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LABOR AND
MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS
FOR
SCHOOL
CONSTRUCTION
JU N E 1968
B L S B u lle tin 1 5 8 6

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




P r e fa c e
This study of lab or and m a teria l requ irem en ts fo r the con stru ction of sch ools
is one of a s e r ie s which the Bureau of L abor S tatistics have m ade of va riou s types of
con stru ction that m ight be affected by future governm ental action. It is s im ila r to an
e a r lie r study of sch ool con stru ction m ade in 1959. Other p re v io u s ly published studies
include highw ays, F e d e r a l o ffice buildings, h osp ita ls, c iv il w orks a ctiv ities of the
A rm y C orp s of E n gin eers, public housing, private o n e -fa m ily dw elling units, c o lle g e
housing, and sew er w orks con stru ction .
T h ese studies are m ade by the Bureau*s O ffice of P rod u ctivity, T ech n ology and
Growth under the gen eral d ire ctio n of Jerom e A. Mark, {A ssistant C o m m issio n e r fo r
P rod u ctivity, T ech n ology, and Growth. The study was d irected by Jam es F. W alker.
Henry Renten was resp o n sib le fo r the c o lle c tio n of data.
The Bureau gratefully acknow ledges the coop era tion of the Housing and Home
Finance A gency fo r m aking available m uch of the data on fe d e r a lly -a id e d sch ool
pr o je c ts .




1X1

CONTENTS

Page
I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................................................................................................................................................

1

N atu re of s u r v e y ............................................................................................................................................
L i m i t a t i o n s o f the d a t a ...............................................................................................................................
G e n e r a l s u r v e y f i n d i n g s ............................................................................................................................
C o m p a r is o n of sa m p le s
...........................................................................................................................
C h a n g e s in o n - s i t e m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s ..................................................................................
O n - s i t e m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s ...........................................................................................................
R e q u i r e m e n t s by o c c u p a t i o n
..............................................................................................................
C o n t r a c t o r s * s h a r e s ......................................................................................................................................
O n - s i t e w a g e s ...................................................................................................
C o n s t r u c t i o n t i m e .........................................................................................................................................
A f f e c t on o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s ........................................................................................................................
M a t e r i a l s u s e d ...............................................................................................................................................

1
1
1
3
4
5
5
5
7
7
7
7

A p p e n d ix . S c o p e and m e t h o d o f S u r v e y ............................................................................................
S u r v e y c r i t e r i a .........................................................................................................................................
M a n - h o u r e s t i m a t e s ...............................................................................................................................
A r e a d e f i n i t i o n .........................................................................................................................................

22
22
22
23

T a bles:
1.
N u m b e r and c o s t o f s u r v e y e d s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , by
s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ...............................................
2.

3.

4.

O n -site m a n -h ou r re q u ire m e n ts fo r sch ool co n stru ctio n p r o je c t s ,
b y s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ...............................................

10

O n - s i t e m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n
b y p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r s k i l l e d l a b o r e m p l o y e d and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . . .

11

P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of s ch o o l p r o je c t s , by n u m ber of o n -s ite m a n -h o u r s
r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h $ 1 ,0 0 0 o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t , b y r e g i o n ,
1 964-65

5.

6.

7.

11

O n - s i t e m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 of s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n
c o n t r a c t , b y o c c u p a t i o n and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 .........................................................

12

P e r c e n t o f a p p r e n t i c e s e m p l o y e d on s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s
o c c u p a t i o n and by r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 .............................................................................

13

A v e r a g e n u m b er of c o n t r a c t o r s p e r s c h o o l co n s tr u c tio n p r o je c t ,
b y c o s t g r o u p and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5

8.

.............................................................................

P e r c e n t o f t o ta l o n - s i t e m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
b y typ e o f c o n t r a c t o r and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5

9.

14

............................................................

14

A v e r a g e o n - s i t e e a r n i n g s on s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , by s e l e c t e d




c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ..........................................................................

IV

15

CONTEN1

-------C o n t i n u e d

Page
10.

11.

12.

A v e r a g e n u m ber of w eek s r e q u ir e d fo r co n s tr u c tio n of s ch o o l, by c o s t
g r o u p and r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 .............................................................................................

16

P e r c e n t o f o n - s i t e e m p l o y m e n t f o r s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n in e a c h tenth o f
t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t i m e , b y r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 .........................................................

17

T o t a l m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ........................................................................................................................................

18

T o t a l c o s t o f m a t e r i a l c o m p o n e n t s f o r e a c h $ 1 ,0 0 0 of s c h o o l
c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t , b y r e g i o n , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ..........................................................

19

C harts:
1.
D i s t r i b u t i o n of 189 m a n - h o u r s f o r e a c h $ 1 ,0 0 0 o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n
c o n t r a c t , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 .................................................................................................................

2

13.

2.

P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o n - s i t e w a g e s and m a t e r i a l s u s e d f o r e a c h
$ 1 ,0 0 0 o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ...............................................




6




In trod u ction

L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Data

P u b li c s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n was c h o s e n as
the f i r s t in this s e r i e s of s tu dies b e c a u s e of
the p r e s s i n g n e e d f o r n ew c l a s s r o o m s at the
t i m e . It was s e l e c t e d f o r r e s t u d y b e c a u s e of
its con tin u in g i m p o r t a n c e in tota l e x p e n d i ­
t u r e s f o r n ew c o n s t r u c t i o n that ca n be
a f f e c t e d g r e a t l y b y g o v e r n m e n t a l a c tio n . The
ch a n g e s in tota l l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s and
o c c u p a t i o n a l m i x , as w e l l as ch a n g e s in m a ­
t e r i a l s u s e d in s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n d urin g
the 5 y e a r p e r i o d s in c e the f i r s t study, p r o ­
v i d e d add ed j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r e c e n t
s u r v e y . E x p e n d itu r e s f o r e d u c a t io n a l c o n ­
s t r u c t io n , b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l ic , have r i s e n
s t e a d i ly f o r m a n y y e a r s and to ta le d o v e r $6
b il l i o n in 1966. It is s e c o n d o n ly to h ighways
in p u b lic c o n s t r u c t i o n o u tla y s .

The p la n nin g, d e v e lo p i n g , and building o f
s c h o o l s v a r y g r e a t l y a m o n g the v a r i o u s
s c h o o l s y s t e m s , and a s a m p le of p r o j e c t s
l a r g e en ou gh to r e f l e c t a ll of the p o te n tia l
f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s o m e o f the d e ta il p r e ­
sen ted w ou ld have b e e n p r o h i b i t i v e .

N atu re of S u r v e y
T h is study is b a s e d on a s u r v e y o f .s e le c t e d
e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y p u b lic s c h o o l s
c o n s t r u c t e d p r i m a r i l y du rin g the p e r i o d
1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . Data w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m 1 03p r o j ­
e c t s , s e l e c t e d f r o m the f o u r b r o a d g e o ­
g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s of the U.S.1_/
The study was d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y to
d e t e r m i n e the tota l m a n - h o u r s of e m p l o y ­
m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r a f i x e d d o ll a r v o lu m e
($1 ,00 0 ) o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n . M a n - h o u r s ,
as d e fin e d f o r the s u r v e y , in c lu d e both o n ­
s ite c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y m e n t and o f f - s i t e
e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e d to p r o d u c e and d e l i v e r
the m a t e r i a l s u s e d in s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n .
In a d d ition to p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on
m a n - h o u r s , the study a l s o i n c lu d e s data on
the ty p es and va lu e o f m a t e r i a l s u s e d , w a g e s
p a id , o c c u p a t i o n a l d is t r i b u t io n , and u s e of
app ren tices.
R e s u l t s of the stu dies a r e b ein g u s e d to
eva lu a te ch a n g e s in c o s t s and to attem p t to
m e a s u r e the ch a n g e s in output p e r m a n - h o u r
f o r o n - s i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s b e tw e e n
the two s tu d ie s .

\J F o r a m o r e d e ta ile d d e s c r i p t i o n of
m e th o d , and f o r a l i s t of States in c lu d e d in
e a c h r e g i o n , s ee appendix.




T h e r e is no known b ia s in the s a m p l e s e ­
l e c t i o n , but the n u m b e r o f p r o j e c t s stu died
w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t to in s u r e a h igh d e g r e e of
a c c u r a c y f o r a ll of the e s t i m a t e s p u b lis h e d .
The e s t i m a t e s on tota l e m p l o y m e n t , o c c u ­
p a tio n a l d is t r i b u t io n , and tota l s h a r e s of
o n - s i t e w a g e s and m a t e r i a l s a r e b e l i e v e d
to be a c c u r a t e .

C e r t a in ty p es of e m p lo y m e n t p o s s i b l y
a f f e c t e d by s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n w e r e not
c o v e r e d b y the s u r v e y . N o e s t i m a t e s w e r e
m a d e o f the e m p lo y m e n t u s e d in plan nin g
and d e s ig n in g the s c h o o l s . Such e x p e n d i t u r e s
a l s o w e r e not in c lu d e d in the c o n t r a c t c o s t s
s t u d i e d . (See a pp en dix.) A l s o e x c lu d e d
f r o m the s u r v e y was the l a b o r i n v o lv e d in
i n s ta lla t io n s m a d e by p u b l i c - u t i l i t y e m ­
p l o y e e s as w e l l as any site p r e p a r a t i o n o r
la n d s c a p in g w o r k not c o v e r e d by the c o n ­
s t r u c t io n c o n t r a c t .

E m p lo y m e n t c r e a t e d by the r e s p e n d i n g o f
w a g e s and p r o f i t s - - c o m m o n l y c a l l e d the
m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t - - a l s o w as not c o n s i d e r e d
within the s c o p e o f the study.
The p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n this and
the e a r l i e r study was the i n c l u s i o n in this
study o f e s t i m a t e s o f the e m p l o y m e n t e f f e c t
o f c o n t r a c t o r s * o v e r h e a d . In p r e s e n t in g
c o m p a r i s o n s o f the two s tu d ie s , a d ju s tm e n ts
have b e e n m a d e to the e a r l i e r data to i n ­
clu d e th e s e e s t i m a t e s .

G e n e r a l S u rv e y F in d in g s
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 198 m a n - h o u r s of l a b o r
w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h $1,000 of s c h o o l
c o n s t r u c t i o n in 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 , r e p r e s e n t i n g a
d e c l in e of about 16 p e r c e n t f r o m the s i m -

Chart 1. Distribution of 189 Man-Hours for Each $1,000
of School Construction Contract, 1964-65

Off-site
Construction
22

PRIMARY
MAN-HOURS

Transportation,
Trade and Services

t

141

38

Last Manufacturing
Stage

27

6

SECONDARY
MAN-HOURS

Other
Manufacturing

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR .




Transportation,
Trade and Services

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

All Other
Industries

48

i l a r study c o n d u c te d in 1959. O n - s i t e e m ­
p l o y m e n t a l s o d e c r e a s e d 16 p e r c e n t , f r o m
86 to 72.3 m a n - h o u r s . 2 ]

s c h o o l s in a d d ition to c h a n g e s in l a b o r r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s p e r unit o f s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n .
U n fortu n a tely , a g ood d e f l a t o r to r e m o v e the
e f f e c t o f p r i c e ch a n ge f r o m valu e c h a n g e s is
not a v a ila b le f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n in d u s try .
A lth ou gh an a ttem p t is m a d e in the study to
p r o v i d e b oth a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p le of
s c h o o l s in both p e r i o d s and a l s o to m a t c h
the s a m p le of s c h o o l s f o r the two p e r i o d s ,
the l a tte r o b j e c t i v e co u ld not be r e a l i z e d
in a ll c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

A c o m p a r is o n of m a n -h ou r req u irem en ts
f o r the two s tu dies is shown b e lo w .

The c o m p a r i s o n o f m a n - h o u r s p e r $1,000
o f c o n s t r u c t i o n r e f l e c t s c h a n g e s in c o n ­
s t r u c t io n p r i c e s and shifts in ty p e s of

Man-hours Per $1,000 of Contract
1964 -65
Percent
Number

1959
Percent
Number

Total man-hours--------------

198

100

235

100

Construction------------- -

81

41

96

41

On-site -----------------

72

36

86

37

O f f - s i t e ---- -----------

9

5

10

4

Manufacturing -------------

65

33

74

31

services -------------

37

19

46

20

All other industries — ^---

15

7

10

4

Trade, transportation and

1/ Includes 1 hour of indirect construction employment.

A s a r e s u l t , the c o m p a r i s o n s o f s q u a re
f o o t a g e c o s t w h ic h f o l l o w d o r e f l e c t s o m e
d i f f e r e n c e s in c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h is d o e s
not ob via te the c o n c l u s i o n of the r e l a t i v e
s ta b ility in s q u a r e f o o t a g e c o s t o v e r the tw o
p e r i o d s s in c e to a v e r y a p p r e c i a b l e exten t
the s c h o o l s c o m p a r e d w e r e s i m i l a r . M o r e ­
o v e r , the fin d in g s n e e d not be i n c o n s i s t e n t
w ith the a p p e a r a n c e of p r i c e ch a n g e s f o r
s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n w h ich c o u ld a f f e c t c e r ­
tain ty p e s o f s c h o o l s in c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s
in s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s .

2 / A q u a lity c h e c k on the e a r l i e r study
i n d i c a t e s that the o r i g i n a l e s t im a t e o f 84
h o u r s w a s u n d e r s t a t e d b y about 2 h o u r s .
A d ju s t m e n t s a l s o w e r e m a d e f o r o f f - s i t e
h o u r s , as a r e s u l t o f a n e w in p u t-o u t study
(1958 in t e r i n d u s t r y data), and the i n c l u s i o n
o f an e s t im a t e c o v e r i n g the c o n t r a c t o r ’ s
o v e r h e a d e x p e n d i t u r e s . The r e v i s e d tota l
e m p l o y m e n t f o r the 1959 study w a s 235
h o u r s p e r $1,000 of c o n t r a c t . T h is c o m ­
p a r i s o n m u s t be q u a lif ie d as m u s t o th e r
c o m p a r i s o n s b e c a u s e o f the l a c k o f s t r i c t
m a tc h in g o f p r o j e c t with s i m i l i a r c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c s b e tw e e n the tw o s tu d ie s . N e v e r t h e ­
l e s s , th ey a r e u s e f u l as i n d i c a t o r s o f the
g e n e r a l ch a n ge w h ic h has taken p l a c e in this
tim e p e rio d .




C o m p a r i s o n o f S a m p le s
In g e n e r a l the s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d in the
m o r e r e c e n t p e r i o d w e r e l a r g e r and had
m o r e c la s s r o o m s . A lso a greater p r o p o r ­
tion o f th em had a ir c o n d it io n in g , a u d i t o ­

3

r i u m s and g y m n a s iu m s . H o w e v e r , the
s c h o o l s in both s u r v e y s sh ow ed the sam e
p r o p o r t i o n o f s p a c e u t i li z e d f o r n o n - c l a s s r o o m p u r p o s e s . The a c c o m p a n y in g table
i n d i c a t e s s o m e o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the
s c h o o l s in e a c h study.
C h a r a c t e r i s t ic s
(Average)

1964-65

1959

In both stu d ies the l a r g e r p r o j e c t s w e r e
m o r e c o s t l y p e r s q u a re f o o t , but the d i f f e r ­
e n c e was s m a l l e r in the m o r e r e c e n t study.
T h e r e w e r e no s ig n ific a n t ch a n g e s in the
r e l a t io n s h ip of s q u a re fo o t c o s t s by typ es
o f s t r u c t u r e . In g e n e r a l , s q u a re fo o t c o s t
d i f f e r e n t i a l s tended to n a r r o w in a ll c o m ­
p a r i s o n s e x c e p t by r e g io n .

Floor space (1000
C h a n g es in O n - s i t e M a n -h o u r R e q u i r e m e n t s
60.0

51.4

Cost per square f o o t ---- $

14.16 $

14.16

Number o f cla ssroom s----

24.6

21.0

Cost per classroom -------- $ 34,500

$ 35,000

C on stru ction c o s t ---------- $850,000

$730,000

square f e e t ) ---------------

A lthough th e r e was no ch a n ge in c o s t f o r
the a v e r a g e s c h o o l f r o m the f i r s t to the
s e c o n d study, v a r i a t io n s in c o n s t r u c t i o n
c o s t s w e r e o b s e r v e d in c o m p a r i n g type of
s c h o o l and oth er building c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
(See table 1.)
Square f o o t and c l a s s r o o m c o s t s i n ­
c r e a s e d f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s and d e ­
c r e a s e d f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s f r o m 1959 to
1964-65.
Square f o o t c o s t i n c r e a s e d in the N o r t h ­
e a s t and W e s t and r e m a i n e d about the s a m e
o r d e c r e a s e d in the N o rth C e n t r a l and South.
In the e a r l i e r study s q u a re f o o t c o s t s w e r e
h ig h e r in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s but in the
la t t e r study the d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e s m a l l and
not c o n s i s t e n t .

Square :f o o t c o s t s
1959

1964-65

1.
M a n -h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r s q u a re
f o o t of s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n d e c r e a s e d f r o m
1.19 in 1959 to 1.02 in 1 96 4-65.
2. The tota l value of m a t e r i a l put in p la c e
p e r m a n - h o u r i n c r e a s e d about 16 p e r c e n t
d u r in g the s a m e p e r i o d . Som e of this gain
p o s s i b l y is due to the i n c r e a s e d u s e o f p r e fab rica ted m a terials.
3. M a n -h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r $1,000 of
c o n t r a c t w e r e 16 p e r c e n t l o w e r , in d ica tin g
a r e d u c t io n of about 2.75 p e r c e n t a y e a r
(c o m p o u n d e d du rin g the 5 — / 2 y e a r p e r i o d . )
1
4. The p r o p o r t i o n o f o n - s i t e w a g es to
tota l c o n t r a c t c o s t s r e m a i n e d about the
s a m e (aroun d 26 p e r c e n t ) b e tw e e n the two
p e r i o d s , d e s p it e an i n c r e a s e of 16 p e r c e n t
in a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s .
O n - s i t e la b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s in the 1 9 6 4 -6 5
study d e c l in e d in e a c h of the fo u r b ro a d
r e g i o n s , but c o s t s p e r s q u a re f o o t b etw een
the r e g io n s v a r i e d both in l e v e l and tren d .

Man-hour
requirements
per square f o o t
1959
1964-65

Decreases in
man-hour
requirements
( P e r c e n t)

N ortheast---- ------

16.99

18.98

1.291

1.192

8.3

North C en tra l----

13.67

13.55

1.129

.957

15.2

South-------------------

12.11

11.56

1.199

1.025

14.5

West--------------------

14.25

15.53

1.149

.955

16.9

A l l s c h o o l s --------

14.16

14.16

1.189

1.024

13.8




O n - s i t e M a n -h o u r R e q u i r e m e n t s

r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e 60 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r f o r
p r o j e c t s h aving 45 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f th e ir
to ta l m a n - h o u r s in l o w e r s k i l l o c c u p a t i o n s
than f o r p r o j e c t s with 25 p e r c e n t o r l e s s in
th o s e c a t e g o r i e s .

O n -site m a n -h ou r req u irem en ts v a rie d
c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t w e e n p r o j e c t s , but o v e r half
o f the p r o j e c t s stu died had m a n - h o u r r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s ( p e r $1,000 o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ) ,
ra n g in g f r o m 55 to 75. M o s t o f the p r o j e c t s
h av in g h ig h e r m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e
in the South and N orth C e n t r a l r e g i o n s .

R equ irem en ts by O ccupation
C h an ges in the o c c u p a t i o n a l d is t r i b u t io n
b e tw e e n the tw o stu d ies w e r e in s i g n if ic a n t
and m o r e o r l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e . D e c r e a s e s in
the p r o p o r t i o n of p l a s t e r e r s , l a t h e r s , and
o r n a m e n t a l i r o n w o r k e r s , and i n c r e a s e s in
o p e r a tin g e n g i n e e r s , s h eet m e t a l w o r k e r s ,
and tile s e t t e r s w e r e t y p i c a l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l
tr e n d s in b u ild in g c o n s t r u c t i o n .

In g e n e r a l , d i f f e r e n c e s in m a n - h o u r r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s b e tw e e n p r o j e c t s and s p e c i f i c
g r o u p s o f p r o j e c t s n a r r o w e d . The m o s t s i g ­
n if i c a n t ch a n ge in r e l a t io n s h ip s f r o m the
p r e v i o u s study o c c u r r e d in the s m a l l e r p r o j ­
e c t s . In the e a r l i e r study, s m a l l e r p r o j e c t s ,
in c lu d in g m o s t o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ,
had m u c h h ig h e r l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s % e r
p
$1,000 of c o n t r a c t . In the m o r e r e c e n t study,
s i z e o f p r o j e c t did not a p p e a r to be a s i g n i ­
f i c a n t f a c t o r , and e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s as a
g r o u p a c t u a lly had l o w e r l a b o r r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s . It sh ould be n oted that on ly a f e w
v e r y s m a l l p r o j e c t s (under $20 0,0 0 0) w e r e
i n c lu d e d in the m o r e r e c e n t study.

The m o s t i m p o r t a n t j o b n u m e r i c a l l y c o n ­
tinued to be c a r p e n t e r s , in spite of a 12
p e r c e n t d e c r e a s e in th e ir s h a r e of the w o r k .
M any c a r p e n t e r s p e r f o r m e d j o b s not c o n ­
n e c t e d with l u m b e r as th ey have d e v e lo p e d
s k i l ls in m a t e r i a l s w h ich have r e p l a c e d
lum ber.
L o w e r s k i l le d -jobs c on tin u ed to r e p r e s e n t
about 30 p e r c e n t o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r k
f o r c e . A lth ou gh the p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r
s k i l le d w o r k e r s d e c l i n e d in the N o r t h e a s t ,
N o r th C e n t r a l, and W e s t e r n r e g i o n s d u rin g
the i n t e r i m b e tw e e n the tw o s u r v e y s , the
S ou th ern r e g i o n e m p l o y e d a h ig h e r p e r c e n t ­
a ge of th e s e w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 (4 3 .4 p e r ­
cen t) than in 1959 (40.3 p e r c e n t ) .

The i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y in the s m a l l e r
p r o j e c t s w a s not e v id e n t in the n o n m e t r o ­
p o li t a n a r e a s . M a n -h o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s in
n o n m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s w e r e o v e r 15 p e r c e n t
h ig h e r than th o s e in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . In
the e a r l i e r study, this d i f f e r e n c e , on the
a v e r a g e , w as l e s s than 6 p e r c e n t .
When o n - s i t e l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e
c o m p a r e d on a s q u a re f o o t b a s i s , the d i f ­
f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n p r o j e c t s and s p e c i f i c
groups of p ro je cts are m uch sm a lle r. T w oth ir d s of the p r o j e c t s had l a b o r r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts b e tw e e n 0.8 and 1.2 m a n - h o u r s p e r
square foot.

F o r m a l appren tices rep resen ted 4 .1 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e , an i n c r e a s e o v e r the
3 .7 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d in 1959. E l e c t r i c i a n s
a c c o u n t e d f o r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f a p ­
p r e n t i c e s , 15.1 p e r c e n t . M o s t o f the t r a d e s
had h ig h er p r o p o r t i o n s o f a p p r e n t i c e s w o r k ­
ing than in the e a r l i e r study. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p
p r o g r a m s w e r e m o s t e v id e n t in the W e s t .

A s in the e a r l i e r study, o n - s i t e m a n - h o u r
r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e r e l a t e d to t h r e e m a j o r
f a c t o r s : (1) a v a i la b il it y and u s e o f l a b o r sav in g e q u ip m e n t, s u ch as c r a n e s , e l e v a ­
t o r s , and c o n v e y o r s ; (2) a m ou n t o f p r e f a b ­
r i c a t e d c o m p o n e n t s ; and (3) p r o p o r t i o n of
skilled w o r k e r s .

C o n t r a c t o r s * S h a r es
The tr e n d t o w a r d s u b c o n t r a c t i n g c o n ­
tin u e s , and the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r ' s sh a r e
o f tota l e m p lo y m e n t ( i n m a n - h o u r s) d e c l i n e d
f r o m 4 7 .4 p e r c e n t in 1959 to 42.0 p e r c e n t
in the l a t e r study. The l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e w as
in m a s o n r y s u b c o n t r a c t i n g ( s e e table 8).
S u b c o n tr a c t in g i n c r e a s e d in a ll r e g i o n s , but

T a b le 3 sh ow s the m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts o f p r o j e c t s a c c o r d i n g to the p r o p o r ­
tio n of l o w e r s k i l le d w o r k e r s u s e d . L a b o r




5

Chart 2. Percent Distribution off On-Site Wages
and Materials Used for Each $1,000
off School Construction Contract,1964-65

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR • BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




the i n c r e a s e d u s e of s u b c o n t r a c t o r s was
m o s t p r o n o u n c e d in the N o rth C e n tr a l r e g io n .
The a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f s u b c o n t r a c t o r s
p e r p r o j e c t i n c r e a s e d f r o m 1 9 in 1959 to 26
in the 1 9 6 4 -6 5 study. P a r t o f this i n c r e a s e
w a s due to the g r e a t e r s iz e o f the p r o j e c t s ,
s in c e l a r g e r p r o j e c t s a l m o s t i n e v ita b ly i n ­
volve m o re su bcon tra ctors.
O n - s i t e W a g es
A v e r a g e w age r a te s f o r o n - s i t e l a b o r
a d v a n c e d o v e r 16 p e r c e n t b e tw e e n the two
s tu d ie s . T h is i n c r e a s e in w o r k e r e a r n in g s ,
h o w e v e r , did not a lte r the r e l a t io n s h ip of
w a ge p a y m e n t s to tota l c o n t r a c t c o s t s , 25.8
p e r c e n t in 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 c o m p a r e d with 25.7 p e r ­
c e n t in 1959. I n c r e a s e d w a g e s in the i n d u s tr y
h ave b e e n o f f s e t by l o w e r m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , to the exten t that o n - s i t e w a g e s a r e a
s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of the c o n t r a c t d o l l a r
than they w e r e 30 y e a r s a g o (31.1 p e r c e n t ) . 3 /
O n - s i t e w a g e s in m o r e than h alf of the p r o ­
j e c t s stu died in the m o r e r e c e n t s u r v e y (55.6
p e r c e n t ) f e l l into a v e r y n a r r o w r a n g e , b e ­
tw e e n 22.6 and 27.5 p e r c e n t o f the c o n t r a c t
d ollar.
The p r o p o r t i o n o f o n - s i t e w a g e s was
f a ir ly con sisten t am ong s p e c ific groups of
p r o j e c t s r e g a r d l e s s of w age l e v e l s . (See
ta ble 9.) P r o j e c t s with h ig h e r w a ge r a te s
r e q u i r e d l e s s m a n - h o u r s (p e r $1,000 of
contract).

c o n t r a c t to its c o m p l e t io n . A s ca n be e x ­
p e c t e d , c o n s t r u c t i o n tim e v a r i e d by s iz e o f
p r o j e c t and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t io n . C o n ­
s t r u c t io n ti m e w as g e n e r a l l y c o m p a r a b l e to
the e a r l i e r study and no s ig n ific a n t r e d u c ­
tion was o b s e r v a b l e by p r o j e c t s iz e and
r e g i o n . (See table 10.)
When c o n s t r u c t i o n tim e f o r e a c h p r o j e c t
w a s d iv id e d into d e c i l e s , it was shown that
a m a j o r i t y of the w o r k f o r c e (53.5 p e r c e n t )
is e m p l o y e d f r o m the 4th th rou g h the 7th
d e c i l e s . F o r the ty p i c a l p r o j e c t , only 4.3
p e r c e n t of the e m p lo y m e n t o c c u r s in the
f i r s t 5 w e e k s and on ly 3.5 p e r c e n t in the
l a s t 5 w e e k s . P e a k e m p lo y m e n t is r e a c h e d
in the sixth 5 - w e e k p e r i o d , when 14.6 p e r ­
c e n t o f the tota l m a n - h o u r s a r e w o r k e d . (See
table 11.)
A f f e c t on O th er In d u s tr ie s
E m p lo y m e n t g e n e r a te d in m a n u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s f r o m s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n runs a
c l o s e s e c o n d to the n u m b e r of jo b s o c c u r r i n g
in the c o n s t r u c t i o n in d u s tr y . L a b o r r e q u i r e m e n ts p e r $1,000 of s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n tota l
82 m a n - h o u r s in the c o n s t r u c t i o n in d u s tr y
and 65 in m a n u fa c tu r in g ; a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d
o f the tota l l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s is f u l f il le d
b y the m a n u fa c tu r in g s e c t o r . (See table 12.)
A bou t 38 of th e s e h o u r s w ould be in the la s t
stag e of m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the b a la n c e in
oth e r m a n u fa c tu r in g plants su pp ly in g th os e
m a n u f a c t u r e s , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y .

It sh ou ld be n oted that the w a ge i n f o r m a ­
tion p r e s e n t e d in this r e p o r t d o e s not
i n c lu d e m a n y c o s t s w h ich m ig h t be c o n s i d ­
e r e d l a b o r c o s t s . F o r e x a m p le p a y r o l l t a x e s ,
w o r k m e n ’ s com pen sation , fringe b e n e f i t
c o s t s . T h e s e i t e m s w e r e not stu died, but it
c a n be a s s u m e d s a f e l y that su ch c o s t s have
i n c r e a s e d m o r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , than wage
rates.

The tota l e m p l o y m e n t e f f e c t is f e lt in
a ll s e c t o r s of the e c o n o m y . The tra d e s e c t o r
a c c o u n ts f o r about 11 p e r c e n t of the total
h o u r s and t r a n s p o r t a t io n i n d u s t r i e s o v e r 4
p e rce n t. S erv ice indu stries are in cre a s in g
th e ir s h a r e o f e m p l o y m e n t p a r t ic ip a t io n and
in the la t e s t study a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 3 p e r ­
ce n t of a ll j o b s .

C on stru ction Tim e

M a t e r ia ls U sed

The a v e r a g e s c h o o l p r o j e c t studied r e ­
q u i r e d 52 w e e k s f r o m the b eg in n in g o f the

A little o v e r 54 p e r c e n t o f e a c h c o n t r a c t
d o l l a r was spen t f o r m a t e r i a l s , s u p p li e s ,
and eq u ip m e n t. N e a r l y h alf of this was f o r
two m a j o r g r o u p s o f m a t e r i a l s : s to n e , c l a y ,
and g la s s p r o d u c t s , $1 30 (out o f e v e r y $1,000
of c o n t r a c t ) ; and m e t a l p r o d u c t s , $134.60.

3 / A c c o r d i n g to an u n p u b lish ed study of
p u b lic w o r k s p r o j e c t s in the late 1 930’ s.




s ig n ific a n t gain s in c lu d e d the u s e of a c o u s ­

M a j o r i t e m s in th es e two g r o u p s w e r e
r e a d y - m i x c o n c r e t e , $32.90 ; b r i c k and
s t r u c t u r a l t i le , $ 19 .60 ; s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l,
$ 3 2 .7 0 ; and r e i n f o r c i n g b a r s and j o i s t s ,
$ 2 8 .30 . 4 /

t i c a l t ile , v in y l a s b e s t o s t i le , l a b o r a t o r y
eq u ip m e n t, k itc h e n eq u ip m e n t, and f o ld in g
p a r t i t i o n s . D e c r e a s e s w e r e n oted in the u s e
o f a sp h alt t i le , m e t a l w in d o w s , and o r n a ­
m ental iron .

L u m b e r and l u m b e r p r o d u c t s w e r e v a lu ed
at $ 5 0 .9 0 ; m i l l w o r k r e p r e s e n t s the m a j o r
i t e m in this g rou p .

The r e d u c t i o n in w in d ow g l a s s was p r o b ­
a b ly a ttrib u ta b le to a g r e a t e r u s e of p r e ­
g la z e d w in d o w s , p lu s a d e c r e a s e in the
n u m b e r and s i z e of w in d ow s g e n e r a l l y
a s s o c i a t e d with a ir co n d it io n in g . The
a p p a r e n t r e d u c t i o n in c o p p e r p r o d u c t s was
due to d e fin itio n a l c h a n g e s in the stan d ard
in d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and the r e d u c t io n
in t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s was due to c l a s s i f i ­
c a t i o n in g r e a t e r d e ta il o f th e ir c o m p o n e n t s .

H eating and v e n tila tin g e q u ip m en t, i n ­
clu d in g a ir c o n d it io n in g , to ta le d $51.90 and
o th e r e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t and m a t e r i a l s ,
$ 5 2 .9 0 . P l u m b in g p r o d u c t s to ta le d $39.
The tota l m a t e r i a l e x p e n d itu re was about
2 p e r c e n t l o w e r than the e a r l i e r study. C o m ­
p a r i s o n s of in d ivid u a l t i m e s w e r e d if fi c u l t
b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and
other r e a s o n s . 5 /

S o m e o f the c h a n g e s in m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts w e r e e v e n g r e a t e r when v i e w e d on a
r e g i o n a l b a s i s . N e a r ly a ll of the a i r - c o n d i ­
tio n e d s c h o o l s w e r e l o c a t e d in the South and
W e s t . A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e e x p e n d itu r e f o r
shop e q u ip m e n t was m a d e in the N orth
C en tral reg ion . In cre a se d expenditures fo r
f i x e d s c h o o l e q u ip m e n t w e r e n oted in a ll
areas.

S o m e ch a n g e s in m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s
w e r e n o ta b le . A i r co n d it io n in g , w h ich was
r a r e in the e a r l i e r study, was r e p o r t e d in
27 p e r c e n t o f the p r o j e c t s stu died and r e p r e ­
s e n te d $9.20 in m a t e r i a l p u r c h a s e s . U s e s of
p r e c a s t c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t s i n c r e a s e d . O th er

1. D i f f e r e n c e s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to a c ­
c o m m o d a t e the 1947 in p u t-ou tp u t m a t r i x
u s e d in the 1959 study, and the 1958 inp u toutput m a t r i x u s e d in the 1 9 6 4 -6 5 study,

4 / C u r r e n t l y , th e re is about $6 b il l i o n a
y e a r b e in g spent on e d u c a t io n a l c o n s t r u c ­
tion , both p u b lic and p r i v a t e . T h is i n d ic a t e s
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r m a t e r i a l s in this a r e a is
$3.2 5 b i l l i o n (at the site va lu a tion ). The
$28 .30 e x p e n d itu r e f o r r e i n f o r c i n g b a r s and
jo is t s , fo r ex a m p le, re p re se n ts a cu rren t
annual r e q u i r e m e n t o f o v e r $100 m i l l i o n in

2. C h an ges in p r i c e s w h ich c a n m a k e it
a p p e a r that the v o lu m e o f a s p e c i f i c m a t e ­
r i a l has ch a n g e d w hen in f a c t the ch a n ge is
due to p r i c e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s .

th e s e i t e m s a lo n e .

3. In tr o d u c tio n of n e w m a t e r i a l s or
e q u ip m e n t, su ch as a ir co n d it io n in g , w h ich
tends to r e d u c e the r e l a t iv e d o l l a r va lu e o f
a ll oth er i t e m s .

5 / C om p a rison s of m a terial usage b e ­
tw e e n the tw o stu dies a r e d if fi c u l t and
f r e q u e n t l y m i s l e a d i n g . The m a j o r r e a s o n s
are:




8

Table 1.

Number and Cost of Surveyed School Construction Projects, by Selected Characteristics and Region, 1964-65

United States

Northeast

Cost per

Cost per

Cost per

South

North Central

West

Cost per

Cost per

Characteristic
Class­
Number Square room
foot (thou­
sands)

$14,16 $34,5

Class­
Number Square room
foot (thou­
sands)

$18.98 $43.7

27

$13.55 $34.9

Class­
Number Square room
foot (thou­
sands)

34

$11.56 $28.6

Class­
Number Square room
foot (thou­
sands)

24

$15.53 $35.9

All Schools......................

103

Elementary............ .......
Secondary.......... ..........

53
50

14,31
14.09

26.3
40.3

9
9

17.73
19.63

33.3
51.3

14
13

12.62
13.95

22.9
43.6

18
16

12.82
11.08

23.8
31.4

12
12

15.43
15.59

27.6
43.5

In a metropolitan area..... .
Not in a metropolitan area.....

62
41

14.56
13.68

33.8
35.5

12
6

18.69
19.44

44.8
42.0

15
12

13.20
13.89

28.6
43.5

21
13

11.76
11.40

28.0
29.1

14
10

15.89
14.48

37.1
32.7

Construction cost group
(In thousands):
$500,000 and under..........
$500,001 to $1,000,000......
$1,000,001 and over.........

43
28
32

• 12.61
14.22
14.69

23.6
31.2
42.2

3
6
9

14.56
17.86
19.81

20.3
35.2
52.0

11
8
8

13.18
11.51
14.66

22.3
28.1
47.3

21
5
o

11.71
12.49
11.31

24.3
27.8
31.7

8
9
7

14.02
15.59
16.12

24.5
33.1
46.3

Type of framing:
Steel.......................
Concrete.............. .
Load-bearing masonry.........
Wood.................... .

39
19
40
5

15.32
13.84
12.73
19.46

37.2
37.9
29.2
44.1

11
1
6
—

18.64
(1/)
17.44
- —
-

46.1
<l/>
31.1
--

10
5
12
—

13.36
14.30
13.04
— ---

35.5
47.0
25.7
—

13
10
11
--

12.24
11.65
11.23
—

26.1
28.5
30.0
—

5
3
11
5

16.26
14.68
14.12
19.46

37.0
42.9
30.2
44.1

1 story.......................
2 to 4 stories................

84
19

13.87
14.86

32.4
40.6

13
5

18.91
19.07

39.0
51.6

20
7

13.36
13.89

32.4
40.1

29
5

11.34
12.32

28.1
30.1

22
2

15.83
(1/)

34.5

Full or partial basement.... .
No basement......... .........

11
92

14.80
14.07

42.2
33.6

1
17

(1 /)
18.39

(1/)
42.0

2
25

<I/>
13.78

(I/)
34.8

3
31

12.07
11.52

31.4
28.4

5
19

14.71
15.94

43.6
33.3

Exterior:
Masonry...................
Curtain wall........... .
Other........ ..............

89
8
6

13.90
16.48
17.38

34.9
26.4
39.3

15
3

18.99
18.83

45.9
30.8

26
1

13.62
a/>

36.4
(1/)

31
2
1

11.49
(1/)

28.8

17
2
5

14.52

34.2

1/ Too few projects to warrant presentation.




18

Class­
Number Square room
foot (thou­
sands)

<i/)

d /)
(1/)

(i/)
19.35

a /)

a /)
41.7

Table 2.

On-Site Man-Hour Requirements for School Construction Projects, by Selected Characterisitcs and Region, 1964-65

United States

Northeast

North Central

South

West

Man- hours per

Man -hours per

Man -hours per

Man--hours per

Man-hours per

Characteristics
$1,000 1,000
of
square Class­
feet
room
cost

$1,000 1,000
$1,000 1,000
of
square Class­
of
square Class­
feet
cost
room
room
feet
cost

All schools...................

72.3

1,024

2,495

62.8

1,192

2,743

70.6

957

Elementary.................
Secondary..................

66.9
74.8

957
1,055

1,757
3,014

59.3
64.5

1,051
1,266

1,976
3,306

67.1
71.9

In a metropolitan area....
Not in a metropolitan area.

67.6
78.3

985
1,072

2.283
2,779

61.6
64.7

1,151
1,258

2,757
2,721

Construction cost group
(In thousands):
$500,000 and under.....
$500,001 to $1,000,000..
$1,000,001 and over....

73.5
66.6
74.1

926
946
1,089

1,730
2,076
3,126

64.0
60.1
63.7

932
1,073
1,263

Type of framing:
Steel...................
Concrete................
Load-bearing masonry....
W o o d ....................

67.1
77.5
76.6
58.7

1,028
1,073
979
1,143

2,495
2,940
2,239
2,588

63.9
61.7
58.9

1,192
1,563
1,028

—

...

1 story....................
2 to 4 stc^ies.............

71.1
75.1

987
1,117

2,301
3,051

60.6
65.6

Full or partial basement...
No basement................

69.0
72.8

1,021
1,025

2,908
2,445

Exterior:
Masonry.................
Curtain wall............
Other...................

73.7
59.9
61.2

1,025
987
1,064

2,573
1,584
2,403




$1,000 1,000
of
square Classfeet
cost
room

$1,000 1,000
of
square Class­
cost
feet
room

88.7

1,025

2,535

61.5

955

2,209

847
1,003

80.1
1,539
__92.4
3,137_ .

1,027
1,024

1,906
2,903

57.9
63.5

894
990

1,597
2,761

63.8
76.7

842
1,066

1,825
3,389

83.1
93.4

977
1,065

2,330
2,717

62.5
58.2

993
843

2,317
1,901

1,302
2,118
3,313

67.0
70.5
71.7

883
811
1,051

1,495
1,978
3,391

83.9
86.0
91.7

982
1,074
1,037

2,039
2,390
2,906

58.3
58.0
64.8

817
904
1,045

1,426
1,919
3,001

2,947
3,876
1,832
---

70.7
75.3
64.5
—

944
1,077
841

2,507
3,540
1,656

80.1
84.1
95.4

980
980
1,071

2,091
2,394
2,858

—

—

—

—

—

52.3
77.9
60.5
58.7

862
1,444
854
1,1^3

1,932
3,342
1,828
2,588

1,145
1,251

2,362
3,386

68.3
74.5

913
1,034

2,213
2,989

89.2
86.8

1,012
1,069

2,512
2,609

57.8
82.9

915
1,176

1,966
3,924

61.7
62.9

1,563
1,157

3,876
2,646

74.7
70.2

869
968

2,675
2,444

75.2
89.7

907
1,034

2,364
2,547

68.2
58.4

1,002
931

2,970
1,944

63.3
58.3

1,203
1,099

2,908
1,795

70.7
66.9

963
702

2,573
690

—

—

—

—

89.8
64.6
80.2

1,032
1,002
772

2,587
1,583
2,157

62.8
56.6
58.8

912
936
1,138

2,147
2,180
2,451

—

2,462

—

Table 3. On-Site Man-Hour Requirements Per $1,000 of School Construction
by Proportion of Lower Skilled Labor Employed 1/ and Region, 1964-65

P ercent o f lower
s k i l l e d workers

United
S ta tes

North
East

North
C entral

South

West

A ll o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ..

72.3

62.8

70 .6

88.7

61.5

61 .8
71.9
86.3
9 9 .2

6 2 .0
64.3

6 6 .0
76.7

2 5 .0
25.1
35.1
45.1

and u n d e r . . . . . . . . .
t o 3 5 .0 ......................
t o 4 5 .0 ......................
and o v e r ....................

75.1
86.3
99 .2

5 7 .0
70 .8

— For purposes o f t h is com parison, la b o r e r s , h e lp e r s , and
ten d ers were co n sid e re d lower s k i l l e d .

Table 4. Percent D is t r ib u t io n o f School P r o je c t s , by Number o f O n-Site
Man-Hours Required f o r Each $1,000 o f C on stru ction C on tra ct,
by R egion, 1964-65

United
S tates

North
East

Average m an-hours................

72.3

62.8

Under 5 5 .0 ...........................
5 5 .0 t o 6 4 .9 ......................
6 5 .0 to 7 4 .9 ......................
7 5 .0 t o 8 4 .9 ......................
8 5 .0 t o 9 4 .9 ......................
9 5 .0 and o v e r ....................

10.1
31 .5
24.1
18.5
7 .4
8 .3

8 .5
57.6
33.9

P ercent group

NOTE:

—
—

---

North
C entral

South

West

70.6

88 .7

61.5

3 .3
36 .7
3 4 .4
22.2
3 .3
---

7 .8
14.7
34 .5
1 9.0
24.1

Because o f rounding, sums o f in d iv id u a l item s may
not equal 100.




11

36 .6
42.3
18.3
2 .8
—

---

Table 5.

On-Site Man-Hour Requirements Per $1,000 of School Construction Contract, by Occupation and Region, 1964-65

Wes t

South

North Central

Northeast

United States
Occupation — ^
Man-hours
worked

Percent

Man-hours
worked

Percent

Man-hours
worked

Percent

Man-hours
worked

Percent

Man-hours
worked

Percent

72.3

100.0

62.8

100.0

70.6

100.0

88.7

100.0

61.5

100.0

General supervisors........
Professional, technical,
and clerical.............

2.3

3.2

2.0

3.2

2.3

3.2

2.6

2.9

2.2

3.6

.3

.4

.8

1.2

.2

.3

.1

.2

Asbestos workers...........
Bricklayers.................
Carpenters..................
Cement finishers...........
Electricians................
Glaziers....................
Lathers.....................
Operating engineers........
Ornamental-iron workers....
Painters....................
Plasterers..................
Plumbers....................
Reinforcing iron workers....
Roofers.....................
Sheet-metal workers........
Soft floor layers..........
Structural-iron workers....
Terrazzo workers and
tile setters.............
Truck drivers..............
Laborers....................
Helpers and tenders........
Custodial workers..........

.6
6.7
11.9
1.4
5.3
.5
.7
2.0
.4
2.5
.7
7.0
.7
1.0
2.5
.4
1.2

.9
9.2
16.5
1.9
7.3
.6
1.0
2.7
.5
3.5
1.0
9.6
.9
1.4
3.4
.6
1.7

.6
6.5
10.1
1.1
5.4
.5
.8
1.7
.6
2.2
.7
6.9
.3
1.0
2.0
.4
1.8

1.0
10.3
16.1
1.8
8.7
.8
1.3
2.6
.9
3.5
1.0
11.0
.5
1.5
3.1
.6
2.8

.9
8.7
10.7
1.3
5.6
.6
.7
1.8
.5
2.5
.6
8.0
1.1
1.3
3.2
.4
1.4

1.3
12.3
15.2
1.9
7.9
.8
1.0
2.5
.6
3.5
.8
11.4
1.5
1.8
4.6
.6
2.0

.5
7.3
12.9
1.5
5.0
.5
.7
2.4
.2
2.8
.9
6.5
.6
.9
1.8
.4
.9

.6
8.2
14.6
1.7
5.6
.5
.8
2.7
.3
3.1
1.0
7.3
.7
1.0
2.0
.4
1.1

.5
3.3
14.0
1.4
5.2
.3
.7
2.2
.3
2.5
.8
6.4
.6
1.0
3.2
.5
.'
8

.8
5.4
22.8
2.3
8.4
.5
1.2
3.5
.5
4.0
1.3
10.4
.9
1.7
5.3
.8
1.2

.9
.5
17.2
5.1
.1

1.3
.6
23.8
7.1
.2

1.2
.2
12.2
3.3
.2

1.9
.4
19.4
5.2
.3

1.1
.5
11.9
5.2
(2/)

1.6
.7
16.9
7.4
(2/)

.9
.5
30.2
7.6
.2

1.1
.5
34.1
8.6
.2

.4
.7
10.4
3.3
(2/)

.7
1.1
16.9
5.4
(2/)

Other.......................

.5

.7

.4

.6

.3

.5

.6

.6

.6

.9

All occupations................

---

•I^Working foremen and apprentices are included with journeymen.
.2/Less than 0.05 percent.
NOTE:




Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not add to totals.

...

Table 6.

Percent of Apprentices Employed on School Construction Projects
Occupation and by Region, 1964-65 1/

O ccupation

United
S ta tes

North
East

North
C entral

South

West

4 .1

3 .6

4 .4

3 .5

5 .6

S k ille d trad es o n ly .........

6 .6

5 .1

6 .2

6 .5

8 .1

B r ic k la y e r s .........................
C a rp e n te r s ...........................
Cement f i n i s h e r s ................
E l e c t r i c i a n s ..................
G la z ie r s .................................
L a th ers...................................
O rnam ental-iron w orkers.
P a in t e r s .................................
P l a s t e r e r s . ...........................
Plum bers.................................
R e in fo r c in g -ir o n
w orkers. •........... ...............
R o o f e r s ..................................
Sheet-m etal w ork ers.........
S o ft f l o o r la y e r s ..............
S t r u c t u r a l-ir o n w orkers.
T errazzo workers and
t i l e s e t t e r s ....................

5 .8
4 .6
1.5
15.1
5 .6
8 .0
.5
4 .8
7 .2
8.9

9 .6
3 .9
.6
14.3
9 .3
2 .0

6.1
1 .6
2.3
10.4

3 .0
4 .8
(2 /)
16.7
5 .5
8 .2
1 .4
2 .8
10.9
11.1

6 .7
6 .2
4 .1
16.8
6 .5
19.7

1 .7
3 .4
14.9
1 .8
.9

3 .7
2 .8
16.9
10.2
5 .0

A11 workers ••••................ •••

—

.8
—

3 .3
.4
2.3

1.6
4 .5
13.2
5 .9

—

—

9 .8
—
11.6
—

7 .5
2 .4
3 .4

1 .0

—

2 .8

---

5 .5
14.0
9 .0
—

4 .9

4 .4

U Based on data from f e d e r a lly aided s ch o o l p r o je c t s o n ly .
i=/Less than 0.05 p e r ce n t.




13

—

5 .0
8 .5
8 .6

———

Table 7.

Average Number of Contractors Per School Construction Project
by Cost Group and Region, 1964-65

Cost group
( in thousands)

United
S ta tes

North
East

North
C entral

South

West

A ll g rou p s......... .....................

26

27

27

21

33

$500,000 and u n d e r . , . . .
$500,001 to $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
$ 1 ,000 ,0 01 and o v e r . . . .

22
25
33

22
23
34

23
24
36

19
23
23

28
30
49

Table 8. P ercent o f T o ta l O n-S ite Man-Hour Requirements f o r School
C o n stru ctio n , by Type o f C on tractor and R egion, 1964-65

Type o f c o n tr a c to r

United
S ta tes

North
East

North
C entral

South

West

A ll t y p e s .................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

4 2 .0
7 .8
9 .6
3 .2
3 .6
14.8

3 7 .6
8 .8
10.8
2 .7
3 .3
14.0

36 .7
8.3
10.5
4 .0
3 .0
17.1

45 .5
6 .9
10.7
2 .8
4 .1
13.5

42.3
8 .4
5 .9
3 .6
3 .0
16.2

3 .1

3 .0

2.9

3 .7

2 .2

2 .9

4 .2

2 .8

2 .4

2.9

2 .4
2 .4
8 .3

4 .4
2 .6
8 .5

3 .0
2 .8
8 .9

1.3
2 .3
6 .8

2 .6
1.9
10.9

G eneral. ...............................
E l e c t r i c a l ...................... .. •
Masonry.................................
P a in tin g ...............................
P la s te r in g and la th in g .
Plumbing and h e a t i n g ...
R oofin g and sheet
m e t a l................................
S it e p rep a ra tion and
e x c a v a tio n ......................
S tru ctu ra l and
ornamental w o r k . . . . . .
T ile and te r r a z z o work.
A ll oth er t y p e s ................




14

Table 9.

Average On-Site Earnings on School Construction Projects, by Selected Characteristics and Region, 1964-65

United States

Characteristics

Average Wages as a
percent of
hourly
earnings contract

Northeast

North Central

Average Wages as a Average Wages as a
percent of
percent of hourly
hourly
earnings contract
earnings contract

South

West

Average Wages as a
percent of
hourly
earnings contract

Average Wages as a
percent of
hourly
earnings contract

$3.57

25.8

$4.18

26.2

$3.86

27.2

$2.70

23.9

$4.27

26.3

Elementary.....................
Secondary......................

3.77
3.48

25.2
26.1

4.29
4.1-3

25.4
26.6

4.02
3.80

27.0
27.3

2.88
2.62

23.1
24.3

4.49
4.16

26.0
26.4

In a metropolitan area.;......
Not in a metropolitan area.....

3.87
3.23

26.2
25.3

4.41
3.83

27.2
24.8

4.16
3.63

26.5
27.9

2.87
2.56

23.8
24.0

4.32
4.10

27.0
23.9

Construction cost group
(In thousands)
$500,000 and under..........
$500,001 to $1,000,000......
$1,000,001 and over.........

3.40
3.79
3.54

25.0
25.2
26.3

3.93
4.23
4.17

25.2
25.4
26.6

4.09
3.76
3.83

27.4
26.5
27.5

2.79
2.70
2.65

23.4
23.3
24.3

4.41
4.32
4.20

25.7
25.1
27.2

Type of framing:
Steel......... ..............
Concrete.....................
Load-bearing masonry........
Wood.........................

3.82
3.49
3.24
4.74

25.7
27.1
24.8
27.8

4.03
(2/)
4.17

25.8
(2/)
24.6
--

3.87
3.66
4.14

27.3
27.5
26.7
--

2.95
2.84
2.52

23.7
23.9
24.0

4.60
3.90
4.11
4.74

24.0
30.4
24.9
27.8

All schools.... ..................

i./ Includes data on both federally aided and non-federally aided projects.
— I Insufficient data to warrant presentation.




Table 10.

Average Number of Weeks Required for Construction of School,
by Cost Group and Region, 1964-65

Cost group

A11 g rou p s•••••••••...........

$500,000 and u n d e r ,.•••
$500,001 t o $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
$1,000,001 and o v e r . . . .




North
East

North
C entral

52

62

51

49

50

40
52
71

36
58
76

40
48
74

41
52
63

39
49
76

United
S ta tes

16

South

West

Table

11.

P ercen t o f O n -S ite Employment f o r S ch ool C o n stru ctio n in Each Tenth o f T o ta l
C on stru ction Time, by R eg ion , 1964-65

3rd
tenth

4th
ten th

5 th
tenth

6 th
ten th

7th
tenth

8 th
tenth

9 th
tenth

Last
tenth

8 .2

10.2

12.0

12.9

14.6

14.0

11.7

8 .6

3 .5

4 .9
8 .6
8 .8
9 .3

8 .0
9 .1
10.7
11.7

11.8
11.1
13.0
10.6

13.7
11.7
13.3
12.2

15 .5
13.1
14.5
15.0

14.9
14.4
14.0
13.0

13.1
13.8
11.0
10.5

10.7
9 .2
7 .5
8 .8

3 .7
3 .8
3 .1
4 .1

1st
tenth

2nd
tenth

U nited S t a t e s ....................

4 .3

N o rth e a s t......................
North C e n tr a l.............
S ou th ...............................
W est..................................

3 .6
5.1
4 .0
4 .9

R egion

1/ Based on data from fe d e r a lly a id ed s c h o o ls o n ly .
NOTE:




Because o f rounding, sums o f in d iv id u a l item s may n ot equal 1 00 .0.

Table 12.

Total Man-Hour Requirements Per $1,000 of School
Construction, 1964-65

T ota l
man-hours

Primary
man-hours

|

Secondary
man-hours

A ll s e c t o r s ...................................

198.0

144.2

j

53.7

O n -s ite c o n s t r u c t io n ...........
O f f - s i t e c o n s t r u c t io n .........
A g r i c u l t u r e ,. ............. ............
M ining..........................................
Manufactur in g ..........................
Lumber p r o d u c ts ..................
F u rn itu re ...............................
P aper.......................................
P r in t in g .................................
C hem ical.................................
S ton e, c la y , and g la s s
p r o d u c ts .............................
Primary m e ta ls ....................
F a b rica ted metal
p r o d u c ts .............................
M achinery...............................
E l e c t r i c a l p r o d u c ts .........
Instrum ents..........................
Other and u n a llo c a t e d ...
T r a n sp o r ta tio n ........................
Trade............................................
S e r v ic e s .....................................
O th er............................................

72.3
9 .8
2 .6
3 .2
64.9
5 .5
2 .3
2 .5
1.1
1.7

72.3
9 .0
.2
.7
37 .7
3 .0
2 .1
.9

In du stry s e c t o r

NOTE:




.2

.8
2 .4
2 .5
27.1
2 .4
.2
1.6
1.1
1 .5

11.7
9 .5

9 .3
2 .3

2 .4
7 .2

13.0
5 .2
5.1
1.8
5 .5
8 .3
22 .0
6 .5
8 .4

10.2
2 .7
3 .0
1 .4
2 .6
3 .8
17.3
1.1
2 .2

2 .8
2 .5
2 .1
.4
2 .9
4 .6
4 .7
5 .4
6 .2

—

Because of rounding, totals may not equal sums of individual
items.

18

Table 13.

Total Cost of Material Components for Each $1,'

of School Construction Contract, by Region, 1964-65

Northeast

North
Central

South

$542.00

$495.90

$569.30

$567.50

$523.90

$130.00

$113.20

$139.80

$154.00

$101.30

Cement, concrete, and gypsum products.........
Ready-mix concrete..........................
Concrete block..............................
Precast concrete products...................
Gypsum products.............................
Cement......................................
Concrete pipe...............................
Miscellaneous aggregate.....................

71.40
32.90
14.10
10.80
5.10
5.00
1.50
1.30

64.20
31.00
15.00
7.10
5.10
3.30
.40
1.80

70.90
30.00
19.30
9.30
3.70
4.80
2.50
.70

86.80
38.90
13.40
21.00
4.80
5.20
1.20
1.40

57.30
30.20
7.20
1.60
7.40
7.00
2.00
1.50

Structural clay products......................
Brick and structural tile...................
Ceramic tile................................
Clay sewer pipe.............................
Terrazzo....................................

27.50
19.60
5.00
1.50
1.30

24.60
17.30
6.20
.30
.80

31.20
20.50
4.50
3.40
2.70

35.40
26.90
5.90
1.20
1.00

14.00
9.80
2.60
1.20
.40

Other stone, clay, and glass products.........
Sand and grave1.............................
Accoustical tile 1 / .........................
Fiber glass products, except accoustical tile
Window glass................................
Cut stone...................................
Asphalt tile................................

31.20
8.40
7.80
6.00
3.70
2.20
1.70

24.30
4.70
5.90
5.20
3.00
2.70
.70

37.60
12.00
8.10
7.40
4.50
3.10
1.50

31.80
7.80
8.10
6.00
3.40
2.10
3.00

30.00
9.30
9.10
5.00
3.90
.40
1.10

Metal products (except plumbing and heating)....

134.60

119.60

147.70

149.20

113.70

Fabricated structural metal products..........
Structural steel............................
Reinforcing bars and joints.................
Fabricated sheet metal......................
Metal windows...............................
Metal doors.................................
Ornamental metal............................
Registers, grills, diffusers...............
Wire mesh...................................

100.70
32.70
28.30
19.00
7.70
7.60
2.10
1.90
1.10

90.40
35.80
20.50
15.60
8.30
4.40
3.50
.90
1.00

109.10
32.40
34.90
17.20
7.30
9.90
3.30
2.10
1.70

116.40
35.50
38.70
20.90
9.60
8.00
.40
2.00
.90

78.60
24.70
13.50
22.60
4.60
8.00
1.60
2.40
.70

Other fabricated metal products...............
Builder's hardware..........................

13.60
11.40

13.20
9.10

12.60
11.10

14.60
14.00

14.00
10.60

Other metal products..........................
Partitions, lockers, and shelves............
Copper products.............................
Aluminum sheet metal........................
Galvanized sheet metal......................

20.20
7.50
6.20
2.80
2.60

16.00
5.60
5.40
2.90
1.50

26.00
8 .5 0
7 .0 0
4 .9 0
4 .6 0

18.20
8.40
6.20
.70
1.80

21.10
7.40
6.30
3.00
2.90

Selected products and product groups

All products

Stone, clay, and glass products................

See footnote at end of table.




United
States

West

Table 13.

Total Cost of Material Components for Each $1,000 of

Selected products and product groups

Construction Contract, by Region,

United
States

Northeast

North
Central

1964-65 - continued

South

West

$ 39.00
11.20
10.20
6.90
6.00
1.70
1.10

$ 37.90
9.30
10.20
7.20
5.40
1.70
1.50

$ 40.00
12.40
8.70
7.20
1
6.50
2.50
1.10

$ 38.30
13.20
9.00
7.00
5.60
1.40
1.20

$ 39.80
8.90
13.70
6.20
6.70
1.00
.50

Heating and ventilating equipment......
Radiators, convectors, and boilers....
Unit heaters and ventilators.........
Air-conditioning equipment...........
Temperature controls.................
Blowers, exhaust, and ventilating fans
Oil burners..........................

51.90
17.70
11.40
9.20
7.30
4.20
1.40

48.80
19.30
12.40
2.40
7.40
3.10
3.40

54.00
22.70
6.40
8.30
9.20
5.60
.90

56.40
13.60
13.80
16.60
6.60
4.30
.90

46.40
15.60
13.10
7.40
5.70
3.60
.50

Electrical equipment, fixtures, and wire
Lighting fixtures....................
Switchboards and panelboards.........
Conduit............................ . .
Wire and cable.......................
Intercom and fire alarm and sound....
Current-carrying wiring devices......
Noncurrent-carrying wiring devices....
Clock system.........................
Transformers.........................

52.90
20.20
7.80
6.40
5.80
5.20
2.40
1.60
1.30
1.10

48.50
17.00
5.20
6.70
5.80
7.00
1.40
.90
1.40
1.20

51.20
20.10
7.60
5.70
5. 10
4.40
3.00
2.00
1.80
.80

51.60
21.20
8.00
6.20
5.70
3.80
2.00
1.70
1.00
1.50

62.40
22.90
10.90
7.30
7.00
6.10
3.30
1.70
.90
.60

Lumber and lumber products.............
Millwork.............................
Roughed dressed lumber...............
Wood fiber board.....................
Folding partitions and doors.........
Flooring.............................
Structural laminates.................
Plywood..............................

50.90
21.50
12.00
6.20
4.30
2.60
2.20
1.90

42.90
16.60
12.10
3.20
4.40
3.20
2.00
1.00

46.10
17.70
7.20
10.10
5.70
2.30
1.70
1.30

48.50
26.30
7.30
7.50
2.80
3.00
1.40

70.60
25.00
25.40
2.90
4.60
1.50
6.40
4.70

Petroleum products.....................
Asphalt paving.......................
Aspahlt and tar pitches..............
Asphalt felts........................
Gas, oil, grease, diesel fuel........

12.30
5.20
3.00
2.90
1.10

11.50
4.20
3.00
3.20
1.10

12.80
6.50
2.80
3.00
.40

12.70
4.20
3.60
2.90
2.00

11.90
6.20
2.60
2.60
.50

Fixed school equipment.................
Kitchen equipment....................
Laboratory equipment.................
Seats and built-in furniture.........
Chalkboards and tackboards...........
Shop equipment.......................
Metal cabinets.......................

36.60
12.70
6.60
5.00
4.40
2.60
2.10

40.00
14.20
10.70
3.50
4.10
1.90
1.20

50.20
18.30
7.60
9.30
4.80
6.40
1.80

26.80
10.60
4.10
2.30
4.70

29.90
6.80
3.70
5.40
4.00
1.80
3.70

Plumbing products......................
Plumbing fixtures....................
Steel and galvanized pipe............
Cast-iron pipe.......................
Valves and specialties...............
Pumps................................
Storage tanks........................

°

See footnote at end of table.




—

—

2.10

Table 13.

Total Cost of Material Components for Each $1,000 of School Construction Contract, by Region, 1964-65 - continued

Selected products and product groups

Paints and other chemical compounds................................
Paints...........................................................
All other..........................................................
Construction equipment...........................................
Vinyl asbestos tile..............................................
Skylights........................................................

i/ Includes all types of acoustical
NOTE:




tile

United
States

$

5.20
4.50
28.50
15.30
4.40
1.00

Northeast

$

4.70
4.00
28.90
15.20
4.50
1.20

North
Central

South

$

$

5.80
4.80
21.80
10.70
4.80
.70

some of which does not belong in this general classification.

Group totals include products not shown separately.

6.20
5.40
23.80
11.30
3.70
1.20

West

$

3.60
3.30
44.30
27.40
4.80
.90

A PPE N D IX:

SCOPE AND M ETHOD OF

S u rv e y C r i t e r ia

data w e r e ob tain ed by the BLS f ie l d r e p r e ­
s en tative f r o m the p r i m e c o n t r a c t o r and his
s u b c o n t r a c t o r s . F or a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m ­
b e r of s u b c o n t r a c t o r s who w e r e out of
b u s i n e s s or o t h e r w is e i n a c c e s s i b l e , u n c o ­
op era tiv e, or whose con tra cts w ere e x c e e d ­
in g ly s m a l l , e s t i m a t e s of m a t e r i a l s u s e d
w e r e p r e p a r e d on the b a s is of r e p o r t s f o r
s i m i l a r j o b s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3000 c o n t r a c ­
t o r s w e r e c o n t a c t e d to obtain the n e c e s s a r y
l a b o r and m a t e r i a l data.

This study is b a s e d on data c o v e r i n g 103
c o n t r a c t s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s c h o o l s .
Of t h e s e , 58 w e r e f e d e r a l l y - a i d e d s c h o o l
p r o j e c t s f o r w h ich o n - s i t e p a y r o l l data w e r e
r e a d i l y a v a i la b le . The r e m a i n in g 45 s c h o o l s
w e r e s e l e c t e d th rou g hou t the 48 con tig u ou s
States to give an o p tim u m g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i ­
bution. Both g r o u p s of s c h o o l s w e r e s e l e c t e d
to give p r o p e r r e p r e sen tation of fo u r f a c t o r s
w h ich w e r e c o n s i d e r e d s ig n ific a n t in m a n ­
h ou r r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s e w e r e r e g i o n a l
d is t r i b u t io n , type of s c h o o l ( e l e m e n t a r y o r
s e c o n d a r y ) , d e g r e e of u r b a n iz a tio n , and s iz e
of p r o j e c t .

The m a t e r i a l s l is tin g s thus ob tain ed w e r e
c l a s s i f i e d into c a t e g o r i e s ( c o n s is t e n t with
the 4 - d i g i t Standard In d u str ia l C l a s s i f i ­
ca tio n ) as found in the C e n s u s o f M a n u fa c ­
t u r e s p r o d u c t g r o u p s . F o r e a c h of th ese
g r o u p s , the a v e r a g e am ou nts r e q u i r e d f o r
$1,000 of c o n s t r u c t i o n w e r e c a l c u la t e d . E a c h
o f th ese a v e r a g e s was r e d u c e d by a r a t io
r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n the
m a n u f a c t u r e r ’ s and c o n t r a c t o r ’ s va lu a tion .
The am ou nts thus r e d u c e d w e r e c o n s i s t e n t
with C en su s data p u b lis h e d f o r th es e v a r i o u s
com ponents.

The p r o j e c t s w e r e w eigh ted to give fa i r
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a bove f a c t o r s b a s e d
on the d is t r i b u t io n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
s c h o o l s c o n s t r u c t e d in 1963.
M a n -h o u r E s t im a t e s
E s t im a t e s o f tota l m a n - h o u r r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts f o r s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e d e r i v e d
by c o m b i n in g e s t i m a t e s of o n - s i t e and o f f ­
site m a n - h o u r s .

P r i m a r y m a n - h o u r s f o r m a n u fa ctu rin g
m a t e r i a l s ( i . e . , the h ou rs r e q u i r e d in the
fin a l m a n u fa ctu rin g stage) w e r e d e v e lo p e d
by m u ltip ly in g th es e a v e r a g e a m ou nts by a
r a t i o of m a n u fa ctu rin g m a n - h o u r s to $1,000
of p r o d u c tio n . T h e s e r a t i o s w e r e c o m p u te d
f r o m the output and e m p lo y m e n t data in the
1964 S u rv ey of M a n u fa c tu r e s .

O n - s i t e m a n - h o u r s f o r the f e d e r a l l y a id ed p r o j e c t s w e r e obtained f r o m p a y r o l l s
s u b m itte d by the c o n t r a c t o r s u n der the p r o ­
v i s i o n s of the D a v i s - B a c o n A ct. T h e s e w e r e
c h e c k e d f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s by in t e r v i e w s with
the c o n t r a c t o r s and th eir s u b c o n t r a c t o r .
E s t im a t e s w e r e m ade f o r unobtainable
m i s s i n g data. M a n -h o u r s f o r the oth er p r o j e c t s w e r e obtained by i n t e r v i e w with the
p r i m e c o n t r a c t o r and his s u b c o n t r a c t o r s .
The c o n t r a c t o r s w e r e a l s o r e q u e s t e d to f u r ­
n is h o n - s i t e e m p lo y m e n t data f o r o c c u p a ­
tion s not c o v e r e d by the D a v i s - B a c o n A ct,
s u ch as s u p e r v i s o r y , t e c h n i c a l, and c l e r i c a l
p e r s o n n e l , and s e l f - e m p l o y e d s u b c o n t r a c ­

P r i m a r y m a n - h o u r s f o r trad e and t r a n s ­
p o r t a t io n w e r e d e r i v e d in a s i m i l a r m a n n e r .
H e r e , h o w e v e r , e m p lo y m e n t r a t i o s w e r e
a p p lie d to the d i f f e r e n c e betw een p r o d u c e r ’ s
and p u r c h a s e r ’ s va lu a tion , wh ich was taken
as the total of a ll d is t r i b u t io n c o s t s b etw een
the s ite s of fin a l m a n u f a c t u r e
and
c o n s tr u c t io n .

t o r s (w o rk in g p r o p r i e t o r s ) .

T o c o m p u te s e c o n d a r y m a n - h o u r s to
p r o d u c e the m a t e r i a l s ( i . e . , h ou rs r e q u i r e d
in all s ta g e s of p r o d u c t i o n oth er than fin a l
m a n u fa c tu r e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , the 1958
in t e r i n d u s t r y study by the O f f i c e of B u s i n e s s
E c o n o m i c s o f the U.S. D e p a r tm e n t of C o m ­
m e r c e was u s e d . Th is study in d i c a t e s the
a m ou n t o f s e c o n d a r y p r o d u c t o r s e r v i c e

O ff-s ite m a n -h ou r req u irem en ts r e p r e ­
sent c h i e f l y the h ou rs r e q u i r e d to p r o d u c e
and d is tr ib u t e the m a t e r i a l s , s u p p li e s , and
e q u ip m e n t u s e d in the c o n s t r u c t i o n . E s t i ­
m a tio n of th e s e h o u r s , t h e r e f o r e , b egan with
a l is tin g o f the va lu e o f a ll su ch item s. T h e s e




SURVEY

22

r e q u i r e d of e a c h of its 78 in d u s tr y s e c t o r s
to p r o d u c e the p r i m a r y p r o d u c t . Su m m in g
th e s e am ou nts and a pp lyin g the a p p r o p r i a t e
e m p l o y m e n t r a t i o s p r o d u c e d the n u m b e r of
s e c o n d a r y m a n - h o u r s r e q u i r e d in e a c h of
the s e c t o r s .
T w o oth e r m i n o r c o m p o n e n t s w e r e r e ­
q u i r e d to c o m p l e t e the c o m p i l a t i o n of total
o f f - s i t e h o u r s as d e fin e d f o r this s e r i e s o f
s tu d ie s . One o f th es e is the h o u rs r e q u i r e d
to p r o d u c e the c o n t r a c t o r s * p u r c h a s e s of
o v e r h e a d m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s . The q u a n ­
tit ie s of th e s e i t e m s w e r e e s t im a t e d and
in c lu d e d in the m a n - h o u r c o n v e r s i o n s ju s t
d e s c r i b e d . The o th e r is the h ou rs w o r k e d
b y the o f f - s i t e e m p l o y e e s of the c o n s t r u c ­
tion in d u s try . The e s t im a t e f o r th e s e h ou rs
is b a s e d on the d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n the p r o ­
p o r t i o n of a ll n o n c o n s t r u c t io n w o r k e r s in the
c o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s tr y as r e p o r t e d
in the B LS e m p l o y m e n t trend s e r i e s , and the
p r o p o r t i o n of o n - s i t e n o n c o n s t r u c t io n m a n ­
h o u r s as d e v e l o p e d in this study.




A r e a D efin ition

The study c o v e r e d on ly p u b lic s c h o o l
c o n s t r u c t i o n , e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y , in
the 48 co n tig u o u s S tates. T h ey w e r e g r o u p e d
f o r r e g i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s as f o l l o w s :

N o r t h e a s t - - C o n n e c t i c u t , M a in e, M a s s a ­
ch u s e tts , N ew H a m p s h i r e , N ew J e r s e y , N ew
Y o r k , P e n n s y lv a n ia , R h ode Is la n d , and V e r ­
m o n t; N orth C e n t r a l - - I l l i n o i s , Indiana, Iowa
K a n s a s , M ic h ig a n , M in n e so ta , M i s s o u r i ,
N e b r a s k a , N o r th Dakota, O h io, South Dakota
and W i s c o n s i n ; S o u t h - - A l a b a m a , A r k a n s a s ,
D e l a w a r e , D i s t r i c t of C o lu m b ia , F l o r i d a ,
G e o r g i a , K en tu c k y , L o u is ia n a , M a ry la n d ,
M i s s i s s i p p i , N orth C a r o li n a , O k la h o m a ,
South C a r o li n a , T e n n e s s e e , T e x a s , V ir g i n i a ,
and W est V ir g i n i a ; and We s t - - A r i z o n a ,
C a l i f o r n i a , C o l o r a d o , Idaho, M on tan a, N e ­
va d a , N ew M e x i c o , O r e g o n , Utah, W a s h ­
ington , and W y o m in g .




OTHER A V A I L A B L E BLS P U B L IC A T IO N S ON
C O N STRU C TIO N LA B O R R E Q U IR E M E N T S 1 /
B ulletin
num ber
1299
1331
1340
1390

1402
1404
1441
1490

P rice
L a b o r R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r S ch o o l C o n s t r u c t io n ,
50 p p .................................................................................................................
L a b o r R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r F e d e r a l O ffic e
Building C o n s t r u c t io n , 43 p p ..................................................
L a b o r R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r H os p ita l C o n s t r u c t io n ,
46 p p .................................................................................................................
L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r C iv il
W ork s C o n s t r u c t io n by the C o r p s of
E n g in e e r s , 28 p p ................................................................
L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r P u b lic
H ousing C o n s t r u c t io n , 42 p p ................................................................
L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r P r iv a t e
O n e - F a m i l y H ouse C o n s t r u c t io n , 37 p p ..................................
L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r C o l l e g e
H ousing C o n s t r u c t io n , 34 p p .................................................................
L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r S ew er
W ork s C o n s t r u c t io n , 31 p p ....................................................................

35£
35£
35£

30£
30£
30£
30£

BLS R e p o r t
n u m b er
29$

L a b o r and M a t e r ia l R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r
C o n s t r u c t io n of F e d e r a l l y A id ed H ighw a ys,
1958, 1961, and 1964, 17 p p ..........................................................

Free 2 j

1 / Sales p u b lica tio n s m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S uperintendent o f D o c u m e n t s ,
W ashington, D .C ., 20402, or f r o m r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s of the B ureau of L a b o r S ta tis tics
at the a d d r e s s e s shown b e lo w .
2 j F r o m Bureau of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , W ashington, D .C ., 20212 or any of the
o f f i c e s lis t e d b e lo w .
R e g io n a l O f f i c e s

N ew England R e g io n
1 6 0 3 - A F e d e r a l Building
G o v e rn m e n t C e n te r
B oston , M a s s . 02203

M iddle Atlantic R e g io n
341 Ninth Avenue
New Y o r k , N .Y . 10001

N orth C e n tr a l R e g io n
219 South D e a r b o r n St.
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Southern R e g ion
1371 P e a c h t r e e
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Mountain P la in s R e g io n
911 Walnut S treet
K a n sa s C ity, M o. 64106

W e s t e r n R e g io n
450 G olden Gate Avenue
B o x 36017
San F r a n c i s c o , C a lif. 94102

? U .S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1968 O - 299-908

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 30 cents