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"" 1 '

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . N. DOAK, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

CO A

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
*T
BUREAU OF LA B O R S T A T I S T I C S / .........................

liO . OO**

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND LABOR CONDITIONS SERIES

LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE
TERRITORY OF HAWAII
1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0
/ v

\

MARCH, 1931

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1931

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




-

-

-

Price 45 cents




Contents
Page

General economic and social conditions_______________________________
Racial characteristics of the population__________________________
Living conditions in Honolulu___________________________________
Savings bank accounts________________________ _____________
Recreational facilities_______________________________________
Agricultural products for home consumption______________________
Poultry products---------------------------------------------------------------Hog industry on Oahu_____________________________________
Rice industry_____________________________________________
Summary of average hours and earnings in the Territory of Hawaii, 19291930______________________________________________________ ______
Sugar industry_____________________________________________________
Sugar production_______________________________________________
Increase in output per man-day or man-year_________________
Irrigation and fertilization_______________________________________
Source of labor supply__________________________________________
Census of sugar plantations_____________________________________
Methods of cultivation__________________________________________
Long-term cultivation contracts_________________________________
Wage rates________________________________________________
Attendance bonus and other wage supplements_______________
Deserters__________________________________________________
Short-term contract rates_______________________________________
Labor cost_____________________________________________________
Labor turnover, 1929___________________________________________
Employees, days of operation and days worked, and earnings, 1929. _
Average daily earnings, 1929, by kinds of work___________________
Regular full-time hours, 1929, per day and week__________________
Pineapple industry__________________________________________________
Pineapple plantations—
Description of work and definition of occupations_____________
Hours and earnings, 1929___________________________________
Length of service of employees______________________________
Productivity of labor on a plantation, 1929__________________
Pineapple canneries—
Description of work and definition of occupations_____________
Race and sex of employees in cannery, 1929__________________
Hours and earnings, 1929_____________ ______________________
Bonuses___________________________________________________
Length of service of employees______________________________
Employment in peak and slack seasons___________________________
Building construction—Hours and earnings, 1929______________________
Steam railways—Hours and earnings, 1929_________________________ _
Road building—Hours and earnings, 1929____________________________
Longshore labor—Hours and earnings, 1929___________________________




HI

1
1
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
12
13
14
14
18
27
27
30
31
34
34
36
42
44
49
50
52
52
54
64
64
65
69
69
76
76
77
80
85
87
88

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Steam laundries—Hours and earnings, 1930___________________________
Tin-can manufacturing—Hours and earnings, 1929------------------------------Electricity— Manufacture and distribution—Hours and earnings, 1930.
Street railways—Hours and earnings, 1930____________________________
Printing and publishing—Hours and earnings, 1930-----------------------------Stock raising—Hours and earnings, 1929______________________________
Machine shops—Hours and earnings, 1929____________________________
Gas— Manufacture and distribution— Hours and earnings, 1930________
Dry dock—Hours and earnings, 1929________________________________
Dairies—Hours and earnings, 1930---------------------------------------------------Coffee mills—Hours and earnings, 1929-30___________________________
Foundries—Hours and earnings, 1929------------------------------------------------Slaughtering and meat packing—Hours and earnings, 1930_____________
Overalls and shirt making—Hours and earnings, 1930_________________
Salaries of policemen and firemen and wages of street labor in Honolulu,
1930_____________________________________________________________
Union labor________________________________________________________
Workmen’s compensation___________________________________________
Employment agency statistics, 1929__________________________________
Wholesale and retail prices in Honolulu, 1930..............................................




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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

NO. 534

MARCH, 1931

LABOR CONDITIONS IN T E TERRITORY OF HAWAII, 1929-1930
The organic law of the Territory of Hawaii entitled “ An act to
provide a government for the Territory of Hawaii,” approved April
30, 1900, and amended April 8, 1904, reads as follows:
It shall be the duty of the United States Commissioner of Labor to collect,
assort, arrange, and present in reports in 1905 and every five years thereafter,
statistical details relating to all departments of labor in the Territory of Hawaii,
especially in relation to the commercial, industrial, social, educational, and sani­
tary conditions of the laboring classes, and to all such other subjects as Congress
may by law direct. The said commissioner is especially charged to ascertain the
highest, lowest, and average number of employees engaged in the various indus­
tries in the Territory, to be classified as to nativity, sex, hours of labor, and con­
ditions of employment, and to report the same to Congress.

In compliance with the above statute a survey of labor conditions
in Hawaii was made in February, March, and April of 1930 by repre­
sentatives of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the results of which are
presented in this report. The data for the sugar and pineapple
industries are for the industrial season of 1929. The wages, hours
of labor, and general information for other industries are as of 1929
or the spring of 1930.
General Economic and Social Conditions
Racial Characteristics of the Population
The Territory of Hawaii consists of 12 principal islands, of which
9 are inhabited and covered by the census enumeration. Only 6 of
these, however, are of consequence industrially. The total popula­
tion of these islands and the number of farms therein as reported by
the census of 1930 are as follows:
T

able

1.— Population and number of farms in the Territory of Hawaii according
to 1980 census, by islands
Island

Popula­
tion

Number
of
farms

Oahu.... ................. .................
Hawaii.....................................
Maui___________________ __

202,887
73,325
48,756
35,806
5,032
2,356

1,174
3,422
581
480
275
9

M olokai-.-.......................... .
Lanai______________________




Island

Popula­
tion

Number
of
farms

Niihau........................ .......... .
Midway___________________
Kahoolawe.............. ............ .

136
36
2

1
0
0

Total.................... .........

368,336

5,942

1

2

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

The Bureau of the Census has not yet published the racial distribu­
tion of this population. However, the Governor of Hawaii in his
report for 1929 gives an estimated report of the population of the
Territory which comes so close to that of the census that, by applying
the percentages in the governor’s estimate to the figures of the census,
a racial grouping is arrived at which probably is sufficiently accurate
for all practical purposes. Table 2 gives the estimated population
June 30, 1929, the percentage thereof in the various racial groups,
of which all or a majority are American citizens, and the number in
such racial groups in 1930 based on such percentages:
T a b le

2.—Population of the Territory of Hawaii in 1930, by racial groups, based
on June SO, 1929, estimate
Estimated population
June 30, 1929
Racial group
Number

Per cent

Number
in 1930
based on
June 30,
1929,
estimate

Hawaiian________________________________________ ____________
Caucasian-Hawaiian_________________ ____________ ____ ________
Asiatic-Hawaiian___________ _ _ _____________________________
Portuguese_____ ________________________________________ _____ _
Porto Rican_________ _____ _ - _ _____________ ______ _________
Spanish_______ _______ ______ _________________________________
Other Caucasian____ ______ ___________________________________
Chinese______________________________________________________
Japanese________________________________________ ____ _________
Korean_______________________________________________________
Filipino______ ____ ___________________________________________
Other__________________ ______ __ ______________ ______________

20,479
16,687
10, 598
29,717
6,923
1,851
38,006
25, 211
137,407
6,393
63,869
508

5.73
4.66
2.96
8.31
1.93
.52
10.63
7.05
38.42
1.79
17.86
.14

21,106
17,164
10,903
30,609
7,109
1.915
39,154
25,968
141, 515
6,593
65,785
515

Total................. ............... ...........................................................

357,649

100.00

368,336

Accepting the June 30 and December 31, 1929, count made by the
Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association covering the race, sex, and
marital condition of all persons on the 41 sugar plantations in that
association, we have another line upon the racial distribution of the
population of the Territory. The count of 101,115 in June, and also
of 99,693 in December, is 27 per cent of the 1930 population of the
Islands. (For details of the count see Table 14, p. 19.)
A copy of the pay roll for May, 1929, of the 41 sugar plantations in
the association shows the distribution by races and by the islands on
which these plantations are located, as given in Table 3. The minors
employed are not segregated by race and the adult females are so
segregated only as to the Japanese.
The 11,608 male Filipinos on the May, 1929, pay rolls of the plan­
tations on the island of Hawaii were 68.0 per cent of the 17,064 males
of all races on the rolls of the plantations on the island in that month,
and the 440 females of the Japanese race were 90 per cent of the 489
females on the May, 1929, rolls. In the month there was a total of
52,426 employees on the pay rolls of the plantations on all islands,
consisting of 49,890 adult males, 1,636 adult females, and 900 minors.
The 34,681 male Filipinos on all islands were 69.5 per cent of the 49,890
adult males of all races on all islands, and the 1,384 adult female
Japanese were 84.6 per cent of the 1,636 females of all races on all
islands.




3

GENEKAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS
T

able

3 . — Number

and per cent of employees on pay rolls of sugar plantations,
May, 1929y by sex, race, and islands
Total (41
Oahu (8
Kauai (9
Maui (6
Hawaii (18
plantations) plantations) plantations) plantations) plantations)

Sex and race
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber
ber cent ber
cent
cent
ber cent
ber cent
ADULT MALES

75.6 34,681
14.1 9,208
3.2 1,654
2.3 1,265
1.5
968
1.3
807
.8
548
.7
517
.2
85
.2
157

69.5
18.5
3.3
2.5
1.9
1.6
1.1
1.0
.2
.3

Total........................... - ........ 17,064 100.0 10,358 100.0 11,528 100.0 10,940 100.0 49,890

100.0

Filipino___________ _____________ 11,608
Japanese________________________ 3,415
Portuguese______ ______ _________
583
American_______________________
345
Chinese________________________
272
Porto Rican_______ _____________
355
Hawaiian_____ ________ _________
169
Korean___ _____ _______________
228
Spanish___________ _____________
32
All others......................... ................
57

68.0
20.0
3.4
2.0
1.6
2.1
1.0
1.3
.2
.3

6,917 66.8
2,063 19.9
409 3.9
320 3.1
181
1.7
174 1.7
187 1.8
73
.7
.2
20
14
.1

7,887
2,192
307
353
347
135
105
135
8
59

68.4 8,269
19.0 1,538
355
2.7
247
3.1
168
3.0
1.2
143
87
.9
1.2
81
25
.07
27
.5

ADULT FEMALES

Japanese.............................. - ......... .
All others......................... ...............
Total.......................................

440
49

90.0
10.0

319
61

83.9
16.1

415
87

82.7
17.3

502 100.0

79.2
20.8

1,384
252

84.6
15.4

265 100.0

1,636

100.0

210
55

489 100.0

380 100.0

Males, regular___________________
Females, regular_________________
Males and females, school1
.......... .

117
14
172

124

92
3
80

70
2
153

352
19
529

Total.......................................

303

197

175

225

900

Total, adult males and fe­
males, and minors________ 17,856

10,935

12,205

11,430

52,426

MINORS

73

i School children who work intermittently.

Another guide to the racial distribution within the industries is
that of the pay rolls of two pineapple canneries in Honolulu. One of
these at the peak of employment m 1929 had 4,378 workers, of whom
2,355 were males and 2,023 were females. The racial distribution of
the 4,378 employees was: Japanese, 30 per cent; Filipinos, 15.2 per
cent; Koreans, 4.3 per cent; Chinese, 21.1 per cent; Hawaiians, 17 per
cent; and others (which would include all races classified as Caucasian,
namely, Americans, Portuguese, Spaniards, etc.), 12.4 per cent.
(See Table 36, p. 78.)
Another large cannery in Honolulu, having a somewhat more
minute racial distribution of employees, was found to employ 42.1 per
cent Japanese, 16.4 per cent Hawaiian, 11.7 per cent Filipino, 9.7 per
cent Chinese, 7.6 per cent Portuguese, 6.8 per cent part Hawaiian,
2.6 per cent American, 2.2 per cent Korean, and some other races none
of whom, however, constituted more than one-half of 1 per cent of the
total. ^(See Table 31, p. 69.) The figures for the canneries indicate
the racial distribution within the city of Honolulu.
As showing the difference between the rural and urban population,
})articularly as it affects the Filipino, figures collected for two of the
arger pineapple plantations, which during the peak period of 1929
employed 4,248 persons, show that 30.5 per cent of them were Japa­
nese,^ per cent Filipinos, 5.4 per cent Koreans, 4.7 per cent Chinese,
only eight-tenths of 1 per cent Hawaiians, and 3.6 per cent other races.
(See Table 36, p. 79.)




4

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Living Conditions in Honolulu
The city of Honolulu contains 68 per cent of the population of the
island of Oahu upon which it is situated, and 37 per cent of the entire
population of the Territory. The industrial, social, and living con­
ditions of the city of Honolulu are therefore a very essential part of
any such survey as that undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
One is impressed first by the general appearance of cleanliness and
roominess. For the most part the streets are wide and are kept
exceptionally clean. While the number of automobiles per capita of
population is probably as great as that in any city on the mainland,
the width of the streets prevents congestion and permits of unusual
facilities for parking.
That section of the older part of the city which conforms most
closely to what is usually designated as the slum section contains
many blocks of severe congestion, but even in these districts not only
are the streets kept clean but the interior of even the more congested
homes and tenements strikes one as unusually clean and well kept.
The population is essentially oriental, as indicated by the figures
of racial distribution shown above, and yet the atmosphere of racial
antagonism is most conspicuously absent except for a feeling of unrest
among the other races, including the American, toward the growing
proportion of Filipinos among the population of the city.
Savings Bank Accounts

A tabulation of savings accounts in a bank in Honolulu, June 30,
1927, 1928, and 1929, by races, is given in Table 4:
T a b le

4.— Savings bank accounts in a bank in Honolulu, June 80, 1927, 19281
and 1929, by races
Estimated popu­
lation (June 30)

Accounts

Total deposits

Race
Number
Japanese:
1927............. ................ ..................... 132,242
1928...................... .......................... 134,600
1929..................... ............................ 1141,515
Chinese:
1927...................................................
25,198
1928.___________________________
25,310
1929________________ _____ ______ 125,968
Hawaiian:2
1927. ................................... ............
45,576
46,704
1928______________ _____ ________
1929-................................................ 149,173
Portuguese:
1927— ....... .......... ..........................
28,417
29,117
1928_____ ______________________
1929. _______ _____________ ______ 130,609
Filipino:
1927..................................................
52,124
1928____________________________
60,078
1929......... ........... — ........................ i 65,785
All others:
1927..................................................
49,863
1928..................................................
52,958
1929.................................................. 155,286
Total:
1927-................................ 333,420
1928— ...................... .
348, 767
1929.............. — .............. 1368,336




i Based on estimate June 30,1929.

Per Number Per
cent
cent

Average
amount

Amount

Per
cent

39.6
38.6
38.4

32,929
36,549
51,711

29.4
29.0
34.3

$152.64
168.31
160.03

$5,226,522.81
6,151,387.76
8,275,376.83

19.3
19.6
23.4

7.5
7.2
7.1

14,371
15,150
16,269

12.9
12.0
10.8

327.34
338.11
328.93

4,704,261.91
5,122,413.35
5,351,290.93

17.4
16.4
15.1

13.7
13.4
13.3

20,062
20,238
16,299

17.9
16.1
10.8

98.44
115.57
115.72

1,974,992.00
2,339,008.18
1,886,122.90

7.3
7.5
5.3

8.5
8.4
8.3

9,506
10,672
10,900

8.5
8.4
7.2

346.09
328.35
331.21

3,290,009.90
3,504,122.03
3,610,138.87

12.1
11.2
10.2

15.6
17.2
17.9

7,558
9,176
11,962

6.8
7.3
7.9

218.22
228.34
218.32

1,649,346.91
2,095,269.31
2,611,507.49

6.1
6.7
7.4

15.1
15.2
15.0

27,435
34,258
43,522

24.5
27.2
28.9

373.86
352.22
314.55

10,257,086.35
12,066,233.71
13,689,757.87

37.8
38.6
38.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

111, 861
126,043
150,663

100.0
100.0
100.0

242.28
248.16
235.12

27,102,219.88
31,278,434.34
35,424,194.89

100.0
100.0
100.0

2Including part Hawaiian.

5

GENERAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

This table shows a relatively small proportion of money in the
savings bank by the Japanese and a relatively large proportion by
the Chinese. In this connection a statement furnished this bureau
by the postmaster at Honolulu showed that the amount of money
orders issued in Hawaii in the last year for which figures were available
and payable in Japan was $306,930.23. The amount of orders issued
in Japan and paid at the Honolulu office was $2,066.25. The amount
of money orders issued in Hawaii and payable in China was $2,849.38.
The amount of money orders issued in China and paid at the Honolulu
office was $162.29. This shows that while the Chinese in Hawaii are
sending practically no money back to China, the Japanese, on the
other hand, are sending very large sums back to Japan.
Recreational Facilities

If one rides in a street car along Waikiki Beach to the Royal
Hawaiian Hotel and beyond, the first impression is that the public is
excluded from this marvelous beach and that it is reserved for the
guests of the hotels fronting on the beach. As a matter of fact, there
are at not too frequent intervals narrow pathways, marked more or
less distinctly “ Public Walk,” which lead down to the beach, the use
of which is entirely free to the whole population.
In addition to Waikiki Beach, which stretches along the seaside for
a very considerable distance, there are four other beaches available to
the public. There are 17 parks and playgrounds within the reach of
the whole population, and these parks have a total area of approxi­
mately 200 acres.
At the request of this bureau a statement was prepared by the parks
and public grounds department of the city and county of Honolulu
under date of March 17, 1930, listing the parks and beaches, with
what are believed to be conservative estimates as to the average
daily and yearly patronage of each. The statement follows:
Attendance
Daily

Yearly

PLAYGROUNDS

Aala__________________________ _ _____________________
Ala Moana_________ __ ___ ______ ____________ _________
Mother Waldron_______________ _________________________
Beretania Street_____ ________________ ____________ _____
Dole_______________________ __________________________
Fern________________________ _____________ _____________
Iwilei (private playground)_______________________________
TCflimiiki Park___________ __ _ _______
____ ________
Kaiulani_____________
__________ ______________ _ __
TC
fl.lihi Hospital_______ _________ __________________ _____
Kalihi-Kai___ __________________________________ _____
Kalihi-Waena___ _____________________________________ _
Kamamalu_________ _____ ______________
_________
Kauluwela_____ __ _________ _____________ ___
Pauoa_____________________________________ _____
Moiliili____________________ ____________________
Makiki______________________ ______________ ____




200
125
350
115
210
100
75
175
55
48
155
135
240
560
80
75
75

70, 000
43, 500
122, 500
40, 000
73, 500
35, 000
26, 250
71, 250
20, 000
16, 800
54, 500
44, 000
85, 000
195, 000
28, 000
26, 250
26, 250

6

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 19 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Frontage
(feet)

Yearly
attendance

BEACHES

Diamond Head Park Reserve____ _______________________
Public baths (Waikiki)__________________________________
Waikiki Beach along seaside_____________________________
Kuhio Park Beach (between public baths and seaside)_____
Aala Moana Beach (Kakaako)___________________________
Note.— Government provides right of way to all the
beach frontages on Oahu. Anyone can get to the beach
at will.
zoo

2,000
1,000
3,000
250
3, 000

Kapiolani Park Zoo (Waikiki)____________________________
LILIUOKALANI

5, 000
40, 000
109, 500
10, 000
43, 500

150, 000

GARDENS

Between Kuakini and School Street, Liliha and Nuuanu
Avenue—an original “ swimmm’ ’ole” __________________

12, 000

In this connection it should be stated that for recreational purposes
the city of Honolulu and the Island of Oahu are practically coterminous.
Agricultural Products for Home Consumption
While it is true that the Territory of Hawaii still imports a very
considerable percentage of its food, the following figures from a state­
ment compiled by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University
of Hawaii covering the agricultural produce raised and consumed
during 1929 in the Territory of Hawaii, give a very clear idea of the
amount and value of home production.
T a b le

5.— Agricultural produce raised and consumed during 1929 in the Territory
of Hawaii

[Wholesale market values quoted; estimates based on all available data, both published and first hand]

Crop

Unit

Field crops:
Sugar (granulated and brown)_______________________ ______ Ton..........
Pineapples............................. .............. .............. ............... ......... Pound___
Coffee______________________________ ______ _______ _____ ___do..........
Bananas_______________________________ ________________ ...d o ........
Rice___________________________________________ ______ ___ __ do..........
Taro_______ ____________________________ _____ ___________ __ do........
Corn_______________ ____ ______ _____ _____________________ ...d o ..........
Pigeon peas_______________________________________
___ Ton__ Alfalfa..... .................................. ..................................... .............. __ do____
Sorghums and other soiling crops___________________________ __ do........
Algaroba___________________ ___________ ____ ____________ __ do........
Sweet potatoes............................................. ................................. Pound___
White potatoes. __________________________________________ ...d o ..........
Edible canna and cassava, as feed___ . . ________ ____________ Ton........
Cotton___________________________________ ____________ __ Pound___
Truck crops (other than above)____________________________
Miscellaneous field crops—Para grass, e tc ..._______ _________ Ton____
Molasses. ____________ ____ ____ _________________________ __ do..........
Pineapple bran................................... ............................. ............. ___do..........
Rice bran________________________________ _____ ___________ ._ d o .... __
Pasturage—equivalent in feed value........................ . ........... ......
Orchard crops:
Avocados................................... ......................................... ......... Pound___
Papayas..... ........... ............ ................................... ............ ......... __ do_____
Citrus............................................................................. ............ .




Amount or
number

27,148
1,100,000
1.500.000
10,600,000
1.400.000
10,000,000
12,000,000
15.000
15.000
30.000
100,000
2,000,000
500,000
1,000
75.000
5,000
10,000
7,891
15,000
66,666
2,000,000
250,000

Value

$2,542,930
33.000
390.000
210.000
70.000
200,000
240.000
75.000
150.000
150.000
750.000
30.000
12,500
10.000
9,750
400.000
25.000
80.000
189,384
60,000
750.000
100.000
50,000
5,000

7

GENERAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS
T

able

5 . — Agricultural

produce raised and consumed during 1929 in the Territory
of Hawaii— Continued
Unit

Crop

Orchard crops—Continued.
Manadamia and other nuts____ . .. .
Pound___
Grapes_____________________________ ____________________ __ do_____
Miscellaneous fruits—figs, lichees, mangoes, breadfruit, etc....... ...d o ..........
Watp.rmp.1nns. _
__ do..........
Fuel_________________________ ___________________________ Cord_____
Coconuts_____________________ _ ________________________ Bag______
Miscellaneous crops—ginger, mushrooms____________________
Livestock:
Beef, dairy_______________________________________________ Pound___
Beef, dressed_____________________________________________ ...d o ..........
Beef, veal________________________________________________ Head____
Swine____________________________________________________ Pound___
Mutton____________________________ _____________________ ...d o ..........
M ilk__________ _____________________________________________ Quart____
Butter_______________________________________________________ Pound___
Cheese, cottage_______________________________________________ ...d o ........
Cheese___________________ ____ ___________ _____ _____________ ...d o ........
Goats____________________ ___________________________________ Head____
Poultry:
Chickens_____________ ________ ___________ ______ _________ ...d o ........
Ducks___________________________________________________ __ do........
Turkeys_____ ________________ ____ _____________ ____ ____ __ do..........
Eggs............................................................... ..................................... Dozen___
Bees, honey__________________________________________________ Pound___
Manufactured commodities: Taro—mano, jams, jellies, preserves
Lauhala—woven mats, hats, etc__________ ____________________

Amount or
number

5,000
1,500,000
300,000
2,000,000
25.000
10.000

Value

$2,500
150.000
30.000
80.000
200.000
27,500
10,000

600,000
12,500,000 | 2,199,000
2,000
6.400.000
1.152.000
147.000
19,110
15,000,000
1.500.000
15.000
7.500
10.000
1.500
10,000
5.000
5.000
5.000
100.000
50.000
10.000
1.600.000
5.000

Total...........................................................................................

200,000
100,000
50.000
960.000
2.000
100.000
10.000
13,343,674

Poultry Products1

There are in the Territory over 400 poultry producers, with flocks
ranging from 50 to over 9,000 birds. With the smaller producers
poultry is usually a side line, while the larger ones raise poultry as a
regular business. The industry is not confined to one or two nation­
alities^ as for instance are rice and taro, but is undertaken rather
extensively by many races, as is indicated in the following table:
T

able

6 . — Number

of producers of poultry and size of flocks, by race of producers

Size of flock

Number
Hawaiian
of pro­ Japanese Chinese and part Caucas­
ian
ducers
Hawaiian

Portu­
guese

50 to 100 fowls_________________________
100 to 200 fowls_________________________
200 to 500 fowls_________________________
500 to 1,000 fowls_______________________
1,000 to 2,000 fowls and over____ _________

243
70
60
22
23

105
40
46
9
3

89
14
4
0
2

21
7
3
4
2

16
5
4
7
15

12
4
3
2
1

Total. ................................... ............

418

203

109

37

47

22

The poultry industry, although not so important as some of the
other industries, is one which deserves a great deal of thought and
consideration. There are in the Territory approximately 200,000
fowls with an annual egg production of over 1,500,000 dozen, valued
at over $900,000, and the industry is rapidly forging ahead. Poultry
raising is not confined to any particular locality, as is the Kona coffee
industry, for instance, but is undertaken rather extensively on nearly
every island in the group. During the last few years the industry
i Data on this subject from H. C. Wong, county extension agent.




8

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

has witnessed quite a change—
^the number of birds has increased, the
methods of raising are more scientific, and the returns are greater than
they were formerly.
Investigations of proper methods of feeding are gradually placing
the feeding of the fowls on a rather exact basis. The care and shelter
required for a flock is becoming a subject of popular interest and
nearly every poultryman is beginning to know the advantage of the
care which should be given a flock used in egg production.
The approximate number and value of fowls in the Territory in
1928 and 1929 are shown in Table 7.
T

able

7 . — Approximate

number of fowls and total egg production and value thereof
in the Territory of Hawaii, 1928 and 1929

Islands

Number of fowls Total egg production Value of egg production
1928

Oahu...................... ............................. 115,457
Maui_____________________________ 34,958
Hawaii____ ______________________
19,630
Kauai____________________________
6,045
Molokai___ ______________________
4,101
Total. ........................................

180,191

1929

1928

.1929

1928

1929

129,312
39,153
21,984
6,770
4,593

Doz.
909,230
275,209
163,573
47,600
32,296

Doz.
1,018,719
308,332
173,128
63,313
36,181

$521,173.63
173,077.68
88,059.96
27,284.32
18,512.18

$583,929.76
176,735.99
99,237.03
30,558.53
20,738.38

201,812

1,427,908

1,589,673

828,107.77

911,199.69

Hog Industry on Oahu1

A survey of the hog industry on the island of Oahu showed that
there are approximately 18,000 head available for consumption,
valued at nearly $350,000. The hogs are distributed among 196 pig­
geries, the latter ranging in size from 20 to 3,000 head. The breeds
are so badly mixed among most of the piggeries that it is hard to say
which breed is predominant. In the few cases where true breeds or
only the first generation crosses are kept, the most popular breeds are
the Berkshires and the Duroc Jerseys.
This industry is practically in the hands of the Japanese, who con­
stitute about 90 per cent of the raisers, although there are a few large
piggeries owned by persons of other nationalities. Most of the hogs
are swill fed, with a few of the larger piggeries using commercial feed
for their stock. In the Japanese piggeries the husband usually gets
the swill early in the morning and then goes to work for his employer.
The wife tends to the rest of the work, cleaning the pens, boiling the
swill, and feeding the hogs.
As to market arrangements, most of the piggeries have none. The
idea of grade standards is totally disregarded, the weights and prices
being largely determined by guesswork. In a few of the larger pig­
geries, however, the hogs are graded as prime (125 to 175 pounds)
and those over 175 pounds.
Practically all of the lands are leased lands, ranging in size from
one-fourth to four or more acres. Most of the houses thereon are
supplied with running water and electricity. The chief fuel is wood.
i Data on this subject from H. C. Wong, county extension agent.




GENERAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

9

Rice Industry

The rice industry in Hawaii dates as far back as 1859, when Mr.
Holstein, of the Hawaiian Agricultural Society, bought a piece of land
in Nuuanu Valley on which to carry out some experimental work on
various crops, of which rice was one. Rice had been introduced
Srevious to this date, but the first successful attempt was made by
Ir. Holstein. His success took the islands by storm, and for several
years the people went rice crazy. Taro lands were absorbed by rice
planters in rapid succession, and for a time it seemed as if the islands
were to have a taro famine. This lasted only for a few years, however,
as losses and other discouraging factors began to make their appear­
ance. The taro industry came back with a boom, reaching its
height in 1865, when the rice industry made an attempt to regain
lost ground. This time it was more successful and remained so until
other industries came into being, when the industry began to decline.
Although rice is still believed to be the world’s greatest crop (with
a normal annual production of over 300,000,000,000 pounds), in
Hawaii the industry, instead of increasing, is rapidly declining. Rice
is the surest and most regular of the great crops and probably the
most staple food of the greatest number of people. At first glance,
one would think that with the oriental population of the Territory,
the industry should be in a very flourishing condition, but surveys
have proved that each year the total acreage in rice cultivation is
greatly reduced.
Rice culture began in the unrecorded past, yet the methods of
cultivation, in so far as science and technique are concerned, have
seen very little change. This is probably the sole reason why it is a
dying industry, when the pineapple and sugarcane industries are
advancing so rapidly. In 1907 when the pineapple industry was still
in its infancy, there were at least 10,000 acres of rice under extensive
cultivation, and rice was the second ranking crop in the Territory.
But to-day the Territory can not even produce enough for its own
local consumption and has to import large quantities from California
and Japan.
Almost all of the rice produced here is cultivated by Chinese and
Japanese, and as long as it is cultivated under the same crude methods
employed by the natives back in the Orient centuries ago, rice will
never be on a profit-producing basis.
As things stand, the future of the industry looks very dark. A sur­
vey has proved that in the last few years the total acreage has
decreased at least 50 per cent, and, as stated above, most of the
planters are Chinese and Japanese, ranging in age from 40 to 65
years. The future will present another big problem, that regarding
the labor supply.^ While laborers of oriental descent are absolutely
barred from immigrating into the Territory and no other race is in
position to take up this work, the younger generation of these oriental
producers are not seeing their way clear to follow up the work of their
predecessors.
In the following table an attempt is made to show the consumption
per capita of each of the oriental races of the Territory as compared
with the total consumption of the other races. The figures are based
on the home consumption of the students of the University of Hawaii,
as in the student body of that university are represented all the oriental
races mentioned in the table.




10

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

It may be noted that of the oriental races the Filipinos consumed
more rice per capita than any other, and the Chinese consumed the least.
T a b l e 8 . — Consumption
Nationality
Japanese_____________________________ ____ Chinese____________________________________
Filipino_______ _____________ ______________
Korean ___________________________________
Asiatic-Hawaiian__________________ _________
Other races--------------------- ---------------------------

of rice per capita, 1927, by races
Population
131,071
25,198
52,124
6,214
9,437
87,275

Consumption Total pounds
Total value
(pounds) per consumed
capita
240
185.04
300
199.92
133.92
66.66

31,457,040
4,672,638
15,637,200
1,242,302
1,258,141
5,817,751

$1,994,374.05
296,245.24
991,398.48
78,761.94
79,766.14
369,845.41

Summary of Average Hours and Earnings in the Territory
of Hawaii, 1929-30
Sugar plantations, including sugar mills, and pineapple plantations
and canneries are the outstanding industries in the Hawaiian Islands.
They are generally looked upon as constituting all of Hawaii’s indus­
tries. Many other industries are, however, rapidly developing.
In the 1929-30 study of industrial conditions in the Hawaiian
Islands by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, wage data covering hours
and earnings were collected for 67,802 employees in 21 industries.
Based on the 1930 census of the islands, the number included in the
study is 18 per cent of the total population of the Territory of Hawaii.
It includes practically all employees on the sugar plantations, on
steam railways, on street railways, in coffee mills, in slaughtering and
meat-packing establishments, in the manufacture of tin cans and of
overalls and shirts, more than 85 per cent of the total number of
employees on pineapple plantations and in pineapple canneries, and
at least 50 per cent of the employees of the other industries included
in the study; and it constitutes more than 85 per cent of all wage
earners on the islands. All industries of material importance in
number of wage earners were covered in the study. The bureau, in
studies of industries in the States, usually collects wage figures for
from 20 to 50 per cent of the total number of wage earners in each
industry.
Average full-time hours per week, earnings per hour, and full-time
earnings per week are shown in Table 9 for males in each of the 21
industries, for females in each of the 8 in which they were employed,
and also for both sexes combined. Average full-time hours per week
are not shown for sugar plantations because of the great variation of
hours by kinds of work. (See Table 25, p. 51.) The averages in the
table are by industry, presented in the order of importance in number
of employees, beginning with sugar plantations with a total of 49,671
and ending with manufacture of overalls and shirts, with only 17
employees.
Adult males on sugar plantations earned in May, 1929, at the
basic rates and with bonus for attendance an average of $1.84 per
day. These earnings and those for females do not include the per­
quisites (estimated at a cost of $28 per month to the plantations)
of houses, fuel, water, and medical and hospital service furnished
without charge by the plantations to employees.
The average full-time hours for all the 3,477 employees on the pineapple plantations (3,316 males and 161 females) were 60 per week.
The males earned an average of 22.7 cents, the females an average of



SUMMARY OP HOURS AND EARNINGS

11

11.6 cents, and both sexes together an average of 22.5 cents per hour.
Average full-time earnings per week were $13.62 for males, $6.96 for
females, and $13.50 per week for males and females combined. The
earnings in the table include those at the basic rates and the bonus
combined. They do not include the estimated value of perquisites—
rental value of houses, value of fuel, water, and medical and hospital
service furnished by the plantations to the employees.
The average full-time hours of males ranged by industries from 44
per week in printing and publishing, machine shops, and foundries to
66.4 per week in dairies; and of females ranged from 44 per week in
printing and publishing to 60 per week on pineapple plantations, in
pineapple canneries, and in tin-can manufacture.
The average earnings per hour of males ranged by industries, ex­
cluding plantations, from 17.4 cents in the making of overalls, and
shirts, to 91.5 cents in printing and publishing; of females, ranged
from 14.1 cents in coffee mills to 37.8 cents per hour in printing and
publishing; and of both sexes ranged from 21.3 cents in coffee mills
to 85.7 cents in printing and publishing.
The average full-time earnings per week of males ranged by indus­
tries from $7.86 in overalls and shirts to $40.26 in printing and pub­
lishing; of females ranged from $6.96 on pineapple plantations to
$16.63 in printing and publishing; and of both sexes, ranged from
$11.74 in coffee mills to $37.71 in printing and publishing.
T a b le

9.— Number of employees and average hours and earnings in the Territory
of Hawaii, 1929-30, by industry
Number of em­
ployees

Average full-time Average earnings
hours per week
per hour

Average full-time
earnings per week

Industry
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Male male Total Male male Total Male male Total Male Fe­ Total
male
Sugar plantations______ 47,300 1,474 i 49,671
Pineapple plantations. __ 3,316
161 3,477
Pineapple canneries....... 3,937 3,579 7,516
Building construction. __
906
906
Steam railways________
660
660
Road building_________
383
383
Longshore labor_______
381
381
Steam laundries..............
102
178
280
Tin-can manufacturing..
220
48
268
Electricity — Manufac­
ture and distribution. .
256
256
Street railways________
236
236
Printing and publishing:
Newspaper and book
and job__....................
194
24
218
Stock raising...................
191
191
141
Machine shops..... ........
141
G a s — Manufacturing
and distribution_____
102
102
Dry dock.... ...................
94
94
Dairies......................... .
84
84
42
Coffee mills.....................
32
74
Foundries............ ...........
66
66
Slaughtering and meat
packing_____________
26
26
Overalls and shirt mak­
ing................................
1
16
17

(2
)
60.0
60.0
49.6
51.1
49.3
54.0
54.0
60.0

(2
)
60.0
60.0

54.0
60.0

45.1
52.5
44.0
53.0
44.0
48.0
45.0
66.4
55.3
44.0

45.1
52.5

55.0

45.2

.707
.544

44.0
53.0
44.0

.915
.275
.685

48.0
45.0
66.4
55.1
44.0

.478
.578
.299
.307
.649

51.0

44.0

51.0
45.2

(2 3 $1.84 3 $1.30 * $1.82 * $11.04 * $7.80 •$10.92
)
.
60.0 7.227 7 116 7
.225 713.62 76.96 713.50
60.0 .271 .168 .224 16.26 10.08 13.44
49.6 .506
.506 25.10
25.10
51.1 .446
.446 22.79
22. 79
24.95
49.3 .506
.506 24.95
54.0 .468
.468 25.27
25! 27
54.0 .416 ’ ".’ 190 .272 22.46 16.26 14.' 69
60.0 .401 .243 .373 24.06 14.58 22.38

.347

45.2

.174

.707
.544

.141

.307

31.87
26.62

.857
.275
.685

40.26 16.63
14.58
30.14

37.71
14.58
30l 14

.478
.578
.299
.213
.649

22'. 94
26.01
19.85
16.98 *7.76
28.56

22.94
26.01
19*85
ll! 74
28.56

.347

.378

31.89
26.62

17.70

17.70

.298

7.86 13.88

13.74

1 Includes 349 male minors, 19 female minors, and 529 minors whose sex was not reported.
2 Range, according to kind of work, from 33 to 72—average not computed. (See Table 25, p/51.)
8 Per day for adults at basic rates and with bonus, but not including perquisites (rental value of houses,
value of fuel, water, medical and hospital service for sickness or accidental injury of any kind) furnished
to employees by plantations without any charge to employees. The value was estimated at $28 per month
or $1 per day.
4 Per day for adults and minors combined; minors earned an average of 98 cents per day.
5 For adults, but not including perquisites. (See note 3.)
6 For adults and minors; average for minors $5.88 per week.
7 At basic rates and with bonus, but not including perquisites. (See note 3.)




12

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Sugar Industry
Sugar Production
The principal industry of the Territory of Hawaii is the growing,
harvesting, and milling of sugarcane. The annual report of the
Governor of Hawaii for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1928,
shows 130,968 acres of land in these islands harvested in sugarcane.
The tons of cane harvested were 7,710,508, from which 897,396 tons
of raw sugar were produced. The tons of cane produced per acre
were 58.87 and of raw sugar, 6.85, while the tons of cane per ton of
raw sugar were 8.59. The average tonnage of cane per acre as applied
to the entire Territory is somewhat misleading, owing to the fact that
the island of Hawaii, which is the largest island of the group and
contains the largest sugarcane acreage, had a very low yield (49.17
tons) in comparison with the other islands; Oahu, for instance, had
an average yield of 79.35 tons of cane per acre, some of the plantations
and parts of plantations yielding as much as 100 tons per acre.
Hawaiian production of cane per acre, however, is not comparable
with the yield of the other sugar-producing countries of the world.
Hawaii's sugarcane producing period of time is nominally 18 months,
though in very many instances the period extends to 20 and
even 22 months. In all the other sugarcane growing countries
of the world the rated output of cane is the number of tons per acre
per annum—that is, the yield is calculated on the planted area and
not on the harvested acreage, as in Hawaii. The yield of raw sugar
per ton of sugarcane, however, is somewhat greater in Hawaii, due
both to the development and cultivation of high grades of cane and
to the better methods of milling.
The production of cane sugar in Hawaii in 1929 was 913,670 short
tons. The production for each of the years from 1837 to 1929 is
given in Table 10.
Production in the Hawaiian Islands, which was less than 11,000
short tons each year from 1837 to 1872, reached 57,088 tons in 1882;
108,112 tons in 1886; 221,828 tons in 1896; 289,544 tons in 1900, the
year in which the islands were annexed to the United States; 360,038
tons in 1901, an increase of 24 per cent in the first year the islands
were a part of the United States; 617,038 tons in 1914, the year of
the beginning of the World War; 701,433 tons in 1924; 811,333 tons
in 1927; and reached 904,040 short tons in 1928.
T a b le

10.— Hawaiian sugar production (in tons of 2,000 pounds), 1837 to 1929
[Source: “ Story of Sugar,” rev. ed., June, 1929]

Year

1837............... ..........................................
1838.........................................................
1839______________________________
1840__________ ______ _______ ______
1841_______________ _____________ _
1842-1843............. ...................... .............
1844...........................................................
1845............................................ ............
1846......................................................... .
1847.............. ............................................
1848...........................................................
1 First record of exportation.




Number ;
of tons
i2
44
50
180
30
572
257
151
150
297
250

Year

1849.........
1850 . . .
1851____
1852 ____
1853 . .
1854..................
1855...............
1856 —
1857___
1858 ____
1859...................................... ...................

Number
of tons
327
375
11
350
321
288
145
277
350
602
913

13

SUGAR INDUSTRY
T a b le

10.— Hawaiian sugar 'production (in tons of 2,000 pounds), 1837 to 1929—
Continued
Number
of tons

Year
1860................................................ .........
1861....... ........... .............................
1862.........................................................
1863......................... ..............................
1864..........................................................
1865............... ................................
1866.............................................
1867......................................................
1868............ ..................................
_
1869.......................................................
1870.........................................................
1871......................................... ................
1872............ ........... ..................................
1873 .................... .................................
1874.............................. ........................
1875................. .....................................
1876......................................................
1877.......................................................
1878....................... .................................
1879........................................................
1880............... ..........................................
1881............ ................................. .........
1882................................................
1883......................................................
1884.......................................................
1885.———.................... ......................
1886________ ________ _______________
1887.................................................
1888.......................................................
1889............................... ........................
1890......................... ............ ...................
1891____________ ___________ ______
1892......................................... .........
1893_ _________________________

i
oc

572
1,281
1,503
2,646
5,207
7,659
8,865
8,564
9,106
9,151
9,392
10,880
8,498
11,565
12,283
12,540
13,036
12,788
19,215
24,510
31,792
46,895
57,088
57,053
71,327
85,695.
108,112
106,362
117,944
121,083
129,899
137,492
131,308
165,411
153,342

Number
of tons

Year
1895....... .............. ..................................
1896............... ............................ ............
1897............................ .............................
1898...................... ...... .................... ......
1899_____________________ ___________
1900______ ___________ _____________
1901..........................................................
1902______ ___________ —.....................
1903.................... ................ .....................
1904__________ ______________________
1905__________________________ ______
1906_______________________ _________
1907_____________________ ____ —........
1908__________________ ______ _______
1909 ___________ __________ _____ ___
1910___ ______ _____________________
1911................. ........................... ...........
1912_________ ______________________
1913.................... .....................................
1914_— ............ ................ .....................
1915............ ...................... ......................
1916..........................................- ..............
1917 _________ _______ ___________
1918 ................. ........... ........................
1919 ................. .................................
1920 ............... —.................................
1921....... .................................................
1922 .............................. ...................
1923 .............................. ............ .........
1924....................... ...............................—
1925 _________ ______ _______ ________
1926 .................... ......... .......................
1927
...........................
1928
................. - ................
1929
.................................................

147,627
221,828
251.126
229,414
282,807
289,544
360.038
355,611
457,991
367,475
426,428
429,213
440,017
521,123
535,156
518.127
566,821
595,258
546,798
617.038
646,445
593,483
644,574
576,842
603,583
556,871
539,196
609,077
545,606
701,433
776,072
787,246
811,333
904,040
2 913,670

2 Hawaiian Sugar. Planters’ Association.

The production of cane sugar on each of the four principal islands
(Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai) and on the four combined in each
of the years from 1920 to 1929 is shown in Table 11:
T a b le

11.— Tons (2,000 pounds) of raw sugar produced each year, 1920 to 1929,
on each island and on all islands

Name of island

1920

1921

Hawaii......................
M a u i......................
Oahu........................
Kauai.......................

185,729
136,170
129,572
105,400

197,064
115,599
125,462
101,071

All islands___

1922

1923

1924

1925

1926

228,954 188,362 235,568 269,125 278,852
123,847 113,069 155,364 169,994 158,950
153,777 147,663 188,532 202,460 213,705
102,499 96,512 121,969 134,493 135,739

1927

1928

1929

261,971
172,043
224,004
153,315

299,623
192,113
249,069
163,235

308,132
198,300
236,955
170,283

556,871 539,196 609,077 545,606 701,433 776,072 787,246 811,333 904,040 913,670

Increase in Output per Man-day or Man-year

The increase during recent years in output per man-day or per
man-year throughout all the sugar plantations of Hawaii is remark­
able. In so far as this increased production results from the improve­
ment in types of sugar cane now grown over types formerly grown
it reaches even to the small growers or farmers who produce only a few
acres of cane and sell such cane to the plantations having grinding
mills.
A plantation on the island of Oahu, with practically the same labor
force, produced 40,000 tons of raw sugar in 1920 and 70,136 tons in
27595°— 31------ 2



14

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

1929. This company in 1922 produced an average of 49.09 tons of
cane per acre; in 1928 the average was 94.07 tons per acre, while on
many of its separate fields the production was over 100 tons per acre.
Measured in tons of 96 degree raw sugar 6.68 tons per acre were pro­
duced in 1922 and 12.28 tons in 1928.
Another plantation, on the island of Hawaii, increased its output of
raw sugar from 6.7 tons per man-year in 1900 to 24.22 tons per manyear in 1929. This increase was due to several factors. Several
years ago a pest or blight of some sort practically destroyed the sugar­
cane on the island. Since that time the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’
Association has built up a most remarkable laboratory for developing
types of cane that will be more adapted to Hawaiian soil, more
prolific in sugar content or yield, and more immune from pests.
Machinery is used at every stage of production, beginning with the
clearing of the ground. Plowing is now done with four, five, and six
disk plows, arranged in tandem and drawn by 62-horsepower cater­
pillar tractors, which plow from 14 to 24 inches deep. The soil is
thus put in a condition which would have been impossible formerly
and at a great deal less expenditure of man power.
Some of the more striking methods by which greater production
has been secured with practically a stationary labor force are the
greater use of much better fertilizers; the more systematic and ex­
tensive use of irrigation; the practice—quite general though not
universal—of burning the blades from the lower part of the stalk
instead of stripping it by hand, as formerly; the use of enormous
cranes, each one of which, operated by two men, performs the work
of 35 men, in loading the cane onto the cars for transportation to the
grinding mill; and more efficient methods of laying tracks upon which
these cars are conveyed to the mills.
The planters' association has established a bureau which is con­
stantly turning out minor labor-saving devices which in the aggregate
do much to increase output of the labor force, if not actually reducing
the force.
Irrigation and Fertilization
It is surprising to learn that land so rich as that found for the most
part in the Territory of Hawaii should require an enormous amount
of fertilizing, and that, with the tremendous amount of rainfall com­
mon in most parts of the Territory, irrigation should be necessary.
However, when it is realized that from 80 to 90 tons of sugarcane are
removed from an acre of land and that 87 per cent of the weight of
this cane consists of extractable juice, one is not unprepared to learn
that it requires 4,000 tons of water to mature the cane for a ton of
sugar. When it is realized that in the fertile fields of Illinois not more
than 2 % tons of corn per acre, not counting the stalks—incidentally,
neither are the weight of the blade and seed of sugarcane counted—
are taken from the soil, as against 90 tons of sugarcane per acre from
the soil of Hawaii, one can readily believe that no natural unaided soil
fertility could be found anywhere in the world to stand such a strain.
Source of Labor Supply
The source of labor suppfy for the sugarcane industry in the Terri­
tory of Hawaii has shifted many times, being originally the Hawaiian
Islands, and subsequently China, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Porto



15

SUGAR INDUSTRY

Rico, and Korea. The present tendency is to depend almost ex­
clusively upon the Philippine Islands as the source of labor supply.
Table 12, secured from the immigration bureau at Honolulu, shows
the Filipinos arriving at and departing from Hawaii over a period
of years:
T a b le

12.— Filipinos arriving at and departing from Hawaii, 1922 to 1929
Arriving from—

Fiscal year end­
ing June 30—

Arriving from— Departing to—

Departing to—

Orient

Main­
land

Orient

Main­
land

1922.................... 8,675
1923..................... 6,530
1924.................... 5,915
1926
10,369
1926-................... 4,995

38
9
40
93
90

2,074
925
2,694
2,769
2,715

98
937
2,118
831
2,888

Fiscal year end­
ing June 30—

Orient

Main­
land

Orient

1927-................... 6,875
1928-................... 12,572
1929-................... 9,593

78
132
180

3,671
4,008
4,809

2,254
1,515
2,374

65,524

660

23,665

13,015

Total

Main­
land

Table 13 shows the Filipinos arriving at and departing from Hawaii,
by age and sex.
T a b le

13.— Filipinos arriving at and departing from Hawaii, 1925 to 1929, by age
and sex
Arriving from—
Orient

Fiscal year ending June 30—

Under 16

Mainland
Under 16

Over 16
Total

Male

Female

Male

Female

Over 16

Fe­
Male male Male

1925.......................................
1926.......................................
1927.......................................
1928.......................................
1929......................................

219
62
60
81
76

105
10
26
57
54

9,414
4,794
6,404
12,254
9,320

631
129
385
180
143

10,369
4,995
6,875
12,572
9,593

4
3

Total..........................

498

252

42,186

1,468

July 1 to Dec. 31,1929...........

35

31

3,218

87

6

Fe­
male

Total

3
8

1
6
15

76
78
75
117
135

7
9
2
6
22

93
90
78
132
180

44,404

18

28

481

46

573

3,371

0

3

98

4

105

Departing to—
Orient
Fiscal year ending June 30—

Under 16

Mainland

Over 16

Under 16

Over 16

Total
Male

Female Male

Fe­
Male male Male

Female

Fe­
male

Total

1925......................................
1926.......... ...........................
1927............ ..........................
1928......................................
1929— 1................................

190
139
352
388
351

198
103
309
405
324

2,122
2,208
2,585
2,742
3,787

259
265
425
473
347

2,769
2,715
3,671
4,008
4,809

25
85
68
28
31

18
50
83
35
27

751
2,436
2,023
1,405
2,268

37
317
80
47
48

831
2,888
2,254
1,515
2,374

Total..........................

1,420

1,339

13,444

1,769

17,972

237

213

8,883

529

9,862

169

130

2,130

153

2,582

0

1

621

16

638

July 1 to Dec. 31,1929




16

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

There is much discussion and a considerable feeling as to the
advisability of the continuance of this immigration. The rapid
development of the pineapple industry makes it no longer solely a
sugarcane question. Formerly the sugar growers engaged the Filipino
on his native heath and paid for his transportation to Hawaii, but
this practice has been abandoned. The Hawaiian Sugar Planted
Association now has its agents in the Philippines engaging labor, but
these workers must pay their own way to Hawaii. Upon arrival, they
are given a contract or agreement that if they will work on the sugar
plantations for a period of three years, their return expense to the
Philippines, should they wish to return, will be paid by the sugar
planters’ association.
From the plantation managers’ point of view Filipino labor is
reasonably satisfactory, although there is not complete unanimity
of opinion among such managers. For instance, a manager of a
plantation on the island of Hawaii said to his board of directors:
We were well supplied with labor all through the season and work was kept
well in hand. Our Filipinos are a restless lot, changing around from place to
place. We trust that the suggested change in the contracts, whereby it is
required of them to stay at least one year continuously at the place they are
assigned to, will work out to the benefit of all concerned.

The following statement from an official of the association is inter­
esting as bearing upon this question:
With the Filipino labor there is a continuous and from the standpoint of em­
ployers undesirable amount of shifting from one plantation to another. Due to
the fact that Filipinos have relatives in great numbers and to remote degrees of
consanguinity, we find men shifting from one plantation to another, giving as
their excuse that they want ,to be with a cousin, uncle, or brother, or some other
connection on a second plantation. In our agreements with the laborer which we
make after the arrival of Filipinos in Hawaii, we promise to return them to the
Philippines after three years’ work on plantations, providing they have complied
with the terms of the work agreement. These terms require that they must have
worked one year on one plantation and do not prohibit their moving between
plantations. We send back as having completed the contract hundreds and even
thousands of men whose work record must be secured from two, three, four, and
maybe more plantations during the period of employment here. Within the
last year we have caused our work agreement to be slightly changed, requiring
the man to work the first year on the plantation to which first assigned, but even
then a transfer is permitted, providing the man applies for it and it is approved,
so that if he has good reason to move he may do so without forfeiting his rights.
If he doesn’t desire to apply for the transfer, he may move anyhow, but of course
under those conditions he wouldn’t have the benefits of his work agreement.

A study of length of service in Hawaii of Filipinos who returned to
the Philippines for various reasons during the labor year October 1,
1928, to September 30, 1929, discloses the following:
Of 132 cases of sick men reported to the sugar planters’ association
as being discharged from hospitals but unable to go back to work,
and desirous of returning to their homes in the Philippines, the length
of service on sugar plantations averaged 51 months; their average
stay on the islands was 65 months, and they had worked on an aver­
age of 1.7 different plantations.
Of the contract Filipinos who had fulfilled their contracts 1,922
desired to be returned auring the year. The average sojourn of these
men on the islands was 54 months, their average service on sugar
plantations was 53% months, and they had worked on an average of
1.4 plantations. The required service to secure the right to free
return is 36 months of 20 days, or 720 days’ work on plantations.




SUGAR INDUSTRY

17

Of 1,366 laborers who paid their passage back to the Philippines,
having forfeited their right to free return by “ deserting,” i. e., jump­
ing their contracts, or by other conduct, the average stay on the islands
was 36 months, the average employment on plantations was 27
months, and the average number of plantations on which employed
was 1.5.
Unquestionably the sugar plantations of Hawaii are a great boon
to the individual Filipinos who take advantage of the higher wages
paid. Whether or not the Philippine Islands are the better for this
drawing off of their younger and more physically fit male population
raises a question this bureau does not feel called upon to answer. ^
The social question created in Hawaii is, however, quite distinct
from the problem of labor supply for any one or two or all of its
industries. Employees of the former immigrations were at the outset
single men, or men immigrating for the purpose of severing marital
obligations they no longer cared to carry. The Chinese, however,
were accepted by the native Hawaiians, and considerable intermar­
riage of Chinese men with Hawaiian women occurred. The Ameri­
cans had set the example in intermarriage with Hawaiian women even
back in the missionary days. Later on a considerable number of
Chinese women immigrated and became the wives of the Chinese
workers. The Japanese were able in the course of time more or less
to remedy the social situation so far as they were concerned through
the “ picture bride” device.
This large excess and continuing large importation of single men
creates a social question which in the long run must become a bigger
problem than either the sugar or pineapple industry or both. A
labor policy more comprehensive than merely securing plenty of
labor for the sugar and pineapple industries will sooner or later force
itself upon Hawaii.
There is a social side of the labor problems that will eventually
override the purely industrial side, especially when industry is narrow
either in its scope or ownership. It must happen—indeed is now
happening—that the employers will have the conviction forced upon
them that married men are better and ultimately cheaper plantation
labor, as well as safer and better citizens. It is not within the power
of industry to ignore over a long period of time the fact that man
is a social being.
It is neither socially, industrially, nor economically wise for Hawaii
to import such a proportion of its total food supply as it does now.
The tendency in 1-crop or in 2-crop districts to ignore everything
but the principal industry is not of course confined to Hawaii. Cuba,
another sugarcane country, imports from the United States fruits
which grow wild in Cuba. The distance between Hawaii and the
mainland of the United States, or any other country for that matter,
is so great that importations of articles necessary for the sustenance
of life and the ordinary comforts of living add so greatly to the cost
of these things that eventually these livings costs will defeat the
purposes of a cheap labor supply drawn from no matter where.




18

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Census of Sugar Plantations
The Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, which includes all
except a very few small and unimportant plantations on the Hawaiian
Islands, takes a census of the plantations and camps thereon as of
June 30 and December 31 each year.
The census figures in Table 14 show the number of persons in the
“ married group,” and in the “ single group,” and also in both of
these groups combined, of each race on the plantations on each island
and on all the islands, and also the number of houses owned by the
plantations, the number rented by the plantations, and the total
number furnished by them to employees and families for use as
homes. No rental was charged by the plantations for the use of the
houses. An official of the association estimated the average cost to
the employer of furnishing the houses to employees at $20 per month
per house.
On June 30, 1929, the married group of Japanese employees on the
plantations on the island of Hawaii included 2,680 men, 2,557 women,
and 7,654 children, a total of 12,891 persons of that race. They were
housed in 1,907 homes owned by the plantations and 403 rented for
them by the plantations. On June 30, 1929, there were 50,045 men,
14,129 women, and 36,941 children, or a total of 101,115 persons of
all races on the plantations on all the islands, and they were housed
in 18,637 buildings owned by the plantations and 951 houses rented
by the plantations.
The great majority of the Filipinos on the plantations are single
men. On the island of Hawaii 10,237, or 79 per cent of the total
of 12,957, of that race were single men; on Maui, 6,226 or 67 per cent
were single men; on Oahu, 5,938 of the total of 11,207 were single
men; and on Kauai, 7,408 of the total of 9,989 on that island were
single men. On all islands, 29,809 or 68.6 per cent of the 43,433
Filipinos on all plantations were single men.




T a b l e 14.— Census of persons (employees and families) and houses on 41 sugar plantations in the Territory of Hawaii, J une 80, and December

81, 1929, by island, race, and marital condition
December 31,1929

June 30, 1929
Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Island, race, and marital condition
Wo­
men

Chil­ Total
dren

2,310
519

2,536
1,082

2,441
146

7,510 12,487
46 1,274

1,955
430

348
47

2,303
477

2,829

3,618

2,587

7,556 13,761

2,385

395

2,780

12
45

650
504
1,728 10,271

594
4

1,413 2,657
3 10,278

484
1,730

17
46

501
1,776

2,232 10,921

598

1,416 12,935

2,214

63

2.277

W o­
men

Chil­
dren

Total

Married group..
Single group___

2,680
. 1,117

2,557
130

7,654
49

12,891
1,296

1,907
453

403
66

Total.............

. 3,797

2,687

7,703

14,187

2,360

469

666
. 10,237

611
1

1,441
1

2,718
10,239

492
1,683

Filipino:
Married group.
Single group___

Total
Owned Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

Total
Owned
Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished Men
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

Men

T otal-—.......

. 10,903

612

1,442

12,957

2,175

57

Chinese:
Married group.
Single group.__

46
262

40
4

165

251
266

39
86

5
6

44
92

41
257

40
3

157

238
260

35
89

7
7

42
96

Total_______

308

44

165

517

125

11

136

298

43

157

498

124

14

138

56
185

50
1

174
1

280
187

45
65

2
3

47
68

48
159

48
1

187
7

283
167

46
53

2
3

48
56

241

51

175

467

110

5

115

207

49

194

450

99

5

104

191
109

174
7

456
2

821
118

150
43

4
6

154
49

201
105

180
11

479
4

860
120

154
48

4
3

158
51

300

181

458

939

193

10

203

306

191

483

980

202

7

209

Korean:
Married group.
Single group . . .

.

Total. ...____
Porto Rican:
Married group.
Single group.__
Total.............




.

T a b le 14.— Census of persons (employees and families) and houses on 41 sugar plantations in the Territory of Hawaii, June 30, and December

31, 1929, by island, race, and marital condition— Continued

December 31,1929

June 30, 1929

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Island, race, and marital condition

419
68

518
152

510
35

1,365
5

2,393
192

385
56

48
12

433
68

Chil­
dren

Hawaii—continued
Portuguese:
Married group_________ _____________________
Single group...............................................................

489
147

487
46

1,371
10

2,347
203

366
55

53
13

Chil­ Total
dren

636

533

1,381

2,550

421

66

487

670

545

1,370

2,585

441

60

501

117
53

115
1

302
2

534
56

86
20

23
12

109
32

112
61

107
7

314
2

533
70

75
30

26
9

101
39

Total____ _____ _____ ____ ___________________

170

116

304

590

106

35

141

173

114

316

603

105

35

140

American:
Married group_________________________________
Single group______________________________ ____

163
78

157
7

230

550
85

149
56

7

156
56

158
82

157
11

222

537
93

158
53

5

163
53

7

212

240

1C8

222

630

211

5

216

Total........... ............................................................

241

164

230

635

205

All other:
Married group
__________________________
Single group........... ...............- ...................................

37
43

31
1

76

144
44

28
30

28
30

32
50

32

72

136
50

26
35

1
1

27
36

Total........................................................................

80

32

58

82

32

72

186

61

2

63

76

188

58

All races:
Married group __ ____________________________ 4,445
Single group _________________________________ 12,231

4,222 11,869
198
65

20,526
12,494

3,262
2,491

509
151

3,771 4,296
2,642 12,219

4,109 11,719 20,124
67 12,504
218

3,318
2,524

458
128

3,776
2,652

Total........................................................................ 16,676

4,420 11,934

33,030

5,753

660

6,413 16,515

4,327 11,786 32,628
)

5,842

586

6,428




I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

Total.................. ........ .................................... ......
Hawaiian:
Married group_________________________________
Single group..............................................................

CONDITIONS

Wo­
men

Wo­
men

Total

Total
Owned
Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

Total
Owned Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished Men
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

Men

LABOR

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

^

^

)

MAUI

Japanese:
Married group_________________________________ 1,682
S in g le g r o u p
781

1,661
114

5,345

8,688
895

1,599
249

77
15

1,676
264

1,729
640

1,679
91

5,269
4

8,677
735

1,548
247

96
25

1,644
272

T o ta l-..................................................................... 2,463

1,775

5,345

9,583

1,848

92

1,940

2,369

1,770

5,273

9,412

1,795

121

1,916

Filipino:
Married group_________________________________
839
Single group___________________________________ 6,226

704
11

1,500

3,043
6,237

644
1,090

6

13

650
1,103

870
6,601

656
5

1,424

2,950
6,606

596
1,164

7
17

603
1,181

T otal-.......................................................... - ......... 7,065

715

1,500

9,280

1,734

19

1,753

7,471

661

1,424

9,556

1,760

24

1,784

35
198

29
2

108

172
200

27
90

6
7

33
97

39
191

35
2

110

184
193

27
79

6
g

33
87

Chinese:
Married group_________________________________
Single group. _, .
.... ..
....... ............
T o ta l................................................................... .

108

372

117

13

130

230

37

110

377

106

14

120

50
70

51

183

284
70

51
33

1

51
34

48
72

48

179

275
72

47
32

1

47
33

T otal-..................... - .................................... .........

120

51

183

354

84

1

85

120

48

179

347

79

1

80

Porto Rican:
Married group_________________________________
Single group______________ ____________________

143
59

127
14

361

631
73

115
23

2
1

117
24

151
52

123
11

367

641
63

118
26

1

119
26

202

141

361

704

138

3

141

203

134

367

704

144

1

145

414
113

429
71

1,434

2,277
184

389
22

14
2

403
24

415
106

428
53

1,393

2,236
159

379
27

14
1

393
28

Total........ .........................................................
Hawaiian:
Married group_________________________________
Single group_______________________________

527

500

1,434

2,461

411

16

427

521

481

1,393

2,395

406

15

421

158
55

158
7

430

746
62

119
15

22
2

141
17

156
35

154
11

418

728
46

129
17

19
1

148
18

Total____ ___________________________________
American:
Married group______________________________
Single group___________ __________ ___________

213

165

430

808

134

24

158

191

165

418

774

146

20

166

104
18

110
37

117
23

149

376
60

109
23

2

111
23

Total.......................................................................
Portuguese:
Married group_______________________________
Single group___________________________________

•

104
15

140

350
52

102
18

Total______________________________________
All other:
Married group_______________________________
Single group___________________________________

143

119

140

402

120

2

122

147

140

149

436

132

2

134

61
10

53
15

156

270
25

55
7

1

56
7

50
7

47
5

126

223
12

43
3

2

45
3

Total______________________ _________________

71

68

156

295

62

1

63

1 IQ

52

126

235

46

2

48




1t-

106
37

2

INDUSTRY

31

SUGAR

233

Korean:
Married group_________________________________
Single group___________________________________

T a b l e 14.— Census of persons {employees and families) and houses on /{.l sugar plantations in the Territory of Hawaii, June SO and December
,

81, 1929, by island, race, and marital condition— Continued
December 31,1929

June 30,1929

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Island, race, and marital condition

3,568
7,741

3,287
201

9,435 16,290
4 7,946

2,996
1,618

147
53

3,143
1,671

4,819 11,309

3,488

9,439 24,236

4,614

200

4,814

1, 575
158

1,589
744

1,579
140

4,764

7,932
884

1,406
186

32
8

1,438
194

3,316
249

9,657

16,461
7,798

3,101
1,547

130
41

3,231
1,588

T o ta l--.............................................. ............ ........ 11,037

3,565

9,657

24,259

4,648

171

1,617 4,819
3
142

8,087
856

1,542
156

33
2

OAHU

Japanese:
Married group............................................................ 1,651
711
Single group................................................................
T ota l....................................................................... 2,362

1,759

4,822

8,943

1,698

35

1,733

2,333

1,719

4,764

8,816

1,592

40

1,632

Filipino:
Married group --........................................................ 1,734
Single g ro u p .............................................................. 5,938

1,121
21

2,390
3

5,245
5,962

1,219
879

13
2

1, 232
881

1,649
5,782

1,098
21

2,457

5,204
5,803

1,239
1,019

14
2

1,253
1,021

T o ta l--.................................................................... 7,672

1,142

2,393

11,207

2,098

15

2,113

7,431

1,119

2,457 11,007

2,258

16

2,274

187
348

40
74

2
4

42
78

43
290

32

100

175
290

40
72

1
1

41
73

535

114

6

120

333

32

100

465

112

2

114

Chinese:
Married group ............................................................
Single g ro u p ..............................................................

44
347

34

109
1

T ota l.......................................................................

391

34

110

Korean:
Married group................................................... .......
Single group
__

64
72

55
1

221

340
73

74
13

74
14

63
54

52
3

207

1

322
57

65
20

65
20

Total-......................................................................

136

56

221

413

87

1

88

117

55

207

379

85

85




‘

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

Chil­
dren Total

maui—continued
All races:
Married group............................................................ 3,488
Single group........... .................................................... 7,649

Total

Total
Owned
Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

Wo­
men

Chil­
dren

CONDITIONS

Total
Rented
Owned
by plan­ by plan­ furnished Men
tations by plan­
tations
tations

Wo­
men

Men

LABOR

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

fcO
^

Porto Rican:
Married group............................................................
Single group..............................................................

107
44

93
14

291

491
58

85
11

1

86
11

108
44

98
13

270

476
57

87
12

2

89
12

Total..............................................................

151

107

291

549

96

1

97

152

111

270

533

99

2

101

Portuguese:
Married group_____________________________
Single g ro u p .......................................................... .

290
75

271
18

770
1

1,331
94

257
9

2

259
9

258
90

250
19

680

1,188
109

240
21

1

241
21

Total.......................................................................

365

289

771

1,425

266

2

268

348

269

680

1,297

261

1

262

Hawaiian:
Married group________________ _______ ___ _____
Single group-.............................................................

56
33

53
2

125

234
35

49
10

9

58
10

48
40-

47
3

115

210
43

49
13

1
1

50
14

89

55

125

269

59

9

68

88

50

115

253

62

2

64

155
59

155
14

243

553
73

150
30

1

151
30

146
63

149
14

208

503
77

138
30

1

139
30

1

181

209

163

208

580

168

1

169

214

169

243

626

180

25
18

24
1

36

85
19

23
4

23
4

25
19

22
5

38
4

85
28

22
11

22
11

Total........................................................................

43

25

36

104

27

27

44

27

42

113

33

33

All races:
Married group_________________________________ 4,126
Single group___________________________________ 7,297

3,423
213

9,004
8

16,553
7,518

3,439
1,186

61
9

3,500
1,195

3,929
7,126

3,327
218

8,839 16,095
4 7,348

3,286
1,384

52
12

3,338
1,396

11,423

3,636

9,012

24,071

4,625

70

4,695 11,055

3, 545

8,843 23,443

4,670

64

4,734

Japanese:
Married group_____________________________
1,196
Single g ro u p .......................... .................... .............
464

1,147
44

3,330
54

5,673
562

1,032
251

18
8

1,050
259

1,161
492

1,128
69

3,304
33

5,593
594

1,027
290

21
15

1,048
305

Tntal

..... ...... ................
KAUAI

Total________ . . _________ . . . . _____________

1,660

1,191

3,384

6,235

1,283

26

1,309

1,653

1,197

3,337

6,187

1,317

36

1,353

Filipino:
Married group_____ _________ __________________
696
Single group__________________________________ 7,408

606
2

1,270
7

2,572
7,417

541
1,022

8

541
1,030

685
7,174

579
2

1,320
2

2,584
7,178

527
1,027

1

527
1,028

Total_____________________ __________________ 8,104

608

1,277

9,989

1,563

8

1,571

7,859

581

1,322

9,762

1,554

1

1,555




INDUSTRY

_
Total_ ______ ________________ ________
All other:
Married group............................................................
Single g rou p .-...........................................................

SU AR
G

Total_________________________________
American:
Married group........... ............ ................................
Single group..............................................................

T a b le 14.— Census of persons (employees and families) and houses on 41 sugar plantations in the Territory of Hawaii, June 80, and December

bO

SI, 1929} by island, race, and marital condition— Continued
June 30, 1929

December 31,1929
Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Wo­
men

Total
Owned
Rented
Chil­ Total by plan­ by plan­ furnished
by plan­
dren
tations
tations
tations

Chil­
dren

Chinese:
Married group__________________________ _
Single group________ •
_______________________ _

14
217

12
1

39
2

65
220

11
64

11
64

16
191

14
1

40
2

70
194

13
71

13
71

T o ta l--....................................1............................

231

13

41

285

75

75

207

15

42

264

84

84

24
64

23
1

76

123
65

23
25

23
25

22
56

21
1

81

124
57

21
27

21
27

88

24

76

188

48

48

78

22

81

181

48

48

92
44

83
3

254
1

429
48

77
19

1

77
20

92
44

88
6

251

431
50

81
20

1

81
21

Total

kauai—continued

Korean:
Married group_________________________________
Single group______ ____________________
Total________________________________

____

Porto Rican:
Married group_________________________________
Single group___________________________________

136

86

255

477

96

1

97

136

94

251

481

101

1

102

Portuguese:
Married group_________________________________
Single group___________________________________

294
65

285
27

802
19

1,381
111

248
20

12

260
20

311
63

285
33

769
14

1,365

no

248
23

11
1

259
24

T o ta l......................................................................

359

312

821

1,492

268

12

280

374

318

783

1,475

271

12

283

Hawaiian:
Married group_________________________________
Single group_____________________ - ____________

73
24

70

1

193
4

336
29

66
12

66
14

77
25

72
3

149
3

298
31

74
12

2

2

76
12

97

71

197

365

78

2

80

102

75

152

329

86

2

88

Total_______________________________________

Total_______________________________________




I HAWAII, 192&-1930
N

Wo­
men

CONDITIONS

Total
Owned
Rented
by plan­ by plan­ furnished Men
by plan­
tations tations
tations

Men

LABOR

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons
Island, race, and marital condition

American:

130
39

131
14

182

443
53

122
30

1

123
30

131
28

132
15

178

Single group-.............................................................

441
43

124
22

124
22

Total........................................................................

169

145

182

496

152

1

153

159

17
4

178

484

146

146

53
12

55
3

105

213
15

44
4

44
4

50
10

50
5

108

208
15

46
4

46
4

65

58

105

228

48

48

60

55

108

223

50

50

All races:
Married group........................................................... 2,572
Single group.............................................................. 8,337

2,412
96

6,251
87

11,235
8,520

2,164
1,447

31
19

2,195
1,466

2,545
8,083

2,369
135

6,200 11,114
54 8,272

2,161
1,496

34
18

2,195
1,514

T o ta l-.................................................................... 10,909

2,508

6,338

19,755

3,611

50

3,661 10,628

2,504

6,254 19,386

3,657

52

3,709

Married group........................................................... 7,209
Single grou p --..........................- ........... ................... 3,073

6,982 21,148
430
106

35,339
3,609

6,080
1,109

531
91

6,611
1,200

7,015
2,958

6,827 20,847 34,689
83 3,487
446

5,936
1,153

497
95

6,433
1,248

T o ta l-..................................................................... 10,282

7,811

9,973

7,273 20,930 38,176

7,089

592

7,681

All other:

T o t a l.,....................................................................

ALL ISLANDS

7,189

622

3,042
35

6,601
11

13,578
29,855

2,896
4,674

31
68

2,927 3,854
4,742 29,828

2,927
32

6,614 13,395
5 29,865

2,846
4,940

38
66

2,884
5,006

7,669 33,682

2,959

6,619 43,260

7,786

104

7,890

T o ta l............ ......................................................... 33,744

3,077

6,612

43,433

7,570

99

Chinese:
139
Married group...........................................................
Single group........ ...................................................... 1,024

115
7

421
3

675
1,034

117
314

13
17

130
331

139
929

121
6

407
2

667
937

115
311

14
16

129
327

Total....................................................................... 1,163

122

424

1,709

431

30

461

1,068

127

409

1,604

426

30

INDUSTRY

38,948

SU AR
G

7,412 21,254

Filipino:
Married group................... ................................ ...... 3,935
Single group. .................................. - ........- .............. 29,809

456

Korean:
Married group.......................- .............. ...................
Single g ro u p .-....................................... - ..................

194
391

179
3

654
1

1,027
395

193
136

2
5

195
141

181
341

169
5

654
7

1,004
353

179
132

2
4

181
136

Total.................................................... - ..................

585

182

655

1,422

329;

7

336

522

174

661

1,357

311

6

317

Porto Rican:
Married group............................................................
Single group...............................................................

533
256

477
38

1,362
3

2,372
297

427
96

7
8

434
104

552
245

489
41

1,367
4

2,408
290

440
106

7
4

447
110

Total........................................................................

789

515

1,365

2,669

523

15

538

797

530

1,371

2,698

546

11

557




to
Oi

T a b le 14.— Census of persons ( employees and families') and houses on J sugar plantations in the Territory of Hawaii, June 80, and December
j.1

^

81, 1929, by island, race, and marital condition—Continued
December 31,1929

June 30, 1929

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons

Total
Rented
by plan furnished Men
by plan­
tations
tations

Wo­
men

Chil­
dren

Total
Owned
Rented
Total by plan­ by plan­ furnished
by plan­
tations
tations
tations

1,341
121

1,502
411

1,473
140

4,207
19

7,182
570

1,252
127

74
14

1,326
141

Wo­
men

Chil­
dren

Portuguese:
Married group_________________________________
Single group ------------- -------------------------------------

1,487
400

1,472
162

4,377
30

7,336
592

1,260
106

81
15

Total

a l l is l a n d s — c o n t in u e d

1,887

1, 634

4,407

7,928

1,366

96

1,462

1,913

1,613

4,226

7,752

1,379

88

1,467

404
165

396
11

1,050
6

1,850
182

320
57

54
16

374
73

393
161

380
24

996
5

1,769
190

327
72

48
11

375
83

Total............. ......................................... ................

569

407

1,056

2,032

377

70

447

554

404

1,001

1,959

399

59

458

American:
Married group_________________________________
Single group........... ....................................................

554
213

547
50

795

1,896
263

523
134

11

534
134

545
210

555
63

757

1,857
273

529
128

8

537
128

....... .........................................................-

767

597

795

2,159

657

11

668

755

618

757

2,130

657

8

665

All other:
Married group_________________________________
Single grou p --........................................................ .

176
83

163
20

373

712
103

150
45

1

151
45

157
86

151
15

344
4

652
105

137
53

3
1

140
54

T o t a l.................................. - .................................

259

183

373

815

195

1

196

243

166

348

757

190

4

194

All races:
Married group
__ _________________________ 14, 631 13,373 36, 781
756
160
Single group.............................................................. 35,414

64, 785
36,330

11,966
6,671

731
220

12, 697 14,338 13,092 36,193 63,623
129 36,070
6,891 35,169
772

11,761
7,022

691
211

12,452
7,233

..................................................... 50,045 14,129 36,941

101,115

18,637

951

19,588 49, 507 13,864 36,322 99,693

18,783

902

19,685

Total

Total




I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

Total______________ __________ _____ _________
Hawaiian:
Married g r o u p ___ __________________________
Single group ---------------------------------- ----------------

CONDITIONS

Owned
by plan­
tations

Men

LABOR

Number of houses furnished
to employees and families

Number of persons
Island, race, and marital condition




f ig u r e

1.— F u r r o w i n g O u t C o n t o u r L i n e s f o r p l a n t i n g




F ig u r e 2 .— C u t t in g S e e d f r o m s t a l k s o f C a n e f o r p l a n t i n g




F i g u r e 3.— D r o p p i n g s e e d




F i g u r e 4.— C o v e r i n g S e e d

SUGAR INDUSTRY

27

Methods of Cultivation

The growing of a crop of sugarcane on a sugar plantation in the
Hawaiian Islands requires from 18 to* 24 months, or from 4 to 12
months longer than on a plantation in any other of the principal
cane-sugar producing localities in the world. On a Hawaiian planta­
tion there may at certain periods in each year be plowing, harrowing,
and fertilizing in one or more fields; planting cane in other fields;
cultivating in still other fields; and cutting, piling, loading, and haul­
ing cane to sugar mills from still other fields.
Sugarcane raising in Hawaii is “ factoryized” agriculture. Piece
or contract work is general, and the work processes are specialized to
make this method of labor remuneration possible. The processes are
divided into sections so as to form a basis for a piece rate. The ulti­
mate purpose, or objective, of the piece-rate system is to enable the
plantation management to determine in advance, as nearly as possible,
the final labor cost of a short ton of clean cane at the grinding mill.
The ground is plowed from 14 to 24 inches deep. The first plow­
ing on the larger plantations is usually with tractors, and where con­
ditions permit, it is done on the basis of from 60 to 75 cents per acre,
according to conditions. The subsequent harrowing is made another
piece-rate unit. The furrowing for planting, another unit, may be
paid for by the acre or the row (fig. 1). The first fertilization is upon
the basis of an acre, a row, or a bag of fertilizer. Planting consists of
placing cuttings of selected cane stalks in the furrows. These cut­
tings, which consist of three joints to each piece, are placed in the
bottom of the furrow and covered with two or three inches of soil.
After a preliminary irrigation, the cultivator contractor takes charge
of the field (figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5).
In the cultivation of the crop during the growing of the cane, be­
ginning with the first hoeing or weeding after the appearance of the
tender shoots from the eyes or buds of the cuttings that were placed
in furrows in newly planted fields or “ ratoons” (shoots) from the
buds on the short stubs of old stalks of the preceding crop, and con­
tinuing to maturity when the cane is ready for cutting, the work is
done either by “ short-term” or “ long-term” contract.
A short-term contract applies to a piece of work, such as the hoeing
of one or more fields of a certain number of acres, or the irrigating or
fertilizing of the same, at a specified rate per acre. #
The long-term contract covers all of the cultivation of the cane on
one or more fields from the beginning to maturity. Such contractors
are paid a certain rate per ton of cane produced on the field or fields,
the rate be,ing based on the known number of tons of cane produced
in preceding years or crops. Rates per ton vary from field to field.
Long-Term Cultivation Contracts

In order to understand the operation of the cultivation contract,
or the so-called “ long-term” contract, it is necessary to go back a
little in the working methods. First, a plantation is divided into
fields. The size of these fields may vary on the same plantation
from 50 to 280 acres, and only one-half of the fields are harvested
each year. One plantation, for instance, with 11,350 acres actually
producing cane is divided into 77 fields. Each field is carried sep­
arately on the company’s books and represents a single long-term




28

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

contract. When the preliminary work has been done, a contract is
let to a person who, with the assistance of the company in making his
selections, organizes a cultivating gang, usually one man for each 10
acres in the field. These men agree to weed, irrigate, and fertilize this
field—bring the cane to the point of cutting or harvesting (fig. 6). The
payment for this is based upon the ton of clean cane delivered from
the particular field at the grinding mill. Since this cultivation con­
tract may extend over a period of from 18 to 22 months, advance
payments must be made on the contract. These advance payments
are uniform, amounting to $1 per day per man for the work actually
performed in the field, and are made monthly on the basis of 30
days per month. The advances are increased 10 per cent for attend­
ance of 23 or more days per month. If a man works 23 days in a
month, he is paid $23 plus $2.30 for attendance, or $25.30. Final
settlement is made when the cane is harvested and weighed at the
mill, complete records of days worked per man and per gang being
kept. The men of the crew are paid the difference between the
number of tons produced times the tonnage rate and the amount
advanced during the time of the contract. The amount paid as a
bonus for attendance is not deducted.
Productivity of the soil, type of cane, and difficulties met with in
cultivation or irrigation influence the setting of the piece or tonnage
rate for the long-term contract men or cultivators. Thus on one
plantation where the average tonnage yield per acre for the 1929
crop was 86.88 and the average tonnage contract price for cultivation
was $1,009 per ton of clean cane, there were certain fields where the
price was 95 cents per ton, but the yield for that field was 109.85
tons per acre.
The days of cultivation per acre also vary, as one field may be
more weedy than others and require more man-days’ work per acre.
On a plantation where the average number of man-days worked per
acre for the entire plantation was 32.44, the lowest number of mandays per acre for the fields was 20.86 and the highest, 41.48.
All of these conditions must be considered in fixing a piece rate
that will enable the men to earn about the same amount of money
per day on final settlement and at the same time keep a fairly uni­
form labor cost per ton of cane, or ultimately per ton of raw sugar.
Some gangs are unable to keep up with the work, or get tempo­
rarily behind, say, with weeding. The management then furnishes a
few extra men for a brief period, charging this up to the contract,
except that in the case of temporary sickness of a man or two addi­
tional assistance is sometimes furnished without charge. Men some­
times quit or “ desert” after the work is started, usually in the early
period of the contract; but these men forfeit their share in the final set­
tlement, but of course have had their $1 a day advance plus bonus of
10 cents per day for 23 or more days’ attendance in month. This $1
per day, therefore, is not only an advance payment on contract to
enable the men to live during the production of the crop, but is also
a guaranteed minimum wage.
When the crop is raised, the next step is to burn over the fields to
destroy as far as possible the blades which grow near the ground and
hinder the work of cutting (fig. 7). The burning also destroys insects,
and really benefits the cane if the cutting is done within 72 hours after
the burning. Cane may, however, be cut without burning, but in







F i g u r e 5 .— i r r i g a t i n g




F i g u r e 6 .— m a t u r e C r o p r e a d y f o r H a r v e s t




F i g u r e 7.— b u r n i n g C a n e




F i g u r e 8 . —C u t t i n g C a n e




F i g u r e 9 .— P il in g C a n e




F i g u r e 1 0 .— L o a d i n g c a n e o n c a r s




F i g u r e 11 .— T r a i n l o a d o f C a n e M o v i n g t o S u g a r M i l l




F i g u r e 12 .— p a c k i n g c a n e t o f l u m e

SUGAR INDUSTRY

29

such case the piece rate for cutting is higher, and the piling rate is
also higher because the excess leaves or blades litter the ground and
make it more difficult to pick out the pieces of cane for piling. Cut­
ting is done by gangs or by individuals. When gangs are employed
the piece rate is based upon a ton of clean cane at the mill, but indi­
vidual cutting is paid for by the row. The cutting is done with a
broad, thin-blade machete, which has a hook on the end of the blade,
weighs two or three pounds, and is kept very sharp. Sugarcane
stalks, which grow 18 to 20 feet high in good soil, must not only be
cut off at the ground but each stalk must be cut in two, the lengths
being eight or nine feet, the cutter throwing the cane on the ground
behind him (fig. 8).
The piling of the cane is another process and forms a separate
piece-rate unit (fig. 9). The piles are of given dimensions, each pile
containing from 2,000 to 2,200 pounds. When the cutting is done by
gangs tickets are placed upon each pile showing the cultivator’s
contract number, the cutter gang number, and the piler gang number.
Where cutting is done by the row, the piles are not ticketed for the
cutter.
Loading is done by hand upon cars or by machines (mechanical
loaders—see fig. 10). Hand loading is very hard work. The cars
hold approximately 4 tons of cane. Usually the cars are hauled by
mules on temporary tracks to the permanent tracks upon which small
engines operate in moving cane to sugar mill (fig. 11). The temporary
tracks are laid in the field by track-laying crews, which also work at
piece rates.
The cane tops are cut for feed for the mules. This, too, is piece­
work, paid at the rate of 1 cent a bundle.
Where the cane is transported from the field to the grinding mills
by means of flumes, the cane is tied into bundles weighing from 60 to 80
pounds each; these are carried to the edge of the flume but not placed
in the flume itself by the cutters (figs. 12 and 13). The following
statement by the manager of a “ flume plantation” describes the
operation:
Forty-five cents a ton is paid for cutting and piling yellow Caledonian cane
alongside flumes— 47 and 49 cents for yellow-tip cane because this weighs less
than yellow Caledonian. Price varies because of field conditions. The cane
cut from two rows by two men is piled into one row.
It is tied into bundles weighing 60 to 80 pounds. All cane on this plantation
is carried from the fields to the sugar mill by the water flowing in the flumes.
The flume is a long V-shaped, continuous trough made of planks. A section of
the flume will last for the carrying of four or five crops of cane. That part of the
flume system near the sugar mill is of permanent construction and is not V-shaped,
but is a much larger trough in which a stronger current of water flows. The cane
is flumed by “ day” labor. The day force receives $43 and the night force $45
per month, plus the “ turnout” bonus of 10 per cent to those who turn out for
work 23 or more days in the month. The “ day” men also act as guards for the
flumes to see that the floating sections of cane stalks do not clog the flume. They
also pick up any pieces of cane that may fall from the flume. A “ day” man
may act as a guard one day and flume cane the next.

Another statement from a manager of a plantation on another
island follows. While there is some repetition, these statements from
those immediately in charge give a good picture of the situation:
In 1929 this company had an average of 3,114 employees on its pay roll, 203
of whom were skilled, the great majority of the remainder being unskilled,
though some were semiskilled. There were 185 women and boys. The women
27595°— 31------ 3



30

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

are engaged on the lighter kinds of work. Japanese women usually work part
time, helping their husbands. Most of the boys work on Saturdays and during
school vacation.
Eighty-three per cent of the men have been on the plantation one year or longer.
The labor turnover in 1929 was 27 per cent, a reduction from 80 per cent in 1923.
The heaviest turnover is among the single men.
An effort is made to seasonalize operations on the plantation so as to bring
about employment the year round. Ninety-five per cent of the field work is done
on the piece-price basis. The long-term sugar cane crop requires from 20 to
24 months, though the agreement is for 18 months because most of the work is
completed within that period. No charge is made for fertilizer used on contract
work. Each man in a crew of workers is paid according to the number of days
he works. There is a minimum guaranty of $1 per day, but less than 5 per cent
of the men fail to earn more than the minimum. A “ turnout” of 23 days in a
month entitles an employee to a bonus of 10 per cent of earnings. Men on a long
contract may at slack times work on a short contract. The cane is cut and
bundled by hand, but is loaded mostly by machine. Efficiency has been increased
20 per cent by machine loading. An official of another company has stated that
each loading machine saves the work of 35 men. There are usually five in a
loading crew, one to man and watch the machine with four on the ground.
Each field has a foreman. A gang of 25 has a foreman and assistant foreman.
They share in the earnings of the gang and in addition they are paid a bonus
based upon the earnings of the group. A gang of 25 men is expected to cultivate
250 acres.
The company owns all the houses in which its employees live. In fact, it is
the company’s policy not to sell houses to its employees. There is no charge for
rent, light, fuel, or water. One-family houses are the rule, though there are
some exceptions. There are still some barracks occupied by single men who
themselves take care of their quarters. It is the policy of the company to get
away from housing employees in barracks.
The company provides free hospitalization, with a resident physician-surgeon,
and five nurses. There are few serious accidents.
Cost of production items in order of importance are: (1) Labor; (2) water;
and (3) fertilizer.
One hundred and thirty-five million gallons of water are required daily to irri­
gate the 11,000 acres on this plantation. The tunnels are cut through the moun­
tains from the windward or wet side of the island (the side on which the rainfall
is heavy), in order to provide ample water supply. Between $6,000,000 and
$7,000,000 has been invested for this purpose. The water is pumped to a
height of 350 feet. Some gravity water is also available on this plantation.
On plantations where flumes are not used for floating the cane to the sugar mill,
it is necessary to construct permanent as well as temporary railway tracks.
There are 65 miles of main line tracks on this plantation.
Notwithstanding the fertile land on this plantation, great quantities of fertilizer
are used. This not only brings about an increased crop for the particular year,
but conserves the fertility of the soil for future years. It is maintained that the
company puts into the soil more than it takes out and that the productivity is
greater now than it was some years ago.

The work, except on one plantation in the Hawaiian Islands, ends
with the bagging and shipping of raw sugar from the sugar mills to
refineries in California (figs. 14 and 15).
Wage Rates

Piece rates for the cutting of cane, whether based upon a ton of
clean cane at the grinding mill or upon a row of cane in the field, are
further based or rather perhaps differentiated upon the basis of the
character of the cane itself and upon the quantity of work performed
by the gang. For instance, H-109 is very heavy cane, with large
stalks and comparatively thin rind, and does not break and lie on the
ground to the same extent as some of the other canes. The general
rate for cutting this cane is 18% cents per ton where the field has been
burned over, thus clearing away the blades and rubbish for the cutter;
where fields are poorly burned, the rate is 21 % cents. This rate is
increased on a quantity basis; on some plantations the production






F i g u r e 13.— f l u m i n g C a n e




f ig u r e

14.— b a g g i n g

R a w S u g a r a t S u g a r M i ll .




f ig u r e

1 5 .— U n l o a d i n g R a w S u g a r f r o m S h i p t o S u g a r R e f i n e r y a t C r o c k e t t , C a l i f .




f ig u r e

16 .— a t t r a c t i v e h o m e s o f p l a n t a t i o n l a b o r e r s .

31

SUGAR INDUSTRY

bonus applies when 140 tons or more are cut per man per month,
and on other plantations when 200 tons or more are cut per man per
month. The type of cane known as D-1135 has a smaller stalk, and
hence takes more strokes of the machete to cut a ton. It has a harder
rind than H-109 and requires a harder blow. The principal types of
cane in use are H-109, D-1135, Badilla, Caledonia, Yellow Tip,
POJ-36 and H-456, each with a different piece rate for cutting. The
different cutting rates for burned and unburned fields constitute a
standardized differential rate.
To indicate the extent to which piecework is applied, the harvesting
rates for the crop of 1930, as given by one of the plantations, follows:
Harvesting rates on one plantation for the sugar crop of 1930

Rate per

ton (cents)
Cutting cane:
Lahaina burned cane____________ •
_________________________
H-109 burned cane______________ ______________________________ \ 1 20
Str. Mexican burned cane__________________________________
i 27
Green cane_______________________________________________
Half burned cane_______________________________________________
1 22
Loading cane:
25
Up to and including 200 tons______________________________
35
For every additional ton over 200 tons______________________
Picking up cane:
Camp 1 and camp 5____________________________________________
110
Kihei_______________________ __________________________________
65
Railroad pick ups______________________________________________
40
“ Pile up” _____________________________________________________
18
4
Operating loading machine__________________________________________
Piling cane for machine:
Up to and including 200 tons____________________________________
18
Every additional ton over 200 tons______________________________
28
Hauling cane:
Hand-loaded fields______________________________________________
7}i
Machine-loaded fields___________________________________________
5. 6

Long-term contract rates— 1930

Per ton

Plant cane up to 7% acres per man_________________________________
Ratoon cane up to
acres per man_______________________________

2 $1. 10
2 1. 15

T h e rates o f p ay for m ore or less skilled labor on the same planta­
tion are as follow s:
Per month

Per month

Machinists................. $6. 00-$6. 25
4 4. 50
Blacksmiths
6 185. 00
Welders___
3 10 00
Carpenters..
s 2. 50-4. 00
Locomotive engineers. 110. 00-125. 00
Nurses______________ 125.00-135.00
Steam-plow engineers75. 00
Sugar boiler_________
200. 00

.

Policeman___________
$140. 00
Timekeepers_________
175. 00
Electricians__________ 175. 00-270. 00
Chemist_____________
200. 00
Head chemist________
300. 00
Pump engineer and
electrician_________
600. 00
Head carpenter______
400. 00
Assistant carpenter___
190. 00

Attendance Bonus and Other Wage Supplements

Based on the total number of days worked in 1929 by all employees
on the 41 plantations covered, long and short term contractors repre1 Five cents additional for every ton in excess of 140 tons cut per man per month.
2 Deduction of 5 cents per ton for each acre exceeding limit specified.
3 Rate per day.
4 Minimum rate per day.
* Maximum rate.




32

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

sent 48 per cent and day laborers 52 per cent of the total employees.
Based on money earned, including bonus, contractors represent 56
per cent and day laborers 44 per cent of the total.
In addition to the earnings there is an attendance bonus, known
generally in the industry as a “ turnout bonus,” of 10 per cent which
applies to all workers whether or not they are pieceworkers. The
male worker who shows up for duty 23 days or more and the female
worker for 15 days or more out of the possible working time during
the month has 10 per cent added to his piece-rate earnings or his
day-rate wages. The possible working-days, or days that the plant
was in operation, therefore, becomes a very essential element, and is
shown for all plantations, by islands, in Table 15.
T a b le

15.— Number of possible plantation working-days, 1929, by months and
islands
Number of working-days in plantations in—
iviontn
Hawaii

January_______________________________
February______________________________
March_____________ __________________
April
_____________________________
M ay________________ __________________
June___________ _____ __________________
July
_____________________________
August. _____________________________
September_____________________________
October________________________________
November_____________________________
December____________________________ Total____________________________
Average

- __________________ ______

Maui

Oahu

Kauai

All islands

24
24
26
26
27
25
26
27
24
25
23
23^

26
24
26
26
27
25
26
27
25
26
24
24

26
24
25
26
27
25
26
27
24
27
24
23

26
24
26
26
27
25
26
27
25
27
24
23

25
24
26
26
27
25
26
27
24
26
24
23

300^

306

304

306

303

25

25H

25Mo

25^

25K

The figures in Table 16 show for the 41 sugar plantations the
number of adult males of each race, the number of adult females of
the Japanese race and of all other races, and the number of minors
of each sex and all races, on the May, 1929, pay rolls for each and for
all islands. It also shows for each sex and race the per cent which,
by attendance at work on 23 or more days in May by males and 15
or more by females, qualified for or earned the attendance bonus of
10 per cent. For example, an employee who worked on 23 or more
days in a month earned at his basic rate $39 plus a bonus of 10 per
cent of such earnings—$3.90—or a total of $42.90. Had he worked
22 days or less he would not have earned the bonus of $3.90.
There was only one American adult male on the pay rolls of the
plantations on the island of Hawaii in May, 1929. He did not work
on as many as 23 days in the month, and therefore the percentage of
Americans qualifying for the bonus was 0.0. Forty-six, or 86.8 per
cent, of the 53 Americans on Maui; 6, or 27.3 per cent, of the 22 on
Oahu; 9, or 81.8 per cent, of the 11 on Kauai; and 61, or 70.1 per
cent, of the 87 Americans on all islands qualified for the bonus.
By working 23 or more days in May, 1929, 79.4 per cent of the
adult males on the island of Hawaii; 80.5 per cent of those on Maui;
89.2 per cent on Oahu; 85.2 per cent on Kauai; and 83.1 per cent of




33

SUGAR INDUSTRY

the 47,300 on all islands earned the attendance bonus. In the month
81.3 per cent of the 1,474 adult females, 82.8 per cent of the 349 male
minors, 84.2 per cent of the 19 female minors, and 83.1 per cent of
the 49,142 men, women, and minors earned the bonus.
T a b le

16.— Number of employees 1 of sugar plantations on each and all islands,
and per cent qualifying for bonus, May, 1929, by sex and race
Hawaii

Sex and race

Maui

Oahu

Kauai

All islands

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent
ber on quali­ ber on quali­ ber on quali­ ber on quali­ ber on quali­
fying
fying
pay
fying
fying
fying
for
rolls
for
for
for
for
bonus
bonus
bonus
bonus
bonus

££

&

S

ADULT MALES
1
American..........................
Spanish. ......................... .
28
Portuguese.......................
452
Japanese___________ ___ 3,254
Filipino_____ __________ 11,583
Hawaiian_____ _________
138
Korean________________
227
Porto Rican___ ________
342
Chinese________________
254
All others......... ..............
1

0.0
57.1
89.8
77.7
80.0
79.7
83.3
69.0
71.7
100.0

53
20
312
1,963
6,904
149
73
171
176
13

86.8
95.0
92.6
88.1
77.8
81.9
75.3
80.7
78.4
76.9

22
5
193
2,005
7,817
66
122
128
334
26

27.3
80.0
92.2
92.2
89.6
59.1
87.7
82.0
77.5
46.2

11
23
272
1,446
8,255
61
80
141
161
18

81.8
95.7
91.2
86.6
85.0
93.4
76.3
89.4
69.6
77.8

87
76
1,229
8,668
34,559
414
502
782
925
58

70.1
80.3
91.2
84.9
82.9
79.2
82.1
77.4
74.7
63.8

Total...................... 16,280

79.4

9,834

80.5

10,718

89.2

10,468

85.2

47,300

83.1

ADULT FEMALES
Japanese....... - ..................
All others.....................

415
43

76.6
55.8

299
31

84.9
67.7

382
57

86.6
78.9

201
46

86.1
69.6

1,297
177

83.0
68.9

Total.......................

458

74.7

330

83.3

439

85.6

247

83.0

1,474

81.3

M
INORS
Male......................... ........
Female..................... ........

117
14

74.4
85.7

73

87.7

89
3

84.3
100.0

70
2

90.0
50.0

349
19

82.8
84.2

Grand total_______ 16,869

79.3

10,237

80.6

11,249

89.0

10,787

85.1

49,142

83.1

1 Does not include employees on monthly basis.

Because the money paid as attendance bonus is reported on the
books of the company in lump sum only it is impossible to distribute
it among the 83.1 per cent who qualified for the bonus. The neces­
sity of distributing it over all of the employees has the result, there­
fore, of slightly decreasing the pay of the 83.1 per cent while slightly
increasing the pay of the 16.9 per cent who did not earn the attendance
bonus. That this result does not materially alter the daily earnings
is evidenced by the fact that inclusion of the nonbonus-earning
workers (16.9 per cent) reduces the per cent of bonus paid on the
actual pay roll in May to 7.47 instead of 10, the per cent added to
the pay of those earning the bonus.
In addition to the money wages the employees are furnished with
a house, rent free, and with free fuel and light and water. Hospital
treatment and medical care are also given free of charge. Some of
the companies have separate hospitals of their own, while the Ha­
waiian Sugar Planters7Association has a very fine hospital in Hono­
lulu.




34

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

The character of the houses has improved very much during recent
years, and is constantly improving as the old types of shacks become
uninhabitable and are replaced by houses of modern construction.
Although too many shacks still exist and clubhouses or bachelor
quarters are in some instances badly crowded, it can be said that
practically all of the managers of these plantations realize that good
living conditions make more efficient workers, that sanitary condi­
tions mean fewer lost days from sickness, and that the better the
home conditions the less the labor turnover; the latter, of course, is
to be avoided as far as possible. (See fig. 16.)
Deserters

During the period of the long-term contracts of a representative
sugar plantation in the islands one or more of the men of some of
the crews left before the completion of the contract. Such men
were called “ deserters.” Table 17 shows for each of the years from
1925 to 1929, the number of deserters; the aggregate and average
number of man-days worked by them; the number of fields culti­
vated; and the number of fields in which there were no deserters.
The number of deserters decreased from 426 in 1925 to 338 in 1926
and from year to year to only 71 in 1929. The decrease between
1925 and 1926 was 21 per cent and between 1925 and 1929 was 83
per cent. The number of fields in which there were no deserters
increased from only 1 of the 38 in 1925 to 15 of the 41 in 1929.
17.— Number of deserters,l aggregate and average man-days worked by them,
and number of fields in crop and number having no deserters, for one representa­
tive sugar plantation, 1925 to 1929

T a b le

Number Aggregate Average Number Number
man-days
manof fields
of deser­ worked by
of fields with no
days
in crop deserters
ters
deserters
worked

Year

1925- ........................................ .................. ..............
1926-................................................ ......... ................
1927...... .................................. ............... ...................
1928-................................... - ..................... ................
1929. ...........................................................................

426
338
140
98
71

21,551.56
12,044.46
4,698.61
3,091.00
2,068.50

50.59
35.63
33.56
31.54
29.13

38
41
40
40
41

1
2
11
16
15

i Workers leaving before completion of contract.

Short-term Contract Rates
The piece rates for so-called short-term contracts are even more
minutely worked out than for the long-term cultivation contracts. In
this connection it should be said that the so-called “ short-term”
contract is a misnomer. There is no signed contract in these cases—
the jobs are simple piecework ones, which may last one or a number
of days or even less than a day. A statement of rates in 1929 follows:




SUGAR INDUSTRY

35

Short-term contract rates, 1929

Boxes, irrigating, per acre------------------ ------------------------------------- $1. 25
Special, per acre________________________ $2. 00, $2. 50, $3. 00, $6. 00
Repairs, each_____________________________________ $0. 20, $0. 50
Cane tops, per bundle------------------------------------------------------------ $0. 01
Clearing land, per acre____________ $0. 50, $1. 00, $1. 25, $1. 50, $1. 75, $6. 50
Ditching, per foot____________$0. 005, $0. 0075, $0. 01, $0. 015, $0. 025, $0. 03
Fertilizing, per acre_______________$0. 50, $0. 60, $1. 10, $1. 15, $1. 20, $1. 25
Special, per bag-------------------------------------------------------------- $0. 30
Fertilizing: Spreading and covering, per acre. $1. 10, $1. 20, $1. 25, $1. 50, $1. 75
Experiment, per acre___________________________ _________ $3. 00
Fertilizing: Trenching, spreading, and covering, per acre___ $1. 60, $2. 00, $2. 25
Fertilizing: Weighing, mixing, spreading, and covering (experiment), per
acre---------------------- ------ ------------------------------------------------- $2. 50
Gates, large------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- $0. 90
Repairs_______________________________________________ $0. 35
Gates,' small------------ ---------------------------------------------------------- $0. 40
Repairs_______________________________________________ $0. 20
Hilling up, per acre_________________________ $2. 25, $3. 00, $3. 50, $4. 00,
$4. 50, $5. 00, $5. 25, $5. 50, $6. 00, $6. 50, $7. 00, $8. 00, $9. 00
Irrigating, per acre_________________________________________ $0. 75,
$0. 80, $1. 00, $1. 25, $1. 50, $1. 75, $2. 00, $2. 50, $3. 00, $3. 50
Nitrate, rebagging, per 100 bags------------------------------------------------ $1. 25
Nitrate, unloading, per ton______________________________ $0. 20, $0. 25
Pipes_____________________________________________________$0. 25
Special________________________________________________$6. 00
Planting, per acre_____________________ $7. 00, $7. 50, $8. 00, $8. 50, $9. 00
Raking out, per acre-------------------------------------$2. 25, $3. 00, $3. 25, $3. 50,
$4. 00, $4 50, $5. 00, $6. 00, $6. 50, $7. 00, $8. 00, $8. 50, $9. 00
Rock, loading, per ton------------------------------------------------------------$0. 15
Sand, loading, per car________________________________________$0. 50
Seed, cutting, per bag-------------------------------------------------$0. 04}^-$0. 12
Seed, dipping, per 100 bags_______________________ $0. 50, $0. 60, $0. 62}£
Tramways, digging, per acre________ $0. 25, $0. 50, $1. 00, $1. 25, $1. 50, $2. 00
Trenching, per acre____________________ $0. 60, $0. 75, $1. 00, $1. 25, $1. 50
Weeding, per acre_____________________ $1. 00, $1. 50, $2. 00, $2. 25, $2. 50,
$3. 00, $3. 50, $4. 00, $4. 50, $5. 00, $5. 50, $7. 00, $7. 50, $8. 00
Wood, cutting, per cord___________________________ $1. 25, $1. 40, $1. 65
Wood, loading, per cord___________________________ $0. 20, $0. 25, $0. 35
Wood, unloading, per cord____________________________________ $0. 10
Short-term contract piecework rates which were paid in 1930 by a
representative sugar plantation for certain kinds of contract work are
shown in Table 18.
The rates paid for cutting, piling, or loading cane by hand increased
with the increase in each classified group of average tons handled per
man in a month by each gang or group. Example: A rate of 18 %
cents per ton was paid for cutting burned cane when the average per
man ranged from 1 to 119 tons per month; of 19 cents for an average
from 120 to 139 tons per month; of 20 cents for an average from 140
to 159 tons per month; of 21 cents for an average from 160 to 179 tons
per month; and of 22 cents for an average of 180 or more tons per
month. Burned cane is cane in a field fired for the purpose of burning
the blades from the stalk, thus reducing the amount of work ana
making it possible to handle more units per man-day. Higher rates
were paid for unbumed cane and for a variety generally known as
D-1135 than for burned cane. Fields are usually burned before cut­
ting, except when wet weather or other causes make it impossible.
For installing portable track the rates were 20 cents for one rail and
40 cents for one switch.




36

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b l e 18.— Short-term contract 'piecework rates on a representative sugar plantation
Rates paid for
Kind of work and amount done per man per month
Burned
cane
Cutting cane (tons per month per man):
1 to 119................. ................................... .......................................
120 to 139— ______________________________________________
140 to 159____________ ________________ _______________ ____ _
160 to 179____________ _______ _____________________________
180 or more______________ _____ ____________________________
Loading cane, by hand (tons per month per man):
1 to 89_________ _____________________________________ _____
90 to 99___________________________________________________
100 to 119_______________________________ __________________
120 to 129_________________________________________________
130 to 149_____i ____________________ ______________ ____ ___
150 to 159_________________________________________________
160 to 169— ______________________________________________
170 to 189_______ ____ ____________ ______ ____________ _____
190 to 199______________________ _____________ ____________
200 to 229_______________________________ ______ ___________
230 or more_______________________________________________
Piling cane for loading machines (man-days per month):
1 to 89____ ____ ______ _____________________________________
90 to 99__________ ________________________________________
100 to 119_____________________ _____ ______________________
120 to 129_________________________________________________
130 to 149______________________________ _______ ___________
150 to 159___________________ ______ ______ — _____ _________
160 to 169____, _____ ___________ _____ _____________________
170 to 189................................................................................. ........
190 to 199— .............................................................. .....................
200 to 229..... ......... ......... ...........................................................
230 or more_______________________________________________
Hauling cane in field (per ton)______ ______ ____________________
Picking up scattered cane in field (per ton).............................. .........
Picking up scattered cane along main line railroad (per ton)......... ......

Unburned
cane

D-1135
cane

Cents
18.25
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00

Cents
24.25
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00

Cents
20.00
20.75
21.75
22.75
23.75

25.00
25.25
25.50
25.75
26.00
26.25
26.50
26.75
27.00
27.50
28.00

27.00
27.25
27.50
27.75
28.00
28.25
28.50
28.75
29.00
29.50
30.00

27.00
27.25
27.50
27.75
28.00
28.25
28.50
28.75
29.00
29.50
30.00

20.00
20.25
20.50
20.75
21.00
21.25
21.50
21.75
22.00
22.50
23.00
3.50-5.00
40.00
50.00

22.00
22.00
22.25
22.25
22.50
22.50
22.75
22.75
23.00
23.00
23.25
23.25
23.50
23.50
23.75
23.75
24.00
24.00
24.50
24.50
25.00
25.00
3.50-5.00
3.50-5.00
45.00
50.00 ......... 65755

Labor Cost
Table 19 shows for each of five representative sugar plantations
and ior the five combined the labor cost per ton of cane and per ton
of raw sugar in 1928, by kinds of work.
The kinds of work are: Clearing and plowing (clearing, steam
plowing, steam-plow repairs, furrowing, mule plowing and harrowing,
and repairs to mule plows); preparing and planting (preparing and
ditching, cutting seed, hauling seed, seed cane, cane planting and re­
planting); water supply (pump expense, pump repairs, pump-pipeline maintenance, supply-ditch maintenance, and transmission line
repairs); cultivating (irrigating, hilling up (hand), weeding and hoe­
ing, cutting back, insect extermination, hilling up plowing); fertilizing
(applying fertilizers and manuring); harvesting and denvering cane
to sugar mill (cutting cane (hand and mechanical), loading cane, haul­
ing cane, fluming cane, mechanical cane loading); manufacturing of
raw sugar from cane and bagging it for shipment (mill expense, mill
repairs and maintenance, containers and twine, null electric power,
fuel).
In addition the table shows the total labor cost to the time the cane
is ready for cutting; the total labor cost of cane up to delivery at the
sugar mill; the total cost of raw sugar in bags; the general repair cost,
including sundry expense and accounts, sanitation, salaries and other
expense; salaries alone; general repairs, sanitation, and sundry expense
accounts, excluding salaries; and the grand total cost per ton of cane
and of sugar.




SUGAR INDUSTRY

37

The labor cost of clearing and plowing ranged from 9.7 cents per
ton of cane and 91 cents per ton of sugar on plantation No. 5 to 17.8
cents per ton of cane and $1,332 per ton of sugar on plantation No. 2.
The average cost for the five plantations combined was 14.5 cents per
ton of cane and $1,102 per ton of sugar.
The cost of preparing and planting ranged from 7.2 cents per ton
of cane and 50.7 cents per ton of sugar on plantation No. 1 to 15.4
cents per ton of cane and $1,447 per ton of sugar on plantation No, 5.
The average for the five plantations was 11.4 cents per ton of cane
and 86.6 per ton of sugar.
The cost of cultivating ranged from $1.02 per ton of cane and $9,552
per ton of sugar on plantation No. 5 to $1,689 per ton of cane and
$12,668 per ton of sugar on plantation No. 2.
The total average labor cost for the five plantations was $3,745 per
ton of cane and $28,389 per ton of raw sugar. The labor cost of clear­
ing and plowing was 3.9 per cent of the total labor cost; the cost of
preparing and planting, 3 per cent; the water supply expense, 4.6
per cent; the cost of cultivating, 39.5 per cent, of fertilizing, 1.4 per
cent, and of harvesting, 23.9 per cent; the sugar-mill expense, 9 per
cent; salaries, 4 per cent; and general repairs, sanitation, etc., 10.7
per cent.
T a b l e 19.— Labor cost, tons of cane and sugar produced, and labor cost per ton of

cane and sugar on five sugar plantations, 1928 , by kind of work
Tons produced
Kind of work, and plantation number

Labor cost per
ton of—

Labor cost
Cane

Clearing and plowing:
Plantation No. 1__.
Plantation No. 2__.
Plantation No. 3__.
Plantation No. 4...
Plantation No. 5_

Sugar

Cane

Sugar

$66,299.38
60,349.89
27,811.17
27,752.35
15,157.29

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

Total..
Preparing, and planting:
Plantation No. 1......
Plantation No. 2
Plantation No. 3......
Plantation No. 4___
Plantation No. 5......

197,370.08

1,357,316.89

179,066. 72

.145

1.102

36,335.75
46,983.55
21,282.45
26,296.88
24,094.78

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71, 720.00
45.326.00
25, 246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

.072
.138
.114
.153
.154

.507
1.037
.843
1.307
1.447

Total..
Water supply:
Plantation No.
Plantation No.
Plantation No.
Plantation No.
Plantation No.

154,993.41

1,357,316.89

179,066. 72

.114

.866

1..
2..
3__
4_.
5„

84,137.62
63,035.49
21,903.46
41,737.44
25,529.09

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71, 720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

.167
.185
.118
.242
.164

1.173
1.391
.868
2.074
1.533

Total.................
Cultivating:
Plantation No. 1_.
Plantation No. 2..
Plantation No. 3~
Plantation No. 4_.
Plantation No. 5..

236,343.10

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

.174

1.320

741.943.87
574,185.42
303,423.32
228.432.88
159,061.21

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

1.476
1.689
1.629
1.326
1.020

10.345
12.668
12.019
11.352
9.552

2,007,046.70

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

1.479

11.208

26,890.44
21,112.28
11,448.15
6,195.28
5,466,60

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

.054
.062
.061
.036
.035

.375
.466
.454
.308
.328

1,357,316.89 | 179,066.72

.052

.397

Total.................
Fertilizing:
Plantation No. 1 Plantation No. 2_.
Plantation No. 3 Plantation No. 4_.
Plantation No. 5 „
Total.................




-

71,112.75

71.720.00 $0.132
.178
45.326.00
25,246.07
.149
20,122. 65
.161
16,652. 00 .097

$0,924
1.332
1.102
1.379
.910

38

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H A W A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b l e 19 ,— Labor cost, tons of cane and sugar produced, and labor cost per ton of

cane and sugar on five sugar plantations, 1928, by kind of work— Continued
Tons produced
Kind of work, and plantation number

Cane
Total—All kinds of work listed above:
Plantation No. 1...............................
Plantation No. 2.........................—
Plantation No. 3..............................
Plantation No. 4............................ .
Plantation No. 5...............................

Labor cost per
ton of—

Labor cost
Sugar

Cane

Sugar

71.720.00 $1,901
45.326.00 2.252
25,246.07 2.071
20,122.65 1.918
16.652.00 1.470

$13.324
16.892
15.284
16.420
13.771

179,066.72

1.965

14.893

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246. 07
20,122. 65
16.652.00

.842
.902
1.339
.750
.667

5.902
6.764
9.882
6.423
6.246

Total.......................................................... . 1,212,577.81
Total—All kinds of work listed above (up to and
including harvesting):
Plantation No. 1......................................... . 1,378,867.74
Plantation No. 2............................................ 1,072.235.24
635,351.15
Plantation No. 3...........................................
459,667.00
Plantation No. 4_......................................... .
333,322.72
Plantation No. 5............................................

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

2.742
3.154
3,410
2.136

19.226
23.656
25.166
22.843
20.017

3,879,443.85

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

2.858

21.665

.364
.330
.394
.245
.292

2.548
2.475
2.905
2.097
2.738

TotalHarvesting:
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation

1_.
2..
3_.
4_.
5..

TotalManufacturing raw sugar:
Plantation No. 1..........
Plantation No. 2..........
Plantation No. 3..........
Plantation No. 4........ .
Plantation No. 5..........

TotalGeneral repairs and sundry expense accounts:
Plantation No. 1.................. ........... ............
Plantation No. 2............................ ..............
Plantation No. 3..................................... —
Plantation No. 4...........................................
Plantation No. 5...........................................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1„.

2

__.

3—.
4__.
5„.

Total............................................................
General repairs, sanitation, and sundry expense
accounts (not including salaries):
Plantation No. 1..
Plantation No. 2_.
Plantation No. 3..
Plantation No. 4_.
Plantation No. 5..
Total.................
Grand total:
Plantation No. 1__
Plantation No. 2..
Plantation No. 3~
Plantation No. 4__
Plantation No. 5~
Total.




1,357,316.89

423,260.68
306,568.61
. 249,482.60
129,252.17
104,013.75

6.772

2.668

182,733.24
112,164.49
73,336.38
42,194.66
45,594.46

502,659.48
340,012. 68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

456,023.23

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

1,561,600.98
1,184,399.73
708,687.53
50,861.66
378,917.18

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122. 65
16.652.00

3.107
3.483
2.913
2.429

21.774
26.131
28.071
24.940
22.755

4,335,367.08

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

3.194

24.211

187,999.34
236,725.83
119,075.58
118,654.66
85,513. 73

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

.374
.696
.639
.689
.548

2.621
5.223
4.717
5.897
5.135

747,969.14

Total................................ .........................
Total—All kinds of work listed above (up to and
including the making of raw sugar):
Plantation No. 1......................................... Plantation No. 2...........................................
Plantation No. 3...........................................
Plantation No. 4......................................... Plantation No. 5...........................................

Total_.
Salaries:
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation
Plantation

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

2,666,866.04
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

$955,607.06
765,666.63
385,868.55
330,414.83
229,308.97

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

.551

4.177

58,510.08
50.333.41
41.151.41
30,957.99
22.204.41

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122.65
16.652.00

.116
.148
.180
.142

.816
1. I ll
1.630
1.539
1.333

179,066.72

.150

1.135

.258
.548
.418
.509
.406

1.805
4.112
3.087
4.358
3.802

203,157.30

1,357,316.8

129,489.26
186,392.42
77,924.17
87,696.67
63,309.32

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122. 65
16.652.00

2.547

.221

544,811.84

1,357,316.89

179,066. 72

.401

3.043

1,749,600.32
1,421,125.56
827,763.11
620,516.32
464,430.91

502,659.48
340,012.68
186,306.96
172,311.86
156,025.91

71.720.00
45.326.00
25,246.07
20,122. 65
16.652.00

3.481
4.180
4.443
3.601
2.977

24.395
31.353
32.788
30,837
27.890

5,083,436.22

1,357,316.89

179,066.72

3.745

28.389

SUGAR INDUSTRY

39

It is considered worth while to include a summary of the record
(Table 20) of a year’s crop as harvested by a plantation, showing the
segregation of the plantation into fields for cultivating purposes, the
nationality of the contractors, the size of the contracting gangs, the
number of acres allotted to each field or contractor, and all of the
significant items of expense, by fields, that go into the production of
a crop of sugar cane from the time the seed is planted—at which time
the so-called long-term contractor takes possession—up to the time
the cane is ready to cut, which is not a part of the long-term con­
tractor’s work.
In explanation of Table 20, which shows the settlements made with
contract cultivators, it will be noted that column 1 gives the nation­
ality of the contractors; columns 2, 3, and 4 give the area in acres,
ana whether planted or in, ratoons (under long or short term cultivator
contracts); column 5 gives the average number of men in the gang
which cultivated the field; column 6 gives the number of acres culti­
vated per man (column 4 divided by column 5); column 7 shows the
average number of cultivator man-days per acre (column 19 divided
by column 4); column 8 gives the tons of cane and seed produced (seed
is cane cut to lengths ana used in planting) and column 9 the average
tons produced per acre (column 8 divided by column 4); in column 10
is the contract price per ton of cane; column 11 shows the amount
earned by contractors (column 8 multiplied by column 10); columns
12 and 13 give the number of shares (man-days6 of plantation labor—
not contract workers) and the amount of earnings, while columns
14 and 15 show the number of shares (man-days) and amount of
earnings withheld because of deserters (members of gang leaving
service before completion of contract); column 16 gives the monthly
cash advances during the period of cultivation ($1 for each man-day
worked, see columns 19 and 20); column 17 shows the settlements on
completion of contract (amount earned as shown in column 11 less
amount earned by plantation labor as shown in column 13, amount
withheld for deserters as shown in column 15, and amount advanced
as shown in column 16); column 18 shows the number of cultivator
man-days paid off; in column 19 the cultivator man-days are the total
days worked in cultivating the fields by contractors; in columns 20,
21, and 22, the cash payments per man-day show the amount advanced
for each man-day worked during the period of cultivation, the addi­
tional amount paid on completion of contract and the total amount
for each man-day worked; column 23 gives the total number of
shares or man-days (cultivator man-days worked, column 19, plus
plantation labor, column 12); and column 24 gives the tons of cane
per share or man-day (column 8 divided by column 23).
• A share or man-day is a day’s work, the length of the day varying according to the usual number of
hours {or the various kinds of work.




40

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le

20 .— Statement of settlements made with contract cultivators on a sugar
plantation crop of 1929
Area in acres
Race of contractors
Plant

Field

(1)
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

Japanese and Filipino.
Filipino........................
.......do............... ..........
Japanese and Filipino.
Filipino........................
.do.
Japanese and Filipino,
.do.
.do­
do.
Filipino..
Japanese _
do___
.do..
_do_.
Japanese and Filipino,
do.
.d o.
.do..
Filipino and Korean..
Korean and Filipino..
Japanese and Filipino.
----- do.
___ do....
Filipino..
___ do....

------do___

Total

(2)

(3)

(4)

"169.00
196.00

1 Short-term ratoon contract.
2 Includes 861.14 acres short term.
8 Includes 850.65 acres short term.
* Includes 848.44 acres short term.
« Includes 1,041.36 acres short term.
0 Includes 800.44 acres short term,

161.00
163.00
103.15
174.78
121.70
126.50
184.20
169.00
196.00

121.10
120.00

121.10
120.00

54.25
47.98

54.25
47.98

12.20

134.60
177.66
202.42

12.20

218.13
1 163.00
1 174.35
1 155.72
1 125.47
1 242.60

134.60
177.66
202.42
149.25
123.20
134.80
98.64
271.72
188.63
131.57
161.59
125.79
172.77
228.74
141.00
182.00
110.70
115. 75
131.16
115.15
187.00
218.13
163.00
174.35
155.72
125.47
242.60

5,474.53
35,242.36
«5,250.91
54,867.57
*3,981.51

6.118.27
6.139.28
6,061.79
6,124.65
6,100.45

149.25
^

65.60
125.79

123 26
.

"

134.80
98.64
271.72
188.63
65.97
161.59

172!"77"

228.74
141.00
182.00
110.70

Japanese and Filipino.
d o l........................
Korean..................... —
Japanese and Filipino.
do.
— do.
— do.
...d o .
...d o .
...d o .
__.do_

161.00
163.00
103.15
174.78
121.70
126.50

184.20

___ do....

Total:
1929 crop.
1928 crop.
1927 crop.
1926 crop .
1925 crop.




Ratoons
(long­
term)

3.75
"115.15

643.74
896.92
810.88
1,257.08
2,118.94

112.00

131.16

"'moo'

Acres
Average
Culti­
number
culti­
vator
of men
vated man-days
in gang per man per acre

(5)

(6)

16.00
16.00
9.00
16.00
12.00
12.00

10.00

(7)

15.00
15.00
13.25
11.25
21.50

9.60
11.00
10.96
10.87
11.62
11.75
11.15
11.28

39.60
37.83
33.92
35.16
38.42
37.43
41.48
34.19
32.33
35.08
37.43
31.59
26.43
20.86
27.14
27.10
34.66
36.42
37.40
32.70
28.30
31.47
37.33
30.45
38.79
36.23
34.36
29.81
30.00
31.76
31.03
34.04
36.73
32.00
34.61
30.86
23.59
27.55
28.03
27.94

561.00
556.29
562.91
583.25
594.75

10.90
11.03
10.77
10.51
10.25

32.44
30.40
33.35
30.20
31.90

20.00

16.75
18.00
11.75
12.00
5.00
4.00

11.00

15.00
17.00
13.50
12.00
13.00
10.00
24.00
15.50
13.00
14.25
13.00
15.00
20.00
11.50
17.00
10.25
10.50
12.00
12.00

17.00
20.00

10.00
11.47
10.92
10.14
10.54
9.21
10.08
10.90
10.30
10.00
10.85
12.00
13.34
11.84
11.90
11.06
10 26
10.00
9.86
11.32
12.16
10.12
11.33
9.68
11.50
11.43
12.26
10.70
10.80
11.00
11.00

41

SUGAR INDUSTRY
T a b le

2 0 . — Statement of settlements made with contract cultivators on a

suger

plantation crop of 1929 — Continued
Cane and seed
produced
Field

Withheld because
Plantation labor
of deserters
Contract Amount
price per earned by
ton of contractor Number
Number
of shares
cane
of shares
(man- Earnings (man- Earnings
days)
days)

Total
(tons)

Average
per acre
(tons)

(8)

(9)

(10)

$1.05 $15,173.17
14,243.55
1.05
10,051.83
1.08
15, 916.60
1.00
9,934. 57
1.00
1.00
11,957.74
18,851.35
.95
1.00
16,969.34
1.00
17,832.07
11, 502.42
1.00
1.05
10,002.33
1.10
4,605. 32
1.00
5,044. 59
1.00
1.099.45
1.00
11,769.32
1.00
16, 545. 33
1.00
17,673. 52
.98
15, 762. 27
1.00
13, 341. 98
1.02
13,301.08
1.05
9,181.19
1.00
17,069. 50
1.00
11,765.72
1.00 • 12,696.11
1.00
15,141.28
.95
13,215.16
1.05
15,697.13
20,037.92
1.00
1.00
11,188. 29
1.00
17,240. 60
1.00
10,344.04
1.00
9, 949. 22
13,675.45
1.00
.95
10, 756.97
1.00
17,945.75
22,153.68
1.00
1.05
11,680.23
11,835.62
1.05
1.05
10,446.80
1.05
9,351.10
1.05
16,217.32

No. 1______ ____
No. 2___ _______
No. 3___________
No. 4___________
No. 5___________
No. 6___ _______
No. 7___________
No. 8___________
No. 9___________
No. 10__________
No. 11__________
No. 12__________
No. 13___..............
No. 14...... ...........
No. 15..................
No. 16..................
No. 17__________
No. 18..................
No. 19___ ____
No. 2 0 ...............
No. 21_____ ____
No. 22____ _____
No. 23..................
No. 24_____ ____
No. 25__________
No. 26__________
No. 27........ .........
No. 28_____ ____
No. 29........ .........
No. 30__________
No. 31__________
No. 32__________
No. 33........... .
No. 34__________
No. 35__________
No. 36........... .
No. 37........ .........
No. 38__________
No. 39................
No. 40__________
No. 41.............

14,450.65
13,565.30
9,305.75
15,823.44
9,930. 50
11,957. 74
19,843. 52
16,968.03
17,832.07
11,502.42
9,526.03
4,186. 65
5,044. 59
1,099.45
11,769.32
16,543.99
17,673.14
16,082.02
13,341.98
13,040.28
8,743.99
17,069.50
11,765.72
12,696.11
15,141.28
13,902.05
14,949.65
20.037.92
11,188. 29
17,240.60
10,344.04
9,949. 22
13,675.45
11,323.15
17,945. 75
22,153.68
11,124.03
11, 272.02
9,948. 79
8,905.81
15,445.07

89.60
82.77
90.17
88.93
81.50
94.44
106.43
99.33
90.69
94.63
78.71
76.83
105.14
90.12
86.73
92.18
86.78
105.80
108.30
96.74
>88.64
62.82
62.37
95.92
93.37
109.85
86.53
87.50
78.70
94.72
93.10
85.68
103.91
96.34
95.25
101.16
68.25
64.56
62.85
70.90
63.66

Total:
1929 crop
1928 crop____
1927 crop____
1926 crop
1925 crop .
,

534,308.99
579,485.21
529,869.24
465,767.56
475,419.88

86.88
94.38
87.41
74.58
77.93




1.009
1.006
1.013
1.005
1.009

(U)

(12)

(13)

122.25
167.75
89.00
175.50
95.00
108.50
553.50
83.75
89.00
57.50
81.75
39.25
40.75
8.50
61.00
101.00
95.75
304.75
94. 50
141.50
106.00
1,419. 75
1,083.25
296.25
288. 50
71.25
109.00
122.75
111. 25
76.00
54.50
55.25
175.00
81.00
120.50
808.50
742. 75
543.00
527.50
577.75
831.75

$285.42
377.25
249.33
442.00
197.82
267.84
1,273.35
242.39
246.97
153.62
178.83
103.17
157.04
25.70
259.42
339.53
303.07
876.87
275.23
363.08
292.14
2.660.80
2,146.62
722.21
838.48
190.21
268.73
308.12
288.54
236.65
157.89
150.72
515.80
202.12
354.30
2,142.48
1, 502. 58
1,380.07
1,143.80
1,319.30
1, 772.77

(14)

(15)

104.25

$187.80

160.25
25.50
188.75

208.35
48.30
334.95

17.75

28.90

13.75
104.00

44.70
245. 55

119.75
84.50
259.25
176.50
124.50

224.80
161.55
405.90
309.95
108.80

15.50
106.25

22.30
202.50

20.00
12.00
128.25
226.00

29.30
18.15
204.30
477.75

_ __
__

3.75

6.50

10.00

14."95

54.00
27.00
57.00
1.00
13.00
16.00

89.10
27.60
87.85
1.15
16.70
18.10

539,166.91 10,712.00 25,212.26 2,068.50
583,270.42 6,007.25 17,946.62 3,091.00
537,150.98 5,870.00 14,496.13 4,698.61
468,097.68 5,008.75 10, 545.27 12,044.46
479,644.15 5,850.15 14,297.67 21, 551.56

3,525.80
6,142.60
6,910.40
17,105.84
28,197.63

42

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le

20 .— Statement of settlements made with contract cultivators on a sugar
plantation crop of 1929 — Continued
Cultivator
man-days

Monthly
cash
advances

Settle­
ments on
contract
basis

(16)

(17)

No. 1-.................
No. 2...................
No. 3...................
No. 4________ No. 5__________
No. 6.........-........
No. 7__________
No. 8__________
No. 9__________
No. 10— ....... —
No. 11.— ....... No. 12_________
No. 13_________
No. 14_________
No. 15.................
No. 16....... - ........
No. 17_________
No. 18_________
No. 19— ..........
No. 20....... -........
No. 21_________
No. 22....... .........
No. 23.................
No. 24.................
No. 25....... .........
No. 26_________
No. 27_________
No. 28_________
No. 29— ...........
No. 30_________
No. 31_________
No. 32_________
No. 33— ....... No. 34_________
No. 35____ _____
No. 36_________
No. 37_________
No. 38— ..........
No. 39....... .........
No. 40------ -------No. 41— ...........

$6,376.25
6,166.25
3,498.75
6,145.60
4,676. 25
4, 735. 75
7,641.05
5,779. 20
6,337.60
4.248.45
4.491. 75
1, 713. 75
1,288.25
355. 55
2,705. 95
4,821.20
5,488. 35
5,173. 20
4,487. 25
5,042.50
3, 225. 25
7,688. 25
4,854.15
4,911. 75
4,921. 50
4,880.00
6, 259. 50
7,860.25
4,203. 50
5,460. 75
3, 516.15
3, 592.65
4,464.75
4, 230.00
5,983.00
7, 551. 55
5,031.00
4,113.80
4,290.45
3, 517.35
6, 777.30

$8,511.50
7,700.05
6,115.95
9,329.00
5,060 50
6,954.15
9,728.60
10,899.45
10.912. 55
7,100.35
5,331. 75
2, 759. 50
3,619. 30
718.20
8, 758. 25
11,139.05
11, 882.10
9,487. 40
8,417. 95
7,489. 60
5,353.85
6,611. 65
4, 764. 95
7,039. 85
9,178. 80
8,144. 95
9,139. 60
11,851. 40
6,491.95
11,065.45
6,670.00
6,199. 35
8,694. 90
6,309. 90
11,608. 45
12,370. 55
5,119.05
6,253. 90
5,011. 40
4,497. 75
7,649.15

6,376.25
6,166.25
3,394.50
6,145.60
4,676.25
4, 735.75
7,480.81
5,753.75
6,148.87
4,248. 50
4,491.75
1,696.00
1,268. 25
355. 55
2, 693.18
4, 717. 25
5,488. 31
5,053. 56
4,402. 75
4, 783. 25
3,048. 75
7,563.75
4,854. 25
4,896.25
4,815. 25
4,880.00
6, 239. 50
7,848. 25
4,075 25
5, 234. 75
3, 516.06
3, 588.81
4,464. 75
4, 220.00
5,983. 00
7, 497.62
5,003. 93
4,056.81
4, 289. 43
3, 504. 37
6, 761.18

Total:
1929 crop .....
1928 crop___
1927 crop----1926 crop----1925 crop-----

198,486.80
186,623.10
202,209.20
184,984.55
194,650.90

311,942.05
372,558.10
313,535.25
255,462.10
242,497.95

196,418.34
183, 532.80
197, 511.99
172, 946. 97
173,097.18

Field

Number
paidofl

Total
worked

(18)

(19)

Cash payments
per man-day
On
In ad­ settle­ Total
vance ment
(30)

(31)

m

6,376.25 $1.00 $1.33 $2.33
6,166.25
1.00
1.25
2.25
3,498.75
1.80
2.80
1.00
2.52
6,145.60
1.52
1.00
4,676.25
2.08
1.08
1.00
4,735.75
1.47
2.47
1.00
2.30
7,641.06
1.30
1.00
2.89
1.89
5.779.25
1.00
1.77
2.77
6,337.62
1.00
2.67
1.00
1.67
4,248. 50
2.19
1.19
4,491.75
1.00
2.63
1.63
1,713.75
1.00
2.85
3.85
1,268.25
1.00
3.02
2.02
355.55
1.00
4.25
3.25
2, 706.93
1.00
3.36
4,821. 25
1.00
2.36
3.16
2.16
1.00
5,488. 31
2.87
1.87
1.00
5,173.31
1.91
2.91
4,487.25
1.00
1.57
2.57
1.00
5,042. 50
1,76
2.76
3, 225.25
1.00
1.87
1.00
.87
7,688. 25
1.98
4,854.25
1.00
.98
2.44
1.44
1.00
4,911.75
1.91
2.91
4,921. 50
1.00
2.67
4, 880.00
1.00
1.67
2.46
6, 259. 50
1.00
1.46
2.51
1. 51
7,860. 25
1.00
2.59
1.59
4, 203. 50
1.00
3.11
5,460. 75
1.00
2.11
1.90
2.90
3, 516.06
1.00
1.73
2.73
3, 592. 56
1.00
1.95
2.95
4,464. 75
1.00
1.50
2.50
4, 230.00
1.00
2.94
1.94
5,983.00
1.00
2.65
7, 551.62
1.00
1.65
2.02
1.02
5.030.93
1.00
2.54
1.54
4,113.81
1.00
2.17
1.17
4, 290.43
1.00
2.28
3, 517.37
1.00
1.28
2.13
6, 777.18
1.00
1.13
198,486.84
186,623.80
202,210.60
184,991.43
194,648.74

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1.59
2.03
1.59
1.47
1.39

2.59
3.03
2.59
2.47
2.39

Total
shares
(mandays)

Tons
of cane
per
share
(manday)

(33)

(24)

6,498.50
6,334.00
3, 587.75
6,321.06
4,771.25
4,844.25
8.194 56
5,863.00
6,426.62
4, 306.00
4, 573. 50
1,753.00
1,309.00
364.05
2, 767.93
4,922.25
5,584.06
5,478.06
4, 581.75
5,184.00
3,331.25
9,108.00
5,937. 50
5,208.00
5,210.00
4,951.25
6,368. 50
7,983.00
4,314. 75
5, 538. 75
3. 570. 56
3,647.81
4,639. 75
4,311.00
6,103. 50
8,360.12
5,773.68
4,656. 75
4,818.00
4,095.25
7,608.93

2.22
2.14
2.59
2.50
2.08
2.46
2.42
2.89
2.77
2.67
2.08
2.39
3.85
3.02
4.25
3.36
3.16
2.93
2.91
2.51
2.63
1.87
1.98
2.43
2.91
2.80
2.34
2.51
2.59
3.11
2.89
2.72
2.94
2.62
2.94
2.65
1.93
2.42
2.06
2.17
2.03

209,198.84
192,631.05
208,080,60
190,005.75

2.55
3.00
2.55
2.45

Labor Turnover, 1929
Table 21 shows the number of adult males, adult females, minors,
and the total of these three classes of employees on the pay rolls of 41
sugar plantations in each month in 1929, and the average per month
for the year. It also shows the turnover rate per month and for the
year of accessions and of separations (the per cent that the number
added to the pay rolls in each month was of the number on the pay
rolls in the month, and also the per cent that the number dropped
from the pay rolls in each month was of the number on the rolls in
the month).
In January, 1929, there were 46,985 adult males on the pay rolls of
these plantations. In the month 1,947, or 4.14 per cent, were added



43

SUGAR INDUSTRY

to the rolls and 1,088, or 2.32 per cent, were dropped from the rolls.
There were 1,426 adult females on the rolls in the month and 176, or
12.34 per cent, were added and 67, or 4.7 per cent, were dropped from
the rolls. There were 445 minors on the rolls in the month and 61, or
13.71 per cent, were added and 46, or 10.34 per cent, were dropped
from the rolls in the month. The accessions in the month of men,
women, and minors together were 4.47 per cent of the 48,856 on the
rolls and the separations were 2.46 per cent.
The accessions of adult males in 1929 were 31.58 per cent of the
average number on the rolls in the year; of adult females, 73.35 per
cent; of minors, 111.67 per cent; of all three classes combined, 33.55
per cent. The separations of adult males were 33.13 per cent of the
average number of the men; of adult females, 78.65 per cent of the
women; of the minors, 171.37 per cent of the minors; and of men,
women, and minors together were 35.76 per cent of the average for
all three classes combined.
T a b l e 21.— Labor turnover on sugar plantations, 1929, by sex and months
Adult males
Turnover
rate

Month
Num­
ber

January___________
February__________
March____________
April______________
M ay.........................
June______________
July...................... .
August_____ ______
September______ _
October............. ......
November_________
December_________

46,985
47,123
47,219
47,392
47,300
47,000
46,490
46,017
45,106
44,572
44.071
45.072

Ac­
ces­ Sepa­
sion ration
4.14
2.76
2.48
3.05
2.43
2.49
2.10
1.76
1.60
2.15
2.24
4.32

2.32
2.21
2.22
2.59
2.79
2.89
3.12
2.84
3.55
3.26
3.15
2.27

Minors

Adult females
Turnover
rate
Num­
ber

Total

Turnover
rate

Num­
Ac­
Ac­ Sepa­ ber
ces­
ces­
sion
sion ration

Sepa­
ration

13.71
4.71
17.45
5.43
4.62
21.83
4.69
5.88
7.56
2.70
7.36
15.27

10.34
4.48
11.63
16.79
5.98
4.37
3.88
6.93
80.25
17.40
6.65
2.51

1,426 12.34 4.70
1,499 7.27 3.34
1,513 6.15 4.43
1,492 5.23 5.09
1,474 3.53 4.27
1,569 9.24 3.57
1,517 5.41 6.33
1,452 3.10 8.06
1,280 3.05 14.92
1,201 3.41 10.66
1,150 4.96 8.43
1,180 9.07 7.63

1929................. 146,196 31.58 33.13 11,396 73.35 78.65

Turnover
rate
Num­
ber

4.47
2.92
2.73
3.13
2.48
2.89
2.24
1.84
1.70
2.18
2.35
4.56

2.46
2.27
2.38
2.78
2.86
2.92
3.23
3.04
4.64
3.58
3.31
2.41

1454 111. 67 171.37 148,046 33.55

35.76

445
446
447
405
368
458
618
476
476
408
421
478

48,856
49,068
49,179
49,289
49,142
49,027
48,625
47,945
46,862
46,181
45,642
46,730

Ac­
ces­ Sepa­
sion ration

1Average for year.

Table 22 shows for each month in 1929 the number of men, women,
boys, and the total number of all employees on a representative sugar
plantation in the Hawaiian Islands and also the averages per month
for the year; the number of days the plantation was in operation; the
aggregate and average days worked; and the per cent that the average
days worked were of the days the plantation was in operation
In January there were 2,982 men, 177 women, and 23 boys, or a
total of 3,182 employees on the plantation. The plantation was in
operation 26 days in the month. The men worked an average of 23.3
days in the month, or 89.6 per cent of the 26 days the plantation was
in operation. The women worked an average of only 16 days in the
month, or 61.5 per cent of the 26 days of operation. The boys worked
an average of 22.7 days in the month, or 87.3 per cent of the 26 days
of operation. The 3,182 men, women, and boys together worked a
total of 72,749.8 days in the month, or an average of 22.9 days, or



44

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

88.1 per cent of the 26 days of operation. In the month the men
worked an average of 2.7 days less than full time, the women an
average of 10 days, the boys an average of 3.3 days, and all together
worked an average of 3.1 days less than the 26 days of operation.
The difference between the days the plantation was in operation and
the average days worked in the month was due to various causes,
such as sickness or other disability, voluntary absence, entering
service anywhere from 1 to 25 days after the plantation had been in
operation, or leaving service one or more days before the end of the
month.
T a b le

22.— Number of employees, days of operation, and days worked each month
for a representative sugar plantation, 1929
Number of employees
Month
Men

Wom­ Boys Total
en

Aggregate days worked in month by—

Men

Women

Boys

Total

January,,
February____________ ____________
March____ _______________________
April______ _____________________
M ay_______________ ______________
June_____ ___ _____ ____ _______ ___
July____ ___ _____ ______ __________
August________________ _______ ___
September____ ____________________
October___ _______________________
November________________________
December_________________________

2,982
3,010
3,132
3,099
3,073
3,020
2,911
2,766
2,689
2,712
2,722
2,917

177
172
163
165
159
153
181
145
139
131
125
136

23
24
27
30
27
97
82
62
30
29
30
34

3,182
3,206
3,322
3,294
3,259
3,270
3,174
2,973
2,858
2,872
2,877
3,087

69,403.5
62,337.8
69,322.0
72,458.3
76,569.5
70,192.0
66,106.0
65,894.3
56,424.0
62,458.0
51.082.8
57.881.8

2.824.8
521.5
491.5
2.577.0
2.874.0
510.5
2,806.5
561.5
2.957.0
592.0
2.673.8 1,403.8
2.730.5 1.453.0
2.783.0 1.378.0
2.381.0
566.3
2.385.8
660.0
1.731.5
494.8
1.817.8
605.3

72.749.8
65.406.3
72.706.5
75.826.3
80.118.5
74.269.6
70,289.5
70.055.3
59.371.3
65.503.8
£3,309.1
60.304.9

Average per month_______ ___

2,919

154

41

3,115

65.010.8

2.545.2

68.325.9

769.9

Per cent average days worked
in month are of plantation
Planta­
days of operation
tion
days of
opera­
Men Wom­ Boys Total
Total tion
en

Average days worked in
month by—
Month
Men Wom­ Boys
en
January__________________________
February_________________________
March___________________________
April_____________________________
May_____________________________
June_____________________________
July______________________________
August___________________________
September ______________________
October__________________________
November________________________
December________________________

23.3
20.7
22.1
23.4
24.9
23.2
22.7
23.8
21.0
23.0
18.8
19.8

16.0
15.0
17.6
17.0
18.6
17.5
15.1
19.2
17.1
18.2
13.9
13.4

22.7
20.5
18.9
18.7
21.9
14.5
17.7
22.2
18.9
22.8
16.5
17.8

22.9
20.4
21.9
23.0
24.6
22.7
22.1
23.6
20.8
22.8
18.5
19.5

26
24
25
26
27
25
26
27
23
27
24
25

89.6
86.3
88.4
90.0
92.2
92.8
87.3
88.1
91.3
85.2
78.3
79.2

61.5
62.5
70.4
65.4
68.9
70.0
58.1
71.1
74.3
67.4
57.9
S3 f
i

87.3
85.4
75.6
71.9
81.1
58.0
68.1
82.2
82.2
84.4
68.8

71 9

88.1
85.0
87.6
88.5
91.1
90.8
85.0
87.4
90.4
84.4
77.1
78.0

Average per month.------ --------

22.3

16.5

18.7

21.9

25.4

87.8

65.0

73.6

86.2

Employees, Days of Operation and Days Worked, and Earnings, 1929
In May, 1929, the 41 sugar plantations of the Hawaiian Sugar
Planters’ Association had a total of 52,426 employees, including
49,890 adult males, 1,636 adult females, 352 male minors, 19 female
minors, and 529 school minors7 whose sex was not reported. These
plantations include all on the Hawaiian Islands of importance in
number of employees and in number of tons of sugar produced.
7 School children who work intermittently.




SUGAR INDUSTRY

45

The days worked and earnings in May, 1929, were available for
49,671 employees who were not on a monthly basis, including 47,300
adult males, 1,474 adult females, 349 male minors, 19 female minors,
and 529 school minors whose sex was not reported. Similar data
were also available for employees not on a monthly basis in each month
in 1929, data for whom are included in this report.
The days worked in May for 2,755 employees who were on a
monthly basis (paid monthly rates or salaries) were not of record and
available. These employees include 2,590 adult males, 162 adult
females and 3 male minors, and include plantation officials, office
force of clerks, bookkeepers, storekeepers, foremen, etc. Data for
them are not included in this report.
Table 23 presents figures for May, 1929, in comparison with those
for the entire year, for each of the 41 plantations included in this
report—for 18 plantations on the island of Hawaii, 6 on Maui, 8 on
Oahu, and 9 on Kauai—for the total of those given for each island,
and also for the 41 plantations on all four islands combined.
This table shows: (1) The number of employees that were on the
pay rolls in May and the average number per month in 1929; (2) the
number of days the plantations were in operation in May and in
1929; (3) the total number of days that were worked by employees
in May and in 1929; (4) the average number of days per month that
the plantations were in operation in 1929; (5) the average number of
days that employees worked per month in May and in 1929; (6) the
per cent that the days worked by employees in May and in 1929
were of the days that the plantations were in operation in May and
in 1929; (7) the average amount, including bonus, that was earned
per day and per month per employee in May and in 1929; (8) the
amount that was paid to employees in May and in 1929 as a bonus
for working 23 or more days per month; (9) the per cent that the
bonus was of the earnings at basic rates in May and in 1929.
Plantation No. 1 on the island of Hawaii had a total of 1,218 em­
ployees, “not on a monthly basis,” on its pay rolls in May, 1929, and
an average of 1,262 employees per month in 1929. The plantation
was in operation 27 days in May and 309 days in 1929. This and all
other plantations were on a 6-day week basis. The 1,218 on the rolls
in May worked a total of 25,786 days, or an average of 21.2 days in
the month. This average was 78.52 per cent of the 27 (full-time)
days that the plantation was in operation in the month. The em­
ployees on the plantation in 1929 worked a total of 305,943 days.
Based on the average of 1,262 employees per month and the days
worked by employees in the year, an average of 20.2 days per month
was worked in 1929. The plantation was in operation 309 days in
1929 or an average of 25.8 days per month. The average of 20.2
days per month worked by employees was 78.29 per cent of the
average of 25.8 (full-time) days per month that the plantation was
in operation in 1929.
Average earnings as given in this table include the earnings of em­
ployees at basic rates, and also a bonus of 10 per cent of such earnings
which was paid monthly to each employee who worked 23 or more
days in the month. In May the bonus amounted to $2,838 or 8.37
per cent of the amount earned by the 1,218 employees at basic rates.
In 1929 the bonus amounted to $32,784 or 8.07 per cent of the amount
27595°— 31------- 4




46

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

earned by all employees on the pay rolls of this plantation in that year.
Including the bonus, average earnings on the plantation were $1.42
per day m May and $1.44 per day in 1929 and $30.16 per month in
May and $29 per month in 1929.
The 49,671 employees on the pay rolls on the 41 plantations in May
earned, including the bonus, an average of $1.82 per day and $43.31
per month. Averages in 1929 were $1.66 per day and $36.24 per
month. Average earnings ranged by plantations from $1.33 to $2.78
per day in May and from $1.14 to $2.16 per day in 1929; also from
$29.24 to $67.84 per month in May and from $22.58 to $46.75 in 1929.
In May the bonus amounted to $149,573 or 7.47 per cent of the earn­
ings at basic rates. The amount paid as bonus in 1929 was $1,452,499
or 7.24 per cent of the earnings in the year at basic rates.
The earnings per day and per month as shown in Table 23 do not
include the rental value of the clean, sanitary, and comfortable homes,
each of three or four rooms, nor the value of fuel, water, medical and
hospital service for sickness or accidental injury of any kind furnished
by the plantations to all employees and families. (See Table 14 for
number of houses owned and furnished to employees without rental
charge; see also fig. 16.) An official of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’
Association estimated that the cost per month to the plantations per
home for families was $20; of fuel and water, $4; of medical and hos­
pital service, $4; or a total of $28 per month. Single employees were
also housed—some three, four, or five to a house, in houses like those
furnished to families and others in boarding houses. Medical and
hospital service were also furnished to single employees at an esti­
mated cost to the plantations of $2 per month per person.
The rate for overtime on all plantations was the same as for regular
working time, and the rate for Sunday and holidays for day laborers
was one and one-half times their regular rate.




T a b le £3 .— Number of employees, days of operation, arid days worked, average earningsy and attendance bonus, on sugar plantations, M ay,
1929 , and year 1929
[Data for 2,765 employees who were paid moHthly rates not included]
Per cent aver­
Average
Average
Average earn­
Aver­
Number of
age days
days
ings per
age
days planta­ Number of d a y s
worked per earnings per month in­
Attendance
worked by em­ days worked by
day in­
tion was in
month
bonus
ployees
cluding
employees averagewere of
per
operation
days of cluding
bonus
bonus
month per month
operation
planta­
tion
Aver­
was in
age May,
May,
May,
opera­ May, 1929 May,
per
1929
1929 May, 1929 May, 1929 May,
1929
1929 month 1929 1929
1929
tion, 1929
1929
1929
1929
1929
1929
in 1929
Number of
employees

Island and plantation

HAWAII
1............................................
2............................................
3.................................. ..........
4__......... ...............................
5 .................................... .
6 ......................................
7 ........................ - ...............
8 .........................................
9 . ....................................
1 0 ........................ ................
11 .........................................
12— ____ _____ _____ _____
13
..............................
14............ ............................
15...........................................
1 6 ........................................
1 7 ......................... ..............
18......... ................................

Per cent
bonus was
of earnings
at basic
rates

May, 1929
1929

1,262
601
1,046
948
1,634
734
594
1,487
917
924
664
863
626
715
301
417
872
2,545

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

309.0
300.5
300.0
301.0
302.0
294.0
292.0
307.0
306.0
301.0
301.0
308.0
274.0
299.0
308.0
298.0
308.0
307.0

25,786
14,211
22,644
21,968
36,483
17,664
15,018
34,046
19,298
22,709
15,878
20,135
16,260
15,946
6,444
9,932
20,237
54,807

305,943
154,782
254,990
233,094
423,689
186,801
160,824
375,627
218,183
241,321
173,393
214,202
160,002
182,050
74,406
106,162
226,920
629,191

25.8
25.0
25.0
25.1
25.2
24.5
24.3
25.6
25.5
25.1
25.1
25.7
22.8
24.9
25.7
24.8
25.7
25.6

21.2
23.9
22.3
23.2
23.2
23.6
24.9
22.4
21.8
24.0
23.8
22.6
24.2
23.5
21.3
23.0
23.3
22.1

20.2
21.5
20.3
20.5
21.6
21.2
22.6
21.1
19.8
21.8
21.8
20.7
21.3
21.2
20.6
21.2
21.7
20.6

78.52
88.52
82.59
85.93
85.93
87.41
92.22
82.96
80.74
88.89
88.15
83.70
89.63
87.04
78.89
85.19
86.30
81.85

78.29 $1.42 $1.44 $30.16 $29.00
86.00 1.53 1.42 36.72 30.52
81.20 1.61 1.50 35.88 30.48
81.67 1.51 1.44 35.11 29.44
85.71 1.67 1.63 38.57 35.30
86.53 1.48 1.40 35.08 29.78
93.00 1.72 1.63 42.75 36.87
82.42 1.43 1.35 32.14 28.35
77.65 1.34 1.14 29.24 22.58
86.85 1.58 1.50 37.97 32.69
86.85 1.74 1.61 41.30 35.01
80.54 1.65 1.49 37.27 30.89
93.42 1.58 1.56 38.17 33.32
85.14 1.58 1.52 37.05 32.15
80.16 1.41 1.40 29.96 28.94
85.48 1.66 1.57 38.26 33.22
84.44 1.61 1.50 37.65 32.59
80.47 1.70 1.61 37.46 33.17

$2,838
1,839
2,921
2,701
4,685
2,194
1,983
3,794
966
2,825
1,974
2,246
1,978
1,985
718
1,287
2,376
7,542

$32,784
17,901
28,255
25,140
49,522
20,993
19,623
38,398
9,820
26,921
20,273
22,257
18,471
21,089
7,841
12,908
23,202
81,397

8.37
9.21
8.71
8.86
8.36
9.14
8.33
8.42
3.88
8.53
7.71
7.25
8.37
8.57
8.59
8.46
7.85
8.83

8.07
8.85
7.97
8.12
7.71
8.70
8.07
8.21
4.12
8.02
7.84
7.48
7.97
8.28
8.11
8.42
7.30
8.74

Total.................................. 17,041 17,150

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

27.0

300.9

389,456

4,321,480

25.1

22.9

21.0

84.81

83.67

1.58

1.50

36.05

31.39

46,852

476,795

8.26

7.97

211
3,558
537
2,306
1,274
2,398

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
26.0
27.0

308.0
306.0
308.0
305.0
304.0
302.0

4,912
87,379
12,332
54,584
28j687
56,570

57,419
968,242
138,402
608,256
322,406
603,705

25.7
25.5
25.7
25.4
25.3
25.2

24.9
24.4
23.0
23.3
22.6
23.2

22.7
22.7
21.5
22.0
21.1
21.0

92.22
90.37
85.19
86.30
86.92
85.93

88.33
89.02
83.66
86.61
83.40
83.23

1.33
2.04
1.45
2.15
1.86
2.26

1.56
1.80
1.43
1.88
1.73
2.02

33.11
49.74
33.40
50.13
42.06
52.26

35.40
40.75
30.76
41.30
36.50
42.33

499
11,077
1,336
7,550
3,408
7,711

5,745
103,359
14,278
71,475
36,247
66,488

8.29
6.64
&07
6.88
6.81
6.43

6.85
6.32
7.76
6.67
6.95
5.77

10,361 10,284

26.8

305.5

244,464

2,698,430

25.5

23.6

21.9

88.06

85.88

2.05

1.83

48.32

40.09

31,581

297,592

6.73

6.40

1,218
594
1,016
945
1,575
747
603
1,520
884
947
668
891
671
679
303
431
867
2,482

MAUI

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

19...........................................
20...........................................
21..........................................
22...........................................
23.............. ...........................
24...........................................
Total

..........




....

197
3,577
536
2,339
1,271
2,441

T able 23.— Number of employees, days of operation, and days worked, average earnings, and attendance bonus, on sugar plantations, May,

1929, and year 1929— Continued

w

Island and plantation

Per cent
bonus was
of earnings
at basic
rates

OAHU

25...........................................
2 6 ______________________
27.____ __________________
28_______________________
29
____________________
30
___________ ________
31— ____________ _______
32....... ...................................

836
481
3,054
464
545
2,082
2,070
1,797

870 27.0
508 27.0
2,910 27.0
465 26.0
532 27.0
1,991 27.0
2,028 27.0
1,818 26.0

T o ta l._________________ 11,329 11,122

302.0
303.0
305.0
302.0
307.0
298.5
303. 0
303.0

$2,749
1,373
11,975
1,267
1,641
8,322
7,923
4,002

$28,800
13,749
101,995
14,758
17,131
67,618
70,073
43,451

7.06
5.27
6.13
9.63
8.72
7.33
7.53
5.20

7.83
6.91
6.66
9.92
7.99
6.69
7.23
5.18

42.23

39,252

357,575

6.68

6.77

34.86
35.60
30.60
31.65
40.66
34.40
32.36
32.29
32.25

469
5,808
1,136
4,984
4,528
5,315
2,490
5,893
1,265

4,470
57,248
13,276
47,569
45,386
54,284
25,802
58,193
14,309

8.63
8.99
8.01
7.94
7.21
8.87
8.52
9.14
9.05

7.95
8.73
7.38
7.22
6.54
7.74
7.85

31,888

23.5

21.5
21.7
21.5
23.2
21.6
22.7
22.5

92.59
88.52
90.37
85.00
90.74
91.11
94.44
90.38

90.48 $1.99 $1.67 $49.85 $38.01
84.98 2.39 1.62 56.98 34.89
85.43 2.78 2.16 67.84 46.75
85.32 1.41 1.36 31.07 29.30
90.63 1.53 1.56 37.53 36.27
86.75 2.38 2.09 58.54 45.14
89.72 2.14 1 .8 8 54.65 42.69
88.93 1.92 1.80 45.05 40.41

24.4

22.1

91.04

87.70

2.26

1.91

55.35

23.0
23.6
20.6
23.1
22.5
23.6
22.5
22.0
23.0

95.93
94.62
78.89
92.22
87.78
94.07
88.52
90.00
90.37

89.84
92.19
80.78
90.23
87.21
92.19
87.89
88.00
90.55

1.72
1.64
1.46
1.41
1.87
1.43
1.48
1.46
1.40

1.51
1.51
1.48
1.37
1.81
1.46
1.44
1.47
1.40

44.70
40.41
31.13
35.12
44.20
36.37
35.43
35.42
34.26

20,940
11,472
74,658
10,260
13,353
51,297
52,768
42,239

237,538
131,006
756,886
120,026
148,372
515,870
551,707
490,208

25.2
25.3
25.4
25.2
25.6
24.9
25.3
25.3

25.0
23.9
24.4
22.1
24.5
24.6

25.2

25.5

26.8

302.9

276,987

2,951,613

27.0
26.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

307.0
307.0
306.0
307.0
310.0
307.0
307.0
300.0
305.0

3,421
42,906
10,497
48,004
36,065
45,479
21,411
48,302
10,854

40,076
473,027
130,301
516,160
409,473
517,525
246,140
534,855
125,640

25.6
25.6
25.5
25.6
25.8
25.6
25.6
25.0
25.4

25.9
24.6
21.3
24.9
23.7
25.4
23.9
24.3

266,939

2 2 .8

KAUAI

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

33
....................................
3 4 . .................................. .
35....... ...................................
36..........................................
37 —..................................
38....... ...................................
39..........................................
40____________ - ..................
41....... ...................................

132
1,743
492
1 929
1,523
1,794
895
1,987
445

145
1,669
526
1,859
1,516
1,831
913
2,028
455

2 4.4

8 .0 0

8.85

Total.................................. 10,940 10,942

26.9

306.2

2,993,197

25.5

24.4

22.8

90.71

89.41

1.53

1.50

37.41

34.15

320,537

8.45

7.70

Grand total___ ________ _ 49,671 49,498

26.9

303.1~ 1,177,846 12,964,720

25.3

23.7

21.8

88.10

86.17

1.82

1.66

43.31

36.24 149,573 1,452,499

7.47

7.24




I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

CONDITIONS

May, 1929
1929

LABOR

Per cent aver­
Average earn­
Average
Average
age days
Number of
Aver­
ings per
days
Attendance
worked per earnings per month in­
days planta­ Number of d a y s
day in­
worked by em- age worked by month were of
bonus
tion was in
days employees
cluding
cluding
ployees
operation
per
bonus
bonus__
per month average days of
operation
month
planta­
tion
was in
Aver­
opera­ May,
age May,
May,
May,
May,
1929
1929 May, 1929 May, 1929
tion, 1929 1929 May,
1929
per
1929
1929
1929
1929
1929
1929 month 1929 1929
1929
in 1929
Number of
employees

SUGAR INDUSTRY

49

Average Daily Earnings, 1929, by Kinds of Work
Average earnings per day in 1929, including the attendance bonus,
are presented in Table 24 for the various lands of work, for adult
males, adult females, and minors, and also for all employees combined
on 41 sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands. The bonus
amounted to about 7% per cent of the earnings at basic rates.
The employees on sugar plantations are of three classes—short-term
contractors, long-term contractors, and day laborers.
Short-term contractors may work at one or more of the 10 different
kinds of work listed in the table under this classification. The con­
tracts are for short periods and apply to “ planting cane,” “ fertiliz­
ing,” “ irrigating,” “ cutting,” or “ loading,” etc., on one or more
fields at a contract price per acre, per ton, etc.
Long-term contractors cultivate cane during the entire growing
period of many months. They are paid for the number of tons of
cane produced at a specified contract rate per ton.
Day laborers, as the term implies, are time workers. They are
paid for the number of units of time (days) worked at any one or
more of the five different kinds of work listed in the table under
“ Day laborers. ”
The average earnings of short-time contractors doing the work of
planting cane on the plantations in 1929 were $1.40 per day for adult
males, $1.16 for adult females, 92 cents for minors, and $1.38 per
day for men, women, and minors combined.
The average earnings of the males doing the different kinds of short­
term contract work ranged from $1.40 per day for planting cane to
$2.93 per day for “ portable track” contract work. Portable tracks
are temporary railway lines used in hauling cane from the fields to
permanent tracks leading to the sugar mills. The portable tracks
are moved from field to field and reconstructed for use as needed.
The average earnings of those doing all short-term contract work
was $1.85 per day for adult males, $1.43 for adult females, $1.06 for
minors, and $1.83 per day for all employees.
The average earnings of long-term contractors were $2.07 per day
for adult males, $1.55 for adult females, 85 cents for minors, and
$2.05 per day for all employees.
The average earnings of day laborers ranged by kinds of work, from
$1.08 to $3.53 per day for adult males; from 68 cents to $2.87 per
day for adult females; from 61 cents to $2.33 per day for minors; and
from 90 cents to $3.53 per day for all day laborers.
The above rates do not include the rental value of honies, nor the
value of fuel, water, medical and hospital services furnished by the
plantations without cost to the employees.




50

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T able 24 .— Average earnings per day , including bonus, of men, women, and
minors on 41 sugar plantations, 1000,
hind of work
Kind of work

Short-term contracts:
Planting O
ftnft,. .

_
_ ___ _
l?ertilifcing
Irrigating_____________________________________________
Cutting cane______________________ ____ _______________
Loading cane__________________________________________
Hauling or fluming cane________________________________
Cultivating (short term)_______________________________
C onstruction w o r k ____________________________________
Other contracts________________________________________
Portable track_________________________________________

Adult
males

$1.40
1.71
1.43
1.73
2.11
2.09
1.40
2.62
1.93
2.93

Adult
females

M
inors

$1.16
1.25
1.22
1.27
1.68
1.36
1.12
1.40
1.31
2.14

$0.92
1.12
1.09
1.12
1.23
1.12
.97
1.52
1.31
1.76

Total

$1.38
1.66
1.42
1.73
2.09
2.06
1.38
2.62
1.89
2.90

Total, short-term contractors__________________________

1.85

1.43

1.06

1.83

Long-term contractors_____________________________________
Day laborers:
Day laborers, field b ands______________________________
Basic-rate day laborers, other___________________________
Other unskilled________________________________________
Semiskilled____________________________________________
Skilled.................................................. - ..................................

2.07

1.55

.85

2.05

1.10
1.08
1.37
1.89
3.53

.83
.68
.79
.86
2.87

.70
.61
.97
1.66
2.33

1.05
.90
1.36
1.89
3.53

Total, day laborers___________________________________

1.51

.88

.75

1.46

Grand t o t a l._______________________________________

1.68

1.19

.79

1.66

Regular Full-Time Hours, 1929, per Day and Week
The regular hours of operation per day and per week in 1929, as
established by a regular time of beginning and of quitting work on
each day per week, less the regular time off duty for the midday
dinner or lunch, were obtained for each of the several kinds of work
on the sugar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, and such hours
per day and week are shown in Table 25.
The regular full-time hours per day ranged from 5% for the em­
ployees on one plantation who were engaged in loading cane to 12 for
the employees on 4 plantations who were employed at hauling or
fluming cane, and also for the sugar-mill workers on 23 plantations.
The 10-hour day was more frequent than any other, the next in
order being the 9-hour day.
Regular full-time hours per week ranged from 33 for the employees
on one plantation who did the work of loading cane to 72 per week for
employees on 3 plantations who worked at hauling or fluming cane,
and also for the sugar-mill workers on 19 plantations. On many
plantations thejiours per day were less on one of the 6 days per week
than on the other 5.




51

SUGAR INDUSTRY
T a b le

25. N u m b e r
—

o f su g a r p la n ta tio n s h aving sp e c ified fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r d a y
a n d p er w eek, b y kin d s o f w ork
Number of plantations having each specified full-time hours for—

Full-time hours

Per day:
5*3

1

____
.......

6

6*3
7
7%
7*3
7%

Cultivating
Haul­
Cut­ Load­ ing or Con­ Porta­
Plant­ Fer­ Irriing tiliz­
Long­ Short­ ting ing flum- struc­ ble Sugar Other
tion track mill work
term term cane cane ing
cane ing &
con­
cane work
con­
tracts tracts

1
1
1

_

___
........................
8*3................. ......
8%........................
9...........................
9%........................
9*3........................
9%........................
10.........................
10M
10*3......................
11 . . .
11*£............

4

1
2
1

7

4

3

1

8

1
11
1

4

1
8
1

1

1

14

16

14
2
1

114
1

1

4
1

8
1

2

5

5
2

2
6

2

1

1
8
1
1
1
8

16

1
1
1
11

1
1
1

3

3

4

4

3

5

2
8

5

2

1

5

9

9

1
1
1
11

1
2
1

1

2

17

5

1
1
1

1

4

4

Total..............

22

28

30

39

38

32

1
1

39

5

19

1
6
2

4
40

3

1

1

Total................

1

1

1

2

12

Per week:
33...................
35.........................
36.........................
39.........................
41.........................
42.........................
43*3......................
45....... ..................
46*3......................
47..........................
47*3......... .............
48.........................
49*3....... ..............
50.........................
50*3-....................
51.........................
52......................
52*3......................
53.........................
53*3......................
54........................
55*3-................—
56.........................
56*3......................
57.........................
58...................... ...
58*3......................
59.........................
59*3......................
60........................
61.........................
61*3.....................
62.........................
6 5 ........................
65*£......................
65*3......................
66.........................
67*3......................
70.........................
70*3......................
70%.....................
71.........................
71*£......................
72.........................

1

23
32

26

1

1
2

1
2
1

1
2
2

1
2

1
1

3

37

37

1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2

7

2
2

2
1
1

4

3

1

2

1
6
1

2
2

7

2

1

2
1

1
1
1
1

4

4

7

1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2

1
2
1
1
1
2
1
8

2

4
1

1

1
1

1

3

3

1
2

4
3
8
1

1
2
1
1

5

2
2
1

1

1

1

1
1

i5

4

1
8'
1

1

1
6
2
6

2
1

2
1
2
1
1
1

3

2
1
6
2

2

4
1

1

1
1

1
1
1

1

1
1

1

1

3

1
1

1

1

5
3

3

4

1

2

9

1
12

4

5

11

1

3

6
2
8

1

1

4

3

3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

3
40

39

i Mostly women on 1 plantation.




22

28

30

39

38

32

19
32

26

37

370

52

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Pineapple Industry
In number of wage earners, in amount paid as wages, and in value
of products, the pineapple industry in the Hawaiian Islands is second
to the sugar industry and includes both the growing and the canning
of pineapples.
Pineapples were introduced and cultivated in the islands to a rather
limited extent during the period from 1886 to 1900, but canning did
not begin until 1901 when about 2,000 cases of 24 cans each were
canned and placed on the market. The Smooth Cayenne variety
is generally grown, because those engaged in the industry consider it
superior in flavor and less fibrous than others. The number of cases
increased from year to year to approximately 50,000 in 1905; to
625,000 in 1910; to 1,700,000 in 1913, the year before the beginning
of the World War; and to more than 9,000,000 cases in 1929, thus
showing the rapid growth and the present importance of the industry.
In a folder published by one of the companies engaged in the grow­
ing and canning of pineapples, it is stated that “ Hawaii is the pine­
apple’s paradise, for here it thrives best and attains that sweetness
and lusciousness of flavor not present in pineapples grown in other
lands.” After one has visited plantations on the islands and eaten
the ripe fruit immediately after it has been picked, one is not inclined
to question the accuracy of this statement.
Pineapple Plantations
Description of Work and Definition of Occupations

Pineapple plantations in the islands have an estimated area, as
stated by the Governor of Hawaii in his report for the fiscal year
ending June30,1929,of 88,000 acres,or 137H* square miles, with 49,356
acres in actual cultivation in that year. The estimated area is con­
servative. Plantations are divided into plots of land called “ fields.”
After cultivation and picking of two or three crops each field is left
uncultivated for a time to rest and recuperate.
The growing of pineapples is highly developed, with production in
some fields of as much as 36 tons of fruit per acre. The plantations,
as well as the canneries, are equipped with modem labor-saving
machinery, a great deal of which is automatic and of a highly special­
ized type, particularly in the canneries.
Various types of tractors are used in clearing the land of cactus
and stone, and in plowing (fig. 17), subsoiling, and harrowing. In
this report the employees who operate the tractors are classified as
“ tractor drivers,” and those helping them are classified as “ tractor
drivers7helpers.”
After being plowed and harrowed fields are laid out in parallel rows
from 4 to 6 feet in width. After the rows are given the necessary
application of fertilizer they are generally covered with an asphalttreated mulch paper three feet in width (fig. 18). The paper is used
to prevent the growth of weeds near the plants, to hold moisture,
attract heat, and thus make available all the fertilizer and productive
soil in the rows for the development and growth of the fruit producing
plants.
The ground is now ready for planting. Holes are made through the
paper and to the proper depth in the soil, equal distances apart. A






F i g u r e 17.— P l o w i n g




F i g u r e 18.— L a y i n g M u l c h p a p e r

F i g u r e 19 .— P l a n t i n g T h r o u g h P a p e r







f ig u r e

2 0.— s t a r t i n g o f a p i n e a p p l e p l a n t a t i o n

fig u r e

21 .— T w e l v e m o n t h s a f t e r p l a n t i n g







F i g u r e 2 2 .— S p r a y i n g w i t h

iro n

Sulphate




F i g u r e 23.— f i e l d o f R ip e P i n e a p p l e s




F i g u r e 2 4.— H a r v e s t i n g a n d C r a t i n g t h e P in e a p p l e s

F i g u r e 25 .—C u t t in g o f f C r o w n s







F i g u r e 26 .—t r a i n l o a d t o c a n n e r y

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

53

certain part of a ripe pineapple (“ crown” ) or of the pineapple plant
(“ slip” or “ sucker” ) is then placed in each hole and firmly set in the
ground (fig. 19). The “ crown” isthe top of the fruit; the “ slip” is
the part of the plant which grows in clusters at the base of the stalk
supporting the fruit, and the “ sucker” sprouts through the leaves of
the plant. The crowns, slips, and suckers used in planting are care­
fully selected and gathered from healthy and productive plants (figs.
20 and 21).
The following employees usually change from one kind of work to
another as needed and are generally called ‘ ‘ field hands ” or “ laborers’ ’ :
Employees who apply the fertilizer to the rows; cover the rows with
mulch paper; set the pineapple crowns or parts of plants in the ground;
hoe, weed, and cultivate the ground between the strips or rows of
paper during the growing season; pick the ripe fruit from the plants;
cut the crowns from the fruit; sort the fruit into three grades accord­
ing to size in diameter; fill empty boxes with fruit; load trucks and
trailers attached to the trucks with boxes of fruit for delivery to
canneries or to barges for transfer from one harbor to another and
finally to the canneries; and trim crowns, slips and suckers used
in planting for the growing of pineapples. In this report they
are classified as “ laborers, field, men” ; “ laborers, field, women” ;
“ laborers, field, minors, male” ; and “ laborers, field, minors, female.”
On some plantations the work of trimming crowns, slips, and suckers
is frequently done by women. Other plantation occupations for
which hours and earnings are shown in the report are lunas (fore­
men), truck drivers, truck driver’s helpers, and teamsters.
“ Luna” is the#usual occupational term applied to a plantation
employee who is in charge of a small group of employees. Such an
employee may or may not work along with the others in the group
in addition to supervising the work. On some plantations or in
different departments on the same plantation he may be called
foreman, field luna, overseer, station luna, or team luna.
“ Truck drivers” operate auto trucks used in the construction and
maintenance of roads on the plantations, in the delivery of supplies
to the plantations and of pineapples to railroad cars or boats for
transportation to canneries, in delivery of fruit directly to canneries,
and in other plantation work.
“ Truck drivers’ helpers” assist truck drivers.
“ Teamsters” drive horses or mules hitched to vehicles used in
light hauling on the plantation.
During the growing of the pineapple plants, machine sprayers
apply a tonic of iron sulphate to the plants when and as needed
(fig. 22). The employees who operate the machine sprayers were in­
cluded in the group designated in the report as “ other employees”
because they were too few in number to warrant tabulation as a
separate occupation and because they do other field work when not
spraying plants (figs. 23 to 26).
When the boxes are filled with fruit only a single grade is placed
in a box. Each empty box weighs about 13 pounds and each one
filled with fruit weights approximately 75 pounds.
Each plantation has a well-equipped shop for the repair of tractors,
trucks, and other machinery, and also employees to repair plantation
buildings of various kinds, including the houses owned by the plan­
tation and occupied by employees and families without rental charge,



54

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

stores, etc. (figs. 27 and 28). The occupations of the shop for which
figures are shown separately are blacksmiths, blacksmiths7 helpers,
carpenters, carpenters7helpers, painters, plumbers, plumbers* helpers,
and repairers (auto mechanics). Employees in other occupations
in the shop too few in number to warrant tabulation as a separate
occupation are included in a miscellaneous group designated as “ other
employees7 in the report.
7
Hours and Earnings, 1929

The average number of days on which employees worked in a pay
period of one month in 1929, the average full-time hours per week
and month and the average hours that were actually worked in the
pay period, the per cent that the hours actually worked were of the
average full-time hours, the average earnings per hour, the average full­
time earnings per week and in the pay period, and the average actual
earnings in the pay period are presented in Table 26 for the employees
in each of the important occupations on pineapple plantations on
the islands of Maui and of Oahu2 and on both islands combined.
Like figure are also shown for a miscellaneous group of “ other em­
ployees.7 This group includes a considerable number of employees
7
m other occupations, each too few in number of employees to
warrant separate tabulation as an occupation.
The averages in the table are for 3,316 males and 161 females on
4 of the largest plantations—2 on the Island of Maui and 2 on Oahu—
and are shown separately so that comparison may be made, one island
with the other.
The regular full-time hours per week in 1929 of employees in each
occupation on each plantation, except those included in the group
of “ other employees/7 were 10 per day or 60 per week. The hours
of a small number of “ other employees7 on one or two plantations were
7
more than 10 per day and 60 per week. These employees were too
few in number to affect materially the average full-time hours per week
of any plantation as a whole, or the average hours of all employees
included in this study. The averages for the 28 “ other employees,
male/7on the island of Maui were 61.4; for the 134 “ other employees,
male,” on Maui and Oahu combined were 60.3; for males and also for
all males and females combined on Maui were 60.1 per week.
The 2,289 “ laborers, field, adult males/7the most important occu­
pation on the plantations in number of employees, worked an average
of 16.6 days and 160.7 hours in one month and earned an average of
$31.51 in the month and an average of 19.6 cents per hour. Had
they worked their average full time of 264.1 hours at the same hourly
rate that was earned in the 160.7 hours in the pay period they
would have earned an average of $51.76, or had they worked a full­
time week of 60 hours the earnings would have averaged $11.76. The
160.7 hours actually worked in the month was 60.8 per cent of the
average of 264.1 full-time hours in the pay period of one month. The
271 adult male field laborer on the plantations on Maui earned an
average of 19.2 cents per hour and, had they worked their average full
time of 270 hours at the same rate per hour, they would have earned an
average of $51.84 in the one-month pay period, whale the 2,018 on the
plantations on Oahu earned an average of 19.7 cents per hour and had
they worked a full-time month of 263.3 hours at the same rate would
have earned $51.87.






F i g u r e 27.— S o m e o f t h e M o s t a t t r a c t i v e h o m e s o f p l a n t a t i o n l a b o r e r s




F i g u r e 28.— C it y c a m p o f o n e l a r g e P l a n t a t i o n

55

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

The 500 males in all occupations on the plantations on Maui worked
an average of 19 days and 193.1 hours in the pay period of one month
and earned an average of $42.74 or 22.1 cents per hour. For the
2,816 males on the plantations on Oahu the averages are 18.5 days,
183.6 hours, $41.83, and 22.8 cents, respectively. The 36 females on
Maui worked an average of 12.4 days and 120.7 hours in the onemonth pay period and earned an average of $10.33 in the month or
8.6 cents per hour. For the 125 females on Oahu the averages are
6.9 days, 64 hours, $8.48, and 13.3 cents, respectively. The industry
total at the end of the table shows that the 3,477 employees on the
4 plantations that were included in the study worked an average of
18.1days and 180 hours in a pay period of one month and earned an
average of $40.43 or 22.5 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays on
two plantations was the same as for regular working time and applied
to all employees, and on two other plantations was one and one-half
times the regular rate and applied to all employees.
T a b l e 26.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings

in one month, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour
on pineapple plantations, 1929, by occupation, sex, and island

Occupation, sex,
and island

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­ Average full­
age time hours—
num­
Num­ ber
ber of days
on
of
em­ which
Per
ploy* employ­ Per
month
ees
worked
in
month

Blacksmiths, male:
Maui___............
Oahu................

26.5
26.3

60.0
60.0

TotaL............

26.4

60.0

Blacksmiths' help­
ers, male:
Maui.................
Oahu.................

Average full­
time earnings—
Aver­
age
hours
actually
worked
in
month

Per
Aver­
cent of Average
full
actual
earn­
time
worked per
ings
Per
Per
in
in
week month
month hour
month

262.5
261.4

97.2 $0,407 $24.42
100.5
23.94

103.74

$106.94
104.33

261.7

270.0
260.0

.401

105.26

104.98

22.0 60.0 270.0
24.3

60.0

221.5
242.4

82.0
93.2

.213
.341

12.78
20.46

57.51

47.15
82.58

TotaL............

23.5

60.0

235.4

19.4

.301

18.06

79.25

70.77

Carpenters, male:
Maui.................
Oahu.................

19.4
23.1

270.0
265.6

195.3
262.6

72.3
85.3

.383
.410

22.98
24.60

103.41
108.90

74.79
92.87

268.2

208.1

77.6

Total.............

22

20.9

S. 0
O

260.0

23.70

105.94

82.18

.252

15.12
18.78

68.04
82.41

1.94
1.47

77.2

.295

17.70

78.18

Carpenters’ helpers,
male:
Maui.................
Oahu.................

22.0
19.5

270.0
263.3

238.3
193.3

73.4

Total............ .

20.1

265.0

204.6

L a b o r e r s, field,
adult, male:1
Maui.................
Oahu.................

271
2,018

17.0
16.5

270.0
263.3

164.0
160.3

60.7
[60.9

.192
.197

11.52
11.82

51.84
51.87

31.51
31.51

Total.............

2,289

16.6

264.1

160.7

60.8

.196

11.76

51.76

31.51

i Includes planters, cultivators, fertilizers, fruit pickers, plant gatherers, cultivator contractors, cleanersup, etc.




LABOR CONDITIONS IN HAW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

56

T a b l e 26 .— Average days worked, average f ull-time and actual hours and earnings

in one month, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour
on pineapple plantations, 1929, by occupation, sex, and island— Continued

Occupation, sex,
and island

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
num­
Num­ ber
ber of days
of
on
em­ which
ploy­ employ­
ees
ees
worked
in
month

Average full­
time hours—

Average full­
time earnings—

Per
Aver­
Aver­
cent of Aver­
age
age
age
fuU
hours
earn­
actual
actually time
earnworked worked ings
Per
Per
Per
per
ings
Per
in
in
week month month month hour week month
in
month

L a b o r e r s field,
minors, male: 2
Maui...............
Oahu..............

2
1

52
3

15.9
9.7

60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0

154.3
89.2

57.1 $0.085
.077
33.0

$5.10
4.62

$22.95
20.79

$13.09
6.88

.085

5.10

22.95

12.75

.141

6.66
8.46

29.97
37.39

7.28
8.38

Total..

3

55

15.6

60.0

270.0

150.8

55.8

L a b o r e r s, field,
adult, female: *
Maui__............
Oahu................

2
2

19
116

6.8
6.5

60.0
60.0

270.0
265. 2

65.5
59.6

24.3
22.5

.111

Total-

4

135

6.5

60.0

265.9

60.4

22.7

.136

8.16

36.16

8.22

L a b o re rs, field,
minors, female:2
Maui...............
Oahu...............

1
1

17
9

18.8
12.6

60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0

182.4
120.2

67.6
44.5

.075
.082

4.50
4.92

20.25
22.14

13.74
9.82

Total-

2

26

16.6

60.0

270.0

160.8

59.6

.077

4.62

20.79

12.38

Lunas or foremen,
or field lunas or
overseers, male:
Maui...............
Oahu...............

2
2

20
165

24.2
27.5

60.0
60.0

270.0
265.5

239.4
274.7

88.7
103.5

.332
.331

19.92
19.86

89.64
87.88

79.57
90.83

Total..

4

185

27.1

60.0

266.0

270.8

101.8

.331

19.86

88.05

89.61

1
1

3

1

17.7
8.0

60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0

176.7
80.0

65.4
29.6

.371
.307

22. 26
18.42

100.17
82.89

65.48
24.53

2

4

15.3

60.0

270.0

152.5

56.5

.362

21.72

97.74

55.25

Painters,1male:
"
Maui_____
Oahu....... .
Total. .
Plumbers, male:
Maui...........
Oahu....... .

1

1

2

2

26.0
26.5

60.0
60.0

270.0
260.0

267.0
253.0

98.9
97.3

.411
.532

24.66
31.92

110.97
138.32

109.73
134.65

Total..

3

3

26.3

60.0

263.3

257.7

97.9

.490

29.40

129.02

126.34

Repairers (a u t o
mechanic), male:
Maui............... .
Oahu.................

2
2

6
13

24.5
25.6

60.0
60.0

270.0
265.4

247.7
258.9

91.7
97.6

.316
.435

18.96
26.10

85.32
115.45

78.25
112.68

Total............

4

19

25.3

60.0

266.8

255.4

95.7

.399

23.94

106.45

101.80

Teamsters, male:
Maui...............
Oahu...........—

2
2

19
243

22.3
21.7

60.0
60.0

270.0
263.1

223.7
224.3

82.9
85.3

.254
.247

15.24
14.82

68.58
64.99

56.89
55.36

Total............

4

262

21.7

60.0

263.6

224.2

85.1

.247

14.82

65.11

55.47

Tractor
male:
Maui...............
Oahu...............

2
2

11
38

25.7
23.1

60.0
60.0

270.0
264.7

296.3
263.4

109.7
99.5

.298
.315

17.88
18.90

80.46
83.38

88.26
82.85

Total............

4

49

23.7

60.0

265.9

270.8

101.8

.310

18.60

82.43

84.06

2
2

9
39

24.9
24.5

60.0
60.0

270.0
268.5

278.6
275.5

103.2
102.6

.222
.245

13.32
14.70

59.94
65.78

61.90
67.62

4

48

24.5

60.0

268.8

276.1

102.7

.241

14.46

64.78

66.54

4

driverSj

Tractor d r i v e r s 1
helpers, male:
Maui...............
Oahu...............
Total______

2 Includes plant and slip gatherers, hoers, and weeders.




57

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

26.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings
in one month, per cent of full time actually workedt and average earnings per hour
on pineapple plantations, 1929 , by occupation, sex, and island— Continued

T a b le

Occupation,
s
and island

Num­
ber
of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
number
Num­ of days
ber
on
of
which
em­ employ­
ploy­
ees
ees worked
in
month

Average full­
time hours—

Average full­
time earnings—

Aver­
Per
age
cent of
hours
full
actually time
worked worked
Per
Per
in
in
week month month
month

Truck drivers, male:
Maui_________
Oahu____ _____

2
2

17
66

25.2
24.0

60.0
60.0

270.0
266.4

306.2
255.8

Aver­
Aver­
age
age
actual
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
Per
Per
per
in
hour week month month

113.4 $0.317 $19.02
96.0
.301 18.06

$85.59
80.19

$97.03
77.03

Total..

4

83

24.2

60.0

267.1

266.2

99.6

.305

18.30

81.47

81.13

Truck drivers’ help­
ers, male:
Maui_________
Oahu_________

2
2

44
97

21.0
20.3

60.0
60.0

270.0
261.3

250.0
213.4

92.6
81.7

.209
.228

12.54
13.68

56.43
59.58

52.18
48.69

Total-

4

141

20.5

60.0

264.0

224.8

85.2

.221

13.26

58.34

49.77

Other employees,
male:
Maui____ _____
O ahu...______

2
2

28
106

23.5
23.8

61.4
60.0

275.7
260.2

243.1
240.5

88.2
92.4

.269
.244

16.52
14.64

74.16
63.49

65.39
58.80

Total_______

4

134

23.7

60.3

263.4

241.1

91.5

.250

15.08

65.85

60.18

All e m p lo y e e s ,
male:
Maui.................
Oahu............... .

2
500
2 2,816

19.0
18.5

60.1
60.0

270.3
263* 4

193.1
183.6

71.4
69.7

.221
.228

13.28
13.68

59.74
60.06

42.74
41.83

Total..............

4 3,316

18.6

60.0

264.5

185.1

70.0

.227

13.62

60.04

41.96

AH employees, fe­
male:
Maui...............
Oahu.................

2
2

36
125

12.4
6.9

60.0
60.0

270.0
265.5

120.7
64.0

44.7
24.1

.086
.133

5.16
7.98

23.22
35.31

10.33
8.48

Total_______

4

161

8.1

60.0

266.5

76.6

28.8

.116

6.96

30.91

8.89

All employees, male
and female:
Maui_________
Oahu.................

2 536
2 2,941

18.5
18.0

60.1
60.0

270.3
263.5

188.2
178.5

69.6
67.7

.216
.226

12.98
13.56

58.38
59.55

40.57
40.41

Total_______

4 3,477

18.1

60.0

264.6

180.0

68.0

.225

13.50

59.54

40.43

Average earnings 'per month and per day.—Table 27 shows for each
of two of the most important pineapple plantations in the Hawaiian
Islands the per cent that the number of employees on the pay rolls
in each month in 1929 was of the average number per month on the
rolls in the year; the average number of days that were worked per
employee each month in the year and the per cent that the average
for each month was of the average for the year; the average earnings
per employee per month and per day and the per cent that the aver­
age per month or per day for each month was of the average per
month or day for the year.
Employment—that is, the number of persons on the pay rolls—
was 35 per cent higher in July on plantation A and 28.4 per cent
higher on plantation B than the average per month for the year;
25.8 per cent higher in August on plantation A and 40.8 per cent on
plantation B; 17.7 per cent higher in September on plantation A and




58

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

49.9 per cent on plantation B. During these months more than 85
per cent of the annual crop of pineapples ripen, are picked, sorted as to
size, and delivered to the canneries.
In April employment on plantation A was only 78.2 per cent,
and in January on plantation B only 57.8 per cent, of the average per
month for the year.
2 7 . — Per cent of employees, average number and per cent of days worked,
and average earnings per month and per day and per cent thereof, 1929 , by month
and plantation

T a b le

Average days
worked

Average earnings
per month

Per day

Em­
ploy­
ees—per
cent of
average
for 1929

Num­
ber

87.0
82.1
79.1
78.2
78.6
108.1
135.0
125.8
117.7
106.4
101.8
100.5

21.5
15.0
20.8
20.4
20.7
22.0
21.6
20.3
19.6
20.8
16.0
15.9

109.7
76.5
106.1
104.1
105.6
112.2
110.2
103.6
100.0
106.1
81.6
81.1

$50.08
36.80
49.37
48.94
50.49
57.83
58.83
51.82
50.49
50.80
36.51
36.65

102.7
75.5
101.2
100.3
103.5
118.6
120.6
106.3
103.5
104.2
74.9
75.1

$2.33
2.45
2.38
2.40
2.44
2.63
2.73
2.55
2.58
2.44
2.29
2.31

93.6
98.4
95.6
96.4
98.0
105.6
109.6
102.4
103.6
98.0
92. 0
92.8

100.0

19.6

100.0

48.77

100.0

2.49

100.0

January______________________ _____
February..____ _____________________
March__________________________
April_________ ___ ___ ___ ___
M ay___________________ ____ _ ___ _
June_______ .
July__________ ________ ______ _ _
August______________________ ______
September_________________________
October____________________________
November_______________________ _
December_____________ _______ _____

57.8
70.1
75.8
78.9
72.6
80.7
128.4
140.8
149.9
107.1
117.7
119.9

20.0
18.3
26.4
22.8
24.9
24. 0
24.6
25.9
18.6
22.2
17.2
16.8

92.2
84.3
121.7
105.1
114.7
110.6
113.4
119.4
85.7
102.3
79.3
77.4

42.85
37.94
57.84
48.99
53.79
53.05
54.75
57.75
41.93
51.26
37.53
34.46

90.1
79.8
121.6
103.0
113.1
111.5
115.1
121.4
88.2
107.8
78.9
72.5

2.14
2.08
2.19
2.15
2.16
2.21
2.22
2.23
2.25
2.31
2.18
2.06

97.3
94.5
99.5
97.7
98.2
100.5
100.9
101.4
102.3
105.0
99.1
93.6

Average for year_______________

100.0

21.7

100.0

47.56

100.0

2.20

100.0

Plantation and month

Per
Per
Per
cent of
cent of
cent of
average Amount average Amount average
for 1929
for 1929
for 1929

PLANTATION A
January........................ ..........................
February_____________________ _____
March_____________________________
April______________________________
M ay____________________ __________
June_______________________________
July____________________ __________
August____________________________
September_________________________
October.- __ ____ ___ _
November__________________________
December________________ ___ __
Average for year____________

PLANTATION B

Average and classified hourly earnings.—Table 28 gives average
and classified earnings per hour of the employees in each of the occu­
pations on the pineapple plantations for which data are shown in
Table 26.
Average earnings per hour were computed for each employee by
dividing his total earnings including his bonus, if any, in a pay period
by the actual number of hours worked by him in the pay period.
The average for all employees in an occupation was computed by
dividing the total earnings of all employees in the occupation, includ­
ing the bonus earned by them in the pay period, by the actual hours
worked by them in the period.
The table shows the number of employees in each occupation,
average earnings per hour of such employees, and the per cent of em­
ployees whose earnings per hour were in each classified group.




PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

59

In explanation of the table, it is seen from the figures for the 2,018
plantation “ laborers, field, adult male” on the island of Oahu that
they earned an average of 19.7 cents per hour; that less than 1 per
cent of them earned 10 and under 12 cents per hour; 1 per cent
earned 12 and under 14 cents per hour; 13 per cent earned 14 and
under 16 cents per hour; 10 per cent earned 16 and under 18 cents per
hour; 5 per cent earned 18 and under 20 cents per hour; 67 per cent
earned 20 and 22 cents per hour; 2 per cent earned 22 and under 24
cents per hour; and that less than 1 per cent earned 45 and under 50
cents per hour.




T able 28.— Average and classified earnings per hour on pineapple plantations, 1929, by occupation and sex

O

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—

33

50
33

50

17

17

8

.401

25

38

13

13

13

2
4

.213
.341

100

6

.301

33

___

13
9

.383
.410

15

8

22

.395

9

5

2
6

0)
.313

8

.295

271
2,018

.192
.197

(4
)

3
1

11
13

9
10

2,289

.196

(*)

1

13

10

52
3

.085
0)

2

17

29
0)

13
0)

12

19
(9

6

2

55

.085

2

16

29

15

11

20

5

2

Blacksmiths, male:

Blacksm iths’
male:
Maui
Ofl.hu

helpers,

Total
Carpenters, male:
Maui
_ _
Ofthu
Total.............. .........
Carpenters' helpers, male:

Total
Laborers,
male:2
Maui
Oahu

CONDITIONS

Total

field,

_

___ ___ . _
_

___

50

0)

Oq.hu

50

33

33

22

22

38
11

23
33

8
11

8

9

9

27

27

9

5

0)
17

33

50

25

13

38

26
5

46
67

3
2

(*)

(0

(4
)
(4
)

8

(4
)

8

65

2

(4
)

(4
)

(4
)

(4
)

(4
)

25

adult,

Total
Laborers, field, minors,
male:3
Maui
Oahu
Total




1

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

$0.407
.399

60
50
22
45
40
24
30
35
20
26
28
12
14
16
18
10
9
7
8
6
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
der under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
6
70
60
40
50
45
22
24
35
26
28
30
18
20
12
14
16
9
10
8
7

LABOR

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

2
6

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees

■18— oS S IZ
6

Laborers, field,
female:3
Maui..
Oahu..

adult,

Total..
Laborers, field,
female:3
Maui............
Oahu—....... .
Total..
Lunas or foremen, or
field lunas or overseers,
male:
Maui...........................
Oahu.........................
Total.
Painters, male:
Maui...........
Oahu______

19
116

.141

135

.136

17
9
26

5

.111

8

.077

16

1

0)
0)

(9

4

31

8

27

2

0)
0)

27

0

37
16

5
47

26

5
4

5
2

5
4

11

1

5

5

19

41

22

4

2

1

4

1

1

1

(9

8

4

20
165

.332
.331

1

4

25
3

10
7

10
15

5
17

5
24

20
12

20
10

5

5
2

1

185

.331

1

3

5

8

14

16

22

13

11

4

2

1

3

(9

0)
(0

1

8

Total..

4

.362

Plumbers, male:
Maui............ .
Oahu............ .

1

2

0)

Total..

3

.490

6
13

.316
.435

17

17

33
8

17
15

17
31

38

8

19

.399

5

5

16

16

26

26

5

Teamsters, male:
Maui..............
Oahu..............

19
243

.254
.247

1

5
5

16
13

11
24

26
27

11
21

32
9

2

Total..

262

.247

1

5

13

23

27

20

10

2

Repairers (auto mechan­
ics), male:
Maui...........................
Oahu...........................
Total..

50

(9

.532

100

33

1 Included in occupation total.
2 Includes planters, cultivators, fertilizers, fruit pickers, plant gatherers, cultivator contractors, cleaners-up, etc.
i,
3 Includes plant and slip
— ,, hoers, and weeders.
* Less than 1 per cent.




50

67

T a ble 38. — Average and classified earnings per hour on pineapple plantations, 1929, by occupation and sex— Continue*

Occupation and sex

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
22
60
12
20
28
30
10
35
40
14
16
18
24
6
7
8
9
45
50
26
Un­
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
der and under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
under
6
12
70
40
14
22
24
30
10
35
45
50
18
20
28
8
9
60
16
26
7

11
38

$0,298
.315

3

8

9
13

36
8

18
5

18
39

18
21

3

Total............ ...........

49

.310

2

6

12

14

8

35

20

2

Tractor drivers' helpers,
male:
Maui_______________
Oahu_______________

9
39

.222
.245

3

67
23

22
28

11
18

13

13

3

Total_____________

48

.241

2

31

27

17

10

10

2

Truck drivers, male:
Maiii
_
Oahu_______________

17
66

.317
.301

2

12

12
9

12
9

20

59
39

18
9

Total_____________

83

.305

1

10

10

10

16

43

11

Truck drivers’ helpers,
male:
Maui_______________
Oahu_______________

44
97

.209
.228

1

11
5

7
10

52
31

16
21

7
21

2
6

2
4

1

141

.221

1

7

9

38

19

16

5

4

1

28
106

.269
.244

4

11
13

21
17

4
24

4
11

11
9

11
10

18
8

7
1

7

6

134

.250

1

4

13

18

19

10

10

10

10

2

2

1

1

All employees, male:
Maui_______________
Oahu _ _ ________

500
2,816

.221
.228

(4
)

Total___ ____ _ __
_

3,316

.227

(<)

. .

Other employees, male:
Maui_______________
O a h u _____ ______ _
T o ta l__

___




2
(*)

3
(<)
1

1
(<)
(<)

1
0)

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

Total

CONDITIONS

Tractor drivers, male:
Maui_______________
Oahu________ _______

LABOR

Aver­
Num­
age
ber of earn­
em­
ings
ployees per
hour

2
1
4
1

2
(4
)

2
1

6
9

6
8

16
5

34
51

5
6

3
5

3
4

3
3

4
4

3
2

3
1

1
1

1
(4
)

1

1

9

7

7

49

6

5

4

3

4

2

1

1

(4
)

(*)

All employees, female:
Maui___ - __ . . . . . . . . .
O a h u ........................ .

36
125

.086
.133

3
2

19
2

11
3

17

2

6

5

Total--------------------

161

.116

All employees, male and
female:
Maui................... . . . . .
Oahu.-*....... ........ ......

536
2,941

.216
.226

(<
)

Total........................

3,477

.225

(0

2

<)
«
<
9

4

<)
4

1

25
14

6
44

3
4

3
2

3

3

1

3
4

6

24

4

17

35

19

4

2

1

4

1

1

1

2

2

4
1

2
3

6
10

6
8

15
4

31
49

5
6

3
5

3
4

3
3

4
4

3
2

3
1

1
1

1

<
0

1

3

9

7

7

47

6

4

4

3

4

2

1

1

<>
<

1

(0
(<
)

8
(<
)

<Less than l per cent.
PINEAPPLE
INDUSTBT




64

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Length of Service of Employees

Table 29 shows the number and per cent of employees of two
representative plantations by periods of service.
On plantation A 26.1 per cent of its employees had a period of
service of less than 6 months; 30.8 per cent, 1 and under 2 years;
while one employee, or one-tenth of 1 per cent, had a service of
26 years.
T a b l e 29 .— Number and per cent of employees of two pineapple plantations, 1929y

by period of service
Employees having each classified period
of service—
Period of service

Plantation A
Number

Less than 6 months________________________________________
6 months and under 1 year_________________________________
1 and under 2 years________________________________________
2 and under 3 years________________________________________
3 and under 4 years______________________ _________________
4 and under 5 years______________________________________ _
5 and under 6 years________________________________________
6 and under 7 years________________________________________
7 and under 8 years________________________________________
8 and under 9 years______________________________________ _
9 and under 10 years_______________________________________
10 and under 11 years________________________________ _____
11 and under 12 years______________________________________
12 and under 13 years______________________________________
13 and under 14 years____________________ ____ _ __
___
14 and under 15 years________________ _ __ _______________
15 and under 16 years_____________ ^_______________________
16 and under 17 years__________________________________
17 and under 18 years___________________________ ______ 18 and under 19 years_____________________________________ _
19 and under 20 years___________________________________
20 and under 21 years______________________________________
21 and under 22 years______________________________________
22 and under 23 years______________________________________
23 and under 24 years______________________________________
24 and under 25 years______________________________________
25 and under 26 years______________________________________
26 years__________________________________________________
Total______________ ______ ____ _____________________

Plantation B

Per cent Number Per cent

458

26.1

540
187
153
73
90
62
43
37
36
20
10
7
4
5
4
1
2
3
3
5
1
3
3
2
2
1

30.8
10.7
8.7
4.2
5.1
3.5
2.5
2.1
2.1
1.1
.6
.4
.2
.3
.2
.1
.1
.2
.2
.3
.1
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1

1, 755

100.0

505
198
167
115
52
59
27
12
2
2
4

44.0
17.2
14.5
10.0
4.5
5.1
2.4
1.0
.2
.2
.3

1
2

.1
.2

1
1

.1
.1

1,148

100.0

Productivity of Labor on a Plantation, 1929

Planting pineapple slips.—Planting slips (crowns, slips, and
suckers) is one of the important divisions of the work on pineapple
plantations and paid for at a specified rate per thousand. The work
is usually done during the last half of the year, beginning as early as
July in some fields and ending in December in other fields. Em­
ployees who do this work are generally called field or plantation laborers
as they are shifted from one land of field work to another as needed.
Field No. 1 was planted in August and September, 1929. The
employees (males) who did the planting in this field worked a total
of 4,991 hours, set out an average of 296 slips per hour, and earned
an average of 32.6 cents per hour. The average for all work of
planting slips in the 10 fields in 1929 was 31.7 cents per hour. Em­
ployees who did this work also did other field work on the plantation
in 1929. Figures for a representative pineapple plantation are given
in Table 30.




65

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY
T a b le

30 .— Average number of pineapple slips planted per hour and average
earnings per hour on one representative plantation, 1929
Average per hour
Period

Field

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1.............
2_______
3_______
4______ _
5_______
6.............
7........
8_............
9_______
10............

Number
of hours Number
worked
of slips Earnings
planted

August and September______________________________ _
August, September, and October_______________________
September and October......... .................................. ...........
July and August_____________ ___________ ____________
September___________________________________________
July, August, and September__________________________
September and December_____________________________
October, November, and December___________________
September and October___ __________________________
____ do....................... ..............................................................

4,991
2,490
2,090
3,650
1,860
8,068
2,255
8,035
3,259
920

296
255
320
224
272
280
325
329
252
310

$0,326
.280
.352
.246
.299
.308
.357
.361
.277
.341

Total........ ..................... ..............................................

37,618

288

.317

Trimming pineapple slips.—In 1929 the work of trimming pine­
apple slips on a representative pineapple plantation was done by
men and women. Data for each sex were not available. They
worked a total of 23,488 hours as trimmers of slips, trimmed an
average of 259 slips per hour, and earned an average of 21.8 cents per
hour. Employees, especially the men, also did other field work on
the plantation in 1929.
Fertilizing pineapple plantationfields.—In 1929 a part of the regular
or permanent male employees of a representative pineapple planta­
tion did 10 different jobs of fertilizing and temporary employees did
26 jobs. The regular emplovees also did other field work on the
plantation. The regular employees worked a total of 5,858 hours as
fertilizers and earned an average of 20.8 cents per hour, while the
temporary employees—men, women, and boys—worked a total of
25,628 hours and earned an average of 17.9 cents per hour.
Pineapple picking.—In the months of June to October, 1929, the
work of picking pineapples on a representative pineapple plantation
was done by adult male employees. The rates paid for this work
ranged from $1.10 per ton for fields with the lowest rate to $2.65 per
ton for fields with the highest rate. These employees worked a total
of 37,136 hours, picked an average of 0.187 tons per hour, and earned
an average of 23 cents per hour. They also did other field work on
the plantation during the year.

Pineapple Canneries
Description of Work and Definition of Occupations

The fruit is delivered to the canneries on railroad cars or auto
trucks (fig. 29) and unloaded from these to hand trucks on the
loading platform, five boxes of fruit to each truck load.
Loading platform and Oinaca machines.—“ Truckers” push the
trucks loaded with fruit from the railroad cars or auto trucks to bins
conveniently located at certain (Ginaca) machines, lower the filled
boxes onto the floor of the platform, fill the trucks with empty boxes
and return the empties to the railroad cars or auto trucks for return
to the pineapple plantations. Truckers are classified in this report




66

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

as “ laborers,” because the work done by them is unskilled and they
are so classified by practically all of the canneries included in the
study of the industry.
In distributing the boxes of fruit to the machines, those with fruit
of grade 1 are delivered by the truckers to machines of a given size that
cut from each pineapple a cylinder of a specified diameter, of grade 2 to
machines of another size, and of grade 3 to still another. These
machines cut pineapples to different diameters, those of small diameter
being for small cans, of medium diameter for medium-sized cans, and
of large diameter for large cans.
“ Dumpers,” classified in this report as “ laborers,” empty the fruit
from the boxes into bins and stack the empties—one on another,
nine to a stack—for return to the railroad cars or auto trucks and
ultimately to the plantations.
“ Feeders” (fig. 30) to the Ginaca machines take pineapples from
the bins and place them one at a time on a belt-conveyor of the
machine at the rate of 42 per minute. Some machines have a speed
of 84 pineapples per minute. Those with the higher rate of speed
require more truckers, dumpers, and feeders before and more trim­
mers, canners, laborers, and other employees after them than those
of the lower rate of speed.
The machines, as stated above, cut from the fruit a cylinder of one
of the three given diameters—small, medium, or large. They also
extract the core, cut off the ends, and in addition, scrape or cut from
the skin or hull of the pineapple the fruit left thereon after the cylin­
der is cut. The cored and peeled cylinders of pineapples pass from
the machines by gravity to conveyors on trimming tables, and the
fruit from the skin or hull is carried by belt conveyors from the
machine to the “ eradicator” tables and the skin or peeling to the
juice recovery plant.
“ Machine operators,” one at each machine, look after the machines
while in operation. These machines, like all others in pineapple can­
neries, are operated by electric power.
“ Inspectors, male,” called in some canneries “ eradicators,” inspect
the fruit from the skin or hull of the pineapple as it passes from the
machines to belt conveyors, and take from the fruit particles of the
skin or other foreign matter. Data for these employees are included
in the group designated as “ other employees” in this report.
Trimming and slicing.—“ Trimmers” (fig. 31) take the cored
cylinders of the pineapples from the belt conveyors as they pass
along the trimming tables, inspect them, complete the trimming
with knives by cutting off any part of the skin left on the cylinders
when they were cut, and return the fruit to the conveyors. There is
a relief trimmer for every two trimming tables to fill in whenever for
any cause it is necessary for an employee to drop out of line.
“ Foreladies” are in charge of trimming, canning, and eradicating
tables. They, as well as the trimmers and all others who handle any
of the fruit from the time it passes through the Ginaca machines up
to the filling of the cans with fruit, wear rubber gloves for sanitary
purposes and to protect their hand from the effects of the acid of the
fruit. They also, for sanitary purposes, wear caps to hold the hair in
place and aprons to protect the clothing, altogether presenting a neat
and clean appearance.







f ig u r e

2 9 .— L o a d i n g T r u c k s




F i g u r e 30.— F e e d in g t o G in a c a M a c h i n e




f ig u r e

3 1 .— T r i m m i n g




fig u r e

3 2 .— F il l in g t h e C a n s

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

67

The fruit passes automatically from the trimming tables to and
through automatic slicing machines, is washed, cut into slices of
uniform thickness, and delivered to the belt conveyors of the canning
tables.
Packing in cans.—“ Canners” (fig. 32) take slices of pineapples
from the belt conveyors, make selection as to grade, and fill cans.
Small pieces and slices which fail to pass inspection are carried from
the packing tables by conveyors to the crushed pineapple department.
“ Tray boys,” classified in this report as “ laborers,” truck empty
cans on trays 15 by 19 inches in size—one tray on top of another—
from the elevators to the canners’ tables, place the trays of empties—
one tray at a time—at the tables convenient to the canners for filling,
take the trays of cans filled with slices from the packing tables and
stack them to a height sufficient to make a truck load of about 15
trays.
Employees classified in this report as “ laborers” receive the cans
as they come into the canneries from a can factory, stamp them by
machine to indicate the grade or size of fruit with which they are to
be filled, and place them on trays, which they truck to storage or
canning room or to an elevator which carries them to such room or
department.
Truckers (laborers), using hand trucks, take the stacks of trays
from the packing tables to the vacuumizing, siruping, and other
machines in the processing department.
Processing and sealing.— “ Feeders,” classified as “ laborers” in
this report, take cans filled with slices of pineapple from the trays and
feed them at the rate of 110 cans per minute to automatic vacuum
machines for treatment.
The cans pass automatically from the vacuumizing machine to and
through the siruping machines, where each can is given its quota of
clarified pineapple juice. This is a product of the juice recovery plant
of the cannery, which is built up to a sirup of the required density by
the addition of refined cane sugar. The cans pass automatically from
the siruping machine to the exhaust box, where they are warmed and
expanded by live steam, the air expelled, can covers automatically
placed thereon and sealed. The sealed cans first pass through steampressure cookers with temperature slightly over boiling and then
through a lacquer bath, going in white and coming out with a coat
of lacquer which improves the appearance of the cans and protects
them fromrust in moistor humid climates. “ Lacquer men” (laborers)
keep a supply of lacquer in the vats. The cans pass from the lacquer
bath to the drying machine, to and through and out of the cooler
where “ tray stackers” (laborers) pick up the trays and stack them,
the number of trays in the stacks varying with the size of cans.
“ Electric truck operators” (“ other employees” ) take the stacks to
the cooling room, where they are kept 24 hours for inspection for leaks
and bulges after which they are loaded on gasoline tractors and moved
to the warehouse.
Warehouse.—On receipt of the canned fruit in the warehouse,
stackers take the cans from the trays and stack them. In filling orders
for shipment from the canneries the cans are taken from the stacks,
inspected, placed on trays, moved by hand trucks to labeling machines,
fed into the machines, labeled, and the labeling inspected, after which
the cans are taken from the belt of the machine and packed in wooden



68

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

or fiber cases. Covers or tops are attached to the wooden cases by
nailing machines and then wired by machinery, the tops and bottoms
of fiber cases are glued and sealed by automatic sealing machines, and
both kinds of cases are dropped by gravity to the shipping floor ready
for loading (by laborers) and shipment from the canneries. In nearly
all of the canneries included in the study the employees whose work
is here described are called laborers and are therefore so classified in
this report.
The wooden cases used in packing the fruit for shipment are made
or assembled by “ box makers” from “ shucks” bought by the can­
neries already cut to size. The assembling of the boxes consists of
the branding by machine of the shuck for certain parts of the box, the
making of the cases by assembling and nailing sides, ends, bottoms,
and tops, and the inspection of the work.
Crushed pineapple.—The fruit from the skin or hull of the pine­
apple, after inspection at the Ginaca machines is transferred from
the machines by belt conveyors to the eradicating tables where
“ eradicators, females,” carefully reinspect the fruit as it passes on
conveyors and pick from the fruit any and all specks or particles of
the skin or hull remaining in it. This fruit is then conveyed to nickel
steam-heated kettles for cooking and sterilization along with small
pieces of pineapple and slices which, not passing inspection by canners
at the packing tables, have been transferred to and through crushing
machines to the nickel kettles. After being cooked and sterilized
the fruit is conveyed to automatic filling machines where cans are
filled and sealed; then washed by a spray of hot water, lacquered and
cooled; inspected and transferred to the warehouse; and handled in
the same manner as sliced canned goods.
Juice recovery plant.—The skins or peelings of the pineapples,
delivered by belt conveyors from the Ginaca machine to the juice
recovery department, are carried by machinery to a separator for
extraction of metal, stone, or any other solid and, after passing to a
3-roller cane mill where they are crushed and a very large per cent
of the juice pressed from them, are passed automatically to and through
a shredding machine to screw presses where all possible juice is pressed
from them.
This juice is then carried automatically through the machinery of
the recovery department, neutralized, filtered, concentrated, and
pumped to the syrup mixing department where refined cane sugar is
added to make a syrup of certain standard for use in filling cans of
sliced pineapple.
The skins after all the obtainable juice has been pressed from them
still retain some moisture which is approximately a 12 per cent sugar
solution. The skins are automatically passed from the presses into
a steel cylinder, dried by furnace heat forced through the cylinder,
and made into dairy stock feed. The feed thus obtained is dropped
from the cylinder through a chute to an automatic weighing machine
where laborers attach empty bags to the machine, take the filled
100-pound bags from it and sew the open end of the bag at the rate
of 75 bags per hour when working at capacity. The bags are then
loaded on hand trucks and pushed by truckers to the warehouse for
storage or filling orders. From each ton of fruit canned 60 pounds
of dairy feed is obtained.




69

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

Each cannery has a well-equipped machine and repair shop with a
force of machinists, carpenters, painters, plumbers, and other mechan­
ics for construction and repair of machinery and the repair of other
necessary equipment. The employees in this shop are classified by
occupations according to the kind of work done.
Race and Sex of Employees in Cannery, 1929

Table 31 shows the number and per cent of males, females, and all
employees of each race on the pay rolls of a representative pineapple
cannery in the Hawaiian Islands in a representative pay period in
1929.
Japanese formed 43.9 per cent of all males of all races on the pay
rolls, and 39.9 per cent of all females, while the total number of
Japanese was 42.1 per cent of all employees of the cannery.
T a b le

31.— Number and per cent of employees of a representative pineapple cannery,
1929, by race and sex
Males

Total

Females

Race
Number

Per cent Number Per cent Number

Japanese_______________ _______________
Hawaiian________________ ___________
Filipino_______________________________
Chinese....................... ...... .........................
Portuguese____________________________
Part Hawaiian_________ _______________
American_________________ ____ ________
Korean________________________________
Porto Rican___________________________
Spanish_______________________________
Russian_______ _______________________
Negro__________ ______________________
Italian___________ ___ ___ __ ______
British________________________________
Norwegian................................. ...... ......... .

525
107
220
111
75
62
43
39
7
2
1
1
1
1

43.9
9.0
18.4
9.3
6.3
5.2
3.6
3.3
.6
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1

386
248
32
99
89
85
13
8
4
1
1
1

39.9
25.6
3.3
10.2
9.2
8.8
1.3
.8
.4
.1
.1
.1

1

.1

911
355
252
210
164
147
56
47
11
3
2
2
1
1
1

Total____________________________

1,195

100.0

968

100.0

2,163

Per cent
42.1
16.4
11.7
9.7
7.6
6.8
2.6
2.2
.5
.1
.1
.1
.05
.05
.05
100.0

Hours and Earnings, 1929

The three most important occupations in canneries in number of
employees are canners, female, with a total of 1,510; laborers, male,
witn 3,205; and trimmers, female, with 1,408. The total of the em­
ployees in these occupations is 81 per cent of the 7,516 employees in
all occupations in the five canneries included in this report.
Table 32 shows average days, hours, and earnings by occupations
for the employees of two of the largest canneries on the island of
Maui for a pay period of one month and for the employees of three of
the most important canneries on the island of Oahu for a pay period of
one week.
Canners in the two canneries on the island of Maui worked an
average of 21 days and 191 hours in one month and earned an average
of $23.24 in the month and an average of 12.2 cents per hour, while
those on the island of Oahu worked an average of 5.7 days and 48.1
hours in one week and earned an average of $8.49 in the week and an
average of 17.7 cents per hour. Laborers, male, on Maui earned an
average of 20 cents, and those on Oahu an average of 24.3 cents per




70

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 19 2 ^ -1 9 3 0

hour. Trimmers, female, on Maui earned an average of 12.3 cents
and on Oahu an average of 17.7 cents per hour. Males in all occupa­
tions in the two canneries on the island of Maui earned an average of
22.9 cents and the 3,095 males in all occupations on the island of
Oahu earned 28.2 cents per hour, or 23 per cent more than was earned
by the employees in the canneries on Maui. Females in all occupa­
tions on Maui earned an average of 12.4 cents and those on Oahu an
average of 18.2 cents per hour, or 47 per cent more than those on
Maui. All male and female employees in the canneries on Maui
earned an average of 17.9 cents while in the canneries on Oahu the
average was 23.7 cents per hour, or 32 per cent more than was earned
by the employees on the island of Maui. All employees, male and
female, on the 4 plantations earned an average of 22.5 cents per hour,
while those in the five canneries earned an average of 22.4 cents per
hour.
In three canneries the rate for overtime and for work on Sunday
and holidays was one and one-half times the regular rate and applied
to hourly rate employees; in one cannery this rate applied to all
except monthly rate employees; and in one cannery the rate was the
same as for regular working time.
32.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in pineapple
canneries, 1929, by occupation and sex

T a b le

ONE-MONTH PAT PEBIOD
Aver-

Island, [occupation,
and sex

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
em­
lish- ployments

Average full­
time horns
Aver­
per—
Per
age
hours cent of
full
actually time
worked actually
in pay worked
Week Month period

MAUI

Box makers, male____
Canners, female......... .
Carpenters, male.........
Electricians, male____
Eradicators, female....
Foreladies................... .
Laborers, male _ ..........
Laborers, female..........
Machinists, male....... .
Machine shop helpers,
male......................... .
Trimmers, female........
Truck or tractor driv­
ers, male................. .
Other skilled employ­
ees, m ale-............... .
Other employees, male.

21

335

6

2

71
25
705

22

16
37
416

0
0
0
)

0

Average full­
time earnings
Aver­
age
earn­
ings
Per
per
Per
hour week

A

0 0 0
0 $0.122 $7.32 $32.94 $23.24
0
70.7
0 0 0
0
) 0
0
0 .112 6.72 30.24 23.08
76.6

0
21.0

&

270.0

191.0

20.7
24.6
20.5
22.5

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0
270.0
270.0

206.8
243.0
210.6
224.5

90.0
78.0
83.1

.187
.200
.133

25.6
19.9

60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0

282.2
174.4

104.5
64.6

8 8
0

0

0
)

8

0

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in pay
period

8

0

12.00
7.93

50.49
54.00
35.91

45.55
42.18
29.83

.271
.123

16.28
7.38

73.17
33.21

76.54
21.49

0

11.22

0
)

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0) 0 0 0
0 0 0 99.6 0 0 0) 0
0 60.0 270.0 269.0 0 .427 25.62 115.29 114.96
24.9

All employees:
Male......................
Female..................

842

20.6

21.1

60.0
60.0

270.0
270.0

219.5
187.8

81.3

.229
.124

13.74
7.44

61.83

50.20
23.20

All employees, male
and female................

1,711

20.8

60.0

270.0

13.4

75.3

.179

10.74

48.33

36.49

* Included in total.




71

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

T able 32.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,

per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in pineapple
canneries, 1929, by occupation and sex— Continued
ONE.WEEK PAY PERIOD

Occupation and sex

Average
number
Num­ Num­ of days
ber of ber of on which
estab­ em­ employ­
lish­ ploy­
ees
ments ees worked
in pay
period

Average Average
Average Average
hours
cent
full-time actually Per full Average full-time actual
hours in worked of
earnings earnings earnings
tims
in pay
per hour in pay
in pay
period period worked
period
period

OAHU

Blacksmiths, male.......
Box makers, male____
Canners, female...........
Carpenters, male.........
Electricians, male____
Eradicators, male.........
Eradicators, female___
Foreladies.....................
Laborers, m a le ...........
Laborers, female..........
Machinists, male.........
Machine shop helpers,
male...........................
Machine tender opera­
tors, male..................
Testers, can, male........
Trimmers, female........
Truck or tractor driv­
ers, male....................
Other skilled employ­
ees, m a le ..................
Other employees, male.
Other employees, fe­
male...........................

2
1
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

2
10
1,175
8
10
98
177
81
2,500
272
84

3
2
2
3

6.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.8
6.3
5.6
6.0
6.7

60.0
0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

45

6.0

34
26
992

6.0
6.2
5.6

<9

58.3
0)
48.1
56.4
73.3
52.6
48.9
60.4
51.8
51.0
73.6

97.2
0)
80.2
94.0
122.2
87.7
81.5
100.7
86.3
85.0
122.7

$0.513
0)
.177
.536
.546
.200
.172
.273
.243
.186
.556

$30.78

60.0

60.9

101.5

.390

23.40

23.79

60.0
60.0
60.0

62.5
64.4
47.5

104.2
107.3
79.2

.397
.341
.177

23.82
20.46
10.62

24.82
21.98
8.41

(9

10.62
32.16
32.76
12.00
10.32
16.38
14.58
11.16
33.36

$29.87
0)
8.49
30.21
38.43
10.52
8.40
16.50
12.56
9.48
40.94

2

8

6.1

60.0

61.9

103.2

.333

19.98

20.63

2
3

52
218

5.9
6.0

60.0
60.0

59.1
63.7

98.5
106.2

.523
.428

31.38
25.68

30.93
27.25

2

13

6.8

64.6

68.8

106.5

.260

16.80

17.89

All employees:
Male......................
Female...................

3
3

3.095
2,710

5.7
5.7

60.0
60.0

53.8
48.7

89.7
81.2

.282
.182

16.92
10.92

15.15
8.84

All employees, male
and female.................

3

5,805

5.7

60.0

51.4

85.7

.237

14.22

12.20

i Included in total.

Earnings per hour and per week.—Table 33 shows, by occupations,
average full-time hours per week, earnings per hour, and full-time
earnings per week for the employees of the five canneries covered in




72

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le

33.— Average full-time hours and earnings per week, and average earnings
per hour in pineapple canneries, 1929, by occupation and sex

Occupation and sex

Num­
Average
Average
ber of Number full-time Average full-time
estab­
of em­
earnings earnings
hours
lish­
ployees per week per hour per week
ments

Blacksmiths, male____________________ ____________
Box makers, male *^ , . ..........................................
C!armors, frvm
alp.
Carpenters, male__________________________________
Electricians, male_________________________________
Eradicators:
Male_________________________________________
Female_______________________________________
Foreladies_______________ ________________________
Laborers:
Male_________________________________________
Female_______________________________________
Machinists, male__________________________________
Machine shop helpers, male_______________ _________
Machine tender operators, male_____________________
Testers, can, male_________________________________
Trimmers, female__________________________________
Truck or tractor drivers, male______________________
Other skilled employees, male______________________
Other employees:
Male_________________________________________
Female_______________________________________

2
2
5
3
3

2
31
1,510
14
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

$0,513
.220
.165
.428
.502

$30.78
13.20
9.90
25.68
30.12

2
5
5

98
248
106

60.0
60.0
60.0

.200
.155
.253

12.00
9.30
15.18

5
5
4
5
2
2
5
3
3

3,205
294
100
82
34
26
1,408
10
53

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.234
.182
.541
.336
.397
.341
.161
.326
.542

14.04
10.92
32.46
20.16
23.82
20.46
9.66
19.56
32.52

5
2

270
13

60.0
64.6

.428
.260

25.68
16.80

All employees, male__________________________
All employees, female________________________

5
5

3,937
3,579

60.0
60.0

.271
.168

16.26
10.08

All employees, male and female_______________

5

7,516

60.0

.224

13.44

Average and classified hourly earnings.—Table 34 gives, by occupa­
tion and sex, the average and classified earnings per hour in 1929 for
the canneries on the islands of Maui and Oahu.




T able 34.— Average and classified earnings per hour in pineapple canneries, 1929, by occupation and sex

Occupation, sex, and island

Blacksmiths, male: Oahu.......

Total........... .......................

2 $0.513

50

21
10

0
0

(0

i

0

0)

0
0

10

__ I .

10

26

13

6 r 19

C)
1
0

0
0)

0
0

50

Canners, female:
M aui____ ______ __________
335
Oahu__.............. ................. 1,175

.122
.177

7

3

4

12

52

16
18

5
43

1
35

2

i

(2
)
0

1,510

.165

1

1

1

3

12

IS

35

27

1

i

(2
)

0

Carpenters, male:
Maui_____________________
Oahu________ _____________

6
8

0
.536

0

0)
i

0

0)

Total........... .......................

14

.428

Electricians, male:
Maui__________ ____ ______
Oahu. ___________________

2
10

0
.546

Total___________________

12

.502

Eradicators, male: Oahu_______

98

.200

Eradicators, female:
M aui_____________________
Oahu_____________________

71
177

.112
.172

8

Total______ _____________

248

.155

2

7

14

13

1

8
2

3
1

30

48

8

i Included in occupation total.

14

3
6

81

12

5

58

8

32 j

7

0

0

i

7

2

88

I
i
1

50

7

13
7

1

10

1 8
3

1

0

! «
8

41

0
0
0

7

0
0

0

13

3

20

10

10

40

10

8

17

8

8

33

8

1

2

1
1

..... 1 1
.....
-----

1

INDUSTRY

.220




40
45
50
60
70 80 90 100
and and and and and and and and 120
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der over
50
60
70
80
45
90 100 120

|

31

Total___________________

per hour were—

PINEAPPLE

Box makers, male:
Maui......................................
Oahu________________ ____

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents)
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­
7
14
16
20
22
24
9
10
12
18
8
30
35
26 ! 28
em­
ings and and and and and and and and and and and and iand and and
ploy­
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un- un­ un­ un­
ees
hour der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
22
8
9
10
12
24
26
14
20
16 18
35
28
30
40
I

1
=====
2 Less than 1 per cent.

T a b l e 34*— Average

Occupation, sex, and island

Per cent of employees whose earnings
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­
24
22
26
28
16
8
9
10 12 14
18 20
7
em­
and and and and and and and and and and and and and
ploy­ ings un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per
ees
hour der der der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14
20 22
26
28
30
16
9
10
18
24
8

Total

32

40

8
17

90 100
30
35 40
45
50
60
70 80
and and and and and and and and and and 120
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
der der der der der der der der der der over
90 100 120
35
40 45
50
60
70 80

17

4
12

8
12

5

14

19

1

1

1

11

4

10

14

1

1

1

2

8

9

15

13

10

3

48
1

23
8

12
16

3
21

2
31

2
11

1
3

2
7

2
1

1
(2
)

(2
)

15

17

24

9

3

6

2

(2
)

CONDITIONS

8

25 $0,187
.273
81

(in cents) per hour were—

(2
)

.253

705
•2,500

.200
.243

(9

(9

1

3,205

.234

(2
)

(9

(9

1

12

11

22
272

.133
.186

5

6
8

18
3

5
37

5
46

8

3

2

(9

294

.182

(9

5

4

35

43

8

3

2

(2
)

16
84

.556

2

2

6

4

6

(9 (9 0) (9
8 12 23 10

7

6

10

5

_______ ___

100

.541

2

2

5

3

5

12

13

26

6

5

8

4

Machine shop helpers, male:
Maui
O ahu,....................................

37
45

.271
.390

3

8

8
2

16
2

16
7

5

5
4

8

5
13

14
27

11
7

11

27

82

.336

1

4

5

9

11

2

5

4

10

21

9

6

15

34
26

.397
.341

6

18
85

21
4

26
4

9
4

18

Total
Laborers, female:
Maui
Oahu
Total...................................
Machinists, male:
Maui
Oahu
Total

Total
Machine tender operators, male:
Oahu
TAdtafQ /tan mala* Oa.fill




0

(9

4

3

9

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

106

Laborers, male:
Maui
Oahu

LABOR

Foreladies:
Maui

and classified earnings per hour in pineapple canneries, 1929, by occupation and sex— C o n tin u ed

=

Trimmers, female:
Maui_____________________
Oahu
_____________________

416
992

.123
.177

3

3

T ota l.................................. 1,408

.161

1

1

1
(2
)

13

68

7
J

4
49

1
42

1

4

20

7

36

30

1

1

<)
2

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

Truck or tractor drivers, male:
Maui__..................................
Oahu........... ...........................

2
8

0)
.333

38

Total..................... ............

10

.326

30

Other skilled employees, male:
M au i.....................................
Oahu__________________

1
52

(9

13

13

10

10.

0)
.523

2

8

17

21

33

8

6

2

2

2

2

8

17

21

32

8

6

2

2

2

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

53

.542

52
218

.427
.428

2

Total...................................

270

.428

(2
)

Other employees, female: Oahu.

13

.260

All employees, male:
Maui_____________________
Oahu.................. ................ .

842
3,095

.229
.282

(2
)

(2
)

Total................................... 3,937

.271

(2
)

(2
)

All employees, female:
Maui__..................................
869
Oahu..................................... 2,710

.124
.182

5

13

T ota l.................................. 3,579

.168

1

1

1

3

All employees, male and female:
Maui__.................................. 1,711
Oahu__.................................. 5,805

.179
.237

2

2

1

7

Total________ _______ ___

.224

1




7,516

3

0

2

(2
)

(2
)

2

1

8
2

4
1

2
3

4
3

8
2

4

8
1

4
17

4
12

10
20

12
10

21
18

4
6

4
2

6

(2
)

2

(2
)

3

3

3

3

2

14

10

18

10

19

5

3

1

15

2

23

8

30

2

23

3
(2
)

41
1

21
8

11
15

4
18

3
25

2
10

2
3

2
8

3
3

2
3

1
2

2
3

(2
)
1

8 8

(2
)

(2
)

8

(2
)

1

10

10

14

15

21

8

3

7

3

3

2

3

1

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

58

10
11

5
46

2
36

<)
2
3

2

(2
)
1

(2
)
1

(2
)

1

1

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

14

11

36

28

2

1

1

1

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

30

7
5

23
23

11
22

6
9

2
10

1
14

1
6

1
2

1
5

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
2

(2
)
1

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

6

22

19

8

8

11

4

2

4

2

1

1

2

(2
)

(2
)

(2
)

<)
2

(2
)

7

>Included in occupation total.

(2
)

>Less than 1per cent.

(2
)
(2
)

INDUSTRY

Total...................................
Other employees, male:
Maui......................................
Oahu......................................

0)

PINEAPPLE

38
30

20

76

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H A W A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Bonuses

Figures in the tables giving average earnings for employees on
pineapple plantations and in canneries include earnings at basic time
and piece rates and bonuses paid to employees for attendance, service,
specified per cent of earnings at time and piece rates, etc., but do
not include rental value of houses, nor the value of fuel, water, and
medical and hospital service furnished by plantations to employees.
One plantation and one cannery paid a bonus of 10 cents per day
to each employee with an attendance of 21 or more days per month.
Attendance of 21 days earned a bonus of $2.10 in the month in
addition to earnings at basic rates; of 22 days a bonus of $2.20; of
23 days a bonus of $2.30, etc. Example: An employee whose rate
per hour was 20 cents and who worked 24 days or 240 hours in a month
earned at his basic rate $48.00 and a bonus of $2.40 for attendance,
or a total of $50.40 in the month.
One plantation and one cannery paid a “ busy-season attendance”
bonus of 10 per cent of earnings at basic rates, during the busy season
in the summer, to males who did not lose as much as 50 hours of the
regular working time and to females who did not lose as much as 70
hours. Employees were also paid a “ service” bonus of 1 per cent
ofjearnings at basic rates if in service one-half year and also onetenth of 1 per cent of earnings for each year of service after one-half
year.
One plantation and one cannery paid to all employees except those
who were paid monthly rates an “ attendance” bonus of 25 cents per
day for attendance of 23 or more days per month, a special bonus of
10 per cent of earnings at basic rates, and also a “ quarterly” bonus
based on earnings. Employees at monthly rates were paid the
special bonus of 10 per cent of earnings at basic rates.
One of the 4 plantations and 2 of the 5 canneries had no bonus
systems in operation in 1929.
Length of Service of Employees

Table 35 shows the number and per cent of employees of a repre­
sentative cannery by periods of service.
In the cannery 43.4 per cent of the employees had service of less
than 6 months; 15.8 per cent, 6 months and under 1 year; 12.2 per
cent, 1 and under 2 years; and 4.6 per cent, 10 and under 24 years.
Only one employee, or one-tenth of 1 per cent of all the employees,
had service of 23 and under 24 years.




77

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY

T able 35.— Number and per cent of employees of one pineapple cannery, 1929,

by period of service

Period of service

Employees having
each classified
period of service

Period of service

Number Per cent
Less than 6 months............... ....
6 months and under 1 year____
1 and under 2 years.
2 and under 3 years___________
3 and under 4 years___________
4 and under 5 years___________
5 and under 6 years___________
6 and under 7 years___________
7 and under 8 years___________
8 and under 9 years_
_
9 and under 10 years__________
10 and under 11 years- ____ _
11 and under 12 years_____ .
12 and under 13 years
13 and under 14 years_________

828
301
233
112
73
62
62
51
28
25
43
21
17
6
14

43.4
15.8
12.2
5.9
3.8
3.3
3.3
2.7
1.5
1.3
2.3
1.1
.9
.3
.7

Employees having
each classified
period of service
Number Per cent

14 and under 15 years_________
15 and under 16 years_________
16 and under 17 years_____ _
17 and under 18 years_________
18 and under ]9 years_________
19 and under 20 years _ _____
20 and under 21 years _ _____
21 and under 22 years
______
22 and under 23 years _______
23 and under 24 years
24 and under 25 years_________
25 and under 26 years_________
26 years______________________

6
7
7
2
2
3

0.3
.4
.4
.1
.1
.2

1
1
1

.1
.1
.l

Total................. ...............

1,906

100.0

Employment in Peak and Slack Seasons
The pineapple industry is a seasonal one. Nearly the entire crop
matures and is gathered and canned in the busy season or peak
period in June, July, August, and September. During these months
the canneries operate at capacity six days each week and usually two
shifts per day. Pineapples, however, ripen and are gathered and
canned throughout the year. In the slack period, which extends
over the other months in the year, canneries operate at less than
capacity and frequently on only one day or part of a day in a week.
On the plantations the busy season covers the same period, June
to September. The general work on the plantations, however, fur­
nishes employment six days each week to employees who do the
various kinds of work necessary in preparing the soil, planting slips,
cultivating the plants, etc.
The figures in Table 36 show for a representative cannery and for
two representative plantations, the number and per cent of employees
of each race and sex in the slack period and in the peak period in
1929. The average number and per cent of employees by race and
sex for the year, the per cent that the slack period was of the peak
period and of the average for the year, the per cent that the peak
period was of the average for the year, and the per cent that the
average was of the peak period are also shown.
Reading some of the figures for males in the cannery it is seen that
the 231 Japanese were 35.8 per cent of the 645 of all races on the
pay rolls in the slack period; that the 797 Japanese were 33.8 per cent
of 2,355 of all races in the peak period; that the average number of
Japanese—353—on the rolls in 1929 were 33.5 per cent of the average
number of all races—1,053—on the rolls in 1929. The 231 Japanese
in the slack period were 29 per cent of the 797 Japanese on the rolls
in the peak period and 65.4 per cent of the 1929 average of 353.
The number in the peak period was 225.8 per cent of the average
number for the year, while the average for the year was 44.3 per cent
of the number on the pay roll in the peak period,
27595°— 31------ 6




78
T

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

able

36 .— Number and per cent of employees in the pineapple industry in slack
period and peak period, and yearly average, 1929 , by race and sex
CANNERY

Sex and race

Males:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino._______ _____________
Korean_______________________
Chinese
____
Hawaiian____________________
Others..........................................

Per cent slack Per
Slack period Peak period Yearly aver­ period was
cent
age
of—
peak
period
was of
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Peak Aver­ aver­
ber cent ber cent ber cent period age
age

Per
cent
aver­
age
was of
peak
period

33.5
29.7
2.8
13.8
7.9
12.3

29.0
38.7
11.6
15.8
23.5
23.6

65.4
71.6
34.5
42.8
55.4
55.4

225.8
185.0
296.6
270.3
236.1
234.6

44.3
54.1
33.7
37.0
42.3
42.6

645 100.0 2,355 100.0 1,053 100.0

27.4

61.3

223.6

44.7

24.9
6.4
4.8
26.7
27.6
9.6

21.6
50.6
19.2
24.0
23.7
12.6

52.4
80.0
48.8
55.7
55.3
36.6

242.9
158.2
253.7
282.5
233.6
290.2

41.2
63.2
39.4
43.0
42.8
34.5

462 100.0 2,023 100.0

853 100.0

22.8

54.2

237.2

42.2

342
268
30
189
176
102

565
368
70
373
318
212

29.6
19.3
3.7
19.6
16.7
11.1

26.1
40.2
15.8
20.5
23.6
18.8

60.5
72.8
42.9
50.7
55.3
48.1

232.2
181.0
271.4
247.2
234.3
256.1

43.1
55.3
36.8
40.5
42.7
39.0

Total........................................ 1,107 100.0 4,378 100.0 1,906 100.0

25.3

58.1

229.7

43.5

481 30.0
882 54.9
99
6.2
114 7.1
.1
2
27
1.7

59.7
59.2
49.0
70.8
20.0
48.7

83.2
77.7
74.7
80.7
50.0
70.4

139.3
131.3
152.5
114.0
250.0
144.4

71.8
76.2
65.6
87.7
40.0
69.2

Total.... .................................... 1,271 100.0 2,153 100.0 1,605 100.0

59.0

79.2

134.1

74.5

42.4
18.8

64.8
42.9

152.8
228.6
325.0
200.0

65.4
43.8
30.8
50.0

Total................... ......... .........
Females:
Japanese.................. .................
Filipino.......... ........... ......... ........
Korean ,
..................
Chinese
. _______ _ - _____
Hawaiian____________________
Others...................... ...................
Total____ __________________
Males and females:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino........................................
Korean........................................
Chinese________ _____________
Hawaiian____________________
Others.........................................

m
m
10
62
46
72

111
44
20
127
130
30

35.8
34.7
1.6
9.6
7.1
11.2

24.0
9.5
4.3
27.5
28.2
6.5

797
579
86
392
196
305

515
87
104
530
549
238

30.9 1,312
24.2
666
2.7
190
17.1
922
15.9
745
9.2
543

33.8
24.6
3.7
16.6
8.3
13.0

25.5
4.3
5.1
26.2
27.1
11.8

30.0
15.2
4.3
21.1
17.0
12.4

353
313
29
145
83
130

212
55
41
228
235
82

PLANTATION NO. 1
Males:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino........................................
Korean______________________
Chinese______________________
Hawaiian____________________
Others...... ....................................

Females:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino............ ...........................
Korean____ __ __ ____________
Chinese______________________
Hawaiian____________________
Others_________________ ______

400 31.5
670
685 53.9 1,158
151
74
5.8
7.2
92
130
1
.1
5
39
1.5
19

81
6

90.0
6.7

3

3.3

31.1
53.8
7.0
6.1
.2
1.8

191
32
13
2

76.1
12.7
5.2
.8

13

5.2

125 83.3
14 9.3
4
2.7
1
.7
4.0

23.1

50.0

216.7

46.2

150 100.0

35.9

60.0

167.3

59.8

606
896
103
115
2
33

34.5
51.0
5.9
6.6
.1
1.9

55.9
58.1
45.1
69.7
20.0
42.3

79.4
77.1
71.8
80.0
50.0
66.7

142.1
132.8
159.2
114.8
250.0
157.6

70.4
75.3
62.8
87.1
40.0
63.5

Total......................................... 1,361 100.0 2,404 100.0 1,755 100.0

56.6

77.5

137.0

73.0

Total................................... ....
Males and females:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino.......... .............................
Korean................ ......... ..............
Chinese....... ................................
Hawaiian.... ........... ............ ........
Others......... ...... ......... ...............




90 100.0

251 100.0

481 35.3
861
691 50.8 1,190
74
5.4
164
92
6.8
132
1
.1
5
22
52
1.6.

35.8
49.5
6.8
5.5
.2
2.2

6

79

PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY
T

3 6 . — Number and per cent of employees in the pineapple industry in slack
period and peak period, and yearly average, 1929, by race and sex— Continued

able

PLANTATION NO. 3
Per cent slack Per
period was
cent
of—
peak
period
was of
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Peak Aver­ aver­
ber cent ber cent ber cent period age
age
Slack period Peak period Yearly aver­
age

Sex and race

Males:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino_______- ______________
Korean_______________________
Chinese______________________
Hawaiian____________________
Others_______________________
Total_______________________
Females:
Japanese__________ ____ ____
Filipino______________________
Korean_______________________
Chinese______________________
Hawaiian____________________
Others_______________________
Total________ ______________

Per
cent
aver­
age
was of
peak
period

22.7
62.4
4.5
3.5
1.7
5.2

60.8
28.8
46.0
21.2
64.0
23.2

84.9
48.3
60.4
36.8
88.9
39.3

139.6
167.8
131.3
173.7
138.9
169.6

71.6
59.6
76.2
57.6
72.0
58.9

614 100.0 1,720 100.0 1,078 100.0

35.7

57.0

159.6

62.7

35.6
52.6

61.5
83.3

173.1
158.3
200.0

57.8
63.2
50.0

500.0
166.7

20.0
60.0

208
325
29
14
16
22

32
10

342
33.9
52.9 1,129
4.7
63
2.3
66
2.6
25
3.6
95

76.2
23.8

42 100.0

90
19
4
1
5
5

19.9
65.6
3.7
3.8
1.5
5.5

72.6
15.4
3.2
.8
4.0
4.0

52
12
2

74.3
17.1
2.9

1
3

1.4
4.3
33.9

60.0

177.1

56.5

25.9
59.7
4.4
3.3
1.6
5.1

55.6
29.2
43.3
20.9
53.3
22.0

80.8
48.9
58.0
36.8
84.2
37.3

145.5
167.6
134.0
176.3
157.9
169.5

68.8
59.7
74.6
56.7
63.3
59.0

656 100.0 1,844 100.0 1,148 100.0

35.6

57.1

160.6

62.3

27.0
58.0
5.5
5.7
.7
3.1

60.1
44.2
48.1
54.1
56.7
30.6

83.7
65.0
70.1
69.7
85.0
49.4

139.4
147.1
145.6
128.9
150.0
161.4

71.7
68.0
68.7
77.6
66.7
61.9

Total_______________________ 1,885 100.0 3,873 100.0 2,683 100.0

48.7

70.3

144.4

69.3

80.5
11.8
2.6
.5
.5
4.1

40.2
31.4

63.8
61.5

16.7

33.3

158.8
196.2
283.3
300.0
500.0
200.0

63.0
51.0
35.3
33.3
20.0
50.0

220 100.0

35.2

60.0

170.5

58.7

31.1
54.5
5.3
5.3
.7
3.1

55.8
43.9
44.6
53.3
48.6
28.9

79.8
64.9
67.3
69.3
81.0
47.8

143.2
147.9
151.0
130.1
166.7
165.2

69.8
67.6
66.2
76.9
60.0
60.5

Total______________________ 2,017 100.0 4,248 100.0 2,903 100.0

47.5

69.5

146.3

68.3

Males and females:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino______________________
Korean_______________________
Chinese___________ '__________
Hawaiian____________________
Others_______________________
Total.........................................

240
335
29
14
16
22

124 100.0

245
673
48
38
18
56

36.6
432
51.1 1,148
4.4
67
2.1
67
2.4
30
3.4
100

23.4
62.3
3.6
3.6
1.7
5.4

70 100.0
297
685
50
38
19
59

PLANTATIONS NOS. 1 AND 2
Males:
608
Japanese_____________________
Filipino______________________ 1,010
Korean_______________________ 103
106
Chinese______________________
17
Hawaiian____________________
Others_______________________
41

Females:
Japanese_____________________
Filipino______________________
Korean,—________ ________ _
Chinese______________________
Hawaiian_____________________
Others_______________________
Total_______________________

113
16

85.6
12.1

3

2.3

132 100.0

Males and females:
Japanese_________ ___ ________ 721
Filipino____ ____ _____________ 1,026
Korean_________________ _____
103
Chinese______________________
106
Hawaiian____________________
17
Others_______________________
44




32.2 1,012
53.6 2,287
214
5.5
5.6
196
.9
30
2.2
134

281
51
17
3
5
18

726
26.1
59.0 1,555
147
5.5
152
5.1
.8
20
3.5
83

75.0
13.6
4.5
.8
1.3
4.8

375 100.0

177
26
6
1
1
9

35.7 1,293 30.5
903
50.9 2,338 55.0 1,581
5.1
231
5.4
153
5.3
199 4.7
153
.8
.8
21
35
2.2
152 3.6
92

80

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Building Construction
Average full-time hours and earnings per week, and average earn­
ings per hour in building construction in Hawaii in 1929, by occupa­
tions, for the employees of three representative Japanese contractors
whose employees were of that race and of six contractors whose em­
ployees were almost entirely of the Caucasian race, are shown in
Table 37.
The average full-time hours of the 68 Japanese carpenters were
52.2 per week, and they earned an average of 46.5 cents per hour.
Had they worked full time in the week at 46.5 cents per hour they
would have earned an average of $24.27. The average full-time hours
of the 121 Caucasian carpenters were 48.4 or 3.8 hours per week less
than the average for the Japanese carpenters, and they earned an
average of 69.2 cents per hour or 22.7 cents per hour more than was
earned by the Japanese carpenters, and their average full-time earn­
ings per week were $33.49 or an average of $9.22 more than the average
for Japanese.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time in eight establishments and one
and one-half times the regular rate in one establishment.
T a b le 37 .— Average full-time hours and earnings per week and average earnings
per hour in building construction, 1929, by occupation and race

Occupation and race

Num­ Num­ Average
Average
ber of
full-time Average
estab­ ber of hours per earnings full-time
em­
earnings
lish­ ployees week
per hour per week
ments

Carpenters:
Japanese-...................... ............................................
Caucasian...................................................................

3
6

68
121

52.2
48.4

$0,465
.692

$24.27
33.49

49.8

.607

30.23

Total........................................ .............................

9

189

Carpenters’ helpers:
Japanese-................. .................................................
Caucasian...................................................................

1
3

9
18

Total.................................................................... .

4

27

Cement finishers: Caucasian...........................................

4

Concrete mixer operators: Caucasian..............................

4

Laborers:
Japanese.....................................................................
Caucasian..................... ............................................

(9

.460

(9

22.08

.414

20.16

12

48.0

.734

35.23

6

48.7

.639

31.12

3
6

70
341

52.6
48.4

.295
.464

15.52
22.46

49.1

.437

21.46

Total.......................................................................

9

411

1
1

4
2

Total.......................................................................

2

6

Painters:
Japanese.....................................................................
Caucasian..................................................................

1
3

12
7

Total.......... ............................................................

4

19

Plumbers:
Japanese.....................................................................
Caucasian...................................................................

1
1

10
5

Total.......................................................................

2

15




48.0
48.7

Masons, brick:
Japanese.....................................................................
Caucasian..................................................................

1Included in total.

(9

(9
(9
49.3

(9

48.6
51.7

(9
(9
51.7

(9
(9
.610

(9

.737

.493

(9
(9
.586

(9
(9
30.07

(9

35.82

25.49

(9
30.30

81

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

T a b le 37.— Average full-time hours and earnings per week and average earnings
per hour in building consttruction, 1929 , by occupation and race— Continued
Num­ Num­ Average
Average
ber of
full-time Average
estab­ ber of hours per earnings full-time
earnings
em­
per hour per week
lish­ ployees week
ments

Occupation and race

Plumbers’ helpers:
Japanese.........................................................................
Caucasian—.................................................... ............ .

1
1

2
7

(9

0)
C)
1

0)

0)
0)

Total.........................................................................

2

9

49.2

$0,475

$23.37

Truck drivers:
Japanese........................................... ............ ................
Caucasian......................................................................

1
5

14
25

0)
48.6

0)
.494

0)
24.01

Total....... ................... ...............................................

6

39

50.4

.452

22.78

Other skilled employees:
Japanese....................... .................................. ..............
Caucasian............ ................................................. ........

3
6

38
48

53.3
48.1

.466
.867

24.84
41.70

Total...........................................................................

9

86

50.4

.686

34.57

Other employees:
Japanese................................................................ ........
Caucasian....................................................................

3
6

35
52

52.5
48.2

.280
.534

14.70
25.74

Total...........................................................................

9

87

49.9

.430

21.46

All employees:
Japanese.......................................................................
Caucasian.......................................... ...........................

3
6

262
644

52.6
48.3

.384
.559

20.20
27.00

Total...........................................................................

9

906

49.6

.506

25.10

i Included in total.

Table 38 shows for each occupation the average number of days on
which employees worked in a pay period of one week or of two weeks;
average full-time hours in the pay period; average hours actually worked
in the pay period; the per cent that the hours actually worked are of
the average full-time hours in the pay period; average earnings per
hour; average full-time and actual earnings in the pay period.
T a b le 38.— Average days worked and average full-time and actual hours and
earnings in a pay period, per cent of full time actually worked, and average
earnings per hour, 1929, by occupation and race

Occupation and race

Average Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­
age
number
age
Num­ Num­ of days on full­
cent
hours of full
age
ber of ber of which em­
earn­
actu­ time
time
estab­ em
ally worked ings
lish­ ploy- ployees hours
per
ments ees worked in per worked in pay hour
in pay
pay
pay
period period period period

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
time actual
earn­
earn­
ings in ings in
pay
period

One-week pay period
Carpenters:
Japanese______________
Caucasian_____________

2
5

18
70

5.2
5.2

48.5
48.8

41.9
41.2

86.4
84.4

$0,538
.638

$26.09
31.13

$22.52
26.26

Total............................

7

88

5.2

48.7

41.3

84.8

.617

30.05

25.50

Carpenters’ helpers:
Japanese______________
Caucasian_____________

1
2

9
12

C)
1
48.0

0
31.9

0
66.5

0)
.468

0)
22.46

(9
14.94

Total. .........................

3

21

4.9

48.9

36.7

75.1

.405

19.80

14.86

Cement finishers: Caucasian,

3

5

4.0

48.0

33.7

70.2

.707

33.94

23.83

i Included in occupation total.



(\ 7

82

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H A W A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b l e 38 .— Average days worked

and average full-time and actual hours and
earnings in a pay period, per cent of full time actually worked, and average
earnings per hour, 1929, by occupation and race— Continued

Occupation and race

Average
number
Num­ Num­ of days on
ber of ber of which em­
estab­ em­
lish­ ploy­ ployees
ments ees worked in
period

Aver­ Aver­
Per
age
age
cent
full­
hours of full
time
actu­
time
hours
ally worked
per worked in pay
in pay
period period period

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
time actual
earn­
earn­
ings in ings in
pay
pay
period penod

One-week pay period—Continued
Concrete-mixer operators:
Caucasian...........................

3

5

5.8

48.8

50.0

102.5

$0,629

$30.70

$31.45

Laborers:
Japanese...........................
Caucasian........................

2
5

12
263

3.3
5.0

48.1
48.5

25.6
40.6

53.2
83.7

.354
.461

17.03
22.36

9.05
18.71

4.9

48.5

39.9

82.3

.458

22.21

18.29

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
(0

h

Total.............................

7

275

Masons, brick:
Japanese...........................
Caucasian........................

1
1

4
2

0)
<*)

0)
0)

9}
<
l)

Total.........- ..................

2

6

3.8

49.3

33.7

68.4

.610

30.07

20.52

Painters: Caucasian..............

2

4

4.5

49.0

39.3

80.2

.648

31.75

25.44

Truck drivers: Caucasian___

4

24

5.3

48.7

45.7

93.8

.494

24.06

22.59

Other skilled employees:
Japanese...........................
Caucasian........................

2
5

2
40

4.5
8.1

48.8
48.2

36.5
40.4

74.8
83.8

.816
.849

39.82
40.92

29.80
34.28

Total------------------------

7

42

8.0

48.2

40.2

83.4

.847

40.83

34.07

Other employees:
Japanese..........................
Caucasian........................

2
5

7
40

5.9
5.7

48.6
48.2

48.5
43.9

99.8
91.1

.271
.528

13.17
25.45

13.16
23.18

Total.............................

7

47

5.7

48.3

44.6

92.3

.486

23.47

21. €9

All employees:
Japanese...........................
Caucasian........................

2
5

52
465

4.6
5.4

48.8
48.5

37.8
41.0

77.5
84.5

.432
.536

21.08
26.00

16.32
22.00

Total.............................

7

517

5.3

48.5

40.7

83.9

.526

25.51

21.43

Two-week pay period
Carpenters.............................
Carpenters' helpers................
Cement finishers...................
Concrete-mixer operators___
Laborers.................................
Painters..................................
Plumbers................................
Plumbers’ helpers..................
Truck drivers........................
Other skilled employees-----Other employees....................

2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

101
6
7
1
136
15
15
9
15
44
40

8.3
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
8.2
9.4
11.1
10.0
10.6
10.4
10.1

101.4
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
100.6
104.8
103.4
98.4
106.2
105.0
103.8

71.8
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
71.1
82.0
96.8
78.8
95.1
91.1
87.5

$70.8
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
70.7
78.2
93.6
80.1
89.5
86.8
84.3

$0,599
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
396
.452
.586
.475
.385
.532
.365

$60.74
(2)
(2
)
(2
)
39.84
47.37
60.59
46.74
40.89
55.86
37.89

$43.06
<)
2
(2
)
(2
)
28.16
37.03
56.78
37.38
36.65
48.48
31.92

All employees..............

2

389

9.0

102.0

78.1

76.6

.480

48.96

37.52

1Included in occupation total.

2Included in total.

Table 39 shows average and classified earnings per hour for the
employees in each of 10 of the most important occupations in build­
ing construction in 1929.




83

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

T a b le 39 .— Average and?classified earnings per hour in 10 occupations in building
construction, 1929 , by race

Occupation and raee

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­
em­
16, 20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100,
ploy­ ings un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per
ees
der
der der der der der der der der
der der
hour der 22 der 28 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 der der 100 120
80 90
26
18

Carpenters:
Japanese_________
Caucasian..._____

68 $0,465
121
.692

3

24

22

16
2

28
17

7
44

14

189

.607

1

8

8

7

21

31

9

9
18

0)
.460

0) ----

0)
6

0)
28

0)
11

56

Total__________

27

.414

11

7

30

15

37

Cement finishers: Cau­
casian_____________
Concrete-mixer opera­
tors: C aucasian......

12

.734

17

67

6

.639

100

70
341

.295
.464

Total__________
Carpenters" helpers:
Japan osa . ....
Oanftasian

Laborers:
Japansee_________
Caucasian________

•

1

6

13

1

2

53
0

13
4

11
11

1
21

25

37

9

11

18

21

31
0

17

17

2

8

8 ....

2

0

2

13 -----

2

6

0

1

21

33 ----- 33

Total__________

411

Masons, brick:
Japanese_________
Caucasian________

4
2

8

Total__________

6

6.10

Painters:
Japanese_________
Caucasian________

12
7

0
7.37

(0

0

0

Total...................

19

.493

5

42

16

Plumbers:
Japanese_________
Caucasian________

10
5

(0

0

0

8

Total...................

15

.586

20

20

20

Plumbers’ helpers:
Japanese_________
Caucasian________

2
7

8

0

0

0

Total...................

9

.475

22

11

56

11

Truck drivers:
Japanese_________
Caucasian________

14
25

0
.494

0

0)
4

0
20

68

8

Total____ ___ __

39

.452

13

18

21 . . . . 44

5

.437

(2
)

(2
)

0

* Included in occupation total.

7
0

0

14

29

43

14

5

11

16

5

0
7

0

0

7 20

2 Less than 1 per cent.

Table 40 shows for each of the carpenters, electricians, building
laborers, masons, painters, and plumbers that were in the service of
a representative building construction company in Honolulu any time
in 1929, the number of weeks in which he aid any work, and the
amount earned in such weeks. A full week was 6 days or 53% hours,
but any week of less than 6 days or 53% hours was counted a week.
In 1929 the company had in its service a total of 51 carpenters.
One of them was on the pay rolls only 4 weeks and earned only $20.60.
He was a part-time worker. The weeks of the others ranged from
6 to 52 in the year. Eighteen were on the rolls 52 weeks, and their




84

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

earnings ranged from $940.60 to $1,769.30. It must be borne in mind
that very few workers in any industry, especially in building construc­
tion, are on duty full time each and every week in a year. The 51
carpenters earned an average of $22.68 per week and $876.89 in the
year.
Electricians earned an average of $21.35 a week and $933.48 in the
year; building laborers, $16.28 per week and $592.65 in the year;
masons, $19.23 per week and $908.56 in the year; painters, $21.16 per
week and $749.50 in the year; and plumbers earned an average of
$25.07 per week and $1,168.33 in the year.
T a b l e 40.— Number of weeks worked and amount earned by individual employees

of one contractor in 1929 , by occupation
CARPENTERS

Employee
No.

Num­
ber of
worked

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

$20.60
108.80
90.00
110 00
279.35
218.35
231.25
296.85
471.55
665.85
670.90
515.00
432.60
945.60
576. 05
723.05
485.95

.

10 .

11.

12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Amount
earned

32

Employee
No.

Num­
ber of Amount
weeks earned
worked

18.
19.

5582.45
873. 70
740. 25
758.50
820.05
817.35
742. 25
708.65
083.75
241. 80
069.10
802. 05
746. 65
347.40
337. 75
075.50
084.10

20.

21.

22.

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

Employee
No.

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.

Num­
ber of
worked

Amount
earned

52 $1,104.70
52
1,339.60
52
1,362.95
52
1,309.10
52
1,302.85
52
1,190.20
52
1,310.35
52
1,145.85
52
1,026.35
52
1,079.95
52
940.60
52
1,769.30
52
1,368.35
52
1,197.55
52
1, 523.60
52
1,452.40
52
1,624.45

ELECTRICIANS
1.
2.

32
32
34

$491.45
461.75
391.55

4.
5.

52

$1,082.40
1,424.10
1,630.85

6

$1,052.25

BUILDING LABORERS

.............

1
2 ....................
3....................
4 ....................
5....................
6....................
7...............
8....................
9....................
10....................
11................. .
12....................
13....................

2
4
4
10
10
16
24
25
26
26
26
29
29

$22.50
42.50
48.35
106.10
141.75
208.90
337.15
411.10
382.65
533.00
386.90
490.25
373.00

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.

23.
24.
25.
26.

29
29
30
36
38
40
44
44
48
50
52
52
52

$255.45
543.45
635.80
653.50
548.50
551.00
559.35
945.00
744.80
711.25
758.20
884.75
990.50

2 7 ..................
28.............. .
29...............
30....................
31....................
32....... ............
33____ _______
34___________
35___________
36___________
37...................

52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52

$593.15
681.00
877.80
1,008.05
1,137.65
707.85
790.50
1,078.10
952.55
894.35
941.30

$728.45
877.15
878.05

7......................
8......................

52
52

$996.80
1,419.95

MASONS
1.

2
3.




36
40
46

$554.50
695.30
1,120.25

4.
5.
6.

48
52
52

85

STEAM RAILWAYS
T a b le

40.— Number of weeks worked and amount earned by individual employees
of one contractor in 1929, by occupation— Continued
PAINTERS

Employee
No.

1.....................
2......................
3......................
4 .....................
5.................... .
6.....................
7 .................. .

Num­
ber of Amount
weeks earned
worked
1
6
6
6
10
38
38

$4.75
60.25
96.45
22.50
100.15
770.00
776.60

Employee
No.

8....................
9......... ...........
10____ ____
11...................
12....................
13______ ____
14___________

Num­
ber of Amount
weeks earned
worked
42
42
42
46
46
48
48

Employee
No.

Num­
ber of Amount
weeks earned
worked

$919.30
894.65
876.35
1,042.55
883.55
995.55
947.75

15....... ........... .
16....................
17— ................
18....................
19....................

48 $1,010.45
50
952.05
52
1,476.95
52
1,299.55
52
1, 111. 15

52 $1,208.55
52 1,291.85
52 1,386.65
52 1,378.51

9....................
10— ...............

52
52

PLUMBERS
1____________
2.____ _______
3.................... .
4......................

22
40
40
52

$506.00
909.20
992.25
1,010.25

5____________
6 .. . ......... ........
7____________
8........ .............

$1,359.45
1,640.60

Steam Railways
Average hours and earnings in 1929, by occupations, for the employ­
ees of the two steam railroads in the Hawaiian Islands are given in
Table 41. Males only were employed.
In the pay period of one month for which averages are shown in
the table the average days on which employees worked ranged, by
occupation, from 14.7 for stevedores to 30.5 for station agents.
Average full-time hours ranged from 198.1 for painters to 293.1 per
month for station agents. Average hours actually worked in the
month ranged from 127.5 for stevedores to 293.1 for station agents.
Stevedores worked only 53.1 per cent of full time and locomotive
engineers, due to extra work, worked 101.5 per cent of full time.
Average earnings per hour by occupations ranged from 32.3 cents
for section hands to 85.2 cents for machinists.
Checkers of one company were paid one and one-fifth and stevedores
one and one-fourth times the regular rate for any time after 5 p. m.,
and employees in all other occupations were paid the same rate for
overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays as for regular working
time. Wharf, car-shop, machine-shop, and boiler-shop employees,
and section hands of the other company were paid one and one-half
times the regular rate for overtime. All others in this company were
paid the same rate for overtime as for regular working time. There
was no work on Sunday and holidays by this company.
One company paid a service bonus to all employees as follows:
For a period of service of 5 and under 10 years, 5 per cent of earnings;
for 10 and under 15 years, 10 per cent; for 15 and under 20 years, 15
per cent; for 20 and under 25 years, 20 per cent; and for 25 years
and over, 25 per cent of earnings. In the pay period covered 12
per cent of the employees were paid a bonus of 25 per cent of earnings.




LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

86

41.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and eamingsy
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour, on steam
railways, 1929, by occupation

T a b le

Aver­
Average
age
full-time
Num­ Num­
number
hours
ber
ber
of days
of
of
em­
estab­ em­
ployees
lish­ ploy­ Per
Per worked
ments ees week month in 1
month

Occupation

Aver­
Per
age
cent
hours of full
actu­
time
ally
worked worked
in 1
in 1
month month

Brakemen................
Carpenters-............
Conductors— .........
Engineers, locomo­
tive.......................
Firemen, locomo­
tive.......................
Laborers..................
Machinists.........
Machinists’ helpers.
Painters...................
Section hands.........
Station agents_____
Stevedores...............
Other skilled em­
ployees.................
Other employees___

2
2
2

31
42
19

52.1
45.6
52.1

234.3
202.3
229.7

26.3
24.0
25.7

90.9 $0,454 $23.65 $106.37
89.7
.518 23.62 104.79
96.6
.720 37.51 165.38

212.9
181.4
221.8

All employees.

Average
full-time
Aver­
Aver­
earnings
age
age
actual
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
per
Per
Per
hour week month in 1
month

$96.75
94.06
159.73

2

19

51.4

226.4

26.7

229.7

101.5

.800

41.20

181 12. 183.75

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

14
22
10
8
19
159
21
145

51.4
46.5
45.0
45.0
45.0
50.2
67.5
53.0

231.4
210.3
201.6
200.0
198.1
226.7
293.1
240.1

27.1
25.9
25.5
26.3
23.9
24.6
30.5
14.7

229.7
202.7
188.0
196.9
172.1
205.5
293.1
127.5

99.3
96.4
93.3
98.5
86.9
90.6
100.0
53.1

.465
.395
.852
.553
.459
.323
.340
.387

23.90
18.37
38.34
24.89
20.66
16.21
22.95
20.51

107.60
83.07
171.76
110.60
90.93
73.22
99.69
92.92

106.69
80.08
160.11
108.96
78.90
66.44
99.69
49.32

2
2

37
114

47.4
52.3

210.3
232.7

25.2
25.5

198.3
212.5

94.3
91.3

.707
.435

33.51
22.75

148.68
101.22

140.18
92.50

2

660

51.1

228.8

23.1

191.0

83.5

.446

22.79

102.04

85.22

Average and classified earnings per hour in 12 occupations on
steam railways in 1929 are shown in Table 42:
T a b l e 4 2 .—

Average and classified earnings per hour in 12 occupations on steam
railways, 1929

Occupation

Num­ Average
ber
earn­
of
emings
per
ployhour

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour
were—
100,

un­
der
120

Brakemen__...............
Carpenters..................
Conductors - ...............
Engineers, locomotive.
Firemen, locomotive..
Laborers......................
Machinists..................
Machinists’ helpers.
Painters......................
Section hands..............
Station agents.............
Stevedores...................




31 $0,454
42
.518
.720
19
19 .800
14
.465
22
.395
10 .852
8
.553
19 .459
159 .323
21
.340
145 .387

10

14
14

2
0
10

40

20

10

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H A W A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

87

Road Building
Average days, hours, and earnings in 1929, by occupations, for
the employees of one of the very few road-construction contractors
on the islands are shown in Table 43. The figures were compiled
from data for a pay period of one week and are for males only.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was the
same as for regular working time.
T a b le 43.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings
per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in
road building, 1929, by occupation

Occupation

Aver­
age
num­
Aver­
ber of Aver­
age
Num­ days on age
Per
hours cent of
full­
ber of which
actu­
time
full
em­
ally
em­
ploy­
time
ploy­ hours worked worked
ees
per
ees
in 1
worked week
week
in i
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
time actual
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
in 1
per
week
week

Carpenters________ _____ __________
Cement finishers................................ .
Concrete-mixer operators..................
Laborers...............................................
Pipe calkers......................... - .............
Pump operators...................................
Stone masons...... .................................
Truck drivers.......................................
Other skilled employees.....................
Other employees..................................

13
6
2
262
6
13
4
16
16
45

6.0
5.2
4.0
5.2
5.3
6.5
3.8
5.5
5.9
5.7

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
84.0
48.0
48.0
48.8
48.0

52.5
43.7
31.8
45.1
43.4
69.3
31.5
48.4
50.4
49.5

109.4
91.0
66.3
94.0
90.4
82.5
65.6
100.8
103.3
103.1

$0,681
.575
.600
.469
.721
.504
.673
.478
.759
.521

$32.69
27.60
28.80
22.51
34.61
42.34
32.30
22.94
37.04
25.01

$35.70
25.09
19.05
21.16
31.33
34.91
21.19
23.14
38.25
25.75

All employees.............................

383

5.4

49.3

46.8

94.9

.506

24.95

23.67

Table 44 shows average and classified earnings per hour in 8
occupations in road building in 1929:
T a b le 44.— Average and classified earnings per hour in eight occupations in road
building, 1929

Occupation

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per
hour were—
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
em­
earn­
35,
45,
50,
ploy- ings per ou,
hour under under under under under under under
40
45
50
60
35
70
80
90

in e
S

Carpenters.......................
Cement finishers.............
Concrete-mixer operators.
Laborers...........................
Pipe calkers.....................
Pump operators...............
Stone masons...................
Truck drivers..................

i Less than 1 per cent.




1.681
.575
.721
.504
.478

0)

53

41

“lO'
O
25

”"63*

17
10Q

25

88

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Longshore Labor
Hours and earnings in 1929 for two of the largest employers of labor
used in loading and unloading steamships are shown in Table 45.
The figures in the table are for a pay period of one week and for
males only.
Stevedores covered by the study earned an average of $14.96 in
the week and an average of 43.1 cents per hour. They worked an
average of 34.7 hours only in the week or 64.3 per cent of their nominal
full time of 54 hours per week. While their nominal full-time hours
are assumed to be 54 per week, they really work only when there is
work to be done, and the amount of work varies from day to day.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time.
45.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual earnings per week,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour for longshore
labor, 1929, by occupation

T a b le

Occupation

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
estab­ em­
lish­ ploy­
ments ees

Aver­
age
number
of days
on
which
em­
ploy­
ees
worked
in 1
week

Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Aver­ age
age
age
hours Percent age
full­
ac­
full­
ac­
of full earn­ time
tual
time tually
time
ings earn­ earn­
hours worked worked per
ings
ings
per
per
in 1
in 1
hour
week week
week week

Stevedores..________ ___________
Winchmen____ ____ ______ ______
Other employees..........................

2
1
2

251
66
64

13.2
(2
)
3 5.8

54.0
54.0
53.7

34.7
20.4
25.0

64.3 $0.431 $23.27
37.8
.650 35,10
46.6
.516 27.71

$14.96
13.29
12.91

All employees____ _________

2

381

^3.8

54.0

30.6

56.7

25.27

14.32

.468

1 Not including data for 159 employees.
2 Data not reported.
3 Not including data for 38 employees.
4 Not including data for 263 employees.

Table 46 shows average and classified earnings per hour in longshore
labor in 1929:
T a b le

46.— Average and classified earnings per hour in two occupations in longshore
labor, 1929

Occupation

Stevedores____________________________
Winchmen
___________

i Less than 1 per cent.




Number Average
of em­ earnings
ployees per hour

251
66

$0,431
.650

Per cent of employees whose earnings
(in cents) per hour were—
20,
26,
40,
45,
50,
60,
under under under under under under
22
45
28
50
60
70
0)

0)

73

3

23
100

89

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Steam Laundries
Data on average hours and earnings in 1930 are here shown, by
occupations, for 102 males and 178 females in two of the largest
steam laundries in Honolulu. The length of the pay period was
one week for one and a half month for the other laundry.
The full-time hours per week were 54 for the employees in each
occupation in each laundry.
The average earnings per hour for males, by occupations, ranged
from 15.8 cents for shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders of
flat work to 65.7 cents for drivers, and for females ranged from 14.9
cents for shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders of flat work
to 20.8 cents per hour for checkers and markers. Males in all occu­
pations earned an average of 41.6 cents per hour, and females in all
occupations earned an average of 19 cents per hour. The average
for both sexes, or the industry, was 27.2 cents per hour.
The average full-time earnings per week for males by occupations
ranged from $8.53 for shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders
of flat work to $35.48 for drivers, and for females ranged from $8.05
for shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders of flat work to
$11.23 for checkers and markers.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time.
T a b le 47.—Average full-time hours and earnings per week, and average earnings

per hour for employees in steam laundries, 1980, by occupation and sex

Occupation and sex

Num­ Num­ Average Average Average
ber of ber of full-time earnings full-time
earnings
estab­ employ­ hours
per
lish­
per
per
ees
hour
ments
week
week

$27.05
11.23
35.48
10.69
8.69
9.02

Checkers and markers, m ale.________________________
Checkers and markers, female________________________
Drivers, male_______________________________________
Finishers, shirt, female______________________________
Ironers, hand, female________________________________
Pressing-machine operators, female____________________
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders (flat work),
male___ ____________________________ ____ _________
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and folders (flat work),
female____________________________________________
Washing-machine hands and helpers, male_____________
Other employees, male_____________________________
Other employees, female_______ ____ __________________

2
2
2
2
2
2

3
14
26
10
26
18

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

1

31

54.0

.158

8.53

2
2
2
2

63
9
33
47

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

.149
.297
.493
.261

8.05
16.04
26.62
14.09

All employees, male___________________ ________
■All employees, female__________________________

2
2

102
178

54.0
54.0

.416
.190

22.46
10.26

All employees, male and female____ ____________

2

280

54.0

.272

14.69

$0,501
.208
.657
.198
.161
.167

Table 48 shows the average number of days worked and average
full-time and actual hours and earnings of employees in steam laun­
dries in 1930.




90

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

48.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time worked, and average earnings per hour in steam laundries,
1980, by occupation and sex

T a b le

Occupation and sex

Aver­
age
num­
Num­ ber of
ber of days
on
em­
ploy­ which
em­
ees ployees
worked
in pay
period

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
pay
period

Aver­
Aver­
age Aver­
age
Per­ Aver­ full­
age
hours
age
cent
time actual
actu­ of full earn­ earn­ earn­
ally
ings
ings ings in
time
worked worked per
pay
per
in pay
hour pay period
period
period

One-week pay period
Checkers and markers, male.......................
Checkers and markers, female....................
Drivers, male...............................................
Finishers, shirt, female................................
Ironers, hand, female...................................
Pressing-machine operators, female______
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and
folders (flat work), male............ ..............
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and
folders (flat work), female_____________
Washing-machine hands and helpers, male.
Other employees, male.—'...........................
Other employees, female.............................

2
5
11
5
14
11

6.0
6.0
6.1
5.8
5.6
6.1

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

50.5
49.8
55.1
43.9
41.5
46.5

31

6.5

54.0

48.7

90.2

.158

8.53

7.70

34
6
9
20

5.8
6.8
6.3
5.8

54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0

44.0
53.6
52.7
51.3

81.5
99.3
97.6
95.0

.160
.318
.564
.318

8.64
17.17
30.46
17.17

7.04
17.05
29.72
16.31

All employees, male...........................
All employees, female.................

59
89

6.4
5.8

54.0
54.0

51.1
45.9

94.6
85.0

.364
.211

19.66
11.39

18.57
9.70

All employees, male and female.......

148

6.1

54.0

47.9

88.7

.276

14.90

13.24

$35.00
20.56
72.75
23.00
18.66
20.20

93.5 $0,602 $32.51
92.2
.266 14.36
.704 38.02
102.0
81.3
.218 11.77
76.9
.166
8.96
86.1
.171
9.23

$30.40
13.23
38.79
9.55
6.89
7.94

Half-month pay period
Checkers and markers, male.......................
Checkers and markers, female....................
Drivers, male...............................................
Finishers, shirt, female................................
Ironers, hand, female...................................
Pressing-machine operators, female............
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and
folders (flat work), female______ ______
Washing-machine hands and helpers, male.
Other employees, male............ ...................
Other employees, female.............................

1
9
15
5
12
7

13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
11.9
12.4

117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0

117.0
117.0
117.0
129.2
119.4
125.4

100.0 $0,299 $35.00
100.0
.376 20.56
100.0
.622 72.75
110.4
.178 20.83
102.1
.156 18.25
107.2
.161 18.84

29
3
24
27

12.3
13.0
13.0
12.8

117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0

114.4
117.0
117.0
115.3

97.8
100.0
100.0
98.5

.137
.256
.466
.218

16.03
30.00
54.54
25.51

15.71
30.00
54.54
25.17

All employees, male...........................
All employees, female........................

43
89

13.0
12.5

117.0
117.0

117.0
117.3

100.0
100.3

.502
.172

58.73
20.12

58.73
20.23

132

12.7

117.0

117.2

110.2

.280

32.76

32.77

All employees, male and female

Table 49 shows the average and classified hourly earnings in 7
occupations in steam laundries in 1930.




T able

49.— Average and classified earnings per hour in seven occupations in steam laundries, 1980, by sex

Occupation and sex

31

.149

9

.297

7

7

2

25

20

60
50

30

31
28

20

12
6

13

6

52

17

33

11

10

10

33

27

14
4

4
17

77

4

33

7

15

10

.158

63

64

19

15

4

8

8

3
3
11

11

22

22

22

LAUNDRIES




3 $0,601
14
.208
26
.657
10
.198
26 .161
18 .167

STE M
A

Checkers and markers, male.....................
Checkers and markers, female..................
Drivers, male.............................................
Finishers, shirt, female.............................
Ironers, hand, female.................................
Pressing-machine operators, female.........
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and
folders (flat work), male..........................
Shakers, mangle-machine feeders, and
folders (flat work), female.....................
Washing-machine hands and helpers,
male.........................................................

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Aver­
age
ber of earn­
10
em­
12
14
18
16
20
22
24
26
28
30
35
40
50
60
70
90
100
ploy­ ings and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 120
per under under
ees
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
hour
over
12
14
16
22
20
18
24
28
30
26
35
40
45
70
60
80
120
100

92

LABOR CONDITIONS IN HAW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Tin-Can Manufacturing
Hours and earnings, by occupations and sex, for 220 males and 48
females of a plant engaged in the manufacture of tin cans are shown
in Table 50. The figures in the table are for a representative weekly
pay period in 1929.
The full-time hours of the establishment and for the employees
in each occupation were 60 per week.
Average earnings per hour for males by occupations ranged from
31.2 cents for slitting-machine operators to 88 cents for machinists,
and for females ranged from 21.9 cents for laborers to 24.3 cents for
can inspectors.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was one
and one-half times the rate for regular working time and applied to
all employees.
50.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings
per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour,
in tin-can manufacturing, 1929, by occupation and sex

T a b le

Occupation and sex

Aver­
age
num­
Num­ ber of
ber of days on
em­ which
em­
ploy­
ees ployees
worked
in one
week

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Aver­ age Aver­
age hours
Per
age
full­
age
full­
actu­ cent of earn­ time actual
full
time
ally
ings earn­ earn­
hours worked time
ings in
per
per
worked hour ings
one
per
week in one
week
week week

Double-seam machino operators, male____
Inspectors, can, male___________________
Inspectors, can, female__________________
Laborers, m a le________________________
Laborers, female_______________________
Machinists, male_______________________
Machinists' helpers, male_______________
Maintenance machine men______________
Openers, tin plate, male________________
Shear operators, male___________________
Slitting-machine operators, male_________
Testers, can, male_____________ _____ ___
Truckers, male_________________________
Other skilled employees, male..... ........... .
Other employees, male_________________
Other employees, female________________

8
5
28
88
14
6
3
15
9
8
14
8
16
17
23
6

5.9
6.0
5.5
5.0
5.1
6.0
6.0
5.3
5.8
5.9
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.6
5.8

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

53.6
58.3
51.6
43.4
47.5
61.3
60.0
54.5
56.3
57.6
56.0
53.6
54.3
58.6
56.7
55.1

All employees, male______________
All employees, female_____________

220
48

5.5
5.4

60.0
60.0

51.2
50.9

85.3
84.8

.401
.243

24.06
14.58

20.50
12.36

All employees, male and female.......

268

5.5

60.0

51.1

85.2

.373

22.38

19.04

89.3 $0.340 $20.40 $18.20
97.2
27.17
.466 27.96
.243 14.58
12.57
86.0
72.3
.319 19.14
13.83
79.2
.219 13.14
10.41
102.2
.880 52.80
53.90
100.0
.517 31.00 31.00
90.8
.498 29.88
27.15
93.8
.350 21.00
19.70
.358 21.48
20.61
96.0
.312 18.72
93.3
17.46
89.3
.370 22.20
19.84
.372 22.32
90.5
20.20
.582 34.92
34.11
97.7
414 24.84
23.51
94.5
.289 17.34
91.8
15.90

Table 51 shows average and classified hourly earnings in 11 occupa­
tions in tin-can manufacturing in 1929;




93

ELECTRICITY— MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION

T able 51.— Average and classified earnings per hour in 11 occupations in tin-can

manufacturing, 1929, by sex

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Occupation and sex

Num­ Average
ber of earn­
ings
pioyper
hour

Double-seam machine
operators, m ale........
Inspectors, can, male. _
Inspectors, can, female.
Laborers, male_______
Laborers, female..........
Machinists, male_____
M achinists' helpers,
male___ ___________
Maintenance machine
men...........................
Openers, tin plate
male..... .....................
Shear operators, male..
Slitting-machine oper­
ators, male__............
Testers, can, male____
Truckers, male.............

8 $0.340
5 .466
28 .243
88
.319
14 .219
6 .880
3

.498

9
8

.312
.370
.372

25

38
20

14

50

.350
.358

14
8
16

120

.517

15

100

and
un­
der

27

13

Electricity— Manufacture and Distribution
Hours and earnings of employees are presented in Table 52 by
occupations for the 256 employees of a plant engaged in the manu­
facture and distribution of electric power. Males only were employed
at this work. The figures in the table were compiled from data for
a half-monthly pay period in 1930.
Average earnings per hour by occupations ranged from 42.5 cents
for wiremen’s helpers to 85.8 cents for trouble men. The employees
in the group of “ other skilled employees” earned an average of 90
cents per hour. All employees combined earned an average of 70.7
cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
two times the rate for regular working time and applied to all except
monthly rate employees.
All employees in service of company four months or more were
paid a percentage bonus based on quarterly profits of plant. In
1929 the bonus was approximately 12 per cent of earnings at basic
rates.
27595°—31-----7




94

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour, in the
manufacture and distribution of electricity, 1930, by occupation

T a b l e 5 2 .—

Occupation

Aver­ Average full­
time hours
age
number
Num­ of days
ber
on
of
which
em­ employ­
In
ploy­
ees
Per
oneees worked week half
in onemonth
half
month

Aver­
age
Per
hours
cent
actu­
of
ally
full
worked time
in one- worked
half
month

Electricians....... ......... ........
Groundmen______________
Laborers_________________
Linemen_________________
Linemen’s helpers— _____
Trouble men_____________
Wiremen________________
Wiremen’s helpers________
Other skilled employees___
Other employees.................

8
7
11
33
13
6
30
20
54
74

12.6
13.0
12.5
12.8
12.7
13.0
12.2
12.3
13.0
13.0

44.5
44.0
44.4
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
46.7
45.9

93.5
92.0
93.1
92.0
92.0
95.3
92.0
92.0
100.9
98.5

94.8
94.3
92.7
92.8
91.3
95.3
89.3
89.7
101.0
100.2

All employees............

256

12.8

45.1

96.0

96.1

Average full­
time earnings
Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
Per
hour week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
In
in
oneonehalf
half
month month

101.4 $0,809 $36.00 $75.64
102.5
.503 22.13 46.28
99.5
.490 21.76 45.62
100.9
.664 29.22 61.09
99.2
.487 21.43 44.80
.858 37.75 81.82
100.0
97.1
.686 30.18 63.11
97.5
.425 18. 70 39.10
100.1
.900 42.03 90.81
101.7
.721 33.09 71.02
100.1

.707

31.89

67.87

$76.71
47.39
45.40
61.62
44.46
81.82
61.23
38.14
90.90
72.24
67.97

Table 53 shows average and classified hourly earnings in eight
occupations in the manufacture and distribution of electricity in 1930:
T a b le

53.—Average and classified earnings per hour in eight occupations in the
manufacture and distribution of electricity, 1980

Occupation

Electricians______
Groundmen..........
Laborers________
Linemen________
Linemen’s helpers.
Trouble men_____
Wiremen________
Wiremen’s helpers

Num­ Averber
age
of
earn­
emings
per
ployhour

Per cent of employees whose earnings
(in cents) per hour were—
35.
un­
der
40

8 $0,809
7
.503
11
.490
.664
33
.487
13
6
.858
30
.686
30
.425

40,
un­
der
45

45, 50,
70, 80,
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der.
90
70
50
63
42

20

50

Street Railways
Data of hours and earnings, by occupations, for 236 employees of
the only electric street railway on the islands are presented in Table
54. The data were compiled from figures for a representative half­
monthly pay period in 1930 and are for males only.
The average earnings per hour, by occupations, ranged from 38.7
cents for laborers to 62.2 cents for operators of 1-man busses and 74.1
cents for “ other skilled employees.”




95

STREET RAILWAYS

5 4 . — Average number of days worked, average full-time and actual hours
and earnings, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per
hour on street railways, 1930, by occupation

T a b le

Occupation

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Carpenters...................... .
Conductors, regular............
Conductors, extra................
Laborers____ ____ ________
Mechanics___ _____ ______
Motormen, regular_______
Motormen, extra.................
Operators of 1-man busses,
regular..............................
Operators of 1-man busses,
extra.................................
Operators of 1-man cars,
regular................. ............
Operators of 1-man cars,
extra............. ...................
Painters...............................
Other skilled employees___
Other employees_________
All employees_______

236

Aver­ Average full­
age
time hours
num­
ber of
days on
which
em­
In
oneployees Per
worked week half
month
in
one-half
month

5
48
13
23
9
47
15

13.0
12.9
11.0
12.0
12.8
12.4
11.2

50.0
0
0
50.7
58.7
0
0

10

11.8

0

2

13.5

28

13.5

3
5
5
23

14.0
13.0
13.0
13.3

105.0
0
0
107.0
126.1
0
0

Aver­
age
Per
hours
actu­ cent of
ally
full
worked time
in one- worked
half
month

105.0
114.7
94.2
97.8
123.1
111.1
91.7

Average full­
time earnings
Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
Per
hour week

100.0 $0,610 $30.50 $64.05
.560
0
0
.470
0
0
0
91.4
.387 19.62 41.41
97.6
.538 31.58 67.84
.568
0
0
.470
0
0
0

0

113.4

0

.622

0

0

124.5

0

.535

0

0

124.8

0)

.598

0
105.0
110.0
112.0

134.8
105.0
109.2
120.7

0
100.0
99.3
107.8

.549
.446
.741
.537

0
50.0
52.0
53.0

12.6 2 52.5 2111.0

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
In
ings in
oneonehalf
half
month month

111.6 2 100.5

$64.05
64.18
44.30
37.80
66.24
63.04
43.12

0

70.50.

0

0

66.63

0

0)

74.64

0
46.83
81.51
60.14

74.08
46.83
80.96
64.82

.544 222.62 260.38

60.73

0

0
22.30
38.53
28.46

1 Not reported.
2 Not including data for 166 employees; regular full-time hours per week not reported.

Table 55 shows average and classified earnings per hour in eight
occupations on street railways, 1930:
T

able

5 5 . — A v e ra g e a n d c la ssified ea r n in g s p er h o u r i n eight o c cu p a tio n s o n street

railways, 1930

Occupation

Carpenters____________________________________
Conductors, regular_________ ____ _____________
Conductors, extra_______ ____ ____ ____ _______ _
Laborers_______________________ ______________
Mechanics____________________________________
Motormen, regular_____________________________
Motormen, extra______________________________
Operators of 1-man busses, regular____
_____ _
Operators of 1-man busses, extra________________
Operators of 1-man cars, regular_________________
Operators of 1-man cars, extra__________________
Painters____________________________ _____ ____

Per cent of employees whose earn­
ings (in cents) per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
earn­
em­
35
40
45
50
60
70
ings
ploy­
and and and and and and
ees perhour under under under under under under
40
45
50
00
80
70
5
48
13
23
9
47
15
10
2
28
3
5

$0,610
.560
.470
.387
.538
.568
.470
.622
.535
.598
.549
.446

61

40

35

20

10
100
4
U
11
100

20

40
64

40
25

78
64

n
26

30
100
46
100

54

20

70

20

Table 56 shows the number of runs with specified hours on duty
of motormen and conductors, operators of 1-man cars, and operators
of 1-man busses, on Monday to Friday, Saturday, and Sunday,
and the number of hours within which each rim was completed.
Reading the table, it is seen that on Monday to Friday the hours
of the motorman and conductor on one run were 5% and under.6,



96

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

and that the run was completed within 8K and under 9 hours. This
means that the motorman and the conductor on this run were off
duty 3 hours between the time of beginning and quitting work each
day, Monday to Friday. It is also seen that the hours of duty of
another run were 8% and under 9 and that it was completed within
the same number of hours. This means that it was a straight
rim—one that is continuous from time of beginning until time of
quitting work for the day, with no time off duty. Two runs Monday
to Friday were each 10 and under 10K hours per day, one completed
within 12 and under 12% hours and the other within 12% and under
13 hours.
Car and bus operators with runs of 9 hours or less per day were paid
one and one-half times their regular rate for any time worked in
excess of 9 hours. Those with runs of more than 9 hours per day
were paid one and one-half times their regular rate for any time worked
in excess of their regular working time.
T a b le 56.— Number of regular runs (days9 work) on street railways, by hours on

duty and hours within which runs were completed
MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS
Number of runs with hours on duty of—
9
5H
6
7
2
10 Total
8H
7H
8
m
m
Number of hours within
and and and and and and and and and and and
which runs were completed under under under under under under under under under under under
9
10
6
8
10^
2H
7
7h
8H
m
Monday to Friday
8Vi and under 9__________
10 and under 10H_________
10H and under 11_________
11 and under 1 1 _________
12 and under 12^6_________
12V6 and under 13_________
13 and under 13 _________

1

Total..........................

1

1

i

4
1

4

1

2
1

3
2
9

4

i

2
2

1

4

19

7
3
1
3
14

1
1
2

2
4
8
3
7
12
12
48

Saturday
2 and under
__________
7 and under 7l 2~.................
/
7J4 and under 8__________
8 ^ and under 9__________
and under 10__________
10 and under 10J^_________
10H and under 11_________
11 and under 11J4_________
12 and under 12 _________
12^ and under 13_________
13 and under 13^_________
13H and under 14_________
i

1

T o ta l........................

1

3
1

1
1
4

1

3
1

1

4

3
1

3

1

1
10

6

15

7
3
1
5
1
17

1
1

1
3
1
1
1
4
7
3
5
17
6
1

2

50

Sunday
6H and under 7__________
7H and under 8__________
9^6 and under 10__________
10 and under 10H_________
13 and under 13^_________
14 and under 14^_________

2

T o ta l.......................-

2




4
1
2

1
3

2
1

2
4
4
4
5
1

7

4

3

20

4

4

STREET RAILWAYS

97

T a b le 56.— Number of regular runs (days’ work) on street railways, by hours on

duty and hours within which runs were completed—Continued
OPERATORS OF 1-MAN CARS

Number of runs with hours on duty of—
Number of hours within
which runs were completed

5 and
under
5H

8 and
under
m

8H and
under
9

9 and
under
9H

9H and
under

10

10 and 10H and
under
under
11
10H

Total

Monday to Friday

Rand under R _ _
lfi
9 and under 9U
9% and rpid«r 10___
10 and undpr 10^
ioj^ and under 11 .
12 and under I2ty, ,
12^4 and undftr is
IS and undftf 1
, 14 and lindfii* 14^

1
1

.

Total.........................

2

1

3
3
4
4

1
l

2

1

16

1

3

1

1
5

1

26

1

4
4
4
5
5

Saturday

5 and under 5H__ -______
9 and under 9}4__________
9H and under 10_________
10 and under 10^6________
10H and under 11________
12 and under 12^6________
12H and under 13________
13 and under 13}£................
14 and under 14^________

1

Total.........................

1

1
1

1

4
4

1
1

2

1
1

1

3
3

16

1

3

1
5

1
1

1

26

Sunday

9 and under 9H__________
9H and under 10................
10 and under lO
J^j________
10H and under 11________
12 and under 12^ ________
12V and under 13________
6
13 and under 13}4____ ____
14 and under 14J6________

1

Total.........................

1




1
1

2
3
3

4
4

1
2

17

1
1

3

2
1

1

5

5

1
6

5
4
5

1
1

1

1

28

98

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le

56.—Number of regular runs (days9 work) on street railways, by hours on
duty and hours within which runs were completed— Continued
OPERATORS OF 1-MAN BUSSES
Number of runs with hours on duty of—

Number of hours within
which runs were completed

9
and
under
m

m
and
under
10

10
and
under
10X

11
and
under
11H

io n
and
under
11

UH
and
under
12

12
and
under
12H

12^
and
under
13

Total

Monday to Friday
10 and nndp.r 10^
W13 Arid linear 11
11 and iindar 11^
19 and iindpr 12^
1$V£ arid nnd^r IS
13Yi and under 14_________
15 and under 1 5 _________

1
2

Total........................ .

6

1
2
1
3
1
1
1

1

3

1

1

1
1

2

1

10

Saturday
10 and under 10H_________
10^ and under 11________
11 and under 11^_________
12 and under 12^6_________
12H and under 13__ ______
s
14^ and under 15_________
16}£ and under 17_________

1
2

Total______________

6

1

3

1
2
1
3
1
1
1

1

10

1
1
1
1

1
1

1

Sunday
9 ^ and under 10__________
10 and under 10H_________
10^ and under 11_________
11 and under 11]4_________
12 and under 12H_________
12^ and under 13_________
Total______________

1

l
2
3
6

1

1
2
2
1
3
1

2

10

1

1

2

Table 57 shows for each motorman, conductor, operator of 1-man
cars, and operator of 1-man busses the classified hours actually worked
and the classified earnings in a representative half-monthly pav period
in 1930.
In the half month the hours actually worked by one motorman
were “ 10 and under 20 hours,” and his earnings were “ $10 and
under $12.50.” Another motorman whose hours were “ 20 and under
30” earned “ $10 and under $12.50.” It is further seen that the
hours of three motormen were “ 135 and under 140” in the half
month and that their earnings were “ $82,50 and uuder $85,”




T able 57.— Classified actual hours and earnings in one-half month in specified occupations on street railways, 1980
Number of employees in each earnings group whose hours of actual work in one-half month were—
Occupation and classified earnings in
one-half month

10
20
30
50
60
70
80
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
Un­ and and and and
der under under under under and and and and and and and and and and and and
under under ■under under under under under under under under under under
10
20
30
60
50
70
80
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135

135
140 145
and and and
under under under Total
140 145
150

MOTORMEN, REGULAR
$12.50............................
$17.50..............
$37.50..........................
$45.00____ ____
$50.00.................. .........
$52.50...............
$55.00........ ................
$57.50..........................
$60.00................. .
$62.50____ ____ ___
$65.00.........................
$67.50..............................
$72.50__________________
$75.00...............................
$77.50_____ ______ ______
$80.00........... ...... ..............
$82.50................................
$85.00........... .....................

1

Total_____ ______ _________________

1

1
1

2
1
1
1

1

2
1
1
1

2
1

2

1

5
2

o
o
o
6
o

1
2

1
1
1
3

1

3

i

6

2
2

4

3

MOTORMEN, EXTRA

2 !

1

$25.00 and under $27.50_____ _____________
$27.50 and under $30.00........ ........................
$30.00 and under $32.50............. ...................
$37.50 and under $40.00.................................
$40.00 and under $42.50.................................
$42.50 and under $45.00.................................
$45.00 and under $47.50.................................
$50.00 and under $52.50.................................
$52.50 and under $55.00................................
$55.00 and under $57.50.................................

1

1

4

1

5

6

2

1

g

6

7

1

Total.....................................................

2




2
3
2
1

3
2
1
1
1

, -

-■ =

3
47

2
1

1
2

===== =

6

X

1
1

2

3

3

3

2

■

1

-

1

2

1

2

-------

-

_ ----- _____ _____

15

RAILWAYS

1
2
1
1
1

STREET

$10.00 and under
$15.00 and under
$35.00 and under
$42.50 and under
$47.50 and under
$50.00 and under
$52.50 and under
$55.00 and under
$57.50 and under
$60.00 and under
$62.50 and under
$65.00 and under
$70.00 and under
$72.50 and under
$75.00 and under
$77.50 and under
$80.00 and under
$82.50 and under

Table 57.— Classified actual hours and earnings in one-half month in specified occupations on street railways, 1930—Continued

O
O

Number of employees in each earnings group whose hours of actual work in one-half month were—
Occupation and classified earnings in
one-half month

1
0

10
1

2
0

1
0

10
1

2
0

Total
LABOR

135
140
115
120 125
130
145
70
95
100 105
30
50
80
90
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
der under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
115
120
125
140
105
130 135
145
150
100
80
90
95
50
60
70
30

CONDUCTORS, REGULAR
$35.00.
$37.50.
$42.50$45.00.
$47.50.
$50.00,
$52.50.
$55.00,
$57.50.
$60.00,
$62.50.
$65.00.
$67.50.
$70.00.
$72.50.
$77.50.
$80.00.
$82.50.
$85.00.

1

4 I

48

CONDUCTORS, EXTRA
$17.50 and under $20.00.
$27.50 and under $30.00.
$32.50 and under $35.00.
$40.00 and under $42.50.
$42.50 and under $45.00.
$45.00 and under $47.50.
$47.50 and under $50.00..
$50.00 and under $52.50..
$52.50 and under $55.00,
$55.00 and under $57.50.
Total.....................




1

1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

2

13

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

Total.........

CONDITIONS

$32.50 and under
$35.00 and under
$40.00 and under
$42.50 and under
$45.00 and under
$47.50 and under
$50.00 and under
$52.50 and under
$55.00 and under
$57.50 and under
$60.00 and under
$62.50 and under
$65.00 and under
$67.50 and under
$70.00 and under
$75.00 and under
$77.50 and under
$80.00 and under
$82.50 and under

OPERATORS OF 1-MAN CAES, REGULAR

$52.50 and under $55.00..
$57.50 and under $60.00..
$62.50 and under $65.00..
$65.00 and under $67.50..
$67.50 and under $70.00....
$70.00 and under $72.50..
$72.50 and under $75.00..
$75.00 and under $77.50..
$77.50 and under $80.00..
$80.00 and under $82.50..
$82.50 and under $85.00..
$85.00 and under $87.50..
$87.50 and under $90.00..
$90.00 and under $92.50..
Total..

1
1
2

3
3

1
1

4
3

2
1
1
1

4

28

STREET

OPERATORS OF 1-MAN CARS, EXTRA
$67.50 and under $70.00.................................
$75.00 and under $77.50.................................
$77.50 and under $80.00.................................

RAILWAYS

T o t a l-.................................................
OPERATORS OF 1-MAN BUSSES, REGULAR
$2.50 and under $5.00....................................
$50.00 and under $52.50........ ........................
$72.50 and under $75.00.................................
$75.00 and under $77.50.................................
$77.50 and under $80.00....................... .........
$82.50 and under $85.00.................................
$85.00 and under $87.50.................................
$95.00 and under $97.50.................................
Total.....................................................

1
0

OPERATORS OF 1-MAN BUSSES, EXTRA
$62.50 and under $65.00.................................
$70.00 and under $72.50.................................
Total—................................... .............




o

102

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Table 58 shows for each motorman, conductor, operator of 1-man
cars, and operator of 1-man busses the actual number of days on which
he worked in a representative half-monthly pay period in 1930 and the
classified amount earned in such period.
In the one-half month one motorman worked on 2 days and his
earnings were “ $10 and under $12.50.” Another motorman worked
on 3 days and his earnings were the same. Two worked on 15 days
and the earnings of one were $52.50 and under $55 and those of the
other were “ $55 and under $57.50.” Of three who worked on 14
days the earnings of each were “ $82.50 and under $85.”
T a b le 58.— Days worked by employees and classified earnings in one-half month

in specified occupations on street railways, 1930

Occupation, and classified earnings
in one-half month

Number of employees earning each classified amount whose days
worked in one-half month were—
10

11

12

13

14

15 Total

24

47

MOTORMEN, REGULAR
$10.00 and under $12.50.
$15.00 and under $17.50.
$35.00 and under $37.50.
$42.50 and under $45.00.
$47.50 and under $50.00.
$50.00 and under $52.50.
$52.50 and under $55.00.
$55.00 and under $57.50.
$57.50 and under $60.00.
$60.00 and under $62.50.
$62.50 and under $65.00.
$65.00 and under $67.50.
$70.00 and under $72.50..
$72.50 and under $75.00.
$75.00 and under $77.50.
$77.50 and under $80.00.
$80.00 and under $82.50.
$82.50 and under $85.00.
Total..
MOTORMEN, EXTRA
$25.00 and under $27.50.
$27.50 and under $30.00..
$30.00 and under $32.50..
$37.50 and under $40.00..
$40.00 and under $42.50..
$42.50 and under $45.00.
$45.00 and under $47.50.
$50.00 and under $52.50..
$52.50 and under $55.00.
$55.00 and under $57.50.
Total....................
CONDUCTORS, REGULAR
$32.50 and under $35.00.
$35.00 and under $37.50.
$40.00 and under $42.50.
$42.50 and under $45.00.
$45.00 and under $47.50.
$47.50 and under $50.00.
$50.00 and under $52.50.
$52.50 and under $55.00.
$55.00 and under $57.50.
$57.50 and under $60.00.
$60.00 and under $62.50.
$62.50 and under $65.00.
$65.00 and under $67.50.
$67.50 and under $70.00.
$70.00 and under $72.50.
$75.00 and under $77.50.
$77.50 and under $80.00.




1 2
|

103

STREET RAILWAYS

Ta b le 58.— Days worked by employees and classified earnings in one-half month

in specified occupations on street railways, 1930—Continued

Occupation, and classified earnings
in one-half month

Number of employees earning each classified amount whose days
worked in one-half month were—
2

1

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15 Total

conductors, regular—Continued

4
3

$80.00 and under $82.50_____ ______
...................$82.50 and under $85.00
.
Total.......................................

1

1

2

2

6

17

... .

4
3

16

3

48

CONDUCTORS, EXTRA
$17.50 and under $20.00........ . _
$27.50 and under $30.00_____ ___
$32.50 and under $35.00_______ _
$40.00 and under $42.50_______
$42.50 and nnriftr $4.t>
,ftft
$45.00 and under $47.50
$47.50 and under $50.00
$50.00 and under $52.50 . .
$52.50 and under $55.00 __
$55.00 and under $57.50........
Total____________

1

1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

----- -----

1

1

1

1

3

2

1
1

1

. . . .

1

. . . .

2

2 -----

1

1
3

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
13

OPERATORS O 1-MAN CARS, REGULAR
F
$52.50 and nndp.r $5n,ft0
$57.50 and under $60.00
$62.50 and under $65.00
$65.00 and under $67.50
$67.50 and under $70.00
$70.00 and under $72.50 _
$72.50 and under $75.00
$75.00 and under $77.50
$77.50 and under $80.00
$80.00 and under $82.50_ __
$82.50 and under $85.00 .............. __
$85.00 and under $87.50...... .........
$87.50 and under $90.00................
$90.00 and under $92.50___________

1
1

1

1

1
1
1
1
2

2

Total.......... ................. ...........

2

7

. .. .

3
2
1 "T
1 i
1
1
1
14

1
1
2
3
3
1
1
4
3
2
4
1
1
1

3

28

"T

1
1
1

l

3

1
1 ::::
2
1
1

1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

OPERATORS O 1-MAN CARS, EXTRA
F
1

$67.50 and under $70.00
$75.00 and under $77.50. ...................
____
$77.50_and under $80.00
_

1

Total............ ............................

1
1

OPERATORS O 1-MAN BUSSES,
F
REGULAR
$2.60 and under $5.00 ___
$50.00 and under $52.50...................
$72.50 and under $75.00
$75.00 and under $77.50......... ...........
$77.50 and under $80.00 ____ ______
$82.50 and under $85.00........... .........
$86.00 and under $87.50...................
$95.00 and under $97.50.....................

1

Total....... ................................

1

1

1 —-

1

1 -----

1

6

—

1

1

10

. . . .

1
1

1

. . . .

2

OPERATORS OF 1-MAN BUSSES, EXTRA
1

$62.50 and under $65.00___________
$70.00 and under $72.50___________
Total_______ ______________




1

1

1

104

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Printing and Publishing
Hours of labor and earnings in 1930 are presented in Table 59, by
occupations, for 194 males and 24 females in the two most important
newspaper and book and job printing and publishing companies in the
Hawaiian Islands. Employees in each occupation were on a 6-day
week of 44 hours basis.
In the weekly pay period covered the average hours actually worked
by employees in each occupation, except male proof readers, were in
excess of the average full-time hours per week.
Average earnings per hour by occupations were 35.2 cents for
bindery women; 88.3 cents for bookbinders, male; $1.04 for compos­
itors, hand, male; $1,196 for linotype operators, male; 45.1 cents for
press feeders, male; 93.6 cents for pressmen; $1,083 for proof readers,
male; and 95.3 cents for stereotypers, male, etc. Males in all occu­
pations earned an average of 91.5 cents per hour and females, 37.8
cents. The average for both sexes combined, or the industry, was
85.7 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
one and one-half times the rate for regular working time and applied
to all employees.
T a b le 59.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings

per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour
in printing and publishing, 1980, by occupation and sex

Occupation and sex

Aver­
age
num­
Num­ Num­ ber of
ber of ber of days on
estab­ em­ which
lish­ ploy­
em­
ments ees ployees
worked
in one
week

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
Per
full­ hours cent of
actu­
time
full
ally
hours worked time
per in one worked
week week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age Aver­
age
full­
time actual
earn­ earn­
ings
ings
per in one
week
week

Bindery women...............................
Bookbinders, male..........................
Compositors, hand, male................
Linotype operators, male................
Press feeders, male............. - ...........
Pressmen, male...............................
Proof readers, male....... ..................
Stereotypers, male..... .....................
Other skilled employees, male.......
Other employees, male....................
Other employees, female.................

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

19
6
22
33
8
14
6
4
36
65
5

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.5
44.6
44.4
44.1
47.9
44.1
44.0
44.8
45.2
46.8
45.7

101.1 $0,352 $15.49
101.3
.883 38.85
101.0 1.040 45.76
100.3 1.196 52.62
.451 19.84
108.9
.936 41.18
100.2
100.0 1.083 47.67
.953 41.93
101.7
102.8 1.358 59.75
106.5
.545 23.98
.472 20.77
103.9

All employees, male..............
All employees, female______

2
2

194
24

6.0
6.0

44.0
44.0

45.5
44.7

103.4
101.7

.915
.378

40.26
16.63

41.61
16.90

All employees, male and
female..................................

2

218

6.0

44.0

45.4

103.1

.857

37.71

38.89

$15.67
39.36
46.20
52.79
21.64
41.28
47.67
42.66
61.42
25.53
21.58

Table 60 shows the per cent of employees receiving each classified
amount per hour in 1930 by occupations, in printing and publishing
(newspaper, and book and job):




105

STOCK RAISING
T able

60.—Average and classified earnings in printing and publishing in eight
occupations, 1930, by sex

Occupation and sex

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­
24
30 35 40 45 50 60 70
16
90 100
em­
ploy- ings and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 120
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
hour der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over
30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120
18 24

Bindery women____
Bookbinders, m ale...
Compositors, hand,
male.................... .
Linotype operators,
male.........................
Pressfeeders, male___
Pressmen..... .............
Proof readers, male—
Stereotypers, male—.

2
2

11

0.352

22

16

1.040

114

1.196
.451
.936
1.083
953

13

13

27
0
31
4

25

<17

19 per cent earned $1.30 and under $1.40 and 5 per cent $1.20 and under $1.30.
3 12 per cent earned $1.30 and under $1.40 and 58 per cent $1.20 and under $1.30.
8 7 per cent earned $1.40 and over and 7 per cent $1.20 and under $1.30.
* These employees earned $1.40 and over.

Stock Raising
^Average hours and earnings are presented in Table 61 by occupa­
tions, for 191 employees of a very large stock farm engaged in the
raising of cattle, sheep, horses, and hogs, and the production and
marketing of dairy products. The data were collected by agents of
the bureau for a monthly pay period in 1929 and are for males only.
The farm or ranch, including land owned and leased, covered more
than 450,000 acres. The stock on the ranch included 27,000 cattle,
12,000 sheep, 3,000 horses, and several hundred swine.
The regular working time was 53 hours per week. Average earn­
ings per hour were 30.6 cents for cowboys; 26.4 cents for dairymen;
19.9
cents for laborers; and 36 cents for all “ other employees.”
The average earnings for all employees on the ranch were 27.5 cents
per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time.
61.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in stock
raising, 1929, by occupation

T a b le

Occupation and sex

Aver­ Avera*;e fullage
time'hours
num­
ber of
Num­ days on
ber of which
em­
em­
ployees ployees Per
Per
worked week month
in 1
month

Aver­
Per
age
hours cent of
actually full
worked time
in 1 worked
month

Cowboys..............................
Dairymen............................
Laborers..............................
Other employees-................

24
11
89
67

26.5
28.8
24.8
26.1

53.0
53.0
53.0
53.1

229.0
229.0
229.0
229.5

233.8
254.0
218.7
230.4

All employees............

191

25.7

53.0

229.0

226.7




Average full­
time earn­
ings
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
actual
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
per
Per
in 1
hour week Per
month month

102.1 $0,306 $16.22 $70.07
110.9
.264 13.99 60.46
95.5
.199 10.55 45.57
100.6
.360 19.12 82.62
99.0

.275

14.58

62.98

$71.49
66.99
43.55
83.02
62.26

106

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

For the occupations of cowboys, dairymen, and laborers, average
earnings per hour in 1929 and the per cent of employees earning each
classified amount are shown in Table 62:
T a b le

62.— Average and classified earnings per hour in three occupations in stock
raising, 1929

Occupation

Per cent of employees whose earnings
Aver­
Num­ age
ber of earn­ 14
22 24 26
16
18 20
em­
ings and and and and and and and
ployees per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
hour der der der der der der der
16
22 24
18
28

2
0

Cowboys..
Dairymen.
Laborers __

(in cents) per hour were—
35 40
28 30
45
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
30
35 40 45
50

21

$0,306
.264
.199

Machine Shops
Average full-time hours and earnings in 1929 are shown in Table 63,
by occupations, for the employees of the two important machine
shops on the islands. The hours of the employees in each shop were
44 per week, and average earnings by occupations, except “ helpers”
and “ other employees,” ranged from 49.8 cents for crane operators
to $1,051 for pattern makers.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
two times the rate for regular working time and applied to all
employees.
T a b le

63.— Average full-time hours and earnings in machine shops, 1929, by
occupation

Occupation

Average
Number Number full-time Average Average
of estab- of em­
earnings full-time
hours
earnings
ments
ployees per week per hour per week

Blacksmiths____________________________________
Blacksmiths’ helpers ___________________________
Crans operators ________________________________
Helpers, not otherwise specified___________________
Machinists ____________________________________
Machinists’ and toolmakers’ helpers_______________
Pattern makers
_____________________________
Other skilled employees__________________________
Other employees_______________________________

2
2
1
2.
2
2
1
2
2

2
7
3
20
47
29
7
10
16

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,991
.535
.498
.484
.868
.510
1.051
.894
.484

$43.60
23.54
21.91
21.30
38.19
22.44
46.23
39.34
21.30

All employees______________________________

2

141

44.0

.685

30.14

In one machine shop the pay period was one week and in the other
two weeks. Table 64 shows by pay period the average full-time
hours and earnings, the per cent of full time worked, and the hours
actually worked and actual earnings in 1929.




107

MACHINE SHOPS

64,— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in machine
shops, 1929, by occupation

T a b le

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Occupation

Average
number
of days
on
which
employ­
ees
worked
in pay
period

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ full­ Aver­
age Average Per
age
full­ hours cent of age
time actual
earn­ earn­ earn­
time actually full
ings
hours worked time
ings ings in
per
per in pay
per
pay
pay period worked hour
pay period
period
period

One-week pay period
Blacksmiths.................................................
Blacksmiths’ helpers......................... .........
Crane operators............................................
Helpers, not otherwise specified.................
Machinists....... ....................................... .
Machinists’ and toolmakers’ helpers_____
Pattern makers......................................... .
Other skilled employees. ................. . . ........
Othsr employees......................... ................

1
5
3
13
39
25
7
7
9

6.0
6.0
6.0
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
5.3
6.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
44.0
43.3
42.6
44.0
44.1
44.0
39.9
44.2

All employees.....................................

109

5.9

44.0

43.6

100.0 $0.942 $41.45
100.0
.565 24.86
98.4
.498 21.91
96.8
.531 23.36
100.0
.853 37.49
100.2
.510 22.44
100.0 1.051 46.23
.879 38.68
90.7
.504 22.18
100.5
99.1

.699

$41.45
24.86
21.57
22.62
37.49
22.49
46.23
35.08
22.30

30.76

30.45

$91.50
40.48
34.24
84.39
44.81
85.23
41.71

Two-week pay period
Blacksmiths.................................................
Blacksmiths’ helpers............... ...................
Helpers, not otherwise specified............... .
Machinists____________________________
Machinists’ and toolmakers’ helpers..........
Other skilled employees..............................
Other employees..........................................

1
2
7
8
4
3
7

12.0
12.0
11.6
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

88.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
88.0

88.0
88.0
86.1
89.9
87.9
91.6
91.0

100.0 $1.039 $91.50
100.0
.400 40.48
97.8
.398 35.02
102.2
.939 82.63
99.9
.510 44.88
104.1
.930 81.84
103.4
.458 40.30

All employees................. -..................

32

11.9

88.0

89.0

101.2

.037

56.06

56.69

Table 65 gives average hourly earnings in 1929 for seven of the
occupations in machine shops, and shows the number of employees
earning each classified amount:
T a b le

65.— Average and classified earnings per hour in seven occupations in
machine shops, 1929

Occupation

Blacksmiths_________________
Blacksmiths’ helpers__________
Crane operators_____ _________
Helpers, not otherwise speci­
fied________________________
Machinists___________________
Machinists and toolmakers’
helpers___________ ____ ____
Pattern makers______________




Num­ Aver­
ber
age
of
earn­
em­
ings
per
ploy­
ees
hour

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per
hour were—
30
and
un­
der
35

20
47

.484
.868

29
7

.510
1.051

5

45
and
un­
der
50

50
and
un­
der
60

60
and
un­
der
70

70
and
un­
der
80

14

2 $0,991
7
.535
3
.498

40
and
un­
der
45

29
67

29
33

14

14

30

10

50

5
15

13

3

45

48

3

80
and
un­
der
90

90
and
un­
der
100

100
and
un­
der
120

5a

50

19

49

4

14

14

71

108

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Gas— Manufacture and Distribution
Data for the 102 employees engaged in the manufacture and dis­
tribution of gas are for males only in one establishment. In Table 66
average full-time hours, hourly earnings, and full-time weekly earnings
in 1930, by occupations, are given.
The 48-hour week was in operation in all occupations and average
earnings per hour ranged from 38 cents for laborers to 65 cents for
gas-pipe fitters. The average for the industry was 47.8 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for Sunday and holidays was the same
as for regular working time.
T a b le 66.— Average hours and earnings of employees in the manufacture and

distribution of gas, 1930, by occupation
Number of
employees

Average
full-time
hours per
week

Boiler firemen______________________________________
Gas makers------ ------------ ----------------------------------------Gas-pipe fitters.................. ......... ........... .........................
Laborers--------- ------ -------------------------------- ------------- Meter repair men______________________ __________ _
Trouble men______________________________ _______ _
Other skilled employees____________________________
Other employees------ --------- -------------------------------------

7
6
4
52
4
3
5
21

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

$0,481
.621
.650
.380
.475
.625
.596
.562

$23.09
29.81
31.20
18.24
22.80
30.00
28.61
26.98

All employees---------- --------------------------------------

102

48.0

.478

22.94

Occupation

Average
full-time
earnings
per week

Average
earnings
per hour

For certain occupations in the manufacture and distribution of gas
the length of the pay period was one week and for others one-half
month. Table 67 shows by occupation and pay period average full­
time and actual hours and earnings, and also hourly earnings in 1930:
T able 67.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,

per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in the manu­
facture and distribution of gas, 1930, by pay period and occupation

Occupation

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
days on
which
em­
ployees
worked
in pay
period

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
in pay
period

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­
age
age
hours cent of
full­
age
actual
actually full earnings time earnings
worked time
per earnings
in pay worked hour in pay in pay
period
period period

One-week pay period
1
Gas-pipe fitters........ ............................
Laborers--------------------------- -----------—
Meter repair men--------- ------ -----------Other skilled employees_____________
Other employees-----------------------------

4
50
4
4
15

6.0
4.2
6.0
6.0
6.0

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

48.0
33.3
48.0
48.0
48.0

100.0
69.3
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0,650
.379
.475
.535
.458

$31.20
18.19
22.80
25.68
21.98

$31.20
12.60
22.80
25.68
21.98

All employees.................... .............

77

4.8

48.0

38.4

80.0

.432

20.74

16.60

One-half month pay period
Boiler firemen....................................—
Gas makers________________________
L a b o r e r s____ _____________________
Trouble men_________________i _____
Other skilled employees---- ------ -------Other employees---------- ------ ------------

7
6
2
3
1
6

13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.0

104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.481
.621
.397
.625
.841
.821

$50.00
64.58
41.25
65.00
87.50
85.42

$50.00
64.58
41.25
65.00
87.50
85.42

All employees___________ _____

25

13.0

104.0

104.0

100.0

.621

64.60

64.60




109

DRY DOCK

Table 68 gives the average hourly earnings in 1930, by occupation,
and the per cent of employees who earned each classified amount per
hour in gas manufacture and distribution.
T a b le 68.— Average and classified earnings per hour of employees in six occupations

in the manufacture and distribution of gast 1980

Occupation

Boiler firemen_____________________
Gas makers_______________________
Gas-pipe fitters___________________
Laborers. _
. . . ___________
Meter repair m en.. _______________
Trouble men__________ ’___________

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents)
per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
em­ earnings
60
70
80
30
50
40
45
35
ploy­
per
and and and and and and and and
ees
hour under under under under under under under under
70
80
90
45
60
50
40
35
7
6
4
52
4
3

$0,481
.621
.650
.380
.475
.625

100
2

79

67
50

17
25

50
33

19
50

17

33

25
33

Dry Dock
Average full-time and actual hours and earnings, by occupations,
are presented in Table 69 for the 94 employees of the most important
dry dock on the islands. The data are for a pay period of one week
in 1929 and for males only. The regular hours of operation of
employees in each occupation were 45 per week and average earnings
per hour ranged from 44.1 cents for laborers to 91.4 cents for
machinists.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
one and one-half times the rate for regular working time and applied
to all employees.
T a b le 69.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings

per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour
for dry-dock workers, 1929, by occupation

Occupation

Aver­
age
number Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
age
Per
Num­ of days
age
age
full­
ber of
on
hours
cent
em­ which time actually of full earn­
ings
em­
ploy­
hours worked time
per
in one worked hour
ees ployees per
worked week
week
in one
week

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
made
in one
week

Carpenters_________________________
Carpenters’ helpers_________________
Laborers _ ________________________
Machinists_____ ____ ______________
Machinists’ helpers_________________
Welders_______________________ •
____
Other skilled employees_____________
Other employees___________________

13
3
41
4
4
2
10
17

5.8
6.0
4.4
5.8
6.0
5.5
6.1
5.1

45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0

45.8
47.0
33.7
44.3
45.8
44.7
48.0
39.8

101.8
104.4
74.9
98.4
101.8
99.3
106.7
88.4

$0.724
.477
.441
.914
.457
.912
.851
.457

$32.58
21.47
19.85
41.13
20.57
41.04
38.30
20.57

$33.18
22.43
14.84
40.45
20.89
40.73
40.87
18.19

AH employees..............................

94

5.1

45.0

39.6

88.0

.578

26.01

22.89

27595°— 31-------8




110

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H A W A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

In Table 70 average hourly earnings and the per cent of employees
who earned each classified amount per hour in 1929 are shown for
six occupations in dry-dock work.
T a b le

70.— Average and classified earnings per hour in six occupations in a dry
dock, 1929
Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents)
per hour were—
Num­ Average
ber of earn­
ings
em­
30
45
60
70
80
40
50
90
ploy­
per
and and and and and and and and
ees
hour under under under under under under under under
35
45
60
70
80
50
90
100

Occupation

Carpenters________________________
Carpenters’ helpers___ ____________
Laborers__________________________
Machinists________________________
Machinists’ helpers________________
Welders__________________________

13
3
41
4
4
2

$0.724
.477
.441
.914
.457
.912

23
67
88

5

33
5

50

2

25

77

25

50

50

50

50

Dairies
Average number of days on which employees worked, average full­
time and actual hours and earnings in 1930, by occupations, are given
in Table 71 for the employees of the most important establishment
on the islands that is engaged in the production and distribution of
dairy products. The figures were compiled from data collected for
a representative pay period of one month in 1930 and are for males
only.
Average earnings per hour ranged from 20.9 cents for laborers to
53.3
cents for truck drivers who deliver milk and other products to
customers. The average for the industry was 29.9 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time.
71.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour of dairy
employees, 1980, by occupation

T a b le

Occupation

Cow washers........................
Laborers...............................
Milkers, machine................
Teamsters........... ...............
Truck drivers (delivering
milk).................................
Other employees....... .........
All employees______




Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Average Average full­
Average full­
number
time earnof days time hours- Average Per
ingsAver­
on
age
hours
cent
which
actually of full earn­
employ­
worked time
ings
ees
per
Per In one in one
Per In one
worked week month month worked hour week month
in one
month

9
34
7
5

28.1
22.7
26.3
24.8

69.0
69.0
60.0
69.0

302.0
305.5
261.0
303.6

271.7
223.7
256.0
242.2

90.0 $0.215 $14.84 $64.93
73.2
.209 14.42 63.85
98.1
.294 17.64 76.73
79.8
.263 18.15 79.85

9
20

31.0
28.6

56.0
67.3

243.0
291.9

243.0
271.6

100.0
93.0

.533
.377

29.85 129.60
25.37 110.05

84

26.0

66.4

291.3

246.1

84.5

.299

19.85

87.10

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings in
one
month

$58.35
46.68
75.14
63.77
129.60
102.49
73.49

111

COFFEE MILLS

Table 72 gives the per cent of employees earning each classified
amount j>er hour for five occupations m dairies, and average earnings
per h(5ur in 1930. Truck drivers were the only employees who earned
as much as 35 cents per hour.
T a b le

72.— Average and classified earnings per hour in five occupations in dairies,
1980

Occupation

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in
were—
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
24
em­
earn­
14
22
28
30
16 20
26
ploy­ ings per and and and and and and and and
ees
hour un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
24
26
30
35
18 22
28
16

Cow washers______________
9
Laborers..______ __________
34
__________
Milkers, machine 7
Teamsters_________________
5
Truck drivers (delivering
milk)...................................
9

$0.215
.209
.294
.263

3

11
3

56
76

.533

22
12

3

” 14
60
20

11
’ 43"
20

cents) per hour

35
50
70
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
40
60 80

3
43
22

67

11

Coffee Mills
Separate studies were made of the two divisions of the coffee in­
dustry, but the report includes figures only as to the mill processes
of hauling, sorting, and polishing the bean. Agricultural data could
not be included because such operations were not going on at the time
the agents of the bureau visited the islands and it was impracticable
to locate coffee producers who employ any considerable number of
workers and retain copies of pay rolls beyond the season’s crop.
A succinct idea of the industry is given in the report of the governor
of the Territory for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929, as follows:
The present acreage devoted to coffee production on the island of Hawaii, the
only island on which coffee is produced on a commercial scale, is Kona district,
5,500 acres; Hamakua district, 400 acres; other districts, 100 acres.
In Kona district there are about 1,200 coffee farms, and at the height of the
picking season, during the past year, about 1,200 men and 850 women were
employed in the industry. The value of the coffee exported during the calendar
year 1928 was $1,368,826, the crop amounting to 5,151,266 pounds.

The figures in Table 73 are for average full-time hours and earnings
and average hourly earnings, by occupations, for employees of the
two establishments on the islands that clean, dry, grade, and other­
wise prepare the coffee bean for the trade.
Males in all occupations combined earned an average of 30.7 cents
per hour and females 14.1 cents per hour, while the average for the
industry was 21.3 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
one and one-half times the rate for regular working time. This rate
applied to laborers with rate of $12 per week and males in other
occupations. The rate for females was the same as for regular
working time.
One mill has a profit-sharing bonus that applies only to males in
service of plant at end of year. In 1929 the bonus was approximately
12 per cent of earnings.




112

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le

73.— Average hours and earnings in coffee mills, 1929-30, by occupation
and sex
Number Number Average Average
of estab­ of em­ full-time earnings
lish­
hours per per hour
week
ments ployees

Occupation and sex

Carpenters, m ale..__________________________ ____
Coffee pickers, female____ ________________________
Grading machine operators, male__________________
Laborers, male___________________________________
Other employees, male____________________________
Other employees, female___________________________

2
2
2
2
2
1

Average
full-time
earnings
per week

3
41
3
19
7

64.5
65.1
54.5
55.2
56.3
0)

$0,433
.139
.361
.252
.379
0)

$23.60
7.66
19.67
13.91
21.34
0)

0)

All employees, male________________________
All employees, female____________________ _

2
2

32
42

55.3
55.0

.307
.141

16. f 8
7.76

All employees, male and female_______________

2

74

55.1

.213

11.74

1 Included in total.

In one coffee mill the pay period was a month and in the other a
week for males and a month for females. The average full-time and
actual hours and earnings for employees in these coffee mills in 1929-30
are given in Table 74, by pay periods.
74.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in coffee mills,
1929-30, by occupation and sex

T a b le

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
age
number
of days
on
which
employ­
ees
worked
in pay
period

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
pay
period

Aver­
Aver­
age
age
Aver­ fuU- Aver­
Per
age
hours cent of age
time actual
actu­
earn­ earn­ earn­
full­
ally
ings
time
ings ings in
worked worked per
per
pay
in pay
hour
pay period
period
period

One-week pay period
Carpenters, male..........................................
Grading machine operators, male________
Laborers, male---------- ------------- ------------Other employees, male-------------------------Other employees, female................... .........

2
2
11
3
1

6.0
6.0
5.7
6.0
6.0

52.0
52.0
52.0
52.0
52.0

54.0
54.0
53.5
54.0
52.0

103.8 $0.498 $25.90
103.8
.381 19.81
102.9
.265 13.78
103.8
.432 22.46
100.0
.231 12.00

$26.88
20.58
14.19
23.33
12.00

All employees, male..........................
All employees, female........................

18
1

5.8
6.0

52.0
52.0

53.7
52.0

103.3
100.0

.332
.231

17.26
12.00

17.83
12.00

All employees, male and female.......

19

5.8

52.0

53.7

103.3

.326

16.95

17.53

87.4 $0,133 $27.66
115.5
.303 78.02
113.9
.321 82.66
.235 60.51
93.2
.145 37.34
90.0
.339 87.29
100.2

$24.16
90.00
94.15
56.42
33.64
87.31

One-month pay period
Coffee pickers, female................................ .
Carpenters, male_______________________
Grading-machine operators, male________
Laborers, male....... ......... .........................
Coffee pickers, female....... ..........................
Other employees, male__________________

24
1
1
8
17
4

20.9
30.0
30.0
22.0
23.4
27.0

208.0
257.5
257.5
257.5
257.5
257.5

181.7
297.5
293.3
240.1
231.7
257.9

All employees, male.------- ------------All employees, female--------------------

14
17

24.6
23.4

257.5
257.5

253.1
231.7

98.3
90.0

.272
.145

70.04
37.34

70.34
33.64

All employees, male and female------

31

23.9

257.5

241.4

93.7

.208

53.56

50.21




113

FOUNDRIES

In Table 75, which shows the number of employees earning each
classified amount per hour, it will be seen that #f the female coffee
pickers all but 7 per cent earned less than 18 cents an hour, while
67 per cent of the male carpenters earned 45 and under 50 cents.
T a b le

75.— Average and classified earnings per hour in four occupations, 1929-80,
by occupation and sex

Occupation and
sex

Carpenters, male..
Coffee
pickers,
female................
Grading machine
operators,male..
Laborers, male___

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents) per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­ 7 8
9 10 12 14 16 18 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45
em­
ploy­ ings and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ees
hour der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der
8
9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50
3 $0,433
41

.139

3
19

33
2

5

5

17

24

.361
.252

20

20

67

7
42 32

11

11

33
5

33

33

Foundries
Average full-time hours and earnings in 1929 are presented by occu­
pations in Table 76 for the 66 employees of the two important
foundries on the islands. Only males were employed. The regular
hours of operation were 44 per week for each occupation. The range
in average earnings per hour was from 51.3 cents for molders’ helpers,
floor, to $1,086 for core makers. For the industry the average was
64.9 cents per hour.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
two times the rate for regular working time and applied to all
employees.
T a b le

76.— Average hours and earnings in foundries, 1929, by occupation '

Occupation

Chippers and rough grinders_________________________
Core makers________________________________________
Crane operators___________ _________________ ______
Cupola tenders______________________________________
Molders, hand, floor________________________________
Molders’ helpers, floor_______________________________
Rough carpenters____________________________________
Other employees____________________________________
All employees_________________________________

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of Average Average Average
estab­ employ­ full-time earnings full-time
hours
per
earnings
lish­
ees
per week
hour
week
ments

P9r

1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2

4
3
3
2
16
32
1
5

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

$0,539
1.086
.563
.562
1.034
.513
.688
.246

$23.71
47.78
24.77
24.73
45.50
22.57
30.27
10.82

2

66

44.0

.649

28.56

Pay periods in the two foundries were for one week in one and for
two weeks in the other. Table 77 shows the per cent of full time
worked by foundry employees and their average full-time and actual
hours and earnings in 1929.




114

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

77.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings,
per cent of full time qctually worked, and average earnings per hour in foundries,
1929, by occupation

T a b le

Occupation

Aver­
age
num­
Num­ ber of
ber of days on
em­ which
em­
ploy­
ees ployees
worked
in pay
period

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
pay
period

Aver­
age
Per
hours cent of
actually full­
worked time
in pay worked
period

Aver­
age
Aver­ full­ Aver­
age
age
time actual
earn­ earn­
earn­
ings
ings
ings
per
per in pay
hour
pay period
period

One-week pay period
Chippers and rough grinders-----------------Core makers---------------- ------ ---------- ------Crane operators................. ............. .............
Cupola tenders------------------------------------Molders, hand, floor................ ...................
Molders’ helpers, floor.................. —...........
Rough carpenters........... ............................Other employees..........................................

4
3
3
2
12
22
1
3

6.0
5.0
5.3
6.0
5.5
5.9
5.0
6.0

44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0

44.0
37.0
38.7
40.5
42.2
43.3
40.0
44.0

All employees.........- ..........................

50

5.7

44.0

42.3

100.0 $0.539 $23.71
84.1 1.086 47.78
.563 24.77
88.0
92.0
.562 24.73
95.9 1.101 48.44
98.4
.513 22. 57
90 9
.688 30.27
100.0
.250 11.00
96.1

.678

$23. 71
40.20
21.75
22. 78
46. 50
22.19
27.50
11.00

29.83

28.66

100.3 $0.833 $73.30
98.0
.512 45.06
.241 21.21
100.6

$73.55
44.11
21.35

Two-week pay period
Molders, hand, floor--------- — ---------------Molders’ helpers, floor--------------------------Other employees_______________________

4
10
2

12.0
11.8
12.0

88.0
88.0
88.0

88.3
86.2
88.5

All employees___________ . __ _____
_

16

11.9

88.0

87.0

98.9

.559

49.19

48.63

Table 78 gives for seven occupations in foundries the per cent of
employees earning each classified amount per hour and the average
earnings per hour in 1929.
T a b le

78.— Average and classified earnings per hour in seven occupations in
foundries, 1929

Occupation

Chippers and rough grinders_____________
Core makers
<-_ __________ ____
Crane operators___ - __________________
Cupola tenders____ _____________________
Molders, hand, flo o r_______- ____________
Molders’ helpers, floor________ ,__________
Rough carpenters.. ___ ______ ______ - ____

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

4
3
3
2
16
32
1

Per cent of employees whose earnings (in
Aver­
cents) per hour were—
age
earn­
ings
40
45
50
60
80
90
100
per
and and and and and and and
hour under under under under under under under
45
50
60
70
90
100
120
$0,539
1.086
.563
.562
1.034
.513
.688

100
100

100
100
3

3

94

6

6

13

75

100

Slaughtering and Meat Packing
Figures in Table 79 are for average number of days on which
employees worked, and for average full-time and actual hours and
earnings in one week in 1930 in a slaughtering and meat-packing
establishment, the employees of which were all males.



115

OVERALLS AND SHIRT MAKING

The regular hours of the establishment were 9 per day Monday to
Friday and 6 on Saturday, or 51 per week. Earnings per hour by
occupations ranged from an average of 27.8 cents for hide workers
to 46.6 cents for butchers and 47.1 cents for mechanics.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same rate as for regular working time.
79.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings
per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour
in slaughtering and meat packing, 1980, by occupation

T a b le

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Average
number
of days
on which
em­
ployees
worked
in 1
week

Butchers____________________ ____ ____
Ice-house workers_____________________
Hide workers, general________________
Laborers_____________________________
Offal workers, general_________________
Mechanics____________________________

4
3
3
7
8
1

5.5
6.0
6.0
5.7
6.0
C.O

51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0
51.0

47.3
51.0
51.0
49.3
51.1
51.0

All employees_____________________

26

5.8

51.0

50.0

Occupation

Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
age
full­ hours cent of
full
time actu­
ally
hours worked time
per
worked
in 1
week week

Aver­
Aver­ age
full­
age
earn­ time
ings earn­
per
ings
hour
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in 1
week

92.7 $0,466 $23.77
100.0
.343 17.49
100.0
.278 14.18
96.7
.317 16.17
100.2
.328 16.73
100.0
.471 24.00

$22.00
17.49
14.18
15.64
16.75
24.00

98.0

.347

17.70

17.33

Table 80 gives for six occupations in slaughtering and meat packing
the per cent of employees whose earnings per hour were each classified
amount, and shows average hourly earnings in 1930.
T a b le

80.— Average and classified earnings per hour in six occupations in slaughter­
ing and meat packing, 1980
Per cent of employees whose earnings (in cents)
per hour were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber of earn­
em­
ings
24
28
26
30
35
40
45
50
ploy­
per
and and and and and and and and
ees
hour under under under under under under under under
26
28
30
35
40
45
50
60

Occupation

Butchers..............................................
Ice-house workers__________________
Hide workers, general______________
Laborers____ _____________________
Offal workers, general______________
Mechanics________________________

4
3
3
7
8
1

$0.466
.343
.378
.317
.328
.471

33

14

29

33
67
29
88

67

25

75

29
100

13

Overalls and Shirt Making
In Table 81 are given average number of days on which employees
worked and the average full-time and actual hours and earnings of
employees of one manufacturer of overalls and shirts for a representa­
tive weekly pay period in 1930.
Female sewing-machine operators, representing 76 per cent of the
total number of employees in the establishment, worked an average
of 5.2 days or 40.4 hours in one week and earned an average of $13.25
in one week and an average of 32.8 cents per hour. They worked
89.4 per cent of full time in the week, the full-time hours being 45.2.
Had they worked full time at the same average of 32.8 cents per hour
their earnings would have averaged $14.83. Earnings per hour



116

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

ranged from an average of 19 cents for one employee to 40 cents for
two employees.
The rate for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays was
the same as for regular working time.
T a b le 81.— Average days worked, average full-time and actual hours and earnings

per week, per cent of full time actually worked, and average earnings per hour in
overalls and shirt making, 1980, by occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Occupation and sex

Average
number
of days Average Average Percent Average Aveiage Average
hours
on which full-time actually of full earnings full-time actual
time
employ­ hours worked
earnings earnings
per week in 1 week worked per hour per week in 1 week
ees
worked
in 1 week

Machine operators, female____
Pressers, male............. ..............
Other employees,1 female........ -

13
1
3

5.2
6.0
5.3

45.2
45.2
45.2

40.4
46.0
41.3

89.4
101.8
91.4

$0,328
.174
.219

$14.83
7.86
9.90

$13.25
8.00
9.05

All employees, male..................
All employees, female................

1
16

6.0
5.3

45.2
45.2

46.0
40.6

101.8
89.8

.174
.307

7.86
13.88

8.00
12.46

17

5.3

45.2

40.9

90.5

.298

13.47

12.20

All employees, male and
female_____ ______ —

i Include 1 folder, 1 machine operator learner, and 1 general utility worker.

Salaries of Policemen and Firemen and Wages of Street
Labor in Honolulu, 1930
The number of persons in each official position or occupation in the
Honolulu police and fire departments in 1930 at each specified monthly
salary and the rate of wages per hour of unskilled street laborers are
shown in Table 82.
Monthly salaries in the police department ranged from $155 for
traffic policemen to $550 for the sheriff, and in the fire department
ranged from $140 for hose men and watchmen to $400 for the chief.
Unskilled street laborers were paid a wage rate of 53 cents per hour,
and their regular hours were 8 per day on Monday to Friday and 4 on
Saturday, or 44 per week.
T a b le 82.—Salaries of Honolulu police and fire departments, and wages of street

labor, 1980, by department and position or occupation
Department and official posi­ Number Salary per
tion or occupation
of persons month

FIRE DEPARTMENT

POLICE DEPARTMENT
Sheriff
...................
Deputy sheriff
_ __
D o __ _________________
Do ............................. ......
D o____________________
Do
.............. ..
Chief clerk
____________
Clerk
..........................
Senior captain______________
Captains. ________________
Lieutenants________________
Sergeants. __ _____ _______
Motor-cycle policemen______
Patrolmen_________________
Traffic policemen___________




Department and official posi­ Number Salary per
tion or occupation
of persons montn

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
6
58
36
11

$550.00
350.00
275.00
200.00
175.00
160.00
250.00
225.00
250.00
200.00
175.00
170.00
165.00
150.00
155.00

$400.00
325.00
250.00
225.00
225.00
200.00
200.00
175.00
165.00
150.00
140.00
140.00

STREET LABOR
Unskilled laborers__________

i Not reported.

1
1
1
1
1
1
10
10
16
26
74
2

Chief........................................
First assistant______________
Second assistant____________
Drillmaster________________
Mechanic__________________
Assistant mechanic_________
Captains___________________
Lieutenants ________________
Engineers__________________
Drivers. _________________
Hose men__________________
Watchmen_________________

* Per hour.

0)

*.53

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 19 2 9 -1 9 3 0

117

Union Labor
Labor organisations in the Hawaiian Islands are few in number,
small in membership, and, with the exception of the barbers’ union,
have no agreements with the employers.
The trades or occupations that have organizations are machinists,
molders, molders’ helpers, and boilermakers in foundries and machine
shops; hand compositors and linotype operators in book and job and
newspaper printing and publishing; marine engineers in steam navi­
gation; carpenters and joiners, plasterers and plumbers in building
construction and repair; and barbers in shops in which Japanese and
Filipinos are not employed. Table 83 shows the number of days
per week on which work was available to the employees in each of
these trades (except boilermakers and plasterers), in the companies
in which they were employed, the regular hours of operation, Monday
to Friday, Saturday, and per week; wage rates per hour, day, week,
or month; and the number of times the regular rate that was paid
for overtime and for any work on Sunday and holidays. Boiler
makers and plasterers are entirely too few in number to warrant
showing any figures for them.
The members of the machinists’ union were employed in shops in
which work was available 6 days per week. The regular hours of
operation in the shops were 8 each day, Monday to Friday, and 4 on
Saturday, or 44 per week. The wage rates ranged from $7 to $7.84
for a day of 8 hours. For overtime or any time worked in excess of
8 hours, Monday to Friday, and 4 on Saturday, or any work on
Sundays and holidays, a rate of two times the regular rate was paid.
83.— Days of operation per week, hours of operation per day and week,
and rates of pay for regular time, overtime, and work on Sunday and holidays,
1930, by occupations

T a b le

Trade or occupation

Machinists___________ __________
Molders, floor, hand_____________
Molders’ helpers__ ______ ________
Compositors, hand, and linotype
operators........................................
Marine engineers________________
Carpenters and joiners___________
Plumbers_________ ___ ___ ___ _
Barbers_________________________

Hours
Days
per
week Monday to Saturday Per week
Friday
6
6
6

8
8
8

6
6
6
6
6

8
8
S%
8H
m

4
4
4
4
8
5
4H
11H

44
44
44

Wage rates
per day

$7.00-$7.84
8.50
4.00-5.25

44
i 35.00-85.00
48 2 150.00-300.00
48
4.50-6.50
47
i 6.00-7.00
58H
3 25.00

Times regu­
lar rate for
overtime
and work on
Sunday and
holidays
2
2
2
1H
1

i Per week.
* Per month.
8 Per week plus 60 cents for each $1 over $35 gross, for chair. Example: A barber in one week did work
amounting to $40. He was paid $25 plus 60 cents for each $1 over $35, or a total of $28.

At the time of the study of conditions in the Hawaiian Islands by
the bureau, the barbers’ union, which does not include any Japanese
or Filipinos, had agreements with six shops only.
The Honolulu Japanese Barbers’ Association, an employers’ organ­
ization, consisted at that time of 191 members and employed approx­
imately 200 male and 100 female Japanese barbers. The hours in
these shops were from 7 a. m. to 8.30 p. m., Monday to Saturday, with
one hour off duty at or near noon for lunch, except on busy days,
usually Saturday, when only such time as could be had without



118

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW AII, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

interfering with the trade was taken. The hours were therefore 12K
per day, Monday to Friday, and 13K on Saturday, or 76 per week,
for which they were paid rates ranging from $15 tof§25 per week and
given two meals per day. The barbers in these shops are not mem­
bers of any union.
In 1929 there were approximately 150 plumbers in Honolulu.
About 30 per cent of them were members of the plumbers’ union and
70 per cent were Japanese and other nonunion workers. Members
of the union were paid from $6 to $7 per day. The Japanese plumb­
ers worked for contractors of their race and were paid from $3 to $5
per day. In the year 2,402 plumbing permits, at an estimated cost
of $704,695.50, were issued in Honolulu. A total of 2,169 permits,
at an estimated cost of $567,196.50, were issued to Japanese contrac­
tors, and only 233 permits, at an estimated cost of $137,499, were
issued to contractors who employed members of the union.
The carpenters’ union in Honolulu does not include any Japanese
and in 1929 and early in 1930 its membership was less than 33% per
cent of the total membership of the union in 1917-18. The union
rate was $6.50 per day of 8 hours, but many members were paid less
and some as low as $4.50 per day. It was estimated by officials of
the carpenters’ union that in 1929 and 1930 there were approximately
1,000 Japanese carpenters in the Hawaiian Islands, that they or the
contractors who employed them do practically all of the building of
cottages, repair and jobbing, much of the large contract work, and as
much as 90 per cent of all the carpentry work in Honolulu. The
rates paid Japanese carpenters range from $3.50 to $5 per day, the
atter rate being paid to working foremen.
Workmen’s Compensation
The Hawaiian workmen’s compensation law has been in effect
since 1915, but no report of its operation has so far been published.
The administration of the workmen’s compensation law is in the
hands of a commission and a secretary for each of the principal
islands. Except for the island of Oahu (city and county of Honolulu)
no reports covering a period of years could be secured.
Tables 84 to 88 were compiled for the Bureau of Labor Statistics
from the records of the Industrial Accident Board of the city and
county of Honolulu by the secretary of that board, and contain data
for each year from 1918 to 1928.
Table 84 applies to accidents causing temporary total disability;
accidents causing permanent partial disability; fatal accidents; and
all accidents combined.
The number of accidents of all classes on the island of Oahu ranged,
by years, from 2,298 in 1918 to 5,958 in 1927. The number of tem­
porary total disability accidents in 1918 was 2,241, or 97.5 per cent
of the total; of permanent partial disability accidents was 36, or 1.5
per cent of the total; and of fatal accidents was 21, or 0.9 per cent of
the total. In no year were accidents causing temporary total disa­
bility less than 97.1 per cent of the total, accidents causing permanent
partial disability more than 2.1 per cent of the total, and fatal acci­
dents more than 0.9 per cent of the total.
In 1918 only 992, or 44.3 per cent, of the 2,241 temporary total disa­
bility accidents exceeded the waiting period, or the number of days or
weeks from the date of the accident to the date when compensation



119

WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION

begins. No compensation is paid in case of recovery before the ex­
piration of the waiting period. Compensation for the 992 accidents
was $19,416, or 49.9 percent of the total of compensation and medical
and hospital expense combined. Medical and hospital expense was
$19,462, or 50.1 per cent of the total expense of tne 992 accidents.
In 1928 compensation for the 956 compensable cases was 35.2 per
cent and medical and hospital expense 64.8 per cent of the total
expense. Compensation per temporary accident was $19.57 in 1918
and $46.60 in 1928.
T a b le

84.— Number, compensation, and medical, hospital, burial, and administra­
tion costs of accidents in the island of Oahu, 1918 to 1928, by years
Temporary total disability
Compensable
cases2

Year

1918_____
1919_____
1920_____
1921_____
1922_____
1923_____
1924_____
1925_____
1926_____
1927_____
1928_____

Total
acci­
dents

2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3, 614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
5,866

Per
Num­ cent of
ber of total
acci­
cases
dents

2,241
2,927
3,316
2,642
2,673
3,524
4,227
4,403
5,223
5,815
5,754

97.5
97.8
97.4
97.2
97.1
97.5
98.1
97.6
97.7
97.6
98.1

Compensation

Medical and
hospital cost

Num­
ber of
Per
noncent of
comtempo­
Per
Per
Num­
penrary
sable ber of total Amount cent of Amount cent of
total
total
cases 1 cases
disa­
cost
cost
bility
cases
1,249
1,556
2,199
1,714
1,569
2,198
2,792
3,041
4,149
4,798
4,798

992
1,371
1,117
928
1,104
1,326
1,435
1,362
1,074
1,017
956

44.3
46.8
33.7
35.1
41.3
37.6
33.9
30.9
20.6
17.5
16.6

$19,416
35, 595
44,783
41,487
35,552
55,521
50,436
47,385
38,655
56,605
44, 545

49.9
57.5
51.2
54.5
47.9
50.0
42.7
44.4
35.1
38.6
35.2

$19,462
26,331
42,674
34, 570
38,724
55,455
67,716
59,266
71,558
89,978
81,864

50.1
42.5
48.8
45.5
52.1
50.0
57.3
55.6
64.9
61.4
64.8

Total
cost3

$38,878
61,925
87,457
76,057
74,276
110,976
118,151
106,651
110,213
146,582
126,409

Permanent partial disability
Medical and
hospital cost

Compensation
Year

Total
acci­
dents

Num­
ber of
cases

Per
cent of
total
acci­
dents

During tempo­
rary total disa­
bility

Amount

1918............
1919..........
1920............
1921______
1922_______
1923..........
1924........ .
1925............
1926...........
1927............
1928______

2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3,614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
5,866

36
49
61
55
59
61
59
85
103
117
90

1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.5

$1,319
3,176
4,305
4,361
4,360
5,984
5,706
10,422
11,783
14,862
11,724

Per
cent of Amount
total
cost
5.6
11.0
12.2
11.2
11.3
10.3
12.0
16.5
14 6
17.8
14.9

1 Causing disability not extending beyond waiting period.
2 Causing disability extending beyond waiting period.
3 Compensation plus medical and hospital cost.




Following tem­
porary total dis­
ability

$20,020
22,377
27,847
30,416
29,776
42,266
35,190
43,023
53,168
55,204
53,009

Per
cent of
total
cost
84.9
77.2
78.6
78.4
77.0
72.8
74.3
68.1
66.0
66.1
67.5

Amount

Per
cent of
total
cost

$2,251
3,416
3,279
4,006
4,522
9,846
6,485
9,771
15,641
13,496
13,804

9.5
11.8
9.3
10.3
11.7
16.9
13.7
15.5
19.4
16.2
17.6

Total
cost3

$23,590
28,969
35,431
38,783
38,659
58,096
47,381
63,217
80,592
83,563
78,538

120

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

T a b le 84. — Number, conpensation, and medical, hospital, burial, and administration

costs of accidents in the island of Oahu, 1918 to 1928,

s/ears— Continued

Fatal accidents
Total
acci­
dents

Year

Num­
ber of
cases

2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3,614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
5,866

1918............
1919............
1920............
1921.........1922......... 1923............
1924_______
1925............
1926.........1927............
1928_______

Medical and
Compensation
Burial cost
Per
hospital cost
cent of
total
Per
Per
Per
acci­
dents Amount cent of Amount cent of Amount cent of
total
total
total
cost
cost
cost
0.9
.5
.9
.8
.7
.8
.6
.5
.4
.4
.4

21
16
29
22
20
29
25
23
22
26
22

$34,953
21,202
54,261
32,817
34,183
62,077
42,240
11,864
36,265
39,557
48,064

95.7
94.4
96.1
95.4
95.3
94.5
92.8
85.6
95.2
92.7
95.0

$193
392
436
414
269
1,722
922
1,022
366
1,415
1,143

0.5
1.7
.8
1.2
.8
2.6
2.0
7.4
1.0
3.3
2.3

$1,369
872
1,757
1,172
1,434
1,918
2,345
978
1,480
1,697
1,408

3.7
3.9
3.1
3.4
4.0
2.9
5.2
7.1
3.9
4.0
2.8

Total
cost4

$36,515
22,466
56,453
34,403
35,886
65,717
45,506
13,864
38, 111
42,669
50,614

All Accidents
Aver­
Administration expenses
age
med­
ical,
Aver­ Med­
hos­
Year
ical Bur­ pital,
Per Per
Per
Per Aver­ age
and
dol­ dol­
Num­
ial
and Total
com­
cent age per
lar
hos­
cost4
lar
ber
pen­ Per
of
of
per com­ pital cost bur­
Amount sable acci­
of comAmount to­
pen­ cost
ial
acci­
cost
acci­ dent acci­ pental dent sable
dent saacci­
per
dent
cost
cost tion
acci­
dent
dent
Compensation

1918.
1919—
1920—
1921—
1922—
1923__
1924__
1925.
1926—
1927__
1928—

2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3,614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
5,866

$75,707
82,350
131,196
109,082
103,871
165,847
133,572
112,695
139,872
166,228
157,342

76.5 $32.94 $72.17 $21,906 $1,369 $10.13 $98,982
72.6 27.52 57.34 30,138
872 10.36 113.360
73.2 38.52 108.69 46,388 1,757 14.14 179,341
73.1 40.12 108.54 38,990 1,172 14.77 149,243
69.8 37.74 87.80 43, 516 1,434 16.33 148,821
70.6 45.89 117.12 67,023 1,918 19.08 234,788
63.3 30.98 87.93 75,123 2,345 17.99 211,039
978 15.75 183, 732
61.3 24.98 76.66 70,059
61.1 26.15 116.66 87,564 1,480 16.65 228,916
60.9 27.90 143.30 104,889 1,697 17.89 272,814
61.6 26.82 147.32 96,811 1,408 16.74 255, 560

$4,742
6,708
12,496
12,949
12,860
12,740
15,277
14,996
16, 527
16,452
14,083

$4.53 $2.06
4.67 2.24
10.35 3.67
12.88 4.76
10.87 4.68
9.00 3.53
10.06 3.54
10.20 3.32
13.78 3.09
14.18 2.76
13.19 2.40

a s . Cts.
4.8
6.3
5.9
8.1
7.0
9.5
8.7 11.9
8.6 12.4
5.4
7.7
7.2 11.4
8.2 13.3
7.2 11.8
6.0
9.9
5.5
9.0

< Compensation plus medical, hospital, and burial cost.

Table 85 shows the number of accidents each year from 1918 to 1928
among the workers of the different races:
T a b le 85.— Number of accidents each year, 1918 to 1928, by race
Year

Ameri­
can

1918..........1919_______
1920............
1921_______
1922.........1923_______
1924..........
1925............
1926_______
1927............
1928_______

198
316
322
264
255
362
448
406
407
444
397

Chi­
nese
131
166
203
146
105
156
204
220
212
256
248

Fili­
pino
235
345
421
387
434
584
672
844
1,094
1,156
1,247

Part
Hawai­ Hawai­ Japa­
ian
nese
ian
258
378
463
323
299
428
440
402
446
550
538

66
111
108
69
81
37
71
116
134
204
144

790
867
948
843
803
1,045
1,156
1,327
1,590
1,788
1,705

Korean Portu­
guese
84
159
136
97
106
135
258
215
210
217
186

Porto
Rican

All
others

75
97
103
80
127
216
280
196
235
295
267

148
156
143
99
107
117
135
142
158
195
177

313
397
559
411
435
534
647
643
862
853
964

i No explanation of difference of 7 between this total and total given in Table 84.




Total
2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3,614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
15,873

121

WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION

The marital status and the sex of the workers injured by accidents
in each year from 1918 to 1928 are set forth in Table 86:
T a b le 86.— Total accidents each year, 1918 to 1928, by marital status and sex.
Marital status
Year

Total acci­
dents

2,298
2,992
3,406
2,719
2,752
3,614
4,311
4,511
5,348
5,958
15,866

1918-..............................................................
1919-..............................................................
1920............................... - ............................. 1921...............................................................
1922-................- ...........................................1923-......................................................... —
1924. ........................................ ............ ........
1925. .................................................... .........
1926..........................................................
1927-..............................................................
1928................................................................

Married
1,227
1,524
1,719
1,500
1,394
1,923
2,323
2,382
2,871
3,103
2,869

Single

Sex
Female

Male

1,071
1,468
1,687
1,219
1,358
1,691
1,988
2,129
2,477
2,855
3,004

2,222
2,910
3,287
2,660
2,702
3,575
4,256
4,448
5,279
5,839
5,742

76
82
119
59
50
39
55
63
69
119
131

i Figures given for marital status and for sex total 5,873, but this total agrees with total in Table 85. No
explanation is given for difference.

The number of compensation awards and of claims denied and
dismissed in fatal accident cases and the number of such cases with
and without dependents are presented in Table 87:
T able 87 .— Number of fatal accidents and disposition of claims therefor, and

number of cases with and without dependents, 1918 to 1928, by years

Year

1918- .................... 1919.........................
1920-........................
1921.........................
1922.........................
1923-...................... .
1924........... ..............
1925_........................
1926.........................
1927_____ _____
1928..........................

Num­
ber of
fatal
acci­
dents
21
16
29
22
20
29
25
23
22
26
l 22

Number of cases with dependents
Cases
Com­
Claims
Claims dismiss­ pensa­ with no
denied
tion
depend­ Widow Widow Children All other
ed
ents
awards
and
depend­
only
only
children
ents
5
3
4
1
3
3
3
5

1
2
3
2

2
2
3

15
11
18
14
11
19
18
9
8
14
14

3
5
2
8
10
7
•
11
9
7
8

5
3
3
2

3
1
3
1

9
4
10
9
7
16
13
3
3
4
9

1
3
2
1
2
2
2
4
3

1
3
2
3
2
2
3
1
2
3
1

* No explanation as to total of items not agreeing with this total, which is same as in Table 84.

Table 88 shows the number and kind of accidents, the compensa­
tion awarded and the medical, hospital, and burial cost, each year
from 1918 to 1928, for sugar plantations and mills, pineapple plan­
tations and canneries, public utilities, construction work and build­
ing trades, and all other industries.




to 1928f by years

12
2

T able 88.— Number and kind of accidents, compensation, and medical, hospital, and burial cost,
SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS

Temporary
total disa­
bility

Permanent
partial
disability

Temporary total Permanent par­
tial disability
disability

Burial cost

Total

Fatal accidents

97.9
96.8
94.7
95.4
94.5
95.8
95.8
96.4
97.2
96.1
97.2

8
16
19
17
23
18
24
29
27
28
21

1.4
2.8
3.4
3.7
4.5
3.2
3.5
3.3
2.6
3.3
2.3

4
2
11
4
5
6
5
3
2
5
4

0.7
.4
1.9
.9
1.0
1.0
.7
.3
.2
.6
.5

563
569
565
457
513
565
696
889
1,033
838
906

$4,017
5,928
13,366
6,600
4,332
6,362
6,004
6,236
8,311
7,881
6,208

28.2
27.5
28.9
25.1
17.4
27.0
21.0
27.1
29.6
25.6
25.5

$4,793
9,874
9,484
10,103
8,087
7,298
9,218
11,992
12,783
9,590
5,034

33.6
45.9
20.5
38.5
32.6
31.0
32.3
52.0
45.5
31.1
20.6

$2,805
1,223
18,001
6,246
10,000
7,966
10,2(51
1,617
4,428
11,529
10,519

19.7
5.7
38.9
23.8
40.2
33.8
35.9
7.0
15.7
37.4
43.1

$11,615
17,026
40,851
22,949
22,419
21,626
25,484
19,845
25,522
29,000
21,761

81.5
79.1
88.3
87.4
90.2
91.8
89.2
86.1
90.8
94.1
89.2

$2,324
4,384
5,029
3,225
2,288
1,779
2,413
2,989
2,425
1,299
2,329

16.3
20.4
10.9
12.3
9.2
7.6
8.4
13.0
8.6
4.2
9.6

$310
110
380
80
140
150
680
210
150
522
300

2.2
.5
.8
.3
.6
.6
2.4
.9
.6
1.7
1.2

$14,250
21,520
46,260
26,254
24,847
23,555
28,576
23,044
28,096
30,820
24,389

7,313

96.3

230

3.0

51

.7

7,594

75,246

25.8

98,257

33.7

84,595

29.0

258,097

88.5

30,484

10.5

3,032

1.0

291,613

51.5
65.4
52.6
67.1
44.7
60.6
61.3
55.1
44.3
38.6
59.0

$3,716
5,769
9,622
7,598
4,725
9,386
9,081
10,459
12,401
14,845
10,571

48.5
34.6
45.9
31.3
55.3
38.9
37.4
44.7
55.2
61.4
40.6

$320
390

1.5

1
.6

127
324
41
108

.5
1.3

55.3

98,172

44.1

Total—

PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS AND CANNERIES
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4
192 5
192 6
192 7
1928-.........

302
406
494
292
188
253
332
407
517
595
598

98.1
97.6
97.0
95.7
96.4
95.5
96.5
96.9
97.7
97.9
98.2

6
10
12
11
7
10
9
11
11
13
10

1.9
2.4
2.4
3.6
3.6
3.8
2.6
2.6
2.1
2.1
1.6

Total.

4,384

97.3

110

2.4




1

.2

308
416
509
305
195
265
344
420
529
608
609

$2,152
4,564
5,574
5,173
2,667
5,846
4,586
5,665
6,252
4,816
5,155

28.1
27.3
26.6
21.3
31.2
24.2
18.8
24.2
27.8
19.9
19.8

$1,797
6,369
3,441
3,873
1,155
3,771
6,094
5,407
3,697
4,504
6,775

23.4
38.1
16.4
16.0
13.5
15.7
25.1
23.1
16.5
18.7
26.0

14

.3

4,508

52,449

23.6

46,885

21.0

3
2

0.6
.7

2
3
2
1

.7
.9
.5
.2

3,420

13.2

$3,949
10,934
11,031
16,279
3,823
14,617
14,903
12,906
9,948
9,320
15,350

23,726

10.7

123,060

$2,016
7,233

9.6
29.8

5,000
4,223
1,834

20.7
17.4
7.8

.2

.5
„ - -

1,410

.6

$7,665
16,702
20,973
24,267
8,548
24,130
24,309
23,406
22,457
24,165
26,021
222,643

I HAWAII, 1929-1930
N

551
1918.................
551
1919.................
535
1920.................
436
1921.................
485
1922.................
541
1923.................
667
1924.................
857
1925.................
1926................. 1,004
805
1927.................
881
1928...........—

CONDITIONS

Total
cost—
Per
Per
amount
Total
Amount cent of Amount cent of
num­
total
total
Per
Per
Per
Per
ber
Per
Per
Per
cost
cost
cent of Amount cent of Amount cent of Amount cent of
Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent
Amount total
total
total
total
ber
of
ber
of.
ber
of
cost
cost
cOst
cost
total
total
total
Fatal

LABOR

Year

Medical and
hospital cost1

Compensation awarded and paid

Accidents

PUBLIC UTILITIES
1918............
1919............
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4
1925............
192 6
192 7
192 8

99.4
99.2
98.6
97.8

1
.6
.2

.4

.2

97.8
99.5
28

.9
1.5
.5
.7

43.1
36.3
32.0
50.3
29.5
40.5
19.4
32.5
16.6
23.6
32.6
30.9

180
281
218
217
368
450
536
464
438
401
374
3,927

0.4
* .9
1.4

18

$114
148
1,523
2,206
1,254
1,311
332
3,700
5,805
451
16,844

0.9
1.5
17.8
12.7
3.5
4.7
3.0
18.2
26.8
3.8

0
.8

35.5
59.2
57.5
36.4
65.3

$2,348
2,731
3,962
2,725
5,334
7,065
8,395
6,983
8,181
9,078
7,568
64,369

17.9
21.9
40.0
31.9
30.7
19.6
30.3
63.6
40.3
41.8
63.6
33.9

74.4
60.0
76.3
74.6
72.8
66.7
60.9
58.5
63.9
61.1
61.7
64.8

$2,011
5,477
7,148
7,644
9,997
14,912
20,188
17,423
26,823
32,444
27,246
171,313

23.3
37.9
22.2
25.4
26.4
33.1
38.6
41.3
35.6
38.2
37.8
34.6

100

17.3

$6,425
8,655
24,599
22,486
27,515
30,050
31,860
24,650
48,199
51,917
44,484
320,840

400
608
400
3,151

.5
.2
.5
.7
.5
.6

41.9
27.0
21.5
32.2
16.0
34.2
9.7
4.0
14.3
15.9
15.0
20.0

$43,075
36,108
48,861
41,555
38,261
70,768
42,503
51,398
44,175
63,527
71,417
551,648

77.8 $11,507
11,777
74.8
69.8. 20,627
17,797
69.2
21,172
63.5
33,881
66.8
35,046
54.4
32,205
61.1
53.4
37,735
47,224
57.1
49,098
59.0
62.9 318,069

20.8
24.4
29.5
29.6
35.2
32.0
44.8
38.3
45.7
42.5
40.5
36.3

$759
362
461
692
794
1,241
632
527
722
413
6C8
7,210

1.4
.8
.7
1.2
1.3
1.2
.8
.6
.9
.4
.5
.8

$5,000
5,000
2,533

38.2
40.1
25.5

” 4,"526
12,896
12,142

”2^"
65

” 4,’ 95l"
1,544

"24T

35.6
43.9
7.1

25.6

$10,643
9,627
5,853
5,812
11,853
28,786
18,822
3,895
12,028
12,465
4,330
124,116

81.3
77.3
59.0
68.1

68.2
79.6
68.0

$100
100

.8

100

1.0

200
300
472
100
100
154

1.1
.8
1.7
.9
.5
.7

1,626

$13,091
12,458
9,915
8,537
17,387
36,151
27,689
10,978
20,309
21,697
11,898
190, HI

CONSTRUCTION W ORK AND BUILDING TRADES
1918 —
1919 —
1920............ —
192 1
—
192 2
192 3
192 4
192 5
192 6
.
192 7
.
192 8

220
421
631
462
547
630
884
920
1,323
1,605
1,473
1,116

98.2
98.8
98.7
98.5
98.0
98.0
98.8
98.6
98.4
97.7
98.4
8.3

120

0.9
.5
.5
1.3
1.4
1.7
.9
1.3
1.3
1.9
1.3
1.3

989
1,270
1,441
1,238
1,093
1,655
1,814
1,757
1,946
2,418
2,430
18,051
Total_
_

96.7
97.7
97.7
97.4
97.8
97.9
98.6
97.3
97.1
98.0
98.0
97.7

20
20
25
18
15
21
16
32
44
38
38
287

1.9
1.5
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.2
.9
1.8
2.2
1.5
1.5
1.6

Total.

224
426
639
469
558
643
895
933
1,344
1,643
1,497
>,271

$1,786
5,844
6,017
16,277
12,2C9
18,321
18,131
13,095
16,522
22,508
15,374
146,084

1.4 1,023
.8 1,300
.6 1,475
1.2 1,271
.9 1,118
.9 1,691
.5 1,840
.9 1,805
.7 2,004
.5 2,468
.5 2,480
.7 18,475

$5,818
14,745
16,654
9,148
11,222
10,356
16,345
18,826
4,194
16,285
13,929
137,522

0.9
.7

.4

20.7
40.5
18.7
54.0
32.3
40.7
34.7
31.1
21.9
26.5
21.3
29.5

$700
874
1,958
6,209
5,306
11,729
5,685
6,555
16,638
20,569
13,110
89,333

8
.1
6
.1
6
.1

$3,939
1,938
16.624

45.6
13.4
51.5

20.6

14.0
26.0

10,000

26.5

10.8

'"§,"043"
5,000
15,039
8,840
16,000
85,422

T5A

15.5
22.1

24.2
18.2
38.0

11.9
19.9
10.4
22.2

2.3
300
496
10

300
100

237

2
.1
1.5

(!>
.8
.2

14,432
32,243
30,141
37,812
45,062
52,284
42,174
75,422
84,968
72,129

ALL OTHER INDUSTRIES
1918— ...........
1919...............
1920.................
1921.................
1922...........
1923-......... —
1924.................
1925.................
1926.................
1927..................
1928.................

14
10
9
15
10
15
10
16
14
12
12
137

10.5
30.6
23.8
15.2
18.6
9.8
20.9
22.4
5.1
14.6
11.5
15.7

$14,047
8,322
17,121
13,069
17,382
24,197
18,588
29,159
28,134
29,598
39,363
238,980

25.4
17.2
24.5
21.8
28.9
22.8
23.8
34.7
34.0
26.6
32.5
27.2

$23,209
13,041
15,086
19,338
9,657
36,215
7,570
3,413
11,847
17,644
18,125
175,146

$55,341
48,247
69,949
60,044
60,227
105,890
78,181
84,130
82,632
111,163
121,123
876,926

* All sugar plantations and mills maintain hospitals and medical staffs, and the figures here given for such plantations and mills represent only the actual medical and hospital
cost outside of the service maintained by the plantations and mills.
fcO
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
CO




WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION

Total

179
279
215
214
360
445
530
462
433
392
372
3,881

l—
*

124

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Data for the operations of the Industrial Accident Board of the
County of Hawaii and of the Industrial Accident Board of the County
of Kauai for the year ending January 30, 1930, follow:
County of Hawaii
Total paid recovered employees:
By self-insuring concerns_______________________ $11, 321. 22
By insurance companies________________________
4, 982. 79
----------------- $16, 304 01
Medical and hospital expense reported_____ ____________________
24, 140. 54
Compensation being paid as death benefits:
By self-insuring concerns, monthly to dependents,
134 33
By insurance companies, monthly to dependents__
0. 00
----------------134.33
Periodical payments:
Self-insuring concerns, monthly_________________
99. 84
Insurance companies, monthly__________________
64. 27
----------------164. 11
County of Kauai
Total paid recovered employees:
By self-insuring concerns_______________________
By insurance companies________________________

$2, 014 97
719. 08
----------------Medical and hospital expense reported__________________________
Compensation being paid as death benefits:
By self-insuring concerns, monthly to dependents.
63. 00
By insurance companies, monthly to dependents. _
83. 00
----------------Periodical payments:
Self-insuring concerns, monthly_________________
53. 40
Insurance companies, monthly_________________
39. 44
-----------------

$2,734 05
2, 440. 50

146.00

92.84

Employment Agency Statistics, 1929
The following tables were compiled from information furnished to
agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Pan Service Bureau
of Honolulu.
Table 89 shows for each month of and for the year 1929 the num­
ber of applicants to the Pan Service Bureau for positions in commercial
service, in industrial service, and in domestic service; the number of
persons called for by employers in each service; and the number of
positions filled in each service.
In the year 1929, 1,031 persons applied to the Pan Service Bureau
for positions in commercial service, 421 in industrial service, and 778
applied for work in domestic service, a total of 2,230 applicants.
Employers called on the Pan Service Bureau for 695 persons in com­
mercial service, 198 in industrial service, and 1,261 in domestic
service, or a total of 2,154. The Pan Service Bureau obtained posi­
tions for 682 persons in commercial service, 183 in industrial service,
and for 858 persons in domestic service, or a total of 1,723.




125

EMPLOYMENT AGENCY STATISTICS

89.— Number of applicants for work, of persons called for by employers, of
applicants sent out by service bureau, and of positions filled each month and in
the year 1929

T a b le

Number of positions
Number of persons called
filled
for by employers
Number
of appli­
cants sent
to em­ Com­ In­ Do­
Com­ In­ Do­
Com­ In­ Do­
mer­ dus­ mes­ Total mer­ dus­ mes­ Total ployers mer­ dus­ mes­ Total
cial trial tic
cial trial tic
cial trial tic
Number of applicants

Month

121
76
86
50
71
148
131
73
76
86
52
61

48
21
16
51
54
25
29
31
41
27
38
40

74
243
52
149
49
151
78
179
45
170
69 1242
92
252
182
78
69
186
88
201
41
131
43
144

50
75
62
48
46
72
60
59
52
75
47
49

Total_____ 1,031

421

778 2,230

695

January________
February______
March_________
April__________
M a y .. ________
June___________
July___________
August------------September_____
October________
November______
December-.........

14
9
18
14
27
14
14
13
22
15
17
21

104
76
93
97
100
97
130
152
96
114
104
98

168
160
173
159
173
183
204
224
170
204
168
168

230
216
212
187
204
2 227
224
237
216
292
217
207

72
62
86
27
52
49
58
59
43
79
45
50

10
17
17
13
16
15
11
14
24
13
11
22

88
111
55
62
47
52
81
85
68
79
67
63

170
190
158
102
115
116
150
158
135
171
123
135

198 1,261 2,154

2,669

682

183

858

1,723

1159 males consisting of 23 students, 26 already employed, and 110 not employed; 83 females, consisting
of 19 students, 10 already employed, and 54 not employed.
2122 males and 105 females.

Table 90 shows for the 242 applicants in June, 1929, the number
of each race, the occupation, and the extent of education of such
applicants:
T a b le

90.— Race, occupation, and education of applicants for employmentt June,
1929

Race of applicants

Num­
ber

Anglo-Saxon:
American____________
Other_________ ____
Chinese
____________
Filipino_________________
Hawaiian_________ •
_____
Part Hawaiian__________
Japanese________________
Korean_________________
Portuguese______________
Indian-American________
Hebrew_________________
Italian.
______________
Negro_____ _____________
Polish________ ____ _____
Porto R ic a n .___________
Russian_________________
Spanish_________ ____ _
Not reported...... ................

27
8
35
40
12
22
52
6
25
1
1
3
1
1
3
2
2
1

Total.........................

1242

Occupation of applicants Num­
ber
sent out by bureau
Stenographer-typists.......
Clerks and bookkeepers..
Salesmen and saleswomen.
Waiters and waitresses_
Yardmen______________
Cooks _____ __
Housemaids _________
Mechanics_________ ___
Truck drivers__________
Laborers_______________
Carpenters and painters. _
Telephone operators____
Others.... ..........................

Total____________

i 159 males and 83 females.

27595°— 31-------9




4
2
16
41
12
23
80
2
5
23
6
3
10

2227

Extent of education of
applicants
College________________
High school____________
Commercial___________
Grade school. .
N one—Illiterate________

T o t a l...................

* 122 males and 105 females.

Num­
ber
19
103
27
64
29

1242

126

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 19 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Table 91 shows the wage rate per day, week, or month, in Febru­
ary, 1930, of Caucasians and of other races, by occupations.
T a b le

91.— Wage rates of Caucasians and of other races, February, 1930, by
occupation.
Wage rates
Occupation

Caucasians
Per day

Per week j Per month

Accountants__ ________ ___________
Bookkeepers,,
Bell boys_________________________
Butchers_______________________ _
Carpenters_______________________
$5.00
i
Carpenters’ helpers_______________
3.20
Chauffeurs_______________________
Clerks___________________________
Collectors________________________
$15.00
Cooks, house, male_______________
Cooks, house, female______________
12.00
Cooks, restaurant__ ______________
"Dressmakers _
Dyers_____________ _____ _________
35.00
Electricians
3.80
Electricians’ helpers_______________
3.40
Farm hands______________________
Fountain boys___________________
Fountain girls____________________
Gardeners________________________
House boys______________________
Housekeepers____________________
10.00
Ironer, laundry___________________
Janitors__________________________
i
|
Laborers_________________________
3.20
|
Machinist________________________
35.00 1
Machinists’ helpers_______________
3.20
8.00
Maids (general)__________________
25.00
Matrons_________________________
Mechanics_______________________
3 1.00
Mechanics’ helpers________ _______
__________
Motion-picture operators
Painters_____________________ ____
5.00
Painters’ helpers__________________
Pantrymen_______________________
Plasterers________________________
10.00
P lu m bers
_ ____________________
3 2.00
Sales clerks, male______ __________
20.00
Sales clerks, female________________
15.00
School boys______________________
School girls
______________ _____
Service-station boys_______________
Stenographers____________________
Tailors
____ ___________________
Telephone operators_______________
20.00
Tile setters_______________________
10.00
Tray girls________________ _____ __
Truck drivers____________________
Truck drivers (contractors)________
5.00
Typists. _______________________
Waiters _________________________
Waitresses_______________________
30.00
Washers, laundry_________________
Yardmen
___

1And commission.




Other races
Per day

Per week Per month

$225.00
125.00
150.00

$175.00
75.00
30.00
100.00

$5.00
2.50

80.00
75.00
i 75.00

60.00
50.00

$15.00
12.00

100.00
100.00
3.60
3.35

15.00

100.00
60.00
50.00
60.00

60.00
100.00

10.00
/
l

2.50- j ..............
3.20 / ................
4.20
2.40
8.00
20.00
3.50
5.00
2.50
6.00
5.00

* Commission only.

40.00
75.00

15.00
10.00
3.00
3.00
40.00
50.00
100.00

6.00

75.00
60.00
40.00

60.00

45.00

75.00
100.00
150.00
50.00
100.00

100.00
60.00

60.00
60.00
50.00
50.00
40.00
40.00

60.00
75.00

( 2)

15.00
35.00
75.00

5.00

20.00

40.00
50.00
35.00
...........45.00

127

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0

Wholesale and Retail Prices in Honolulu, 1930
Wholesale prices oj staple jood articles, February and August, 1930.—
The figures given in Table 92 were furnished by a leading wholesale
firm and represent net cash prices f. o. b. Honolulu. Prices for the
two months named are based on identical descriptions of articles.
T a b le

92.— Wholesale prices (net cash f. o. b. Honolulu) of staple food articles,
February and August, 1980
Article

Beans, dried, per 100 pounds:
Bayos, speckled....................................................................................................
Garavanzos................................ ......................................................................... .
Lima, California................................................................................................. .
Mexican, red..........................................................................................................
White, small......................................................................... .................................
Cereals, breakfast, per case:
Bran, 24 10-ounce packages...................................................................................
Corn flakes, 36 packages_________ _______ _______________________________
Cream of wheat, 18 28-ounce packages________ ______________ ____________
Oatmeal, 12 20-ounce packages...... .............................................. .......................
Rice flakes, 24 6-ounce packages___ _______ _______________________________
Coffee, Kona, roasted, per pound:
Bulk, ground_____________________________________________ ____________
Packaged, 48 1-pound packages____ _______________ _____ ______________
Corn meal, white, 12 20-ounce packages, per case......... .............. ................... .........
Crackers, soda, 24 2^-pound tins, per case_____ _____ ___________________ ____ _
Fish, canned, per case:
Cod, 48 1-pound cans___ ____ ____ ______________ ___ ____ _______________
Salmon, Alaska red, 48 No. Is, tall____________ ______ ____________________
Tuna, 48 No. Is____ ____________ ______ _________________________ ____ __
Flour, wheat, per 49-pound bag_____________________________________________
Fruit, canned, per case:
Apricots, 48 No. Is________ ____ ________________________________________
Peaches, 48 No. Is ...____ ____ _____________ _____________________________
Tears, 48 No. Is________________________________________________________
Pineapples, 48 No. Is___________________________________________________
Fruit, dried:
Apples, extra choice, 25 pounds, per case_________________________________
Apricots, extra choice, 10 pounds, per case________________________________
Currants, 25 pounds, per case___________________________________________
Figs, black, 25 pounds, per box____________ ____ ____ ____ ________________
Prunes, 40-50s, 25 pounds, per case______________________________________
Raisins, seedless, 4515-ounce packages, per case___________________________
Milk, evaporated, 48 tails, per case__________________________________________
Rice, extra fancy, California, per 100 pounds_________________________________
Salt, 1001J^-pound bags, per bale__________2________________________________
Soda, baking, 60 1-pound packages, per case__________________________________
Sugar, Honolulu refined, per 100-pound bag__________________________________
Tea, 100 ^-pound packages, per pound______________________________________
Vegetables, canned, per case:
Asparagus, medium white, 24 No. Is ____________________________________
Beans, lima, 24 No. 2s_____________________________________________ _____
Beans, stringless, 24 No. 2s______________________________________________
Corn, 24 No. 2s________________________________________________________
Peas, 24 No. 2s................... ................. ................ ................................................
Pork and beans, 36 medium___________ __ ___________ ___________________
Tomatoes, 24 No. 2s................................. .................... ............ .........................
Vinegar, cider, per gallon___________________________________________________

February,
1930

August,
1930

$7.85
7.70
13.10
5.90
8.90

$6.75
7.70
12.7.5
5.45
8.00

2.65
3.36
3.86
1.45
2.75

2.65
3.36
3.86
1.40
2.75

.35
.36
1.18
16.00

.29
.30
1.17
16.00

13.80
11.76
16.00
1.90

13.80
11.30
10.45
1.70

6.85
6.82
7.95
5.60

6.45
5.90
6.05
4.70

4.00
2.50
4.25
2.42
3.70
3.85
4.30
4.70
3.73
4.23
5.30
.72

2.80
1.75
4.25
1.75
2.55
3.30
4.00
4.60
3.73
4.23
4.70
.67

7.25
2.47
3.00
3.85
4.70
3.20
2.50
.20

6.90
2.30
2.72
3.52
4.40
3.00
2.40
.20

Retail jood prices, February to October, 1980.—Table 93 is compiled
from monthly reports made to the Bureau of Labor Statistics by
representative retail dealers in Honolulu and in other localities of
Hawaii. The stores were selected by personal visits of an agent of
the bureau. The reporting firms operate stores patronized largely
by wage earners.




128

LABOR CONDITIONS IN H AW A II, 1 9 2 9 -1 9 3 0
T able 93.—Retail food prices, February to October, 1980
HONOLULU
Article

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Sirloin steak.......................... „ pound. .
Round steak.......................... — do—
Rib roast.. . .......................... ___ do___
Chuck roast........................... „ „ d o —

Cents
38.1
32.7
33.2
25.1

Cents
37.8
32.5
32.9
25.0

Cents
38.4
32.7
32.8
25.0

Cents
38.4
33.2
32.8
25.0

Cents
38.4
32.7
32.8
25.0

Cents
38.0
32.7
32.3
25.0

Cents
37.8
32.4
31.7
25.6

Cents Cents
37.3
37.1
32.4
31. a
32.0
31.4
25.6
25.5

Plate beef............................... ___ do___
Pork chops........................... ___ do___
Bacon, sliced......................... ___ do—
Ham, sliced........................... — do—

23.8
43.2
54.1
64.5

23.7
43.4
54.1
64.2

23.8
43.4
54.4
64.6

23.8
43.4
54.4
64.6

23.5
43.2
55.2
64.6

23.5
43.4
55.2
64.2

22.7
41.3
55.1
64.0

23.0
40.7
55.8
63.6

22.9
40.8
54.2
61.8

Lamb, leg of...... ................... ___ do----- 40.8
53.0
Hens............... . ................... — do—
Salmon, red, canned............. ___do----- 30.1
Milk, fresh..... ....................... — quart— 20.3

40.7
52.4
30.0
20.3

40.4
51.9
29.7
20.3

39.8
50.4
30.0
20.3

40.3
45.0
30.0
20.3

40.2
51.0
30.1
20.3

39.2
50.0
30.0
20.3

39.4
48.6
32.6
20.3

38.9*
49.1
32.4
2a3

Milk, evaporated_____16-ounce ca n „ 10.2
Butter.................................. pound— 49.1
37.1
Cheese......... ...................... . — do—

10.1
53.6
37.3

10.1
53.4
37.3

10.2
53.9
37.9

10.2
53.5
37.7

10.1
52.8
36.8

10.2
52.7
37.0

10.2
52.4
37.1

9.9
52.6
36.4

Lard.____ _______ _________ ___do___
Vegetable lard substitute___ ___ do___
Eggs, strictly fresh_________ dozen. _
Bread......... .......................... pound—

24.4
27.1
50.6
10.6

24.4
27.2
49.2
10.6

24.4
26.8
49.3
10.6

24.4
26.8
49.4
10.6

27.5
27.1
48.7
10.6

25.0
27.3
52.4
10.6

25.0
27.1
66.0
10.6

27.5
27.1
76.3
10.6

30.0
26.2
78.1
10. ft

Flour.............- .............. ........ — -do—
Com meal................... .......... . — do—
Rolled oats________ _______ ___ d o ___
Corn flakes. ............ 8-ounce package—

5.8
11.0
12.7
12.9

5.8
10.8
12.7
12.9

5.7
10.9
12.8
12.8

5.8
10.6
12.7
12.9

5.8
10.8
12.6
13.0

5.6
10.8
12.6
12.8

5.8
10.9
12.7
12.8

5.5
10.8
12.5
12.9

5.4
10.9

Wheat cereal.........28-ounce package—
Macaroni_________________ pound—
Rice——_________ ______ _ ___ do___
Beans, navy.......................... ___ do___

27.3
19.2
6.1
14.6

27.3
19.1
6.1
14.4

27.3
19.1
6.1
14.1

27.1
19.1
6.1
14.3

27.3
19.3
6.1
14.4

27.1
19.2
5.9
13.9

27.1
18.8
5.9
14.0

27.3
19.0
5.9
13.9

2. a
7

Potatoes____ ____ _________ — d o.__
Onions.................................. ___ do___
Cabbage................................ — do—
Pork and beans................... No. 2 can—

4.5
4.1
5.9

4.5
4.1
5.7

1
1 .0 1 .0
1

4.5
4.0
6.3
11.1

4.9
4.1
7.0
11.3

4.8
4.3
6.3

4.8
4.1
5.2

1 .2 1 .1
1
1

4.5
4.0
4.9
10.8

4.1
3.9
5.0

1 .0
1.

3.9
3.6.
6.&
10.5

Corn, canned....................... ___ do___
Peas, canned......................... ___ do___
Tomatoes, canned_________ — do—
Sugar, granulated................. —pound—

19.3
19.1
14.8
6.3

19.0
18.8
14.7
6.2

19.0
18.8
14.7
6.2

18.7
18.6
14.7
6.2

18.8
18.4
15.0
6.2

18.2
18.7
15.3
5.9

17.8
18.2
15.1
5.9

18.2
18.7
15.4
5.5

18.0
18.0
34.85.5

Tea................. - ..................... — do—
Coffee..... ........... ................... ___ do___
Prunes.................................. — d o ....

86.2
41.8
17.8

86.1
41.6
17.9

86.1
40.9
18.1

85.1
40.7
17.2

85.6
40.8
16.6

85.9
40.7
15.9

85.4
40.2
15.3

87.3
38.9
14.4

86.4
38.1
15.0*

Raisins.................................. ___ do___
Bananas............................... — .d o ....
Oranges.......................... ...... ..dozen—

13.1
4.4
55.3

12.9
4.4
58.2

12.7
4.4
58.5

12.4
4.7
59.4

12.2
4.7
62.7

12.2
4.6
64.8

11.8
4.4
63.4

11.9
4.3
65.7

11.4
4. a
65.5

Oct.

12 a
.
12.7

18.0
5. a
13.7

HAWAII, OUTSIDE HONOLULU
Sirloin steak........................... pound— 32.8
Round steak.......................... ___ do___ 30.8
Rib roast............................... ___ do___ 30.0
Chuck roast........................... ___ do___ 26.5

32.8
30.8
30.0
26.5

32.8
30.8
30.0
26.4

32.8
30.8
30.0
26.5

32.8
30.8
30.0
26.5

32.8
30.0
29.0
26.0

32.8
30.0
29.0
26.0

32.8
30.0
29.0
26.0

31.4
29.0
27.5
24.5

23.3
36.8
55.7
55.0

23.3
36.6
55.7
55.0

23.3
36.6
53.0
58.3

23.3
36.6
52.5
58.3

23.3
36.8
52.1
58.3

23.3
36.8
52.1
56.7

23.3
36.2
52.1
58.3

23.3
36.2
52.1
58.3

23.0
35.4
52.5
55.0

Lamb, leg of......................... .... do___ 48.3
Hens....................................... ___ do___ 53.3
Salmon, red, canned..............___ do___ 30.8
Milk, fresh............................. —.quart— 15.0

48.3
53.3
30.9
15.0

48.3
53.3
31.3
15.0

48.3
53.3
31.3
15.0

46.7
55.0
30.7
15.0

46.7
50.0
30.8
15.0

46.7
50.0
31.1
15.0

46.7
50.0
31.6
15.0

45.0
45.0
30.8
15.0

Milk, evaporated......... 16-ounce ca n „
Butter.................................... .pound—
Cheese.................................... ___ do___

11.1
57.6
37.4

10.9
56.3
37.2

11.0
56.2
37.7

11.0
55.7
37.7

10.8
55.3
36.7

10.6
54.0
36.4

10.6
54.2
36.3

10.7
55.4
35.5

10. a
55.4
35.0

Lard....................................... ___ do___
-do—
Vegetable lard substitute___
Eggs, strictly fresh............... ..-d o z e n Bread......................................

25.4
26.8
53.8
10.0

25.4
26.6
50.0
10.0

23.9
26.6
51.4
10.0

27.5
26.2
51.8
10.0

26.7
26.8
52.5
10.0

26.7
26.8
54.6
10.0

28.3
26.2
58.6
10.0

28.3
26.4
65.0
10.0

27.5
25.®
68.1
10.0

Plate beef............................... ___ do___
Pork chops............................. „ „ do—
Bacon, sliced.......................... — do—
Ham, sliced............................ ___ do___




129

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES---- HONOLULU
T a b le

93.— Retail food prices, February to October, 1930— Continued
HAW An, OUTSIDE HONOLULU—Continued
Article

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Flour..................... ............ ...... pound..
Corn meal............ ...................... do___
Rolled oats______ ................. . . . d o . . . .
•
8-ounce package..
Corn flakes.......

Cents
5.3
11.9
14.2
13.5

Cents
5.3
11.9
14.2
13.7

Cents
5.1
12.2
13.9
13.8

Cents
5.1
12.2
13.9
13.8

Cents
5.0
12.2
13.7
13.6

Cents
5.0
12.2
13.7
13.8

Cents
4.8
12.0
14.0
13.9

Cents Cents
4.7
4.4
13.0
13.8
14.3
13.2
13.9
12.7

Wheat cereal......... 28-pound package Macaroni.............. ............ ...... pound..
Rice....................... ...................... do___
Beans, navy.......... ...................... d o ....

28.6
20.2
5.6
13.5

28.6
19.4
5.5
13.5

29.1
20.6
5.4
13.4

29.1
20.6
5.5
13.4

28.6
20.4
5.4
13.2

28.1
20.4
5.4
12.8

28.1
20.2
5.5
12.5

28.1
20.1
5.5
12.2

29.0
19.6
5.2
11.9

Potatoes................ ......................d o___
Onions................... ...................... do___
Cabbage......... ...... ................... ..d o ___
Pork and beans ... ....... ...... No. 2 can_.

4.2
4.1
4.3
10.9

4.3
4.1
4.3
10.9

4.3
4.5
4.5
11.1

4.5
4.5
4.5
11.1

4.9
4.6
4.5
10.8

4.8
4.3
4.5
10.8

4.4
3.9
4.0
10.8

4.3
3.8
4.0
10.8

4.0
3.6
3.7
10.8

Corn, canned........ ...................... do___
Peas, canned_____ ...................... d o ....
Tomatoes, canned. ....................d o ___
Sugar, granulated. ...................pound..

19.7
19.3
18.1
6.6

19.7
19.5
18.1
6.6

21.1
19.8
18.6
6.6

21.1
19.6
18.1
6.5

20.8
19.4
17.9
6.3

20.1
19.4
17.9
6.2

19.6
19.0
16.9
6.1

19.9
18.3
16.4
5.9

19.5
18.1
17.0
5.8

T e a ....................... ...................... d o ....
Coffee.................... ...................... d o ....
Prunes.................. ...................... do___

85.6
46.2
18.1

85.6
45.8
18.1

84.7
45.3
18.1

85.6
44.4
18.1

84.8
45.3
17.6

85.6
44.8
17.4

86.3
43.9
17.1

85.3
43.0
16.6

84.8
42.8
16.0

Raisins.................. ...................... do___
Bananas................ ...................... do___
Oranges................. .................... dozen..

14.0
5.0
57.7

14.0
5.0
57.7

14.5
5.0
59.6

14.7
5.0
62.5

14.5
5.0
67.5

13.8
5.0
71.7

13.4
5.0
68.6

13.1
5.0
70.0

11.8
5.0
71.7




Oct.