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Bulletin No. 1539
1966

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U N I T E D STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F LABOR
W. Wi l l ar d Wirtz, S e c r e t a r y
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B UR E AU OF LABOR S T AT I S T I C S
A r t h u r M . Ross, C o m m i s s i o n e r




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Bulletin No 1539
1966

LABOR DIGESTS
ON C O U N TR IES

IN AFRICA

U N I T E D ST ATES D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secret ary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, C ommi ss i one r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.25






PREFACE

The digests on labor conditions in 51 African countries which
make up this bulletin were prepared in the spring of 1966 by the
Office of Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
for inclusion in the Directory of Labor Organizations--Africa. The
labor organizations section of each digest was contributed by the
Division of International Trade Union Organizations of the Bureau
of International Labor Affairs.
Source material used in preparing the digests included reports
of U.S. Embassies and official publications of the individual
countries.
The digests herein appear in the following order:

Algeria
Angola
Basutoland [Lesotho]
Bechuanaland [Botswana]
Burundi
Cameroon
Central African
Republic
Chad
Congo (Brazzaville)
Congo (Kinshasa)
Dahomey
Empire of Ethiopia
Equatorial Guinea
French Somaliland
Gabon
Gambia
Ghana




Guinea
Ivory Coast
Kenya
Liberia
Libya
Malagasy Republic
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Portuguese Guinea
Reunion
Rwanda

Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somali Republic
South Africa
South West Africa
Southern Rhodesia
Spanish Sahara
Sudan
Swazi land
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
United Arab Republic
Upper Volta
Zambia

iii




LABOR DIGEST
No.

93

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics *

LABOR CONDITIONS IN ALGERIA
Algeria, located in northwestern Africa along the Mediterranean Sea, has an area
of about 920,000 square miles and, in 1966, had a population between 11 and 12
million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Algeria achieved its independence from France in July 1962.
Following a coup against the government of Ahmed Ben Bella in June 1965, a 26member Council of the Revolution became the highest authority, holding both
executive and legislative powers. The National Liberation Front (Front de
Liberation Nationale--FLN) is the only legally recognized political party. The
principal executive organ is the Council of Ministers, whose members serve at
the pleasure of the Council of the Revolution. Colonel Houari Boumedienne is
president of both the Council of the Revolution and the Council of Ministers.
Economic. The Algerian economy is divided into two sectors. One, a
highly developed modern sector of agriculture and industry, is still seriously
dislocated as a result of the precipitous departure, immediately prior toAlgerian independence, of the French resident population, which had been a substan­
tial number. The other, a traditional sector, has its base largely in subsistence
farming; about two-thirds of the population are in this sector. Despite the
predominance of agriculture, it accounted in 1964 for only about 23 percent of
the gross national product (GNP). Industry and public works contributed 13 per­
cent; petroleum, 24 percent; administration, 22 percent; and services, 17 per­
cent. The former French-owned farms in the modern agricultural sector are now
managed largely by the farmers themselves (’worker managed”), under Government
’
supervision.
Industry and commerce (except for Government-controlled trade in some
mass-consumption items) are still privately operated to a large extent. The
principal agricultural products are wine, grain, vegetables, and citrus fruits;




the most important industries are food processing, construction, and metalwork­
ing. The country has abundant mineral resources, ranking 10th in the world in
1964 in the production of petroleum, but it must import certain mass-consumption
agricultural products. About 40 percent of the best arable land is devoted to
the production of grapes for wine, which accounts for about 33 percent of the
value of agricultural production and is the second largest export after petro­
leum. In 1963, the per capita GNP was estimated by experts to be US$185.
Social. The population was 88.7 percent Moslem and 11.3 percent nonMoslem prior to independence, but the European population has declined to about
100.000 since 1962. Islam, the official religion, is practiced almost univer­
sally. Although the official language is Arabic, French is spoken widely, and
many Government publications are available only in French. The illiteracy rate
among people above 15 is estimated at 80 percent.
In the 1965-66 school year,
about 1,418,000 students were in elementary schools and 100,000 in secondary
schools. About 60 percent of the children between 6 and 14 years of age were
in school, which is double the rate that existed among Moslem children at the
time of independence.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In early 1966,
there were an estimated
900.000 employed wage and salary earners, including the Armed Forces (80,000).
Of these, some 350,000 worked in the agricultural sector, including the selfmanaged farms.
In addition, approximately 300,000
Algerians held jobs in
France. Estimates of the total labor force vary considerably (a current census
was begun in early 1966), but the Government's estimate was approximately 2.2
million in 1963, which was also the population figure for all males between 15
and 55. Government estimates on unemployment range from 370,000 to 2 million-the latter figure including many persons employed part time. In 1963, there
were an estimated 550,000 underemployed males in agriculture alone.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity suffers in both agri­
culture and industry because of low educational attainment,
the shortage of
skilled workers and technicians, poor health conditions,
lack of managerial
skills, and the breakdown in credit and marketing channels following the depar­
ture of Europeans. Industrial production in 1964 was estimated to be 50 percent
below capacity, primarily because of the loss of skills and capital held by the
Europeans.
In agriculture,
the highest level of productivity is on the large
farms, which produce mainly grapes for wine.
The Government is expanding vocational training facilities and providing
other industrial short-term courses, night classes , and apprenticeship programs.
In 1963, there were about 7,000 students in vocational and technical schools, and
enrollment is reported to have increased substantially since then. The French
Government and various international agencies are helping to make up for a short­
age of Algerian teachers and administrators in vocational training programs.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Algerian labor legislation, most of which was in­
herited from France, is in the process of being redrafted. Work on a new labor
2




code has been slowed by the difficulty of having it cover so many different types
of enterprises:
State operated, private, mixed, and worker managed.
In the
meantime,
the French Labor Code, modified in minor ways by decrees, still ap­
plies. It provides for compensation for accidents and diseases arising from
work, social insurance benefits, family allowances, payment of a minimum wage,
1 day of rest per week, pay for all legal holidays, paid vacations based on
length of service, maternity benefits, and protection of women and children un­
der 18 years of age against arduous and night work. The Constitution recognizes
the right of workers to organize into unions, to strike, and to participate in
the management of enterprises. Separate social security programs provide bene­
fits for agricultural, nonagricultural, and Government workers.
Administration and Practice. Labor legislation is administered and en­
forced by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, assisted by its eight re­
gional offices. The inspection office of the Ministry of Transport has similar
functions for the transportation industry, as does the Ministry of Agriculture
for the agricultural sector.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
In 1966, the minimum wage was US$1.53 a day for agricultural workers and
US$0.23 to US$0.28 an hour for nonagricultural workers. Minimum wages, theo­
retically tied to the cost-of-living index, have not gone up since April 1963.
In the worker-managed sector, workers theoretically are not in the role of wage
earners but receive advances on "profits.” In practice,
they have been paid
salaries, supplemented by payments in kind in the form of housing, clothing, and
produce, especially in the agricultural sector. A large part of their medical
and most of their hospital costs are covered by social security and programs for
indigent persons.
The workweek in industry is officially 40 hours but can be extended for
various reasons, including makeup time for hours lost by strikes. The maximum
hours of overtime legally permitted are 20 a week, with time-and-a-quarter paid
for 41 to 48 hours, and time-and-a-half for more than 48 hours. Overtime is now
discouraged by labor organizations and the Government
in order to spread em­
ployment among the unemployed.
In the agricultural sector, maximum working
hours permitted by law are 2,400 a year; many exceptions are allowed. There are
10 paid legal holidays.
The cost-of-living index increased 7.5 percent between 1961 and 1963,
while wages and salaries in the industrial sector rose 10 percent. Many people
in the larger cities are well dressed, well fed, and well housed, but millions
of others, particularly those in the countryside, live at the subsistence level
with inadequate housing and sanitary facilities.
Employer Organizations
The Algerian General Economic Confederation (Confederation Generate £conomique Algerienne--CGEA)
is the principal employer organization. There are
also chambers of commerce in the principal cities, and most principal profes­
sions and trades have their own employer groups. The number of organizations
which engage in formalized labor-management relations is small, however.




3

Labor Organizations
The General Union of Algerian Workers tUnion Generate des Travailleurs
Algeriens--UGTA), the nation's only trade union center, claims a total member­
ship of 320,000, or about 35 percent of all wage and salary earners. The UGTA,
which was formed in 1956, has a close relationship to the nation's only legally
recognized political party, the F L N , dating from the preindependence period.
The UGTA is affiliated with both the All-African Trade Union Federation
and the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions.
In 1963, it dis­
affiliated from the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, with which
it had been affiliated since 1956.
The UGTA is organized into both geographic centers and industrial federa­
tions. In 1966, there were 18 regional centers and 12 national industrial fed­
erations. Most of the latter have been formed since 1964.
Labor-Management Relations
Only two national collective bargaining agreements have been negotiated
since independence--one for the construction trades and the other for construct­
i o n material manufacturers. Remnants of preindependence contracts apply in a
few other industries. Some individual plants have concluded written contracts.
However,
labor practices are not generally formalized in union contracts at
present, although the UGTA is pushing for this goal. The law requires that col­
lective disputes be handled through regional conciliation boards composed of
employer, employee, and Government representatives; in practice, the Labor Min­
istry takes over this role. Works councils, made up of elected employee repre­
sentatives but chaired by a management representative, are obligatory in all
enterprises,
industrial and nonindustrial, of more than 50 employees. These
councils are in the process of expanding their jurisdiction to encompass direc­
tion of plant-level vocational training, including the choice of candidates for
training. Many private owners argue that this enlargement of function in effect
assigns to labor the responsibility for actions affecting promotions.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No.

94

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN ANGOLA
Angola is a Portuguese territory located in southwest Africa. It has an area of
481,351 square miles and had a population of about 5.2 million in 1965.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Angola, an overseas province of Portugal,
is controlled by
the Portuguese Ministry of Overseas Provinces and administered by a Governor
General who is appointed by the Portuguese Council of Ministers.
It is repre­
sented in the Portuguese National Assembly. The Governor General is assisted by
a Legislative Council, of which a majority of the members are elected on the
basis of limited suffrage, and advised by an Economic and Social Council. The
Portuguese National Union is the only legal political group.
In 1961, the In­
digenous Statute was repealed, removing*restrictions on the freedom of movement,
employment, and wages of the native Angolan and making him a citizen with equal
rights under law.
Economic. Most of the population engage in subsistence agriculture*
Coffee and cotton are grown on large European-owned plantations. The principal
activities in the limited industrial sector are the processing of primary prod­
ucts (fish, vegetable oils, sugar, cotton, and meat), production of cement and
paper, and refining of oil. Coffee, the leading export, accounted for 49 percent
of the total in 1964; diamonds, about 12 percent; and fish, about 12 percent.
Iron ore, manganese, sisal, corn, and petroleum were also important. The esti­
mated average per capita annual income is US$100 to US$150.
Social. An estimated 95 percent of the population in 1965 were African;
the remainder were European and other. Portugal has promoted immigration to An­
gola; in 1960, about 200,000 Europeans lived there. The principal African tribes
are the Mbundu/Ovimbundu and the Kimbundu , which constitute about one-third and
one-fourth of the total population, respectively. According to estimates, about




60 percent of the population in 1965 were animists and most of the remainder
were Christians.
Portuguese is the official language.
An estimated 5 per­
cent of the population were literate in 1965, in which year approximately 15
percent of the children of school age (ages 5-14) were enrolled in educational
institutions.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The total labor force in 1961 was estimated
at about 2,056,400, of whom 1,670,000, or81percent, were engaged in subsistence
agriculture. Europeans, who comprised about 15 percent of the total (excluding
persons engaged in subsistence farming), constituted the managerial, supervi­
sory, and most of the technical and skilled labor force; they accounted for 49
percent of the total in industry, business, trade, and the professions, 36 per­
cent in the public sector (Government service and Government corporations),
and 3 percent in each of the other categories. About 180,000 Africans in agri­
culture and mining were contract laborers under a law (since repealed) which
required all African males over age 18 to work at least 6 months a year.
According to official estimates, the total number of wage and salary earn­
ers in 1965 was 408,369
(excluding household servants and seasonal farm la­
borers) , of whom 367,351, or 90 percent, were in private enterprise and 4l,01E
in Government. The largest number (41 percent) were engaged in agriculture,
cattle ranching, and fishing, followed by civil construction,
services, and
Government, which each employed 10 percent of the total; 8 percent were engaged
in communications and transportation, 7 percent each in mining and manufactur­
ing, 6 percent in commerce, and the remainder in other activities.
Unemployment is extensive in urban areas, and underemployment character­
izes especially the subsistence sector of agriculture.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Low levels of education, inadequate
training facilities, the lack of skilled labor, and poor health and nutrition
of workers contribute to low productivity in all sectors of the economy. In
agriculture, traditional and wasteful production methods and the migratory life
of Africans result in low productivity. The Government's efforts to expand and
improve the level of production, such as by means of stabilization projects to
encourage Africans to remain in one place, technical assistance, and the dis­
tribution of higher quality seeds, are hampered by shortages of funds and an
inadequate number of technicians. The Government has taken steps to improve
livestock raising, which also follows traditional patterns, and to modernize the
fishing industry.
In 1965, of the wage and salary earners not employed by the Government,
241,351 (mainly in agriculture) were unskilled, 65,500 were listed as semi­
skilled and 65*000 as skilled.
A decree of 1963 provided for the establishment of a number of vocational
schools at the elementary and secondary levels. An artisan training school is
planned for 1966. For the most part, training for white and mulatto workers is
provided on the job and by the syndicates,
some social service organizations,
and the Stabilization of African Labor Program.
2



Labor Standards
Labor Legislation, The Portuguese Rural Labor Code for Overseas Prov­
inces (1962) contains regulation's covering recruitment, the employment of immi­
grants, labor contracts , prof essional and vocational training, working conditions ,
wages, hours of work, holidays, women workers and child labor, social security
benefits, professional organizations (syndicates), and enforcement machinery.
It provides certain irrevocable rights, such as the right to refuse to perform
work not called for in a contract and the right to receive wages at specified
intervals. A number of the regulations have been amplified in implementing
decrees. The Minimum Wages and Salaries Law (1959) , as amended, applies mainly
to members of labor syndicates. Almost all Europeans, but relatively few Afri­
cans, were covered by its provisions.
Administration and Practice. The Portuguese Government established the
Labor, Social Security, and Welfare Institute in 1963 to implement labor legis­
lation and social welfare programs. It replaced the Office of Native Affairs.
The Institute formulates standards relating to labor and promotes revision of
labor legislation.
The broadening of the laws to make them applicable to the
entire population has taxed the capacity of the small Institute, and enforcement
is uneven.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The average monthly wage for unskilled labor in 1965 was US$15 to US$20,
of which about half was generally paid in subsistence benefits. Semiskilled and
skilled workers, concentrated in the urban areas of Luanda, Lobito, Benguela,
and Nova Lisboa, received an average monthly wage of US$60 toUS$120, depending
on the kind and level of skill.
In the fishing industry, wages are determined
by a Government-sponsored form of collective bargaining between employer guilds
and labor syndicates.
The 1962 labor code provides for introduction of an 8-hour day, 48-hour
workweek.
In practice, hours worked per week vary from 44 to 48.
The level of living for most of
that of metropolitan Portugal.
Large
in the traditional manner, outside the
salary earners generally have a higher
index (1938=100) rose from 310 in 1957

the European population is equivalent to
segments of the African population live
money economy; Africans who are wage and
standard of living. The cost-of-living
to 350 in 1959 and 385 in 1964.

Employer Organizations
Business firms are represented by several quasi-official agencies within
the principal segments of the economy. The Commercial Association has branches
in most urban centers which represent member firms engaged in wholesale and re­
tail trade; manufacturers and industrial concerns are represented by the Indus­
trial Association; the Institute of Fishing Industries of Angola regulates the
fishing industry and represents its members in local fishing centers through
fish guilds; the Agricultural Association represents agricultural interests,
especially those of large enterprises. The functions of these agencies, which
are similar to those of protective agencies and chambers of commerce,
include




3

assisting their members with regard to legislation
bodies of control in implementing regulations.

and serving as additional

Labor Organizations
No trade union organizations exist in Portugal or its overseas terri­
tory of Angola. Labor is organized in syndicates which function essentially as
beneficent societies. The syndicates are defined in the Rural Labor Code as an
integral part of the corporative organization of the nation. However, the syndi­
cates in Angola are autonomous from those in Portugal and, unlike in Portugal,
membership is not compulsory. There are presently four syndicates in Angola
with a total membership of about 55,000, or approximately 13 percent of the
wage and salary earners.
Two national trade union centers have been established outside Angola for
Angolan workers: The General League of Angolan Workers in Exile (Ligue Generale
des Travailleurs de 1 1
Angola--LGTA) and the Committee for Union of Action and
Angolan Trade Union Coordination (Comite d'Unite d*Action et de Co-ordination
Syndicale de 1 'Angola--CUACSA). Both have their headquarters in Kinshasa (for­
merly Leopoldville), Republic of the Congo.
The LGTA, which has an estimated
1,500 members, has been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization (AFRO) since 1961.
It is also a member of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC). The CUACSA,
a competing organization with an estimated 200 members, was formed in 1964 by
amalgamation of the National Union of Angolan Workers in Exile (Union Nationale
des Travailleurs Angolais--UNTA)
and the Confederation of Free Angolan Unions
(Confederation des Syndicats Libres Angolais--CSLA)0
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining was begun in 1963, with labor and employer repre­
sentatives meeting under the chairmanship of the Labor Institute. Since strikes
and lockouts are illegal, the procedure resembles arbitration. Agreements exist
in the fishing, petroleum, and insurance sectors. Grievances and disputes are
settled by labor courts. Municipal labor tribunals were set up in 1962 to ad­
judicate minor grievances. A 1965 decree provided for regular labor courts in
three districts in order to expedite the handling of the growing number of dis­
putes stemming from the abolition of the Indigenous Statute in 1961 and the
Portuguese Rural Labor Code for Overseas Provinces in 1962; their abolition
caused thousands of native litigants to come before the courts.

4



LABOR DIGEST
Ho.

95

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN BASUTOLAND
Basutoland, a colony,
is a British-protected enclave within the Republic of
South Africa.
It has an area of 11,716 square miles and, in 1964, had a popu­
lation estimated at 900,000.
Basutoland was expected to become independent on October 4, 1966. The
1964 Constitution provides for a 60-member National Assembly, elected on the
basis of universal suffrage, and a Senate, consisting of 22 principal chiefs and
100 others nominated by the Paramount Chief.
The Prime Minister is appointed
from the Assembly by the Paramount Chief. The three major political parties are
the majority Basutoland National Party, the Basutoland Congress Party, and the
Marematlou Freedom Party.
The economy is based primarily on agriculture and livestock. Most farm­
ing is done at the subsistence level on small,
individual holdings.
The main
crops are corn, wheat, and sorghum. Wool and mohair are the main exports. The
estimated annual average per capita earnings are US$50 for the domestic popula­
tion and US$109 for workers living abroad.
The latest census (1956) revealed that 99.5 percent of the population of
641,674 were Africans, and the remainder were of European, Asian, and other ex­
tractions. The nation is known as Lesotho, and the people are the Basuto or the
Mosotho. The official languages are Sesotho and English; the latter is spoken
by the educated. Of the total population in 1956, 71 percent were Christian and
29 percent were of other faiths.
About 60 percent of persons 15 years of age
and over are reported to be literate to some degree. Primary education is free
but not compulsory. In 1960, 136,111 students, or about 50 percent of the schoolage population, were enrolled in 1,110 schools; most were in primary schools.
The majority of the domestic population is engaged in growing crops and
raising livestock. Manufacturing is in its incipient stages. The public sector,




particularly the Government,
is the largest employer.
Some 43 percent of the
adult male population are employed in South Africa, mainly in mining.
Among other factors, the small size of holdings and traditional farming
methods, which have reduced the fertility of the soil and have caused serious
erosion, are responsible for low productivity. Further, the workers*
skills
are limited. There are 23 secondary schools, several vocational training insti­
tutions for craftsmen,
2 technical schools, a small commercial school, and 7
training schools for postprimary teachers. In addition, international organiza­
tions are sponsoring a number of rural training programs.
Advanced studies
are available at the University of Basutoland,
the Bechuanaland Protectorate,
and Swaziland.
The principal labor laws are the Master and Servants Act (1856), the
Wages Proclamation (1936),
the Employment of Women and Children Proclamation
(1937), the African Labour Proclamation (1942), the Trade Unions and Trade Dis­
putes Proclamation (1942, revised in the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Act,
1964), and the Workmen's Compensation Proclamation (1948). A National Advisory
Committee on Labour, composed of employee and employer representatives, ad­
vises on labor legislation. There is no social security legislation. A Depart­
ment of Labour was established in 1963 under the Department of Home and External
Affairs.
The minimum daily wage for unskilled laborers employed by the Government
was US$0.50 in 1962 and 1963. Prices for basic commodities were stable in the
period 1961-63.
Employees in Government departments work a 5-day week.
The principal employer organization is the Union of Employers of Basuto­
land .
There is no information available on present trade union membership in
Basutoland.
The Basutoland Congress of Trade Unions, formed in 1961, is no
longer in existence, and it is not known if any national trade union centers
presently exist. Only five trade unions have registered under the Trade Unions
and Trade Disputes Act, 1964, which went into effect in April 1965.
There isno wage-fixing machinery; however, Wages Proclamation No. 37 of
1936 provides for the establishment of a Board of Enquiry to examine wages and
conditions of employment. Trade unions and employers have made efforts to en­
gage in joint consultation and bargaining. District labor committees review
changes in wages of Government daily paid workers and employees and hear indi­
vidual grievances. A number of works committees have been established. Major
industrial disputes are few.

On October 4, 1966, the United Kingdom Colony of Basutoland
received its independence and changed its name to the Kingdom
of Lesotho.

2



LABOR DIGEST
No.

96

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

LABOR CONDITIONS IN BECHUANALAND
Bechuanaland, located north of the Republic of South Africa, has an estimated
area of about 275,000 square miles and had a population of about 550,000 in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Bechuanaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, is sched­
uled to become independent on September 30, 1966, and will be known thereafter
as Botswana. Under the new Constitution of 1965, the British Commissioner is
the chief administrative officer with the status of Governor. He presides over
and is advised by the Cabinet, composed of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime
Minister, and five other Ministers from the Legislative Assembly. The Commis­
sioner is assisted by an advisory, nonpolitical Public Service Commission in
performing his duties connected with the public service. There is also a House
of Chiefs, composed of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes and four other
members elected by and from among the subchiefs of four districts. The principal
political party is the Bechuanaland Democratic Party; others are the Bechuana­
land People1s Party (BPP) and the Botswana Independence Party (BIP).
Economic. The economy is based primarily on livestock raising, in which
about 98 percent of the population are engaged. Only 5 percent of the arable
land is cultivated. Sorghum is the major crop. The country's small industrial
sector consists of the production of asbestos, manganese, gold, and silver. The
gross national product per capita is estimated to be under US$100 per year.
Social. Ninety-nine percent of the total population are African; the
remainder are European, Asian, and Colored (people of mixed race). The Bechuana,
a Bantu people, comprise eight main tribal groupings, each of which lives in
and, to a great extent, administers its own tribal territory. Major tribes are
the Bamangwato, Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Batawana, Bakgatla, Bamalete, Barolong,
and Batlokwa. About 85 percent of the population are animists and 15 percent are
Christians. English is the official language; Sechuana is the main native language.




Literacy is minimal; however, the education program is being rapidly expanded.
At the end of 1964, there were 241 primary schools and 8 secondary schools.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. An estimated 240,000 persons are engaged
in agriculture, generally at the subsistence level; the majority are self-employed
farmers. The number of wage and salary earners outside agriculture in 1964 was
13,850, of whom 6,000 were employed in central and local government service,
2,500 in construction, 2,000 in commerce, 1,000 in manufacturing, 1,000 in trans­
port, storage, and communications,
850 in mining and quarrying, and 500 in
utilities. An estimated 35,000 persons from Bechuanaland were employed in the
Republic of South Africa,
including 24,418 in mining, on contracts of up to 9
months; 8,000 in industry, commerce, and domestic service; and about 2,000 in
seasonal agricultural work.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Training facilities include St.
Joseph’s College, the Dutch Reformed Church Homecrafts Centre, the Bechuanaland
Training Centre,
the Commerce and Adult Education School, agricultural and
veterinary schools, and two teacher-training institutes.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Legislation includes the Employment Law (1963), as
amended, which covers labor contracts, wages, employment of women and children,
recruitment of labor for work inside and outside the territory, health, and forced
labor; the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Proclamation (1949) and the Trade
Unions Registration Rules (1964); the Workmen's Compensation Proclamation; the
Wages Boards Proclamation; the Mining Health Proclamation; the Works and Machin­
ery Proclamation; and the Shop Hours Proclamation.
Administration and Practice. Legislation is enforced by the Labour Branch
(established in 1963), headed by the Commissioner of Labour. The Branch makes
proposals for labor policy to ensure the enforcement and administration of labor
legislation,
is responsible for compiling labor statistics, and conciliates
major labor disputes. It has 25 part-time district officers.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The minimum hourly wage for Government manual workers in 1964 was US$0.08
for unskilled workers, US$0.14 for semiskilled workers, and US$0.25 for skilled
workers. Prevailing minimum monthly wage rates in private establishments were
US$4.20 in commerce, US$8.40 in services, US$14.00 in manufacturing, and US$25.20
in transportation.
Employer Organizations
No information is available on employer organizations.
Labor Organizations

land.

No information is available on total trade union membership in Bechuana­
Although no national trade union centers are known to exist, recent efforts

2



have been made to establish the Bechuanaland Federation of Labour. There are six
registered trade unions in the territory.
Labor-Management Relations
At the present time, there is no legislation which deals with industrial
disputes. The Wages Boards Proclamation and the Trade Unions and Trade Dis­
putes Proclamation provide for setting up Wages Councils and Industrial Coun­
cils. In practice, disputes have been dealt with by negotiation between the
parties, with conciliation by the Commissioner of Labour.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No.

97

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bujre^u of Labor S ta tistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE KINGDOM OF BURUNDI
Burundi, located in east-central Africa, has an area of 10,747 square miles and,
in mid-1965, had an estimated population of 2.8 million.
Burundi was part of the former Belgian United Nations Trusteeship Terri­
tory of Ruanda-Urundi until it achieved independence on July 1, 1962, and became
a constitutional monarchy patterned on the Belgian system. The Mwami, or King,
is the head of state and appoints the Prime Minister, who selects his Cabinet,
which must be approved by the National Assembly. The Constitution provides for
an elected bicameral Legislature, an assembly consisting of 33 members, and a
Senate of 16. Elections are held every 6 years. The only political party at
present is the National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA).
Approximately 95 percent of the population live in rural areas. A large
majority are engaged in subsistence agriculture and are outside the money econ­
omy. The principal export product is coffee, followed by cotton and hides.
Industry is limited and small scale. In 1964, the gross national product per
capita was about US$40, one of the lowest in the world.
The Hutu, or Bahutu, comprise the largest ethnic group, accounting for
about 86 percent of the indigenous population; the Tutsi, or Batutsi, comprise
13 percent, and the Twa, 1 percent.
In 1960, there were 7,000 Europeans and
Asians in the country. The official languages are French and Kirundi, the
principal native language. Approximately 50 percent of the population are
Christians; the remainder are animists or practice Islam. Although children
aged 7-16 are entitled to free education, the percentage of children of primary
school age enrolled in primary schools is small, and only about 1 percent go on
to secondary or technical schools. The official University of Bujumbura provides
higher education.
The labor force is predominantly unskilled. Unemployment has not been
measured. Underemployment is probably extensive in the large subsistence sector.



No data are available to indicate the size of the labor force in Burundi.
In
Ruanda-Urundi, the approximate distribution of the 97,000 wage and salary earners
in 1960 was 23,000 in agriculture, 19,000 in service trades, 12,000 in trans­
port, 11,000 in construction, 10,000 in mining, 10,000 in retail trade, 6,000
in manufacturing, and the remainder in other activities.
A decree issued in December 1963, modifying a 1964 decree establishing
a National Labour Council, provides that the chairman of the Council be the
Minister of Social Affairs or his representative.
A decree of the Minister of Social Affairs, effective January 1, 1963,
established minimum daily wage rates for unskilled workers. The wage rates for
8 hours of work per day are composed of (a) wages, (b) a food ration or its
countervalue, and (c) lodging or its countervalue; these vary by locale and
according to the classification of the work as heavy, ordinary, or light. Under
the decree, workers in Bujumbura engaged in heavy work receive 52 percent more
pay per day than workers in the interior; those engaged in ordinary work, 54
percent more; and those engaged in light work, 60 percent more. The daily rate
established in Bujumbura for heavy work was US$0.30; for ordinary work, US$0.27;
and for light work, US$0.25. The countervalue of food rations was US$0.30,
US$0.25, and US$0.17, respectively, and of lodging for all types of work, US$0.10.
For work outside Bujumbura, the daily rates of pay, including all items, were
US$0.46 for heavy work, US$0.40 for ordinary work, and US$0.32 for light work.
The cost-of-living index in Bujumbura (April 1963=100) was 132 in April
1965 and 142 in February 1966.
Available data indicate that there is a Chamber of Commerce and a small
association of manufacturers, most of whose members are also members of the
Chamber of Commerce.
No information is available on the present trade union membership in
Burundi. Of the four existing trade union organizations, only two are known to
be active at present: The Union of Free Workers of Burundi (Synidcat Libre des
Travailleurs du Burundi--SLTB) and the Union of Administrative Agents of Burundi
(Syndicat des Agents de 1 Administration du Burundi--SAAB). The SAAB, which
was formed in 1964, is composed of all civil servants.
Two centers which are presently inactive are the Christian Union of
Burundi (Syndicat Chretien du Burundi--SCB) , which claimed 1,000 members in 1963,
and the Federation of Workers of Burundi (Federation des Travailleurs du Burundi
--FTB), which claimed 3,000 members in 1963. The SCB, an affiliate of the
International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation Internationale
des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organization, the PanAfrican Union of Believing Workers (Union Panafricaine des Travailleurs Croyants
--UPTC), has been inactive since an attempted coup d'etat in October 1965. The
FTB, an affiliate of the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF), was banned
from activity by the Minister of Justice in 1965 following the assassination of
the Prime Minister.

2



LABOR DIGEST
No.

98

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Cameroon, situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west coast of Africa, has
an area of 183,381 square miles (166,800 in East Cameroon and 16,581 in West
Cameroon) and had an estimated population of over 5 million in 1965.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Cameroon, which became independent in 1960,
is a federal
republic consisting of East Cameroon, formerly administered by the French, and
West Cameroon, formerly administered by the British. The Constitution of 1961
provides for a President andaV i c e President (one from each of the States), who
are elected by universal adult suffrage for 5-year terms, and a Cabinet. While
the two States have considerable autonomy in local matters, the President ap­
points the Prime Minister of each State, as well as the Federal Ministers and
Parliamentary Secretaries
(whom he may also dismiss). The National Assembly,
composed of 40 representatives from East Cameroon and 10 from West Cameroon,
exercises legislative power. Representatives are elected for 5-year terms by
universal adult suffrage. The major political party in East Cameroon has been
the Union Camerounaise (UC), the party of President Ahmadou Ahidjo; the Kamerun
National Democratic Party (KNDP) of West Cameroon was the party of Vice Presi­
dent John Foncha.
However, on June 13, 1966, theUC andtheKNDP, along with two
other West Cameroon-based parties, agreed to merge into a single party known as
the Union Nationale Camerounaise (UNC).
Economic. Cameroon’s economy is predominantly agricultural. Coffee and
cocoa, the principal exports, are produced by thousands of Cameroonians farming
small family holdings.
In 1964, coffee accounted for about 27 percent of for­
eign exchange earnings; cocoa, 24 percent; cotton, 7 percent; fruits, mainly
bananas, for 6 percent; palm products and rubber, 7 percent; and forest products,
only 8 percent. Animal husbandry, a major economic activity, provides little
for export. The principal food crops in the south are yams , manioc, plantains , and
palm oil and, inthenorth, millet, sorghum, manioc, and peanuts. The industrial



sector is small but has been expanding steadily. Most industrial enterprises
are based on the transformation of locally produced raw materials, but a few
assemble imported parts into finished products. The per capita gross national
product in 1964-65 was approximately US$101.
Social. About 99.6 percent of the population are Africans, who belong
to about 80 different tribes; most of the remainder are Europeans. The Fang,
Beti, Bassas, and Doualas are the principal ethnic groups in the south, the
Bamileke and Bamoun in the west, the Fulani, Hausa, and Kirdi (pagan) peoples
in the north, and small groups of Pygmies in the southeast. The two official
languages are French and English; there are about 24 major African language
groups. Approximately 53 percent of the population are pagan, 18 percent prac­
tice Islam, and 29 percent are Christian. Literacy was estimated at 40 percent
in the south and 10 percent in the north in 1965. Almost 97 percent of all stu­
dents in 1963 were in elementary schools. Less than half of the school-age
population were in school in 1965.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The estimated number of wage and salary
earners at the end of 1964 was 86,470, or about 2 percent of the total popula­
tion. Of the 62,032 persons employed in the private sector, 31 percent were in
agriculture, 11 percent in forestry, 3 percent in fishing, 21 percent in indus­
try and commerce, 14 percent in transportation and communications, 10 percent
in building and construction, and 10 percent in domestic service. A majority of
the population are outside the money economy and live at a subsistence level.
Although no statistics are available on the extent of unemployment, it reportedly
is high, especially among migrants from rural to urban areas and among primary
and secondary school graduates. Underemployment is widespread, especially in
the traditional, subsistence sector of the economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. A large majority of the country's
manpower are untrained and relatively unproductive. Malnutrition, the lack of
adequate health facilities, debilitating diseases, and an inadequate educational
system are factors which contribute to low productivity. There is an acute short­
age of professional, administrative, and technical personnel and all categories
of skilled and semiskilled workers.
Expatriates fill the essential positions
in these fields.
In 1962, about 5,800 persons were receiving vocational-technical training
and about 2,800, teacher training. The Government Trade Center at Ombe in West
Cameroon graduates apprentice craftsmen in a number of trades. The College of
Arts, Science, and Technology at Kumba provides middle-level agricultural and
other technical training. In 1964-65, a center for English language instruction
was opened; a new inter-African center for training labor administrators was
inaugurated at the School of Administration in Yaounde;a private church organi­
zation from the Netherlands has agreed to construct and equip a technical school
at Diang; and project and technical assistance from various sources was concerned
with crop pest control, agricultural diversification, schools, public health,
commercial and agricultural training, and the provision of scholarships and other
training abroad. Cameroon has a university at Yaounde. In 1965, over 100 Peace
Corps volunteers, many of whom were working as teachers and in community develop­
ment, were in the country.
2



Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Codes applied to Cameroon before independ­
ence an d , still in force, provide for maximum hours of work, paid overtime, and
paid vacations. The codes also establish minimum wages for all occupations in
the six salary zones (geographic regions into which the country is divided) and
regulate the employment of women and young persons. Other labor regulations
deal with indemnities for occupational diseases and accidents at work, and various
plans provide for family allowances and prenatal and maternity benefits for wage
and salary earners.
Administration and Practice. The Federal Ministry of Labor and Social
Legislation is responsible for the administration and enforcement of labor legis­
lation. In 1962, one employment exchange was in operation.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Wages and prices have been as much as 30 to 40 percent higher in East
Cameroon than in West Cameroon.
In 1964, there was an average increase of 10
percent in minimum wages in public works, construction, and industry. Hourly
wages of unskilled labor in 1965 ranged from US$0.07 to US$0.13. No other wage
data are available. A fringe benefit commonly provided to workers is medical
care. The statutory workweek is 40 hours in industry, business, and the pro­
fessions and 48 hours
(or 200 hours per month) in farming and forestry, with
provisions for overtime. Weekly hours worked, including overtime, in the early
part of 1965, were about 48 in industry and 40 to 45 in business.
Steadily increasing prices led to the establishment in 1964 of a Federal
Office of Price Control. However, despite controls, some consumer prices con­
tinued to rise. The retail price index for European families at Douala was
110.4 in June 1965 (February 1963=100) and 124.1 at Yaounde (March 1961=100).
As previously stated, a majority of the population live at the subsistence
level.
Employer Organizations
The first Cameroonian Federal Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Mines
was established in 1963. Other organizations are the regional Chambers of Com­
merce and Industry; the Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture, Pasturage, and
Forests; the Union des Syndicats Professionels du Cameroun, which coordinates
the activities of the approximately 20 associations of merchants and producers;
the Association Professionnelle des Banques; and the Confederation des Petites
et Moyennes Entreprises.
Labor Organizations
The total claimed trade union membership in Cameroon in 1965 was more
than 88,500. This claim is believed to be inflated since the number of wage and
salary earners in 1964 was estimated at about 86,500. The two national centers
representing workers in East Cameroon claimed about 68,500 of the total trade
union membership. By far the larger of the two is the Federation of Trade Unions
of the Cameroon (Federation des Syndicats du Cameroun--FSC), which had an esti­
mated membership of 60,000.
3



The FSC was formed in 1963 by merger of the Confederation of Free Unions
of Cameroon (Union des Syndicats Libres du Cameroun--USLC), the General Union
of Workers of Cameroon (Union Generale des Travailleurs du Cameroun--UGTC), the
Cameroonian General Confederation of Workers (Confederation Generale Camerounaise
du Travail--CGCT), the Confederation of Autonomous Cameroonian Unions (Union des
Syndicats Autonomes du Cameroun--USAC), and some independent unions. The USLC
was an affiliate of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
and the UGTC was affiliated with the Communist World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU). The FSC enjoys the support of the UC, the dominant political party.
The other national center in East Cameroon is the Union of Trade Unions
of Believing Workers of the Cameroon (Union des Syndicats Croyants du Cameroun-USCC), which claimed about 8,500 members in 1965. The USCC, which was formed
in 1962 by the merger of two confessional unions, is affiliated with the Inter­
national Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation Internationale des
Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organization, the Pan-African
Union of Believing Workers (Union Panafricaine des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).
It is also affiliated with the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC).
The single national center representing workers in West Cameroon is the
West Cameroon Trade Union Congress
(WCTUC), which claimed 20,000 members in
1965. The WCTUC, which was formed in 1962, assumed the affiliation with the
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and its African Regional
Organization (AFRO), which two of its affiliates had maintained previously. By
far the largest WCTUC affiliate is the Cameroon Development Corporation Workers*
Union, which claims 10,000 members.
Five International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in Cameroon:
The International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees;
International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural and Allied Workers; Postal,
Telegraph, and Telephone International; Public Services International; and Inter­
national Federation of Free Teachers' Unions.
Labor-Management Relations
The Government establishes minimum wage scales for all occupations in six
salary zones and labor legislation regulates hours of work and other conditions
of employment. Although employer organizations are well organized and there is
a large supply of unemployed, unskilled labor, organized workers engage success­
fully in collective bargaining. Shop stewards, who by law are elected annually
for 1-year terms in all private and public establishments,
process workers'
grievances with employers. Labor tribunals are responsible for resolving con­
flicts between management and labor, and there is the right of appeal to higher
courts. Workers have the right to strike. No information is available, how­
ever, on the number of labor disputes.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No.

99

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
The Central African Republic is located in the center of Africa. It has an area
of approximately 238,000 square miles and a population of 2,088,000, according
to the 1965 census.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The country achieved independence on August 13, 1960; a new
government, headed by Colonel Jean Bedel Bokassa, assumed power on January 1,
1966. It retained the existing constitution which provides for a single-chamber
National Assembly, to which the members are elected for 5-year terms by uni­
versal suffrage (over age 21).
Economic. The economy is primarily agricultural. The main cash crops
are cotton, coffee, and peanuts and the principal food crops are small grains,
peanuts, and cassava. The leading exports are diamonds, cotton, and coffee.
Manufacturing includes a small number of plants engaged primarily in processing
agricultural products, such as cotton, coffee, and tobacco; others manufacture
beverages, textiles, and footwear. Per capita income was estimated to be US$90
in 1963.
Social. The principal ethnic groups are the Banda,
318,000; Mandjia,
85,000; and Baya, 294,000. French is the official language and is taught
in the schools; Sangho, a vernacular language,
is spoken in all parts of
the country.
Sixty-nine percent of the population are animist, 27 percent
are Christian, 3 percent profess Islam, and 1 percent are adherents of lo­
cal religions.
The literacy rate has been estimated by the Government at
18 percent.
In 1965-66,
129,000 pupils attended primary schools and 4,500
students were in secondary schools.
In 1961, the latest year for which
data are available, about 42 percent of the children of school age attended
school.




Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment, In 1965, the labor force was estimated at
approximately 500,000, or roughly 25 percent of the population. According to
these estimates, 90 percent of the labor force, or about 450,000 persons, were
engaged in agriculture. There were 285,000 small-scale (about 1 acre) cotton
farmers in 1964. The number of wage and salary earners in 1965 was officially
estimated to be 49,000, of whom 35 to 40 percent were in the capital area; 38,750
were in the private sector, and 10,300 in the public sector,
including 5,000
"decisionnaires" (noncareer employees of the lower ranks who are not in the civil
service system).
Although there is unemployment among those seeking work in the public sec­
tor, there has been an actual shortage of available manual and unskilled workers
in urban areas. Underemployment, however, is widespread in rural areas.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Most of the population work on small
plots of land, producing for local consumption and using traditional methods;
as a result, the level of productivity is low. There is a significant shortage of
modern skills. A vocational training center has been established in Bangui.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The 1961 Labor Code covers general labor conditions.
Other legislation establishes minimum wages and fixes the wages and working con­
ditions of domestic workers. A pension program covers all salaried workers;
fund contributions are made from compulsory payroll deductions based on a per­
centage of salary received, up to a maximum of US$200 per month. A social secu­
rity program provides for family allowances, prenatal allowances, and lump-sum
birth grants for each of the first three births in a family.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor is the main agency
in the labor field. It supervises the Central African Social Security Office,
which administers family allowances, maternity benefits, and work injury bene­
fits. Enforcement is carried out through a small staff of inspectors.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
A 40-hour workweek has been established for most nonagricultural workers
and a 48-hour workweek for agricultural and related occupations. A 260-hour-permonth work program has been established for domestic servants, and there are
exceptions to the preceding general rule for certain categories of unskilled
workers. There are 12 legal holidays.
The consumer price index for Africans was 110.7 in December 1962 (1960=100)
and 116.4 at the end of 1963. Increases in minimum wage rates have been promul­
gated from time to time.
Employer Organizations
There are two employer organizations in the Central African Republic, the
Groupement Interprofessional pour l f6tude et le Ddveloppement de l'Economie

2



Centraf ricaine (GIRCA) and the Union Nationale Interprof essionel le Centraf ricaine
(UNICA). The former, located in Bangui, is composed of the more prominent
planters, tradesmen, transporters, and businessmen, and has about 60 members.
The latter (also located in Bangui) is composed of businessmen operating on a
smaller scale and appears to be less well established than the GIRCA. Both
organizations were, however, represented at the International Labor Organization
conference in Geneva in 1966. There are also Chambers of Commerce, Agricul­
ture, and Industries and Handicraft actively functioning in the Central African
Republic.
Labor Organizations
The General Union of Central African Workers
(Union Generale des Travailleurs Centrafricaine--UGTC), the nation's only trade union center, claims
a membership of about 39,000, or 80 percent of the nation's estimated full-time
wage and salary earners. The UGTC was formed in 1964 as a result of a merger of
the African Confederation of Free Trade Unions-Workers Force-Central African
Republic (Confederation Africaine des Syndicats Libres-Force Ouvriere-Republique
Centrafricaine--CASL-F0-RC), African Confederation of Believing Workers-Central African Republic
(Confederation Africaine des Travailleurs CroyantsRepublique Centrafricaine--CATC-RC), African General Confederation of LaborCentral African Republic (Confederation Generale Africaine du Travail--CGAT-RC),
Confederation of Workers of the Central African Republic
(Confederation des
Travailleurs de la Republique Centrafricaine--CTC), and the FECETEC. The
CASL-F0-RC was a former affiliate of the International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU); the CATC was affiliated with the International Federation
of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU); and the CGAT was an affiliate of the Communist
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). The UGTC is organized into two co­
ordinating federations, one for unions of public servants and one for unions in
the private sector. However, these local affiliates have only limited contact
with the national center. The UGTC is affiliated with the All-African Trade
Union Federation (AATUF).
Labor-Management Relations
Bipartite tribunals settle individual grievances, and advisory labor
commissions deal with collective disputes. The number of man-days lost as a
result of work stoppages was 39,205 in 1957, 7,336 in 1960, and 1,100 in 1961.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 100
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHAD
Chad, a landlocked country in north-central Africa, has an area
square miles and had a population of about 3.3 million in 1964.

of 496,000

Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Chad became a republic in August 1960. Under the Constitu­
tion of 1962, executive power is vested in the President who appoints the Council
of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly,
which is elected for a 5-year term. The Parti Progressiste Tchadien (PPT)
is
the only authorized political party. Francois Tombalbaye has been President
since 1960.
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture; cotton and livestock rais­
ing are the chief pursuits. Cotton accounted in 1964 for 79 percent of exports;
livestock, about 20 percent. Other crops of significance are grain (millet,
sorghum, and rice) and peanuts. Food processing is the main manufacturing indus­
try. The gross national product per capita in 1964 was estimated to be US$50.
Social. The ethnic composition of the population is mainly Arabic stock,
largely nomadic or seminomadic, in the north and Bantu in the south. Among the
latter, the Sara is the largest and most important tribe. Islam is the religion
of approximately half the population; among the remainder are a few Christians,
but most are animists. The official language is French, but a form of Arabic is
spoken widely. The various tribal groups speak a variety of languages, such as
Sara and Massa. Twenty percent of the school-age children attended school in
1963. The country literacy rate was estimated at 5 percent in that same year.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Over half of the population lead a nomadic
or seminomadic existence. In 1962, out of the total labor force of 1.4 million




persons (45 percent of the population), 91 percent were in agriculture, 4 per­
cent were self-employed, and about 65,000 (5 percent) were wage and salary
earners. Of the latter group, 31.9 percent were in government and commerce,
23.9 percent in transportation, 9.6 percent in construction, 2.7 percent in in­
dustry, and the remainder in other sectors.
An estimated 30 percent of the total number of wage and salary earners
were reported to be unemployed in 1962. Unemployment has been attributed to the
withdrawal of French troops, migration of the agricultural population to urban
centers, seasonal unemployment due to climatic conditions, and other factors.
Underemployment is extensive in the agricultural sector.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Primitive techniques and the lack
of skilled manpower have kept the level of productivity
low in all sectors,
particularly in the small industrial sector.
A small number of technical
schools are in operation, including a vocational school at Fort Lamy. Recently,
some enterprises have provided on-the-job training for students during vaca­
tion periods.
The Ministry of Labor, Youth, and Sports also operates a voca­
tional training center, which offers a 9-month training program for skilled
workers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. On December 28, 1965, the National Assembly enacted
a Labor Code for the first time. The new code is a revision of the 1952 French
Labor Code for Overseas Territories, which previously formed the basis for
Chadian labor law.
Provisions cover fringe benefits, hours of work, rest pe­
riods, minimum wages, holidays, conditions of work, health and sanitation, work
injury benefits, and other topics.
Administration and Practice. The Minister of Labor, Youth, and Sports
supervises and administers labor legislation through labor inspectors and the
labor courts.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The minimum hourly wage in 1964 for nonagricultural workers, governmen­
tal or private,
in principal towns and the north was US$0.09.
In other parts
of Chad, nonagricultural workers received US$0,082 and agricultural workers,
US$0,075. These wages reflect a 46- to 68-percent increase in the minimum wage
decreed in 1964--the first increase since 1959. The Labor Code provides for a
40-hour workweek.
In Fort Lamy,
the capital of the Republic,
the retail price index for
average European or wealthy Chadian families was 142.3 in 1964 (1958=100), a
5-percent increase over 1963. However, most of the population lives at the sub­
sistence level; in 1964, the average annual per capita income was estimated
at US$55.
Employer Organizations
Employers* organizations include the Chamber of Commerce for Agriculture
and Industry and the Intertrade Union of the Chad (Unitchad).
2



Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership in Chad is estimated at 6,750, or approxi­
mately 10 percent of the 65,000 wage and salary earners.
An estimated 5,500
members belong to the National Union of Chadian Workers (Union Nationale des
Travailleurs du Tchad--UNTT), which was formed in March 1964 as a result of a
merger of the African Confederation of Free Trade Unions-Workers1 Force--Chad
(CASL-FO), the African General Confederation of Labor (CGAT), and the Union of
Chadian Workers (UTT). The CASL-FO was a former affiliate of the International
Confederation of Free Trade Unions, while the CGAT was affiliated to the Com­
munist World Federation of Trade Unions. The UNTT, which was formed with the
encouragement of the Government, has a close relationship with the single politi­
cal party, the PPT.
The only other national trade union center in Chad is the Chadian Con­
federation of Labor (Confederation Tchadienne de Travail--CTT), formerly known
as the African Confederation of Believing Workers (CATC). The CTT disaffiliated
from the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (CISC) in 1965. It
remains affiliated with the African Trade Union Confederation.
Labor-Management Relations
A collective dispute is first handled by a labor inspector of the Minis­
try of Labor, Youth, and Sports.
If settlement is not reached,
the case is
referred for conciliation to a labor advisory board. The board may itself act
or appoint a special tripartite conciliation board.
If conciliation fails,
"nonconciliation" procedures are carried on by a neutral expert. Finally, the
case may be referred to an arbitration board.
Strikes and lockouts are prohibited until conciliation and recommenda­
tion proceedings have been exhausted.
Strikes against the Government are for­
bidden. Information on the number of strikes which have occurred is unavailable.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 101
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics*

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE)
The Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) is located in west-central Africa,
It has an
area of 133,500 square miles and had a population estimated at 900,000 in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The country became independent of France in November 1960.
Under the Constitution of 1963, the Government consists of the President, who
is elected for a 5-year term, a Prime Minister and a Cabinet appointed by the
President, and a 55-member National Assembly, elected for a 5-year term. The
President (currently Alphonse Massamba-Debat) has extensive powers, both in his
governmental capacity and as secretary general of the single political party, the
National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and as head of its Political Bureau.
Economic. In 1963, agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fishing ac­
counted for 23 percent of the gross national product (GNP); manufacturing, elec­
tricity, mining, and construction,
17 percent; transportation, commerce, and
other services, 34 percent; and Government services, 26 percent.
The GNP per
capita in 1963 was estimated at US$150. A majority of the population are engaged
in subsistence farming and produce such foodstuffs as bananas, manioc, corn , pea­
nuts, rice, taros, and tropical fruits, almost all of which are for local con­
sumption. Primarily European enterprises grow tropical products , such as peanuts ,
tobacco, sugarcane, palm nuts, bananas, cocoa beans, and coffee. The most im­
portant economic activity is lumbering, and the leading industry is wood process­
ing. Tropical wood, mainly limba (of which the Congo is the world's largest
producer) and okoume, is the most important Congolese export, accounting in 1964
for 44 percent of the total. Next in importance are diamonds (not mined in the
Congo but coming from neighboring countries) , which accounted for over 42 percent
of total exports in 1964. Tropical agricultural products, such as palm kernels,
palm oil, and coffee, contributed 7 percent of the total. The industrial sector
is not highly developed. Among the more important industrial enterprises are a
sugar refinery, a cigarette factory, 2 fish processing plants, a veneer plant,



about 15 sawmills, and 4 or 5 palm oil plants. Europeans living in the Congo own
some of the smaller firms, but French companies headquartered in France generally
control most of the larger enterprises. The most promising new economic activity
in the Congo's future is the development of large and rich potash deposits near
the port of Point Noire.
Production is scheduled to commence in 1968.
The
Congo's 5-Year Development Plan (1964-69) emphasizes industrial development.
Social. The population is composed of about 15 ethnic groups, comprising
over 70 tribes. The Bacongo, the largest of the groups, accounted for almost
50 percent of the population in 1965; the Bat£k£, the next in importance, com­
prise about 20 percent of the total, and the M'Bochi, about 15 percent.
The
remaining 15 percent are Europeans, of whom a majority are French. About 49 per­
cent of the population are Christians, 50 percent are animists, and the remainder
profess Islam. French is the official language and is taught in schools, but
numerous African languages, mostly of the Bantu group, are spoken. The rate of
literacy is estimated at about 25 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The estimated labor force in 1965 was about
40 percent of the population. About 60 percent were engaged in agriculture; 14
percent were self-employed, engaged in commerce and handicrafts; 18 percent were
wage and salary earners; and 8 percent were unemployed. The total number of
wage and salary earners in 1963 in both the public and private sectors, estimated
at 67,500, included about 2,000 European salaried workers; about 5,500 of the
remaining 65,500 Congolese, were employed as domestic servants and 15,500 by the
Government and other public entities. The only information available on the
distribution of wage and salary earners by industry is for 1960 when, out of a
total of 48,700, 20 percent were engaged in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
hunting, 20 percent in public and private services, 16 percent in commerce and
finance, 12 percent in manufacturing and electricity, 10 percent in transporta­
tion, 9 percent in construction, 7 percent in domestic service, and the remain­
ing 6 percent in other activities.
As a consequence of the migration of unskilled workers to the cities,
unemployment is a serious problem in urban areas. Underemployment is substan­
tial, particularly in rural areas. In 1965, the Government created a new move­
ment called the "Action for Rural Renovation" and at the same time dissolved the
paramilitary Service Civique. The new program is designed to move the unemployed
youth out of the cities into useful work in the country. The Ministry of Agri­
culture, the Secretary for Youth and Sports, and the Secretary of State for Na­
tional Defense are responsible for administering various aspects of the program.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity is low, particularly
in the nonwage sector. The expanding economy requires skills which are not cur­
rently available, due to the workers' lack of education and training. In 1963,
the Congo had 32 vocational and secondary technical schools, 3 teacher-training
institutes, and the University of Brazzaville, which had 181 students.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code of 1964 forbids compulsory labor and
contains provisions relating to freedom of association, labor organizations, the

2



settlement of industrial disputes, contracts of apprenticeship, individual em­
ployment contracts, collective agreements, wages, paid leave, the health and
safety of workers, and the employment of women and children. The Civil Service
Code ( 1962) , among other things, regulates the recruitment, conditions of employ­
ment, and rates of pay of civil servants; it also deals with discipline and
recognizes the right of civil servants to organize into trade unions.
The Old
Age and Survivors1 Insurance Law (1963) applies to all workers subject to the
Labor Code and provides for retirement benefits, which begin at age 55. Persons
who have worked at least 15 years in covered employment are guaranteed a minimum
amount; larger pensions are paid, depending on length of service in covered em­
ployment and the amount contributed to the pension fund. Employers contribute
60 percent and workers 40 percent to the fund.
The Directorate of Labor and Social Welfare administers labor legisla­
tion. The tripartite National Labor Advisory Board under the authority of the
Minister of Labor and Social Welfare evaluates and makes recommendations with
regard to problems and programs concerning labor, manpower, and social welfare.
Family allowances, workmen's compensation, and the Old Age and Survivors 1 Insur­
ance Law are administered by the National Social Welfare Fund, under the juris­
diction of the Ministry of Labor.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Representative hourly wages for adult wage and salary earners in October
1962 in Brazzaville were US$0.20 for bakers, US$0.33 for cabinetmakers, US$0.45
for garage mechanics, and US$0.31 for carpenters. Monthly rates were US$40.60
for retail clerks and US$117.00 for accounting machine operators.
In addition
to basic wages,
some workers receive family allowances and other fringe bene­
fits, such as transportation to and from work. The statutory workweek is40hours.
The retail price index for Europeans in Brazzaville (1956=100) was 145.2
in January 1962 and 163.0 in January 1963. A new index (January 1964=100) was
106.7 in December 1964. There is currently no cost-of-living index for Afri­
cans. Government measures to curb inflation have included credit restraints
and wage controls.
Employer Organizations
There are Chambers of Commerce in Brazzaville
in Point Noire has a branch in Dolisie.

and Point Noire; the one

Labor Organizations
No information is available on the total trade union membership in the
Congo. The single national trade union center, the Congolese Trade Union Con­
federation (Confederation Syndicale Congolais--CSC), was formed in 1964 by
the merger of the Congolese Confederation of Free Trade Unions (Confederation
Congolaise des Syndicats Libres--CCSL), the National Union of CGAT Trade Unions
of the Congo (Union Nationale des Syndicats CGAT du Congo--CGAT-Congo), the
Federation of Postal Workers (Federation Postale), and a public service union.
The CCSL was an affiliate of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU), and the CGAT-Congo was affiliated with the Communist World Federation
qf Trade Unions (WFTU). The merger took place at the urging of the MNR, the
3



single political party. As a result, the CSC has a very close relationship with
that party. It is an affiliate of the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF).
The National Union of CATC Trade Unions of the Congo (Union Nationale
des Syndicats CATC du Congo--CATC-Congo), an affiliate of the International Fed­
eration of Christian Trade Unions
(Confederation International des Syndicats
Chretiens--CISC), refused to participate in the formation of the CSC. Subse­
quently it was dissolved by the Government, and it is believed to have gone
underground.
Labor-Management Relations
The Labor Code provides for referral to the employer, by staff repre­
sentatives, of individual or collective employee demands with respect to such
matters as conditions of employment, wage rates, or the application of collec­
tive agreements. The code also provides for conciliation through services of
the Inspectorate of Labor and Social Legislation and Labor Courts.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No.

102

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS,IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
OF THE CONGO (KINSHASA)
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa--f ormerly Leopoldville) is located
in south-central Africa.
Its area is about 905,000 square miles, and its popu­
lation was estimated to be between 14 and 15 million in 1965.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The country achieved independence from Belgium on June 30,
1960. On November 25, 1965, General Joseph Mobutu took over control of the Gov­
ernment by a bloodless coup d'etat. The Republic now has a parliamentary system
of government, abicameral Legislature, aPresident, andaPrime Minister. Presi­
dent Mobutu is now ruling by decree.
Economic. A majority of the native population engage in subsistence
farming, hunting, and fishing; in 1964, a quarter of the population (34 per­
cent of the adult males) were employed in the modern (i.e., cash) economy,
principally plantation agriculture, mining, and manufacturing.
Prior to in­
dependence, agriculture contributed about one-third of the gross national prod­
uct (GNP) and 30 percent of exports. The main agricultural products are palm
products, rubber, and coffee. Mining, including copper, diamonds, cobalt, zinc,
gold, and uranium, contributed 50 to 67 percent of the value of exports and
15 to 20 percent of the GNP before independence. Most industrial activity is
in mining and in secondary manufacturing, principally the processing of agri­
cultural products.
Social. French is the official language of the Government and the common
language in the schools. There are four common, or trade, languages: Lingala,
Kikongo, Swahili, and Tshiluba. An estimated 5 million persons are Christians.
There is a small Moslem minority; the remainder are animists.
In 1960, it was
estimated that 30 percent of the population had an elementary knowledge of read­
ing and writing; in some rural areas, about 10 percent were literate.




M anpower and

Employment

Employment and Unemployment. In 1958, approximately 6.7 million people,
or one-half of the estimated population at that time (13.5 million), were in
the labor force.
Only 1.1 million, or about 17 percent, worked in the cash
economy; 83 percent worked as subsistence farmers and unpaid family workers in
the traditional subsistence economy.
In early 1965, it was estimated that approximately 20 percent of the labor
force, estimated at over 7 million, were wage and salary earners. In 1959 (the
most recent year for which data on the distribution of the labor force are avail­
able) , 279,742, or about 29 percent of the 961,068 wage and salary earners,
were employed on plantations; 101,800, or 11 percent, in manufacturing; 87,234,
or 9 percent,
in construction; 78,732, or 8 percent,
in mining; 71,400, or 7
percent, in transportation; 65,590, or 7 percent, in trade; 229,850, or 24 per­
cent, in services; and 46,720, or 5 percent, as office workers.
Unemployment is difficult to measure because of the high rate of labor
turnover, migration of laborers from rural to urban areas, and the absence of
public employment offices.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity is low in the tradi­
tional sector of agriculture. An estimated 20 percent of the labor force have
some skills in such occupations as teaching and construction.
In 1958, 376
vocational and agricultural schools had a total enrollment of 19,643, and 583
teacher-training schools, an enrollment of 43,906. There are two universities,
a normal school,
the National School for Law and Administration, and the Na­
tional Institute of Vocational Training, as well as other professional training
institutions.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation, dating from before the country
achieved independence, remains in effect until revoked or amended. Among the
laws passed since independence are the Employment Contracts Law (1961), which
covers individual labor contracts, and the Social Security Law (1961). A number
of amendments to the Employment Contracts Law cover such subjects as working
conditions, contracts, procedures for determining minimum wages, and housing.
The Single Statute (1959) regulates employment in the civil service. A decree
of 1957 gave African workers and employees the right to join labor organizations.
The Ordinance-Law Concerning the Regulation of Labor Relations (1964) serves as
a legal basis for the creation of national and regional labor-management rela­
tions advisory bodies; it provides protection for worker delegates against arbi­
trary dismissal, defines legal work stoppages, prohibits politically motivated
strikes, and assures the right to work of nonstrikers. The Ordinance Relating
to Worker Representation in Enterprises (1964) establishes a system of worker
representation within individual enterprises.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor is the main agency
responsible for labor matters. Other ministries and semigovernmental bodies,
such as the National Institute of Social Security, are charged with specific
aspects of labor administration. The inadequate number of inspectors, together
2



with their limited technical knowledge, limits enforcement. The United Nations,
the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), and the International La­
bor Organization (ILO) have assisted the Government in training administrators,
labor inspectors, and other personnel for the Ministry of Labor and have pro­
vided teaching personnel in these fields.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The country is divided into six wage districts. The daily legal minimum
wage rate in Kinshasa, as decreed in 1963, was US$2.12 for ordinary labor,U S$2.36
for heavy work, and US$1.92 for light work. The law also requires payment of
a housing allowance of US$0.22 and an allowance of US$0.14 for each child per
day. The minimum wage rate varies from 40 to 80 percent of these figures in the
other wage districts.
(On May 1, 1966, the Government announced a 30-percent
increase in the national legal minimum wage rate and a 100-percent increase in
family allocations.) The workweek officially consists of 8 hours a day, 6 days
a week.
In practice, increases in minimum wage rates have been tied to increases in
the cost of living; at the same time,
the Government has acted to curb infla­
tion. The new index for Kinshasa markets (October-December 1964=100) was 110
in December 1965. The cost-of-living index in Katanga (1959=100) was 157.9 in
1964.
Employer Organizations
The most important management organization is the Federation of Enter­
prises of the Congo. Membership in this organization, as well as in national
and regional chambers of commerce,
is predominantly foreign.
In an effort to
encourage a Congolese employer group, the Government, in 1961, approved theformation of the Association of Middle Classes and of Independent African Workers,
an association of small employers. In 1961, this organization had 272 members,
mostly artisans, retailers, small manufacturers, contractors, and representa­
tives of service industries.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership in the Congo is estimated at about 152,000,
or about 11 percent of the estimated 1.4 million wage and salary earners.
Of the four national trade union centers in the country , by far the largest
and best organized is the Union of Congolese Workers (Union des Travailleurs
Congolais--UTC), which has an estimated membership of 92,500, or about 60 per­
cent of the total trade union membership.
The UTC was formed in 1960 as a
successor to the Confederation of Christian Syndicates of the Congo (Confedera­
tion des Syndicats Chretiens du Congo--CSCC), whose origin dates back to 1946.
Since its founding, the UTC has maintained a close connection with the Belgian
Confederation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation des Syndicats Chretiens-CSC). It is an affiliate of the International Federation of Christian Trade
Unions (Confederation Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC)
and its
African regional organization, the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union
Panafricaine des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).




3

The second largest national center is the Confederation of Free Trade
Unions of the Congo (Confederation des Syndicats Libres du Congo--CSLC), with
an estimated 50,000 members, or about one-third of the total trade union member­
ship. The CSLC was formed in 1961. The General Labor Federation of the Congo
(Federation Generale du Travail du Kongo--FGTK), with an estimated 8,000 mem­
bers, is the third major center. Since its formation in 1951, the FGTK has had
a close relationship with the Belgian General Federation of Labor (Federation
General du Travail de Belgique--FGTB). The FGTK and the CSLC, respectively,
affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
in 1960 and 1961 and are members of its African Regional Organization (AFRO).
The CSLC, FGTK, and UTC all participated in the formation of the African Trade
Union Confederation (ATUC).
The General Confederation of Congolese Workers (Confederation Gdn^rale
des Travailleurs Congolais--CGTC), with an estimated membership of 300, is the
smallest of the four centers. It is affiliated with the World Federation of Trade
Unions (WFTU) and has a close connection with the Communist General Confedera­
tion of Labor (Confederation Generale du Travail--CGT) in France.
In addition
to its WFTU affiliation, the CGTC is an affiliate of the All-African Trade Union
Federation (AATUF).
Seven International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in the coun­
try: International Federation of Building and Woodworkers; International Federa­
tion of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees; International Graphical
Federation; International Federation of Journalists; Miners' International Fed­
eration; Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone International; and Public Services
International.
Labor-Management Relations
Management is generally not organized to deal effectively on a collective
bargaining basis with labor. Except in large enterprises, management handles
industrial relations on an ad hoc basis.
If conflicting parties in a dispute
fail to reach agreement, the Ministry Qf Labor establishes a conciliation board.
If its efforts are unsuccessful, voluntary arbitration is the next step. Legis­
lation requires employers and employees to exhaust all conciliation and arbitra­
tion procedures before calling a strike or lockout.

U



LABOR DIGEST
No. 103
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor A f f a i r s and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAHOMEY
The Republic of Dahomey is located in West Africa on the northern coast of the
Gulf of Guinea.
It has an area of 44,700 square miles and had a population
estimated at 2.3 million in 1965.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Dahomey achieved independence from France in 1960.
Several
abrupt changes of government since 1960 reflect the deep-seated rivalries among
the three main regions of the country. In the most recent change, the Army sus­
pended the Constitution of 1964 on December 22, 1965, and General Christophe
Soglo assumed power. As President of the Republic, he has appointed a Cabinet,
comprised mainly of civilians outside political circles, and has dissolved the
National Assembly.
Economic. The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture. The
main food crops--corn, yams, millet and sorghum, rice, manioc, beans, and a
variety of fruits--account for70percent of the total agricultural product. Palm
products, peanuts, and coffee, the major cash crops, contribute over 90 percent
of exports.
Industry is small scale.
An important new palm kernel factory,
opened in early 1965, has the capacity to process 80 percent of the country's
palm kernel production. About 55 percent of the gross national product in 1964
was estimated to come from agriculture, forestry, livestock, and fishing, 19 per­
cent from commerce, 9.2 percent from transport and communications, 7.6 percent
from construction and public works, and 9.2 percent from other sectors. Per
capita income was estimated in 1965 at US$65 to US$70.
Social. The most important of the 12 major ethnic groups are the Fon
(900,000) in the south and center of the country, the Yoruba and Mahi (150,000) in
the southeast, andtheBariba (160,000), Somba (80,000), and Peul (70,000) in the
north. About 2,000 Europeans are employed in commerce, industry, and administra­
tion. A majority of the population are animist or fetishist. The Christians, a



smaller group, are in the south; the Moslems are more predominant in the north.
The official language is French; the main native languages are Fon, Yoruba,
Bariba, and Fulani. Literacy is estimated at 5 percent of the population over 15
years of age, varying from 20 percent in urban areas to 2 percent in rural areas.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force was estimated in 1965 to
be 1.1 million (47.8 percent of the total population). Approximately 75 percent
are employed in agriculture, fishing, and hunting, 15 percent in commerce, bank­
ing, and insurance, 5 percent in crafts and cottage industries, and 5 percent
in other activities. Manufacturing and processing occupied about 4,000 persons
in 1965. Of the estimated 26,000 wage and salary earners, about 12,000 were in
the public sector and 2,000 in the semipublic sector.
Under French colonial rule, relatively well-educated Dahomeans filled a
large number of clerical and middle-level positions in countries throughout subSaharan Africa. After countries in that area achieved independence, most of
them expelled the Dahomeans, often suddenly, and they had to return home. This
influx aggravated the country's difficult economic situation and helps account
for the serious urban unemployment problems which now exist. Underemployment
characterizes the subsistence sector of the economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. A high level of productivity and
skills is occasionally found in the public sector. In general, however, low educa­
tional levels, the absence of skills in virtually all fields, and primitive pro­
duction methods contribute to low levels of productivity.
In 1961, eight schools offered vocational training, three offered teacher
training, and there was an apprenticeship training center at Parakou. The Gov­
ernment operates two agricultural training centers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation, patterned on the French Overseas
*
Labor Code, provides for collective agreements between employers and employees,
the fixing of minimum wages by the Government, paid annual leave, and children's
allowances. The social security program provides for work injury benefits, for
payment of maternity benefits for employed women, and for family allowances.
Civil servants are covered by a pension system.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Civil Service ad­
ministers labor legislation and the social security program. Enforcement is ham­
pered by a shortage of inspectors and the large number of very small enterprises.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wage rates vary according to the location of the employment and
the sector of the economy.
In agriculture,
the minimum hourly rate is about
13 percent less than that for other employees. A nonagricultural worker in
the urban centers of Cotonou, Porto Novo, and Ouidah is guaranteed a minimum
hourly wage of approximately US$0.16, which is the highest minimum wage rate
specified.
2




The law establishes a maximum workweek of 40 hours. Time worked in excess
of that limit is subject to premium pay.
In 1962, the government of President Maga instituted a 10-percent cut in
the salary of civil servants. Under pressure from the trade unions,
this cut
was reduced to 5 percent in 1964 by the Ahomadegbe regime. The salaries of offi­
cials were further reduced by 25 percent in 1965 as part of Ahomadegbe 1s austerity
program. The present government of General Soglo has stated that it intends to
maintain this program.
Employer Organizations
The principal employer organizations are the National Association of
Dahomean Merchants (SYNCAD)
and the African Merchants' Association of Dahomey
(SYNACADA).
There is also a Chamber of Commerce and the Interprofessional
Association of Enterprises of Dahomey (GIDA).
Labor Organizations
The total trade union membership in Dahomey is roughly 21,000, or about
80 percent of the estimated 26,000 wage and salary earners. About 85 percent of
the membership is concentrated in two of the four national centers:
The General
Union of Workers of Dahomey (Union Gdnerale des Travailleurs du Dahomey--UGTD),
with an estimated 10,000 members, and the General Union of Dahomean Trade Unions
(Union G£n£rale des Syndicats du Dahomey--UGSD), with an estimated 8,000 mem­
bers. The UGTD, which was formed in 1961, is affiliated with the All-African
Trade Union Federation (AATUF). The UGSD was formed in 1964 as a successor to
the General Confederation of Trade Unions of Dahomey
(Confederation Generale
des Syndicats du Dahomey--CGSD).
The two smaller centers are the National Confederation of Free Labor Unions
(Confederation Nationale des Syndicats Libres--CNSL), which claimed 2,258 mem­
bers in 1965 , and the Dahomean Confederation of Believing Workers (Confederation
Dahomeenne des Travailleurs Croyants--CDTC), with an estimated 1,000 members.
The CNSL was formed in 1964 as a successor to the African Confederation of Free
Trade Unions-Workers' Force--Dahomey
(Confederation Africaine des Syndicats
Libres-Force Ouvriers--Dahomey--CASL-FO--Dahomey). The CDTC, which was formed
inl952 as a local of theFrench Confederation of Christian Workers (Confederation
Francaise des Travailleurs Chretiens--CFTC), is affiliated with the Interna­
tional Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation International des
Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organization, the Pan-Afri­
can Union of Believing Workers (Union Panafricaine des Travailleurs Croyants-UPTC). Both the CDTC and the CNSL are affiliates of the African Trade Union
Confederation (ATUC).
Labor-Management Relations
Individual grievances are handled by labor inspectors. Usually, griev­
ances concern breaches of labor contracts involving wages, notice of discharge,
separation pay, paid vacations, and overtime.
Most collective disputes are
settled through conciliation procedures.
A small number are referred to the
courts.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 104
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE EMPIRE OF ETHIOPIA
The Ethiopian Empire, situated in eastern Africa, has an area of approximately
457,000 square miles and had an estimated population of 27 million in early 1966.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Supreme political power in Ethiopia is vested in the Emperor,
a hereditary monarch. The present Emperor is Hailie Selassie I. The 1955 Con­
stitution provides for a bicameral Parliament with an appointed upper house
(Senate) and an elected lower house (Chamber of Deputies). An appointed Council
of Ministers and advisory groups within the Palace assist the Emperor in adminis­
tering national affairs. There are no political parties.
Economic. Ethiopia is predominantly an agricultural country; a majority
of the population are subsistence farmers or nomadic herdsmen. The small sur­
pluses produced are usually traded in markets within the traditional economy.
Most modern agricultural, industrial, and commercial firms have been established
since World War II by foreigners; almost all are partly owned by the Emperor or
the Government.
In 1961, over two-thirds of Ethiopia's gross national product
was contributed by the agricultural sector,
less than one-tenth by industry,
and the remainder by the governmental, commercial, and services sectors. Agri­
cultural products account for almost all exports; coffee is the largest single
export, earning from 50 to 60 percent of Ethiopia's foreign exchange. The second
5-year plan (1963-67) provides for economic and social development, with emphasis
on transportation, communications, education, and modernization of agriculture.
Social. There are 11 main ethnic groups, speaking, in all, 70 languages
and over 200 dialects. Politically and culturally,
the most important ethnic
groups are the Amharas, the Tigraians, and the Galla people. The first two pro­
fess the Coptic Christian faith; the Gallas are predominantly Moslem. Amharic,
spoken by 40 to 50 percent of the people, is the official language; Gallinya and
Tigrai-Tigrinya are the other most widely spoken languages. English is a second



official language and is spoken by most civil servants and higher level employees
in commerce and industry. The literacy rate is estimated at less than 10 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Estimates in 1965 placed the number in the
labor force at 11.4 million, or 53 percent of the estimated total population in
that year. Over 96 percent of the labor force were in agriculture, about 2 per­
cent in manufacturing, and 2 percent in commerce and services.
Only small
numbers of persons in these sectors work in modern enterprises; however, employ­
ment in modern manufacturing plants appears to be growing rapidly. An estimated
100,000 to 125,000 are wage and salary earners. No data on unemployment are
available. The chief problem in rural areas is underemployment; in urban cen­
ters, an abundance of unemployed, unskilled labor exists side by side with a
scarcity of persons to fill skilled and professional positions.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Prevalence of debilitating diseases,
rigorous and frequent religious fasting, the high altitude or excessive heat,
and lack of familiarity with modern practices contribute to a generally low
level of productivity, which must be overcome by extensive on-the-job training.
Too few graduate from the specialized courses at secondary and university levels
and vocational and technical training ("special") schools to fill the demand.
In 1962-63, the country’s 43 special schools had a total enrollment of 5,152.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Separate labor laws, all of recent origin, govern
individual work contracts , hours, overtime, employer liability for work-connected
accidents and diseases, pensions, holidays, labor inspection, working condi­
tions, the formation and activities of employers' and workers' organizations,
collective bargaining, disputes settlement, and strikes. These laws usually
cover all sectors of the economy; additional laws cover the public service.
Ethiopian labor legislation often does not spell out detailed standards and
leaves many conditions to be determined by local custom.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of National Community Develop­
ment has among its duties responsibility for labor affairs.
The Ministry's
Labour Inspection Service, created in 1964, is charged with the enforcement of
legal minimum working conditions of all workers, except those in domestic, civil
service, and small-scale agricultural employment. As of late 1965, the Service
had not yet begun to operate in the field; it was awaiting completion of train­
ing of inspectors and the promulgation of a Labour Standards Proclamation to
empower it to enter into and inspect worksites and to exact compliance. Compli­
ance is usually good in foreign-managed and other unionized plants, where unions
have helped to set standards of compliance by taking their grievances to the
Ministry's Labour Relations Division for settlement.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Ethiopia has no minimum wage legislation; individual employers set wage
and salary rates.
Wages for unskilled workers doing similar work vary.
The
generally accepted minimum wage for unskilled casual labor is US$0.40 a day;
most manual workers are paid piece rates.
Rates of pay for professionals and
2



skilled workers vary, reflecting an acute shortage of skills. Estimated fringe
benefits to Ethiopian manual and clerical workers in 1965 amounted to 45 per­
cent of payrolls, and to administrative,
technical, and foreign personnel,
50 percent.
Legislation establishes a 48-hour, 6-day workweek, and in unionized
plants these hours usually prevail. Public service personnel generally work a
39-hour, 5%-day week.
Ethiopia has no retail price index, but prices appear to be relatively
stable, except for prices of individual items, such as sugar, which are subject
to sporadic Government control. The estimated annual per capita income isUS$45.
Employer Organizations
The two management organizations in Ethiopia are the Chamber of Commerce
and the Federation of Employers of Ethiopia (FEE). The former is aquasi-governmental, nonpolitical body organized in 1947, with the primary function of en­
couraging foreign investment in Ethiopia and promoting the country's economic
development. Its 1,000 members are chiefly foreign owners of small- and medium­
sized commercial and service concerns in Addis Ababa, Asmara, and Diredawa. The
FEE is an independent body established in 1964 for the purpose of assisting its
approximately 40 members in the conduct of labor relations.
It is represented
on the Labour Relations Board of the Ministry of National Community Develop­
ment, an appeal board for unresolved labor disputes.
Labor Organizations
The Confederation of Ethiopian Labour Unions (CELU), the nation's only
trade union center,
claims a membership of 29,000, or about one-fourth of the
wage and salary earners. The CELU was formed in 1963 following the enactment
of the Labour Relations Law of 1962, which granted the first legal sanction to
trade union activity in Ethiopia. The CELU, which now has 70 affiliates, has
been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
and its African Regional Organization (AFRO) since 1964.
Most unions in Ethiopia represent the workers in a single company or estab­
lishment. The two International Trade Secretariats (ITS) which have affiliates
in Ethiopia are the International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical Workers
and the International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers.
Labor-Management Relations
Labor-management relations have traditionally been characterized by pa­
ternalism. The passage of labor legislation beginning in 1960 and the formation
of labor unions, however, have paved the way for modern industrial relations. As
of late 1965, four collective agreements , covering approximately 10,000 permanent
employees, were in effect. Disputes are settled more and more frequently at the
plant level in unionized establishments. Either labor or management may appeal to
the Ministry of National Community Development's Labour Relations Section for
conciliation and then to the Labour Relations Board for arbitration. Strikes are
legal only if the Board has not issued a decision within 60 days after it receives
the case. Participants in several illegal strikes have not been penalized.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 105
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics„

LABOR CONDITIONS IN EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Equatorial Guinea, formerly known as Spanish Guinea, is composed of the terri­
tories of Fernando Poo and Rio Muni on the west coast of Africa. Fernando Poo
has an area of 785 square miles and had a population of 62,612 in 1960. Rio Muni
has an area of 6,730 square miles and had a population of 183,377 in 1960.
The Administration of Equatorial Guinea, formed under the provisions of
the Basic Law of December 1963, operates through a legislature,
the General
Assembly, and an executive body, the Governing Council. The General Assembly
has 18 members; half of them are elected by the Municipal Councils (Deputaciones
Provinciales) and the other half by corporative bodies. The Governing Council
consists of a president and eight members, four from Fernando Poo and four from
Rio Muni. Representatives of the General Assembly and Governing Council are
elected for 4-year terms. A Civil Governor for each of the territories serves
as the Council's representative and coordinator in the territory. The Govern­
ment of Spain is represented by a Commissioner General.
Each of the territories has a predominantly agricultural economy. Most
of the cultivated area is farmed for Spanish absentee landlords.
Cocoa and
coffee are the principal exports. Rio Muni accounts for about 80 percent of
the coffee and Fernando Poo, for about 90 percent of the cocoa. Bananas, palm
oil, palm kernels, and manioc are other exports.
Several large European-owned
forest concessions in Rio Muni provide exports of hardwoods. The several small
enterprises which exist include a sawmill, a furniture factory, and a cement
plant. The per capita income was US$132 in 1963.
The population includes 4,500 Europeans and Levantines and about 50,000
Nigerian contract workers and their families.
The Bubis, a Bantu people,
is
the major tribal group on Fernando Poo, where approximately 2,000 Spaniards
also reside. The largest tribal group in Rio Muni is the Fang. Rio Muni had
less than 2,000 Europeans in 1960.
Spanish is the official language.
In 1961,




19 ,514 pupils were enrol led in the 121 primary schools, and the 3 secondary schools
had 422 pupils.
Data on the size of the labor force and the number of wage and salary
earners are unavailable.
Agriculture, fishing (in Annobon and Rio Muni), and
stockraising are the chief occupations of the Africans.
Contract labor from
Nigeria is used extensively in both Fernando Poo and Rio Muni to augment the
labor supply on European-owned plantations. In 1963, approximately 40,000 Nige­
rians were engaged in such work on Fernando Poo and 10,000 were in Rio Muni
under a 1963 treaty between the Governments of Nigeria and Spain. The treaty
provides for the recruitment of Nigerian adult male workers (over 17 years of
age) under 3-year contracts with an option of renewal for 1% years.
There are no trade union organizations and there is no information avail­
able on syndicates in Equatorial Guinea.

2




LABOR DIGEST
No. 106
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN FRENCH SOMALILAND
French Somaliland, an Overseas Territory of France,
is situated in northeast
Africa. It has an area of about 8,494 square miles and had an estimated popula­
tion of 80,000 in 1964.
French Somaliland is represented in the French National Assembly and in
the French Senate by one deputy and one senator. It is administered by a Gover­
nor who represents the French Government. He is assisted by an Executive Council
composed of 8 members elected by the Territorial Assembly, which consists of 32
members elected by universal suffrage. The leading political parties are the
Parti du Mouvement Populaire and the Union Democratique Afar.
An estimated 89 percent of the total area is desert wasteland, 10 per­
cent permanent pastureland, and 1 percent forest. There are few natural re­
sources.
Some vegetables and dates are grown but most of the food is imported.
The economy is centered around and based upon the activities of the port of
Djibouti and the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. Djibouti’s role as a port-ofcall for many vessels transiting the Red Sea and its proximity to the Ethiopian
hinterland make it a major port of entry for that country. The railroad serves
as a link between the port and Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, where al­
most al 1 of the territory 's exports originate. The limited exports that originate
in French Somaliland consist mainly of live cattle, hides and skins, and salt.
The indigenous population consists of an estimated 30,500 Danakils and
24,000 Somalis, all of whom are Hamitic and most of whom are Moslem. The foreign
community, almost all of whom live in and around Djibouti, includes about 7,000
Europeans (mainly French), who are Christians, 3,000 Arabs, who practice Islam,
and unknown numbers of East Indians, Pakistanis, Greeks, Italians, and Armeni­
ans. The main languages are Somali, Danakil, French, and Arabic.
Education in French Somaliland is modeled after the French system, and
French is the language of instruction.
In 1961, 1,834 students were attending



19 public schools and 1,821 were in 12 private schools. In 1959, the 10 second­
ary schools were providing technical, commercial, and nurses’ training.
Most of the economically active population are not in the money economy;
they are engaged in nomadic animal husbandry. Subsistence agriculture and coast­
al fishing provide a livelihood for some of the people. As of January 1962,
there were 10,386 African wage and salary earners in French Somaliland.
The
port of Djibouti and the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad provided most of the paid
employment in the territory.
Small numbers of workers were employed in the
import-export houses, urban service industries, and construction.
The right of workers to organize into trade unions,
to bargain collec­
tively, to engage in strikes, and of trade unions to affiliate with national or
international organizations is defined in the French Labor Code of 1952, as
amended in 1955, which was extended to the Territories and Associated Terri­
tories. Administration and enforcement of this legislation is the responsibility
of a Consultative Labor Commission and an Inspector of Labor and Social Laws.
There is a Chamber of Commerce; no information is available
other employer organizations.

regarding

Trade union membership in the territory is estimated at 2,200, or about
20 percent of the 10,386 wage and salary earners.
The Territorial Federa­
tion of Trade Unions-Workers' Force (Union Territoriale des Syndicats-Force
0uvriere--UTS-F0) is the only trade union center in the territory. It has 1,550
members in nine African affiliates and 650 members in six European unions. The
UTS-F0 is a branch of the French General Confederation of Labor (Confederation
Generate du Travail-Force 0uvriere--CGT-F0), through which it is affiliated
with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU).

2



LABOR DIGEST
No. 107
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF GABON
Gabon, located on the west coast of Africa at the Equator, has an area of 103,000
square miles and had a population estimated at 446,000 in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Gabon became a republic in August 1960. Under the Consti­
tution of 1959, as amended in 1960 and 1961, executive power is centralized in
the President, who is both chief of state and head of the Government. Legisla­
tive power rests in the National Assembly, a unicameral body elected for a 5-year
term. The Bloc Ddmocratique Gabonais (BDG), the Government party led by Presi­
dent Leon Mba, is the dominant political party. The principal opposition party
is the Union Democratique et Sociale Gabonaise (UDSG).
Economic. Although 60 to 75 percent of the population are engaged in
subsistence agriculture,
the economy is based on forestry and mining. Only 1
percent of the arable land (which constitutes 11 percent of the total area) is
under cultivation. The main cash crops are cocoa and coffee. The country must
therefore rely heavily on imports of food for consumption.
In 1964, wood and
wood products accounted for 50 percent of total exports, and minerals for 47 per­
cent. Manganese, iron ore, uranium, and gold are the chief minerals produced.
Large iron ore deposits have been discovered but, due to inaccessibility, have
not yet been exploited. The principal industries are the processing of timber
and, on a smaller scale, the processing of agricultural products.
The 3-Year
Development Plan (1963-65) and the current 5-Year Plan (1966-70) provided for
the expansion of transportation facilities, development of natural resources and
industrial potential, and increased production of food for domestic use. The
per capita gross national product was estimated at US$425 in 1963.
Social. The vast majority of the Gabonese are of Bantu stock, but there
are approximately 40 distinct tribal groups with separate languages and cultures.
The largest tribe is the Fang, numbering about 150,000, followed by the Echira



with 92,000, theAdouma with 60,000, and the Okande with 25,000. The remainder of
the population is divided among 35 other tribes including a small number of pyg­
mies. The people speak many languages, but French is the official language. In
1965, more than 80,000, or 90 percent of the school-age children, attended school.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1963, the labor force was estimated at
220,000, or about 50 percent of the population. Of the 44,000 (20 percent of
the labor force) wage and salary earners in 1963, 30.4 percent were in agricul­
ture and forestry, 15.9 percent in services, 14.8 percent in mining and quarry­
ing,
12.9 percent in commerce, 9.5 percent in manufacturing,
8.1 percent in
construction, 6.0 percent in transportation and communications, and 2.4 percent
in other activities.
Unemployment is not considered a problem, inasmuch as an ordinance enacted
in 1962 makes employment compulsory.
(See under legislation.) The Government
maintains a national employment agency for placing workers who are seeking jobs,
and all unemployed persons must register and accept the jobs offered by the la­
bor registration authorities. Underemployment is widespread in the agricultural
sector.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Although the economy is expanding
at a rapid rate, the level of productivity remains low. There is a serious short­
age of trained manpower at all levels. In 1963, only 5 percent of the wage and
salary earners had received vocational training. Many industries offer on-thejob training. In the last 2 years,
the Government has also sponsored a large
number of training programs for developing manual and clerical skills. A tech­
nical school at Libreville, opened in 1965, trains technicians and executive
personnel; it also has an apprenticeship center and a handicraf t section. Advisors
trained at the Oyem Agricultural School teach farmers modern agricultural methods .
Although the number of training institutes has risen to eight, including secre­
tarial and nursing schools, the demand for trained workers exceeds the supply.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code of 1962 contains provisions relating
to apprenticeship programs, collective agreements, and procedures for settling
labor disputes; it establishes minimum standards for wages, hours of daywork and
nightwork, a weekly day of rest, and annual leave; it covers the employment of
women and young persons and the health and safety of workers; other provisions
deal with transportation and company stores. Social and other labor legislation
covers the conditions of work for expectant mothers, compulsory employment for
all Gabonese citizens over 18years of age unless they are physically incapable
or are enrolled in school, dismissal pay, unemployment, old-age and survivors'
insurance, and family allowances.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
is responsible for the administration and enforcement of all labor and social
legislation. These duties are carried out through the Directorate of Labor and
Manpower, labor inspectors, labor offices, and placement offices. Most of the
social security programs are administered under the social insurance fund agency
of the Ministry.
2



Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Average monthly wages in 1963 were US$41.51 for nonagricultural wage and
salary earners and US$20.40 for unskilled agricultural workers. Hourly wages
for various occupations in 1962 were: Cabinetmakers, US$0.32; bakers, US$0.40;
bricklayers, US$0.18; carpenters, US$0.28; plumbers, US$0.60; truckdrivers,
US$0.22; and unskilled laborers, US$0.14. Wage supplements include the provi­
sion of housing facilities, transportation, prenatal care for working women,
birth grants, and family allowances.
The Labor Code provides for a maximum workweek of 40 hours, 1 day of rest
per week, a maximum of 2,400 hours' work a year for agricultural employees, and
10 legal holidays. The code guarantees all workers a paid vacation of 18 days
or more annually, depending on length of service; mothers receive 1 additional
day for each registered birth.
Prices have continued to rise despite governmental control over certain
items. Since 1961, food prices have increased by30percent. The cost-of-living
index rose from 109.9 in 1962 (1959=100) to 131.6 in 1964. Real wages have in­
creased by about 10 percent per year, but between 60 to 75 percent of the people
derive their livelihood from subsistence agriculture. The annual per capita
income is estimated at US$110.
Employer Organizations
Employer organizations include the Chamber of Commerce and UNIGAB0N, a
national organization conducting liaison work among such organizations as the
Societe des Petroles d ' rique Equatoriale, Syndicat Forestier du Gabon, Syndicat
Af
des Entreprises Minieres du Gabon, and public works and navigation societies.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership is estimated to be 17,800. Of the three na­
tional trade union centers, the African Confederation of Believing Workers-Gabon
(Confederation Africaine des Travailleurs Croyants--CATC-Gabon) has an estimated
8,000 members, or 45 percent of the organized work force. The CATC-Gabon, which
was formed in 1956, has 19 affiliates. It is affiliated with the International
Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation Internationale des Syndicats
Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organization, the Pan-African Union of
Believing Workers (Union Pan-Africaine des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).
The National Confederation of Gabonese Workers (Confederation Nationale
des Travailleurs Gabonais--CNTG), had an estimated 6,800 members in 1965, or
about 38 percent of all trade union members. The CNTG, which was formed in 1962,
is composed of three regional centers and one industrial union for mineworkers.
It has been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization (AFRO) since 1962.
It also is a
founding member of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC). One Inter­
national Trade Secretariat (ITS),
the Miners' International Federation, has
an affiliate within the CNTG.
The third national center, the African General Confederation of LaborGabon (Confederation Generale Africaine du Travai1--CGAT-Gabon), was formed in
3



1957 and claims about 3,000 members, or 17 percent of the organized work force.
Since its formation, it has been affiliated with the Communist World Federation
of Trade Unions (WFTU). It is also affiliated with the All-African Trade Union
Federation (AATUF).
Labor-Management Relations
The basic provisions for individual and collective agreements and proce­
dures for the settlement of labor disputes are prescribed in the Labor Code.
Labor disputes arising under collective agreements are first submitted to con­
ciliation under the direction of labor inspectors. When this procedure fails,
an arbitration board (composed of a member of the judiciary, a labor inspector,
and an employee and employer representative), whose members are appointed for
a 1-year term, must recommend a settlement. Further appeals can be made to the
Tribunal of Grand Instance.
In 1963, 1,705 man-days were lost as the result of 23 work stoppages.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 108
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN GAMBIA
Gambia, located on the west coast of Africa and surrounded on three sides by
Senegal, has an area of 4,000 square miles and its population is estimated at
325,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. An independent member of the British Commonwealth since Feb­
ruary 1965, the Government unsuccessfully sought, through a popular referendum
in November 1965, to convert the country from a monarchy to a republic. The Con­
stitution of 1961, as amended, provides for a unicameral representative Assembly
and a Prime Minister, who is responsible for the overall administration of the
country. Political parties are the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) , United
Party (UP), and Gambian Congress Party.
Sir Dawda K. Jawara, head of the gov­
erning PPP, has been Prime Minister since 1962.
Economic. The predominantly agricultural economy depends heavily upon
imports, which range from foodstuffs and consumer goods to petroleum products.
The main crops are peanuts and rice; peanuts and peanut products account for
90 percent of exports. The largest single industry is a peanut oil mill. The
main nonagricultural activities are import trade, peanut processing, cotton
weaving, clothing manufacture, and fishing.
Social. According to the 1963 census, over 90 percent of the population
were Africans and about 10 percent were non-Gambians. Some of the largest trib­
al groups are the Mandingo,
comprising 40 percent of the population; Fula, 13
percent; and Woloff, 12 percent; each of the other smaller groups comprises under
7 percent. Eighty-five percent of the people practice Islam; most of the remain­
der are animists; only a small number are indigenous Christians. Although Eng­
lish is the official language, Mandingo is widely used. During the school year
1963-64,
13,207 students were enrolled in primary and secondary schools. The
literacy rate was estimated at 20 percent in 1963.



Manpower

and

Employment

Employment and Unemployment. In 1963, 165,000 persons, or 51 percent of
the population, were in the labor force. Of this total,
10,000 were wage and
salary earners, 15,000 were self-employed, and 140,000 were in agricultural and
other subsistence occupations.
Since the country has a primarily one-crop economy--peanuts--seasonal
unemployment and underemployment are serious problems.
Employment opportuni­
ties for unskilled workers during the spring season are numerous and migrant
workers who come from nearby countries to cultivate peanuts make up about 3
percent of the labor force.
Because of the seasonal nature of the economy,
not only are the farmers idle during the off-season, but most commercial estab­
lishments shut down their operations.
Unemployment exists also among high
school graduates, most of whom study liberal arts. The Government attempts to
absorb the many urban jobseekers, particularly juveniles, through public works
programs.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Most of the farms are still tilled
by hand.
Such primitive techniques, coupled with the lack of skills and train­
ing , contribute to low productivity.
The Gambia Employers' Association has
organized classes providing training for clerical workers. Apprenticeship pro­
grams are provided by the Government and also in some private establishments for
selected workers. Under the Government's apprenticeship program, applicants
who pass an entrance examination are paid wages equal to those of regular workers
in the same grade but are not guaranteed employment upon completion of their
training. The Government has a limited number of positions available for on-thejob training.
It also provides opportunities for study within the country for
junior officers and abroad for senior officers. A Technical School provides
classes in carpentry, metalwork, woodwork, and mechanics, and there is also the
Government's Clerical School.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation, for the most part,
is contained
in the following ordinances: The Labour Ordinance, as amended, which provides
the legal framework within which Joint Industrial Councils function; the Fac­
tories Ordinance; the Employment Exchange and Registration of Employees Ordi­
nance; the Trade Union Ordinance; the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance; and the
Regulation of Docks Ordinance. There are no insurance programs providing for
unemployment, health, or pension benefits.
Administration and Practice. The Minister of Local Government, Labour,
and Lands, through the Labour Officer assisted by three labor inspectors, is
responsible for enforcing all labor legislation.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The minimum daily wage throughout Gambia is US$0.78. The average daily
wages in 1963 for the following occupations were: Laborers, watchmen, and
messengers (illiterate) ,US$0.78 ; messengers (literate) and store hands , US$0.94 ;
sales clerks,
taxi drivers, and telephone operators, US$1.65; dockworkers,
US$1.07; foremen, US$1.84; and dock foremen, US$2.18.

2



The average workweek in commercial establishments is 40 hours; in hotels,
oil mills, and factories, 48 hours; and for manual workers and clerical workers
in Government, 42 hours and 36% hours, respectively. Overtime for daily-rated
workers is paid at time and a half their hourly rate and at double time on Sun­
days and public holidays, of which there are 7. All workers except daily­
rated workers are entitled to a paid vacation of 10 or 14 days, depending on
length of service.
The retail price index rose from 103 in 1962 (1961=100) to 180 in 1963.
Over 90 percent of the population live at the subsistence level in rural areas.
In 1964, the annual per capita cash income was estimated to be about US$60.
Employer Organizations
Employer organizations are the Gambia Chamber of Commerce and the Gambia
Employers' Association, which keeps members informed on all labor legislation
and provides for the exchange of ideas and other matters involving labor-manage­
ment relations.
Labor Organizations
More than 40 percent, or 4,250 of the 10,000 wage and salary earners, are
estimated to be members of trade unions. ^)ver 50 percent of the organized workers
belong to the Gambia Workers' Union (GWU), one of the two national trade union
centers in the country. The GWU, which was formed in 1957, has been affiliated
with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) anditsAfrican Regional Organization (AFRO) since 1963. It is also a member of the African
Trade Union Confederation (ATUC). The GWU is affiliated with two International
Trade Secretariats (ITS), the International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical
Workers and the International Transport Workers' Federation.
The Gambia Labour Union (GLU), the other national center formed in the
late 1940's, has an estimated membership of 500.
It had been an affiliate of
the ICFTU in Gambia since the formation of the ICFTU, in 1949, to 1962. It is
presently affiliated with the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions
(Confederation Internationale des Syndicats Chrdtiens--CISC) and its regional
organization,
the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers
(Union Panafricaine
des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).
Labor-Management Relations
A number of bodies are concerned with labor-management relations. The
Labour Advisory Board advises Government, labor, and management; Joint Indus­
trial Councils negotiate agreements covering all the basic terms and conditions
of employment; the Port Labour Board administers the registration, recruitment,
and discipline of portworkers; the Factories Board administers factory regula­
tions ; a Whitley Council provides for discussions of the conditions of service of
Government officers; and works committees deal with working conditions and griev­
ances in the larger departments of Government and industry not otherwise provided
with machinery for wage negotiations. The Commission of Inquiry is also respon­
sible for settling disputes arising over certain fringe benefits. No information
is available on the frequency of work stoppages.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 109
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International L^bor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF GHANA
Ghana, located on the west coast of Africa, has an area of 91,843 square miles
and had a population of approximately 7.5 million in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Government is in a transitional stage owing to a coup
d'etat which occurred February 24, 1966, and resulted in the removal from office
of former President Kwame Nkrumah and his highly centralized administration. At
present, the Government is administered by the National Liberation Council, an
eight-member body of-military and police officials chaired by Lieutenant General
Joseph A. Ankrah. Numerous committees have been established to handle day-today administrative matters. The military regime has pledged an early return
to constitutional government with a complete separation of legislative, execu­
tive, and judicial powers; in the interim, political parties have been banned.
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture, which engages about twothirds of the labor force; the other third of the labor force is evenly divided
between services and production in manufacturing and crafts. Cocoa is the main
crop and leading export. Other major exports are lumber, gold, manganese, and
diamonds. Major imports include machinery, iron and other metals, foods, and
textiles. The 7-Year Development Plan (1964-70) is designed Mto build in Ghana
a socialist state.” Per capita national income--about US$150 per year in 1963-is higher than in most other African countries.
Social. The population is divided into 50 tribal and linguistic groups.
Tribal allegiances and customs are less dominant than in the past. English is
the common and official language, but many indigenous languages and dialects
are also spoken. Primary and secondary education is free and literacy is rapidly
increasing. About two-thirds of the people adhere to indigenous religions; the
remainder are Christians or practice Islam.




Manpower

and

Employment

Employment and Unemployment. According to the 1960 census,
the labor
force totaled 2,561,040, or 38 percent of the population. Of the persons engaged
in economic activity, 61.6 percent were in agriculture, forestry, hunting, and
fishing; 1.9 percent in mining and quarrying; 9.2 percent in manufacturing; 3.5
percent in construction; 14.5 percent in commerce; 6 percent in services; 2.7
percent in transport, storage, and communications; and 0.6 percent in electric­
ity, gas, water, and sanitary services. About 65 percent of the total number
in the labor force were self-employed, chiefly in smal1-scale agriculture, manu­
facturing, and commerce; 20 percent were wage and salary earners; 14 percent
were family helpers; and 1 percent were employers.
In 1963, 4.3 percent of the wage and salary earners were reported as
unemployed. Unemployment was most prevalent in urban areas (especially among
young persons)
and was due chiefly to lack of marketable skills.
Underem­
ployment is most common in the traditional occupations,
such as farming and
trading.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The principal factors contributing
to low productivity are chronic undernourishment and endemic illness, low edu­
cational attainment, and the shortage of technical, supervisory, managerial,
and other skills. Ghanaian workers have shown, however, that with proper train­
ing, guidance, and incentives, they can achieve high levels of skill and can
perform well. Productivity is low among the large number of workers outside the
modern economy who are engaged in agriculture and in trades and services.
Since 1961, the Government has been expanding its educational system,
and beginning in 1966, included a prevocational curriculum, including English
instruction for both boys and girls in the last 2 of the 8 years of compulsory
education. Except for the programs provided by some of the mining companies
and some governmental and commercial establishments,
there is a paucity of
organized and systematic on-the-job training and comparatively
little ap­
prenticeship training in the strict sense. The University of Ghana, the Kumasi
University of Science and Technology, technical institutes, and overseas edu­
cational institutions are providing training in engineering, agriculture,
medicine, science, business, and other technical fields. In 1965, the Workers’
Brigade,
established by the Government in 1957, had 16,000 members who were
receiving some training in agriculture, industry, construction, education, and
administration.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor laws apply chiefly to wage and salary earners.
The Labour Ordinance of 1948 regulates labor recruitment and labor contracts
and prohibits employment of children under age 15. The Factory Ordinance of 1952
provides for establishing wages and working conditions in some industries through
Wages Boards.
The Labour Registration Act of 1960 provided for public employ­
ment exchanges and regulation of the extensive internal labor migration. When
fully effective, the Social Security Act of 1965, which covers establishments
with at least five wage and salary earners, will provide for retirement, sur­
vivor, and sickness benefits. The Aliens Act of 1963 limits the hiring of
2



foreigners in positions for which Ghanaians with requisite skills are not avail­
able. The Industrial Relations Act of 1965 regulates trade union activities and
labor-management relations.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labour administers labor
legislation and the Ministry of Social Welfare and Community Development adminis­
ters social legislation. Labor administration is conducted through nine regional
offices, together with the bipartite National Advisory Committee on Labour, the
Unfair Labour Practices Tribunal,
and the Apprentices Board. A shortage of
trained personnel impedes adequate enforcement of labor laws. Employment ex­
change activities have expanded in recent years.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
In 1960, the Government established a nationwide minimum wage rate of
US$0.91 per day and increased the pay for all wage and salary earners earning
up to US$1,708 a year by US$0.14 per day. In December 1962, 4 percent of the
221,835 African wage earners received less than the minimum wage rate; the rates
of slightly over 41 percent were US$0.91 to US$0.98; 26 percent, US$0.98 to
US$1.26; 12 percent, US$1.26 to US$1.68; and, of the remainder, the largest
group (11 percent) received US$1.68 to US$1.98. The monthly salaries of 12percent of the 128,276 African salaried employees were US$98.00 to US$281.00; of
the remainder, 40 percent were paid US$43.68 to US$98.00; 37 percent, US$29.12
to US$43.68; about 6 percent received US$23.66 to US$28.00; and 5 percent were
unaccounted for. Eleven percent of average monthly earnings consisted of over­
time payments and bonuses. The average monthly earnings of non-Africans was
US$448.00.
Since early in 1964, most daily rated wage earners employed on a
permanent basis have been classified as salaried employees and paid, on a monthly
basis, salaries at 26 times their former daily rate. The principal supplements
to cash earnings are housing and food.
The normal workweek is 45 hours. The Public Holidays Act of 1960 provides
for 9 paid public holidays for yiage earners; holidays of salaried employees are
based on terms in collective agreements.
Legislation does not limit overtime
work, and overtime pay, on the basis of collective agreements,
ranges from 125
percent to 200 percent of regular rates.
Wages increased more rapidly than prices from 1956 to 1962, and the pur­
chasing power of workers increased by about 10 percent.
Since 1962, however,
prices have risen sharply, while wage increases have been controlled, resulting
in a reduction in the level of living of wage earners. Housing is in short supply
despite Government efforts to improve housing conditions.
Employer Organizations
Major employer organizations are the Ghana Employers* Association (GEA),
which has as members individual firms as well as local employers' associations;
the Ghana National Chamber of Commerce, which has regional affiliates; various
trade associations, such as the Ghana Chamber of Mines and the Ghana Indian Mer­
chants' Association; and the Ghana Association for the Advancement of Manage­
ment (GAAM), which is active in management training. The GEA represents man­
agement at the International Labor Organization Conference in Geneva.




3

Labor Organizations
The Ghana Trades Union Congress (GTUC), the nation's single trade union
center, had a claimed membership of about 386,750 in 1965, or roughly 75 percent
of the approximately 512,000 wage and salary earners in 1960. The GTUC was
formed in 1943 as the Qold Coast Trades Union Congress. Following the military
coup d 1etat in February 1966, the GTUC was reorganized at a constituent congress
in June. The new constitution expanded the number of GTUC affiliates from 10
to 16. Prior to the coup d'etat,
the GTUC had a close relationship with the
presently inactive Convention People's Party (CPP) .
The GTUC played a leading role in the formation of the All-African Trade
Union Federation (AATUF). The headquarters of the AATUF were moved to Accra
following the second AATUF Congress in June 1964. The international relations
of the GTUC were placed under review by the Executive Board following the re­
organization conference.
Labor-Management Relations
The Industrial Relations Act forms the legal basis for the conduct of
labor-management relations. The act provides for the certification of trade
unions as exclusive bargaining agents for specified groups of workers and com­
pulsory collective bargaining with the unions by employers of these workers.
(Unions representing civil servants, teachers, or employees of local or central
Government may not be certified.) The certified unions bargain for workers with
an employer, or an employer group, through Government-approved permanent joint
negotiating committees composed of union and employer representatives.
In the
public sector, terms and conditions of employment are established by administra­
tive regulation, following consultation with the unions.
In the event of an industrial dispute, the act requires that, if efforts
of a joint negotiating committee fail, either party may apply to the Minister
of Labour for conciliation.
If conciliation fails, arbitration,
to which at
least one of the disputing parties must agree, is used. The final step is com­
pulsory arbitration, which is rarely employed. A strike or lockout is permissible
only if the Minister of Labour fails to refer a dispute to compulsory arbitration.
The few work stoppages which have occurred
technically illegal and have been quickly settled.

4




in recent years

have been

LABOR DIGEST
No. n o
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA
The Republic of Guinea covers an area of almost 95,000 square miles
Africa. The population in mid-1964 was about 3.5 million.

in West

Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Guinea, a territory of former French West Africa, achieved
independence on October 2, 1958. The Constitution grants considerable power to
the President, who is assisted by a Cabinet appointed by him. The President is
elected by direct universal suffrage for a 7-year term. The Constitution pro­
vides for a National Assembly, whose members are elected for 5-year terms. The
country's single political party is the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG); its
secretary general, Ahmed Sdkou Tour£, is also the President of the country.
Economic. Agriculture, most of which is at the subsistence level, pro­
vides a livelihood for 85 to 90 percent of the population. Agricultural produc­
tion in 1961 accounted for 54 percent of the gross national product (GNP) and
34 percent of export earnings. The principal cash crops are bananas, palm prod­
ucts, coffee, peanuts, and pineapples. Bauxite, iron, diamonds, and gold are
the most important minerals.
Secondary industry is limited and small scale,
except for the production of alumina by Fria (an international consortium of
American and European companies). In 1962, alumina accounted for 50 percent of
all exports. Per capita GNP in 1963 was about US$60.
Social. About 99 percent of the population are African.
The principal
foreign groups are the French and Lebanese, who numbered about 2,000 each in
1964. The largest ethnic group, the Foulah, numbers over 1 million. Of some
15 other tribal groupings, the Malinkd (about 850,000) and Sous sou (some 250,000)
are the most numerous. An estimated 2 million people, or about 60 percent of
the population, profess Islam; from 25,000 to 30,000 are Christians; and the
remainder are animists. French is the official language; 11 African languages




and numerous dialects are spoken. Literacy is about 5 to 10 percent. Approxi­
mately 28 percent of the school-age children attend school. In 1962-63, primary
school enrollment was 159,944.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. According to official estimates, about 1.6
million people, or almost 46 percent of the population, were in the labor force
in 1964. Most workers were engaged in subsistence agriculture. Wage and salary
earners in 1964 totaled 150,000 to 200,000, representing 9 to 13 percent of the
labor force. Twenty-seven percent were in commercial agriculture,
27 percent
in mining (24 percent primitive, 3 percent modern),
16 percent in Government
services, 2 percent in manufacturing, and 28 percent in other activities. U n ­
employment data are unavailable. Underemployment is extensive.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity in general
is low.
Modern methods of production are employed by a few of the larger enterprises.
One obstacle to increasing productivity has been the widespread prejudice against
manual labor. The rewards associated in more modern economies with concentrated
and sustained occupational effort and initiative have not been sufficient in­
centives as yet to bring about significant changes in traditional attitudes.
Another major factor has been the acute shortage of technical and managerial
skills.
In 1961, there were only a few thousand skilled workers, most of whom
were concentrated in three or four principal industrial areas. The Government
has made efforts to provide facilities for the people to acquire the needed
skills. Training programs have been organized in conjunction with almost every
new project initiated under economic development programs. The Government, with
substantial foreign assistance, has established a school for technical training,
for public administrators, and a polytechnic institute. Vocational training in
agriculture is provided at the School for Practical Agriculture and Cooperatives
and at the National School of Agriculture. A technical training school is
operated by Fria.
In 1962-63, 10,398 students were enrolled in 41 secondary
and technical schools.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. A new labor code was being prepared in 1965. The
Labor Code of 1960 embodies most present labor legislation, which covers trade
unions, employment contracts, apprenticeship, collective agreements, wages,
hours of work, working conditions, employment of women and children, health and
safety, and labor-management disputes. The Social Security Code of 1961, as
amended in 1964, provides for family allowances, workmen's compensation, sick­
ness and disability benefits, and old-age pensions.
Administration and Practice. Labor administration is the responsibility
of the Ministries of Labor and the Civil Service. The Labor Ministry deals with
labor laws, workers, and employment conditions in private industry; the Civil
Service Ministry deals with working conditions of Government employees. Enforce­
ment of labor legislation is the responsibility of labor inspectorates, which
operate under the direction of the Labor Ministry.
The Ministry of Justice is
responsible for the administration of labor courts which have been established
to handle labor disputes.
2



Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Two scales of minimum wages have been established by a number of tripar­
tite commissions. One scale applies to Conakry (the capital) and the main popu­
lation centers; the other,
20 percent lower, applies to the remainder of the
country. Minimum wage rates vary by category of worker and level of skill. For
example, in 1960, the minimum hourly wage in Conakry for construction workers
ranged from US$0.13 to US$0.44; the minimum monthly salary for white-collar
workers in industry, banking, and commerce ranged from US$29.55 to US$133.58.
The maximum workweek for Government and most other employees is 45 hours. Costof-living data are unavailable. Various estimates indicate that prices have in­
creased from 50 to 100 percent since independence, while minimum wage scales in
most industries have risen only slightly, and those in agriculture have not
changed since 1959.
Employer Organizations
There are currently no Chambers of Commerce.
Consumer and producer co­
operatives are controlled in some manner by the Government or the PDG.
Labor Organizations
The National Confederation of Workers of Guinea (Confederation Nationale
des Travailleurs de Guinee--CNTG), the nation's single trade union center,
claimed a total membership of 300,000 in 1963. This membership claim is appar­
ently inflated in view of the fact that the number of wage and salary earners
totaled 150,000 to 200,000 in 1964. The CNTG, which was formed in 1958 as the
Syndicalist Union of Workers of Guinea (Union Syndicaliste des Travailleurs de
Guin6e--USTG), has a very close relationship with the country's single political
party, dating from the pre-independence period. This relationship was formally
strengthened in 1963 when the CNTG was reorganized. At that time, the number of
CNTG federations and national unions was reduced from 41 to 19. In addition to
its organization along industrial lines, the CNTG has a geographic structure
consisting of 11 regional centers and 32 local administrative offices.
The CNTG played a leading role in the formation of the All-African Trade
Union Federation (AATUF) and continues to be one of its more inf luential aff iliates .
Labor-Management Relations
The Labor Code of 1960 prescribes procedures for the settlement of labor
disputes. Labor courts handle individual grievances. When a collective dispute
remains unsettled by industrial associations, the labor inspector attempts con­
ciliation. Any strike or lockout started before conciliation procedures have
been exhausted is illegal. If conciliation fails, the dispute is submitted for
arbitration to a recommendation board attached to each regional labor inspector­
ate. Statutory conciliation and arbitration procedures do not apply where spe­
cial procedures have been set up by collective agreements.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. I l l
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor S tatistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF IVORY COAST
The Republic of Ivory Coast is a country consisting of about 124,503 square
miles located on the west coast of Africa. The population in 1965 was about
3.8 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Republic of Ivory Coast, a former territory in French West
Africa, became independent August 7, 1960. The Constitution provides for a re­
publican system of government with a strong executive (a president) and a uni­
cameral National Assembly. The President is elected by direct universal suffrage
for a 5-year term; Felix Houphouet-Boigny was reelected in November 1965. The
only political party is the Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (Parti D6mocratique de la Cote d 1Ivoire--PDCI).
Economic. The preponderantly agricultural economy occupies about 90 per­
cent of the labor force and accounts for over half of the annual gross domestic
product.
In 1964, coffee, tropical woods, cocoa, and bananas, the chief agri­
cultural products, provided 90 percent of total export earnings.
Ivory Coast
is the world*s third largest coffee producer, fourth largest cocoa producer,
and ranks fifth in the production of bananas and pineapples. Despite a dearth
of known mineral resources,
the industrial sector, mainly light manufacturing
and processing, is growing rapidly, and its volume of business is expected by
the Government to constitute one-fourth of the national product by 1970. Per
capita income in 1964 was about US$186.
Social. The population is predominantly African; the non-African popula­
tion, consisting mainly of French and Lebanese, totaled about 35,000 in 1965,
and, in contrast to most other African countries, has been increasing since
independence.
In 1965, almost one-fourth of the total population consisted
of Africans from outside the Ivory Coast.
Of some 60 tribal groupings which




exist, no single group constitutes more than about 15 percent of the population.
French is the official language. The literacy rate in 1965 was about 20 percent
of the population.
In 1963-64, primary school enrollment amounted to perhaps
35 percent of the children of school age (ages 6 to 14).
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force in 1962 totaled about 1.6
million. Wage and salary earners in 1964 numbered about 230,000 and were dis­
tributed as follows: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 45.7 percent; public
services, 14.3 percent; industry, construction, and power, 18.3 percent; trans­
portation, 7.4 percent; and trade and services, 14.3 percent. Over 85 percent
of the wage and salary earners were in the private sector. In addition to the
salaried labor force, some 200,000 to 300,000 agricultural workers, paid in kind,
migrate annually from Upper Volta.
At least 75 percent of all agricultural
workers and 45 percent of all wage and salary earners migrate from neighboring
countries.
According to Government officials, unemployment does not exist; some job­
seekers are unable to meet employment demands either because they lack the re­
quired skills or because they do not want to move from a city to a rural area.
On the whole, there is a shortage of manpower, both skilled and unskilled; in
the agricultural sector, it is filled by workers from neighboring countries.
Data on unemployment as defined in the United States are unavailable.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Worker productivity is low, owing
largely to debilitating tropical diseases, combined with the low protein diet,
lack of skills, and the limited industrial experience of the labor force. In
addition, most workers are "target" employees (i.e., temporary workers w h o , after
earning a particular amount, return to the farm); this circumstance results in
a high degree of instability in the work force. Modern work methods are employed
on the larger plantations, but most crops are grown by individual, small-scale
African farmers using primitive tools and ancient farming methods.
In recent
years, as many as 80 percent of the wage and salary earners have been unskilled.
Most top level skills, particularly in industry, are provided by Europeans.
Both the Government and private industry are attempting to improve the
skill level of workers through on-the-job training and accelerated vocational
training programs.
In 1962, some 17,000 students were enrolled in about 20
technical and vocational schools and institutes; most of these institutions were
Government-operated and involved a 3-year postprimary course leading to a pro­
fessional certificate, followed by a 7-year course leading to a technical bac­
calaureate. In addition, 2-year tours of duty in the small Ivoirien army include
1 year of vocational training in a civil pursuit.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Most labor matters are regulated by the Labor Code
of August 1, 1964, which includes provisions for the establishment and organiza­
tion of trade unions, the conclusion of employment and apprenticeship contracts
and collective agreements, the determination and payment of wages, and the estab­
lishment of general conditions of work, such as maximum hours, limitations on the
2



employment of women and children, paid leave, weekly rest, and travel and trans­
port allowances. The code also requires establishments to provide free health
facilities for workers and establishes procedures for the settlement of labor dis­
putes. Social security legislation includes provisions for the payment of family
allowances (1955) , workmen1s compensation (1957) , and retirement pensions (1960) .
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs,
responsible for the administration of most labor affairs, is divided into four
Bureaus! A Bureau of Labor, responsible for matters dealing with wages, work­
ing conditions, health and safety, and labor relations; a Bureau of Manpower,
which handles such problems as migration, employment of foreigners, and voca­
tional training; a Bureau of Social Security , which administers the family allow­
ance and retirement systems; and a Bureau of Industrial Accidents, responsible
for formulating accident prevention techniques and administering the workmen's
compensation system. An Office of Manpower, a separate unit within the Minis­
try, operates employment exchanges and assists in the recruitment and repatria­
tion of foreign workers. Two tripartite consultative bodies, the Advisory Labor
Committee and the Technical Advisory Committee for Hygiene and Labor Safety,
make recommendations to the Government concerning regulatory legislation. En­
forcement of labor laws is the responsibility of the Inspectorate of Labor and
Social Legislation within the Ministry.
Effective functioning of the Inspec­
torate has been limited largely by the small number of inspectors and the multi­
plicity of small enterprises, as well as by the workers'
general unawareness
of their individual rights and responsibilities.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages are set by the Government and are established separately
for each of two zones, one covering Abidjan (the capital) and three major cities
and the other covering the remainder of the country.
In 1963, the statutory
minimum wage in the first zone was about US$0.17 an hour, or about US$30 a month,
for unskilled workers; in the rest of the country,
the minimum was slightly
lower. The actual wages paid to most workers are substantially higher than the
legal minimum and are frequently determined by collective agreements. The maxi­
mum worktime, by law, is 40 hours per week in industry and commerce and 2,400
hours per year in agriculture.
In 1963, the Government raised wages by 6 per­
cent in an effort to keep wages in line with prices and has been gradually
instituting a single price system for staples throughout the country. The costof-living index for the average African family of 4 to 5 persons in Abidjan was
114.5 (1960=100) in 1965.
Employer Organizations
The leading employer organization is SCIMPEX (Syndicat des Commercants,
Importateurs, et d 'Industrie), which represented 52 business organizations in
1964. Other employer organizations include Chambers of Commerce and Industry and
Associations of Small and Middle-Size Enterprises and of Ivory Coast Merchants.
Labor Organizations
The General Union of Workers of the Ivory Coast (Union Generate des Travailleurs de Cote d 'Ivoire--UGTCI), the nation's single trade union center, has




3

an estimated membership of 200,000, The UGTCI was formed in 1962 by merger of
the African Confederation of Free Trade Unions of the Ivory Coast (Confederation
Africaine des Syndicats Libre de Cote d 1Ivoire--CASL-CI), the National Center
of Believing Workers of the Ivory Coast (Central Nationale des Travailleurs
Croyants de Cote d 1Ivoire--CNTC-CI), and the National Union of Workers of the
Ivory Coast (Union Nationale des Travailleurs de Cote d 1Ivoire--UNTCI). Since
its formation, it has had a close relationship with the single political party,
the PDCI. The UGTCI has some 150 affiliates, most of which belong to one of two
federations representing trade unions in the private and mixed sectors and in the
public sector. It also has five geographic departments.
Although the three centers which merged to form the UGTCI were founding
members of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC), the UGTCI is not af­
filiated with any external organization.
Labor-Management Relations
The Labor Code of 1964, which established the framework within which cur­
rent industrial relations take place, provides for the establishment of labor
courts to handle individual disputes arising in connection with employment or
apprenticeship contracts, industrial accidents, and occupational diseases. Col­
lective bargaining agreements must contain provisions for arbitration, should
conciliation and mediation fail. A collective dispute in an enterprise in which
a bargaining agreement does not exist may be submitted through Government chan­
nels to arbitration, if both parties agree, or to mediation at the request of
either party. No strikes or lockouts are permitted before the prescribed dis­
pute settlement machinery has been exhausted. The labor movement has followed
a policy of restraint and strikes have been infrequent.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 112
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor S tatistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

L^BOR CONDITIONS IN KENYA
Kenya, situated on the east coast of Africa, lies astride the equator.
It has
an area of 224,960 square miles and in mid-1965 had an officially estimated
population of 9,365,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Kenya attained independence on December 12, 1963. The Con­
stitution of 1963, as amended in 1964, provides for a republican and presidential
form of government within the British Commonwealth. Legislative power resides
in a bicameral Parliament composed of a 41-member Senate and a House of Repre­
sentatives, to which most of its 124 members are elected by universal suffrage.
Since independence, Jomo Kenyatta has headed the Government. In November 1964,
Kenya became a one-party state when the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)
was dissolved and its members joined the majority Kenya African National Union
(KANU), Kenyatta's party.
Economic. The economy is predominantly agricultural. The large majority
of Africans practice subsistence farming on small plots of land. In 1964, agri­
culture, livestock, forestry, and fishing contributed approximately 42 percent
of the gross domestic product (GDP), of which about 25 percent was outside the
recorded monetary economy; wholesale and retail trade, 13 percent; Government
services, 12 percent; manufacturing, 10 percent; transport,
storage, and com­
munications, 9 percent; and other sources, 14 percent.
In 1964, the principal
agricultural products (coffee, sisal, tea, and pyrethrum) accounted for about
75 percent of total exports; 80 percent of the exports were produced on Europeanowned plantations. Per capita GDP was US$85 in 1964. A plan for national de­
velopment covers the period 1964-70.
Social. In mid-1964, Africans accounted for 97 percent of the popula­
tion; the remaining 3 percent were mostly Europeans, Asians, and Arabs. A ma­
jority of the population are Bantu, the largest of the four major cultural and



linguistic groups. Although English is the official language, Swahili has become
an African lingua franca, and most African tribes have their own distinct lan­
guage. Of the 922,673 pupils enrolled in primary and secondary schools in 1963,
about 93 percent were African; 6 percent, Asian; and the remainder, European,
Arab, and other. Almost 15 percent of the African population are Christian, 4
percent are Moslem and Hindu, and 81 percent follow their tribal religion.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1964, the labor force was officially
estimated at 2.3 million, or about 25 percent of the population. The total num­
ber of wage and salary earners was 589,600, or about 26 percent of the labor
force. About 41 percent were in agriculture and forestry; 30 percent in private
industry and commerce; and 29 percent in public services. No statistics on un­
employment are available, but in recent years, it has been considered a major
problem, not only among the permanent urban population but also among migrants
from rural to urban areas. Chronic underemployment is extensive, especially in
the subsistence farming areas.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity is low in the subsist­
ence farming sector, but it has been rising steadily as a result of the Govern­
ment's efforts to improve the farming methods of African smallholders who are
replacing Europeans. In general, African workers have shown a capacity to bene­
fit from training.
Serious handicaps to increased efficiency are the workers'
lack of education and training.
Most training and skill acquisition occurs on the job by informal means.
Various Government departments operate training programs. The Ministry of Works
conducts executive, secretarial, and clerical courses. Three sections of the
Labour Department deal with training: The Trade Testing and Apprenticeship Sec­
tion, the Training Section, and the Aptitude Testing Unit. In 1962, 1,287 stu­
dents were receiving training at the six Government technical and trade schools
which provide 2-year courses in 12 major trades. Formal vocational training is
available in regular schools and the Kenya Polytechnic High School.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Kenya has an extensive body of labor and social legis­
lation. It provides for the registration and regulation of trade unions; estab­
lishes machinery for the settlement of industrial disputes, including procedures
for conciliation and arbitration, and stipulates conditions under which a strike
is legal; provides for the registration of all workers and covers their recruit­
ment and contracts of service; regulates the conditions of employment and health
and safety of women and young persons, dockworkers, and commercial workers;
provides for the establishment of wages, hours, and conditions of employment in
certain industries through a Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils; and regu­
lates the training of artisans in industry and allied activities. Social legis­
lation provides for work injury and medical benefits. The National Social
Security Fund Act of 1965 provides for equal contributions from all employers
and all workers in paid employment over 16 years of age (except casual workers
and civil servants engaged on pensionable terms) at the rate of 5 percent of
earnings to a maximum of US$5.60 per month. Other important provisions relate
to old-age, survivor, and invalidity benefits.

2



Administration and Practice. Labor laws are administered and enforced
by the Ministry for Labour through a Senior Labour Officer in each of the five
main provinces and a Senior Labour Inspector in each of the two suboffices.
The Labour Department also operates employment exchanges (26 in 1962), produces
employment statistics, and carries out an annual census of the labor force.
Enforcement of labor laws is confined mainly to the larger urban centers and to
areas of large-scale farming. Lack of staff has severely restricted enforcement
in the African tribal areas.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages and housing allowances are established by law for 13 main
urban areas. Monthly rates (including housing allowances) in force at the end
of 1962 averaged US$18.90 for adult males (age 21 and over) and US$12.32 for
women and youths (including housing allowances).
In 1964, the average monthly
earnings of Africans in agriculture was US$11.98 (including the value of housing
and food); in private industry and commerce, US$28.78; and in public service,
US$38.28. For Asians,
the monthly average was US$134.15, and for Europeans,
US$351.46. Typical monthly wage rates (including housing allowances)
in 1962
varied for unskilled workers in some of the major industries and services from
US$18.90 in laundering and drycleaning to US$31.78 in gasoline and oil dis­
tribution. At Mombasa Port, shorehandling labor received US$38.92 per month and
stevedores, US$40.74.
In addition to the housing allowance, some workers re­
ceived food, cash allowances, bonuses, paid leave, and employers' provident fund
contributions.
In 1962, the hours worked per week in commercial offices averaged from
36% to 40; in the public service, 40; and in most other industries, around 45;
in building and construction, the hours worked were 50; baking, 54; and cater­
ing, 60.
The middle-income consumer price index for Nairobi (July 1964=100) had
risen only to 101.6 in November 1965, but the consumer price index for Nairobi
(July 1964=100) was 107.0. A large percentage of the rural population live at
a subsistence level.
Employer Organizations
The Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE), to which most employer associa­
tions belong, deals with matters affecting labor. It participates in the for­
mulation of national economic and labor policies, advises its members regarding
industrial relations,
sponsors an industrial relations training program, and
engages in research on economic and labor matters. Other important employer
organizations engage in collective bargaining on an industrywide basis, in­
cluding the Port Employers' Association; associations of producers of theprincipal export crops; the Agricultural Employers' Association; and the Distributive
and Allied Trades Association. There are also the Kenya National Chamber of
Commerce and Industry and its subsidiaries.
Labor Organizations
Trade union membership is approximately 215,000, or about 36 percent of
the 589,600 wage and salary earners in 1964. The Central Organization of Trade
3



Unions (COTU), the nation's only trade union center, represents some 212,000,
or 99 percent, of the organized workers. The COTU was formed in 1965 as a suc­
cessor to the Kenya Federation of Labour (KFL) and the Kenya African Workers'
Congress (KAWC), which were dissolved by the Government. The COTU, which has
some 28 affiliates, has a compulsory checkoff arrangement authorized by the Gov­
ernment. Its largest affiliate is the Kenya Plantation and Agricultural Workers'
Union (KPAWU) , with about 43,400members. At the time of the COTU 's formation, the
external affiliations of all Kenyan unions were dissolved. The KFL had been an
affiliate of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) from
1952 to November 1964.
The 14 registered unions not affiliated
claimed membership of about 3,250.

with the COTU

have a

total

Labor-Management Relations
The Trade Disputes Act (1965) provides that either party may refer a dis­
pute to the Minister for Labour or he may initiate an investigation of the matter.
The Minister may refer the case back to the parties or he may attempt concilia­
tion, calling for an investigation or recommending referral to the Industrial
Court for arbitration. Any strike called during these procedures is illegal.
A dispute in an essential service must be reported to the Minister for Labour,
who may refer it to the Industrial Court; a lawful strike may be called after a
28-day notice period, provided the dispute is not referred to the Industrial
Court.
A substantial number of workers, namely railroad, postal, and telecommuni­
cations, are subject to the provisions of the Settlement of Disputes Act (East
African Common Services Organization--EACSO), 1965, with respect to collective
bargaining and industrial disputes. The act provides for the settlement of dis­
putes first at the company level and then, if no agreement is reached, by a con­
ciliator appointed by the secretary general of the EACSO. If no agreement has been
reached by conciliation, the secretary general may direct that the issue be sub­
mitted to the Standing Tribunal for arbitration, composed of a chairman, a man­
agement, and a union representative, all appointed by him; and he may approve
or reject the Tribunal's decision. Only after the exhaustion of these proce­
dures and rejection of the Tribunal's report can a lawful strike be called.
Industrial Wages Councils regulate the terms and conditions of employ­
ment in certain industries; in other industries and services, regulation is
effected by collectively bargained agreements. Important unions, such as those
of the railway workers, dockworkers, oilworkers, and plantation workers, engage
in joint consultation and collective bargaining on an industrywide basis. The
total number of strikes in 1963, 1964, and 1965 was 711.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 113
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations-‘Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA
The Republic of Liberia is situated north of the Equator on the west coast of
Africa.
Its area is about 43,000 square miles. Its population in April 1965
was approximately 1 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Liberia is the oldest republic in Africa. The Constitution
of 1847 established a highly centralized government. President William V. S.
Tubman has held office since 1944. The True Whig Party has remained in power
for over half a century. The bicameral Legislature consists of a House of Repre­
sentatives and a Senate. Membership in the House is related to population, while
in the Senate it is based on geography.
Economic. Subsistence agriculture and the production of iron ore and
crude rubber for export are the bases of the economy. In 1963, iron ore accounted
for about 67 percent of total exports, and rubber for over 25 percent. Other
export products are diamonds, palm kernels, cocoa, and coffee. Economic growth
since World War II has been rapid, but the agricultural, mineral, and industrial
resources of Liberia are still comparatively undeveloped, and probably less than
a fourth of the population have entered wholly into the money economy. For
1963, the gross national product per capita was estimated at about US$164.
Social. Liberia was founded by freed slaves from the United States dur­
ing the first part of the 19th century. The descendants of these settlers
probably number about 25,000. The population, which is almost entirely African,
consists of a number of tribal groups, among which themost important numerically
are the Gola, Kissi, Kpelle, Kru, and Mandingo. The official language is Eng­
lish; about 23 dialects are also spoken. Liberia has two distinct systems of
education:
the traditional system founded on tribal lore and Moslem teachings
and a modern system centered in Government, mission, and private schools. About




10 to 15 percent of the population are literate, Liberia is officially referred
to as a Christian state, although more than half the population are animists
and about 20 percent are Moslems.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force (according to data for 1962)
included about 425,000 persons, of whom nearly two-thirds were males. About 81
percent of the labor force were engaged in agriculture, fishing, and forestry,
6 percent in services, nearly 4 percent in mining, 3 percent in construction,
3 percent in commerce, 2 percent in manufacturing, and 1 percent in other activi­
ties. Wage and salary earners constituted about 22 percent of the labor force,
but many wage earners are temporary, moving back and forth seasonally between
working for wages and subsistence farming. About 42 percent of the labor force
were self-employed and nearly 36 percent were unpaid family workers; employers
constituted less than one-third of 1 percent.
Unemployment is reportedly in­
creasing in Monrovia, the capital, but it is little known elsewhere, except on
rare occasions, as when 9,000 workers were made jobless by the completion of
construction at the Mount Nimba mine and the Buchanan harbor in 1963. There is
underemployment, however, especially in the large agricultural sector of the
economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. About one-third of the labor force
is skilled in some degree.
In 1960, it was estimated that about 12 percent of
the wage earning labor force were highly skilled or professional persons and
that half of these were non-Liberians. About 90 percent of the skilled and
professional Liberians are employed by the Government.
In private enterprise,
managerial positions are occupied mainly by North Americans, Europeans, and
Lebanese. Unskilled agricultural labor, as well as skilled manpower, is in short
supply in areas where there is a choice between agricultural work and higher
paid industrial work. Few workers receive formal vocational training.
Several
large-scale employers have on-the-job and apprenticeship training systems, but
these involve very few workers, and training is usually limited to learning a
specific task. Most skills are acquired on the job. In general, the level of
skill thus attained is low and productivity is correspondingly so.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Title 19-A (the Labor Practices Law) of the Code of
Laws of 1956, as amended, constitutes the main source of protective labor legis­
lation. This law regulates labor recruitment and hiring practices, minimum
wages , hours, leave, grievance procedures, old-age pensions , workmen1s compensa­
tion, and labor inspection. The obligations placed on employers are very mod­
erate compared to requirements of similar legislation in other West African
countries.
The regulations do not apply to civil servants (whose working con­
ditions are governed by a law of 1935), professional and managerial personnel,
domestics, and employees in family enterprises or in establishments employing
fewer than four persons. Legislation to regulate trade union activity and gov­
ern the procedures for settling labor-management disputes, after pending for
several years, was signed into law in 1965.
Early in 1966, after a rash of
strikes, the Legislature granted emergency powers to the President for 1 year,
which gave him almost complete control of trade unions and their activities.
2



There is no legislation providing for industrial health and safety standards
and practically none on collective bargaining and representation elections.
Administration and Practice. The Bureau of Labor of the Department of
Commerce and Industry, created in 1964, is charged with enforcement of labor
legislation and administration of the Government's labor policy.
Its respon­
sibilities include regulating labor-management relations, assisting in labor
placement and labor recruitment, assuring an equitable proportion of Liberians
to foreign workers, setting up apprenticeship and training programs, conducting
manpower studies, and protecting workers' legal rights. Enforcement is hampered
by the small number of labor inspectors.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages were set in 1963 at US$0.15 per hour for unskilled indus­
trial workers and US$0.08 per hour for unskilled agricultural workers. Actual
wages paid vary from rates at the required minimum to almost twice that amount.
Due largely to the lack of established standards of skill or craftsmanship, the
same employer usually pays widely varying wages, depending on his experience
with the individual worker and the latter's demonstrated productivity. Fringe
benefits, such as free housing or food, medical care, scholarships for children,
incentive bonuses, and plots of land for farming, increase real income by as
much as one-third of the cash wage in many instances.
Legislation provides for an 8-hour day and a 48-hour week, except for
agricultural workers and, under special circumstances, in iron mines. Overtime
is payable at time and a half on regular days and double time on holidays and
days of rest.
Employees with long, continuous service are entitled to 1 or 2
weeks of paid annual leave.
Agricultural workers are usually better off than industrial workers,
since their work is usually on a task basis, seldom requiring more than 5 hours
a day and allowing time to raise many necessary food products on nearby company
or tribal land.
Worse off, at 1964 wage rates, were urban unskilled workers,
who usually received no fringe benefits and often held two or more jobs at a
time in order to meet daily expenses. Workers entirely dependent on a cash wage
have been especially affected by the rising prices in recent years and by the
Government's austerity program, accompanied by new taxes to meet mounting Gov­
ernment debts.
Employer Organizations
The major employer organization is that which has been formed by the
rubber growers. Iron mining interests have begun to act in concert with regard
to labor affairs. The Liberian Chamber of Commerce does not concern itself with
labor matters.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership in Liberia is estimated to be about 24,000,
or approximately 25 percent of the estimated 93,500 wage and salary earners in
1962.




3

The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), the nation's dominant
trade union center, has an estimated 17,000 members, or about 70 percent of the
organized workers. The CIO, which has eight affiliates, was formed in 1960.
Since that year, it has been affiliated with the International Confederation of
Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and has been a member of its African Regional Organi­
zation (AFRO). It also is a founding member of the African Trade Union Confed­
eration (ATUC). Two CIO affiliates are affiliated with International Trade
Secretariats (ITS):
the International Metalworkers' Federation and the Inter­
national Federation of Petroleum and Chemical Workers.
The other national center,
the Labor Congress of Liberia, Inc.
(LCL),
which had an estimated 1,000 members in 1964, is believed to be inactive at
present.
Labor-Management Relations
In enterprises with more than 20 employees, workers are authorized by law
to elect committees to negotiate the settlement of their grievances. Problems
not settled at this level are referred to the Labor Practices Review Board, which
consists of Government, management, and labor representatives appointed by the
President of Liberia. During the last quarter of 1965 and the first quarter of
1966, there were more strikes than in any other corresponding period; this in­
creasing strike activity, particularly on rubber plantations and iron ore mining
sites,
led to the recent restrictive provisions of the Emergency Powers Act.
Employer paternalism is the present basis for most labor-management relations.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 114
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE KINGDOM OF LIBYA
The Kingdom of Libya, situated along the coast of North Africa, with an area of
about 680,000 square miles, is the fourth largest country in Africa.
Its popu­
lation, according to the 1964 census, was 1,564,369.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Libya received its independence in 1951 under United Nations
auspices. The Government is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy presided over
by King Idris I. He exercises executive power through a Prime Minister and an
appointed Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in a Parliament (Senate of 24
members and an elected House of Representatives of 91 members).
Economic. The Libyan economy is based on oil, first discovered in 1959
and presently being produced at the rate of 1.4 million barrels per day. In
1964, petroleum accounted for about 99 percent of the total value of exports.
Largely because of petroleum development and the increase in revenue therefrom,
Libya adopted a 5-Year Economic and Social Development Plan (1963-68). The rural
economy consists mainly of subsistence agriculture and livestock raising, in
which roughly 66 percent of the working population are engaged. The most im­
portant crops are barley, wheat, olives, dates, potatoes, peanuts, and citrus
fruits. Libya is not self-sufficient in food and large quantities must be
imported. The gross national product per capita is US$300.
Social. Roughly 95 percent of Libya's indigenous population consists of
Moslem Arabs and Berbers. Ethnic minorities include Italians, Jews, Greeks,
and Maltese; for the most part, members of these groups are engaged in various
professions, in skilled and semiskilled occupations, and in commerce. In addi­
tion, several thousand British and American personnel are employed by the various
petroleum companies and military installations in Libya. An estimated 10 to 20
percent of Libyans are literate. Primary education is free and compulsory; an
estimated 70 percent of Libyan children 6 to 12 years of age are in school.




Arabic is the official language and is spoken by a large majority of the popula­
tion. Islam is the religion of about 95 percent of the populace.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. According to official data, 405,258 per­
sons, or about 26 percent of the total population, were in the labor force in
1964. Roughly 66 percent were in agriculture, 13 percent in Government and other
services, 8 percent in commerce, 5 to 6 percent in manufacturing, 4 to 5 percent
in petroleum, and the remainder in other sectors. An estimated 30 to 35 percent
of the labor force were wage and salary earners.
In Government,
the largest
single employer, approximately 9.2 percent of the personnel were in the profes­
sional, scientific, and technical fields in 1964. The distribution in the pri­
vate sector was approximately as follows: Professional, scientific, and technical
personnel, 8.5 percent; craftsmen, 31 percent; managerial and supervisory per­
sonnel , 6.3 percent; and most of the remainder, unskilled and service personnel.
Unemployment is not considered a serious problem because the demand for
labor exceeds the nation1s available manpower resources. There is some unemploy­
ment among unskilled workers who have migrated to urban centers in search of
employment opportunities. Underemployment is probably extensive, especially in
the agricultural sector of the economy, where much of the work is seasonal.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Skilled workers are in short supply.
In 1964, aliens occupied an estimated 2,300 professional and skilled positions
in Government, and an estimated 12,000 were employed in the petroleum industry
in mid-1963. Even with the training programs sponsored by the Government, pri­
vate enterprise, and the United Nations and its specialized agencies, skills are
difficult to develop because of the inadequate education of trainees. Agricul­
tural productivity is affected by the system of tribal ownership, the use of
poor and antiquated equipment, and a lack of knowledge of modern farming and
livestock raising methods.
Although vocational training is limited,
the Government recognizes the
need for such training and is taking steps to improve the existing facilities
and to implement training programs throughout Libya. Agricultural training cen­
ters have been established in Tripoli and Benghazi. Tripoli also has an Arts
and Crafts School, a College of Advanced Technology, a Radio and Telecommunica­
tions Institute, a Technical and Clerical Training Center, and aWomen's Teach­
ers' Training College. The American Friends of the Middle East have set up
training centers for automobile mechanics and spare parts managers in Tripoli
and Benghazi. Vocational training is available in conjunction with the regular
intermediate and secondary school system. Higher training is available at the
University of Libya in Benghazi. In 1964, about 265 Libyans were studying abroad
in various fields,
including engineering, administration, and crafts.
In the
same year,
some 60,000 persons were reportedly enrolled in the Government's
adult education program, which provides job training and literacy achievement.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation is based upon the omnibus Labor
Law of November 1962 and the Social Insurance Act, No. 53 of 1957, with their
pertinent regulations.
The Labor Law provides for a maximum 8-hour day and a
2




48-hour week, with certain exceptions; authorization of overtime of not more
than 3 hours in any 1 day and a maximum of 12 hours in any week; a weekly day
of rest with pay, as well as paid holidays and paid annual and sick leave;
limitations on the employment of women and young persons (12 to 16 years of age);
establishment of a wages advisory council to determine minimum wage rates;
minimum health and safety standards in work areas; recognition of trade unions;
collective bargaining; and procedures for the settlement of labor disputes.
The
social insurance law stipulates benefits for sickness, maternity, work acci­
dents, occupational diseases, invalidity, medical care, retirement pensions,
funeral grants, and unemployment (not yet implemented).
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
is responsible for the administration and enforcement of both the labor and
social insurance laws. Most labor matters are handled through a Department of
Labor. Three regional offices have been established. The Department of Social
Security administers the social insurance law mainly through three regional
offices. Enforcement of labor and social security laws is most effective in large
urban areas and particularly in foreign enterprises (including petroleum), which
employ a large part of the skilled and semiskilled labor force.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Legal minimum daily wage rates, effective January 1, 1964, are US$1.40
for adult workers and US$1.10 for young workers (12 to 16 years of age). Accord­
ing to many Libyan officials, employers, and labor leaders, the average Libyan
does not receive much more than the legal minimum, although wages have been
rising, particularly in white-collar and skilled occupations. Wages are highest
in the petroleum and allied industries and in the major urban centers.
Wage and salary earners in industry and Government work an average of 8
hours a day and 48 hours a week. Construction personnel average 56 hours a week.
Prices for some basic items of food have increased by approximately 40
percent since 1955. The overall cost of living is estimated to have increased
by as much as50percent since oil exploration began. The level of living of the
majority of the population is low, especially in rural areas.
Employer Organizations
No management organizations in Libya are directly concerned with labor.
A Personnel Management Council, consisting of the employee relations or per­
sonnel officers of the various oil companies, meets once a month to discuss
matters of mutual interest. There are at least two Chambers of Commerce, one
in Tripoli and the other in Benghazi.
Labor Organizations
Total claimed trade union membership is about 50,000, or roughly 37 per­
cent of the estimated 135,000 wage and salary earners. The National Federation
of Trade Unions (NFTU), one of two national centers representing workers in
Tripolitania, claims over 60 percent of all trade union members. Formed inl963as
a successor to the Libyan General Labor Union (LGLU), the NFTU assumed the LGLU's
affiliation with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
3



and its African Regional Organization (AFRO). The other center in Tripolitania
is the Professional Workers* Federation (PWF), with an estimated 800 members.
The only national center representing workers in Cyrenaica is the Federa­
tion of Libyan Trade Unions in Cyrenaica (FLTUC), with an estimated membership
of 16,500. The FLTUC was formed in 1958.
Two International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in Libya-the International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical Workers and the Inter­
national Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
The only collective bargaining agreement in effect in Libya is between
bakery employers and workers. Forthemost part, labor-management relations are
characterized by paternalism. Approximately 99 percent of all grievances are
handled at the employer-supervisor-worker level. The remainder are usually
resolved by a labor inspector or conciliator connected with the Department of
Labor. A grievance or dispute not resolved at that level is submitted by the
Director General of Labor to a magistrate's court,
then to a court of first
instance, and, if necessary, to a court of appeals. Recourse to the High Court
of Justice (Supreme Court) is possible. Cases which have reached this level,
however, have not yet been decided.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No.

115

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE MALAGASY REPUBLIC
The Malagasy Republic, situated off the southeast coast of Africa, has an area
of about 227,900 square miles. According to official statistics, the popula­
tion in January 1965 was 6,335,810.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Malagasy Republic became independent on June 26, 1960.
The Constitution of 1959, as amended in 1960, provides for a President who is
elected by direct universal suffrage for a 7-year term; a National Assembly,
popularly elected for a 5-year term; and a Senate, of which two-thirds of the
members are elected by provincial general councils and municipal and rural coun­
cils and the remainder by the Government, all serving a 6-year term. The Council
of Ministers performs executive functions. The Social Democratic Party (PSD)
has been the dominant political party since 1958; the Congress Party for the
Independence of Madagascar (AKFM) is the principal opposition party.
Economic. The economy is predominantly agricultural and export oriented.
Coffee, vanilla, sisal, sugar, rice, and tobacco, the six principal agricultural
products, accounted for approximately 65 percent of total export earnings in
1964. Although animal husbandry is carried on extensively, cattle are more im­
portant as evidence of wealth and for sacrificial purposes than for economic
uses. The limited industrial activities involve mainly the processing of agri­
cultural products.
In 1964, the Government adopted a 5-year development plan
(1964-68).
In 1963, the per capita gross national product was US$102.
Social. The Malagasy people are descendents of an ancient intermingling
of successive immigrants,
including Indonesians, Arabs, and Africans. Of the
18 ethnic groups,
the largest are the Merina, 1.6 million; the Betsimisaraka,
941,000; and the Betsileo, 760,000. Tananarive Province, where the Merina pre­
dominate, has hadthemost extensive economic and social development. The offi­
cial languages are Malagasy
(of Malayo-Indonesian origin) and French.
It is



estimated that about 50 percent of the Malagasy people are nominally Christian,
9 percent profess Islam, and the remainder are animist.
In 1962, the rate of
literacy (in French and/or Malagasy) was estimated at 30 to 35 percent for
Madagascar as a whole and 60 percent in Tananarive.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. According to official statistics, the eco­
nomically active population in 1964 totaled 2.8 million, or 45.7 percent of the
total population. Approximately 2.6 million were unpaid family workers or per­
sons working on their own account,
196,000 were wage and salary earners, and
the remainder were employers or persons looking for work. Employees in the pub­
lic sector comprised 16.5 percent of all wage and salary earners. Approximately
23 percent of all wage and salary earners were engaged in agriculture, forestry,
and fishing, 11 percent in manufacturing industries and workshops, 13 percent
in construction and public works, 12 percent in commerce and banking, 16 per­
cent in domestic service, 8 percent in transportation, 11 percent in services,
and 6 percent in other activities. The number of unemployed workers was 4,414
at the end of 1964. Underemployment is known to be widespread among the large
majority of the labor force engaged in subsistence farming.
Productivity, Skills% and Training. A lack of skills,
low levels of
education, the lack of modern tools and equipment, unhealthful working condi­
tions, the presence of debilitating diseases, and the tropical climate contrib­
ute to low productivity. Agricultural techniques are primitive; most farms are
small and operate at a subsistence level and most agricultural work is seasonal.
In 1964, 63 percent of the wage and salary earners were laborers; 23 per­
cent, operatives (mainly semiskilled workers); 12 percent,
salaried employees
(presumably clerical workers); and 2 percent,
supervisory and managerial em­
ployees. Training is available in vocational training schools and in technical
colleges (150 both public and private in 1962). Some enterprises have good onthe-job training programs. Malagasy people are manually dexterous, intelligent,
and are, with adequate supervision, excellent workers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code of 1960 contains provisions concern­
ing minimum wages, hours of work, a weekly rest day, paid annual and sick leave,
paid holidays, conditions of employment of women and children, health and safety
standards, the right of labor to organize and bargain collectively, employment
and apprenticeship contracts, and machinery for the settlement of individual
and collective disputes. The legislation applies to all workers employed under
an employment contract, excluding members of the judiciary, Government offi­
cials to whom Act No. 60-003 of 1960 and other special regulations apply, per­
sons covered by the Mercantile Marine Code, members of the Armed Forces,
the
police, and the supervisory staff of the Malagasy railways. A Family Allowances
and Employment Accidents Code was enacted in 1963.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Social Laws is
the chief administrative agency for labor matters. In 1964, the Labor Inspection
Service of the Ministry visited 860 enterprises and found 5,828 violations, in­
volving such matters as the rates and payment of wages, hours of work, employment
2



contracts, and paid leave. The Labor Code provides for a labor and manpower
medical inspection service and an advisory National Labor Council under the
Minister. The National Family Allowances and Employment Accident Fund, jointly
controlled by the Ministries of Labor and Social Laws and of Finance, administers
the workmen's compensation program.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages are set by decree after consultation with representatives
of different trades. In 1962, the hourly minimum wage rates for nonagricultural
occupations in six principal wage zones ranged from US$0.08 to US$0.11 in the
four main cities and the minimum was about US$0.06 in the other districts. For
agricultural occupations in these same areas, the highest hourly minimum wage
rate was US$0.09 and the lowest was slightly less than US$0.05.
In two other
special zones, the hourly minimums were US$0.11 and US$0.09 for nonagricultural
occupations and US$0.10 and US$0.07 for agricultural work. Employer provided
benefits,
such as food and housing, form part of the worker's wage. In 1962,
employers furnished housing to 36,723 out of 142,332 wage and salary earners
in the private sector and to 2,097 out of 33,020 in the public sector.
The Labor Code prescribes a 40-hour week for all wage and salary earners
(except in agriculture where the maximum is 2,400 hours per year), the payment
of overtime, and at least 24 consecutive hours of rest each week, which, as a
rule, must be on Sunday. Overtime worked on Sunday must be paid for at not less
than ordinary rates plus 40 percent.
Prices have risen steadily since 1960. The consumer price index for
Malagasy families in the city of Tananarive (January 1964=100) was 104.0 by the
end of April 1965; for Europeans, it rose from 105.3 in December 1963 (March
1962=100)
to 111.0 in April 1965. A substantial percentage of the population
live at a subsistence level.
Employer Organizations
A number of semiofficial Chambers of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture
are associated in the Federation of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, and Agricul­
ture of Madagascar and the Comores. In 1964, there were 38 professional organi­
zations of employers^ with 2,710 member firms, affiliated with the Union des
Syndicats d'Int6r£t Economique de Madagascar, and 21 other independent, un­
affiliated organizations with 1,000 member firms. No information is available
to indicate the functions of these organizations.
Labor Organizations
The four national trade union centers in Madagascar claim a total membership
of roughly 116,000, or about 60 percent of theestimated 196,000 wage and salary
earners.
The Confederation of Malagasy Workers (Fivondronamben'ny Mpiasa Malagasy
--FMM), which was formed in 1957, claimed 17,000 members in 1964. It has a close
relationship with the dominant political party, the PSD. The FMM has been af­
filiated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) since
1957 and is a member of its African Regional Organization (AFRO).
3




The Christian Confederation of Malagasy Trade Unions (Confederation
Chretienne des Syndicats Malagaches--CCSM), which claimed 40,000 members in
1965, has been affiliated with the International Federation of Christian Trade
Unions (Confederation International des Syndicats Chr6tiens--CISC) since 1956,
when the CCSM was made independent of its parent organization, the French Con­
federation of Christian Workers (Confederation Francaise des Travailleurs Chretiens--CFTC). It also is a member of the CISC's African regional organization,
the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union Panafricaine des Travailleurs
Croyants--UPTC). Both the FMM and the CCSM are founding members of the African
Trade Union Confederation (ATUC).
The Confederation of All Unions in Madagascar (Firaisan'ny Sendika eran'i
Madagasikara--FISEMA) had an estimated membership of 30,000 in 1961. The FISEMA
has a close connection with the opposition party, the AKFM. Since its formation
in 1956, the FISEMA has been affiliated with the Communist World Federation of
Trade Unions (WFTU). The Federation of Autonomous Unions of Madagascar (Union
des Syndicats Autonomes de Madagascar--USAM)
claimed about 29,450 members in
1962.
The International Trade Secretariats (ITS) which have affiliates in
Madagascar are: The International Secretariat of Entertainment Trade Unions,
International Federation of Journalists; International Federation of Petroleum
and Chemical Workers; International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and
Allied Workers ;Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone International; and International
Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining is not widely practiced, as regulation of labor
affairs by the Labor Code is comprehensive. If a grievance submitted to an in­
spector of labor and social legislation is not settled by him, it may be referred
to labor divisions in courts of law for conciliation. The parties involved in
a collective dispute must immediately refer it to a labor inspector for concilia­
tion. If this procedure fails, an arbitration board hears the case and issues
a binding award, if neither party applies for a stay within 4 days. Strikes or
lockouts started before these procedures are exhausted are illegal and are sub­
ject to penalties specified in the code. In 1964, 4,940 individual disputes
were submitted to the Labor Inspectorate and 1,263 to Labor Courts. The five col­
lective disputes which occurred involved 839 workers and the loss of 2,588
man-days.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 116
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics *

LABOR CONDITIONS IN MALAWI
Malawi, formerly known as Nyasaland within the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, is in east-central Africa. The country has an area of 36,686 square miles,
including 9,380 square miles of Lake Malawi. The estimated population in 1965
was about 4 million, of whom approximately 22,000 are European and Asian.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Malawi became fully independent on July 6, 1964. The Prime
Minister, Dr. Hastings K. Banda, exercises executive power and is assisted by
a Cabinet. The 53-member unicameral Legislative Assembly consists of 5 0 members
of the Malawi Congress Party (MCP), which has no organized opposition and which
is the party of Dr. Banda.
Economic. Malawi is essentially an agricultural country. The main cash
crops are tea, tobacco, cotton, tung, and groundnuts (peanuts); the subsistence
crops are corn, sorghum, millet, pulses, root crops, fruit, and vegetables.
Agricultural products in 1965 accounted for 96 percent of total exports, of which
the most important are tea, tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts. Except forteaand
tung, which are estate crops, most agricultural production is on small holdings.
The industrial sector is small, but secondary industries are becoming more num­
erous. The principal industrial activities are the processing of agricultural
products and the production of construction materials.
In 1965, agriculture
was the source of almost 51 percent of the gross domestic product, whereas manu­
facturing contributed less than 5 percent. The estimated gross national product
in 1965 was well under US$50 per capita.
Malawi1s 5-Year Development Plan
(1965-69) places primary emphasis on the development of communications and
education,
improvement of agricultural production, and the growth of private
enterprise.
Social. About 99 percent of the population are native Africans who belong
to various Bantu tribes; the remainder are Europeans, Asians (mainly Indians),



and persons of mixed racial strains. English is the official language. More
than half of the population speak Nyanja; of the many other native languages,
Tumbuka, spoken in the north, is next in importance. About one-half of the popu­
lation are adherents of Islam, the Asians practice Islam and Hinduism, and the
remainder are animists. The literacy rate was about 7 percent in 1964-65.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1965,
131,200 Africans were wage and
salary earners. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupied 40 percent (of whom
over 90 percent were employed in the tea and tobacco industries); building and
construction, 3 percent; wholesale and retail trade, 9 percent; manufacturing,
8 percent; Government service,
19 percent; services (including 17,000, or 13
percent, in domestic service), 16 percent; transport and communications,4 per­
cent; and the remainder were in other sectors. An estimated additional 200,000
Malawians were employed in Southern Rhodesia, South Africa, and Zambia. In 1962,
5,900 non-Africans (75 percent of whom were Europeans) were in the labor force.
The labor supply in Malawi greatly exceeds the demand, and unemployment is a
problem.
Underemployment, particularly during the dry season, is widespread
among the large percentage of the population engaged in subsistence farming.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Uneconomic holdings, the use of poor
and antiquated implements, and ignorance of modern methods contribute to low
productivity in the large agricultural, subsistence sector. The Government has,
however, taken steps to modernize methods of production in agriculture and has
undertaken a campaign to encourage the use of fertilizers. Although a majority
of Malawi workers are unskilled, many have acquired some training in industries
and mines outside the country and have an enviable reputation for hard work,
ingenuity, and dependability. Expatriates perform most of the technical, super­
visory, and professional work in the country. However, skilled and semiskilled
workers are emerging in increasing numbers from seven technical training insti­
tutes. The country does not yet have an apprenticeship program. In 1964, 1,400
students were enrolled in teacher-training institutes.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The principal labor laws are the Employment Ordinance,
1964 , which covers employment contracts, the recruitment of workers, wages, work­
ers' health, and the settlement of disputes; the Trade Union Ordinance, 1963, which
requires the registration of labor organizations; the Apprenticeship Ordinance,
1961, and the Apprenticeship Regulations, 1964; the Factories Ordinance, 1964; and
the Regulation of Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment Ordinance, 1957, as
amended in 1964, which provides for the establishment of minimum wages through a
Wages Advisory Board and Industrial Wages Councils (aNational Wages Commission,
of which the Minister of Labour is chairman, considers recommendations made by
these bodies before their publication). The Labour Legislation (Miscellaneous
Provisions) Ordinance, 1964, provides for the enforcement and administration of
labor legislation. Malawi has no social security legislation in operation; plans
are underway for complete revision of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labour, through its Head­
quarters Section, Industrial Relations Section, General Section, Factories
Inspectorate, and Trade Testing Section, is responsible for the administration

2



and enforcement of labor legislation. The Ministry's primary functions are to
encourage the establishment of sound industrial relations machinery for joint
consultation and collective bargaining between employers and employees; assist
in the settlement of industrial disputes by investigation, mediation, and con­
ciliation; enforce legislation providing for the health, safety, and welfare of
workers; ensure the payment of statutory minimum wages and of workmen's compen­
sation; supervise conditions under which migrant labor is employed; and review
labor legislation and advise the Government on labor policy. Ministry offi­
cials also conduct trade tests, operate employment exchanges, and register
trade unions. To carry out its duties, the Ministry has established 27 offices
throughout the country (excluding the headquarters at Limbe, which includes the
Factories Inspectorate) and offices at Johannesburg and Salisbury to protect the
interests of Malawians working in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum daily wage rates for unskilled workers set by the Government in
1965 were US$0.49 in the Blantyre/Limbe area, US$0.42 in the Zomba/Lilongwe/
Mzuzu Townships, and US$0.33 in all other areas. The Government also decreed
that young workers less than 18years of age receive 75 percent of the adult wage
and that women receive equal pay for equal work. From 1960 to 1965, the esti­
mated average annual wage of Africans employed within Malawi rose fromUS$158.60
to US$209.00, and, in agriculture, from US$106.40 to US$109.20 (in mid-1964).
Many employers provide housing or a housing allowance for their workers. The
estimated average annual salary of non-Africans in 1965 was US$3,750.
Tripartite Industrial Wages Councils had, by 1964, been established and
had issued wage orders for an estimated 79,200 wage and salary earners inroad
transport, in retail shops, and in the tea, tobacco handling, and building indus­
tries. The tripartite Wages Advisory Board had fixed minimum wages for 50,000
wage and salary earners (including 8,000 domestic servants) not covered by Wages
Councils. The wage rates established in 1964 ranged from US$0.17 to US$0.31 per
hour for artisans in the building industry, US$18.20 to US$33.60 per month
for truck and bus drivers, US$10.50 to US$13.30 per month for driver helpers,
US$18.20 to US$21.00 per month for conductors, andUS$26.60 to US$35.00 per month
for stationmasters in road transport. In the tobacco handling industry, wage
rates ranged from US$0.29 to US$1.40 per day, according to the level of skill re­
quired by the job, the area in which employed, and educational qualifications.
No information is available
holidays.

on hours of work,

overtime payments,

and

The European consumer price index (excluding rent) stood at 105.2 (Janu­
ary 1, 1962=100) in October 1964, an increase of 11.5 percent since 1959. The
level of living is very low for most of the people in Malawi; it is higher
for Europeans, who have a higher level of skills and receive higher wages than
Malawians.
Employer Organizations
Employer organizations include the National Employers'
Consultative
Association, to which tobacco and tea estate managers belong, and organizations
of employers in other major industries. Representatives of these bodies on the
3




Wages Advisory Board and Wages Councils participate in the regulation of wages.
Malawi also has an Associated Chamber of Commerce.
Labor Organizations
Total African trade union membership in Malawi was about 7,400, or 6 per­
cent of the wage and salary earners in 1965. In addition, there were about 800
organized European wage and salary earners. The Trade Union Congress of Malawi
(TUCM), the nation's single trade union center, had about 3,960 members in seven
affiliates, or approximately 28 percent of the organized workers. The TUCM was
formed in 1956 as theNyasaland Trade Union Congress. In that year, itaffiliated
with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU); it is a mem­
ber of its African Regional Organization (AFRO). The TUCM also is affiliated
with the African Trade Union Conference (ATUC).
Five International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in Malawi:
The International Federation of Building and Woodworkers; International Federa­
tion of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees; International Union of
Food and Allied Workers' Associations; Public Services International; and Inter­
national Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
Some collective bargaining takes place; for example,
the Malawi Rail
Workers' Union has negotiated successfully with the management of the railways.
In many cases, however, owing to the weakness of the unions, the Government es­
tablishes wages and other working conditions. The weakness of the unions also
accounts, in part, for the infrequency of collective labor disputes.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 117
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics„

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MALI
Mali, a landlocked country located in northwest Africa, covers an area of 464,873
square miles and in 1964 had an estimated population of 4.5 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Mali became an independent republic in 1960, following the
dissolution of the Mali Federation. Under the Constitution of 1960, thePresident
w h oisboth chief executive and head of state, also appoints the Council of Minis­
ters. Both the President and an 80-member, unicameral National Assembly, which
exercises legislative power, are elected for 5-year terms by direct universal
suffrage on a single national list. The Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement DAmocratique Africain (US-RDA) is the only political party. Modibo Keita, secretary
general of the US-RDA, has been president since independence.
Economic. More than 80 percent of the population are engaged in agri­
cultural and pastoral activities, which are predominantly subsistence in char­
acter. In 1964, peanuts contributed about 33 percent of the value of controlled
exports; cattle and fish, 33 percent; and cotton and other raw materials of minor
importance, the remainder. Uncontrolled exports, arising from the traditional
border trade primarily of cattle and dried and smoked fish, had an estimated
value of about one-third of controlled exports. The principal cash crop is pea­
nuts. The country is potentially self-sufficient in foodstuffs; imports of rice
and millet were required in 1965. The main traditional crops grown for local
consumption are mil let, sorghum, rice, corn, manioc, yams, potatoes, and shea nuts.
The industrial sector is very small.
Since the Government proclaimed a
socialist economy as its goal,
the private sector has been decreasing in size
and importance. The 5-Year Plan for Social and Economic Development (1961-66)
placed primary emphasis on agricultural development and allocated a relatively
small amount to gradual industrial development. The estimated per capita gross
national product in 1963 was about US$65.



Social. The population, almost 100 percent African, consists of nine
major tribes. The largest are the Barabara (mostly farmers), numbering over
1 million, and the Fulani (semisedentary herdsmen), with over 450,000 members.
Other ethnic groups are the Marka, Songhai, Malinke, Tuareg, Minianka, Senufo,
and Dogon. Most of the people profess Islam, but many practice a mixture of
Islam and animism. There were an estimated 20,000 Christians in 1960. The offi­
cial language is French, which is used in schools and Government administration;
many native languages are spoken. The estimated literacy rate is between 5 and
10 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force is estimated at 1.8 mil­
lion, or 40 percent of the total population. The total number of wage and salary
earners in 1965 was 40,000 to 50,000, of whom 3 0 percent were in the civil serv­
ice, 18 percent in commerce, 15 percent in construction, 11 percent in agricul­
ture, 10 percent in transportation, 8 percent in industry , and 8 percent in other
activities. No information is available on the extent of unemployment. Under­
employment is extensive in the agricultural subsistence sector of the economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Climate, inadequate health facili­
ties, the shortage of all categories of skilled labor, inadequate vocational
training facilities, and the early stage of development of the economy contribute
to low productivity.
The Government is attempting to expand its educational and training fa­
cilities and to increase agricultural production.
In early 1966, there were
54 rural seasonal schools operating at the district level, designed to teach
new methods to young farmers, and another 50 were in varying stages of comple­
tion. In the 1964-65 school year, 658 students were enrolled in technical
schools. There is a vocational school in Bamako and also a School of Medical
Assistants. In 1965, new quarters for the National School of Public Administra­
tion were completed. The country has a technical high school, a vocationaltechnical school, several teacher-training institutions, and the Catholic Mission
operates a free, private vocational school in Bamako.
In the 1964-65 school
year, 395 Malians were receiving training abroad.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code of 1962 covers apprenticeship, con­
tracts of employment , collective agreements, hours of work, payment for overtime,
nightwork, holidays, the health and safety of workers, the employment of women
and children, and the settlement of labor disputes. The legislation provides
for the determination of minimum wages and their mode of payment, authorizes
the formation of trade unions, and permits strikes and lockouts after concilia­
tion and arbitration procedures have been exhausted.
The Social Welfare Code of Mali, 1962, effective January 1, 1963, and
regulations for its application cover family, maternity, and sickness benefits,
prevention of and compensation for industrial accidents and occupational dis­
eases, and old-age and survivors' pensions.
Coverage extends to all employed
persons excepting State employees covered by civil service regulations. The
program is financed by contributions based on workers' remuneration, subsidies,
2



income from investment by the National Institute for Social Security
(INPS),
contributions by other public or private organizations, donations, and legacies.
Administration and Practice, The Ministry of Labor is responsible for
the administration of labor legislation. The Labor Code provides for a Superior
Labor Board responsible for advising the Minister of Labor in the drafting
of regulations to implement the code and in the solution of labor problems.
Regional inspectors of labor are responsible for enforcing labor legislation
and regulations. The INPS administers the social security program, and indi­
cations are that it is capably administered. No information is available on the
extent to which labor laws are enforced.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The basic minimum wage rates established in 1956 for public sector employees
and in 1959 for employees in the private sector have not since been adjusted.
Austerity measures effected by the Government in 1964, including a special tax
(6 percent) on all salaries, reduced real wages. At the same time, prices have
continued to rise. According to estimates,
in July 1964, the cost-of-living
index for Malians was 154 (1956=100). No information is available on wage rates.
The Labor Code provides fora40-hour weekinall activities except agriculture,
hospitals, retailing, baking, hairdressing, and domestic service, and limits
overtime to 24 hours a week. The statutory workweek in agriculture is 48 hours.
The predominantly subsistence economy has been, at least until recent years, a
surplus producer of both foodstuffs and agricultural raw materials and will
undoubtedly be so again once some temporary difficulties in the economy are
overcome.
Employer Organizations
There is a Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture, and Industry in Bamako. No
other information is available on employer organizations.
Labor Organizations
Of the estimated 40,000 to 50,000 wage and salary earners, about 30,000
are members of the National Union of Workers of Mali (Union National des Travailleurs du Mali--UNTM), the nation's only trade union center. The UNTM, which
was originally known as the Sudan Workers1 National Union (Union Syndicaliste
des Travailleurs Soudanais--USTS), developed a very close relationship with the
single political party, the US-RDA, prior to Malian independence. This rela­
tionship has been formally strengthened since independence, particularly at the
UNTM Congress in 1963.
The UNTM played a leading role in the formation of the All-African Trade
Union Federation (AATUF) at Casablanca in May 1961. It continues to take an
active part in AATUF activities and served as host for the second AATUF Con­
gress in Bamako during 1964.
Labor-Management Relations
The Labor Code provides for the establishment of works councils in all
enterprises employing more than 10 workers. A decree in 1963 provided for
3



workers' committees in all public enterprises.
In this system, union members
in the enterprise elect representatives to an 11-member management committee,
which must consult the worker delegates on all matters relating to management.
Collective bargaining has not become an established practice.
Strikes
and lockouts occur infrequently. If a collective dispute submitted to a regional
labor inspector for conciliation is not settled at that level, the Minister of
Labor convokes a tripartite arbitration board. Decisions of the board may be
appealed through the Minister of Labor to the Council of Ministers.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No.

118

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
D i r e c t o r y o f L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s —A f r i c a , jointly prepared and published in 1966

by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF MAURITANIA
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which lies on the northwestern coast of
Africa, occupies an area of 419,000 square miles and had an estimated population
of 1 million in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Mauritania achieved independence in 1960. The 1961 Constitu­
tion provides for an Islamic Republic, with executive power vested in the Presi­
dent and legislative power in a 40-member, unicameral National Assembly. The
President (currently Moktar Ould Daddah), who chooses his Council of Ministers,
is elected by universal suffrage for a 5-year term. The President also serves
as a secretary general of the sole political party, the Mauritanian People's
Party (PPM), formed through a merger of four political groups in 1962.
Economic. Livestock breeding, the most important economic activity in
the traditional sector, engages approximately 75 percent of the population. The
principal agricultural products are millet, dates, and gum arabic. The major
export is livestock. Mauritania's sole large-scale industry is iron mining.
In 1965, Mauritania exported almost 6 million metric tons of iron ore.
Smallscale industries are construction and fishing. The estimated gross national
product (GNP) per capita in 1962 was US$100.
In the same year, about 45 per­
cent of the GNP was derived from agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing; 32
percent from manufacturing, construction, and mining; 14 percent from Govern­
ment; and 9 percent from other activities. A 4-year development plan (1963-67)
provides for programs designed to increase the GNP.
Social. About three-fourths of the population are Maures; the remainder
are Negro Africans and Europeans. Arabic is the national language and is spoken
by the Maures; French is the official language. Islam is the State religion.
In 1964, the estimated literacy rate was 1 to 5 percent; an estimated 16.4 per­
cent of the school-age children were attending classes.
In 1964, there were



261 primary schools with 18,616 pupils, 6 secondary schools with 1,153 pupils,
and 68 students were attending universities.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1964, an estimated 470,000 persons were
in the labor force. Of the approximately 17,200 wage and salary earners, 8,200
were in the public sector and 9,000 were in the private sector. Urban unemploy­
ment, occurring primarily among unskilled workers, is a serious problem. The
Government initiated a modest "self-help" public works program in 1964 in an
effort to alleviate this problem. Underemployment is widespread.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Factors contributing tolowproductivity are low levels of education, a shortage of skilled manpower, poor health
conditions,
the Saharan climate, and antiquated production methods. Private
companies and the Government sponsor several vocational training schools.
In
1964, a total of 125 persons were receiving training in the fields of automotive
mechanics, stenography, construction, seamanship, and fishing. There are also
agricultural schools. An Administrative Instruction Center for the training of
Government employees opened in 1965.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code (1963), which applies to establish­
ments employing more than 20 workers, provides for benefits covering illness,
layoffs, and severance from employment, minimum wages, paid vacations, family
allowances, retirement pensions, and health and safety standards. The code
regulates labor contracts, apprenticeship training, and the employment and work­
ing conditions of women and young persons (minimum working age is 14 years , unless
changed by court order); it guarantees workers the right to organize into trade
unions and to bargain collectively and provides for the establishment of ma­
chinery for the settlement of grievances and labor disputes and for setting
up governmental labor agencies. Social security legislation covers retirement,
invalidity, and survivors' pensions.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor, with the advice of
the National Labor Board, administers and enforces
labor legislation through
its Labor Administrative Service. Inspectors and labor officers supervise the
administration and enforcement of regulations. Since 1965, the National Social
Insurance Fund (CNPS) has been responsible for the administration of social
security legislation.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
In 1962, the basic wage rate varied from US$0.10 to US$0.12 per hour for
unskilled workers and was US$0.56 for skilled workers. The Labor Code provides
for a maximum workweek of 40 hours, except in the agricultural sector, where
the maximum is 2,400 hours per year.
Most of the population live at a subsistence level. The annual per capita
income was estimated at US$102 in 1965. In order to improve living conditions,
the Government is financing rural development projects. Price controls are in
effect on many basic items, such as foodstuffs.

2



Employer Organizations
The main employer organizations are the Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture,
and Industry of Western Mauritania; the Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture, Live­
stock, Industry, and Mines of Mauritania; and the Union of Industries and Enter­
prises of Mauritania. No information is available regarding the functions of
these organizations.
Labor Organizations
The Union of Workers of Mauritania (Union des Travailleurs de Mauritanie-UTM ) , the nation's single trade union center, claimed 18,000 to 20,000 members
in 1966. This figure apparently is inflated,
since it exceeds the number of
wage and salary earners, which in 1964 was estimated to total about 17,200. The
UTM, which was formed in 1961, absorbed all other trade union organizations in
1962. It maintains a close relationship with the single political party, the
PPM. The UTM is organized into eight industrial federations.
Labor-Management Relations
In the event of a collective dispute which cannot be settled by theparties
concerned, a labor inspector attempts conciliation. If conciliation fails, the
inspector brings together a panel of experts to mediate.
If this fails, the
Minister of Labor convokes an arbitration board. Arbitration may be appealed
to the Supreme Court. Labor Courts hear individual grievances. In 1964, collec­
tive agreements regulated conditions of employment in commerce, construction,
public works, and transportation.
Strikes are infrequent.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 119
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations —
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics«

LABOR CONDITIONS IN MAURITIUS
The Colony of Mauritius is an island of some 700 square miles situated in the
Indian Ocean about 500 miles off the east coast of Madagascar. The population
in December 1964 was estimated at 733,600.
The Government is headed by a British Governor. The Mauritius Orders in
Council provide for a Legislative Council, comprising both members elected for
a 5-year term by universal suffrage and members appointed by the Governor, and
an Executive Council of three members appointed by the Governor from the elected
members of the Legislative Council. The main political party is the Labour
Party. The other major parties are the Parti Mauricien, the Independent Forward
Block, and the Moslem Committee of Action.
The economy is based on agriculture, which in 1963 provided over onethird of the gross domestic product (GDP). The main industry is the growing of
sugarcane. Sugar and its byproducts in 1964 accounted for 98 percent of the
total value of exports. Secondary industry, mainly the processing of primary
products, provided about 19 percent of the GDP in 1963. Per capita income in
1964 was about US$200.
The population is of European, African, and Asian origin. The largest
ethnic group is the Indo-Mauritian, which includes two-thirds of the total popu­
lation. The second largest group, representing about 25 percent of the popu­
lation, comprises persons of French, English, and mixed descent. About half of
the population are Hindu, 40 percent are Christian, and 10 percent profess
Islam. Both English and French are official languages, but French and a FrenchBantu dialect are more widely spoken. Education is free but not compulsory;
over 80 percent of the children of primary school age attend school. Primary
school enrollment in 1964 was 132,074.
Wage and salary earners in 1963 totaled 187,403, of whom almost 38 per­
cent were in agriculture, 19 percent in services, 14 percent in manufacturing,



11 percent in construction, 10 percent in commerce, 6 percent in transport,
storage, and communications, and the remaining 2 percent in mining and miscel­
laneous activities.
Information on unemployment is unavailable.
Mauritius has several institutions which offer a combination of secondary
and higher education; it also has technical training centers. A teacher-training
college and an agricultural college are the only institutions which provide
full-time, postsecondary school education.
The main body of labor legislation includes the following ordinances
(updated until 1946): Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children; Employ­
ment and Labour; Recruitment of Workers; Safety of Dockers; Workmen's Compen­
sation; Apprenticeship (1946); Registration of Associations (1949); Old-Age
Pensions (1951); Trade Unions (1954); Regulation of Wages and Conditions of
Employment (1961); Family Allowances (1961); Employment and Training (1963);
Security of Employment (Sugar Industry) (1963); and Trade Disputes (1965).
The Ministry of Labour and Social Security has general responsibility
for labor affairs. Its functions include the formulation of employment policy,
maintenance of employment services, compilation and publication of labor sta­
tistics, registration of trade unions, administration of social security programs,
and enforcement of labor legislation. Various tripartite boards and committees
advise the Government on such matters as labor legislation, trade testing,
welfare programs for the sugar industry, and technical education.
Minimum wages are set by wage councils, which have been established for
various industries and categories of workers. Average daily wages in 1964 in
selected industries varied from about US$0.89 for unskilled laborers in tobacco
to about US$3.15 for automobile mechanics. The minimum daily wage for Government
manual workers was US$1.18. The normal workweek in Government and inmost indus­
tries is 45 hours. Price levels have been fairly steady; the consumer price
index (January-June 1962=100) was 101.0 in March 1965.
Several employer organizations exist, such as the Association of Port
and Harbour Employers, the Mauritius Employers' Federation, the Mauritius Sugar
Producers' Association, and the Chamber of Agriculture. Information regarding
their functions and membership is unavailable.
Total claimed trade union membership on the island is about 81,000, or
almost 45 percent of the 187,403 wage and salary earners. Some 50,000 of the
trade union members are claimed by the Mauritius Labour Congress (MLC), by far
the largest of the three national trade union centers on the island. The MLC
was formed in 1963 by a merger of the Confederation of Free Trade Unions of
Mauritius (CFTUM) and a faction of the Mauritius Trades Union Congress (MTUC).
The MLC has been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade
Unions (ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization (AFRO) since 1964. It has
a close cooperating relationship with the Labour Party of Mauritius.
The MTUC, which was formed in 1946, claimed a membership of 18,000 in
1962, or about 10 percent of the organized workers. In 1965, the MTUC affiliated
with the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions
(Confederation
International des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organi­
2



zation, the Pan-African Union of
Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).

Believing Workers

(Union Panafricaine des

The Mauritius Federation of Labour (MFL), formed in 1960, claimed 6,259
members in 1961. Since 1961 it has been an affiliate of the Communist World
Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). However, two MFL affiliates are affiliated
with International TradeSeeretariats (ITS). Altogether 11 ITS*s have affiliates
on the island.
In 1964, 11,053 man-days were lost through strikes involving a total of
7,302 workers.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 120
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO
Morocco, located in the northwestern corner of Africa, is separated from Europe
by the Straits of Gibraltar. It has an area of 172,000 square miles and had a
population estimated at 13,320,000 in 1965.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Constitution, ratified by popular referendum in 1962,
established a constitutional monarchy in Morocco. A bicameral Parliament was
instituted following national elections in 1963, andaPrime Minister and Cabinet
were appointed by King Hassan II. However, in June 1965, the King decreed a
"state of exception," thereby assuming all legislative and executive powers,
and announced his intention to revise the Constitution and hold new elections.
The three political parties with some semblance of activity and organization
are the Istiqlal, the National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP) , and the Popular
Movement (MP).
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture, but because most agri­
cultural production is on a subsistence level, this activity accounted for only
30 percent of the gross national product (GNP) in 1964; commerce accounted for
24 percent; transport and services,
18 percent; industry, 13 percent; mining,
6 percent; and other economic activities, 9 percent. The traditional sector
consists of small farms, which produce subsistence crops, the most important of
which is cereals; others are oil-bearing seeds, vegetables, and pulses. The
modern sector is characterized by large holdings,
the production of which is
mainly for export (i.e., citrus fruit, grapes, and vegetables). The manufac­
turing sector consists primarily of the processing of agricultural products and
fish; the production of textiles, construction material, and light metal
products; and the assembly of machines. The mining industry accounted for about
40 percent of the total value of exports in 1964. Phosphate rock is one of the
most important of the mineral resources. Others are manganese, lead, zinc, and
iron ore. The principal objectives of the Government1s 3-Year Economic Development



Plan (1965-67) are to modernize the traditional sector of agriculture, improve
the level of education and vocational and technical training, and promote tour­
ism. The estimated GNP per capita in 1965 was US$174.
Social. In 1965, 98 percent of the total population were native Moroc­
cans; of the remaining 2 percent, 1 percent were French and most of the others
were Moroccan Jews. A majority of Moroccans are a mixture of Arab and Berber
strains. Islam is the religion of the majority. Arabic is the official language;
however, approximately one-third of the population speak the Berber language
and French is widely used in business and Government. During the school year
1964-65, about 1.2million students were enrolled in primary schools, 139,000 in
secondary schools, and 10,000 in universities. The estimated rate of literacy
in 1965 was 15 to 20 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1964, approximately 4.5 million persons
were in the labor force. About 70 percent were in agriculture,
15 percent
in industry, and 15 percent in other sectors.
In 1960,
18 percent of
the
labor force of about 4 million were wage and salary earners; 26 percent were in
industry, 48 percent in supplies and services (Government, transportation, and
communications), and 26 percent in agriculture (of whom about 60,000 worked on
large plantations). The largest groups of industrial wage and salary earners
were employed in the mining, processing, and textile industries.
An estimated 20 percent of the labor force were unemployed and 40 percent
of the rural population were underemployed in April 1964. Most of the unemployed
were unskilled workers who had migrated to urban areas and recent school leavers,
whose number is increasing more rapidly than that of available jobs. Seasonal
factors affect employment not only in agriculture but also in the food processing
and construction industries.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Factors contributing to a low level
of productivity are climate, substandard working conditions, the high level of
unemployment and underemployment, and the low prestige attached to manual work.
Additional factors are the lack of modern techniques, training, and skills.
In 1964, the High Commission for Technical Training had under its direc­
tion one national institute for the training of administrators and supervisors,
two centers providing vocational training, and eight centers for training jour­
neymen. The Office of Vocational Training of the Ministry of Public Works con­
ducts a series of programs and operates institutions which have facilities for
vocational and technical training; some persons also receive technical training
abroad. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs provides industrial training
through 28 centers and an institute for training teachers to staff the centers.
The National Office of Rural Modernization operates centers throughout the coun­
try which offer training in modern agricultural methods. Both governmental and
private enterprises provide on-the-job training.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation in Morocco, modeled after French
laws, covers labor disputes (1962), collective contracts (1957), labor courts

2



(1957), wage zones (1948), minimum wages and salaries (1959 and 1961) , hours of
work (1937, 1959, and I960), paid annual vacations (1946), workers' identity
cards (1953), recruitment of workers through placement offices and their hiring
and firing (1959), health and safety (1952 and 1960), employment injury com­
pensation (1963), work-connected illnesses (1943), and social security (1959).
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
administers and enforces labor legislation through seven offices and five field
services. The Office of Labor Legislation and Social Insurance oversees the
labor inspection service and the National Social Security Fund. Legislation re­
quires inspection in establishments employing more than 10 workers. In practice,
the extent of inspection is limited by the shortage of staff and lack of training
of inspection service personnel.
Special fund inspectors also assist in en­
forcing the social security program.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wage scales , established in four geographic wage zones and vary ing
by the sex and age of the worker, are tied to the cost-of-living index for Casa­
blanca. The last increase in minimum wage rates was in 1962. In that year,
the minimum hourly wages were: zone 1, US$0.17 ; zone 2, US$0.16; zone 3, US$0.15 ;
and zone 4, US$0.14. Women's rates of pay are usually about one-sixth less than
those of men and those of young workers, from one-fifth to one-half less than
the rates for adults.
Skilled workers receive 50 to 100 percent more than the
semiskilled, who are paid 25 percent more than the unskilled. The average hourly
wage in 1962 for chemical workers was US$0.23; weavers, US$0.38; coal miners,
US$0.40; carpenters, US$0.44; and printing machine operators, US$0.50. In 1961,
the average daily wage of adult male agricultural workers was US$0.73. Wage
supplements in some sectors include such benefits as family allowances, housing
allowances, and end-of-year bonuses.
The basic workweek is 48 hours, except in agriculture where it is 2,700
hours annually. The law requires 1 day of rest per week and limits overtime to
8 hours per week. The rate of pay for overtime varies from time and a quarter
to time and a half, except in agriculture, where it is time and one-sixth. The
rate on the weekly day of rest is time and a half, except for the hours between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m., when it is double time. The duration of the guaranteed paid
vacation which workers receive depends on the sector in which they are employed
and on their length of service.
The level of living is much lower in rural than in urban areas. The
Casablanca cost-of-living index rose from 113 in 1962 (1958=100)
to 127.7 in
October 1965. In 1964, the per capita annual income for most Moroccans in agri­
culture and handicrafts was US$165.
Employer Organizations
Employer organizations in Morocco are not concerned with labor-management
relations. The Moroccan Association of Commerce, Industry, and Handicrafts
(UMCIA), with a membership estimated at 170,000 in 1964, has 14 provincial or­
ganizations and 400 branches. The Moroccan Farmers' Association (UMA) has 10
provincial centers and 70 local branches. The General Moroccan Economic Con­
federation (CGEM) has 18 organizations; its membership, which includes most of
3




the French and other foreign businessmen and some Moroccans, represents over 80
percent of the modern sector. The National Federation of Chambers of Commerce
of Morocco has affiliates in 15 cities.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership is estimated at about 725,800, which appar­
ently includes the great majority of the wage and salary earners. Over 95 percent
of this membership belongs to the Moroccan Labor Union (Union Marocaine du Tra­
vail- -UMT). Formed clandestinely in 1955, the UMT has become the largest and
strongest labor organization in Africa. Although it has cooperated closely with
political parties in the past (the Istiqlal until 1959 and the UNFP until 1963),
it has remained outside party control and constitutes an independent force in
Moroccan political and economic life. The UMT is organized along both industrial
and geographic lines, with 26 industrial federations and unions, as well as 8
regional and 51 local centers.
The UMT affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade
Unions (ICFTU) in 1955 but disaffiliated in 1963. It played a major role in the
formation of the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF) at Casablanca in
1961 and continues to take an active part in AATUF affairs. It also is affili­
ated with the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions (ICATU). One UMT
federation is affiliated with an International Trade Secretariat (ITS), the In­
ternational Metalworkers' Federation. Another is affiliated with the Arab Federa­
tion of Petroleum Workers.
A second national trade union center, the General Union of Moroccan Work­
ers (Union Gen6rale des Travailleurs du Maroc--UGTM), which was formed in 1960
as a labor wing of the Istiqlal, has an estimated 25,000 members. The smaller
trade union organizations are the Free National Union (Syndicat National Libre-SNL), with about 500 members, and the Union of Free Workers (Union des Syndicats
des Travailleurs Libres--USTL), with approximately 300 members.
Labor-Management Relations
Workers and employees in establishments with more than 10 persons elect
delegates, who present*collective or individual grievances to management.
If
agreement is not reached at that level, the matter is referred to a labor in­
spector for conciliation and, finally, to a special,
tripartite arbitration
commission. In 1964, there were 235 work stoppages involving a loss of 152,258
man-days.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 121
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN MOZAMBIQUE
The Portuguese Overseas Province of Mozambique is located in southeast Africa.
It has an area of 303,073 square miles and had an estimated population of 7 mil­
lion in early 1966.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Under the Portuguese Constitution, Mozambique is an overseas
territory of Portugal, and it is represented in the National Assembly at Lisbon.
The Ministry of Overseas Provinces controls the territory, which is administered
by a Governor General appointed for a 4-year term by the Council of Ministers
in Lisbon, as provided for in the Overseas Organic Law of June 1963 and the
Statute of Mozambique, effective January 1, 1964. Six provincial secretaries,
who head the departments of the Government, assist the Governor General in his
executive functions and are responsible to him. The Governor General exercises
his legislative powers through majority votes of the local Legislative Council,
composed of 27 members elected for 4-year terms. The Economic and Social Coun­
cil operates as a standing advisory committee designed to assist the Governor
General. The Portuguese National Union,
the Governments party,
is the only
legal political group. Repeal of the Indigenous Statute in 1961 removed legal
restrictions on the freedom of movement of Africans, and their right to enter
into contracts of employment and to take advantage of minimum wage provisions,
health and retirement benefits, improved working conditions, educational oppor­
tunities, and, in theory,
syndicate membership; it gave Africans equal civil
rights under Portuguese written law on an equal basis with the Portuguese Euro­
pean in Mozambique.
Economic. The economy is based primarily on agriculture and the transit
shipping trade. Although industry and mining play a minor role, the industrial
pattern is becoming more diversified and a wider range of goods is being pro­
duced for local consumption and for export. The majority of Africans engage in




subsistence agriculture; they sell the surplus they produce (of corn, wheat,
peanuts, manioc, copra, and other) in retail shops or barter it for a few nec­
essary items. Africans also own most of the livestock in the country. Lack of
funds and technical knowledge has hampered the development of agricultural and
livestock production. Despite the extensive coastline and large variety of fish
in Mozambique's territorial waters, the fishing industry has not yet been well
developed.
The country's six leading agricultural products--cotton, sugar, cashew
nuts, tea, copra, and sisal--contributed almost 65 percent of total exports in
1963.
(Cotton is produced primarily by Africans on small, individual plots;
most cashew nuts are gathered by Africans from trees scattered in the bush.
Sugar, tea, copra, and sisal are produced primarily on large European-owned
estates.)
Exports of other commodities, however, such as mineral ores, vege­
table oils, and refined petroleum products, have been increasing,
the latter
accounting for 8.6 percent of the total value of exports in 1963. Industry con­
sists primarily of the processing of agricultural products,
the production of
goods for local consumption, and small-scale manufacturing. The Government has
been taking steps to increase the country's productive capacity through a series
of development plans. Per capita annual earnings in 1963 were estimated atUS$60
for the entire population and US$45 for the African population.
Social. The population is 97.5 percent African and 2.5 percent European
and Asian. A majority are animists, 10 to 15 percent are Christian, and 12 to
15 percent practice Islam. The official language is Portuguese; many tribal
dialects are spoken. The literacy rate is estimated to be about 5 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. No data are available on the size of the
total labor force. According to 1960 estimates, there were 850,000 African and
44,000 European and Asian wage and salary earners. Of the total number of for­
eigners, 26 percent were in public administration, 21 percent in transportation
and communications, 21 percent in commerce and insurance, 12 percent in indus­
try, 10 percent in agriculture and fishing, and 10 percent in public works and
construction. The Government, which employed about 68,000 Africans and nonAfricans in 1963, is the largest employer.
Civilian wage and salary earners
totaled about 36,500; some 20,000 to 30,000 were in the Armed Forces, and the
remainder were in specialized Government agencies. About 300,000 Mozambique
Africans work in such nearby countries as South Africa and Southern Rhodesia,
mainly in mining.
Unemployment is a serious problem, involving, in particular, unskilled Af­
ricans migrating to Lourenco Marques, the capital. Underemployment is widespread
among the predominantly African population engaged in subsistence agriculture.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The low level of productivity in all
segments of the economy can be accounted for, in part, by the general lack of
education and training and the lack of modernization of agricultural and indus­
trial production. The nomadic way of life and shifting cultivation practiced
by Africans also contribute to low productivity in agriculture. An acute short­
age of technical and professional personnel continues to hamper efforts at
2




economic development. Engineers and other professionals are often sent from
Portugal on a temporary contract basis. The level of vocational training among
Africans is extremely low. Legislation provides for apprenticeship training in
a number of industries. Industrial and commercial schools on the secondary level
and the curriculum at Mozambique University provide students with the opportunity
to acquire skills in a number of fields.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Rural Labor Code for Portuguese Overseas Terri­
tories (1962)
contains regulations covering recruitment,
the employment of
immigrants, labor contracts, professional and vocational training, working con­
ditions, wages, hours of work, holidays, women workers, child labor, social
security benefits, labor syndicates, and enforcement machinery. Legislation in
1963 and 1965 provided for a social welfare fund for unskilled labor, intended
to provide educational, social welfare, and recreational facilities for Afri­
can laborers and their families. An act of May 30, 1966, regulates working con­
ditions of domestic servants and provides for the establishment of minimum wages
for these workers.
Administration and Practice. The Institute of Labor,
Social Security,
and Welfare, established by legislation in 1961, carries out policies concerned
with labor syndicates, employment, and security. It deals with both African and
European labor and is eventually to handle old-age and other planned social wel­
fare programs for the predominantly non-African syndicate members. In practice,
labor legislation sometimes is not uniformly enforced or implemented.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum monthly wages for adult male farm workers in early 1966 varied
from US$18.21 in the highest of 14 pay zones to US$9.88 in the lowest. For
African male adults in industry, minimum wages ranged from US$19.23 to US$11.36
a month.
The consumer price index for Lourengo Marques
(January 1956-September
1957=100) averaged 104.0 in 1961, 108.0 in 1963, and 112.0 in 1965. The retail
price index in the city of Beira (1959=100) averaged 106.5 in 1961, 104.6 in
1964, and about 107.0 in 1965.
Employer Organizations
Employer Organizations include the Chamber of Commerce in Lourenco Marques
and the Mozambique Commercial, Industrial, and Economic Associations, which are
not concerned with industrial relations, and the following which are: the Cereal
Growers' Guild, the Civil Construction (Employers') Syndicate, the Development
Association of Zambezia, the Tea Planters' Association, and the Tobacco Growers'
Guild.
Labor Organizations
No trade union organizations exist in Portugal or its overseas territory
of Mozambique. Labor is organized in syndicates which function essentially as




3

beneficent societies. The syndicates are defined in the Rural Labor Code as an
integral part of the corporative organization of the nation. However,
the
syndicates in Mozambique are autonomous from those in Portugal and, unlike in
Portugal, membership is not compulsory.
There are 11 syndicates in Mozambique with a total membership of about
31,000, or approximately 3 percent of the estimated total wage and salary earners.
Labor-Management Relations
An industrywide collective agreement setting wages exists only in the
banking field. Syndicate standards and wages for various classes of skilled and
semiskilled workers are enforced by the Government in most industries. Under
such procedures, tripartite (Government, employer, and syndicate) corporative
committees engage in compulsory "conciliation.1 Disputes not resolved under
1
this procedure are referred to the Labor Court or to civil courts for settle­
ment.
Strikes are illegal.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 122
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF NIGER
The Republic of Niger, a landlocked country in West Africa, has an area of
489,000 square miles and had a population officially estimated at 3,130,000 in
1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The country became fully independent in 1960. Under the Con­
stitution of 1960, executive power rests in the President (currently Hamani
Diori), who is elected by direct universal suffrage every 5 years. Members of the
Council of Ministers are responsible to the President, who appoints and may dis­
miss them. The National Assembly, which exercises legislative power, iscomposed
of 50 members, elected for 5-year terms by direct universal suffrage. The Nigerien Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Nigerien--PPN), abranch of the Afri­
can Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Democratique Africain--RDA), is in power.
Economic. The economy is based primarily on agriculture, carried on by
the settled population in the south, and livestock raising, the occupation of
some 600,000 nomadic herdsmen in the north. Crop production accounts for 35 to
40 percent of the gross national product (GNP) and livestock and livestock prod­
ucts, for 20 to 25 percent. The most important cash crop produced for export is
peanuts; millet and sorghum are the staple foods of the country's population.
In 1962, commerce accounted for an estimated 15 percent of the GNP and manufac­
turing, industry, and handicrafts, an estimated 4.7 percent. Niger's current
4-Year Plan (1965-68) anticipates a total investment equivalent to US$173 mil­
lion, of which US$39.2 million, or 23 percent, is allocated to the private sector.
Social. The population, which is approximately 99 percent African ac­
cording to 1964 estimates, consists of several primary ethnic groups: Hausa,
47.8 percent; Djerma (and related Songhai), 20.3 percent; Peuhl (Fulani), 14.6
percent; and Tuareg, 11.2 percent. The estimated European population was 6,000.




French is the official language and Hausa is the language of trade; several other
African languages are also spoken. According to estimates, 69 percent of the
population profess Islam, 28 percent are animists, and the remainder are Chris­
tians. The literacy rate in 1965 was 5 percent. In 1964-65, over 55,000 students
were enrolled in primary schools (about 8.6 percent of the school-age popula­
tion), 2,520 in secondary schools, 119 in technical schools, and 141 were study­
ing abroad.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Over 90 percent of the population are en­
gaged in subsistence agriculture and livestock raising.
In 1962, an estimated
1.5 million persons,
or 48 percent of the total population, were in the labor
force. An estimated 250,000 seasonal agricultural workers received wages.
In
1964, 19,388 wage and salary earners (including nearly 3,000 permanent civil
servants) were employed in the nonagricultural sector of the economy. Of the
13,106 wage and salary earners in Niamey, Maradi, and Zinder in 1962, 9,351
were employed in the private sector and 3,755 in the public sector. In the pri­
vate sector, 37 percent were in construction, 27 percent in domestic service,
14.5 percent in commerce and general mechanics, about 10 percent in transporta­
tion, 6 percent in industries, and the remainder in other activities. Unemploy­
ment is not a pressing problem. It is likely, however, that underemployment is
widespread in the largely subsistence economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The enervating climate, low levels
of education, and a serious shortage of all levels of skills, including techni­
cal and managerial, are among the factors which contribute to low productivity.
Vocational training facilities are limited. The country has a National School
of Administration,
three normal schools, a technical school, an agricultural
school, and an accelerated vocational training school.
The Government is making eff orts to increase crop production by strengthen­
ing agricultural extension and rural development services through training
centers, cooperatives, and farm credit. Projects to develop irrigation in dry
river valleys and along the Niger are in the advanced study state and, when
completed, are expected to contribute significantly to increased yields and
production.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code, Law No. 62-12 of July 1962, is based
on the French Overseas Labor Code of 1952 and retains most of its provisions. It
gives workers the right to organize, bargain collectively, and to strike. The
code stipulates that all workers receive equal pay for equal work, and that they
are entitled to medical care at the employer's expense. It provides forabasic
workweek of 40 hours, overtime pay, holidays with pay, and machinery for the
determination of wages; it also regulates the employment of women and young per­
sons. Legislation provides for work injury compensation, which is financed
entirely by employer contributions based on the worker's total earnings (including
supplementary payments in cash or in kind), and the payment of family allow­
ances, which consist of a cash allowance payable upon presentation of a medical
certificate of pregnancy and extending until the child attains age 14.
2



Administration and Practice. The Labor Department of the Ministry of Civil
Service and Labor is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the La­
bor Code, which applies to civil servants and to employees in the private sector
(but not to the large majority of the population in rural areas who are self-em­
ployed). It also operates the Employment Service in Niamey. The Family Benefit
and Employment Injury Equalization Fund is responsible for the collection and
administration of contributions and the payment of family allowances; the Govern­
ing Board of the Fund is responsible for management of the financial resources of
the program setup under the Fund. The Labor Departments enforcement of dispute
settlement and minimum wage provisions of the code is considered fairly effective.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
In 1964, theminimum wage was about US$0.08 per hour and monthly salaries
ranged from US$19 to over US$100 for the most highly skilled workers. Most of
the large European employers pay above the minimum required. Salary scales for
civil servants range from US$36 to US$670 per month.
Since independence, the
Government has maintained a firm policy against wage and salary increases in
keeping with the modest resources of the country. The Labor Code specifies a 40hour workweek, but exceptions to this may be granted. Statistics on the actual
hours worked in the industrial sector and in agriculture are not available.
According to published official information, retail prices for African
families have remained steady. The consumers' price index was 110.7 in 1962
(1960=100) and 98.7 for the first 9 months of 1963. A new index based onJuly 1,
1962-June 30, 1963=100 was 100.7 in December 1964 and 109.1 in December 1965.
The retail price index for Europeans gradually rose to 123.1 in June 1965
(1960=100). A new index was 103.0 in December 1965 (November 15-December 15,
1964=100). This rise was attributed to increased taxes and import duties. In the
large agricultural and pastoral sectors, a majority of the people live at a sub­
sistence level. The estimated average per capita income in 1963 was US$75.
Employer Organizations
There are three employer associations: a Chamber of Commerce, the Employ­
ers' Union of Enterprises and Industries of Niger, and the Union of Importers
and Exporters of Niger. These organizations have only a consultative role in
labor matters.
Labor Organizations
An estimated 15 ,000 workers are members of theNational Union of Workers of
Niger (Union Nationale des Travailleurs du Niger--UNTN), the nation's only trade
union center. Since its formation in 1960, the UNTN has had a very close relation­
ship with the single political party, thePFN. The UNTN is divided into three geo­
graphical sectors corresponding to the labor inspectorates of Niamey , Maradi, and
Zinder.
It is an affiliate of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC).
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining is not widespread nor well developed, inasmuch as
the modern industrial sector is embryonic and there are only a few thousand




3

salaried employees in the private sector. The labor organization is under the
control of the PPN and the Government. Wages and working conditions are set
largely by the Government, which consults closely with labor and management
representatives on such matters. By 1965, labor courts provided for in the Labor
Code had been established in Niamey, Maradi, and Zinder, which are also the seats
of the three labor inspectorates into which the country is divided. Industrial
disputes do not often get as far as the labor tribunals. There have been no
work stoppages since 1960.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 123
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA
The Federal Republic of Nigeria occupies an area of 356,669 square miles in West
Africa on the Gulf of Guinea. The officially enumerated population in 1963 was
55.6 million, making Nigeria the most populous country in Africa.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Nigeria became an independent nation within the British Com­
monwealth on October 1, 1960, and a republic on October 1, 1963. A coup d'etat
in January 1966 resulted in the installation of a temporary military government
headed by Major-General John T. Aguiyi-Ironsi. The new Government reduced the
status of the former "Regions to the rank of Provinces under close central control.
It also provided for the unification of the civil service and the establishment
of a commission of lawyers, civil servants, and academics to draft a new consti­
tution. The present Government plans to remain in power for 3 years, during
which time all political activity has been banned.
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture, which, together with for­
estry and fishing, occupies about 78 percent of the labor force and provides
more than 85 percent of the national income. Per capita income in 1964 was about
US$80. Agricultural products in 1963 represented 81 percent of all exports and
over 65 percent of the gross domestic product. Nigeria is the world's leading
exporter of peanuts and palm oil and the second largest producer of cocoa.
Economic development since World War II has been marked by the growth of manu­
facturing,
transportation, commerce, and mining, and a sharp rise in agricul­
tural production. Recently discovered reserves of petroleum and natural gas
already have made Nigeria the 13th largest crude oil producer in the world.
Social. Of the approximately 250 tribes which exist, the Yoruba of the
Western Region, the Ibo of the Eastern Region, and the Hausa and Fulani of the
Northern Region constitute over half of the population. The predominance of
Mohammedanism among the people of the Northern Region is an important social




and political factor. In the Western Region, Moslems, Christians, and animists
are almost evenly divided. In the Eastern Region, most of the people are either
Christians or animists. The literacy rate in 1961 was about 20 percent of the
population over 7 years of age and is rising rapidly among the school-age popu­
lation.
In 1963, almost 3 million students were enrolled in primary schools.
English is the official language; over 200 vernacular languages are spoken.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. More than 75 percent of the estimated labor
force of 18 million in 1962 were in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Wage and
salary earners totaled 578,805 (about 41 percent in some type of Government serv­
ice), or 3.3 percent of the labor force; almost 20 percent were in construction,
10 percent in manufacturing, almost 10 percent in transportation, storage, and
communications, over 9 percent in mining and quarrying, over 7 percent in com­
merce, 6 percent in agriculture, forestry, and fishing, and the remaining 38 per­
cent in miscellaneous services.
Unemployment of unskilled workers is a growing problem, not only in itself
but also because the continuous drift into the cities from the rural areas of
seekers of jobs and city life further burdens already overstrained housing, trans­
portation, health, sanitation, and other urban facilities and services. The ex­
tended family system provides some measure of support for the unemployed, but
such support imposes a drain on the resources of those who do have jobs. Taking
the entire work force into account (agricultural as well as industrial) , esti­
mates of the number of unemployed have reached 5 million. There is virtually no
unemployment among skilled workers. Underemployment of the unskilled and agri­
cultural workers prevails throughout the economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity is low mainly because
of the acute shortage of technical, managerial, and other skills, as well as
the country's brief industrial experience. Of persons registering as unemployed
at the employment exchanges in December 1961, 76 percent lacked skills and pre­
vious work experience.
Eight Government trade centers train craftsmen and artisans, and some of
the larger employers provide on-the-job training. High-level manpower is trained
at the School of Business Administration of the University of Lagos or through
Government-promoted Training-Within-Industry and scholarship awards programs,
geared to bridge the gap in specific manpower requirements.
In addition,
the
Federal Ministry of Education has formulated a national plan for technical and
commercial education. In 1960, 27,061 students were enrolled in
317 teacher­
training schools.
In May 1961, some 6,000 persons were being trained in the
technical institutes and trade centers. Nigeria also has a number of institutions
of higher education, some of which offer courses in a variety of higher techni­
cal and professional subjects--for example, theUniversity of Lagos, theUniversity of Nigeria at Nsukka, the University of Ife, theUniversity of Ibadan, and
Ahmadu Bello University at Zaria.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labour Code Ordinance o£ 1953 governs the minimum
age for employment; conditions of employment for women, juveniles, and appren-

2




tices; oral and written contracts; recruitment; payment of wages; hours of work;
registration of employers and industrial workers; and working conditions for
clerical workers. The Factories Ordinance (1955) deals with safe and healthful
working conditions. The Trade Unions Ordinance (1938) and the Trades Disputes
(Arbitration and Inquiry) Ordinance (1941) assure the right of association and the
right to conclude collective agreements in the settlement of labor disputes. So­
cial legislation includes the Workmen* s Compensation Ordinance (1948) ; chapter IX
of the Labour Code, which deals with maternity benefits; and the National Provi­
dent Fund Ordinance (1961), which provides limited payments in cases of pro­
tracted illness or unemployment and full payment upon retirement after age 55.
Administration and Practice. Responsibility for labor affairs in Nige­
ria, formerly held by the Regional governments concurrently with the Federal Gov­
ernment, was assigned by the Federal Military Government to the Federal Ministry
of Labour in 1966. The shortage of inspectors and ignorance of labor laws among
many small, indigenous employers hamper enforcement. A tripartite National Labour
Advisory Council, created in 1965, advises the Ministry of Labour on existing or
proposed labor and social security legislation; it also reviews conditions of em­
ployment and the state of industrial relations. A tripartite National Industrial
Safety Council was established in 1964. A tripartite National Wage Advisory Coun­
cil, created in 1965, advises the Government on national wage policy.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Wages may be set under the provisions of the Wages Boards Ordinance by spe­
cial commissions of inquiry or by free collective bargaining. The wage patterns
are strongly influenced by the fact that the Federal and Regional Governments
are the largest employers of labor*, In 1964, the country was divided into six
minimum wage zones, with minimum monthly rates ranging from a high of US$28.00
in Lagos (the capital) to a low of about US$14.56 in the rural north.
The average workweek prevailing in most industries and in the lower salary
level of Government service is 44 hours. The workweek of most salaried employees
in the Government is 40 hours.
General wage revisions in 1960 and 1964 temporarily halted declines in
real income, but indications are that the cost of living is again rising more
rapidly than wages. Increases in the official consumer price index (1960=100)
between 1960 and 1965 ranged from 12 points to 25 points in the four Regions.
Employer Organizations
Registered employers* associations in 1963 included six builders* and
contractors* associations, the Association of Master Tailors, and the Nigerian
Mining Employers* Association, which is the largest. These associations have not
dealt with labor-management relations. They are affiliated with the Nigerian
Employers* Consultative Association (NECA), which provides guidance on labor
relations as well as on social, legislative, management, and wage problems.
Labor Organizations
The total claimed trade union membership of the 313 major unions exceeded
463,000 in 1965. By far the largest of the four national trade union centers is
3



the United Labor Congress (ULC), with almost 217,000 members in 144 affiliates,
or about 47 percent of organized labor. Formed in 1959 as the Trades Union Con­
gress of Nigeria (TUCN), the ULC derived its present name from an abortive merger
with the Nigerian Trade Union Congress (NTUC) in 1962. Since its formation, the
ULC has been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization (AFRO), which has maintained its
headquarters in Lagos since its formation in 1960. The ULC also is a founding
member of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC) and acted as host for
the second ATUC Congress in Lagos in 1965.
The major competing organization is the Nigerian Trade Union Congress
(NTUC), with about 126,100 members in 98 affiliates, or 27 percent of all trade
union members. The NTUC was formed in 1960 by a dissident group of the TUCN.
Following its abortive merger into the ULC in 1962, the NTUC faction briefly
adopted the name Independent United Labor Congress (IULC) before returning to
its present name in 1963. It maintains a close relationship with the Socialist
Workers* and Farmers* Party. The NTUC is a leading affiliate of the All-African
Trade Union Federation (AATUF).
The Labor Unity Front (LUF) is a loose federation of 20 unions, with about
46,400 members (10 percent of the organized work force), who joined together in
1963 ostensibly to promote a national unification of the Nigerian trade union
movement. The LUF has a close relationship with the Nigerian Labor Party.
The Nigerian Workers* Council (NWC) has approximately 11,900 members in
44 affiliates, or 2.6 percent of organized labor. Formed in 1962, the NWC is an
affiliate of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confedera­
tion Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC)
and its African regional
organization, the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union Pan-Africaine
des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC). It also is affiliated with the ATUC. Of a
number of unions not affiliated with any national center,
the largest is the
Nigerian Union of Teachers, with 56,700 members.
Eleven International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have 29 affiliates in Nige­
ria, 12 of which belong to the International Transport Workers* Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
The Government encourages free collective bargaining. Joint bargaining
committees exist in the larger and newer companies. Consultation between workers
and management in the Federal Government is carried on through joint councils.
Under the Trades Disputes (Arbitration and Inquiry) Ordinance, the arbitration
and conciliation services of the Government are available,
if established ma­
chinery for settling industrial disputes has been exhausted.
Strikes involving stoppages have been relatively infrequent. They are
carried on mainly by the larger unions and are usually of short duration. A
nationwide general strike, basically over wage demands, occurred in 1964. It
was supported by all labor organizations and was successful in obtaining in­
creased minimum levels of wages and salaries.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 124
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN PORTUGUESE GUINEA
Portuguese Guinea, located on the west coast of Africa between Senegal and
Guinea, is an overseas territory of Portugal.
It has an area of about 13,948
square miles and had an estimated population of 544,000 in 1963.
Portuguese Guinea is controlled by the Portuguese Ministry of Overseas
Provinces and administered by a Governor General, who is appointed by the
Portuguese Council of Ministers. The territory is nominally represented in the
Portuguese National Assembly. The Governor General is assisted by a Government
Council, equivalent to a Cabinet, and by a 15-member Legislative Council of
which 11 members are elected on the basis of limited suffrage.
The economy is predominantly agricultural. Principal export products
are peanuts and coconuts; other exports are timber, hides and skins, rice, and
wax. Industrial activity is small scale and very limited in scope. Most of
the industrial establishments are engaged in processing agricultural products
or supplying building materials.
The principal indigenous groups are the Balanta, Fulani, Manjaco, Mandingo,
and Papel. About 78 percent of the population are animists, 18 percent practice
Islam, and 4 percent are Christians. Portuguese is the official language.
Numerous African dialects are spoken.
In 1957-58, 11,140 students were enrolled
in 164 primary schools, and in 1958-59, a secondary school had an enrollment of
240 students. In the same year, 21 technical schools were providing training
for 860 students. The literacy rate is estimated to be about 5 percent.
In 1959, the latest year for which data are available, the number of
wage and salary earners was estimated to be under 10,000, representing less than
2 percent of that year's estimated population of 550,000. Practically all of
the Africans were in the unskilled category; a few hundred were classified as
semiskilled. Most, if not all, of the responsible positions were occupied by
whites, Lebanese, and other "civilized" Portuguese.
(The Indigena Law, which



divided the population of Portuguese overseas territories into two categories,
"civilized1 and "noncivilized," was abolished in 1961.) -Most of the African
1
population are engaged in agriculture, mainly on family-owned tracts, and are
not in the money economy.
The Portuguese Rural Labor Code for Overseas Provinces (1962) contains
regulations pertaining to recruitment, the employment of immigrants, labor
contracts, professional and vocational training, working conditions, wages,
hours of work, holidays, women workers and child labor, social security benefits ,
professional organizations (syndicates), and enforcement machinery.
It provides
certain irrevocable rights, such as the right to have wages paid at specified
intervals, the right to refuse to perform work not called for by the contract,
and the right to receive free medical care. A number of the regulations have
been amplified in implementing decrees.
In 1959, the average wage of "noncivilized" wage and salary earners
ranged from US$0.35 to US$0.69 per day, plus a monthly ration of rice. An as­
sistant mechanic earned US$0.69 per day and a good mason could earn as much as
US$1.38, plus the rice ration. The wage rates for "civilized" wage and salary
earners are higher.
In 1959, an office employee earned US$62.28 to US$103.80
per month and a master mason or chief accountant, US$138.40 to US$155.70. A
"noncivilized" unskilled worker, such as a messenger, earned US$27.68 to
US$34.60 per month.
The legal workweek for Government wage and salary earners (according to
1959 data) is 34 hours and for those in the private sector, 45 hours. The latter
are also entitled to an 8-day local vacation annually and 3 to 4 months in
Portugal every 4 years, all at the employer's expense. In practice, however,
only Europeans and very few, if any, Africans go to Portugal; instead, Africans
receive longer local vacations. Government workers receive about the same holiday
and vaction benefits as workers in the private sector.
The Chamber of Commerce of Portuguese Guinea, officially called the
Assogiacao Comercial Industrial e Agricola da Guine, is a semipublic organiza­
tion, which has a dominant role in the economic activities of the territory.
No trade union organizations exist in Portugal or its overseas territory
of Portuguese Guinea. Labor is organized into a National Syndicate of Employees
in Commerce and Industry; with an estimated 780 members, it functions essen­
tially as a beneficent society. Syndicates are defined in the Rural Labor
Code as an integral part of the corporative organization of the nation. How­
ever, the syndicate in Portuguese Guinea is autonomous from those in Portugal,
and, unlike in Portugal, membership is not compulsory.
Two national trade union centers have been formed outside Portuguese
Guinea by workers from the territory: The General Union of Workers of GuineaBissau-In Exile (Union Generate des Travailleurs de Guinee-Bissau--UGTG) with
headquarters in Dakar, Senegal, and the General Confederation of Workers of
Portuguese Guinea based in Conakry, Guinea. The UGTG, which was formed in 1962,
claimed 1,821 members in 1964. It has been affiliated with the International
Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization
(AFRO) since 1964. It is also affiliated with the African Trade Union Confeder­
ation (ATUC).

2



LABOR DIGEST
Ho. 125
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics-

LABOR CONDITIONS IN REUNION
Reunion, the largest island in the Mascarene Archipelago,
is situated in the
Indian Oceanabout 450 miles east of the Malagasy Republic. It covers an area of
969 square miles and had an estimated population of 363,000 in 1962.
Reunion, like all other French Overseas Departments, is under the authority
of a Prefect; he is appointed by the French Minister of the Interior and assisted
by the General Council, an assembly of 36 members elected by popular ballot.
Three deputies and two senators represent Reunion in the French Parliament.
The basis of the economy is agriculture, and most of the island*s revenue
is derived from the production of sugarcane. Next in importance are geranium,
vetiver, and other plants used for making perfume. Main exports include sugar,
rum, vanilla, and vetiver and geranium oils. The people also engage in the
cultivation of food crops, stockraising, and fishing. The principal industries
are sugar refining, rum distilling, and the processing of essential oils; other
enterprises are small scale and of minor importance.
Reunion has no indigenous population. About 20 percent of the estimated
363,000 inhabitants are of French origin; the remainder are Negroes, Chinese,
Indochinese, Malays, and Malabar Indians. A large majority (about 80 percent)
of the population are Roman Catholics, and most of the others practice Islam.
The official language is French. School attendance is compulsory and education
is free of charge. In 1963, Reunion had 344 public and 200 private schools
providing primary education for a total of 82,241 pupils; 1,662 students were
enrolled in the lycee (public secondary school). The illiteracy rate is very
low. There are technical schools, an apprenticeship center, and a School of
Agriculture.
No data are available on the size
of wage and salary earners.




of the labor force nor on the number

The Chamber of Commerce concerns itself with, and may be consulted on,
legislative and statutory measures which deal with economic matters•
Trade unions in Reunion are local branches of the three major French
national trade union centers: The General Confederation of Labor-Workers'
Force (Confederation Generale du Travail-Force Ouvriere--CGT-FO), the French
Democratic Confederation of Labor (Confederation Francaise Democratique du
Travail--CFDT), and the General Confederation of Labor (Confederation Generale
du Travail--CGT). Data are lacking on the membership of these branches. Through
their counterparts in France, they are affiliated, respectively, with the Inter­
national Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), the International Federation
of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation International des Syndicats Chretiens-CISC), and the Communist World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU).

2



LABOR DIGEST
No. 126
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA
Rwanda, located in east-central Africa, has an area of 10,186 square miles and
its population in mid-1965 was estimated at 3 million.
Rwanda was part of the United Nations Trusteeship Territory of RuandaUrundi under Belgian tutelage until July 1, 1962, when it became an independent
Republic. The President is popularly elected for a 4-year term. The Cabinet
consists of the Premier and 13 Ministers. The 47 members of the unicameral
Legislature are elected by direct universal suffrage for 4-year terms. The domi­
nant political party is the Parti duMouvement de ^Emancipation Hutu (PARMEHUTU) .
Agriculture, most of which is at a subsistence level, is the basis of the
economy and accounts for most of Rwanda*s exports. Coffee is the principal cash
crop and, together with minerals and pyrethrum, accounted for 94 percent of total
exports in 1965. Manioc, bananas, sweet potatoes, peas, beans, sorghum, and
corn are the main food crops. Livestock raising is important but contributes
only a small part of the gross national product (GNP). Mineral production, next
in importance to agriculture and livestock raising, consists largely of cassiterite (from which tin is produced); other minerals produced are tungsten, beryl,
columbo-tantalite, and amblygonite. The production of industry, which is limi­
ted, is almost entirely for local consumption. Per capita GNP in 1964 was
about US$40.
The Hutu (or Bahutu), the largest ethnic group, comprise about 85 per­
cent of the population; the Tutsi (or Batutsi), 14 percent; and the Twa, about
1 percent. There were about 5,000 Europeans and Asians in Rwanda in 1960.
Approximately 50 percent of the population are Christians, mainly Roman Cath­
olics, and the remainder adhere to native religions. The official languages are
French and Kinyarwanda. Education is free for children age 7 to 16, but the
percentage of children of primary school age enrolled in primary schools is
small. Data available are for Ruanda-Urundi, where, in 1960, 252,000 students
were enrolled in 2,960 elementary schools, 2,500 in 11 secondary schools, 1,908



in training schools, 128 in 4 vocational institutes , and 2,555 in special schools.
The literacy rate is 5 to 10 percent.
In 1964, the total number of wage and salary earners in Rwanda was 51,400
(excluding Government officials,
teachers, and military personnel), of whom
16,000 were in services, 11,500 in construction, 10,000 in agriculture or for­
estry, 7,000 in mining, and the remainder in other activities. There is a high
rate of underemployment among the 90 percent of the people engaged in agriculture.
Factors contributing to low productivity are the lack of education and
training, the poor diet and health of the workers, and insufficient investment
in mechanization. The high rate of turnover in the mining industry is an obstacle
to the acquisition of skills, and the use of obsolete equipment and primitive
methods of production keeps productivity low. In the large, rural economy,
productivity is very low as a result of traditional methods of land utilization,
such as bushburning, shifting cultivation, overstocking of pastureland, and
the lack of mechanized equipment and modern methods of production.
The Rwandan Labor Service is responsible for the administration and en­
forcement of the Labor Code. The Social Fund, an autonomous body under state
supervision, administers social security legislation enacted in 1962, which pro­
vides for old-age, invalidity, and survivors* pensions and employee injury bene­
fits; the programs are financed by equal employer-employee contributions.
Annual earnings per capita of the 51,400 wage and salary earners in the
labor force in 1964 averaged US$134.00 at the official rate of exchange and
US$67.00 at the free rate. Laborers at the lowest rates of pay also received a
weekly ration in cash or in kind, in addition towages, amounting annually to about
US$72.00 at the official exchange rate. Wages of carpenters, welders, brick­
layers, cement finishers, and plumbers ranged from US$1.12 to US$1.80 per day
at the official rate and US$0.56 to US$0.90 at the free rate. At the official
rate,
the daily wage rate for construction workers was US$0.48; agricultural
laborers, US$0.30; underground miners, US$0.60; and automobile mechanics,
US$1.40. The monthly wage rate for truckdrivers was US$50.00; calculating ma­
chine operators, US$75.00; and bank cashiers, US$106.00. The legal workweek
is 48 hours, but because of poor diet, poor health, and other causes, most
Rwandans work effectively only about 4 hours a day. The rate for overtime work
is 25 percent of the daily wage rate for the first 2 hours and 50 percent for
overtime exceeding 2 hours. The level of living for most Rwandans is very low.
No information on employer organizations is available.
The only information available on labor organizations in Rwanda indicates
that the Rwanda Workers1 Union (Union des Travailleurs du Rwanda--UTR) affiliated
with the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation
Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) in 1965.

2



LABOR DIGEST
No.

127

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SENEGAL
The Republic of Senegal covers an area of about 76,000 square miles on the west
coast of Africa. The narrow enclave of Gambia extends more than halfway across
the southern part of the country. The population in 1964 was approximately
3.4 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Formerly part of the French-administered Federation of Mali,
Senegal became independent in August 1960. The Constitution provides for a re­
publican form of government, headed by a president. Legislative power is exer­
cised by a unicameral National Assembly, elected, as is the President, by direct
universal suffrage for a 4-year term. Leopold S6dar Senghor is President of the
Republic and leader of the Senegalese Progressive Union (Union Progressiste
S6n6galaise--UPS), the dominant political party, which has controlled all 80
seats in the National Assembly since December 1963.
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture, which provides a liveli­
hood for 75 percent of the population. Agricultural products, mainly peanuts,
provide the basis for a substantial part of the country's growing processing
industry. Peanuts and peanut products accounted for over 75 percent of the total
value of exports in 1964; other important exports were calcium phosphate and
canned tuna. Per capita income in 1964 was about US$170.
Social. The population is predominantly African. Europeans, mainly
French, numbered about 30,000 in 1965, and there were about 20,000 Lebanese and
Syrians. The Wolof is the largest of Senegal1s six mo»st important tribal groups,
accounting for over one-third of the population. About 80 percent of the popu­
lation profess Islam,
10 percent are animists, and 10 percent are Christians.
French is the official language, but most Senegalese speak the vernacular lan­
guage of their own tribe. Literacy is approximately 10 to 20 percent. In 1963,




primary school enrollment represented 25 to 35 percent of the children of school
age, and secondary school enrollment, 3.8 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force totaled approximately 1.2
million, or about one-third of the population, in 1964. Wage and salary earners
numbered about 100,000, of whom approximately 35 percent were in Government
service, 14 percent in commerce, banking, and insurance, 13 percent each in con­
struction and manufacturing, 12 percent in transport and communications, 10 per­
cent in services, and the remaining 3 percent in commercial agriculture, mining,
and miscellaneous activities.
Unemployment data are unavailable; however, urban unemployment has been
increasing as a result of continuing migration to urban centers by seasonal
farmers and youths who lack industrial skills.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The level of productivity is low,
partly because of the severe shortage of skilled workers,
the high degree of
mobility among the relatively few skilled workers, and the large number of tem­
porary workers, a factor which has tended to make employers reluctant to initiate
training programs. Other factors contributing to a low level of productivity
are malnutrition, inadequate health facilities, and the social and religious
patterns of the population.
In addition, manual labor is viewed with disdain,
and almost inevitably skilled workers aspire to white-collar status.
In 1963, less than 25 percent of jobs requiring university training and
about 60 percent of jobs requiring secondary school education were held by
Senegalese. Basic vocational training is provided by apprenticeship centers,
sometimes called ‘
'technical colleges," which train primary school graduates for
a minimum of 3 years; however, attendance at these centers is small. Most basic
skills are acquired on the job, where the workers receive limited training aimed
at the performance of a specific task.
Since 1960, several institutions for
training middle- and high-level administrators have been established and others
are in the planning stage,. In 1964, the Senegalese arrily initiated a program
designed to train youths in rudimentary farming skills and some crafts. In March
1965, the Government enacted legislation providing for the establishment of a
Civic Service program under which agricultural training curricula and facilities
are to be expanded.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Labor Code, passed in June 1961 to supersede the
French Overseas Labor Code, provides for tight control of most labor practices
and regulates the organization and operation of trade unions, the employment of
women and children, the settlement of labor disputes, and general working con­
ditions. The code also sets the minimum age for employment at 14, establishes
maximum hours of work, provides for weekly rest, paid leave, and the establish­
ment of minimum wage rates; it also requires all establishments to comply with
strict safety and health provisions.
Since 1956, legislation has been enacted
to provide for limited social security benefits, including family allowances,
workmen's compensation, and retirement pensions.
2



Administration and Practice. The Department of Labor and Social Security
in the Ministry of Civil Service and Labor is the main agency in the labor field.
It administers labor matters
through its Labor Department, Manpower Service,
Labor Inspectorate, and Compensation Fund for Family Allowances and Industrial
Accidents. The West African Retirement Insurance Institution, a semiautonomous
fund of which the membership is determined by collective agreements, administers
the workers' retirement system. A tripartite National Advisory Council for Labor
and Social Security makes recommendations to the Government regarding changes
in the level of minimum wages and other labor matters. An Economic and Social
Council, a mixed advisory body established in 1961, was activated in 1964 and
is expected to serve as a quasi-official channel through which labor and manage­
ment may express their views on Government policy. Enforcement of labor laws
has been difficult mainly because of the acute shortage of trained personnel.
The problem has been aggravated recently by an increasing tendency of labor in­
spectors and controllers to seek more remunerative employment.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The prevailing legal minimum hourly wage rate, set in mid-1961, is about
US$0.19 in urban areas and US$0.17 in the remainder of the country. The ma­
jority of the industrial and commercial labor force are covered by collective
bargaining agreements providing for wage rates substantially higher than the
minimum.
The maximum work period is 40 hours per week for nonagricultural workers
and 2,352 hours per year for agricultural workers.
Comparative cost-of-living data are unavailable, but Government officials
have acknowledged that the cost of living has been increasing in urban areas.
Limited legislation to control prices of some commodities has been in effect
since at least 1964, but, in general, it has not been effective.
Employer Organizations
The two leading employer organizations are SCIMPEX (Syndicat des Commercants,
Importateurs et Exportateurs) and UNISYNDI (Union Intersyndicale
d'Entreprises et d 1Industrie). Chambers of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture
function in the principal cities.
Labor Organizations
Information on the total trade union membership is not available. Two of
the national trade union centers have a combined claimed membership of at least
103,000. The National Union of Workers of Senegal (Union Nationale des Travailleurs du S£n6gal--UNTS), the largest of the four national trade union centers,
claims 100,000 members. This figure is apparently inflated, since wage and salary
earners numbered only about 100,000 in 1964. Organized along both geographic
and industrial lines, the UNTS, which was formed in 1962, has some 40 affiliates
and 7 regional centers.
It is a leading affiliate of the African Trade Union
Confederation (ATUC), which was formed in Dakar in 1962 and maintains its head­
quarters in that city. One UNTS affiliate is affiliated with an International
Trade Secretariat (ITS), the International Transport Workers' Federation.




3

The second largest national center is the National Confederation of Be­
lieving Workers of Senegal (Confederation Nationale des Travailleurs Croyants
du Senegal--CNTCS), with an estimated 3,000 members. The CNTCS participated in
the formation of the UNTS in 1962 but withdrew from it in 1963. It is affiliated
with the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (Confederation Inter­
nationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC) and its African regional organization,
the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union Pan-Africaine des Travailleurs
Croyants--UPTC). It is also an affiliate of the ATUC.
Two smaller centers are the Senegalese Confederation of Workers (Con­
federation Sen^galaise du Travail--CST) and the General Confederation of Workers
of Senegal (Confederation Generale du Travail du Senegal--CGTS). The CST is
affiliated with the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF).
Labor-Management Relations
Legislation provides guidelines for the settlement of labor-management
disputes in all establishments having 10 or more employees.
Individual griev­
ances may be submitted to a labor court.
If a collective bargaining agreement
does not prescribe procedures for conciliation, a Government labor official
undertakes mediation. Should mediation fail, the Minister of Civil Service and
Labor decides whether or not to make arbitration compulsory in order to avert
a work stoppage that would be contrary to the national interest.
Labor-management relations historically have been relatively peaceful.
Since independence, conflicts have been limited largely to disputes within indi­
vidual enterprises and have usually been settled quickly and by mediation.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 128
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SEYCHELLES
Seychelles, a British Crown Colony situated in the Indian Ocean off the eastern
coast of Kenya, includes 92 islands, which have a total area of 156 square miles
(including Aldabra lagoon consisting of over 55 square miles), and had an esti­
mated population of 43,750 in 1962.
Seychelles and its dependencies are administered by a Governor, an Execu­
tive Council, and a Legislative Council. The Executive Council, headed by the
Governor as president, consists of four ex-officio members and four other mem­
bers. The Governor is also president of the Legislative Council, which has four
ex-officio members, three nominated members, and five elected members. The main
political parties are the Seychelles Democratic Party (SDP) and the Seychelles
People's United Party (SPUP).
The economy depends almost entirely on agriculture. Copra (produced from
coconuts) accounted for about 70 percent of the total value of exports in 1963.
The production and export of cinnamon leaf oil, cinnamon bark oil, patchouli
oil (used for perfume), and vanilla are also important to the economy.
Indus­
tries other than fishing and the processing of primary products for export are
few and of minor importance.
Seychelles, uninhabited until around the middle of the 18th century, has
no indigenous people. Africans, Creoles, and a small number of Europeans, In­
dians, and Chinese make up the population, of whom approximately 90 percent are
Roman Catholics. English is the official language, but Creole (a patois of
French)
is widely spoken. In 1962, 6,090 students were enrolled in primary
schools and 926 in secondary grammar schools. In 1960, approximately 46 percent
of the adult population and 79 percent of the children were literate.
In 1960, an estimated 6,500 persons were engaged in agriculture and fish­
ing, 1,750 in domestic service, 250 in public administration,
2,500 in public
works, and 400 in trade and commerce. An estimated 2,150 were skilled workers.



The islands lack employment opportunities, with the result that
chief problems is unemployment and underemployment.

one of their

The Public Works Department directs a program for training apprentices
as blacksmiths and for the building trades; a technical center under the direc­
tion of the Department of Education provides training for carpenters, joiners,
and cabinetmakers and offers evening classes in shorthand, typing, and book­
keeping. Nurses receive training at Government hospitals. There is a teacher­
training college.
In addition, some students attend technical and vocational
schools in the United Kingdom.
The Labour and Welfare Officer is responsible for the administration of
the Labour Department, which, among other functions, administers labor legis­
lation, provides advice to employers and employees in matters connected with
employment, and attempts to bring about the peaceful settlement of labor dis­
putes. It also provides services similar to those of an employment exchange.
Minimum monthly wage rates established in 1961 for agricultural workers
employed on a monthly contract basis and working 30 hours a week were US$8.40
for males over 18 years of age and US$5.04 for females over 18years of age, if
no housing was provided, and US$7.35 for males and US$4.41 for females, with
free housing provided. For laborers working a 45-hour week, the minimum monthly
rates were US$12.60 for males and US$7.56 for females, without free housing,
and US$11.55 and US$6.93 for males and females, respectively, with free housing.
The minimum weekly wage rates for males and females working a 30-hour week on
a weekly contract basis were US$1.94 and US$1.17, respectively; for those work­
ing a 45-hour week, the rates were US$2.94 and US$1.78, respectively.
Minimum monthly wage rates for all Government laborers and artisans,
effective January 1, 1959, were US$7.98 for females and US$12.60 for males;
US$15-75 for semiskilled workers, such as miners, steelfixers, and drivers;
US$2.94 to US$11.76 for apprentice carpenters, masons, and plumbers from 14 to
20 years of age; US$12.60, US$18.90, and US$25.20 for journeymen, depending upon
years of work at the journeyman level; and US$29.40 for foremen; minimum rates
ranged from US$2.94 for boys age 14 to US$7.35 for those age 17.
The retail price index (July 1947=100) was 151 in December 1959, 158 in
June 1961, and 168 in April 1962.
No information is available on employer organizations.
There is no information available on total trade union membership in the
Seychelles. There are no national trade union centers. Of the 13 registered
trade unions on the islands, the Seychellios Christian Workers1 Union, with 1,000
claimed members,
is affiliated with the International Federation of Christian
Trade Unions (Confederation Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC)
and
its regional organization, the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union
Pan-Africaine des Travailleurs Croyants--UPTC).

2



LABOR DIGEST
No.

129

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office o f
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
D i r e c t o r y o f L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s —A f r i c a , jointly prepared and published in

1966

by the Bureau o f International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Sierra Leone occupies an area of 27,925 square miles on the western bulge of
Africa. The population in mid-1964 was approximately 2.2 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Sierra Leone has been independent since April 1961 and is a
member of the British Commonwealth. The Constitution provides for a parliamentary
form of government with a unicameral legislature elected mainly by adult suffrage
but with some members selected by traditional tribal authorities. Although
executive authority is nominally vested in the Queen of England, represented by
the Governor General, it is exercised by the Prime Minister, currently Sir Albert
M. Margai, who is leader of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), the majority
party. The opposition party is the All People's Congress (APC).
Economic. The economy is based on agriculture, which provides a liveli­
hood for 80 to 90 percent of the population. Rice is the basic staple food.
Palm kernels,
coffee, cocoa, piassava, ginger, and kola nuts, the major cash
crops, accounted for 17 percent of the total value of exports in 1964. The bulk
of agricultural production comes from small holdings. Diamonds and iron ore,
the basis of the money economy, accounted for over 80 percent of the total value
of exports in 1964. Secondary industry, mainly the processing of agricultural
products, exists on a very modest scale. Practically all manufactured goods are
imported. Per capita gross national product is estimated to be about US$100
per year.
Social. Over 99 percent of the population are African; the remainder are
mainly Asian and European. The African population is divided into some 13 trib­
al groupings, 2 of which--the Mende and the Temne--constitute about 60 percent
of the population. Animism, Islam, and Christianity are the religions practiced
by the people. English is the official language but is spoken by only about
130,000 inhabitants. Tribal languages predominate in local areas, but Krio, an



English-based lingua franca, is spoken by the majority of the population. The
rate of literacy is about 10 percent. About 20 percent of the children of school
age attend school. In 1964-65, there were approximately 126,000 primary school
students.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Statistics on the total labor force are
unavailable. The number of wage and salary earners in 1963 was between 80,000
and 85,000. Their distribution by industry is available only for firms employing
six or more workers (the Government does not require smaller firms to register).
Of the 58,146 employees in the larger firms, 30 percent were in services; almost
20 percent in construction; 14 percent in mining and quarrying; 12 percent in
transport,
storage, and communications; almost 8 percent in manufacturing; 7
percent in commerce; 6 percent in commercial agriculture; and almost 3 percent
in electricity and water services. Over 54 percent of these wage and salary
earners were employed in Government establishments.
Unemployment is becoming a serious problem and is being aggravated by the
movement of young men from farms to urban centers and the diamond areas. The
number of unemployed recorded by the Labour Division at the end of December 1965
was 7,576. This figure excluded the 4,739 in the Maritime Pool, comprised of
seamen who have been unemployed for over 3 weeks and of those who have been ashore
for less than 3 weeks waiting for seagoing employment. During the period of
waiting, they are allowed to take on casual dock work and, therefore, are not
usually included in the unemployment figures. Underemployment is extensive in
the agricultural sector.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Lack of training, poor health, and
the traditional work methods used by much of the labor force contribute to the
low level of productivity. There is an ample supply of unskilled labor, but the
number of workers possessing basic industrial skills is severely limited. Both
Government and private industry are attempting to raise the level of skills of
the labor force by expanding and improving training facilities.
In 1965-66,
the Government gave assistance to some 51 secondary school classes and operated
6 technical institutions, 9 teacher-training colleges, and 4 literacy centers.
Total enrollment in these facilities in 1965-66 was about 134,000. The Govern­
ment also conducts apprenticeship and pre-apprenticeship programs and subsidizes
95 to 100 percent of the teachers’ salary budgets of educational institutions
operated by religious missions and other groups. The large iron and diamond
mining companies provide intensive training for their workers through private
schools and apprenticeship programs.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Numerous laws regulate labor matters; the main ones
are the Employers and Employed Act, Registration of Employees Act, Machinery
(Safe Working and Inspection) Act, Workmen’s Compensation Act, Trade Disputes
Act, and the Wages Boards Act. These and other laws regulate the recruitment
of workers and the conditions and termination of their employment; restrict the
employment of women and children; prohibit forced labor; and provide for the
settlement of industrial disputes, the establishment of minimum wages, and the
payment of limited pension benefits to certain civil servants.
2



Administration and Practice. The Labour Division, operating under the
Ministry of Lands, Mines, and Labour, has general responsibility for labor mat­
ters. The Division's main functions include advising the Government on the
formulation of labor policies, such as the improvement of training facilities
and health and welfare standards; promoting joint consultation and collective
bargaining between management and labor; assisting in the conciliation and arbi­
tration of industrial disputes; administering workmen's compensation programs;
operating employment exchanges; compiling labor statistics; computing consumer
price indexes; and enforcing labor legislation.
In 1962, there were four labor inspectors. Labor officers, as well as
executive officers in the Labour Division, are empowered to conduct inspections
in connection with the enforcement of most labor legislation. In practice, medi­
cal officers and sanitary inspectors generally perform inspection duties con­
nected with the enforcement of legislation related to workers' health. There
are several tripartite bodies with labor functions,
such as the Wages Boards,
which set minimum wage rates, and the Joint Consultative Committee, which reviews
and advises on legislation affecting labor.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages, paid holidays, overtime rates, and hours of work are set
by either the Government through Wages Boards, which have been established for
various industries, or through collective agreements which, when concluded, have
the effect of law. For most categories of workers, wage scales vary depending
on the geographic area. The highest rates prevail in the vicinity of Freetown (the
capital) and the lowest, in the rural areas. In 1964, theminimum daily wage rate
for unskilled labor in Freetown was US$1.05. The standard workweek in most in­
dustries is45 hours. In 1963, the average hours worked per week varied f r o m 4 6 .6
to 57.4. The cost-of-living index for Freetown (1961=100) rose to 117.9 during
the third quarter of 1965. The minimum wage level increased about 7 percent from
1963 to 1964, owing to the significant rise in the cost of living since 1963.
Employer Organizations
Most of the leading employers are members of the Chamber of Commerce, which
represents their interests vis-a-vis the Government. The membership of the re­
cently formed Sierra Leone Chamber of Mines is from the four mining concerns and
replaces the former Sierra Leone Mining Association.
Labor Organizations
The Sierra Leone Labour Congress (SLLC), the nation's single trade union
center, has an estimated trade union membership of about 18,000, or about 21
percent of the approximately 85,000 wage and salary earners. The SLLC was formed
in May 1966 to supersede both the Sierra Leone Federation of Labour and the
Sierra Leone Council of Labour, which was affiliated with the International Con­
federation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) until December 1964. Nine of the SLLC's
12 affiliates are members of International Trade Secretariats
(ITS):
The
International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees ; Miners '
International Federation; International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical
Workers; Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone International; and International Trans­
port Workers' Federation.




3

Labor-Management Relations
Any magistrate, upon appeal of either party in a labor dispute, may
adjudicate an individual grievance. The Government may also appoint a Board of
Inquiry when a dispute erupts or threatens to arise. In the larger enterprises,
joint industrial councils or works committees attempt to settle disputes at the
factory level. In the event of an industrial dispute, the Government m a y , after
conciliation procedures have been exhausted and with the consent of both parties,
submit the dispute to an arbitration tribunal.
In general, strikes have been
infrequent and of short duration. Of the 11 work stoppages involving 1,893
workers in 1963, 8 lasted less than' 1 day.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No.

130

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations —
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE SOMALI REPUBLIC
The Somali Republic, located in the horn of Africa, has an area of 246,000 square
miles and had a population estimated at 2.3 million in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. In July 1960, the country was established as an independent re­
public by a merger of Somalia and British Somaliland. The unicameral National As­
sembly , in which the Somali Youth League (SYL) currently has a majority , elects the
President for a 6-year term. The President appoints or dismisses the Prime Minister
and all other Ministers. In addition to the SYL, the two main political parties
are the Somali National Congress (SNC) and the Somali Democratic Union (SDU).
Economic. Somali has a fundamentally subsistence economy with the great­
est part devoted to animal husbandry. Livestock and hides and skins account for
about 45 percent of total exports. Bananas, the main crop, account for another
45 percent. Other crops are cotton and cereals. Industry, which is small scale,
comprises sugar refining, meat canning, and fish freezing. The gross national
product per capita was estimated at US$50 in 1964. A 5-year development plan
(1963-67) provides for economic expansion through such means as the exploitation
of agricultural, livestock, fishing, and potential mineral resources.
Social. At least 85 percent of the population are of Hamitic stock; the
remainder are mainly Bantu. Arabic, English, and Italian are the languages of
instruction and are widely used in urban areas, since Somali, the spoken lan­
guage, has no written form. Most of the population are Sunni Moslems. The
literacy rate was estimated to be 5 percent in 1963.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. About 60 percent of the population lead a
nomadic or seminomadic existence and another 19 to 22 percent are engaged in



agriculture. The number of wage and salary earners was estimated at 120,000, or
about 14 percent of the labor force, in 1965. The total number of persons em­
ployed in the Government, police, public corporations, banks, and private indus­
trial and commercial units employing 5 persons or more was about 47,000 in 1964.
This was about 2 percent of the population, or 5.8 percent of the labor force.
Employment of women amounted to about 3.7 percent of total employment in the pri­
vate, nonagricultural sector and 5.5 percent in the Government sector. There is
considerable unemployment in urban centers, to some extent a result of the move­
ment of nomads from rural to municipal areas. In 19 urban centers in the southern
region, 25,153 workers had registered for employment in 1963. Only about 25 per­
cent, or 6,400, were placed in jobs. Since that time, the unemployment situa­
tion has worsened considerably. Underemployment is known to be extensive.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The level of productivity is low in
both agriculture and industry, owing largely to the lack of technical knowledge
and shortages of trained professional, managerial, technical, and skilled and
semiskilled personnel. In 1964, professional or technically qualified persons
comprised only about 0.5 percent of the labor force.
In that year, there were
seven intermediate vocational and seven technical schools. A new technical
school accommodating 180 students was built in 1965.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Somali Labor Code of November 1958 has been ex­
tended to include the entire Republic. It provides for annual bonuses and estab­
lishment of minimum wages, when not regulated by collective agreements; maximum
hours of work; a weekly rest day; annual leave; equal pay for equal work for both
men and women; standards for conditions of work of women and young people; and
maternity benefits.
It prohibits nightwork for women and young persons; re­
quires a workbook to be maintained by all employed persons; includes health and
safety standards; provides for collective bargaining and the regulation of labor
disputes; and guarantees the right of labor to organize and to strike. Additional
legislation covers civi 1 servants. The Somali Social Insurance Fund (C.A.S.S.),
under the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Veterinary Services, is responsible for
the administration of the Employment Injury (Occupational Diseases) Law of 1951,
as amended in 1954, which covered 16,040wage and salary earners as of December 31,
1965. The law makes industrial accident insurance compulsory and the program is
financed entirely by the employer (either Government or private). Legislation
enacted in 1954 and 1955, applicable only to public employees, provides for re­
tirement benefits, which are financed by Government and employee contributions.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Health and Labor adminis­
ters labor legislation. The Labor Department of the Ministry works through
regional and district inspectors in carrying out these duties.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Daily wages in 1966 for painters range from US$1.12 to US$1.68; cement
masons and carpenters, US$1.40 to US$2.10; laborers, US$0.70 to US$1.12; and
mechanics, US$2.10 to US$2.80.
In the agricultural sector, daily wages range
from US$0.63 toUS$0.84. Wage and salary earners receive additional remuneration
through fringe benefits, profit-sharing schemes, and bonuses distributed twice
a year.
2



The official workweek is 48 hours, 8 hours a day, except for agricultural
and custodial workers, who work 10 hours a day, 60 hours a week. In Government
service, the official workweek is 40% hours. Overtime is limited to 12 hours
a week for those working 48 hours weekly. All workers are guaranteed an annual
vacation, the length of which depends upon the number of years of service. There
are 16 legal holidays.
The cost-of-living index for the capital, Mogadiscio, rose from 112 in
1960 (1958=100)
to 125 in 1963 and 159 for the first 9 months of 1965. The
level of wages in the money economy has been rising gradually in recent years.
Most of the people, however, are nomads living at a subsistence level.
Employer Organizations
Information is unavailable on employer organizations.
Labor Organizations
Information on the total trade union membership in the Somali Republic
is not available. Data on the three trade union centers indicate that there
are at least 13,000 organized workers in the country. Of these, the Somali Con­
federation of Labor (Confederazione Somali dei Laboratori--CSL), the largest of
the national trade union centers, claimed about 5,300 members in 1964, or less
than 1 percent of the 120,000 wage and salary earners. The CSL, which was formed
in 1949, has 14 affiliates.
It has been affiliated with the International Con­
federation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) since 1955 and is a member of its African
Regional Organization (AFRO). It also is a founding member of the African Trade
Union Confederation (ATUC).
Two smaller centers are the Conf ederation of United Trade Unions of Somalia
(Confederazione Sindacale Lavoratori Uniti della Somalia--CSLUS)
and the Gen­
eral Confederation of Somali Workers
(Confederazione Generale dei Lavoratori
della Somalia--CGLS). The CSLUS was formed in 1959 by a merger of the Somali
.
Federation of United Trade Unions (Federazione dei Sindacati Lavoratori Uniti
della Somalia--FSLUS) and the Federation of Arts and Crafts Workers (FLAM). The
CGLS, which was formed in 1961, is affiliated with the Communist World Federa­
tion of Trade Unions (WFTU). It has a close relationship with the opposition
SDU party.
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining contracts are not common, since there are few in­
dustries employing large numbers of workers and because the Government is the
largest employer. The first step in the settlement of labor disputes is con­
ciliation by the district labor inspector and/or the regional labor inspector;
if these proceedings fail, a worker-employer arbitration board negotiates a
settlement. Unsettled cases may be referred to ordinary courts. The Labor Code
gives workers the right to strike, providing conciliation and arbitration pro­
cedures have been exhausted; 48 hours' notice in writing must be given to the
interested parties. In the case of strikes involving public services and public
utilities,
10 days' written notice must be given after all other procedures
have failed. At various times during the past few years, schoolteachers, dockworkers, and workers in the sugar refining industry have gone on strike.
3






LABOR DIGEST
No. 131
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
The Republic of South Africa, with an area of 472,359 square miles, is at the
southern end of the African continent.
In 1965, it had an estimated population
of 17,832,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Constitution, incorporated in the Republic of South Africa
Constitution Act, 1961, provides for a parliamentary form of government. The
President, theformal Chief of State, is elected fora7-year term by an electoral
college composed of members of Parliament--the House of Assembly, with 170 mem­
bers, and the Senate, with 54 members. He acts on the advice of the Prime Minis­
ter and his Cabinet, consisting of 17 Ministers and 4 Deputy Ministers. Suffrage
is limited to whites over 18 years of age. The two main political parties are
the Nationalist Party and the United Party.
Economic. South Africa has a highly developed economy. Livestock rais­
ing is the main occupation of the rural population. The country is virtually
self-sufficient in foodstuff s . Corn, wheat, peanuts, sugar, tobacco, and potatoes
arethemost important field crops. Industrial development is extensive and has
been expanding rapidly in recent years.
South Africa not only leads the world
in the production of gold but also has among its minerals large deposits of dia­
monds, platinum, uranium, coal, iron ore, chrome, manganese, and asbestos, and
a large variety of other minerals.
In 1964, gold accounted for 43 percent of
total export earnings, followed by exports of food and live animals (16 percent),
wool (8 percent), and hides and skins (2 percent), metal ores, diamonds, and
metal and metal manufactures (each about 6 percent). South Africa's first 5-Year
Economic Development Program (1965-70) envisions a 5% percent annual growth rate.
Social. Estimates of the population, by racial group, in 1965 revealed
that 68.5 percent were Bantu (African); 19 percent, European (white); 9.5 per­
cent, Colored (racially mixed) ; and3percent, Asiatic (Indian). About 60 percent



of the Europeans are Afrikaners, of Dutch, French Huguenot, and German descent;
the remainder are of British stock. The principal African groups are the Xhosa
(29 percent), Zulu (26 percent), and Northern and Southern Sotho combined (22
percent). The official languages are Afrikaans and English; the Africans speak
a number of indigenous languages. Afrikaans is now obligatory in most schools.
A majority of the whites are Christian. Over half of the Africans are animists
and the remainder are Christians. The main religions of the Asians are Hinduism
and Islam. Education is free and compulsory for all white children aged 7 to
16 years.
School attendance is not compulsory for Africans. Most of the white
population is literate; the literacy rate of Africans is estimated at 35 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. According to the 1960 census, 35.6 percent
of the population, or 5,696,060 persons, were in the labor force. Africans com­
prised 68 percent of the total; whites, 20 percent; Coloreds, 10 percent; and
Asians, 2 percent. Approximately 30 percent of the labor force were in agricul­
ture, forestry, and fishing; 21 percent, in services; 12 percent, in manufac­
turing; 10 percent, in mining and quarrying; 8 percent, in commerce and finance;
5 percent, in construction; 4 percent, in transport, storage, and communications;
1 percent, in electricity, gas, water, and sanitary services, and 9 percent,
unspecified and presumably unemployed.
South Africa in recent years has been experiencing a critical manpower
shortage in all sectors of the rapidly expanding economy. According to informed
observers, as well as some members of the South African business community, the
shortage, which consists mainly of professional and technical personnel
and
skilled and semiskilled workers, is primarily the result of the Government's
restrictive policies,
such as job reservation (by law reserving the higher
skilled, better paid jobs for whites), dual wage scales, and the denial of offi­
cial status to non-European workers. These policies prevent the full and effi­
cient utilization of the large reservoir of nonwhite labor. Attempts to alleviate
the shortage of white manpower by recruiting workers outside the country have
not been successful.
No data are available to indicate the extent of unemployment. Under­
employment exists primarily among the African rural population engaged in sub­
sistence agriculture (40 percent of the total African labor force) .
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The general level of productivity
is low,
largely as a result of apartheid laws and regulations, especially job
reservation. In some industries, however, productivity is comparable to that in
European countries and the United States. The increases in productivity which
have occurred in recent years have resulted primarily from the more intensive
use of capital equipment and a rapidly advancing technology. Although the
migratory labor system and legal and institutional barriers severely limit the
ability of nonwhites, primarily the Africans, to acquire and exercise skills
or to undertake more productive work, the shortage of manpower has enabled them
to enter into an expanding range of more skilled jobs formerly reserved for
whites.
Whites constitute only 20 percent of the labor force, but they provide
over 67 percent of the workers in professional, managerial, and administrative

2



occupations. Adequate educational, vocational, and technical training facilities
for nonwhites are not available. Africans are not legally barred from entering
into apprenticeships, but most of them cannot meet the prescribed minimum educa­
tional requirements; they are not permitted to attend white technical colleges;
employers will not indenture them; and white artisans will not train them. Many
employers provide on-the-job training.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. South Africa has a considerable body of labor legis­
lation. The Industrial Conciliation Act, 1956, as amended, provides machinery
for the registration of labor and employer organizations and the settlement of
industrial disputes, defines conditions under which strikes and lockouts are
lawful, protects the right to organize, and provides for the formation of tri­
partite (Government, employer, and labor representatives) industrial councils,
which negotiate binding industrial agreements governing wages and working con­
ditions. Section 77 of the act provides for the reservation of specified classes
of work in any enterprise, trade, occupation, or industry to each race. Similar
provisions are incorporated in legislation regulating the mining, building,
and transport industries. Wage Act No. 5 of 1957 provides for fixing wages and
working conditions (by the Wage Board)
of workers not covered by collective
agreements or awards. The Factories, Machinery, and Building Work Act, 1941,
provides for the registration of factories and for setting maximum hours of work
and minimum conditions of employment for all factory workers, who, by law, must
be separated by race at the place of work. The Native Labour (Settlement of
Disputes) Act, 1953, prohibits strikes and lockouts among African workers, pro­
vides for the compulsory adjudication of disputes through a Central Native La­
bour Board, Regional Labour Committees, and African works committees at the shop
or factory level. A dispute not settled at these levels may be submitted to
the Wage Board. Legislation requires all Africans over 16 years of age to
possess, and produce on demand, a reference book, which contains a record of
their employment; they must also register contracts of employment with the authori­
ties. A network of labor bureaus controls the entry into, residence in, and
employment of Africans in the principal urban, mining, and industrial areas.
Africans who do not accept the employment offered by the employment officer may
be dealt with under provisions relating to idle and undesirable persons--arrested
without warrant,
tried by an administrative official and sent home,
sent to
various penal institutions (as provided for under the Worx Colonies Act, 1949),
or ordered to work for some employer for a specified period of time. Nonwhite
workers are also subject to penal sanctions for breach of an employment con­
tract. Employment offices established under another law perform the normal
functions of such offices for non-Africans. The Apprenticeship Act, 1922, as
amended, provides the statutory framework for apprenticeship.
The Unemployment Insurance Fund, established in 1957 and revised in 1962,
is financed by employer, employee, and Government contributions.
Its cover­
age extends to all Africans who earn between US$764 and US$4,000 a year (thus
excluding most Africans), and all whites, Asians, and Coloreds earning up to
US$4,000 annually.
In a few cases, Africans are permitted to participate
in private funds established by employers and trade unions. The Workmen's
Compensation Act,
1941, as amended, provides for compensation financed by
employers for employees injured or killed at work and also for occupational
diseases.
3



Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Wages set by the Wage Board and industrial agreements vary from industry
to industry and also depend on the area, the employer, and the worker's race.
The wages paid to Africans, a large majority of whom are unskilled workers, are
in general much lower than theUS$84 .00 per month (US$1.80 per day) minimum wage
considered necessary for maintaining an urban standard of living for a typical
African family of five. In 1964, 96.6 percent of the nonwhite railway workers
and over 59 percent of the nonwhite civil servants earned less than this amount,
including salary, rations, and quarters allowances. The average monthly wage
of Africans in industry in 1964 was US$54.60 and in construction, US$51.80; in
mining, it was approximately US$42.00 to US$44.80, including shelter, food, some
clothing, medical care, and recreational facilities. In comparison, the average
monthly wage of whites was US$268.80 in industry; US$281.40 in construction;
and US$224.00 in mining, excluding the value of pension, medical, leave, and
other benefits. In many cases, Africans receive only about 25 to 30 percent of
the average wage of the white laborer, despite the fact that they often perform
the same job as white men.
The average hours of work per week in 1964 ranged from 40 to 44, with the
average for Africans higher than for the other racial groups in both manufactur­
ing and construction.
Prices have risen rapidly in recent years as indicated by the con­
sumer price index, which was 107.1 (1958=100)
in December 1963 and 114.4 in
December 1965.
The level of living of whites is much higher than that of
Africans.
Employer Organizations
At the end of 1964, 225 employer organizations were registered under terms
of the Industrial Conciliation Act, 1956. Most major industries and trades are
members of employer organizations, the most important of which is the South
African Federated Chamber of Industries. Associations established for every
branch of agriculture are affiliated with provincial organizations, which in
turn are members of the South African Agricultural Union.
Labor Organizations
The Industrial Conciliation Act of 1956, as amended, which excludes Afri­
cans from its coverage, has significantly affected the development of trade
unions in South Africa. Although Africans may join trade unions, these unions
are denied legal recognition which, among other things, provides for the right
to organize and to negotiate collective agreements. All unions formed since
1956 have been required to establish autonomous branches for each of the racial
groups represented in their membership. South African trade unions maybedivided
into the following six categories based on their racial composition: African;
Colored; Indian or Asiatic; white; nonwhite, i.e., members from more than one
nonwhite racial group; and racially mixed, i.e., both white and nonwhite mem­
bers. Most unions have all-white membership.
Complete information is not available on the total trade union member­
ship in South Africa; however, it is probably well in excess of 420,000.
4




The largest of the three national trade union centers is the multiracial
Trade Union Council of South Africa (TUCSA), which claims 196,844 members in 76
affiliates, or about 47 percent of organized labor. Formed in 1954 , TUCSA amended
its constitution in 1962 to permit the affiliation of African unions. At present,
it has some 11 African affiliates. TUCSA's total nonwhite membership was esti­
mated in 1965 to be roughly 70,000, or about 36 percent of total TUCSA member­
ship. TUCSA has consistently opposed certain aspects of the Government's labor
policy, such as job reservation and rionrecognition of African unions.
It also
has sought to improve the African worker's economic position, particularly by
advocating payment of the rate for the job, regardless of race.
The other two national centers are the Coordinating Council of South Afri­
can Trade Unions (CCSAIU), with 39,030 members in 1962, and the South African
Federation of Trade Unions (SAFTU), with 66,263 members in that year. These
national centers, together with the Federal Consultative Council of South Afri­
can Railway and Harbours Staff Associations, cooperate within the South African
Confederation of Labour (SACL), a coordinating body which supports the Govern­
ment's labor policy. The CCSATU, which was formed in 1948, is composed of allwhite membership, while SAFTU, formed in 1951, has one affiliate with nonwhite
membership.
The Federation of Free African Trade Unions of South Africa (FOFATUSA),
a small African national center which was an affiliate of the International Con­
federation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), decided to dissolve itself in early
1966 and urged its affiliates to join TUCSA. The South African Congress of Trade
Unions (SACTU), a predominantly African national center alined with the banned
African National Congress party, has ceased to function.
In addition to the existing national centers, there are a large number
of independent unions of varying racial composition. One of the largest of these
is the racially mixed Amalgamated Engineering Union, with 17,608 members claimed,
which disaffiliated from TUCSA in 1966. There are also 14 industrial joint
committees, which coordinate the activities of a number of unions in a particular
industry irrespective of their national affiliation.
Nine International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have a total of 36 affili­
ates in South Africa, including 19 unions affiliated through three industrial joint
committees. The nine ITS
are: The International Federation of Building and
Woodworkers; International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical
Employees; International Union of Food and Allied Workers' Associations; Inter­
national Graphical Federation; International Metalworkers' Federation; Miners'
International Federation; International Shoe and Leather Workers' Federation;
International Textile and Garment Workers' Federation; and the International
Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
At the end of 1964, 132 industrial council agreements were in operation;
44 conciliation boards had been established; of these, 28 had settled the dis­
putes,
10 were still considering their disputes, and 4 had referred their
disputes to the Industrial Tribunal for arbitration (all were settled); 2 dis­
putes were settled by the parties. Of the 37,849 shifts lost during the year
as a result of work stoppages, 36,049 resulted from a 12-week strike involving
5



600 white workers in one industry. The large majority of the labor force are
comprised of African workers who are excluded from the system of industrial
relations established by the Industrial Conciliation Act by its definition of
an employee. As a result, their wages and other conditions of employment are
not arrived at through collective bargaining by representatives of their own
choosing but are prescribed either by Government regulation or by the applica­
tion of existing collective agreements to them. They are not permitted to join
registered trade unions and any they may form are not legally recognized. Legis­
lation also restricts the operations of recognized mixed trade unions of white
and nonwhite persons and, since 1956, has in effect prohibited the registration
of such new unions. Africans have no right under law to participate in the
settlement of disputes and any strike by them is a statutory crime, subject to
heavy penalties.

6




LABOR DIGEST
No. 132
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA
South West Africa lies on the west coast of Africa and adjoins South Africa on
the northwest.
It covers an area of 317,725 square miles and, according to
the 1960 census, had a population of 526,004.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Since January 1, 1921, South West Africa has been administered
by the Republic of South Africa under a League of Nations mandate, which provided
that it could be administered under the laws of South Africa as an integral part
of its territory.
South Africa1s administration of the Territory was recently
the subject of a case before the International Court of Justice.
The Administrator of the Territory, appointed by the South African Gov­
ernment, heads the South West Africa Government. He has semiveto rights on all
matters except African affairs, which, since 1954, have been the responsibility
of South Africa*s Department of Bantu Administration and Development. All ex­
ecutive power rests with the South African Government and all legislative power,
with the South African Parliament. The South West Africa Legislative Assembly,
composed of 18 members, has power to legislate on matters not reserved to the
Republic's Government, subject to the latter's approval. The Territory has six
seats in South Africa's House of Assembly and four seats in the Senate. The
franchise is limited to white adult citizens. The South West Africa National
Party is dominant in the Government; the opposition, the United National South­
west Party, lost its last seat in the territorial legislature in the 1966 general
election.
Economic. The most important economic activities are mining, fishing,
and agriculture, which consists essentially of raising cattle, sheep, and goats.
In 1964, mining accounted for60percent of the total value of exports; fishing,
21 percent; and agriculture, 19 percent. Diamonds, the most important mineral,
contributed 40 percent of the value of total exports; next in importance were




copper, lead, and zinc. Livestock, pelts, hides, and skins accounted for 96
percent of total agricultural exports and karakul pelts alone, for 43 percent.
Industrial activity, other than the operations of the mining companies and fish
factories, is very limited. The administration is investing heavily in develop­
ment programs under the first 5-year plan. In 1962, the per capita gross domes­
tic product was US$376.88, one of the highest in Africa.
Social. Of the total population in 1960, 80 percent were Africans (Na­
tives), 14 percent were whites, and 6 percent were Coloreds (people of racially
mixed origin). The Ovambos numbered 239,363 in 1960 and comprise the largest
ethnic group; others are the Damara, 44,353; Hereros, 35,000; Nama,
34,806;
Rehoboth Basters, 11,257; and Bushmen, 11,762. Most of the nonwhite population
is animist; the white population is predominantly Christian. The official lan­
guages are English and Afrikaans, but German is officially recognized.
It is
compulsory for white children to attend school. The administration has recently
undertaken a campaign against illiteracy among the nonwhite population.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1964, 2,654 of the white wage and salary
earners were employed in mining; 3,270 were railway workers; about 4,000 were
in Government service; and an unspecified number were engaged in the fishing and
other industries. A majority (267,671 in 1960) of the nonwhite labor force live
in the Northern Native Reserves and practice subsistence agriculture, based on
cattle and millet. Almost two-thirds of the 28,000 Africans (in 1961) living in
17 Native Reserves in the Police Zone in the south work on European-owned farms;
they are not allowed to own land. Nonwhite wage and salary earners employed in
mines in 1964 numbered 10,208; in railways, 4,160; and in Government service,
about 4,000.
In order to earn cash wages, Africans from the reserves must enter the
Police Zone to work. The South West African Native Labor Association (Proprie­
tary) Ltd. (SWANLA), the single labor recruitment system in the Territory since
1943, enters into contracts for African labor with the prospective employers,
who pay SWANLA, for each African ordered, an amount varying between US$22.40
and US$50.40, depending on the category of laborer. African workmen enter into
a 12- to 18-month contract with SWANLA, which assigns them to their destination
and determines the wages and working conditions stipulated in their contracts.
Of the 27,161 Angolans and Ovambos recruited in 1961, 6,703 were assigned to the
mines, 9,559 toother industries and works in South West Africa, 8,658 to farms,
and 2,241 to South African mines. Contract laborers are not permitted to bring
their families with them. After the termination of their contract,
they must
return to the Native Reserve foraperiod of at least 3 months, after which they
may again be recruited for work in the Police Zone.
There is virtually no unemployment among the white population. The sys­
tem which regulates the labor force in the Territory precludes the measurement
of unemployment among Africans. Underemployment is widespread among the African
work force in the subsistence economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Primitive methods of production in
the large subsistence sector, the lack of opportunities for education, training,
and advancement, illiteracy , and poverty among the African labor force contribute
2



to low productivity.
In addition, the system of contract labor under which a
majority of Africans are employed results in a high rate of turnover, lack of
job tenure, and limited opportunities for the acquisition of skills and expe­
rience. All professional, technical, administrative, managerial, and skilled
jobs are held by Europeans; Africans are confined to unskilled work. Most of
them on farms are laborers, servants, herdsmen, and shepherds; others are mine
laborers, cannery workers, messengers, and porters. In some cases, legal provi­
sions, such as mining regulations, bar African workers from promotion.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Under existing legislation which applies only to
African workers, infractions of labor discipline, unauthorized absences, refusal
to take orders, failures in the performance of assigned tasks, engaging in
strikes, breaking a contract before it expires, and many other acts are con­
sidered criminal offenses punishable by law. Africans do not have the right to
organize or bargain collectively. The Government and employers determine wage
rates and other conditions of employment.
Administration and Practice. No information is available on the struc­
ture of labor enforcement agencies nor on their operations.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wage rates for contract workers in mining are US$0.42 per shift
(8 hours) for the first half of the contract year, US$0.49 for the next 3months,
and US$0.56 for the last 3 months; for similar periods in industry,
the rates
are US$0.36, US$0.42, and US$0.50, respectively.
In both mining and industry,
the workweek is 48 hours and time and a half is paid for overtime. In agricul­
ture and domestic service, minimum monthly wage rates are US$6.30 (for young
workers aged 16 and 17), US$8.40, US$9.45, and US$10.50, depending on the cate­
gory of worker; their hours of work are not regulated and reportedly of ten exceed
48 per week. Labor contracts require employers to furnish their employees with
food, lodging, medical care, and some clothing. The actual wages and fringe
benefits workers receive vary by industry and size of employer. African workers
living in Reserves in tl^e Police Zone receive higher wages than those employed
under contract. A representative monthly wage for Coloreds is about US$112.00.
Europeans receive wages ranging from US$280.00 per month in the motor industry
to US$840.00 in the fishing industry.
Reportedly, the cost of living in the Territory is 20 percent higher than
in South Africa. The level of living in the rapidly expanding economy is high
for Europeans but very low for non-Europeans, many of whom live at a subsistence
level.
Employer Organizations
No information is available on employer organizations.
Labor Organizations
No trade unions are known to exist in South West Africa. The Union of
South West Africa Workers-in-Exile was formed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in
3



1962. However, current information on this organization is not available and
it is not known if it still exists.
Labor-Management Relations
The conditions under which the large African majority in the labor force
are employed provides them no opportunities to participate in the determination
of their conditions of employment. They have no right to organize, bargain
collectively, elect shop stewards or grievance committees, and they may not
engage in strikes.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 133
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN RHODESIA
Southern Rhodesia, located in south-central Africa, has an area of 150,333 square
miles. Its population in mid-1965 was estimated at 4.26 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Formerly part of the British-administered Federation of Rho­
desia and Nyasaland and a self-governing colony of the United Kingdom, Southern
Rhodesia unilaterally proclaimed itself independent November 11, 1965.
As
neither Great Britain nor any other country has recognized the present Rhodesian
regime, the present political and constitutional status is in question.
The
United Kingdom imposed economic sanctions to bring to an end the rebellion in
Southern Rhodesia. In this action, the United Kingdom has been widely supported
by the policies of the rest of the world and by the United Nations Security
Council on November 12 and 20, 1965. Future political arrangements and insti­
tutions will depend on the nature of the resolution of the present crisis.
Governmental institutions of the rebel regime, operating under the Con­
stitution of 1961 and incorporated into the illegal Constitution of 1965, include
a Legislative Assembly to which members are elected by voters on the income-,
property-, and education-based rolls, which consist of an "A" roll (50 seats,
held almost exclusively by whites) and a "BM roll (15 seats, held almost exclu­
sively by Africans) , and an appointed Constitutional Council whose function is.to
safeguard the constitutional rights of individuals (primarily Africans) . Opposing
the dominant party, the Rhodesian Front, are the Zimbabwe African National Union
(ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) , both outlawed since 1963.
Economic. Agriculture, the main economic activity, provides almost 25
percent of the gross national product (GNP), with tobacco accounting for over
50 percent of the total crop value; manufacturing (especially agricultural
implements, truck bodies, and processed foods) contributes about 15 percent of




the G N P , and commerce, about 13 percent. Among the minerals exploited are as­
bestos, gold, chrome, coal, and copper. The main exports are tobacco, minerals,
corn, and manufactured goods. Almost half of the 4 million Africans are vir­
tually outside the money economy.
Social. Africans, who comprise about 94 percent of the population, are
mainly of various Bantu tribes; two large groups, the Mashona and theMatabele,
each include various groups of tribes.
Europeans comprise about 5 percent of
the population, and the remainder are Asians and Coloreds (persons of mixed
race). The white minority are Christians; most Africans are animists but some
are Christian.
English is the official language; two main Bantu languages,
Ndebele and Shona, are spoken by many Africans. African enrollment in primary
schools in 1965 was approximately 628,000 and in secondary schools, 11,500. The
literacy rate is about 20 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Data on the size of the total labor force
are unavailable. Wage and salary earners in 1964 numbered about 693,000, of
whom the largest numbers were in agriculture, forestry, and fishing (228,000);
services, including domestic service (180,000); and commerce (58,000). About
80,000 to 90,000 were Europeans
(holding most supervisory and technical posi­
tions) , Asians, and Coloreds; of the estimated 603,000 Africans (mostly unskilled
and semiskilled), 42 percent were in agriculture, 12 percent in manufacturing,
and 23 percent in services (including domestic service).
In 1964, almost half
of the labor force (especially migratory farm laborers) came from outside the
country, mainly from Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique. African unemployment in
1964 was estimated at 70,000. European unemployment has been insignificant, but
it is expected to increase with the disruption in trade following the imposition
of economic sanctions by most of Southern Rhodesia's trading partners in 1965
after the November declaration of independence.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity of African workers is,
in general, low as compared with that of Europeans, owing partly to the rela­
tively limited skills and training of most of the African labor force. A variety
of schools at the secondary level offer some commercial and technical subjects.
In 1964, there were 49 teacher-training institutions, as well as agricultural
colleges. In 1965, African enrollment in teacher-training schools was 2,819 and
in technical and vocational schools, 830. The training of apprentices is gov­
erned by industry committees, which include training specialists as well as
representatives of employers and workers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The principal labor laws are the Apprenticeship Act,
which provides for industry committees; the Factories and Works Act, which pro­
vides for protection of workers' health and safety in industry; and the Indus­
trial Conciliation Act, which governs the registration of worker and employer
organizations, procedures for the settlement of industrial disputes, and the
right to strike. The Industrial Conciliation Act also provides for industrial
councils and boards authorized to negotiate conditions of work in industries
where labor organizations are not strong enough to do so.
2




Administration and Practice. The Government,
in addition to adminis­
tering the labor laws, conducts employment exchange services and operates a
Workmen's Compensation Insurance Fund to provide compensation in the case of in­
dustrial accidents or death resulting therefrom. At the end of 1964, the Depart­
ment of Labour (in the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare) had 31 industrial
inspection officers and 25 industrial and labor assistants.
The industrial
councils and boards had established conditions of work for about 125,000 em­
ployees by the end of 1964.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Annual earnings of non-Africans in 1964 averaged US$3,475 and of Afri­
cans, US$339. The average hourly wage of skilled workers (electricians, paint­
ers, etc.) in 1964 was US$1.54 to US$1.68 in most industries and US$1.88 in
printing.
At the end of 1964, minimum monthly wage rates set by industrial
boards ranged from US$18.20 for unskilled work in urban areas to US$40.95 in
motor vehicle manufacturing. In many cases, employers provide free housing for
the lowest paid African workers. No information is available on hours of work
or on vacations and holidays. From January 1962 to June 1965, the consumer
price index for Europeans rose by 12 percent and for Africans in the main towns,
by 9 percent.
Employer Organizations
At the beginning of 1965, there were 33 registered employers' associa­
tions; the membership included mine owners, transport operators, clothing manu­
facturers, and others. In addition, there are Chambers of Commerce and Chambers
of Industry in Salisbury, Bulawayo, and elsewhere.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership is approximately 82,000, or about 12 percent
of the 693,000 wage and salary earners in 1964.
Unions representing Africans
have a total membership of about 56,000, or some 9 percent of the estimated
603.000 African wage and salary earners. Unions representing non-Africans have
a membership of nearly 26,000, or some 30 percent of the estimated 80,000 to
90.000 non-African wage and salary earners.
The African Trade Union Congress (ATUC) has nine affiliates with a total
membership of 29,198, or about 36 percent of all trade union members. The ATUC
was formed in 1962 as the Southern Rhodesian African Trades' Union Congress
(SRATUC).
It adopted its present name in 1963 when it absorbed the Southern
Rhodesia Trades' Union Congress
(SRTUC).
It is affiliated with the African
Trade Union Confederation (ATUC).
The largest ATUC affiliate is the Railway
African Workers' Union (RAWU) , with some 16,000 members.
The other African center, the National African Federation of Unions
(NAFU) , has seven affiliates with about 14,670 members, or 18 percent of the orga­
nized work force„ The NAFU was formed in 1965 by former affiliates of the banned
Zimbabwe African Congress of Unions (ZACU), which had a close relationship with
the outlawed ZANU party. The NAFU is affiliated with the All-African Trade Union
Federation (AATUF).




3

The national center representing Europeans, the Trade Union Congress of
Rhodesia (TUCR), has 11 affiliates with about 16,140 members, or about 20 per­
cent of all trade union members. The TUCR was formed in 1964 as the successor
to the Trade Union Congress of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (FTUC).
It supports the policies of the Rhodesian Front.
There are a number
any national center.

of African and European unions

not affiliated with

Nine International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in Rhodesia:
The International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees;
International Union of Food and Allied Workers' Associations; International
Metalworkers' Federation; Miners' International Federation; International Fed­
eration of Petroleum and Chemical Workers; Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone
International; Public Services International; International Textile and Garment
Workers' Federation; and International Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining plays a less important role than the industrial
councils and boards in the determination of wages and conditions of employment.
The unions, however, from time to time conduct strikes. In 1964, there were 119
strikes involving 14,866 employees and the loss of 42,698 man-days (the largest
figure since 1960); one strike alone (at a colliery) involved 4,200 employees
and the loss of 32,000 man-days.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 134
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SPANISH SAHARA
Spanish Sahara, located along the northern coast of Africa, covers an area of
approximately 102,700 square miles and, in 1963, had an estimated population of
25,000 to 40,000.
Spanish Sahara, organized as a province in 1958, is administered by an
appointed Governor General, who is assisted by a General Secretary. The Provin­
cial Council is elected on the basis of limited suffrage.
Because most of the area is desert, agriculture is practically nonexist­
ent. Cocoa is the leading commercial crop and some barley and corn are grown
in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases. The major
industries are fishing and handicrafts. Animals--mainly camels, goats, and
sheep--are regarded by the people as symbols of wealth and property.
The four principal groups comprising the population are the Chorfa, Arabs ,
Tecna, and Znaga; there are also about 2,000 Spaniards. Moslems constitute 50
percent of the population; most of the remainder are Catholics. In 1957-58, 10
teachers staffed the country's 8 schools, which together enrolled 337 students.
In addition, several hundred adults attended classes. Literacy among the Span­
iards is estimated at nearly 100 percent and among the nomads, possibly 5 percent.
Fifty percent of the labor force, estimated at 12,000 in 1961, were en­
gaged in agriculture.
There are no trade union organizations, and there is no information avail­
able on syndicates in Spanish Sahara.







LABOR DIGEST
No. 135
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN
The Republic of the Sudan, located in northeast Africa, has an area of 967,500
square miles and is the largest country in Africa.
It had an estimated popula­
tion of about 13 million in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. The Sudan became an independent republic in 1956 under a pro­
visional constitution establishing a parliamentary system of government. A
military junta seized power in 1958 and ruled the country until October 1964,
when popular discontent forced it to step down. The 1956 Constitution was re­
instated, with a number of important changes; a Constituent Assembly, elected
in the spring of 1965, will serve as a legislature for a period of 2 years and
will draft a permanent constitution. The Assembly appoints both the Supreme
Council of State (the Sudan*s highest constitutional authority) and the Prime
Minister. The present Government, headed by Prime Minister Mohammed Ahmed
Mahjoub of the Umma Party,
is a coalition of the Umma Party and the National
Union Party (NUP).
Economic. The economy, which is primarily agricultural, consists of a
modern sector based mainly on the production and export of cotton and a tradi­
tional sector that produces for domestic consumption.
In 1963, agriculture
accounted for 51 percent of the gross domestic product; transportation and bank­
ing, 18 percent; mining, manufacturing, and construction, 11 percent; and serv­
ices and miscellaneous activities, 20 percent. 0nly3percent of the total area
is under cultivation, but land capable of producing crops is estimated tobefive
to six times this amount. The main crops are cotton (which accounted for 55 per­
cent of exports in 1963), gum arabic, grain, and oilseeds; the principal indus­
tries are food processing, maintenance and repair of transport and agricultural
machinery, and production of consumer goods. The "National Charter" of the
coalition Government proposes a program of substantial state control and direction




of all economic activities.
process of revision.

A 10-year development plan

(1961-71) is in

the

Social. Arabic is the official language of the country and the native
tongue of over half of the population. Most of the people in the south speak
diverse African languages and dialects, but English is also spoken, serving to
some extent as a lingua franca.
In the north, English is widely spoken among
the educated, but a majority of the population speak only Arabic. Islam, the
official religion, is practiced by over 60 percent of the population; the south has
some followers of Christianity but is predominantly pagan. Among the Sudanese,
the principal ethnic divisions are Arab (40 percent), Nilotic, or Negroid, ele­
ments (20 percent), Beja (6 percent), and Nubian (Arab-Negroid, 6 percent).
Although non-Sudanese account for less than 3 percent of the population, they are
important in private industry and commerce. Northern Sudanese dominate politics
and public administration. Of 1.5 million children aged 7 to 11, 397 ,799 were en­
rolled in elementary schools during the 1963-64 school year. The literacy rate
is estimated at 5 to 10 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force was estimated at 3.5 mil­
lion, or about 27 percent of the population, in 1964. About 90 percent were
engaged in agriculture, hunting, fishing, and animal husbandry; about 5 percent
were employed in Government services, transportation, and commerce; and the re­
maining 5 percent were in other activities.
The Government, with about 200,000
wage and salary earners, is the largest employer of the nonagricultural labor
force. Much of the economic activity is seasonal. The Gezira Scheme, which
produces the bulk of the Sudan's cotton, attracts thousands of Sudanese from all
parts of the country during the cotton-picking season. Statistical data on un­
employment are either incomplete or unavailable. By the end of 1964, the number
of unemployed persons was about 45,000 in urban, northern Sudan, with reportedly
18,000 to 20,000 unemployed in the Khartoum area alone.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The lack of mechanization , low levels
of education, and poor health, coupled with lack of incentive to produce other
than for immediate needs, are among the factors which contribute to the low level
of productivity in both agriculture and industry.
One of the country's major problems is the shortage of skilled and semi­
skilled workers, technicians, managers, and administrators. Programs within the
school system and in various Government agencies, as well as on-the-job train­
ing sponsored by industrial establishments, have been initiated
to increase
skills. The Khartoum Technical Institute and the Khartoum Senior Trade School are
the main training institutes. Almost a thousand students are receiving vocational
training outside the country.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The basic provisions of labor legislation are in­
cluded in the Employers' and Employed Persons' Ordinance (1948), as amended,
which contains provisions relating to hours of work, rest periods, sick leave,
vacations and holidays, payment of wages, separation benefits, overtime pay,
2



and other terms of employment. Other ordinances governing labor are the Domestic
Servants' Ordinance, 1955; Industrial Apprenticeship Act, 1908; Manpower Act,
1955; Employment Exchange Ordinance, 1955; Wages Tribunals Ordinance,
1952;
Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1949 ;Workshops and Factories Ordinance, 1949;
and Regulation of Trades Disputes Act, 1966. Social security legislation was en­
acted in September 1965. Medical and public health services are free.
Administration and Practice. The Department of Labour of the Ministry of
Labour and Social Affairs administers and enforces all labor and social security
legislation and is responsible for the inspection of work places. Enforcement
is limited by the small size of the inspection staff.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The Government, as the largest employer, sets the wage and salary pattern.
Daily wages in 1963 ranged from US$1.26 to US$2.10 for carpenters, US$1.40 to
US$2.24 for mechanics, US$1.26 for plant maintenance workers, and US$1.68 to
US$2.24 for yard supervisors. The average wage of unskilled urban workers is
about US$23.00 per month. Seasonal agricultural workers usually receive higher
wages.
For the small sector of the economy made up of Government enterprises and
commercial and industrial establishments,
the average workweek is 36 hours, 6
days a week. Time and a half is paid for overtime in some industries. There
are 15 legal holidays.
Some Government enterprises provide free or low-cost
housing.
The cost-of-living index for the lower income wage and salary earners
rose from 142.9 in January 1960 (1951=100) to 165.6 in December 1962 and 178.6
in June 1964, and for higher income wage and salary earners, from 141.2 inJanuary 1960 to 162.8 in January 1963 and 172.3 in June 1964. Rises in the indexes
are followed by increases in cost-of-living allowances for certain categories
of workers and employees. Most of the population live at the subsistence level.
In 1964, the estimated per capita gross national product was US$88.70.
Employer Organizations
The membership of the Chamber of Commerce includes both local and foreign
businessmen. Recently, a number of employers have made considerable progress
toward forming an employer organization, for which tentative registration with
the Department of Labour has been sought.
Labor Organizations
Based on incomplete data,
trade union membership is estimated to be
83,600. At present, there are three national trade union centers: The Federa­
tion of Sudanese Workers' Unions (FSWU), formed in 1963, and the Federation of
Workers' Trade Unions of the Private Sector and the Federation of Workers' Trade
Unions of the Public Sector, both formed in 1965. Although present labor legis­
lation prohibits affiliation with external labor organizations, the FSWU main­
tains connections with both the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions
(ICATU) and the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF). Its secretary




3

general, El Shafie Ahmed El Seikh, is a vice president of the Communist World
Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). The 1965 Registration of Trade Unions Act
required all existing trade unions to reregister to acquire legal status. No
information is available on the registration completed to date nor on affilia­
tion of Sudanese unions with national centers. The largest union in the coun­
try is the Sudan Railways Workers' (Trade) Union (SRWU), with an estimated
28,000 members in 1965.
Labor-Management Relations
Collective agreements are not common; from
about 10 were signed.

mid-June 1963 to July 1964,

The Regulation of Trades Disputes Act prescribes procedures for settling
all labor disputes, except those involving members of the Armed Forces, police
force, prison administration, and the judiciary. The act requires that in the
event of a dispute,
the parties must negotiate within a maximum period of 3
weeks, after which either party may apply to the Commissioner of Labour for
mediation. If mediation fails, the Commissioner, with the consent of both par­
ties, may refer the dispute to an arbitration tribunal, whose membership in­
cludes representatives of Government, labor, and management; all of the members
(except the chairman) are appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs.
The act also authorizes the Constituent Assembly to refer the dispute to an
arbitration tribunal when an essential industry is involved or when the dispute
might jeopardize public tranquility.
Strikes and lockouts are prohibited during negotiations, after the award
of an arbitration tribunal, when harmful to the public interest, and when the
dispute does not involve economic issues.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 136
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor a'nd Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN SWAZILAND
Swaziland occupies an area of 6,704 square miles almost wholly within the Repub­
lic of South Africa. The population in 1965 was about 296,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Administered as a Protectorate of the United Kingdom, Swazi­
land is governed by a British Commissioner, appointed by the Queen of England,
and an Executive Council of 10 members (4 official and 6 unofficial). The 1964
Constitution provided for a Legislative Council, of which eight members were
elected by universal suffrage, eight by the European voters, and eight selected
by traditional Swazi methods.
The 1964 election was won by the traditionalist
Imbokodvo National Movement and its European allies in the United Swaziland
Association. The modernist parties, principal among which is the Ngwane National
Liberatory Congress, failed to win a single seat. A new constitution, which
will eliminate racial divisions of seats in the Legislature, is likely to go
into effect in late 1966 or early 1967.
Economic. Subsistence farming and livestock raising are the principal
economic activities of most of the population.
The main agricultural products
are cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar, and vegetables. The modern economy is based
largely on mining; asbestos, a major export, is being superseded by iron ore.
Secondary industrial development is recent and is limited to the processing of
local agricultural products.
In 1963, processed goods, mainly sugar and wood
pulp, accounted for about 60 percent of total exports by value; minerals, about
23 percent; and unprocessed agricultural products,
17 percent.
In 1965, the
annual per capita gross national product was about US$100.
Social. About 96 percent of the population are African; 3 percent, Euro­
pean; and 1 percent, "Eurafrican" (mixed European and African). About 73 percent
of the population adhere to traditional religious beliefs and 27 percent are
Christian. The Zulu language is taught in the schools and is generally used for



official purposes. The Swazi language (Siswati) is spoken by most Africans.
About 60 percent of the Swazi children aged 5 to 14 attend primary schools. Pri­
mary school enrollment in 1963 was 44,430.
In 1962, about 36 percent of the
population over 9 years of age were literate in at least one language. Literacy
among non-Africans is almost universal.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Most of the labor force (persons aged 15
to 64) are engaged in subsistence farming and livestock raising. The labor force
in 1964 was estimated at about 50 percent of the total population. According
to official estimates, wage and salary earners in 1964 totaled 50,000. Approxi­
mately 38 percent were engaged in agriculture, 23 percent in services, 20 percent
in manufacturing, 8 percent in construction, 7 percent in mining, and 4 percent
in other activities. About 6,500 Swazi workers are employed annually on farms
and in mines in the Republic of South Africa. Unemployment is reported to be
chronic. Underemployment is prevalent, particularly in agriculture.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Productivity improvements are ham­
pered by the continuation of primitive farming methods, overgrazing of land, and
a high rate of labor turnover, which inhibits the development of skills.
Some
employers are now encouraging the formation of a permanent labor force by pro­
viding quarters for married workers; in the past, the families of most laborers
were left at home. Most of the skilled workers are Europeans from South Africa
and Mozambique. According to a 1960 survey, 80 percent of rural male Swazi
workers and 40 percent of urban male workers were engaged in unskilled manual
jobs, mainly in farming, mining, forestry, and public works. Nonlocals held 30
to 61 percent of the jobs in skilled and professional occupations.
There are a number of trade and teacher-training schools. A tripartite
Apprenticeship Board was established in 1964 to promote apprenticeship training.
An agricultural training institution was opened in 1966.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. « The main labor laws include the New Workers' Compen­
sation Proclamation ( 1963), which covers minimum wages for virtually all workers
whose earnings do not exceed US$1,071 per year; the Trade Unions Proclamation
(1942, as amended in 1963) ; the Industrial Conciliation and Settlement Proclama­
tion (1963) , which provides for the establishment of joint negotiating machinery;
the Employment Proclamation (1962), which regulates working conditions for women
and young persons; and the Mines, Works, and Machinery Proclamation (1960) and
Explosives Proclamation (1961), which cover safety in mines and factories.
Administration and Practice. The Secretary for External Affairs and
Labour and the Labour Commissioner are responsible for the enforcement of labor
legislation. Eight labor officers, an inspector of machinery, and an inspector
of mines conduct inspections.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wages for unskilled workers in agriculture in 1964 were US$0.41
to US$1.71 per week; in mining, US$2.36 to US$2.70; in construction, US$1.61 to

2



US$3.57; and in trade, US$2.93 to US$3.21. The monetary value of supplemen­
tary benefits,
such as housing, rations, schools, and medical facilities, is
generally estimated by employers to be two to three times the amount of the cash
wage. The average monthly earnings of African employees
in 1964 varied from
US$8.30 in agriculture to US$45.48 in construction; those of Europeans ranged
from US$139.22 in the wood, paper, and printing industries to US$274.52 in
construction.
The normal weekly hours of work vary from 45 to 48 in mining and quarry­
ing, 45 to 54 in plantation agriculture, 45 to 50 in construction, 45 to 75 in
hotels and catering, 45 to 52 in commerce, and 42 to 68 in domestic service.
The retail price index (January-March 1964=100) was 108.2 in the fourth
quarter of 1964.
Employer Organizations
The Federation of Swaziland Employers,
ployers, plays a role in ipdus-triax relations.

which includes

most major em­

Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership is estimated to be about 5,850, or approxi­
mately 11 percent of the estimated 50,000 wage and salary earners. The Swaziland
Federation of Trade Unions, which was formed in 1965, has been dissolved and,
at present, there are no national trade union centers in the territory. How­
ever, efforts are being made to organize a new national center, the Swaziland
Trade Union Congress. There are 14 active trade unions in Swaziland.
Labor-Management Relations
The Industrial Conciliation and Settlement Proclamation provides for the
establishment of joint negotiating machinery in each firm and industry and pro­
vides for arbitration in essential services. After a dispute is reported to
the Labour Commissioner, a cooling-off period of 21 days is required before a
strike or lockout is permitted. Joint consultative bodies and works councils
exist in a number of enterprises. Reportedly, 4,130 man-days were lost due to
strikes in 1964.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No. 137
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of L^bor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
Mainland Tanzania, located on the east coast of Africa, has an area of 362,688
square miles and in 1965 had a population estimated at 10,179,000,
Zanzibar
consists of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and other nearby islets situated
about 25 miles off the coast of mainland Tanzania.
Zanzibar island has an area
of 640 square miles and Pemba island, 380 square miles; together they had an
estimated population of 320,000 in 1964.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Tanganyika became an independent country within the British
Commonwealth on December 9, 1961, and a republic on December 9, 1962. In 1964,
Tanganyika and Zanzibar (which achieved independence in 1963) united and became
the United Republic of Tanzania. Under the Interim Constitution approved in
September 1965, the President, assisted by two Vice Presidents, exercises execu­
tive power. Legislative power rests with the National Assembly, which can con­
sist of as many as 204 members, 107 of whom are elected; up to 55 members are
from Zanzibar. The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), headed by Presi­
dent Julius K. Nyerere, who was elected for a new 5-year term in September 1965,
is the only political party on the mainland; the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP)
is
the national party in Zanzibar.
Economic. Agriculture, by far the largest economic sector, is the basis
of the economy.
In 1964, it contributed 57.6 percent of the gross domestic
product (GDP), of which about 12 percent was accounted for by nonagricultural
primary products, namely livestock, forestry, and fishing. The remainder of the
GDP was contributed by services (12.5 percent), commerce (11.6 percent), rent
(4.5 percent), transport (4.1 percent), manufacturing (3.6 percent), construc­
tion (3.0 percent) , mining and quarrying (2.4 percent), and water and electricity
(0.7 percent).
Sisal (of which Tanzania is the world's largest producer),
coffee, and cotton are the principal exports, accounting for over 50 percent of
the total in value. The most important food crops grown mainly for domestic



consumption are rice, maize, cassava, wheat, sweet potatoes, bananas and plan­
tains, and millet• Zanzibar is the world's leading producer of cloves, which
account for about 95 percent of its exports. The GDP per capita in 1964 was
US$67.20. The primary objective of the 5-Year Plan for Economic and Social
Development (1964-69)
is the growth of the agricultural cash economy largely
through the expansion of cooperatives.
Social. About 99 percent of the population are Africans; the remaining
1 percent is comprised of Indo-Pakistanis, Arabs, Europeans, and others. Of
the numerous tribal groups (122), only the Sukuma has over 1 million members.
English (the language of commerce and administration) and Swahili (the lingua
franca) are co-equal official languages on the mainland. In Zanzibar, Swahili
alone is the official language. According to the 1957 census, 30.9 percent of
the population practiced Islam, 24.9 percent were Christian, and the remainder
were animists. The literacy rate in 1965 was about 10 percent.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. Of the 5.5 million people of working age,
only 351,257 (45,221 foreigners)
in 1964 were wage and salary earners. The
total excludes the very large number of workers in subsistence agriculture, in
the military forces, and an estimated 23,000 in domestic service. Forty-seven
percent of the wage and salary earners were employed in agriculture, 21 percent
in services, 10 percent in construction, 7 percent each in manufacturing and in
transport and communications, 5 percent in commerce, and the remainder in mining
and utilities.
No statistics are available to indicate the full extent of unemployment.
The number of wage and salary earners declined from 411,538 in 1961 to 351,257
in 1964, and the preliminary returns for the 1965 Enumeration of Employees in­
dicated a further decline of over 5 percent, most of which was in the sisal indus­
try. Underemployment is widespread in the large agricultural
subsistence
sector of the economy.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Among the factors contributing to
very low productivity in the agricultural sector are the poor nutrition and health
of the workers, their use of primitive tools to cultivate small plots of land,
and impoverishment of the soil by the practice of bush burning. The Government,
aware of the shortage of trained and skilled manpower at all levels, is taking
steps to increase educational and training facilities. The country has several
technical and trade schools, teacher-training centers, the Agricultural College
at Tengeru, the Civil Service Training Center and the Institute of Public Ad­
ministration, and the University of East Africa. At this time, Tanzania has no
widespread formal apprenticeship program. A number of individual employers have
their own training programs.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Basic labor legislation applies to all employees and
assures them the right to organize and bargain collectively. It covers recruit­
ment, contracts of employment, payment of wages, paid holidays, a weekly day of
rest, the employment of women and young persons, and the establishment of pen­
sion schemes, and provides for the establishment of a Labour Advisory Board,
2



minimum wage boards for fixing wage rates in various industries, the registra­
tion and inspection of factories, and workmen's compensation* Legislation en­
acted in 1962 provides the procedures for the settlement of industrial disputes
through conciliation, arbitration, or boards of inquiry, and makes strikes or
lockouts illegal until the parties have exhausted these procedures. Another law
covers the registration and regulation of trade unions and empowers the Minis­
ter of Labour to appoint a "designated federation" of labor. Legislation enacted
in 1964 provides for a provident-fund system initially covering employees of
firms w i t h l O o r more workers, financed by equal employer-employee contributions
(5 percent of wages), and providing retirement, invalidity, and sickness bene­
fits. Another law requires employers to pay severance allowances when service is
terminated, provides for the establishment of workers' committees and concilia­
tion boards in all firms with 10 or more union members, and regulates the dis­
missal and disciplining of employees.
Administration and Practice. The Labour Division of the Ministry of
Labour is responsible for the administration of labor and social security legis­
lation. Factory Inspectors enforce compliance with the Factories Ordinance, and
the Labour Commissioner and Labour Officers assist in the investigation and
settlement of industrial disputes. The Labour Division also operates a number
of employment exchanges. No information is available to indicate how effectively
legislation is enforced.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
In 1964, the average cash earnings for all African wage and salary earners
were US$24.64 per month--US$21.70 in the private sector and US$31.08 in the pub­
lic sector. Among adult males, the largest group received US$14.00 to US$20.86
per month; 110,560 received more than that amount and 54,950 received less. In
the same year, 127,039 African wage and salary earners, mainly on large agri­
cultural estates and inmining, received free housing and 13,800, free rations.
Wages have increased in recent years, but the prices of essential commodities
have remained relatively stable; the retail price index in Dar es Salaam was
128 in July 1965 (December 1951=100) compared to 122 in July 1960.
The normal workweek for most employees in industry and for industrial
grade workers in Government is 45 hours spread over 5% days. The normal work­
week of unskilled agricultural laborers is 36 hours.
Employer Organizations
Employer organizations include the Chamber of Commerce,
the Merchants'
Chamber, and the Federation of Tanganyika Employers. Employer associations in
each industry (such as the Tanganyika Sisal Growers' Association) are affiliated
to the Federation; they engage in collective bargaining and are concerned with
other problems of labor; they make the views of employers on labor legislation
and other matters known to the Government.
Labor Organizations
The National Union of Tanganyika Workers (NUTA), the sole legal trade
union center on the mainland, has an estimated membership of 250,000, or about
70 percent of the wage and salary earners in the Republic. Data on trade union
3



membership on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are not available. The NUTA was
formed by an act of the National Assembly in 1964, when the Tanganyika Federa­
tion of Labour was dissolved following its alleged involvement in an attempted
coup d*etat.
In accordance with this law, the first general secretary and the
first deputy general secretary were appointed by the President of the Republic.
(The Minister of Labour became general secretary.) Union membership is compul­
sory, as is NUTA affiliation with TANU.
Organized along both industrial and geographic lines, NUTA has no affili­
ates but has 9 industrial sections and 10 regional and 41 branch offices.
It
has become one of the leading members of the All-African Trade Union Federation
(AATUF) since it affiliated in 1964.
The only labor organization on the islands is the Workers* Department of
the Afro-Shirazi Party. It was formed in 1965 by incorporation within the Party
of all the existing unions in Zanzibar and Pemba.
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining on an industrywide basis is becoming the pattern
of industrial relations.
In small industries, works committees at the factory
level may engage in both consultation and negotiation; in larger industries,
joint industrial negotiating councils perform these functions. Wages and other
conditions of employment are established by Government bodies.
Strict regula­
tions on the use of the strike and lockout weapons have reduced the number of
labor disputes from 203 involving 89,000 workers and the loss of 1,494,000 mandays in 1960 to 24 involving 3,500 workers and the loss of 6,000 man-days in
1964.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 138
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S tatistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO
Togo, located on the west coast of Africa, has an area of 21,850 square miles
and had a population estimated at 1.7 million in early 1966.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Togo achieved its independence in April 1960. The Constitu­
tion of 1963 provides for a president and vice president, both elected for 5-year
terms by direct universal suffrage. The President is both chief executive and
head of state and he appoints the Council of Ministers. The 56 members of the
National Assembly, a unicameral body, are also elected for 5-year terms. The
principal political parties are the Union Ddmocratique des Populations Togolaises
(UDPT), the party of President Nicolas Grunitzky, who was elected in May 1963;
the Mouvement de la Jeunesse Togolaise (JUVENTO); theUnit£ Togolaise (UT) ; and
the Mouvement Populaire Togolais (MPT).
Economic. Although subsistence farming is the basis of the economy, only
13 percent of the arable land (42 percent of the total area) is under cultiva­
tion. Cocoa and coffee, the country's principal agricultural exports, accounted
for 25.4 percent and 10.6 percent, respectively, of total exports in 1965. Other
export products include palm kernels, palm oil, ginned cotton, copra, cassava
starch, and peanuts. Yams, corn, rice, millet, and sorghum are produced for
local consumption. Phosphate extraction, Togo's principal industry, has been
increasing in importance; in 1965, phosphate exports ranked first, contributing
32.5 percent of the total. The country's first 5-Year Development Plan (1966-71)
places primary emphasis on the development of agriculture and light industries.
The estimated gross national product (GNP) per capita in 1963 (the last year
for which the GNP was figured) was US$75.
Social. The population, which is about 99 percent African, consists of
more than 35 tribes speaking 25 languages and dialects. French is the official




language and the language of commerce, all public instruction, and most of
Government business; Mina, Ewe, Cotocoli, and Cabrais arethemajor African lan­
guages, In 1965, there were an estimated 300,000 Christians and 40,000 who
adhered to Islam among the population; the remainder practiced animism. The
estimated literacy rate was 8 to 10 percent in 1965.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. In 1965, an estimated 687,000 persons, or
41 percent of the population, were in the labor force. The total number of wage
and salary earners in mid-1966 was estimated at 24,500, of whom 52 percent were
in the private sector and 48 percent in the public sector. In the private sec­
tor, about 5 percent of all wage and salary earners were in agriculture and
forestry, 6 percent in mining, 6 percent in construction, 18 percent in commerce,
banking, industries, and professions, 11 percent in transportation, and 6 percent
in domestic service. Unemployment is a serious problem. It arises in part from
the influx of jobseekers from rural to urban centers and from Togolese returning
from employment in other African countries. Underemployment is also widespread
among the large majority of the population engaged in subsistence farming.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Low levels of education,
limited
training and educational facilities, the use of primitive farming methods, and
poor health and nutrition of workers contribute to low productivity in both the
agricultural and industrial sectors of the economy; Togo, however, has more
trained and qualified middle-level personnel than many other African countries,
and the civil service has undergone a high degree of Africanization. The coun­
t r y ^ four vocational schools produce only small numbers of semiqualified tech­
nicians. Artisans acquire their skills mainly through the apprenticeship system,
and carpenters, masons, electricians, and other skilled workers, from on-the-job
training. Educational and training facilities include the Governments School
of Administration, a binational (Togo and Dahomey)
institute which opened in
1965, three teacher-training institutes, a school administered by the Interna­
tional Labor Organization for training mechanics, a Regional Heavy Equipment
Training Center, which trains operators and mechanics, a Rural Development Training
Center at Tchitchao, and several other agricultural training centers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation authorizes the Government to estab­
lish basic minimum wages and maximum hours of work and to regulate working
conditions. Other regulations relate to paid annual leave, paid overtime, holi­
days, workmen's compensation, family allowances, and other benefits. Togo does
not yet have extensive social security legislation; however, over half of the
workers in the private sector are covered by some sort of pension scheme and
all regular workers in the public sector benefit from Government pensions and
allowances.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor, Civil Service, and
Social Affairs, through its Office of Labor Inspection, is responsible for the
administration of labor affairs. Fully effective regulation is handicapped by
a shortage of qualified personnel. The Office of Labor Inspection operates one
employment exchange located at Lomd.
2




Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The minimum hourly wage rates for nonagricultural workers in the country’s
three geographic wage zones in 1966 were US$0.12 in Lomd and vicinity andUS$0.09
and US$0.08 further inland. The minimum hourly wageratefor agricultural workers
ranged from US$0.07 to US$0.10. Workers in commerce and industry were paid a
minimum monthly wage of US$20.40 and in transportation, US$37.55. Wages of senior
Government employees, especially those who are university graduates, are rela­
tively high in comparison to those of other wage and salary earners.
The legal workweek in industry and commerce is 4 0 hours; a 6-day workweek
with a half day on Saturday is common. In agriculture, the maximum worktime is
2,400 hours per year. There are 9 public holidays. Overtime in the private
sector is paid at the rate of time and a half and on paid holidays at double
time. Paid vacations, based on length of service, are required by law.
Under a decree of May 1963, prices of certain essential consumer items
were brought under Government control. The cost-of-living index (1960=100) rose
from 102 in 1962 to 118 in March 1966. Many Togolese in the predominantly agri­
cultural nonwage economy live at a subsistence level.
Employer Organizations
The Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture is active in Lomd, the
capital, and in several other towns. An informal association of commercial and
industrial employers meets occasionally to discuss matters of general interest.
Labor Organizations
The two national trade union centers in Togo have a total membership esti­
mated at about 13,000. Of these, over 70 percent (9,500) belong to the National
Union of Workers of Togo (Union Nationale des Travailleurs du Togo--UNTT). The
UNTT, formed in 1961 as a successor to the Union of Confederated Syndicates of
Togo (Union des Syndicats Confeddr^s du Togo--USCT), has 19 affiliates.
The Togolese Confederation of Believing Workers (Confederation Togolaise
des Travailleurs Croyants--CTTC) has an estimated 2,500 members in seven affili­
ates. It was formerly known as the African Confederation of Believing WorkersTogo (Confederation Africaine des Travailleurs Croyants--CATC-Togo), formed in
1956. The CTTC is affiliated with the International Federation of Christian Trade
Unions (Confederation Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens--CISC)
and its
African regional organization, the Pan-African Union of Believing Workers (Union
Panafricaine des Travailleurs Crovants--UPTC).
Labor-Management Relations
Collective bargaining contracts governing wages, hours, fringe benefits,
and other conditions of employment, negotiated prior to Togo's independence by
trade unions representing workers in the private sector, a;re still in effect. The
Office of the Labor Inspector is responsible for the settlement of labor disputes.
Appeal may be made to higher courts. There were two minor strikes in 1965 and
none in 1964.




3




LABOR DIGEST
No.

139

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA
Tunisia, located on the northern coast of Africa, occupies an area of approxi­
mately 63,000 square miles.
Its estimated population in 1965 was 4,491,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. A former French protectorate, Tunisia became independent in
1956 and proclaimed itself a republic in 1957. The Constitution of 1959 pro­
vides for a strong executive, a single chamber National Assembly, and an inde­
pendent judiciary. Habib Bourguiba, leader in the struggle for independence and
head of the Destourian Socialist Party (the country 1s only political party), has
been re-elected President of the Republic twice since 1957.
Economic. Agriculture, the basis of the economy, accounts for about 50
percent of the national income and some 60 percent of annual export earnings.
Other important sectors are mining, light industry, and the processing of agri­
cultural and mineral products (cereal grains, olives, wine grapes, citrus
fruits, phosphate rock, and iron ore). Per capita gross domestic product was
approximately US$212 in 1964. As part of the 10-Year Perspective (1962-71),
the Government in 1965 issued a 4-Year Plan (1965-68).
Social. Approximately 95 percent of the population are Moslem, and Islam
is the state religion. French and Italian nationals constitute the largest nonindigenous groups; most of them are Christians. Arabic is the official language,
but most educated Tunisians also speak French. The literacy rate in 1961 was
about 25 percent.
In 1964, 593,059 children, or about 60 percent of those of
school age (6 to 12 years), attended elementary schools.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force in 1964 was estimated at
1.39 million; about 1.22 million were actually employed (excluding some 25,000



in the Armed Forces and 20,000 employed on regional development projects).
Approximately 60 percent of the labor^force are in agriculture and fishing; 8
percent in food processing and textile manufacture (mainly handicraft opera­
tions) ; over 7 percent each in commerce and construction; over 6 percent each
in Government administration and other services; and the remainder in mining,
metal processing, and transport, storage, and communications. The Government
claims that unemployment, as such, does not exist in Tunisia, since all persons
able and desiring to work find at least brief employment periodically; therefore,
such persons are classified as underemployed--a large category which includes
seasonal farm workers and the large number of rural workers who are migrating
to the cities in search of employment. Data on unemployment, as defined in the
United States, are unavailable.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. In general, worker productivity is
low, owing largely to the shortage of skilled workers, lags in mechanization,
inefficient management techniques, and widespread malnutrition.
The Government began a rapid expansion of its vocational and technical
training facilities in 1958, when it introduced "intermediate" schools (colleges
moyens) under the Ministry of State for National Education. These schools pro­
vide 3-year vocational training for primary school graduates who lack the apti­
tude for longer range secondary studies. The 6-year secondary school program
includes training for middle-level Government and commercial employment. The
Ministry of State for Youth, Sports, and Social Affairs conducts pre-apprenticeship training centers, a program of apprenticeship and on-the-job training, a
network of adult skill improvement centers, and a specialized mason-helpers pro­
gram. The Ministry of State for Agriculture conducts a system of agricultural
training schools, including a Higher School of Agriculture, agricultural colleges
moyens, and agricultural vocational training centers. Other Ministries, as well
as trade unions and private employers, conduct training programs designed to
meet their own particular needs. In 1963, the Government established a National
Institute of Occupational Training and Productivity to train instructors for the
various training centers.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. The Constitution guarantees freedom of association.
A Labor Code enacted in April 1966 mainly codifies existing laws and decrees
which regulate other aspects of labor and include provisions for collective bar­
gaining in industry and commerce; minimum wages; maximum working hours; overtime
compensation; restrictions on the employment of women, children, and aliens;
weekly rest; paid leave; industrial safety and hygiene; social security bene­
fits; and cooperatives.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of State for Youth, Sports,
and Social Affairs has primary responsibility for the administration of most
labor affairs. Labor inspectors, who represent the Government in major economic
enterprises throughout the country, enforce labor legislation and also help to
settle labor disputes at the factory level. The Ministry also operates an ex­
panding employment service and assists in the administration of various voca­
tional training programs. The 1966 Labor Code provides for the creation of a
Labor Committee under the Presidency, which will be responsible for advising
the Government on all questions pertaining to labor legislation, organization,

2



placement, manpower, and matters affecting wage and salary earners. The Com­
mittee will be headed by the Minister of State for the Presidency and consist
of four Ministers, including the Minister of Youth, Sports, and Social Affairs,
and four representatives each of management and labor organizations.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wage rates are set by the Government and vary according to geo­
graphic area, type of industry, and the degree of skill required for specific
jobs. The minimum rate for most unskilled agricultural workers is US$0.73 per
day; minimums for workers with special skills are from 15 to 66 percent higher.
Average hourly earnings of nonagricultural unskilled workers in 1963 ranged from
US$0.16 to US$0.22 and from US$0.18 toUS$0.55 for semiskilled and certain spe­
cialized workers. Lower rates prevail for apprentices, women, and juveniles.
In commerce and industry, the basic workweek is 40 hours.
In agriculture, the
annual maximum is 2,700 hours spread over 300 days. The 1966 Labor Code estab­
lishes 4 paid holidays.
A study based on 1959 Government estimates showed that 75 percent of the
population h a v e a p e r capita income of less than US$119.00 a year. Severe infla­
tion has beset Tunisia since World War II. Government efforts to protect the
purchasing power of wages have ranged from direct price controls to moral suasion.
Despite such efforts, the cost-of-living index was 116.7 in December 1965 (Jan­
uary 1962=100). The Government faces heightened inflationary pressures as a re­
sult of the currency devaluation in 1964. Efforts to improve living conditions
include the formation of cooperatives, of which there were 350 functioning in
1962. Some are financed by the labor movement, some by the National Agricultural
Bank, and some by the Government.
Employer Organizations
Employers have established the Tunisian Federation of Industry, Commerce,
and Handicrafts and the National Federation of Tunisian Farmers, both of which
function more as mutual benefit organizations than as management associations.
There are also several Chambers of Commerce.
Labor Organizations
Total trade union membership in Tunisia is estimated at 150,070; 150,000
are members of the General Federation of Tunisian Workers (Union G£n£rale
Tunisienne du Travail--UGTT) . Formed in 1946, the UGTT has hadaclose relation­
ship with theDestourian Socialist Party since the pre-independence period. This
relationship has been strengthened since independence, particularly at the 1965
UGTT Congress. Organized along both geographic and industrial lines, the UGTT
has 12 industrial federations and 13 regional centers. One of these federations,
the General Federation of Civil Servants and State Workers (F£d£ration G^nerale
des Fonctionnaires et Ouvriers de l'Etat), encompasses almost one-fourth of the
UGTT membership in its 11 national unions.
The UGTT has been affiliated with the International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU) since 1951; it is also a member of its African Regional Or­
ganization (AFRO), but ceased participation therein in 1964. It is a leading
affiliate of the African Trade Union Confederation (ATUC).
3



Seven International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates within the
UGTT: International Graphical Federation; International Union of Food and Allied
Workers' Associations; Miners' International Federation; Postal, Telegraph, and
Telephone International; Public Services International; International Federa­
tion of Free Teachers' Unions; and International Transport Workers' Federation.
Labor-Management Relations
Legislation establishes national minimum labor standards and outlines
the framework within which labor-management relations are conducted. Under a
January 1962 decree, works councils, composed of labor and management repre­
sentatives, have been established. Local aspects of labor-management relations
and working conditions above the minimum standards are negotiated by collective
bargaining within ad hoc committees or in works councils, where established.
The 1966 Labor Code stipulates that industrial disputes at the local level must
be submitted to a conciliation commission, presided over by the Governor of
the region concerned. He will be assisted by the regional labor inspector and
four other members--two labor representatives, one of whom represents the na­
tional union, and two management representatives.
If a dispute is national in
scope, the membership of the commission will correspondingly be at a higher
level. Any strike undertaken before this procedure has been followed and/or
without the consent of the national trade union is illegal. The UGTT has agreed
to avoid strikes as much as possible in support of the Government's plans for
economic development. Hence, strikes are infrequent and usually not of long
duration.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 140
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

1966

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics*

LABOR CONDITIONS IN UGANDA
Uganda is a landlocked country of about 93,000 square miles in east-central
Africa. The population in 1966 was estimated at 7.5 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Formerly a British Protectorate, Uganda became an independent
member of the Commonwealth on October 9, 1962. In 1963, the Constitution was
amended to make Uganda an independent nation,
still within the Commonwealth,
and the Governor General was replaced by a President, Sir Edward F. Mutesa,
who is also King of Buganda. In April 1966, President Mutesa was replaced by
Prime Minister A. Milton Obote, who introduced a new constitution. The Cabinet
and a unicameral Legislature are elected by universal suffrage. The Uganda
People's Congress (UPC), headed by President Obote, is the dominant political
party.
Economic. The mainstay of the economy is agriculture, most of which
is at the subsistence level. Cotton and coffee, grown almost entirely by peas­
ant farmers, account for about 80 percent of all exports. Copper is the third
largest export. Other important products are tea, sugar, sisal, peanuts,
tobacco, and livestock. Annual per capita income was estimated at about US$72
in 1964. Industrialization is characterized by a proliferation of small firms
employing fewer than 50 workers. Industrial activity consists mainly of the
processing of cotton and coffee. There is, however, a growing small industrial
complex at Jinja.
Social. Over 98 percent of the population are Africans. The Baganda
is the largest of the more than 28 tribes and comprises about 16 percent of the
total African population. The major nonindigenous groups are Asians and Euro­
peans. Literacy in English, the official language, is currently estimated by
the Ministry of Education to be about 20 percent. Primary education is not




compulsory. Of the 4,100 primary schools operating in 1966, 2,600 are Govern­
ment aided; the remainder are operated and administered by voluntary, nongovern­
mental agencies. Total enrollment in primary schools in 1966 is estimated at
693,600. Approximately 26,000 students are enrolled in 84 secondary schools,
of which all but 15 are Government aided.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. The labor force in 1962 totaled 3.7 million
persons over 16 years of age. A large majority of this number were self-employed
farmers or unpaid family workers. Wage and salary earners in 1964 numbered
224,000 (about 6 percent of the total labor force); almost 31 percent were in
public administration, education, and medical services; 23 percent in agricul­
ture,
forestry, fishing, and hunting; 15 percent in the processing of agricul­
tural products and miscellaneous manufacturing; 12 percent in construction; and
19 percent in mining,
commerce, transport, communications, and miscellaneous
services. About 25 percent of the labor force are migrants (mainly manual work­
ers) from neighboring countries.
Statistics on unemployment are unavailable. Many unemployed and under­
employed agricultural workers seek employment in urban areas but usually return
to farms when they do not find work. Unemployment appears to be most serious
among the many migrant Africans from nearby countries who find the cost of re­
turning home beyond their means. The approximately 9,000 largely unskilled
schoolleavers entering the labor force annually are expected to aggravate the
unemployment problem.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. The small size of farms, inefficient
methods of production, and lack of skills have been major factors in keeping
productivity low. Increased production has been largely the result of more land
under cultivation and more farmers rather than improved farming techniques.
The low protein diets of most workers and the migratory nature of the work force
also contribute to low productivity.
Over 90 percent of the wage and salary earners are unskilled. An ex­
panded training program, initiated by the Government in 1958, is enabling in­
creasing numbers of Ugandans to qualify for jobs requiring technical, profes­
sional, and administrative skills heretofore provided mainly by Asians and
Europeans. The training program includes 5-year rural trade schools specializing
in the cultivation of small holdings,
2- and 4-year vocational schools, the
Uganda Technical College (which prepares workers for middle-grade supervisory,
technical, and commercial employment),
2- to 5-year civil service training
schools, and farming institutes. Apprentices receive 2 years of training.
In
addition, many private firms have training programs.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation is embodied in various ordinances.
The most important are: The Employment Ordinance of 1955, prescribing general
conditions of employment and requiring employers operating firms outside the
major cities to provide housing for workers; the Minimum Wages Advisory Boards

2



and Wages Councils Ordinance of 1957, establishing methods for the determination
of minimum wages; the Trades Disputes (Arbitration and Settlement) Act of 1964,
consolidating all earlier legislation on industrial relations; and the Trade
Unions Act of 1965, prohibiting foreigners from holding trade union offices.
Other ordinances regulate the employment of women and children and the organi­
zation of trade unions, and provide for the establishment of a pension scheme
for certain Government employees and a workmen *s compensation system for public
and private employees. The Government has not yet instituted a comprehensive
social security system.
Administration and Practice. Among the major functions of the Labour
Department, which is under the Ministry of Housing and Labour, are the organi­
zation and operation of employment exchanges, the establishment of minimum wage
rates, the supervision of apprenticeship programs, and the administration of
the workmen's compensation system. Enforcement of labor legislation, for which
the Inspectorate Division of the Labour Department is also responsible, is
hampered by the shortage of adequately trained labor inspectors. The Department
also provides advisory services to labor and management with regard to the
formation, organization, and administration of trade unions and the development
of joint consultation in enterprises.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Wage rates, set by the Government, represent a sliding scale of regional
minimums based on local costs of living. Thus far, rates have been established
only for the main towns. In 1966, the new,
legal monthly minimum rates for
unskilled labor in Kampala and Jinja, the two largest cities, were approximately
US$21.50; minimum monthly rates for Government employees ranged from about
US$19.00 to US$21.00. Many Government employees receive additional benefits,
such as free or low-cost housing. Lower rates prevail for learners and appren­
tices. All minimum rates include a component for housing which, if provided,
may be deducted by employers. In 1966, the housing component in Kampala was
about US$2.80 per month.
The normal workweek in industry is 48 hours and in Government services,
44 hours. Nearly all agricultural workers are paid on the basis of daily tasks,
each of which usually takes 4 to 6 hours to complete.
There is no cost-of-living index for the country as a whole. The official
cost-of-living index (excluding rent) for Kampala (December 1951=100), which
has risen rapidly during the last few years, was 159 in December 1964 and 165
in December 1965. The official index of retail prices in African markets in
Kampala (January 1957=100) was 107 in December 1964 and 127 in December 1965.
Employer Organizations
Virtually all major concerns with 50 or more permanent employees are
members of the Federation of Uganda Employers (FUE), which has represented
management views on the national level. The membership of the FUE, which was
36 in 1960, the year of its inauguration, had increased to 99 by 1966, and an
additional 300 enterprises were associate^ with it.




3

Labor Organizations
Claimed trade union membership is about 122,500, or approximately 55 per­
cent of the estimated 224,000 wage and salary earners in 1964. By far the largest
of the two national trade union centers is the Uganda Trade Union Congress (UTUC),
which claims almost 102,000 members. Formed in 1956, the UTUC has been affiliated
with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) since that
time and is a member of its African Regional Organization (AFRO).
The Federation of Uganda Trade Unions (FUTU), which claims about 20,500
members, was formed in 1964 by dissident unions which withdrew from the UTUC.
Since its formation, the FUTU has had the support of the dominant political
party, the UPC. The FUTU is affiliated with the All-African Trade Union Feder­
ation (AATUF).
Twelve International Trade Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in Uganda.
The ICFTU African Labour College, which has been training African trade unionists
from English-speaking countries since 1958, is located in Kampala.
Labor-Management Relations
Labor-management relations are conducted mainly through a system of joint
consultation. Most governmental departments and private companies have bipartite
industrial relations councils and works committees. Legislation enacted in 1964
provided for the establishment of an Industrial Court empowered to arbitrate
trade disputes referred to it by either the Minister of Housing and Labour or
directly by the parties themselves; however, at the beginning of 1966,
the
court had not yet begun to function. Strikes or lockouts are prohibited before
the existing industrial relations machinery has been exhausted. An Industrial
Relations Charter intended to promote industrial peace was signed in 1964 by
Government, labor, and employer representatives. In 1963, approximately 67,000
man-days were lost through strikes, a decrease of 30 percent from the previous
year.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 141
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (EGYPT)
The United Arab Republic (Egypt) is in the northeast corner of Africa.
It has
an area of 386,200 square miles and had a population of 25,771,000 in 1960.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. A republic was established in 1953. According to the Con­
stitution of 1964 , the President is Chief of State and Commander in Chief of the
Armed Forces. He establishes state policy, controls its implementation, appoints
the Cabinet, and may dissolve the National Assembly. The Arab Socialist Union
is the sole political movement.
Economic. Agriculture occupied 56.7 percent of the labor force in 1960.
The main crops are cotton, which comprised 6 0 percent of exports in 1962, sugar­
cane, onions, and grain. The principal mineral product is petroleum. The main
manufacturing industries are the spinning and weaving of cotton, metal process­
ing, and assembly of appliances. The gross national product per capita was esti­
mated at US$160 in 1963. A new 5-year plan was initiated in July 1965.
Social. The population is predominantly Egyptian; the largest minorities
are the nomadic Bedouins, numbering about 600,000, and the Nubians , about 50 ,000.
Islam is the state religion. The Coptic and other Christian population was
estimated by the Government in 1960 to form 7.6 percent of the total population.
Arabic is the official language. Education is free through the secondary and
technical school levels. In 1963, only about 70 percent of the elementary schoolage population (6-12 years) were enrolled in schools. The literacy rate was
estimated at 30 percent in 1960.
Manpower and Employment
Employment and Unemployment. On the basis of the 1960 census, 7.8 million
persons, or 30 percent of the total population, were estimated to be in the



labor force; 57 percent were in agriculture; 17 percent in services; 9 per­
cent in manufacturing; 8 percent in commerce; and 9 percent in other activities.
An estimated 3 million children under 15 years of age are seasonal farm workers.
A total of 3.8 million, or 48.7 percent of the labor force, were wage and
salary earners in 1960. Unemployment was officially estimated at 294,950, or
4.5 percent of the labor force, in 1961. However, the figures did not take into
account underemployment and disguised unemployment, which are prevalent par­
ticularly in agricultural areas.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Although productivity in agricul­
ture is relatively low because of the small size of farms, lack of skills, and
use of primitive techniques, yields are high because of the unusual fertility
of the arable areas. Low productivity in industry has been attributed in part
to the workers' poor physical condition. Because of the rapid development of
industry under the Government's development plan, there is a shortage of skills
in all fields, particularly managerial and administrative, engineering, techni­
cal, and scientific.
During the period 1961-62, a total of 123,066 students were enrolled in
27 vocational schools. About 5,000 students were enrolled during 1962-63 in
higher specialized institutes, and about 41,000 students were enrolled in 49
centers for industrial, agricultural, and commercial training. Apprenticeship
training is being expanded.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. As revised in 1964, ' the Labour Code contains the
entire body of labor law and applies to all workers and employees. It provides
for conciliation, arbitration, and collective bargaining procedures, wage fix­
ing and inspection , placement and dismissal procedures, apprenticeship and voca­
tional rehabilitation, and regulates hours of work and the employment of women
and minors. Decree No. 362 of 1962 establishes a minimum wage for workers over
18 years of age in Government and nationalized industries. Decree No. Ill of 1961
provides for a profit-sharing system for workers in industrial and commercial
enterprises, whereby a portion of 25 percent of company profits is tobedistributed directly to individual workers and the remainder is to be spent on social
projects benefiting the workers as a group. A number of so-called Socialist
Laws of 1961 provided for nationalization of the greater part of the industrial
sector. Law No. 63 of 1964 provides for a comprehensive social insurance system.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labour is the chief adminis­
trative body concerned with labor. The General Organization for Social Insurance
operates under the Ministry of Labour. The economic development plan (1960-70.)
provided for the establishment of 99 regional offices of the Ministry of Labour by
1965. The shortage of staff and operating funds, lack of emphasis by the trade union
movement, and obstacles of an administrative nature have caused enforcement of the
numerous labor laws to be confined to the larger firms. Most of the labor laws
represent targets to be achieved gradually rather than standards already in force.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The wage structure is based on a minimum wage supplemented by fringe
benefits and a profit-sharing system for workers in industrial and commercial
2



establishments< In 1962, the daily minimum wage for workers over 18 years of
,
age in industrial companies was US$0.58. The daily minimum wage for agricultural
workers ranged from US$0.41 for adult males to US$0.23 for women, boys, and
girls. In 1963, average weekly wages were: Manufacturing, US$5.45; construc­
tion, US$6.03; and transportation (including storage and communications),
US$7.71. The official workweek is 42 hours--7 hours per day for 6 days. There
are 10 legal holidays. Overtime, which is limited to 12 hours a week, is paid
for at time and a quarter for daywork and time and a half for nightwork. Double
time is paid for time worked on a paid day off. Employers are required to grant
to each worker an annual vacation of either 14 or 21 days, depending on the num­
ber of years of employment.
The Government exercises price and rent control. Official figures showed
that the cost-of-living index (June-August 1939=100)
rose from 302.0 in 1963
to 339.0 in 1964. From February 1963 to February 1965, the retail price index
rose from 368.0 to 478.3, or 29.9 percent. The level of living differs among
the people; a majority of the population live at the subsistence level. In 1963,
the annual per capita income was US$136.39.
Employer Organizations
The Egyptian Federation of Industry has as affiliates about 20 chambers
of specialized industries. The federation operates under governmental control
and, because of the nationalization of most industries, its real role is difficult
to assess. An additional 31 Chambers of Commerce are located throughout the
country.
Labor Organizations
The United Arab Republic Federation of Labour (UARFL), the only national
trade union center in the country, claims a total membership of 1 million, or
almost 40 percent of the 3.8 million wage and salary earners in 1960.
The UARFL was established in 1964 as a result of a reorganization of the
Egyptian Federation of Labour (EFL), which was formed in 1957 under the name
Egyptian Confederation of Labour (ECL), As a result of the reorganization, the
UARFL is composed of 27 industrial unions.
The UARFL took the initiative in the formation of the International Con­
federation of Arab Trade Unions (ICATU), which has its headquarters in Cairo.
It remains one of its most influential affiliates. The UARFL also played a lead­
ing role in the formation of the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF) and
continues to participate actively in AATUF affairs.
Two International Trade
The International Federation cf
Transport Workers1 Federation.
has its headquarters in Cairo,

Secretariats (ITS) have affiliates in the UAR:
Petroleum and Chemical Workers and International
The Arab Federation of Petroleum Workers, which
also has an affiliate in the UAR.

Labor-Management Relations
The Labour Code prescribes the basic provisions of collective agreements.
However, collective agreements are not common, and most labor matters are handled
3




through Government channels by such committees as the Joint Committees for Fixing
Wages and the Joint Committees on Dismissals. Tripartite regional boards for
the amicable settlement of disputes engage in conciliation. If they do not bring
about a settlement, the case is forwarded to local or regional labor relations
offices of the Ministry of Labour.
Cases involving less than 50 workers and
employees are decided by regional offices and cases involving 50 or more workers
and employees, by a tripartite conciliation committee or a tripartite arbitra­
tion board.
The nature of labor-management relations is evolving as a result of two
institutional changes in recent years: The establishment of Arab Socialist
union groups in every factory, which have taken over some of the functions of
trade unions in some cases, and the election of workers to the boards of direc­
tors of the larger firms.
Strikes and lockouts are prohibited during conciliation and arbitration
procedures. However, an employer may declare a lockout if he obtains written
approval from the Ministry of Labour within 30days of his request. Legislation
limits the right to strike when the work involves the national interest. Few
strikes have taken place over the last several years.

4




LABOR DIGEST
No. 142
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics„

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF UPPER VOLTA
The Republic of Upper Volta covers an area of about 105,900 square miles in the
tropical zone of former French West Africa. The population in 1964 was esti­
mated at 4,760,000.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. As a result of a labor-led civil uprising on January 3, 1966,
and the subsequent resignation of the President, Upper Volta is administered
temporarily by a military government, headed by Lieutenant Colonel Sangoule
Lamizana and comprised of a Consultative Committee of 10 military officers and
31 civilians.
Economic. The economy consists almost entirely of subsistence agricul­
ture, which provides a livelihood for a majority of the population. Over 70 per­
cent of the small volume of exports consists of livestock and hides and most of
the remainder, of peanuts, cotton, and small quantities of gold. Industrializa­
tion is in an embryonic stage; however, the Government anticipates that recently
planned projects will provide gainful employment for several thousand workers
by 1970. Per capita income in 1964 was about US$50. Remittances to the Gov­
ernment from migrant Upper Voltans working in neighboring countries total
about US$4 million annually and provide an important source of foreign exchange
earnings.
Social. The population is predominantly African. Europeans, the largest
nonindigenous group , numbered approximately 3,000 in 1964 and were mainly French.
There are some 17 different tribal groups,
the largest of which,
the Mossi,
accounts for about half of the population. French is the official language.
The literacy rate in 1964 was 6 to 7 percent.
In 1965, primary school enroll­
ment totaled 85,000, representing about 7 percent of the school-age population
(6 to 14 years of age).




Manpower and Employment

Employment and Unemployment. The labor force in 1964 was about 2.5 mil­
lion; of this number,
32,800, or 1.3 percent, were wage and salary earners.
Thirty-three percent were in Government service, 27 percent in manufacturing and
construction, 23 percent in transportation, 8 percent in commerce and banking,
5 percent in domestic service, and 4 percent in commercial agriculture. From
200,000 to 400,000 Upper Voltan workers, representing about 10 to 20 percent of
the male labor force, migrate annually to Ghana and the Ivory Coast to seek
seasonal employment. Government officials estimated that in 1964 89 percent of
the positions in firms with 10 or more employees were filled by foreigners,
mainly French nationals.
Statistics on unemployment are unavailable, but it is known to be high
in urban areas. Underemployment is extensive in rural areas.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Methods of farming are largely tra­
ditional, utilizing crude implements and heavy inputs of hand labor. Most of
the total labor force and about 40 percent of the wage and salary earners are
unskilled. The Government is attempting to raise the level of skills and produc­
tivity through an expanded program of agricultural training, which combines pri­
mary education with instruction in modern agricultural techniques.
In 1964,
approximately 9,000 students were enrolled in about 400 rural education centers.
In addition, about 955 students were enrolled in 10 technical schools, some of
which were privately operated and some Government operated.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor laws, based largely on the 1952 French Overseas
Labor Code, were codified and revised in August 1962. The main provisions of
the new code prohibit forced labor; provide for the formation, administration,
and functioning of trade unions; prescribe the contents and methods of concluding
employment contracts and collective agreements; require that all workers receive
equal pay for equal work; authorize the Government to set minimum wages and con­
ditions of payment; prohibit strikes and the use of the checkoff system; estab­
lish standards for workers' hygiene and safety; require all establishments to
maintain medical facilities; and establish general conditions of employment,
including maximum hours of work, paid leave, weekly rest, travel and transport
allowances, and limitations on nightwork and on the employment of women and
children. An old-age and survivors' pension system was established in 1960.
An agreement concluded with the Ivory Coast in 1960 to regulate the recruitment
and employment conditions of Upper Voltans in the Ivory Coast has never been
implemented. Trade union affiliation with non-African unions was prohibited by
law in 1964.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labor and Civil Service
administers most labor legislation through its Department of Labor, Manpower,
and Vocational Training.
Systems of family allowances, industrial accidents,
and old-age pensions are administered by the Social Security Fund. A permanent,
tripartite Advisory Committee for Workers' Education was established in 1961.
The Labor Code of 1962 provides for the establishment of a tripartite Consulta­
tive Commission of Labor to advise the Government on all matters concerning labor.
2



Implementation and enforcement of labor laws have been severely hampered by the
acute shortage of trained enforcement personnel.
In 1963, for example, there
were only two labor inspectors.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
The legalhourly minimum wage varies fromUS$0.12 in the three largesturban
centers--Ouagadougou (the capital), Bobo-Dioulasso, and Banfoura--to US$0.09 in
the remainder of the country. The maximum worktime in industry and commerce is 40
hours per week; in agriculture, the maximum is 2,400 hours per year. Increases
in prices and the overall cost of living have generally exceeded wages, which
have remained unchanged since 1960. The cost-of-living index for Ouagadougou
(May 1961=100) rose to 115.1 in May 1964.
Employer Organizations
The leading employer organization is the Syndicat des Commercants, Importateurs, et Exportateurs (SCIMPEX), which claims as members the major commer­
cial employers. Chambers of Commerce function in Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou;
the former concentrates on industrial and agricultural activities and the latter
on commerce.
Labor Organizations
Claimed trade union membership in Upper Volta is about 12,370, or approxi­
mately 38 percent of the 32,800 wage and salary earners.
The largest of the three national trade union centers is the Federation of
Voltan Workers 1 Trade Unions (Union Syndicate des Travailleurs Voltaiques--USTV),
with an estimated 4,300 members in 14 affiliates, or about 35 percent of the
organized workers. The USTV, which was formed in 1958, was formerly known as
the General Federation of Workers of Black Africa of Upper Volta (Union G6n£rale
des Travailleurs d'Afrique Noire de la Haute Volta--UGTAN-HV). It is affiliated
with the All-African Trade Union Federation (AATUF).
The Voltan Organization of Free Trade Unions
(Organization Voltaique
des Syndicats Libres--OVSL), which was formed in 1960, claims 2,500 mem­
bers in seven affiliates. Formerly known as the National Federation of Workers'
Unions of Upper Volta (Union Nationale des Syndicats des Travailleurs de la
Haute Volta--UNSTHV), the OVSL is affiliated with the International Confed­
eration of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and its African Regional Organization
(AFRO).
A third center,
the African Confederation of Believing Workers (Con­
federation Africaine des Travailleurs Croyants--CATC), which was formed in 1950
as a local of the French Confederation of Christian Workers
(Confederation
Francaise des Travailleurs Chretiens--CFTC), claims 3,000 members in 19 affili­
ates. Both the OVSL and the CATC are affiliated with the African Trade Union
Confederation (ATUC).
All three national centers cooperated in presenting
demands to the former Government in December 1965 under the banner of the Joint
Action Committee, which served as a catalyst for the coup d'etat. It is believed
the unions continue to cooperate through the committee.




3

Labor-Management Relations
Individual grievances are handled by Labor Tribunals, which hear cases
involving contracts of employment and apprenticeship and those concerning work
accidents or illness. Collective agreements must include provisions for the
conciliation of collective disputes. In the event that conciliation procedures
fail, the Labor Inspector attempts mediation and, if unsuccessful, he submits
the case to the Minister of Labor and Civil Service for arbitration.

4



LABOR DIGEST
No. 143
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1966

This is one of a series of brief notes on labor conditions prepared in the Office of
Foreign Labor and Trade of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for inclusion in the
Directory o f Labor Organizations—
Africa, jointly prepared and published in 1966
by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs and the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA
The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country of about 290,587 square miles in
south-central Africa. The population in 1964 was approximately 3.7 million.
Factors Affecting Labor
Political. Zambia (formerly called Northern Rhodesia) was part of the
British-administered Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland until 1963. The Consti­
tution of 1963, effective January 22, 1964, granted Zambia internal self-government
and provided foraprime minister and cabinet. In October 1964, Zambia became an
independent republic. The Government, republican in form, is headed byapresident
who, along with the National Assembly , is elected by universal adult suffragefora
5-year term. The leading political party is the United National Independence Party
(UNIP) , headed by Kenneth Kaunda, President of the Republic; the other major par­
ties are the African National Congress (ANC) and the National Progress Party (NPP) .
Economic.
Subsistence agriculture is the mainstay of about 75 percent
of the population. The money economy is based on mining (mainly copper), which
provided 50 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and accounted for over
90 percent of export earnings in 1964. The major agricultural export is tobacco;
among other important crops are corn, peanuts, and cotton. The small but grow­
ing manufacturing industry provided almost 6 percent of the GDP in 1964. Per
capita GDP in 1964 was about US$190.
Social. Africans constitute over 97 percent of the population. The nonindigenous population consists mainly of South Africans,
Southern Rhodesians
(both primarily of European stock), and Asians. The African population is
divided into more than 70 tribal groupings, speaking some 30 languages and dia­
lects. The three largest tribes--the Tonga, Bemba, and Lozi--together repre­
sent over 16 percent of the population.
English is the official language. The
literacy rate in 1964 was approximately 20 percent. Primary school enrollment
in the first half of 1965 was about 410,000.



Manpower

and E m p l o y m e n t

Employment and Unemployment. In December 1964, the total number of wage
ana salary earners was 285,000, representing about 8 percent of the total popula­
tion, who were distributed as follows: Mining and quarrying, over 18 percent;
Government services, almost 18 percent; construction, 14 percent; domestic serv­
ice and agriculture (including forestry and fishing), almost 13 percent each;
commerce, banking, and insurance, almost 8 percent; manufacturing, over 7 per­
cent; and transport, communications, and miscellaneous activities, 9 percent.
African migration to urban centers has caused considerable unemployment among
unskilled workers. The unemployment situation is being further aggravated by
the increasing number of unskilled school leavers who join the urban labor force
each year. The Government estimated urban unemployment in 1964 at 80,000 persons.
Productivity, Skills, and Training. Factors such as the traditional
migratory nature of much of the labor force and the lack of skills and industrial
experience of most workers contribute to low productivity. The mining companies
have succeeded in reducing the high rate of labor turnover by developing permanent
towns for the workers and their families. More than 80 percent of the African
mineworkers live in such communities. The emigration of Europeans, rapid expan­
sion of the economy, and limited facilities for education have contributed to a
shortage of skilled labor. However, the Government and private industry, as
well as religious missions, have encouraged the development of skills through
a variety of training programs. In 1964, under an extensive Government program
to expand training facilities, construction was begun on 2 teacher-training
colleges, 21 rural secondary schools, 3 urban secondary schools, 950 rural pri­
mary schools, and 23 urban primary schools.
In the first half of 1965, 2,058
students were enrolled in teacher-training and vocational education institutions.
Labor Standards
Labor Legislation. Labor legislation is embodied innumerous ordinances,
the most important of which include those concerning trade unions and industrial
disputes, conciliation, conditions of employment, apprenticeship, minimum wages ,
employment of women and children, workers' housing, and workmen's compensation.
Administration and Practice. The Ministry of Labour and Mines administers
most labor matters through its Labour Department.
The main functions of the
Department include promotion of good industrial relations and safe working con­
ditions, supervision of apprenticeship training, operation of employment serv­
ices, collection of labor statistics, and enforcement of labor legislation. The
Workmen's Compensation Fund Control Board administers a compensation program.
A tripartite National Apprenticeship Council was organized in 1964 to help for­
mulate policies affecting apprenticeship training. An Off ice of National Develop­
ment and Planning was established in 1965; its responsibilities include manpower
development planning.
Several other administrative bodies dealing with labor
serve in advisory capacities to the Government.
Wages, Hours, Prices, and Level of Living
Minimum wage rates are set by Wages and Conditions of Employment Boards,
which have been established for various industries and , within some industries, for
certain racial groups. The Government believes that minimum wage rates should be
2




determined mainly through collective bargaining; consequently, statutory minimum
wage boards have been set up only for industries such as agriculture in which
there are no well-established trade unions. In March 1964, the minimum monthly
wages (including the value of rations) for agricultural workers were as follows:
US$15.46 in the western, central, and southern provinces and US$11.22 in the
eastern province. During 1964, the average annual earnings of Africans in paid
employment varied from a low of approximately US$246.40 in commercial agricul­
ture to a high of about US$834.40 in mining and quarrying.
The standard workweek ranges from 40 to 48 hours; in 1964, it was between
43 and 47 hours in most industries.
During 1964, plans were under study to establish price controls.
consumer price index (January 1962=100) was 108.5 in January 1965.

The

Employer Organizations
Information on employer organizations is unavailable.
Labor Organizations
Total claimed trade union membership is about 105,000, or about 37 per­
cent of the estimated 285,000 wage and salary earners. The affiliates of the
Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), the nation's only trade union center,
claim a total membership of about 58,526, or over 50 percent of all organized
workers. The ZCTU was formed in 1965 as a successor to the United Trades Union
Congress (UTUC) , which was dissolved by the Government at the UTUC's own re­
quest. Under Zambian legislation, the ZCTU is a quasi-official national center,
affiliation to which accords certain privileges to national unions, such as the
right to apply to the Government for compulsory checkoff in certain industries.
The Zambian Government appointed the present Interim Governing Council of the
ZCTU to serve until a special delegates' conference can be called
to elect a
permanent executive. The ZCTU is affiliated with the All-African Trade Union
Federation (AATUF).
The largest union in the country is the Zambia Mineworkers* Union, which
has 33,842 members. To date,
it is not affiliated with the ZCTU. The eight
anti-Communist International Trade Secretariats (ITS) which have affiliates in
Zambia are the International Federation of Building and Woodworkers (IFBWW);
International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, and Technical Employees
(IFCCTE); International Federation of Chemical and General Workers' Union (ICF) ;
Miners' International Federation (MIF); International Federation of Plantation,
Agricultural, and Allied Workers (IFPAAW); Postal, Telegraph, and Telephone
International (PTTI) ; Public Services International (PSD; and the International
Transport Workers' Federation (ITF).
Labor-Management Relations
In 1963, 409,559 man-days were lost during 194 strikes involving 41,686
workers. Legislation was passed in that year permitting strikes only for specific
reasons and only after all other methods of settling labor-management disputes
have been exhausted. The Government anticipates that this measure will contribute
much toward ensuring industrial peace.
3