o rt
to n s)

3 ,9 2 1
10, 2 4 3
20, 536
42, 242

8 ,4 9 8
5 7, 088
1 31, 3 0 8
3 5 5 , 611

1 8 7 2 ______________________
1 8 8 2 _____________________
1 8 9 2 ______________________
1 9 0 2 ______________________

Year

1 9 1 2 ______________________
1 9 2 2 . . . _______ _________
1 9 3 2 ______________________
1 9 3 8 ______________________

T o ta l n u m b e r
o f p la n t a t io n
w o rk e rs

4 6 ,9 3 0
46, 273
5 4, 992
4 4 ,8 1 0

T o ta l p ro d u c ­
tio n o f r a w
su g a r (in s h o rt
to n s)

5 9 5 ,0 3 8
609, 077
1, 0 2 5 , 3 5 4
941, 293

THE LABOR SUPPLY

The labor supply upon which the plantations depend is varied in
background and racial characteristics. The population of Hawaii
today is a result of successive waves of migrations from foreign coun­
tries, largely oriental. These migrations were stimulated and con­
trolled by the plantations to provide the proper supply of labor to
carry the large burden of manual labor required for the rapidly ex­
panding industry. Until the seventies the primary source of labor
was native Hawaiian. Chinese coolies were imported as early as 1852,
but even in 1872, of a total of 3,921 workers on all plantations, only
526 were Chinese, 96 were of other nationalities, and 3,299 were
Hawaiians (table 12).
At that time the total sugar production of the Islands amounted to
only 8,498 tons.
The Reciprocal Trade Agreement with the United States in 1876,
however, provided a sharp stimulus to the industry. Within a decade
the production expanded to 108,112 tons (1886).
By 1882 the need for imported labor had reached such proportions
that the Hawaiian Labor & Supply Co. was organized by the planta­
tions in order to provide and regulate the supply of labor immigrants
and to reduce competition for labor between plantations. Imported
laborers were still primarily Chinese although Portuguese were be­
ginning to appear on plantation pay rolls.




34
T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

a b l e

12.—

N u m b e r a n d r a c ia l o r i g i n o f e m p l o y e e s o n s u g a r p l a n t a t i o n s i n H a w a i i .,
1 8 7 2 to 1 9 8 9

M e n , w o m e n , a n d m in o r s

M en

R a c i a l o r ig in
187 2

189 2

190 2

191 2

192 2

2 , 575
5 .0 3 7
637
15

1 ,7 1 7
2 ,6 1 7
2, 52G
1 3, 0 1 9

1 ,4 9 3
3 ,9 3 7
2 , 6 89
3 1 ,0 2 9
2 ,0 3 6

834
1 ,1 4 5

409
248

1 ,5 3 8
2 ,3 1 8
4 , 705
26, 462
1 ,6 5 7
1 ,5 8 8
1 ,5 8 3
5 ,9 9 3
972
294

1 ,0 9 8
1 ,4 3 0
2 , 719
1 7 ,8 3 3
1 ,8 1 1
1 ,1 5 9
193
1 8 ,6 0 0
1 ,0 2 9
401

9 , 395
7 97
442
90
3 4 ,9 1 5
900
65

188 2

1932 1

615
7 06

19381

1 93 9 1

1 ,2 2 3
5 17
2 , 673
1 1 , 2 43
905
468
1 08
2 1 ,4 7 8

1 ,1 4 4
674
2, 870
1 3 ,4 6 0
9 74
493.

H a w a iia n a n d p a r t H a w a iia n .
C h i n e s e ______________ __________________
...
_
P o r t u g u e s e ______
Ja p a n e se
__________________ __________
__________
P u e r t o R i c a n _____
K o r e a n ________________ ___________ .
S p a n is h
. . . _____________ . _ _
F i l i p i n o s __
__________________________
O th e r C a u c a s ia n
_____
_ __
A l l o t h e r s ________________________________

3 ,2 9 9
526

M e n _______________
.
__________ ______
W o m e n a n d m i n o r s _______________

( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

(* )
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

4 9 ,9 4 7
5, 0 4 5

3 9, 7 6 6
5 ,0 4 4

4 2 ,0 5 4

3 .9 2 1

1 0, 2 4 3

2 0 , 5 36

4 2, 242

4 6 ,9 3 0

4 6 , 2 73

5 4, 9 92

4 4 , 810

( 3)

T o t a l ______________________________

96

1 ,0 3 2
46

22
,0 2

10
,1 2
49

(2)
2 1 ,0 6 0
1 ,1 3 1
2 43

( 3)

5 T h e racial d is trib u tio n is av ailab le for m en only.
2 In c lu d e d in “ A ll o th e rs .’’
s D a ta n o t available.

In 1884 a labor agreement ’was signed in Tokyo providing for the
contracting of Japanese laborers with the Hawaiian Government for
a period of 3 years at wages of $9 a month and a food allowance of $6
per month for agricultural workers. Women were included at a
ratio of 30 for every 100 men. It was their duty to raise vegetables
and care for the living quarters. These provisions gave the Japanese
an advantage over Chinese on the plantations. In less than 20 years
the Japanese became the predominant racial group in the Islands.
Hawaii has the distinction of having initiated a period of mass migra­
tion for Japan. In all, approximately 180,000 2 Japanese laborers
and their relatives have migrated to Hawaii. This is the greatest
Japanese migration to any single area outside of the Empire.
In the 6 years from 1880 to 1886 the planters spent $930,000 and
the Hawaiian Government over a million dollars promoting immigra­
tion. Altogether, not less than $20,000,000 was expended for this
purpose between 1852 and 1935. It should be remembered that
large numbers of these migrants returned to their homelands at the
end of the contract period, at which time, according to agreement,
their return fare was paid. The ratio of immigration and emigration
to population reached its peak in 1899 when it equaled 24.1 percent.
Thus successive waves of migrants were brought from countries of
surplus population, primarily from China, Portugal, Japan, Puerto
Rico, Korea, Spain, and the Philippine Islands. And with these
migrations the predominant racial group on the plantations has.
changed from Hawaiians in 1872 to Chinese by 1882, to Japanese by
1892, and to Filipinos by 1922. The table also indicates that as the
Filipinos increased there was a sharp decline in most other racial
groups. This trend w reversed, however, in the decade of the 1930’s
~as
when Filipinos began to return to Manila in large numbers.
2 T h is does n o t re p re sen t a n e t a d d itio n to th e p o p u la tio n of th e T e rrito ry .
J a p a n u p o n th e e x p ira tio n of th e ir c o n tracts.




P a r t of th e m r e tu rn e d to.

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

35

19 3 9

The Japanese, Hawaiian, and Portuguese racial groups in particular
show increases during this period. This shift in racial composition,
however, is not based on immigration. The bulk of these new recruits
were necessarily native-born citizens.
Table 13 indicates the composition of the population of the sugar
plantations on June 30, 1939. In all there were 101,976 persons. Of
these, 28 percent were living as single persons, usually in dormitories.
About nine-tenths of this group were single men.
Although there were over 73,000 persons living in families, over
40,000 of these were children, and approximately 16,000 were women.
Thus, of the total of 42,054 men living on the plantations, over 25,000
were single, and less than 17,000 were married. It is also significant
that four out of five of the single men were noncitizens (largely
Filipinos), whereas among the married men there were almost as many
citizens as noncitizens.
From this point forward, labor on Hawaiian sugar plantations
cannot be adequately described as oriental. The problems of labor
in the sugar industry are those of Americans, largely of oriental racial
origin, but trained from birth in American standards stemming
through educational ideals from the mainland, and through social
habits from the unique interracial relationships of Hawaii.
T a b l e 13. — Plantation population as of June SO, 19S9

R ace

M en

Japanese:
A lien
_
, _ 6, 659
C itiz en _ _ __ 6, 801
Filipino:
A lien i __ _
20,645
415
C itiz e n _______
Chinese:
A lie n __________
411
C itiz e n ,
___
263
K orean:
402
C itizen _ ___ __
91
P u e rto R ican:
34
C i t i z e n ________
940

W o m ­ C h il­
d re n
en

T o ta l

5, 568
19
4, 547 22, 708

12, 246
34, 056

2, 432
455

163
9,060

23. 240
9; 930

40
151

7
484

458
898

103
59

7
414

512
564

1, 722

64
3, 284

30
622

R ace

M en

Portuguese:
A lie n ___________
229
C itizen _ _____
2, 641
H a w a iia n 2, . __ _ _ 1,144
A nglo Saxon:
A lie n , _ __ _ __
46
C itiz e n ___ .
1, 085
A ll others:
A lie n ___
_
57
C itiz e n ,
191

W o m ­ C h il­ T o ta l
en
d re n

283
1,940
729

1
4, 316
1,610

513
8, 897
3,483

43
883

8
920

97
2, 888

48
131

419

105
741

T o ta l (a lie n ). 28, 483
T o ta l (c itiz e n ) 13, 571

205
8, 550
9,514 41,653

37, 235
64, 741

G ra n d to ta l,

18, 064 41, 858 101, 976

42, 054

1 In c lu d e s 23,240 F ilip in o s w ho are n a tio n a ls in fact b u t classed as aliens for im m ig ratio n p u rp o ses. A n a ­
tio n a l en jo y s th e p ro te c tio n of th e U n ite d S ta te s b u t e njoys n one of th e rig h ts of a citizen.
2 A ll citizens.
Source: H a w a iia n S u gar P la n te rs ’ A ssociation, S ugar M a n u a l, H o n o lu lu , T . H ., 1940.

2 4 1 4 0 4 - —4 0 ------- 4




CHAPTER 4. METHODS OF WAGE PAYMENT

The sugar plantations maintain a very complicated sytem of daily,
piece-work, and contract payments to employees.
Payment at daily rates varies as between plantations and on a plan­
tation varies with the nature and arduousness of the work performed.
P IE C E

WORK

Piece work is known locally as “ short-term contract” work. Under
the piece-work method, payment is made on the basis of the number of
units of work performed at a rate per unit announced before commence­
ment of the work. Many different operations, ranging from harvest­
ing to plowing, fertilizing, or weeding, are under the piece-rate system.
The methods of performing operations vary according to the natural
conditions on different plantations, and various combinations of
operations may be included in a piece-work rate. Rates for the same
types of work therefore differ considerably, not only between planta­
tions, but also between various fields on the same plantation, or even
on the same fields for the same operations on different days.
The basis on which piecework rates are determined is arbitrary,
informal, and distinctly more variable than in other industries. No
adequate understanding of the nature of these wage payments is pos­
sible without a picture of the human aspects of plantation organiza­
tion and the atmosphere in which the numerous daily adjustments of
rates to tasks are made.
Plantation organization provides clear-cut lines of authority
extending from manager to laborer.
Plantation work can best be done in groups of 3 to 15 or more
cooperating. As time goes on, the older and better workers are
assembled into gangs of about the same ability, speed, and tem­
perament. They tend to specialize as cutters, cultivators, portable
track layers, etc., and constitute the front rank of field labor. The
newer and poorer workers, lacking specialization, are moved into this
or that type of work, as “ bottlenecks” appear, in order to keep produc­
tion moving smoothly. Thus considerable differences in earning power
develop because of specialization, skill, and strength. Promotion into
those gangs that have a reputation for greater production and hence
higher earnings is coveted by the more ambitious of the workers.
The immediate supervisor of each group is the gang “ luna” or
straw boss. Before the commencement of any given job, which may
take hours or days to complete, he announces the rate per unit for the
work to be performed, based on his instructions from headquarters.
All factors affecting the capacity of the gang to produce (such as
weather, topography, density of cane, and the like) are taken into
account in fixing rates per unit. In other words, rates are arbitrarily
set on the basis of past experience so as to provide workers with wages
for the day equivalent to the management’s estimate of the laborer’s
earning power. Once announced, rates are never changed.
36




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

37

Errors in judgment are inevitably made. But the plantation com­
munity is a small and necessarily closely knit group in constant daily
contact. Neither cooperation nor discipline can be maintained if
undue favoritism is shown to any group. The plantations maintain
a remarkably detailed record of all operations which serves as a guide
to their decisions. Moreover, many of the workers have long periods
of service. Such workers are quick to note any rates that are out of
line. On one plantation on January 1, 1939, there were 61 workers
who had continuous service records with the plantation of between
30 and 50 years. Five hundred and thirty more held records ranging
from 10 to 30 years. One must visualize what it means to work 10
years in the same fields and to live through the vicissitudes and the
growth of a relatively isolated group of workers to understand how it
is possible for the system to work effectively.
Nevertheless the system is arbitrary and contains obvious draw­
backs from the point of view of labor. It seems inevitable that the
plantation laborers will eventually demand either more standardized
rates of pay or recognized plantation labor organizations to represent
their interests relative to the formulation of plantation wage policies.
CULTIVATION AGREEMENTS

Cultivation agreements are called locally long-term cultivation con­
tracts. Under this method a group of employees agrees to perform,
directly under the supervision of the plantation management, the
work of cultivating, irrigating,1 and fertilizing a field of sugarcane
during its growing period, commencing after the field has been planted
and prepared by the plantation-producer and ending 14 to 22 months
later when the cane is ready for harvesting. They are paid for this
work an amount equal to a rate per ton of sugarcane multiplied by
the number of tons of sugarcane harvested from the field which they
tended. Advances at the rate of $1.50 for each day of work are made
to each worker during the progress of the crop. No interest is charged
on such advances, which are merely payments on account of a portion
of the anticipated earnings. The remainder is paid after the sugarcane
has been harvested and the total earnings have been determined.
No charges are made for materials such as fertilizer, irrigation water,
implements, animals, or tractors, but charges are made for breakage
or wastage of materials used in the work. The cultivation agreement
is thus a long-term group-piece-work 2 method of payment for work
performed, based on a measurable result in the form of tons of
sugarcane (see table 27).
The rates of payment per ton of sugarcane vary considerably due
to (1) differences in natural conditions, (2) the tons of cane per manday of work which may be anticipated, and (3) the range of operations
included under the agreement.
i A t th e p re s e n t tim e th e re a p p ea rs to be a te n d e n c y to change th e lo n g -term c u ltiv a tio n c o n tra c t to w h a t
m ig h t be called a lo n g -term irrig a tio n c o n tra c t, th e difference being th a t fertilizin g , w eed in g , e tc ., are ta k e n
care of u n d e r s h o rt-te rm (p iece-rate) c o n tra c ts, leaving o n ly irrig a tio n for th e lo n g -term co n tra c to r. T w o th ir d s of th e p la n ta tio n s are irrig a ted , a n d in m a n y cases th e cost of w a te r a n d irrig a tio n e q u ip m e n t is suffi­
c ie n tly h ig h to m ak e it a n im p o r ta n t factor in cost p e r to n of sugar. T h ro u g h long experience th e lo n g -term
cu ltiv a to rs h a v e learn ed how to get th e u tm o s t o u t of th e w a te r assigned to th e m .
I n th e case of one p la n ta tio n (w h ere th e re is a fairly s te a d y breeze, re s u ltin g in ra p id e v a p o r a tio n ), one m a n
w ill h a n d le th e irrig a tio n of a b o u t 3 acres p e r d a y , in v o lv in g 1,050,000 gallons o fw ater or a b o u t 350,000 gallons
p e r acre. S uch irrig a tio n c o n tra c ts p a y a n a d v an c e of $1.50 p e r d a y p lu s 15 cen ts p e r to n of can e h a rv e s te d
from th e fields u n d e r th e irrig a tio n c o n tra c ts.
3 O ccasionally a field is sm all enough to be te n d e d b y one m a n .




38

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 39

Whenever, during the term of the cultivation agreement, the work
of the cultivators is not required on the field they are tending, they
may be assigned to other work, for which they receive the rates of
pay current for such work (i. e., per diem or piece rates).
All employees working under any of the methods of payment are
paid individually the amounts they have earned. When the earnings
are determined by group performance, as in the case of the cultivation
agreements, or in other group piece-work operations, the earnings of
the individual are computed and each employee receives his own pay
directly from the plantation-producer.
Of the total days worked (including both field and nonfield labor)
on all plantations, the percentage under each type of payment is as
follows: 3
50.5 percent of man-days are under per diem rates.
36.8 percent of man-days are under “ short-term” or piece rates.
12.7 percent of man-days are under “ long-term” cultivation
contract rates.
On the basis of employees (rather than man-days) the classification
is as follows :
C la s s i f i c a t i o n a n d p e r c e n t o f tota l e m p l o y e e s

Field labor:
Cultivation agreements________________________________________________
H arvesting____________________________________________________________
Other field operations_________________________________________________

13. 7
35. 3
21. 8

Total, field labor____________________________________________________

70. 8

Nonfield labor:
Sugar fa cto ry ___________ ____ . ___ _____________________________________
Shops__________________________________________________________________
Railroad crew s________________________________________________________
Trucks and tractors___________________________________________________
Stores__________________________________________________________________
Office__________________________________________________________________
All oth er_______________________________________________________________
Total, nonfield labor________________________________________________

7.
3.
1.
2.
1.
.
11.

4
9
9
1
5
7
7

29. 2

Because of these unusual methods of payment it is necessary to use
a complex method of arriving at an individual distribution of daily
earnings. The 12.7 percent man-days (representing 13.7 percent of all
employees) under long-term contracts receive $1.50 per day advance
upon their contracts. But for those who are under such contracts it
is impossible to determine the total daily wages until the contract is
concluded. It has been necessary, therefore, to treat separately the
employees working under long-term contracts.
THE BONUS SYSTEM

For many years the plantation managers regarded the securing of
regularity of work as one of the basic problems of management. Until
September 30, 1938, the plantations maintained a bonus system to
promote regular reporting for work. Under this system all planta­
tions paid to each of their unskilled and semiskilled employees who
had worked twenty-three twenty-sixths of the available number of
3 A verage for th e y e a r 1938 as re p o rte d b y th e H a w a iia n S u g ar P la n te r s ’ A sso ciatio n to th e A g ric u ltu ral
A d ju s tm e n t A d m in is tra tio n .




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

39

working days in a month, a bonus on the employee’s earnings for that
month. The minimum bonus was 10 percent and it increased by
graduated scale when the New York market price of raw sugar (on
the Hawaiian basis) was above $60 per short ton. Thus if sugar were
$65 per ton, all plantation workers received a bonus of 2 % percent of
their earned wages in addition to the turn-out bonus of 10 percent.
If sugar went to $80 per ton, they received 10 percent of their earnings
or a gross bonus, including the turn-out bonus, of 20 percent. Absences
from work for illness or other good reason were excused and were thus
deducted from the number of days required for a bonus.
The purpose of the bonus was (1) to obtain as large and as regular
a turn-out as possible, and (2) to provide a basis for adjusting total
employees’ earnings to increases or decreases in selling price of sugar.
The bonus was in effect in all months. The total amount of such
bonuses paid by all plantation producers to their unskilled and semi­
skilled employees for the year 1937 was $2,145,506, or 7.5 percent of
total wage payments ($28,350,178). Due to the changes resulting
from the wage determinations of the Agricultural Adjustment Ad­
ministration, and in part to offset the higher wages which these deter­
minations required, the bonus system was abolished on September 30,
1938.
WAGE DETERMINATIONS OF THE SUGAR DIVISION OF THE AGRICULTURAL
ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION

A significant factor affecting wages in the sugar industry, in addition
to those already discussed, is to be found in the policies of the Sugar
Division of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
Section 301 (b) of the Sugar Act of 1937 provides that the Secretary
of Agriculture shall make wage determinations applicable to sugarproducing areas affected by the act.
For the year 1939, these determinations for the Territory of Hawaii
were as follows:
Persons em ployed in the production, cultivation, or harvesting of sugarcane
in Hawaii during the period January 1, 1939, through Decem ber 31, 1939 (except
those who are paid a m onthly salary of $100 or more), shall be deemed to have
been paid fair and reasonable wage rates, if full paym ent in cash for an 8-hour day
(shorter or longer days to be in proportion) is made for. all such work at rates not
less than the following:
(a) For all work perform ed by adult males under short-term agreements and on
a time basis in cutting, packing, fluming, and hauling sugarcane and laying portable
flumes, an annual average for each farm of not less than $2 per day.
(b) For all work performed by adult males under short-term agreements and on
a time basis in loading, an annual average for each farm .of not less than $2.20
per day.
(c) For all work perform ed by adult males under short-term agreements and
on a time basis in laying portable track, an annual average for each farm of not
less than $2.40 per day.
(d) For all work performed by adult males under short-term agreements and
on a time basis in planting, cultivating, fertilizing, irrigating, brooming, and other
operations not specified in (a), (b), or (c) above, connected with the production,
cultivation, and harvesting of sugarcane, an annual average for each farm of not
less than $1.50 per day.
(e) For all work perform ed by each adult male in all operations connected with
the production, cultivation, or harvesting of sugarcane, exclusive of work per­
form ed under long-term cultivation and irrigation agreements, an average wage
for each pay period (not exceeding 1 month) of not less than $1.40 per day.
( /) For all work perform ed by each adult male under long-term cultivation
and irrigation agreements, an advance of not less than $1.50 per day.




40

LABO R I N

THE

T E R R IT O R Y

OF H A W A II,

1939

{g) For all work perform ed by adult females in any operation connected with
the production, cultivation, or harvesting of sugarcane, not loss than three-fourths
of the above specified rates:
Provided, however, That in addition to the foregoing, the producer shall furnish
to the laborer, w ithout charge, the perquisites customarily furnished by him, such
as a house, garden plot, and similar incidentals: And provided further, That the
foregoing shall not be construed to mean that a producer m ay qualify for paym ent
who has not paid in full the am ount agreed upon between the producer and the
laborer: And provided further, That the producer shall not, through any subter­
fuge or device whatsoever, reduce the wage rates of laborers below those deter­
mined above.

The minimum wage, as provided in paragraph (e), is thus $1.40 per
day for males, and, as provided in (g), $1.05 for females. It should
be noted that the other wage minima in these provisions are not
“ minimum wages,” as that term is generally used, but are minimum
annual averages for each plantation. These determinations have
been an important cause of the rise in wages on sugar plantations
since 1936.




CHAPTER 5. EARNINGS OF DAY AND PIECE-RATE
WORKERS
SCOPE AND METHOD

The following tables on wages and hours in the sugar industry are
based on a sample consisting of eight plantations Care was taken
to obtain representative proportions in respect to irrigation (two-thirds
of the sugarcane is irrigated), in respect to management (see table 8
with respect to management of sugar plantations by the factors), and
in respect to geographical location.
Three of the plantations chosen were located on the island of
Hawaii, two on Maui, two on Oahu, and one on Kauai.
The plantation data covered in these tables specifically excludes
the following employees:
(a) Manager and assistant manager.
(b) Any employees engaged during any part of the pay period in
long-term cultivation work.
(c) Heads of shops and industrial departments.
(d) Office manager, cost accountant, and head timekeeper.
(e) Doctor and personnel officer.
In other words, the tables cover all unskilled and semiskilled workers
(other than long-term cultivators), and those skilled and clerical
workers that do not occupy executive positions.
The field study for this report was conducted between February
and June 1939. Because of seasonal rains and because the harvesting
program has not yet reached its full stride, February is not a typical
month on sugar plantations. March, on the other hand, because it
is midway between the off season and the heavy harvesting of the
late spring, and because it is a period during which all types of opera­
tions on the plantation are being carried forward, appears to be as
typical a month as could be chosen. The following tables dealing
with hourly and monthly earnings are, therefore, based on the month
of March 1939. The annual earnings are based on the calendar
year 1938.
Adult males constitute more than 90 percent of the total labor force
on sugar plantations. The principal tables in this section are therefore
limited to male workers. Earnings of women and minors are discussed
briefly at the end of the chapter.
The sample included 9,150 male workers, or slightly over one-fifth
of the total employment on all sugar plantations. The workers
referred to are salaried employees or unsalaried workers under per
diem or piece rates. The additional seventh of the w
rorking force com­
posed of long-term cultivators had to be excluded from this phase of
the study because their hourly, monthly, and even their annual ad­
vances are not indicative of their earnings. The earnings of long-term
cultivators are, therefore, discussed later and separately.




41

42

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

DISTRIBUTION OF HOURLY EARNINGS BY TYPE OF WORK

The study of hourly earnings had to be limited to nonsalaried
workers. Most of the plantations keep no records of the hours worked
by salaried workers. An 8-hour day and a 45-hour week is the recog­
nized normal working time of salaried employees. Overtime usually
occurs 2 days each month at the time pay rolls are made up, and for a
period of about 2 weeks at the beginning of each year when annual
data are compiled.
Nine-tenths of the male laborers covered in the study, however, were
nonsalaried. The average hourly earnings of these men were 26.9
cents (table 14). Four-fifths of them received between 17.5 and 35
cents per hour. Over one-third received between 17.5 and 22.5
cents, which was the largest point of concentration. The heavy
concentration above 17.5 cents presumably reflects the influence of
the minimum wage of $1.40 for men.1 Only 2.5 percent of the non­
salaried workers earned 45 cents or more per hour.
Harvesting, the most arduous type of work, representing the largest
employment, provided the highest hourly earnings (30.2 cents).
Over half of those engaged in this work (51.7 percent) received between
25 and 35 cents per hour.
On the other hand, 86.5 percent of those engaged in industrial
service received less than 25 cents per hour. This is the lowest paid
group, averaging only 20 cents per hour. Only 4.2 percent in this
group received 30 or more cents per hour.
Cultivation, the second largest group, provided average earnings of
23.7 cents per hour.
Maintenance is the next largest group and shows average earnings
of 29.1 cents, very nearly as high as harvesting. This group showed
the widest range of individual hourly earnings, extending from as
low as 12.5 cents to as high as 95 cents per hour. No individual
worker in any type of work other than maintenance received hourly
earnings of over 65 cents.
1 I t m a y be n o te d in p assin g t h a t th e re w a s v e ry little c o n ce n tratio n a t ra te s of ex ac tly 25 or 30 c en ts.
T h u s 223 of th e 980 w o rk ers w ho receiv ed 25 to 27.5 cen ts w ere a t 25 cen ts, a n d o n ly 50 of th e 725 w h o receiv ed
30 to 32.5 c en ts w ere a t 30 cents.




T a b l e 14.— Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by

type of work/ March 1989
TotgJ
A verage h o u rly earnings

______
_ _ ______ _
cents__ _ _
___
c e n ts_______
______
cen ts. _ _
_ _ _ _ _
c en ts. _ _ _ _ _ _
c e n t s . . . __________
_ _ _ _
____
c e n ts .. _ _
c e n ts ..
______
______
c e n ts ..
__
___________ _
_
c e n ts ._____________ ______________
c e n ts _______
__
_ ___ _
_
c e n ts_________________
c e n t s . . ___
________
c e n ts .. _ _
_
_ _ _
______
_____
c en ts _______
__
_ _ ____ _____
_ ____ _

T o ta l__
___
___
___
A verage h o u rly earnings
__ _ _ _ _ _

___

62
244
1,345
1,436
847
980
806
725
597
489
258
178
182
86
40
2 96
8, 371
$0. 269

C um u­
Sim ple
N um ber
la tiv e
p erc en t­ p e rc en t­
of
w orkers
age
age
0. 7
2 .9
16.2
17.3
10.1
11.7
9 .6
8. 7
7.1
5 .8
3.1
2.1
2 .2
1.0
.5
1.0

0.7
3 .6
19.8
37.1
4 7 .2
58.9
6 8.5
77.2
84.3
90.1
9 3.2
95.3
97.5
9 8.5
99.0

5
52
402
459
240
219
89
56
49
32
17
11
12
5
4
1
1, 653
$0. 237

S im ple
p e rc e n t­
age
0. 3
3 .1
24.3
27.9
14.5
13.2
5 .4
3 .4
3 .0
1.9
1 .0
.7
.7
.3
.2
.1

H a rv e stin g
C um u­
N um ber
la tiv e
of
p e rc e n t­ w o rk ers
age
0. 3
3 .4
27. 7
5 5.6
70.1
8 3.3
8 8 .7
92.1
95.1
9 7.0
9 8.0
9 8.7
9 9.4
9 9.7
9 9.9

14
15
322
254
250
354
517
571
426
340
176
136
123
65
24
25
3, 612
$0. 302

Sim ple
p e rc e n t­
age
0. 4
.4
8 .9
7 .0
6 .9
9 .8
14.3
15.8
11.8
9 .4
4 .9
3 .8
3 .4
1 .8
.7
.7

T ra n s p o rta tio n
Cum u­
N um ber
la tiv e
of
p e rc e n t­
w o rk ers
age
0. 4
.8
9 .7
16.7
2 3.6
3 3 .4
4 7 .7
6 3.5
75.3
8 4 .7
8 9 .6
93.4
9 6.8
9 8.6
99.3

12
82
145
45
57
33
7
3
13
6
2
3
2
1
1

Sim ple
p e rc en t­
age

2 .9
19.9
35.3
10.9
13.8
8 .0
1.7
.7
3 .2
1 .5
.5
.7
.5
.2
.2

Cum u­
lativ e
p erc en t­
age

2 .9
2 2.8
58.1
69.0
82.8
90.8
92.5
93.2
96.4
97.9
98.4
99.1
99.6
99.8

412
$0. 233




19 3 9

1 D efinitions: C u l t i v a t i o n : A ll field a n d w a ter s u p p ly operations (in clu d in g p u m p in g ) o th e r th a n th o se co n n ected w ith h a rv e stin g a n d tra n s p o rta tio n . H a r v e s t i n g : All h arv estin g
operations u p to com pletion of loading or d elivery of cane in to flum e. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : A n y ty p e of tra n s p o rta tio n , in c lu d in g tra n s p o rta tio n of em ployees, cane, m aterials, finished
p ro d u cts, etc. M a n u f a c t u r i n g : All w ork reg u larly done b y factory em ployees in a n d a b o u t th e facto ry an d m ill y a rd . M a i n t e n a n c e : M ain ten a n c e, rep air, an d co n stru ctio n w ork of
an y n a tu re d one b y shops, d e p a rtm e n ts, a n d regular rep air gangs. C le r ic a l: A ll clerical w ork w h erev er p erform ed. I n d u s t r i a l s e r v ic e : A ll w ork d o n e in conn ectio n w ith fu rn ish in g of
p erq u isites to em ployees, such as cleaning cam ps, furnishing fuel, y a rd w ork, m edical service, etc.
2 T h e average of all w orkers e arning 50 cents an d over a m o u n ted to 61.3 cents. T h e averages b y o ccu p atio n w ere 53.0 cents for those engaged in cu ltiv atio n ; 55.8 cents for h arv estin g
w orkers; 53.7 cents for tra n s p o rta tio n w orkers; 54.3 cents for m an u factu rin g w orkers; 64.8 cents for m a in te n an c e w orkers; a n d 61.3 cents for clerical w orkers.

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

U n d e r 1 5 c e n ts._
15 a n d u n d e r 17.5
17.5 a n d u n d e r 20
20 a n d u n d e r 22.5
22.5 a n d u n d e r 25
25 a n d u n d e r 27.5
27.5 a n d u n d e r 30
30 a n d u n d e r 32.5
32.5 a n d u n d e r 35
35 a n d u n d e r 37.5
37.5 a n d u n d e r 40
40 a n d u n d e r 42.5
42.5 a n d u n d e r 45
45 a n d u n d e r 47.5
47.5 a n d u n d e r 50
50 cents an d over

N um ber
of
w orkers

C u ltiv a tio n

CO

T a b l e 14. — Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by

type of work, March 1939— Continued
M ain te n a n c e

M a n u fac tu re
A verage h o u rly earnings

_____
_
_ __ ___
_________
c en ts. _____ __
c en ts___ __ __ __ __ ____________
c e n t s - . ________ ________________
_ _____
cen ts__________ _______
c e n ts___ _________________ ______
c en ts____ __ ___ _ __________ ___
cen ts_______ ___________________
c en ts. _ ___________ ______
c e n t s . ________________________
cents
_ _
c en ts. __ ______ ___ ________ ___
cen ts____ _______________________
c e n t s . _____ _
___ ___________
cents

T o tal
A vp.ragp. hourly earnings

201
281
161
153
53
30
47
47
16
11
15
2
1
10

19.5
27.2
15.7
14.8
5 .2
2.9
4 .6
4 .6
1.6
1.1
1.5
.2
.1
1.0

1,028
$0. 250

C um u­ N um ber
lativ e
of
p erc en t­ w orkers
age

19.5
46.7
62.4
7 7.2
82.4
85.3
89.9
9 4.5
96.1
9 7.2
98.7
98.9
99.0

7
35
144
181
102
147
99
54
61
48
40
17
27
12
10
58
1,042
$0. 291

C um u­
Sim ple
N um ber
tiv e
p e rc en t­ p larc e n t­
of
e
w orkers
age
age
0. 7
3 .4
13.7
17.3
9 .7
14.1
9 .4
5 .2
5 .9
4 .6
3 .8
1.6
2 .6
1 .2
1.0
5 .8

0.7
4 .1

17.8
35.1
4 4.8
58.9
6 8.3
73.5
7 9.4
8 4.0
8 7.8
8 9.4
9 2 .0
9 3 .2
9 4 .2

36
130
193
105
48
42
13
6
9
5
3
1
1

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age
6. 1
2 2.0
3 2.6
17.7
8.1
7 .1
2 .2
1 .0
1.5
.8
.5
.2
.2

C um u­ N um ber
la tiv e
of
p e rc en t­ w orkers
age
6. 1
28.1
6 0.7
7 8 .4
86.5
9 3.6
9 5.8
9 6.8
98.3
9 9.1
9 9.6
9 9.8
100.0

Sim ple
p e rc e n t­
age

3.1
3 4.4
3 .1
25.0
6 .3
3 .1
6 .3
12.5

1

3 .1

1
592
$0. 200

1
11
1
8
2
1
2
4

3 .1

32
$0. 277

C um u­
la tiv e
p e rc en t­
age

3 .1
3 7.5
40.6
6 5.6
71.9
75.0
81.3
9 3 .8
9 3.8
9 3 .8
9 6 .9
9 6.9
9 6.9

19 3 9




Sim ple
p erc en t­
age

C lerical a n d o th e r

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

U n d e r 15 cents
15 a n d u n d e r 17.5
17.5 a n d u n d e r 20
20 an d u n d e r 22.5
22.5 a n d u n d e r 25
25 a n d u n d e r 27.5
27.5 a n d u n d e r 30
30 and u n d e r 32.5
32.5 a n d u n d e r 35
35 a n d u n d e r 37.5
37.5 a n d u n d e r 40
40 a n d u n d e r 42.5
42.5 a n d u n d e r 45
45 a n d u n d e r 47.5
47.5 a n d u n d e r 50
50 cents a n d over

N um ber
of
w orkers

I n d u s tria l service

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

45

DISTRIBUTION OF HOURLY EARNINGS BY RACE

The percentage distribution by race of the male workers covered
in the study of hourly earnings was as follows: Anglo-Saxon 0.6 per­
cent, Japanese, 28.4 percent, Filipinos, 57.1 percent, Chinese, 1.1
percent, Puerto Ricans, 2.6 percent, Portuguese, 5.3 percent, Hawaiians,
3.0 percent, and all others, 1.9 percent.
Filipinos and Japanese thus represent six-sevenths of the total and
show hourly earnings which correspond closely to the general average
of 26.9 cents, the average for the Filipinos being 27.4 cents and for
the Japanese being 26.0 cents (table 15). The differences in the earn­
ings of these two racial groups are somewhat greater than the averages
would indicate. Both groups, of course, show a marked concentration
of workers whose earnings approximate the average. However, a
larger proportion of the Japanese (68.3 percent) than of the Filipinos
(51.7 percent) have earnings of less than 27.5 cents. Nearly half of
the Filipinos have earnings of 27.5 but less than 50 cents, whereas less
than a third of the Japanese have such earnings. The over-all average
for the Japanese is maintained because they receive earnings above
50 cents more frequently than the Filipinos. Such earnings apply to
1.6 percent of the Japanese and only 0.3 percent of the Filipinos.
Individual Japanese workers received as much as 95 cents an hour,
whereas no Filipinos in this group received over 62.5 cents.
Portuguese, constituting the next largest group, earned an average
of 27.7 cents per hour.
Anglo-Saxons show distinctly higher average earnings of 36.1 cents
per hour. But they are too small in number to be significant. With
the exception of Anglo-Saxons, the difference in average hourly
earnings by race is extremely small, the lowest average being 23.4
cents earned by Chinese, and the highest 28.1 cents earned by Ha­
waiians and part Hawaiians, a range of only 4.7 cents.
The racial distribution of the salaried workers, whose monthly
earnings are $36.18 higher than the unsalaried, throws some light on
the status of the various groups. The Anglo-Saxons are a small group
-on the plantations. Even disregarding the supervisory positions not
included in this survey, three-fifths of the Anglo-Saxon group were
salaried and held about one-tenth of all salaried positions on the
plantations. Among the Portuguese, about 30 percent are salaried,
whereas about 15 percent of the Chinese and Hawaiians are. Some­
what more than a quarter of the salaried positions are held by Japa­
nese, though this involves only about 8 percent of their number, as is
also true for the Puerto Ricans. The Filipinos, though constituting
more than half of the workers on the plantations, hold no more salaried
jobs than the Anglo-Saxons. Less than 2 of every 100 Filipinos hold
salaried positions.




T a b l e 15. — Distribution of nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by

race, March 1939
A nglo-Saxon

T o ta l
A verage h o u rly earnings

____________
U n d e r 15 cents _ _ __ ______
15 an d u n d e r 17.5 cents
_ __ __ ____ ________
__
... _______
17.5 an d u n d e r 20 c e n ts ______
20 a n d u n d e r 22.5 c e n ts ___ _ _______ _ - .................
22.5 a n d u n d e r 25 cents
___ ______ ___________
25 an d u n d e r 27.5 cents_ __ _ _ _____ ___ _ _
27.5 a n d u n d e r 30 cents _ _ ____ __________
__
30 a n d u n d e r 32.5 cents
_ _ _ ____ _____________
32.5 a n d u n d e r 35 c e n ts____ _______
_____________
35 a n d u n d e r 37.5 c e n ts ____ _______ ____ __________
37.5 a n d u n d e r 40 cents
_ _
_______ _______
40 a n d u n d e r 42.5 cents
__ _____ - _ _ ___
42.5 an d u n d e r 45 c en ts_______ __ __ _______ _____
________ __________________
47.5 a n d u n d e r 50 cents
____ ____ _____ _______
50 cents a n d over _ __ _____ ____ __________ ___
T o tal
A verage h o u rly earnings

_____ ___________
__
__ _____

_____
_____

62
244
1,345
1, 436
847
980
806
725
597
489
258
178
182
86
40
196
8, 371
$0. 269

Sim ple C u m u la ­ N u m b e r
of
p erc en t­ tiv e p e r­
centage
age
w orkers
0 .7
2 .9
16.2
17.3
10.1
11.7
9 .6
8 .7
7.1
5 .8
3.1
2.1

2.2
1.0

.5

1.0

0 .7
3 .6
19.8
37.1
4 7.2
58.9
68.5
77.2
84.3
90.1
93.2
95.3
97.5
98.5
9 9.0

5
8
3
12
6

5
1
2
1
1
1

9
54
$0.361

Sim ple
C u m u la ­ N u m b e r
p e rc e n t­ tiv e p e r­
of
age
centage
w o rk ers

9 .3
14.7
5. 6
22.1
11.1
9 .3
1 .9
3 .7
1 .9
1 .9
1 .9
16.6

F ilip in o

Sim ple
C u m u la ­ N u m b e r
of
p e rc e n t­ tiv e p e r ­
age
centage
w orkers

Sim ple
C u m u la ­
p e rc e n t­ tiv e p er­
age
centage

37
1. 5
118
5 .0
9 .3
451
19.0
24.0
450
19.0
2 9.6
259
11.0
302
51.7
12.8
6 2.8
173
7.3
72.1
139
5 .8
74.0
117
4 .9
114
77.7
4 .8
7 7.7
71
3 .0
32
77.7
1.3
79.6
51
2.1
12
81.5 a n d u n d e r 47.5 cents
.5
45
8 3.4
10
.4
41
1.6
2, 377
$0. 260

1. 5
6 .5
2 5.5
4 4.5
55. 5
68.3
75.6
8 1.4
86.3
91.1
94.1
9 5.4
9 7 .5
9 8.0
98.4

13
63
630
763
465
530
530
516
438
335
158
125
111
58
20
15

0 .3
1.3
1 3.2
16.1
9. 7
11.1
11.1
10.9
9 .2
7 .0
3 .3
2 .6
2 .3
1. 2

.4
.3

0 .3
1 .6
14.8
3 0.9
4 0.6
5 1.7
6 2,8
73.7
82.9
8 9.9
93. 2
9 5.8
98.1
99.3
9 9.7

4, 770
$0. 274

i T h e average of all w orkers earning 50 cents a n d over am o u n te d to 61.3 cents. T h e averages b y race w ere 68.1 cen ts for Anglo-Saxons; 60.5 cen ts for Japanese; 55.4 cen ts for F ili­
pinos; 56 cents for Chinese; 63 cents for Portuguese; 60.8 cents for H aw aiian s and p a rt H aw aiians; an d 63 cents for all o th e r races.

19 3 9




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

N um ber
of
w orkers

J ap an ese

05

P u e rto R ican

C hinese
A verage h o u rly earnings

T o t a l . . . ____ _ . . . ______
A verage h o u rly earnings _

C um u­
C u m u ­ N u m ­ S im ple
C u m u ­ N u m ­ Sim p le
C u m u ­ N u m ­ S im p le C u m u ­ N u m ­ S im ple
N u m ­ Sim ple
la tiv e
la tiv e
lativ e
lativ e
la tiv e
b e r of p e rc e n t­ p e rc e n t­
b er of p e rc en t­ p e rc en t­ ber of p e rc e n t­ p e rc e n t­ b er of p e rc e n t­ p e rc e n t­ b e r of p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­ w orkers
w orkers
age
w orkers
age
age
age
w orkers
age
w o rk ers
age
age
age
age
age
1
18
27
19
5
7
4
2
5
4
1
1
1

1.0
18.8
28.2
19.8
5 .2
7.3
4 .2
2.1
5 .2
4 .2
1 .0
1.0
1.0

1

1.0
19.8
48.0
67.8
73.0
80.3
84.5
86.6
91.8
96.0
9 7.0
9 8.0
9 9.0
99.0
99.0

1.0

96
$0. 234

3
12
50
46
22
30
20
13
10
6
6
1
1
1

221
$0. 244

1 .4
5 .4
2 2.5
20.8
10.0
13.6
9 .0
5 .9
4 .5
2 .7
2 .7
.5
.5
.5

1.4
6 .8
29.3
50.1
60.1
73.7
8 2.7
8 8.6
93.1
9 5.8
9 8.5
9 9 .0
9 9.5
100.0

1
11
92
86
49
56
37
23
14
14
9
11
10
7
4
18
442
$0. 277

0 .2
2 .5
2 0.7
19.5
11.1
12.7
8 .4
5 .2
3 .2
3 .2
2 .0
2 .5
2 .3
1. 6
.9
4 .0

0 .2
2 .7
23.4
42.9
54.0
66.7
75.1
80.3
8 3.5
8 6.7
88.7
9 1.2
9 3.5
95.1
96.0

2
13
49
36
28
29
18
18
10
13
10
7
6
2
2
9
252
$0. 281

0 .8
5 .2
19.3
14.3
11.1
11. 5
7.1
7.1
4 .0
5 .2
4 .0
2 .8
2 .4
.8
.8
3. 6

0 .8
6 .0
2 5.3
3 9.6
5 0.7
62.2
6 9.3
76.4
8 0.4
8 5.6
8 9 .6
9 2.4
9 4.8
95. 6
9 6.4

5
9
41
28
16
14
18
9
2
1
3
1
1
5
3
3
159
$0. 255

3 .1
5 .7
2 5.8
17.6
10.1
8 .8
11.3
5 .7
1 .3
.6
1 .9
.6
.6
3 .1
1 .9
1 .9

3 .1
8 .8
3 4.6
5 2.2
62.3
71.1
8 2 .4
88.1
8 9.4
9 0 .0
9 1 .9
9 2 .5
93.1
9 6 .2
98.1

1939




O th e r

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

U n d e r 15 c e n ts.
- __
. . . ___
15 a n d u n d e r 17.5 c e n ts________ . . .
17.5 a n d u n d e r 20 c e n ts ____________
20 a n d u n d e r 22.5 c en ts___ ________
22.5 a n d u n d e r 25 c e n t s .. . _______
25 an d u n d e r 27.5 c e n ts____________
27.5 an d u n d e r 30 c e n ts .. . _______
30 a n d u n d e r 32.5 c e n ts ____________
32.5 an d u n d e r 35 c e n ts ____________
35 an d u n d e r 37.5 c e n ts ____________
37.5 an d u n d e r 40 cen ts. _____
40 a n d u n d e r 42.5 c e n ts ____________
42.5 an d u n d e r 45 c e n ts _______ _ ._
45 and u n d e r 47.5 cents . .
47.5 a n d u n d e r 50 c e n t s . __
50 cents an d o v e r ___

H a w a iia n a n d p a r t H a w a i­
ian

P o rtu g u ese

48

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

MONTHLY EARNINGS

OF NONSALARIED WORKERS BY TYPE OF W O RK

Average monthly earnings of all male nonsalaried workers
were $48.88. They worked an average of 181.8 hours per month
(table 16). The maintenance divisions of the plantations, because
of the large proportion of semiskilled and skilled laborers, showed the
highest monthly earnings amounting to $59.90. For the same reason
and because of longer hours, nonsalaried clerical workers also stood
well above the average with earnings of $58.66. Transportation
workers received low hourly earnings, but, because they worked more
hours than any other group (224.6 hours per month or 42.8 hours
above the average for all workers), their monthly earnings of $52.28
were also above average.
T

1 6 . — Average hours worked per month and average monthly earnings of non­
salaried 1 male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, hy type
of work, M arch 1989

able

Number of
workers

Average
hours
worked
per month

All types_____________________ __________________________

8,371

181.8

$48. 88

Cultivation_______________________ ___________________________
Harvesting __ _ _____________ _________ __ __________________
Transportation__________ ______ ________________ ________ ____
Manufacture______ ______________ ____ __ ____ ________________
Maintenance______________ ___ _ . ________ ___ _____ _______
Industrial service___________ ____ ___ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____
_______________________ _______ - __ _______ - ___
Clerical.

1,653
3, 612
412
1,028
1,042
592
32

169.8
164.9
224.6
212.4
205. 8
191. 7
211.9

40.17
49. 73
52. 28
53. 10
59. 90
38. 36
58. 66

Type of work3

Average
monthly
earnings

1 Som e su g ar p la n ta tio n s do n o t k eep a record of a c tu a l h o u rs w o rk e d b y sala ried em ployees; h en ce all
ta b le s in v o lv in g h o u rly records refer to n o n sala ried w o rk ers o nly.
* D efinitions: C u l t i v a t i o n : All field a n d w a te r s u p p ly o p e ra tio n s (in c lu d in g p u m p in g ) o th e r th a n th o se
c o n n ected w ith h a rv e stin g a n d tra n s p o rta tio n . H a r v e s t i n g : A ll h a rv e stin g o p e ra tio n s u p to co m p le tio n o f
lo ad in g or d e liv e ry of cane in to flu m e. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : A n y ty p e of tra n s p o rta tio n , in c lu d in g tr a n s p o r ta ­
tio n of em ployees, cane, m a te ria ls, finished p ro d u c ts , etc. M a n u f a c t u r e : All w o rk re g u la rly d o n e b y fa c to ry
em p lo y ees in an d a b o u t th e fa cto ry an d m ill y a rd . M a i n t e n a n c e : M a in te n a n c e , re p a ir, a n d c o n stru c tio n
w o rk of a n y n a tu re done b y sh o p s, d e p a rtm e n ts , a n d re g u la r re p a ir g angs. I n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e : All w o rk
d o n e in conn ectio n w ith fu rn ish in g of p e rq u is ite s to em p lo y ees, su ch as clean in g c am p s, fu rn ish in g fueT,
y a rd w o rk , m ed ical serv ice, e tc . C l e r i c a l : A ll clerical w o rk w h e re v er p e rfo rm ed .

Harvesting, on the other hand, stood above the average not
because of long hours but because of high hourly earnings. This
type of work averaged only 164.9 hours per month, the lowest of all
types of work, being 16.9 hours per month below the average of all
workers. Harvesting is very demanding on the physical strength
of laborers, hence they are less likely to work overtime and occasion­
ally they may take a day off. It is the most important type of work,
representing 43.2 percent of all plantation labor.
Industrial-service workers received only $38.36 per month although
they worked 9.9 hours more than the average of all workers. Culti­
vation workers were the next lowest group with earnings of $40.17
but they worked 12 hours per month less than the average of all
workers.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

49

DISTRIBUTION OF MONTHLY EARNINGS OF ALL WORKERS BY TYPE OF
WORK

A t the time of the survey, harvesting represented 40.7 percent of
all employees on the sugar plantations (including salaried workers).
Although harvest workers showed higher hourly earnings than those
in any other type of work, their monthly earnings of $50.52 were
below the general average. This is primarily due to the fact that
they averaged less hours per month but also is partly due to the fact
that, in proportion to the total number in harvesting, there were
fewer salaried workers. The earnings shown in table 17 cover all
workers, whereas those in table 16 covered only the nonsalaried
workers, for whom a record of hours was available.




T

able

17.—

D istrib u tio n o f all m ale workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m on th ly ea rn in g s , by typ e o f w ork ,
M a rch 1 9 3 9

M o n th ly earnings

9,150
$51.96

0 .7
.6
.6
.6
.8
.9
.9
1.2
1.4
1.9
2 .2
3. 5
4. 6
5.1
5 .8
6.1
6 .0
5 .4
5.1
9 .9
8 .0
7 .2
4 .5
3 .7
3 .2
2 .3
1.5
1.5
1.1
1.2
.6
.5
.3
.2
.9

C u m u la­
N um ber
tiv e
of
p ercen t­
w o rk ers
age
0 .7
1.3
1.9
2 .5
3.3
4 .2
5.1
6 .3
7 .7
9 .6
11.8
15.3
19.9
25.0
30.8
36.9
42.9
48.3
53.4
63.3
71.3
78.5
83.0
86.7
89.9
92.2
93.7
95.2
96.3
97.5
98.1
98.6
98.9
99.1

Sim ple
p e rc en t­
age

15
18
16
13
23
26
21
44
40
57
73
103
123
153
156
128
141
96
63
131
83
87
35
51
29
19
21
15
17
14

0 .8
1 .0
.9
.7
1.3
1 .4
1 .2
2 .4
2 .2
3 .1
4 .0
5 .7
6 .8
8 .4
8 .6
7.1
7 .8
5 .3
3 .5
7 .2
4 .6
4 .8
1.9
2 .8
1.6
1 .0
1 .2
.8
.9
.8

1
1

.1
.1

1,813
$43.02

C u m u lap ercen tage
0 .8
1 .8
2 .7
3 .4
4 .7
6 .1
7 .3
9 .7
11.9
15.0
19.0
24.7
31.5
3 9.9
48.5
55.6
63.4
68.7
7 2.2
79.4
8 4.0
8 8.8
9 0.7
93.5
95.1
96.1
97.3
98.1
9 9.0
9 9.8
9 9.8
99.9
100.0

N um ber
of
w orkers
35
25
26
30
34
42
45
42
60
76
87
128
172
163
157
157
187
167
194
407
383
320
228
149
133
83
65
60
26
26
4
4
1
1
4
3, 721
$50. 52

Sim ple
p e rc en t­
age
1.0
.7
.7
.8
.9
1.1
1 .2
1.1
1.6
2 .0
2.3
3 .4
4 .6
4 .4
4 .2
4 .2
5 .0
4 .5
5 .2
11.0
10.4
8 .7
6 .2
4 .0
3 .6
2 .2
1.7
1.6
.7
.7
.1
.1
0)
0)
.1

T ra n s p o rta tio n
C u m u la ­ N u m b e r
tiv e
of
p e rc e n t­
w o rk ers
age
1 .0
1 .7
2 .4
3 .2
4 .1
5 .2
6 .4
7 .5
9 .1
11.1
13.4
16.8
2 1.4
2 5.8
3 0.0
3 4.2
3 9.2
43.7
4 8.9
5 9.9
70.3
7 9.0
8 5.2
8 9.2
9 2.8
9 5 .0
9 6.7
98.3
9 9.0
9 9.7
9 9.8
9 9.9
9 9.9
9 9.9

2
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
4
4
1
8
13
10
22
30
27
38
33
61
76
54
36
32
19
24
11
7
7
11
4
5
2
1

Sim ple
p e rc e n t­
age
0 .4
.2
.2
.5
.2
.2
.7
.2
.7
.7
.2
1 .4
2 .3
1 .8
4 .0
5 .4
4 .9
6 .9
6 .0
11.0
13.6
9 .7
6 .5
5 .8
3 .4
4 .3
2 .0
1.3
1.3
2 .0
.7
.9
.4
.2

C u m u la ­
tiv e
p erc en t­
age
0 .4
.6
.8
1.3
1.5
1.7
2 .4
2 .6
3 .3
4 .0
4 .2
5 .6
7 .9
9 .7
13.7
19.1
24.0
3 0.9
36.9
47.9
61.5
71.2
77.7
83.5
86.9
9 1.2
93.2
94.5
95.8
97.8
98.5
99. f
99.8
100.0

554
$57. 71

JLess th a n Ho of 1 percen t.
2T h e average of all w orkers earn in g $150 a n d over am o u n te d to $188.52. T h e averages b y occu p atio n s w ere $162.71 for h arvesting; $162.20 for m an u factu rin g ; $191.83 for m ain te­
nance; $200 for in d u s tria l service; an d $187.61 for clerical an d oth er occupations.




THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

66
55
52
56
69
84
84
106
129
174
201
323
421
469
532
557
546
493
470
913
737
660
411
341
295
206
135
140
99
108
53
45
24
17
2 79

Sim ple
p erc en t­
age

O

LABOR m

_ ___
U n d e r $ 5 ___ _____________ __ _ ________
$5 a n d u n d e r $7.50_ ___ __ ___ ___ _ _ ______ _
$7.50 a n d u n d e r $10 _ _ _ __
___ ______________
$10 an d u n d e r $12.50 _
_ _
$12.50 a n d u n d e r $15_______________________________
$15 an d u n d e r $17.50 _ _ _
_ _ _
$17.50 a n d u n d e r $20
$20 a n d u n d e r $22.50
$22.50 a n d u n d e r $25_______ __ __ _ _ __ __ __ __
$25 an d u n d e r $27.50 _
$27.50 a n d u n d e r $30____ _____ ____ ______
$30 a n d u n d e r $32.50___ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ __ __
_______
_ __
$32.50 a n d u n d e r $35_________
$35 a n d u n d e r $37.50_____ ___
__ _
_
___
$37.50 a n d u n d e r $40__________
__
__ _ ___
$40 a n d u n d e r $42.50 _
_
$42.50 a n d u n d e r $45. __ _____ _____________ __ ._
$45 a n d u n d e r $47.50___ _ __ _ __ __
__ _ _ _ _
$47.50 an d u n d e r $50___ _ __ _____________ _ __
$50 a n d u n d e r $55
$55 a n d u n d e r $60____ ______ _______________ ___
$60 a n d u n d e r $65____________ ______________
$65 a n d u n d e r $70_______ ___ _ __________ ____
$70 an d u n d e r $75, _ _ ________ ____________ ______
$75 a n d u n d e r $80___ _________ __________ ___ __ _
$80 a n d u n d e r $85_____________ __ ______ _
$85 a n d u n d e r $90_ _______ ___ ____________ __ _ _
______ _____ _ _ _
$90 a n d u n d e r $95_______ ____
$95 an d u n d e r $100________ ___ _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
$100 a n d u n d e r $110__ _____ _
___ ______ _______
$110 a n d u n d e r $120
$120 a n d u n d e r $130 _ _______
_______
$130 a n d u n d e r $140 _ _ _ _
$140 a n d u n d e r $150
$150 an d over
____ _ ______ ____________ ___ _
T o tal
A verage m o n th ly earnings

N um ber
of
w orkers

H a rv e stin g

C u ltiv a tio n

T o tal

Oi

Manufacture

Under $5_______________________________________
_______
$5 and under $7.50_____________
$7.50 and under $10_____________ _____ __
$10 and under $12.50___________
$12.50 and under $15___________
$15 and under $17.50___________
$17.50 and under $20____________________ .
$20 and under $22.50____________ _____
$22.50 and under $25___________
$25 and under $27.50___________
$27.50 and under $30___________
$30 and under $32.50__. _______ __
$32.50 and under $35_______________________
$35 and under $37.50_____________________
$37.50 and under $40______________________
$40 and under $42.50___________________ _
$42.50 and under $45______________________
$45 and under $47.50______________________
$47.50 and under $50_____________________
$50 and under $55_____ _________ ______ _
$55 and under $60___________________________
$60 and under $65___________________________
$65 and under $70__________________________
$70 and under $75________________________
$75 and under $80________________________
$80 and under $85________________________
$85 and under $90________________________
$90 and under $95____________________________ _
$95 and under $100___________________________ .
$100 and under $110__________________________
$110 and under $120________________________
$120 and under $130_______________________
$130 and under $140______________________
$140 and under $150______________________
$150 and over_______________________________
Total_______________________ _________
Average monthly earnings ________________




Number
of
workers

2
3
4
1
6
1
3
2
7
7
5
23
36
71
103
85
91
89
148
76
82
51
37
42
26
10
18
19
14
10
7
2
4
3
1,088

$55.08

Simple Cumula­ Number
tive
percent­ percent­
of
workers
age
age

0.2
.3
.4
.l
.6
.l
.3
.2
.6
.6
.5
2.1
3. 3
6.5
9.4
7.8
8.4
8.2
13.5
7.0
7.5
4.7
3.4
3.9
2.4
.9
1.7
1.7
1.3
.9
.6
.2
.4
.3

0. 2
.5
.9
1.0
16
1. 7
2.0
2. 2
2. 8
3.4
3.9
6.0
9.3
15.8
25.2
33.0
41.4
49.6
63.1
70.1
77.6
82.3
85.7
89.6
92.0
92.9
94.6
96.3
97.6
98.5
99.1
99.3
99.7

6
3
4
5
4
3
7
4
5
7
13
28
26
37
64
70
65
50
63
113
90
87
52
52
44
38
22
33
24
24
25
9
9
7
44
1.137
$63. 75

Simple Cumula­ Number
tive
of
percent­ percent­
workers
age
age
0. 5
.3
.4
.4
.4
.3
.6
.4
.4
.6
1.1
2. 5
2.3
3.3
5.6
6.2
5.7
4.4
5.5
9.8
7.9
7.7
4.6
4.6
3.9
3.3
1.9
2.9
2.1
2.1
2.2
.8
’.8
0
3.9

0.5
.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.3
2.9
3.3
3.7
4.3
5.4
7.9
10.2
13.5
19.1
25.3
31.0
35.4
40.9
50.7
58.6
66.3
70.9
75.5
79.4
82.7
84.6
87.5
89.6
91.7
93.9
94. 7
95.5
96.1

8
6
2
1
6
6
6
12
18
23
20
51
64
70
61
65
40
46
21
43
27
20
6
16
13
7
1
5
2
6
1

Simple Cumula­ Number
tive
percent­ percent­
of
workers
age
age
1.2
.9
.3
.1
.9
.9
.9
1.8
2.7
3.4
2.9
7. 5
9.4
10.4
9.0
9.6
5.9
6.8
3.1
6.3
4.0
2.9
.9
2.4
1.9
1.0
.1
.7
.3
.9
.1

1

.1

5

.7

679
$42.82

Clerical and others

1.2
2.1
2.4
2.5
3.4
4.3
5.2
7.0
9.7
13.1
16.0
23.5
32.9
43.3
52.3
61.9
67.8
74.6
77.7
84.0
88.0
90.9
91.8
94.2
96.1
97.1
97.2
97.9
98.2
99.1
99.2
99.2
99.3
99.3

1
4
1
5
7
10
2
10
3
4
15
9
5
2
4
13
9
19
8
4
23
158
$101.05

Simple Cumula­
tive
percent­ percent­
age
age

0.6
2.5
.6
3.2
4.4
6.3
1.3
6.3
1.9
2.5
9.5
5.7
3.2
1.3
2.5
8.2
5.7
12.1
5.1
2. 5
14.6

0.6
3.1
3.7
6.9
11.3
17.6
18.9
25.2
27.1
29.6
39.1
44.8
48.0
49.3
51.8
60.0
65.7
77.8
82.9
85.4

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A H , 1 9 3 9

241404— 40-

Monthly earnings

Industrial service

Maintenance

52

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

Cultivation was second to harvesting in number employed, repre­
senting 19.8 percent of total employment. The average monthly
earnings for this type of work were only $43.02, or $8.94 below the
general average.
Maintenance workers were the third largest group in numbers em­
ployed, constituting 12.4 percent of the total. Their average monthly
earnings ($63.75) were high, due to the fact that many of them were
skilled or semiskilled.
Transport workers, in spite of the fact that their hourly earnings
were below average, received monthly earnings of $57.71 which were
distinctly above average. This is due to the fact that those engaged
in transportation worked a greater number of hours per month than
those in any other type of work.
Clerical and other services received $101.05, or almost double the
general average monthly earnings. It was the smallest group nu­
merically, however, representing only 1.7 percent of the total.
MONTHLY EARNINGS OF NONSALARIED WORKERS BY RACE

Filipinos constituted by far the largest racial group among the nonsalaried workers, representing over half of the total employment.
Their monthly earnings ($46.92) and hours worked per month (171.5)
were slightly below the average of all workers (table 18).
The Japanese, representing somewhat less than a third of total
employment, showed m onthly earnings of $50.94, slightly above the
genera] average; and their average o f 196 hours was distinctly above
the general monthly average.
The Portuguese workers had the highest monthly earnings ($56.23)
of any considerable racial group among the nonsalaried workers.
They earned as much per hour as the Filipinos and worked even more
hours (203.3) than the Japanese.
The difference between the monthly earnings of the two predomi­
nant racial groups appears to bear out the general belief that Filipino
laborers work intensively rather than consistently, whereas Japanese
laborers work consistently rather than intensively. An important
reason for this difference, in addition to its implication as to racial
characteristics, is the fact that the m ajority of Filipinos are single,
whereas the m ajority of the Japanese have families. This fact also
indicates that the real income of the Japanese is, on the average,
considerably higher than that of the Filipinos since the total value
of perquisites 2 is two to three times as great for married as for
unmarried workers.
T a b l e 18. — A v era g e hours w orked p er m onth and average m on th ly ea rn in g s o f n o n ­
salaried m ale w ork ers on sugar p la n tation s in the H a w a iia n I s la n d s , b y ra ce ,
M arch 193 9

Race
All races.................................. ............ ......... .............
Anglo-Saxon_____ _______ __________________ ________
Japanese___ ____ _______ __________________________ _
Filipino__________________ ______ _____ ____ _____ ____
Chinese......... ................ ......................................................
Puerto Rican............................................................... ........
Portuguese.......... .................................................................
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian..............................................
All others............ ...............................................................

Number
of
workers
8,371
54
2,377
4,770
96
221
442
252
159

Average
hours
worked
per month

Average
monthly
earnings

181.8
210.3
196.0
171.5
181.1
184.6
203.3
192.1
189.3

*Value of perquisites is treated separately following the analysis of wages and hours.




$48.88
76.00
50.94
46.92
42.39
44.96
56.23
54.07
48.24

Average
hourly
earnings
$0,269
.361
.260
.274
.234
.244
.277
.281
.255

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

53

MONTHLY EARNINGS OF SALARIED WORKERS BY RACE

The analysis of monthly earnings included salaried as well as nonsalaried workers, increasing the total number in the sample to 9,150.
Salaried workers represented less than one-tenth (8.5 percent) of this
total, but their monthly earnings were distinctly higher, raising the
general average. The average monthly earnings o f salaried plantation
workers were $85.06. One-third of the total (33.9 percent) received
between $70 and $90 per month.
Although Japanese represented only 29.4 percent of all workers,
40.2 percent of all salaried workers were Japanese. Their average
earnings were $76.94 per month, or $8.12 below the general average.
Portuguese constituted the second largest racial group among sala­
ried employees. Although they represented only 7.0 percent o f total
employment, 25.6 percent of all salaried employees were Portuguese.
Their average earnings were $86.75, corresponding closely to the
general average.
Filipinos, on the other hand, who represented 53.1 percent of all
workers, comprised only 10.7 percent of all salaried workers. Their
earnings were distinctly below average, being only $67.08 per month.
Anglo-Saxons constituted 10.3 percent of salaried workers and re­
ceived $137.91, b y far the highest monthly income of all racial groups.
Even if this group is excluded, salaried workers showed a much wider
range of income than did nonsalaried workers. The lowest average
income of $64.94 was received by Puerto Ricans and the highest in­
come (other than Anglo-Saxons) of $101.71 was received by “ all
others.,, Chinese were next with an income of $90.56.
MONTHLY EARNINGS OF ALL WORKERS BY RACE

Average monthly earnings for all male workers, salaried and non­
salaried, were $51.96 (table 19).
Over 40 percent of all workers received between $40 and $60
per month. Of the total, 99 percent received less than $140 per month.
But 30.7 percent of the Anglo-Saxons, 3.7 percent of the Portuguese,
and 2.7 percent of the Chinese received more than $140 per month,
being the three leading races in upper income brackets.
Anglo-Saxons received an average o f $112.96 or more than twice
the average of all workers. Excluding this relatively small group the
range of m onthly earnings was $18.61, the lowest being the Puerto
Rican ($47.13) and the highest being the Portuguese ($65.74).
The difference between the average m onthly earnings of Japanese
($53.97) and Filipinos ($47.27) reflects the fact that more than a
third of the Japanese earned more than $60, whereas only about onefifth o f the Filipinos did. Only 1 in every 1,000 Filipinos made more
than $120 in M arch, as compared with about 19 of each 1,000
Japanese.




T a b l e 19.— D istrib u tio n o f all m ole workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m on th ly ea rn in gs , b y racef M a rch 1 9 8 9
Total
Monthly earnings

$17.50 and under $20_____________________________

0.7

Cumula- Number
tive perof
centage workers
0.7
1.3
1.9
2.5
3.3
4.2
5.1
6.3
7.7
9.6

55
52
56
69
84
84
106
129
174

1.4
1.9

201

2 .2

1 1 .8

3.5
4.6
5.1
5.8

15.3
19.9
25.0
30.8
36.9
42.9
48.3
53.4
63.3
71.3
78.5
83.0.
86.7
89.9
92.2
93.7
95.2
96.3
97.5
98.1
98.6
98.9
99.1

323
421
469
532
557
546
493
470
913
737
660
411
341
295
206
135
140
99
108
53
45
24
17
279
9,150

.6
.6
.6
.8

.9
.9
1 .2

6 .1
6 .0

5.4
5.1
9.9
8 .0

7.2
4.5
3.7
3.2
2.3
1.5
1.5
1 .1
1 .2
.6

.5
.3
.2

.9

Simple Cumula­ Number
percent­ tive per­
of
age
centage workers
20

1
1

0.7
.7

1

.7

1

.7

3

2 .2

2

1.5

1

.7

4
1

3.0
.7

3

2 .2

8

6 .0

5

3.7

8

6 .0

6

4.6

8

7

3
3
1

15
2

5
4
3
38
134

6 .0

5.3
2 .2
2 .2

.7

11.3
1.5
3.7
3.0
2 .2

28.5

0.7
1.4
1.4
2 .1
2 .1
2 .1
2 .8

5.0
5.0
5.0
6.5
6.5
7.2
10.2

10.9
13.1
19.1

13
19
14
25
18
22

37
35
43
48
92
116
116
144
151
138
144
124
244

2 2 .8

201

28.8
33.4
33.4
39.4
44.7
46.9
49.1
49.8
61.1
62.6
66.3
69.3
71.5

206
134
138
103
78
51
55
51
33
26
21
12

7
12

2,691

Simple
percent­
age
0 .8

.5
.7
.5
.9
.7
.8

1.4
1.3
1 .6
1 .8

3.4
4.3
4.3
5.4
5.6
5.1
5.4
4.6
9.0
7.5
7.7

5.0
5.1
3.8
2.9
1.9
2 .0

1.9
1 .2
1 .0

.8
.4
.3
.4

Cumula­ Number
of
tive per­
centage workers
0 .8

1.3
2 .0

2.5
3.4
41
4.9
6.3
7.6
9.2
1 1.0

14.4
18.7
23.0
28.4
34.0
39.1
44.5
49.1
58.1
65.6
73.3
78.3
83.4
87.2
90.1
92.0
94.0
95.9
97.1
98.1
98.9
99.3
99.6

38
36
25
34
30
52
47
53
71
96
114
195
251
289
308
333
337
288
287
557
411
341
214
131
116
66

44
47
16
14
6
2
1
1

.......... 2
4,853

Simple Cumula­
percent­ tive per­
centage
age
0 .8

.7
.5
.7
.6
1 .1
1 .0
1 .1

1.5

0 .8

1.5
2 .0

2.7
3.3
4.4
5.4
6.5
8 .0

2 .0

1 0.0

2.3
4.0
5.2

12.3
16.3
21.5
27.5
33.8
40.7
47.6
53.5
59.4
71.0
79.5
86.5
90.9
93.6
96.0
97.4
98.3
99.3
99.6
99.9

6 .0

6.3
6.9
6.9
5.9
5.9
1 1 .6

8.5
7.0
4.4
2.7
2.4
1.4
.9
1 .0

.3
.3
.1

0)
0)
0)
0) -

100
100
100
100

.0
.0
.0
.0

$112.96
$51.96
$53.97
Average monthly earnings___ ____________________
$47. 27
1 Less than one-tenth of 1 percent.
2The average of all workers earning $150 and over amounted to $188.52. The averages by race were $204.62 for Anglo-Saxon; $170.14 for Japanese; $175 for Filipinos; $186.90 for Chinese;
$173.87 for Portuguese; $165.98 for Hawaiians and part Hawaiians; and $190 for other races.




1939

$25 and under $27.50_____________________________
$27.50 and under $30_____________________________
$30 and under $32.50
______
$32.50 and under $35
_ _ ___
$35 and under $37.50_____________________________
$37.50 and under $40
______________
$40 and under $42.50_____________________________
$42.50 and under $45_____________________________
$45 and under $47.50_____________________________
$47.50 and under $50______________________ ______
$50 and under $55_______________________________
$55 and under $60_______________________________
$60 and under $65_______________________________
$65 and under $70_______________________________
$70 and under $75
___________
$75 and under $80_______________________________
$80 and under $85_______________________________
$85 and under $90_______________________________
$90 and under $95____ ___________________________
$95 and under $100________ __________ ________
$ 1 0 0 and under $ 1 1 0 ____ _____ _____ _____ _________
$ 1 1 0 and under $ 1 2 0 ____ _________________________
$120 and under $130_____________________________
$130 and under $140_____________________________
$140 and under $150_____________________ ________
$150 and over_____________ ________________
T o ta l___
. ________________

66

Simple
percentage

Filipino

Japanese

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

Under $5
__________________
$5 and under $7.50
_____________ ___ $7.50 and under $10
- _ _____________
$10 and under $12.50----- ---------- --------- ----------------$12.50 and under $15_____________________________

Number
of
workers

Anglo-Saxon

Oj

Chinese
Monthly earnings

Total
- -- _________
Average monthly earnings____ ___




Other

1.8

2
1
4
2
2
5
3
4
2
4
4
8
7
4
8
1
5
4
6
6
5
8
4
3
4

1.8
.9
3.6
1.8
1.8
4.5
2.7
3.6
1.8
3.6
3.6
7.0
6.3
3.6
7.0
.9
4.5
3.6
5.3
5.3
4.5
7.0
3.6
2.7
3.6

1

.9

3

2.7

112
$49. 27

1.8
1.8
3.6
4.5
8.1
9.9
11.7
16.2
18.9
22.5
24.3
27.9
31.5
38.5
44.8
48.4
55.4
56.3
60.8
64.4
69.7
75.0
79.5
86.5
90.1
92.8
96.4
96.4
96.4
96.4
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3

3
3

1.2
1.2

3
1
6
2
3
4
5
6
5
16
14
22
17
13
7
8
25
28
18
11
7
8
5
4
3

1.2
.4
2.4
.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.0
6.5
5.6
8.9
6.9
5.2
2.8
3.2
10.2
11.4
7.3
4.4
2.8
3.2
2.0
1.6
1. 2

1

.4

248
$47.13

1.2
2.4
2.4
3.6
4.0
6.4
7.2
8.4
10.0
12.0
14.4
16.4
22.9
28.5
37.4
44.3
49.5
52.3
55.5
65.7
77.1
84.4
88.8
91.6
94.8
96.8
98.4
99.6
99.6
100.0

3
3

0.5
.5

2
3
1
3
3
5
11
11
10
13
23
22
27
30
35
23
44
51
46
22
39
41
32
19
19
20
31
11
11
4
4
20

.3
.5
.2
.5
.5
.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
2.0
3.6
3.4
4.2
4.7
5.5
3.6
6.8
7.8
7.1
3.4
6.1
6.4
5.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
4.8
1. 7
1. 7
.6
.6
3.1

642
$65. 74

0.5
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.8
5.5
7.2
8.8
10.8
14.4
17.8
22.0
26.7
32.2
35.8
42.6
50.4
57.5
60.9
67.0
73.4
78.4
81.4
84.4
87. 5
92. 3
94.0
95. 7
96. 3
96.9

3
1
2
4
5
3
5
6
12
9
12
11
14
15
9
10
11
19
24
26
14
12
10
13
9
7
7
10
5
4
1
1
3
297
$57.75

1.6
.3
.7
1.3
1.7
1.0
1.7
2.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
3.7
4.7
5.1
3.0
3.4
3.7
6.4
8.1
8.9
4.7
4.0
3.4
4.4
3.0
2.4
2.4
3.4
1.7
1.3
.3
.3
1.0

1.6
1.3
2.0
3.3
5.0
6.0
7.7
9.7
13.7
16.7
20.7
24.4
29.1
34.2
37.2
40.6
44.3
50.7
58.8
67.7
72.4
76.4
79.8
84.2
87.2
89.6
92.0
95.4
97.1
98.4
98.7
99.0

3

1.7

3
1
2
2
6
8
5
8
9
6
15
9
7
7
9
12
11
9
5
6
5
2
1
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1

1.7
.6
1.2
1.2
3.5
4.6
2.9
4.6
5.2
3.5
8.6
5.2
4.0
4.0
5.2
6.8
6.3
5.2
2.9
3.5
2.9
1.2
.6
3.5
2.3
2.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
.6
.6

1.7
1.7
3.4
4.0
5.2
6.4
9.9
14.5
17.4
22.0
27.2
30.7
39.3
44.5
48.5
52.5
57.7
64.5
70.8
76.0
78.9
82.4
85.3
86.5
87.1
90.6
92.9
95.2
96.4
97.6
98.8
99.4

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE H A W A II, 19 39

$12.50 and under $15_______ ______
$15 and under $17.50--------------------$17.50 and under $20--------------------$20 and under $22.50_____________
$22.50 and under $25______________
$25 and under $27.50-------------------$27.50 and under $30--------------------$30 and under $32.50--------------------$32.50 and under $35_____________
$35 and under $37.50--------------------$37.50 and under $40--------------------$40 and under $42.50--------------------$42.50 and under $45_____________
$45 and under $47.50--------------------$47.50 and under $50--------------------$50 and under $55-----------------------$55 and under $60___ ____________
$60 and under $65-----------------------$65 and under $70---------- ------------$70 and under $75-----------------------$75 and under $80___ ____ ______
$80 and under $85-----------------------$85 and under $90-----------------------$90 and under $95
- ____$95 and under $100
__
__
$100 and under $110- ____ •_____
$110 and under $120 -- __
$120 and under $130
__
- __
$130 and under $140..
_ __
$140 and under $150
_ _ ___ -$150 and over
___

Hawaiian and part
Hawaiian

Portuguese

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative
lative
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ lative
ber of
ber of
ber of
percent­ workers percent­ percent­ workers percent­ percent­ workers percent­ percent­
workers
workers
age
age
age
age
age
age
age
age
age
age
2

$5 and under $7.50____ _____ _____
$7.50 and under $10______ ______

Puerto Rican

173
$52.57
Cn
O i

56

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9
EARNINGS OF WOMEN AND MINORS IN THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

Practically all women working on sugar plantations are members
of the families of male employees. They account for 6.1 percent of the
total number of employees and 4.8 percent of the total number of days
worked.3 Four-fifths are of Japanese extraction. Such women usually
work only during certain periods of the year as, for instance, when
planting is in progress. They also do some of the lighter work in
cultivating, fertilizing with hand applicators, or gleaning the fields at
harvest time. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration in its
wage determinations required that women should receive a minimum
average wage of not less than 75 percent of that required for men.
Under this ruling the minimum average daily wage for women
was $1.05.
Of the total working time of all women, about half was devoted
to labor under daily rates, and slightly less than half to labor under
piece rates.4 Per diem workers averaged $1.10 (or 13.9 cents per
hour). This was 5 cents per day above the required minimum and
indicates that practically all of these workers were engaged at the
minimum rate.
School attendance to the age of 16 is required by Territorial law.
Male employees over this age are usually capable of doing full-time
work and, in such cases, are classified as adult labor. Therefore, the
number of minor workers on the plantations is small, ranging from 1.2
to 4.5 percent of the total, depending on the time of year. They may
do odd jobs after school hours, but the bulk of the employment of
minors is during the vacation periods when they assist in lighter tasks
about the plantation. Average earnings of minors in December 1938
were $1.16 per 8-hour day, or 14.5 cents per hour, for those on per
diem rates, and $1.41 per day for those on piece rates. Recent
Territorial legislation has made the employment of minors 5 illegal.
3January 1939 report of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association.
4 Some plantations, particularly in Maui, engage women (primarily Japanese) under long-term culti­
vation contracts. The man-days worked by women under such contracts, however, were only 0.5 percent
of the total man-days of all workers. They averaged $1.68 per day.
* For agricultural work this applies to children under 14 years of age. A number of exceptions tends to
vitiate the effectiveness of the law, however.




CHAPTER 6.

SEASONALITY, ANNUAL EARNINGS, AND WAGE
TRENDS
SEASONALITY

Employment in the production of sugar in Hawaii continues
throughout the year. In this respect it is more like employment in
manufacturing operations with moderate seasonal fluctuations than
like agricultural operations in the continental United States. Since the
very equable climate of Hawaii makes possible the continuous growth
of sugar, it would theoretically be possible to carry on every type of
operation (from planting to harvesting) every day in the year. The
mills generally operate 6 days per week, 24 hours per day, in three
8-hour shifts. They usually shut down at 5 p. m. Saturdays. Sunday
morning a small shift of clean-up men (to brush out evaporator tubes,
etc.) will prepare for resumption of milling operations which begin
on Sunday about 5 p. m.
But at least once a year the mill must be stopped for a thorough
overhauling. This requires about 2 months, usually some time be­
tween the 1st of October and the end of December. On the other
hand, the cane must be milled within 48 hours after it is harvested.
This is particularly true when the cane fields are burned to strip
the stalks of leaves, which is an almost universal practice in Hawaii.
Since the cane cannot be stored, much of the field work ceases during
the “ off-season” or repair period. The plantation management,
however, carries its employees through this period by using the time
not only for mill repairs, but for a general overhaul of the whole
plantation, including work on roads, irrigation ditches, and railways;
the repairing of tractors, trucks, steam engines, pumps, and electrical
power plants; and the building and painting of houses, offices, etc.
For this reason, it is frequently stated that seasonality has been
entirely eliminated in the Hawaiian sugar industry.
Nevertheless, some degree of seasonality remains. Those who leave,
retire, or are dismissed before the repair season are not replaced until
the heavy harvesting season begins again.
Some plantations follow a policy of providing certificates for those
who wish to leave during the “ off season,” guaranteeing them rein­
statement in their old gang under the same conditions provided they
return before an agreed date. Unmarried Filipinos in particular use
this opportunity to explore the possibility of work elsewhere, or to
take a vacation with relatives or friends on other islands.
Another and more important cause of seasonality is the fact that
one-half of the year (March to August, inclusive) is more favorable
to a high sugar content in the cane than the other half. Hence a
considerably greater quantity of cane is harvested then, particularly
during June, July, and August, than from September to February.
It is this fact that leads to the closing of the mills for repairs some­
time between September and December rather than in some other
months.
Three periods may be distinguished in the annual cycle of employ­
ment on the sugar plantations. The slack season extends over the
57




58

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

last 4 months of the year, the low point usually occurring in October
or November. For the 8 years, 1931 to 1938, employment averaged
about 47,300 in these 2 months. Employment usually rises sharply
in January and continues to rise moderately for several months. The
average employment from March to May, inclusive, was about
49,450, an increase of less than 5 percent. Employment then rises
to a peak in June or July, averaging somewhat more than 53,000 in
the years shown in table 20, an increase of 12 or 13 percent over the
low level of the fall and of 7 or 8 percent over the spring level. In
August employment is well sustained but is at a lower level than in
July.
The plantations thus offer employment for a period of 60 to 90 days
in the summer to approximately 7 percent more workers than are
regularly employed. This coincides with the period of school vaca­
tions. A large proportion of those hired for this summer work are
native-born young men (often students and sons of older plantation
employees). This is indicated in table 20, which shows a sharp rise
in the percentage of citizen workers each summer. The increase in
the summer in citizen workers is almost equal to the total increase in
the working force during this season.
In passing it should be noted that the proportion of citizen labor
is increasing markedly. In 1930 one-eighth of the regular working
force were citizens. By the end of 1938 nearly three-eighths were.
T

able

2 0 .—

Employment, by monthst showing seasonality, and percentage of citizens
on sugar-plantation pay rolls, 1981 to 1938
Total
Total
Total
Total
employ­ Percent employ­ Percent employ­ Percent employ­ Percent
citizens ees
citizens ees
citizens ees
citizens
ees
1932

1931
January__________________ _______
F e b r u a r y _____________________
March. ___________ ____ _____ .
April_______ _____________________
M ay_____ ____ _ ______ ________
June_______
______________ ____
July_________________________ ____
August____ _ ________ _______
September. ____________________
October__________________________
November________________________
December________________________
Annual average.

__________

51,726
52,119
53, 244
52, 741
52,097
56,411
56,596
54,676
49,931
49,446
50,315
51,465

13.2
13.2
14.1
14.0
13.6
21.4
22.2
19.9
14.7
14.6
14.3
14.3

52, 563

Annual average_____________

47,193
47, 327
47,130
47,159
47, 241
49, 276
48,837
47,893
45,125
44, 757
44,233
44,466
46,719

Source: Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.




13.8
13.9
14.1
14.3
14.3
18.7
20.7
20.3
16.1
16.3
16.4
16.6

1936
24.2
23.9
24.1
24.7
24.8
28.4
29.3
29.1
26.9
26.5
26.9
26.6

46, 314
46,715
46,971
47,097
46, 699
51,833
51,675
50, 274
46,438
46, 623
47, 281
46,514
47,869

51,226
51.039
51,161
51,421
52,868
57.039
56, 240
54,782
51,117
50,010
50,062
50, 209

16.9
17.3
17.6
18.7
19.0
25.3
25.6
24.9
21.6
21.3
21.2
21.6

52, 264

52,409

1935
January___ ______________________
February_________ ______________
March___ ________________ ____
April______________________ ______
May ____________________________
June_______ ______________________
July___________ _____ ____________
August________________________ .
September___ ____________________
October_____________ __________
November_______________ ____ ___
December_______________________

52,367
52,321
52,538
52,453
52, 524
54,992
55, 575
55,161
51,158
49,845
49, 637
50,346

1934

1933

46, 917
46, 657
48,246
48,087
47,198
53,566
51, 529
50, 270
45, 794
45,855
46,119
45, 514
47,979

21.3
21.6
22.1
22.4
23.0
28.9
29.6
28.1
24.0
24.0
24.4
24.2

49, 950

1937
26.2
26.3
26.7
27.6
27.9
36.1
37.2
36.8
31.5
32.2
32.1
33.3

50, 748
50, 728
50,855
50,581
50,678
54,266
53,462
51, 949
47,530
46, 515
45,825
46,270

1938
32.4
32.6
34.3
33.8
35.3
43.8
42.1
40.6
35.3
35.0
34.9
35.4

45, 315
45, 747
45, 744
46, 342
45, 673
49,142
48,650
48, 284
45, 527
45,407
45,054
44,810
46, 307

34.4
34.9
35.1
35.9
35.4
40.3
40.4
40.0
36.2
37.8
36.0
36.4

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

59

TURN-OVER

Even though the purely seasonal workers who are employed only
during the peak summer months are eliminated from the study of an­
nual earnings,1 there remains a large number of workers who worked
less than 120 days in the year due to labor turn-over (table 21).
Turn-over has been a difficult problem of plantation management
and has at times been as high as 27 percent of total average an­
nual employment. Although it has been gradually reduced in recent
years, it still has a significant influence on the average of annual
earnings.2
1 The difference of 236 between 9,150 workers whose earnings are shown in March 1939 and 8,914 for 1938
represents workers at work in March hired after January 1, 1939. The 1938 earnings of workers on the plan­
tations who had left by March 1939 are not shown. Thus those who are shown in the table to have worked
only part of the year in 1938 include those who were hired after January 1,1938, and could not have worked
a full year, and those who left voluntarily during the off season and returned before March. They do not
include the earnings of the purely seasonal workers hired in the summer of 1938 and separated in the fall.
2 The Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association reported that in December 1938 there were 1,319 separations.
Of them 605 were due to “ sickness, vacations, or transfers” and 714 were due to “ other causes.” Accessions
totaled 1,137; 397 of these were “ returned sick, vacations, or transfers” and 740 were new employees.
Accurate figures on turn-over over time are not available because the reported separations and accessions
include many persons who have merely been temporarily absent and should not, strictly speaking, be
included in turn-over figures.




T

a

. — b Distribution 1 of all male workers on sugar plantations in the Hawaiian
2
l
e

islands according to total annual earnings, by days worked,1

O
O

21
184
159
19
1

13
121
180
30
1

1
2
46
88
22
6

2
42
160
38
5

16
109
14
4

1
14
63
5
2

9
26
1
1

1
4
25
4

888
716
854
4 1,498
sn 9 4Q
4
R39 Ill
17 327
26

Simple percentage

Total workers

1
j

1

$1,500 and over

$1,400 and under
$1,500

$1,300 and under
$1,400

$1,200 and under i
$1,300
j

$1,100 and under
$1,200

$1,000 and under
$1,100

5
84
146
16
1

1
9
73
140
19
3

and under
$1,000

3
54
207
149
42
1

$900 and under $950

$700 and under $750

3
92
276
193
29

$950

$650 and under $700

4
13
144
278
172
37
1

$850 and under $900

$600 and under $650

12
167
316
161
24

$800 and under $850

$550 and under $600

1
50
227
288
148
9

$750 and under $800

$500 and under $550

$450 and under $500

| $400 and under $450

| $350 and under $400

| $300 and under $350

$250 and under $300

j $200 and under $250

$150 and under $200

$100 and under $150

Under $50

1
2
455 295 114 20
Under 60 days
.
11 187 234 147 78 37
7
3
7
60 and under 120 days - _
1 31 107 181 165 125 93 68
120 and under 180 days
1 12 35 103 168 207 230
180 and under 240 days
5 25 70 158 248
240 and under 300 days
12 34 63
300 and under 360 days _ _
1
360 and under 420 days
420 days and over _
_

10.0 1 0 . 0
8.0 18.0
9.6 27. 6
16. 8 44.4
27.9 72.3
23. 7 96,0
3! 7 99.7
.3

Total workers........... 455 306 302 286 268 299 331 382 499 613 723 680 649 593 457 384 345 252 245 165 247 143
85
37
34 2 134 8,914
Simple percentage............ . 5.1 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.7 4.3 5.6 6.9 8.0 7.6 7.3 6.7 5.1 4.3 3.9 2.8 2.7 1.9 2.8 1.6 1.0
.4
.4 1.5
100.0
Cumulative percentage___ 5.1 8.5 11.9 15.1 18.1 21.5 25.2 29.5 35.1 42.0 50.0 57.6 64.9 71.6 76.7 81.0 84.9 87.7 90.4 92.3 95.1 96.7 97.7 98.1 98.5
1 Days worked are 8-hour days or their equivalent and not necessarily calendar days, except for 1 firm, for which calendar days and not 8-hour days were obtained.
2 The average of all workers earning $1,500 and over amounted to $1,955.

193 9




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

Days worked 1

j $50 and under $100

Number of workers whose annual earnings were—

Cumulative percentage

|

1988

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

61

The reasons for the high rate of turn-over are: (1) The fact that
the largest group of plantation laborers are unmarried Filipinos who
grow restive under the mass-production discipline of the highly inte­
grated plantation life to which many of them have not become accus­
tomed; (2) dissatisfaction with working conditions, in particular with
the arbitrary decisions of the luna (or straw boss); (3) difficulties
within a gang which is working under piece rates or long-term cultiva­
tion contracts; (4) seasonal demands of the pineapple industry; (5)
opportunities for other employment represented in the growth of
Honolulu, the expansion of tourist trade, the water front, and in
particular, large Government construction projects which offer higher
wages but less permanent employment.
This turn-over, however, is confined to a given, but fairly large,
group of semimigrant workers. The techniques of the Hawaiian
sugar industry require a permanent staff of skilled and semiskilled
workers, and even those unskilled workers who have families normally
find a permanent home in a given plantation community.3
The degree of regularity of employment on sugar plantations is
reflected in the annual earnings of the workers. The average in 1938
for 8,914 male workers who were employed on plantations surveyed
in March 1939 was $561.
In the sample studied there was a group of 888 workers, however,
who had less than 60 days of work in 1938. Almost none of them
made as much as $200, and more than four-fifths of them made less
than $100. The annual average of male workers with 60 days of work
or more was $617.
Another group of 716 employees worked over 60 days but less than
120 days. Four-fifths (579) of this number received less than $250.
The average annual earnings of those who worked 120 days or more
during the year were $658.
More than half of the workers had over 240 days’ work in 1938.4
Only 10 percent of this group made less than $481. One-quarter
made less than $568. On the other hand, half of them made more
than $693, a quarter made more than $865, and 10 percent made
more than $1,072.
A N N U A L E A R N IN G S B Y T Y P E O F W O R K

Salaried workers .— These constitute less than one-tenth of the total
number of employees in the sample and earned an average of $1,011
in 1938 (table 22). Of these, clerical workers led with an annual
3 On 1 plantation over one-fourth of the employees had continuous service records ranging from 10 to 50
years.
4 In dealing with the table on annual earnings, by days worked, it should be noted that intervals up to
“ 420 days and over” are included. This appears to be an impossibility unless it is clearly understood that
(with the exception of 1 plantation) “ days” as used here refers to 8-hour days or their equivalent and not
to calendar days; H o of 1 percent, or 26 workers, are in the highest interval, and 3.7percent, or 327 workers,
fall in the interval of 360 to 420 days. The workers in these groups are largely watchmen or those who take
care of various types of equipment such as automatic pumps, whose work consists of being on hand as guards
and to report any stoppage or break-down which might occur. This work is much less arduous than that
of field laborers, but the hours are longer. It will be noted that none of the incomes of those in the highest
interval extend into the highest-income brackets, indicating that their work is of less importance and that
their hourly earnings are, therefore, correspondingly less.
Those in the interval of 300 to 360 days and a part of those in the next higher interval are in a very different
category. They consist of workers in types of operations which, by their nature, frequently involve extra
hours of work. Transport workers, for example, because they move workers to and from work, or sometimes
haul cane to the mill after the field workers have finished for the day, and because they are occasionally
called upon to transport plantation workers on holidays or to interplantation games, have considerably
higher than average hours. Technically there is no increase in hourly pay for such overtime, but in practice
such workers are credited with a full day even if they work only 5 or 6 hours. Hence the unusually large
number of 8-hour days worked per year. It will be noted that this group includes the largest number in
the highest-income bracket.




62

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

average income of $1,306. Workers in manufacture stood second
with an average annual income of $1,078, their relatively high earnings
being due to the fact that they represent a small group of skilled
workers and technicians in the sugar mills. The largest number of
salaried workers were in cultivation and in transportation, with
annual earnings of $840 and $915, respectively.
Nonsalaried workers.— The figures covering earnings by type of
work for nonsalaried workers must be interpreted with careful reser­
vations. Salaried workers, with the exception of those in harvesting,
tend to remain in the same type of work throughout the year. But
nonsalaried workers, particularly the less skilled ones, are often
moved from one type of work to another. Nonsalaried workers
therefore are not, and cannot possibly be, classified into clear-cut
categories covering a full year’s time. For this purpose workers
were classified in their “principal occupation,” but many of them
worked at some time during the year in other types of work. Harvest­
ing, for example, ceases entirely during the offseason of about 2
months, for mill and other repairs.
Therefore the large number of employees classified under harvesting
must have spent approximately one-sixth of their time in other work,
presumably in maintenance or industrial service. But because their
primary work is harvesting, they are so classified. Hence all of theii
earnings appear under this heading. It is obvious that the figures
given must be only rough approximations. Since those in transpor­
tation, manufacture, and clerical work are more continuously em­
ployed within their own specific occupations, the earnings figures
covering these workers are more dependable than the figures for
workers in other occupations.
T

able

2 2 .—

Average annual earnings of male workers on sugar plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands, hy type of work, 1938
Cultivation

Total
Class

Salaried workers___________
Nonsalaried workers_______
Not reported. ________ _____
All workers

Salaried workers___________
_______
Not r e p o rte d ..__ ____ _ _
All workers__________

Transportation

Number Average Number Average Number Average Number Average
annual
annual
of
of
of
annual
of
annual
workers earnings workers earnings workers earnings workers earnings
776
7,417
721

$1,011
546
231

168
1,326

$840
466

105
3,059

$957
512

139
431

$915
590

8,914

561

1,494

508

3,164

526

570

669

Manufacture
Class

Harvesting

Maintenance

Industrial service

Clerical

Number Average Number Average Number Average Number Average
annual
annual
of
annual
of
of
of
annual
workers earnings workers earnings workers earnings workers earnings
95
59
$1,078
1,032
Nonsalaried workers
1,014
600
1,073

ANNUAL

626

1,127

E A R N IN G S

$1,199
707

84
523

$876
484

126
32

$1,306
672

748

607

538

158

1,178

BY

RACE

Salaried workers of Japanese extraction accounted for two-fifths of all
salaried employees and earned an average of $924 during 1938 (table




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

63

19 39

23). Only about one-eighth o f the Japanese held salaried positions,
however, whereas nearly one-third o f the Portuguese were salaried
workers and earned an annual average of $1,038. Although Filipinos
numbered more than half of all employees, they constituted only
slightly over one-tenth of the salaried employees, and received annual
earnings of $802, which was distinctly below the general average for
salaried workers.
Nonsalaried Japanese received average annual earnings of $628,
or $82 above the general average o f all nonsalaried workers. Filipinos,
on the other hand, received only $489, which was $57 below the general
average. This difference is accounted for in part by the fact that
Filipinos, being the most recent arrivals, have had less time to work
into the better and more highly skilled jobs, and in part by the fact
that, since most of the Filipinos are single and most of the Japanese
married, Filipinos are more migratory, and hence average fewer days
of work per year on the plantations.
T a b l e 2 3. — A vera g e a nnual earnings o f m ale w orkers on sugar 'plantations in the
H a w a iia n Is la n d s , b y race, 1 9 3 8

Total, all races Anglo-Saxon
Class

8,914

561

79 $1, 558
50
786
19
0)
148

Puerto Rican
Class

Filipino

Chinese

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ age an­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­
ber of age an­ ber of age an­ ber of nual ber of age an­ ber 0 < age an­
f nual
nual
nual work­ nual work­
work­ earn­
earn­
earn­ work­ earn­ work­ earn­
ers
ers
ers
ers
ers
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings

776 $1, Oil
Salaried workers____ _____
Nonsalaried w orkers___
7,417
546
Not reported_______ ___
721
231
All workers___ ____ __

Japanese

1,151

314
2,136
93

$924
628
274

80
4,043
472

$802
489
220

16
98
14

0)
$487
0)

2, 543

651

4, 595

467

128

525

Portuguese

Hawaiian and
part Hawaiian

All others

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age an­ Num­ age an­ Num­ age an­ Num­ age an­
ber of
ber of
ber of
ber of
nual
nual
nual
nual
work­ earn­ work­ earn­ work­ earn­ work­ earn­
ers
ers
ers
ers
ings
ings
ings
ings

Salaried workers___
Nonsalaried workers.
Not reported_______

27
221
11

0)
$536
0)

202
463
46

$1,038
629
(0

44
264
54

0)
$573
202

14
142
12

0)
$587
0)

All workers_
_

259

545

711

722

362

564

168

69
0

1Number of employees too few to justify the computation of an average. Included in total for all workers
in this race.

WAGE TRENDS

Broadly speaking, the Hawaiian sugar industry has progressed
toward higher wages and better working conditions throughout the
period of its development. It started from an extremely low level,
however.
The early history of the Hawaiian sugar industry is one of frank
exploitation of contract labor at extremely low wages under conditions
that were almost equivalent to slavery. In 1884 Japanese were
imported to work for $9 per month. In 1886 wages ranged from $9.88
per month for Japanese to a high of $13.56 per month for Chinese.




64

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

Plantation laborers received food in addition to their wages at an
estimated cost of $6 to $9 per month per worker.5 There have been
periods of difficult times, which temporarily checked improvement,
and booms (as the period of the W orld W ar) which stimulated it, but
the long-time trend has been toward higher wages and shorter hours.
Wages, hours, and working conditions were so extremely bad, how­
ever, that in spite of gradual improvement they were on an oriental
rather than an occidental level until after the turn of the century.
Wages of Hawaiian sugar workers, along with those in other indus­
tries, experienced a decline in the world-wide depression of the 1930’s.
The depression affected Hawaii somewhat later and less drastically
than it affected the mainland, however. Hence wage earners in Hawaii
did not feel its effects as soon, nor did they suffer such serious wage
declines as did mainland agricultural workers.
Because o f the extreme complexity o f the wage structure of the
Hawaiian sugar industry, significant over-all indices of recent wage
trends are difficult to obtain.
Since the great majority of sugar workers are field laborers, the
average daily earnings of field laborers constitute a fairly effective
approach. This is given in table 24.
Since the enactment of the Jones-Costigan A ct of 1934, statistical
information on wages has been available, and is shown in table 25
covering earnings of piece-rate workers by type of work.
Another, and more complete index may be found by dividing the
total annual payroll by the total average annual employment, to
obtain the per capita annual payments by the plantations to their
employees, as shown in table 26. This table provides a basis for show­
ing the extent of the decline and recovery in the Hawaiian sugar indus­
try as compared with the decline and recovery of mainland farm labor
in general. Table 26 indicates that annual per capita earnings re­
mained approximately the same from 1929 to 1931; that they declined
sharply in 1932 and 1933; and have shown a continuous and marked
rise since 1934. The 1938 average is 24.4 percent above that of 1929.
T a b l e 2 4 . — A v era g e d a ily ea rn in g s with and w ithout bon u s o f u n sk illed m en em ­
p lo y ee s i n H a w a iia n sugar p la n ta tion s , 1 9 2 4 to 1 9 3 8

Short-term con­
tractors

Day workers

Long-term con­
tractors

All unskilled male
employees

Year
Including Without Including Without Including Without Including Without
bonus
bonus
bonus
bonus
bonus
bonus 1
bonus
bonus
1924_______________
1925_______________
1926_______________
1927_______________
1928_______________
1929...... .....................
1930_______________
1931_______________
1932_______________
1933_______________
1934_______________
1935__________ ____
1936_______________
1937_______________
1938___ _________

$2.038
1.840
1.837
1.859
1. 864
1.842
1.832
1.862
1.626
1.866
1.722
1.790
2.019
2. 300
2.400

$1.652
1.702
1. 698
1. 711
1.724
1. 705
1.697
1.721
1. 569
1.823
1.600
1.648
1.766
2.053
2.256

$1.662
1.472
1.486
1.634
1.499
1.500
1. 507
1. 519
1.416
1. 396
1. 514
1. 553
1.703
1.822
1.886

$1.347
1.361
1.373
1.504
1.386
1. 388
1.596
1.404
1.367
1.364
1.406
1.430
1.490
1.630
1.772

$2.110
2.194
2.332
2.268
2.286
2.104
2.146
2.202
2.093
1.909
1.816
2.073
2.233
2.424
2.436

$1.876
2.113
2.250
2.182
2.205
2.024
2. 067
2.120
2. 057
1.886
1. 740
1.987
2.090
2. 247
2.339

$1.841
1.705
1.737
1.816
1. 756
1. 716
1.725
1.754
1. 603
1.634
1.629
1.699
1.884
2. 074
2.134

i The bonus system ended effective Sept. 30,1938.
Source: Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.
6 Lind, A. W. An Island Community. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1938, p. 200.




$1.517
1.590
1.621
1.687
1.640
1.602
1. 612
1.637
1.553
1.600
1. 522
1.573
1.663
1.865
2.011

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

65

19 3 9

T a b l e 2 5 . — A v era g e d a ily ea rn in gs o f sh ort-term contractors (piece-ra te w orkers) on
H a w a iia n sugar 'plantations , b y o p era tio n s, 1 9 3 4 - 8 8

1934
Operations

1935

1936

1938

1937

Aver­ Medi­ Aver­ Medi­ Aver­ Medi­ Aver­ Medi­ Aver­ Medi­
an
an
an
age
an
age
an
age
age
age
$1.55
1.87
1.78
2.20

1.69

1.72

Planting____ ___ ____ ___ _
Fertilizing_________________
Irrigating ______ - _ ___
Cultivating________________

1.29
1.55
1. 27
1.24

1. 30
1. 47
1. 25
1.20

1.41
1.65
1. 37
1.28

Average of planting
and cultivating- ___

1. 27

1.32

1.44

1. 72

$1. 72
1.98
1. 86
2. 34

$1.66
1.90
1.88
2. 21

1.59

1.64

1.76

2.05

2. 27

1. 52
1. 72
1. 46
1.40

$2.05
2.27
2. 06
2.46

2. 39

2.16

1. 85
1.29
1. 48
1. 30
1. 21

$2.06
2.26
2.06
2.59

$2.31
2.55
2.10
2.76

1.90

Average of all opera­
tions
- __ __

Average of harvesting - _

$1. 53
1.75
1.85
2.24

$2.30
2.54
2. 22
2.83

$1.47
1.79
1.81
2.16

Cutting-. _ _ __ ____ ___ _ $1. 52
____
Loading______ _ __
1.87
____ 1.70
Hauling____
Portable track __
2. 21

1. 52
1. 52
1.34
1. 34

1.70
2.00
1.68
1.70

1.54
1.85
1.60
1. 58

1.88
2.18
1.82
1.89

1. 75
2.14
1. 67
1.83

Source: Records of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.
T a b l e 2 6 . — P la n ta tio n labor and p a y rolls, 1 9 2 9 to 1 9 8 8

Year

1929 ___
1930________
1931 .
1932 _______
1933 _

Per
Number Pay roll (wages
and salaries,
capita
of em­
including
annual
ployees 1
payments
bonus) 2
52,244
51,837
52, 564
52,410
52, 264

$25,966,358.49
26,058,994. 68
26,375, 700. 46
24,007, 235.91
22,904, 564.03

$497.02
502.71
501. 78
458.06
438. 24

Year

1934________
1935________
1936 - 1937________
1938 .-

Per
Number Payroll (wages capita
and salaries,
of em­
including
annual
ployees 1
bonus)2
payments
49,951
46,720
47,869
47,979
46,307

$23, 204,440. 76
23,047,034.85
25,858,935. 75
28,350,178.91
28, 704, 525.89

$464. 54
493.30
540. 20
590.88
619.87

1 Includes salaried workers. The figures are the average number of employees per month.
2 The bonus system was in part dependent upon the price of sugar. Hence variations in annual earnings
are in part a reflection of changes in the price of sugar.
Source: Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association pay-roll records.




CHAPTER 7. EARNINGS OF LO N G -TE R M CULTIVATORS
The following tables refer to the 13.7 percent of the laborers work­
ing under the long-term cultivation contracts. The contract period
begins as soon as the cane “ covers-in” (that is, has covered the field
so completely that relativelv little weeding is necessary) and ends just
before the harvesting of the cane. Each gang has its own contract
covering the particular field or fields to which it is assigned. The
work consists primarily of irrigation, and, to a lesser degree, of fer­
tilizing by hand applicators, and weeding. It is to the interest of
each gang to provide its cane with the best possible conditions for
growth, since payments are made at an agreed rate per ton on the
basis of the number of tons of cane harvested from the field.
The earnings so far presented exclude those of long-term cultivators.
Their earnings accrue over periods of more than 1 year. They cannot
be fitted to either a monthly or an annual distribution of earnings.1
The assignment of a long-term contract is regarded as a promotion.
The work involves more responsibility than the other field operations,
for it cannot be minutely supervised. The daily average earnings for
the contract are higher than the average for all field labor. There is
no evidence that long-term cultivators have either more or fewer days
of work than field workers, except the presumption that they are
treated as a relatively favored group.
For an understanding of the long-term cultivation contract it is
necessary to remember that plantations are divided into fields for
the purpose of maintaining a planting and harvesting program which
will provide a continuous supply of cane at the mill. Such fields vary
greatly in size, due to problems of irrigation, topography, and trans­
portation. Thev range from 25 to over 300 acres.

In the central office of the plantation each field is carried as a
separate unit on the company’s books. The fields are not only
continuously checked relative to the probable date they will be ready
for harvesting in order to provide estimates of prospective production
schedules at the mill, but they are also used as the basic plantation
unit for cost analyses. Costs are carefully allocated by fields and
each field must yield enough to cover its costs, or be abandoned as an
area of cultivation.
Each of these fields represents a single long-term contract. When
all the preliminary work of preparing and planting has been done, a
contract is let to a gang of workers, generally led by an old hand in
whom the management has confidence. The size of the gang varies in
accordance with the size of the field and the difficulties of irrigation.
For the work performed during the period of the contract, long­
term cultivators are paid an amount equivalent to the agreed rate
1 Thus the contracts ending in each of 12 months of 1939 would all cover periods extending back into 1938,
and some of them as far back as 1937. Those working under such contracts in 1939 were receiving advances
of $1.50 per day, but there was no way of knowing what the total earnings per day would be until the con­
tracts ended in 1940 or 1941. The difficulty is not one of estimating the value of any given cultivation
contract, but of obtaining a basis for a distribution of earnings for all workers under such contracts.
66




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

67

per ton multiplied by the number of tons harvested from their field.
This sum is divided by the number of man-days devoted to the work,
and each member of the gang is paid in accordance with the number
of man-days which he worked. The payments are made in the form
of an advance of $1.50 per day throughout the contract period, plus
an additional lump sum to complete the contract payments at the
time of the harvest. Since earnings are contingent on the production
of cane, climatic conditions may vitally affect them. When, in the
judgment of the management, injustices occur because of this, adjust­
ments are made.
The process of arriving at the final payment is rather complicated
and is best explained in terms of table 27. Each column is lettered,
and should be interpreted as follows:
(а )
: In practice fields are given distinctive names and range from
as few as 25 acres to as many as 350 acres.
(б )
: This column, indicating the racial origin of workers in each
field, clearly shows the predominant place that Filipinos have ac­
quired in plantation work. The fields are worked by 1 to 13 men.
(ic): The crop after a first planting (which occurs about once in a
decade) may be fertilized and irrigated so as to be ready for harvest
in about 14 months, in which case it is called a short plant. On the
other hand, it may be allowed to ripen more gradually over a period of
18 to 23 months. This is called a long plant.
In a similar way the crops which grow from the stalks of the har­
vested cane are called short ratoon crops and long ratoon crops,
depending upon how they are handled. The symbols in this column
refer to such crops; P -S meaning short plant, S -l meaning first short
ratoon, S-2 second short ratoon, etc. P -L means long plant, P-1
means first long ratoon, etc.
In practice many plantation offices keep large schedule boards on
the wall with a space for each field, and, in some cases, movable blocks
to indicate the progress of the crop. This is roughly comparable to a
traffic board in a large railway terminal. That is, it indicates when
the crop is due at the mill, and whether it is on time, or late, or ahead
of time in its development.
(d), (e), (/*), and (g): The acres per man range from as low as 7 to
over 77. This difference is due not only to differences in the capacity
of the gangs, but also to differences in topography, soil, and irrigation
requirements.
Qi) and (i): The average yield of sugarcane per acre in Hawaii is
the largest of any area producing for the American market. In
Louisiana, for instance, it averages 21.7 short tons per acre (1938), in
Puerto R ico 27.1 short tons per acre (1938).
(j) : The rate per ton of cane as provided in the contract is dependent
on many factors varying with the condition of a field, fertility, past
records, etc. But to the management these factors may be reduced
to three considerations:
(1) The wage per day they intend to pay ($2.10 was the average
on this plantation, though there is a wide range, the average for all
plantations being $2.26 in 1938).
(2) The tons of cane that, on the basis of past records and present
conditions, may be expected at harvest.
2 4 1 4 0 4 -4 0 -




-6

68

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

(3)
The total number of man-days the gang assigned to the field
will spend in the contract area.
(k): This column is simply the rate per ton multiplied by the total
tons of cane harvested.
(Z): When errors of judgment or climatic or other conditions result
in apparent injustice, the management will make adjustments on the
estimated payments. In the case of this plantation, the total adjust­
ments of $4,166.01 represent 16.8 percent of total earnings; a signifi­
cant proportion.
Due to the effect of governmental restriction of prior years and to
unsatisfactory climatic conditions between the latter part of 1936
and the first part of 1938, actual yields in the m ajority of these con­
tracts fell below estimates (the total crop on this plantation for 1938
was 46,840 tons as compared to 53,075 tons for the prior year). On
this account the plantation paid additional cash allowances to those
cultivators whose fields fell below the estimated production through
no fault of their own.
(m )
: If any one of a group of long-term cultivators leaves the plan­
tation before the completion of his contract, he forfeits his share of
the earnings over the $1.50 per day which has alieady been advanced
to him. This is equivalent to the number of days worked on the
contract prior to desertion (r) multiplied by the “ participation” per
day («;). It is deducted from the total group earnings and is retained
by the plantation. The management justifies this procedure by the
statement that most deserters leave behind store and other debts.
For a valid reason a man may be excused, in which case there is no
deduction. When he leaves without making any anangements there
is a deduction.
(n)
: The figures in column (n) are total earnings plus allowances
minus deserter deductions.
(o) and (p): Whenever the group under contract is unable to do all
of the work necessary to keep the contract fields in good condition,
the plantation loans other labor to the contractors. (“ K okua” is an
Hawaiian term meaning cooperation.) A deduction (p) is then made
from the adjusted total (n) on the basis of the number of man-days
supplied, and is equivalent to the payment (o) due to the group under
contract. Kokua labor is paid directly by the plantation at the time
the work is performed at a rate announced to kokua laborers at the
time they start such work.
(g)
to (u ), inclusive: These columns represent man-days and refer
directly to columns (k) to (p), inclusive, previously explained.
(v) and (w): When the cane is harvested and weighed, the contract
ends. Each man is then paid a lump sum (called “ the big m oney”
by the field workers) in accordance with the contract rate per ton.
“ Participation per day” is equivalent to the earnings (in addition to
the advance o f $1.50 per day indicated in column (w)) of each mem­
ber of the group for each man-day spent in the field; that is, the total
contract earnings (n) divided by the total man-days of work per­
formed by the contractors (.s).




T a b l e 27.— S ettlem en ts w ith long-term cultivators on a typ ica l H a w a iia n sugar pla ntation , crop o f 1 9 3 8
Tons cane and
seed produced

Race

(a)

(b)

Ratoon

(c)

2 Japanese, 4 Filipinos- P-L, L-l_.
1 Japanese___________ [ P - L . . . . 2
[4 Filipinos___________
1 Korean, 8 Filipinos-- L-6, L-7-.
4 Japanese, 1 Filipino- L-7______
2 Japanese___________ L - l ______
L-6_____
1 Filipino___________
2 Japanese, 1 Filipino.. L-6______
P -L _________
1.
Filipinos_____ ______ L-6_________
4 Filipinos_____ ______ L-7, L -8_____
2 Filipinos...... ........ ....... L-6_________
1 Japanese, 1 Filipino- - - L-7_________
2 Koreans-------- ----------- L-6_________
3 Filipinos_____ ______ L-4, L-5, L-61 Japanese, 1 Filipino.. P -L _________
2 Japanese, 4 Filipinos. P-L, L-4____
/ L -l, L-4, L-6.
|3 Japanese, 10 Filipinos.
(L-4, L-6_____
1 Japanese, 7 Filipinos.. P-L, L-4____
2 Filipinos____________ L-5, L-6_____
5 Japanese, 3 Filipinos. L-5, L-6, L-7._
10 Filipinos___________ L -l, L-2_____
\ Filipinos____________ /L -5_________
9
\P-L, L-3_____
Filipinos____________ L-6, L-8_____
1 Japanese, 1 Filipino.. P -L _________
1_________
1 Japanese, Filipinos. L—
2 Filipinos____________ P-L, L-6_____
Filipinos____________ P-L, L-5, L-6.
2 Filipinos____________ P -L ___ _____
9 Filipinos___________ L— L—
1, 5,1/—
6-.
1 Japanese, 5 Filipinos. P -L ________
1 Korean, 1 Filipino_
_ L—
2_________
2 Filipinos____ _______ P -L ________
1 Japanese. 5 Filipinos. P-S.......... .
3 Filipinos............. ....... S -V -----------2 Japanese___________ S-6_________
4 Japanese___________ P-S________
5 Filipinos____ _______ S-5_________
4 Filipinos.............. ...... S-5_________
1 Filipino............ ......... S-10________
2 Japanese, 4 Filipinos. S-6_________
1 Japanese, 6 Filipinos. S-5_________

3

3

3

3

Acres

(<0

274.78
313.77
259. 03
122. 27
120. 04
28. 21
52.96
77.77
76. 38
113.11
55.71
58.28
57.89
80.90
49.91
247.76
108.21
226. 29
317.49
39.09
148.91
215.13
173. 57
140. 24
83. 53
137.98
112. 22
90. 71
98.81
110.09
223. 26
153. 21
70.00
44.10
150. 77
100.96
63.82
197.74
101.97
105.64
18.94
88.22
53.35

Num­ Acres
ber
per
of
men

(«)

(/)

Mandays
per
acre

(?)

Total

(/»

(<0 +
Q
(«) (■ ) H d )
5.34 21,284.
45.80
52.29
5. 35 J29,859.
\ 1862.
9.45 19,028.
28. 78
13.37 9, 335.
24.45
60.02
5.85 10,345.
9.80 2,247.
28. 21
11.32 4,730.
17. 65
3. 91 J 8,555.
77. 77
{ i 346.
10. 45 6, 250.
25.46
11.80 10,122.
28.28
11.97 4,861.
27.85
11.24 5,084.
29.14
11.89 5,082.
28.94
9.15 5, 589.
26.97
24. $5
6. 87 4, 263.
41.29
5.77 20,877.
f 8,372.
12.64 115,776.
25.73
/25,092.
9.64 \ 1219.
39.69
2,949.
19. 54
14.
17.15 12,385.
18.61
12.79 14,833.
21.51
fll,
34.87
8. 26 \13, 232.
641.
15.49 5,052.
27.84
4. 21 12,968.
68.99
11.93 10, 239.
28.05
6.32 7,832.
45. 35
32.94
10.24 7,007.
fll,
4.24 \ i 009.
55.04
199.
9.45 17,076.
24.81
6.59 12, 614.
25. 53
8.00 4.417.
35.00
307.
9.57 / 3, 306.
22.05
\ 1
5. 59 11,415.
25.13
6. 60 8.417.
33. 65
6.91 4,578.
31.91
4. 22 17,57,1.
49.43
20.39
9.77 6,535.
26.41
7.68 7,337.
9. 24 1,145.
18.94
4.54 6,346.
14.70
7.62
9.14 3,656.

Aver­
age
per
acre

(0

180 29.79

Rate
per
ton

00

(h) +

(d)

77. 459 $0.03
}97.911 J .025
1 .25
73.459 .055
76.348 .0725
86.186 .03
79.674 .0725
89.314 .055
414.464 / .0225
l .225
81.829 .065
89.497 .065
87. 273 .065
87.249 .055
87.797 .065
69.093 .0875
85.423 .045
84.264 .0425
. 0575
}72.192 / . 0775
l
/ .06
>79.722 l .60
75.453 .0675
83.176 .07
68.952 .0625
/ .08
}79.266 1 .04
60.482 .09
93.989 .03
91. 241 .055
86. 344 .035
70.921 .0725
/ .03
[101.815 l .30
76.487 .0875
82.335 .045
63.100 .03
f . 0575
[81.944 1 .575
75.717 .0675
83. 376 .07
71.736 .0825
88.861 .05
64.095 .0975
69.458 .0975
60.465 .1050
71.943 .1050
63.538 .14

Totals and aver5,363.02

Earnings exclusive of bonus

8.68 432,264.690 80.601

Total
earn­
ings

Addi­
tional
allow­
ances

De­
sert­
er
de­
duc­
tions

(*)

(0

(w)

MX
M
$638.52 $95. 24
[ 962.10 295.84
1,046. 55 177.53
676.79 158.38
310.37 111.13
162.95
8.81
260.15
99.49
[ 270.53
406. 26 108. 88 $64.87
657.99
9.16
316.03
18.35
279.67
52.83
330.37
82.73
489.09
191.85
887. 28
113. 39
481.40
1,222. 65 } 480. 79
[l, 636.97
199.09 179.53
867.00 409.76
927.11 448. 28
898.61 } ______
545.67 J
454.69 192.48
389.06
48.31
563.15 401.77
274.13
60.89
52. 75 23.00
508.06
► 390.26
1,152.66 251. 24 5.40
567.65 268. 22 78.19
132.51 153. 62
► 366.51
770.57
589.24
377.70
878.57
637.23
46.21
715.41
120.25
666.42
511.91
(h )X (j)

in )

Total
Culti­
vators

Kokua
labor

(0)

(p)

(?)

De­
sert­
Ad­
er
de­ justed
total
duc­
tions
( r)

is)

Classification
of adj usted
to tal

(0

(*)+ (0
—(m )
(n )-(p )
(q)~ (r)
$733.76 $733.76
1, 467/4
1, 467/4
1, 257.94 1,257. 94
1, 677/£
1,677/4
2,448
2,448
1, 224. 08 1, 224.08
835.17
817.17 $18. 00 1, 670)4
1,67034
421. 50
421. 50
702)4
702/4
171. 76
138.26 33. 50
343H
343/4
359.64
299.64 60. 00
719)4
719)4
270. 53
268. 53 2. 00
306)4
306/4
450. 27
399. 27 51.00 1,030)4 129)4
900/4
667.15
667.15
1, 334)4
1,334)4
334.38
333.38 1.00
668%
668)4
332.50
327. 50 5.00
665
665
413.10
413.10
688)4
688/4
482.09 7.00
489.09
750H
750)4
191. 85
191.85
343
343
772.89 1.00 1,643
773. 89
210)4 1, 432/4
2,184.84 2,113.84 71.00 4,379/4
4, 379/4

1, 467/4
1, 677%
2,448
1,634%
702/4
276)4
599%
304%
798)4
1,334%
666%
655
688/4
739%
343
1,430/4
4, 227/4

1, 636. 97
378. 62
1,276. 76
1,375. 39
1,444. 28
647.17
437. 37
964.92
335. 02
537.81
390. 26
1,398. 50
757.68
286.13
366. 51
770. 57
589. 24
377. 70
878. 57
637. 23
669.20
120. 25
666.42
511.91

3,061%
582/4
2,553/4
2,750%
2,590%
1,294%
580)4
1, 339%
573
1,012
467%
2,108%
1,010%
560%
422%
842%
666%
441%
835
996%
811
175
400/4
487)4

1, 628.97 8. 00
378.62
1, 276.76
1,375.39
1,444. 28
647.17
435.37 2. 00
964.92
286.52 48. 50
506.06 31. 75
381. 26 9.00
1, 265. 25 133. 25
757. 68
280.13 6.00
364.51 2.00
770.57
581. 24 8.00
377.70
878. 57
624.23 13.00
669. 20
120. 25
655. 42 11.00
511.91

3,076/4
582/4
2,553/4
2,750)4
2,590)4
1, 294/4
583)4
1, 339)4
670
1,12iy2 46
478/4
9
2,339)4
1,114/4 104)4
572/4
424)4
842/4
675/4
441/4
835
1,016)4
867
56
175
407
487/4

3,076)4
582)4
2, 553/4
2,750%
2,590%
1, 294%
583/4
1, 339/4
670
1,075/4
478/4
2,330%
1,010%
572%
424%
842%
675/4
441%
835
1,016%
811
175
407
487%

Guar­
Partici­ an­
teed
pation
wages
per
per
day
day

Per day

Per month

(*)

iv)

(v)+ (w )

$2.00
2.25
2.00
2. 00
2.10
2.00
2.00
2.38
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.10
2.15
2.06
2.04
2.00

26(y)+2 6 (w)
$52.00
58.50
52.00
52.00
54.60
52.00
52 00
61. 88
52.00
52. 00
52.00
52.00
54.60
55.90
53.56
53.04
52.00

Culti­ Kokua
vators labor
(u)

(w )

(v)

(n )+ (s)

24,730.98 4,166.01 331.06 28,565.93 28,043.93 522. 00 48,07634 55534 47, 520% 46, 554%

1 Denotes tons cane over estimate. (For all tons over the original estimate 10 times the normal rate is paid.)
P-L, long plant; L -l, first long ratoon; L-2, second long ratoon; etc.; P-S, short plant; S-l, first short ratoon; S-2,
second short ratoon, etc.
General N ote.—Earnings are cash only; that is, no amount has been included as representative of the value of
perquisites furnished. Due to the effect of governmental restriction of prior years and to unsatisfactory climatic




Classification
of adjusted
total
justed
total

Total earnings per
man

Days

36
67
120
2%
102
2
10
10%
2
152
15

m

97
63/4
11
222
12
2)4
9%
2034
6%

966

$0.50
.75
.50
.50
.60
.50
.50
.88
.50
.50
.50
.50
.60
.65
.56
.54
.50

$1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50

.53
.65
.50
.50
.56
.50
.75
.72
.50
.50
.82
.60
.75
.50
.86
.91
.87
.86
1.05
.63
.83
.69
1. 64
1.05

1. 50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1.50
1.50
1. 50
1. 50
1. 50
1.50

2.03
2.15
2.00
2.00
2.06
2.00
2.25
2. 22
2.00
2.00
2.32
2.10
2. 25
2.00
2.36
2.41
2. 37
2. 36
2. 55
2.13
2.33
2.19
3.14
2. 55

52. 78
55.90
52.00
52.00
53.56
52.00
58. 50
57. 72
52.00
52.00
60. 32
54. 60
58.50
52. 00
61.36
62. 66
61. 62
61. 36
66. 30
55.38
60. 58
56.94
81. 64
66.30

.60

1. 50

2.10

54.60

conditions in the latter part of 1936, all of 1937, and the first 4 months of 1938, actual yields in the majority of the
contracts fell below estimates (the total crop for 1938 was 46,840 tons as compared to 53,075 tons for the prior year.
On this account the plantation paid additional cash allowances to those cultivators whose fields fell below the esti­
mated production through no fault of their own.
241404— 40

(Face p. 68)

69

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1 9 3 9

It should be noted that the wage determinations of the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration set a minimum wage equivalent to the
“ advance,” that is, of $1.50 per day.
(#): The average daily wage of the workers in each gang, which is
the sum of the daily advance, $1.50, plus the participation, varied, as
shown in this column, from $2 to $2.55. The long-term cultivators in
a gang all receive the same daily earnings.
(y This column shows the earnings during a month of 26 working
):
days (under the long-term cultivation contract). It should be noted,
however, that when contractors are not needed for long-term cultiva­
tion work, they may work outside of their own field at daily rates or
piece rates. Although long-term cultivators are assured of full-time
employment, it is not valid to assume that all of it will always be
under long-term cultivation contracts.
The distribution of average earnings of long-term cultivators by
plantations is shown in table 28. The highest average in 1938 was
$2.80; the lowest $1.69. It will also be noted that earnings were
highest on the island of Oahu on which Honolulu is located, and
were lowest on Kauai.
T a b l e 28.— Average payment per man-day, excluding bonusy made under all long­

term cultivation contracts settled, 1928-88
[Payment is settlement over whole contract, not for work done during the specific years mentioned]
Plantation

1928

1 ___________________________ $2.21
2____________________________ 3. 27
3 ___________________________ 1.50
4
_
____________________ 1.98
5____________________________ 2.80
6 ___________________________ 1.70
7____________________________
8
____
_______
3.16
9 __________________________
10____________________________ 2.09
11____________________________ 1.96
12____________________________
13____________________________ 2.41
14____________________________ 2. 20
15____________________________ 2.20
16____________________________ 3.63
17____________________________ 1.70
18___________________________ 2.09
19____________________________ 2.86
20____________________________ 1.00
21______ _____________________ 2.33
3.03
22
23____________ _______________ 2.05
24____________________________ 1.93
25____________________________ 2.09
26___ ____ ____________________ 2.06
27___________ _____ __________
1. 63
28....... ............... ................... .
1.66
2 9 .................... ................ ........
30.................................... ............ 1. 69
31.................................................. 1.92

1929

1930

1932

1933

1934

$1.73 $1. 73 $2.43 $2. 30 $1.99 $1. 51
2.80 2. 46 3.01 2.15 2. 66 1,80
2.20
1.44 1.00 1.10 1.17 1.70
2. 07 2.18 1.97 1.94 2.08 1. 53
1.50 1.69 2.09 2. 55 1.89 1.40
2.16 2.16
3.05 1. 22
1. 25 1.29
2. 59 1.69 2. 53 1. 88 1.58 1.42
2.05 1.61 1. 39 1.83 2.28 2.17
1.29 1.04
2.35 2. 57 2. 53 2.39 1.97 1.78
2.15 2.16 2.04 1.92 1.54 1.77
2.10 2.18 2.06 2.29 2.05 1.90
3.22 3. 38 2. 76 2.96 1.87 1.48
1.35 1. 34 1.53 1. 53 1.45 1.64
1.81 1.94 2.10 1.93 1.61 1.89
2.06 2.02 2.20 2.32 2. 35 1.85
1.68 2.31 2.14 2.05 1.68 1.81
2.04 2.13 2.04 1.85 1.65 1.87
2. 58 2.68 2. 63 2. 58 2.42 2.35
1.90 2. 27 2.11 2.19 2.07 1.75
1.70 2.04 1.98 1. 82 1.75 1.78
2.03 2.11 2.06 2. 20 1.74 1.65
1. 88 1. 71 1. 76 1.89 2. 04 1.67
1.80 2.00 1.42
1.58 1.49 1.44 1. 61 1. 60 1.45
1.49 2.11 2.21 2.06 1.73 1.52
1. 63 1.46 1. 57 1.47 1.46 1. 31
2.16 2.40 2. 83 2.23
1. 87

Source: Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.




1931

1935

1936

1937

$1.51 $1. 52
1.98 1.76 $2.64
1.94
2.03
1.51
1. 64
2.40
1.24
1.98
2.81

2. 77
2.16
1.66
2.87
1. 57
2. 67
2.88

2.06
1.83
2.24
1. 79
1.79
1.99
1.95
1.72
2.12
2.48
1.84
1. 71
1.78
1.86
1. 41
1.82
1. 91
1.51
2.07

2.20
1.91
2.40
1.97
2.18
1.97
2.02
2.00
1.96
2.69
1.87
1.79
2.13
1. 97
1. 72
1.84
1. 76
1. 64
1.68

2.08
2.30
2.08
1.80
2.74
2.17
2. 32
2.43
2. 51
2.23
2.16
2.04
2.30
1.98
2.13
2.89
2.36
1.86
2.41
1.96
2.03
2.02
2.18
1.89
1.61

1938
$2. 49
2.18
1.94
1.86
2. 53
1.93
1.99
2. 93
1. 77
2.21
2. 32
1.84
2.46
2.39
2.42
2.16
2.26
2. 27
2.10
2.18
2.37
2. 80
2. 58
2.02
2.31
2.27
2.08
2.04
2.65
1.91
1.69

CH APTER 8.

W O R K IN G CON DITION S, PERQUISITES, AND
GENERAL SU M M ARY
WORKING CONDITIONS

The typical Hawaiian sugar plantation is a small world in itself,
consisting of (1) the plantation town, which includes stores, clubs, a
motion-picture theater, a recreation field, hospital, and such services
as electric lighting, a water system, police and fire protection; (2) a
transportation system, including trucks, tractors, and in most cases a
railroad; (3) the plantation land area, only about a third of it devoted
to sugar, the remainder including some unused wooded land,1 a small
dairy or ranch, an area set aside for diversified crops, and the planta­
tion town itself; (4) repair shops with expert mechanics for the main­
tenance of trucks, tractors, railroad equipment, and mill machinery;
(5) the sugar mill; (6) the central office of the management where
continuous and remarkably detailed records covering every aspect of
the plantation are kept.
On a typical working day the Hawaiian field laborer will appear at
the plantation center as early as 6 in the morning,2 to be taken (in
most cases by truck) to the field to which he and his coworkers are
assigned for the day. The “ luna” or straw boss assumes responsibility
for immediate direction of the work in accordance with instructions
which he has received at headquarters. On most plantations there
will be a period of about 15 minutes quite early in the morning for a
light snack or breakfast, and half an hour in the neighborhood of 11:30
or 12 o ’clock for a cold noon-day lunch eaten in the field. The food
is usually oriental, the most important item being boiled rice.
For those who are on regular daily rates of pay the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters’ Association policy is to maintain an 8-hour day. This rule
is not rigidly observed, however.3 For those on piece rates it is pos­
sible to increase earnings by working more intensively or longer.
Some plantations discourage long hours, but in the busier periods of
the year a working day in excess of 8 hours is not uncommon for piecerate workers.
For those on long-term cultivation contracts, only occasional super­
vision is necessary. Since the men are paid in accordance with the
number of tons of cane harvested from the fields which they have
contracted to cultivate, it is to the common interest of both manage­
ment and labor to maximize output. For this reason the manage­
ment need only make sure that cultivation is not being neglected.
1 Plantations dependent on ground water often own and maintain the wooded slopes nearby to protect
their sources of water supply.
2 The morning whistle blows as early as 4:30 or 5 o’clock.
3 The Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association in the published report of President H. A. Walker before
the fifty-sixth annual meeting on December 7, 1936 (p. 17) supports the 8-hour day as an official policy, but
the agencies, and even the individual plantation managers, are given a fairly wide latitude in this respect.
The fact that many plantations maintain their own daylight saving time further confuses the situation.
There is clear evidence that working days of more than 8 hours are not uncommon.
70




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

71

T o this limited extent long-term cultivators are independent, and some
work longer in order to increase earnings by increasing output.
For the great majority of plantation laborers the working day ends
as early as 3 or 4 o ’clock in the afternoon, at which time they are
brought back to the plantation center.4
In many of the small plantation homes there is a shower bath,
just inside the back door, where the worker will remove his soiled
clothes (extremely sooty if he has been cutting burned cane) and take
a bath, after which there still remains a period of time for recreation.
It must be remembered that Hawaiian life is distinctly an outdoor life.
The temperature throughout the year is such that there is no month
in which outdoor games cannot be played in comfort.
Thus the social life of the Hawaiian plantation tends to center in
recreation, especially in the intra- and inter-plantation games, such
as football, tennis, basketball, and the like. On many plantations
there are also workers’ clubs, which usually tend to organize along
racial lines. It is not uncommon to find plantation clubrooms con­
taining tables for games and a room for entertainments provided in
part by the plantation and in part by the club dues. These clubs are
not in any sense labor unions. They are usually in simple, cheap,
frame buildings with the simplest kind of furniture and benches. In
addition to clubs for the ordinary field workers, there are often better
clubs for the higher ranks of plantation officials.
The motion-picture theater is either directly or indirectly controlled
by the management; but, in view of the early hour at which the
typical laborer must arise and the arduous work which he must
perform throughout the day, it is not often that he can remain up
long after sunset.
It must be remembered that the whole plantation area, including
the town, is owned by the plantation company, and although there are
frequently many shops, such as drugstores, tailor shops, shoemakers,
and the like, that are privately operated, they rent their sites from
the plantation and can remain only as long as the plantation permits
them to do so. Anyone on any part of the plantation is a trespasser
unless he has the permission of the management to be there. This is
one of the primary reasons why labor organization, as such, has little
opportunity to obtain a foothold in the sugar industry.
The plantation manager is the chief official and central authority
on all aspects of plantation life. He must, in addition to his technical
knowledge regarding sugar production, be able to direct the operation
of the sewage and water systems, the fire protection system, the police
force, the railroad, and to perform the functions that the mayor of a
town would perform. He even sits as an informal judge on cases
involving minor disturbances and petty larceny.
P E R Q U IS IT E S

As a part of their remuneration, plantation workers receive goods
and services from the company as follows:
M inor perquisites.— These vary considerably in the different plan­
tations. On some of them electric power is supplied to the workers at
less than cost. Very little heat is required for warmth, but a certain
4 Transportation time to and from work is, in most cases, not counted as a part of the working time.




72

LABOR IN- THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

amount is required for cooking, and this is frequently supplied in the
form of an allowance (usually a graduated allowance proportionate to
the size of the family) of wood or kerosene. On some plantations a
special allowance of food is made to workers who have established
long records of service or who have especially large families. It is not
uncommon for plantations to provide trucks for carrying children of
the workers to picnics and 4 -H Club meetings, or to carry plantation
workers to interplantation games or to the beaches on holidays.
Recreation.— All plantations maintain recreation fields.
Some
plantations originally adopted a decentralized arrangement of small
communities scattered over the plantation area. Where communities
of this type remain there may be a small recreation field in each center,
but the trend for the last 20 years has been toward one large com­
munity for each plantation.
T a b l e 29 .— Percentage o f pla n tation s eq u ip p ed with va rious recreational fa c ilitie s ,
b y islan d s

Oahu
Swimming pools _______ ___
_ ____
Beaches___________ __ ___ _ _
Mountain h o u s e s ______
_ ...
_ ____ ___
Playground equipment-- _ ___
Basketball____ ___
- _____ _ _____ _
Tennis courts:
Lighted__ ___ ________ ____
_
____
Not lighted__________________________________
V olleyball______________________________________
Baseball or football -- __ - ______________________
Softball _____ _________ _
-__________ Gymnasiums
_
. _
Boxing rings_______ _______________
Community centers-.
- _ _ . . _
Clubhouses____ _____ _____ _ ________ ______
Miscellaneous___________ _________ ___________

Kauai

Maui

Hawaii

Total

12.5
50.0
0
87.5
100.0

20.0
70.0
50.0
30.0
90.0

55.6
88.9
22.2
66.7
100.0

31.3
18.8
37.5
56. 3
87. 5

29.8
56.9
27.4
60.1
94.4

50.0
62.5
100.0
75.0
100.0
62. 5
75.0
37.5
37.5
62.5

30.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
90.0
40.0
70.0
60.0
0
40.0

55.6
77.8
100.0
100.0
88.0
55.6
77.8
55.6
55.6
33.3

62. 5
87.5
100.0
87. 5
87.5
81.3
50.0
68.7
6. 3
25.0

49. 5
81. 9
100.0
90.6
91. 6
59.8
68.2
55. 4
24.8
40.2

In such centers recreation fields are -not unlike the football fields of
the ordinary city high school, with stands from which the spectators
may watch the games. There are also outdoor basketball and tennis
courts. Over half of the plantations have a gymnasium, which may be
used in wet weather, and some even a modern swimming pool. These
represent the activities in which the bulk of the leisure time of the
plantation workers is spent.
Medical care.— All plantations provide medical care for the workers
and their families, but there are some variations in the extent and
character of the hospitalization available. The great majority main­
tain their own hospitals, under the direction of a trained physician and
a staff of nurses. For the most part, their work has to do with out­
patients— workers who have colds or who have met with some accident.
Strong encouragement is given the workers to call at the hospital for
even slight injuries or illnesses, in order to maintain working efficiency.
Each hospital contains a ward and separate rooms for infectious
diseases. One of the important functions of the hospital is the care of
maternity cases. Most of the hospitals are well equipped with surgical
instruments, supplies, and X-ray equipment.
Housing .— Housing is always provided by the management without
a rental charge. These homes are of light wooden frame construction,
the typical family house being a small square building, with board
flooring, containing three to four rooms including a kitchen. Many
of the homes are equipped with running water and toilet facilities,




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

73

but on the least profitable plantations old-fashioned outhouses are
still typical and good bathing facilities are lacking.
Roughly speaking, plantation housing may be divided into two
classes: (1) family housing and (2) single group housing. On the
whole, married men receive far more in the way of perquisites than
do single men. The plantation not only provides housing for the
entire family, but it is also generally true that the family houses are
newer and better than the single group houses. None of the houses
have basements, and where there is very heavy rainfall, as on the
Hamakua coast of Hawaii, it is not uncommon to build them 5 or 6
feet above the ground, so as to reduce the humidity.5
The single group houses are often merely old family houses that
have been turned over to single men (usually Filipinos). They are,
in most cases, more poorly furnished and cared for than the family
houses. Some plantations, however, provide large men’s dormitories
which contain a living room and a dining room in addition to the bed­
rooms. Water and toilet facilities vary considerably in different parts
of the Territory. In some plantation areas modern conveniences are
lacking.
If the housing accommodations provided on plantations were closely
crowded together, as they are in many of the industrial districts in
our mainland cities, they would produce slum conditions. But each
house is in a small yard. It often has a little garden and not infre­
quently a chicken coop in the back yard. The climate is such that
flowers and vegetables can be planted at any time during the year.
In fact, the atmosphere of plantation life is distinctly an out-of-doors
atmosphere. The natural climatic advantages, together with the
added space, make general living conditions better than they would
otherwise be.
Since there is such a wide variation in the character of perquisites
not only as between plantations but even as between various groups
within the same plantation, an accurate evaluation of perquisites is
impossible. For example, in some cases, timber is cut by plantation
workers, part of it used on the plantation and part by the workers.
M anv of the services provided by the plantation might be classified
either as a regular part of plantation work or as a service to the
laborers, such as transportation to the fields or the maintenance of
health. M oreover, it becomes extremely difficult to separate the cost
of the maintenance of trucks for distinctly plantation purposes from
their utilization for transportation in connection with recreational
activities. Of the many estimates that have been made, none can be
considered to be precise; but they are useful indications of the general
range within which the perquisites of the various plantations tend to
M l.
A primary consideration in such an evaluation is whether perquisites
should be valued in accordance with their cost to the plantation man­
agement, or should be based upon what they would cost the plantation
worker if he had to maintain them himself. The various estimates
that have been made and the observations on 17 plantations made by
those conducting this study indicate that if the plantation workers
6
Furnishings are not supplied by the plantation. They are extremely plain, wooden or wicker furniture
being the rule. Pictures are, for the most part, cheap highly colored lithographs. The addition of details,
such as curtains, cushions, and other appurtenances, depends upon the character and racial background
of the housewife. Electrical appliances, such as radios, electric washers, ironers, and refrigerators, have
come to have a social significance among plantation workers in addition to their usefulness as labor-saving
devices. For this reason plantation workers will frequently make sacrifices greater than are justified to be
able to purchase electrical equipment of this sort.




74

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1 9 3 9

had to purchase these services, their cost would range from $20 to
$28 a month. The Wage and Hour Division, however, has stated
that the valuation of perquisites for the purpose of estimating the
workers' income should be given in terms of the cost to management
and not the cost to the employee.
The Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, in reporting its estimate
for the Wage and Hour Division, stated that it considered them to
be worth 6 cents per working hour, on the basis o f an 8-hour day and
a 6-day week, which would amount to $12.96 a month of 27 working
days. Because of the variation in the different plantations any aver­
age figure for the industry as a whole is misleading, however. The
value of perquisites within the plantation differs sharply as between
the worker with a family and the unmarried worker. Observations
covering this point indicate that the unmarried worker receives per­
quisites equivalent to not more than 40 percent of the value of the
perquisites received by the married worker and his family. On some
plantations the perquisites do not represent an average cost per worker
of more than $10 a month, whereas on others they average as high as
$16.
PENSIONS

The plantations do not maintain a standardized pension system.
Each case comes before the management and is decided on its merits
at the time it arises. The result has not always been satisfactory from
the point of view o f labor since the management is inevitably in­
fluenced by the financial outlook of the plantation at the time the
decision is made.6 Equally deserving employees whose cases appear
at different times may thus receive different treatment.
For this reason a careful study is being made (1939-40) looking
toward the possible adoption o f a formal pension system which should
be more satisfactory.
COMPARATIVE POSITION OF HAWAIIAN LABOR

Because, in the earlier days of the sugar industry in Hawaii, im­
ported oriental labor received extremely low wages, it is frequently
assumed by writers on sugar production that the Hawaiian industry
is based upon a foundation of “ cheap oriental labor." At present the
situation of Hawaiian sugar workers compares very favorably with
that of agricultural workers on the mainland in respect to both rate of
earnings and regularity of employment.
Seasonality o f employment on Hawaiian plantations is far less than
that o f the average o f other American farm areas, where crops are
distinctly seasonal and producers are dependent on migrant labor for
harvesting. Seasonal variation in farm employment for the United
States as a whole shows that the amount of employment in the high
m onth (June) averages 43 percent greater than the amount of em ploy­
ment in the low month (January). Variations in the employment
of hired workers are much more extreme. For the United States as
a whole, the employment o f hired workers in January has been about
30 percent lower than the monthly average, and in July about 20
percent higher.7
6 A private organization which made a detailed study of the sugar and pineapple industries m 1938-39
strongly recommended the adoption of a standardized pension scheme for all plantations.
7 Monthly Labor Review, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 1939, vol. 48, No. 6, p. 1251.




75

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

SEASONAL V A R IA T IO N
IN FARM E M P L O Y M E N T
AVERAGE FOR TWELVE MONTHS = 100

NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES
AREA O GREATEST VARIATION, HIRED LABOR
F

INDEX

1 9 2 5 -1 9 3 6

INDEX
140

120

100

80

60

HAWAII

LABOR O H AIIAN SUGAR PLANTATIONS
N AW

INDEX
140

120

100

80

60

U IT O S A E B R A O L B R S A IS IC
N E T T S UE U P A O T T T S




S U C : W A N T N L R S A C P OE T R P R N .A - A D
O R E .R . A IO A E E R H R J C , E O T O -B N
MNHY L B R R V W J N IB B
O T L A O ' E IE , U E S

76

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

Ch art

4.

WAGE
AVERAGE

TRENDS
1924-29 -100

AVERAGE INCOMES OF FARM WAGE EARNERS

1924

1929

OF HAWAIIAN

UNITED

STATES

1935

AVERAGE INCOMES
SUGAR PLANTATION

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1932

1938

WORKERS

s o u r c e : u n it e d
states
d e p a r t m e n t o f a g r ic u l t u r e a n d
_________ MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, JULY ISSS
_______

LABOR I2 T THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9
S

77

Workers in the Hawaiian sugar industry also enjoy a relatively
favorable position in comparison with specific mainland sugarproducing areas. The cane-producing areas on the mainland show
distinctly greater seasonality in respect to employment and earnings
in both field work and in the manufacture of raw sugar. In Louisiana
the period of least employment is estimated to be slightly less than half
of the peak. In the cane mills employment at the peak is nearly 10
times that in the slack season. In Hawaii, as previously shown, there
is only a 7 to 10 percent increase in employment in the peak months of
June, July, and August, including both fields and mills.
In respect to earnings, workers in the Hawaiian sugar industry hold
an equally favorable position. The monthly wage rates of farm work­
ers for the United States as a whole averaged $27.72 with board, and
$35.63 without board in 1938. For the quarter ending April 1, 1939,
these figures were $27.08 and $35.42, respectively. By comparison,
in March 1939 the average monthly earnings of nonsalaried male
workers on Hawaiian sugar plantations amounted to $48.88, not in­
cluding perquisites which are equivalent to from $10 to $16 depending
on the plantation, the average being about $13.
Hawaii also compares favorably, in respect to wages, with mainland
sugar-producing areas. The Sugar Division of the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration, in its wage determinations, provides
about the same requirements for Louisiana as for Hawaii in respect
to daily earnings, but, since employment is extremely seasonal in
Louisiana as compared to Hawaii, annual earnings average much
higher in Hawaii. There are no accurate studies of annual earnings
of field labor in Louisiana, but reports received by the Sugar Division
indicate that they range between $200 and $250. iVverage annual
earnings of nonsalaried male workers in the Hawaiian sugar indus­
try, including employees who worked on the plantations only part
of the year, amounted to $546, not including perquisites.
Beet-sugar workers receive considerably higher wages per day.
Estimates received from the Sugar Division indicate that daily
earnings ranged from $4.13 for thinning to $5.50 for topping, for a
10-hour day. Daily earnings of beet-sugar workers are thus about
twice those of Hawaiian cane-sugar workers. The former average less
than 60 days of employment per year, however, and to obtain it they
must remain in the beet-sugar area throughout the whole season. A
study prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates 8 that for
beet work in 1935 the annual earnings averaged $340 per family, and
not more than $130 annually per worker. The total annual supple­
mentary income per family, earned outside of the beet-sugar industry,
averaged $51. Many of them are on relief throughout the winter.
Agricultural labor is one of the most poorly paid groups in the
United States as a whole, and Hawaiian plantations, being organized
on a mass-production basis, necessarily include a larger proportion of
technically trained workers than would appear in the general group
of hired laborers on American farms. Hence a comparison between
the earnings of workers in the Hawaiian sugar industry and earnings
of agricultural labor on the mainland is subject to significant quali­
fications. It is nevertheless true that, contrary to popular opinion,
Hawaiian plantation labor receives higher monthly w
rages than the
8
Monthly Labor Review, February 1938, “ Wages, Employment Conditions, and Welfare of Sugar-Beet
Laborers.”




78

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

general average of farm labor or the average of mainland cane-sugar
workers. Because of the advantages of climate, irrigation, and a
continuous cycle of growth, the stability of employment and econ­
omic security of the average plantation worker in Hawaii is far
greater than that of the farm or plantation worker on the mainland.
For the same reasons, the average annua] earnings of Hawaiian
plantation labor amount to far more than the average annual earnings
of farm labor on the mainland.
GENERAL SUMMARY

The sugar industry offers the largest occupational opportunity in
Hawaii, representing over one-third of the total number gainfully
employed.
From its inception, the Hawaiian sugar industry has been in­
creasingly dependent upon the American market. In 1876 it ob­
tained preferential treatment in a reciprocal trade agreement with the
United States. Upon annexation in 1898 it was given the protection
of the American tariff system. The Jones-Costigan Act of 1934
brought Hawaii within the framework of the American sugar quota
system, which allotted to the Territory about one-seventh (14.1
percent) of the total American market. Under these conditions the
margins of cultivation have been pushed out in respect to both the
intensity of land use (in terms of labor, fertilizer, irrigation, etc.)
and the extension of cane cultivation into poorer areas of land. As a
result marginal costs are high in spite of a high technical efficiency.
The industry is now completely dependent on the American market
and without protection the industry and the labor engaged in it would
suffer serious dislocations.
The Hawaiian sugar industry is more highly integrated than that
of any other sugar-producing area, because of the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters’ Association and the five corporations, known as factors,
that formulate its policies. As a result, the industry tends toward a
greater stability and uniformity of practice than would otherwise
obtain. It has adopted large-scale scientific procedures which are
continually increasing the efficiency of production in all operations.
For these reasons, the plantations cannot be broken down into
small, independent, sugar farms without abandoning present massproduction methods and lowering efficiency, with a resultant general
lowering in standards of living.
Wages, hours, and working conditions which were extremely bad
in the earlier days of the industry have shown a gradual improvement.
In 1939 hourly and monthly earnings were higher than they had been
in 1929. There was a decline in wages in 1932 and 1933 but the marked
rise of 1934 to 1939 more than offset the decline. Monthly earnings
(not including perquisites equivalent to about $13 per month) average
$48.88 for Hawaii as compared with a monthly average of $35.63
(without board) for all agricultural workers of continental United
States. Since there is more continuous employment for agricultural
workers in Hawaii than on the mainland, average annual wages of
Hawaiian sugar workers compare even more favorably with the aver­
age of agricultural labor for the country as a whole.
There has been a gradual improvement in housing, hospitalization,
and recreational facilities; but there is still a wide variation in respect




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

79

to these perquisites in the various plantations, and even in various
parts of a single plantation. Housing bordering slum conditions is
still to be found, representing about 20 percent of the total.
The labor supply on the plantation is passing through a rapid tran­
sition, from uneducated imported alien labor to native-born citizen
labor (children and grandchildren of the original immigrants) taught
in American schools. Citizen labor, which constituted only 12 per­
cent of the total on the plantations in 1930, already constitutes 45
percent (July 1939). Since citizens now comprise four-fifths of the
total population of the islands, the percentage of citizen laborers on
plantations may be expected to continue to rise rapidly.
Conditions that have been more or less acceptable to illiterate alien
labor are less acceptable to citizen labor with elementary, high-school,
and, in a few cases, university training. The shift from alien to citizen
labor cannot occur without serious difficulties, unless there is a large
degree of flexibility in the structural organization of the plantation
which will make possible a gradual change in the character of labormanagement relationships in the industry during the coming decade.
The factors favoring a satisfactory transition of this sort are—
(a) Efforts being made by plantation managers to improve relations
between labor and management, and among racial groups on the
plantations ;
(b) Plans for the continued improvement of housing, recreation,
and hospitalization, involving a gradual change in the social atmos­
phere, as well as the living conditions, so as to make work on the
plantations an acceptable way of life to educated citizen laborers;
(c) Organized experimentation looking toward greater mechaniza­
tion and specialization providing technical positions which are more
acceptable to educated workers; and
(d) The rise in the general wage level of sugar workers that has
occurred in recent years.
The factors unfavorable to a satisfactory transition to citizen labor
are—
(a) The difficulty of integrating the educational program of the
Territory with the general economic background of Hawaii;
(b) The continued use of some low-grade housing which, although
a small proportion of the total, creates centers of discontent;
(c ) The paternalistic attitude of management; and
{d) The high concentration of power in the hands of management
in contrast with the unorganized position of labor, which makes it
possible for the management to be arbitrary in its labor policy.
(1) The practice of making wage payments by piece rates and long­
term cultivation agreements provides a situation in which there are
no prevailing standard rates, in which management may make arbi­
trary judgments in respect to wage payments from which there is no
effective appeal through organized representation on the part of labor.
(2) Pensions are arranged individually as each case arises, so that
workers are dependent upon the good will of management and the
outlook for the industry at the time they retire, rather than on a
standardized pension plan which defines their position in this respect.
(3) The complete dependence of employees upon the plantation in
respect to every aspect of the life of the working community makes
them less independent than farm laborers on the mainland.




80

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

The foregoing should not be taken to imply that the Hawaiian sugar
industry is in a position to continue to increase plantation wages at
the rate at which they have increased between 1934 and 1939. Sugar
prices during the period 1938-40 have been extremely low. During
the past decade a number of developments have seriously affected the
competitive position of Hawaii.
(а) There has been a marked technological advance in the produc­
tion of beet sugar.9
(б) As previously indicated, Hawaii has already achieved significant
technical advances and has been a leader in the development of
mechanization. These advances improved the competitive position
of the Hawaiian industry and are already reflected in Hawaiian sugar
costs. But other sugar areas are now rapidly taking over many of the
techniques developed in Hawaii which will also lower their costs. In
other areas both beet-sugar and cane-sugar costs are declining.
(c) The Hawaiian producers pay higher taxes per ton (primarily
for local purposes), more freight (because of the great distance between
Hawaii and the market in which the sugar is sold), higher wages, and
more in the way of perquisites.
For these reasons, further rapid improvements in wages and work­
ing conditions, unless they can be offset by new techniques which will
lower costs, or a higher market price for sugar, are looked upon as being
incompatible with the maintenance of a competitive position. But
they do not preclude the possibility of a flexible adjustment of em­
ployer-employee relationships which will conform to the rapidly
changing character of the labor on Hawaiian plantations.
®There is also the prospective opening up of new areas, such as the Grand Coulee, Boulder, and others
that are excellently suited to beet-sugar cultivation. These will not offer competition until they are per­
mitted to enter the quota system, however.







Part II
The P in ea p p le In d u stry

81




C H A P T E R

9.

T H E

D E V E L O P M E N T
O F

T H E

A N D

O R G A N IZ A T IO N

IN D U S T R Y

DEVELOPMENT

The Hawaiian pineapple industry is considerably younger than the
sugar industry. The actual date of the introduction of pineapples
to Hawaii is unknown, although they were known to have grown wild
on the Kona coast very early in the nineteenth century. They did
not become a significant island product until the middle of the century.
In 1851, 21,310 pineapples were exported, of which over 14,000 were
from Maui. The first pineapple plantation did not appear, however,
until 1885. Even as late as 1909 only slightly over 5,000 acres were in
pineapples. In that year the Ginaca machine was developed for
peeling and coring the fruit, and in the following year, 1910, pineapple
juice was first publicized. By 1920 the land owned or leased by
pineapple companies amounted to 46,845 acres.
The decade between 1920 and 1930 witnessed a further rise in
production and a marked shifting of the areas under pineapple cultiva­
tion. Production on the island of Hawaii ceased. Lanai and Molokai
appeared as producers of pineapples on a large scale. The relatively
small island of Lanai, which had been used only for grazing land, was
first used for pineapples in 1924 and has since become one of the most
important pineapple-producing areas in the Territory, being second
only to Oahu. By 1930 the gross area used by the plantations
amounted to 78,000 acres. Only about 50,000 of this, however, was
directly devoted to the growing of pineapples.
T

able

3 0 . — Land owned or leased by pineapple plantations

(showing changing

areas of production) 1 9 0 9 , 1 9 2 0 , and 1937
[In acres]
1909
Oahu___ _________
____ _______ _____ __________ ______
Kauai,_
__________________________________ _______ ______
Maui. _ ___________________________ _____________ .... ______
Hawaii__ ______________________ _____________ _____ _________ _
Molokai _ - _ ____________________________________________ ___
Lanai. ______________________________________ ________________
Total

............ ............................................................................

1920

5,080
50
170
60

32,800
1,900
6,100
6,045

5,360

1937
14,954
2,945
9,595

46,845

9,267
13,363
50,124

Source: Territorial Planning Board, First Progress Report, February 1939.

The total value of the pineapple pack reached an all-time high
in 1930 of $50,055,569, but sank to only $9,570,569 in 1932, a year
of drastic curtailment. Since 1932, however, the industry has made
a marked recovery though it still shows signs of instability.
In 1937 canned pineapple shipped from Hawaii was valued at
$42,705,114. In addition to this, pineapple juice shipments amounted
241404— 40------- 7




83

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

84

to $16,689,976. Thus the total valuation of shipments of the pine­
apple industry was $59,395,090.1
In 1938, however, the value of canned pineapple sank to $25,056,692,
and of juice to $13,353,183. This represents a decline of $20,985,215
in the value of pineapple and juice combined, or a decrease of more
than one-third of their combined value in 1937. The Hawaiian
pineapple industry represents 80 percent of the total world production
of canned pineapples, but in spite of its dominant position its history
is one of marked fluctuations. At present it is subject to increasing
competition from both domestic and foreign producers.
T a b l e 31 .— P in e a p p le pack o f H a w a ii , 1 1 9 2 2 to 1 9 8 8

Year
1922.............................
1923__________ _____
1924........... ............ .
1925________________
1926____ ____ _______
1927________________
1928_____ ____ ______
1929________________
1930______________

Total cases
(000 omitted)
4,770
5,896
6,826
8,729
8,940
8,879
8, 663
9,211
12, 672

Value
$19,557,980
20,004,798
30,033,978
30, 550,030
34,417,422
33, 297,195
33, 352, 766
38,227,210
50, 055, 569

Year
1931.....................
1932........................... .
1933.............................
1934________________
1935___________ ____
1936__________ _____
1937__________ _____
1938....................... .

Total cases
(000 omitted)
12,808
5,064
7,816
2 12,113
29,850
212, 709
213,239
2 8,466

Value
$34,997,300
9, 570, 569
23,000,000
34, 416,281
28, 629, 711
38,835,794
42, 705,114
25,056, 692

1 Does not include juice, for which figures are not available.
2 Estimated on basis of 1 case equals 45 pounds.
Source: First Progress Report, Territorial Planning Board, Honolulu, 1939, p. 92. “ Pineapples," by
R. N. Chapman, director of experiment station of the Pineapple Producers’ Cooperative Association.

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION

The pineapple industry has tended toward large-scale plantation
organization in much the same way and for the same reasons as did
the sugar industry. Since the pineapple industry is younger, it has
followed many of the plantation procedures of the sugar industry in
respect to housing and other perquisites, as well as the general struc­
tural organization of the plantation as a whole. There is an obvious
tendency toward a further integration of the industry at the present
time. In 1929, for example, there were 13 companies with 11 can­
neries; 10 years later, in 1939, there were only 9 companies with 8
canneries, although production was much greater. One company pro­
duces approximately 40 percent of the combined pineapple and juice
output of the islands. Although there is some degree of coordination
between the various companies by virtue of (1) intercorporate and
intrafamily holdings, (2) interlocking directorates, and (3) relation­
ships between the pineapple concerns and the five large agencies that
dominate the sugar industry, the pineapple industry cannot be said to
have achieved as high a degree of integration as has the sugar industry.
There are several reasons for this: (1) The sugar industry is largely
island-owned, whereas some of the important pineapple companies are
only branches of large packing companies on the mainland; (2) be­
cause the industry is younger, it has not had time to achieve full coor­
dination; (3) it has suffered, even in recent years, from violent fluc­
tuations in production and demand.
i The value of sugar shipments was only about $4,000,000 more, amounting to $63,575,478 in that year.
These figures were obtained from the Annual Report of the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii, 1938
and 1939.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

85

In 1909 the first organization of firms engaged in pineapple growing
was established. It was called the Pineapple Growers’ Association and
was formed primarily for starting a mainland advertising campaign.
Scientific experimentation in the growth of pineapples was initiated
on a large scale in 1920, and further expanded in 1922. Between 1909
and 1932 the association passed through three reorganizations, finally
emerging as the “ Pineapple Producers’ Cooperative Association.”
This association includes seven of the nine firms operating in Hawaii.2
Under a cooperative arrangement these firms agree to limit produc­
tion to meet the needs of the market, sell the combined pineapple pack
through a marketing committee, pool their advertising, and stand­
ardize the pack. The association is a nonprofit organization and
charges one-fourth to one-half cent per case for the association’s ex­
pense. The agreement covers canned pineapple only and does not
refer to juice or byproducts. It ends May 31, 1942.
It is commonly assumed, in Hawaii and elsewhere, that “ the pine­
apple industry has a quota system similar to that of the sugar indus­
try.” While it is true that both industries have established quotas,
an examination of the pineapple agreement indicates that they are
distinctly different in their nature and purpose. The sugar quota, as
previously indicated, is imposed by the Federal Government in the
interests of the country as a whole and consists of a broad framework
of legal regulation for stabilizing the American market, Hawaii being
allotted 14 percent of the total.
The Hawaiian pineapple industry, on the other hand, controls
80 percent of the total world production of canned pineapple. Its
quota system covers only the Territory. It is not based on govern­
mental action but is self-imposed in the interest of earnings in the
industry. Because of its dominant position, by regulating production
the industry can affect price. In this respect, however, it can operate
only within the limitations set by competing substitute fruits. A
lowering of the price of canned peaches, for instance, will affect the
sale of canned pineapples.
The quota system should not be taken to mean that the association
maintains a single marketing organization. The two large mainland
packing corporations sell canned pineapples along with their other
products (produced elsewhere) through their own marketing organiza­
tions. Two large Hawaiian companies have established branches in
San Francisco as outlets. Another employs a Cleveland concern to
act as its agent. The pineapple industry thus maintains a much less
integrated and standardized marketing system than the sugar industry.
Within the limits of the quota system, which is carefully administered
by a joint committee, there is a high degree of competition. For
these reasons, general information on the industry as a whole is not as
complete as in the case of the sugar industry, and some specific
details, considered strictly confidential, are not available.
2 The 4 largest firms can 88 percent of the pack.




C H APTER

10.

P IN E A P P L E

P L A N T A T IO N S

LABOR SUPPLY

A detailed discussion has already been presented explaining the
growth and racial complexity of the population of the islands. Al­
though the pineapple plantations have played a very minor role in the
importation of labor, as compared with the sugar plantations, they
have had to depend upon the same general labor market. It is only
natural, therefore, that the racial groups on pineapple plantations
should be similar to those on the sugar plantations. The Filipinos
constitute the largest single racial group, representing 57 percent of
all pineapple plantation labor. The Japanese constitute the next
largest group, representing 29 percent. The remaining 14 percent
consists of a mixture of other races. Plantations (both pineapple and
sugar) will be able to rely less on Filipinos in the future because of
the high percentage of single men and the number of Filipinos return­
ing to their homes. It seems probable that the Japanese (and to a
less marked degree the Portuguese) will increase in importance as
Filipino labor declines.
Because the pineapple industry is relatively young, the average
age of plantation workers is below that of those in the sugar industry.
Fifty-six percent of the pineapple plantation workers (and 71 percent
of the cannery workers) are below 35 years of age. It appears inevi­
table, however, that just as the sugar industry is now facing the
problems of aged and dependent workers, so the pineapple plantations
will in the future have workers of a considerably higher average age.
The same problems occasioned by the rapid rise in the percentage of
citizen laborers must also be faced by the pineapple plantations.
Management has been traditionally opposed to labor organization
as in the sugar industry. As is indicated later, a large part of the
pineapple industry is closely associated with the sugar industry m
respect to labor policy.
Frequent efforts have been made to organize both plantation and
cannery labor. Strikes involving about 1,800 pineapple plantation
workers occurred in June and August 1937. Since then unionizat on
groups have been especially active.
Under an agreement signed by the management and officers of the
union, on May 20, 1939, a vote was taken at Kalaheo, Kauai. As a
result, the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers
of America, Local 76, Congress of Industrial Organizations, was voted
the exclusive representative of the workers for collective bargaining.1
This action was given wide publicity in the press and is considered by
both plantation and cannery workers to be a significant precedent.
i The election was held under the provisions of the Labor Relations Act. Only nonagricultural workers
were eligible as voters, and some confusion arose as to who were agricultural and who nonagricultural
workers.
86




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

87

TYPES OF OPERATIONS

Hawaiian pineapple production passes through a 5-year cycle
(from one first planting to the next first planting). The first crop
requires approximately 18 months to mature. Since the second and
third crops grow on the plants from which the first crop was harvested,
they require only about 12 months to mature. The greater the
number of such ratoon crops, the smaller the average size of the
pineapple. Hence it is usually not considered advisable to attempt a
fourth crop without replanting. There is thus about 3% years of
continuous crop growth. This is followed by a period of a year or
more during which the land is allowed to lie fallow and recuperate,
after which a new cycle of preparation of the soil, planting, cultivation,
and harvesting is begun.
(1) Preparation o f the soil .— Much the same types of crawler
tractors and heavy-duty plows are used for preparing the soil as
are used on the sugar plantations. Tractor drivers and their helpers
are thus the principal types of labor required. There is an important
additional operation in preparing the land for pineapples, however.
After being plowed and harrowed, the pineapple fields are laid out in
parallel rows from 4 to 6 feet wide, and well treated with fertilizer.
They are then covered with an asphalt-treated mulch paper about
3 feet in width. This serves the triple purpose of preventing the
growth of weeds, of holding the moisture, and of attracting heat.
It reserves all of the fertilizer and the growing power of the soil for
the fruit alone, and greatly reduces the amount of hoeing and weeding
that would otherwise be required.
(2) Planting .— After the paper is laid, holes are made through
the paper and the pineapple crown (or in some cases the pineapple
plant slip) is set in each hole. There follows a long period of growth
during which little has to be done to the plants beyond spraying and
fertilizing.
(3) S p ra yin g .— Spraying is used not only to keep down insect
pests, but also to provide certain elements lacking in the soil. There
is very little iron in Hawaiian soil, hence this is supplied in the form
of an iron sulphate sprayed on the plant by large mechanical sprayers.
Formerly one man and a pair of mules could cover 30 to 40 acres a day.
At present there are two methods of machine spraying. On
Lanai a cable spray is used. Two heavy trucks folloV along parallel
roads with a cable strung tightly between, across the field, on which
is hung a long hose with a series of nozzles from which the spray is
forced under pressure. Elsewhere a single motorized machine is
used. This carries a large tank with very long arms extending out to
either side to which are appended nozzles at just the right intervals
to provide the maximum of spray age down the rows of pineapples.
Such a machine will average 240 acres a day, making it possible for
one man to do as much as six to eight men did before. Experimenta­
tion is now being carried on to extend the length of the arms and thus
obtain an even greater coverage. Although one man is sufficient to
operate such a machine, it must be serviced by a truck which brings
the liquid to the machine at prearranged intervals.
Spraying for insect control (particularly mealy bugs) is also an
important factor in the cost of production, amounting to over a
half million dollars per year for the industry as a whole. This is




88

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

much more demanding work and must be done with a hand sprayer.
In 1939 the experimental station of the Pineapple P roduced Associa­
tion developed a new “ spray head” which can be lowered over the
plant and will reach all parts that must be sprayed in a single opera­
tion. Heretofore, the sprayer had to be moved around each plant
and applied at the right angles to reach all of the essential parts. The
new sprayer head has already resulted in a decrease in the number of
workers required on one plantation by 102 men.
(4)
Harvesting and transporting consist of picking the ripe fruit
from the plants, carrying it in sacks to a point of concentration at
the edge of the field, cutting the crowns from the fruit, sorting the
fruit into three grades according to size, filling empty boxes with fruit,
and finally loading trucks and trailers with the boxes for delivery to
the canneries. The plantations on Lanai and Molokai have the
additional problem of transferring the boxes of pineapples to barges on
which they are shipped to Honolulu for canning. To date, all of
these operations have depended exclusively upon hand labor.
But the pineapple industry is at present passing through a period
of intensive experimentation with various types of “ field fruit carriers.”
These are sometimes erroneously called fruit pickers, but they still
require picking by hand.
Heretofore the workers have had to carry the pineapples in sacks as
they picked them. These sacks became a heavy burden as the pickers
approached the ends of the long rows. The physical effort of carry­
ing these loads was as great as that of the picking itself. Women and
minors were often used to do the hand work involved in topping, sort­
ing, and packing into “ lug boxes.” 2 These operations were performed
at a point of concentration on the roadside at the end of the field to
which the pickers were required to carry their loads.
The “ field fruit carrier” alters all these operations. The most
successful of these machines developed to date has a small crawlertractor type of traction which permits operation in wet weather. It
can turn about in a much smaller space than an ordinary motorcar,
thus making it possible to turn from one row back into the next row
on the very narrow roadways that run through the pineapple fields.
It carries a wide platform above the tops of the fruit and a belt con­
veyor extending down at the back of the machine. The machine
moves very slowly through the field, making it possible for pickers to
follow it closely and toss the fruit as rapidly as picked onto the conveyer
belts which carry the fruit past a buzz saw on the platform. The
saw tops the fruit as it passes into a lug box. Workers on the
platform pile up lug boxes as rapidly as they are filled. At the end
of the field they are shoved off onto trucks to be carried to the cannery.
Some of these machines are already in commercial operation, and
those concerned in the experiment feel that success is assured. In
addition to greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of operations,
the machines show a reduction in bruising. In June 1939, in an
experiment carried on side by side with field labor in the same field,
the machine-harvested fruit showed only 2.04 percent bruised fruit
as compared with 12.3 percent bruised fruit for regular hand work.
A rate of 5 percent of bruised fruit has heretofore been considered
highly satisfactory.
2 A wooden box with hand grips at either end used in transporting the pineapples from the field to the
cannery. Pineapples become bruised when piled in open trucks without such protection.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

89

If the machines are successful, it is planned to equip them with
powerful electric lights, so that work can be carried on at night.
There would then be two 8-hour shifts plus one-half hour for meals
for each shift, and two quarter-hour “ smoking (relaxation) periods.”
This, together with 1 hour for changing the shift, would cover a span
of 19 hours a day. At the peak of the season, when very hard pressed,
an additional half-day shift of 4 hours could be included.
The great advantage of this method of harvesting grows out of the
fact that pineapples tend to ripen quickly during the height of the
season.3 To obtain the fruit at the peak of ripeness and yet not
permit it to become overripe is the secret of turning out the best
possible product in the cannery. The “'field fruit carrier” provides a
partial solution by increasing both the number of working hours per
day and the speed of harvesting during the peak season.
The effect of the use of this machine on labor on the pineapple
plantations would be (1) to increase the efficiency of the men, (2)
to reduce the number of laborers required, and (3) largely to eliminate
women and minors from field labor (particularly topping).
For performing the various operations described above, pineapple
plantations require a large number of semiskilled and unskilled
laborers, and relatively few skilled laborers. The truck drivers,
mechanics, and the drivers of the tractors and mechanical sprayers
represent less than one-tenth of the total number employed on the
plantations. The other nine-tenths comprising the general field
labor on the plantations are shifted from one occupation to another.
They engage in practically all of the steps in cultivation and har­
vesting, such as laying mulch paper, planting, hoeing, weeding,
cultivating, picking, topping, and sorting the fruit, as well as piling
and loading the lug boxes.
3
Experimentation is being conducted to spread out the peak by the use of a gassing process, which hastens
the ripening of the fruit. But seasonality is still a difficult problem.




CHAPTER 11.

METHODS OF PAYMENT AND EARNINGS
METHODS OF PAYMENT

The pineapple plant grows only waist high and remains in clear-cut
rows instead of spreading about in a tangled growth like that of sugar.
Work in the field and the supervision of such work are simpler than
on a sugar plantation. Because direct supervision is possible at all
times, there are no workers who correspond to the long-term culti­
vators of the sugar industry.
There are three methods of payment on pineapple plantations:
(1) Salaries, (2) hourly wage rates, (3) piece-rate wages. Piece rates
are paid on a group basis in the same way as on the sugar plantations;
that is, men work in gangs of 5 to 15 or more at a rate per unit of work
performed, which is announced in the field by the “ lunas” or straw
bosses at the time the work starts. The share of each worker is in
proportion to the number of hours he works on the job.
Piece rates vary in accordance with varying conditions of weather,
topography, and of the crop itself. In June 1939 on a typical plants
tion they were as follows:
Occupation:
Harvesting__________
Laying mulch paper.
Weeding_____________
Fertilizing___________
Planting_____________
Stripping____________
Trimming___________
Bagging seed________

R ate p er unit

20
3
35
70
70
90
45

to 8 cents per crate.
cents per roll.
to 7 cents per line.
to 60 cents per 100 pounds.
cents per 1,000 plants.
cents to $1 per 1,000 plants.
cents per 1,000 plants.
cents per 1,000 plants.

EARNINGS ON PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS

The statistical study of earnings of workers on pineapple plantations
is based upon a sample of 4,566 workers, constituting about one-third
of the total employment on all pineapple plantations in July 1938.
It was drawn from the records of three of the eight plantations of
varying size on the islands. They are located on the islands of Maui,
Lanai, and Oahu.
H o u r l y e a rn in g s .— The average hourly earnings of all piece-rate and
hourly-rate workers combined were 32.3 cents.1 For males, who
constituted more than 93 percent of the labor force, the average was
33.0 cents. Two-thirds of the males (67.0 percent) received between
25 and 35 cents per hour. Nearly one-third (29.7 percent) received
between 27.5 and 30 cents per hour. Only 7.9 percent received less
than 25 cents per hour (table 32).
Records of plantation pay rolls indicated that of those working at
hourly rates, over two-thirds (68 percent) were hired at an hourly
rate of 25 cents. Because of overtime, for which they are paid time
i A total of 145 salaried workers are excluded from the section on hourly earnings, since for many of these
the actual number of hours worked per week was not available.

90




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

91

193 9

and one-half, their actual earnings average somewhat higher. The
high concentration of workers at or near this rate is due to the fact
that nine-tenths of all the labor employed on pineapple plantations
is unskilled or semiskilled.
T

32. — Distribution o f nonsalaried workers on pineapple plantations in the
Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by sex, August 1988

able

Females 1

Males
Average hourly earnings

Under 12.6 cents_________________________
1 .6and under 15 cen ts..____ ____________
2
15 and under 17.5 cents___________________
17.5 and under 20 cents__________________
20 and under 22.5 cents___________________
22.5 and under 25 cents___________________
25 and under 27.5 cents______ _____ _____
27.5 and under 30 cents___________________
30 and under 32.5 cents___________________
32.5 and under 35 cents___________________
35 and under 37.5 cents................................ .
37.5 and under 40 cents___________________
40 and under 42.5 cents___________________
42.5 and under 45 cents... _________ ._
45 and under 47.5 cents
47.5 and under 50 cents
50 and under 52.5 cents
52.5 and under 55 cents.._
55 and under 57.5 cents.................................
57.5 and under 60 cents....................... ..........
...................
60 cents and over____ _
T otal___________ _________ _________
Average hourly earnings__________ ____

N um ber
of
workers

Simple
percent­
age

C um u­
lative
percent­
age

29

0.7

0.7

6
2
1
32
6
6

175
480

12
,2 1
632
428
238
165
103
85
97
95
70
58
38

2
2
262
4,123
$0.330

.1
.5
.8
1.6
4.2
1 .6
1

29.7
15.3
10.4
5.8
4.0
2.5

2.1

2. 4
2.3
1. 7
1.4
.9
.5
1.5

Num ber
of
workers

6

.8
2.1

9
26
109
58
27

1.3

3.7
7.9
19.5
49.2
64.5
74.9
80.7
84.7
87.2
89.3
91. 7
94.0
95.7
97.1
98.0
98.5

2
0
18
1
2
6
3
1
3

Simple
percent­
age

2.0

3.0
8.7
36.7
19.5
9.1
6.7

6.0
4.0
2.0
1.0
.3
1.0

C um u­
lative
percent­
age

2.0

5.0
13.7
50.4
69.9
79.0
85.7
91.7
95.7
97.7
98.7
99.0

10
0 .0

298
$0. 222

1238, or 79.9 percent of all female workers were Japanese.
2The average of all workers earning 60 cents and over amounted to 66 cents.
The distribution of hourly earnings of nonsalaried workers indicated
very little difference in racial earnings of males (table 33). Filipinos,
representing over half of the total sample, received an average of 33.3
cents per hour. Nearly three-fourths of them earned between 25 and
32.5 cents per hour. The Japanese, representing one-fourth of the
total, earned an average of 33 cents per hour, but showed a somewhat
wider dispersion. Only 1.2 percent of the Filipinos received less than
25 cents per hour, whereas 20.4 percent of the Japanese received less
than 25 cents per hour. On the other hand, a somewhat larger per­
centage of the Japanese received over 35 cents per hour.
Earnings of females averaged 22.2 cents or a third less than the
average of males. Three-fourths of the female workers received
between 15 and 25 cents per hour, 36.7 percent of them receiving be­
tween 17.5 and 20 cents per hour. No female worker received more
than 42.5 cents per hour (table 32).
Nine-tenths of the total number of plantation workers are un­
skilled or semiskilled. They are moved from one type of operation
to another as required, such as mulch paper laying, harvesting,
loading, road repairing, and the like.




92

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

T a b l e 3 3. — Average hourly and monthly earnings of male nonsalaried workers on

pineapple plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, hy race, August 1938
Race

Total____ ______ ________________________ ______
Japanese_________________ _____
_______________
_
Filipino.................. _ . . . ___ _ _
. _ ___ _
Chinese_________ ____ _________
_
_ _________ _____
Portuguese____ _________________
.
___ __ ________
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian_________________________
Korean______. . . . _________ ______________ . . . ____
All o t h e r s .___ _______ ___________________
________

Number

Percent

4,123

10
0 .0

1,042
2,491
117
76
94
182

25.3
60.5

11
2

2.8
18
.

2.3
4.4
2.9

Average
hourlyearnings

Average
m onthly
earnings

$0.330

$58.62

.330
. d33
.326
.316
.329
.296
.318

56.86
59. 56
67. 51
57.78
62.68
50.26
55.83

M o n t h l y ea rn in g s .— The average monthly earnings of male non­
salaried workers for August 1938 amounted to $58.62 (table 34).
Over one-fourth of all such workers (28.5 percent) received between
$50 and $60. Filipinos averaged $59.56 and Japanese $56.86. Chi­
nese received the highest average monthly earnings, amounting to
$67.51, and Koreans the lowest, $50.26.
The average monthly earnings of female nonsalaried workers were
$30.44, or only slightly over half that of males. This was due not
only to the lower hourly earnings of females but also to the fact
that they had less regular employment.
All 4,566 workers in the sample, including the 145 salaried workers,
averaged $57.93 per month. In this group, 12.0 percent received less
than $30 per month. There was a strong concentration between $50
and $70, 42.4 percent of all employees receiving earnings within this
range. Only 8.2 percent earned $90 or more per month.







T

able

3 4 .—

Distribution of nonsalaried1 workers on pineapple plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, according to monthly earninas. by sex
and race, August 1988
*

co

M i lies

Japanese

Total—all races
M onthly earnings

64
37
24
39
17
25
40
25
31
40
58
70
62
81
82
126
127

1.6
.9
.6

10
0

150
673
504
406
293
233

22
1
165
127
83

6
6
61
39

263
4,123
$58.62

.9
.4

.6
1
.0
.6
.8
1
.0
1.4
1.7
1.5

2.0
2.0

3.1
3.1
2.4
3.6
16.3

1 .2
2
9.8
7.1
5.7
5.1
4.0
3.1

2.0
1.6
1.5
.9
1.5

1.6

2.5
3.1
4.0
4.4
5.0

6.0
6.6

7.4
8.4
9.8
11.5
13.0
15.0
17.0

2 .1
0

23.2
25.6
29.2
45.5
57.7
67.5
74.6
80.3
85.4
89.4
92.5
94.5
96.1
97.6
98.5

35

2
1
16
2
2

4
14
24
13
14

2
0

26
32
33

2
0

24
39
25
18
27
98
74
72
59
63
55
35
29
28
25

2
0

17
40
1,042
$56.86

Simple
percent­
age
3.4

2.0
1.5
2.1
.4
1.3
2.3

1.2

1.3
1.9
2.5
3.1
3.2
1.9
2.3
3.7
2.4
1.7

2.6

9.5
7.2
6.9
5.7

6.0
5.3
3.4

2.8
2.7
2.4
1.9

1.6

3.8

3.4
5.4
6.9
9.0
9.4
10.7
13.0
14.2
15.5
17.4
19.9
23.0
26.2
28.1
30.4
34.1
36.5
38.2
40.8
50.3
57.5
64.4
70.1
76.1
81.4
84.8

88.6

90.3
92.7
94.6
96.2

17
5
3

1
0
8
4
9

8
8
1
2
2
2
26
2
0

47
45

6
8
82
6
8

106
494
367
303
197
136
117
104
73
47
35
27

1
2
1
1

2,491
$59.56

Simple
percent­
age

Chinese
Cumula­
Number
tive
of
percent­
workers
age

0.7

0.7
.9

.4
.3

1.4
1.7
1.9
2.3

.2
.1

.2

.4
.3
.3
.5
.9

1.0
.8
1.8

1.9

2.7
3.3
2.7
4.3
19.8
14.7

1 .2
2
7.9
5.5
4.7
4.2
2.9
1.9
1.4

1
.1
.5
.4

1.0

Simple
percent­
age

1
1
1

0.9

2
2

1.7
1.7

3

2.6

.9
.9

2.6

2.9
3.4
4.3
5.3

6.1
8.0

9.8
12.5
15.8
18.5

2 .8
2

42.6
57.3
69.5
77.4
82.9
87.6
91.8
94.7
96.6
98.0
99.1
99.6

2
1

4

3
16
13
5
5

1.7
3.4
.9

2.6
1 .0
1
13.6

1
2
15
1
0
1
0
1
2

4.3
4.3
10.3
12.7
8.5
8.5
.9
1.7

2

Cumula­
tive
percent­
age
0.9
.6

1.8

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
4.4

6.1
6.1

8.7
10.4
13.8
14.7
17.3
30.9
41.9
46.2
50.5
60.8
73.5
82.0
90.5
91.4
93.1
95.7
98.3

1.7

3
3

2.6
2.6

117
$67.51

1 Only 145 workers in the sample were salaried.
2The average of all workers earning $120 and over amounted to $145.42. The averages by race were $150.57 for Japanese; $125.93 for Filipinos; $134.02 for Chinese; $128.70 for
Portuguese; $156.58 for Hawaiians and part Hawaiians; $122.76 for Koreans; and $151.95 for all others.




19 39

Under $5___ __________________________________ ____
$5 and under $7.50_________________________________
$7.50 and under $10 __ ___________________________
$ 0and under $1:2.50________________________________
1
$12.50 and under $15_______________________________
$15 and under $17.50 _ _ _ ____ ___ ___________ ____
$17.50 and under $20_______________ ___ ______ _____
$20 and under $22.50._____ ______________ ____ ___ _
$22.50 and under $25._________ ___________ ________
$25 and under $27.50._____ _ ______________________
$27.50 and under $30______________ ________________
$30 and under $32.50_______________________________
$32.50 and under $35_______________________________
$35 and under $37.50_______________________________
$37.50 and under $40_______________________________
$40 and under $42.50_______________________________
$42.50 and under $45_______________________________
$45 and under $47.50____________________________ _
$47.50 and under $50_______________________________
$50 and under $55_______________ ____ _____________
$55 and under $60____________________ : ____________
$60 and under $65__________________________________
$65 and under $70_______________________ ____ ______
$70 and under $75__________________________________
$75 and under $80_____ _________________________ _
$80 and under $85_______ ______ ____________ _______
$85 and under $90_______________ ______ ____ ______
$90 and under $95___________________ ____ _________
$95 and under $100---------- ---------- ---------------------- ------$ 0 and under $110............................ ............. ..............
10
$ 1 and under $120_________ _________________ _____
10
$ 2 and over------- ------- --------------------------------- ---------10
Total
.
__________ _________
Average monthly earnings. .
. ______

Simple
percent­
age

Filipino
Cumula­
Number
tive
of
percent­
workers
age

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

Number
of
workers

Cumula­ Num ber
tive
of
percent­ workers
age

Females

Males—Continued
Hawaiian and part
Hawaiian

Portuguese
Monthly earnings

Korean

All races3

All others

Total........ ........... ............. .......
Average monthly earnings................

1

1.3

3

3.9

1
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
2

5
4
3

2
5
7
7
5

1
1

5
4

2
2
4

1

1.3
1.3

2.6
2.6
3.9
1.3
1.3
1.3

2.6
6.6

5.4
3.9

2.6
6.6

9.2
9.2

6.6
1.3
1.3

6.6
5.4
2.6
2.6
5.4
1.3

1.3
1.3
5.2
5.2
5.2
6.5
7.8
10.4
13.0
16.9
18.2
19.5

2 .8
0

23.4
30.0
35.4
39.3
41.9
48.5
57.7
66.9
73.5
74.8
76.1
82.7

8 .1
8

90.7
93.3
93.3
98.7

76
$57. 78

3238, or 79.9 percent, of all female workers were Japanese.




1
1

1
.1
1
.1

3
3

3.2
3.2

1

4

1
1
1
1
2
3
3
3

2

1
.1

4.3
1l

1
.1
1
.1
1
.1
2.1
3.2
3.2
3.2

2.1

5
7

3.2
7.3
8.4
5.3
7.3

3
4

12.7
3. 2
4.3

4

4.3

3
7

8
2
,12
1
1
6
1

94
$62.68

2.1

1
.1
1
.1
64
.
1
.1

1
.1
2.2
2.2
5.4
8.6

9.7
9.7
14.0
15.1
16. 2
17.3
18.4
20.5
23.7
26.9
30.1
32.2
35.4
42.7
51.1
56.4
63.7
65.8
78.5
81.7

8 .0
6
87.1
8 .2
8
94. 6
95. 7

1
1
7
1
3

2
1
2
3
3

6
1

5
4
7
5
45
28

1
0
14
8
7
3

2
1
2
1
182
$50.26

6.0
3.8
.6
1.6
1.1

.6
1
.1

1.6
1.6
3.3
.6
2.7
2.2

3.8
2.7
24.8
15.5
5.5
7.7
4.4
3.8

1
.6
1
.1
.6
1
.1
.6

6.0

9.8
10.4

1 .0
2
1 .0
2

13.1
13.7
14.8
14.8
14.8
14.8
16.4
18.0
21.3
21.9
24.6
26.8
30.6
33.3
58.1
73.6
79.1

8 .8
6

91.2
95.0
96.6
97.7
97.7
98.3
99.4
99.4

1
1

0.8
.8

3

2.5

1
2
4
1

1.7
3.3

3
5

.8
.8

5
4
4
5

2.5
4.1
5.0
4.1
1.7
4.1
3.3
3.3
4.1

4

3.3

7
4

5.8
3.3
5.0
9.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.3

6
5
2
1
8

6
1
1
5
5
5
4
3

2

4

11
2

$55.83

.8
6.6

2.5
1.7
3.3

0.8
1.6

4.1
4.1
4.9

6.6

9.9
10.7
13.2
17.3
22.3
26.4
28.1
32.2
35.5
38.8
42.9
43.7
47.0
53.6
59.4
62.7
67.7
76.9
81.0
85.1
89.2
92.5
92.5
95.0
96.7

24
3
3
13
17
13

6

9
15

2
2
2
2
1
2

24
23
25
7
9

1
0
5
15
7
9

2
2
1

8.1
1.0
1.0

4.4
5.7
4.4

2.0
3.0
5.0
7.4
7.4
4.0

8.1

7.7
8.4
2.3
3.0
3.4
1.7
5.0
2.3
3.0
.7
.7
.3

8.1
9.1
1 .1
0
14.5
20.2

24.6
26.6
29.6
34.6
42.0
49.4
53.4
61.5
69.2
77.6
79.9
82.9
86.3

88.0

93.0
95.3
98.3
99.0
99.7

10
0 .0

1939

Under $5..............................................
$5 and under $7.50______________ __
$7.50 and under $10— ............. ..........
$10 and under $12.50________ _____
$12.50 and under $15__________ ___
$15 and under $17.50_______________
$17.50 and under $20— ........... ..........
$ 0and under $22.50................ ..........
2
$22.50 and under $25_______________
$25 and under $27.50-......... .............
$27.50 and under $30...........................
$30 and under $32.50....................... .
$32.50 and under $35______________
$35 and under $37.50....... ...................
$37.50 and under $10...........................
$40 and under $42.50....... ...................
$42.50 and under $45................ ..........
$45 and under $47.50______________
$47.50 and under $50______________
$50 and under $55.......... ........ ............
$55 and under $60__________ ______
$60 and under $65_________________
$65 and under $70_________________
$70 and under $75.......... ’___________
$75 and under $80........ ................... .
$80 and under $85________ ____ ___
$85 and under $90............................ .
$90 and under $95.......... ........ ............
$95 and under $100........ ...............
$ 0 and under $110............................
10
$ 1 and under $120. ............_............
10
$ 2 and over....................... ...............
10

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

Cumu­
Cumu­
Simple Cumu­
N um ­
Simple Cumu­ Num ­ Simple Cumu­
N um ­
Simple
N um ­
Simple
N um ­
lative
lative
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ percent­
percent­ workers
workers
workers
age
age
age
workers
age
workers
age
age
age
age
age
age

298
$30.44

CO
Oi

96

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,
EFFECT

O F S E A S O N A L IT Y

1939

O N E A R N IN G S

The nature of the pineapple is such that it tends to ripen during the
summer months, particularly in the latter half of July, although there
is a minor fruiting period in January. Even in the equable climate of
Hawaii, it has been extremely difficult to spread this ripening period.
The gassing process, a recent development, provides a partial con­
trol over the fruiting period of pineapples. It consists of placing a
small quantity of acetylene (or ethylene) in aqueous solution directly
into the heart of the plant. Under proper climatic conditions (such as
those on Lanai) a small quantity of the carbide itself may be put into
the heart of the plant and the rain water will generate the necessary
gas. Pineapples must be gassed 5 to 6 months prior to the time when
it is desired to harvest them. It cannot be used to retard fruiting but
only to accelerate it. The effect of gassing is to pull the pineapple
period forward and thus reduce the peak at the height of the summer
season. Gassing has one disadvantage. It does not condition the
fruit as to size so that the earlier the pineapples are brought to fruition,
the smaller the size.
Experimentation is now going forward on retarding the fruit so as
to spread the harvest period on through the latter part of the summer
and early fall. In these experiments certain chemicals are applied
which induce a dormancy in the fruit. Should a successful technique
be discovered, it is expected that, just as the acceleration o f fruiting
diminishes the size of the pineapple, the retarding of the date of
fruiting will increase the size, thus offsetting the losses in quantity due
to the gassing process. Under these conditions pineapple harvesting
and canning could be spread from the latter part of May to the middle
of September.
In addition to the efforts to spread the season, experimentation has
been undertaken in recent years to develop techniques for meeting the
intense demands of July with power-driven machines rather than by
relying upon sharp increases in the quantity of labor hired, thus reduc­
ing seasonal changes in the volume of employment. This has been
partially successful, the most significant recent development in this
direction being the “ field fruit carrier” previously described. Until
these methods are perfected, however, the industry will continue to
exhibit a high concentration of production during the summer months.
The seasonality of employment on pineapple plantations is far
greater than on the sugar plantations. In 1938 the average employ­
ment in the 9 off-season months amounted to 8,591, which was only
two-thirds of the average employment in the months of June, July,
and August (13,019). The peak month of July required 14,840
laborers, which was more than twice as many as the 7,154 employed in
November.
An analysis of the records of three plantations for the fiscal year
July 1, 1938, to July 1, 1939, indicated that of the additional laborers
hired during June, July, and August, nearly one-half were students.
It is not surprising, therefore, that of the total separations during the
year, less than half (48 percent) were discharged or laid off, the re­
mainder quitting of their own volition.
It should also be noted that the average number of hours of labor
per day increases during the summer peak. Pineapple plantations
maintain an 8-hour day not including the time required for transport




LABOR 1ST TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

97

by truck to and from the fields. But because of occasional days of
bad weather and periods when full-time work is unnecessary, the
average hours per week for any month very seldom rise to 40 hours
per week even in the peak months and fall as low as 27 hours per week
in the low months. Therefore, seasonality measured in terms of man­
hours and earnings per month is greater than seasonality measured in
terms of number of employees. Pineapple pay rolls in November are
only one-third of the total for the month of July.
It will be noted that the average monthly earnings of male pine­
apple plantation workers were somewhat higher than those of male
sugar workers (tables 16 and 35). Complete data are not available,
but from the information at hand it appears that the average annual
earnings of pineapple plantation workers in 1938 were between $400
and $450, substantially less than the $561 reported for workers on
sugar plantations (table 22). The poorer showing of the pineapple
plantation workers with respect to annual earnings is, of course, due
to greater seasonality in their employment.
Since sugar and pineapple plantations depend on the same labor
market, it is natural that there should have been a rise in wages on
pineapple plantations accompanying that on the sugar plantations.
This increase is shown by table 35. Between 1932 and 1937 the base
rate for male pineapple plantation laborers rose from 15 to 25 cents per
hour, and for female plantation workers, from 12.5 cents to 18 cents.
T

able

35 .— Comparison of average hourly and monthly earnings in 1929 and 1938
of pineapple-plantation workers in the Hawaiian Islands, by sex

Sex

Average hourly earnings Average m onthly earn­
ings
1929

M ale.--- _- -_
Female_______
___

_____________ ____ __
______ _ ____ .. _ ___

$0. 227
.116

1938
$0. 330

.2 2
2

1929
$41.96
8.89

1938
$58. 62
30. 44

Source: Data for 1929 from U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 534: Labor Conditions in the Ter­
ritory of Hawaii; data for 1938 from present survey.

In respect to seasonality and annual earnings the conditions on
Hawaiian pineapple plantations approximate the conditions of the
average farm laborer on the mainland more closely than do those of
the sugar plantations.




CHAPTER 12.

PERQUISITES, WORKING CONDITIONS, AND
SUMMARY
PERQUISITES

The perquisites of workers on pineapple plantations are very similar
to those of the sugar plantations and include housing, community
services and utilities, hospitalization, recreational facilities, and other
minor perquisites. Since the pineapple industry is much younger,
it has had the advantage of being able to draw upon the prior experience
of the sugar industry in establishing the plantation community and in
setting up the general structural organization of the plantation as a
whole. It also has the advantage of not being burdened with obsolete
housing and other equipment.
In spite of these facts, however, pineapple plantations on the whole
do not provide as adequate perquisites. It is true that the best and
most recently developed of the pineapple plantation communities are
well organized and equipped, and will compare favorably with the best
of the sugar plantations. But the range in the quality of pineapple
plantation equipment is very great, and in the poorest of them housing
and other perquisites are far from satisfactory, particularly during the
summer months.
The reasons for this are obvious. The pineapple industry has been
relatively unstable both in respect to localities in which pineapples are
produced and the volume of output. This instability has been due to
sharp changes in price and demand occasioned by competitive sub­
stitute goods. It is also a result of crop uncertainties due to insect
pests. Within the past decade the industry suffered so severely from
a plant wilt that some producers were ready to abandon Hawaii
altogether. Again consideration must be given to the fact that some
plantations are on leased land and face uncertainties with regard to the
renewal of leases. These conditions led not only to restriction of the
construction of new housing, but also reduced reconditioning and
replacements to the barest minima.
An additional retarding influence on the development of satisfactory
conditions grows out of the fact that about half of the industry is
controlled from the mainland by concerns that produce competing
fruits elsewhere and have only a minor interest in the island communi­
ties as such.
But the most fundamental reason for housing and other difficulties
is to be found in the marked seasonality of employment. Employ­
ment in the peak month of July is over twice that of November. This
in turn means that to provide fully adequate housing for all employees
during the peak months results in having much of the investment lying
idle during the remainder of the year. The result, therefore, has been
to provide moderately adequate housing only for the fully employed,
and to take care of the additional employees of the peak period by
either doubling up or providing less permanent forms of housing.
Housing facilities are roughly divided into (1) single group houses
and (2) family group houses. Because of the predominance of un98




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

193 9

99

married Filipinos in the labor force, single group houses are more
numerous and are, on the whole, less adequate than family houses.
Broadly speaking, the quality of accommodations varies with the age
of the plantation town. The newer plantation communities have wide
streets, modern sanitary conveniences, and good houses with adequate
space for gardens.
But in contrast there are too many plantation camps on old locations
in which houses are unpainted, without screens, in need of repairs, and
entirely lacking in modern sanitary conveniences. Many of them do
not have full partitions between rooms. In these areas common toilets
and bathhouses are the rule. During the peak season there is over­
loading of toilet and other facilities creating unsanitary conditions
which, in the warm humid climate of Hawaii, constitute a serious
health hazard.
In some camps the water supply is insufficient for proper sanitation
and is not palatable for drinking. Overcrowding creates an unsatis­
factory social condition when families must live in houses for single
men because of the shortage of family group houses. In the plantation
areas of this type, permanent satisfied workers cannot be expected
and a high labor turn-over is inevitable.
Thus, the pineapple plantations, like the sugar plantations, provide
a wide range of living conditions for their employees, from excellent
facilities to extremely poor accommodations.
There is another sense in which the value of perquisites varies
markedly. A careful estimate indicates that married men received
three times as much in the way of perquisites as unmarried. The
married man receives housing and hospitalization for his whole family,
whereas the single man is merely one of a large group in a dormitory.
Obstetrical treatment and the care of children is a very important
item in the cost of the hospital. Plantation management justifies
additional outlay for married workers on the following bases:
(1) Studies indicate that married males work about 40 percent more
hours per month than single males.
(2) There is far less turn-over among married males.
(3) The children of married males provide future employees, thus
stabilizing the plantation community.
(4) Boarding houses for single males are generally operated at
some loss, and club and gymnasium facilities are used to a much
larger extent by single males, so that these charges should be allocated
to a greater extent against single rather than married men.
The extreme range in the quality of perquisites applies not only to
housing but also to hospitalization and recreation. Although there
are pineapple plantations with their own hospitals, the majority
depend upon an arrangement with the hospital of a sugar plantation
nearby, or with a county or town hospital. Because of these variations
it is difficult to evaluate perquisites. A survey of six representative
plantations indicates that the cost to management ranges from as low
as $7.50 to as high as $16 per worker per month. The average cost
was estimated to be approximately $11.50.1
i A rough measure of the value of perquisites in the case of one plantation operated in connection with a
cannery is to be found in the hourly differential between the cannery and the plantation rates. In one case
2 brothers, one working at the cannery at 32 cents per hour without perquisites, and the other working on
the plantation at 25 cents per hour plus perquisites, stated that the difference about measured the value of
perquisites. The manager stated that if the hourly rate at the cannery were raised there was a flow of labor
toward the cannery, whereas if the hourly rate at the cannery was lowered, there was a flow of labor from the
cannery to the plantation.
2 41 4 0 4 — 40--------8




100

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS---- SUMMARY

The pineapple industry is relatively young, but has shown a
remarkable, though irregular, expansion. Today Hawaii produces
80 percent of the total world supply of canned pineapple.
Hawaiian pineapple plantations regulate their production to con­
form with a quota system. This is distinctly different from the quota
system of the sugar industry, however, since it is not a Federal quota
covering the United States as a whole but is established by the
Hawaiian producers themselves for their own purposes. Because of
the dominant position of the industry in the world market, the quota
system has a stabilizing effect on markets and prices.
There has been no integration of the actual marketing functions,
however. Within the framework of the quota system individual
Hawaiian producers are sharply competitive. And since there are
so many other canned fruits, they are also in constant competition with
other products.
About half of the industry is island-owned. This half is much more
highly integrated within the pineapple industry itself, as well as in
relation to other Hawaiian enterprises, than that part of the industry
which is controlled from the mainland.
In comparison with management, labor is relatively unorganized.
The pineapple industry appeared too late to play a significant part
in the importation of labor, but it draws its workers from the same
labor market as that of the sugar industry. Over one-half of the
pineapple workers are Filipinos, and over one-quarter of them are
Japanese, the remainder being largely Portuguese and Hawaiians.
Only about one-tenth of the workers on the pineapple plantations are
skilled, since the great bulk of the work requires only semiskilled and
unskilled labor.
Employment shows marked seasonality, the month of lowest em­
ployment being less than half of that of the peak month. Due to the
intense demand for labor at the peak, earnings show an even greater
seasonality than employment, the total pay roll for the peak month
being three times as great as that of the low month.
The average hourly earnings for the month of August 1938 were 33
cents, and average monthly earnings were $58.62. Because of the
high degree of seasonality, average annual earnings were much less
than might be expected from these figures, in the neighborhood of
$400 to $450. By comparison, the average monthly earnings of hired
labor on American farms as a whole for the quarter ending July 1 of
the same year were $37.28,2 and average annual earnings for the same
year were estimated to be $300.3
Because the industry is young, its workers have a lower average
age than in other agricultural pursuits in the Territory, but the indus­
try will be faced with the same problems of old age and dependency
which are confronting the sugar industry.
It must also face the fundamental problem which permeates the
whole of Hawaiian industry, namely, the difficulties of adjustment
that grow out of the rapid shift from uneducated, alien (largely
oriental) labor to the second- and third-generation citizen laborers
with American schooling and standards who are rapidly taking their
places.
2U. S. Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Statistics—1939, pp. 502, 503.
3M onthly Labor Review, July 1939, vol. 49, N o. 1, p. 61.




CHAPTER 13. PINEAPPLE CANNERIES: LABOR SUPPLY AND
TYPES OF OPERATIONS

The three largest pineapple canneries are located in Honolulu.
They pack four-fifths of the total output. Five smaller canneries on
the islands of Maui and Kauai pack the remainder. The largest can­
nery packs about one-third of the total Hawaiian output and, in addi­
tion, does an extensive business in pineapple juice.
The pineapple companies as a group maintain a self-imposed quota
system with an announced quota1 for each establishment under the
Pineapple Producers’ Cooperative Association. The extent to which
each company fulfills its quota is kept confidential, the figures of
production being reported only as totals for the industry.
Unlike the sugar industry, approximately half of the pineapple
industry is owned and directed from the American mainland, compris­
ing only one part of the many canning operations of these enterprises
in other parts of the United States. As has already been noted, the
plantations are all owned by companies that also operate canneries.
LABO R SUPPLY

The total number of laborers required for the pineapple industry
at the height of the season, including both plantations and canneries,
ranges between 30,000 and 35,000. Slightly over half of this number
(between 16,000 and 19,000) are employed in the canneries. The
statistical study of earnings was drawn from 4 representative can­
neries (located on the islands of Oahu and Maui) and included over
10,000 workers, or a sample of about 60 percent of the total employ­
ment in the canneries. The workers in the canneries were about
evenly divided as between males and females.
The study covers the period of peak summer production and there­
fore includes a very large number of temporarily employed persons,
since the peak months of June, July, and August represent four times
as much employment as the average for the remainder of the year.
This marked seasonal demand is the reason for locating the canneries
in urban centers rather than on the plantations (four-fifths of the total
output being canned in Honolulu), since seasonal labor of this sort
would not be available elsewhere. The majority of cannery employees
are thus persons who look upon the work as a temporary source of
additional income each year.
i The quota applies to the pineapple pack.




It does not extend to juice.

101

102
T

able

LABO B

IN

THE

T E B B IT O B Y

OF H A W A II,

1»39

36.— Racial distribution o f workers in representative Hawaiian pineapple
canneries, July and August 1938
Total

Male
N um ­
ber
All races________________ ____ 5,547
682
Caucasian______________ _____
Japanese--------------------------------- 2,065
Filipino------ --------------------------- 1,076
834
Chinese______________ _______
380
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian.
141
Korean______________________
369
All others____________________

Warehouse
la b o r1

Cannery labor

Female

Male

Female

Male

Per­
cent

N um ­
ber

Per­
cent

N um ­
ber

Per­
cent

N um ­
ber

Per­
cent

N um ­ Per­
ber
cent

10
0 .0

5,073
473
2,076
138
985
701
235
465

10
0 .0

2,990
351
932
632
546
203

10
0 .0

4,477
420
1,784
124
890
622
217
420

10
0 .0

1,523

2.8

749
337
160

12.3
37.2
19.4
15.0
6.9
2.5
6.7

9.3
41.0
2.7
19.4
13.8
4.6
9.2

11
0

225

11.7
31.2

2 .1
1
18.3
6.8
3.4
7.5

9.4
39.8

19.9
13.9
4.8
9.4

10
0

3177

10
0 .0
6.6
49.2
2 .1
2
10.5

1 .6
1

1 Nine-tenths of all workers in the sample were in the cannery and warehouse, including 423 female ware­
house workers not in the table. In addition to these, there were 390 repairmen, mechanics, and maintenance
men, 337 “ outside workers” (such as yardmen and truck drivers), and 196 male and 39 female clerical work­
ers. There were also 111 males and 134 females in supervisory work.
2 Includes Hawaiian and part Hawaiian and Korean.

In one cannery over 2,400 summer employees were students, repre­
senting one-third of the total employment at that time, and slightly
less than one-half of the increase in employment during the 3 summer
months over the average employment for the remainder of the year.
Many of the female employees are domestic servants, who leave
their regular employment for the higher wages and shorter hours
obtainable at the canneries. The upper middle class families of Hono­
lulu frequently complain that it is impossible to obtain or retain
domestic servants during this period. It is also true that many house­
wives, particularly of Japanese and Chinese extraction, look upon the
canneries as a source of additional income during the summer months.
Thus, although both the plantations and the canneries make large
additional demands in June, July, and August, the resultant disloca­
tions in the isolated labor market of Hawaii are not as great as might
be expected. The canning industry derives a decided advantage
from the long vacation of the school year which coincides with the
seasonal labor requirements of the industry.
TYPES OF OPERATIONS IN THE CANNERIES

Canning operations begin on the receiving platform, the fruit being
delivered in railroad cars or trucks. The operations consist of (1)
unloading and trucking; (2) peeling and coring (a single machine
operation); (3) trimming and slicing; (4) packing into cans; (5)
processing and sealing; and (6) warehousing, labeling, and shipping.
In addition to these basic operations, there are other types of work
connected with the recovery of juice and byproducts.
(1)
U n loa d in g a n d tru ck in g .— The truckers push the trucks loaded
with boxes of fruit from the railroad cars or trucks, across a large
loading platform beside the cannery, to the bins. These bins are
conveniently located next to the Ginaca machines which are classified
relative to the size (diameter) of the pineapples. Dumpers empty
the fruit from the boxes into the bins, and truckers return the empty
boxes to the railroad cars or trucks, to be sent back to the plantations.




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

103

The pineapples are then taken from the bins and fed to the Ginaca
machines by placing them on a belt conveyor.
(2) Peeling and coring.— Peeling and coring operations are performed
by the Ginaca machine as the pineapple passes quickly through it.
Many of these machines will handle 84 or more pineapples per minute.
In most plants the machines are electrically operated and are looked
after by a machine operator. The cylinder of fruit which remains
after peeling and coring passes by gravity from the machine down
onto another belt conveyor.
(3) Trimming and slicing.— This work is performed by lines of
girls, in white aprons and white rubber gloves, who stand along the
trimming tables and take the cored cylinders of pineapples as they
pass by on belt conveyors, inspect them, complete the trimming with
knives by cutting off any part of the skin which remains, and return
the fruit to the conveyors. Relief trimmers are available to fill in
whenever it is necessary for an employee to drop out of line. “ Fore­
ladies” are in charge of the trimming and eradicating tables as well as
of the canning operations. As the fruit passes automatically from
the trimming tables, it passes through slicing machines, where it is
washed, cut into slices of uniform thickness, and delivered to the belt
conveyors of the canning tables.
(4) Packing into cans.— Canning is also performed by girls in white
uniforms with white rubber gloves who take the cylinders of sliced
pineapples, make selections as to grade, and fill the cans. Slices
which are imperfect are picked out and carried from the packing tables
by conveyors, to be used for crushed pineapple.
(5) Processing and sealing.— The cans are then fed by conveyor
into machines which place in each can a given quantity of clarified
pineapple juice. This juice is from the recovery plant of the cannery
and is thickened to a sirup of the proper density by the addition of
refined cane sugar. Passing from the siruping machines, the cans are
warmed by live steam, air bubbles are expelled, and can covers auto­
matically sealed upon them; after which the sealed cans pass through
steam pressure cooking equipment with a temperature slightly above
the boiling point. They are then given a lacquer bath which improves
appearance and protects against rust formation in the humid climate
of Hawaii. Thence they go to the drying machine and through the
cooler, at the other side of which tray stackers pick up the trays of
canned fruit and stack them. Truck operators, using electric trucks,
take these stacks to cooling rooms, where they are kept 24 hours for
inspection for leaks, bulges, or other imperfections. After this they
are moved to the warehouse.
(6) Warehousing , labeling, and shipping.— The bare cans are taken
from the trays and stacked in the warehouse. In filling orders, cans
are taken from the stacks, inspected, placed on trays, and trucked to
labeling machines. Here they are fed into the machines and appear
at the other side labeled. The labeling is inspected, after which the
cans are taken from the conveyor belt and packed in wooden cases.
These cases are assembled by box makers from wood purchased by
the canneries already cut to size, the assembling consisting of nailing
the sides, ends, bottoms, and tops. The boxes are also inspected
before being packed with cans.




104

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

Other operations.— In addition to sliced pineapple, crushed pine­
apple, and pineapple juice constitute important products of the can­
neries.

Crushed pineapple is handled in much the same way as sliced pine­
apple. It consists of fruit chosen for that purpose, and, in addition,
slices and small pieces of pineapple which have been eliminated from
the sliced pineapple tables. These pass through crushing machines
into kettles, where they are cooked. The sterilized brew is then con­
veyed to automatic filling machines where the cans are filled and
sealed, after which they are handled in the same manner as sliced
canned pineapple.
Juice is recovered from the skin or peelings of the pineapples, which
are delivered b y belt conveyors from the Ginaca machines to a roller
mill. The pressed juice then passes automatically to the recovery
department, where it is neutralized, filtered, concentrated, and treated
with refined cane sugar in order to make sirup of the correct standard
for use in filling the cans of sliced pineapple. Recently, the industry
has packed pineapple juice as a beverage on a large scale. The me­
chanical operations are not unlike those already described. Less
sugar is added than in the manufacture of sirup. In 1937, juice
shipments were valued at $16,689,976, or nearly two-fifths of the
value of the total pineapple pack. In 1938 juice shipments amounted
to $13,353,183. Because of the sharp decline in the value of the pack
that year, this represented slightly over half of the value of the pack.
Finally, the skins which remain after the extraction of juice are
shredded and treated for use as stock feed. For each ton of fruit
canned, 50 or 60 pounds of stock feed are obtained.




C H A P TE R
M E N T

14.

A N D

P IN E A P P L E

C A N N E R IE S :

E A R N IN G S ; T H E

P R E SE N T

M E T H O D
P O S IT IO N

OF
O F

P A Y ­
T H E

IN D U S T R Y

METHOD OF PAYMENT

Only 95 employees 1 out of more than 10,000 reported in the sample
were salaried workers. The reasons for this are obvious. Even
during the peak of the season there is considerable irregularity in
number of hours worked per day or per week. In the height of the
season it is not uncommon for the canneries to operate at full speed
with two or three shifts a day and often for 7 days a week. But it is
also true that it often happens that the supply of pineapples on hand
is exhausted, and the plant shuts down for the remainder of the day
or for several days until additional supplies become available. All
canneries operate on a basic schedule of 8 hours a day for 5 days, and
4 hours on Saturday, making a 44-hour week. But a surprisingly
large percentage of employees work less than 44 hours, although
overtime is also common. Overtime is usually paid for at time and a
half (though in a few cases double time is paid).
Thus, not only because of the extreme seasonality of the industry,
but also because of the marked fluctuation in houi^s per day and per
week, most of the cannery workers are employed at an hourly rate.
The following tables deal with nonsalaried employees, the 95 salaried
workers being omitted.
DISTRIBUTION OF HOURLY AND WEEKLY EARNiNGS

The average hourly earnings in the summer of 1938 of the 10,620
nonsalaried workers covered by this study were 37.1 cents. This
over-all average, however, is not typical of the earnings of any large
group. Males averaged 42.6 cents; females, somewhat less than half
the labor force, 31.2 cents.
The overwhelming bulk of the cannery workers are employed at
straight hourly rates, with time and one-half for overtime. Further­
more, there is a marked concentration of workers at basic minimum
rates of pay. Thus, in one cannery, whose rates in July 1938 were
studied in detail, slightly less than half of the males were employed at
a basic rate of 37.5 cents an hour and over half of the females at 30
cents. This concentration of earnings is shown in tables 37 and 38.
M ore than two-fifths of the male workers earned 37.5 cents but less
than 40 cents an hour. The higher average for all males reflects the
fact that only 10 percent earned less than 37.5 cents, whereas ap­
proximately 30 percent earned more than 42.5 cents. Only 1 out of
20 male workers, however, earned as much as 60 cents an hour.
Among females, there was an even more pronounced concentration
of earnings. Three-fifths earned 30 but less than 32.5 cents an hour.
1 This figure does not include salaried workers in executive positions, since executives were not included
in this study.




105

106

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 39

Approximately one-sixth earned 25 but less than 27.5 cents, while
another sixth earned 32.5 but less than 35 cents. Only 1 out of 50
females earned as much as 40 cents an hour.

There is no evidence in the distributions of average hourly earnings
of discrimination between racial groups other than Caucasian.
T

3 7 .— D istr ib u tio n o f m ale non sa laried 1 w orkers i n p in ea p p le canneriep in
the H a w a iia n I sla n d s according to average h ou rly ea rn in g s} J u l y a nd A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

able

Average hourly earnings

Number of Simple per­ Cumulative
workers
centage
percentage

Under 32.5 cents________________________ ____ _____________________
32.5 and under 35 cents____________________________________________
35 and under 37.5 cents_____________________________ ___________ . . .
37.5 and under 40 cents______ __________ ________ _________________
40 and under 42.5 cents____________ ________ __________ ____ ____ _
42.5 and under 45 cents.______ ________________________ ___________
45 and under 47.5 cents___________ ________ ____________ _________
47.5 and under 50 cents . . . _ _________ _______ ____________________
50 and under 52.5 cents____________________________________ _______
52.5 and under 55 cents__________
_____ ___
______ _____
55 and under 57.5 cents_______________________ ____________________
57.5 and under 60 cents__________ ______ _____ _____ ______________
60 and under 62.5 cents_____ _____________________________ _______
62.5 and under 65 cents__________________ __________________ ______
65 cents and over___ _ ________ ____________ ____ ___ ____________

10
352
198
2,359
925
476
282
228
188
122
88
53
47
25
2 194

T otal. ______ _______ ______ _____________ ____ _____________
Average hourly earnings
____________________________________ _

5,547
$0.426

0.2
6.3
3.6
42.5
16.6
8. 5
5.1
4.1
3.4
2.2
1.6
1.0
.8
.5
3.6

0.2
6. 5
10.1
52.6
69.2
77.7
82.8
86.9
90. 3
92. 5
94.1
95.1
95.9
96.4

1 Only 95 workers were salaried.
2 The average of all workers earning 65 cents and over amounted to 77.8 cents.
T a b l e 3 8 .— D istrib u tio n o f fem a le n o nsalaried w orkers in p in ea p p le ca n n eries in
the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s, J u l y and A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

Average hourly earnings

Under 25 cents __ . . . . _____ _______ ______ ____________ . . .
25 and under 27.5 cents____ . .
_________ _____ _________ _____
27.5 and under 30 cents. ___________________________ _____________
30 and under 32.5 cents__________ _____ ____________ _______ ______
32.5 and under 35 cents__________ __________ ___________________ . .
35 and under 37.5 cents____________________
_____________ _______
37.5 and under 40 cents__________ _ ______________________ ______
40 and under 42.5 cents. _ ______________ __ ________ ____
_____
42.5 and under 45 cents_________ _________
_ _______
___ ______
45 and under 47.5 cents. . ____
______ . .
. . . . . ___ ______
47.5 and under 50 cents.
. . . ____ __ _.
__ . . _____
_ ...
50 cents and over _ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ___
T otal.
..
._
______
Average hourly earnings. . . .
__ __

__ ____ ___ ___________
__
...
. . __ __ ___

N um ber of
Simple
workers
percentage
4
831
33
3,079
818
162
53
30
13
24
12
i 14

0.1
16.4
.7
60.6
16.1
3.2
1.0
.6
.3
.5
.2
.3

Cum ula­
tive per­
centage
0.1
16.5
17.2
77.8
93.9
97.1
98.1
98. 7
99.0
99.5
99.7

5,073
$0. 312

1 T he average of all workers earning 50 cents and over amounted to 55.3 cents.

Table 39 shows the average earnings of male workers, by race.
Japanese constitute about two-fifths and Filipinos about one-fifth of
the labor force. They average, respectively, 42.6 cents and 41.2 cents.
The bulk of the workers in both groups average 37.5 to 42.5 cents.
However, 17.3 percent of the Filipinos average less than 37.5 cents
as compared with 11.8 percent of the Japanese. On the other hand,
14.6 percent of the Japanese earn 50 cents or more as compared
with 8 percent of the Filipinos. The Chinese have the lowest average
earnings (40.7 cents), primarily because so small a proportion of them
(17.7 percent) earn more than 42.5 cents an hour. The earnings of




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

10 7

19 3 9

Caucasian males, like those of all other groups, concentrate between
37.5 and 42.5 cents. On the other hand, a low proportion (5.7 percent)
earn less than 37.5 cents, while a relatively high proportion (28.3 per­
cent) because of their more responsible positions earn more than
47.5 cents. It is this which accounts for the fact that Caucasians
average 46 cents an hour.
Among women, the differences in earnings are even less than those
just noted. The extreme range of the average shown in table 40 is
from 30.3 cents for Caucasians to 32.1 cents for Chinese. For
every racial group earnings concentrate in the interval 30 to 32.5
cents. In no group do more than 5 percent of the women earn as
much as 35 cents. The difference in average hourly earnings is almost
entirely accounted for by differences in the proportion who earn less
than 27.5 cents. This is particularly high among Caucasians and
low among Chinese.
T

3 9 .— A vera g e h ou rly and w eek ly ea rn in gs o f m ale non sa la ried w orkers in
p in ea p p le ca nneries in the H a w a iin Isla n d s , hy ra ce, J u l y a nd A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

able

Average
Average
Average
hours
weekly
hourly
worked
earnings per w eek 1 earnings1

N um ber

Percent

Total_________________________________________

5,547

100.0

$0.426

43.6

$19. 04

Caucasian______ _____________ __ _______ __
Japanese___________________________________________
Filipino------------------- ------------- ---------------------- ------- Chinese__________________
________________
..
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian
___________________
Korean_____________
____________ ______
.
All others__________________________________________

682
2, 065
1, 076
834
380
141
369

12.3
37.2
19.4
15.0
6.9
2.5
6.7

.460
.426
.412
.407
.433
.428
.443

43.6
44.0
43.2
43.5
43.3
43.7
43.2

20.62
19.33
18.12
17.90
19. 27
18.92
19. 53

Race

1 These figures do not include 418 workers of one company for whom weekly hours and weekly earnings
were not available.
T

4 0 .— A verag e h ou rly and w eek ly earnings o f fem a le n o nsa laried w ork ers in
p in ea p p le canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s , hy race, J u l y and A u g u st 1 9 3 8

able

Average
W eekly
hours
earn­
worked
ings i
per w eek 1

N um ber

Percent

H ourly
earnings

Total________________________________ . _____

5,073

100.0

$0. 312

40.4

$12. 90

Caucasian_____ ___________
____ _________________
__
__
... .
Japanese............ ......... _ __
Filipino______ - _________ _______ __________ ____
Chinese_____
________ _ ________ . . .
______
_
... .
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian............
Korean ____ ________ ______ __
... ... . .
All others____ ___________ _________________________

473
2, 076
138
985
701
235
465

9.3
41.0
2.7
19.4
13.8
4-6
9.2

.303
.307
.304
.321
.314
.317
.318

39.5
41.3
36.7
40.7
39.3
39.8
39.3

12.61
13. 07
11.60
13.12
12. 68
12. 68
12. 62

Race

i These figures do not include 685 workers of 1 com pany for whom weekly hours and weekly earnings
were not available.

In connection with this table it is to be noted that Filipino women
constitute the smallest racial group in the canneries. This reflects
the overwhelming preponderance of males in this recent migrant
group.
These tables indicate a marked difference in hours worked by males
and females. Males averaged 43.6 hours; females, 40.4 hours. Com -




108

LABOR m

TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

bined with substantially lower hourly earnings, this resulted in average
weekly earnings of $19.04 for males and $12.90 for females.
The distributions of weekly earnings for males and females are
shown in tables 41 and 42.
The distribution of weekly earnings of males, by race, indicated
that in the case of each race the majority of males earned between
$15 and $22.50 per week. Nearly two-thirds of all nonsalaried men
were in this group. Only one-fifth earned over $22.50. Caucasian
men received the highest average weekly earnings, amounting to
$20.62. Chinese received the lowest ($17.90).
The distribution of weekly earnings of females, by race, also showed
a markedly similar pattern, the overwhelming m ajority in each race
earning between $10 and $17.50 per week. Seven-eighths of all non­
salaried women were in this group. Over half (54.4 percent) were in
the narrow interval of $12.50 and less than $15. Chinese women
received the highest average weekly earnings of $13.12 and Filipino
women the lowest ($11.60). Thus, there was a difference of only
$1.52 between the highest and lowest average weekly earnings of
women, b y race.
T

4 1 .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale non sa laried w ork ers 1 in p in ea p p le ca n n eries in
the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s , J u l y and A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

able

Num ber of Simple per­ Cumulative
workers
percentage
centage

W eekly earnings
U n d er$ 5 ____ _________ _ _
__
_
_ _ _ _ ______ . . .
$5 and under $7.50_________________ ________ _ _ _ ___ ________ __
$7.50 and under $10_______ ______ ___________________ __________
$10 and under $12.50_____________ ______ _______ _______________ _
$12.50 and under $15_______________________________________________
$15 and under $17.50___________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____________
$17.50 and under $20____ _______ _ __ ____________ _____ _______
$20 and under $22.50__________ _______ ___ __ _
____ _________
$22.50 and under $25__________________________ ________ _________
$25 and under $27.50____________________
_______________________
$27.50 and under $30.__ ________ ______ __
__ __________________
$30 and under $32.50___ _________ _ _ _ _ _________________ ___
$32.50 and under $35_______ * _________________ ____ ____ _________
_
$35 and under $37.50________
_ ___ ______ ___ _______ _______ _
$37.50 and under $40_______________________________ _ ___ ________
$40 and over_______
_ __ __
_______ _
_______

57
65
112
157
472
1, 526
1,180
580
301
190
187
70
60
50
28
2 94

T otal________ __ __ _____________________________________
Average weekly earnings ______
_
_ _ _

5,129
$19. 04

1.2
1.3
2.2
3.1
9.2
29.7
22.9
11.3
5.9
3.7
3.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
.5
1.8

1.2
2.5
4.7
7.8
17.0
46.7
69.6
80.9
86.8
90.5
94.1
95.5
96.7
97.7
98.2

1 W eekly hours were not reported for 1 com pany, hence weekly earnings for individuals are not avail­
able for this company. Data in this table covers 3 establishments.
2 The average of all workers earning $40 and over amounted to $45.70.
T

4 2 .— D istr ib u tio n o f fem a le n o nsalaried w orkers 1 in p in ea p p le ca n n eries in
the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s , J u ly and A u g u st 1 9 3 8

able

Number of Simple per­ Cumulative
centage
workers
percentage

W eekly earnings

Under $5_____________
__ _______ __ ________ _____ ____________
$5 and under $7.50___ _______________
________________ ___ ___
$7.50 and under $10
__ __ __
_______ ___________
$10 and under $12.50. _
_ ________ _
_____ __
________
$12.50 and under $15
_
___________ _____ __
$15 and under $17.50
_
_ __ _ _ _ _ _
_____ ____ __
$17.50 and under $20
________________ ____
_____
$90 and nvp.r
_ _ _ _ ____ _____
Total
Average weekly earnings

__ _____

__ -

118
107
206
895
2, 383
557
63
259

2.6

2.4
4.7
20.4
54.4
12.7
1.4
1.4

2.6

5.0
9.7
30.1
84.5
97.2
98.6

4, 388
$12. 90

1 W eekly hours were not reported for 1 company, hence weekly earnings for individuals are not avail­
able for this company. Data in this table cover 3 establishments.
2 The average of all workers earning $20 and over amounted to $23.51.




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

109

19 3 9

Earnings, b y type of work, are covered in tables D to L in the
appendix. M ale supervisory workers (i. e., direct supervision of can­
ning operations) received the highest average hourly earnings (56.6
cents), although maintenance and repair men followed closely, with
average hourly earnings of 55.1 cents.
Female labor inside the cannery, representing over two-fifths of the
total sample of all labor, averaged 31 cents per hour. Of this group,
nearly two-thirds (63.5 percent) received between 30 and 32.5 cents
per hour, indicating that the great m ajority of female workers were
hired at the base rate of 30 cents per hour. There was no significant
difference in earnings b y race, the extreme range being from 30 cents
(Filipinos) to 31.9 cents (Chinese). Japanese women represented 39.8
percent; Chinese, 19.9 percent; Hawaiian, 13.9 percent; and Filipinos,
only 2.8 percent of this group.
Male workers in the cannery represented slightly over one-fourth
of all labor and averaged 40.4 cents per hour. Here again earnings
by race showed very little variation. Japanese men contributed 31.2
percent; Filipinos, 21.1 percent; Chinese, 18.3 percent; Caucasians,
11.7 percent; and Hawaiians, 6.8 percent of this group.
M ale employees in the warehouse, representing about one-seventh
of all workers, averaged 41 cents per hour. Nearly half of them (49.2
percent) were Japanese. There was very little racial difference in
earnings.
Female laborers predominate in the cannery but constitute only
one-fifth of the workers in the warehouse. They averaged 30.1 cents,
the m ajority of them earning between 30 and 32.5 cents per hour.
W eekly earnings of male workers in the cannery averaged $18.16,
and of female workers $12.75 with very little difference in earnings by
race in either case.
Warehouse workmen averaged slightly less per week ($16.21) than
those in the cannery and showed somewhat greater differences in racial
averages, the lowest average weekly earnings being $14.40 (Cauca­
sians) and the highest $16.94 (Japanese). Female warehouse workers
averaged $12.16 per week.
T

4 3 .— A verag e h ou rly and w eek ly earnings o f w orkers in p in ea p p le ca n n eries
in the H a w a iia n I s la n d s , b y ty p e o f w o rk , b y race and sex, J u l y and A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

able

Warehouse labor

Cannery labor (inside)
Race

Hourly
A ll races______________ ______ ___________
Caucasian___________________________ __
Japanese____ _____ _
_____ _ ______
Filipino_____ ________ ________ ________
Chinese____ _____ _______________________
Hawaiian and part H a w a iia n .__________
Korean
_ _ __
__ _________ _
All others________________________________

Female

Male

$0.404
.415
.399
.400
.398
.405
.421
.419

W eekly1

H ourly

$18.16
18. 06
18.44
18.41
17. 43
17.99
18. 74
18. 34

$0.310
.302
.307
.300
.319
.311
.315
.315

W eekly1
$12.75
12.24
13.07
11.34
12. 98
12. 35
12. 51
12. 35

Male
H ourly

W eekly1

$0.410
.399
.417
.412
.392
.406

$16.21
14.40
16.94
16.08
15. 62
15.41

.397

14. 52

1 W eekly hours were not reported for 1 company, hence weekly earnings for individuals are not available
for this com pany. Data in this column cover 3 establishments.
S E A S O N A L IT Y

The seasonal nature of pineapple production, already covered in the
discussion of the pineapple plantations, affects employment in the
canneries to an even greater degree than employment on the plantations.




110

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

G ood canned pineapple requires a harvesting schedule that will take
care of the fruit at the exact peak of ripeness and an elastic canning
schedule which will expand and contract in tempo and volume in
direct response to the harvest. There is no period when pineapples
are not ripening; but the nature of the plant is such that the great bulk
of the plants come to fruition in June, July, and August, the peak being
reached during the last 2 weeks of July.
Because of this, it is misleading to speak of annual earnings of
cannery workers. For the m ajority of such workers the earning period
covers only a fraction of the year. Even during that period, the
number of hours worked per day or days employed per week may
vary widely, including days with considerable overtime work and days
in which canning operations stop entirely. About three-fourths of
the cannery workers must look upon the industry as merely a
temporary source of income.
Seasonality and earnings.— Employment in the pineapple canneries
is four times as large at the peak as for the average during the re­
mainder of the year. The over-all average was only 19.7 weeks of
employment for the year. Half of the employees (50.9 percent) worked
during 13 weeks or less, and 70.6 percent worked during less than 34
weeks of the year. Only 10.7 percent were reported as working 52
weeks.
It is not surprising, therefore, that one-third of the total earned
less than $100 and two-thirds (65.5 percent) earned less than $200
within the year 1938.2 Of all workers, 36 percent received between
$50 and $125.
Those whose work was spread over 52 weeks showed average earn­
ings of $819 during the year, whereas the 51 percent who worked
less than 13 weeks averaged only $89. The general average for those
who worked any part of the year was $245.
M ale workers received slightly more weeks of employment per year
on the average than females. Fifty-three and five-tenths percent of
all males worked more than 13 weeks, whereas only 43.6 percent of all
females worked more than 13 weeks during the year. The average
earnings of male workers were $329. Japanese, constituting over
one-fourth of all male employees, worked an average of 20.9 weeks and
earned an average of $357 during the year. Filipinos, the next
largest racial group, showed the highest annual earnings ($387),
but they averaged by far the greatest number of weeks of employ­
ment (31.1) during the year. There was a wide racial variation in the
average number of weeks worked, the lowest being 16.4 weeks (Cau­
casians), an average only slightly over half that of the Filipinos.
Caucasians earned $312, however, which was approximately four-fifths
of the annual average for Filipinos.
a The 11,543 workers shown in table 45 are the total number of nonsalaried workers employed at any time
in 1938 in the canneries covered. Turn-over within the canning season somewhat increases the proportion
of short-time workers.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,
T

able

19 3 9

111

44.— A vera g e an n u a l ea rn in gs o f w ork ers in p in ea p p le ca n n eries i n the
H a w a iia n I s la n d s , b y sex and ra cef 1 9 3 8
Employees whose work was spread over—
52 weeks

13 weeks or less

A n y part of year i

Sex and race
N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
Per­
age an­
cent of
nual
earn­
total
ings

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
Per­
age an­
cent of
nual
earn­
total
ings

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
age
num­
Aver­
ber of age an­
weeks
nual
over
earn­
which
ings
work
was
spread

All workers..............................

1,239

10.7

$819

5,881

50.9

$89

10,427

19.7

$245

Caucasian—................. .
Japanese...........................
Filipino.............................
Chinese.............................
Hawaiian and part Ha­
waiian. . . .......................
Korean............... ..............
A ll others------------ ---------

86
395
194
201

8.2
10.6
17.3
10.8

1,131
814
659
614

612
1,689
254
985

58.5
45.4
22.7
53.1

98
96
96
102

995
3,139
871
1,759

16.6
20.7
29.6
20.2

253
249
359
219

112
$29

11.2
5.8
9.5

697
565
1,1109

480
221
1,640

48.1
58.5
67.7

86
98
70

938
355
2,370

21.3
17.5
15.4

227
182
228

M ales. .....................................

808

12.7

$1,026

2,959

46.5

$103

5,258

20.4

329

Caucasian.............._........
•
Japanese_____ ____ ____
Filipino------------: ______
Chinese__________ ____
Hawaiian and part H a­
waiian—
Korean------------------------A ll others______________

70
233
189
86

*0.0
12.1
18.6
10.3

1,295
1,094
665
848

420
779
195
444

59.7
40.5
19.2
52.9

109
113
102
123

652
1,343
769
746

16.4
20.9
31v 1
19.2

312
357
387
275

45
8
177

12.3
5.6
12.9

1,095
(2
)
1,291

161
70
890

44.1
48.6
64.8

110
113
80

307
121
1,320

20.1
16.5
16.7

333
242
315

Females. _ -------------------------

431

8.3

432

2,922

56.4

75

5,169

19.0

158

Caucasian_____________
Japanese...........................
Filipino________________
Chinese....... . .................
Hawaiian and part Ha­
waiian_______________
Korean------------- -------All oth ers..____ _______

16
162
5
115

4.7
9.0
4.9
11.3

(2
)
413
(2
)
440

192
910
59
541

55.8
50.6
57.3
53.3

75
81
74
85

343
1,796
102
1,013

16.9
20.6
1&5
20.8

142
168
148
178

67
14
52

10.6
6.0
5.0

430
(2)
490

319
151
750

50.5
64.5
71.4

74
91
57

631
234
1, 050

21.8
18.1
13.9

176
151
120

1 Does not include 1,116 workers for whom data on weeks worked were not reported. The average annual
earnings for all workers (11,543), for whom annual earnings were reported, amounted to $250. The average
b y race, regardless of sex, was $250 for Caucasians; $259 for Japanese; $363 for Filipinos; $219 for Chinese;
$224 for Hawaiian and part Hawaiian; $184 for Koreans; and $226 for all others.
2 N um ber of employees too few to justify the computation of an average. Included in total for all workers
of this race.

Female workers employed at any time during 1938 averaged only
$158 for the year. Tins was less than half of the annual average earn­
ings of males. In view of the fact that females received nearly as many
weeks (19) of employment during the year as males (20.4) and that
they averaged 31.2 cents per hour as compared with 42.6 cents for
males, it would appear that female workers should average somewhat
more than half of the annual average earnings of males.
The explanation lies in the fact that the warehouse and maintenance
departments, which depend largely on men, provide more continuous
daily work than the canning department which depends more heavily
upon women. For this reason, women averaged 40.4 hours per week,
whereas men averaged 43.6 hours, thus widening the gap between the
annual earnings of male and female employees.




T

able

45.—

D istribu tion o f all workers in p in ea p p le canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to annual ea rn in g s , b y w eeks w ork ed , 1 9 3 8

to
Workers whose annual earnings were—
Number of weeks over which
work was spread

$25
and
under
$50

$75
and
under
$100

$100
and
under
$125

579
44
2
2
1

199
377
65
10
2
2

16

38

Total_________________________
Simple percentage------ --- - ____ _ .
Cumulative percentage-___________ .

644
5.6
5.6

693
6.0
11.6

6
124
627
468
27
15
1

1
25
276
916
227
42
8

1

Under 4 weeks_______
______
._
4 and under 7 weeks. _____ _
___
7 and under 10 w e e k s .____ _ . . .
10 and under 13 w e e k s __ . . .
13 and under 16 weeks.
. . .
16 and under 22 weeks_____ _ . . . . . .
22 and under 28 weeks . . . . . . . . . .
28 and under 34 weeks_______ . .
34 and under 40 w e e k s __________ ___
40 and under 46 weeks _ __
46 and under 52 weeks . . . ______ . . .
52 weeks
_
_ __
N ot rep orted ... . ______ _________ .




$50
and
under
$75

2

183

82

1,200
10.4
22.0

1,351
11.6
33.6

23
477
452
54
8
2
1

$125
and
under
$150

$150
and
under
$200

$200
and
under
$250

i
8
70
63
67
88
191
46
10

$250
and
under
$300

$300
and
under
$350

10
136
448
182
97
8
4
2
1

4
42
376
159
127
94
139
5

125

108

127

1
47

26

8
20
18
33
109
35
24
119
22
25

1,623
14.0
47.6

996
8.6
56.2

1,073
9.3
65.5

592
5.1
70.6

437
3.8
74.4

415
3.6
78.0

1

$350
and
under
$400

$400
and
under
$450

i
3
11
11
14
64
41
18
149
288
34

1
3
14
9
29
21
11
56
45
27

1
3
4
17
29
15
36
48
24

634
5.5
83.5

216
1.9
85.4

179
1.6
87.0

$500
and
under
$550

$550
and
under
$600

1
1

2
2
36
48
32
50
128
77
28
10

$450
and
under
$500

$600
and
under
$650

1

3
4
11
4
43
64
21

1
1
4
8
13
14
4
35
65
20

i
2
1
11
21
6
17
41
27

150
1.3
88.3

165
1.4
89.7

128
1.1
90.8

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 1939

Under
$25

Workers whose annual earnings were—
Number of weeks over which work
was spread

$750
and
under
$800

$800
and
under
$850

$850
and
under
$900

$900
and
under
$950

$950
and
under
$1,000

1
1
1
5
7
5
5
37
32

118
1.0
91.8

93
0.8
92.6

$1,100
and
under
$1, 200

$1, 200
and
under
$1,300

$1, 300
and
under
$1, 400

$1, 400
and
under
$1, 500

$1,500
and
over

1

1
4
6
6
12
33
14

1
4
3
4
2
8
47
17

2
4
1
9
41
20

6
48
20

77
0.7
93.3

86
0.7
94.0

77
0. 7
94.7

79
0.7
95.4

1
1

5
46
21

1
1
4
5
78
16

1
4
52
5

1
3
1
1
65
8

76
0.7
96.1

105
0.9
97.0

64
0.6
97.6

79
0.7
98.3

2
2

4

1
1
1
44

2
30

47
0.4
98.7

32
0.3
99.0

1
2
6
6
99
l 114
1.0

Total

Simple
per­
centage

Cumula­
tive per­
centage

808
1,065
1, 613
2,395
756
440
331
737
352
154
537
1, 239
1,116

7.0
9.2
14.0
20.8
6.5
3.8
2.9
6.4
3.0
1.3
4.7
10.7
9.7

7.0
16.2
30.2
51.0
57.5
61.3
64.2
70.6
73.6
74.9
79.6
90.3
100.0

11, 543

THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 1939

2
1
2
8
13
7
7
45
33

1 The average of all workers whose annual earnings were $1,500 and over amounted to $1,908.




$1,000
and
under
$1,100

m

_____ _
Total
Simple percentage _______
Cumulative percentage

$700
and
under
$750

LABOR

Under 4 weeks___________________
_
4 and under 7 weeks. __ . _________
7 and under 10 w eeks... ._ _____ . . .
10 and under 13 weeks____ _________
13 and under 16 weeks____________ . .
16 and under 22 weeks______ . . . .
22 and under 28 weeks______ . _____
28 and under 34 weeks____ _
34 and under 40 weeks . . .
40 and under 46 weeks. ... . _ _ . . .
46 and under 52 weeks_______________
52 weeks_______ _. . . . ________ ___
Not reported _
_.
. . . . . .

$650
and
under
$700

03

able

4 6 .— D istrib u tio n o f male w orkers in p in ea p p le canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to a nnual ea rn in g s , by w eeks w ork ed , 1 9 3 8

114

T

Workers whose annual earnings were—
Number of weeks over which
work was spread

$50
and
under
$75

$75
and
under
$100

$100
and
under
$125

112
116
20
1

17
228
92
21
1

4
119
227
138
6

1
22
264
137
4
7
2
1

Under 4 weeks _______ _______ ______
4 and under 7 weeks__________
___
7 and under 10 weeks_________ ___
10 and under 13 weeks___ _ _ _ _ _ _
13 and under 16 weeks_______ _____ _
16 and under 22 weeks_________ _ _ _
22 and under 28 weeks___ __
___ _ _
28 and under 34 weeks_____
34 and under 40 weeks_________ _____
40 and under 46 weeks_______________
46 and under 52 weeks_____ _________
52 weeks______________ ____________
N ot reported________________________

311
21
1
2
1

16

37

180

81

Total_________________________
Simple percentage- ________________
Cumulative percentage_________ ____

352
5.5
5.5

287
4.5
10.0

540
8.5
18.5

576
9.0
27.5




1
1

$125
and
under
$150

$150
and
under
$200

$200
and
under
$250

$250
and
under
$300

$300
and
under
$350

9
131
430
34
8
1
1
1

4
39
362
152
40
14
1
1

1
7
66
60
59
38
10
2

2
34
46
31
46
46
8

125

108

127

1
47

26

7
19
18
32
96
19
1
1
2
25

564
8.9
36.4

723
11.4
47.8

740
11.7
59.5

291
4.6
64.1

239
3.8
67.9

222
3.5
71.4

$350
and
under
$400

$400
and
under
$450

1
3
9
11
12
42
37
8
2
4
34

1
3
14
8
28
21
8
14
5
27

1
3
2
15
27
14
32
31
23

163
2.6
74.0

129
2.0
76.0

150
2.4
78.4

$500
and
under
$550

$550
and
under
$600

1
1

2

1

$450
and
under
$500

$600
and
under
$650

1

-

3
3
11
3
43
52
21

1
1
4
8
10
12
4
30
58
20

1
2
1
9
21
5
15
28
25

136
2.1
80.5

148
2.3
82.8

108
1.7
84.5

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H AW A n, 1939

$25
and
under
$50

1

Under
$25

Workers whose annual earnings were—

Under 4 weeks______________________
4 and under 7 weeks________________
7 and under 10 weeks________________
10 and under 13 weeks__________ ____
13 and under 16 weeks_______________
16 and under 22 weeks_______________
22 and under 28 weeks_______________
28 and under 34 weeks_______________
34 and under 40 weeks_______________
40 and under 46 weeks_______________
46 and under 52 weeks________ ____ __
52 weeks____ ________ ______________
N ot reported________________________
Total_______ ____
Simple percentage____ _____________
Cumulative percentage._______ ___ .

$650
and
under
$700

$700
and
under
$750

$750
and
under
$800

$800
and
under
$850

$850
and
under
$900

$900
and
under
$950

$950
and
under
$1,000

$1,000
and
under
$1,100

1
2
1
2
8
11
7
7
31
33

1
1
5
7
5
4
29
32

102
1.6
86.1

84
1.3
87.4

$1, 200
and
under
$1,300

$1,300
and
under
$1,400

$1,400
and
under
$1,500

$1, 500
and
over

1

1
4
6
6
10
30
14

1
4
3
4
2
7
45
17

1
2
3
1
7
39
20

72
1.1
88.5

83
1.3
89.8

72
1.1
90.9

1
1
2

4

i

i

6
47
20

5
43
21

4
4
77
16

1
4
49
5

1
3
1
1
65
8

77
1. 2
92.1

73
1.1
93.2

103
1. 6
94.8

61
1.0
95.8

79
1.2
97.0

1 The average of all male workers whose annual earnings were $1,500 and over amounted to $1,911.




$1,100
and
under
$1,200

1
1
1
44

2
30

47
0.7
97.7

32
0. 5
98. 2

1
2
6
6
98
i 113
1.8

Total

445
523
786
1,205
340
202
177
288
206
76
202
808
1,108
6,366

Simple
per­
centage

Cumula­
tive per­
centage

7.0
8.2
12.3
19.0
5.3
3.2
2.8
4.5
3.2
1.2
3.2
12.7
17.4

7.0
15.2
27.5
46.5
51.8
55.0
57.8
62.3
65.5
66.7
69.9
82.6
100.0

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

2 4 1 4 0 4 -4 0 -

Number of weeks over which work
was spread

Oi

T

able

47.—

D istrib u tio n o f fem a le w orkers in 'pineapple canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to a nnual ea rn in gs , b y w eeks w ork ed , 1 9 3 8
Workers whose annual earnings were—

Number of weeks over which
work was spread

_

7

268
23
1

10 and under 13 weeks
16 and under 22 weeks__ ___
22 and under 28 weeks.. __

87
261
45
9
2
1

6
249
360
33
7
2

2
5
400
330
21
15
1

3
12
779
223
35
6

9,R and under 34 weeks

1

34 and under 40 weeks

40 and under 46 weeks
46 and under 52 weeks
52 weeks
Not reported

T o t a l..._____ ________
Simple percentage__________
Cumulative percentage_____

1
292
5.6
5.6

3
660
12.7
26.1

775
15.0
41.1

3
14
7
87
80
138
4

1
4
3
8
50
181
44
10

1

406
7.8
13.4

1
5
18
148
89
7
3
1
1

1,059
20.6
61.7

273
5.3
67.0

333
6.4
73.4

301
5.8
79.2

2
1
2
1
2
13 and under 16 weeks. _
1
4
i
2
I
82
13
1
22
69
16
4
28
23
10
3
10
118
147
42
20
284
40
198
3.8
83.0

i The average of all female workers whose annual earnings 'were $600 and over amounted to $753.




193
3.7
86.7

471
9.1
95.8

87
1.7
97.5

2
2
2
1
4
17
1
29
0.6
98.1

1
1

3
2

12

5
7

14
0.3
98.4

17
0.3
98.7

$600
and
over

3
3
T
9
51

2

1 69
1.3

Total

Simple
percent­
age

363
542
827
1,190
416
238
154
449
146
78
335
431
8

7.0
10.5
16.0
22.9
8.0
4.6
3.0
8.7
2.8
1.5
6.5
8.3
.2

5,177
100.0

Cumula­
tive per­
centage
7.0
17.5
33.5
56.4
64.4
69.0
72.0
80.7
•83.5
85.0
91.5
99.8
100.0

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19

U nder 4 weeks
4 and under 7 w eeks __
and under 10 weeks

$200
$125
$150
$100
$250
$300
$75
$350
$400
$25
$50
$450
$500
$550
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
Under and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
$25
$150
$ 0 $250 $300 $350 $400 $450 $500 $550 $600
20
$125
$100
$75
$50

CO

<
£
>

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9
PRESENT POSITION

117

OF THE PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

As previously stated, in addition to tlie sharp seasonal fluctuations
in the pineapple industry, there have also been marked fluctuations
in annual production during the past decade which have affected not
only the number of persons employed in the canning season, but also
that basic group (primarily male) which is permanently employed.
It was hoped that after the plant wilt of the early thirties and the
effects of the world-wide depression of the same period had been
overcome, the industry could be stabilized at its former high level.
Indeed, in 1937, the export value of canned pineapple and pineapple
juice reached a high of $59,395,090, but in 1938 it dropped to
$38,409,875, a decline of $20,985,215, or about one-third less than
the total value of shipments in 1937. This may be largely accounted
for by the general economic recession of that year and the competition
of other canned fruits.
The reciprocal trade agreement with the United Kingdom in
November 1938 reduced the duty on imports of canned pineapples
from all British sources, primarily the Federated M alay States, from
2 cents per pound (Tariff A ct of 1930) to 1.5 cents per pound. Be­
cause of the most-favored-nation clause in our treaty with Japan
this rate also became applicable to pineapples from Formosa. Partly
as a result of this, the total importation from abroad during the first
6 months of 1939 was very nearly equal to the total importation, into
the United States, for the whole of 1938. Foreign importations and
the sharp competition of domestically produced canned fruit may
be expected to cause further fluctuations in the yearly output of
Hawaiian canned pineapples. For these reasons the pineapple indus­
try in the Territory as a whole possesses much less stability from month
to month, and from year to year, than does the sugar industry.
Thus, in addition to the fundamental labor problems centering
around the rapidly changing outlook and character of the workers
themselves, the Hawaiian pineapple industry is faced with the
problem of seasonal and cyclical fluctuations in both canneries and
plantations.
Present experimentation looks toward a widening of the harvesting
season and increased mechanization as partial solutions. If success­
ful, these techniques will reduce the seasonality of employment. But
they will also reduce the total employment opportunity afforded by
the pineapple industry.










P art III
N o n p la n ta tio n A g r ic u ltu r e

119




CHAPTER 15. COFFEE
The economy of Hawaii is basically agricultural. It rests almost
exclusively upon the export to the mainland of sugar and pineapples.
These constitute all but 3 or 4 percent of the exports of Hawaiian
products to the mainland, and require the use of all but about 5
percent of the arable land.
One other crop, coffee, is on an export basis. Of the 17,750 acres
under cultivation in products other than sugar and pineapples, 5,553
are in coffee. While the industry is thus of some importance, it is
distinctly one of the minor Hawaiian industries.
The coffee industry is older than either the sugar or the pineapple
industry. As early as 1813, coffee was grown by native Hawaiians
on Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. The first plantation was started in
Kauai, in 1836. From the beginning, production has been subject
to wide fluctuations, due primarily to changes in the price. In 1847,
for instance, 26,243 pounds were exported from Kauai. In 1850 this
had grown to 208,428 pounds. B y 1884 it had dropped to 4,231
pounds. Between 1884 and 1898 there were approximately 14,000
acres devoted to coffee production. B y 1910 this had dropped to
4,000 acres.1
Throughout this period, coffee was tried as a commercial crop on all
of the islands, but during the past 30 years it gradually became cen­
tered in the K ona area on the western slopes of the island of Hawaii.
During this period it also shifted from a system of plantation produc­
tion controlled by Caucasians to a small-scale enterprise conducted
by farmers of oriental extraction. A t the beginning of the century,
estates of several hundred acres, financed and controlled by American
capital, produced most of the export crop. But due to the depression
about that time, coffee cultivation shifted more and more into the
hands of Japanese producers, who leased tracts of about 5 acres each.
The valorization program of Brazil stabilized the price of coffee
between 25 and 28 cents per pound during the period 1920 to 1929.
This led to a sharp rise in Hawaiian production. M any abandoned
fields and even cane lands were devoted to coffee. The value of the
production in Kona rose from $671,332 in 1920 to $2,165,825 in 1929.
A t that time there were nearly 1,000 families (largely of Japanese
extraction) dependent on coffee production.
Within 3 years after Brazil abandoned the valorization program in
1929, the coffee price dropped to its old level (from $15 per 100-pound
bag of parchment coffee to $5.25 per bag). Today there are less
than 600 families in coffee production, utilizing 5,553 acres.
M ost of the coffee farmers are on leased land, and many of them are
heavily in debt to local stores that are, in turn, in debt to the factors
in Honolulu. The plight of the coffee farmers on the Kona coast is
one of the most difficult social problems of Hawaii at the present time.
Homes in this area are badly in need of repair, and many of them lack
1 Territorial Planning Board, First Progress Report, February 1939, p. 94.




121

122

LABOR I N TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

even the simplest equipment to make them livable. The low-income
coffee farmers of Kona have been poverty stricken for nearly a decade,
and in many cases their diet has been at an emergency level. In 1939
a special study was made by the Department of Agriculture in this
area as a basis for bringing about a financial readjustment which
would stabilize the position of these families.
This program is being carried out by the Farm Security Adminis­
tration of the Department of Agriculture. It calls for a diversification
of crops and provides loans for those willing to adopt the program.
The purpose of the diversification is to provide for the needs of the
family directly from the farm and to produce additional cash crops
such as tomatoes, taro, papaya, avocados, as well as poultry and hogs,
so that the Kona farmers will not be entirely at the mercy of the coffee
market. Before the loans were made, the creditors of these farmers,
who had already given up any hope of obtaining complete repayment,
were brought together and agreed to a downward revision of the debts
on the basis of ability to pay. In this way it is expected that the
farmers will be financially able to adopt a diversification plan and
thus stabilize their economic position on a subsistence farming basis
aided by a small cash income from coffee.

The small traders in Kona (generally a group of three or four fam­
ilies with a mill) are in a weak financial position, many of them deeply
in debt. Although practically all of them have made marketing and
price agreements, they sometimes sell secretly at a discount to obtain
cash. Coffee sold this way is called “ bootleg coffee” and has the effect
of still further weakening the coffee market.
Pickers on K ona coffee farms average 75 cents per 110-pound bag
of “ cherry coffee.” A good picker will pick about 3 bags per day.
Coffee storage and mill plants in this area are often small family
enterprises, in which there is no record of wages or hours. The
larger mills maintain a 44-hour week, consisting of 8 hours per day
(7:30 to 4:30 with an hour for lunch) for 5 days and 4 hours on Satur­
day. M ale laborers receive 30 cents per hour and obtain work for
4 to 6 months a year. Female laborers, primarily sorters, receive
25 cents per hour. They work intermittently, as seasonal demands
require, over a period of 9 months (October to June), but the total time
actually worked will not exceed 3% months.
T oday the future of the coffee industry is as uncertain as ever.
Over 95 percent of K ona coffee is shipped to the mainland for blending
purposes; but since it contributes less than six-tenths of 1 percent to
the total American market, there is little that Hawaiian producers
can do to stabilize the local industry, and it may be expected to suffer
further sharp fluctuations in volume in response to shifts in the
world price.
T a b l e

Year
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927

Thousands
of pounds

48.— G reen coffee p ro d u c tio n ,l 1 9 2 2 - 3 8

Value

____________ $704,000
4,400
____________ 664,000
4,150
4,658
____________ 978,096
____________ 1,827,812
6,528
____________ 1, 491,480
5, 524
____________ 1, 796, 210
6,908

1A p p r o x i m a t e l y

Year
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933

Thousands
of pounds

Value

____________
7,465 $2,015,442
8,663
____________ 2,165,825
____________ 1,326,975
8,846
10,000
____________ 1, 500,000
____________ 1 , 000,000
9,808
____________ 1,098, 743
9,233

Year
1934 . . . .
1935
1936
1937
1938

Thousands
of pounds

Value

10,388 $1,454,268
____________ 1,101,107
9,659
____________ 1,089,941
9,828
9,047
____________ 977,032
8,079
____________ 912,967

95 p e r c e n t o f K o n a c o ffe e s h ip p e d to t h e m a in la n d is f o r b le n d in g p u r p o s e s .

S o u r c e : T e r r it o r ia l P la n n in g B o a r d , F i r s t P ro g re s s R e p o r t , F e b r u a r y
A g r ic u lt u r e .




1939, a n d

U .

S.

D e p a rtm e n t

of

CHAPTER 16.

TRUCK FARM IN G

While Hawaii is agricultural, it produces only about one-third of its
own food requirements. Some 95 crops are raised on small farms
which are for the most part on marginal land. There are some
5,589 acres in truck crops, 2,040 acres in corn, 1,952 acres in avocados
and bananas, 1,276 acres in rice and 1,340 acres in nuts, papaya,1
and fruits. In addition, as will be noted below, there is a significant
cattle-raising industry.
The present section is a discussion of truck farming. In 1938,
truck farms produced crops with a value of less than $2,000,000.
Vegetable imports from the United States have been of about equal
value. The significance of truck crops among the minor agricultural
products is shown in table 49.
For strategic reasons, military and naval officials are greatly inter­
ested in providing self-sufficiency in respect to food in the Territory.
The competition of mainland truck crops, and the financial advantage
of specializing on sugar and pineapples for export, however, are such
that minor agricultural crops, with the possible exception of papaya,
will show only minor increases in the near future, unless subsidized
by the government.
T

able

49 .—

D iversified c ro p s , 1 9 3 8

1
M arket value

Truck farms, vegetable crops__________________________________ _____ $1, 931, 102
Coffee, 8,079,358 pounds_____________________________________________
912, 967
Taro, 16,814,310 pounds (from which “ poi” is made)_______________
454, 036
Potatoes, 18,938,547 pounds_________________________________________
225, 882
Bananas, 227,154 bunches___________________________________________
225, 508
Rice, 4,013,358 pounds_______________________________________________
100, 309
Honey, 1,591,094 pounds____________________________________________
69, 178
Macadamia nuts, 164,448 pounds____________________________________
41, 544
All others (approximately)___________________________________________
1, 100, 000
Total__________________________________________________________

5, 060, 526

i Figures from the University of Hawaii Agricultural Extension Service, for year ending Dec. 31, 1938.
Preliminary estimates indicate figures for 1939 will be larger.

Since most of these crops are produced on small, one-family farms
(largely Japanese), few or no records regarding either hours or wages
are available. Therefore, the survey of wages, hours, and working
conditions in this field consists of a sampling of the farms in several
representative areas. Evidence obtained in this survey indicates
that much of the nonplantation land is distinctly marginal, and that
families working it are also marginal. The more energetic and able
of this group have obtained positions in town or in connection with
plantation production. A very large proportion of nonplantation
agriculture is little more than subsistence farming. A brief descrip­
tion of several typical farms will provide some indication of working
conditions in nonplantation agriculture.
1 Papaya is a tree-borne fruit similar to a small cantaloup in size, shape, and texture.




123

124

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

Farm L — An 8-acre aquaculture farm in low marshlands producing
watercress, taro, and rice. Five laborers worked on this farm at $1.50
a day for an “ 8-hour day” though no records were available in respect
to time. Evidence showed that workers were occasionally asked to
work overtime without pay. Perquisites consisted only of housing
(no food) which was of the very poorest sort, poorer than anything
that would be found on any of the plantations, consisting of make­
shift tin shacks with dirt floors.
Farm 2 .— A medium-sized truck farm (primarily potatoes). The
labor on the farm is performed by a family of three, in addition to
four hired workers. Workers received $2 per day and one meal,
but no housing.
Farm 3 .— A large flower farm. The farm was owned by a family
of five, of whom four worked in town, contributing to family income.
In addition, there were 6 laborers on the farm (4 men and 2 w om en).
M en received $2 per day and housing, but no food. One woman
(17 years of age) received $1 a day. The other (older) received $1.10.
W ork in the fields begins at 7 a. m. One hour is allowed for lunch.
The day ends at 5:30 or 6 p. m. They work one-half day on Sundays
and all holidays. The flowers produced on this plantation were made
up to be taken into town and to provide the material out of which
“ leis” are made.
Farm 4 -— A small strawberry farm leased for $30 per year plus a
payment of $36 per year for water. An elderly Japanese man and his

wife, living in the nearby town, worked this farm. The man and
wife worked continuously. Two sons and two daughters helped them
Saturday afternoons and Sundays. One son and daughter worked
in town, the other two were in school. The farm grossed $1,500 in
1938, providing a total net income of about $900, which was con­
sidered an unusually good year.
Farm 5.— A 5-acre truck farm. A father, mother, and oldest son
work continuously on this farm. Another son in school works
Saturday afternoons and Sundays. They own two mules and some
small farm implements. They earn a net income from the farm of
about $500 to $700 a year.
Farm 6.— A one-acre vegetable farm. An elderly Japanese man and
his wife work this acre very intensively, obtaining from 6 to 8 crops a
year (Japanese radish, carrots, onions, beets, eggplant, lettuce,
spinach). Hard, continuous, and intensive work on this land yields
the couple an average of $1.50 to $2 per day net income from the farm.
Because of climatic conditions, growth is continuous, and truck vege­
tables may be planted any day in the year.
Several obstacles stand in the way of the development of diversified
agriculture: (1) Lack of availability of farm land under present
conditions, (2) lack of water on such lands as are available and suit­
ably located, (3) quarantine restrictions on the mainland against
most of the Hawaiian-grown fruits and vegetables, (4) difficulties in
the control of disease and pests, (5) lack of standardization in grading
and in packing, (6) the competition of fruits and vegetables imported
from the mainland. The first two of these problems might be solved
by the use of public funds for the development of irrigation, or possibly
by the organization of private or mutually owned water companies.
Several thousand acres, particularly in M olokai and Oahu, could be
converted into fertile fruit and vegetable land if they had a moderate




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

125

supply of inexpensive water. Quarantine restrictions could be
removed by treating the Hawaiian products now banned from the
mainland with a harmless fumigant.
The earnings on truck farms are quite variable due to variations in
rainfall and market conditions. On the average, truck farmers represent
one of the lowest income groups in the Territory. M any of these farmers
are hopelessly in debt to local stores.2
The truck-farming situation in Hawaii is an example of the prin­
ciple of comparative advantage in interregional trade. The trend
toward sugar and pineapple production, now occupying 95 percent of
all the arable land, is due to the economic fact that they provide a
greater income than can be obtained from other crops. A marked
decline in the price or the market for sugar or pineapples over a long
period would lead to an increase in the quantity of truck-farm products.
Under present conditions some increases in local production to meet
local needs may be expected, but the popular demand for a general
broad development of diversified agriculture on plantation land has
no economic basis.
* M any of the stores are also deeply indebted to the “ factors” through which they b u y mainland
pioducts.




CHAPTER 17. CATTLE RAISING
Cattle raising is one of the oldest and most picturesque of island
industries. It received its start when Captain Vancouver presented
King Kamehameha with some Spanish longhorns from California in
1793. These were for nearly 40 years protected by a strict taboo and
by 1830 had become very numerous. B y the middle of the century
the sugar plantations, which utilize the lower and more fertile lands,
had begun to push the ranchers back into the higher areas and dry
sections which could not be used for crops. Pure-bred animals,
Aberdeen-Angus, were imported in 1851; but later, about 1890,
Herefords became, and are today, the most popular breed.
There are altogether 42 ranches which occupy about 1,447,000 acres,
which is nearly one-third of the area of the Territory. They are
located on the upland slopes of the mountains of all the islands. These
ranches have a total of approximately 120,000 head of cattle. It
comes as a surprise to most Americans to learn that the second largest
ranch in the United States is in Hawaii. The Territory raises approxi­
mately 15,000,000 pounds of dressed beef annually, valued at about
$2,250,000. This is three-fourths of the total beef consumption in
the Territory and represents a marked rise in production in recent
years. In 1928 only one-fourth of the beef requirements was pro­
duced locally. Studies are being made looking toward the improve­
ment of feeding methods, which are expected to further expand local
production to the point where it will fully meet the consumption
requirements of the islands.
In addition to the cattle, there are about 42,000 head of hogs
(representing an annual production of 6,600,000 pounds of pork valued
at $1,318,000) and 31,000 head of sheep. While a part of these are to
be found on the large ranches, many of them (hogs in particular) are
raised in connection with the small family farms previously described.
The total value of all livestock is estimated to be $11,960,000.
Some of the ranches maintain dairies.1 Normally the total volume
of dairy products consumed in the Territory, if converted to a freshmilk basis, would amount to about 14,000,000 pounds monthly. But
three-fourths o f this is imported. Nine-tenths of the imported dairy
products come from the United States mainland. M ost importations
are processed dairy products such as butter, cheese, evaporated milk,
etc. Dairies located in the Territory therefore have the advantage of
selling in a fluid milk market, practically all of their product being
absorbed by the local bottle trade. The m onthly production for local
consumption is about 3,400,000 pounds.
1 M any of the plantations maintain small ranches and dairies for their own purposes. The work in such
establishments is performed b y regular plantation employees who were covered in the study of the planta­
tions. There are also some commercial dairies in the vicinity of Honolulu. T he base rate for milkers in the
commercial dairies is $90 per m onth. T hey work unusually long hours, however; 9 hours per day and 28
days per month is typical. Field men receive $60 per month, barn foremen $100 to $125 per m onth. C om ­
mercial dairies also provide perquisites of a house (including light and water), m ilk allowance, and medical
care in addition to salary.

126




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

127

About 800 families earn their living in the cattle-raising industry.
This is one of the few fields in which Hawaiians hold a predominant
place. Of the workers in the group covered, 44.7 percent were
Hawaiian or part Hawaiian, 33.8 percent were Japanese, 10.7 percent
were Causasian (largely Portuguese), the remainder being a mixture.
Hawaiians make excellent cowboys, and in many cases Hawaiian
families have been on the same ranch for several generations. Ranch
perquisites are similar to those on the sugar and pineapple plantations.
They include housing, in some cases hospitalization, recreation, and
often allowances in respect to food and fuel. On one plantation, for
example, taro 2 is raised on plantation land and sold at half price to
the ranch workers. M any families have worked on the same ranch
for several generations and privileges and perquisites for such families
have developed over that period of time.
A wide range of housing is provided: Very fine homes for the execu­
tive staff; intermediate homes of two bedrooms, a living room, a
kitchen, and bathing and toilet facilities; and very old houses without
inside toilet or bathing facilities for the less permanent employees.
Some ranches advance money to workers, for purposes considered
beneficial, without notes or interest. Because of this, some of the
workers become deeply indebted. The monthly pay roll of one ranch
indicated that one-fifth of those on the list received little or no pay
because of prior indebtedness to the ranch.
Ranches keep no hour or time records of any sort aside from a
simple record of days worked. As ranch managers put it, “ the
cow boy’s time depends on the demands of the cattle.” For this
reason it was impossible to obtain hourly earnings. Daily hours are
obviously much longer during certain times of the year, such as
round-up and calving times. Nevertheless, with the exception of the
fact that during the summer months the ranches often employ a
number of minors, wdio are the children of the workers on the ranches,
there is little seasonality o f employment in the industry. This is
partly due to the fact that ranching is one of the oldest of the island
industries, and among the larger establishments there has been a
tradition of employer-employee relationships between the same
families for several generations, and partly to the fact that there is a
considerable amount of work on the ranch that can be held in reserve
for slack periods.
The average monthly earnings o f 280 workers on 4 ranches were
$55.90 (table 50). This is somewhat higher than the earnings on
sugar plantations.
2 Taro is the oldest of Island crops. At one time over 10,000 acres were devoted to its cultivation. Poi,
the basic food of the native Hawaiian, is its principal product. Other types of food products are now being
made from taro.




128
T a b l e

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

50 .— Distribution of male ranch workers in the Hawaiian Islands according
to earnings in 1 month o f 1 93 9 , by race
Number and race
M onthly earnings

Total
Caucasian 1

Under $10_ _________ ___ ___________ ___
_
$ 10 and under $20 ......... . __ __ _____ _____

7
5

2

8

Japanese

2
1
2

$20 and under $30_______ __ - _____ _____
$30 and under $35________________________
$35 and under $40___________________ _____
$40 and under $45___________ ____________
$45 and under $50................ __ ................. .
$50 and under $55_________________________
$55 and under $60._______________________
$60 and under $65________________________
$65 and under $70___________________ ____
$70 and under $75_______ __________ ____
$75 and under $80________________________
$80 and under $85___ . _ ____________
$85 and under $90_________________________
$90 and under $100____________ _ _ _______
$100 and under $ 1 1 0 _______- _ _____ _____
$ 1 10 and under $ 12 0 __________ ____ _____
$120 and under $130______________________
$130 and over____________________ _______

3
5

27

280
$55. 90

30
$49.51

1
2
1

1

T otal_____________ _________________
Average m onthly earnings________________

4

14
30
42
35
32
25
13

4
3
5
6
2

10
8

5
15
12

9
7
7
3
3

Hawaiian
and part
Hawaiian
1
1

A ll other
races

3

4
10

14
18
13
15
9
3
6

4

9
4

1

6

10

1

3
3
4

125
$59. 23

1
1
1

3
5

89
$58.11

9
5
7
3
3

4

2
2

2

2

3

7
6

1

6
2
2

36
$44.2 0

1

P r im a r ily P o rtu g u e se .
a T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 1 3 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 1 5 3 .8 6 .
fo r t h e J a p a n e s e ; a n d $159 fo r H a w a ii a n s a n d p a r t H a w a ii a n s .




T h e a v e r a g e s b y r a c e w e r e $ 14 1




P art IV
T ou rist T ra d e

129




CHAPTER 18. TOURIST TRADE
Although Hawaii is over 2,000 miles from the American mainland
and an even greater distance from any other significant population
center, it is nevertheless an important recreation center because of its
climatic and other advantages. The tourist industry, therefore, rep­
resents an important element in the Hawaiian economy. The amount
of the tourist expenditure has been estimated at 11 to 12 millions of
dollars a year. While much of this involves the resale to tourists of
imported foods and other products, its fundamental importance as an
originating source of income to the islands 1 is indicated by the fact
that exports to the mainland of Hawaiian products other than sugar
and pineapples total only $3,000,000 to $4,000,000.
Tourists can be conveniently divided into two classes: (1) Regular
tourists, that is, those whose destination is Hawaii and who go
there for a definite period of recreation and travel; (2) transient
tourists, those who are en route to other ports and who stop over only
during the time their ship is in Honolulu. The expenditures of
tourists enter into the econom y of Hawaii in many ways. This busi­
ness forms the basic income for most of the hotels and restaurants,
taxicab and car-rental enterprises, curio shops, bathing and surfboarding establishments, as well as a large portion of the income of
clothing establishments (especially beach wear), theaters, interisland
transportation companies, public clubs for golfing and dancing, and
such picturesque occupations as the vending of leis.
T

able

Year

51 .—

N u m b e r o f through p a ssen gers and tourist a rrivals , 1 9 2 2 - 3 9

Through pas­
sengers 1
18,202
19,492
19,103
19,201
19,478
19, 657
20, 793
2 , 262
2
21, 585

1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.

Tourist arriv­
als 2
9, 676

1 ,0 1
22

12,468
15,193
16,762
17,451
19,980
22,190
18, 651

Year
1931_____________
1932_____________
1933_____________
1934_____________
1935_____________
1936____________
1937_____________
1938_____________
1939_____________

Through pas­
sengers 1

Tourist arriv­
als 2

19,268
16,662
17,173
25,110
25,992
27,942
31,951
27,132
41,156

15,780
10,370

1 , 111
0

16,161
19,933
22,199
21,987
23,043
24, 381

1 All cabin passengers on trans-Paciflc steamers who are in Hawaii only during the ship’s stay in port.
spend 2 days or more in Hawaii.

2Those who

Source: Hawaii Tourist Bureau.

A detailed study of tourist expenditures was made by the Hawaii
Tourist Bureau in cooperation with the University of Hawaii, covering
the year 1930. In that year there were 21,585 transient tourists,
representing a total expenditure of $351,089. There were 18,651 regu­
lar tourists, representing a total expenditure of $7,264,740, or an

1Recognizing the importance of this trade, the Territorial government appropriates funds for the main­
tenance of the Hawaii Tourist Bureau. The Tourist Bureau is directly associated with the Honolulu
Chamber of Commerce, however, and Territorial appropriations are matched two to one b y subscriptions
raised on all the islands. This provided a budget of $275,000 for the year 1939.
131

241404—40-




-10

132

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

average of $17.50 per tourist-day. The total number of tourists in
1939 was 41,156 transient and 24,381 regular tourists, a total of 65,537,
which is an increase of 25,301 over the 1930 figure. It is frequently
said in Hawaii that the tourist business now represents an income of
“ a million a m onth7 to the Territory. The Hawaii Tourist Bureau
7
estimated the figure for the year 1939 to be somewhat less than that.
Any analysis of the tourist business must distinguish carefully
between the “ level of tourist population7 and the “ flow of tourists.7
7
7
For example, in many years the level has been higher than the flow
in February, due to the gradual accumulation of tourists throughout
the winter, whereas the flow of tourists is normally greater in July
when large numbers on vacation for only a few weeks come to the
Territory.
Tourist arrivals by months show a distinct seasonal pattern with
two peaks, the first appearing in the winter months of December,
January, and February, and the second in the summer months of
June, July, and August. The sharp decline in the early thirties was
due to the depression, the low year being 1933 when only 10,111
regular tourists arrived. In the following 5 years tourist arrivals more
than doubled. Should the European war continue, a further sharp
increase is expected. But, in any case, a continued upward trend
appears probable because of the improved transportation facilities
between the mainland and the Territory, and the increasing popularity
of the islands. A special effort is being planned by the tourist bureau
to further popularize the islands by a celebration of the fiftieth anni­
versary of annexation in 1948.
Of the total tourist arrivals, 84.5 percent are from the American
mainland (78 percent American and 6.5 percent Canadian). In 1938,
of the 23,043 regular tourists, 19,645 arrived from the mainland,
1,208 were on cruises, 1,482 arrived from Australia and the Orient
(even these consisted in part of Americans returning to the mainland),
and only 708 were from all other sources. Australians are coming to
Hawaii in increasing numbers and now constitute about 5 percent of
all tourists. Orientals account for 4 percent. Europe and Latin
America combined account for 5 percent; all others slightly over
1 percent.
Over 90 percent of the occupational opportunity represented by the
tourist business lies within the city of Honolulu. The remainder is
spread throughout the other islands, largely centering in Hawaii and
Kauai. It is estimated by the Hawaii Tourist Bureau that (in the
order o f their importance on the basis of numbers employed) workers
serving tourists are in (1) hotels and restaurants, (2) transportation,
(3) clothing manufacture and merchandising, (4) recreation and amuse­
ments, (5) curios, (6) personal service industries (laundries, cleaning
establishments, barbers, hairdressers, etc.), (7) postcards, photo­
graphs, and photographic supplies, and (8) groceries and drugs
(purchased largely by tourists living in apartments). None of these
establishments make any effort to divide tourist and nontourist
business accurately. Hence, no dependable figures on the actual
quantity of employment due to the tourist industry are available.
On the basis of a m onthly tourist expenditure of about $1,000,000,
it is estimated that the industry represents the permanent employ­
ment of approximately 12,300 persons. This, however, is merely a
rough measure of the impact of tourist expenditures on the economy of




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

133

the islands. In reality, a considerably smaller number is fully
employed in distinctly tourist enterprises, and a far larger number
partially employed by the demands of tourists in enterprises serving
tourists and residents alike. Although no accurate measures of the
various aspects of this influence are available, it represents a signifi­
cant and an expanding influence in the creation of occupational
opportunities in Hawaii, and in this respect holds third place among
the industries of Hawaii.
Offsetting this is the fact that an increasing number of tourists
find positions and settle in the Territory. The excess of tourist
arrivals over departures at present amounts to about 2,100 per year.
The effects of this trend are presented later in the discussion of occupa­
tional opportunities.










P art V
Subsidiary Industries

135




IN T R O D U C T IO N

Hawaii resources support three types of income-producing estab­
lishments that determine its place in world trade. Its soil and climate
are well adapted to sugar and pineapples. Its climate, scenery, and
location have made possible the development of a tourist industry.
Its strategic location in the Pacific has made it a key point in the
defense system of the mainland. On the basis of these three types of
activity, trade with the mainland is maintained.
There are no mineral or fuel resources on the basis of which the
islands may hope to develop an export trade in manufactured articles.
It is, of course, conceivable that the population might process goods
imported in semifinished form from the mainland and reexported as
finished articles. Such an economy could be maintained, in the face
of the high cost of the inevitable long double haul, only at the expense
of labor income. A t present there is almost no trade of this sort.
It might well develop if the basis of either the sugar or pineapple
economy was undermined. Such a catastrophe would leave the large
island population only three possibilities: Competition with more
favored areas of the mainland through pressure on the wage scale of
the islands; large-scale migration from the islands of its citizen labor
supply; or the development of a subsistence economy at poverty levels.
The overwhelming importance of sugar and pineapples to the
Hawaiian economy can hardly be exaggerated. About 101,000 per­
sons (employees and their families), or nearly one-fourth of the total
population of the Territory, live on the sugar plantations alone. These
plantations represent the employment of 40,000 to 45,000 workers, or
somewhat less than a third of all gainfully employed. T o this should
be added all those persons directly employed by the sugar industry in
the maintenance of transport facilities, trading arrangements, and
records outside of the plantations. Finally, there are the many con­
cerns that, though not entirely dependent on the industry, would be
less advantageously placed without its presence.
The pineapple industry, at its peak, employs about 35,000 laborers
and is much more seasonal than the sugar industry. The pineapple
plantations and canneries, together with enterprises directly depend­
ent on them (such as can manufacture in Hawaii), represent at least
a fourth of total employment.
So far the poverty of the islands as regards mineral and fuel re­
sources has prevented the development of any large degree of selfsufficiency in manufactured products. The relative profitableness of
sugar and pineapples has lifted the standard of living at the expense
of dependence on the outside world for at least two-thirds of the food
supply.
The three basic sources of income for the Hawaiian economy as a
whole— plantation agriculture, tourist trade, and national defense—
have required the development of an elaborate group of service in-




137

138

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

dustries. Shipping and longshore work necessarily is the corollary
of the heavy dependence on export-import trade. The population
must be housed, and national-defense works have also required an
extension of the construction industry. Public utilities are needed
to maintain the population. In aggregate employment, the utilities
are probably third in importance, following after sugar and pineapples.
There has been some development of manufacturing to meet local
consumer and tourist needs and to service the canneries and sugar
mills. Printing and publishing, can manufacture, the production of
wallboard from cane waste, some iron foundries, and garment factories
are the principal manufactures. There is also a rapidly expanding
tuna-canning industry which appears to have possibilities. Finally,
extensive employment in trade and service industries is needed to
maintain the basic economy.
These ancillary industries are the subject matter of part V. They
exist, at least on their present scale, by virtue of the basic em ploy­
ment of half of the gainfully occupied population on plantations. But
whatever their reason for being, they are the source of miscellaneous
employments to about half the workers on the islands.
These miscellaneous and ancillary employments have social as well
as economic importance. As has been frequently pointed out, Hawaii
is in transition. The fundamental supply of labor was formerly
imported from oriental countries with a low standard o f living and
with traditions of absolute authority for the employer. A t present
labor is recruited from among the children and grandchildren of
immigrants. This citizen labor has had the advantages of primary
and, increasingly, of high-school education. The ideals of the
schools are those of the western world blended with racial attitudes
that are uniquely Hawaiian. M any of this younger generation, in
Hawaii as on the mainland, seek to escape from the comparative
poverty and back-breaking work of agriculture. The nonagricultural employments described in this section are, therefore, avenues
of such opportunity.
The distribution of employment in Hawaii in 1930 according to
broad occupational classes is shown in table 52. Similar distributions
for the continental United States and for the State of Louisiana are
also presented for comparison. It is evident that employment oppor­
tunities in Hawaii outside of agriculture are much more circumscribed
than in the continental United States, and on the whole are about
the same as in one of the southern States which also depends to a
high degree on agriculture.
T

52.— Percentage distribu tion o f person s g a in fu lly em p lo ye d , b y so cia l-eco n o m ic
g r o u p sf T errito ry o f H a w a iiy State o f L o u is ia n a } and continental U n ited Statesy
1930 1

able

Social-economic group
P rofessional___ _________ ____________________________ . . .
Proprietary 2________________________________________________
Clerical,. _________ _
___ ___________ __ . . . _ _______ .
Skilled______________________________________________________
Semiskilled____ ____ _________ _____ _ ________ __ _
...
Farmers (owners and tenants)_______________________________
Unskilled and farm labor____________________________________

Territory of
Hawaii
5.4
5.3
8.7
11.1
8.4
3.5
57.6

State of
Louisiana
4.0
5.7
10.8
8.1
10.2
19.5
41.7

Continental
United States
6.0
7.5
16.3
12.9
16.1
12.3
28.9

1 Classification used is that given b y A. M . Edwards, A Social-Economic Grouping of the Gainful W o rk ­
ers of the United States, 1930, U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1938, excepting that soldiers, sailors, and marines
are excluded from the table. In the monograph mentioned, these were classified as semiskilled.
2 N ot including farm proprietors, given below.




LABOR

m

THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

139

The difference between the ways in which agriculture is carried on
in Hawaii and in Louisiana is forcibly illustrated by the table. In
Louisiana, farm owners and tenants constitute nearly one-fifth of all
gainfully employed, and much of the farm labor is done directly by
this class. In Hawaii, on the other hand, the number of farm operators
is much smaller (3.5 percent), but the number of unskilled and farm
laborers is equivalently larger, so that the proportions which farm
operators and unskilled and farm laborers bear to all gainfully em­
ployed in the two sections are almost identical (61.1 percent in Hawaii
and 61.2 percent in Louisiana).




C H A P TE R

19.

P U B L IC

U T IL IT IE S

The public utilities of Hawaii are very similar to typical mainland
utilities in respect to their structural organization, services, and the
types of labor they require. W ith the exception of the Honolulu
Board of Water Supply, they are all privately owned. Their total
capitalization is slightly over $37,000,000, and their annual gross reve­
nue is over $15,000,000. Taken as a whole, they stand third in island
enterprises, being exceeded in value and annual revenue only by the
sugar and pineapple industries.
The utilities chosen for this study included two railroads, an electric
company, a telephone company, a gas company, and a municipal
street railway and bus company. Their total estimated valuation
exceeded $26,000,000, or about 71 percent of the value of all public
utilities.
Because there are so few public utilities (in some cases a single
utility supplies service for the entire Territory) it was impossible to
break down the statistical tables into analyses of particular services or
occupations without revealing the identity and the wage structures of
specific firms. It was necessary, therefore, to treat public utilities as
a whole.
For the purposes of the study, all executive officials and all techni­
cians whose income exceeded $250 per month were excluded. The
resultant sample included 1,996 workers. Of these, 809, or 40.6 per­
cent, were Caucasians, though Caucasians constitute only 16 percent
of the total population. This was the only large industry among all
those included in the study in which Caucasians held the dominant
position among the rank and file o f workers. Hawaiians and part
Hawaiians held second place, with 487; and Japanese were third,
with 430.
EARNINGS

Hourly earnings.— The average hourly earnings of all workers amount­
ed to 61.8 cents. For male workers the average was 62.3 cents, and for
female, 56.2 cents. Thus there was a much smaller variation between
the hourly earnings of male and female workers than in other island
industries. It should be noted, however, that only 191 workers were
females. About half (49.1 percent) of all workers received between
45 and 67.5 cents per hour; 29.6 percent received between 50 and 62.5
cents per hour (table 53).
There were 687 salaried workers, who averaged 73.4 cents per hour,
the average for males being 75.1 cents and for females, 60.3 cents.
Only 84 females were salaried (table 54).
The 1,309 nonsalaried workers averaged 56.1 cents per hour, males
averaging 56.3 cents and females, 53 cents. Public utilities thus pro­
vided the highest average hourly earnings of any of the large enterprises
in the Territory (table 55).
Weekly earnings.— Hawaiian public utilities maintain weekly hours
ranging from 40 to 48 or more. A 40-hour week is typical, however.
Overtime is paid for at time and a half.
140




LABOR

m

THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 39

141

The average weekly earnings of all workers were $26.67. One-third
(33.4 percent) received between $17.50 and $25, and 70.4 percent re­
ceived between $17.50 and $37.50. M ale workers averaged $27.12
and female, $22.42. Twenty-four percent of the male workers received
less than $20 per week, whereas 40.9 percent of the female workers
received less than this amount (table 56).
Salaried workers received an average of $30.36 per week, males aver­
aging $31.24 and females, $24.01; Nonsalaried workers averaged
$24.74 per week, the average for males being $25.06 and for females,
$21.17 (tables 57 and 58).
Racial earnings showed only a moderate variation (table 59).
Caucasians led, with weekly earnings of $29.63. Chinese were next,
with earnings of $28.61. Hawaiians and part Hawaiians earned
$27.21. Japanese and Filipinos were lowest, with $21.32 and $21.29
per week, respectively.
About half (50.8 percent) of all salaried workers were Caucasian,
with average weekly earnings of $32.42. Japanese received the lowest
earnings in this group ($24.76); salaried Filipinos were too few in
number to justify the computation o f an average.
Caucasian workers also showed the highest earnings ($27.51) per
week among all nonsalaried workers, and Japanese, the lowest paid,
earned $20.18.
Among the salaried female workers well over half (57 percent) were
Caucasian, with earnings of $28.09 per week. Nonsalaried Caucasian
women earned $24.06 per week, whereas Hawaiian and part Hawaiian
women averaged $18.48.
Annual earnings; seasonality and turn-over.— Because of the very
equable climate and the relative isolation of Hawaii, the demand for
the services of public utilities shows little variation throughout the
year.1 Due to this and to the fact that the public utilities pay higher
wages than other large industries in Hawaii, they experience relatively
less seasonality and turn-over than other industries.
Of all the employees, 272, or only 14.3 percent, Worked less than 52
weeks. Of these, exactly half worked less than 27 weeks and re­
ceived an average of $280 in 1938. The remaining half, whose work
extended over 27 weeks but less than 52 weeks, earned an average of
$850.
The great m ajority (85.7 percent), however, worked throughout the
year and received average annual earnings of $1,485, males averag­
ing $1,515 and females, $1,200. The salaried workers in this group
averaged $1,715, and the nonsalaried workers, $1,354 (table 61).
The distribution of annual earnings of this 52-week group indicates
a concentration of 42.6 percent of all workers in the salary range of
$900 to $1,400, 25.8 percent receiving between $1,000 and $1,300.
Eight percent of the male workers and 25 percent of the females re­
ceived less than $900 per year (table 62).
The table on annual earnings, by race, includes all workers who
worked any part of the year and indicates an average of $1,352 per
year (table 60). Chinese received the highest average annual earn­
ings, which amounted to $1,531. Caucasians were next, with earn­
ings of $1,485. Filipinos received only $919, which was the lowest
average.
Am ong the salaried workers, Chinese also led, with average annual
earnings of $1,710, Caucasians receiving $1,641. Among the non’Such variations as do appear are due to fluctuations in the number of tourists.




142

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

salaried workers, Caucasians received the highest earnings, averaging
$1,363 per year, Hawaiians and part Hawaiians being next, with
earnings of $1,302.
W ith respect to earnings as a whole, Caucasians and Chinese
occupy the top positions. Hawaiians and part Hawaiians and
Japanese follow in that order, with Filipinos in the lowest position.
W O R K IN G

C O N D IT IO N S

The Public Utilities Commission and some of the public utilities,
with significant exceptions, have played a part in setting up labor
standards for the Territory as a whole. Labor in the public utilities,
although relatively less organized2 than on the mainland, has also
played its part in raising the general level of labor standards.
A t the time the field study was being made, of 17 public utilities,
12 had adopted the 8-hour day, the remainder stating that they had
no fixed policy in this regard. Utilities representing slightly over
half of total employment had adopted the 40-hour week. Others
maintained a 44-hour week of 8 hours per day for 5 days with 4 hours
on Saturday. It is a typical Hawaiian practice for offices to open at
8 a. m. or earlier and to close at 4 p. m. or 4:30 p. m., with a half-hour
for lunch, a schedule to which the offices of utilities conform. Some
concerns maintain a combination of a 40-hour week for salaried
workers, and a 44-hour week for nonsalaried workers. A few still
retain a 48-hour week, or reported that they had no definite policy
in this respect, but they were under pressure by both labor organiza­
tions and the Public Utilities Commission to set up improved stand­
ards.
Time and a half for overtime is standard practice for all but a very
few concerns, overtime being defined as more than 8 hours in 1 day,
or more than the standard hours in 1 week for the concern in question.
A clearly stated policy on minimum wages was less common. Eight
concerns reported ^hat they had no fixed policy in this regard. Those
that reported minima showed a wide range. Reported minimum
hourly rates varied from 25 cents to 45 cents. Lower rates were
found in concerns that had not established minima, however. Tw o
concerns stated that $1.50 per day was their lowest beginning wage.
Another concern had established $60 per month as its minimum.
It must be remembered that some concerns use a large number of
unskilled laborers whereas others depend heavily upon skilled workers,
which accounts in part for these wide variations.
Employment of minors (those below 16 years of age) is now pro­
hibited by Territorial law, but prior to its enactment most of the
public utilities had either prohibited it or had confined such em ploy­
ment to school vacation periods.
Of 17 companies, 13 regularly grant sick leave with pajr, the re­
mainder reserving the right to make their decision on the basis of each
individual case. Group insurance programs are maintained by 8 of
these firms. In 3 cases this includes group medical care. One concern
maintains its own hospital and shares expenses with employees.
Another, following plantation practice, provides housing and hos­
pitalization.
2 The streetcar and bus operators have an agreement with the Honolulu Rapid Transit Co. which was
revised in July 1939 to provide better wages and working conditions. Aside from this, only a few of the
highly skilled trades dominated b y workers brought in from the mainland are organized.




143

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

Special privileges or perquisites are granted to employees by a few
companies, as, for instance, the right to a reduced rate for the service
of the utility, in one case at a 50 percent discount, in another at a
33% percent discount. Tw o concerns that sell equipment allow em­
ployees to buy at a discount. They also pay them a commission on
the sales of such equipment in addition to their regular earnings.
Annual vacations with pay are granted by practically all public
utilities, ranging from 1 week to 1 month. A fairly typical practice
is to grant one week to regularly employed nonsalaried workers and
2 weeks to salaried employees. Some firms do not grant vacations
until the second year of employment.
S U M M A R Y

In respect to capitalization and earnings, public utilities as a whole
rank next to the sugar and pineapple industries.
Central offices and employment in these concerns are highly con­
centrated in the city of Honolulu.
In regard to both earnings and working conditions (with a few
notable exceptions) they are comparable with typical public utilities
in other parts of the United States. They stand above the average
of other Island enterprises in these respects. This is due in part to
the fact that they depend largely upon trained office workers and
skilled la b or,,but also in part to the policies of the Public Utilities
Commission.
T a b l e

53 .—

D istr ib u tio n o f w orkers in p u b lic u tilities in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s
according to average h o u rly ea r n in g s , b y sex, A p r i l a nd M a y 1 9 3 9
ALL W ORKERS
Total

Average hourly earnings

Male

5
Under 25 cents__ ___
25 and under 27.5 cents. _._
6
27.5 and under 30 cents.
10
30 and under 32.5 cents. . . .
67
21
32.5 and under 35 cents. ..
35 and under 37.5 cents____
53
62
37.5 and under 40 cents. ..
40 and under 42.5 cents.
69
42.5 and under 45 cents____
78
45 and under 47.5 cents _ . . .
171
44
47.5 and under 50 cents.
50 and under 52.5 cents_____
166
74
52.5 and under 55 cents_____
114
55 and under 57.5 cents.
57.5 and under 60 cents_____
109
135
60 and under 62.5 cents_____
72
62.5 and under 65 cents_____
103
65 and under 67.5 cents. _.
67.5 and under 70 ce n ts .. __
56
70 and under 72.5 cents_____
66
72.5 and under 75 cents. _.
58
75 and under 80 cents. . . __
69
89
80 and under 85 cents____ _
69
85 and under 90 cents___ __
66
90 and under 95 cents______
95 and under 100 cen ts.. . . .
20
70
100 and under 110 cents____
29
110 and under 120 cents____
120 and under 130 cents__ __
16
i 29
130 cents and over ______
1,996
T otal________________
Average hourly earnings___ $0. 618

0.3
.3
.5
3.4
1.1
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
8.5
2.2
8.2
3.7
5.6
5 . ’x

6.7
3.6
5.2
2.8
3.3
2.9
3.5
4.5
3.5
3.3
1.0
3.5
1.5
.8
1.5

0.3
.6
1.1
4.5
5.6
8.3
11.4
14.9
18.8
27.3
29.5
37.7
41.4
47.0
52.4
59.1
62.7
67.9
70.7
74.0
76.9
80.4
84.9
88.4
91.7
92.7
96.2
97.7
98.5

1
3
4
58
19
42
60
64
73
150
30
150
69
111
96
122
63
94
49
58
57
66
86
63
63
18
65
28
16
27
1,805

0.1
.2
.2
3.2
1.1
2.3
3.3
3.5
4.0
8.3
1.7
8.3
3.8
6.1
5.3
6.7
3.5
5.2
2.7
3.2
3.2
3.7
4.8
3.5
3.5
1.0
3.6
1.6
.9
1.5

| $0,623

1The average of all workers earning $1.30 and over amounted to $1,483.




Female

N um ­ Simple Cum u­ N u m ­ Simple C um u­ N um ­ Simple C u m u ­
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ lative
ber of
percent­ workers percent­ percent­
workers
workers
age
age
age
age
age
age
0.1
.3
.5
3.7
4.8
7.1
10.4
13.9
17.9
26.2
27.9
36.2
40.0
46.1
51.4
58.1
61.6
66.8
69.5
72.7
75.9
79.6
84.4
87.9
91.4
92.4
96.0
97.6
98.5

4
3
6
9
2
11
2
5
5
21
14
16
5
3
13
13
9
9
7
8
1
3
3
6
3
2
5
1

2.1
1.6
3.1
4.7
1.0
5.8
1.0
2.6
2.6
11.1
7.3
8.5
2.6
1.6
6.8
6.8
4.7
4.7
3.7
4.2
.5
1.6
1.6
3.1
1.6
1.0
2.6
.5

2
191
$0,562

1.0

2.1
3.7
6.8
11.5
12.5
18.3
19.3
21.9
24.5
35.6
42.9
51.4
54.0
55.6
62.4
69.2
73.9
78.6
82.3
86.5
87.0
88.6
90.2
93.3
94.9
95.9
98.5
99.0
99.0

14 4
T

able

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939
54.—

D istrib u tio n o f workers in 'public utilities in the H a w a iia n
according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s , b y s e x , A p r i l and M a y 1 9 8 9

Is la n d s

S A L A R IE D W O R K E R S
Total
Average hourly earnings

Under 25 cents....... ................
25 and under 27.5 cents_____
27.5 and under 30 cents_____
30 and under 32.5 cents_____
32.5 and under 35 cents_____
35 and under 37.5 cents_____
37.5 and under 40 cents ___
40 and under 42.5 cents_____
42.5 and under 45 cents_____
45 and under 47.5 cents_____
47.5 and under 50 cents_____
50 and under 52.5 cents_____
52.5 and under 55 c e n ts ____
55 and under 57.5 cents_____
57.5 and under 60 cents_____
60 and under 62.5 cents_____
62.5 and under 65 cents_____
65 and under 67.5 cents_____
67.5 and under 70 cents_____
70 and under 72.5 cents_____
72.5 and under 75 cents_____
75 and under 80 cents............
80 and under 85 cents______
85 and under 90 cents______
90 and under 95 cents______
95 and under 100 cents____
100 and under 110 cents____
110 and under 120 cents____
120 and under 130 cents _ . .
130 and under 140 cents____
140 cents and over

Male

N um ­ Simple Cum u­ N um ­ Simple Cum u­ N um ­ Simple C um u­
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ lative
percent­ ber of percent­ percent­
workers
workers
age
age
workers
age
age
age
age
5
4
5
14
8
9
10
11
42
17
15
21
15
7
58
10
31
11
31
26
44
32
47
43
46
11
49
26
15
7
1 17

T o t a l _______ _ _ __

687

Average hourly earnings___

$0. 734

0.7
.6
.7
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.6
6.1
2.5
2.2
3.1
2.2
1.0
8.3
1.5
4.5
1.6
4.5
3.8
6.4
4.7
6.8
6.3
6.7
1.6
7.1
3.8
2.2
1.0
2.5

0.7
1.3
2.0
4.0
5.2
6.5
8.0
9.6
15.7
18.2
20.4
23.5
25.7
26.7
35.0
36.5
41.0
42.6
47.1
50.9
57.3
62.0
68.8
75.1
81.8
83.4
90.5
94.3
96.5
97.5

1
2
1
6
6
8
10
9
40
10
15
20
15
6
49
7
29
9
25
18
43
30
45
39
43
10
45
25
15
6
16

0.2
.3
.2
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.7
1.5
6.6
1.7
2.5
3.3
2.5
1.0
8.0
1.2
4.8
1.5
4.1
3.0
7.1
5.0
7.5
6.5
7.1
1.7
7.5
4.1
2.5
1.0
2.6

0.2
.5
.7
1.7
2.7
4.0
5.7
7.2
13.8
15.5
18.0
21.3
23.8
24.8
32.8
34.0
38.8
40.3
44.4
47.4
54.5
59.5
67.0
73.5
80.6
82.3
89.8
93.9
96.4
97.4

603 ________________
$0. 751

1 The average of all workers earning $1.40 and over amounted to $1,563.




Female

4
2
4
8
2
1

4.8
2.4
4.8
9.4
2.4
1.2

2
2
7

2.4
2.4
8.3

1

1.2

1
9
3
2
2
6
8
1
2
2
4
3
1
4
1

1.2
10.6
3.6
2.4
2.4
7.1
9.4
1.2
2.4
2.4
4.8
3.6
1.2
4.8
1.2

1
1

1.2
1.2

84
$0.603

4.8
7.2
12.0
21.4
23.8
25.0
25. 0
27.4
29.8
38.1
38.1
39.3
39.3
40.5
51.1
54.7
57.1
59.5
66.6
76.0
77.2
79.6
82.0
86.8
90.4
91.6
96.4
97.6
97.6
98.8

145

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9
T

able

5 5 .— D istrib u tio n o f w orkers in 'public utilities i n the H a w a iia n
according to average h ou rly ea rn in g s , b y s e x , A p r i l and M a y 1 9 3 9

Isla n d s

N O N S A L A R IE D W O R K E R S
Total
Average hourly earnings

Under 30 cents_____________
30 and under 32.5 cents_____
32.5 and under 35 cents___ 35 and under 37.5 cents.........
37.5 and under 40 cents_____
40 and under 42.5 cents_____
42.5 and under 45 cents_____
45 and under 47.5 cents_____
47.5 and under 50 cents_____
50 and under 52.5 cents_____
52.5 and under 55 cents_____
55 and under 57.5 cents_____
57.5 and under 60 cents_____
60 and under 62.5 cents_____
62.5 and under 65 cents_____
65 and under 67.5 cents_____
67.5 and under 70 cents_____
70 and under 72.5 cents_____
72.5 and under 75 cents.__
75 and under 80 cents______
80 and under 85 cents______
85 and under 90 cents______
90 and under 95 cents__ . . .
95 and under 100 cen ts.. . . .
100 and under 110 cen ts.. _.
110 cents and over_________

Male

Female

N um ­ Simple Cum u­ N um ­ Simple C um u­ N um ­ Simple C um u­
lative
lative
ber of percent­ lative
ber of
percent­ workers percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ percent­
workers
age
age
workers
age
age
age
age
7
53
13
44
52
58
36
154
29
145
59
107
51
125
41
92
25
40
14
37
42
26
20
9
21
i9

0.5
4.0
1.0
3.4
4.0
4.4
2.8
11.8
2.2
11.1
4.5
8.2
3.9
9.5
3.1
7.0
1.9
3.1
1.1
2.8
3.2
2.0
1.5
.7
1.6
.7

0.5
4.5
5.5
8.9
12.9
17.3
20.1
31.9
34.1
45.2
49.7
57.9
61.8
71.3
74.4
81.4
83.3
86.4
87.5
90.3
93.5
95.5
97.0
97.7
99.3

4
52
13
34
50
55
33
140
15
130
54
105
47
115
34
85
24
40
14
36
41
24
20
8
20
9

0.3
4.3
1.1
2.8
4.2
4.6
2.7
11.7
1.2
10.8
4.5
8.7
3.9
9.6
2.8
7.1
2.0
3.3
1. 2
3.0
3.4
2.0
1.7
.7
1.7
.7

0.3
4.6
5. 7
8.5
12.7
17.3
20.0
31.7
32.9
43.7
48.2
56.9
60.8
70.4
73.2
80.3
82.3
85.6
86.8
89.8
93.2
95.2
96.9
97.6
99.3

3
1

2.8
.9

10
2
3
3
14
14
15
5
2
4
10
7
7
1

9.3
1.9
2.8
2.8
13.2
13.2
14.1
4.7
1.9
3.7
9.3
6.5
6.5
.9

1
1
2

.9
.9
1.9

1
1

.9
.9

2.8
3.7
3.7
13.0
14.9
17.7
20.5
33.7
46.9
61.0
65.7
67.6
71.3
80.6
87.1
93.6
94.5
94. 5
94. 5
95.4
96.3
98.2
98. 2
99.1
100.0

Total __________
1,202
107
1, 309
j
1
! _______ 1 $0,530
Average hourly earnings . . $0,561 i
> $0,563
1 The average of all male workers earning $1.10 and over amounted to $1,275.
T

able

_______

5 6 .— D istrib u tio n o f workers in p u blic utilities i n the H a w a iia n
according to w eek ly ea rn in g s , by s e x , A p r i l and M a y 1 9 3 9

Isla n d s

ALL W ORKERS
Total
W eekly earnings

Under $5____ __ __________
$5 and under $7.50_________
$7.50 and under $10________
$10 and under $12.50_______
$12.50 and under $15_______
$15 and under $17.50_______
$17.50 and under $20______
$20 and under $22.50____ __ _
$22.50 and under $25_______
$25 and under $27.50_______
$27-50 and under $30_______
$30 and under $32.50_______
$32.50 and under $35_______
$35 and under $37.50_______
$37-50 and under $40_______
$40 and under $42.50_______
$42.50 and under $45_______
$45 and under $47.50_______
$47.50 and under $50__ _____
$50 and under $55__________
$55 and under $60__________
$60 and over.
. . . . ..
Total.

__

_______

Male

Female

N um ­ Simple C um u­ N um ­ Simple C um u­ N um ­ Simple C um u­
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ lative
percent­ ber of percent­ percent­
workers
workers
age
age
workers
age
age
age
age
10
24
27
32
74
145
201
239
231
181
181
142
128
106
73
68
32
41
13
25
15
18
1,996

0.5
1.2
1.4
1.6
3.7
7.2
10.0
11.9
11. 5
9.1
9.1
7.1
6.4
5.3
3.7
3.4
1.6
2.1
.7
1.3
.8
.4

0.5
1.7
3.1
4.7
8.4
15.6
25.6
37.5
49.0
58.1
67.2
74.3
80.7
86.0
89.7
93.1
94.7
96.8
97.5
98.8
99.6
1
.

8
21
22
24
56
134
170
216
206
157
167
136
122
102
70
65
30
40
13
24
14
8

0.4
1.2
1. 2
1.3
3.1
7.4
9.4
12.0
11.4
8.7
9.3
7. 5
6.8
5.7
3.9
3.6
1.7
2.2
.7
1.3
.8
.4

0.4
1.6
2.8
4.1
7.2
14.6
24.0
36.0
47.4
56.1
65-4
72.9
79.7
85.4
89.3
92.9
94.6
96.8
97.5
98.8
99.6

1,805

1 $27.12 1
Average weekly earnings___1 $26.67 1
1 The average of all male workers earning $60 and over amounted to $68.38.




2
3
5
8
18
11
31
23
25
24
14
6
6
4
3
3
2
1

1.0
1.6
2.6
4.2
9.4
5.8
16.3
12.0
13.2
12.6
7.3
3.1
3.1
2.1
1.6
1.6
1.0
.5

1
1

.5
.5

191
$22. 42

1.0
2.6
5.2
9.4
18.8
24.6
40.9
52.9
66.1
78.7
86.0
89.1
92.2
94.3
95.9
97.5
98.5
99.0
99.0
99. 5
100.0
i

146

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

T a b l e 57. — D istrib u tio n o f w orkers i n pu b lic utilities i n

the H a w a iia n Isla n d s
according to w eek ly ea rn in g s, b y sex , A p r i l and M a y 1 9 3 9

SALARIED W ORKERS
Total
Weekly earnings

$5 and under $7.50_________
$7.50 and under $10________
$10 and under $12.50_______
$12.50 and under $15_______
$15 and under $17.50_______
$17.50 and under $20_______
$20 and under $22.50_______
$22.50 and under $25_______
$25 and under $27.50_______
$27.50 and under $30_______
$30 and under $32.50_______
$32.50 and under $35_______
$35 and under $37.50_______
$37.50 and under $40_______
$40 and under $42.50_______
$42.50 and under $45_______
$45 and under $47.50_______
$47.50 and under $ 5 0 .__
$50 and under $55_________
$55 and under $60________
$60 and over. _

Male

Female

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative
workers age percent­ workers age percent­ workers age percent­
age
age
age
1
5
9
18
45
60
29
79
52
93
47
56
46
23
39
20
34
3
20
12
16

0.1
.7
1.3
2.6
6.6
7.3
4.2
11.6
7.6
13.6
6.8
8.2
6.7
3.3
5.7
2.9
4.9
.4
2.9
1.7
.9

0.1
.8
2.1
4.7
11.3
18.6
22.8
34.4
42.0
55.6
62.4
70.6
77.3
80.6
86.3
89.2
94.1
94.5
97.4
99.1

2
3
7
41
43
27
67
42
84
44
51
43
22
36
19
33
3
19
11
6

0.3
.5
1.2
6.8
7.1
4.5
11.1
7.0
13.8
7.3
8.5
7.1
3.6
6.0
3.2
5.5
.5
3.2
1.8
1.0

1
3
6
11
4
2
12
10
9
3
5
3
1
3
1
1

1.2
3.6
7.1
13.0
4.8
8.3
2.4
14.2
11.9
10.7
3.6
6.0
3.6
1.2
3.6
1.2
1.2

1
1

0.3
.8
2.0
8.8
15.9
20.4
31.5
38.5
52.3
59.6
68.1
75.2
78.8
84.8
88.0
93.5
94.0
97.2
99.0

1.2
1.2

7

687

Total
Average weekly earnings_
_

603

84

$30. 36

$31. 24

1.2
4.8
11.9
24.9
29.7
38.0
40.4
54.6
66.5
77.2
80.8
86.8
90.4
91.6
95.2
96.4
97.6
97.6
98.8
100.0

$24. 01

1 The average of all male salaried workers earning $60 and over amounted to $69.08.
T a b l e 58. — D istrib u tio n o f w orkers in p u blic utilities in the H a w a iia n I s la n d s
according to w eek ly ea rn in gs, by sex, A p r i l a nd M a y 1 9 3 9

NONSALARIED WORKERS
Total
Weekly earnings

Under $5_________________
$5 and under $7.50........ .. _
$7.50 and under $10________
$10 and under $12.50_______
$12.50 and under $15_______
$15 and under $17.50_______
$17.50 and under $20_______
$20 and under $22.50_______
$22.50 and under $25______
$25 and under $27.50_______
$27.50 and under $30_______
$30 and under $32.50_______
$32.50 and under $35_______
$35 and under $37.50_______
$37.50 and under $40_______
$40 and under $42.50
$42.50 and under $45_____ _
$45 and under $47.50
$47.50 and under $50
$50 and over
Total . . .
Average weekly earnings_
_

Male

Female

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative
workers age percent­ workers age percent­ workers age jpercent­
age
age
age
10
23
22
23
56
100
151
210
152
129
88
95
72
60
50
29
12
7
10
1 10

0.8
1.8
1.7
1.8
4.3
7.6
11.5
15.9
11.6
9.9
6.7
7.3
5.5
4.6
3.8
2.2
.9
.5
.8
.8

0.8
2.6
4.3
6.1
10.4
18.0
29.5
45.4
57.0
66.9
73.6
80.9
86.4
91.0
94.8
97.0
97.9
98.4
99.2

1,309 _______ _______
$24.74

8
21
20
21
49
93
127
189
139
115
83
92
71
59
48
29
11
7
10
10
1,202
$25.06

0.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
4.1
7.7
10.6
15.7
11.6
9.6
6.9
7.7
5.9
4.9
4.0
2.4
.9
.6
.8
.8

0.7
2.4
4.1
5.8
9.9
17.6
28.2
43.9
55.5
65.1
72.0
79.7
85.6
90.5
94.5
96.9
97.8
98.4
99.2
_______

2
2
2
2
7
7
24
21
13
14
5
3
1
1
2

1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
6.5
6.5
22.5
19.6
12.1
13.1
4.7
2.8
.9
.9
1.9

1

.9

107
$21.17

1 The average of all male nonsalaried workers earning $50 and over amounted to $56.20.




1.9
3.8
5.7
7.6
14.1
20.6
43.1
62.7
74.8
87.9
92.6
95.4
96.3
97.2
99.1
99.1
100.0

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,
T

147

19 39

5 9 .— A verag e hours w orked per w eek, and average w eek ly ea rn in gs o f w orkers
in pu b lic utilities in the H a w a iia n Is la n d s , b y race and sex, A p r i l a nd M a y , 1 9 8 9

able

T o ta l

C la s s a n d ra c e

A v e r­
age
h o u rs
w o rk e d
per
w eek

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

M a le

A v e r­
age
w e e k ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

F e m a le

A v e r­
age
h o u rs
w o rk e d
per
w eek

A v e r­
age
w e e k ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u rs
w o rk e d
per
w eek

A v e r­
age
w e e k ly
e a rn ­
in g s

ALL WORKERS
A l l r a c e s __________ ____________________
C a u c a s i a n _________ ___
___
J a p a n e s e ____________ _
_____
F i l i p i n o _____________
_
C h i n e s e ______ ___________ _______
H a w a iia n a n d p a r t H a ­
w a i i a n . _____________ ________
O t h e r r a c e s ______
__________

4 3.2

1,996
809
430
8.1
129

4 3.5
44.1
4 0.8
4 0 .2

$26. 67
29. 63
21.32
21. 29
28. 61

1,805
723
396
81
116

4 3.5
4 3.9
4 4.3
4 0.8
4 0.2

$27.12
30.02
21.38
21.29
29. 50

191
86
34
13

0)

487
60

4 3.0
4 3 .2

27. 21
23.97

440
49

4 3.5
4 4.2

28.20
25.16

47
11

3 8.4

17.93

0)

0)

687
349
107
4
87

4 1.4

30. 36
32. 42
24.76

4 1 .6
4 1 .9
4 0 .9

31.24
33.11
25. 53

4 0.9

31.09

603
301
95
4
84

84

4 1 .6
4 0.8

4 0.9

127
13

4 1.5

29. 66

110

4 1.8

1,309
460

24. 74
27. 51
20.18
21.11
23.48

1,202
422
301

42

44.1
4 5.0
4 5.2
4 0.7
3 8.8

360
47

4 3.5
4 3.7

26. 35
23. 81

3 9.9
4 0.3
4 1.1

$22. 42
26.31
20. 64

0)

SALARIED WORKERS
A l l r a c e s ____________ _________________
C a u c a s i a n ____________________
J a p a n e s e ________________________
F i l i p i n o ______ _________ ___ . . .
C h i n e s e ________ _______________
H a w a iia n a n d p a r t H a ­
w a i i a n __________________ ______
O t h e r r a c e s ____________________

0)

0)

0)

9

0)

0)

0

31.37

3

0)

0

31.62

0)

3 9.8
4 0.0

24. 01

12

17
4

0)
0)

0
0)
21.17

22

3 9 .9
4 0.8
4 2.0

0)

0)

0)

48

28. 09

N ON SALARIED WORKERS
A l l r a c e s ____________________________

.

C a u c a s i a n _________ ____________
J a p a n e s e ________________________
F i l i p i n o _________ ________________
C h i n e s e __________________________
H a w a iia n a n d p a r t H a
w a i i a n __________________
O t h e r r a c e s ....................................

323

77

i

25.06
27. 82
20.07
21.11
24. 60

107
38

32

4 4 .5
4 5.3
45.4
4 0.7
3 8.3

10

0)

0)

330

4 4.0

27.06
24. 98

30

37.7
0

0

77

40

44.7

7

24.06
21.72

18. 48

1 Number of workers too few to justify the computation of an average.
T

able

6 0 .— A v era g e annual earnings o f w orkers in p u blic utilities in the H a w a iia n
Isla n d s, b y race and sex, 1 9 3 8

Total
Class and race
ALL WORKERS

All races__________ . . . ____________ . . .
Caucasian_____ _ _ _______ ____
Japanese____
Filipino
Chinese. . . . . .
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian______
Other races.. _____________________
SALARIED WORKERS

All races______________________________
Caucasian___ _ __ _____ _ . . . . _
Japanese____ _____ ____ ._ _____ ..
Filipino_____
Chinese___________________________
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian. _____
Other races___________ ___________

Male

Female

Number
of work­
ers

Average
annual
earnings

Number
of work­
ers

Average
annual
earnings

Number
of work­
ers

i 1, 907
759
421
77
124
471
55

$1,352
1, 485
1,128
919
1 531
,
1, 379
1, 207

1, 721
674
386
77
111
427
46

$1, 383
1, 521
1, 134
919
1 586
,
1,434
1, 257

186
85
35

$1, 068
1, 199
1, 063

13
44
9

0

659
332
105
4
83
123
12

1,596
1,641
1, 401
0
1, 710
1.596

582
288
93
4
80
108

1, 660
1,698
1,451
0
1,727
1, 717

77
44
12

1,112
1, 263
0

3
15
3

0
0
0

i 1, 248
427
316
73
41
348
43

1, 223
1,363
1, 038
895
1,168
1, 302
1,166

9

0

0

Average
annual
earnings

0

847

NONSALARIED WORKERS

All races_______________ ______________
Caucasian_____ ______________ _
Japanese__________________________
Filipino ............................
Chinese____________ __ _ . ____
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian____ . . .
Other races..____ ______ ___ ___

1,139
386
293
73
31
319
37

1,241
1, 388
1, 034
895
1, 223
1,338
1, 211

1 Includes 3 males and 1 female for whom the number of weeks worked was not reported.

2Number of workers too few to justify the computation of an average.
2 4 1 4 0 4 — 4 0 --------11




109
41
23
10
29
6

1, 037
1,130
1, 090
0

0

909

148
T

able

LABOR m
6 1 .—

THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

Average annual earnings of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian
Islands, by sex, 19881
Employees whose work extended over—
52 weeks

27 and less than 52 weeks

Sex

Average
number
of weeks Average
Percent
over
annual
of total
which
earnings
work was
spread

Number
of em­
ployees

Percent
of total

Average
annual
earnings

All workers__________________

1, 631

85.8

$1, 485

136

7.1

41.3

$850

Males.. _________________
Females_________________

1, 479
152

86.1
82. 2

1,515
1, 200

121
15

7.0
8.1

41.4
40.8

861
765

Salaried workers................. ......

593

90.0

1,715

26

3.9

36. 5

832

Males___________________
Females__________ _______

534
59

91.7
76.6

1,761
1, 297

19
7

3.3
9.1

36. 5
36.6

855
768

Nonsalaried workers__________

1, 038

83. 5

1,354

110

8.8

42. 5

855

945
93

83.2
86.1

1,375
1,139

102
8

9. 0
7.4

42.3
44. 5

862
763

Males___________________
Females_________________

Number
of em­
ployees

Employees whose work extended over—
Less than 27 weeks
Sex
Number
of em­
ployees

Any part of year

Average
number
of weeks Average
Percent
over
annual
of total
which
earnings
work was
spread

Average
number
Number of weeks Average
of em­
over
annual
ployees
which
earnings
work was
spread

All workers_____ ____________

136

7.1

15.6

$280

1,903

48.6

$1, 354

Males___________________
Females_________________

118
18

6.9
9.7

16.1
11.7

283
257

1,718
185

48.8
47. 2

1, 384
1, 073

Salaried workers_____________

40

6.1

16. 5

333

659

49. 2 |

1,596

Males____________ ____
Females_ _____________
_

29
11

5.0
14.3

17. 5
13.8

332
338

582
77

49. 8
45. 1

1, 660
1,112

Nonsalaried workers.___ _____

96

7.7

15. 2

257

1, 244

48.3 1

1.225

Males......................... .........
Females.................. .............

89
7

7.8
6.5

15.7
8.4

267
129

1, 136
108

48.3
48.6

1, 243
1,046

i Excludes 3 males and 1 female for whom the number of weeks worked was not reported.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

149

62.— Distribution of workers in 'public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings, by sex, 1938

T able

ALL WORKERS
Total
Annual earnings

1

Males

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­
lative ber of
ber of
per­
per­
work­
cent­
cent­ work­
age
ers
ers
age

Under $600_______________
$600 and under $700_______
$700 and under $800_______
$800 and under $900_______
$900 and under $1,000______
$1,000 and under $1,100____
$1,100 and under $1,200____
$1,200 and under $1,300____
$1,300 and under $1,400___
$1,400 and under $1,500____
$1,500 and under $1,600____
$1,600 and under $1,700____
$1,700 and under $1,800____
$1,800 and under $1,900........
$1,900 and under $2,000_.......
$2,000 and under $2,200____
$2,200 and under $2,400____
$2,400 and under $2,600____
$2,600 and under $2,800____
$2,800 and under $3,000____
$3,000 and over

9
13
53
82
134
140
135
144
140
106
106
67
92
97
43
112
57
42
22
14
i 23

T o ta l________

0.6
.8
3.2
5.0
8.2
8.6
8.3
8.9
8.6
6.5
6.5
4.1
5.6
5.9
2.6
6.9
3.5
2.6
1.3
.9
1.4

0.6
1.4
4.6
9.6
17.8
26.4
34.7
43.6
52.2
58.7
65.2
69.3
74.9
80.8
83.4
90.3
93.8
96.4
97.7
98.6

1, 631

Females

Simple Cumu­
lative
per­
per­
cent­
cent­
age
age

5
6
36
72
120
117
124
127
127
95
102
64
90
94
41
108
53
41
22
13
22

0.3
.4
2.4
4.9
8.1
7.9
8.3
8.6
8.6
6.4
6.9
4.3
6.1
6.4
2.8
7.3
3.6
2.8
1.5
.9
1.5

0.3
.7
3.1
8.0
16.1
24.0
32.3
40.9
49.5
55.9
62.8
67.1
73.2
79.6
82.4
89.7
93.3
96.1
97.6
98.5

Number of
workers

1Simple Cumu­
lative
j per­
per­
I cent­
cent­
| age
age

4
7
17
10
14
23
11
17
13
11
4
3
2
3
2
4
4
1

2.6
4.6
11.2
6.6
9.2
15.1
7.2
11.2
8.6
7.2
2.6
2.0
1.3
2.0
1.3
2.6
2.6
.7

1
1

.7
.7

2.6
7.2
18.4
25.0
34.2
49.3
56.5
67.7
76.3
83.5
86.1
88.1
89.4
91.4
92.7
95.3
97.9
98.6
98.6
99.3

152

1, 479

1 The average annual earnings for all workers earning $3,000 and over amounted to $3,601.

63.— Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks according to annual earnings, by sex, 1938

T able

SALARIED W ORKERS
Total

Total.

__- _

Females

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative ber of
lative ber of
lative
per­
ber of
per­
per­
per­
per­
per­
work­
cent­
cent­
cent­
cent­ work­
cent­ work­
cent­
age
age
ers
ers
ers
age
age
age
age

Annual earnings

Under $600_______________
$600 and under $700_______
$700 and under $800_______
$800 and under $900_______
$900 and under $1,000______
$1,000 and under $1,100____
$1,100 and under $1,200___
$1,200 and under $1,300____
$1,300 and under $1,400____
$1,400 and under $1,500____
$1,500 and under $1,600____
$1,600 and under $1,700____
$1,700 and under $1,800____
$1,800 and under $1,900____
$1,900 and under $2,000___
$2,000 and under $2,200____
$2,200 and under $2,400____
$2,400 and under $2,600
$2,600 and under $2,800
$2,800 and under $3,000___
$3,000 and over
________

Males

\

!
!
|
|
:
!

4
8
15
15
25
25
31
41
47
29
44
25
42
45
21
03
36
30
16
11
i 20
593

0.7
1.3
2.5
2.5
4.2
4.2
5. 2
6.9
7.9
4.9
7.4
4.2
7.1
7.6
3.5
10.7
6.1
5.1
2. 7
1.9
3.4

0.7
2.0
4.5
7.0
11.2
15.4
20.6
27.5
35.4
40.3
47.7
51.9
59.0
66.6
70.1
80.8
86.9
92. 0
94. 7
96.6

1
1
8
11
22
23
29
36
44
24
43
23
40
42
20
59
33
30
16
10
19
534

0.2
,2
L5
2.1
4.1
4.3
5.4
6. 7
8.2
4.5
8.1
4.3
7. 5
7.9
3. 7
11.0
6.2
5. 6
3.0
1.9
3.6

0.2
.4
1.9
4.0
8.1
12.4
17.8
24.5
32.7
37.2
45.3
49.6
57.1
65.0
68. 7
79.7
85. 9
91. 5
94. 5
96.4

______ i___
1

3
7
7
4
3
2
2
5
3
5
1
2
2
3
1
4
3

5.1
11.8
11.8
6.8
5.1
3.4
3.4
8.5
5.1
8. 5
1.7
3.4
3.4
5.1
1.7
6. 7
5.1

1
1

1.7
1.7

59

5 The average annual earnings for all salaried workers earning $3,000 and over amounted to $3,687.




5.1
16.9
28.7
35.5
40. 6
44.0
47.4
55.9
61.0
69.5
71.2
74.6
78.0
83. 1
84.8
91. 5
96. 6
96. 6
96. 6
98.3

150
T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

a b l e 6 4 . — Distribution of workers in public utilities in the Hawaiian Islands
whose work was spread over 52 weeks according to annual earnings, by sex, 1938

NONSALARIED WORKERS
Total
Annual earnings

Males

Females

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative ber of
lative ber of
lative
ber of
per­
per­
per­
per­
per­
per­
work­
cent­
cent­
cent­
cent­ work­
cent­ work­
cent­
age
age
ers
ers
ers
age
age
age
age

Under $600______ ______ _ _
$600 and under $700_____
$700 and under $800_______
$800 and under $900_______
$900 and under $1,000______
$1,000 and under $1,100____
$1,100 and under $1,200____
$1,200 and under $1,300____
$1,300 and under $1,400____
$1,400 and under $1,500____
$1,500 and under $1,600____
$1,600 and under $1,700____
$1,700 and under $1,800.. _ _
$1,800 and under $1,900.___
$1,900 and under $2,000____
$2,000 and under $2,200...
$2,200 and under $2,400____
$2,400 and under $2,600____
$2,600 and over

5
5
38
67
109
115
104
103
93
77
62
42
50
52
22
49
21
12
1 12

Total_______________

1,038

0.5
.5
3.7
6.5
10.5
11.0
10.0
9.9
9.0
7.4
6.0
4.0
4.8
5.0
2.1
4.7
2.0
1.2
1. 2

0.5
1.0
4.7
11.2
21.7
32.7
42.7
52.6
61.6
69.0
75.0
79.0
83.8
88.8
90.9
95.6
97.6
98.8

4
5
28
61
98
94
95
91
83
71
59
41
50
52
21
49
20
11
12
945

0.4
.5
3.0
6.5
10.4
9.9
10.1
9.6
8.8
7.5
6.2
4.3
5.3
5.5
2.2
5.2
2.1
1.2
1.3

0.4
.9
3.9
10.4
20.8
30.7
40.8
50.4
59.2
66.7
72.9
77.2
82.5
88.0
90.2
95.4
97.5
98.7

1

1.1

10
6
11
21
9
12
10
6
3
1

10.8
6.5
11.7
22.5
9.7
12.8
10.8
6.5
3.2
1.1

1

1.1

1
1

1.1
1.1

1.1
1.1
11.9
18.4
30.1
52.6
62.3
75.1
85.9
92.4
95.6
96.7
96.7
96. 7
97.8
97.8
98.9
100.0

93

1 The average annual earnings for all male n insalaried workers earning $2,600 and over amounted to $2,839.




CHAPTER 20. THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
T h e c o n s t r u c t io n in d u s t r y in H a w a i i p r e s e n t s m a n y u n iq u e fe a t u r e s
n o t fo u n d o n th e m a in la n d .
v a r ie ty

o f p r o je c ts

and

th e

A t th e sa m e tim e , b e ca u se o f th e g r e a t
ir r e g u la r ity

o f e m p lo y m e n t,

d e ta ile d

in ­

f o r m a t i o n , p a r t ic u la r ly o n p r i v a t e c o n s t r u c t io n , w a s d iffic u lt t o o b t a i n .

Due to the depression there was a sharp drop in construction in
the period 1931 to 1934. Since then, however, there has been a marked
recovery in which Government appropriations played a significant
part. In proportion to the size of Hawaii, construction has occupied
a more important position in the Territory in recent years than it
has on the average in other areas in the United States. This is due
in part to the rapid expansion of Honolulu. During 1938 and 1939
Honolulu ranked with far larger cities, being sixteenth and thirtyfirst among the Nation’s 125 leading cities in the value of building
construction in the 2 years, respectively. The department of buildings
of the city and county of Honolulu estimated the value of building
construction in the city and county for 1938 to be $9,584,438 1 of
which $5,129,293 was for dwellings, $1,075,763 was for business build­
ings, and $3,379,382 was for other buildings (particularly schools,
public buildings, and theaters). During the first 8 months of 1939
building construction in Honolulu amounted to $7,700,612.
GOVERNMENT CONSTRUCTION

An added factor which greatly increases the volume of construction
is to be found in the large number of special types of Government
projects in the Territory.
The Army, the Navy, Federal-aid highway construction, PWA,
WPA, municipal, and Territorial construction combined account
for over two-thirds of the total amount of building in the islands.
Thus, whereas private construction is typical on the mainland, public
construction is typical in Hawaii. From the point of view of the
Territory a serious difficulty arises out of the fact that appropriations
for these types of construction are for the most part erratic and
unpredictable.
The Navy, for example, during the decade of 1930 to 1940 spent
three times as much for new building construction in the peak year as
it spent in the lowest year. The program for new building construc­
tion for 1940-42 represents a sevenfold increase in annual expenditure
over that of the lowest year during the past decade. Our largest
Army post is in Hawaii and Army expenditures for construction show
equally marked variations.
1 Roughly, one-third of building costs are direct wage payments in construction on the site, the remainder
being expended for materials.
151




152

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

GOVERNMENT APPROPRIATIONS AND EMPLOYMENT

When it is recalled that the total number of gainfully employed
in the Islands is only about 160,000, sharp shifts in the volume of
construction of this sort represent a distinctly disturbing factor.
When a large new project is undertaken, numbers of men who have
the requisite skill are drawn from other enterprises. Since these are,
in many cases, insufficient, workers are imported from the mainland.
These men usually come under contract for a stated period at an agreed
wage. Provision is often made for their return to the mainland at
the conclusion of their work, but in quite a number of cases they stay
on after their job is finished with the expectation of obtaining new
construction work. If Government appropriations are plentiful, that
is quite easy to d o ; but when they fall off, there is a sharp increase in
unemployment. As yet there has been no effective effort to coordinate
the various governmental appropriations in this field so as to overcome
the sharp ups and downs in the volume of employment.
WORKING CONDITIONS AND METHODS OF PAYMENT
For

th e

pu rposes

of

a n a ly s is ,

p r iv a te

and

p u b lic

c o n s tr u c tio n

in

H a w a ii m u s t b e s tr ic tly se p a r a te d .

Private construction, for all but very large projects, is under the
control of Japanese contractors. Many of the contractors for the
smaller jobs have no established offices and maintain very little in the
way of records.
The lowest-paid carpenters in private construction are boy appren­
tices who receive $1 to $1.25 per day of 8 ){hours (7 to 4:30, with 1 hour
for lunch). With gradual improvement in skill they will be earning
$2 to $2.50 per day within 2 years and up to $4.50 per day in 6 or 7
years. A skilled “ finishing carpenter” or a foreman will receive about
$5.50 per day. Most of the Japanese contractors hire their carpenters
directly, but let all of the other work (plumbing, plastering, electrical
work, etc.) to subcontractors.
S u b c o n tra c to rs
cau se

th e y

th e ir m e n
tra cto rs
no

m u st

pay

a b o u t th e

e s tim a te

th e ir

sa m e w a g es as c o n tr a c to rs, b u t b e ­
b id s

to w o r k a h a lf h o u r to

and

su b c o n tra c to rs

g u a r a n tie s

as

to

num ber

h ir e
of

very

c lo s e ly

th e y

o fte n

an h o u r ex tra p er d a y .
th e ir
days

m en
of

by

th e

w ork .

jo b

The

re q u ire

B o th

con­

day

w ith

or

usu al

p a y -r o ll

p e r io d is 2 w e e k s .

On ordinary days overtime is paid for at the rate of time and onequarter, but Sunday or holiday work is paid for at the rate of time
and one-half. Work for less than 1 day is paid pro rata by the hour.
T h ere

are n o m in im u m

tim e s p a id
b e in g

g u a r a n tie s a s to w a g e s .

A

b o n u s is s o m e ­

a s a s p e c ia l in d u c e m e n t fo r in t e n s iv e w o r k w h e n a jo b

c o m p le te d

under

p ressu re

or

w hen

th ere

is

s p e c ia l

need

is
fo r

p a r tic u la r ly c a r e fu l w o r k , b u t su c h b o n u s e s a re ra re .

The typical Japanese contractor keeps about 6 men in his regular
gang. These he tries to keep employed so as to hold a minimum
nucleus of workers. Whenever he is especially busy, outsiders or
extras are hired and as readily fired, since the contractor feels no
responsibility for them. There are in Oahu about 120 members of
the Japanese Contractors’ Association. These men have in their em­
ploy approximately 900 to 1,100 workers.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

153

Public construction, representing over two-thirds of all construction,
is in an entirely different category, since it is subject to government
supervision to enforce established regulations as to minimum wages
and maximum hours. These regulations vary as between the different
governmental agencies controlling the construction.
Standard practice required by the Public Works Administration for
Federal-aid projects 2 in this category requires that contracts pay
a minimum of $1 per hour for skilled labor, 65 cents per hour for inter­
mediate labor (such as truck drivers), and 55 cents per hour for un­
skilled labor. This is for a 40-hour week (8 hours per day, with
Saturdays off). The city and county projects require a 55-cent mini­
mum and a 40-hour week but make no further specification. Terri­
torial construction permits a 45-hour week and requires that a mini­
mum of $3 per day be observed (including $3 for a half day on Sat­
urday, or $18 per week).
Federal-aid highway construction requires the payment of a mini­
mum of 45 cents per hour for unskilled labor, 70 cents for intermedi­
ate, and $1 for skilled labor. Until October 1939 the standard week
was 44 hours; from then until October 1940 it is 42 hours; and there­
after, 40 hours.
All Federal work in the navy yard requires the use of cifizen labor.
Civilian workers in the navy yard have a 45-hour week (7:45 a. m.
to 4:15 p. m., with a 30-minute lunch period, and 5 hours on Saturday).
They are allowed a 30-day vacation per year, with pay, and 15 days’
sick leave in addition. The number of men hired for new construction
will fluctuate sharply. There is, however, a large civilian personnel
for the maintenance of buildings and equipment that remains fairly
constant. With the increasing importance of Pearl Harbor as a naval
base, this constant personnel is gradually expanding.
WAGES AND HOURS

The sharp distinction in the position of labor in public and private
construction is revealed in table 65, showing a distribution of average
hourly earnings. Over half of the workers (51.8 percent) in private
construction received less than 45 cents per hour, whereas not a single
worker in public construction received less than 45 cents. Only 8.6
percent of those in private construction received 65 cents or more
per hour, whereas 52.1 percent of all employees in public construction
received 65 cents or more per hour.
The difference appears more clearly in the case of laborers (table 66)
in which the highest hourly earnings of any worker in private construc­
tion were less than the lowest hourly earnings in public con­
struction.
Weekly earnings (table 67) do not show so great a discrepancy as
hourly earnings because of the very pronounced difference in average
hours worked per week. In public construction these were 33.6
hours, and in private construction 47.6 hours, or 14 hours per week
more (table 68). Observation and conferences with individual laborers
in the construction industry indicated that more careful supervision
was needed on some of the public construction projects to prevent
2 When relief projects were first started noncitizens as well as citizens were employed, but a ruling of the
relief agencies required that all noncitizens be dismissed. These noncitizens are, therefore, largely cared
for by Territorial relief derived from a special “ Territorial relief tax.”




154

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

infringement of established regulations and that in private construction
subcontractors tend to demand unreasonably long hours.
T

6 5 . — Distribution of workers in the construction industry in the Hawaiian
Islands according to average hourly earnings, by type of construction, 1938 and
1939

able

Type of construction
Total

Public

Private

Average hourly earnings
Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative ber of
lative ber of
lative
per­
ber of
per­
per­
per­
per­
workers centage centage workers centage centage workers centage per­
centage
Under 15 cents_____ ______
15 and under 17.5 cents____
17.5 and under 20 cents ... .
20 and under 22.5 cents____
22.5 and under 25 cents......._
25 and under 27.5 cents
27.5 and under 30 cents____
30 and under 32.5 cents____
32.5 and u nd er 35 cents

35 and under 37.5 cents____
37.5 and under 40 cents_ _
_
40 and under 42.5 cents____
42.5 and under 45 cents____
45 and under 47.5 cents____
47.5 and under 50 cents........
50 and under 52.5 cents____
52.5 and under 55 cents____
55 and under 57.5 cents____
57.5 and under 60 cents____
60 and under 62.5 cents........
62.5 and under 65 cents____
65 and under 67.5 cents____
67.5 and under 70 cents____
70 and under 72.5 cents____
72.5 and under 75 cents____
75 and under 80 cents______
80 and under 85 c e n t s . . . .
85 and under 90 cents ___
90 and under 95 cents______
95 cents and under $1 . _
$1 and under $1.10_________
$1.10 and under $1.20____ _
$1.20 and under $1.30_____
$1.30 and over_ _
_

6
2
7
3
4
14
11
32
20
19
26
33
22
61
12
349
27
121
10
49
14
258
5
39
1
94
21
9
9

0.4
.1
.5
.2
.3
1.0
.8
2.3
1.4
1.4
1.8
2.3
1.6
4.3
.9
24.8
1.9
8.6
.7
3.5
1.0
18.3
.4
2.8
.1
6.7
1.5
.6
.6

89
12
10
1 18

6.3
.9
.7
1.3

0.4
.5
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.5
3.3
5.6
7.0
8.4
10.2
12.5
14.1
18.4
19.3
44.1
46.0
54.6
55.3
58.8
59.8
78.1
78.5
81.3
81.4
88.1
89.6
90.2
90.8
90.8
97.1
98.0
98.7

30
3
317
3
96
1
38
3
239
1
38
1
91
20
9
9

2.9
.3
30.9
.3
9.4
.1
3.7
.3
23.3
.1
3.7
.1
8.9
2.0
.9
.9

84
12
10
18

8.2
1.2
1.0
1.8

2.9
3.2
34.1
34.4
43.8
43.9
47.6
47.9
71.2
71.3
75.0
75.1
84.0
86.0
86.9
87.8
87.8
96.0
97.2
98.2

6
2
7
3
4
14
11
32
20
19
26
33
22
31
9
32
24
25
9
11
11
19
4
1

1.6
.5
1.8
.8
1.0
3.6
2.9
8.3
5.2
4.9
6.8
8.7
5.7
8.1
2.3
8.3
6.3
6.5
2.3
2.9
2.9
4.9
1.0
.3

3
1

.8
.3

5

1.3

1,407

1,023

384

Average hourly earnings___ $0. 584

$0.659

1.6
2.1
3.9
4.7
5. 7
9.3
12.2
20.5
25.7
30.6
37.4
46.1
51.8
59.9
62.2
70.5
76.8
83.3
85.6
88.5
91.4
96.3
97.3
97.6
97.6
98.4
98.7
98.7
98.7
98.7
100.0

$0,444

Total...........................

1 The average hourly earnings for all workers earning $1.30 and over amounted to $1,513.
T

6 6 . — Distribution of workers in 2 selected occupations in the construction
industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by type
of construction, 1938 and 1939

able

CARPEN TERS AN D HELPERS
Type of construction
Total

Public

Private

Average hourly earnings
Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative
workers age percent­ workers age percent­ workers age percent­
age
age
age
Under 15 cents
15 and Tinder 17.5 nents
17.5 and under 2ft cents
2ft and under 22.5 cents
22.5 and under 25 cents____




2

1.1

1

.6

1

.6

1.1
1.1
1.7
1.7
2.3

2

1.6

1

.8

1

.8

1.6
1.6
2.4
2.4
3.2

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

155

6 6 . — Distribution o f workers in 2 selected occupations in the construction
industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings, by type
of construction, 1938 and 1939— Continued

T able

CARPEN TERS AN D HELPERS—Continued
Type of construction
Total

Public

Private

Average hourly earnings
Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative
workers age percent­ workers age percent­ workers age percent­
age
age
age
25 and under 27.5 cents........
27.5 and under 30 cents_ .
_
30 and under 32.5 cents_
_
32.5 and under 35 cents......
35 and under 37.5 cents __ .
37.5 and under 40 cents___
40 and under 42.5 cents
42.5 and under 45 cents____
45 and under 47.5 cents......._
47.5 and under 50 cents____
50 and under 52.5 cents___
52.5 and under 55 cents____
55 and under 57.5 cents____
57.5 and under 60 cents____
60 and under 62.5 cents____
62.5 and under 65 cents_ _
_
65 and under 67.5 cents____
67.5 and under 70 cen ts___
70 and under 72.5 cents......
72.5 cents and over

2
5
6
6
5
6
12
10
12
4
12
14
10
5
7
2
28
3
4
i 22

1.1
2.8
3.4
3.4
2.8
3.4
6.7
5.6
6.7
2.2
6.7
7.8
5.6
2.8
3.9
1.1
15.5
1.7
2.2
12.3

3.4
6.2
9.6
13.0
15.8
19.2
25.9
31.5
38.2
40.4
47.1
54.9
60.5
63.3
67.2
68.3
83.8
85.5
87.7

4

7.7

23

44.2

3
22

5.8
42.3

7.7
7.7
51.9
51.9
57.7

2
5
6
6
5
6
12
10
12
4
12
14
10
5
3
2
5
3
1

179

52
$0. 794
LABORERS

4.8
8.7
13.4
18.1
22.0
26.7
36.1
44.0
53.4
56.6
66.0
77.1
85.0
88.9
91.3
92.9
96.8
99.2
100.0

127

Average hourly earnings___ $0.539

1.6
3.9
4.7
4.7
3.9
4.7
9.4
7.9
9.4
3.2
9.4
11.1
7.9
3.9
2.4
1.6
3.9
2.4
.8

$0,462

Total____

Type of construction
Total

Private

Public

Average hourly earnings
Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative ber of percent­ lative
workers age percent­ workers age percent­ workers age percent­
age
age
age
Under 15 c e n t s .,_________
15 and iindar 17.5 rants .

.

17.5 and under 20 cents____
20 and under 22.5 cents____
22.5 and under 25 cents........
25 and under 27.5 cents____
27.5 and under 30 cents____
30 and nndp.r 32.5 rants

_
32.5 and under 35 cents_ _
35 and under 37.5 cents_
_
37.5 and under 40 cents___
40 and under 42.5 cents____
42.5 and under 45 cents____
45 and nndfir 47.5 rants

47.5 and under 50 cents
50 and under 52.5 cents..
52.5 and under 55 cents...
55 and under 57.5 cents........
57.5 and under 60 cents
60 and under 62.5 cents
62.5 and under 65 cents _ . _
65 and under 67.5 cents... _
67.5 and under 70 cents___
70 and under 72.5 cents. .
72.5 cents and over
Total_____________ .

2

0.4

3

.7

6
4
4
1

1.3
.9
.9
.2

30
3
271
2
92
1
14

6.8
.7
61.0
.4
20.8
.2
3.1

9

2.6

1
22

.2
.4

0.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
1.1
1.1
2.4
3.3
4.2
4.4
4.4
4.4
11.2
11.9
72.9
73.3
94.1
94.3
97.4
97.4
99.4
99.4
99.6

2

10.0

3

30
3
271
2
92
1
14

7.1
.7
63.8
.5
21.6
.2
3.3

9

2.1

1
2

.2
.5

15.0

6
4
4
1

30.0
20.0
20.0
5.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
25.0
25.0
55.0
75.0
95.0
100.0

7.1
7.8
71.6
72.1
93.7
93.9
97.2
97.2
99.3
99.3
99.5

445

425

20

Average hourly earnings___ $0,503

$0.517

$0.303

1 Includes 2 workers whose earnings were between 75 and 80 cents; 1 between 85 and 90 cents; 2 between
90 and 95 cents; and 17 between $1 and $1.10.
3 Includes 1 worker whose earnings were between 72.5 and 75 cents; and 1 at $1.10.




156
T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

67.— D i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o r k e r s i n th e c o n s tr u c t io n i n d u s t r y i n th e H a w a i i a n
I s l a n d s a c c o r d in g to w e e k l y e a r n i n g s , b y t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t io n , 1 9 3 8 a n d 1 9 3 9

able

Type of construction
Total

Public

Private

Weekly earnings
Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­
Cumu­ Num­
Cumu­
ber of
lative ber of Simple lative ber of Simple lative
work­ percent­ percent­ work­ percent­ percent­ work­ percent­ percent­
age
age
age
ers
age
ers
ers
age
age
Under $5........ ......................
$5 and under $7.50_________
$7.50 and under $10..............
$10 and under $12.50_______
$12.50 and under $15_______
$15 and under $17.50_______
$17.50 and under $20.........
$20 and under $22.50........... .
$22.50 and under $25_______
$25 and under $27.50_______
$27.50 and under $30.........
$30 and under $32.50_______
$32.50 and under $35_______
$35 and under $37.50_______
$37.50 and under $40.........
$40 and under $42.50...........$42.50 and under $45_______
$45 and under $47.50_______
$47.50 and under $50_______
$50 and over__
__ ____

36
34
63
75
63
92
149
294
111
200
58
107
20
22
4
52
3
3
3
i 18

2.6
2.4
4.5
5.3
4.5
6.5
10.6
20.9
7.9
14.2
4.1
7.6
1.4
1.6
.3
3.7
.2
.2
.2
1.3

Total................. .........
1,407
Average weekly earnings___ $21.84

34
29
44
59
38
52
'97
248
50
143
35
80
16
19
3
49
3
3
3
18

2.6
5.0
9.5
14.8
19.3
25.8
36.4
57.3
65.2
79.4
83.5
91.1
92.5
94.1
94.4
98.1
98.3
98.5
98. 7

3.3
2.8
4.3
5.8
3.7
5.1
9.5
24.1
4.9
14.0
3.4
7.8
1.6
1.9
.3
4.8
.3
.3
.3
1.8

3.3
6.1
10.4
16.2
19.9
25.0
34.5
58.6
63.5
77.5
80.9
88.7
90.3
92.2
92.5
97.3
97.6
97.9
98.2

2
5
19
16
25
40
52
46
61
57
23
27
4
3
1
3

0.5
1.3
4.9
4.2
6.5
10.4
13.5
12.0
16.0
14.8
6.0
7.0
1.0
.8
.3
.8

0.5
1.8
6.7
10.9
17.4
27.8
41.3
53.3
69.3
84.1
90.1
97.1
98.1
98.9
99.2
100.0

384
$21.13

1,023
$22.11

i The average of all workers earning $50 and over amounted to $55.39.
T

68.- — A v e r a g e h o u r s w o r k e d p e r w e e k a n d a v era g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f w o r k e r s
i n th e c o n s tr u c t io n i n d u s t r y i n the H a w a i i a n I s l a n d s , b y r a c e , 1 9 3 8 a n d 1 9 3 9

able

Type of construction
Total

Public 1

Private1

Race
Num­ Average Average Num­ Average Average Num­ Average Average
hours
hours
hours
ber of worked weekly
ber of worked weekly
ber of worked weekly
workers per week earnings workers per week earnings workers per week earnings
All workers—
Caucasian____ _
Japanese________
Chinese__________
Hawaiian and part
Hawaiian______
All others________

1,407

37.4

$21.84

1,023

33.6

$22.11

384

47.6

$21.13

213
715
60

32.7
41.5
36.0

22.21
22.63
22.17

211
352
59

32.7
34.9
36.5

22.16
23. 76
22.49

2
363
1

(2
)
47.9
(2
)

(2
)
21.53
(2
)

149
270

32.6
33.1

19.92
20.43

145
256

32.4
32.4

20.16
20.80

4
14

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

1 A greater proportion of workers in public construction was included in these tables to give the proper
weight to the general averages since public construction is two to three times as great as private construction
in the Territory as a whole.
* Too few workers to justify the computation of an average; included in total for all workers.




T

a

69.— b

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , w e e k ly e a r n i n g s , a n d a v era g e h o u r s w o r k e d p e r w e e k o f w o r k e r s i n s elec ted o c c u p a t i o n s i n the c o n s tr u c tio n
l
e
i n d u s t r y , i n the H a w a i i a n I s l a n d s , a c c o r d in g to t y p e o f c o n s tr u c t io n , 1 9 3 8 a n d 1 9 3 9

Type of construction
Total

Public

Private

Number
of workers

Apprentices_______________
Carpenters and helpers____
Electricians and helpers____
Foremen_________________
Form builders____________
Laborers_________________
Masons and helpers.______
Painters and helpers_____ _
Plasterers and helpers_____
Plumbers and helpers_____
Reinforced steel workers___

19
179
34
40
132
445
30
98
30
62
27

Average
hourly
earnings
$0.261
.539
.588
.835
.720
.503
.529
.504
.665
.545
.710

Average
hours
worked
per week
49.2
44.9
38.5
42.7
37.0
34.2
44.2
42.4
38.0
43.5
30.8

Average
weekly
earnings

Number
of workers

$12.86
24.20
22. 65
35. 69
26. 67
17.19
23.40
21.36
25.25
23. 72
21.89

1 Too few workers to justify the computation of an average; included in total.




52
18
24
132
425
6
32
10
10
27

Average
hourly
earnings

$0.794
.781
1.023
.720
.517

(9

.744
1.327
.891
.710

Average
hours
worked
per week

36.0
30.1
38.4
37.0
33.4

(9

30.1
25.1
31.2
30.8

Average
weekly
earnings

$28.59
23. 51
39.28
26. 67
17.28

(9

22.42
33.31
27.80
21.89

Number
of workers

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
hours
worked
per week

Average
weekly
earnings

19
127
16
16

$0.261
.462
.452
.616

49.2
48.5
48.0
49.2

$12.86
22.40
21.69
30.30

20
24
66
20
52

.303
.465
.432
.478
.500

50.4
46.2
48.3
44.0
45.9

15.27
21.47
20.84
21. 22
22.94

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAW AII, 1 9 3 9

Occupation

O i

158

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939
SEASONALITY AND TURN-OYER

B e c a u s e o f t h e e v e n c l i m a t e o f H a w a i i t h e r e is n o d i s t i n c t l y s e a s o n a l
p a tte r n

in

th e

v o lu m e

of

c o n s tr u c tio n .

N e v e r th e le s s ,

e m p lo y m e n t

s h o w s e x t r e m e f lu c t u a t i o n s a n d t u r n - o v e r is r e p o r t e d b y b o t h c o n t r a c ­
to r s a n d e m p lo y e e s to b e v e r y h ig h .

N o a c c u r a te re c o r d s w e re a v a ila b le

o n tu r n -o v e r , h o w e v e r .
A

d is t in c t s e r v ic e c o u ld b e re n d e r e d to th e w o r k e r s in th e in d u s tr y ,

w h ic h w o u ld

a ls o

a id

to

som e

d e g r e e in

th e s o lu tio n

o f e m p lo y m e n t

p r o b le m s in H a w a ii, b y th e c o m p ila tio n o f a c o n tin u o u s c o n s tr u c tio n
s c h e d u le fo r t h e T e r r i t o r y a s a w h o le w h ic h w o u ld fo r e c a s t th e v o lu m e
o f a c tiv ity

in

th e

in d u s tr y .

A

record

o f a ll a p p r o p r ia tio n s fo r c o n ­

s t r u c t io n p u r p o s e s a n d th e p la n s g r o w in g o u t o f t h e m , to g e th e r w it h
a r e c o r d o f p e r m it s fo r p r iv a t e c o n s tr u c tio n , w o u ld p r o v id e th e b a s is
fo r c o n t in u o u s e s t im a t e s o f a ll p r o je c t e d c o n s t r u c t io n .
p r o v id in g
a ls o

a p p r o x im a te

o c c a s io n a lly

serve

e s tim a te s
to

of

p reven t

fu tu re

th e

I n a d d itio n to

e m p lo y m e n t

c o n ju n c tio n

of

th is

m ig h t

s e v e r a l la r g e

p r o je c t s a t o n e t im e a n d th u s a v o id a s h a r p p e a k in c o n s tr u c tio n w o r k .
T h e in f o r m a t io n is a lr e a d y a v a ila b le in s e p a r a t e a n d u n r e la t e d o ffic e s .




CHAPTER 21. MANUFACTURES
PRIN TING AND PUBLISHING
B e c a u s e o f th e la c k o f m in e r a ls a n d o t h e r in d u s tr ia l r a w m a t e r ia ls ,
th e r e is , a s h a s b e e n s a id , r e la t iv e ly lit t le m a n u f a c t u r in g in t h e T e r r i­
to ry .

O n l y t h e p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y is c a r r ie d o n in a s u f f i c i e n t l y la r g e

n u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts to b e s e p a r a te ly a n a ly z e d .

In the city of Honolulu, in which the printing industry centers,
there are 4 daily newspapers with a combined circulation of about
75,000. Of these, 2 are English newspapers and 2 are JapaneseEnglish newspapers. In addition to these dailies, there are 12 other
newspapers, 3 of which are triweekly papers, the other 9 being
weekly. Four of the weekly papers are English, 3 are FilipinoEnglish, 1 is Korean, and 1 Japanese. There are also a number of
monthly publications in various languages.
O u tsid e
in

w h ic h

p u b lis h e d .

o f H o n o lu lu
one

E n g lis h

T h ere

are

th e
and

c h ie f p u b lic a tio n
several

s m a lle r

c e n t e r is H i l o , H a w a i i ,

fo r e ig n -la n g u a g e

p r in tin g

n ew sp ap ers

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

on

th e

are

o th e r

is la n d s .

All newspapers have departments for handling job printing. There
are also smaller job-printing shops. The survey of the printing and
publishing industry included 505 workers and covered Hilo, as well
as Honolulu. No industry in the Territory showed a more marked
stratification of earnings along racial lines. In 1936 a study of the
industry was conducted by the N. R. A. An additional study by the
Typothetae of Hawaii was undertaken in 1937. These studies showed
that prior to the N. R. A. extremely low earnings and long hours
were to be found among the unskilled workers, particularly in the
foreign-language newspaper and publishing houses. The N. R. A.
did much to improve working conditions, but, after it was declared
unconstitutional, many firms returned to their previous practices.
On May 1, 1938,1 an agreement was signed by six newspaper and
publishing houses in Honolulu with the Honolulu Typographical
Union (A. F. of L.). A year later, on March 15, 1939, an additional
large newspaper signed a similar contract.
The contract provides a minimum for journeyman printers of 70
cents per hour beginning with the day of the agreement. This
increases to 80 cents at the end of the first 6 months, to 90 cents at
the end of 12 months, to $1 at the end of 18 months, and to $1.15 at
the end of the second year. The contract also provides that time and
one-half shall be paid for overtime, which is defined as more than 8
hours in any 1 shift or more than 40 hours in a single week.
Printing shops in other parts of the Territory have a somewhat
lower scale, and oriental-language nonunion shops a very much
lower scale.
i Labor unions in the printing and publishing industries are among the oldest in Hawaii. They were
brought to the Territory by the journeyman printers who came from the American mainland to the Terri­
tory in the early days of the industry. For this reason they have been closely associated with mainland
unions but have been largely restricted to the English language press and a relatively small group of workers.
The 1938 agreements thus represent a distinct expansion in their influence though many small shops are
still unorganized.




159

160

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

There is thus a wide range in the wage rates in the industry. B y
way of illustration, one worker who had been working 56 hours per
week for $65 per month, upon transferring to one of the large unionized
shops, received 75 cents per hour on a 44-hour week. Thus he earned
over twice as much for the same type of work, with 12 fewer hours
per week.
N o satisfactory records of wages and hours were available in the
smallest shops with the lowest wage rates. T o that extent the tables
are not representative, but they cover over 80 percent of the workers
in the printing industry.

There is a well-known comment on wages in Hawaii to the effect
that, “ There are three levels of wages in Hawaii, what the ‘haole’ 2
pays the ‘haole’ , what the ‘haole’ pays the oriental, and what the
oriental pays the oriental.”
The studies of the wage structures of various Hawaiian industries
that have been presented here indicate that there are a number of
large industries to which this statement does not apply. In such
firms variations in earnings by race are so slight as to be of no signifi­
cance. In many concerns given rates are paid for specific types of
work regardless of race. In the public utilities, for example, it was
showm that the average annual earnings of Chinese workers were
somewhat above those of Caucasian, although public utilities are under
Caucasian management.
Nevertheless, broadly speaking, and with numerous exceptions,
there is some justification for the commonly accepted belief stated
above. The printing and publishing industry is a case in point.
Variations in earnings by race are very marked in this industry. An
examination of the schedules on which the tables are based reveals
the fact that the variations in earnings by firms are even more
marked than the variations by race. Those firms that pay the highest
rates and maintain the shortest hours employ workers of all races.
Hence orientals working for such firms tend to raise the average
earnings and to lower the average hours per week when combined
with orientals working for the foreign-language publishing concerns.
Hourly earnings.— Caucasians constituted 34.0 percent of the
workers covered in the survey, Japanese represented 41.6 percent,
and all others (primarily Chinese) 24.4 percent.
The average hourly earnings of all male workers were 63.3 cents.
Caucasians earned an average of 84.4 cents per hour, whereas Japanese
averaged 42.2 cents, or exactly half of that figure (table 70). Only
one-fourth (23.6 percent) of the Caucasians received less than 60
cents per hour, but 86.8 percent of the Japanese and 51.9 percent of
all others received less than 60 cents per hour.
Female workers (57.6 percent of which were Japanese) constituted
only 23.9 percent of total employment, and received average earnings
of 31.7 cents.
A distribution of hourly earnings by type of work indicated that
male compositors averaged 69.3 cents per hour (table 71). Caucasian
compositors received the highest hourly earnings (91.4 cents) and
Japanese compositors received the lowest (39 cents). No Japanese
compositors received more than 50 cents per hour, whereas only one
Caucasian compositor received less than 50 cents per hour.
Female bindery workers averaged 37.8 cents per hour.
2 “ H a o l e ” m e a n s a p e r s o n w i t h w h i t e s k i n , h e n c e a fo r e ig n e r , a n d is c o m m o n ly u s e d to d e s ig n a t e C a u c a ­
s i a n s o f b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e social o r e c o n o m ic p o s i t i o n .




T a b l e

70 .— Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to average hourly earnings , by
sex and race, spring of 1989
Male

F e m a le

C a u c a s ia n

T o t a l— A ll ra c e s

Ja p a n e se

T o t a l— A l l ra c e s

A ll o th e rs

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s
Cum u­
la tiv e
p e rc e n t­
age

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

Cum u­
N u m - 1 S im n le j
la tiv e
b er of , p e rc e n t- !
p e rc e n t­
w o rk e rs 1
age
age
!

Cum u­
la t iv e
p e rc e n t­
age

0. 3

0. 3

1

0 .7

1.1
2.1
3 .9
6 .7

1

3
3
4

2.1 !
2.1
2. s ;

11

.8
1.0
1.8
2 .8

8

5 .5

17

4 .3

11.0

4

i
3
4
7

11

2 .8

1 3 .8

2

25
16
14
13

6 .3
4 .0
3 .5
3 .3
5 .0
2 .5
5 .5

20.1

i

20
10
22
11
12
3
5

10
8
6
3

8
10

24. 1
2 7 .6
3 0 .9
3 5 .9
3 8 .4
4 3 .9
4 6 .7
4 9. 7
5 0. 5
5 1 .8
5 4 .3
5 6 .3
57. 8
5 8. 6
6 0. 6
63! 1
6 4 .1
6 7 .1
7 1 .1
7 4 .1
78. 6
8 1. 6
9 0. 5
95. 0
9 8 .0

2.8
3. 0

.8
1 .3
2 .5

2 .0
1. 5

.8
2. 0
2. 5

4

1.0

12

3 .0
4. 0
3. 0
4. 5
3 .0
8 .9
4. 5
3 .0

16

12
18

12
36
18

12
18

T o t a l _______________________ ______________

3 98

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s _________________

$ 0. 633

1

2 .7
1 .3
. 7
. 7

1
3
4
" '4

1
0
1
3
7
4

4
1
8
0
2
8
6
7
7
24
14

11

2.0

1"

0 .7

2 .0
2 7
' " 2 .7
_7

2. 0
2. 0
4 .7
2 .7
2. 7
. 7
5. 4
4. 0
1. 3
3 .4
5. 4
4 .0
4. 7
4. 7
1 6 .0
9. 3
7 .4
4. 7

0 .7
. 7
3 .4
4 .7
5. 4
5 .4

6.1
8.1
10.8
10.8

10
6
2
2

8 .9
4 .8
6 .9
4. 1
1. 4
1. 4

"2
2
2

l.T
1 .4
1 .4

3. 4

5

2
2

2.1

2

8 7. 9
9 5 .3

1 .4
1 .4

3

02 6
78.' 6

1 .4
...

1
|

I
1--------------

6 .2

9
13
7

1 3 .5
1 4 .2
16. 2
16. 9
is ! 9
2 3 .6
2 6 .3
2 9. 0
2 9 .7
3 5 .1
3 9! 1
40. 4
43! 8
49. 2
53! 2
5 7. 9

149
$ 0 .8 4 4

6
20
10
11

145"
$ 0. 422

__

Cum u­
la tiv e
p e rc e n t­
age

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

0 .7

;
6 .2 !
4. 1
1 3 .7
6 9
7 .6

9

N u m - j S im p le
p e rc e n t­
b e r of
age
w o rk e rs !
i

2 .8
4 .9
7 .7
13. 2
1 9 .4
2 3 .5
3 7. 2
4 4. 1
5 1 .7
5 7 .9

66 .8
7 1 .6
7 8 .5
8 2 .6
8 4. 0
8 5 .4
8 5 .4

86 .8
88 .2
8 9 .6
8 9 .6
89. 6
8 9 .6
8 9 .6
9 3 .0
9 3 .0
9 3 .0
9 4 .4
9 5 .8
9 7 .9
9 9 .3
9 9 .3
1__________

l ”

2
3
4
3
4

6
2
1

i .' o
1 .9
2 .9
3 .8
2 .9
3 .8
5 .8
1 .9

i .' o "
2 .9
5 .8
9 .6
1 2 .5
1 6 .3

22.1

2

1 .9

4

2

3 .8
1 .9
1 .9
7 .7
5 .8
8. 7
2 .9
8 .7
1 .9

2 4 .0
2 5 .0
2 7 .9
3 0 .8
3 8 .5
4 2 .3
4 9 .0
4 9 .0
5 0 .9
5 1 .9
5 3 .8
5 3 .8
5 5 .7
5 5 .7
5 9 .5
6 1 .4
6 3 .3
7 1 .0
7 6 .8
8 5 .5
8 8 .4
9 7 .1
9 9 .0

1

1.0

100.0

3
3

8
4
7

2
1
2

2
2
8
6
9
3
9

1.0
2 .9
2 .9
7 .7
3 .8
6 .7
1 .9

1.0
1 .9

104
$ 0. 6 25 1_______

11
12
11
14
15

8
3

6
3
7

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

Cum u­
la t iv e
p e rc e n t­
age

8 .8

8 .8

9 .6

1 8 .4
2 7 .2
3 8 .4
5 0 .4
5 6 .8
5 9 .2
6 4 .0
6 6 .4
7 2 .0
7 2 .8
7 8 .4
8 1 .6
8 7 .2

8 .8
11.2
12.0
6 .4
2 .4
4 .8
2 .4
5 .6

1

.8

7
4
7

5 .6
3 .2
5 .6

1

.8

88 .0
88 .0
88 .0

3

2 .4

2
2
1
2

1 .6
1 .6
.8
1 .6

9 0 .4
9 2 .0
9 3 .6
9 4 .4
9 6 .0
9 6 .0
9 6 .0
9 6 .0
9 6 .8
9 6 .8
9 8 .4
9 8 .4
9 8 .4
9 9 .2
9 9 .2

1

.8

2

1 .6

1

.8

1

.8

19 3 9

_
U n d e r 15 c e n t s _______ ______________
15 a n d u n d e r 1 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
1 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 2 0 c e n t s ___________________
2 0 a n d u n d e r 2 2 .5 c e n t s ___________________
2 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 2 5 c e n t s , _ __________ .
25 a n d u n d e r 2 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
2 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 0 c e n t s ___________________
3 0 a n d u n d e r 3 2 .5 c e n t s ___________________
3 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 35 c e n t s ___________________
3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s ___________________
4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 2 .5 c e n t s ___________________
4 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 45 c e n t s ___________________
4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
4 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 5 0 c e n t s ___________________
50 a n d u n d e r 5 2 .5 c e n t s , _ _
... .
5 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 55 c e n t s . . _
_______
55 a n d u n d e r 5 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
5 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 0 c e n t s ___________________
6 0 a n d u n d e r 6 2 .5 c e n t s ___________________
6 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 5 c e n t s _
_____________
65 a n d u n d e r 6 7 .5 c e n t s ___________________
6 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 7 0 c e n t s
7 0 a n d u n d e r 7 2 .5 c e n t s __________
_____
7 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 7 5 c e n t s . . . ____________
7 5 a n d u n d e r 8 0 c e n t s ______________________
80 a n d u n d e r 85 c e n t s .
8 5 a n d u n d e r 9 0 c e n t s . . . . . _____ . . .
9 0 a n d u n d e r 9 5 c e n t s ______ . . . _______
9 5 a n d u n d e r 1 00 c e n t s ______
... .
100 a n d u n d e r 110 c e n t s ___________________
110 a n d u n d e r 120 c e n t s ______
________
120 a n d u n d e r 130 c e n t s ___________________
1 30 c e n t s a n d o v e r _______

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

LABOR IK THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk e rs

100.0

125
...

$ 0 . 317

O)
1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l m a l e w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 1 .3 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d to $ 1, 457 .




T h e a v e r a g e , b y r a c e , w ; s $ 1 ,4 7 8 f o r C a u c a s i a n a n d $ 1 ,3 1 3 f o r J a p a n e s e .

162
T a b l e

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939
71.-— Average hourly earnings of male workers in selected occupations in the
printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian Isla nds , M a y 1989
O c c u p a tio n

A ll ra c e s

C o m p o s i t o r s ____
_______________________
__
_____
_____ ___
_
_ _ ____________
L i n o t y p e o p e r a t o r s __________________
P r e s s m e n ____
____________ ___________ ___ _________________
________
T y p e p ic k e rs 2
............................................................
_ .
__
_____ ___

$ 0 . 693
.8 6 9
.5 7 8
.3 4 0

C a u c a s ia n

$ 0 .9 1 4
1 .0 8 1
.7 8 6

Ja p a n e se

$ 0 .3 9 0
.5 5 4
.3 8 2

A l l o th e rs

i $ 0 . 821
.9 0 5
.5 5 2

1 N o t i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i n e s e , w h o a v e r a g e d $ 0 ,4 0 1 p e r h o u r .
2 F e m a l e t y p e p i c k e r s a v e r a g e d $ 0 ,2 0 0 p e r h o u r .

Weekly earnings.— The average weekly earnings of all male workers
were $26.49, Caucasians averaging $33.81 and Japanese $18.89 (table
72). The discrepancy in weekly earnings as between Japanese and
Caucasians is not so great as in hourly earnings, because Japanese
averaged 45.3 hours per week, whereas Caucasians averaged only
39.9 hours per week (table 73). As previously stated, the differences
in racial earnings were less than they would otherwise have been
because of the higher earnings and shorter hours of those Japanese
who worked for the large unionized concerns.
Female workers averaged 41.9 hours and received average earnings
of $13.30 per week. Of the female workers 87.9 percent received less
than $20 per week, whereas only 38.6 percent of all males received
less than $20. For Caucasian males this figure was only 16.2 percent,
and for Japanese males it was 64.8 percent.
Linotype operators (male) averaged $34.89 per week, Caucasians
averaged $39.96, and Japanese $25. All others averaged $40.48. A
distribution of these earnings indicated that only 19 percent of the
Caucasians earned less than $30 per week, whereas 66 percent of the
Japanese earned less than $30 per week. About one-third of all male
linotype operators (32.9 percent) earned between $37.50 and $47.50.




T

able

72 .— Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to weekly earningsy by sex and.
race, spring of 1989 1

C a u c a s ia n

T o t a l— a ll ra c e s

Ja p a n e s e

T o t a l— a ll ra c e s

A ll o th e rs

W e e k l y e a r n in g s
Cum u­
N um ber
N u m b e r S im p le
la t iv e
of
of
p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
w o rk e rs
w o rk e rs
age
age

U n d e r $ 5 __________________________________________
$5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 _________________________
$ 1 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 .5 0 ________________________
$ 1 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 5 ________________________
$ 15 a n d u n d e r $ 1 7 .5 0 ________________________
$ 1 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 ________ _______ ________
$ 20 a n d u n d e r $ 2 2 .5 0 ________________________
$ 2 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 5 ____________________
$ 25 a n d u n d e r $ 2 7 .5 0 ___________________ . .
$ 2 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $30
$ 3 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 2 .5 0 ________________________
$ 3 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 5 _____ ________________
$35 a n d u n d e r $ 3 7 .5 0
$ 3 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0
$ 4 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 .5 0 ________________________
$ 4 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $45
$45 a n d u n d e r $ 4 7 .5 0 ________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0
$ 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 55
$55 a n d o v e r
T o ta l
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s

4
2
17
18
38
38
33
37
27
17
18
17
17
22
12
20
12
15
4
13
28
389
$ 2 6 . 49

1 .0
.5
4 .4
4 .6
9 .8
9 .8
8 .5
9 .4
6 .9
4 .4
4 .6
4 .4
4 .4
5. 7
3 .1
5 .1
3 .1
3 .9

10
.
3. 3
2 .1

1 .0
1 .5
5 .9
1 0 .5
2 0 .3
3 0 .1
3 8 .6
4 8 .0
5 4 .9
5 9 .3
6 3 .9
6 8 .3
7 2 .7
7 8 .4
8 1 .5
8 6 .6
8 9 .7
93. 6
9 4 .6
9 7 .9

1
4
4
4
6
5
7
13
8
10
10
8
10
7
12
9
11
2
11
7
149
$ 33 . 81

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

0 .7
2 .7
2 .7
2 .7
4 .0
3 .4
4 .7
8 .6
5 .4
6 .7
6 .7
5 .4
6 .7
4 .7
8 .1
6 .0
7 .4
1 .3
7 .4
4 .7

Cum u­
la t iv e
p e rc e n t­
age

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

2
1
10
8
27
23
17
19
9
4
3
3
1
2
1
1

1 .5
.7
7 .4
5 .9
1 9 .9
1 6 .9
1 2 .5
1 4 .0
6 .6
2 .9
2. 2
2 .2
.7
1 .5

2
2
1

6 .7
3 .4
6 .1
8 .8
1 2 .8
1 6 .2
2 0 .9
2 9 .5
3 4 .9
4 1 .6
4 8 .3
5 3 .7
60. 4
6 5 .1
7 3. 2
79. 2
8 6 .6
8 7 .9
9 5 .3

1 .5
1 .5
.7

136
$ 1 8 . 89

1 D o e s n o t i n c l u d e 18 w o r k e r s f o r w h o m d a t a o n h o u r s w o r k e d i n 1 w e e k w e r e n o t r e p o r t e d .
2 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l m a l e w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $55 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d to $ 7 1 .2 7 .




S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

'.7

Cum u­
N um ber
la tiv e
of
p e rc e n t­
w o rk e rs
age

1 .5
2 .2
9 .6
1 5 .5
3 5 .4
5 2 .3
6 4 .8
7 8 .8
8 5 .4
8 8 .3
9 0 .5
9 2 .7
9 3 .4
9 4 .9
9 5 .6
9 6 .3
9 6 .3
9 7 .8
9 9 .3
1 0 0 .0

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

2

1 .9

3
6
7
9
11
11
5
5
5
4
8
10
4
7
3
2

2 .9
5 .8
6 .7
8 .7
1 0 .6
1 0 .6
4 .8
4 .8
4 .8
3 .8
7 .7
9 .6
3 .8
6 .7
2 .9
1 .9

1
1

1 .0
1 .0

1 04
$ 2 5 .9 4

Cum u­
N um ber
la t iv e
of
p e rc e n t­
w o rk e rs
age

1 .9
1 .9
4 .8
1 0 .6
1 7 .3
2 6 .0
3 6 .6
4 7 .2
5 2 .0
5 6 .8
6 1 .6
6 5 .4
7 3 .1
8 2 .7
8 6 .5
9 3 .2
9 6 .1
9 8 .0
9 8 .0
9 9 .0

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

1
13
38
22
8
9
11
2
4
3

0 .9
1 1 .2
3 2 .7
1 8 .9
6 .9
7 .8
9 .5
1 .7
3 .4
2 .6

1
2

.9
1 .7

i

.9

l

.9

116
$ 1 3 . 30

Cum u­
la tiv e
p e rc e n t­
age

0 .9
1 2 .1
4 4 .8
6 3 .7
7 0 .6
7 8 .4
8 7 .9
8 9 .6
9 3 .0
9 5 .6
9 5 .6
9 6 .5
9 8 .2
9 8 .2
9 8 .2
9 9 .1
9 9 .1
9 9 .1
1 0 0 .0

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

2 4 1 4 0 4 -4 0 -

F e m a le s

M a le s

O

CO

164
T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

73.— Average hours worked per week and average weekly earnings of workers
in the printing and publishing industry in the Hawaiian Islands , by race and
, spring of 1 9 3 9 1

able

sex

T o ta l

R ace

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

M a le

F e m a le

A ve ra g e
A ve rag e
A v e ra g e
A ve rag e N u m b e r
A ve rag e N u m b e r
A ve ra g e
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
w e e k ly
w e e k ly
of
of
w e e k ly
w o rk e d
w o rk e d
w o rk e d
e a r n in g s w o rk e rs
e a r n in g s w o rk e rs
e a r n in g s
per w eek
per w eek
per w eek

A l l r a c e s _______

505

4 2 .3

$ 2 3 .4 6

389

4 2 .4

$26. 49

116

4 1 .9

$ 1 3 .3 0

C a u c a s i a n ______________
J a p a n e s e ________________
A l l o t h e r s _______________

1 78
1 99
1 28

3 9 .6
4 5 .0
4 1 .7

3 1 .4 4
1 6 .0 7
2 3 .8 3

149
1 36
1 04

3 9 .9
4 5 .3
4 2 .0

3 3 .8 1
1 8 .8 9
2 5 .9 4

29
63
24

3 8 .0
4 4 .3
4 0 .3

1 9 .3 0
1 0 .0 1
1 4 .6 8

1 D o e s n o t i n c l u d e 18 w o r k e r s f o r w h o m d a t a o n t h e h o u r s w o r k e d i n 1 w e e k w e r e n o t r e p o r t e d .

Male compositors averaged $29.13 per week. Of all male composi­
tors, 38.4 percent earned between $15 and $25; another group, repre­
senting 30.8 percent, earned between $35 and $45.
Pressmen earned an average of $25.44 per week. Of these, 55.3
percent earned between $15 and $30.
Annual earnings.— The average annual earnings of all workers
amounted to $1,222 (table 74). The earnings of these workers were
spread over an average of 48.5 weeks. Those whose work was spread
over a period of more than 39 but less than 52 weeks represented
only 13.4 percent of all workers, and they earned an average of
$1,462 per year. The work of 72.8 percent of all workers was spread
over 52 weeks. This group, however, included a larger percentage of
those with lower hourly earnings. Hence, the group as a whole
averaged only $1,287. The Caucasians in this group averaged
$1,755, whereas Japanese averaged only $915. Caucasian males in
the group whose work was spread over 52 weeks showed the highest
average annual earnings which amounted to $1,869 per year.
The average annual earnings of all females were $624, and their
work was spread over an average of 45.8 weeks.
The average annual earnings of all male compositors were $1,550
(table 75). Linotype operators showed the highest average annual
earnings, which amounted to $1,853. Those whose work was spread
over 52 weeks showed an annual average of $2,035.




16 5

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 89
T

able

7 4 . — Average annual earnings of workers in

the printing and publishing
industry in the Hawaiian Islands according to sex and race, 1988
E m p lo y e e s w h o se w o rk w a s s p re a d o v e r—
52 w e e k s

40 a n d u n d e r 52 w e e k s

S e x a n d ra c e
N um ber
of em p lo y e e s

P e rce n t
of
to ta l

A ve ra g e N u m b e r
annual
of em ­
e a r n i n g s p lo y e e s

P e rce n t
of
to ta l

A n y p a rt of y e a r i

A ve ra g e
num ber
A v e ra g e N u m b e r of w e e k s A v e r a g e
annual
of em ­
over
annual
e a r n i n g s p lo y e e s
w h ic h
e a r n in g s
w o rk w a s
sp re a d

A l l w o r k e r s ____________

338

7 2 .8

$ 1 ,2 8 7

62

1 3 .4

$ 1 ,4 6 2

448

4 8 .5

$ 1 ,2 2 2

C a u c a s i a n _______
J a p a n e s e - .. . . .
A l l o t h e r s ________

99
1 50
89

6 2 .3
7 7 .3
8 0 .2

1, 755
9 15
1 ,3 9 2

31
15
16

1 9 .5
7 .7
1 4 .4

1 ,8 8 2
769
1 ,3 0 0

144
193
111

4 8 .8
4 7 .4
5 0 .0

1 ,6 8 3
816
1 ,3 2 8

272

7 4 .5

1 ,4 3 3

46

1 2 .6

1 ,7 0 0

350

4 9 .2

1, 3 8 9

85
109
78

6 1 .6
8 0 .7
8 4 .8

3 ,8 6 9
1 ,0 6 0
1. 4 8 0

28
7
11

2 0 .3
5 .2
1 2 .0

1 .9 5 0
( 2)
( 2)

1 24
134
92

4 9 .3
4 8 .1
5 1 .0

1 ,7 9 6
972
1 ,4 4 8

66

66. 7

683

16

1 6 .2

98

4 5 .8

624

14
41

6 6 .7
6 9 .5
5 7 .9

( 2)
531

3
8
5

1 4 .3
1 3 .6
2 6 .3

20
59
19

4 6 .0
4 5 .9
4 5 .3

986
462
744

M a l e s ___________________
C a u c a s i a n _______
J a p a n e s e . _________
A l l o t h e r s ________
F e m a l e s ______________

.

C a u c a s i a n ______
i
J a p a n e s e _____
.
A l l o t h e r s ________

1
1

( 2)

|
i

7 79
( 2)
(2)
( 2)

1 D o e s n o t i n c l u d e 10 w o r k e r s f o r w h o m d a t a o n w e e k s w o r k e d w e r e n o t r e p o r t e d .
T h e a v e ra g e a n n u a l
e a r n i n g s f o r a l l w o r k e r s fo r w h o m a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e r e p o r t e d a m o u n t e d t o $ 1 ,2 3 1 .
T h e a v e ra g e b y ra c e ,
r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x , w a s $ 1 ,6 7 5 f o r C a u c a s i a n s ; $ 8 1 3 f o r J a p a n e s e ; a n d $ 1 ,3 2 8 f o r a l l o t h e r s .
2 N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s to o f e w to j u s t i f y t h e c o m p u t a t io n o f a n a v e ra g e .
I n c lu d e d i n t o t a l.

T

7 5 .— Average annual earnings of workers in selected occupations of the
printing and publishing industry, by sex, in the Hawaiian Islands, 1 938

able

E m p lo y e e s w h o se w o r k w a s s p re a d o v e r—

52 w e e k s

A n y p a rt of y e a r i

O c c u p a t io n a n d s e x
N um ber
of em ­
p lo y e e s

M a le :
_______ ______________ ________
C o m p o s i t o r s _______
L i n o t y p e o p e r a t o r s ___________________________ .
P r e s s m e n ._ .
__________
_______
F e m a l e : T y p e p i c k e r s ________________________________

P e rce n t
of
to ta l

A v e ra g e
annual
e a r n in g s

N um ber
of em ­
p lo y e e s

50
33
42
25

7 8 .0
5 8 .9
7 9 .2
6 4 .1

$ 1 , 532
2 ,0 3 5
1, 3 0 9
438

60
54
50
39

A v e rag e
n u m b e r of
w eeks
over
w h ic h
w o rk w a s
sp re a d

4 9 .9
4 7 .7
5 0 .0
4 4 .8

A ve rag e
annual
e a r n in g s

$ 1 ,5 5 0
1 ,8 5 3
1, 3 2 7
376

i D o e s n o t i n c l u d e 4 c o m p o s it o r s , 2 l i n o t y p e o p e r a t o r s , a n d 3 p r e s s m e n , f o r w h o m d a t a o n w e e k s w o r k e d
w e re n o t re p o rte d .

A distribution of average annual earnings indicated that about
one-third or 33.9 percent of all workers received between $700 and
$1,100 (table 76). Only 9.3 percent of the males earned an average
of less than $700 per year, whereas 63.7 percent of the females
earned less than $700 per year.
There is a large percentage of unskilled workers and semiskilled
workers among the females, whereas there is a very large percentage of
skilled workers among the males, which partially accounts for the
marked differences in earnings by sex.




166

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

76 .— Distribution of workers in the printing and publishing industry in the
Hawaiian Islands whose work was spread over 5 2 weeks, according to annual
earnings, by sex, 1 938

T a b l e

T o ta l

N um ­
b e r of
w o rk ­
e rs

A n n u a l e a r n in g s

U n d e r $ 3 0 0 ___________________________
$ 3 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 0 ______________
$ 4 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0 0 _____________
$ 5 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 0 _____________
$ 6 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 0 _ _ _________
$ 7 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 8 0 0 _______ ___
$ 8 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 0 0 _____________
$ 9 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 ___________
$ 1 ,0 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,1 0 0 _______
$ 1 ,1 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,2 0 0 ________
$ 1 ,2 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,3 0 0 ________
$ 1 ,3 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,4 0 0 ...............
$ 1 ,4 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,5 0 0 ________
$ 1 ,5 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,6 0 0 ________
$ 1 ,6 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,7 0 0 _ _
__
$ 1 ,7 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,8 0 0 _______
$ 1 ,8 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 ,9 0 0 ________
$ 1 ,9 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 ,0 0 0 ________
$ 2 ,0 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 ,2 0 0 ________
$ 2 ,2 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 ,4 0 0 ________
$ 2 ,4 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 ,6 0 0 ________
$ 2 ,6 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 ,8 0 0 ________
$ 2 ,8 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 ,0 0 0 ________
T o ta l

_______________ ________

2
12
15
17
21
29
23
29
34
13
10
15
8
10
17
5
11
7
11
15
17
8
9
338

S im p le
p e r­
c e n t­
age

0 .6
3 .6
4 .4
5 .0
6 .2
8 .6
6 .7
8 .6
1 0 .0
3 .8
3 .0
4 .4
2 .4
3 .0
5 .0
1 .5
3 .3
2 .1
3 .3
4 .4
5 .0
2 .4
2 .7

M a le

Cum u­
la t iv e
p e r­
c e n t­
age

0 .6
4 .2
8 .6
1 3 .6
1 9 .8
2 8 .4
3 5 .1
4 3 .7
5 3 .7
5 7 .5
6 0 .5
6 4 .9
6 7 .3
7 0 .3
7 5 .3
7 6 .8
8 0 .1
8 2 .2
8 5 .5
8 9 .9
9 4 .9
9 7 .3
1 0 0 .0

N um ­
ber of
w o rk ­
e rs

S im p le
p e r­
c e n t­
age

1
1
4
9
10
23
18
23
32
12
10
14
7
10
17
5
10
7
10
15
17
8
9

0 .4
.4
1 .5
3 .3
3 .7
8 .5
6 .6
8 .5
1 1 .7
4 .4
3 .7
5 .1
2 .6
3 .7
6. 2
1 .8
3 .7
2 .6
3 .7
5 .5
6 .2
2 .9
3 .3

F e m a le

Cum u­
la tiv e
p e r­
c e n t­
age

0 .4
.8
2 .3
5 .6
9 .3
1 7 .8
2 4 .4
3 2 .9
4 4 .6
4 9 .0
5 2 .7
5 7 .8
6 0 .4
6 4 .1
7 0 .3
7 2 .1
7 5 .8
7 8 .4
8 2 .1
8 7 .6
9 3 .8
9 6 .7
1 0 0 .0

272

N um ­
ber of
w o rk ­
e rs

S im p le
p e r­
c e n t­
age

1
11
11
8
11
6
5
6
2
1

1 .5
1 6 .7
1 6 .7
1 2 .1
1 6 .7
9 .1
7 .6
9 .1
3 .0
1 .5

1
1

1 .5
1 .5

1

1 .5

1

1 .5

Cum u­
la tiv e
p e r­
c e n t­
age

1 .5
1 8 .2
3 4 .9
4 7 .0
6 3 .7
7 2 .8
8 0 .4
8 9 .5
9 2 .5
9 4 .0
9 4 .0
9 5 .5
9 7 .0
9 7 .0
97 0
9 7 .0
9 8 .5
9 8 .5
1 0 0 .0

66

MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURING

Aside from the manufacture of raw sugar, the pineapple canneries,
and the printing industry, the principal manufactures are can manu­
facture, the canning of tuna fish, the fabrication of construction board
from sugarcane waste, and some relatively small iron foundries.
Each of these manufactures is represented by only one or two enter­
prises. The strictly confidential nature of the pay-roll reports of any
individual enterprise requires that the reports of at least three or more
concerns must be combined in a single general table so that the
identity of any single firm will not be revealed. It is, therefore, im­
possible to report wages, hours, and working conditions in a given
manufacturing industry, since to do so would involve a report on one
concern.
On the other hand, the wage structures of these various manufac­
turing industries are far from homogeneous.
The result given here, therefore, is not typical of any one of the fields
covered. It is, however, useful as a picture of the employment con­
ditions in the miscellaneous manufactures in Hawaii as a whole in
contrast with agricultural earning opportunities. The tables should
be interpreted only in these terms.
Hourly earnings.— Male workers averaged 52.6 cents per hour. Well
over half of them (56.8 percent) received between 35 and 50 cents per
hour (appendix table M ). The range in hourly earnings by race was
fairly large. Hawaiians and part Hawaiians averaged 56.9 cents per
hour, Caucasians 56.3 cents, Japanese 48.1 cents, Filipinos 41.7 cents,
and all other races 54.5 cents.




167

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

Female workers in these industries received distinctly lower aver­
age hourly payments of 24.4 cents (appendix table N ). Japanese
women, who constituted over four-fifths of all female workers in these
fields, averaged only 22 cents per hour. Caucasian women, repre­
senting slightly less than one-tenth of total employment, averaged
37.7 cents per hour. All other races combined averaged 30.2 cents.
Weekly earnings.— Average hours worked per week and average
weekly earnings are given in table 77. It should be noted that racial
variations in respect to both hours and earnings are large.
The differences in hours and earnings by sex are even greater.
The principal occupational opportunity for women in the group of
manufactures represented here is in tuna canning. This work is not
only seasonal but extremely variable as to hours of operation per week,
which depend upon the catch. This explains the low average of 20.8
hours of employment per week for the Japanese women, since most
of them are employed in this industry. It also explains the very low
annual average earnings of Japanese women ($98), since for the great
majority of them tuna canning represents only a temporary source of
income during a few weeks of irregular employment, rather than a
permanent position.
T

7 7 . — Average hours worked per week and average weekly earnings of workers
in miscellaneous manufacturing industries in the Hawaiian Islands, by sex and
race, 1988 and 1989

able

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

S e x a n d ra ce

A v e ra g e
h o u rs
w o rk e d
per w eek

A ve ra g e
w e e k ly
e a r n in g s

_________________

417

40.3

$21. 23

C a u c a s i a n _______ ___
__ _
_
J a p a n e s e _______________
____________
. . . __________ ___
_________________ .
F i l i p i n o ___________________
_____
_ . ..................... ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
__ _ _
H a w a i i a n a n d p a r t H a w a i i a n _____________________________
_
_______
A l l o t h e r s __ __________
_
_ _ _
. . . _____
_________
_ _
___ ___

161
78
65
66
47

41.7
40.3
35.8
40.0
42.3

23. 50
19. 40
14.94
22.79
23.04

M a l e — T o t a l ________

_

•_

_ _ _ _ _

_

_

.

.

_______________________

569

22.2

5. 42

C a u c a s i a n _______ _ _
________ ________ _____________________________ __
_ ___
Ja p a n e se _
_____ ___
_______ _________
_
_
_
_ _ _ _ _
A l l o t h e r s ..
_ _ _ _ _ _
_
_
________ _
_
_
_
___

40
481
48

32.2
20.8
27.4

12.12
4. 58
8. 25

F e m a l e — T o t a l ___________________________________________________________




168

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

T a b l e 78 .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale workers in m iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s ­
tries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s, 1 9 3 8 and 1 9 3 9

Weekly earnings

Under $5________________ ______ _____ _______ ______ _
. .
$5 and under $7.50____________________ __
_________
$7.50 and under $10________________ ___________________
$10 and under $12.50_________________ _________________________
$12.50 and under $15_______ __________________________________
$15 and under $17.50_________________________ _ ______________
$17.50 and under $20________________ _____ _______________ ____
$20 and under $22.50___________________ ______________ . . . _ _
$22.50 and under $25_____________ ___ ___________ _____ _ _
$25 and under $27.50_________ _ ___________________________ __
$27.50 and under $30____ _______________________ ____ ___ _
__
$30 and under $32.50_________________________________ _________
$32.50 and under $35_________________________ ___________ _____
$35 and under $37.50____________ ____ ___ ______ __________
$37.50 and under $40____________________________________ ______ _
$40 and under $42.50_______________ _______ ____ ___ ____ ______
$42.50 and under $45__________________________________________
$45 and under $47.50____________ _____ _____________ _______ ____
$47.50 and under $50_____ _____ ___ __________ ______ ____ ________
$50 and over_______ ___________________________________________
Total workers _______ ____ ____________ ______________ ____
Average weekly earnings_________________ _____________ _____

Number of
workers
5
8
10

17
30
93
71
51
32
19
16
19
11

4
8
10

5
2
2
i4

Simple
percent­
age
1 .2

1.9
2.4
4.1
7.2
2 2 .2

17.0
1 2 .2

7. 7
4. 6
3.8
4. 6
2. 6
1. 0
1.9
2.4
1 .2

.5
.5

Cumula­
tive
percentage
1. 2
3.1
5. 5
9.6
16.8
39.0
56.0
68.2
75.9
80. 5
84.3
88.9
91.5
92. 5
94.4
96.8
98.0
98. 5
99.0

1 .0

417
$21. 23

1 The average of all males earning $50 and over amounted to $62.13.
T a b l e 79 .— D istrib u tio n o f fem a le w orkers in m iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s­
tries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s , 1 9 3 8 and 1 9 3 9

Weekly earnings

Under $2.50___________________________________________________
$2.50 and under $5___________ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . _________ ____ _____
$5 and under $7.50_____ _ ____________ ________________________
$7.50 and under $10__ . . . __ __________ _____ ______________ ____
$10 and under $12.50_____________________________________ __ . . .
$12.50 and under $15____________________ __ __________________
$15 and under $17.50____________ ___________________ ______ ___
$17.50 and under $20______________________________________ _____
$20 and under $22.50_________________________ ______ ___________
$22.50 and under $ 2 5 . ___________ ____________________________
$25 and under $27.50_________________ __________________ ______
$27.50 and under $30_____ ______ _______________________ _______ _
Total workers______ ____
Average weekly earnings
...

___ ________________________
_ . __
______ _
____

Number of
workers
51
320
113
19
18
28
10
2
1
1
4
2

Simple
per­
centage
9.0
56.1
19.8
3.3
3.2
4.9
1.8
.4
.2
.2
.7
.4

Cumula­
tive
percentage
9.0
65.1
84.9
88.2
91.4
96.3
98.1
98.5
98.7
98.9
99.6
100.0

569
$5.42

For a fairly large group of male workers, on the other hand, mis­
cellaneous manufactures offer more regular employment. The dis­
tribution of male workers, according to annual earnings by weeks
worked (table 80), indicates that only 9.3 percent received less than 13
weeks of employment. Another 8.8 percent received between 13 and
28 weeks. But 81.9 percent worked over 28 weeks and about half of
all male workers (49.7 percent) worked during 52 weeks of the year.
This latter group averaged $1,250 for the year, the average annual
earnings of all male workers, including those who worked any part of
the year, being $920.




T a b l e 80.— D istribu tion o f male workers in m iscellaneous m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u stries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to annual ea rn in g s,
1988

Number of workers whose annual earnings were—
$75 $ 1 0 0 $125 $150 $ 2 0 0 $250
$25
$50
Under and and and and and and and and
$25 under under under under under under under under
$75 $ 1 0 0 $125 $150 $ 2 0 0 $250 $300
$50

Under 13 weeks____ ___
13 and under 28 weeks___
28 and under 52 weeks___
52 weeks_______________

17

Number of workers.
Simple percentage_______
Cumulative percentage...

18
3.8
3.8

..

3

2

3
.

2
1

1

4

7

1

1

1

4
3

5
3

9
1.9

6

3

6 .1

8 .0

1

7
1.5
9.5

5

6

1.3
1 0 .8

$400
and
under
$450

$450
and
under
$500

$500
and
under
$550

3

$550
and
under
$800

7

$600
and
under
$650

$650
and
under
$700

7

9

2

3

$350
and
under
$400

.

2.3

11

5

6

10
1

1

$300
and
under
$350

1 .1

11.9

7

1.5
13.4

8

1.7
15.1

9
1.9
.17.0

7
1.5
18.5

9
1.9
20.4

10
1

2

9

1

4

11

2.3
22.7

.8

23.5

11

2.3
27.3

8

1.7
29.0

Number of workers whose annual earnings were—
Number of weeks over which work
was spread

Under 13 weeks______
13 and under 28 weeks.
28 and under 52 weeks.
52 weeks__________ _
Number of workers _ ___
Simple percentage____________
Cumulative percentage_____ . _

Number
of
$1,000 $1,100 $1, 200 $1, 300 $1,400 $1, 500 $1,600 $1 , 700 $1,800 $1,900 $2,000 $2, 200 $2, 400
and and and and and and and and and and and and and workers
under under under under under under under under under under under under over
$1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1, 400 $1, 500 $1 , 600 $1 , 700 $1,800 $1,900 $2,000 $2, 200 $2,400

1
4
28

5
21

5
13

1
11

2
20

33
6.9
69.7

26
5.5
75.2

18
3.8
79.0

12
2.5
81. 5

22
4.6
86.1

1 ____
12
8
13
2.7
88.8

8
1.7
90.5

1 ____
5
7
6
1.3
91.8

The average annual earnings of all workers earning $2,400 and over amounted to $2,884.




7
1.5
93.3

4

1
13

4
.8
94.1

14
2.9
97.0

1
6

7
1.5
98.5

4
3
i7
1.5

$750
and
under
$800

$800
and
under
$850

i
1

7
1.5
25.0

$700
and
under
$750

44
42
153
236
475

9
1.9
30.9

6
1
8

1.7
32.6

13

i4
14

25
5.3
37.9

28
5.9
43.8

12

$850
and
under
$900

19
20

39
8 .1

51.9

$900
and
under
$950

12

17

29
6 .1

58.0

$950
and
under
$1 , 0 0 0

7
16
23
4.8
62.8

Average
Simple Cumula­ Average number of
percent­ tive per­ annual weeks over
age
centage earnings which work
was spread

9. 3
9.3
8.8
18.1
32.2
50. 3
49.7 ________

$50
263
843
1,250

6.5
19.9
44. 5
52.0

920

42. 6

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

Number of weeks over
which work was spread

O
CO

170
T

able

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

8 1 .— A verag e a n n u a l earnings o f workers i n m iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u stries in the H a w a iia n I s la n d s , hy race and sex , 1 9 2 8

Average
number of
Number of weeks over
which
workers
work was
spread

Race and sex

Males ______

..

______ . . . . ____

. . . . . . . _ . _.

...

Average
annual
earnings

475

42.6

$920

161
110
90
68
46

48.9
36.5
33.4
44.8
49.3

1,188
702
507
1,007
1,188

___________ _______

821

28.4

130

Caucasian.. __________ _________ _____ __________ _____
Japanese ___________________ ___ _______ ______________ ___
All others _______ ____ _______ ____ _ __ _ ______________

39
725
57

38.1
27.4
35.8

480
98
295

.
__________ __________________
Caucasian___ ______ _
Japanese _________ __ . . . _________ . . . ____ _
_____
F ilipino__________ _____________ ____________ ____ ________
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian___________ __ _____ ________
All others _______ _________________________ _____________
Females_____ _______ __________




_______

CHAPTER 22. LONGSHORE WORK
The Territory of Hawaii is over 2,000 miles from the American
mainland, yet it is as dependent upon and as completely integrated
with the American economy as any of the States. Because of this,
and because of the imperative necessity for frequent and large ship­
ments to coordinate the production and exchange of goods between
the islands of the Territory, longshore workers occupy a significant
position.
It is characteristic of this work that it makes frequent intense
demands for relatively brief periods. In Honolulu, where such work
centers, regularly scheduled steamer arrivals and departures make
it possible to devise a program for reducing lay-offs and spreading
peaks by adjusting the less urgent jobs to fill in between the immediate
ones. In spite of careful planning, however, the occasional conjunc­
ture of several arrivals and departures at one time will require intense
work and overtime hours to meet the sudden peak in the demand for
longshoremen.1
The study of longshore work in Hawaii included direct observations
of working conditions and conferences with representatives of labor
and of management in ports of the four islands of Oahu, Hawaii,
Maui, and Kauai. The longshore workers in the sample, however,
include only those in Honolulu and Hilo, which are by far the largest
shipping centers in the islands; Honolulu longshoremen alone repre­
sent over two-thirds of total employment. There has been no exact
enumeration of the total employment in this field, but it is estimated
that the sample constitutes roughly 70 percent of total employment.
LABOR

Two races constitute over two-thirds of all workers included in the
study, the Japanese representing 35.4 percent, and Hawaiians and
part Hawaiians 33.8 percent. Of the remaining races, Caucasians
comprise 13.6 percent, Filipinos 10.3 percent, and all others 6.9 per­
cent. Among the salaried workers, exactly one-third (33.3 percent)
were Caucasians and one-quarter Japanese. Filipinos had an ex­
tremely small representation in the salaried group.
Of the workers directly engaged in loading and unloading opera­
tions, over two-fifths were Japanese (42.5 percent). Hawaiian and
part Hawaiian workers constituted 34.3 percent of this group.
1The problem of a fluctuating demand for longshore workers is even more difficult to meet at the principal
ports of the other islands. There the interisland steamships are the only ones on a regular schedule, and the
occasional arrival of trans-Pacific freighters requires a considerably larger force than that regularly employed.
It would be quite expensive and impractical to maintain a sufficiently large staff necessary to handle such
stevedoring work in idleness between the arrivals of such steamers. It is also expensive to ship in a special
crew from Honolulu.
The way in which the work is handled is illustrative of the many adjustments that are necessary to meet
the exigencies of an island economy, and that have made Hawaii what it is today.
On Maui, for example, stevedoring is handled by a railroad company which also maintains bus lines, a
quarry, and a lumberyard. In addition, it undertakes work for the local island government in the care of
parks, public highways, etc. This latter work is such that much of it can be held in reserve to provide
employment when other demands slacken off. Thus, when a large ocean steamer arrives, the quarry and
lumber workers become stevedores. If the need is urgent, even part of the regular railroad and bus workers
can become longshoremen.
The great distance to the mainland, as well as the immigration restrictions, tend to isolate Hawaii in
respect to the total labor available. To a limited degree each separate island has a similar problem. This
separateness brings into a sharp focus the imperative necessity for shifting local labor from one type of work
to another to meet the needs of the island enterprises, which is clearly illustrated in the case of local long­
shore work.




171

172

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

E A R N IN G S

Nearly two-thirds (61 percent) of the nonsalaried workers received
between 65 and 75 cents per hour (table 82). It should be noted that
nonsalaried workers averaged higher weekly earnings ($29.65) than
salaried ($28) (table 83). In M ay 1939 nonsalaried workers averaged
40.7 hours per week. Nearly half (46 percent) of all workers received
an average of between $22.50 and $32.50 per week.
There is some degree of seasonality in the shipment of certain
products, particularly pineapple products. This seasonality differs
in respect to different goods, however, so that no exceptionally pro­
nounced seasonal problems are experienced in Honolulu and Hilo.
As previously explained, by carefully planning the work program rela­
tive to steamer schedules, a fairly continuous employment is provided
for the “ regular workers.”

T

a

8

2

.

—b D istr ib u tio n o f n on sa elaried longshore w ork ers in the H a w a iia n Is la n d s
l
according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s , M a y 1 9 8 9

Number of Simple per­ Cumulative
workers
percentage
centage

Average hourly earnings

Under 50 cents____
__________________________________________
50 and under 52.5 cents___________________ ______________________
52.5 and under 55 cents____ _________ _______ ____________________
55 and under 57.5 cents_________________________________________
57.5 and under 60 cents ________________________________________
60 and under 62.5 c e n t s .________ ____________ _________________
62.5 and under 65 cents__________________________ ______________
65 and under 67.5 cents_________________________________________
67.5 and under 70 cents___ ______ _______________________________
70 and under 72.5 cents ________________________________________
72.5 and under 75 cents - _ _____- _____ __________________________
75 and under 80 cents______ _ _ _______________ _______ ______
80 and under 85 cents________________________________ _________
85 and under 90 cents
___ ___________ ____________________
90 and under 95 cents_____________ __ ___________ _____ _ _
95 and under 100 cents_____________________________ ____ ________
100 cents and ov er.________________________________ ___________
Total_____________________ ________ ______ ___ ______ _____
Average hourly earnings. ________ ______ ________________________
1 The average of all workers earning $1 and over amounted to $1,055.

T

a

8

3

5
10
3
19
23
43
42
152
189
90
140
82
24
19
27
26
141
935
$0. 729

0.5
1.1
.3
2.0
2.5
4.6
4.5
16.3
20.1
9.6
15.0
8.8
2.6
2.0
2.9
2.8
4.4

0.5
1.6
1.9
3.9
6.4
11.0
15. 5
31.8
51.9
61.5
76.5
85.3
87.9
89.9
92.8
95.6

.

— b D istr ib u tiol n o f longshore w orkers in the H a w a iia n I s la n d s according to
e
w e ek ly ea rn in g s , M a y 1 9 8 9

All workers
Weekly earnings

Nonsalaried

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative
lative
lative
ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ percent­ ber of percent­ percent­
workers age
workers age
workers age
age
age
age

5
0.5
5
0.5
0.5
13
1.4
1.2
13
1.7
3.4
1.9
18
18
1.7
1.9
18
5.1
18
1.7
7.0
19
2.0
20
1.9
42
4.5
43
4.1
11.1
36
3.9
39
3.7
14.8
41
4.4
46
4.3
19.1
29.2
91
9.7
107
10.1
10.4
81
8.7
110
39.6
93
9.9
12.8
52.4
136
122
13.1
134
65.1
12.7
94
10.1
74.6
100
9.5
83
8.9
8.0
82.6
85
54
5.8
$37 50 a n d u n d e r $40
54
87. 7
5.1
4.1
91.5
38
40
3.8
$40 and under $42.50____
30
3.2
3.0
94.5
32
$42.50 and under $45____
$45 a n d u n d e r $47.50
21
2.2
2.0
96. 5
21
6
.6
$47.50 a n d u n d e r $50
6
.6
97.1
30
3.2
$50 a n d o v e r
l 31
2.9
935
Tnta.1
1,058
$29. 65
Average weekly earnings. $29.46
1 The average of all workers earning $50 and over amounted to $55.34.

Under $5
_ _
$5 and under $7.50__
$7.50 and under $ 1 0 __$10 and under $12.50___
$12.50 and under $ 1 5 ___
$15 and under $17.50___
$17.50 and under $ 2 0 ___
$20 and under $22.50__ _
$22.50 and under $25____
$25 and under $27.50____
$27.50 and under $30____
$30 and under $32.50____
$32.50 and under $35____
$35 and under $37.50 ___




Salaried

0. 5
1.9
3.8
5.7
7.7
12.2
16.1
20.5
30.2
38.9
48.8
61.9
72.0
80.9
86.7
90.8
94.0
96.2
96.8

1
1
3
5
16
29
43
12
6
2

0.8
.8
2.4
4.1
13.0
23.6
35.0
9.8
4.9
1.6

2
2

1.6
1.6

1
123

.8

0.8
1.6
4.0
8.1
21.1
44.7
79.7
89.5
94.4
96.0
96.0
97.6
99.2
99.2
99.2

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

173

The average annual earnings of all workers were $974. There was a
fairly sizeable group, however, representing 10.4 percent of total
employment, which received less than $50 during the year. This
group distinctly lowered the average of the more fully employed.
Table 84 reveals that, whereas well over one-quarter of the total
number of employees received less than $500, 3.4 percent received
between $500 and $750, and nearly half, or 47.8 percent received
between $1,000 and $1,500. This concentration of workers in one
group with average annual earnings below $500, and another with
average annual earnings between $1,000 and $1,500, with very few
between $500 and $1,000, is due to the fact that the management
attempts to give fairly continuous employment to a large body of
regular workers, and increases this force when necessary by taking on
outside workers for periods of more than normal demand.
T a b l e 84 .— D istrib u tio n o f longshore w orkers 1 in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according
to annual ea rn in g s , 1 9 3 8

Number of
Cumulative
Simple
workers
percentage percentage

Annual earnings
Under $50
_ _ __ __ . _ _ _____
__ ___________
$50 and under $100 ____ _ _____________ _ ____________ _____
$100 and under $150
_
__________ __ _____
$150 and under $200 _____ ______ ______ ___ __ _ __________ __
$200 and under $250 _
____
_____ __ _____ ______
$250 and under $300__^__ _ __ __ ___ _________
_ ___ ________
$300 and under $350 ___
__ _
.___
_ _ _
_ _______
$350 and under $400
_______________ ___ _____
_ __ _____
$400 and under $450 ______
_
__
_ __ . _______
$450 and under $500 _ __ ______ _ _
___ __ _ _______ _
$500 and under $550
_____
__ _
$550 and under $600 __ _____
_
_
_
.___
$600 and under $650 _____
__ ___ _ _ ____
$650 and under $700
__
_ ___
__ _ _____
_ _ _ _
$700 and under $750
_
_ ______ __ ____
$750 and under $800 _______
_ _ _ _______ ____ _______ __
$800 and under $850 _ __ ____
_ _ _ _ __ ___
__ _ _
$850 and under $900 __ ______ _ __ _ ___________ _____ ___
$900 and under $950 ___
__
_ _____ ______
______
$950 and under $1,000
_ ___ _ _____ _
_ _
$1,000 and under $1,100_______ _ _ __ _ _ __________________
$1,100 and under $1,200
__ __
__ __ ____
_ __ __
$1,200 and under $1,300 ____ __ __ ____ _ ________ _______ _
$1,300 and under $1,400 __ _______ _ _ _ _ _ _
________
$1,400 and under $1,500
. _ _ _ ___
_ _ __ _ _ _
$l,500|and under $1,600 ___ _ ___
_____
_ _
_ .__ _ _ _ _
$1,600 and under $1,700 __
_____ __ ________ ___ _ _____
$1,700 and under $1,800_____ _______ __ _ _ __ __ _______ _ _
$1,800 and under $1,900
_ ____
... _ ________________ _ __
$1,900 and under $2,000.__ __ _ _ ______ ____ _ ______________
$2,000 and over
_ __ _______ _
_____
__
Total
_
_ ______ ___ . ______
Average annual earnings

_

_

__ ____

129
40
33
29
39
34
14
12
17
14
10
8
9
5
11
15
12
20
25
19
66
90
112
175
146
44
11
15
15
21
2 45
1,235
_ __
$974

1 Excludes workers paid a monthly salary, clerks paid by the day, and watchmen.
2 The average of all workers earning $2,000 and over amounted to $2,187.




10.4
3.2
2.7
2.3
3.2
2.8
1.1
1.0
1.4
1.1
.8
.6
.7
.4
.9
1.2
1.0
1.6
2.0
1.5
5.3
7.3
9.1
14.3
11.8
3.6
.9
1.2
1.2
1.7
3.7

10.4
13.6
16.3
18.6
21.8
24.6
25.7
26.7
28.1
29.2
30.0
30.6
31.3
31.7
32.6
33.8
34.8
36.4
38.4
39.9
45.2
52.5
61.6
75.9
87.7
91.3
92.2
93.4
94.6
96.3

CHAPTER 23. TRADE AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES
In addition to the industries already discussed, there is a consider­
able volume of employment in trade and the service industries. In
thi$ section data are presented on earnings in mercantile establish­
ments, service stations, and motion-picture houses, and in a variety of
service industries such as hotels, restaurants, laundries, beauty shops,
and barber shops.1
In connection with all of these types of enterprises, it is especially
difficult to draw a representative sample. These are typically the
fields of small proprietorships. No effort has been made in this
study of employment opportunities to ascertain the earnings of pro­
prietors. Especially in the case of the small shop with no employees
other than members of the family, it is doubtful that earnings are
higher than those of wage earners in larger establishments. It is
virtually certain, though we have no statistical evidence of the fact,
that the earnings of wage earners in the small establishments are lower
than in the larger ones. Such small establishments do not ordinarily
maintain any record of time worked. They often have no records of
weekly payments. Hence the average earnings that are presented in
this part of the report are too high to be representative of the Territory
as a whole. The range within which earnings are found, however, is
probably representative and some effort is made in the text, even at
the expense of repetition, to indicate the types of shop within which
such earnings prevail.
MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS

Although there are a few large department stores in Honolulu, the
typical mercantile establishment there (as well as in the Territory as
a whole) is the small independent shop dealing in dry goods, curios,
drugs, ladies’ dresses, hats, second-hand goods, and the like.2
The smaller stores are usually owned and managed by orientals,
primarily Japanese, and often deal in oriental goods. The m ajority
of them have no outside employees, being serviced b y the owner and
his family. There are no records of wages and hours in such stores,
although observations and interviews indicated that they averaged
distinctly more hours per week than the larger stores did.3
1 The Women’s Bureau of the Department of Labor assisted in this survey by sending a representative,
Miss Ethel Erickson, who made a special study of women in industry in Hawaii. Her study is to be sepa­
rately published as a bulletin of the Women’s Bureau under the title “ Earnings and Hours in Hawaiian
Woman-Employing Industries.’’ Although other members of the field staff aided in the survey of the
mercantile and service industries, Miss Erickson is largely responsible for the collection of the data and the
findings in these fields. With the exception of the section on oil distribution and motion pictures the mate­
rial covering these industries is a summarization of this part of Miss Erickson’s work. It should be noted
that her published report covers them in greater detail and includes much additional material on the
work of women in other fields.
2 There has been some growth of chain stores, however, there being at present a chain of grocery stores,
of drug stores, and of low-price retail stores. This last organization is a large one, covering the 4 islands,
but it was impossible to obtain wage-and-hour data on its employees; hence to that extent the tables
B not/ representative
iro

3All stores open eariy, usually at 7:30 o 8 a. m., but the large stores close at 4:30 o 5 p. m., w ereas th
r
r
h
e
sm stores oftenrem op till 8 p. m o later an a frequently open Sundays.
all
ain en
. r
d re

174




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

175

The figures given here, therefore, refer primarily to the medium­
sized and large establishments. Of the 41 stores included in the sur­
vey, 28 were in Honolulu and employed 815 workers, 13 were on the
islands of Hawaii and Kauai, and employed 154 workers.
Honolulu stores.— In Honolulu, women constituted three-fifths and

men two-fifths of total employment. The racial distribution of em­
ployees in the Honolulu stores showed that Caucasian women were
by far the largest single group, representing 54 percent of all women
employees. Japanese women constituted 27.6 percent and Chinese
women 13.7 percent of this group. The dominant position of Cauca­
sian women is due to the fact that the largest department and readyto-wear stores in Honolulu depend largely on Caucasians as sales people.
Japanese men comprised 37.4 percent, Caucasians 33.4 percent, and
Chinese 22 percent of all male employees in the Honolulu stores.
Hourly earnings {Honolulu).— Hourly earnings of saleswomen
ranged from a low of 11.5 cents for a Chinese saleswoman to $1.92 per
hour for a Caucasian saleswoman. None of the Caucasian women
earned less than 20 cents per hour, whereas nearly one-third of all
Japanese and Chinese women received less than 20 cents per hour.
Seventy percent of all women earned less than 40 cents per hour.
The median earnings for all saleswomen were 34 cents per hour.
The hourly earnings of salesmen were considerably higher, the me­
dian being 54.4 cents. There was a very wide range in earnings by
race, however. The median for Caucasian men was 72.3 cents per
hour, whereas the median for the Japanese men was only 34.5 cents.
Weekly hours and weekly earnings {Honolulu).— Scheduled hours
ranged from 42 hours per week (6 seven-hour days) in one large store,
to over 60 hours in the smaller stores. The longest scheduled hours
were 63, but some of the single-family stores maintained even longer
hours. The majority of the smaller stores exceeded 48 hours.

Weekly earnings of women by race reflected the sharp variations in
hourly earnings. The median for Caucasian women was $18.05 per
week, whereas for Japanese women it was only $10.85. Nearly twofifths (39.2 percent) of all women and over half (57.3 percent) of
Japanese women received $10 and less than $15 per week.
Weekly earnings of men also showed a marked variation by race.
The median for all men was $26.25 per week, but for the Caucasians
it was $33.75 and for the Japanese, $18.75. Sixty percent of all men
received between $10 and $25 per week.
Annual earnings {Honolulu).— There is practically no seasonality in
merchandising in Hawaii, but such establishments have a high turn­
over. One-sixth of all women employees worked less than 4 weeks
and received median earnings of only $20.10 during the year. Twofifths (39.9 percent) worked less than 13 weeks and received median
annual earnings of $45. Less than a third (31.2 percent) were re­
corded as having employment in 52 weeks of the year. The median
earnings for this last group were $770 for the year.
Nearly three-fourths (70.6 percent) of all men were employed in
every week throughout the year. Annual earnings of this group
ranged from about $475 to $4,500, the median earnings being $1,059.10.
Wages and hours in stores outside of Honolulu.— Caucasians consti­
tute a smaller percentage of the population of other parts of the
Territory than they do in Honolulu. It is also typical of most in­
dustries in Hawaii that the wage structure outside of the Honolulu




176

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

area is somewhat lower than that of Honolulu. Merchandising is no
exception to these generalizations. Japanese represent over two-thirds
of all employment in the stores outside of Honolulu. Average earn­
ings were distinctly lower than in Honolulu. The median weekly
earnings for women were only $9.35 and for men only $16.30 in the
outside stores. Approximately two-thirds of the women had weekly
earnings of less than $10, and only 12 percent earned as much as $15.
Hours of work were usually extremely long. Over half of the stores
had scheduled work of over 55 hours per week.
HOTELS

A bout 96 percent of the continuously changing tourist population
lives in Honolulu. It is also true that many of the inhabitants of
other islands are in Honolulu for business or shopping at frequent
intervals. For these reasons the hotels and restaurants play an even
larger part in the life of Honolulu than in a typical mainland city.
Hence approximately nine-tenths of all employment in the hotels of
the Territory is in Honolulu and its environs.
Hotels must provide services at all hours, including holidays and
Sundays. The demand for these services varies from hour to hour
during the day, and seasonally from week to week throughout the
year. The demands on hotel workers are thus intermittent and present
a problem to management in planning work schedules so as to provide
satisfactory service without burdening workers with excessive hours.
The hotel industry, therefore, is not strictly comparable with the
more standardized manufacturing and mercantile industries.
The larger Hawaiian hotels tend to use oriental “ boys” instead
of chambermaids and waitresses, hence women represent a small
proportion (about one-ninth) of total employment.
Practically all of the hotels maintain a semimonthly pay-roll period.
M any of the workers are on a salaried rather than an hourly basis.
This is because the number of hours they are required to be present
usually exceeds the number of hours of actual work.
Waiters often are required to appear before 7 a. m. and to be on
hand throughout the day till the dinner hour ends at approximately
9 p. m. They have hours off (frequently intermittent and irregular)
during the day. Thus, though actual hours of work may be 8 or less,
the over-all spread may be 12 to 15 hours daily. Bell boys have an
actual work schedule of 8% hours, but in many cases have to be on hand
17 hours daily. M any of the desk clerks, telephone operators, and
elevator men in Hawaii work alternate long and short day shifts. The
long day is usually 7 a. m. to noon and 6 p. m. to 11 p. m., the short
day being noon to 6 p. m.
Forty-five percent of all male employees were Japanese, and 28.9
percent were Filipinos. Semimonthly earnings showed a definite
racial pattern. The median for Caucasians (representing 12.3 per­
cent of total employment) was $51.45, for Japanese was $28.15, and
for Filipinos was $25.05 per half-month.
The better positions, such as desk clerks, skilled maintenance men
and heads of departments, are held almost exclusively by Cau­
casian men.
Japanese were widely employed in all departments as cooks, waiters,
bellboys, elevator operators, gardeners, and in other services. Fili-




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

177

pinos showed a somewhat narrower job distribution, being employed,
for the most part, as room boys, hall boys, and cooks' helpers.
M onthly earnings showed a fairly wide range in all types of work.
In the large Honolulu hotels in 1939 room boys received from $30
to $52.50 per month, elevator boys from $29 to $71 per month, bell­
boys from $29 to $45 per month, and head bellboys from $63 to $80
per month.
The median earnings for male dining-room employees were $52.20
per month, and for male kitchen employees were $77.50, this latter
group receiving the highest average earnings. All employees in these
food service divisions received meals in addition to their salary and
somewhat more than one-fourth also received a room. Waiters re­
ceived from $42 to $60, bus boys from $29 to $47, and fountain men
from $45 to $50 per month. M any kitchen and dining-room workers
were members of labor unions, but there were no closed union-shop
agreements at the time of the survey.
Only about half of the male employees received work during all
weeks of the year; their median earnings were $701.55 for 1938. The
median for all workers, including those who worked less than a full
year, was $505.35.
Female workers represented only a ninth of total employment in
hotels. Their hours were similar to those for men, but they received
somewhat lower average monthly wages. Waitresses ranged from $30
to $40, maids and linen-room girls $35 to $45, and dining-room cashiers
from $63 to $75 per month. Those engaged in food service received
meals in addition to their wages.
Slightly less than half of all female employees received employment
during 52 weeks of the year. The median earnings for all female
workers, including those who worked only part of the year, were
$364.30 for 1938, not including perquisites.
RESTAU RAN TS

Aside from the hotel dining rooms, there are relatively few large
restaurants in Hawaii; the overwhelming majority of them are small
establishments, generally under oriental management. The majority
of the smaller ones maintain bars and cater to service men, or to
plantation or other workers.
On the whole, their standards in respect to wages, hours, and work­
ing conditions are distinctly low, though a few of the larger restaurants
are an exception to this general rule.
M ost of the restaurants have insufficient provision for the conven­
ience of their employees. Common toilet rooms are used by both
customers and workers, and not infrequently there are no separate
rooms for men and women. M ost workers must report in the clothes
in which they work, since a dressing room is rarely provided.
Hours.— The majority of both men and women employed in restau­
rants worked 7 days a week and were scheduled for an over-all spread
of more than 10 hours per day. Over 40 percent of the women em­
ployees reported days with a spread of 12 or more hours. The usual
schedule for this group covered three meal periods, and included an
over-all spread ranging from 13 to 15}£ hours a day.
Earnings.— Restaurants employed men and women in about equal
numbers. Slightly less than two-thirds of all female employees re-




178

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

ceived weekly earnings of less than $10, and nearly two-thirds of all
male employees earned less than $15 per week. The median earnings
of women were $9.15, and of men were $12.80 per week.
M any of the smaller restaurants employed fewer than five workers
and maintained very incomplete records of earnings. It was, there­
fore, impossible to obtain annual earnings for those workers who, on
the basis of their weekly records, would show the lowest earnings and
the greatest irregularity of employment.
Of the relatively few women for whom annual earnings records
were available, about half had received employment in 52 weeks of the
year. Over half of these received less than $500, and all but two of
the remainder received between $500 and $800 during 1938.
The median earnings of men whose work was spread over the entire
year were $731.80. Two-thirds of these men earned between $500
and $1,000 in 1938.
L A U N D R IE S

The great bulk of commercial laundry work in Hawaii is handled by
large power laundries comparable to those on the mainland. Five
power laundries, four in Honolulu and one in Hilo, employing 463
workers were included in the survey. This represents over half of
the total employment in all commercial laundries. The marking and
sorting of soiled articles, machine and hand ironing, folding, as­
sembling, and wrapping are the work of women. Male workers
handle the machine operations of washing and drying, and collect and
deliver the laundry. A little more than two-thirds of all laundry
employees in Hawaii are women, two-fifths of this group being Cau­
casian women of Portuguese extraction. Hawaiian and Japanese
women each constitute about one-fourth of total employment.
Hours.— Only 7.1 percent of women employees worked less than 40
hours in the week, whereas 20 percent worked over 48 hours. The
great majority, however, worked more than 44 but not more than
48 hours weekly. M en averaged longer hours than women, nearly
30 percent of them working over 48 hours per week. Only 8 percent
of the male employees worked less than 48 hours. N o record of hours
worked was kept for drivers, who are paid partly on a commission
basis; but interviews indicated that they worked irregular and ex­
tremely long hours.
Hourly earnings.— The median hourly earnings of women were 20.4
cents. There were only slight differences in racial averages, Cauca­
sians averaging 20.3 cents, Japanese 19.8 cents, and Hawaiians 21.2
cents per hour. Two-fifths (39.2 percent) of all women received
between 15 and 20 cents per hour and an additional 36.7 percent
received between 20 and 25 cents per hour.
The median earnings for men were 31.8 cents per hour.
Weekly earnings.— The median weekly earnings for women were
$9.60. Over three-fourths (77.3 percent) of all women received be­
tween $7 and $12 per week (45.2 percent receiving between $8 and
$10 per week).
M en received median earnings over twice as great as women,
amounting to $19.75 per week. Median earnings for Caucasian males
were $28 per week, whereas for all other races they were only $15.95.
Annual earnings.— There is some degree of seasonality in Hawaiian
laundries due to the influx of tourists in midwinter and midsummer.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 193 9

179

The change in volume is handled to a large extent by increases and
decreases in hours and in mechanical equipment, though there are
some changes in numbers employed. There is also a moderately
high rate of turn-over. Well over two-fifths of all employees did not
receive a full year of work, but about seven-tenths of all employees
received work during 40 or more weeks of 1938. The median earnings
of men in this latter group were $1,250, and of women were $495.35
during the year 1938.
Hand laundries and pressing shops were, in most cases, family
concerns, but usually employed a few outsiders to work for them.
Broadly speaking, hours were longer and wages lower than for workers
in power laundries. H alf of the women worked over 48 hours, one
reporting 60 hours per vreek. Two-thirds of the women employees
received less than 18 cents per hour, the range being from 9 to 32
cents per hour.
In a few of these small family shops, the one or two “ outside em­
ployees” lived with the family, and in most cases such employees had
one or more meals with the family.
TAILORING AND GARMENT MANUFACTURE

The clothing concerns in Hawaii range from numerous small tailor
shops catering largely to the custom trade of Army and N avy men to
a few larger garment shops producing Aloha shirts, beachwear, slacks,
and other sportswear garments for island and tourist trade.4
The equipment for a small shop is not elaborate or expensive; a few
sewing machines, cutting tables, and some pressing equipment will
suffice. Hence, in Honolulu, as on the mainland, garment shops come
and go, being less stable than most other island enterprises.
The 14 concerns covered in the study included 9 engaged in making
garments (primarily sportswear) and 5 tailor shops. They ranged in
size from shops of only 4 employees to a factory of 111 workers. But
12 of the 14 concerns employed less than 18 workers. The survey
included 272 employees. Only about one-tenth of them were men.
Japanese women were by far the predominant racial group, accounting
for 161. These, together with the 52 Chinese women employees,
accounted for nearly four-fifths of total employment.
A 44-hour week, 5 days of 8 hours and a 4-hour Saturday, was
typical for the industry.
The median hourly earnings of women were 25 cents. Half of them
(49.8 percent) earned between 25 and 30 cents an hour. Only 11.9
percent earned more than 30 cents an hour. The hourly earnings of
women 5 in the garment industries in Hawaii were distinctly below
the average earnings of those engaged in the manufacture of inex­
pensive dresses, sportswear, and uniforms on the mainland. (Accord­
ing to Women's Bureau Bulletin No. 175, Earnings in the W omen's and
Children's Apparel Industry in the Spring of 1939, p. 10, these were
38.5 cents an hour.)
4
The largest of sportswear concerns have been growing in recent years and are now exporting to the main­
land. Strictly speaking, they should be classified under manufacturing rather than service industries. A
significant part of production, however, is in the smaller shops that cater directly to custom, as well as
ready-to-wear, trade.
s The relatively few men engaged in industry had much higher earnings. Only one-fourth earned less than
35 cents an hour. One-fifth earned between 50 and 55 cents an hour, and another one-fourth earned over 55
cents an hour. Most of these men w
^ere employed in the tailor shops.
241401— 40--------13




180

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

The median weekly earnings of all women were $9.65; 21.4 percent
earned between $11 and $12 per week; nearly half (45.7 percent)
earned between $5 and $10; only 1 in 20 earned as much as $15.
The annual earnings of women reflected a very high turn-over in
the garment industry. Nearly two-fifths (38.7 percent) received less
than 8 weeks of employment; one-quarter received employment of
over 24 and less than 40 weeks; 22.4 percent were employed 40 weeks
or m ore; only one-tenth received work in 52 weeks of the year. The
slightly more than one-fifth who were employed during 40 or more
weeks of the year received median annual earnings of $442. About
two-fifths of this group received between $350 and $450. About
one-fourth of them received between $500 and $600 during the year
Working conditions in the garment industry were below the
standards maintained by most of the other manufacturing plants in
the Territory. W orkrooms were, for the most part, established in old
buildings under makeshift conditions with very little attempt to
adapt the rooms to the needs of the work. Toilet, wash-room, and
rest-room facilities were inadequate. In a number of cases separate
toilets for men and women were not provided. In addition to the
accumulation of waste cuttings, seating arrangements were hap­
hazard and rooms crowded.6
D R E S S M A K IN G

In addition to the garment making in the tailor shops and garment
factories, there is a fairly large dressmaking business carried on as
a wom en’s home industry. The United States Census of Occupations
for 1930 reported about 600 women in the Territory as engaged in
dressmaking, but not employed in factories. Three-quarters of these
were Japanese.
The presence of Japanese as a predominant racial group in Hawaii
accounts in part, at least, for the unusually large development of
dressmaking of this sort in Hawaii. Ability to sew for the family has
been traditionally regarded by the Japanese as a part of the essential
preparation of every girl for marriage.7 Although some of the older
generation of Japanese women born in Japan still wear kimonos,
practically all of their daughters and granddaughters wear westernized
machine-made clothing. This requires a different technique, so these
girls are sent to commercial dressmakers or to dressmaking schools
to be trained in the new styles and methods. Thus, most of the dress­
makers in the Territory who cater to individual customers are assisted
by young apprentices who are often unpaid. This has made it possible
for residents to have their work done at very low rates. In some
sections of Honolulu cotton dresses are made for as little as 7 5 cents,
A price of $3 for a silk street dress is common.
6 Some employers complained that operators did not develop sufficient speed. But the organization of
the shops and the fact that so many types of garments and styles are manufactured in Hawaii makes it
difficult for operators to gain the same automatic dexterity in handling garments as in mainland shops.
7 Miss Y. Kimura of the Honolulu Y. W. C. A. staff made a report on dressmaking in the Territory.
Miss Kimura was, of course, in a position to understand thoroughly the point of view of the families, and
states: ‘‘The system of apprenticeship is taken for granted as a means of securing training in a trade without
expense. According to the traditional conception in Japan, it is considered a privilege on the part of the
trainees, while it is a generous act of benevolence on the part of the proprietors. Giving them plenty of work
is the proper thing for a proprietor to do. Parents feel quite privileged if the girls are given plenty of prac­
tical experience. In other words, the custom of apprenticeship is in the mores. Apprenticeship interpreted
as exploitation is hard for them to understand.”




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

181

These extremely low rates grow out of the fact that shop owners, in
many cases, augment their income by teaching and training appren­
tices,8 charging them fees which range from $3 to $10 a month. After
the initial stages of training, girls in the smaller shops often work on
garments for customers, but may continue as apprentices for as long as
2 or more years.9 Actual employees on a wage basis were thus few,
although a few girls were reported on a commission basis, receiving
from 40 to 60 percent of the prices charged the customers for their
work.
In summary it may be said that both garment manufacture and
dressmaking as a household occupation constitute one of the sore
spots in Hawaiian industry. W ith the exception of a few shops,
working conditions and wages are on a distinctly low level in this field.
DOMESTIC SERVICE

Closely related to the service industries is the employment of women
as domestic servants. Although no accurate figures are available,
it appears probable that the proportion of Caucasian families with
maids is higher in Hawaii than in most mainland communities. This
is especially true of families of Army and N avy officials and in
university and professional circles.
Because of the limitations of time and the difficulties of obtaining
accurate results from a direct sampling of households in Hawaii, it
was necessary to depend rather heavily upon employment agencies
and social-service agencies in obtaining information in this field.
Japanese are generally considered the most desirable maids and
the 1930 census indicated that over two-thirds of household servants
were Japanese.1 The m ajority of domestic servants receive less than
0
$10 a week. Inexperienced girls without references are usually paid
$5 a week or $20 a month. The overwhelming m ajority range be­
tween this figure and $10 a week. Only unusually able servants,
capable of doing the cooking and carrying other responsibilities, re­
ceive more than $10. All agencies report, however, that the demand
for the trained and experienced household employees is in excess of
registrants. Paralleling the findings in many of the industries studied,
interviews in Hawaii and Kauai indicate that the wage structure for
s In addition to the regular shops, there are also dressmaking schools scattered throughout the larger
cities and towns of Hawaii, usually in the homes of the owners. Students attend these schools, not for
professional training, but for the practical value of a knowledge of sewing in their own home economy.
Such schools range from 2 or 3 to as many as 100 girls. Daily classes are conducted from 8 to 4,6 days a week,
and nightly classes from about 7 to 9. Night school pupils often include those who work in stores, factories,
or in domestic services.
9Some random notes on the shops visited will give some indication of these conditions. (1) One shop
had 5 girls who were paying $3 a month for instruction; 2 girls who received instruction but paid no fees
were working on customers’ orders and had agreed to remain at least 1 more year to compensate the owner
for their training. (2) A shop with 3 girls and the owner, 1 girl receiving $30 a month and her meals, the
other 2 being apprentices with no compensation. The apprentices paid fees in the first month of their train­
ing but at the time the agent visited the shop, were compensating for that training with their services. (3) A
shop with 7 girls, 1 of whom received $5 a month and the others nothing. The employer considered all of
them apprentices, but the owners of the garment stores nearby reported that they directed their own cus­
tomers who were buying materials to this shop for sewing services of all kinds. The shop advertised special
embroidery and general dressmaking services. (4) A girl in 1 of the shops reported, who had completed
her training several years before, was working in the same shop on a commission basis of 50 percent of the
prices charged for the work allocated to her. In the preceding month she had worked 20 days and her
commission had amounted to between $14 and $15.
One peculiarity of wages in domestic service in Hawaii appears to be that maids who live out receive
slightly less than those who live in. The explanation seems to be that Japanese mothers keep in close
touch with the employers of their daughters and, if living conditions do not meet with their approval, the
parents will recall their daughters. Since the Japanese girls traditionally expect to turn over their cash
earnings to their parents, the girls themselves are at least as much, even more, interested in working condi­
tions. hours of duty per day, size of family and location, as in cash rates.




182

LABOR 11T THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9
S

domestic servants on these islands is slightly lower than on Oahu.
There, girls receiving $20 or more a month are expected to be able
to cook and act as all-around housemaids. Inexperienced girls receive
monthly wages ranging from $12 to $20. School girls who work as
mothers’ helpers often receive only board and room, though, in some
cases, cash wages of $6 to $10 a month are paid.
During the summer months, domestic servants are unusually
difficult to obtain, because many of them prefer temporary em ploy­
ment in the pineapple canneries during the peak season which, of
course, is June, July, and August.
On the whole, in spite of the racial complexities involved, household
employment in the Territory is quite comparable to conditions on the
mainland as to wage structure. But the demand, relative to the
population as a whole, appears to be somewhat greater.
BEAUTY PARLORS

Beauty culture as a commercial field has come rapidly to the fore
during the past two decades. In this respect Hawaii is no different
from the rest of the United States. The Honolulu directory lists over
100 beauty shops. M ost shops are small and in quite a number of
cases the owner is the sole operator. Such concerns are, of course,
not included in the survey, which covered 34 shops. The step from
employee-operator to owner-operator is readily taken, particularly
in those cases in which an employee has a clientele of satisfied cus­
tomers. This is because equipment companies make the financing
of a new beauty parlor an easy venture by a liberal credit policy.
The tendency toward numerous very small independent shops is,
therefore, an important factor in this business.
The size of the shops covered ranged from those with only 1 paid
apprentice to one with 10 employed operators, but nine-tenths of the
shops covered employed 4 or less operators. Over half of the shops
had apprentices in training. W ith the exception of 1 man, all em­
ployees were women. It appeared that many of the operators in this
field had come from the American mainland. Over half of them
were Caucasians, and about one-fifth were Chinese.
Hours and working conditions.— Broadly speaking, the hours main­
tained in Honolulu beauty shops are shorter than those found on the
American mainland. M ost of the shops are on a 44- to 48-hour week.
When night appointments are necessary, they are generally taken by
the owners. Because of its personal-service nature and the needs of
customers, lunch periods are a problem. While regular provision is
made for lunch periods, these are in practice very frequently dis­
regarded in order to meet customer needs. Because offices in H ono­
lulu generally close at 4 p. m. most of the shops remain open till 5 or
6 to take care of office-worker customers.
Earnings.— The median weekly earnings of regular employees were
$16.15. Apprentices are in an entirely different category. Half of
the apprentices were not paid, and the majority of those who were
paid received less than $10 per week.
There are no beauty schools as such in Hawaii, so that those who
receive their training there must depend upon the apprentice system.
There is a regular licensing system and a Territorial Board of Ex­
aminers which holds examinations for operators twice a year.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

183

BARBER SHOPS

Although there are a few male-operated barber shops similar to the
typical mainland shop, the overwhelming m ajority of barbers in
Hawaii are Japanese women. This custom grew out of the fact that
Japanese men established many small shops in which their wives
assisted. When it became possible for the husband to find temporary
or permanent work outside, the wife took over the management, and
often hired additional Japanese girls to help her. The typical oriental
barber shop in the Territory today is now owned and operated by
women. The survey covered 25 shops with 53 paid barber girls,
16 apprentices, and 18 owner-operators. All of these shops were
small, most of them employing only 3 to 5 persons. A number of
them were operated by the owner and the members of her immediate
family. Such concerns were, however, not included in the survey,
since they did not maintain wage and hour data. Some of these
Japanese girls were from Honolulu but a large number came from
plantation homes. As is typical of Japanese custom, arrangements
were frequently made between the family of the girl and the shop
owner whereby the wages of the barber girl were paid to the parents
and she retained only tips. Generally speaking, the shop owner
considered herself guardian in the place of the girls’ parents, and m ost
of the girls lived with the owner in a rear living room or in rooms above
the shop.
Hours of work.— Hours of work are uniformly long in all shops.
Prior to January 1939, shops often remained open until 9 or 10
o ’clock in the evening, but a Honolulu ordinance of that date provided
that shops might be open from 7 a. m. to 8 p. m. daily, except for
Saturdays and days before holidays, when the closing may be extended
until 9 p. m. Although, of course, they are not at work continuously,
even the present arrangement provides an over-all schedule of 13 hours
on weekdays and 14 on Saturdays. Time off for meals depends on
the rush of business. N oon and evening meals are usually eaten on
the premises, and very little time is allowed for them if customers are
waiting. Allowing a half-hour per meal for noon and evening meals,
the over-all hours thus amount to 73 per week, which means that most
o f the girls are averaging less than 15 cents per hour.
Earnings.— There was a very wide range of individual cash earnings
on a monthly basis, from as low as $10 to as high as $60, but approxi­
mately one-third of the group earned $30 per month. An additional
third earned between $32 and $45 per month. Tips were reported to
range, in the m ajority of cases, from $1 to $3 per week. Commissions
based on the number of customers were not common.
Apprentices are on an entirely different basis from the regular barber
girls. Here again the arrangements are usually made by the parents
and the shop owner, the apprenticeship period being usually 18 months.
Board and room are provided from the beginning, and after a few
months, nominal wages of $3 to $5 or more are often paid, although
this is not necessarily the case. Fees for training are not paid.
Male earnings.— As previously stated, there were relatively few
shops owned and operated by men. These were for the most part
unionized Caucasian shops and provided a 9-hour weekday and a
9K-hour Saturday. Barbers received $30 a week out of the first $42
worth of service rendered to customers, and a commission of 65 per-




184

LABOR IK THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

cent on all above this amount. There were also a few nonunion shops
with Filipino boys as barbers, who received distinctly lower wages and
worked longer hours.
MOTION PICTURES

There are 31 motion-picture theaters in Honolulu County (the is­
land of Oahu). In addition to this, practically every plantation
town on the other islands has its own motion-picture theater. The
survey of the motion-picture industry covered 457 workers and was
drawn from all parts of the Territory.
The tables indicating the earnings in motion-picture theaters in
Hawaii must be interpreted with many reservations. It is possible
for a worker to be employed every week in the year in this industry,
and yet have quite irregular hours and earnings. The term “ salaried
worker” may even include a program-delivery boy who delivers pro­
grams once a week, at $1 per delivery, throughout the year. Be­
cause there are so many part-time workers, such as ushers, poster
men, college students working at night, and the like, the average
annual-earnings figure is not very significant even for those whose
work was spread over 52 weeks. Sixteen workers in this group, for
example, show earnings of less than $100 for the year. It can hardly
be assumed that this represents the earnings of full-time workers.
On the other hand, in the higher-income brackets are to be found
workers who are fully employed throughout the year. The tables,
therefore, must be interpreted in this light and are useful primarily
as indicating the occupational opportunity and the earnings which
the m otion-picture theaters provide in the Territory.
In the sample studied there were 366 salaried and 91 nonsalaried
workers paid on a semimonthly basis. In most cases no record of
hours was available. The earnings data in tables 85 and 86 are
therefore presented for the full pay-roll period. In comparing the
average earnings of $47.16 and $33.37 for salaried males and females
shown in table 85 with figures for other industries, it must be recalled
that these averages cover only half a month. The earnings of salaried
workers in motion-picture theaters in half a month are about the same
as those of nonsalaried workers on sugar plantations in a full month.
The nonsalaried workers shown in table 86 are for the most part
occasional or part-time workers, such as substitute ushers or cashiers.
These theaters employed 396 “ salaried” workers at one time or
another in 1938; 308 of them worked during 52 weeks. Continuity
of employment, as is to be expected in this occupation, is marked.
As has been noted, however, this is not full-time employment; 16
workers made less than $100, for example. The average was $1,052.
H alf the workers made more than $900 (table 87).1
1
u The earnings of 37 workers whose work was spread over 26 weeks or less, and of 51 workers who had
more than half a year but less than a year of employment, were tabulated. The first group averaged 16.5
weeks and $171. The latter group averaged 37 weeks and $192. The distribution of earnings ranged from
less than $50 to more than $800. There was no concentration of earnings worthy of mention.




185

LABOR 1S THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39
T

T

8

a

5

.

—b Distribution of salaried workers in motion-picture theaters in
l
e
Hawaiian Islands according to earnings in half-month period, June 1939

Half-month earnings

Females

Males

Total

the

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
lative
lativelative
per­
per­
per­
ber of
ber of
ber of
work­ cent­ percent­ work­ cent­ percent­ work­ cent­ percentage
age
age
ers
age
ers
age
age
ers

$10 and under $12.50____
$12.50 and under $15____
$15 and under $17.50____
$17.50 and under $20____
$20 and under $22.50 __. .
$22.50 and under $25____
$25 and under $27.50____
$27.50 and under $30____
$30 and under $32.50____
$32.50 and under $35____
$35 and under $37.50____
$37.50 and under $40- _ $40 and under $42.50____
$42.50 and under $45____
$45 and under $47.50____
$47.50 and under $50____
$50 and under $55______
$55 and under $60______
$60 and under $65. _____
$65 and under $70______
$70 and under $75______
$75 and under $80______
$80 and under $85______
$85 and under $90______
$90 and under $9 5-___ _
$95 and under $100.____
$100 and under $110_____
$110 and under $120___
$120 and under $130$130 and under $140
$140 and over..

6
5
19
8
13
13
13
12
44
24
26
22
21
8
10
13
28
18
15
6
4
5
5
4
4
3
2
3
2
3
i7

1.6
1.4
5.2
2.2
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.3
11.9
6.6
7.1
6.0
5.7
2.2
2.7
3.6
7.7
4.9
4.1
1.6
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.1
1.1
.8
.5
.8
.5
.8
1.9

1.6
3.0
8.2
10.4
14.0
17.6
21.2
24.5
36.4
43.0
50.1
56.1
61.8
64.0
66.7
70.3
78.0
82.9
87.0
88.6
89.7
91.1
92.5
93.6
94.7
95.5
96.0
96.8
97.3
98.1

Total____ __ __ _
366
Average half-monthly
earnings__
_
__ _ $43.96

2
4
8
4
9
9
9
7
36
18
21
15
17
6
9
9
25
17
13
5
3
5
5
3
4
2
1
3
2
3
7

0.7
1.4
2.8
1.4
3.2
3.2
3.2
2.5
12.9
6.4
7.5
5.3
6.0
2.1
3.2
3.2
8.9
6.0
4.6
1.8
1.1
1.8
1.8
1.1
1.4
.7
.4
1.1
.7
1.1
2. 5

0.7
2.1
4.9
6.3
9.5
12.7
15.9
18.4
31.3
37.7
45.2
50.5
56.5
58.6
61.8
65.0
73.9
79.9
84.5
86.3
87.4
89.2
91.0
92.1
93. 5
94.2
94.6
95. 7
96.4
97.5

4
1
11
4
4
4
4
5
8
6
5
7
4
2
1
4
3
1
2
1
1

4.7
1.2
12.8
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
5.9
9.3
7.1
5.9
8.2
4.7
2.4
1.2
4.7
3.5
1. 2
2.4
1.2
1.2

1

1.2

1
1

1.2
1.2

281

85

$47.16

4.7
5.9
18.7
23.4
28.1
32.8
37.5
43.4
52.7
59.8
65. 7
73.9
78.6
81.0
82.2
86.9
90.4
91.6
94.0
95.2
96.4
96.4
96.4
97.6
97.6
98.8
100.0

$33. 37

1 The average of all male workers earning $140 and over amounted to $161.57.

T

a

.

8

6

—b Distribution o f nonsalaried workers in motion-picture theaters in the
l
e
Hawaiian Islands according to earnings in half-month period , June 1939
Total
Half-month earnings

Females

Males

Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­ Num­ Simple Cumu­
ber of
per­
lative
per­
per­
ber of
ber of
lative
lative
work­ cent­ percent­ work­ cent­ percent­ work­ cent­ percent­
age
age
ers
age
ers
age
ers
age
age

Under $2.50____________
$2.50 and under $5______
$5 and under $7.50______
$7.50 and under $10_____
$10 and under $12.50.......
$12.50 and under $15____
$15 and under $17.50____
$17.50 and under $20__
$20 and under $22.50___
$22.50 and under $2 5___
$25 and over_____

41
9
8
11
3
6
2
1
4
1
15

Total____________
A verage half-m onth
earnings................. ....

91

80

11

$7.82

$8.15

$5.43

45.0
9.9
8.8
12.1
3.3
6.6
2.2
1.1
4.4
1.1
5. 5

45.0
54.9
63.7
75.8
79.1
85.7
87.9
89.0
93.4
94. 5

39
6
5
9
3
5
2
1
4
1
5

48.7
7.4
6.3
11.2
3.8
6.3
2. 5
1. 3
4.9
1. 3
6.3

1 Average of all male workers earning $25 and over amounted to $38.20.




48.7
56.1
62.4
73.6
77.4
83.7
86.2
87.5
92.4
93.7

2
3
3
2

18.2
27.3
27.3
18.2

1

9.6

18.2
45.5
72.8
91.0
91.0
100.0

186

T

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

a

8 7 .—b Distribution of workers in motion-picture theaters in the Hawaiian
l
e
Islands whose work was spread over 52 weeks , according to annual earnings , 1 938
Number
of workers

Annual earnings
Under $100-._ __ _____
. . .
...
_ _ ______
$100 and under $200___________ ______ _________ ____ ___________
$200 and under $300____________________________________________
$300 and under $400_______________ ___________________________
$400 and under $500_____________________________________ _______
$500 and under $600_____________________________________ _______
$600 and under $700_______________ _ ______________ __________
$700 and under $800_____ ______________________- - ______ _______
$800 and under $900_____________ _______________________________
$900 and under $1,000________ __________________________ _____
$1,000 and under $1,100_________________________________________
$1,100 and under $1,200___ ____________________________________
$1,200 and under $1,300___ ___ . ___________________________
$1,300 and under $1,400_______________________ __________________
$1,400 and under $1,500_________________________________________
$1,500 and under $1,600_____ - ______ _______________________
$1,600 and under $1,700________ _________________________________
$1,700 and under $1,800_____________________ __________________ _
$1,800 and under $1,900_________ ______________________________
$1,900 and under $2,000_____________________________
________
$2,000 and under $2,200_________________________________________
$2,200 and under $2,400________________ _______________________
$2,400 and under $2,600_____ __________________________________
$2,600 and under $2,800_________________ ________________ _______
$2,800 and under $3,000_________________________________________
$3,000 and over_
_
____
._ _ ..
Total.
- - - - - - Average annual earnings
-

.

_.

__ _,

Simple Cumulative
percentage percentage

16
9
7
17
14
12
12
35
33
26
14
24
16
11
10
6
9
2
2
4
7
4
2
3

1
i 12

5.2
2.9
2.3
5.5
4.5
3.9
3.9
11.5
10.8
8.5
4.5
7.8
5.2
3.6
3.2
1.9

2.9
.6
.6
1.3

2.3
1.3
.6
1.0
.3

5.2
8.1
10.4
15.9
20.4
24.3
28.2
39. 7
50. 5
59.0
63.5
71. 3
76. 5
80. 1
83. 3

85.2
88.1
88.7
89.3
90.6
92.9
94.2
94.8
95. 8
96.1

3.9

308
$1,052

1 A verage of all w orkers earn in g $3,000 a n d over a m o u n te d to $3,667.

OIL DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE STATIONS

Oil is an important import of Hawaii. Neither oil nor coal is found
within the Territory. Since coal is such a bulky and expensive com ­
m odity to handle, not only over the great distance between the main­
land and Hawaii, but also in the transshipment necessary for distri­
bution among the islands, oil is the basis of practically all the fuel
used in the Territory, with the exception of the bagasse (cane waste
after the juice has been expressed) used for fuel by the sugar mills.
The electrical power plant of Honolulu uses crude oil for fuel and even
the gas plant converts crude oil rather than coal into gas for domestic
and commercial purposes. Kerosene is used extensively in plantation
homes for cooking, but not for heat since the mild climate makes
heating equipment unnecessary.
In addition to these requirements, the demand for oil and gasoline
for m otor cars must be considered. There is one motor car for every
five persons in the city and county of Honolulu. There are also
well-organized systems of bus lines on all of the islands. T o service
these cars there are 255 filling stations in the city and county of
Honolulu.
The following tables (88 and 89) indicate the earnings of workers
in the merchandising of oil products in Honolulu. Because of the
extremely even climate, this business is not as seasonal as it is on the
mainland. Only 22 of the 198 workers of the group covered worked
less than 52 weeks. They received annual earnings of $686; the
remaining workers, whose work was spread over the entire year, had
average annual earnings of $1,784. Of these workers, 46.7 percent
received between $1,600 and $1,900 per year.




187

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE HAWAII, 19 3 9

The average semimonthly earnings of all workers were $74.25. Of
these, 48.1 percent received between $65 and $80. The oil industry
thus represents comparatively high earnings for the relatively few
workers engaged in it.
T

8 8 .— D istrib u tio n o f workers engaged in the m erch and ising o f oil products
in H o n o lu lu , T . H . t according to earnings in ha lf-m on th p erio d , M a y and J u n e
1989

able

Number
of
workers

One-half month earnings

7
19
8
13
25
31
39
18
11
2
9
116

Under $50_____________ _______ _ _________ ________________
$50 and under $55_______ _______ ________ _ ________ _____
$55 and under $60_______ _ _________ ____________ _________
$60 and under $65___. . . _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ ______ ___________
$65 and under $70______________ ______ _______________________
$70 and under $75__________________________________ _________
$75 and under $80_
_
_
___
______ __________
$80 and under $85 ____ ___
_ _ ______ _________________
$85 and under $90, _____
.__ _ _ ______ _____ ________________
$90 and under $95- ______ ____ _ _ _______ ____ _______ _________
$95 and under $100______ ___________________ ____ ___ _________
_
___ ________________
$100 and over__
Total.

______________ _

3.5
9.6
4.0
6.6
12.6
15.7
19.8
9.1
5.6
1.0
4.5
8.0

Cumula­
tive per­
centage
3.5
13.1
17.1
23.7
36.3
52.0
71.8
80.9
86.5
87.5
92.0

198

_ _________ ____ ______________

Average half-month earnings________

Simple
percent­
age

$74. 25

___________ ____ _____

1 The average of all workers earning $100 and over amounted to $108.27.
T

89.— D istrib u tio n o f workers w hose w ork w as spread over 5 2 w eeks in the
m erch andising o f oil products in H o n o lu lu , T . H ., according to a nnual ea rnings,
1988

able

Number
of
workers

Annual earnings

$1,200 and under $1,300___ ______ _ _ _ ............ . ............... .............
$1,300 and under $1,400________ ____________ _ _______ _____
$1,400 and under $1>500___ _ _ _ _ __ _____ _ ............... .........
$1>500 and under $1,600_ ____________________ _______________
_
$1,600 and under $1»700___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ............... ___........... .
$1»700 and under $1»800_________________________ ______________
$1,800 and under $1,900_ _._ __ ___ _ ________ __________ __
_
$1,900 and under $2,000___ ___
_ _ ____ ___________ _____
$2,000 and under $2,200_______ ____ ____________________ . . . ____
$2,200 and under $2,400_ ___ _ ______ _ __________________ __
_
$2,400 and under $2,600___ __________ ______ ____________ _____ _
$2,600 and over
__
__
___
Total-

__ ____

___________

________________

1 The average of all workers earning $2,600 and over amounted to $2,759.




7
25
5
10
23
32
27
11
11
10
11
i4
176

Simple
percent­
age
4.0
14.2
2.8
5.7
13.1
18.3
15.3
6.2
6.2
5. 7
6.2
2.3

Cumula­
tive per­
centage
4.0
18. 2
21.0
26.7
39.8
58.1
73.4
79.6
85.8
91.5
97.7

CHAPTER 24. WHITE-COLLAR WORKERS
A study of white-collar work, essentially office work, involves an
occupational rather than an industrial approach. Each of the in­
dustries studied so far offers a greater or less amount of office employ­
ment. The problem of white-collar employment in the Territory is
so important, however, that it has seemed wise to segregate such
occupations.
In recent years there has been an increasingly intense upward
pressure into the ranks of the white-collar workers on the part of the
second and third generations of plantation laborers.1 Free public
schools of excellent quality in the American democratic tradition are
provided throughout the Territory. It is not uncommon for planta­
tion workers to make great sacrifices so that their sons and daughters
may receive the benefits of higher education as well. Large numbers
of them graduate from high school, special training schools, or college
into the active life of an economy in which the largest occupational
opportunity is that of a field worker on a plantation. Such work
does not offer any scope for the exercise of their capacities, nor does
the plantation community have much to offer them in the way of
intellectual or cultural life. M oreover, there is a feeling, particularly
among orientals, that to return to plantation field work after gradu­
ation is to “ lose face.”
The study is based on a sample drawn from the lists of office
workers in practically all industries covered in the survey.2 It also
includes office workers in the “ factors” (the large sugar agencies) and
in the sales and service offices of automobile companies. The public
utilities and the “ factors,” since they maintain the largest office
staffs, have the largest representation in the sample.

Over 90 percent of the total in the sample are business-office em­
ployees. There are some, however, who are not, strictly speaking,
in business offices, for example, cashiers in restaurants or motionpicture-theater ticket booths, clerks checking shipments on the
wharves, and the like. Their work, however, is similar to office work.
The principal occupations covered were accountants, bookkeepers,
cashiers, clerks, secretaries, stenographers, timekeepers, private
branch exchange telephone operators, and typists. Clerks and
typists were the leading classifications. There were also minor clas­
sifications such as comptometer operators, addressograph and m ulti­
graph operators, and delivery dispatchers.
1 In spite of this upward pressure, Caucasians hold the dominant position in office work. Island-horn
citizens of oriental extraction find proportionately little representation in the offices of the larger firms of
the Territory, when one considers the large numbers seeking such employment.
2 White-collar workers in the offices of concerns in the following branches of industry were included in
the survey: Automobiles (sales and services), bakeries, blueprinting and photocopying, can manufacture,
department stores, drug stores, factors, foundries and machine shops, garments, hotels, laundries and dry
cleaning, longshore companies, mercantile stores (other than department and drug stores), motion-picture
theaters, oil products, pineapple canneries, pineapple plantations, printing and publishing, public construc­
tion, public utilities, restaurants and bars, sugar plantations, tuna packing, and wholesale and retail grocery
and meat markets.

188




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

189

The tables are not representative in one respect, however. There
are numerous small retail establishments in Hawaii (particularly
oriental) in which stenographic or other part-time office work may be
required. Often such stores are managed by the members of a family.
Even when this is not the case, records are meager and not very
dependable. Although there is little office work in any one establish­
ment, in the aggregate it constitutes a significant volume of such work
which is not represented in these tables. Conferences with the owners
of such establishments indicate that they pay lower salaries and
demand distinctly longer hours than the larger concerns. Thus a
truly representative sample which included this group would probably
show somewhat lower average earnings and somewhat longer average
hours per day.

Broadly speaking, it is also true that, among those firms included
in the sample, the smaller concerns pay lower salaries for longer hours.
Some of the largest offices, which pay the highest salaries, are closed
Wednesday afternoon and all of Saturday. This is exceptional,
however.
M ost of the offices open at 8 a. m. and close at 4 p. m. with half an
hour (in some cases, 45 minutes) for lunch, and with a half day (or full
day) off on Saturday. The range in regular hours per week is thus
from as low as 33 to over 50, but the overwhelming majority of office
workers work between 40 and 45 hours per week.
Provisions for vacations with pay, sick leave, group insurance, and
pensions differ widely.3 Two weeks annual vacation with pay is
fairly typical.
Monthly earnings.— Table 90 presents the monthly earnings of 1,438
white-collar workers by sex and race. It may be noted in the first
place that there were three times as many males as females. In the
second place, the distribution by race shows the dominant position of
Caucasians. N ot only do they hold the better paying jobs, but they
constitute nearly half of the workers, though this group constitutes
about a sixth of the population. A t the other extreme one may note
that so few Filipinos are employed in white-collar jobs that they have
not been tabulated as a separate racial group, though they constitute
one-eighth of the population.
In the firms covered, Caucasians had the highest average earnings
per month, $139 for males and $120 for females. The difference
between these averages and those of other racial groups is especially
marked in the case of females. One tenth of the Caucasians received
$195 per month or over. Only slightly more than 1 in 30 of all other
groups combined received as much.
Japanese, constituting about one-fourth of total employment, re­
ceived the lowest average m onthly wage ($98). Over half of the
Caucasians received $125 or more, whereas less than one-quarter of
the Japanese fell in this classification.

Chinese represented a somewhat smaller group than the Japanese
(one-fifth of the total) but averaged distinctly higher monthly earnings
($124).
3
A description of these provisions for office workers in the public utilities has been given in a preceding
section.




$115 and under
$125

$125 and under
$135

$135 and under
$145

$145 and under
$155

$155 and under
$165

$165 and under
$175

$175 and under
$185

27
35
28
5
3

58
40
24
18
4

36
36
28
8
6

42
29
14
13
1

77
26
34
17
4

56
23
6
10
4

58
16
25
4

31
8
21
2

27

36
3
9
5

22
1.5
1.9

40
2.8
4.7

$132
98
124
122
99

13
0.9
98.4
=

23
1.6

1,438

120

3

6

1

2
3

16
1
2
4

31
45
73 128
37
59
81
80 107 92
77
74
41
25
3
10
4
27
5
3.5 5.6 7.7 7.6 10.1 8.7 6.9 12.1 7.3 7.0 4.3 2.9 3.9 2.4 2.6 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.4
5.6 11.2 18.9 26.5 36.6 45.3 52.2 64.3 71.6 78.6 82.9 85.8 89.7 92.1 94.7 95.0 95.5 96.4 96.8

11
1.0
97.8

24

2

2

5
2
1

2

2
2

$235 and under
$245

15
4
2
5
2

j $225 and under
$235

$215 and under
$225

643
337
278
133
47

| $205 and under
1
$215

16
1
2
4

$195 and under
$205

8

$185 and under
$195

Average month­
ly salary

1 $105 and under
|
$115

50
29
21
15
9

i Total number
of workers

$95 and under
$105

31
29
17
11
4

i $255 and over

$85 and under
$95

20
19
16
5
4

$245 and under
$255

$75 and under
$85

8
22
5
2
3

10

3
1

2
3

Total________________
6
Simple percentage-________ _ 0.4
Cumulative percentage_____ 0.4

99 158
64
98 144 114
99 103
62
39
92 124
53
28
32
4
11
4
6
4.5 6.4 8.6 6.8 10.0 7.9 6.9 11.0 6.9 7.2 4.3 2,7 3.7 1.9 2.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.3
9.2 15.6 24.2 31.0 41.0 48.9 55.8 66.8 73.7 80.9 85.2 87.9 91.6 93.5 95.7 96.0 96.4 97.2 97.5

===
M
ALES
Caucasian_________________
Japanese___________________
Chinese___ _ _____________
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian.
All others___ ______ ._ . . .

FEM
ALES
Caucasian... . . _______ _
Japanese___ . _________ .
. ________
Chinese____
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian.
All others________ _____
T otal..______________
Simple percentage_______ ..
Cumulative percentage_____

1
5

6
1.6
1.6

1
3
2

2
9
1

1

3
15
1.4
2.1

4
9
1
1

6
13
4
2

8
10
13
3
3

12
9
3
2
1

16
22
10
8
3

15
7
7
3
1

30
24
10
9
8

20
5
11
6
1

19
34
21
4
2

8
1
7
1
1

35
36
22
12
2

21
33
25
8
5

23
4
2
6
2

25
18
37
15
27
33
43
3.9 6.5 7.0 8.6 11.3 4.7 9.7
5.5 12.0 19.0 27.6 38.9 43.6 53.3

15
3
3

1

23
28
13
8
1

19
1
1
5

49
26
33
16
4

31
16
25
2

27

1

2

16
1

19
11
....

8

26
3
8
4

10

12
4
2
5
2

3

19

1

1

5
2
1

2

2
2

5

1

1

9
1

1

2 23
2.2

399
277
237
102
40
1,055
—

139
105
132
130
101
126
—
120
65
82
95
(3
)

1
1
1
12
22
26
30
22
29
17
2
8
3
5
5.7 6.8 7.8 5.7 7.6 4.4 2.1 3.1 0.8 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.5
59.0 65.8 73.6 79.3 86.9 91.3 93.4 96.5 97.3 98.6 98.9 99.2 99.5 99.5 100.0
1

383

104

1
1

19
2

15
7
21
2

244
60
41
31
7

1

28

37
21
6
9
4

= =

2

1Includes 42 workers who received perquisites of board and/or room.
2 The average of all male workers earning $255 and over amounted to $289.
3 Too few workers to justify the computation of an average; included in total




1

’

7
0.7
0.7

Total_________ _______
Simple percentage______ . . .
Cumulative percentage_____ —

11

1
1

THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

$65 and under
$75

1
5

m

5
12
3
1
1

ALL WORKERS
Caucasian_________________
Japanese______ _ ______
______
Chinese____ Hawaiian and part Hawaiian.
All others... ._ . . . _______

O
O

LABOR

£
««■
U
ol
73
P
P

$55 and under
$65

Sex and race

$45 and under
$55

90.— Distribution of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian Islands according to monthly salaries, by sex and race, 1938 and 1939 1
$35 and under
$45

T able

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

191

Annual earnings.— There is relatively little seasonality for office
work in Hawaii. Seasonal white-collar work is confined largely to
canneries. Even there, an effort has been made to “ smooth out” the
variations in office work requirements over the year. Turn-over is not
large and such tu rn over as does exist is primarily due to office workers
who come from the United States mainland to work for a while in
Hawaii and return. A surprisingly large number of them, however,
become permanent residents.
Table 91 summarizes earnings in 1938 for 1,317 workers. About
17 percent of the total were reported as working less than 52 weeks.
A record of weeks worked was not available for an additional 13 per­
cent of the workers covered, but since this group showed average
annual earnings of $1,781, which exceeded the average for those em­
ployed 52 weeks ($1,610), it appears probable that most of them were
fully employed throughout the year.
Over one-fourth (28.9 percent) of all workers earned between $1,100
and $1,600 during the year. The differences in earnings of white-collar
workers b y sex were not as great as in nonsalaried occupations
in the Territory, males averaging $1,472 and females $1,118 for the
year. Differences in earnings by race were much smaller for males
than for females. Caucasian women averaged $1,298, whereas Jap­
anese women received only $714 on the average during the year.
T

able

91.- — Average annual earnings of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian Islands

hy sex, 193 8 1
All workers

Male

Female

Average
Average
Average
Number of weeks over
number Aver­
number Aver­
number Aver­
which work was Num­ of weeks age an­ Num­ of weeks age an­ Num­ of weeks age an­
ber of
ber of
ber of
spread
nual
over
nual
over
over
nual
work­
work­
earn­
earn­ work­
which
which
which
earn­
ers
ers
ers
work was ings
work was ings
work was ings
spread
spread
spread
$109
326
579
917
1, 527

Under 13 w eeks_____
13 and under 26 weeks.
26 and under 39 weeks.
39 and under 52 weeks.
52 weeks._ . . .
Number of weeks not
reported.. ______

72
62
54
50
899
180

1,807

148

1,781

32

1, 925

Total___ ______

1, 317

1, 369

935

1,472

382

1,118

6.1
16.9
32.3
44.9
52.0

36
36
33
28
654

6.2
16.8
32.5
44.8
52.0

$112
323
575
889
1,610

36
26
21
22
245

6.0
17.0
31.9
45.1
52.0

$106
330
585
952
1, 306

1 Not including 123 white-collar workers on sugar plantations as the number of weeks over which work
was spread could not be computed from available data.

A better indication of the earnings of regularly employed whitecollar workers is shown in table 92 giving a distribution of earnings
for those whose work was spread over 52 weeks. Such white-collar
workers received a general average of $1,527 for the year, males aver­
aging $1,610 and females $1,306.4
* This table as noted omits 123 workers on sugar plantations for whom data on weeks worked was not
available.
The averages shown in the table would be raised had it been possible to include earnings for 148 males
and 32 females shown in table 91 with weeks worked not reported. Thus, in the full sample of 382 females,
there were 24 more than are shown in table 92 with earnings of $1,700 or more. Of these, 10 received $1,700
to $2,000, 13 received $2,000 to $2,800, and 1 received over $3,000. These were doubtless almost all persons
with work in 52 weeks.




T

a

9

2

.

-

Islands whose work was spread
and race, 1938 1
.
,
,
*g
~ g T 8 §©
s
, s 8
Td« 'd co 'd ^ 'C
'deo dt3. T 8
d
3T 3
S ^ S _T S ,_ S ,-7 3 h (3_T
3
3
d&* d d
<8m d^s- d m
dm
o ^ o *
o *<
■
o ®
8 | S'O g £d
ic'd S^'d I I
co 7
m
m
5
sm
m
5)m

over 52 weeks, according to annual earnings, by
.
3 o 1:3 © 2© d 0
M
d1 'd © d < d §
©
S m go? 5<n
3r-T
d
dm
I 'd ©
^-d I I 8 l d
C|

.
do
d i
S c'T
d a&
o *!
r
8 d

.

,

da 6
2 ^
d
§d
§ ®

m

m

U
,

©
d©
d co
d*j2

8
89

d
-

>
0
S
3
d
©
©
©

H
jd y
;
2 ®

S
3
d.S
C
h

0

0

H

m

a>d
>f
►-

c

ALL WORKERS
Caucasian______ ____

_

-

___

1
2

2

7

Hawaiian and part Hawaiian
All nthpfs
3
Total______________________
0.3
Simple percentage______________
Cumulative percentage _________ 0.3

9
1 .0

1.3

3
8
2
2

15
1.7
3.0

4
13
7
1
2

27
3.0
6 .0

11

9

8

4

17
7
5

1

1

12

37
4.1
1 0.1

16
16

14
23

10

12

7
5

20

5

19
7
9

1

1

FEM
ALES

1

6

2

5
5

6

1

3

4

7

6

7

2

21
6
10

9

2

35
12

9
7
1

20
11
11
1

16

32
13

6

10

21

5

5

21

3
13
1

8

21

13

2

3
4

4

6

16

4

3

1
6

2

5
2

1

2

1

37
24
4

5

2

1
0 .2

3
0.5
0.7

12
1 .8

2.5

19
2.9
5.4

6
11

5

8

11

15

8

23

17

6

12

6
7

15
14
15
3

14
18
6

7

22

6

12

10

7
6

15
10
11
1

19
16
6

20

6

12
10

13

24
7
24
3

17

9

2

2

4

5
4
. . . 4 . _____

3
3

14
1
6

3
3
6
7
2
1
4
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
35 1 47
42
30
10
25
48
45
48
59
18
25
38
45
47
23
3.8 5.4 7.2 6.4 7.3 6.9 4.6 7.3 5.8 6.9 7.2 3.5 9.0 3.8 2 . 8 1.5 1 . 2
9.2 14.6 2 1 . 8 28.2 35.5 42.4 47.0 54.3 60.1 67.0 74.2 77.7 86.7 90.5 93.3 94.8 96.0
2

5

2
6

9

1

2

13

8
2

6

2

4

1

2
2

1
1

3

4

2

3

2

2

6

2
6
2

1
2

3

2

3~
1 .2
1 .2

8

3.3
4.5

5

8

2

6

2

1

6

14

13

3
1
1
1

5

5

1

2

2
1

12
1

1

o

15

13

4

4

1

1
1

"~Y

1

15
1
6
15
5
14 ~~2 ir 1 2
12
18~ 13~ 19
8
16
6
15
5
15
0.4
7. 4 5.3 7.9 3.3 5.7 8.7 4.9 6.5 6.5 2.4 2.4 6 . 1
6. 1 6 . 1
4.9 6 . 1
2 .0
2 .0
9.4 15. 5 22.9 28.2 36.1 39.4 45.1 53.8 58.7 65.2 71.7 74.1 76.5 82.6 88.7 94.8 96.8 98.8 98. 8 99.2

4 26
4.0

232
181
162
65
14
654
—

1,784
1,346
1, 655
1,647
(3
)
1,610
______
—
1,534
811
1,005
1, 235

145
44
23
____ 26
7
5 2 245
2

(3)

1,306

0 .8

1 Not including 123 white-collar workers on sugar plantations, as the number of weeks over which work was spread could not be computed .from available data.
workers who received perquisites of board and/or room.
2 The average of all workers earning $3,000 and over amounted to $3,459.
3 Too few workers to justify the computation of an average: included in total.
4 The average of all male workers earning $3,000 and over amounted to $3,465.
5The average of all female workers earning $3,000 and over amounted to $3,384,




$1,687
1,242
1, 574
1, 529
1,268

21

1

1

0 .2

377
225
185
91

—

—

Includes 22

19 39

Caucasian
. __
Japanese
.
. . . .
Chinese_________________________
Hawaiian and part Hawaiian. _
_
All others
_________ ...
Total
Simple percentage_________ _____ _
Cumulative percentage__________

1
1

20
21

46
54
56
64
69
9 2 28 899
38
55
62
74
10
44
51
30
23
57
1, 527
38
4.2 6 . 0 6 . 1 6 . 2 7.8 6.3 5. 1 7.1 4.9 5.7 6.9 4.2 8.3 3.3 2 . 6
1 .0
3.1 ___
1 .1
14.3 20.3 26.4 32.6 40.4 46.7 51.8 58.9 63.8 69.5 76.4 80.6 88.9 92.2 94.8 95.9 96.9 —
—
—

M
ALES
Caucasian
. . . __
Japanese_____ ____ ____ _______ __
Chinese___ _ ________ ___ - - Hawaiian and part Hawaiian All others._____ _________________
Total . __ . _____ __ _
Simple percentage_______________
Cumulative percentage___________

28
16
17

^

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

—b Distribution of white-collar workers in the Hawaiian
l
e
sex
S
_
u
u,
sLA
L
a
'd
'O
'd
T
d
'O
-d
S
3
S
3
S
3
S
3
fl
S
3
a
*
do T §
3^
d_
S3d_
3J!
T§
3
-do S0 TJO T< §
JS
Sex and race
3
r-T 3
a & O * Sm 0 9
SJ
3&
0w
3
S* d
03** d
©A
o 'd
8
I
§
1
4
m
m
4
m
* -J m
9

P art VI
The O rga n iza tion o f M a n a g em en t and L a b o r;




L a bor L egisla tion

193




CHAPTER 25. THE ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT
The position of labor relative to the economy of Hawaii as a whole
is best expressed in terms of a comparison between the organization of
the management of industry on the one hand and the organization of
labor on the other.
Throughout the Territory, there is a general belief that the whole
industrial structure of the islands is subject to the ownership of a
small group. Because many of the aspects of control, though clearly
present, are not at all clear in respect to degree or detail, there is an
inclination to exaggerate the extent of the concentration of ownership.
There are between fifteen and sixteen thousand individual stock­
holders 1 in the sugar industry alone (about two-thirds of whom are
residents of the Territory). Of the lands producing sugar, less than
half are directly owned by the plantations, the remainder being leased
from individual estates (many of them owned by native Hawaiians)
and from the government of the Territory.
M oreover, the infiltration of mainland concerns, such as the large
pineapple companies, the low price retail chain stores now established
on the four leading islands, and the recent development of Honolulu
branch offices for the conduct of a mail-order business on a large scale
(all controlled from the central offices of large mainland corporations),
tends to encroach upon the long-established position of the Island
enterprises.
In spite of these facts, however, there remain many evidences of a
high degree of integration in management and control. This applies
not only to specific industries, such as the sugar industry, already
described, but also to the general financial and industrial structure
of the Territory as a whole.
This structural integration is not entirely a matter of the concen­
tration of legal ownership. M any of its phases are inherent in the
isolated character of the Hawaiian economy and in the social and
family relationships that have developed over time. That is, part of
the unification of control is to be found in relationships which are not
embodied in formal contracts or even in formal organizations.
A t the outset it should be noted that the wealth of the islands is
largely in the hands of Caucasians, or, to be more specific, AngloSaxons. The figures for Territorial taxes and assessed values by race
indicate that Hawaiians, part Hawaiians, Portuguese, Spaniards,
Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos combined own only one-fifth of the
total assessed values of taxable real and personal property, although
they represent four-fifths of the population. Anglo-Saxons, as
individuals, own only slightly over 15 percent of assessed property,
and constitute about the same percentage (16.4) of the total popula­
tion. But “ corporations and firms” control two-thirds of all assessed
1 On April 12, 1934, there were 15,488 sugar plantation shareholders, of whom 10,088 were residents in the
Territory. The holdings of the largest individual stockholders in each of the three largest “ factors” were
7 percent, 21 percent, and 25 percent, respectively.
195
2 4 1 4 0 4 — 4 0 --------14




196

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

property value. Some of this consists of large estates in part under
Hawaiian control, but the bulk of it is under Anglo-Saxon ownership.
Even that land which is Hawaiian owned is largely under AngloSaxon management by virtue of long-term leases between the planta­
tions and the Hawaiian estates. Thus it is clear that the dominant
position in the industrial life of the Territory lies within the AngloSaxon group, representing one-sixth of the population. Within the
Anglo-Saxon group itself there is a high degree of concentration of
control.
One aspect of this integration lies in the character of the corporate
and intercorporate relationships between island enterprises. Refer­
ence has already been made to the five large agencies which control
the sugar industry. These agencies do not confine their interests to
sugar alone, but have investments and contractual relationships with
many other island enterprises. In addition, they own many sub­
sidiary companies.
Another important aspect of the integration of management lies in
the unusually large number of interlocking directorates to be found
in territorial corporations. The accompanying chart indicates the
extent to which the directors and chief officials of one corporation in
the Territory are also directors and chief officials in others. It refers
to the officers of one of the five large agencies in Honolulu. A com ­
bined chart showing the interlocking of directorates as between all five
of these agencies and the other large enterprises of the Territory would
indicate an even greater unity o f control.
Within the lifetime of people still living in the Territory, Hawaii
was under a distinctly feudal system. The transfer of a system of
land tenure under a feudal king to the present system of land tenure
was an exceedingly complicated one. M any of the present land hold­
ings date back to this prior period. The historic development of land
holdings and the present intricate system of land tenure contribute to
the unification of power in the Territory.
There has been a considerable degree of intermarriage among the
more influential of the families of the Territory, possibly because of
the relative isolation of Hawaii. Interfamily relationships, as well as
intrafamily holdings, are thus an additional significant feature in the
integration of industry.
Because the sugar industry is the oldest, most powerful, and most
highly unified in the Hawaiian economy, many persons are inclined to
think of the economic integration of the Territory exclusively in terms
of this industry. But it should be noted that, because of the inter­
corporate relations mentioned above, the centralization of control is
not confined to the sugar industry alone, but extends into practically
every aspect of the economic life of Hawaii.
Over half of the pineapple industry is island-owned, and it is closely
connected, through interlocking directors and intrafamily holdings,
with the sugar industry. The same may be said of most of the public
utilities, the M atson and Inter-Island steamship companies, the large
hotels, and a great variety o f minor corporate enterprises.
Thus the Territory o f Hawaii possesses a strongly centralized indus­
trial structure, highly integrated in its broader aspects as well as its
minor details, not only in the economic, but even in the social and
political aspects of island life.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9




CO

^1

198

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

Although many of the large enterprises maintain effective employeewelfare policies, their attitude may best be described as benevolently
paternalistic rather than liberal. The history of management in
Hawaii, broadly speaking, is one of antagonism to labor organization.
The high degree o f intercorporate control makes it possible to
mobilize the resources of all large enterprises to restrict the growth
of labor unions and to combat strikes in whatever fields of industry
they may occur. There is a tendency on the part of management to
assume that unionism is synonymous with dangerous radicalism, pos­
sibly because the labor movement in Hawaii has not always been
wisely led. The result of this attitude is the feeling that labor union­
ism is a common menace to all Hawaiian enterprise, and that the duty
of combating its development is a common problem of the manage­
ment of all industries whenever labor troubles occur. Thus, although
management has done much for labor in Hawaii, it has also used every
influence at its command to restrict labor organization.
The workers of Hawaii are economically isolated. They find it
equally difficult to return to the countries o f their origin or to migrate
to the American mainland, and are thus completely dependent upon
a relatively restricted group of local island enterprises throughout the
whole of their lives. In this respect they are in a very different
position from that of the typical mainland wage earner. There is,
therefore, a very strong incentive not to do anything which would
jeopardize their future employment possibilities.
The position of the individual plantation worker is especially vul­
nerable. The house in which he lives, the store from which he buys,
the fields in which he finds his recreation, the hospital in which he is
treated, are all owned by plantation management, which in turn has
its policies controlled from the offices of the factors in Honolulu.
Whether it is justified or not, there is a prevalent feeling among the
m ajority of Hawaiian workers that a bad record with any important
concern in the Territory makes it difficult to obtain employment in
any other concern, and that to be associated with labor-union activities
is certain to weaken their employment opportunities, if not destroy
their economic future.




CHAPTER 26. DEVELOPMENT OF LABOR UNIONS
LABOR ORGANIZATION ON THE PLANTATIONS

In comparison with the highly integrated character of industrial
management, the organization of labor in the Territory is meager.
T o understand the development of labor organization in Hawaii,
it is necessary to remember that in less than 70 years the population
has increased from 56,000 (in 1872) to w ell over 400,000. Practically
T
all of this increase is non-Hawaiian and represents the organized im­
portation of labor for plantation purposes.
The original idea of plantation management was to bring out workers
under contract and ship them back after the contract was finished.
That is, they w
rere interested in obtaining young, unmarried males at
the best of their productive period and avoiding the problem of main­
tenance of families or o f pensions for superannuated workers. At
first this system was successful. Imported Chinese laborers went
back to China when their contracts were finished. Portuguese and
other Caucasian laborers used Hawaii as a stepping stone to the
American mainland. The ever-present problem in this circulating
supply o f labor was to maintain a large enough importation to offset
not only the emigration of workers whose contracts had expired, but
also the constantly increasing demands of the expanding plantation
system.
The ratio o f immigration and emigration to population reached its
peak in 1889, when it amounted to 24.1 percent. Thereafter, large
numbers (particularly of the Japanese) began to settle permanently
and to establish homes.
Under these conditions, it is not surprising that labor organization
on the plantations is a recent development. The laborers brought
into the islands were, for the most part, docile and ignorant. They
had come from countries in which conditions of labor were extremely
harsh, hours were long, and pay was low. They were thrown into
strange surroundings far distant from their accustomed homes. M ore­
over, they found themselves in immediate competition with other
races with which they had previously had no contact. Thus they
were easily exploited. The record of the early days of plantation
life under the contract system is a severe indictment of the methods
and attitudes of plantation owners of those days. This system was
not abolished until annexation in 1898. Partly by virtue of a gradu­
ally growing sympathy and unity on the part of the various elements
among the plantation laborers, partly because of the gradual increase
in the number of second and third generation citizen laborers on the
plantations, and partly because of a marked change toward a socialminded attitude on the part o f plantation management, conditions
have greatly improved in respect to wages, hours, working conditions,
and the whole of the life o f plantation communities since those early
days.
199




200

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

Nevertheless, the plantation system continues to be paternalistic.
Employee organizations do exist on the plantations, but they take the
form o f recreational and social clubs, or of religious groups, usually
along racial lines. Labor organizations, as such, have gained little
footing. Since all o f the property, the land, the housing, the com ­
munity center itself, even many o f the governmental functions o f
the plantation towns, are controlled by plantation management, any­
one in the plantation community who is disapproved by management
is legally a trespasser and, as such, can be put off the plantation.
In spite of these conditions, however, plantation workers were
beginning to become organization-minded by the end of the World
War. The rapid rise in prices occasioned by the war led to a wave
of strikes in 1919 and 1920, which represented an effort to adjust the
wage scale to the rising cost of living. They were also due to an
increasing solidarity among plantation laborers, many of whom had,
by this time, established permanent homes in the Territory. In 1919
a federation of Japanese labor in Hawaii was formed. Demands
were submitted to the Hawaiian sugar plantations. A t the same
time, a newly organized Filipino labor association presented similar
demands. These were rejected, and in December both organizations
went on strike on six Oahu plantations.
Although other strikes had occurred as early as the eighties and
nineties, they were spontaneous, brief (2 or 3 days), and generally
racial in character. They were usually occasioned by some disturbing
incident which brought labor and management into conflict, such as
an unannounced change in piece rates, or trouble between a “ luna”
(straw boss) and the field workers under him, rather than by any
consistent effort on the part of labor for better conditions. A strike
in 1909, though somewhat broader in scope, was also of this character.
The strike of 1919-20 thus represented the first consistently organized
effort to enforce wage and other demands. It involved destructive
activity, including the burning of cane, in addition to large losses
due to the interruption of harvesting and planting schedules, and
was estimated to have cost the plantations $12,000,000.
The workers struck at the most strategic island, Oahu, and refrained
from striking on the other islands, in order to make it possible for the
Oahu strikers (particularly the Japanese) to obtain aid from those
at work on other islands. The strike lasted approximately 7 months.
The Filipinos returned to work on February 10 and the Japanese
at the end of July. As a result of the strike, they obtained a new
wage and bonus schedule, increasing the minimum rate and abolishing
race differentials. Plantation labor organization, however, dis­
integrated immediately after the strike.
The next important plantation strike occurred on April 1, 1924,
when Filipinos struck for $2 a day, an 8-hour day, and no bonus.
In this they were led b y a Filipino organizer named Pablo Manlapit.
The strikes involved a number of islands, Oahu and Hawaii in par­
ticular.
On September 9 strikers at Hanapepe, Kauai, held two Filipino
strikebreakers prisoners in their camp. The prisoners were later re­
turned to the police, but while they were being escorted away, a dis­
pute arose which resulted in the killing of 4 policemen and 16 strikers,
and the wounding of many more. Seventy-six participants were
arrested and 60 given 4-year prison terms.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE H A W A II, 1 9 3 9

201

During the following 13 years there were few labor disturbances
on the plantations; nor were there any effective efforts toward
organization.
Filipino laborers again struck between April 20 and June 21, 1937,
this time on the island of Maui, partly with the aid of C. I. O. organ­
izers. A t its peak, the strike involved some 3,500 Filipinos on 3
plantations. It was a distinctly Filipino strike, although Japanese
workers provided some financial support, as did also the Maritime
Union. Slight wage concessions were obtained.
That same year, in June and August, there were strikes on the
pineapple plantations involving altogether about 1,800 men. Addi­
tional plantation strikes occurred from time to time throughout the
period 1937-39, though they received little publicity and ended quick­
ly. Up to this time, all plantations, whether sugar or pineapple,
had maintained a strongly antiunion stand.
The first vote to be taken by an island plantation organization
occurred at Kalaheo, Kaui, under an agreement signed M ay 20, 1939,
by the manager of the company and the officers of the unions. The
United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of
America, Local 76, C. I. O., was voted as exclusive representative for
collective bargaining. B oth men and women were excused from their
jobs by the management to permit them to vote. Since the election
was held pursuant to the National Labor Relations Act, only nonagricultural workers were eligible to vote, and some confusion arose
in respect to who were agricultural and who were nonagricultural
employees. Nevertheless this agreement was looked upon by both
plantation and cannery labor as an important precedent in the future
development of plantation labor organization.
NONPLANTATION UNIONS

The workers who live outside of the plantations are in a somewhat
different position. They represent over half of the total number
gainfully employed. They live in Honolulu and a few small urban
centers. This group also includes a much larger percentage of Cau­
casian workers and skilled trades than does the group on the planta­
tions.
Unionism in Honolulu is older than the Territory. But such small
organizations as did exist in the early days were largely made up of
Caucasian workers who came from the American mainland and
brought their labor unions with them.
It is recorded that a charter was issued to Typographical Union N o.
37 of Honolulu on August 9, 1884. It was not until 1910, however,
that there were enough unions to form a central labor council. This
functioned only about 5 years. During the W orld War there seems
to have been little activity.
The large plantation strike of 1919-20 was accompanied by a wave
of smaller ones in such enterprises as the Oahu Railway, the Mutual
Telephone Co., Honolulu Construction & Draying Co., Inter-Island
Steamship Co., and others.
In August 1935 three maritime unions— the Sailors' Union of the
Pacific, the Marine Cooks and Stewards, and the Marine Firemen and
Watertenders— sent agents to Honolulu to open hiring halls. These
unions were working under contracts with the shipowners for the first




202

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

time in the history of Honolulu. Since that time, the maritime
unions have constituted the focal point of labor organization and
activity in the Territory. As a result of a maritime strike which began
in October 1936, attempts were made to organize longshoremen of
Honolulu. An effort to obtain an A. F. of L. charter for the organiza­
tion failed, and a C. I. O. charter was applied for and received.
Soon after this, some of the union longshoremen were discharged.
A complaint was filed with the National Labor Relations Board charg­
ing the M atson Co. with discrimination against the union. As a result
of a Labor Board investigation, formal hearings were ordered. The
examiner's decision indicated that labor had been coerced and in­
timidated, and ordered compensation in the amount of $6,000.
On M ay 26, 1938, a number of maritime unions centering in Hilo,
including longshoremen, warehousemen, clerks, and transport workers,
presented demands to the Inter-Island Steamship Co., resulting in a
strike which lasted until August 15, 1938. The strike gradually grew
in intensity and the attempt to unload a steamship in Hilo on August 1
was occasion for a mass demonstration by the strikers, resulting in the
wounding of 50 persons, 25 of whom had to be hospitalized.
Hawaiian unionism tends to center in functional groups, such as
the Maritime Trades Council which includes machinists, carpenters,
boilermakers, moulders, and plumbers; the Allied Printmg Trades
Council, which includes the typographical union, the pressmen, the
engravers, and the Newspaper Guild; and the maritime unions, which
are divided into two groups, (1) the cooks and stewards, and the fire­
men, who are members of W est Coast unions without local charters,
and (2) other waterfront unions, Inter-Island Boatmen's Union, the
longshoremen, and the Honolulu Waterfront Workers Association,
each of which has a local charter. Besides this, there are a number of
special unions for musicians; hotel, restaurant, and bar caterers;
barbers; brewery workers; motion-picture operators; plasterers;
butchers; transportation workers; and the telegraphers and radio­
station personnel.
C. I. O. and A. F. of L. unions are about equally represented.
Both groups have endeavored to avoid the extreme antagonisms which
have characterized their relations elsewhere. In this respect labor
has cooperated more effectively in Hawaii than in most places on the
mainland.
The total membership of all unions in the Territory has been
increasing. Accurate figures are not available. Estimates of total
membership by union officials vary from 3,500 to 6,000 members.
Even if the larger figure is accepted as accurate, it would indicate that
less than one twenty-fifth of the gainfully employed are unionized.
This relative weakness of Hawaiian labor organization is due to
the following factors:
(1) The rapid improvement in wages, hours, and working condi­
tions in recent years combined with well-organized opposition to union­
ism on the part of management in every aspect of the economic and
political life of the Territory.
(2) Lack of experience on the part of the bulk of the island labor
(both alien and Hawaiian-born laborers come from a background in
which labor unions are little known).




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OE H A W A II,

19 3 9

203

(3) Marked racial differences among plantation laborers, which
set up barriers of language and culture, and result in distrust and even
antagonism between racial groups. This is, however, a decreasing
influence.
(4) The character of union leadership which has often been inex­
perienced, overly anxious to obtain quick results, and hence inclined
to invoke drastic policies.
(5) Relatively little support accorded to island organizations
on the part of parent unions on the mainland.
(6) A tradition of employer-employee relationships along racial
lines, particularly among workers of oriental origin, which cuts
directly across the lines of union organizations.
(7) Discrimination within some of the unions (particularly those
brought to Honolulu from the mainland) against workers of oriental
extraction, which has tended toward economic stratification along
racial lines, and which also cuts across the lines of normal Hawaiian
labor organization.




C H A P T E R

27.

LABO R

L E G IS L A T IO N

Since 1935, much of the effort of organized labor has been in the
direction of social legislation which would strengthen the position of
the unions. Judged by mainland standards, certain of the laws of
the Territory are somewhat reactionary in character, as, for example,
the law providing for arrest for investigation when an officer has a
reasonable suspicion that a person intends to commit an offense; the
press control law of 1921 following the strike of 1920; the law cover­
ing picketing and the protection of labor of 1923 which provides that
picketing intended to influence others not to trade with, buy from,
sell to, work for, or have business dealings with another person is
unlawful; and the trespass law of 1925, enacted after an outside
organizer had succeeded in forming a Filipino union in 1924. Some
of these laws, such as the picketing law of 1923, have never been
invoked, which is interpreted by the unions to indicate that there is
some question as to their constitutionality.
On the other hand, a considerable body of legislation beneficial to
labor has also been enacted.
On account of the relationship of the Islands to the United States,
laws have been passed both by the Congress of the United States and
the Territorial legislature1 governing this jurisdiction. A t the time
of the adoption of the organic act a number of Federal laws were
made applicable immediately to the Territory. During recent years
much of the labor and social-insurance legislation passed by Congress
of general application to the continental United States has been ex­
tended to Hawaii. For example, Hawaii is subject to the National
Labor Relations Act, the Railway Labor Act, the Federal Employers’
Liability Act, and such social-insurance legislation as the Social
Security Act, the Railroad Retirement Act, and the Railroad Unem­
ployment Insurance Act. Similarly the Fair Labor Standards Act,
the Walsh-Healey Act, and the Maritime Labor Relations A ct are
applicable to the Territory. The Norris-LaGuardia Act, which
regulates the issuance of injunctions in labor disputes, is effective also
in Hawaii.
The Legislature of Hawaii in its capacity as a lawmaking body has
enacted considerable legislation of interest and importance to labor.
A recent far-reaching legislative act affecting labor occurred during
the legislative year of 1939 when the legislature decreed a unified con­
trol of the administration of all labor laws in an agency to be known
as the Department of Labor and Industrial Relations.2 This act pro­
vided also for the mediation and conciliation of labor disputes, the
establishment of appeal boards to consider claims for workmen’ s
compensation, and the regulation of child labor.
A brief survey of the most important Territorial labor legislation
follows:
1 The Territorial legislature meets biennially in odd numbered years and the sessions are limited to 60
days.
2 Details regarding the structural organization of this department are given in appendix A.

204




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

205

CHILD LABOR

A basic 16-year minimum age has been established for work in any
gainful occupation during school hours or at any time in factories or
in connection with power-driven machinery or in occupations deter­
mined, after hearing by the Commission of Labor and Industrial Rela­
tions of Hawaii, to be hazardous. However, children between 12 and 16
may work after school hours and during vacation, but not in a factory
nor in certain hazardous occupations. In such cases work is limited
to 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week, and 6 days a week. They may not
work before 7 in the morning or after 6 in the evening, and the com ­
bined hours of work and hours in school shall not exceed a total of 9
hours a day. The Commission of Labor and Industrial Relations,
however, may vary the number of days per week and the hours speci­
fied for good cause and where such variation will not be detrimental to
the health or well-being of the minors. The law requires that em­
ployers of minors under 16 must obtain employment certificates. The
law also contains protective provisions for minors under 18 years of
age, by prohibiting their employment for more than 5 continuous
hours without an interval of at least 30 minutes for a lunch period.
The child-labor law of Hawaii does not apply to work of a minor
selling or distributing newspapers, nor to the work of a minor 14 or
over outside school hours and during school vacations in agricultural
labor and private homes. A compulsory-attendance law' requires
that children shall attend school until they are 16 years of age. H ow ­
ever, this act does not apply to children 15 years of age who are
suitably employed and have been excused from school attendance by
the proper authorities.
WAGES AND HOURS

Prior to the enactment of the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act,
and its application to Hawaii, there were no legal restrictions on the
hours of labor of adult persons engaged in private employments, nor
a minimum-wage law.
However, in the construction of public works in the Islands a
number of laws have been enacted regulating wages and hours of labor.
B y statute, a day’s labor for all mechanics and other employees
employed upon any public work of the Territory is 8 hours of actual
service on any working day, and 5 hours on Saturday. In this regard,
every contract to which the Territory or any political subdivision is a
party must contain a stipulation that mechanics, clerks, laborers, or
other employees of the contractor or subcontractor shall be required to
work not more than 8 hours a day, except in cases of emergencies.
Such contracts must also contain an agreement that no mechanic or
laborer other than a citizen of the United States, or person eligible
to become a citizen, shall be employed.
Laborers on public works must be paid not less than $3 per day, and
employees engaged in constructing or repairing roads, bridges, or
streets must be paid on the 15th and last day of each month, and
employees of contractors on public works whose rate of compensation
is $5 or less per day must be paid weekly.
In order to protect the wages of mechanics and laborers in the con­
struction, repair, or alteration of any building or structure, the Legis­
lature of Hawaii has authorized the use of mechanics’ liens.




206

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

The Director of Labor and Industrial Relations has been authorized
to cooperate with employees in the enforcement of wage claims against
employers for $200 or less. The director may hold hearings, take
assignments of wage claims, and prosecute civil actions for the collec­
tion of such claims. As a further protection of the worker it has been
made unlawful for any person to deduct and retain any portion of
wages due to an employee or to collect any store account or counter­
claim without the written consent of the employee.
Under the laws of the Territory, which permit the garnishment of
wages, 80 to 90 percent of the wages are exempt from attachment.
In addition, one-half the wages due an employee are exempt from
execution. In a further effort to protect small-wage earners, the
Territorial legislature in 1937 enacted a small-loan act which limited
the amount of interest on loans of $300 or less, and regulated the
assignment of wages when given as security for such loans.
Employees between the ages of 20 and 60 are required to pay a
poll tax unless their income is less than $200 a year. Employers are
required to deduct such taxes from the wages of their employees.
While there are no laws specifically protecting free labor from the
competition of prison labor, legislation has been enacted which re­
quires prisoners sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor to be
employed on public roads or other public works.
In order to assist in the enforcement of the Federal Fair Labor
Standards A ct in Hawaii, the Commission of Labor and Industrial
Relations has been empowered to cooperate with the Wage and Hour
Division and the Children’s Bureau of the United States Department
of Labor.
PROTECTION, ETC., IN EMPLOYMENTS

Under the broad general powers of the Department of Labor and
Industrial Relations, this agency may make reasonable rules and regu­
lations for the protection of the life, health, and safety of employees
in every employment or place of employment. The enticement of
employees is specifically prohibited. This latter type of legislation
makes it a misdemeanor for anyone to entice or persuade a laborer
under a contract with an employer to violate the terms of such con­
tract. Sunday labor in the islands is generally prohibited. H ow ­
ever, like most of the laws of this type, they are filled with exceptions
and hence for the most part ineffective.
LABOR RELATIONS

The Department of Labor and Industrial Relations 3 is now under
the direction and control of the Commission of Labor and Industrial
Relations. This commission has been authorized and directed to
promote the voluntary mediation of disputes between employers and
employees. In pursuance of this duty, the commission may appoint
temporary boards of mediation, conduct investigations and hearings,
and designate the Director of Labor and Industrial Relations to act as
mediator. Whenever a controversy is not settled through mediation,
it may, by agreement of the parties, be submitted to arbitration. If
all efforts to mediate or arbitrate a dispute fail, the Governor is
* Organization chart No. 6 in appendix A.




LABOR IN

THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

207

authorized to appoint an emergency board to investigate and make
a report respecting the controversy.
As a result of laws enacted in 1923, picketing and boycotting were
forbidden. The picketing statute makes it unlawful for any person
or persons, singly or jointly, to interfere, or attempt to interfere, with
any other person in the exercise of his lawful right to work. Viola­
tions of either of these acts are punishable by a fine of not more than
$1,000 or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both. Unlawful
assembly has also been prohibited under this legislation.
SO C IA L

IN S U R xlN C E

The first type of social-insurance legislation adopted by the
Hawaiian Legislature concerned the payment of benefits to em­
ployees injured in industrial accidents. The workmen’s compensa­
tion law, passed in 1915, has been amended in 1917, 1923, 1931, 1933,
and 1937. The law provides that workers shall be compensated for
industrial accidents which “ rise out of and in the course of em ploy­
ment” and for “ disease proximately caused by employment.” All
occupations, including agricultural, are within the scope of this law.
After a 7-day waiting period, an injured person who is temporarily
disabled receives weekly compensation equal to 60 percent of his
average weekly wages, but not more than $20 nor less than $5. In
no case do payments continue more than 312 weeks, nor exceed an
aggregate of $5,000. If an injury is fatal, burial expense up to $100
is provided, together with compensation to dependents based upon
the average weekly wages of the deceased, graduated according to the
degree of dependency, with a maximum weekly payment of 60 per­
cent, and with a maximum limit of 312 weeks and $5,000. Partial
disability is compensated according to a detailed “ dismemberment
schedule.”
Social-insurance legislation has been further advanced in recent
years. A number of laws have been enacted authorizing vocational
education and rehabilitation. In 1935 the Territory accepted the
provisions of the Federal act providing for the promotion of vocational
rehabilitation of persons disabled in industry. In 1937 the Territorial
legislature enacted the Public Welfare A ct which provides for assist­
ance to the aged, to the blind, to dependent children, and for general
assistance to needy persons. In 1939 a department of social security
was established to administer all public-welfare acts. A system of
unemployment compensation was established in 1937. This act pro­
vides for the payment of compensation to the unemployed and for
the establishment of a public-employment service operating free
public employment offices in the various counties. The Commission
of Labor and Industrial Relations is authorized to regulate the operation
of commercial employment agencies. The Unemployment Compen­
sation A ct also provides for Territorial compliance with the Federal
Social Security A ct and the act establishing a system of employment
offices under the so-called Wagner-Peyser Act.




208

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

SUMMARY

In the history of both plantation and nonplantation labor organi­
zation, significant growth has developed only within the past few
years. Until 1919, no consistent organization of plantation labor had
appeared and among nonplantation workers such organizations as did
exist were small, local Caucasian unions imported from the mainland.
Even the wave of strikes of 1920-24 was followed by a long period
of relative inactivity.
Since 1935, however, there has been a marked increase in the
organization and activity of both groups. The immediate cause has
been the labor legislation enacted by the Federal Government in
recent years and the drive on the part of Congress of Industrial
Organizations and American Federation of Labor unions for mem­
bership.
But the fundamental cause has been the gradual growth of stable
family life among workers who have permanently settled in the
islands, and the consequent rise in the percentage of citizen laborers
with a background of American schooling and standards (42 percent
in 1900, 66 percent in 1920, and 81 percent in 1940). Along with
these developments there has been a rapid expansion of intermarriage
between races. Racial barriers are further weakened by the fact that
the second and third generations of all races have freely intermingled
in the American public schools.
Since the influence of these fundamental factors may be expected
to increase, rather than diminish, it seems probable that labor organi­
zation will become an increasingly important factor in the economic
life of Hawaii.




Part VII
W o rk in g C onditions a n d E m p lo ym en t
O pportunities in the T errito ry as a W h ole




209




C H A P TE R
W A G E S

28.

S O M E

A N D

G E N E R A L IZ A T IO N S

W O R K IN G

C O N D IT IO N S

R E S P E C T IN G
IN

H A W A II

The statistical analysis of the wages and working conditions in the
various industries in Hawaii indicates that there are wide variations
not only as between industries, but also as between various firms
within a given industry. This is not surprising in view of the ex­
tremely complex racial make-up of the Territory, which includes
peoples of widely variant economic backgrounds and standards of
living. The marked wage differentials may also be accounted for in
part by the fact that wages have been rising rapidly in the basic
industries, whereas the wages in some other industries have not risen
proportionately. The situation is further complicated by the re­
markable change from first to second and third generation plantation
and other workers; that is, from illiterate laborers with low standards
of living to citizen laborers with an American schooling and higher
standards of living.
But in spite of the complexities of the wage standards and the
working conditions of the Hawaiian economy, it is possible to make a
few broad generalizations. It is quite clear, for example, that the
wage structure of the island of Oahu is distinctly above that of the
other islands in practically every field. In the case of sugar, pine­
apples, public utilities, printing and publishing, stevedoring, hotels
and restaurants, and many other fields, this difference is particularly
marked. In fact the regulations governing minimum wages in the
construction industry frankly recognize this situation by providing
a lower minimum for the islands other than Oahu. There is also a
slight differentiation as between the wage levels of the other islands,
Maui having somewhat higher wages than Kauai or Hawaii. These
differentials, however, were much greater in the past than they are
today. W ith the rapid development of transport facilities and the
growing strength of labor organization, it appears probable that such
differentials will continue to decline.
A second broad generalization is to be seen in the tendency toward
economic stratification by race. It is obvious that the Caucasians
who migrated to Hawaii from the American mainland hold the domi­
nant economic position in terms of both wealth and management.
Broadly speaking, Hawaiians and Portuguese are next. The eco­
nomic strength of the Hawaiians grows out of their historic position
in the islands, which has in some cases made possible the retention of
large blocks of land. The rapid diminution in the number of H a­
waiians has meant that, insofar as their wealth was passed on by
inheritance, it accumulated in the hands of fewer and fewer persons,
hence contributing to the maintenance of a stronger individual eco­
nomic position than would otherwise have been the case. Again,
because of historic relationships, the Territory tends to favor the
employment of Hawaiians in government positions.
241404—40-




-15

212

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 39

The economic position of the Portuguese in this second group is
much less clear, and subject to exceptions.
Because the Chinese arrived earlier than the great bulk of oriental
migrants, they had the advantage of having established themselves
in strategic positions early in the period of economic expansion. The
Japanese, on the other hand, have the advantages of large numbers
and great racial solidarity. Thus, although strictly speaking the
economic position of the Japanese is, on the average, somewhat lower
than that of the Chinese, they have established themselves very
securely in the Hawaiian economy.
The Filipinos, o f all the large racial groups, occupy the least ad­
vantageous economic position and have a distinctly uncertain future
in Hawaii. They are subject to all of the disadvantages of a late
migrant to an already industrially developed community. Thus, in
proportion to their numbers, they occupy far fewer salaried and
executive positions than do members of other races. In addition to
having a lower average wage structure, they are faced with the social
instability which grows out of the great preponderance of Filipino
men. For other racial groups, normal social organization along family
lines is typical, whereas for Filipinos, single men (the overwhelming
m ajority of them living in groups in plantation houses) are typical.
Their social conditions are thus distinctly unsatisfactory from a longrun point of view. In recent years, far more Filipinos have returned
to Manila than have migrated to the Territory.
These generalizations respecting racial stratification along economic
lines are subject to qualifications, however. In many concerns it is
an accepted principle that payment is made in terms of the position
without reference to the racial background of the employee. This is
particularly true in the case of the public utilities. It is also true
that racial differentiation in earnings in the basic plantation industries
is disappearing. But in a number of fields, such as printing and
publishing, merchandising, hotels, and restaurants, and other service
industries, differentiations along racial lines still remain. The
general tendency, however, is toward a diminution rather than an
increase in racial differences in earnings.
Another generalization closely related to racial differences in wages
is that the wage structures of individual concerns, broadly speaking,
tend to stratify in accordance with the racial origins of the owners and
managers of such concerns. For example, the differences in wages
paid by concerns in the printing and publishing industry are even
greater than the differences in the average earnings of employees
classified by race. Although there are significant exceptions, it is
true that in the oriental concerns average earnings are lower, average
hours are longer, and working conditions are generally poorer than in
the concerns under Caucasian management. This tendency appears
to be one of the reasons why fields of work dominated by oriental
concerns, such as private construction, the small retail shops, barber
shops, and dressmaking, tend toward distinctly lower labor standards
than other fields.
As a final generalization, it may be said that the fundamental wage
trend in the Territory, paralleling that of the mainland, has been
upward. But in the case of Hawaii it started (at the time of annexa­
tion in 1898) from a distinctly lower level than in other parts of the
United States. The gains in all industries have been intermittent,




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

213

with occasional set-backs. Some industries have raised their labor
standards rapidly, whereas others have been distinctly backward.
Hawaii, along with the rest of the country, suffered from the de­
pression conditions of the early thirties, but in Hawaii the effects of
depression on wages appeared about a year and a half later than on
the mainland and were less severe. What is perhaps more significant
is the fact that the recovery from depression wage levels was
more rapid in Hawaii, so that during the first half of the decade of the
thirties Hawaiian wages fell less markedly, and during the latter half
of the decade gained more rapidly than did the general agricultural
wage level for the United States as a whole.
This is not to say that the earnings of Hawaiian laborers are high.
It must be remembered that the overwhelming majority of Hawaiian
workers are agricultural, whereas .on the mainland the great majority
are industrial. It is notably true that, for the country as a whole,
including Hawaii, agricultural labor receives the lowest wages of any
large occupational group. The average earnings of Hawaiian agri­
cultural labor (with the exception of earnings on the small oriental
family farms) compare favorably with the average level of agricultural
earnings on the mainland.
The tradition of providing food and living quarters as perquisites
which was established in the early days of imported plantation labor
has carried over to some degree into other than plantation industries.
For example, such perquisites are very commonly provided for
workers on ranches, dairy farms, and even small farms employing
one or two hired laborers. Some of the workers in a few of the
public utilities receive such perquisites, and even employees in many
of the small retail shops, barber shops, hotels, and restaurants,
receive food or living accommodations, or both.
Conditions of work in Hawaii reflect the complex racial mixtures
involved in the industrial structure of the Territory, ranging all the
way from extremely high standards in the offices of the “ factors”
and the best of the public utilities (which would compare favorably
with the best of mainland practice), to conditions of work compar­
able to the sweatshops in the poorest sections of the largest mainland
cities. The accommodations for workers in respect to equipment,
lighting, ventilation, and rest rooms are distinctly American in char­
acter for the better firms. But as one observes the range from these
levels on downward, one finds an increasing trend toward oriental
standards in respect to working conditions. A similar generalization
can be made in respect to provisions for sick leave, vacations on pay,
hospitalization, group insurance, and pensions.




C H A P TE R

29.

ST A N D A R D S

O F

L IV IN G

Any attempt to evaluate standards of living in Hawaii is greatly
hampered by the fact that no comprehensive study of costs of living
has ever been made in the Territory.1
The complex racial composition of the islands has resulted in an
equally complex mixture of standards of living, which are not strictly
comparable because they are the outgrowths of such widely differing
racial cultures. Moreover, the rapid shift in the educational and
cultural background from generation to generation has led to an
equally rapid change in the way of living of the children and grand­
children of the imported oriental workers. The difficulty is consid­
erably increased when oriental and occidental ways of living become
intermixed, a condition which is typical of large sections of the Ha­
waiian population. Because of these difficulties, any generalizations
with respect to standards of living in Hawaii must be considered broad
approximations rather than exact statements.2
* A careful estimate prepared by the Cost of Living Division of the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated
that an adequate cost-of-living survey would necessitate an appropriation of at least 3 times the amount
provided for the whole of this survey. Hence, it was not feasible to include a cost-of-living study. But
the need for such a study becomes more urgent with the increasingly complex industrial development of
the Territory. It is to be hoped that the means will be found for making it.
2 Two specialized studies have been made: (1) A study of the Incomes and Disbursements of 218 MiddleIncome Families in Honolulu, by Profs. H. J. Hoflich, W. H. Taylor, and L. W. Casady, University of
Hawaii Research Publication No. 17, Honolulu, 1938. This covered a range of family incomes from $2,000
per year to $6,820 per year and is based on a field study conducted between November 1937 and May 1938.
The cross section covered is not at all typical of the wage earners of Hawaii, however.
(2) Living Standards of Filipino Families on an Hawaiian Sugar Plantation, by Edna Clark Went­
worth and Frederick Simpich, Jr., Honolulu, 1936. This study referred exclusively to 101 Filipino families
and, again, is not typical, (a) because the typical Filipino worker is unmarried, and (6) because the Filipino
family represents the lowest-income family group on the plantation. This report indicated that the aver­
age family in the group studied received a total cash income, including earnings of all members of the family,
of $682.81, not including perquisites. Of the 101 families, 43 ended the year with an average surplus of
$98.85, 47 ended the year showing an average deficit of $108.38, and 11 families ended the year with neither
deficit nor surplus. The average deficit for all families was thus $8.35 for the year.
The items of expenditure for these 101 families for the year, including free perquisites furnished by the
plantation (estimated to have a cash retail value of $209.93 per family per year), averaged as follows:
Food_______________________________ $343.79 Automobiles and bicycles__________ $21.36
Housing___________________________ 136.04 Chickens__________________________
19.85
144.76 Personal care______________________
16. 55
Clothes________
Household operation_______________
77.62 Gifts______________________________
14.89
Recreation------------------------------------40.91 Transportation____________________
10.76
Furnishings_______________________
36.30 Community welfare________________
10.71
Back debts paid___________________
33.39 Education____ ____________________
7.83
Water____________________ ____ 17.52
Insurance_________________________
4.15
2.62
Baptisms, funerals, etc------ -------------- 23.19 Pigs______________________________
Dental and medical care____________
26.85 Miscellaneous____ _________________
1.04
Savings___________________________
23. 71
214




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 39

215

CLIMATE AND FAMILY EXPENDITURES

The Hawaiian climate is an important influence affecting Hawaiian
family expenditures.3 It must be remembered that the average an­
nual temperature is 72°, and the average temperature shows less than
6.5° difference between the warmest and the coolest months. Thus,
the typical Hawaiian house has no basement nor central heating sys­
tem; in fact, fuel is quite unnecessary except for cooking. Construc­
tion may be quite light, not unlike that of the inexpensive summer
resort dwellings on the mainland. Many Hawaiian houses do not
even have glass windows, but depend only on blinds to keep out rain,
since the temperature outdoors and inside is always the same.
For a similar reason, expenditures for clothing need not be as great,
since overcoats, heavy underclothing, and the like are quite unneces­
sary; and no seasonal changes in clothing need be made.
It cannot be too greatly emphasized that Hawaiian life is out-of-door
life, and that the climate, in addition to reducing fuel and clothing
costs, greatly influences the character of other family expenditures.
It explains, for instance, the willingness to make great sacrifices to
own a family car, since a car provides ready access to the many
beaches, the mountains, and other recreational areas, where the major
portion of the leisure time of the family is spent. It also explains the
unwillingness to make too great expenditures on housing, since for
wage earners the house is less often a place to entertain friends than
the shore or the mountains. Even meals are not infrequently eaten
.out-of-doors.
In some districts in Honolulu, particularly in those sections in
which there are complex racial intermixtures, housing conditions
similar to the slums of our worst cities are to be found. This is also
true of the poorest 20 percent of the sugar and pineapple plantation
housing.
* In February 1939 the Territorial Planning Board of Hawaii published a survey which included a brief
study of the economic status of the people of Hawaii. (“ First Progress Report,” Territorial Planning Board,
Honolulu, February 8, 1939, pp. 34-36.) On the basis of comparisons embodied in this report, the Board
reached the following summary conclusions:
“ The per capita wealth of Hawaii ranks with the 2 lowest of the States, being one-half the average value
in the United States. The per capita income in Hawaii ranks with the 4 lowest of the States, being one-half
the average value in the United States. The per capita use of home conveniences and comforts (motorcars,
radios, electrical appliances, gas, etc.), is generally only somewhat below the average value in the United
States and therefore is high in comparison with per capita wealth and income.”
The latter conclusions appear surprising in view of the fact that there is a fairly high concentration of
wealth and income in Hawaii. The wealth and income of the great bulk of the population (i. e., for the
families of plantation laborers and small farmers, and even some white-collar workers) fall distinctly below
the per capita average, hence a lower, rather than a higher, per capita use of such conveniences would seem
probable.
The answer to this seeming paradox lies in the following facts: (1) Over a third of the total population lives
on plantations or ranches where housing, hospitalization, recreation, and in some cases a small portion of
food, heat, and light needs are provided as part of wages. Income which would otherwise go into these
basic necessities is thus freed for other things. (2) Even though the amount which a given plantation worker
would spend for rent would be greater if he were free to choose, he is perforce obliged to accept housing on
the level on which it is provided or lose the value of this perquisite. He can, however, make housing more
acceptable by the purchase of household appliances. (3) Such conveniences have come to be a criterion of
social standing among the workers of Hawaii. Even in cities where rental expenditures are entirely deter­
mined by workers, there is an emphasis on cars and household appliances out of proportion to other expendi­
tures. It is not uncommon in Honolulu, for example, to find a family with several wage earners, which rents
only very meager housing accommodations in order to afford a family car.
Hawaii had a per capita wealth in 1930 of $1,350 (United States average, $2,677), and in 1932 a per capita
assessed valuation of $863.81 (United States average, $1,305.71); in 1933 retail sales per capita of $155.54 (United
States, $204), and in 1935 a savings deposit per capita of $96.66 (United States, $184). In 1934 per capita life
insurance was $366.27 in Hawaii (United States, $129). Motorcar registrations in Hawaii averaged 131 per
thousand population, (United States, 162 per thousand); homes wired, 170 per thousand (United States, 163
per thousand), residence telephones, 35 per thousand (United States, 37 per thousand).




216

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

HEALTH

In the earliest days after annexation, health conditions in Hawaii
were distinctly bad because of ignorance on the part of the imported
plantation labor, lack of hospitals, trained doctors and nurses, and,
in particular, lack of proper facilities for obstetrical care.
Due to the isolation of the islands and the heterogeneous mixture
of both races and customs, Hawaii has many specialized problems in
health protection. The attack on these problems has been well
organized and is allocated to five types of health agencies: (1) Private
hospitalization and medical care provided by concerns for their own
employees, especially with respect to the plantation hospitals, which
play a very important role in the health of the masses of the agricul­
tural workers; (2) charity funds, which provide for indigents and
may engage to some degree in specialized preventive work; (3) the
City and County of Honolulu Health Department, which maintains
an emergency hospital, provides medical service for indigents, and
cooperates with the Territorial board of health in respect to food
inspection; (4) the Territorial board of health, which operates
mainly along preventive lines, and provides the organization for
inspection of food, sanitation, and so forth; (5) the United States
Public Health Service, which is concerned primarily with the quaran­
tine of communicable diseases, both against their entrance into the
Territory and their transmission to other parts of the United States.
These agencies have made remarkable progress in the improvement of
health standards.
The general mortality rate in 1900 was 25.1 per thousand, whereas
in 1938 it was only 7.8 per thousand. The tuberculosis mortality
rate was 249 per 100,000 in 1900, whereas it was 65.8 per 100,000 in
1939, the rate for the United States as a whole being 49. The greatest
progress has been made in infant care, the infant mortality rate of
279.62 per thousand live births in 1900 having been reduced to 58 per
thousand live births in 1939, which is about equal to that for the
American mainland.
In June 1939 there were 49 free clinics, 320 doctors, 208 dentists,
893 registered nurses, 2,430 practical nurses and hospital attendants,
and 5,186 hospital beds in the Territory of Hawaii.
S a n ita tio n

in

th e

T e rrito ry

is ,

th a t o f a ty p ic a l A m e r ic a n c ity .
sew age sy ste m s.

g e n e r a lly

sp e a k in g ,

e q u iv a le n t

to

M u n ic ip a lit ie s in th e T e r r it o r y h a v e

T h i s is n o t t r u e o f m a n y o f t h e s m a lle r p la n t a t i o n

cam p s, how ever.

DIET
A t
have
th e

th e
been

le v e l

p resen t

tim e ,

p r a c tic a lly
of

h e a lth

of

s ta n d a r d s o f H a w a iia n

s in c e

th e

d an gers

e lim in a te d ,
w ork ers

in

th e

of

c o m m u n ic a b le

fu n d a m e n ta l

H a w a ii

is

fa c to r

n u tr itio n .

w ork ers are d e p e n d e n t u p o n

d is e a s e s
a ffe c tin g

The

fo o d

fo u r c o n d itio n s :

( 1 ) Earning power.— A s previously indicated, this has risen during
the past decade, but, barring unexpectedly high prices for sugar, does
not seem likely to increase as rapidly in the near future.
(2) Food costs.— The plantation stores follow a policy of maintaining
low prices on fundamental necessities. For example, rice imported
from the mainland may be purchased in Hawaii at a lower cost than
on the mainland. However, this is offset by the fact that “ luxuries,”




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

217

representing most of the items above the level of absolute necessities,
are higher in price than on the mainland.
(3) Size of fam ilies.— The plantation family of large size is very apt
to suffer from malnutrition, whereas the single worker, even with a
lower income, finds it possible to maintain an adequate diet.
(4) Education.— One of the greatest difficulties regarding plantation
diet (indeed, regarding the diet of laborers in all Hawaiian industries)
is the fact that there is an overemphasis on cereals,4 and a serious lack
of fresh vegetables, fruits, and milk. Studies of Hawaiian sugar
plantations by the Central Nutrition Committee,5 directed by Dr.
Larsen of Queen’s Hospital, indicate that a sharp decrease of both the
incidence and duration of disease results from a more balanced diet for
plantation workers. An educational health program is being under­
taken along these lines, and a gradual improvement in health among
the sugar workers may be expected as a result. For the lowest-income
families however, an adequate diet will not be possible without either
a lowering of the prices of the “ protective foods” or an increase in
income.
4
The per capita consumption of beef and veal is only 42 pounds in Hawaii as compared with 66 for con­
tinental United States, of lamb and mutton 2.3 pounds in Hawaii as compared with 6.6 for continental
United States, of pork (not including lard) 22.6 pounds for Hawaii as compared with 56.4 for continental
United States.
* These studies also bring out the relations between incomes, size of family, and nutrition. They indicate
that a single worker with an income of $2.50 per day would have to spend 14.9 percent of his income to ob­
tain an adequate diet. If he were married, 25.4 percent of his income would be required. With one child
in the family 31.3 percent, with two children 36.5 percent, with four children 52.7 percent, and with seven
children 89.9 percent of his total income would be needed to provide an adequate diet. These percentages
are based on a careful study of food prices at plantation stores and of the nutrition requirements of plantation
workers. A pamphlet containing an analysis of plantation diet problems may be obtained from the Central
Nutrition Committee, Queen’s Hospital, Honolulu.




C H A P T E R

30.

N E W

O C C U P A T IO N A L

O P P O R T U N IT IE S

In a period of 68 years (1872-1940) the population of Hawaii has
grown more than sevenfold, from 57,000 to 414,000. In view of the
growing pressure of population against subsistence resources and the
present rapid mechanization of plantation operations, which is already
reducing the volume of employment in the two basic industries, there
is an urgent need for the expansion of occupational opportunity
through the development of new fields. The production of sugar
has been stabilized under the American quota system, and, even if it
were free to expand, the limited supply of good sugar land is such that
relatively little further expansion would be possible. The pineapple
industry is now faced with sharp competition from other areas, which
in 1939 caused a drastic reduction in the value of pineapple exports.
The outlook for coffee producers is, at present, far from optimistic.
Those concerned with the future of Hawaii are now thinking
in terms of possible new developments, to take up the slack due to
mechanization and to provide employment for the increasing numbers
who are coming into the working period of their lives. The age dis­
tribution in Hawaii is such that the number of persons of working age
will expand, at least for the next 15 or 20 years.
The industries which appear to be expanding or which provide a pos­
sible basis for expansion are:
1. The tourist industry.— The recent sharp rise in tourist arrivals
is partly due to the unsettled conditions in tourist centers in other
parts of the world. But even before this influence began to be felt,
the fundamental trend was upward. N or does it appear likely that
the tourist centers in Europe and Asia will return to normal for some
time. Since the bulk of the tourist business comes from the American
mainland, a further sharp diversion of tourists to Hawaii in the im ­
mediate future (in addition to the long-run trend) appears to be a
probable basis for an expansion in employment opportunities in the
Territory.
2. Ranching and dairyingk— There has been a continuous, if some­
what irregular, expansion in the production of beef, pork, mutton,
and dairy products during the decade of the thirties and as yet Terri­
torial demand for these products greatly exceeds local production.
The same may be said for poultry and eggs. These, however, are not
fields in which the volume of employment is large.
3. Fishing.— The great bulk of commercial fish caught in Hawaiian
waters is marketed in Honolulu and Hilo through organized fishing
companies. Canned Hawaiian tuna is marketed in the United States,
but virtually all of the other species are sold for consumption in the
Territory as fresh fish. N o organized control of the local markets and
the lack o f up-to-date equipment for catching fish have tended to
retard development in this field. In spite of these difficulties, how­
ever, there has been growth, particularly in tuna canning, over the
218




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

219

past 10 years. Gross sales of canned tuna between M ay 1, 1938, and
April 1, 1939, amounted to about $1,200,000, making tuna the third
largest export from Hawaii. As yet, the production is largely depend­
ent upon small motorized Japanese-style fishing units, which cannot
venture very far out to sea and which lack m odem equipment for re­
frigeration and storage.1 The leaders of this industry believe that
with large m odem fishing ships equipped for refrigeration and ca­
pable of tapping more distant waters, the industry could expand far
beyond its present scope.
4. Papaya.— Papaya production is at present too small to be of
importance in the economic life of the Territory. This is because
no successful method of preserving the fruit for export from the
Territory has been discovered. Because of the danger of trans­
mitting fruit pests, the papaya must be thoroughly sterilized before
shipment, which means heating to a sufficiently high temperature to kill
all pests. Under these conditions the fruit deteriorates rapidly unless
given extremely careful attention and refrigeration, hence, the amount
of spoilage in proportion to sold fruit in distant markets has been so
great that it has discouraged exports. Experiments in new tech­
niques are now going forward, however, and if successful, they may
provide the basis for a new export industry.2
5. M inerals.— In recent years a process has been perfected for
recovering minerals from sea water. The essential conditions for
the utilization of the process are (1) distance from the mouth of a
freshwater river, (2) a fairly even warm temperature, (3) the possi­
bility of disposing of processed water so that it will not be reprocessed.
All these conditions obtain naturally in Hawaii. The techniques
are complicated and expensive, however, and while this may be looked
upon as a possibility, it is far from being demonstrated as a commercial
proposition in Hawaii.3
6. Truck gardening.— Because of the relatively greater profitable­
ness of sugar and pineapple production, truck gardening is a minor
industry in the Territory. There are, however, considerable areas
of fertile land in Hawaii which could be used for diversified crops, but
which are undeveloped because of a lack of water. W ater for irriga­
tion is obtainable, but only at considerable cost. Under present
conditions, such projects will not be undertaken without Government
aid, because of the uncertainties respecting their commercial feasibility.
The island of M olokai offers the greatest possibilities of this sort.
This brief enumeration of a few of the possible developments in
Hawaii indicates that although the present leading industries appear
to be approaching the limitation of their expansion, the industrial
1 There were only 20 tuna boats out of Oahu (centering in the Kewalo Basin) in 1939. These boats averaged
about 10 men to a boat. In addition, there were 2 boats out of Maui, 5 out of Hilo, and 1 out of Kauai.
Other fishing out of Oahu accounts for about 245 persons with 51 small deep-sea boats (1 to 2 men to a boat)
and 48 somewhat larger boats (3 to 4 men to a boat). There are, of course, large numbers of nonprofessional
fishermen with small net boats, lobster traps, etc., who fish weekends and after hours, and make part of their
living this way. These total approximately 700 part-time fishermen.
2 Some canned papaya and papaya juice are exported, but they lack the flavor of fresh fruit, and hence
have not developed a large following.
a The Dow Chemical Co. of Midland, Mich., has established a commercially successful plant of this sort
on the North Carolina coast.




220

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

o p p o r tu n itie s

o f th e

T e r r ito r y

a s a w h o le

are n o t

1939
e x h a u s t e d .4

The

o u tlo o k in r e s p e c t to o c c u p a tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s , to o ffs e t th e d im in u ­
tio n in e m p lo y m e n t in th e p la n ta tio n in d u s tr ie s d u e to m e c h a n iz a tio n ,
a n d t o ta k e c a r e o f t h e in c r e a s e in t h e n u m b e r o f th o s e w h o w ill b e c o m e
o f w o r k i n g a g e d u r i n g t h e n e x t d e c a d e , is u n c e r t a i n , b u t m o d e r a t e l y
good.
4
At the present time there is some interest in cellulose production in Hawaii. Beginning in 1933 a series
of experiments were undertaken by Mr. J. P. Foster, sugar mill superintendent of the Maui Agricultural
Co. As a result, he perfected a process for producing alpha cellulose from the bagasse (or cane waste) which
is now burned in Hawaiian sugar mills. This cellulose is over 98 percent pure and is the best type for use
in rayon production, the production of plastics, and the manufacture of high explosives. Alpha cellulose
is the only type of cellulose which can be chemically reworked for these purposes.
Such cellulose can also be made from certain types of timber (but this requires the destruction of forests),
whereas the Hawaiian product is made from waste. There is no certainty that the newly perfected process
can be established on a commercial basis, its profitableness depending in part upon the growth in the
demand for its end-products (rayon, plastics, and explosives), and in part on the unit costs which it will
involve when produced on a commercial scale. These can only be adequately estimated after a pilot plant
has been established.




C H A P TE R
FACTORS

31.

T E N D IN G

E C O N O M IC
TOW ARD

S T A B IL IT Y

E C O N O M IC

S T A B IL IT Y

Both employment and general business conditions have shown
greater stability in Hawaii than in the United States in general. A t
first sight this seems surprising in an economy so completely dependent
upon agriculture, especially since agriculture suffered more severely
than other industries in the depression years. The pineapple in­
dustry in particular, because pineapples were looked upon as a luxury,
suffered a severe drop in demand in the depths of the depression
in 1931-34.
The explanation for the relative stability of the Hawaiian economy
may be understood in terms of the following factors:
(1) The sugar industry.— Due to the fact that sugar in Hawaii is
produced under a 2-year crop cycle, it is necessary to lay out a planting
program sometime m advance. Once started, it entails less loss to
carry the program through to completion than to abandon it. Thus,
production schedules were maintained at a higher level than would
have obtained had the sugar industry been on a short seasonal crop
basis. In fact, the Hawaiian industry reached an all-time peak of
production in the year 1933. In addition to this, because of the
climate in Hawaii, the plantations have adopted a planting program
which involves both planting and harvesting in practically all seasons
of the year. Thus, labor on the plantations is not subject to seasonal
employment as is the case in most other sugar-producing areas.
An additional stabilizing influence is the high degree of integration
under the five factors that control virtually the whole of the sugar
industry. These factors, with large financial resources, and with the
Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association as an instrument for coordi­
nating and planning policies for the industry as a whole, were able
to provide a stability for the industry, and therefore for employment,
which was greater than in other sugar-producing areas.
But by far the most fundamental factor in providing security
for the sugar industry has been the protection afforded by the Federal
Government; in the earlier days by bringing it within the walls of the
protective tariff, and more recently (beginning with the Jones-Costigan
A ct of 1934) by giving it a place in the American quota system.
(2) Salary payments of the Federal Government.— The Federal G ov­
ernment undertook to provide for unemployment relief in the Terri­
tory of Hawaii as it did in other parts of the United States. This
helped to stabilize employment during the depression period. But,
from a long-run point of view, a more important stabilizing influence
on the econom y of the islands as a whole is to be found in the Federal
pay rolls in Hawaii.
Due to the insularity of the Territory, it is necessary for the Federal
Government to maintain an unusually large number of services and
officials in proportion to the total population of the islands. The




221

222

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 39

salaries and other payments requisite to these services continue at the
same level in good times or bad. Even more important is the fact
that our largest Arm y jio st1 and our greatest naval base 2 are in the
Territory. Thus, even in periods of depression, large sums of money
flow indirectly into the islands by way of salaries of officers and en­
listed men. The bulk of these payments is spent for the purchase of
necessities in the islands. M oreover, large expenditures are made
for the continuous employment of regular civilian maintenance
workers in the various branches of the Military and Naval Estab­
lishments.
The N avy maintains a normal complement of five to six hundred
officers and over 5,000 enlisted men, in addition to approximately
2,000 civilian workers in the maintenance of various branches of the
naval services. In an econom y in which the total number of gain­
fully employed amounts to only 160,000, a continuous flow of expendi­
tures by way of salaries of Arm y and N avy personnel into the various
enterprises of the Hawaiian economy provides a substantial backlog
in times of depression for those engaged in retailing, personal services,
public utilities, hotels, and real estate.
(3)
The closely knit social and industrial structure of the Territory.—
Although Hawaii is completely dependent upon the American main­
land for the marketing of its two principal products, sugar and pine­
apples, and is in this sense extremely vulnerable, it is also true that
its very insularity creates a unity of policy which would not otherwise
obtain. This unity is intensified b y the high degree of integration
embodied in the intercorporate relationships in the islands. Under
present conditions it is not possible for large numbers of migrant
laborers to m ove into and out of the Territory” as they have migrated
between various States on the mainland. M oreover, the econom y is
sufficiently small so that any sharp shift in the employment in any
industry immediately becomes obvious in its effects on other indus­
tries. Thus, there is a common interest and effort on the part of all
those in control of industrial enterprises to maintain as high a degree
of stability of employment as is consonant with the conditions in the
industry.
FACTORS TENDING TOWARD ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

In contrast to the stabilizing influences mentioned above, there are
a number of factors which tend toward economic instability.
A t the outset it should be noted that two industries (sugar and
pineapples) provide directly for about one-half, and indirectly for
considerably more, of the total employment of the Territory. Y et
both of these industries are exclusively dependent upon markets far
distant from Hawaii. Thus, to the average worker in Hawaii, the
price of sugar in New Y ork is far more important than the price of
bread in Honolulu.
The sugar industry, as previously indicated, has achieved a large
measure of stability with respect to its market, but the pineapple in1 Some 23,000 officers and men are stationed in the Hawaiian Department of the United States Army.
In 1939 the Army pay roll for enlisted men was $8,608,116.62, and for officers was $3,841,271.31. The Army
also maintains a regular staff of civilian employees, which should be distinguished from those who are hired
for new construction and who experience sharp fluctuations in employment.
3
Approximately H of the total personnel of the Navy is in Hawaii. Its buildings and other installations
are valued at over $7,000,000. The pay roll for 1939 was about $20,000,000. The Navy maintains a large
staff of regular civilian workers for the maintenance of equipment and the buildings and grounds of the
naval base.




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

223

193 9

dustry is not so fortunate in this respect. It has not received as high
a degree of tariff protection as the sugar industry. It is subject to
the sharp rivalry of highly competitive canned fruits. Thus, an un­
usually good peach crop on the American mainland will reduce em­
ployment on Hawaiian pineapple plantations and in canneries. M ore­
over, pineapples are considered more of a luxury food than sugar.
Hence, in a period of depression there is a general sharp decline in
demand, as evidenced by the sharp decline between 1930 and 1932,
when the value of the total pineapple pack declined from over 50
million dollars to less than 10 million dollars. The pineapple industry
has also been subject to serious plant diseases, which have caused
marked fluctuations in output.
The

d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e g r a b h a r v e s te r in th e

su g a r in d u s tr y

and

t h e fie ld f r u i t c a r r ie r in t h e p in e a p p le in d u s t r y h a v e t h e e ffe c t o f in ­
c r e a s in g o u t p u t a n d d e c r e a s in g e m p lo y m e n t .
new

in v e n tio n s

is

e r r a tic

and

T h e a p p ea ran ce o f su ch

u n p r e d ic ta b le .

Y et

w hen

a p p lie d

to

s u c h b a s ic in d u s tr ie s th e e ffe c ts a re fa r -r e a c h in g .
A lth o u g h

it

is

m uch

le s s

im p o r ta n t,

th e

c o ffe e

in d u s tr y

has

a ls o

te n d e d t o c r e a te a n u n s t a b le s it u a tio n , p a r tic u la r ly in th e K o n a a r e a
o f H a w a ii.

T h r o u g h o u t it s w h o le h is t o r y , th is in d u s t r y h a s b e e n s u b ­

je c t t o s h a r p flu c t u a t io n s a n d s h ifts in th e a r e a s o f p r o d u c t io n .

The tourist industry, which now claims third place among Hawaiian
industries, is a luxury industry and tends to extremes in periods
of prosperity and depression. Between 1929 and 1933 total annual
tourist arrivals dropped from 22,190 to 10,111. The tourist industry
is also affected b y political disturbances which divert the flow of
tourists from other areas to Hawaii and which have recently caused a
sharp rise in the tourist business. It is impossible to measure the
volume of employment due to tourists. But it should be noted that
the number of tourist arrivals is very large in proportion to the size
of Hawaii. In 1939 there were 65,537 arrivals, including transients.
The population of Honolulu is only slightly over twice that number
(154,476 in 1939), and of the whole Territory is only 414,000. M ore­
over, the tourists who come to Hawaii include a very large proportion
of persons of means. Tourist services thus represent a significant
invisible export of the Territory. A sharp reduction or expansion in
tourist arrivals will vitally affect employment in hotels, restaurants,
motorcar services, and, to a less marked degree, mercantile establish­
ments and other service industries.
Expenditures for public construction have generally been looked
upon as a basis for stabilizing employment. While it is true that
W. P. A., P. W. A., and Territorial relief projects have aided in this
way, it is also true that Federal construction in Hawaii contributes
directly to instability of employment. This is, of course, due to the
fact that the volume of expenditure for Federal construction is related
not to employment needs but to international political conditions.
Between 1930 and 1940 new military 3 and n a v a l4 construction in
the year of greatest expansion was over six times as great as in the year
of least expansion.
The sharp variations in appropriations for new naval and military
construction are so great that such projects often draw heavily on the
3 In 1939 the Army had over $12,000,000 for new construction, most of it for the Hickam Field air base.
4 The Navy had an unexpended balance of over $30,000,000 for expansion in 1939.




224

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

available labor resources in this field, and frequently cause large
numbers of construction workers to be imported from the mainland.
The conclusion of such large projects also throws a strain on the
employment and relief agencies of the Territory.
It should be noted that in addition to the obvious causes of economic
instability mentioned above, there is the fundamental difficulty of the
rapidly shifting character of the labor supply itself. Although this
problem is not subject to the same quantitative measurements as
some of the other causes of instability, it has both social and economic
implications which are, from a long-run point of view, more significant
than any of the other causes.
The upward pressure for white-collar jobs on the part of second- and
third-generation workers with a background of American schooling
and standards grows out of their unwillingness to accept field labor as
a permanent way of life. This in turn leads to frustrations and to
social attitudes which are unhealthy. It constitutes an expanding
tendency toward instability.




C H A P TE R

32.

E C O N O M IC

R ELATED

T O

A N D

S O C IA L

S T A B IL IT Y A S

E M P L O Y M E N T

The general problem of unemployment in Hawaii has been less
serious than in the continental United States. The depression
which began in 1929 did not make itself seriously felt in terms of
unemployment in Hawaii until 1931. This led to the establishment of
an unemployment-relief bureau to register unemployed and to provide
relief measures in 1932. A Territorial committee cooperated in the
emergency measures adopted at that time
The Reconstruction
Finance Corporation provided $307,435 in addition to the $100,000
provided by the Territorial legislature.
In 1933 the Territorial unemployment work relief commission was
created. The resources for its work were provided from a special
tax of one-half of 1 percent on compensation and dividends. The
Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil W orks
Administration also took an active part. These relief agencies
continued throughout 1934. During that year the Hawaiian Rural
Rehabilitation Corporation, Ltd., was also organized to implement
the rural-rehabilitation program.
It is estimated that persons on relief in the Territory as a whole
averaged 4,718 in 1934, representing an average weekly pay roll of
$46,278.77. On January 14 of that year there were 3,780 workers on
Public W orks Administration rolls in Oahu, 1,453 in Hawaii, 972 in
Maui, and 272 in Kauai. Between M ay 1932 and November 1934,
Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Public W orks Admin­
istration expenditures totaled $4,069,635.36.
The total number of persons employed on Federally aided projects
was slightly less than 5,000 on January 1, 1934. It rose very rapidly,
however, to 7,700 by March, dropping sharply again to less than 6,000
by October, and rising to about 7,000 by the end of the year. Them
was another decline during the first half of 1935 to about 6,200, but
beginning with July of that year there was a marked rise, until the
total number employed on Federally aided projects reached an alltime high of slightly over 8,800 in M ay 1936. Then there was a
sharp decline until July 1937 when Federally aided employment
amounted to only about 4,100. Since July 1937 there has been
some increase, with irregular variations, the average number of




225

226

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

19 3 9

persons employed on Federally aided projects being approximately

5,00c).1
As previously stated, one of the most significant factors affecting
stability of employment is the present rapid shift in the character of
the total labor supply in the islands, due to the fact that the children
and grandchildren of imported laborers (primarily oriental) have grown
up in an entirely different cultural environment than that of their
parents. They have studied and played together in the same schools,
schools which provide a decidedly democratic atmosphere; they have
adopted distinctly American points of view, and have come to under­
stand and desire American standards of living. There is thus a marked
tendency on the part of native-born citizens of the second and third gen­
eration to break away from the traditions, manners, language, and stand­
ards of their parents. Yet, to the overwhelming majority, the single
great occupational opportunity is that of field laborer on a plantation,
an occupation which from their point of view is not satisfactory. There
is thus a tendency for such young people to remain in Honolulu and
seek employment there, rather than to enter into plantation life. In
the survey of December 1939 it was estimated that 92 percent of all
unemployed workers were in Honolulu.
Of the unemployed men in this survey, 41.48 percent were between
15 and 24 years of age, and an additional 25.56 percent were between
25 and 34 years of age. Of the women, 46.92 percent were between
15 and 24 years of age, and an additional 24.79 percent were between
25 and 34 years of age. Thus, well over two-thirds of all unemployed
men and women were less than 34 years of age. It is also significant
that 55.5 percent of the men and 45.3 percent of the women in this
unemployed group were single, practically all of them with no
dependents.
Conferences with Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino young people’s
organizations in the Territory led to the conclusion that these young
people, whether justifiably or not, held certain definite impressions in
respect to their own future prospects, as follow s:
(a) For the overwhelming m ajority of them Hawaii offers the only
possible economic future. American-born Japanese are not welcomed
in Japan, but are rather looked upon with suspicion and as undesirable
competitors. Indeed, it is not at all uncommon to encounter Japanese
who can speak only English, and who consider themselves distinctly
American, with no ties whatsoever with the country of their origin.
1 In addition to these estimates derived from a study made by the Territorial employment service, there
was a special unemployment census taken under an act of Congress approved August 30,1937. The returns
were incomplete. Only 2,483 men and 621 women registered as totally unemployed, the largest single
occupational group being 791 “ laborers” of whom 213 were farm laborers. In addition to the totally unem­
ployed, 3,640 men and 105 women registered as emergency workers, and 1,544 men and 198 women registered
as partly unemployed. A more recent unemployment survey was conducted by the educational committee
of the Honolulu Chamber of Commerce in collaboration with the human-resources committee of the Terri­
torial planning board, which was published in December 1939. This survey was also made by mail, but in
contrast with the method used in the 1937 census, which involved a blanket coverage by mail, it approached
the problem through the cooperation of employers and the Territorial employment service. This method
was used on the assumption that most unemployed persons apply somewhere for work, and that most
employers keep a record of applicants and their qualifications. The employers provided a list of all appli­
cants who had made or renewed applications after September 1,1939. These were carefully studied together
with the records of the 20,430 registrants of the Territorial employment service since its inception on Febru­
ary 8,1938. Duplicates were eliminated and a total of 22,069 cards were mailed. Of this total, returns were
not received on 14,684 cards. The recorded unemployed, as indicated by returned cards, amounted to 3,405,
to which should be added new unemployed registered by the Territorial employment service during Decem­
ber of 601, making a total recorded unemployed of 4,915. On the basis of a study of the figures, the com­
mittee estimated that an additional 3,619 were unemployed, making a total of 8,006 unemployed and not in
any Government emergency work. In addition to this, there were 1,309 on the Work Projects Adminis­
tration pay roll as of December 15, 1939, in Oahu, making a total of 9,315 unemployed including Work
Projects Administration employment. There were also 238 on the Civilian Conservation Corps pay roll,
and 855 on the National Youth Administration pay roll, as of December 31,1939.




LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

227

Chinese young people upon their return to China do not arouse
such a hostile attitude in their home country as do the Japanese, but
the wages and working conditions of China are on such a distinctly
lower plane than those of Hawaii that they do not think of their
homeland as an alternative. The destructiveness of the war in China
since July 7, 1937, has been such that anything like normal economic
conditions do not appear likely there for at least a generation.
Filipino young people are in a somewhat different position, since,
as latecomers, they occupy the lowest position economically in Hawaii.
Since the great m ajority of them are migrants from the Philippines,
rather than Hawaiian-born, many of them still retain contacts in the
Philippines and large numbers have returned during the past decade.
Reports indicate that wages and working conditions in the Philippines
are on a distinctly lower level than those of Hawaii, which is acting
as a deterrent on those who contemplate a return.
On the other hand, for all three groups, migration to the American
mainland is equally difficult because of the rather hostile attitude
toward orientals as competitors in a situation in which unemployment
is already proportionately greater than it is in Hawaii. M oreover, the
amount of money necessary for transportation and living expenses
while they are becoming established on the mainland is usually more
than they find it possible to obtain. For these reasons, their outlook
is confined to the Island economy.
(ib) A second opinion generally held by young orientals is that
occupational opportunity is more narrowly restricted for them than
for Caucasians, because the great bulk of the wealth of the islands is
in the hands of Caucasians, and because, as they put it, there is a
“ ceiling” above which oriental employees cannot rise in respect to
positions of executive power.
(c) The more aggressive and educated of this group further feel
that the most desirable jobs that have been within their reach (whitecollar jobs in Honolulu firms) are now rapidly being absorbed by young
Caucasians from the American mainland. From their point of view
this tends to stop the upward movement by promotion of those of
their own races. This movement of white-collar workers from the
American mainland to Hawaii has not as yet reached large pro­
portions, but it is growing.
(d) It is still true that the m ajority of these young people look upon
the acceptance of field work on the plantations as the defeat of their
ambitions and a serious “ loss of face” among their fellows. Hence
the tendency to remain in Honolulu, often as dependents on their
parents, and the continued search for some niche in which they can
find their place, even, if necessary, at an economic sacrifice as com ­
pared with the amount they could earn on a plantation.
(e) Although there remains a very large measure of sharp competi­
tion along racial lines, there appears to be a gradually growing con­
viction in this group that only by united organized effort can they
better their economic outlook.
It is obvious that the problems which these viewpoints pose will
continue to grow rapidly. The tendency toward labor organization
in m any fields during the past 5 years, in order to give unified support
to the interests of this group, has already been described. For young
workers still partially dependent on their families, the problem is less
serious than for those who have had to go on into their thirties with
241404— 40-------16




228

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

193 9

this problem unsolved. Those who fail to obtain employment
for so long a period gradually come to accept a hopeless defeatist
attitude, and become fertile ground for radical propaganda. This
group, now relatively small, appears likely to be augmented over time
by others in a similar position.
It does not seem probable that this problem can be solved in terms
of the expansion of occupational opportunities in white-collar jobs in
Honolulu. If any solution is possible, it lies in the plantation indus­
tries where the largest occupational opportunities are to be found.
Fortunately, these facts are recognized in Hawaii, and efforts are
being made (1) b y mechanization to create types of work, requiring
less back-breaking toil and more specialized training, which will be
more acceptable to citizen workers,2 and (2) gradually to reorganize
the whole of plantation community life so as to provide conditions
which will be acceptable to wprkers with an American background.
It remains a serious question, however, whether the structural
organization of the economic life of Hawaii is flexible enough to adapt
itself with sufficient rapidity to the sharp transition now occurring in
the nature and outlook of Hawaiian labor.
* While mechanization will increase the number of positions for trained technicians, it must be recognized
that it will decrease—indeed already has decreased—the total number of persons employed on the planta­
tions.







A p p e n d ix e s

229

230

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
TERRITORY OF HAWAII
LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

UI E SAE BRA O LBR SAI TC
N D TTS UEU F AO TTSI S
T




A P P E N D IX

A.

T E R R IT O R IA L

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

LAB O R

In April 1939 the Territorial legislature adopted an act creating a
“ department of labor and industrial relations.”
The functions of the department are indicated in the accompanying
ch a r t1 and have to do with unemployment compensation, workmen’s
compensation, enforcement of labor laws, the conduct of hearings on
labor and industrial relations, and the maintenance of a bureau of
research and statistics. The authority of the department rests in the
commission of five members, “ not all of whom shall belong to the
same political party.” 2 Such commissioners serve without pay, but
receive necessary expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties.
They are required to meet at least once a month, and are empowered
“ to make, m odify, and repeal reasonable rules and regulations of
general application for the protection of life, health, and safety of
employees in every employment.” 2 “ The rules and regulations, and
any amendments thereto, when approved b y the Governor and
published, shall have the force and effect of law.” 2
The director, who is appointed b y the commission and responsible
to it, is empowered, “ subject to the supervision and control of the
commission * * * to supervise and direct the operations and
functions of the four bureaus, * * * to cause the enforcement
of rules and regulations of the commission, * * * to propose to
the commission such rules and regulations or changes in the rules
and regulations as he may deem advisable * * * to cooperate
with any employee in the enforcement of a claim for personal serv­
ices, * * * to hold hearings.” 3
1In addition to the permanent organization indicated in the chart, temporary appointments may be made
as follows:
Committee on arbitration: Three members, appointed upon application to director by litigating parties.
One member appointed by director (chairman), other two appointed respectively by parties to dispute.
Temporary boards of mediation: Appointed by commission; one or more members.
Emergency board: Appointed by Governor to investigate and report when efforts for mediation fail.
County attorney: Acts as attorney for industrial board in his county in all matters coming before the
board. Also acts as attorney for bureaus when investigations or hearings are held in respective county.
Volunteer boards: To assist in conducting special investigations; appointed by commission as necessary.
Advisory committees: Appointed by commission to advise any bureau.
3Territorial senate bill No. 185, sec. 9 (b), (d).
3Ibid., sec. 11 (a), (b). (c), (d), (e). It is specifically stated in the act that the director shall not be
bound by technical rules of evidence in the conduct of hearings.




231

A P P E N D IX

B.

D E B T

P R O B L E M S

O F

W A G E

E A R N E R S

All wage earners are at times confronted with the necessity of obtain­
ing credit. In Hawaii this problem has been a difficult one to handle,
because of the complexity of social and racial conditions and the rather
naive attitude of imported laborers regarding credit transactions.
On the plantations debt difficulties tend to center in the relations
between employees and plantation stores. It is a fairly common prac­
tice to permit employees to buy on credit and to subtract the amount
of the credit from the employees’ earnings at the time wages are paid.
Thus, in the case of large families with low incomes, it sometimes hap­
pens that “ store orders” are equivalent to, or in some cases even ex­
ceed, the total income of the family. Plantation management has
made an attempt to solve this problem by maintaining a careful check
on store orders, and by trying to aid workers in planning expenditures.
Another, and equally serious, cause of debt difficulties grows out of
the fact that plantation workers not infrequently make purchases on
the installment plan that are beyond their means. It must be remem­
bered that many of the noncitizens on the plantations are illiterate,
and readily accede to the persuasive influence of high-pressure sales­
men. Plantation management has attempted to protect its em­
ployees to some degree by excluding all sales representatives of any
company which garnishees the wages of employees of the plantation
in order to obtain payments on goods purchased on credit.
The debt problem is not confined to plantation workers by any
means. Those who live in Honolulu and other communities are
equally beset b y debt difficulties. Among wage earners both on the
plantations and in the cities, electrical household appliances and
motorcars have attained a social significance in addition to their
practical usefulness. It is, therefore, considered essential to maintain
as high standards in these respects as possible.
When a worker is pressed b y debts, he is likely to turn to the smallloan company. Prior to 1933 borrowers from small-loan companies
were subject to the same techniques of exploitation as are such borrow­
ers on the American mainland. The problem was accentuated b y the
fact that a number of loan companies were organized as “ benevolent
associations” along racial lines, usually dominated by a management
which charged excessive interest rates and used the organization as a
shield for exploiting members of their own race.
B oth oriental and native Hawaiian peoples are notably hospitable
and friendly, and have extremely strong family feelings. As a result,
anyone who wished to borrow usually experienced no difficulty in find­
ing a relative or friend who would act as cosigner for his note. Indeed,
this problem became so acute that on August 11, 1933, the Governor
of the Territory found it necessary to issue a special executive order
to the heads of all departments, asking them to restrain Territorial
employees from endorsing notes of fellow employees and friends. In
spite of this request, conditions grew worse, and it was necessary to
232




233

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

issue an additional executive order on June 7, 1937, requiring that
each employee obtain written consent of the executive head of his
department before signing any subsequent endorsement of the notes
of other Territorial officers or employees.
The conditions in the small-loan market led to enactments on the
part of the Territorial legislature to provide for the more careful regu­
lation of the small-loan companies. A small-loan law was enacted in
1933 which permitted a charge of 1 percent per month deductible in
advance. In addition, a loan fee not to exceed $2 was allowed on
loans of $100. This law was too loosely drawn to be effective, how­
ever, and, by a manipulation of the loan-fee device, rates as high as
1,000 percent or even 1,200 percent per year were charged. In a sense
the law was worse than nothing because it gave the appearance of
legality to the utilization of the loan-fee system for charging high
rates.
It was not until 1937 that this act was superseded by the “ uniform
small-loan law” as formulated by the Russell Sage Foundation with a
few minor adaptations to fit Hawaiian conditions, such as a reduction
in the minimum capital requirement to $15,000 instead of $25,000.
Licensees were given 6 months (July 1 to December 31, 1937) to
decide whether or not they would continue operations under this new
law. A t the same time that the uniform small-loan law was passed,
an “ industrial loan and investment act” was enacted. This was
closely patterned after an Indiana act of the same title and went into
effect on July 1, 1937. It permits a maximum interest rate of 12 per­
cent per year, deductable in advance, and specifically prohibits any
other charges.
As a result of these 2 laws, the 55 licensees were reduced by February
1938 to 36. All of these lenders took licenses under the industrial
loan and investment act which they considered to be more liberal
than the small-loan act.

T

a

I.— Sbtatem ent

o fl con dition s e o f 8 6 licen sees und er In d u stria l L o a n a nd I n v e st­
m en t A c t , T errito ry o f H a w a ii , D ec . 8 1 , 1 9 3 7

[Compiled in the office of the bank examiner]

Assets:
Real-estate mortgage loans___________________________________
Retail installment contracts purchased_______________________
Character loans_______________________________________________
Collateral loans_______________________________________________
Auto and trade financing loans_______________________________
All other loans________________________________________________

$244,
1, 497,
1, 902,
335,
264,
437,

412.
381.
953.
379.
436.
130.

53
93
12
54
23
85

Total loans_________________________________________________ 4, 681, 694.
Furniture and fixtures________________________________________
30, 631.
Cash on hand and in banks___________________________________
234, 573.
All other assets_______________________________________________
499, 834.

20
96
94
28

Total assets_________________________________________________ 5, 446, 734. 38
Liabilities:
Bills payable_______________________________________ __________ 1, 120, 397. 57
Certificates outstanding_______________________________________
5, 111. 08
153, 134. 82
Other liabilities_______________________
Unearned discount____________________________________________
315, 758. 07
Capital stock paid in__________________________________________ 3, 227, 627. 03
Surplus and undivided profits________________________________
475, 173. 07
Reserves______________________________________________________
99, 532. 74
Total liabilities_____________________________________________




5, 446, 734. 38

234
T

a

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9
I I .— In d u stria l loans
b
l

m ade e d u rin g the ye a r 1 9 3 8 u n d er In d u stria l L o a n a nd
In v e stm en t A c t , T erritory o f H a w a ii

Number
Up to $25__________ _______
____ ____ ___________ _______________
$25.01 to $50_________ ______________________________________________
$50.01 to $75____ ___________________________________________________
$75.01 to $100________ ____ ____ _______ ______________________________
$100.01 to $150________ ____________________________________ ______
$150.01 to $200___________ ____ _____________________________________
$200.01 to $300______________________________________________________
$300.01 to $500___________ ____ _______ __________________________ ____
$500.01 to $1,000_____ ______________________ ___________________ ____ _
Over $1,000_____ __________ ____ ________ _______________ ____________
Total..............

.....

..................

................... _

Amount

3,139
3,838
2,424
4,242
3, 856
2, 465
2,910
2, 237
1,201
360

$38,833.31
173,200.21
158,969. 59
423,294.87
520,000.18
468,100.23
774, 585.12
910,977.25
843, 397.49
715, 253. 50

26,672

5,026, 611. 75

In spite of the small-loan legislation the debt problem continued to
be a serious one for many wage earners. Consequently, the Credit
Union Section of the Farm Credit Administration adopted a program
for the promotion of credit unions in Hawaii. This program did not
get well under way until 1937. On January 1, 1938, there were 60
credit unions, with 7,654 loans outstanding, totaling $737,029. B y
April 1, 1939, there were 85 credit unions, with 27,929 loans outstand­
ing, totaling $3,085,901. These unions had an active membership
of 20,220 out of a potential membership of 53,796. The average
savings per member were $57.50. The average loan made, from the
beginning of the organization, was $114.
Credit unions have already made a great improvement in the debt
position of Hawaiian workers. It is to be hoped that this organiza­
tion will continue to expand.




A P P E N D IX
T a b l e

A .—

C

D istrib u tio n o f nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m on th ly ea rn in gs , b y ty p e o f
w ork , M a rch 1 9 3 9

Monthly earnings

Cultivation

Harvesting

Transportation

Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­
of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per- of work­ percent­ tive per­
ers
ers
centage
age
centage
centage
age
age
centage
ers
ers
age

Under $5____ _______________________________
$5 and under $7.50_____ _____________________
$7.50 and under $10____________________________
$10 and under $12.50___________________________
$12.50 and under $15____ ____________________
$15 and under $17.50___________________________
$17.50 and under $20......... . _ ___________________
$20 and under $22.50_____________________ ______
$22.50 and under $25___________________________
$25 and under $27.50___________________________
$27.50 and under $30___ _______________________
$30 and under $32.50___________________________
$32.50 and under $35----------------------------------------$35 and under $37.50___________________________
$37.50 and under $40___________________________
$40 and under $42.50___________________________
$42.50 and under $45___________________________
$45 and under $47.50___________________________
$47.50 and under $50___________________________
$50 and under $55_____________________________
$55 and under $60_____________________________
$60 and under $65_____________________________
$65 and under $70_____________________________
$70 and under $75_____________________________
$75 and under $80_____________________________
$80 and under $85_____________________________
$85 and under $90_____________________________
$90 and under $95_____________________________
$95 and under $100____________________________
$100 and over. _

66
55
52
56
69
84
84
106
129
174
201
320
421
459
532
548
546
469
468
881
676
578
380
276
209
130
98
100
60
1144

Total__ _
___________ ___________ _
Average monthly earnings....
................

8,371
$48.88

0.8
.7
.6
.7
.8
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.5
2.1
2.4
3.8
5.0
5.5
6.4
6.5
6.5
5.6
5.6
10.5
8.1
6.9
4.5
3.3
2.5
1.6
1.2
1.2
.7
1.7

0.8
1.5
2.1
2.8
3.6
4.6
5.6
6.9
8.4
10.5
12.9
16.7
21.7
27.2
33.6
40.1
46.6
52.2
57.8
68.3
76.4
83.3
87.8
91.1
93.6
95.2
96.4
97.6
98.3

15
18
16
13
23
26
21
44
40
57
73
103
123
153
156
125
141
88
62
120
70
63
26
34
16
8
9
5
4
1
1,653
$40.17

0.9
1.1
1.0
.8
1.4
1.6
1.3
2.7
2.4
3.4
4.4
6.2
7.4
9.3
9.3
7.6
8.5
5.3
3.8
7.3
4.2
3.8
1.6
2.1
1.0
.5
.5
.3
.2
.1

0.9
2.0
3.0
3.8
5.2
6.8
8.1
10.8
13.2
16.6
21.0
27.2
34.6
43.9
53.2
60.8
69.3
74.6
78.4
85.7
89.9
93.7
95.3
97.4
98.4
98.9
99.4
99.7
99.9

35
25
26
30
34
42
45
42
60
76
87
128
172
163
157
157
187
167
194
406
381
305
224
135
104
67
57
55
21
30
3, 612
$49. 73

1.0
.7
.7
.8
.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.7
2.1
2.4
3.5
4.8
4.5
4.3
4.3
5.2
4.6
5.4
11.3
10.6
8.4
6.2
3.7
2.9
1.9
1.6
1.5
.6
.8

1.0
1.7
2.4
3.2
4.1
5.3
6.5
7.7
9.4
11.5
13.9
17.4
22.2
26.7
31.0
35.3
40.5
45.1
50.5
61.8
72.4
80.8
87.0
90.7
93.6
95.5
97.1
98.6
99.2

2
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
4
4
1
8
13
10
22
30
27
35
32
55
41
41
24
19
10
5
6
3
2
6

0.5
.2
.2
.7
.2
.2
1.0
.2
1.0
1.0
.2
1.9
3.2
2.4
5.3
7.3
6.6
8.5
7.8
13.4
10.0
10.0
5.8
4.6
2.4
1.2
1.5
.7
.5
1.5

0.5
.7
.9
1.6
1.8
2.0
3.0
3.2
4.2
5.2
5.4
7.3
10.5
12.9
18.2
25.5
32.1
40.6
48.4
61.8
71.8
81.8
87.6
92.2
94.6
95.8
97.3
98.0
98.5

412
$52. 28

235

1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 1 0 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 1 2 8 .7 8 . T h e a v e r a g e s b y o c c u p a t i o n w e r e $ 1 2 8 .8 0 f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ; $ 1 1 8 .2 5 f o r h a r v e s t i n g ; $ 1 0 9 .9 4 f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ;
$ 1 1 9 .6 8 f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g ; $ 1 3 7 .8 1 f o r m a i n t e n a n c e ; $ 1 1 5 .4 5 f o r i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e ; a n d $ 1 3 0 .0 5 f o r c l e r i c a l a n d o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s .




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

Total

T a b l e A .— D istrib u tio n o f nonsalaried m ale workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m on th ly ea rn in g s , b y typ e o f
w orky M a rch 1 9 3 9 —

Manufacture
Monthly earnings

Maintenance

Industrial service

6
3
4
5
4
3
7
4
5
7
13
28
26
35
64
67
65
47
63
110
85
77
49
48
36
36
17
30
21
77
1,042
$59.90

0.6
.3
.4
.5
.4
.3
.7
.4
.5
.7
1.2
2.7
2.5
3.4
6.1
6.4
6.2
4.5
6.0
10.5
8.1
7.4
4.7
4.6
3.5
3.5
1.6
2.9
2.0
7.4

0.6
.9
1.3
1.8
2.2
2.5
3.2
3.6
4.1
4.8
6.0
8.7
11.2
14.6
20.7
27.1
33.3
37.8
43.8
54.3
62.4
69.8
74.5
79.1
82.6
86.1
87.7
90.6
92.6

8
6
2
1
6
6
6
12
18
23
20
48
64
62
61
63
40
39
21
38
22
9
6
6
4

1.4
1.0
.3
.2
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
3.9
3.4
8.1
10.9
10.5
10.3
10.6
6.8
6.6
3.5
6.4
3.7
1.5
1.0
1.0
.7

1

.2

592
$38. 36

1.4
2.4
2.7
2.9
3.9
4.9
5.9
7.9
10.9
14.8
18.2
26.3
37.2
47.7
58.0
68.6
75.4
82.0
85.5
91.9
95.6
9,7.1
98.1
99.1
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8

1
3
1
3
7
5
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1

3.1
9.4
3.1
9.4
21.9
15.6
3.1
6.3
6.3
3.1
6.3
3.1
3.1
3.1

1

3.1

32
$58. 66

3.1
12.5
15.6
25.0
46.9
62.5
65.6
71.9
78.2
81.3
87.6
90.7
93.8
96.9
96.9

THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9

1,028
$53.10

6.2
.5
.9
1.0
1.6
1.7
2.0
2.2
2,9
3.6
4.1
6.3
9.8
16.7
26.6
34.9
43.6
52.2
66.4
73.8
81.7
86.5
89.7
93.3
94.6
95.4
96.0
97.2

IN

Total
_
_____
Average monthly earnings....... ........ ...........

0.2
.3
.4
.1
.6
.1
.3
.2
.7
.7
.5
2.2
3.5
6.9
9.9
8.3
8.7
8.6
14.2
7.4
7.9
4.8
3.2
3.6
1.3
.8
.6
1.2
2.8

LABOR

2
3
4
1
6
1
3
2
7
7
5
23
36
71
103
85
90
89
147
76
81
49
33
37
13
8
6
12
28

fcO
CO
05

Clerical and others

Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­
of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­
age
centage
ers
centage
ers
age
ers
ers
age
age
centage
centage

Under $5.___ _______________________________
$5 and under $7.50_ ________ ___ ________
_
$7.50 and under $10__
..... .....................
$10 and under $12.50________ _________________
$12.50 and under $15___ __________ ___________
$15 and under $17.50______________ ____________
$17.50 and under $20______________ ____________
$20 and under $22.50_______ ___________________
$22.50 and under $25_________________________ .
___________ ...
$25 and under $27.50-.______...
$27.50 and under $30.______ _ _______ _______
$30 and under $32.50______ ______ __________ .
$32.50 and under $35___ ________ ______ ______
$35 and under $37.50— ___ _________ _________
$37.50 and under $40----------------------------------------$40 and under $42.50----------------------------------------$42.50 and under $45----------------------------------------$45 and under $47.50___________________________
$47.50 and under $50----------------------------------------$50 and under $55_____________________________
$55 and under $60_____________________________
$60 and under $65----------------- ----------- --------------$65 and under $70-------------------------------------------$70 and under $75_____________________________
$75 and under $80_____________________________
$80 and under $85_________ ______ _________ .
$85 and under $90_____ _______ ____________
$99 and under $95_____________________________
$95 and under $100______ ______________________
$100 and over .............................. ........................ .




Continued

T a b l e

B .—

D istrib u tio n o f nonsalaried male workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m onthly ea rnings , b y race ,
M arch 1 939

Anglo-Saxon

Total
Monthly earnings

Total__________ _________ _________ ___
Average monthly earnings .......... ........... ......

Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­ Number Simple Cumula­
of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­ of work­ percent­ tive per­
centage
centage
ers
age
centage
ers
age
age
ers
centage
ers
age
66
55
52
56
69
84
84
106
129
174
201
320
421
459
532
548
546
469
468
881
676
578
380
276
209
130
98
100
60
U44

8, 371
$48.88

0.8
.7

.6
.7

.8
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.5
2.1
2.4
3.8
5.0
5.5
6 .4

6.5
6.5
5.6
5.6
10.5
8.1
6.9
4.5
3 .3

2. 5
1.6
1.2
1.2
.7
1.7

0.8
1.5
2.1
2.8
3.6
4.6
5.6
6.9
8.4
10.5
12.9
16.7
21.7
27.2
33.6
40.1
46.6
52.2
57.8
68.3
76.4
83.3
87.8
91.1
93.6
95.2
96.4
97.6
98.3

1
1

1.9
1.9

1

1.9

1
3

1.9
5.6

1

1.9

1

1.9
7.3

4

3
6
5

5.6
14.7
7.3
11.0
9.3

1
2
1

1.9
3.7
1.9

11

20.3

8

4

54
$76. 00

1.9
3.8
3.8
5.7
5.7
5.7
7.6
13.2
13.2
13.2
15.1
15.1
17.0
24.3
24.3
29.9
44.6
51.9
62.9
72.2
72.2
74.1
77.8
79.7
79.7
79.7

20
13
19
14
25
18
22
37
35
43
48
92
116
112
144
145
138
129
123
223
176
174
124
105
72
47
33

37
28
65

2,377
$50.94

0.8
.5
.8
.6
1.1
.8
.9
1.6
1.5
1.8
2.0
3.9
4.9
4.7
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.4
5.2
9.4
7.4
7.3
5.2
4.4
3.0
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.2
2.6

0.8
1.3
2.1
2.7
3.8
4.6
5.5
7.1
8.6
10.4
12.4
16.3
21.2
25.9
32.0
38.1
43.9
49.3
54.5
63.9
71.3
78.6
83.8
88.2
91.2
93.2
94.6
96.2
97.4

38
36
25
34
30
52
47
53
71
96
114
192
251
284
305
330
337
284
287
551
406
322
213
121
109
60
43
40
16
20

0.8
.8
.5

.7
.6
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.5
2.0
2.4
4.0
5.3
6.0
6.5
6.9
7.1
6.0
6.0
11.5
8.4
6.8
4.5
2.5
2.3
1.3
.9
.8

.3

0.8
1.6
2.1
2.8
3.4
4.5
5.5

6.6
8.1
10.1
12.5
16.5
21.8
27.8
34.3
41.2
48.3
54.3
60.3
71.8
80.2
87.0
91.5
94.0
96.3
97.6
98.5
99.3
99.6

.4

4,770
$46. 92

1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 1 0 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 1 2 8 .7 8 . T h e a v e r a g e s b y r a c e w e r e : $ 1 6 8 .1 4 f o r A n g l o - S a x o n s ; $ 1 2 4 .2 2 f o r J a p a n e s e ; $ 1 1 1 .1 4 f o r F i l i p i n o s ; $ 1 3 4 .0 8
f o r C h i n e s e ; $ 1 4 1 .5 2 f o r P o r t u g u e s e ; $ 1 2 3 .0 6 f o r H a w a i i a n s a n d p a r t H a w a i i a n s ; a n d $ 1 2 0 .7 4 f o r a l l o t h e r r a c e s




LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 39

Under $5_______________________ ______ ______
$5and under $7.50 ___ __ _________________ __
$7.50 and under $10
_____ ... ___.......... . __
$10 and under $12.50.......... ......... ________
$12.50 and under $15__ _____ _ _
___ ___
$15 and under $17.50____________ _
. ______
$17.50 and under $20___ ______ .. .....................
$20 and under $22.50_____________ ____________
$22.50 and under $25_____ _______ _ ___________
$25 and under $27.50--. __ _____
__________
$27.50 and under $30--_ _ - _______
_______
$30 and under $32.50___________ ______________
___ . ...
$32.50 and under $35..
___$35 and under $37.50___________________________
__________
$37.50 and under $40___ ______
$40 and under $42.50 _ ______ __ _________ ____
_
$42.50 and under $45-.. ________________________
$45 and under $47.50-..___________ ____ ___ _____
$47.50 and under $50___________________________
$50 and under $55_____ ________ _______________
$55 and under $60________________ ___________
$60 and under $65_____________
____________
$65 and under $70_____
___ .. ____________
$70 and under $75_____ _________ __________
$75 and under $80_____ ____ ___________ ___
$80 and under $85________________________ _____
$85 and under $90___________________ _______
$90 and under $95____
____ _.
$95 and under $100________________ ______ _____
$100 and over______
___ ____
___
_

Filipino

Japanese

to

CO

^4

B. —

D istrib u tion o f nonsalaried m ale workers on sugar plantations in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to m on th ly ea rn in g s , b y race ,
M a rch 1 9 3 9

C h in e s e

M o n t h ly e a r n in g s

O th e r

...........................................
__
_ _______

2

2 .1

2
1
4
2
2
5
3
4
2
4
4
8
7
4
8
1
5
4
6
4
3
6
2

2 .1
1 .0
4 .2
2 .1
2 .1
5 .2
3 .1
4 .2
2 .1
4 .2
4 .2
8 .2
7 .3
4 .2
8 .2
1 .0
5 .2
4 .2
6 .3
4 .2
3 .1
6 .3
2 .1

1

1 .0

2

2 .1

96
$42. 39

2 .1
2 .1
4 .2
5 .2
9 .4
1 1 .5
1 3 .6
1 8 .8
2 1 .9
2 6 .1
2 8 .2
3 2 .4
3 6 .6
4 4 .8
5 2 .1
5 6 .3
6 4 .5
6 5 .5
7 0 .7
7 4 .9
8 1 .2
8 5 .4
8 8 .5
9 4 .8
9 6 .9
9 6 .9
9 7 .9
9 7 .9
9 7 .9

3
3

1 .4
1 .4

3
1
6
2
3
4
5
6
5
16
14
22
17
13
6
7
24
20
15
8
6
4
1
4
3

1 .4
.5
2 .7
.9
1 .4
1 .8
2 .3
2 .7
2 .3
7 .2
6 .3
9 .9
7 .7
5 .9
2 .7
3 .2
1 0 .8
8 .9
6 .8
3 .6
2 .7
1 .8
.5
1 .8
1 .4

221
$ 4 4 .9 6

1 .4
2 .8
2 .8
4. 2
4 .7
7 .4
8 .3
9 .7
1 1 .5
1 3 .8
1 6 .5
1 8 .8
2 6 .0
3 2 .3
4 2 .2
4 9 .9
5 5 .8
5 8 .5
6 1 .7
7 2 .5
8 1 .4
8 8 .2
9 1 .8
9 4 .5
9 6 .3
9 6 .8
9 8 .6
1 0 0 .0

3
3

0. 7
.7

2
3
1
3
3
5
11
11
10
13
23
22
27
30
33
23
42
34
31
14
21
14
8
7
11
8
26

. 5
.7
.2
.7
.7
1 .1
2 .5
2 .5
2 .3
2 .9
5 .2
5 .0
6 .1
6 .8
7 .4
5 .2
9 .4
7 .6
6 .9
3 .2
4 .8
3 .2
1 .8
1 .6
2. 5
1 .8
6 .0

442
$ 5 6 .2 3

0 .7
1 .4
1 .4
1 .9
2 .6
2 .8
3 .5
4 .2
5 .3
7 .8
1 0 .3
1 2 .6
1 5 .5
2 0 .7
2 5 .7
3 1 .8
3 8 .6
4 6 .0
5 1 .2
6 0 .6
6 8 .2
7 5 .1
7 8 .3
8 3 .1
8 6 .3
8 8 .1
8 9 .7
9 2 .2
9 4 .0

3
1
2
4
5
3
5
6
12
9
12
11
14
15
9
9
11
17
19
19
8
11
5
10
8
4
5
15
252
$ 5 4 .0 7

1 .2
4
.8
1 .6
2 .0
1 .2
2 .0
2 .4
4 .8
3 .6
4 .8
4 .4
5 .6
5 .9
3 .6
3 .6
4 .4
6 .6
7 .4
7 .4
3 .2
4 .4
2 .0
4 .0
3 .2
1 .6
2 .0
5 .9

1 .2
1 .6
2 .4
4 .0
6 .0
7 .2
9 .2
1 1 .6
1 6 .4
2 0 .0
2 4 .8
2 9 .2
3 4 .8
4 0 .7
4 4 .3
4 7 .9
5 2 .3
5 8 .9
6 6 .3
7 3 .7
7 6 .9
8 1 .3
8 3 .3
8 7 .3
9 0 .5
9 2 .1
9 4 .1

3

1 .9

3
1
2
2
6
8
5
8
9
6
15
9
7
7
9
12
11
7
5
6
2
2
1
5
3
5

1 .9
.6
1 .3
1 .3
3 .8
5 .0
3 .1
5 .0
5 .7
3 .8
9 .4
5 .7
4 .4
4 .4
5 .7
7 .5
6 .9
4 .4
3 .1
3 .8
1 .3
1 .3
.6
3 .1
1 .9
3 .1

159
$ 4 8 .2 4

1 .9
1 .9
3 .8
4 .4
5 .7
7 .0
1 0 .8
1 5 .8
1 8 .9
2 3 .9
2 9 .6
3 3 .4
4 2 .8
4 8 .5
5 2 .9
5 7 .3
6 3 .0
7 0 .5
7 7 .4
8 1 .8
8 4 .9
8 8 .7
9 0 .0
9 1 .3
9 1 .9
9 5 .0
9 6 .9

LABOR IN THE TEBRITOKY OF HAWAII, 1939




H a w a iia n a n d p a r t
H a w a iia n

P o rtu g u e se

Cum u­
Cum u­
Cum u­
Cum u­
Cum u­
N u m ­ S im p le
N u m ­ S im p le
N um ­
N u m ­ S im p le
N um ­
S im p le
S im p le
la t iv e
la t iv e
la t iv e
la t iv e
la t iv e
b e r o f p e rc e n t­
b e r o f p e rc e n t­
b e r o f p e rc e n t­
b e r o f p e rc e n t­
b e r o f p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
p e rc e n t­
w o rk e rs
age
w o rk e rs
w o rk e rs
age
age
w o rk e rs
w o rk e rs
age
age
age
age
age
age
age

U n d e r $ 5 _____________________ ________________________________ _________
$ 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 .5 0 _________________________________________ _________
$ 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 _________________________________ ____________ ___
$ 1 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 .5 0 ______ _______________________ _ ___________
$ 1 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 5 ________________________________ ______________ _
$ 1 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 7 .5 0 ______________________________________ _________
$ 1 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 ______ _________________ _______ ________________
$ 2 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 2 .5 0 ________________________________________________
$ 2 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 5 ________________________________________________
$ 2 5 a n d u n d e r $ 2 7 .5 0 ______ __________________________________
$ 2 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 0 ________________________________________________
$ 3 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 2 .5 0 ________________________________________________
$ 3 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 5 ________________ _______________________________
$ 3 5 a n d u n d e r $ 3 7 .5 0 ________________________________________ _______
$ 3 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 _________________ ______________________________
$ 4 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 .5 0 ________________________________________________
$ 4 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 5 ________________________________________________
$ 4 5 a n d u n d e r $ 4 7 .5 0 ________________________________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0 ________________________________________________
$ 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5 ____________________________________________________
$ 5 5 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 . _______________ _________ _________________________
$ 6 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 _______ ____________________________________________
$ 6 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 ____________________________________________________
$ 7 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 5 ____________ ________________________________________
$ 7 5 a n d u n d e r $ 8 0 __________________________ _
_________________
$ 8 0 a n d u n d e r $ 8 5 _____________ ____________ ___________________ . . .
$ 8 5 a n d u n d e r $ 9 0 _______ ____________________________________________
$ 9 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 5 _______________________ _____________ ____________
$ 9 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 0 ____________ _______________ ____________________
$ 1 0 0 a n d o v e r ______________________________ _ . . . . . __________
T o t a l _________________________________ . . .
A v e r a g e m o n t h ly e a r n in g s

P u e rto R ic a n

238

T a b l e

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 193 9
T a b l e

C.— L o n g -ter m

239

cultivators ’ ea rn in g s on a typ ic a l suga r p la n ta tion , 1 9 8 8 a nd
1939

F ie ld re fe re n ce N o .

M o n t h o f fin a l s e t t le m e n t 1

1938
M a r c h ________________ _________________
_______ d o ............. ...
_ _ _________________
_______ d o ___________________________________
_______ d o _____________ ___
_______________
_______ d o ________________
_____ ________
_______ d o ________ ___________________ ________
A p r i l . ......................... _ _ _______________
_______ d o ______ ________________________
.
M a y _______ ______________________________
J u l y . .........................
. _______________
A u g u s t ______________ _________ _________
_______ d o __________
____
________
.
_______d o ____________________________________
_____ d o ____________ ______________________
S e p t e m b e r _____ . . .
______________
N ovem ber
_______ ___
_____
_______ d o _____ _______
_____ ____________
_______ d o __________ ___________ ___
...

i_ .

2.
.

34__

5-

6.
_

7_.
8_.
9_.

1.
0
1.
1
1.
2
13
14.
15
16
17.
18
19
23
24
25
26

27
28
29
Total______________ ____

1 93 9

1
.

M a r c h . ______________
do
___
__
_ do
_____________
___
___d o ____________________________
...
d o _____________________________

2.
3.
4.
5.

T o t a l ...........................................................................

E a r n in g s ,
e x c lu s iv e
of bonus

E a r n in g s
p er m and a y , ex­
c lu s iv e
of bonus

__

3 ,8 5 4 %
3 ,6 0 8 3 4
1 ,9 9 6 3 4
5 ,0 1 9
4 ,6 1 9 3 4
3 ,9 1 2
7 ,3 5 8
1 2 ,1 2 7
9 ,8 3 2 3 4
6 ,1 5 9
4 ,0 4 6 %
5 ,2 4 3 %
5 ,2 3 8 %
4 ,3 7 3 %
3 ,7 9 7 %
797
2 ,0 7 6 3 4
1 ,6 4 3
5 ,8 7 7 %
566%
1 ,3 8 6 %
1 ,2 0 6 %
5 ,4 4 0 %
3, 258%
7 ,8 4 9
2 ,5 0 6 3 4
6 ,0 8 2
2 ,0 0 0
2 ,2 7 7

$ 1 0 ,0 1 2 .4 0
9 ,2 1 0 .0 5
5 ,6 7 6 .1 5
1 0 ,5 0 0 . 0 0
9 ,0 2 1 .7 0
7 ,2 9 4 . 3 5
1 4 ,0 1 0 .2 0
2 3 ,2 3 4 .1 5
2 4 ,2 2 1 .6 5
1 4 .2 8 6 .7 0
9 ,3 6 5 .0 5
1 3 .9 2 4 .7 0
1 0 ,7 4 6 .1 5
9 .1 4 0 .1 0
6 ,7 8 5 .1 5
2 .6 8 8 .1 0
6 ,2 6 8 .6 0
4 ,1 9 9 .2 0
1 1 ,7 5 5 . 50
1 ,4 5 6 .6 5
2 .7 7 3 .5 0
2 .4 1 3 .5 0
1 0 ,8 8 0 .5 0
6 .5 1 7 .5 0
1 5 .6 9 8 .0 0
5 ,4 6 5 .8 0
1 2 .1 6 4 .0 0
4 ,0 0 0 .0 0
4 ,5 5 4 .0 0

$ 2 .6 0
2 . 55
2 .8 4
2 .0 9
1 .9 5
1 .8 6
1 .9 0
1. 92
2 .4 6
2 .3 0
2 .3 1
2 .6 6
2 .0 5
2 .0 9
1 .7 9
3 .3 7
3 .0 2
2 .5 6
2 .0 0
2 .5 7
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .1 8
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0

1 2 4 ,1 5 3 %

___ do___________________
D
ecem _______________
ber
..do___ . . . _____
___ do___ _______ ____ _
___do...
___ do_______________ _
___ do______ . . _______
___ do_____ ___ . ______
___ do_____ _____ ...
___ do___________________
___ do___ _ _____ ______

2
0
2
1
2
2

T o ta l m and a y s w o rk e d

2 6 8 ,1 6 3 .3 5

2 .1 6

2 ,5 6 2 %
819
4 ,0 6 6
3 ,5 9 9 %
1 ,4 3 8

5 ,1 2 5 .0 0
1 ,3 0 4 . 2 8
8 ,6 3 3 .3 0
9 , 111. 20
4 ,1 8 9 .0 0

2 .0 0
1 .5 9
2 .1 2
2 .5 3
2 .9 1

1 2 ,4 8 5 %

2 8 ,3 6 2 .8 8

2 .2 7

T h e p e r i o d o f t h e c o n t r a c t r a n g e s f r o m 14 t o 2 2 m o n t h s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p e r i o d o f g r o w t h o f t h e c a n e .




240
T

a

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

D .— bD istr ib u tio n o f m ale neon sa laried w ork ers i n 2 occu p a tion s i n p in ea p p le
l
ca n n eries in the H a w a iia n I sla n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s, J u l y and
A u g u st 1 9 3 8
Repairmen, mechanics, and
maintenance men 1
Average hourly earnings

Num­
ber of
workers

2

Under 35 cents________
35 and under 37.5 cents..
37.5 and under 40 cents..
40 and under 42.5 cents..
42.5 and under 45 cents..
45 and under 47.5 cents..
47.5 and under 50 cents..
50 and under 52.5 cents..
52.5 and under 55 cents..
55 and under 57.5 cents..
57.5 and under 60 cents..
60 and under 62.5 cents..
62.5 and under 65 cents..
65 and under 67.5 cents..
67.5 and under 70 cents. .
70 and under 72.5 cents. _
72.5 and under 75 cents._
75 and under 80 cents—
80 and under 85 cents—
85 and under 90 cents—
90 and under 95 cents—
95 cents and under $1—
$1 and over-----------------

4
3
*24

Total_______
Average hourly earnings.

Simple
percent­
age

Cumu­
lative
percent­
age

0.5

0.5
1.3
13.1
24.6
33.8
43.0
53.0
60.2
65.6
70.7
75.1
76.6
80.2
82.8
84.6
85.6
86.9
88.4
91.5
92.0
93.0
93.8

390
$0.551

3
46
45
36
36
39
28

.8
11.8

11.5
9.2
9.2

10.0
7.2
5.4
5.1

2
1
2
0
17
6
14
1
0

2.6

6
1
2
2

3.1
.5

7
4
5

1.0
.8
6.2

Outside workers (yardmen,
truck drivers, etc.)
Num­
ber of
workers

Simple
percent­
age

4
54
35
67
20
17
42
26
19
4
6
3
13
22

1.2
16.0
10.4
19.9
5.9
5.0
12.5
7.7
5.6
1.2
1.8
.9
3.9
6.5

2
1

.6
.3

1

.3

1

.3

C um u­

lative
percent­
age

1.2

17.2
27.6
47.5
53.4
58.4
70.9
78.6
84.2
85.4
87.2

88.1

92.0
98.5
98.5
99.1
99.4
99.4
99.7
99.7

100.0

337
$0.490

i Includes helpers in each classification.
*The average of all workers earning $1 and over amounted to $1,069.

E .— D istrib u tio n o f nonsalaried s u p e r v is o r y 1 w orkers in p in ea p p le ca nneries
in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in gs, b y sex, J u l y and
A u g u st 1 9 3 8

T a b l e

M a le

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

U n d e r 32 5 c e n ts
_ _ _____________ ____________ ______
3 2 5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 c e n t s ___________ ___________________
3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s ----------------- -----------3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s
----------------------------4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 2 .5 c e n t s -------------------------------4 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 5 c e n t s --------------- -------------4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 7 .5 c e n t s -------------------------------4 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 50 c e n t s ---------- ----------- --_
5 0 a n d u n d e r 5 2 .5 c e n t s . . ------------ ------------- --5 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 55 c e n t s ------------------------5 5 a n d u n d e r 5 7 .5 c e n t s -------- ----------------------5 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 0 c e n t s __________________________
_
6 0 a n d u n d e r 6 2 .5 c e n t s
____________________ ___
62 5 a n d u n d e r 65 c e n ts
____________________
6 5 a n d u n d e r 6 7 .5 c e n t s
__________ ______
67 5 a n d u n d e r 70 c e n ts
_____________ ___________
70 a n d u n d e r 72 5 c e n ts
__
_______________
72 5 a n d u n d e r 75 c e n ts
__________
__ _
75 a n d u n d e r 80 c e n ts
_____ _________ ______ ______
80 c e n ts a n d o v e r
_______________________
T o ta l
.
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

_______________ _________
.
__________________

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

1
1
3
6
17
6
15
19
5
5
9
1
5
5
2
1
2
28

0 .9
.9
2 .7
5 .4
1 5 .3
5 .4
1 3 .5
1 7 .2
4. 5
4. 5
8 .1
.9
4 .5
4 .5
1 .8
.9
1 .8
7 .2

111
$ 0 . 5 66

F e m a le

Cum u­
la t iv e
p e rc e n t­
age

0 .9
1 .8
4 .5
9 .9
2 5 .2
3 0 .6
4 4 .1
6 1 .3
6 5 .8
7 0 .3
78. 4
7 9 .3
8 3 .8
8 8 .3
9 0 .1
9 1 .0
9 2 .8

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

C um u­
la tiv e
p e rc e n t­
age

3
9
70
29
2
2
1
10
4
1
2
1

2 .2
6. 7
5 2 .3
2 1 .7
1 .5
1 .5
.7
7 .5
3 .0
.7
1 .5
.7

2 .2
8 .9
6 1 .2
8 2 .9
8 4 .4
8 5 .9
8 6 .6
9 4 .1
9 7 .1
9 7 .8
9 9 .3
1 0 0 .0

1 34
$ 0. 385

l The term “ supervisory workers” refers to foremen and foreladies supervising the actual performance
of work and does not include executives in the company offices.
* The average of all workers earning 80 cents and over amounted to 94 cents.




241

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

F .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale non sa laried in sid e c a n n ery laborers i n p in ea p p le
canneries i n the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s , J u l y and
A u g u st 1 9 8 8

T a b l e

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

U n d e r 3 2 .5 c e n t s _____ _________________________________________ ______________ ____________________
3 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 c e n t s ______________________________________ ______________________ ___________
3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s ______ ______________ _________________________________________________
3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s _________________ ______________________________________________________
4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 2 .5 c e n t s _____________________ _________________________________________________
4 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 5 c e n t s __________________________________ _________________________________ _
4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 7 .5 c e n t s ............................................................................................................................................
4 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 5 0 c e n t s ________ _ _______________ __________________________________________
5 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r ___________________________________________________________________________ ______

6
279
127
1 ,4 1 8
560
225
146
1 23
i 106

T o t a l _______ ______________ ___________ _________ ____________________________________
_______
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s _____ _________________ ____________________________________ ______ ___

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

C u m u la ­
tiv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

2 ,9 9 0
$ 0 .4 0 4

0 .2
9 .3
4 .2
4 7 .5
1 8 .8
7 .5
4 .9
4 .1
3 .5

0 .2
9 .5
1 3 .7
6 1 .2
8 0 .0
8 7 .5
9 2 .4
9 6 .5

1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g 50 c e n t s a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o 5 5 .2 c e n t s .

G .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale nonsalaried in sid e ca n n ery laborers in p in ea p p le
canneries i n the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s , J u l y and
A u g u st 1 9 3 8 1

T a b l e

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

U n d e r $ 5 ________________________________________________________________________________________________
$ 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 .5 0
__________ ________________________________________________________________
$ 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 _______________________________________________________________________________
$ 1 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 .5 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 1 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 5 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 1 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 7 .5 0 ________________________________ _____________________________________________
$ 1 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 2 .5 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 5 . ___________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 5 a n d u n d e r $ 2 7 .5 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 3 0 a n d o v e r _________ _________________________________________________________________________________

29
35
53
67
222
798
806
368
133
78
66
2 40

1 .1
1 .3
2 .0
2 .5
8 .2
29. 6
2 9 .9
1 3 .7
4 .9
2 .9
2 .4
1 .5

T o t a l ____ _______________________________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s ______________________________________________________________________

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

2 ,6 9 5
$ 1 8 .1 6

W e e k ly e a r n in g s

1 .1
2 .4
4 .4
6 .9
1 5 .1
4 4 .7
7 4 .6
8 8 .3
9 3 .2
9 6 .1
9 8 .5

1 W e e k ly h o u r s w e r e n o t re p o r t e d fo r 1 c o m p a n y ; h e n c e , w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r in d iv id u a ls a re n o t a v a ila b le
fo r t h is c o m p a n y .
D a t a in t h is ta b le , th e re fo re , c o v e r 3 e s t a b lis h m e n ts .
2 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 3 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 3 5 .1 6 .

H .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale n onsalaried w arehouse laborers in p in ea p p le
canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to average h ou rly ea rn in g s , J u ly
and A u g u st 1 9 3 8

T a b l e

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

U n d e r 3 2 .5 c e n t s _______ ________________________________________________________________ _________
3 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 c e n t s ______________________________________________________________________ 3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s __________________________________________________________________ ______
3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s _____ ______________________________________________ ___________ _________
4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 2 .5 c e n t s — _________________________ __________________ ____________ ___________
4 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 5 c e n t s _____________________________________ _ _ ___________________________
4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 7 .5 c e n t s __________________________________________ ___________ - _____________
4 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 5 0 c e n t s _______________________________ ________________________________________
5 0 a n d u n d e r 5 2 .5 c e n t s _ _ _ _ _ _ .............................................................................................................
5 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 55 c e n t s _________________________________________________________________________
5 5 a n d u n d e r 5 7 .5 c e n t s _______________________ _ ____________________________________________
5 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 0 c e n t s __________________________________ ____________ ______________________
6 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r ___________ ____________________________
______________
_____________

2
63
58
798
2 51
120
52
36
32
19
22
15
i 55

0 .2
4 .1
3 .8
5 2 .3
1 6 .5
7 .9
3 .4
2 .4
2. 1
1 .2
1 .4
1 .0
3 .7

T o t a l __________ __________ ............... ................................................................................................................ ...
e _ u r ly e a r n in g s
_______ A v e r a_ g _ h o ..............................................
_
...........................

1, 523
$ 0 .4 1 0

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g 6 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o 7 0 .2 c e n t s .




C u m u la ­
tiv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

0 .2
4 .3
8 .1
6 0 .4
7 6 .9
8 4 .8
8 8 .2
9 0 .6
9 2 .7
9 3 .9
9 5 .3
9 6 .3

242

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1939

I .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale non sa laried w arehouse laborers in
canneries in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to w eek ly ea rn in g s,
A u g u st 1 9 3 8 1

T a b l e

W e e k ly e a r n in g s

U n d e r $ 5 ___________________________________________ _________ _________________________________________
$ 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 .5 0 ______
______________________________________________________________________
$ 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 _______________________________________________________________________________
$ 1 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 .5 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
_______ _________ ______________________________________
$ 1 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 5 ________________
$ 1 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 7 .5 0 _______ ___________________________________ _________ ______________________
$ 1 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 _________________________ ___________________________________________________
$ 2 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 2 .5 0 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 2 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 5 _____________________________________________________________________________
$ 2 5 a n d o v e r . . ..............................
. ____________________________________________ ________
T o t a l _________________ _
_ _____________ ___________ ______________________________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s ___________ _ _ _ _________________________________________________

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

26
26
51
83
228
644
203
81
53
2 68

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

1 .8
1 .8
3 .5
5 .7
1 5 .6
4 3 .9
1 3 .9
5 .5
3 .6
4. 7

p in ea p p le
J u l y and

C u m u la ­
tiv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

1 .8
3! 6
7 .1
1 2 .8
2 8 .4
7 2 .3
8 6 .2
9 1 .7
9 5 .3

1 ,4 6 3
$ 1 6 . 21

1 W e e k ly h o u r s w e r e n o t r e p o r t e d fo r 1 c o m p a n y ; h e n c e , w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r i n d iv id u a ls a re n o t a v a ila b le
fo r t h is c o m p a n y .
D a t a in t h is ta b le , th e r e fo re , c o v e r 3 e s t a b lis h m e n ts .
2 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 2 5 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 2 9 .0 7 .

J.— D istr ib u tio n o f fem a le non sa laried in sid e c a n n ery laborers i n p in ea p p le
canneries i n the H a w a iia n I sla n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s , J u l y
and A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

T a b l e

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

U n d e r 2 5 c e n t s ____________________
_________________________________________ ______________
2 5 a n d u n d e r 2 7 .5 c e n t s . ____________ _________________________
_ _ _____ _________ ______
2 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 0 c e n t s ______________ ________________________________________ ______________ 3 0 a n d u n d e r 3 2 .5 c e n t s ________
_ _ . ____________________________________ ____________
3 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 c e n t s .
_____
_______________________ _________________ _______
3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s ____
__ _
_
_____
____________
__________ _________
3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s . __________
________________
__________
____________ ___
4 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r _________
.. ..
_____________________ _______ ___
.
_______ ___

3
715
32
2 ,8 4 3
780
46
5
1 53

T o ta l
_______ ______________________________________ _________ ___ _________
_____________
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s _______ ___ _______________ _________ ______________________ ________

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

C u m u la ­
tiv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

4 ,4 7 7
$ 0 . 31

0 .1
1 6 .0
.7
6 3 .5
1 7 .4
1 .0
. 1
1 .2

0 .1
1 6 .1
1 6 .8
8 0 .3
97. 7
98. 7
9 8 .8

1 T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g 4 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o 4 4 .7 c e n t s .

K .— D istr ib u tio n o f fem a le nonsalaried in sid e c a n n ery laborers in p in ea p p le
canneries in the H a w a iia n I sla n d s according to w eekly ea rn in g s, J u l y and
A u g u st 1 9 3 8 1

T a b l e

W e e k l y e a r n in g s

U n d e r $5
____ _______________
_______________ ________________________________________________ .
$ 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 . 5 0 ____ ______ ___________________________________________________ ______ _________
$7 50 a n d u n d e r $ 10
_________
__________ ________________________________
$ 1 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 2 .5 0
____________ _________________________________________________
$ 12 50 a n d u n d e r $15
____
____
_____________ ___________ _________ ___ . .
$ 1 5 a n d u n d e r $ 1 7 .5 0 . _
. . _______ _________________________ ___________
______________
$ 1 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 ._
. _______________ _________ ___ . . _______________________ ________
$20 a n d o v e r
_________________
_________
_______ - ___________
_____
_____ _______
T o ta l
__________________
. .
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s __________

_________________
_______________________ _________
____________________________________________________

N u m b e r of
w o rk e rs

111
101
1 85
690
2 ,3 1 9
439
30
2 26

S im p le
p e rc e n ta g e

2 .8
2 .6
4 .7
1 7 .7
5 9 .4
1 1 .3
.8
.7

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

2 .8
5 .4
1 0 .1
2 7 .8
8 7 .2
9 8 .5
9 9 .3

3 ,9 0 1
$ 1 2 . 75

i W e e k ly h o u r s w e r e n o t re p o r t e d fo r 1 c o m p a n y ; h e n c e , w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r i n d iv id u a ls a r e n o t a v a ila b le
fo r t h is c o m p a n y .
D a t a in t h is ta b le , th e r e fo re , c o v e r 3 e s t a b lis h m e n ts .
* T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 2 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 2 2 .7 5 .




243

LABOR IN THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 19 3 9

L . — D istrib u tio n o f fem a le
non sa laried w a rehouse laborers in 'pineapple
canneries in the H a w a iia n I sla n d s according to average h ou rly ea rn in g sy J u l y
and A u g u s t 1 9 3 8

T a b l e

T o t a l— A l l ra c e s
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

1
113

.......

0 .2
2 6 .7

235
25
27
10
i 12

T T n d e r 2 5 e e n t .s
_
____
2 fi a n d i m r i e r 2 7 .fi p p .n ts
_______________________________________________________________
2 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 0 c e n t s _____
3 0 a n d u n d e r 3 2 .5 c e n t s . . . ___________________________________________________________________
3 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 c e n t s . . _ ________________________ _________________________________________
3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 .5 c e n t s . ______________________________________________________________________
3 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 4 0 c e n t s . _____________________________________________
____ ________________
4 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r ______________ ______ _____________________________________________________________
T n ta l
A v p ra g p h o u r ly n a m in g s .

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

5 5 .7
5 .9
6 .4
2 .4
2 .7

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

0 .2
2 6 .9
2 6 .9
8 2 .6
8 8 .5
9 4 .9
9 7 .3

423
$ 0 . 301

_

i T h e a v e r a g e o f a l l w o r k e r s e a r n i n g 4 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o 4 3 .8 c e n t s .

M .— D istrib u tio n o f m ale w orkers in m iscella n eou s m an u fa ctu rin g in du stries
in the H a w a iia n Isla n d s according to average h ou rly ea rn in g s , 1 9 3 8 and 1 9 3 9

T a b l e

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs

S im p le
p e rc e n t­
age

....................... .. ..................
T i n d e r 2fi c e n t s
2 5 a n d u n d e r 2 7 .5 c e n t s ________________________________________________________________________
2 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 3 0 c e n t s ___________ _____________________________________________________________
3 0 a n d u n d e r 3 2 .fi e e n t s
.. . . . . . . .............. . ...
3 2 .fi a n d u n d e r 3 fi e e n t s
3 fi a n d n n d f i r 3 7 .fi e e n t s
_
3 7 .fi a n d n n d p .r 4 0 n p n t s
..
4 0 a n d n n d a r 4 2 .fi n e n t s
.
.
_
4 2 _fi a n d u n d e r 4 5 e e n t s .
..................................
4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 7 .5 e e n t s
4 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 5 0 c e n t s _____________________________________________ ____________ ___________
5 0 a n d u n d e r 5 2 .5 c e n t s __________________,____________________________________________________
5 2 5 a n d n n d a r fifi p p .n ts
fifi a n d n n d p .r 5 7 .5 p p .n ts
5 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 0 c e n t s __________________________________________________ __ _ _
__
6 0 a n d u n d e r 6 2 .5 c e n t s _____ _____________________ ___________________
__
.
_____
____________
_________
_. _ _
6 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 6 5 c e n t s ___________________
6 5 a n d u n d e r 6 7 .5 c e n t s _____________ __________________________
_
6 7 .5 a n d u n d e r 7 0 c e n t s ___________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
__
_
_______
_
7 0 a n d u n d e r 7 2 .5 c e n t s ____________ ___________
___
____________ ___ _ _ __________
7 2 .5 a n d u n d e r 75 c e n t s _____
_ _ __
__________________ _________
____ ___
75 a n d u n d e r 8 0 c e n t s _________
_________
_______________________________ ________________
8 0 a n d u n d e r 8 5 c e n t s ______
__
_ _ _ _ _ _
8 5 a n d u n d e r 9 0 c e n t s __________ ______________
9 0 a n d u n d e r 9 5 c e n t s ________ _______
_ _ _ _ _ _
__________________ _
9 5 a n d u n d e r 100 c e n t s ______ _________
. _ _______________________
1 0 0 a n d u n d e r 1 1 0 c e n t s ________ ___________________________ ___ ______________ _ _
_
__
1 1 0 c e n t s a n d o v e r _________________________ ______________________________________________________

2
4

0 .5
1 .0

3
3
72
27
59
16
42
22
27
8
17
10
14
8
7
4
10
4
15
7
4
2
3
19
i 8

.7
. 7
1 7 .2
6 .5
1 4 .0
3 .8
1 0 .0
5 .3
6 .5
1 .9
4 .1
2 .4
3 .4
1 .9
1. 7
1. 0
2 .4
1 .0
3 .6
1. 7
1 .0
.5
. 7
4 .6
1 .9

T o t a l ___________________________________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s

417
$0. 526

1 A v e r a g e o f a l l m a l e j w o r k e r s e a r n i n g $ 1 .1 0 a n d o v e r a m o u n t e d t o $ 1 ,3 8 4 .

2 4 1 4 0 4 — 40-




■17

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r­
c e n ta g e

0 .5
1 .5
1 .5
2. 2
2. 9
2 0 .1
2 6 .6
40. 6
44. 4
54. 4
59. 7
6 6 .2
6 8 .1
7 2. 2
7 4 .6
78. 0
7 9 .9
81. 6
8 2 .6
8 5 .0
8 6 .0
8 9 .6
9 1 .3
9 2 .3
9 2 .8
93. 5
9 8 .1

244

LABOR IN TH E TERRITORY OF H A W A II,

1939

T a b l e N .— D istr ib u tio n o f fem a le w orkers in m iscella n eou s m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s ­
tries in the H a w a iia n Is la n d s according to average h o u rly ea rn in g s, 1 9 3 8 a nd 1 9 3 9

Number
of
workers

Average hourly earnings

15 and under 17.5 cents_
..... _ _
. . . . . . . . . . . ___ _
.
17.5 and under 20 cents.
............
..... _ ... .
2ft and under 22.5 cents.
.
. _
............. .. ....
22.5 and under 25 cents _ ...................................
_ . .........
25 and under 27.5 cents
27.5 and under 3ft cents
3ft and under 32.5 cents
32.5 and under 35 cents
35 and under 37.5 cents
. .. .
37.5 and under 4ft cents
......
_ ......................
4ft and under 42.5 cents
.
. ..
._ .
_
42.5 and under 45 cents
45 cents and ever
Total
Average hourly earnings

_

.

...

.
...

_

_ ____

1
37
422
1
29
1
22
13
22
5
6
1
i9

Simple
percent
age
0.2
6.4
74.1
.2
5.0
.2
3.9
2.3
3.9
.9
1.1
.2
1.6

Cumula­
tive per­
centage
0.2
6.6
80.7
80.9
85.9
86.1
90.0
92.3
96.2
97.1
98.2
98.4

569
$0. 244

i The average hourly earnings for all female workers earning 45 cents and over amounted to 60.6 cents




O