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Labor and Material
Requirements for
Construction of
Private Single-family
Houses
Bulletin 1755

g.S.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1972




Dayton & Montgomery Co,
Public Library
SEP 131972
DOCUMENT COLLECTION




L a b o r a n d M a te r ia l
R e q u ir e m e n ts fo r
C o n s tr u c tio n o f
P r iv a te S in g le - f a m ily
H ou ses
Bulletin 1755

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, S ecretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner
1972

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 40 cents







P re fa c e
The current program of construction labor requirements studies was started in 1959 in
recognition of the need for information on the possible employment generating effects of various
types of construction activities. Several labor requirements studies which were more limited in scope
and content were completed in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Since 1959, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
has conducted a series of studies presenting data on the total amount o f employment and
man-hours, both onsite and offsite, per dollar of construction expenditure and per square foot of
space. The studies provide not only detailed occupational, contractor, and man-hours data but also
information on the amount and type of material required. Completed construction studies include
civil and sewer works, college housing, public housing, federally aided highways, Federal office
buildings, elementary and secondary schools, hospitals and nursing homes, and private single-family
houses.
The study of new private single-family housing construction was conducted in cooperation with
the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to evaluate the labor and material
requirements needed to meet the Nation’s housing goals. It is similar to, but not entirely comparable '
with, a study done in 1962. Selective data from the 1962 study are included, however, for
illustrative purposes.
The Bureau is indebted to the more than 4,200 general and special trade contractors who
provided information for this survey, to the Bureau of the Census who provided the sample, and to
HUD who provided guidance and financial assistance.
The study was prepared in the Bureau’s Office of Productivity and Technology by Robert Ball,
assisted by Larry Ludwig and Joseph T. Finn, under the general supervision of Martin Ziegler, Chief,
Division of Productivity Research.




iii




C o n te n ts
Page

Chapters:
I. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................
Scope of survey
.................................................................................................................................
Comparison with Bureau of the Census data
.................................................................................
Nature of the industry
.....................................................................................................................

1
1
1
2

II. Highlights of findings
.................................................................................................................................
Total man-hour requirements
........................................................................................................
Change in onsite man-hour re q u ire m e n ts.........................................................................................
Offsite man-hours
.............................................................................................................................
Other highlights .................................................................................................................................

3
3
3
5
5

III. Onsite man-hour requirements and characteristics of houses
.................................................................
Occupational requirements
.............................................................................................................
Contractor man-hours
.....................................................................................................................
Characteristics of houses
.................................................................................................................

6
6
6
6

IV. Distribution of c o s t s .....................................................................................................................................
Relative cost shares
.........................................................................................................................
Contractor c o s t s .................................................................................................................................
Wages by occupation .........................................................................................................................
Wage share
.........................................................................................................................................
Material costs .....................................................................................................................................

8
8
8
8
8
8

V.

Estimated offsite (indirect) employment requirements ...............................................................................10
Builders’ offsite employment
............................................................................................................. 10
Manufacturing employment ................................................................................................................. 10
Employment in other industries
......................................................................................................... 10

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Man-hour requirements for new private single-family houses, by industry, 1969 and 1962
. . . .
Summary data for new private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
Onsite man-hour requirements for new private single-family houses, by occupation 1969 and 1962 .
Distribution of onsite man-hours for new private single-family houses, by type of contractor, 1969
and 1962
Man-hour requirements for new private single-family house construction, by selected characteristics,
1969 and 1962 ........................................................................................................
Construction costs of new private single-family houses,by selected characteristics, 1969 and 1962
.
Percent distribution of costs, by type of construction, 1959-1969
Distribution of construction costs for new private single-family houses, by type of contractor, 1969 •
Average hourly earnings and average hourly union wage rates paid for new private single-family
houses, by occupation 1969




v

11
11
12
12
13
. 14
15
15
15 .

C o n te n ts -C o n tin u e d
Page

Tables—
Continued:
10. Distribution of on-site wage share of costs for new private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
. . 16
11. Comparison of materials and equipment in new private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
. . . 16
12. Costs and type of materials and equipment in new private single-family houses, 1969
17
13. Surveyed contractors working under labor-management agreement, by type and class of worker
covered, 1969
21
14. Construction workers employed by surveyed contractors in January and July 1969, by type of
c o n tr a c to r .................................................................................................................................................... 21
15. General contractors’ most common obstacles to efficiency, 1969
21
16. Capital improvements included in land value of surveyed houses, 1969
21
17. Prefabricated items included in surveyedhouses, 1969 .............................................................................. 22
18. Distribution of surveyed contractors’ work, by type of construction, 1969
22
Charts: • • •
1. Man-hour requirements per 100 square feet of private single-family house construction, by sector,
1969 and 1962 .................................................................................................................................................. 4
2. Man-hour requirements per $1,000 of private single-family housing construction, by sector, 1969 and
1962
... . 4
• 3. D istrib u tio n ^ construction costs for private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962 .............................9
Appendixes:
A. Survey techniques and methods
.................................................................................................................... 23
B. Procedures used to develop offsite (indirect) man-hour estim a te s.............................................................25
C. Data collection procedures
............................................ .... ~ : .............................................................26
Training
............................................................................................................................................................ 26
Data collection by personal visit
.................................................................................................................... 26
Bibliography of construction labor requirements studies




............................................................................................28

vi

C h a p te r

I.

In tr o d u c tio n

Single-family home building is a major component of
the Nation’s output of goods and services and a major
source of employment. Jobs are created not only at the
site of construction but also in the many manufacturing,
mining, trade, transportation, and service industries
which furnish the materials and services for construc­
tion. This study is the result of a survey of labor and
material requirements for constructing private single­
family houses in 1969 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
under contract with the Department of Housing and
Urban Development.
Labor and material requirements to meet the Nation’s
housing goals were evaluated and employment­
generating effects of new private, single-family housing
were determined. The study shows (1) the amount of
labor time used to complete single-family houses; (2) de­
tailed characteristics by types of houses, contractors,
and occupations; (3) ratios per 100 square feet and per
$1,000 of construction costs in current (1969) and
constant (1962) dollars; (4) the change in direct labor
requirements between this study and the 1962 study;
(5) data on materials used; and (6) total labor require­
ments generated by the manufacture, sale, and delivery
of these materials.

constructed, private single-family units built for sale or
custom built under contract, and costing $75,000 or
less.
Comparison w ith Bureau o f the Census data

The basic sampling frame was developed from Bureau
of the Census data on construction starts and permits
issued for single-family homes during 1968. (See ap­
pendix A.) Since the sample largely reflected permits
issued, construction took place mostly between June
1968 and July 1969; most of the homes were completed
and sold in 1969. Single-family housing in the BLS
sample and the 1969 Census study are compared:
B L S S t u d y 1 C en su s S t u d y 2

Average cost per h o u s e ..............

$22,700

$15.94

$13.45

1622

1640

Average square foot per house

.

1 N e w houses b u ilt f o r sale and cu sto m b u ilt u n d e r c o n tra c t
ex c lu d in g land b u t in c lu d in g selling expenses and change
orders.
2

N e w houses sold e x c lu d in g v a lu e o f im p ro v e d lo t.

The differences between these data can be explained
by several factors:
1. The conceptual basis for the two samples is
different. The Bureau of the Census sample consists of
new houses sold. The BLS sample consists of new houses
built for sale and custom built under contract by a
general contractor. (See Construction Reports,
C25-69-13, Characteristics of New One-Family Homes,
1969, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census, July 1970.
2. Census uses the sales price at the time the contract
is signed or the deposit is made. Thus, subsequent price
changes resulting from charge orders are not reflected.
Furthermore, the Census sales price does not include
cash options, extras, or charges otherwise not included
in the original sales price. On the other hand, BLS
figures include all charge orders before occupancy or the
date of the survey, whichever comes first, and any cash
options or extras in the structure so long as the
construction was done by a contractor and not by an
unpaid worker, such as the owner or member of his

Scope o f survey

The survey is based on a sample of 250 single-family
houses constructed during 1968 and 1969 in the
continental United States. Most of these houses, how­
ever, were completed and sold in 1969. The sample was
stratified by geographic location, estimated cost of
houses, and degree of urbanization where they were
built. Data were collected by fteld agents of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics through personal visits to over 4,200
general and special trade contractors. On the average, 17
contractors were visited for each house; however, the
number of visits (including callbacks) was considerably
larger. (See appendix C.)
Although some data for the 1962 study are included
with this report for illustrative purposes, the two studies
are not comparable. For example, the previous study
covered only FHA and VA approved houses, whereas the
c u rre n t stu d y covers all new, conventionally-




$25,856

Average cost per square foot . . .

1

indicated by the 1967 Census of Construction (the latest
data available.) According to the Bureau of the Census,
the construction industry is made up of almost 800,000
establishments, employs more than 4 million workers
(including proprietors and working partners), and con­
ducts an annual business of more than $101 billion. Over
three-fourths of these establishments gross less than
$250,000 annually, and half make less than $25,000. On
the other hand, less than 1 percent of the establishments
reported receipts of $2.5 million or more and accounted
for more than 38 percent of all receipts.
Homebuilding construction is highly varied, relatively
unmechanized, and requires a labor force which has a
high proportion of manual craftsmen and laborers.
Unskilled and semiskilled workers, for example, con­
stituted 28 percent of the work force for single-family
houses in 1969, and these workers may be on the
increase.
Another characteristic of the industry is seasonality
which causes high unemployment rates for construction
workers and a low number of annual hours for most
crafts. Among surveyed contractors construction
workers averaged 82 percent as much time in January as
in July 1969. (See table 14.)
The industry also is characterized by a multiplicity of
diverse building codes and zoning regulations, widely
varying customs and practices, lack of extensive research
and development, union jurisdictional problems, lo­
calized markets, customized products, and a volatile
money supply sensitive to changes in interest rates. A
full review of these characteristics properly belongs
elsewhere, but these factors do restrict homebuilding,
drive up costs, and bring delays and inefficiencies.

family. These inclusions tend to raise the BLS total unit
cost and man-hours higher than the cost of the census
homes.
3. Census does not include any work on the grounds
around the house. This survey, however, includes all
items in the original contract, such as landscaping,
paving, termite control, and grading. Excluded are out
buildings, fences, swimming pools, and operations for
general land development, i.e., drainage, streets, clearing
of trees, etc.
4. The definition of square footage in the two
surveys was not comparable. For example, the Census
study included square footage for all completely finished
areas, including basements and attics. The BLS survey
had a more restricted definition which included only
livable floor space. (See footnote 4.)
5. The BLS survey excluded modular and sectionalized houses as well as houses which cost over $75,000
(including land), but final averages probably were not
affected.
Nature o f the industry

To maintain perspective, the unique nature of the
homebuilding industry must be kept in mind throughout
this discussion of man-hour and material requirements.
For example, the typical contractor operates a small
firm which has little capital providing only a few housing
units per year, or he works for himself as a special trade
contractor. (General contractors and builders in the
current survey built a median of about 30 houses in
1969.) That this multiplicity of diverse firms of small
average size permeates the construction industry is




2

C h a p te r I I .

H ig h lig h ts O f F in d in g s

Total man-hour requirements. An average new private

Each $1,000 of cost exclusive of land3 generates
about 137 man-hours of labor in all sectors of the
economy. Of these man-hours, 62 are expended in
construction— onsite and the rest offsite, as indicated
52
by table 1. Thus, for every hour of onsite construction
work, an additional 0.2 hour is spent in contractors’
offices and warehouses and 1.4 hours in other industries.
In addition to the direct employment generated in
the construction industry, 75 man-hours of employment
per $1,000 of construction were created in industries
which mine, manufacture, distribute, and sell the ma­
terials used in single-family house construction.
On a square footage basis, each 100 square feet of
livable floor space (calculated area)4 provided 98 man­
hours of construction work— of which were onsite. In
82
other industries, 119 man-hours were created per 100
square feet. (See charts 1 and 2.)
Man-hour requirements for all industries except con­
struction were developed by translating the materials
purchased into man-hours required to mine, process,
transport and distribute the materials used in construc­
tion. These man-hour estimates were derived by first
classifying and aggregating material values by type,
deflating by appropriate price indexes, and applying the
data to input-output tables. Productivity factors were
then used to develop estimates of employment and
man-hours by industry group. (See appendix B.)

single-family house in 1969 required 1,337 onsite
man-hours of labor, 254 offsite man-hours in con­
tractors’ offices and warehouses, and 1,925 indirect
man-hours in industries providing materials and serv­
ices.1 This time is equivalent to about three-fourths of a
man-year for on-site construction workers and slightly
more than a man-year for all other workers—
including
offsite construction employees.
Expanding these findings to reflect total employment
in 1969, private single-family house construction pro­
vided full-time jobs for an estimated 450,000 construc­
tion workers and additional jobs for 74,000 offsite
construction personnel, such as administrators, ap­
praisers, engineers, architects, secretaries, and clerks.
These figures account for over 12 percent of the more
than 4 million workers in construction that year. In
addition, about 561,000 jobs were generated in in­
dustries which provide materials and services.2
1N o t covered b y th e survey w ere con stru ction in sp ection b y
governm ent em p lo y ees, installation s b y pu blic u tility em p loyees,
and labor required for sw im m ing p o o ls, fen ces, and outbuildings.
E xclu d ed from oth er industry m an-hour requirem ents was labor
generated b y m o n ey sp en t b y builders or contractors for taxes
(including payroll taxes) and other overhead item s, such as real
estate com m issions, rent, bon ds, insurance, financing, u tilities
and bu siness services, and legal and professional services. T hese
paym ents probably generate little' direct em p loym en t. E m ploy­
m en t created b y the respending o f w ages and p rofits o f the
workers and their em ployers—th e m ultiplier e ffe c t—w as also
ou tsid e th e scop e o f the study.

Change in onsite man-hour requirements. A comparison

of current data with 1962 results reveals a decline in
onsite man-hour requirements. This change reflects a
host of economic factors including new processes and
materials, geographic shifts in demand, shifts in types of

2T hese estim ates, although representing o n ly jo b s created b y
n ew h ou ses b u ilt fo r sale and custom -b uilt under contract,
actually a ccou n ted for th e vast m ajority o f jo b s in private
single-fam ily hou sing con stru ction , because th e other major
grouping, ow ner-built hou ses, probably provides few on site and
o ffsite con stru ction jo b s. I f the e ffe c ts o f ow ner-built hou ses
were in clu d ed in these calculations, single-fam ily hom ebuilding
w ou ld a cco u n t for an estim ated 15 percen t o f all construction
jo b s in 1 9 6 9 . In industries providing m aterials or services,
how ever, perhaps o n e-fifth m ore jo b s w ou ld be created w h en
ow ner-built h o u ses are included. A lth ou gh ow ner-built h ou ses
m ake up a b ou t Qne-fourth o f all single-fam ily hom es, th ey tend
to b e smaller and less expensive; th u s, th e value o f m aterials
w ou ld be proportionately less. E stim ates were derived b y using
1 ,8 0 0 hours a year for on site con stru ction w orkers and 2 0 8 0
hours for o th er w orkers.




C o n s tr u c tio n co st refers to th e cost o f th e h ou se exclusive
o f th e price o f im proved lo t and any closin g costs, and includes
on site and indirect labor, m aterials, overhead and profit, and
selling expenses. A lso included are the cost o f change orders
execu ted after th e initial contract and b efore occu p an cy or tim e
o f survey, w hichever cam e first.
4 Livable Space (calculated area) as used through out this
report is d efin ed as all living spaces in th e h ou se above basem ent
or fou n d ation from ou tsid e surfaces o f exterior walls. E xclu ded
are all space in garage and finish ed attic covering less than 5 0
percent o f ground floor area, and any area w h ich has a ceiling o f
less than 5 feet.

3

C h a rt 1

M an-H our R eq u irem e n ts P er 100 S q u a re F e e t o f P riv a te S ingle-F am ily
H ousing C o n stru ctio n , by S e c to r, 1 9 6 9 and 1962

M a n -H o u rs
50

C o n s tru c tio n
On-site

Off-site

------------------— ----- -— -------------- ----------- ----------M a n u fa c tu rin g

W holesale tra d e , trans­
p o rta tio n an d services

1 9 6 9

M in in g and o th e r
1 9 6 2

C h a rt 2

M an-H our R e q u ire m e n ts P er $1,000 of P riv a te S ingle-F am ily
H ousing C o n stru ctio n , by S e c to r, 1 9 6 9 an d 1 9 6 2

M an -H o u rs
50

100

C o n s tru c tio n

M a n u fa c tu rin g

W holesale tra d e , trans­
p o rta tio n and services

1 9 6 9

M in in g and o th e r




1 9 6 2

4

housing, and productivity growth. Isolating the effects
of productivity change on labor requirements from these
other factors is extremely difficult.
In addition, the sample in 1962 was considerably
smaller, had only about a third as many respondents,
and was limited to FHA and VA-approved houses
compared with the current study which covers all new,
conventionally-constructed, private, single-family houses
built for sale or custom-built under contract and costing
1 $75,000 or less.
With these limitations, two measures of change in
onsite man-hour requirements were developed: one
based on square footage; the other on constant dollars.
A Bureau of the Census single-family housing price index
was used to deflate the current dollar value.5
On a square footage basis, man-hours per unit of
output declined slightly more than one-half of 1 percent
a year. On a constant (1962) dollar basis— effects of
the
price increases having been removed—
the decline was
almost 2 percent a year, as shown.

faster in

annual

82
64

1962

85
72

change

-0 .6
-1 .9

Since homes built in 1969 have more bathrooms, air
conditioning, and other improvements than those built
in 1962, real value increased substantially faster than
output based on square footage alone. These improve­
ments also required a greater number of man-hours to
install, but the increase in labor time was not propor­
tionate to the rise in real value.
O ffsite man-hours. Although man-hour requirements in

the construction industry declined from the earlier
study, the decline in all other industries was much
sharper and reflected the effects of higher productivity
in the manufacture and distribution of materials as well
as changes in the composition of material inputs. (See
table 1.) Prefabricated materials were used to a greater
extent in the construction of single-family housing, and
as a result jobs were shifted from construction into
manufacturing. Increasing use of ready-made concrete
and gypsum products, for example, creates some new
jobs in the concrete and gypsum industries, but reduces
onsite,labor requirements in construction. Despite this
trend, man-hour requirements are declining considerably
5S ee John C. Musgrave, ‘T h e M easurem ent o f Price Changes
in C on stru ction ,” Journal o f the American Statistical Associa­
tion, Septem ber 1 9 6 9 , pp. 7 7 1 -7 8 6 .
C o m p o u n d e d 6V years to m id -1969 w h en th e m ajority o f
2
h ou ses surveyed w ere com p leted . R ates o f change calculated on
unrounded data.




o th e r industries than in

survey ranged from about $8,000 to $52,000; a
weighted average was $25,856. (See table 2.) Onsite
labor was just over 20 percent of tfiis average; supple­
mental benefits for onsite workers accounted for about
3 percent.
— square feet of livable space averaged 1622 and
ranged from 800 to 3800. Cost per square foot was
$15.94.
— average hourly earnings were $3.94, considerably
less than the union wage scale for comparable occupa­
tions in the building trades because homebuilding is
basically a nonunion activity. About 65 percent of
contractors surveyed, for example, were nonunion.
— builders surveyed constructed a medium of about
30 houses during the fiscal year covered by the study
(i.e., July 1968 through June 1969).
— ninety-six percent of builders surveyed provided
no on-the-job training or registered apprenticeship pro­
grams.
— ninety-one percent of business, in dollar value, of
builders surveyed were in single-family house construc­
tion. (See table 18.)
— most frequently quoted obstacles to efficiency
were: building codes, lack of skilled workers, and
adverse work practices. (See table 15.)
— inclement weather was the most persistent prob­
lem and a major deterrent to house construction.
— most frequently-mentioned prefabricated items
were kitchen cabinets, vanities, preassembled windows,
and prehung doors. (See table 17.)
— average time to build survey houses was about 21
weeks. Several builders encountered delays due to
inclement weather although a few experienced other
drawbacks such as work stoppages.
— overtime was of little consequence and amounted
to less than 1 percent in pay for each worker. Overtime
was used only when absolutely necessary, and then
usually in subcontracts, such as stucco and concrete,
which could not be halted abruptly at the end of a day.
— about 1300 contractors, over 30 percent of the
more than 4,200 general and special trade contractors in
the survey, had labor-management agreements. Of this
number, all workers were covered in about 90 percent of
the agreements. (See table 13.) Nearly all skilled workers
were covered where an agreement was in force.
— the average land value per lot was just under
$5,000 and included utilities, street paving, and sewer
hookup for the majority of houses surveyed. (See table
16.) Community recreation facilities were included for
15 percent of houses.

p e rc e n t
1969

and

Other highlights,. Construction costs of houses in this

A v e ra g e 6

Man-hours per 100 square fe e t ............ .
Man-hours per 1000 constant dollars . .

m a n u fa c tu rin g

c o n s tru c tio n .

5

C h a p t e r I I I . O n s ite M a n - H o u r R e q u ir e m e n t s
a n d C h a r a c te r is tic s o f H o u s e s
study, carpentry man-hours have increased considerably,
while hours worked by general contractors have de­
clined; general contractors are concentrating more of
their efforts on coordinating, financing, and purchasing
while subcontracting more onsite work to carpentry
contractors.
The share of labor input of masonry, concrete,
wallboard, and electrical contractors has increased sub­
stantially since the 1962 study. Increasingly, homeowners’ demand for patios, fireplaces, basements, ga­
rages, more electrical appliances and outlets, and the
substitution of wallboard for plaster have brought about
these shifts in labor.

Occupational requirements. According to the study, 69

percent of the onsite man-hours were worked by skilled
tradesmen, 28 percent by semiskilled and unskilled
workers, and 3 percent by nonproduction employees
(supervisors, engineers, clerks). (See table 3.) Four
major building crafts-carpenters, painters, bricklayers,
and plumbers-accounted for three-fourths of the skilled
employees. Carpenters, the most frequently used occu­
pation, accounted for over one-third of the man-hours at
the site. Over one-fourth of the man-hours were ex­
pended by laborers, helpers, and tenders.
The current study indicates two important trends—
a
decline in the proportion of skilled man-hour require­
ments and an increase in semiskilled and unskilled
man-hours. In a 1947 study, skilled workers provided
76.7 percent of all onsite man-hours for single-family
housing construction.7 This proportion dropped to 73.2
in 1962 and to 68.8 in 1969. The reverse is shown for
laborers, helpers and tenders. The 1947 study indicates
that these workers accounted for 21.2 percent of total
onsite man-hour requirements, which increased to 23.3
percent in 1962 and 27.9 in 1969. To a very large
extent, these trends reflect the greater use of prefab­
ricated materials, which often require less skill to install.
Except for these shifts, the mix of occupational require­
ments showed little change.

Characteristics o f houses. Most of the houses in the 1969

study were located within metropolitan areas and had
one story, a wood frame, basement, two or more
bathrooms, forced air heating, and a garage or carport.
Compared with homes built 7 years earlier, the 1969
home was roomier, had more bathrooms and air condi­
tioning, and was considerably more expensive to build.
The number of onsite man-hours per $1,000 of
construction cost and per 100 square feet was consider­
ably higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metro­
politan areas. (See table 5.) Homes built in metropolitan
areas required 44 man-hours per $1,000 of construction
cost, compared with 79 for nonmetropolitan areas. On a
100 square foot basis, 71 man-hours were required in
metropolitan areas compared with 120 in nonmetro­
politan areas. Higher onsite man-hours in nonmetro­
politan areas also were observed in the earlier study. A
number of factors may contribute to this dif­
ference: the inclusion of more basements and garages,
greater use of wood for exterior wall or framing, the use
of less-skilled workers, and smaller average size homes in
nonmetropolitan areas.
There is a strong inverse correlation between average
hourly earnings and the number of man-hours required
in single-family home construction. That is, as hourly
earnings increase, unit man-hour requirements decrease.

Contractor man-hours. The study found that general

contractors accounted for over 30 percent of the
man-hours in onsite construction, although carpentry
contractors accounted for 17 percent, almost double the
level in 1962. (See table 4.)8 Compared with the earlier
7 Edward M. G ordon, “H om e C on struction : Man-hours b y
O ccu p ation 1 9 4 6 -4 7 ,” Monthly Labor Review, D ecem ber 1 9 4 8 .
8 C lassification o f m an-hours and costs b y major ty p e o f
operation , according to th e Standard Industrial C lassification
(SIC) m eth od , proved d ifficu lt since contractors o ften do several
related jo b s. A con crete subcontractor, for exam ple, freq uently
perform s du ties o th er than con crete w ork, such as fou n d ation s
(a separate SIC grouping) w h ile a carpentry subcontractor also
m ay d o flooring, siding, and roofin g in ad d ition to rough and
finish carpentry. Su ch problem s w ere resolved o n th e basis o f th e
major co m p o n en t o f work perform ed in costs.




In costs, a different pattern emerged. Costs were
higher in metropolitan areas, and tended to increase as
6

increased as the house size increases. Thus, the labor cost
share tends to decline as houses increase in size although
total cost per unit tends to rise as the house size
increases.

earnings increased. (See table 6.) Of course, costs are
determined by other factors in addition to labor.
Although larger houses require fewer man-hours per
square foot and per $1,000 (as measured by number of
stories and bathrooms), total cost per square foot




7

C h a p t e r I V . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C osts
Relative cost shares. Private single-family housing had

hourly wage scales for all unionized building trades. (See
table 9.) This comparison reflects the largely nonunion
status of the private single-family homebuilding industry
(about 65 percent of the contractors in the survey).
Only three occupations in the study approached union
scales: cement finishers, plasterers, and roofers. The
largest difference in scale is between union and non­
union laborers, helpers, and tenders, and is consistent
with the increasing proportion of these workers in
single-family housing construction.

the lowest labor input of any type of construction
studied by the Bureau. (See table 7.) Onsite wages and
salaries, declining slightly as a percent of total house
costs since 1962, represented 20.4 percent of construc­
tion costs in the current study. This decline is the
continuation of a long-term trend from 1947, when
onsite labor was 32.7 percent of total costs.9 Materials
representing the largest share, as in other construction
labor requirements studies except dredging projects, also
declined as a percent of all costs from 47.2 to 43.4
percent. As a percent of total costs, equipment remained
about the same—1 percent. Although not available
separately for the 1962 study, in 1969 supplemental
wage benefits accounted for 2.7 percent and selling
expenses 2.9 percent of total costs. (See chart 3.)10 The
relative share of residual costs, which include construc­
tion financing, inventory, administration, clerical work,
warehousing, other overhead costs, and builders’ and
contractors’ profits, was 29.7 percent. Including supple­
mental wage benefits and selling expenses as in the
previous study, the increase in residual was just over 6
percentage points. Factors contributing to this rise in
the residual share included increased interest rates for
builder loans and increased employer contributions for
unemployment insurance, social security, and fringes,
such as paid vacations and retirement.

Wage share. In 1969, the median onsite wage share of
construction costs, reflecting a slight downward shift
from the earlier study, fell in the 15.1-20.0 percent
category. (See table 10.) Over 18 percent of the houses
had a wage share of over 25 percent, although less than
10 percent had 15 percent and under.
In addition, labor’s share of total cost showed a wider
dispersion in the current study. At the lower end of the
scale, the number of houses in which the onsite labor
share was 15 percent and under increased from 3.0 to
9.8 percent. This increase may reflect a greater improve­
ment in productivity, increasing use of prefabricated
components, and more efficient construction equip­
ment. All of these factors tend to reduce onsite labor
costs. Similarity, at the upper end of the scale, the
number of houses in which labor’s share was 30.1
percent or more of costs increased from 3.0 percent to
4.4. This increase is consistent with the large amount of
building in the South where building is generally more
labor intensive. The sample used for this study reflects
this increased homebuilding activity in the South.

Contractor costs. More than half of the total cost of a
house is paid to the general contractor for materials,
administration, and onsite labor. (See table 8.) Plumb­
ing, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors
make up the second largest group; carpentry contractors
receive a close third. These three types of contractors
account for over two-thirds of the construction cost.

M aterial costs

Wages by occupation. Earnings in the study were
consistently lower for every occupation than the average

Materials and equipment represented $443 per
$1,000 or $707 per 100 square feet. (See table 11.) The
most important materials category was lumber and wood
9Adela L. Stucke, “Labor Share in Construction of New
products (including furniture), accounting for about 18
Houses,” M onthly L abor Review , May 1949.
percent of the total or $180 per $1,000. The second
10 Selling expenses normally would not be included in
most important material grouping was stone, clay, and
construction costs. However, since they were reported in the
glass products (including sand, gravel and dirt fill)
1962 study and cannot be identified or removed, selling
representing $95 per $1,000 of construction cost.
expenses are shown in the 1969 figures for comparison.




8

Chart 3

D is trib u tio n o f C o n s tru c tio n C o s ts fo r S in g le -F a m ily H o u s e s , 1969 a n d 1962

Supplemental
wage benefits1
(2.7%)
Selling expenses
(2.9%)

Supplemental wage benefits (SW8) includes social security (F IC A ), unemployment insurance,
vacation pay, retirement funds, health and life insurance and other fringe benefits for on-site workers.

Materials include cost of supplies, fixed equipment
incorporated into the structures, and major appliances
that were covered by the original construction contracts.
For convenience, the materials tables also include the
rental cost or equivalent value of the construction
equipment used at the site. Equipment accounted for
about $9 per $1,000 of construction.
The dollar values in table 11 reflect changes both in
the physical volume and the relative costs of various
materials. One method for determining relative im­
portance of material utilization is the use of percentage
distributions of the list of materials. Substantial declines
are shown in table 11 for stone, clay, and glass; metal;
and petroleum products. On the other hand, substantial
increases occurred for plumbing products, carpets and




rugs, and plastics products. These trends mirror the
practice of providing more bathrooms, rugs, and carpets,
numerous plastics products such as cold water and
drainage pipes, and interior and exterior plastic wall
panels. Other major groupings remained relatively con­
stant; however, numerous substitutions within these
major groupings took place (as in the use of wallboard
for plaster, both of which are made of gypsum and
classified in the same grouping) for a number of reasons
(i.e., due to prefabrication, relative price changes, new
products, personal preference and scarcity or abun­
dance).
A more detailed breakdown of material is shown in
table 12.

9

C h a p t e r V . E s t i m a t e d O f f s it e ( I n d i r e c t )
E m p lo y m e n t R e q u ir e m e n t^
Offsite employment, which' is estimated from the
materials and equipment used, falls into the following
industry groups: (1) Construction: Builder’s, adminis­
trative, estimating, office and warehousing activities;
(2) manufacturing activities producing fabricated and
raw materials and equipment; (3) transportation, whole­
sale trade, and services: Industries providing ware­
housing, distribution, and sale of materials and equip­
ment; (4) all other industries directly or indirectly
affected by the production and distribution of materials
and equipment. Interindustry transfers ultimately affect
industries such as agriculture, forestry and mining.

studies. Most offsite man-hours represent white-collar
employment, which changes relatively slowly.
Manufacturing em ploym ent Except for onsite construc­

tion, manufacturing constitutes the largest component
of total man-hour requirements in both the current and
the 1962 studies. Thus, the employment effect in this
industry is second only to that in construction. Almost
one-third of all man-hour requirements are accounted
for by manufacturing, but labor requirements are declin­
ing more rapidly in this industry than in construction.
This change in offsite man-hour requirements may
represent changes both in demand for particular ma­
terials and in the industry’s productivity. The same
industries provided most of the offsite man-hours in
manufacturing for both studies: wood and lumber
products; stone, clay and glass products; metal products;
and plumbing products. These four industry groups
accounted for about three-fourths of the man-hours in
manufacturing.

Some workers in architectural firms, utility com­
panies, and State and local governments who contribute
to the construction of private single-family houses are
not covered by this report. (See footnote 1.)

Builders9 offsite em ploym ent Because offsite employ­

ment includes work not only on projects studied but
also on concurrent projects, no attempt was made in this
study to measure directly contractors’ offsite employ­
ment. Instead, builder’s offsite labor was estimated using
published sources. The estimated man-hours for each
$1,000 of construction and 100 square feet of livable
space of single-family house construction were based on
the difference between construction workers’ employ­
ment and total employment in the special trade con­
tractors component of the contract construction in­
dustry for 1969. The level of offsite man-hour require­
ments remained relatively stable between the two




Em ployment in other industries. Wholesale trade, trans­

portation, and services accounted for about 15 percent
of total man-hour requirements. Between the two
studies, this sector declined at a slightly higher rate than
manufacturing. Mining and all other industries represent
about 10 percent of all construction labor requirements.
Although this sector declined more than manufacturing
and transportation, trade and services, the employment
effect is not as great because fewer employees were
involved.

10

Table 1. Man-hour requirements fo r new private single-family houses b y industry, 1969 and 1962
1962'

1969

Per 1,000
current
dollars
of con­
struction

Industry

Per 1,000
constant
(1962)
dollars of
construc­
tion2

Per 100
square
feet

Percent
distri­
bution

Per 1,000
current
dollars
of con­
struction

Per 100
square
feet

202r

238

3 100.0

Percent
distri­
bution

A ll industries...........................

137

169

217

3 100.0

Construction .......................................

62

45.3

84

99

41.6

52
10

76
64
12

98

O nsite.............................................
Offsite.............................................

82
16

38.0
7.3

72
12

85
14

35.6
5.9

Other in d u stries.................................
Manufacturing..............................
Wholesale trade, transportation,
and services.................................
Mining and all o th e r.....................

75
41

92
50

119
65

54.7
29.9

118r
61r

139
72

58.4
30.2

20
14

25
17

32
22

14.6
10.2

31r
26r

36
31

15.3
12.9

1 L a b o r a n d M a t e r i a l R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r P r iv a t e O n e - F a m il y
H o u s e C o n s t r u c t io n (BLS Bulletin 1404, 1964), and M o n t h l y L a b o r
R e v ie w , July 1964, pp. 797-800.

3 Calculated on basis of man-hours per $1,000. Except for
rounding, percent distribution would be the same on a square
footage basis.

2 Deflater used is Bureau of the Census price index for new
single-family houses, rebased to 1962, adjusted to remove value
land, and fitted to mid-1969 when virtually all houses in survey
were sold.




r = revised data
N O T E : Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.

Table 2 . Summary data fo r new private single-family
houses, 1969 and 1962

Characteristics

1969

1962

Cost per square foot. . $15.94
Cost per h ou se............ $25,856
Average hourly
earnings ...............
$3.94
Average square feet
1,622
per h ou se...............

Percent
change

Average
annual
percent
change

$11.76
$14,585

35.5
77.3

4.8
9.3

$3.07

28.3

4.0

30.8

4.3

11

1,240

Table 3. Onsite man-hour requirements for new private single-family houses, b y occupation, 1969 and 1962
M a n -h o u rs p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 o f

M a n -h o u rs p e r 1 0 0

P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n 1

sq u a re fe e t

c o n s tru c tio n c o s t

O c c u p a tio n
1969

A l l o c c u p a t i o n s ....................................

1962

1969

1962

82

85

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1969

1962

52

72

S u p e r v is o r y , p r o fe s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l,
...............................................................

2

3

2 .8

3 .0

1

2

C a r p e n t e r ........................................................................

29

29

3 4 .9

3 4 .6

18

25

P a i n t e r ............................................................................

6

8

7 .3

9 .5

4

7

B r i c k l a y e r ........................................................................

5

5

5 .7

5 .5

3

4

a n d c le ric a l

P l u m b e r ........................................................................

4

4

4 .3

5 .2

2

4

C e m e n t f i n i s h e r ......................................................

2

3

2 .5

3 .9

1

3

E l e c t r i c i a n ....................................................................

2

2

3 .0

2 .8

2

2

P l a s t e r e r a n d l a t h e r .............................................

1

2

1 .7

2 .0

1

1

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r .............................................

1

2

1 .3

1 .8

1

1

R o o f e r . ............................................................................
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r .............................................

1

1

.9

1 .4

(2 )

1

2

1

1 .8

1 .4

1

1

T i l e s e t t e r ........................................................................

1

1

1 .4

1 .0

1

1

S o f t f l o o r l a y e r ......................................................

1

1

.6

.8

(2 )

1

O t h e r s k i l l e d t r a d e .............................................

3

3

3 .3

3 .3

2

2

L a b o r e r ............................................................................

12

13

1 4 .1

1 4 .8

7

11

1 3 .8

8 .5

.5

.5

H e l p e r a n d t e n d e r ..................................................

11

7

T r u c k d r i v e r a n d m i s c . w o r k e r ..................

(2 )

(2 )

1 C alcu lated o n u n ro u n d e d d a ta .
2 Less th a n .5 h o u r.




7

6

(2 )

(2 )

N O TE : D etail m ay n o t ad d to to ta ls d u e to ro u n d in g .

Table 4. Distribution o f onsite man-hours fo r new private
single-family houses by type o f contractor, 1969 and
1962
P e r c e n t o f o n s ite m a n -h o u rs
T y p e o f c o n tr a c to r 1
1969

1962

A l l t y p e s ...........................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

G e n e r a l ..........................................................

3 1 .3

4 5 .6

C a r p e n t r y ......................................................

1 6 .9

9 .4

P lu m b in g , h e a tin g , v e n tila tin g
a n d a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ..................

8 .7

8 .6

P a in tin g a n d p a p e r h a n g in g . . .

6 .5

6 .6

M a so n ry a n d s to n e w o rk

9.0

5.6

. . . .

C o n c r e te a n d s tu c c o w o r k

. . .

7 .2

4 .2

E le c tr ic a l ( e x c e p t h e a tin g )

. . .

3 .7

2 .8

P l a s t e r i n g a n d l a t h i n g .......................

1 .4

2 .6

R o o f i n g a n d s i d i n g ...........................

2 .0

2 .0

C e ra m ic tile , te r r a z z o a n d
m a r b l e w o r k ....................................

2 .2

1 .6

E x c a v a t i o n a n d g r a d i n g ..................

1 .6

1 .6

W o o d f l o o r i n g .........................................

.9

1 .2

O t h e r f l o o r i n g .........................................

1 .6

.8

A l l o t h e r t y p e s .........................................

6 .9

7 .5

W a ll b o a r d ( i n c l u d e d i n
( 4 .0 )

a l l o t h e r ) ...........................

(N .A .)

1 C o n tra c to rs are classified acco rd in g to th e m ajo r c o s t co m ­
p o n e n t o f w o rk since m an y p e rfo rm e d m o re th a n o n e o p e ra tio n .
N O TE : D etail m ay n o t add to to ta ls d u e to ro u n d in g .

12

Table 5. Man-hour requirements for new private single-family houses, b y selected characteristics, 1969 and 1962
M a n -h o u rs p e r
1 0 0 s q u a re fe e t

C h a r a c te ris tic s

M a n -h o u rs p e r
M a n -h o u rs p e r

$ 1 ,0 0 0 o f c o n ­
s tr u c tio n c o s t

1969

1962

82

85

1969

1 0 0 s q u a re fe e t

C h a r a c te ris tic s

1962

1969

1962

M a n -h o u rs p e r
$ 1 ,0 0 0 o f c o n ­
s tru c tio n c o s t
1969

1962

. . .

52

71

81

44

120

100

79

78

. . .

88

55

73

4 b e d ro o m s o r m o re . . .

70

In n o n m e t r o p o li ta n a r e a s .

99

87
76

72

47

67
71

1 a n d 2 b e d ro o m s . . . .

72

In m e t r o p o li ta n a r e a s . . .

112

3 b e d r o o m s . . .......................

A ll h o u s e s

81
Va a n d 1 b a t h r o o m s

$ 3 0 #0 0 0 - o v e r . . . .

81

$ 2 7 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 9 ,9 9 9 . .

75

$ 2 4 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 6 ,9 9 9 . .

78

54

85

55

98

64

77

81

74

49

67

2 % b a th ro o m s o r m o re

.

82

94

50

80

................................

87

. . .

55

75

N o b a s e m e n t ............................

43
99

77
100

2 b a t h r o o m s ...........................

45

. . .

1 Ya b a t h r o o m s .......................

C o n s tr u c tio n p r ic e :

73

—

46

69

78

$ 2 1 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 3 ,9 9 9 . .

88

60

$ 1 8 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 0 ,9 9 9 . .

80

54

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 - $ 1 7 ,9 9 9 . .

102

89

$ 1 2 ,0 0 0 -$ 1 4 ,9 9 9 . .

84

82

72

70

U n d e r $ 1 2 ,0 0 0 . . .

80

72

75

68

72

B a s e m e n t (fu ll a n d
p a rtia l i
73

G a r a g e .............................................

A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s :
$ 5 . 5 0 - o v e r . ..................

79

78

48

67

C a r p o r t .........................................

119

98

88

86

81

98

59

79

N e i t h e r ...........................
3 2 )

5 7 )
64

$ 4 .5 0 -$ 5 .4 9

. . . .

68 f

$ 3 .5 0 -$ 4 .4 9

. . . .

82*

39 >

$ 2 .5 0 -$ 3 .4 9

. . . .

111

92

77

73

U n d e r $ 2 .5 0

. . . .

119

108

111

F ra m in g :

99

56

5 2 /

W o o d ............................

84

86

53

72

M a s o n r y ..................

74

80

42

73

83

E x t e r i o r w a ll m a t e r i a l:
N u m b e r o f sq u a re fe e t:

B r i c k ...........................

2 0 0 0 - o v e r .......................

7 0 )

1 8 0 0 -1 9 9 9

..................

78 (

60 4

1 6 0 0 -1 7 9 9

..................

991

1 4 0 0 -1 5 9 9

..................

103/

1 2 0 0 -1 3 9 9

...................

74

75

45

64

1 0 0 0 -1 1 9 9

..................

94

97

62

78

82

73

97

62

107

82

60

71

63

67

37

60

O t h e r ............................

47 (

88

W o o d ...........................
S t u c c o ...........................

4 5 )

75

82

46

68

6 2 /
I n te r io r w a ll m a te r ia l:
D r y w a l l .......................

sq u a re fe e t . . .

80

78

57

82

80

52

69

P l a s t e r ...........................

U nder 10 0 0

77

107

48

84

68
H e a tin g :

C o n s tru c tio n c o s t p e r

W a r m a i r ...................

$ 1 7 - o v e r .......................

87

83

49

72

109

92

59

E l e c t r i c .......................

45

78

H o t w a t e r ..................

s q u a re f o o t:

90

89

59

75
• • •

85

96

52

77

. . .

114

59

74

59

...........................

75

74

48

71

$ 1 6 - $ 1 6 . 9 9 ...................

88

$ 1 5 - $ 1 5 . 9 9 ...................

71

$ 1 4 - $ 1 4 . 9 9 ..................

86

59

W o o d ...........................

$ 1 3 - $ 1 3 . 9 9 ...................

83

62

A s p h a lt tile .

54
106

46

73

F lo o r c o v e rin g :

$ 1 2 - $ 1 2 . 9 9 ..................

8 1 '

104

65

84

v in y l tile .

$ 1 1 - $ 1 1 . 9 9 ..................

74*

76

65

66

lin o le u m

$ 1 0 - $ 1 0 . 9 9 ..................

69

71

61

67

U n d e r $ 1 0 .0 0

. . .

79

66

91

72

1 s t o r y .................................................

88

57

70

2 0 0 - o v e r ..................

51

62

31

56

S p l i t l e v e l .........................................

79

. ..
____

48

78

1 0 0 -1 9 9

74

76

41

68

2 s t o r i e s . .........................................

73

5 0 - 9 9 . .......................

75

80

48

68

3 s t o r i e s .............................................

61

. ..

U n d e r 5 0 ..................

91

101

59

82

O th e r

A n n u a l b u ild e r v o lu m e :




. . .

44
35

13

..................

Table 6. Construction costs o f new private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
C o n s tru c tio n c o s t
per house

C h a r a c te ris tic s

C o n s tru c tio n c o s t

p e r sq u a re

1962

$ 2 5 ,8 5 6

$ 1 4 ,5 8 5

p er house

C h a r a c te ris tic s

fo o t

1969

A ll h o u s e s . . .

C o n s tru c tio n c o s t

1969

1962

$ 1 5 .9 4

$ 1 1 .7 6

1969

C o n s tru c tio n c o s t
p e r s q u a re
fo o t

1962

. . .

1969

1962

. . .

In m e t r o p o li ta n a r e a s . .

2 7 ,3 6 0

1 4 ,6 5 6

1 6 .1 4

1 1 .6 1

In n o n m e tr o p o lita n a re a s

2 1 ,8 4 8

1 4 ,2 9 6

1 5 .3 1

1 a n d 2 b e d ro o m s . . .

$ 1 5 ,3 8 3

3 b e d r o o m s .......................

2 2 ,0 8 3

$ 1 3 ,9 1 7

1 5 .7 2

$ 1 2 .0 6

4 b e d ro o m s o r m o re . .

3 3 ,3 3 2

1 8 ,1 1 8

1 6 .2 7

1 0 .7 8

$ 1 4 .3 8

1 2 .4 5
Vz a n d 1 b a t h r o o m s ,

. .

1 5 ,8 2 3

1 1 ,9 9 2

1 4 .0 4

1 1 .9 6

1 Vz b a t h r o o m s ..................

C o n s tr u c tio n c o s ts :

2 0 ,5 7 5

1 4 ,9 6 3

1 5 .5 3

1 2 .7 7

$ 3 0 ,0 0 0 -o v e r . . .

3 7 ,7 8 4

1 7 .9 2

2 b a t h r o o m s .......................

2 5 ,3 0 7

1 5 ,4 3 6

1 6 .5 0

1 1 .0 4

$ 2 7 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 9 ,9 9 9 .

2 8 ,1 6 8

1 7 .3 2

2 Y» b a t h r o o m s o r m o r e

3 4 ,3 6 8

2 0 ,1 6 0

1 6 .3 8

1 1 .7 4

$ 2 4 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 6 ,9 9 9 .

2 5 ,4 4 9

$ 2 1 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 3 ,9 9 9 .

2 2 ,3 7 7

1 4 .7 3

$ 1 8 ,0 0 0 -$ 2 0 ,9 9 9 .

2 0 ,0 5 4

1 4 .9 7 *

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 - $ 1 7 ,9 9 9 .

1 6 ,1 3 9

1 6 ,3 2 8

1 4 .1 2

1 2 .2 3

$ 1 2 ,0 0 0 -$ 1 4 ,9 9 9 .

1 3 ,4 8 8

1 3 ,5 3 7

1 1 .6 9

1 1 .6 4

U n d e r $ 1 2 ,0 0 0 . .

1 0 ,1 7 5

1 0 ,6 2 3

1 0 .6 4

1 0 .5 4

2 1 ,9 4 9

1 4 .4 5

1 2 .7 6
B a s e m e n t (ful l a n d
p a r t i a l ) ............................

2 5 ,9 1 2

1 5 ,7 9 2

1 5 .9 4

1 2 .9 6

N o b a s e m e n t .......................

2 5 ,7 4 3

1 3 ,5 3 4

1 5 .9 4

1 0 .7 5

G a r a g e .........................................

2 8 ,4 0 1

1 5 ,1 0 8

1 6 .3 9

1 1 .6 7

C a r p o r t ....................................

1 9 ,2 8 6

1 3 ,1 0 3

1 3 .5 7

1 1 .3 5

N e i t h e r ....................................

1 5 ,1 6 1

1 4 ,1 2 2

1 3 .8 8

1 2 .4 0

W o o d .......................

2 5 ,7 1 4

1 4 ,7 1 3

1 5 .7 2

1 1 .8 8

M a so n ry

2 6 ,7 4 2

1 3 ,7 9 2

1 7 .4 2

1 1 .0 2

A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s :
$ 5 .5 0 -o v e r. . . . .

2 8 ,7 7 6 )

$ 4 .5 0 -$ 5 .4 9

. . .

2 9 ,5 9 9 >

$ 3 .5 0 -$ 4 .4 9

. . .

2 7 ,4 1 5 /

$ 2 .5 0 -$ 3 .4 9

. . .

2 1 ,1 9 3

1 5 ,2 7 4

1 4 .3 9

1 2 .6 0

U n d e r $ 2 .5 0

. . .

1 3 ,8 5 6

1 3 ,2 0 0

1 0 .8 0

1 0 .9 0

1 7 .9 9 )
1 4 ,7 6 5

1 7 .2 1 >

1 1 .5 0

F ram e:

1 5 .6 8 /

. . . .

E x t. w a ll:
N u m b e r o f sq u a re fe e t:

B r i c k .......................

2 3 ,8 6 2

1 4 ,7 7 7

1 4 .2 5

1 1 .7 0

2 0 0 0 - o v e r ...................

3 6 ,6 3 8 }

1 5 .5 2 }

W o o d .......................

3 1 ,1 3 0

1 2 ,7 8 6

1 7 .9 1

1 1 .9 8

1 8 0 0 -1 9 9 9

. . . .

3 0 ,9 1 9 \

1 6 .5 U

S t u c c o .......................

2 7 ,0 6 0

1 4 ,9 4 0

1 7 .0 9

1 1 .1 5

1 6 0 0 -1 7 9 9

_______

2 8 ,2 4 4 1

O th e r

.......................

2 4 ,7 0 8

1 5 ,1 0 6

1 6 .4 2

1 1 .9 8

D r y w a l l ...................

2 5 ,8 4 9

1 4 ,0 9 9

1 5 .9 9

1 1 .6 3

P la ste r

2 6 ,9 4 2

1 6 ,6 8 2

1 5 .8 8

1 2 .2 8

2 6 ,1 5 4

1 4 ,3 6 3

1 5 .9 9

1 1 .6 0

3 4 ,8 2 2

1 8 .4 6

2 4 ,9 8 5

1 6 ,7 0 2
• • •

1 5 .2 7

1 2 .7 4
. . .

2 5 ,9 6 8

1 5 ,2 4 4

1 6 .2 4

1 2 .3 6

2 0 ,0 7 7

1 3 ,3 4 2

1 5 .3 5

1 0 .5 5

2 6 ,8 9 3

1 3 ,1 3 1

1 5 .7 4

1 0 .7 5

1 8 ,8 9 5

1 6 .5 9 (

1 1 .1 9

1 4 0 0 -1 5 9 9

. . . .

2 4 ,3 3 5 /

1 2 0 0 -1 3 9 9

. . . .

2 1 ,1 0 6

1 5 ,1 5 6

1 6 .4 2

1 1 .7 4

1 6 ,3 8 9

1 3 ,5 5 4

1 5 .2 2

1 2 .4 7

1 0 0 0 -1 1 9 9

1 6 .5 3 /
I n te r io r w a ll:

U nder 1000
sq u a re fe e t . .

1 2 ,0 7 3

1 0 ,9 8 0

1 3 .9 6

..................

1 1 .5 9
H e a tin g :

C o n s tru c tio n c o s t p e r

W a rm a ir

sq u a re fo o t:
$ 1 7 -o v er

. . . . .

3 2 ,7 5 4

____

1 9 .3 9

. . . .

H o t w a te r. . . .
E l e c t r i c ..................

mmm

$ 1 6 - $ 1 6 .9 9 . . . .

2 5 ,2 9 5

—

1 6 .3 1

—

$ 1 5 - $ 1 5 .9 9 . . . .

2 5 ,9 0 4

. . .

1 5 .5 1

. . .

$ 1 4 - $ 1 4 .9 9 . . . .

2 5 ,1 1 1

—

1 4 .5 6

—

W o o d .......................

$ 1 3 - $ 1 3 .9 9 . . . .

1 9 ,9 9 7

. ..

1 3 .4 6

. ..

A s p h a lt tile ,

$ 1 2 -$ 1 2 .9 9 . . . .

2 2 ,6 8 1

—

1 2 .4 0

—

$ 1 1 - $ 1 1 .9 9 . . . .

1 5 ,8 7 6

—

1 1 .4 8

—

$ 1 0 -$ 1 0 3 9 . . . .

1 5 ,7 6 5

. ..

1 0 .3 9

. ..

U n d e r $ 1 0 .0 0

. .

1 1 ,5 0 0

—

8 .7 1

—

1 s t o r y .........................................

$ 2 3 ,0 8 1

$ 1 3 ,8 0 7

$ 1 5 .5 3

$ 1 1 .5 3

S p l i t l e v e l ........................... .... .

2 9 ,1 6 5

1 8 ,9 4 4
. . .

1 6 .3 4

1 4 .0 8
. ..

F l o o r c o v e r i n g ..................

v in y l tile .
lin o le u m

. . .

O t h e r .......................
B u ild e r v o lu m e :

2 s t o r i e s .........................................

3 1 ,1 9 3

3 s t o r i e s .........................................

3 7 ,4 0 9




. . .

1 6 .4 8
1 7 .5 7

200 and over . .

2 5 ,4 4 3

1 3 ,4 8 7

1 6 .3 5

1 1 .0 9

1 0 0 -1 9 9

3 0 ,0 4 6

1 3 ,6 4 7

1 8 .1 1

1 1 .2 8

2 1 ,7 8 2

1 5 ,3 0 9

1 5 .4 8

1 1 .8 3

2 5 ,9 7 9

1 5 ,3 0 2

1 5 .5 1

1 2 .2 8

. . . .

5 0 - 9 9 . ...................
U nder 5 0 . . .

---

14

.

Table 7. Percent distribution of costs b y type of construction, 1959*69.
O n s ite

Y ear o f

T y p e o f c o n s tru c tio n

T o ta l

c o n s tru c tio n

M a te r ia ls

E q u ip m e n t

O v e rh e a d a n d

w ages

p ro fit1

.......................

1969

1 0 0 .0

4 3 .4

0 .9

2 0 .4

3 5 .3

P r i v a t e s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g 2 .......................

1962

1 0 0 .0

4 7 .2

1 .0

2 2 .1

2 9 .7

N u r s i n g h o m e s ...............................................................

1 9 6 5 -6 6

1 0 0 .0

3 5 4 .9

(3 )

2 5 .6

1 9 .5

H o s p i t a l s ( H i l l - B u r t o n ) .........................................

1 9 6 5 -6 6

1 0 0 .0

5 0 .4

1 .3

2 9 .6

1 8 .7
1 7 .4

P r iv a te s in g le -fa m ily h o u s in g 2

H o s p i t a l s ( H i l l - B u r t o n ) .........................................

1 9 5 9 -6 0

1 0 0 .0

5 3 .2

1 .2

2 § .2

E le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls

. . .

1 9 6 4 -6 5

1 0 0 .0

5 4 .2

1 .0

2 5 .8

1 9 .0

E le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls

. . .

1959

1 0 0 .0

5 4 .1

1 .4

2 6 .7

1 7 .8

P u b l i c h o u s i n g ...............................................................

1968

1 0 0 .0

3 4 3 .4

(3 )

3 2 .4

2 4 .2

P u b l i c h o u s i n g ...............................................................

1 9 5 9 -6 0

1 0 0 .0

4 5 .0

2 .5

3 5 .5

1 7 .0

C o l l e g e h o u s i n g ..........................................................

1 9 6 0 -6 1

1 0 0 .0

5 2 .6

1 .6

2 9 .3

1 6 .5

F e d e r a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s .........................................

1959

1 0 0 .0

5 1 .4

1 .9

2 9 .0

1 7 .7

F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h i g h w a y s ................................

1970

1 0 0 .0

4 5 .0

(4 )

2 5 .6

4 2 9 .4

F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h i g h w a y s ................................

1967

1 0 0 .0

4 7 .8

(4 )

2 4 .8

4 2 7 .4

F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h i g h w a y s ................................

1964

1 0 0 .0

5 0 .3

5 1 1 .1

2 6 .0

1 2 .6

F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h i g h w a y s ................................

1961

1 0 0 .0

5 2 .6

5 1 1 .7

2 4 .7

1 1 .0

F e d e r a l l y a i d e d h i g h w a y s ................................

1958

1 0 0 .0

5 0 .6

5 1 2 .0

2 3 .9

1 3 .5

L a n d o p e r a t i o n s ..................................................

1 9 5 9 -6 0

1 0 0 .0

3 5 .0

1 9 .3

2 6 .0

1 9 .7

D r e d g i n g ...................................................................

1 9 5 9 -6 0

1 0 0 .0

1 7 .3

2 4 .9

3 2 .3

2 5 .5

C i v il w o r k s ( C o r p s o f E n g i n e e r s ) :

S e w e r w o rk s:
L i n e s ............................................................................

1 9 6 2 -6 3

1 0 0 .0

4 4 .5

1 1 .2

2 4 .3

2 0 .0

P l a n t s ............................................................................

1 9 6 2 -6 3

1 0 0 .0

4 9 .2

8 .2

2 6 .6

1 6 .0

1 In clu d es o ffsite w ages, c o n s tru c tio n fin an c in g co sts, in v en to ry
an d o th e r o v erh ead , a n d o th e r o v erhead, a n d a d m in istrativ e
ex p en ses, as well as p ro fit.
2 F o r single-fam ily ho using, c o n s tru c tio n c o sts in clu d es selling
ex p en ses in a d d itio n to c o n s tru c tio n c o n tr a c t costs.

Table 8. Distribution o f construction costs fo r new
private single-family houses, by type o f contractor,
1969

T y p e o f c o n tra c to r1

3 E q u ip m e n t in clu d ed w ith m aterials.
4 E q u ip m e n t in clu d ed w ith o verhead a n d p ro fit.
5 E stim a te d b y BLS.

Table 9. Average hourly earnings and average hourly
union wage rates paid fo r new private single-family
houses, by occupation 1969
A v e ra g e h o u rly

O c c u p a tio n

P e rce n t o f

e a rn in g s

$ 3 .9 4
4 .1 1

5 .3 5

P a i n t e r ......................................................

7 .5

. .

C a r p e n t e r ..................................................

5 3 .5

C a r p e n t r y ........................................................................

A ll o c c u p a t i o n s

3 .9 9

5 .0 1
5 .6 3

1 0 0 .0

G e n e r a l ............................................................................

h o u rly w a g e
ra te 1

c o n s tr u c tio n c o s t

A l l c o n t r a c t o r s ...........................

A v e ra g e u n io n

$ 5 .1 4

B r i c k l a y e r ..................................................

4 .7 6

a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g .............................................

1 0 .3

P l u m b e r ..................................................

4 .8 5

5 .7 3

P a i n t i n g a n d p a p e r h a n g i n g ...........................

2 .6

C e m e n t f i n i s h e r ................................

4 .5 3

5 .1 2

P lu m b in g , h e a tin g , v e n tila tin g a n d

M a s o n r y a n d s t o n e w o r k ................................

3 .9

E l e c t r i c i a n .............................................

4 .8 6

5 .5 7

C o n c r e t e a n d s t u c c o w o r k ...........................

4 .4

P l a s t e r e r ..................................................

5 .0 2

5 .3 4

E l e c t r i c a l ( e x c e p t h e a t i n g ) ...........................

3 .2

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r .......................

4 .6 0

5 .4 8

P l a s t e r i n g a n d l a t h i n g .........................................

.7

R o o f e r ......................................................

4 .7 8

5 .1 1

R o o f i n g a n d s i d i n g .............................................

2 .0

O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r .......................

4 .3 6

N .A .

T i l e s e t t e r .............................................

C e ra m ic tile , te r r a z z o a n d m a rb le

4 .1 4

5 .2 5

4 .6 8

w o r k ........................................................................

1 .6

S o f t f lo o r la y e r.

E x c a v a t i o n a n d g r a d i n g ....................................

1 .2

L a b o rer

W o o d f l o o r i n g ...........................................................

. . . . . . . .

..................................................

2 .9 3 )

.7

H e l p e r a n d t e n d e r ...........................

2 .5 6 )

T r u c k d r i v e r .............................................

3 .5 4

N .A .

O t h e r f l o o r i n g ...........................................................

2 .1

W a ll b o a r d ........................................................................

3 .4

HR

N .A .

2 .9

A l l o t h e r t y p e s ......................................................

A

1 C overs all bu ild in g tra d e s in resid en tial a n d n o n resid en tial
c o n stru c tio n as o f Ju ly 1, 1969.

1 C o n tra c to rs are classified acco rd in g to th e m ajor c o st co m ­
p o n e n t o f w o rk sin ce m an y p e rfo rm e d m o re th a n o n e o p e ra tio n .

N.A. - N o t available.

N O TE : D etail m ay n o t add to to ta ls d u e to ro u n d in g .




15

Table 10. Distribution o f on-site wage share o f costs for
new, private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
O n s ite w a g e s a s p e r c e n t o f

P e rc e n t o f h o u s e s s u rv e y e d

c o n tr a c t c o s t
1969

A l l g r o u p s ................................

1962

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 5 . 0 a n d u n d e r .............................................

9 .8

3 .0

1 5 . 1 - 2 0 . 0 ......................................................

4 1 .7

3 1 .7

2 0 .1 - 2 5 .0

......................................................

3 0 .4

4 5 .5

2 5 .1 - 3 0 . 0

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

1 3 .7

1 6 .8

4 .4

3 .0

3 0 . 1 a n d o v e r .................................................

Table 11. Comparison o f materials and equipment in new private single-family houses, 1969 and 1962
C o s t o f m a te ria l p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0

C o st o f m a te ria l p e r 1 0 0

o f c o n s tr u c tio n

M a te r ia l t y p e

sq u a re fe e t

1969

1962

1969

1962

P e rc e n t d is tr ib u tio n 1

1969

1962

A i l m a t e r i a l s ..................

$ 4 4 2 .9 0

$ 4 8 2 .4 0

$ 7 0 7 .0 0

$ 5 6 7 .4 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

L u m b e r a n d W o o d p ro d u c ts
( i n c l u d i n g f u r n i t u r e ) ..................

1 7 9 .6 0

1 9 3 .2 0

2 8 6 .3 0

2 2 7 .2 0

4 0 .6

4 0 .0

1 0 1 .6 0
3 8 .1 0

* 1 1 0 .1 0
5 1 .3 0

1 6 2 .0 0
6 0 .7 0

4 1 2 9 .5 0
6 0 .3 0

2 2 .9
8 .6

4 2 2 .8
1 0 .6

4 0 .0 0

3 1 .8 0

6 3 .6 0

3 7 .4 0

9 .0

6 .6

9 5 .3 0

1 1 6 .6 0

1 5 3 .4 0

1 3 7 .1 0

2 1 .5

2 4 .2

5 4 .5 0
2 2 .0 0

7 6 .7 0
1 9 .7 0

8 7 .0 0
3 5 .0 0

9 0 .2 0
2 3 .2 0

1 2 .3
5 .0

1 5 .9
4 .1

1 8 .9 0

2 0 .2 0

3 1 .4 0

2 3 .8 0

4 .3

4 .2

4 1 .8 0

5 5 .0 0

6 6 .6 0

6 4 .7 0

9 .4

1 1 .4

3 1 .2 0
1 0 .6 0

3 6 .4 0
1 8 .6 0

4 9 .8 0
1 6 .8 0

4 2 .8 0
2 1 .9 0

7 .0
2 .4

7 .5
3 .9

P l u m b i n g P r o d u c t s ...........................

3 0 .6 0

2 6 .8 0

4 8 .7 0

3 1 .5 0

6 .9

5 .6

H e a tin g , v e n tila tin g a n d a ir
c o n d itio n in g e q u ip m e n t. . .

1 8 .4 0

1 8 .5 0

2 9 .2 0

2 1 .8 0

4 .2

3 .8

E le c tric a l e q u ip m e n t, f ix tu r e s
a n d w ire s ( e x c e p t h e a tin g )

.

1 7 .4 0

1 7 .6 0

2 7 .8 0

2 0 .7 0

3 .9

3 .6

B u ilt-in m a jo r a p p lia n c e s
(re frig e ra to rs , d ish w a sh e rs ,
d ry e rs , w a sh e rs, ran g e s,
d i s p o s a l s ) .............................................

1 1 .2 0

1 3 .7 0

1 7 .8 0

1 6 .1 0

2 .5

2 .8

P e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s . .......................

8 .0 0

1 1 .1 0

1 2 .7 0

1 3 .1 0

1 .8

2 .3

P a in ts a n d o t h e r c h e m ic a ls . . .

8 .0 0

1 0 .3 0

1 2 .8 0

1 2 .1 0

1 .8

2 .1

A l l o t h e r ......................................................

3 2 .5 0

1 9 .6 0

5 1 .8 0

2 3 .1 0

7 .3

4 .1

8 .3 0
5 .2 0

1 .0 0
3 .0 0

1 3 .2 0
8 .3 0

1 .2 0
3 .5 0

1 .9
1 .2

.2
.6

8 .6 0
1 0 .4 0

9 .8 0
5 .8 0

1 3 .7 0
1 6 .6 0

1 1 .5 0
6 .9 0

1 .9
2 .3

2 .0
1 .2

R o u g h a n d d ressed
l u m b e r ....................................
M i l l w o r k ....................................
A ll o t h e r l u m b e r
p r o d u c t s 3 ................................
S t o n e , c la y a n d g la s s p r o d u c t s .
C e m e n t, c o n c r e te &
g y p s u m ....................................
S tr u c tu r a l c la y p r o d u c ts
O th e r s to n e , c la y &
g la s s p r o d u c t s 4 . . . . .
M e ta l p r o d u c t s ( e x c e p t
p lu m b in g a n d h e a tin g ) . . .
F a b r ic a te d m e ta l
p r o d u c t s ..................
O th e r m e ta l p r o d u c ts . .

C a r p e ts , ru g s, m a ts a n d
p a d s .................................... . .
P l a s t i c s p r o d u c t s ..................
C o n s tru c tio n e q u ip ­
m e n t (re n ta l c o s t o r
e q u i v a l e n t ) ...........................
M i s c e l l a n e o u s ...........................

1 B ased u p o n m a te ria ls p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 . P e rc e n ts are th e sam e
o n a sq u are fo o ta g e basis e x c e p t f o r ro u n d in g .
2 In c lu d e s d a ta f o r p re fa b ric a te d o r pack ag ed h o u se s n o t
b ro k e n d o w n in to se p a ra te w o o d c o m p o n e n ts.




s , n c|u d e8 w o o d k ltc h e n an d b a th ro o m c a b in e ts an d v an ities,
4 , nclude8 8and, grave|, an d d lr t f
N O T E : D etail m ay n o t a d d t o to ta ls d u e t o ro u n d in g .

16

Table 12. Cost and typ e o f m aterials and equipm ent in new private single-fam ily houses, 19 69

Type of material and equipment

Value per $1,000
of construction
price

Value per 100
square feet of
livable space

Percent of total
materials and
equipment

Material and equipment

$442.85

T o t a l ..............................................................................................

$706.95

100.0

Material

T o t a l ...........................................................................

434.02

692.87

98.00

Agricultural production...............................................................
Nursery stock, shrubberies, grass seed...........................

2.19
2.16

3.50
3*44

.50
.49

Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels .
Sand and g r a v e l...............................................................
Dirt f i l l ..............................................................................

3.93
3.44
.49

6.27
5.48
.78

.89
.78
.11

Textile mill p r o d u c ts ........................... .. ....................................
Carpets, rugs, mats and p a d s ..........................................
O a k u m ..............................................................................

8.40
8.28
.11

13.40
13.20
.18

1.90
1.87
.02

Apparel and other finished products made from fabrics and
similar m aterials.....................................................................
Curtains..............................................................................

(M
(M

(M

(M
(M

Lumber and wood products, except fu rn itu re ........................
Softwood flooring, and all other softwood, rough
lumber and finished lu m b e r.....................................
Hardwood flooring and all other hardwood lumber,
including parquet f lo o r .................................... ..
Shakes, s h in g le s.............................. ................................
MiIIwork, including windows, moulding, trim, doors.
porches, staircases, weatherstrip, cornices,
ready-made roof trusses, structural members,
prefab wood p a n e ls ....................................... ...
Plywood, veneers.............................................................
Ladders, scaffolds, m iscellaneous.................................

165.64

264.03

37.40

101.60

161.95

22.94

7.20
3.32

11.47
5.30

1.62
.75

38.21
12.76
2.52

60.91
20.34
4.02

8.63
2.88
.57

Furniture and f ix t u r e s ...............................................................
Ready-made wood kitchen cabinets, vanities...............
Metal c a b in e ts .................. ................................................
Venetian blinds, curtains and drapery rods, window
shades...........................................................................

14.53
14.00
.43

23.16
22.32
.69

3.28
3.16
.10

(M

(M

Paper and allied products .........................................................
Masking tapes, adhesive tape .......................................
Wallpaper........................ ? ................................................
Construction paper, fiberboard insulation, asbestos
board insulation and acoustical t i t l e .....................

2.90
.50
.48

4.62
.80
.77

.66
.11
.11

1.91

3.04

.43

Chemicals and allied p ro d u c ts ................................................ ..
Plastics adhesives, plastics vapor barrier sheets . . . .
Floor wax, paint cleaner, thinners, polish.....................
Lacquer, paint, putty, s e a le r s .......................................
F e rtiliz e r...........................................................................
Adhesives: glue, epoxy, p a ste .......................................
Grouts, insulating compounds, synthetic rubber and
plastics sealants, silicones (damp-proofing)............
Other inorganic c h e m ic a ls .............................................

8.04
.16
.22
6.29
.21
.50

12.83
.26
.35
10.03
.32
.79

1.82
.04
.05
1.42
.05
.11

.35
.23

.55
.37

.08
.05

Petroleum refining and related industries.................................
Fuels: diesel fuel, gas, oil, g re a s e .................................
Asphalt paving .................................... ..........................

7.95
.44
.38

12.69
.69
.61

1.80
.10
.09




17

Table 12. Cost and ty p e o f m aterials and equipm ent in new private single-fam ily houses, 19 69—C ontinued

Type of material and equipment

Value per $1,000
of construction
price

Value per 100
square feet of
livable space

Percent of total
materials and
equipment

Material-Continued
Petroleum refining and related industries—Continued
R oof pitch, asphalt board insulation and rolls,
asphalt shingles, asphalt sheathing and siding,
building felts, composition, asphalt tar, mastics
and e m u ls io n s............................................................
Miscellaneous petroleum products.................................

7.07

11.30

1.60

(M

(M

<M

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics p ro d u c ts ...........................
Rubber products, foam rubber mats, rubber flooring,
w eatherstrip................................. ..............................
Plastics products, plastics pipes, fiberglass shower
stalls, plastics tile, plastics fixtures and conduits,
styrofoam insulation, vinyl wall covering. . . . . .

5.97

9.52

1.35

.75

1.20

.17

5.22

8.32

1.18

Stone, clay, glass and concrete p r o d u c ts .................................
Window glass, insulating g la s s .......................................
Mirrors, shower doors, glass porch d o o r s .....................
Hydraulic c e m e n t............................................................
Clay brick, chimney block, structural clay title . . . .
Ceramic t i l e .....................................................................
Refractory brick, fire brick and tile ...........................
Clay drain tile, adobe brick, clay chimney pipe, clay
roofing tile, clay sewer p i p e ....................................
Vitreous china bathroom accessories, closet bowls,
plumbing f ix t u r e s ......................................................
Concrete block, concrete brick, cinder b l o c k ............
Concrete pipe, concrete laundry trays, concrete drain
tile, precast terrazzo...................................................
Ready-mix concrete.........................................................
L i m e .................................................................................
Plaster, wallboard, g y p sum .............................................
Building marble, roof slate, other cut s t o n e ...............
Sandpaper, abrasives, steel wool .................................
Asbestos cement shingles, siding, asphalt tile flooring,
asbestos cement pipe, vinyl asbestos tile, asbestos
cement a d h e s iv e s ......................................................
Asbestos (pipe) in s u la tio n .............................................
Perlite, crushed rock v e r m ic u lit e .................................
Fiberglass insulating and acoustical tile, mineral
wool, pre-moulded fiberglass (F R D products) . . .
Stucco, other nonmetal lie minerals ...............................

94.45
.15
2.60
3.75
14.80
5.88
.44

150.55
.23
4.14
5.97
23.59
9.38
.70

21.33
.03
.59
.85
3.34
1.33
.10

1.30

2.07

.29

2.96
7.34

4.72
11.70

.67
1.66

.91
28.79
.28
13.54
1.74
.10

1.44
45.90
.45
21.59
2.77
.16

.20
6.50
.06
3.06
.39
.02

2.76
.59
1.31

4.40
.94
2.09

.62
.13
.30

4.27
.92

6.81
1.46

.96
.21

Primary metal products.......................................... ....................
Structural steel, bars, beams, floors, and
other structural s h a p e s .............................................
Ferrous nails, staples, including insulated w ire............
Cast iron products, including cast iron p i p e ...............
L e a d .................................................................................
Copper pipe and tu bin g ...................................................
Sold e r.................................................................................
Nonferrous wire, including insulated w ir e ...................
Nonferrous nails, s ta p le s ................................................

22.37

36.65

5.05

2.64
2.62
3.88
.42
7.72
.14
4.87

4.21
4.17
6.18
.68
12.31
.22

.60
.59
.88
.10
1.74
.03
1.10

(M

57.14




12.90

9.66

1.37

13.96
6.34

18

91.07

6.06

Fabricated metal products, except ordnance, machinery
and transportation eq u ip m en t.............................................
Builders hardware, including door locks, hinges,
angles irons ...............................................................
Metal bathroom and enameled iron fixtures, metal
shower s ta lls ...............................................................
Brass plumbing fittings and trim .................................

7.77
(M

22.25
10.10

3.15
1.43

<M

Table 12. Cost and ty p e o f m aterials and equipm ent in new private single-fam ily houses, 1 9 6 9 —Continued

Type of material and equipment

Value per $1,000
of construction
price

Value per 100
square feet of
livable space

Percent of total
materials and
equipment

Material-Continued
Fabricated metal products, except ordnance, machinery
and transportation equipment—Continued
Warm air furnaces, boilers, furnaces and radiators,
except electrical radiators, unit heaters,
incinerators, condensors
.......................................
Metal doors and windows, sash, frames, molding and
trim; overhead rolling d o o r s ....................................
Metal oil tanks, metal septic tanks, fabricated metal
plate p ro d u c ts ............................................................
Sheet metal products, including spouts, ducts,
gutters, etc ...............................................................
Ornamental metal work, registers, grilles, diffusers . .
Reinforcing rods, bars, prefab panels, curtain walls . .
Bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, washers.................. ...

3.91

6.23

.88

8.03

12.79

1.81

1.24

1.98

.28

9.87
1.65
1.88
.12

15.74
2.63
3.00
.18

2.23
.37
.42
.03

1.67

2.67

.38

1.03

1.64

.23

1.32

2.10

.30

Machinery, except e le c tric a l......................................................
Pumps.................................................................................
Sprinkler systems (fire prevention ) . ..............................
Complete air conditioning units, hum idifiers...............
Sewage disposal equipment, water treatment
equipment (filters, softeners, etc.)...........................

8.41
.68
.26
6.91

13.41
1.08
.42
11.01

1.90
.15
.06
1.56

.56

.90

.13

Electrical machinery, equipment and su p p lie s........................
Fuses, panelboards, sw itchboards.................................
Gas ranges, ovens
.........................................................
Refrigerators, f r e e z e r s ...................................................
Dryers, washing m a c h in e s .............................................
Fans, baseboard heating units, electric ovens, wall
h e a te rs ........................................................................
Dishwashers, water heaters (electric and nonelectric),
garbage disposal units .............................................
Fluorescent fixtures, light f ix t u r e s ..............................
Current carrying devices (switches, connections,
re c e p ta c le s )...............................................................
Noncurrent carrying devices (boxes, insulators.
c o n d u its).....................................................................
Intercom, T .V . systems, clock and electric timing
system s........................................................................
Electric bells and chimes, automatic g a t e s ..................

29.98
2.10
5.74
.70
(M

47.80
3.35
9.16
1.11
(M

6.77
.47
1.30
.16
(M

2.25

3.58

.51

8.63
5.39

13.77
8.60

1.95
1.22

2.32

3.69

.52

1.77

2.82

.40

.42
.44

.66
.71

.09
.10

.63
.34
.29

1.00
.54
.46

.14
.08
.06

1.41

2.24

(M
1.34

(M
2.13

.32
(M
.30

Reinforcing mesh wire, lath wire, clips
.....................
Nonbrass pipe fittings and plumbing fixtures, pipe
hangers, valves .........................................................
Steel ladders and plankings, other fabricated
metal products............................................................

Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments,
photographic and optical goods; watches and clocks . . .
Gas and water meters, g a u g e s .......................................
Thermostats, temperature c o n t r o ls ..............................
Miscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s .................................
Paint rollers, paint brushes.............................................
Lin o le u m ................................................ ..........................

Equipment

T o t a l ...........................................................................




8.83

19

14.08

2.00

Table 12. Cost and typ e o f m aterials and equipem nt in new private single-fam ily houses, 1 9 6 9 —C ontinued

Type of material and equipment

Value per $1,000
of construction
price

Fabricated metal products, except ordnance, machinery,
and transportation e q u ip m en t.............................................
Non-power hand t o o l s ...................................................
Saws and b la d e s ...................................................... ..

Value per 100
square feet of
livable space

Percent of total
materials and
equipment

.26
.15

.41
.22

5.27
.28

8.43
.44

1.19
.06

4.38
.13
.32
.11

6.99
.21
.51
.18

.99
.03
.07
.02

(M

Machinery, except electrical
...................................................
Non-electric engines and motors .................................
Tractors, bulldozers, backhoes, trenchers, drill rigs.
scrapers, graders, rollers, mixers, pavers, front end
loaders, payloaders, power cranes, draglines,
power s h o v e ls ............................................................
F o r k lif t s ...........................................................................
Power handtools, d r ill s ...................................................
Compressors, jack-hammers, a cce ssories.....................

(M
(M

Electrical machinery. Equipment and s u p p lie s .....................
Electric motor and generators.......................................
Transportation e q u ip m e n t.........................................................
Trucks (hig h w a y)............................................................

3.28
3.26

<
M

(M
(M
5.22
5.19

*

.06
.03

P>

(M
(M
.74
.74

1 Lest than 10 cents reported per $1000. Due to rounding and exclusion of items in detail worth less than 10 cents per $1000
detail may not add to subtotals.




20

Table 14. Construction workers employed by surveyed
contractors in January and July 1969, by type o f

Table 13. Surveyed contractors working under labormanagement agreement, by type and class o f worker
covered, 1969

Type of contractor

A ll contractors
covered . .

contractor

Class of workers covered
Number
of
Un­
Com bi­
con­
A ll
Skilled
skilled nation
tractors workers only
only
but not
all

1,347

1,212

96

4

30
155

6
14

3
0

166

154

11

0

1

57

51

5

0

1

74

71

3

0

0

108

97

3

0

8

78

69

8

0

1

12
91

11
87

1
3

0
0

0
1

58

45

11

0

2

53
39
89
75
226

49
36
81
67
209

3
1
8
6
13

0
0
0
0
1

1
2
0
2
3

23
20
14
14
5
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
7




81.6

3,120
9,307

3,756
12,503

83.1
74.4

9,211

10,906

84.5

2,265

2,767

81.9

3,525

4,678

75.4

6,723

9,505

70.7

4,164
755
4,721

4,562
767
5,458

91.3
98.4
86.5

1,365

1,506

90.6

879
3,809
2,358
5,171
6,826

1,387
3,642
2,725
6,058
8,444

63.4
104.6
86.5
85.4
80.8

Utilities (except sewers)2 . . . . .
S t r e e t s ..........................................
Sewer h o o k u p ..............................
Curbs and g u tte rs ........................
Sidewalks.............................. ...
Community recreation facilities .
Storm d ra in s .................................
Street lig h tin g ..............................

100

Inadequately skilled w o r k e r s ..............................
Restrictive building c o d e s ....................................
High interest rates, shortage of financing............
Bad work practices, union interference ............
Government interference, red t a p e .....................
High labor c o s t s ......................................................
Sub-contractor p rob lem s.......................................
Zoning problems......................................................
Lack of worker training program s........................
High cost of land, scarcity of la n d ........................
High building materials costs.................................
Skilled supervisor s h o rta g e s .................................
Miscellaneous............................................................

78,664

Capital improvements

Percent
of
Replies

Total Replies..........................................

64,199

Table 16. Capital improvements included in land value
of surveyed houses, 1969

Table 15. General contractors' most common obstacles
to efficiency, 1969

Obstacles to efficiency

Percent
January
of
July

July
1969

G e n e ra l.....................
Carpentry..................
Plumbing, heating,
ventilating and
air conditioning .
Painting and paper
hanging...............
Masonry and stone­
work ..................
Concrete and stucco
w o r k ..................
Electrical (except
heating)...............
Plastering and lathing
Roofing and siding. .
Ceramic tile,
terrazzo and
marble work . . .
Excavation and
g ra d in g ...............
Wood flooring . . . .
Other flooring . . . .
Wall board..................
A ll other types . . .

5
8

G e n e ra l.....................
Carpentry..................
Plumbing, heating,
ventilating and air
conditioning . . .
Painting and paper
hanging...............
Masonry and
stonework. . . . .
Concrete and stucco
w o r k ..................
Electrical (except
heating)...............
Plastering and
lathing..................
Roofing and siding .
Ceramic tile,
terrazzo and
marble work . . .
Excavation and
g ra d in g ...............
Wood flooring . . . .
Other flooring . . . .
Wall board..................
A ll other types . . .

January
1969

Total. . . .

35

44
177

Type of contractor

Percent o f lots containing
improvement1

81.2
74.8
62.4
26.4
16.4
14.8
11.6
7.2

1 Not additive.
2 May be gas, electricity, water, or any combination.

21




Table 17. Prefab items included in surveyed houses,
1969
Percent o f houses
containing item 1

Prefab item

Preassembled w in d o w s...............
Kitchen cabinets...........................
Prehung d o o r s ..............................
Bathroom or bedroom dressing
vanities
.................................
Precut lu m b e r..............................
O ffsite fabricated ductw ork . . .
Staircase u n it s ..............................

78.4
77.6
64.4
46.4
30.4
28.4
24.8

1 N ot additive.

Table 18. D istribution o f surveyed contractors' w ork,
by type o f construction, 1969

T yp e o f construction

Percent
o f total
volum e

T o t a l......................................................

100.0

Single-fam ily . ..........................................................
M ultifam ily (1-4 s to rie s ).......................................
M ultifam ily (5 or more stories)..............................
Other c o n s tru c tio n ..................... ...........................

91.0
6.4
.6
2.1

N O T E : Due to rounding, detail may not add to 100.0
percent.

22

A p p e n d ix A .
The

b a sic

sa m p le

fo r

th is

S u rv e y T e c h n iq u e s a n d M e th o d s
su rv e y

co n s is te d

of a

In a d d itio n to th e address o f e a ch h o u se , th is sp e cia l

su b sa m p le o f th e s in g le -fa m ily h o u se s in th e B u re a u o f

su rv e y

th e C e n su s “ H o u s in g S ta rts S u rv e y .” T h e H o u s in g S ta rts

s tra tify p ro p e rly th e C e n su s sa m p le b e fo re s e le ctin g th e

sa m p le co n sists o f re s id e n tia l b u ild in g s fro m tw o ty p e s

su b sa m p le a n d to id e n tify h o u se s o n w h ic h th e o w n e r o r

p ro v id e d

in fo rm a tio n

th a t

e n a b le d

BLS

to

o f areas— th o se th a t re q u ire b u ild in g p e rm its a n d th o se

o th e r u n p a id h e lp d id p a rt o r a ll o f th e c o n s tru c tio n .

th a t d o n o t. T h e H o u s in g S ta rts sa m p le co v e rs 122 areas

T h e se o w n e r-b u ilt h o u ses w ere o u t-o f-sco p e fo r th e B L S

c o m p ris in g

su rv e y , a n d th u s h a d to b e id e n tifie d a n d d isca rd e d fro m

304

in d e p e n d e n t

c o u n tie s

and

c itie s .

A

sa m p le o f b u ild in g p e rm its , o b ta in e d ea ch m o n th fro m

th e C e n su s sa m p le.

6 0 0 p e rm it issu in g ju ris d ic tio n s (in c lu d in g c itie s , to w n s,

B e fo re

v illa g e s, to w n s h ip s , o r c o u n tie s ), is se le cte d in p ro p o r­
tio n

s e le ctin g

th e

B LS

su b sa m p le ,

w h ic h

w as

re s tric te d to th e 4 8 c o n tig u o u s sta te s, th e B u re a u o f th e

to th e n u m b e r o f h o u s in g u n its re p o rte d o n th e

C e n su s s tra tifie d th e h o u ses in

p e rm it. A ll b u ild in g s a n d h o u s in g u n its co v e re d b y th e

th e ir “ S u rv e y o f C o n ­

s tru c tio n ” , as fo llo w s :

p e rm its are in c lu d e d . T h is p ro c e d u re y ie ld s a sa m p le o f
about

4 ,0 0 0

b u ild in g s

a

m o n th ,

a p p ro x im a te ly

1. In b u ild in g p e rm it areas b y :

65

a. T h e fo u r b ro a d g e o g ra p h ic re g io n s

p e rc e n t o f w h ic h are s in g le -fa m ily h o u se s.
W ith in th e
ju ris d ic tio n s .

1 22 areas, 91
In

th ese

c o n ta in

areas

b . M e tro p o lita n a n d n o n m e tro p o lita n areas

som e n o n p e rm it

c . P e rm it va lu e

a sa m p le o f b u ild in g s is

o b ta in e d e a ch m o n th as fo llo w s :
1. A
sta rte d

2 . In n o n b u ild in g p e rm it areas b y :

lis t o f re s id e n tia l c o n s tru c tio n th a t has b e en
in

a. T h e fo u r b ro a d g e o g ra p h ic reg io n s

th ese areas d u rin g th e p re c e d in g m o n th is

o b ta in e d fro m

b . M e tro p o lita n a n d n o n m e tro p o lita n areas

a g ro u p o f p e rso n s m o st lik e ly to k n o w

a b o u t n ew h o u s in g c o n s tru c tio n . T h is lis t is v e rifie d b y

T h e su b sa m p le s u p p lie d b y th e B u re a u o f th e C e n su s

fie ld v is it o r te le p h o n e c a ll.
2. A

su b sa m p le

of

c o n siste d o f a p p ro x im a te ly 1 8 0 0 h o u se s, 1 3 0 0 in p e rm it

290

p re d e sig n a te d

la n d

areas a n d 5 0 0 in n o n p e rm it areas. T h e o v e rsize sa m p le ,

area

seg m en ts, lo c a te d th ro u g h o u t th e n o n p e rm it p o rtio n o f

co m p a re d

th e 91 areas, is canvassed b y C e n su s fie ld in te rv ie w e rs to

a llo w e d s u b s titu tio n s w h ere a b s o lu te ly n e ce ssa ry . B L S

o b ta in a lis t o f a ll re s id e n tia l c o n s tru c tio n n o t re p o rte d

s tra tifie d th e C e n su s su b sa m p le b e fo re p ic k in g a fin a l

b y th e m e th o d d e sc rib e d a b o v e . T h e lis t is w eig h te d to

w o rk in g su b sa m p le o f 2 5 0 h o u ses as fo llo w s :

co m p e n sa te fo r h o u ses m isse d o u tsid e o f th e canvassed

b . M e tro p o lita n a n d n o n m e tro p o lita n areas

sists o f 8 0 0 to 1 0 0 0 b u ild in g s , o f w h ic h 9 5 p e rc e n t o r
are s in g le -fa m ily h o m e s. F ro m

sa m p le o f 2 5 0 h o u se s,

a. T h e n in e C e n su s d iv is io n s

segm en ts. T h e sa m p le o b ta in e d b y th is p ro ce d u re c o n ­

m o re

w ith th e fin a l B L S

b . C o s t class

th is sa m p le , th e
o f th e

T h e B L S su b sa m p le w as d iv id e d b e tw ee n p e rm it a n d

co v e re d

n o n p e rm it a reas, in th e sam e p ro p o rtio n as th e C e n su s

ju ris d ic tio n s w h ic h h a d issu e d p e rm its d u rin g th e ca le n d a r

sa m p le ( i.e ., 7 2 p e rc e n t in p e rm it areas a n d 2 8 p e rc e n t in

y e a r 1 9 6 8 . T h e se c o n d s e c tio n co v e re d h o u ses sta rte d in

n o n p e rm it areas).

B LS

su b sa m p le

C e n su s

in

tw o

w as p ro v id e d
se c tio n s .

The

by

th e

firs t

B u re a u
s e c tio n

Q u o ta sa m p lin g w as u sed to p ic k th e 2 5 0 h o u ses fro m

n o n p e rm it areas d u rin g ca le n d a r y e a r 1 9 6 8 .
T h e C e n su s d a ta o n p e rm its are c o m p ile d fro m p u b lic

th e stra ta p ro d u c e d b y th e a b o ve p ro c e d u re . T h a t is , a

re c o rd s o f th e lo c a l b u ild in g p e rm it o ffic e s . D a ta fo r

c e rta in p e rcen tag e o f th e 2 5 0 h o u ses w as p ic k e d fro m

areas

ea ch

th a t

do

not

re q u ire

p e rm its

are

c o lle c te d

in

g ro u p

d e v e lo p e d

in te rv ie w s b y C e n su s a g en ts, are c o n fid e n tia l, a n d th e re ­

o f s tra ta . T h e se
fo r

th e

p o rtio n

q u o ta

p ercen tag es w ere

o f th e sa m p le a llo tte d to

fo re c a n n o t b e g iven to a n o th e r a g e n cy . C o n s e q u e n tly ,

p e rm it issu in g areas b y a n a ly z in g th e g eo g ra p h ic d is trib u ­

C e n su s c o n d u c te d a sp e cia l su rv e y fo r B L S o f h o u se s in

tio n o f p e rm its issu e d fo r s in g le -fa m ily h ou ses as sh o w n

th e n o n p e rm it p o rtio n o f th e sa m p le .

in “ C o n s tru c tio n R eports;” C 4 0 / C 4 2 -6 7 -1 3 , an a n n u a l




23

p u b lic a tio n

c o m p ile d

by

th e

B u re a u

o f th e

C e n su s.

S im ila r p ercen tag es fo r th e n o n p e rm it areas w ere su p ­
p lie d fro m u n p u b lis h e d d a ta .

a. P re fa b ric a te d h o u se s. T h e s e in c lu d e d s e c tio n a liz e d
a n d m o d u la r h o m e s.
b . H o u se s fo r w h ic h th e o w n e r o r o th e r u n p a id h e lp
d id m o re th a n a to k e n p a rt o f th e w o rk .

The

fo llo w in g

ty p e s

of

h o u ses

w ere

c o n sid e re d

c . H o u se s v a lu e d a t $ 7 5 ,0 0 0 o r m o re , in c lu d in g th e

o u t-o f-sco p e fo r d ie su rv e y :




c o s t o f th e la n d .

24

A p p e n d ix B .

P r o c e d u r e s U s e d to D e v e lo p

O f f s it e ( I n d ir e c t )

M a n - H o u r E s t im a t e s

trie s

O ffs ite e m p lo y m e n t e stim a tes w ere d e riv e d fro m th e

in v o lv e d

in

p ro d u c tio n

and

tra n s p o rta tio n

of

b u ild in g m a te ria ls a n d e q u ip m e n t fro m b a sic e x tra c tio n

m a te ria ls a n d e q u ip m e n t co s t in fo rm a tio n o b ta in e d fro m
th e c o n tra c to rs a n d s u b c o n tra c to rs c o o p e ra tin g in th e

to , b u t n o t in c lu d in g , th e fin a l m a n u fa c tu rin g stage.

s tu d y . C o n tra c to rs p ro v id e d a lis t o f th e va lu e o f ea ch

E m p lo y m e n t in

ty p e

in d u s trie s

o f m a te ria l u sed in

th e c o n s tru c tio n

o f sa m p le

w as

th e tra d e , tra n s p o rta tio n , a n d se rv ice
d e te rm in e d b y

th e d iffe re n c e b e tw ee n

p ro je c ts . F o r th o se fe w c o n tra c to rs w h o w ere in a c ce s­

p ro d u c e rs ’ a n d p u rch a se rs’ va lu e fo r ea ch c o n s tru c tio n

s ib le , estim a te s w ere d e riv e d fro m s im ila r jo b s ; c o n tro l

m a te ria l. T h e 1 958 I n te rin d u s try S tu d y o f th e O ffic e o f

to ta ls w ere s u p p lie d b y th e gen eral c o n tra c to r o r o w n e r.

B u sin ess E c o n o m ic s w as u sed to o b ta in th ese e m p lo y ­

T h e se

m ent

m a te ria l

lis tin g s

w ere

g ro u p e d

in to

ca teg orie s

e stim a tes.

For

ea ch

g ro u p

of

m a te ria ls ,

th e

co n s is te n t w ith th e 4 -d ig it S ta n d a rd In d u s tria l C la s s ific a ­

in te rin d u s try s tu d y p ro v id e d in fo rm a tio n o n th e a m o u n t

tio n

of

(S I C )

average
e a ch

code.

For

ea ch

o f th ese p ro d u c t g ro u p s,

a m o u n ts o f m a te ria l ( in

$ 1 ,0 0 0

o f c o n tra c t

d o lla rs ) re q u ire d fo r

c o n s tru c tio n

c o s t w ere

p ro d u c ts

re q u ire d

fro m

ea ch

o f its

78

in d u s try

se cto rs. T h e p ro d u c t d a ta w ere co n v e rte d to m an -h o u rs

de­

b y use o f o u tp u t p e r m a n -h o u r ra tio s fo r ea ch in d u s try

te rm in e d . (See ta b le 1 2 .) T h e va lu e o f m a te ria ls fo r each

w ith in th e se cto rs. A d ju s tm e n ts fo r p ric e a n d p ro d u c ­

g ro u p w as re d u ce d b y a ra tio re p re se n tin g th e d iffe re n c e

tiv it y

b e tw ee n v a lu a tio n b y th e p u rch a se r a n d v a lu a tio n b y th e

w ith th e y e a r o f c o n s tru c tio n a n d b ill o f m a te ria ls.

p ro d u c e r. ( T h is ra tio w as ba sed o n d a ta p ro v id e d b y th e
U .S .

D e p a rtm e n t

of

C o m m e rc e ,

O ffic e

of

w ere e stim a te d fo r y e a rs a fte r 1 9 5 8 , co n s is te n t

F o r e a ch o ffs ite stage, a m a n -h o u r fig u re p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0

B u sin ess

o f c o n s tru c tio n w as o b ta in e d . W h en th ese m a n -h o u rs,

E c o n o m ic s .) T h is la tte r step w as re q u ire d becau se a ll

p lu s

d a ta re p o rte d b y c o n tra c to rs w ere in p u rch a se rs’ v a lu e ,

w ith th e d ire c t o r o n site m a n -h o u rs, th e to ta l e m p lo y ­

and

m e n t e ffe c t, w ith in th e d e fin itio n u sed b y th e s tu d y , w as

re d u c tio n

m a tc h

th e

to

p ro d u c e rs ’

v a lu e

B u re a u ’s in te rin d u s try

w as n e ce ssa ry

sales a n d

to

th e

b u ild e rs ’

d e te rm in e d . O ffs ite

p u rch a se

o ffs ite

e m p lo y m e n t, are c o m b in e d

e m p lo y m e n t o f ea ch c o n s tru c tio n

g ro u p in g d e fin itio n s fo r th e in te rin d u s try g ro w th m o d e l.

c o n tra c to r w as n o t c o lle c te d d ir e c tly fro m c o n tra c to rs

V a lu e d iffe re n c e s w ere a llo te d to tra d e a n d tra n sp o rta ­

sin ce it is a lm o st im p o s s ib le to re la te a c c u ra te ly s u ch
e m p lo y m e n t to th e p ro je c ts s tu d ie d . B u ild e rs ’ o ffs ite

tio n se cto rs.

e m p lo y m e n t w as o c c u p ie d n o t o n ly w ith th e sa m p le
Each

m a te ria ls

c o rre s p o n d in g

g ro u p in g

w h o le sa le

th e n

p ric e

w as m a tch e d

in d e x

and

to

a

p ro je c ts s tu d ie d , b u t a lso w ith o th e r c u rre n t o r fu tu re

d e fla te d to

p ro je c ts. In ste a d , c o n tra c to rs o ffs ite m a n -h o u rs fo r ea ch

1 9 5 8 p ric e s . T h is ste p w as re q u ire d b e ca u se th e in p u t-

$ 1 ,0 0 0 o f c o n s tru c tio n

E m p lo y m e n t in
la b o r

re q u ire d

m a te ria ls in

to

th e

c o n s tru c tio n

b ill

c o n s tru c tio n

d iffe re n c e

b e tw ee n

m e n t a n d to ta l e m p lo y m e n t in

m a n u fa c tu rin g w as d e fin e d as th e
p ro d u c e

c o n tra c t w ere e stim a te d fro m

th e

o u tp u t ta b le w as o n a 1 958 d o lla r b a sis.

w o rk e r

e m p lo y ­

th e s p e c ia l tra d e c o n ­

of

tra c to rs ’ c o n s tru c tio n in d u s try fo r 1 9 6 9 as re p o rte d in

th e fin a l stage o f fa b ric a tio n . M in in g a n d

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s , U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r

o th e r in d u s try e m p lo y m e n t w as th e la b o r in a ll in d u s ­




B u lle tin 1 3 1 2 -7 .

25

A p p e n d ix C .
T h e c o lle c tio n
c o n s tru c tio n

D a ta C o lle c t io n P r o c e d u r e s
re la te d in fo rm a tio n . N e x t, th e d a ta c o lle c to r o b ta in e d

o f a d e q u a te a n d re lia b le d a ta fro m

d e ta ile d

c o n tra c to rs w as m a n d a to ry i f th e su rv e y

la b o r

and

m a te ria ls

in fo rm a tio n

w h ic h

th e

w as to a c c o m p lis h its d e sire d g o als. T w o m a jo r e ffo rts

g en eral c o n tra c to r s u p p lie d fo r th e p ro je c t h o u se . T h is

w ere in v o lv e d to a ch ie ve th ese o b je c tiv e s: tra in in g a n d

assig n m e n t

d a ta c o lle c tio n b y p e rso n a l v is its .

re c e ip ts a n d a s u m m a tio n o f ite m iz e d m a te ria ls a n d co sts

in v o lv e d

an

e x a m in a tio n

of

b illin g s

and

a fte r e x c lu d in g o ve rh e a d a n d p r o fit . F re q u e n tly re co rd s
w ere k e p t in m o re th a n on e f ile , a n d in m a n y cases,

Training

m a te ria l w as b ille d in q u a n tity fo r m o re th a n on e h o u se .
T h e agen t w as re q u ire d to a n a ly z e th is in fo rm a tio n a n d

E d u c a tio n a n d o rie n ta tio n in p ro g ra m ru d im e n ts w ere
a c c o m p lis h e d
tio n s ,

a id s ,

in

tw o

and

d iscu ssio n s

w ays:

sch e d u le s

F ir s t , c o lle c tio n

w ere

u sed

o b ta in th e n e ce ssa ry a d ju stm e n t fro m th e re sp o n d e n t.

in s tru c ­

as a b a sis

T h e d a ta w ere re vie w e d to m a k e c e rta in n o m a te ria ls

fo r

w ere

a t a W a sh in g to n co n fe re n c e w h ic h su rv e y

o v e rlo o k e d

and

th a t th e y

w ere

c a te g o riz e d

in

c o o rd in a to rs fro m ea ch o f th e eig h t B L S re g io n a l o ffic e s

a cce p ta b le c la s s ific a tio n s (a p p ro x im a tin g , as c lo s e ly as

a tte n d e d . S t a ff m e m b e rs

p o s s ib le , fo u r d ig it S IC g ro u p in g s).

s tu d y

in

ce d u re s,

d e ta il:
and

of

k in d s

d a ta

c o o rd in a to rs ,

of

d a ta

o f th e

g e n e ra lly ,
to

to

be

c o lle c te d

P a y ro lls o r s im ila r re co rd s w ere u sed w h ere p o ssib le

p ro ­
to

fro m

o b ta in

la b o r

re q u ire m e n ts

d a ta

w h ic h

in c lu d e d

m is in te rp re ta ­

o c c u p a tio n s , h o u rs w o rk e d , rates o f p a y , a n d to ta l gross

sch e d u le s. S e c o n d , re g io n a l

w ages. I f these w ere n o t a v a ila b le o r a d ju stm e n ts w ere

d iscu ssio n s

c o lle c tio n

re p re se n ta tiv e s

a ll fa ce ts

b a c k g ro u n d , p u rp o s e , sa m p lin g

re sp o n d e n ts. O p e n
tio n s

e x p la in e d

h e ld

re so lv e

any

c la rifie d

c o n fe re n c e s

fie ld

w ith

q u e stio n s

about

n e ce ssa ry ,

d a ta

u s u a lly y ie ld e d re lia b le e stim a te s. T h e fin a l im p o rta n t

c o n s u lta tio n

w ith

th e

g e n e r a l. c o n tra c to r

p ie ce o f in fo rm a tio n o b ta in e d fro m th e g en eral c o n tra c ­

c o lle c tio n s .

to r w as a lis t o f s u b c o n tra c to rs ’ ad d resses, to ta l va lu e o f
e a ch s u b c o n tra c t, a n d c u rre n t sta tu s o f ea ch s u b c o n tra c ­

Data collection by personal visit

to r. T h is in fo rm a tio n p ro v e d to b e e x tre m e ly h e lp fu l in
lo c a tin g s u b c o n tra c to rs , a n d w as essen tia l i f a s u b c o n ­

B e fo re v is itin g ea ch g en eral c o n tra c to r, d a ta c o lle c ­
to rs

w ere

tra c to r c o u ld n o t b e lo c a te d o r re fu se d to co o p e ra te .

a d v ise d , w h e n fe a s ib le , to v is it th e sa m p le

I n it ia lly , s u b c o n tra c to rs w ere c o n ta c te d fo r a p p o in t­

h o u se b e in g su rv e y e d a n d m a k e a p ass-b y su rv e illa n ce .
T h is

m e n ts e ith e r b y p h o n e o r b y d ire c t w a lk -in — w h ich e v e r

c o n ta c t w o u ld p ro v id e a b a c k g ro u n d o f g en eral

s p e c ific a tio n s ( ty p e o f r o o f, fra m e , s id in g , n u m b e r o f

seem ed

s to rie s , ca r a c c o m m o d a tio n s , ty p e w in d o w s , e tc .) a n d

p u rp o se o f th e v is it w as e x p la in e d , th e p a rtic u la r h o u se

w o u ld e n a b le th e a g en t to e sta b lish b e tte r ra p p o rt w ith

id e n tifie d ,

th e re sp o n d e n t.

assistan ce fro m th e s u b c o n tra c to r, d a ta o n la b o r re q u ire ­

C o m p lia n c e o f th e g en eral c o n tra c to r w as c ru c ia l, fo r
w ith o u t h is c o o p e ra tio n a n d release o f firm
e n tire

p ro je c t

assig n ed .

If

had

a fte r

to

be

d ro p p e d

e x h a u stin g

e v e ry

and

to

e x p e d itio u s

and

th e

to

th e

s u b c o n tra c t

d a ta

v a lu e

c o lle c to r . T h e

v e rifie d . W ith

m e n ts w ere n o rm a lly e x tra c te d fro m som e ty p e o f tim e

d a ta th e

re c o rd s to m a tc h th e jo b o c c u p a tio n a n d th e w o rk e rs’

a s u b s titu te

e ffo rt

m o st

gross

o b ta in

pay.

I n fo rm a tio n

w as

o b ta in e d

on

e m p lo y e r

c o n trib u tio n s fo r s u p p le m e n ta l b e n e fits as w e ll as d a ta

in fo rm a tio n a d a ta c o lle c to r w as u n a b le to e lic it c o o p ­

o n o v e rtim e a n d u n io n iz a tio n . T y p e

e ra tio n , a s u b s titu te p ro je c t w as assig n ed . S u b s titu tio n

te ria ls w ere o b ta in e d e ith e r fro m b illin g s , re c e ip ts , o r in

w as a v o id e d i f a t a ll p o s s ib le fo r it w as tim e -co n su m in g

som e

a n d c o s tly as w e ll as an a w k w a rd sa m p lin g te c h n iq u e to

c o lle c to r w h o w as fa m ilia r w ith e a ch o p e ra tio n review ed

d e a l w ith .

la b o r

cases estim a tes b y

and co st o f m a­

th e s u b c o n tra c to r. T h e d a ta

a n d m a te ria ls re q u ire m e n ts to m a k e c e rta in n o

ite m s h a d b e e n o m itte d a n d th a t d a ta c o n fo rm e d to th e

T h e d a ta c o lle c to r in it ia lly e x p la in e d th e p u rp o se o f
o b ta in e d

su rv e y c rite ria . E a c h c o m p le te d p ro je c t w ith a ll sch e d u le s

g en eral s p e c ific a tio n s o f th e sa m p le h o u se as w e ll as

th e n w as fo rw a rd e d to th e re g io n a l o ffic e c o o rd in a to r

th e

su rv e y

to

th e

g en eral




c o n tra c to r

and

26

for edit and transmittal to Washington. A thorough
edit was done in Washington and questions were referred
back to the original data collector. In some cases the
respondent was recontacted for clarification.
Data collection for single-family housing was very
intricate and difficult due to the unusual nature of the
respondents, the industry, and the complexity and detail
o f information. Many small subcontractors operating
from their homes were not available during the day.
Attempting to locate them and arrange an interview was
difficult. Often a subcontractor would be traced to a job
site but would not have accurate records. Some were
“in-and-out-of-business” or transients. Occasionally, con­
tractors would refuse to provide data and summary
information was obtained from the general contractor or
owner.




Data collectors occasionally were required to keep
unorthodox business hours; contacts would start very
early in the morning and end late at night. Weekend
visits and two or more calls at the convenience of the
respondent were not uncommon. In some cases a
considerable amount of travel was required.
Adequate training under experienced data collectors
overcame most of these obstacles and resulted in
excellent cooperation from respondents. Out of nearly
4,250 special trade contractors in the survey, only a
small number (i.e., well under 10 percent) refused, could
not be located, or provided no information. In each of
these cases, the general contractor or owner supplied
some information, such as contract value and type of
operation.

27

B ib lio g r a p h y
Publications of Construction Labor Requirements Studies
Office of Productivity and Technology
Bureau of Labor Statistics
U.S. Department of Labor
Sales publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402, or from the
Regional Offices o f the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Free copies may be obtained, so long as supply lasts, from the
Bureau’s Office of Productivity and Technology, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.
B U L L E T IN S , REPORTS, A N D A R TIC LE S
Civil works construction

Labor and Material Requirements fo r Civil Works Construction by the Corps o f Engineers, (BLS Bulletin

1390), 1964,28 pages.
A statistical study of onsite and offsite man-hour and wage requirements for dredging and land-type
projects in the U.S. Corps of Engineers’ civil works program from 1959 to 1960.
College housing construction

Labor and Material Requirements fo r College Housing Construction, (BLS Bulletin 1441), May 1965. 34

pages.
A report based on findings in a survey of 43 college housing projects which were administered by the
Community Facilities Administration. The survey is designed primarily to determine the man-hours
required for $1,000 of college housing construction.
Miller, Stanley F., “Labor and Material Required for College Housing,” Monthly Labor Review, September
1965, pp. 1100-1104.
This is a summary of BLS Bulletin 1441.
Federally aided highways

Labor and Material Requirements fo r Construction o f Federally-Aided Highways, 1958, 1961, and 1964

(BLS Report No. 299), 17 pages.
This study provides measures for 1958, 1961, and 1964 of the labor and material requirements for
federally-aided highways, with separate measures of the requirements for onsite and offsite construction.
For onsite construction, the study also provides a comparison of annual man-hour requirements for
1947-64.
Kutscher, Ronald E. and Waite, Charles A., “Labor Requirements for Highway Construction,” Monthly
Labor Review, August 1961,4 pages.

Summarizes findings of the 1958 highway survey.




28

Wakefield, Joseph C., “ Labor and Material Requirements: Highway Construction, 1958 and 1961” ,
M onthly Labor Review, April 1963, pp. 394-398.

A summary comparison of the 1958 and 1961 highway surveys.
Federal office building construction

Labor Requirements fo r Federal Office Building Construction. (BLS Bulletin 1331), 1962,43 pages.

A statistical study of onsite and offsite labor requirements for constructing 22 Federal office building
projects in various localities of the United States over a 3 year period from the fall of 1957 to 1960.
Murray, Roland V., “Labor Requirements for Federal Office Building Construction,” Monthly Labor
Review, August 1962, pp. 889-893.

A summary of BLS Bulletin 1331.
Hospital construction

Labor Requirements fo r Hospital Construction , (BLS Bulletin 1340), 1962.46 pages.

A statistical study of onsite and offsite labor requirements for construction of selected public and
private, profit and non-profit, general hospitals in various localities of the United States between
mid-1958 and mid-1959.
Rothberg, Herman J., “ Labor Requirements for Hospital Construction, 1959-60” , M onthly Labor Review,
October 1962, pp. 1120-1124.
A summary of BLS Bulletin 1340.
Labor and Material Requirements fo r Hospital and Nursing Home Construction. (BLS Bulletin 1691)

1971, 50 pages.
A study similar to the one done in 1962 but with data shown per square foot as well as per $1,000 of
construction contract. Covers hospitals and nursing homes constructed in 1965-66.
Riche, Martha Farnsworth, “Man-hour Requirements Decline in Hospital Construction, Monthly Labor
Review, November, 1970. p. 48.

Summarizes BLS Bulletin 1691.
Private housing construction

Labor and Material Requirements fo r Private One-Family House Construction, (BLS Bulletin 1404), 1964,

37 pages.
A statistical study of onsite and offsite labor requirements for constructing a sample of one-family
houses built in 1962 in various localities of the United States.
Rothberg, Herman J., “Labor and Material Requirements for One-Family Housing,” M onthly Labor
Review, July 1964, pp. 797-800.

A summary of BLS Bulletin 1404.
Ball, Robert and Ludwig, Larry, “Labor Requirements for Construction of Single-Family Houses,”
Monthly Labor Review, September 1971, pp. 12-14.

Summary of a study of labor and material requirements for single-family housing construction in 1969.
Public housing construction

Labor and Material Requirements fo r Public Housing Construction, (BLS Bulletin 1402), May 1964, 42

pages.
A report based on findings of a survey of 31 public housing projects which were administered by the
Public Housing Administration. Projects were selected in various States to represent four broad geographic
regions of the conterminous United States.




29

Finn, Joseph T., “Labor Requirements for Public Housing Construction,” M onthly Labor Review, April
1972, pp. 40-42.
Summary of a study of labor requirements for public housing construction in 1968.
School construction

Labor Requirements fo r School Construction, (BLS Bulletin 1299), 1961, 50 pages.

A study of primary and secondary man-hours required per $1,000 of new school construction based on
contracts awarded throughout the United States for 85 elementary and 43 junior and senior high schools.
Epstein, Joseph, and Walker, James F., “Labor Requirements for School Construction,” M onthly Labor
Review, July 1961, pp. 724-730.

A summary of BLS Bulletin 1299.
Labor and Material Requirements fo r School Construction, June 1968, (BLS Bulletin 1586), 23 pages.

A survey of selected elementary and secondary public schools constructed primarily during the period
of 1964-65. In addition to providing information on man-hours, the study also includes data on the types
of value of materials used, wages paid, occupations and use of apprentices.
Finn, Joseph T., “ Labor Requirements for School Construction,” Monthly Labor Review, August 1968,
pp. 40-43.
A summary of BLS Bulletin 1586.
Sewer works construction

Labor and Material Requirements fo r Sewer Works Construction, (BLS Bulletin 1490), 1966, 31 pages.

This study was designed to measure the total man-hours of labor required for each $1,000 of new
sewer facilities construction contract. The basis for this study was 138 contracts for new sewer work in
the years 1962-1963.
Summaries, comparisons, and other papers

Ball, Claiborne M., “Employment Effects of Construction Expenditures,” Monthly Labor Review,
February 1965, pp. 154-158.
A summary of the man-hour requirements broken down by offsite and onsite hours, by occupation and
regions for eight types of construction.
“Construction Labor Requirements,” reprint of Chapter 28 of The Handbook o f Methods fo r Survey s and
Studies, BLS Bulletin 1711,1971.

Describes techniques of CLR studies.
Ziegler, Martin, “BLS Construction Labor Requirements Program,” paper before the North American
Conference on Labor Statistics, San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 1971.
CLR program and objectives are discussed.
Weinberg, Edgar, Mechanization and Autom ation o f Building Site Work, National Response paper for the
Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Housing, Building and Planning, Third Seminar on the
Building Industry, Moscow, October 1970.
Discusses current technology and labor requirements at the construction site.
Weinberg, Edgar, “Reducing Skill Shortages in Construction,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1969,
pp. 3-9.
Discusses methods for reducing occupational shortages.




30

☆ U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1972 O - 4 8 4 -7 9 3 (122)

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