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Jobseeking Methods Used
By American Workers




Jobseeking Methods Used
By American Workers
U. S. Department of Labor
John T. Dunlop, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1975
Bulletin 1886

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Preface
This bulletin analyzes the methods which persons used to find jobs during 1972. The basic data were obtained in a
questionnaire prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the Manpower Administration (MA) in coopera­
tion with the Bureau of the Census. The Bureau of the Census collected the information as a supplement to its
Current Population Survey, and tabulated the data according to specifications prepared by BLS and MA.
This report was prepared by Carl Rosenfeld, Kopp Michelotti, and William V. Deutermann of the Division of
Labor Force Studies, under the general direction of Sophia C. Travis (retired), Division Chief during the planning
stages of the survey, and Robert L. Stein, Division Chief during the analytical stages.
This study was financed by the Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor




Contents

Page
Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................................
Job search methods............................................................................................................................................................
Employment and unemployment in 1972..................................................................................................................
Major findings and implications........................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of jobseekers............................................................................................................................................
Demographic ................................................................................................................................................................
Reason for job search...................................................................................................................................................
Methods jobseekers u se d ...................................................................................................................................................
Sex and marital status...................................................................................................................................................
A ge.......................................................................................................................................................................................
Occupation.....................................................................................................................................................................
R ace................................................................................................................................................................................
Reason for seeking work .............................................................................................................................................
Method by which job was obtained...............................................................................................................................
Effectiveness rates..............................................................................................................................................................
S e x ..................................................................................................................................................................................
Occupation.....................................................................................................................................................................
Work history and job search ................................................................................................................................................
Timing of job search.............................................................................................................................................................
Duration of job search.......................................................................................................................................................
Intensity of job search.......................................................................................................................................................
Job refusal .........................................................................................................................................................................
Change in earnings.................................................................................................................................................................
Suggestions for further study...............................................................................................................................................

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3
5

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10
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17
17

Text tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Characteristics of jobseekers and reasons for looking for work..........................................................................
Methods used to look for work, by sex and race ................................................................................................
Method by which current job was obtained, by sex and ra c e ............................................................................
Ranking of methods by which current job was obtained, by selected characteristics....................................
Effectiveness rates of jobseeking methods, by sex and ra c e ..............................................................................
Effectiveness rates by occupation: Methods which had rates of 20 percent or m ore....................................
Jobseekers who looked for work while still employed, by selected characteristics...........................................

3
4
7
8
10
11
12

Chart: Methods used to look for work by white and black jobseekers, selected occupational groups,
January 1973........................................................................................................................................................

18

Reference tables:
A-l. Reason jobseekers looked for work: Age, sex, and race, January 1973 ...................................................
B-l. Methods used to look for work: Age and sex, January 1973 .....................................................................




19
20

Reference tables— Continued

Page
B-2. Methods used to look forwork: Occupation and sex, January 1973 .......................................................... 22
B-3. Methods white jobseekersused to look for work:Occupation,January 1973 ............................................ 25
B-4. Methods Negro and other minority race jobseekers used to look for work: Occupation,
January 1973 .................................................................................................................................................... 25
B-5. Methods used to look for work: Residence and sex, January 1973 .......................................................... 26
B-6. Methods Negro and other minority race jobseekers used to look for work: Residence and sex,
January 1973 ................................................................................................................................................... 26
B-7. Methods used to look for work: Reason for seeking work, January 1973 ............................................... 27
B-8. Methods used to look for work by persons who usually work full time: Usual weekly earnings,
January 1973 ................................................................................................................................................... 28
B-9. Methods used to look for work: Educational attainment, January 1973 ................................................. 28
C-l. Method by which current job was obtained: Age, sex, and race, January 1973 ....................................... 29
C-2. Method by which current job was obtained: Occupation and sex, January 1973 ................................... 31
C-3. Method by which white jobseekers obtained current job: Occupation, January 1973 ........................... 34
C-4. Method by which Negro and other minority race jobseekers obtained current job: Occupation,
January 1973 ................................................................................................................................................... 34
C-5. Method by which current job was obtained: Residence and sex, January 1973 ..................................... 35
C-6. Method by which current job was obtained: Reason for seeking work, January 1973 ............................ 36
C-7. Method by which current job was obtained by persons who usually work full time: Usual
weekly earnings, January 1973 ...................................................................................................................... 37
C-8. Method by which current job was obtained: Educational attainment, January 1973 .............................. 37
C-9. Method used most often to look for work: Age, sex, and race, January 1973 ....................................... 38
C-l 0. Method used most often to look for work: Occupation, January 1973 .................................................. 39
D-l. Effectiveness rates of jobseeking methods: Occupation and sex, January 1973 ...................................... 40
D-2. Effectiveness rates of selected jobseeking methods: Race and occupation, January 1973....................... 41
D-3. Effectiveness rates of jobseeking methods: Educational attainment, January 1973 .............................. 42
E-l. Methods used to look for work, by date last worked on previous job, January 1973 ..............
42
E-2. Number of methods used to look for work, by date last worked on previous job and sex,
January 1973 ................................................................................................................................................... 43
E-3. Method by which current job was obtained, by date last worked on previous job, January 1973 ......... 43
E-4. Methods used to look for work, by length of employment on previous job for persons who last
worked in 1968 or later, January 1973 ......................................................................................................... 44
E-5. Method by which current job was obtained, by length of employment on previous job for persons
who last worked in 1968 or later, January 1973 ......................................................................................... 44
F -l. Jobseekers who looked for work while still employed: Reason for seeking work, sex, age, and
race, January 1973 .......................................................................................................................................... 45
F-2. Length of time before starting job search for jobseekers who did not look for work while still
employed: Reason for seeking work, sex, age, and race, January 1973 ................................................. 45
F-3. Main reason for not looking for work within 1-2 days after leaving previous job: Reason for
seeking work, sex, and race, January 1973 .................................................................................................. 46
F-4. Number of weeks looked for work while still employed: Reason for seeking work, sex, and race,
January 1973 ................................................................................................................................................... 46
G-l. Duration of job search, by age and sex, January 1973 ................................................................................ 47
G-2. Methods used to look for work, by duration of job search, January 1973 ................................................ 47
G-3. Method by which current job was obtained, by duration of job search, January 1973 .......................... 47
G-4. Duration of job search, by reason for seeking work and race, January 1973 ............................................ 48
G-5. Number of methods used to look for work, by duration of job search and sex, January1973 .............. 48
G-6. Duration of job search, by number of weeks looked while still employed and sex, January 1973......... 49




Reference tables—Continued
H -l. Number of methods used to look for work: Broad occupational group, sex, and race,
January 1973 ....................................................................................................................................................
H-2. Hours per week looked for work: Selected characteristics, January 1973 ...............................................
H-3. Farthest distance traveled to look for work: Age, sex, and race, January 1973 ..................................
H-4. Farthest distance traveled to look for work: Occupation, January 1973 .................................................
H-5. Farthest distance traveled to look for work: Residence, sex, and race, January 1973..............................
H-6. Farthest distance traveled to look for work: Duration of job search and sex, January 1973.................
H-7. Distance of current job from residence at time of job search: Age and sex, January 1973 ....................
H-8. Farthest distance traveled to look for work: Distance of current job from residence at time of
job search and sex, January 1973....................................................................................................................
1-1. Jobseekers who refused offers: Age and sex, January 1973 ........................................................................
1-2. Jobseekers who refused offers: Occupation and race, January 1973 ........................................................
1-3. Main reason for refusing job offer: Age and sex, January 1973 ................................................................
1-4. Main reason for refusing job offer: Occupation and race, January 1973 ...................................................
1-5. Method of jobfinding resulting in offer refused: Occupation, January 1973 ...........................................
J-l. Average hourly earnings on current and previous job for persons who last worked in 1971 or
1972: Method by which current job was obtained, sex, and race, January 1973 ..................................
J-2. Change in hourly earnings between current and previous job for persons who last worked in
1971 or 1972: Method by which current job was obtained, sex, and race, January 1973 ....................

Page
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52
53
53
54
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55
55
56
56
57
57

Appendix: Survey concepts and questionnaire.............................................................................................................. 58




Jobseeking Methods Used by American Workers
Workers searching for jobs can use a variety of meth­
ods to obtain work. However, many jobseekers are not
aware of all the possible methods available to them, nor
are they informed about which method might be the
most effective for their purposes. To investigate the job
search methods workers used and their relative effective­
ness, a nationwide sample survey was conducted in
January 1973.
The survey covered nearly 16 million employed wage
and salary workers 16 years old and over who were not
in school and who had started their current job during
1972. About 5.5 million of these workers had not looked
for work in 1972 because they returned to jobs held
formerly, were offered jobs, entered a family business,
or for other reasons did not seek employment. The 10.4
million persons who had looked for and found work
during 1972 were asked to complete a questionnaire
relating to their job search which included questions on
all methods they had used to find work; the method by
which they had obtained their jobs; the number of weeks
they had looked for work; the average number of hours
spent per week in looking; the distance traveled from
home in their search; and job offers refused. (See
appendix for questionnaire.) About half of the 10.4
million job finders were new entrants or reentrants to
the labor force; the remainder had lost or quit their
jobs or wanted to change jobs. Presented in the follow­
ing pages are, first, a general description of job search
methods, followed by a brief summary of the economic
climate in 1972, and highlights of the survey results and
their implications.
Job search methods. In general, job seeking workers
have two broad categories of search methods available
to them. First, workers can use informal methods, such
as direct application to employers and asking friends,
relatives, or teachers, in which the jobseeker expends
most of the effort. Second, they can use formal meth­
ods, in which institutional intermediaries expend the
effort on the jobseeker’s behalf. Formal methods in­
clude the State employment service, fee-type private
employment agencies, school placement offices, labor
union hiring halls, and advertisements in newspapers or



journals. Although the last is classified as formal from
the jobseeker’s point of view because employers, by
placing ads, offer jobseekers a number of opportu­
nities from one source of information, it resembles in­
formal methods in its low cost to the applicant in money
and time, and its casual mode of use. In a tight labor
market, employers may increase their reliance on news­
paper advertisements and other formal methods to get
the widest possible exposure of job openings.1
Formal methods can offer the greatest amount of
information about job opportunities in general but may
not yield much specific information about each job
opening. On the other hand, informal sources of job
leads, such as friends and relatives, may be able to pro­
vide more extensive or detailed information with respect
to fringe benefits, prospects for promotion, working
conditions, and training opportunities.
In searching for job information, workers are faced
with an optimization problem— they must balance the
potential benefit of additional information against the
costs incurred in obtaining it.2 The jobseeking methods
used may vary, depending on the economic climate at
the time. In a tight labor market, for example, workers
might depend more on informal “grapevine” search
methods. During periods of high unemployment, some
may prefer to use more formal methods, such as private
employment agencies, since the return may justify any
fees paid. 3 Workers also may choose to search for a
job while still employed or may quit their job, depend­
ing on general economic conditions.
A job search intermediary such as the State employ­
ment service may generate job information and also
provide counseling, aptitude tests, and preliminary con­
tact with employers. The nationwide system of State
public employment service offices, which is affiliated
1 Peter B. Doeringer and Michael J. Piore, Internal Labor
Markets and Manpower Analysis, (Lexington, Mass., D.C. Heath
and Company, 1971), pp. 96-97.
George J. Stigler, “Information in the Labor Market,”
Journal of Political Economy, October 1962.
Denis R. Maki, Search Behaviour in Canadian Job
Markets, Special Study No. 15, Economic Council of Canada
(Ottawa, Information Canada, 1972), p. 4.

with the U.S. Employment Service of the Manpower
Administration, has applied computer technology to in­
crease its effectiveness and efficiency in matching job­
seekers with employer needs. Over 100 metropolitan
areas in 43 States have computerized job banks which
daily update and disseminate a listing of all job openings
on file with the State employment service. These area
listings are made available to placement interviewers on
a statewide, regional, and nationwide basis. Through the
job bank, a single job order can be exposed to a large
pool of potential applicants; conversely, each applicant
is exposed to a broad range of job possibilities. Thus the
matching of workers to jobs is improved.
Employment and unemployment in 1972. The survey
results must be evaluated in the context of employment
conditions prevailing during the year. Employment rose
strongly and unemployment declined moderately during
1972. The unemployment rate was 5.9 percent (sea­
sonally adjusted) in January; it fell to 5.6 percent by
midyear and to 5.1 percent by yearend. The overall
jobless rate in 1972 averaged 5.6 percent, somewhat
higher than the 4.9-percent rate in 1973, but substan­
tially below the rate of about 8.6 percent during the
first half of 1975.
The labor supply increased over the year as a result
of the growth of the working age population, increased
labor force participation rates of women and teenagers,
and a net decrease in the size of the Armed Forces as
U.S. participation in the Vietnam War drew to a close.
Employment increased by about 2.3 million during
the year, the largest annual expansion in a quarter of a
century. In December, blue-collar and white-collar em­
ployment were each over 1 million higher than a year
earlier.
Major findings and implications

Following are some of the major findings of this
study and their implications.
1. Two out of three jobseekers applied directly to
employers without suggestions or referrals by anyone.
The next four methods used most frequently, but by
much smaller proportions of workers, were: Asking
friends about jobs where they work; answering local
newspaper ads; asking friends about jobs at places other
than where they work; and checking with the State em­
ployment service.
2. Thirty-five percent of the workers obtained jobs
through direct application to employers, and 12 percent
each by asking friends about jobs where they work and
by answering local newspaper ads. About equal propor­
tions (5 to 6 percent) of the jobseekers obtained their



jobs through the State employment service and through
private employment agencies.
3. Of all persons who applied directly to employers
for work, about half found their job that way— about
double the percentage for the methods with the next
two highest rates.
4. The four methods most commonly used and the
method by which the largest proportion of workers
obtained jobs were the same for men and for women,
and, with minor exceptions, for most other characterisics by which jobfinders were grouped.
5. Greater proportions of blacks4 than whites asked
friends and relatives about jobs where they work, took
Civil Service tests, checked with the State employment
service, and contacted local assistance organizations.
Smaller proportions applied directly to employers or
answered local newspaper ads, methods which have
relatively high effectiveness rates. Blacks should be
encouraged to use these two methods to a greater
extent, now that government and industry programs
are in force to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices.
Continued high dependence on friends and relatives for
job leads will limit the range of job opportunities for
blacks.
6. Greater proportions of blacks than whites who
contacted the State employment service and local organi­
zations found jobs through these methods. Smaller pro­
portions of blacks than whites who applied directly to
employers, answered local newspaper ads, and checked
with private employment agencies and school placement
offices obtained jobs through these methods.
7. Before finding a job, the average jobseeker used
four methods. The number tended to rise with the length
of the search and to vary widely by occupation and
demographic characteristics. Men used more methods
than women. Many persons who did not find a job
within relatively few weeks subsequently tried addi­
tional methods, which suggests that use of as many
methods as possible early in the search could improve
the chances of finding a job.
8. Of the 5.4 million jobseekers who were employed
just before beginning their job search, nearly half started
to look for a new job while still on the old one. Of those
who did not look while still working, 2 out of 5 began
their search within 1 or 2 days after leaving their old
job. Among persons who waited more than 2 days, 2
out of 5 waited because they wanted to take some time
off. It took about as long to find a job for persons who
started to look for work after leaving their job as for
4

Data for all persons other than white are used to
represent data for Negroes (blacks) since Negroes constitute
about nine-tenths of all persons other than white in the
United States.

those who started their search while still employed. fourth of the jobseekers under age 25 had recently
Some joblessness could be decreased, if not prevented, left or finished school, and about one-third of the
if employers could notify employees well in advance of married women had been devoting full time to their
a layoff and permit them to take off a few hours a week, families when they started their job search. Two out of
with pay, to look for another job.
five of those age 45 and over, compared with 1 out of
9. A majority of jobhunters found jobs within 4 5 for younger persons, looked for work after they had
weeks, including time spent looking while still em­ lost their jobs. One out of five teenagers in the job
ployed. Relatively fewer men than women found jobs market wanted to work while still in school.
within 4 weeks. Duration of job search was generally
about the same regardless of the method by which the
Table 1. Characteristics
job was found. In a given economic climate, finding a for looking for work of jobseekers and reasons
job quickly depends more on many other factors, such
as wage expectations, geographic location, experience (Percent distribution)_____________
and skills, motivation, and financial resources, than on
methods used.
Total: Number'(thousands)...................
10,437
10. Jobseekers searched for work comparatively few
100.0
Percent ...........................................
hours a week and looked relatively close to home. About
Sex
two-thirds of the jobseekers spent 5 hours or less per
week on their job search, and nearly 3 out of 4 traveled Men ..................................................................................... 55.1
no farther than 25 miles from home to look for work. Women ................................................................................ 44.9
Intensity or hours of job search a week apparently had
Married .........................................................................
23.8
Other marital s ta tu s ....................................................
21.1
no effect on the duration of the search.
11. One out of three jobseekers turned down an offer.
Age
Three out of 10 who declined offers did so because of
low pay, and an equal proportion because the location, Under 25 y e a r s .................................................................. 47.4
hours, or other working conditions were unsatisfactory. 25 to 44 y e a rs ..................................................................... 39.1
A greater proportion of whites than blacks refused job 45 years and over .............................................................. 13.5
offers.
Race
Characteristics of jobseekers

Demographic. Persons who had looked for and found
work tended to be younger than the labor force as a
whole at the time of the survey, and a greater propor­
tion were women. Nearly 50 percent of the jobseekers
were under age 25, and 45 percent were women (table 1),
compared to 22 and 39 percent, respectively, for the
whole labor force. Young people and women tend to
have higher unemployment rates than others in the
labor force, not only as newcomers but also when they
have had work experience. Somewhat over one-half
of the female jobseekers were married.
Reason for job search. Some persons look for work
only after losing or quitting their job, some look while
still employed because they want to change jobs, and
others look upon entering or reentering the labor force.
Over one-half of the jobseekers were already in the
civilian labor force when they started to look for work—
they had quit or lost their last job or were still working
but looking for a different job. (See tables 1 and A-l.)
This proportion was greater for men than for women
but was about the same for whites and blacks. One


White ...................................................................................
Negro and other races ....................................................

89.1
10.9

Reason for looking
Employed before current job:
Quit j o b .........................................................................
Lost job1 .......................................................................
Wanted different job before q u ittin g ......................

16.9
22.7
13.5

Not in labor force before current job:
Left school ..................................................................
Left military ................................................................
Wanted work while in s c h o o l....................................
Had family responsibilities and wanted j o b ..........
All other reasons .........................................................

15.0
2.6
5.5
9.1
14.8

Includes persons who sold, lost, or gave up a business.

Methods jotiseekers used

Workers generally used more than one method of
jobseeking. Although substantial numbers used formal
methods, more used informal methods. One researcher

has characterized the typical job search as “fum­
bling and disorganized,” rather than “calculating and
rational.” 5
Informal methods are generally easier to use than
formal methods and have minimal or no cost. Under­
lying the importance of informal methods is the large
proportion of jobseekers who used these methods during
1972. About two-thirds of all jobseekers applied directly
to employers without suggestions or referrals from
anyone— the highest proportion by far using any one
method, regardless of sex, race, age, occupation, or
other characteristics. (See tables 2 and B-l through B-9.)
The next two most popular informal methods were
asking friends about job openings at work or elsewhere.
Relatives were asked less extensively than friends since
jobseekers probably have more friends than relatives in
the locality who might be of assistance.6

Among formal methods, answering local newspaper
ads was used by the greatest proportion of jobseekers,
close to one-half. The State employment service, another
formal jobfinding source, was used by one-third of the
jobseekers. A smaller proportion checked with private
employment agencies. Persons applying for unemploy­
ment insurance benefits frequently are required to reg­
ister for a job at State employment offices. Also, the
State employment office is uniquely attractive to some
5 Edward D. Kalachek, Labor Markets and Unemploy­
ment (Belmont, California, Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.,
1973), p. 58.
6 To compare data for 1972 with methods used by
unemployed persons in 1970 and 1971, see Thomas F. Bradshaw,
“Jobseeking Methods Used by Unemployed Workers,” Monthly
Labor Review, February 1973, pp. 35-39, reprinted with
supplementary tables as Special Labor Force Report 150.

Table 2. Methods used to look for work, by sex and race
(Percent of jobseekers)
Sex
Method

All
Mil
persons

Men

Race

Women

White

Negro and
other
races

Total (thousands).........................................................

10,437

5,749

4,688

9,302

1,135

Applied directly to employer ...........................................................
Asked friends:
About jobs where they work ....................................................
About jobs elsewhere ..................................................................
Asked relatives:
About jobs where they work ....................................................
About jobs elsewhere ..................................................................
Answered newspaper ads:
Local .................................................................................................
Nonlocal ..........................................................................................
Private employment agency .............................................................
State employment service ................................................................
School placement office ....................................................................
Civil Service test ...................................................................................
Asked teacher or professor ................................................................
Went to place where employers come to pick up people ..........
Placed ads in newspapers:
Local .................................................................................................
Nonlocal ..........................................................................................
Answered ads in professional or trade journals .............................
Union hiring hall ................................................................................
Contacted local organization ...........................................................
Placed ads in professional or trade jo u rn a ls ....................................
Other ......................................................................................................

66.0

67.3

64.4

66.6

60.7

50.8
41.8

53.8
45.9

47.2
36.6

49.9
41.6

58.4
43.5

28.4
27.3

31.0
30.1

25.1
23.9

27.4
26.8

36.5
30.9

45.9
11.7
21.0
33.5
12.5
15.3
10.4
1.4

44.6
14.2
19.9
37.1
12.0
15.4
9.2
2.0

47.5
8.6
22.4
29.2
13.0
15.2
11.8
.7

46.7
11.7
21.0
32.1
12.2
14.6
10.3
1.1

39.6
11.9
20.9
44.9
14.4
21.1
10.7
3.9

1.6
.5
4.9
6.0
5.6
.6
11.8

1.7
.7
6.7
9.9
5.5
.8
11.9

1.4

1.3
.5
4.7
5.7
4.0
.5
11.8

3.4
1.0
6.4
8.4
18.6
1.1
11.7

NOTE: The approximately 3.5 million persons in this survey
who checked for jobs with the State employment service do not




.2
2.6
1.1
5.7
.4
11.5

represent all persons who filed new or renewed job applications
during 1972.

groups of jobseekers because it can provide a variety
of job search assistance— e.g., aptitude testing, job
counseling— and no fee is charged the claimant for the
services.7
Smaller proportions of persons residing in the largest
metropolitan areas than those living outside these areas
contacted the State employment service. However, per­
sons living in the largest population areas were twice
as likely as jobseekers in smaller areas to use private
employment agencies. This may reflect differences in
the occupational distribution of workers in these areas,
the size of the labor market, and availability of the
agencies.
Of the remaining formal sources used by jobseekers,
comparatively greater proportions contacted school place­
ment offices or tried for jobs through Civil Service pro­
cedures than used union hiring halls, community organ­
izations, or professional and trade journals.
Sex and marital status. Greater proportions of men than
women jobseekers applied directly to employers, asked
friends or relatives, and contacted the State employment
service. 8 As shown in the following tabulation, men
used a greater variety of methods to look for work than
women:
Average number
o f methods used
All persons .................................................... 4.0
Men ..........................................................
W omen......................................................
Married women ..................................
All other women ...............................

4.2
3.7
3.3
4.1

White ........................................................ 3.9
Black ........................................................ 4.5
On the other hand, larger proportions of women an­
swered local newspaper ads, visited private employment
agencies, and asked teachers or professors for job leads.
Fewer women than men responded to ads in out-of-area
newspapers, probably because they are less free to move
than men; also, very few checked labor union hiring
halls, a reflection of the much smaller proportion of
women who are members of labor unions. 9 Smaller
proportions of married women than other women asked
friends and relatives about jobs or checked with the
State employment service and private employment
agencies.
Age. The proportions of jobseekers using some of the
methods differed sharply by age. Younger workers,



under 35 and particularly under 20, were more likely
than workers age 45 and over to ask friends and relatives
about jobs, two important informal jobseeking methods.
Not unexpectedly, greater percentages of younger work­
ers contacted school placement offices or asked teachers
or professors for job leads.
Only a small proportion of jobseekers went to union
hiring halls, but the proportion increased with age, which
reflected in part the higher union membership rates
among older workers. Smaller proportions of teenagers
than older persons used the State employment service
and private employment agencies. Age made virtually
no difference in the proportions of workers who applied
directly to employers for jobs or who used local news­
paper ads.
Occupation. The proportions of jobseekers trying the
most frequently used methods varied widely by occu­
pation, but the ranking of the methods varied little.10
For each occupational group except private household
workers, the largest proportion applied directly to an
employer without suggestions or referrals by anyone.
For blue-collar and service workers,11 the next most
common methods after direct application were asking
friends about jobs where they work and elsewhere, and
answering ads in local newspapers. On the other hand,
white-collar workers were more likely to respond to local
newspaper ads than to ask friends. Relatively more
white-collar than blue-collar and service workers used
private employment agencies, a reflection of the types
of jobs on which private agencies tend to concentrate.
The top three methods used by private household work­
ers were answering local newspaper ads, applying directly
to employers, and asking friends about jobs where they
work. The importance of the last two methods indicates
that some persons who accepted jobs as private house­
hold workers may have looked for other kinds of work.
7
For an analysis of the effects of a State employment
service on jobfinding success of male blue-collar workers,
see Harold L. Sheppard and A. Harvey Belitsky, The Job
Hunt, Job Seeking Behavior of Unemployed Workers in a
Local Economy (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1966),
p. 79.
5 See Sheppard and Belitsky, The Job Hunt, pp. 44-45,
for proportions of male and female blue-collar workers using
selected jobfinding techniques.
Selected Earnings and Demographic Characteristics of
Union Members, 1970, Report 417 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1972), table 1.
10 Close differences in the order of rankings should be in­
terpreted with caution since rankings are based on percentages
which statistically may not differ significantly.
In this article, all references to service workers exclude
private household workers.

Of the 20 possible methods, the State employment
service ranked fourth for nonfarm laborers and private
household workers, and fifth or sixth for each of the
other occupational groups except professional and tech­
nical. Professional workers used the State employment
system less than any other occupational group except
sales and private household workers. Professionals were
most likely by far to apply for jobs at a school place­
ment office or to ask teachers and professors about
potential openings. Recent college graduates probably
use these two jobfinding sources the most. A larger
proportion of white-collar than blue-collar and service
workers took Civil Service tests or applied for govern­
ment jobs; government agencies are staffed primarily
by clerical and professional workers.
Though a relatively small proportion of all jobseekers
applied at labor union hiring halls, 20 percent of craft
and kindred workers did so, over three times the aver­
age for all workers. Among union members who looked
for work, 29 percent checked with hiring halls, which
ranked sixth among the methods they used. The pro­
portion rose to 53 percent for unionized craft workers,
about equal to the proportion who applied directly to
an employer.
Race. The most frequently used jobseeking methods
were the same for blacks as for whites, but the order
in which they were ranked varied, as shown in the
tabulation below:
Percent
Black
Applied to em ployer.............................
Asked friends/work .............................
State employment service....................
Asked friends/elsewhere ......................
Newspaper ads ......................................
Asked relatives/work.............................

White

61
58
45
44
40
36

67
50
32
42
47
27

Among blacks, the State employment service ranked
third and newspaper ads fifth; these positions were
reversed for whites. Even though the methods ranked
the same, larger proportions of blacks asked friends and
relatives about jobs where they work and a smaller
proportion applied directly to employers.
One jobfinding method was used by a substantial
minority of black jobseekers, regardless of occupation,
but by very few whites. One out of five black job­
seekers but only 1 out of 25 whites contacted a local area
organization, such as a community action group or a wel­



fare agency. Apparently black workers were more famil­
iar with the services available from these organizations.
Also, a larger proportion of blacks than whites
took Civil Service tests or filed for a government job.
Blacks may believe that they would have better job
opportunities and be less subject to discrimination in
government than in private industry.
Occupational differences in the proportions of job­
seekers using each of the several methods also were
evident between blacks and whites. (See chart on p. 18.)
For example, the three most common methods used by
black clerical jobseekers were asking friends about jobs
where they work, applying directly to employers, and
checking with the State employment service. White
clerical workers applied directly to employers, answered
local newspaper ads, and asked friends about jobs where
they work. One-half of the black clerical workers but
one-third of the whites contacted the State employment
service, and the proportions of black clerical workers
who sought jobs through Civil Service and school place­
ment offices were double those for white.
Reason for seeking work. The proportions of workers
using each of the several jobfinding methods varied
widely by the major reason they looked for work. The
State employment service was contacted by about 35
percent of the job leavers but 56 percent of the job
losers (those who had been laid off indefinitely or had
lost their jobs for reasons other than a temporary layoff
or the end of a temporary job). Also, smaller proportions
of job leavers than job losers asked friends and relatives
about jobs and answered ads in local newspapers. Job
leavers, on average, used fewer methods altogether—
3.8 compared with 4.8 among job losers. Job leavers
might not have needed a job as badly as job losers
and therefore did not look for work as extensively.
Students and persons just leaving school differed from
job losers in the extent to which they used some job­
finding methods. Smaller proportions of students and
former students applied directly to employers, used the
State employment service, answered ads, or checked
with union hiring halls; larger proportions went to school
placement offices or asked teachers and professors about
jobs.
Men who looked for work because they had left
the Armed Forces used the State employment service
to a greater extent than most other groups of jobseekers.
Men who are about to be separated from the Armed
Forces are given orientation about the job market and
usually are advised to visit the State employment serv­
ice. Also, veterans are eligible for ex-servicemen’s un­
employment compensation which can be obtained from

employment service offices. Veterans also tried for
Civil Service jobs to a greater extent than other job­
seekers, most likely because they receive preference
points on tests.
Partly because they found a job sooner, women
who devoted full time to their families before search­
ing for a job used an average of 2.8 methods compared
with 4.4 methods for women who had lost their jobs.
Contrasted with job losers, these entrants or reentrants
to the labor market may not have looked as extensively
because they did not have time or were less pressed
financially. Also, persons who are new to the job
market may be less informed about or unable to use
some jobfinding approaches.

Method by which job was obtained

About 35 percent of the workers found their current
jobs by applying directly to employers; another onethird, by asking friends or answering newspaper ads,
the next two most frequently used informal methods.
(See table 3.) As expected, a strong positive relation­
ship is evident among the rankings of the methods used
by the largest proportions of workers, the methods used
most often, and the methods by which jobs were
obtained. For each of these rankings, applying to em­
ployers was first; asking friends and answering news­
paper ads, second or third.

Table 3. Method by which current job was obtained, by sex and race
(Percent of jobseekers)
Sex
Method

All
persons

Men

Race

Women

White

Negro and
other
races

Total: Number (thousands) ......................................
Percent ............................................... .............

10,437
100.0

5,749
100.0

4,688
100.0

9,302
100.0

1,135
100.0

Applied directly to employer ...........................................................
Asked friends:
About jobs where they work ....................................................
About jobs elsewhere ..................................................................
Asked relatives:
About jobs where they work ............................................... ....
About jobs elsewhere ..................................................................
Answered newspaper ads:
Local ...............................................................................................
Nonlocal ........................................................... ..............................
Private employment agency .............................................................
State employment service ................................................................
School placement office ....................................................................
Civil Service test ...................................................................................
Asked teacher or professor ................................................................
Went to place where employers come to pick up p e o p le ............
Placed ads in newspapers:
Local .................................................. ..............................................
Nonlocal ..........................................................................................
Answered ads in professional or trade journals .............................
Union hiring h a l l .................................................................................
Contacted local organization ...........................................................
Placed ads in professional or trade journals .................................
Other ......................................................................................................

34.9

35.1

34.6

35.7

27.7

12.4
5.5

13.8
6.2

10.7
4.8

12.0
5.7

16.4
4.0

6.1
2.2

6.9
2.7

5.1
1.7

5.7
2.3

9.3
1.9

1 2 .2
1.3
5.6
5.1
3.0
2.1
1.4
.1

10.3
1.4
3.8
5.0
3.1
1.6
1.2
.1

14.5
1.1
7.9
5.2
2.8
2.8
1.6
.2

12.8
1.3
5.8
4.4
3.0
2.0
1.4
.1

6.4
.8
3.8
10.8
2.3
3.3
1.6
.4

.2
<>>
.4
1.5
.8

.1

.4

.2

.1

.5
2.6
.7

.3
.1

t1)
.4
1.4
.4

.2
1.9
3.9

< )
‘
5.2

5.1

5.2

5.1

Less than 0.05 percent.
NOTE: The approximately 500,000 persons in this survey




.9
(*>
5.3

who obtained jobs through the State employment service do
not represent all persons who were helped to get a new job
during 1972.

One out of five workers obtained jobs through
relatives, private employment agencies, or the State
employment service. These three methods also ranked
fourth, fifth, or sixth, but not necessarily in the same
order, among methods used most often and methods
used by the largest proportions of workers.
Except for the two highest, the methods by which
most jobs were obtained varied in rank by sex, age,
race, and major occupational group. (See tables 4 and
C-l through C-10.) Applying to employers held top

position regardless of characteristic; asking friends about
jobs where they work or elsewhere ranked second for
nearly all groups. Answering newspaper ads and private
employment agencies ranked higher for women than
for men. The State employment office ranked higher
and answering newspaper ads ranked lower for blacks
compared with whites.
There were few significant differences by age in
the proportions who obtained jobs by each of the
methods. Teenagers were less likely than persons age

Table 4. Ranking of methods by which current job was obtained, by selected characteristics

Characteristic

Em ployer

Friends1

Answered
news­
paper

Private
Relatives1

ads2

em p loy­

m ent

m ent
service

agency

.................

1

2

3

4

M e n ........................................ ................
Women ..................................................

1
1

2

3

4

3

2

5

1
1

2
2

3
5

4
3

1
1
1

2
2

4
3

3

All persons

State

em p loy­

O ther
m ethod

6

-

_

5

_

4

6

-

5

_

_

-

4

-

3
4

5

—

2

—

—

6
6
—

5

Sex

Race

White
Black

....................................................
....................................................
Age

16 to 24 years

....................................
....................................
4 5 years and over ...............................
25 to 4 4 years

5

—

-

Occupation

Professional...........................................
Managerial.............................................
Sales ......................................................
Clerical ..................................................
Craft ....................................................
Operatives, except tra n s p o rt............
Transport equipment operatives . . .
Laborers, except f a r m ........................
Service, except private household . .

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2

3%

_

6

_

3

2

5

4

—

2%

2%
3

4

-

—

2

4

2

3

5
4

6
—

2

4

3

-

3

4

-

5

2

-

-

2

4

3

-

5

2

3

4

—

5

Includes jobs where they work and elsewhere.
Includes local and nonlocal ads.
School placement office tied for third; asked teachers
ranged fifth.
Union hiring hall ranked fifth.
2
3

^




-

(3 )
—
—
—

< )
4

-

NOTE: Excludes methods which resulted in fewer than 5
percent of jobs in any group. Narrow differences in ranking
below the top method should be viewed with caution since
they may be based on percent differences which are too
small to be significant.

35 and over to get jobs by applying directly to em­
ployers. The proportions of workers who obtained jobs
through newspaper ads and labor union hiring halls
tended to increase with age. The proportions who
obtained jobs by asking relatives for leads decreased
with age.
Regardless of occupation, the largest proportions of
workers who found jobs generally obtained them by
applying directly to an employer, asking friends, and
answering newspaper ads. These three methods pro­
vided 8 out of 10 jobs obtained by sales workers, 6 out
10 jobs of other white-collar workers, and 3 out of 4
jobs of service workers and blue-collar workers (except
laborers).
For each occupational group except private house­
hold workers, the largest proportion of workers obtained
jobs by applying to employers, but this percentage varied
widely, ranging from about 25 percent for managers and
for clerical workers to 40 percent or more for sales
workers and for blue-collar workers. Only about 8 per­
cent of private household workers obtained jobs by
applying to employers.
The proportions who obtained jobs by asking friends
varied little by occupation, but the proportions who got
jobs by answering newspaper ads ranged from 7 percent
for nonfarm laborers to 19 percent for private house­
hold workers and managers.
Methods ranked similarly for managerial, sales, and
clerical workers but they differed for professional
workers. Private employment agencies were an important
source of jobs for white-collar workers but were far
down on the list for blue-collar and service workers. On
the other hand, the labor union hiring hall was an im­
portant source of jobs only for craft workers.
For some occupational groups, the proportion of
jobseekers who obtained jobs through a specific method
differed widely between men and women. Among pro­
fessional and technical workers, a smaller proportion of
men than women obtained their jobs by applying directly
to employers but larger proportions by answering news­
paper ads and checking with private employment agen­
cies. More men than women clerical workers obtained
jobs through friends, relatives, and school placement
offices and fewer through newspaper ads, private em­
ployment agencies, and Civil Service procedures. A
higher proportion of men than women service workers
found jobs through friends, relatives, the State employ­
ment service, and Civil Service, and smaller proportions
by applying directly to employers and from newspaper
ads.
In each occupational group for which comparisons
could be made, relatively more blacks than whites
obtained jobs through some methods. For example,




among professional and technical workers, more blacks
than whites obtained jobs through friends and Civil
Service, and fewer through private employment agen­
cies or employers directly. Fewer black than white
clerical or service workers or operatives (except trans­
port) found jobs by answering newspaper ads, but
more were hired through the State employment serv­
ice. Local organizations also were an important source
of jobs for black service workers (8 percent) and black
operatives (5 percent).
Effectiveness rates

Earlier sections of this report presented the pro­
portions of workers who used each jobfinding method
and the proportions who found jobs through each one.
This section will examine the effectiveness of the various
methods, i.e., how likely they are to result in a job.
(See tables D-l through D-3.) Effectiveness may be
expressed as a rate (percent) obtained by dividing the
number of persons who found their current job through
a particular method by the total number who used that
method.
The method with by far the highest effectiveness
rate was application directly to employer— 48 percent
of all persons who used this method reported that
they had obtained their job that way. (See table 5.^
As indicated earlier, this method was also the one
used by the greatest proportion of jobseekers (66
percent).
Next in effectiveness were six other methods which
had rates about one-half as large, ranging from 24 per­
cent down to 19 percent: Checking with private em­
ployment agencies, answering ads in local newspapers,
checking with labor union hiring halls, asking friends
about jobs where they work, contacting school place­
ment offices, and asking relatives about jobs where they
work. Although the effectiveness rates were compara­
tively high for persons who used union hiring halls
and school placement offices, comparatively few persons
used these methods, 6 and 12 percent of all jobseekers,
respectively.
On the other hand, comparatively large proportions
of jobseekers used three other methods, but relatively
few obtained jobs in these ways. The effectiveness rates
were 14 percent for workers who checked with the
State employment service, 12 percent for those who
asked friends about jobs other than where they work,
and 7 percent for those who asked relatives about jobs
other than where they- work. Relatively small propor­
tions used methods which had effectiveness rates be­
tween 10 to 13 percent— contacting community action
and other local organizations, taking Civil Service tests,

Sex
Method

Applied directly to employer ...........................................................
Asked friends:
About jobs where they w o r k ......................................................
About jobs elsewhere.....................................................................
Asked relatives:
About jobs where they w o r k ......................................................
About jobs elsewhere.....................................................................
Answered newspaper ads:
Local .................................................................................................
Nonlocal ..........................................................................................
Private employment agency ..............................................................
State employment service ................... ............................................
School placement office .....................................................................
Civil Service test ...................................................................................
Asked teacher or professor ................................................................
Went to place where employers come to pick up p e o p le ............
Placed ads in newspapers:
Local .................................................................................................
Nonlocal ..........................................................................................
Answered ads in professional or trade journals ............................
Union hiring hall ................................................................................
Contacted local organization..............................................................
Placed ads in professional or trade jo u rn a ls ....................................
Other ......................................................................................................

1 Number of persons reporting method used to get job
divided by total number of persons who used the method to

placing ads in local newspapers, asking teachers or pro­
fessors for job leads, and answering ads in nonlocal
papers.
Sex. The effectiveness rate of a given method differed
little between men and women, with two major ex­
ceptions. Rates of women were about double those of
men for private employment agencies and Civil Service,
reflecting in part the high rates for women clerical
workers. Rates for married women were similar to those
for all women.
Occupation. In each occupational group, with one ex­
ception, the effectiveness rate was highest for persons
who applied directly to employers— ranging from 35
percent for managers to 55 percent for operatives,
except transport. Only among clerical workers did the
rate for those who applied to employers (40 percent)
fail to exceed the rate for any other method; 42 per­
cent of clerical workers who looked for jobs through
private agencies found jobs that way.




All
persons

Men

Race

Women

White

Negro and
other
races

47.7

47.0

48.5

48.8

38.1

22.1
11.9

23.2
12.1

20.5
11.7

21.9
12.5

23.4
7.7

19.3
7.4

20.1
8.0

18.2
6.4

19.0
7.7

21.3
5.1

23.9
10.0
24.2
13.7
21.4
12.5
12.1
8.2

20.9
9.1
17.1
12.1
23.0
9.2
11.9
4.3

27.5
11.9
31.9
16.2
19.6
16.6
12.5
(2 )

25.0
10.5
25.3
12.6
22.5
12.4
12.1
7.9

13.6
5.9
15.2
20.1
13.5
13.0
12.4
(2 )

12.9
(2 )
7.3
22.2
12.7
(2 )
39.7

5.1
(2 )
6.5
23.7
11.0
(2 )
38.5

(2 )
< )
2
9.9
(2 )
14.7
(2 )
41.5

16.0
(2 )
8.1
22.6
9 .9

(2 )

(2 )
(2 )
18.9
1 7 .6

(2 )
40.1

(2 )
36.4

find a job.
2 Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.

In nearly all occupational groups, two additional
methods (other than applying to employers) were highly
effective, with rates of 20 percent or more. (See table
6.) Answering local newspaper ads had high effective­
ness rates in 8 of the 9 occupational groups for
which data were developed; in 4 of the 8, the rates
exceeded 25 percent. Rates for persons who asked
friends about jobs where they work were above 20
percent in all occupational groups except professional
and managerial, and exceeded 25 percent in two. For
jobseekers who asked relatives about jobs where they
work, rates were generally high for blue-collar and
service workers; for workers using union hiring halls,
rates were high for blue-collar workers, the only group
to use this method in significant numbers. School place­
ment offices were highly effective for professional,
clerical, and service workers, and private employment
agencies for managers and clerical workers.
The effectiveness rates for black workers exceeded
those for whites for only two jobfinding sources, both
of which were used by larger proportions of blacks

Method

Applied directly to employer .................
Answered local newspaper ads ..............
Asked friends about jobs where
they w o r k ..................................................
Asked relatives about jobs where
they w o r k ..................................................
Union hiring hall ......................................
School placement office ..........................
Private employment agency ...................
Asked friends about jobs elsewhere___
State employment service........................
Contacted local organization .................

Double

"x"

Profes­
sional
and
techni­
cal
workers

Managers

Sales
workers

Clerical
workers

Craft
workers

Opera­
tives,
except
trans­
port

Trans­
port
equip­
ment
opera­
tives

XX

XX

XX

XX

XX

XX

XX

X

XX

XX

X

X

X

XX

X

X

XX

X

X

X
XX

Labor­
ers,
except
farm

XX

XX
XX

X

XX

X

X

X

X

X

X
XX

XX

Service
workers,
except
private
house­
hold

X

XX

X
X
X

indicates rate of 25 percent or more.

than whites. For persons who used the State employ­
ment service, the rate for blacks was 20 percent com­
pared with 13 percent of whites; for those who con­
tacted local organizations, the comparable rates were
18 and 10 percent, respectively. All other rates for
blacks were divided about equally between those which
were lower than for whites and those which were
about the same.
Work history and job search

Data on work histories of jobseekers were analyzed to
find out if there were any differences in job search tech­
niques among those who had recent work experience,
those who had been out of the labor force several years,
and those who had never worked. (See tables E-l
through E-5.)
Jobseekers who had last worked in 1968 or earlier
tended to use fewer job search methods than those with
more recent work experience. A majority used only two
methods. Only one-third used four methods or more
compared to nearly one-half of those whose last job was
as recent as 1970.
The six methods used by the largest proportions of
jobseekers with work experience ranked exactly the
same regardless of the date they last worked. About
two-thirds of the jobseekers in each category used
direct application to employers as the primary method.
The year jobseekers last worked also made little dif­
ference in the method by which they obtained their
jobs. Regardless of the year, at least one-third had



obtained jobs by applying directly to an employer;
about 12 percent each had received job leads from
friends about jobs where they worked and from news­
paper ads.
The jobseeking pattern for those who had never
worked was in some respects different from that for
persons who had worked in recent years. Asking rela­
tives ranked higher for jobseekers who had never worked
but local newspaper ads and the State employment serv­
ice ranked lower. The distribution of major methods by
which persons with no work experience obtained jobs
differed from that for recent workers. A larger pro­
portion of new workers obtained employment by asking
friends and relatives about jobs where they work and
fewer by answering local newspaper ads or going to
private employment agencies.
To determine whether jobseeking methods used varied
by length of employment on the last job, jobseekers who
had worked in 1968 or later were asked how long they
had worked at their last job. Among persons who had
worked fewer than 10 years on their last job, there were
relatively minor differences by length of employment in
the average number of methods used to look for work,
in the proportions using the various methods, and in the
distribution of methods by which they obtained their
job.
However, differences were significant between those
who had worked 10 years or more and those who had
worked fewer years. Jobseekers with the longest em­
ployment used an average of 3.2 methods in their job

search compared with about 4 for those with fewer
years. Smaller proportions of persons with the longest
job tenure asked, friends and relatives about jobs or
contacted private employment agencies. Also, much
smaller proportions of persons who had worked 10
years or more on their last job than of those with fewer
than 5 years’ tenure applied to school placement offices
or asked teachers for jobs. This difference may reflect
variations in both the occupational and age distributions
of the two groups of jobseekers.
Although jobseekers with 10 years or more on the
same job checked newspaper ads to the same extent
as workers with relatively short employment, they were
not only more likely to use ads most often but a greater
proportion obtained jobs through ads. Regardless of the
duration of their previous job, over one-third of all
workers obtained jobs by applying directly to employers.
Timing of job search

Nearly one-half of the 5.4 million jobseekers who
were employed before beginning their job search started
to look for a new job while still working on their old
one. (See tables 7 and F-l through F-4.) Men and
women were equally likely to seek new employment
while still on their old jobs; a somewhat larger pro­
portion of whites than of blacks did so. The proportion
who looked for jobs while still working declined
with age.
Many persons are dissatisfied with their jobs but
do not leave until they get a different one. About
one-fourth of all jobseekers who were still employed
when they started their search reported that they
wanted to get a different job before leaving the one
they had.
The proportion of employed jobseekers who started
to look for work before their job ended varied widely
by reason for their job search. Among jobseekers
who quit their job, or who sold, lost, or gave up a
business, about 4 out of 10 looked while still employed;
for workers who had been laid off indefinitely, the
proportion was only 2 out of 10.
The number of weeks jobseekers looked for work
while still employed varied, based on the reason for
termination of their jobs. For those who quit their
jobs or whose temporary jobs ended, one-half looked
for only 1 or 2 weeks while still working and 1 out of
5 looked for 5 weeks or more. Among those who lost
their jobs for reasons other than a layoff, equal
proportions— 2 out of 5— looked for 1 or 2 weeks
and for 5 weeks or more. The large proportion who
searched more than a month before their jobs ended
may have known or suspected that they would lose
their jobs.



Table 7. Jobseekers who looked for work while still
employed, by selected characteristics
(Numbers in thousands)

Characteristic

T o ta l............................

Total
jobseekers
employed
before job
search

Proportion
who began
search
while still
employed

5,390

48.7

3,544
1,846

49.5
47.1

4,794
596

49.3
43.7

2,168
2,377
543
302

51.2
50.9
38.0
31.3

1,714
448
91
974
641

39.5
33.9
37.4
17.9
22.3

150

43.3

1,373

100.0

Sex
M e n ...........................................
Women......................................
Race
White ......................................
Negro and other ra c e s ..........
Age
16
25
45
55

to 24 years .....................
to 44 y e a rs ........................
to 54 y e a rs ........................
years and over...................
Reason for looking

Quit job .................................
Temporary job ended ..........
Laid off te m p o ra rily ............
Laid off indefinitely..............
Lost job for other reasons . .
Sold, lost, or gave up
business.................................
Wanted different job
before quitting.....................

One-half of the jobseekers did not look for work
until their jobs ended, either because they did not
know that their jobs would terminate or because
they did not have time to look. Two out of five of
these persons started their job search within 1 or 2
days after their jobs ended. The proportion who started
looking in 1 or 2 days jumped from 34 percent for
16- to 24-year-olds to 44 percent for older workers.
Except for teenagers, more men than women began
looking in 1 or 2 days. Overall, the proportions were
47 percent compared to 28 percent. The smaller
percentage of young workers and women who started
to look for work immediately after their job terminated
reflects, in part, the fact that they are less likely than
adult men to be the main family breadwinner. On the
other hand, about 1 out of 5 workers waited 5 weeks or

more before starting to look for work. Relatively twice
as many women as men waited at least 5 weeks to look
for new jobs— 32 percent compared with 15 percent.
One-half of those laid off indefinitely or who lost
jobs for reasons other than layoff began their job
search within 1 or 2 days. Only 12 percent of those
who sold, lost, or gave up a business began looking
for work in 1 or 2 days; nearly one-third waited 9
weeks or more. This long delay may reflect these
persons’ need to assess their situation before deciding
to search for another job or business. Persons who
quit jobs did not start to look for work as soon as
those who lost jobs. Only 30 percent of the job leavers
started to look within 1 or 2 days after leaving their
last jobs, and 26 percent waited for at least 5 weeks.
Persons who waited more than 2 days to start
looking for work were asked the main reason for not
starting their job search sooner. The largest proportion,
41 percent, delayed their job search because they
wanted some time off. Among those who quit, nearly
one-half gave this reason, and one-fourth gave moving.
About 30 percent of the persons on indefinite layoff
delayed the start of their job hunt because they
expected to be called back to work, a proportion five
times larger than for all other jobseekers. Women
were more likely than men to give moving or having
work to do around the house as reasons for delaying a
job search. Whites were more likely than blacks to want
time off and less likely to expect to be called back or to
give own illness as the reason for delaying a job search.
Duration of job search

A majority of jobseekers found jobs in less than 5
weeks after beginning their search, including time spent
looking while still employed at former jobs. (See tables
G-l through G-6.) Relatively fewer men than women,
particularly in the prime working ages (25 to 54 years),
found jobs in less than 5 weeks:
Percent
Less than
27 weeks
5 weeks
or more
Men Women Men Women
T o ta l................ . . . 57.7
16 to 19 y ears...........
20 to 24 y ears...........
25 to 44 y ears...........
45 to 54 y ears...........
55 years and over . . .




...
...
...
...
...

65.6
58.5
55.4
55.1
51.9

6.6

6.5

68.8 1.5
58.8 4.0
63.9 8.8
65.7 12.7
44.9 11.9

4.0
5.9
7.3
8.1
12.3

62.6

The proportion of men who found jobs in less than 5
weeks declined with age. Few jobseekers had to look
for over half a year. The proportion who looked for 27
weeks or more increased with age and only among
jobseekers age 45 and over did as many as 10 percent
look that long. It generally takes older workers longer
to find a job than younger workers. There was virtually
no difference between blacks and whites in the number
of weeks it took to find a job.
The duration of the job search did not vary greatly
between those who looked while still working and those
who did not start their search until the job ended.
Of those who looked while still working, 63 percent
found a job within 4 weeks and 13 percent looked for
15 weeks or more. Among those who did not start
their job search until the job ended, the proportions
were 60 and 18 percent, respectively. A smaller pro­
portion of white-collar workers (57 percent) than of
blue-collar or service workers (64 percent) found jobs
within 4 weeks, but the proportions who looked for
15 weeks or more were about the same for each group.
Of course, the 1.7 million persons who found another
job while still working averted the loss of earnings
experienced by those out of work for a period of time.
The duration of the job search also varied by reason
for looking for work. Persons who had been laid off
indefinitely or had lost a job for cause had much more
difficulty in finding a job quickly than workers who
had quit their jobs. Fewer than one-half of the first
group but about 7 out of 10 of the latter group found
jobs within 4 weeks. Among persons who had not
been in the labor force just before their latest job
search, about one-half of those who had left school
or the military service found jobs within 4 weeks
compared with about two-thirds of those who wanted
to work while in school and those who had been
devoting full time to their families.
Relatively fewer men who usually work full time
rather than part time found jobs within 4 weeks. This
tendency reflects, in part, the relatively high pro­
portion of teenagers among the part-timers; teenagers
are probably less selective than more experienced
workers in the kinds of jobs they accept. Among
women, the duration of the job search was about the
same for full-time and part-time workers.
Duration of job search and methods used to find
work did not appear related. The median number of
weeks required to find a job was generally within a
narrow range for the methods by which most of the
jobseekers found employment. Only for persons who
obtained jobs through Gvil Service procedures was the
median much higher. This result is not surprising since
many weeks may elapse between filing an application

for a Civil Service examination, taking a test, and
starting on the job.

looked for a job the shortest time to 5.8 for those who
looked the longest:
Average number o f
Weeks looked for a job
methods used

Intensity of job search

1 to 4 ..........................................
5 to 14 .......................................
15 or more ..................................
15 to 2 6 .................................
27 or m o re ............................

A number of limitations should be considered when
the intensity of the job search is evaluated. (See tables
H-l through H-8.) For example, a person who uses a
larger number of jobfinding methods is not necessarily
looking more intensively than someone who uses fewer
methods. No information was obtained on the frequency
with which a method was used; a jobseeker may go to
many different employers but may ask a friend only
once. A person living in a small, predominantly oneemployer town may exhaust all job possibilities within
1 or 2 hours, but someone living near a large city
having many employment agencies and potential em­
ployers may find that 6 hours a day for 5 days a week
only scratches the surface of potential job openings,
since travel may consume much of the time spent
looking each day. The amount of time spent may also
be affected by the methods each jobseeker uses. For
instance, direct application to an employer would
probably consume more time than checking with friends
or relatives. Although information is available on the
distance traveled to look for work, no data were
obtained on how far from home job applications
were mailed nor on how many jobhunting trips were
made. Place of residence also bears upon distance
traveled. Workers in rural areas might have to travel
longer distances than urban workers to investigate
job opportunities. The following indicators of intensity
should be evaluated within the framework of these
data limitations.
The number of methods used to find work generally
tended to rise with the duration of job search. Apparently,
some persons who could not obtain a job within a
few weeks used additional methods to expand their
search.
One measure of this tendency is indicated by the
proportions of jobseekers using specific numbers of
methods. Overall, 38 percent of the jobseekers used
one or two methods; the proportion declined from
42 percent of those who looked for less than 5 weeks
to 14 percent for those who looked for 15 weeks or
more. Among those who looked at least 15 weeks,
65 percent used five methods or more, about double
the proportion for those who looked less than 5 weeks.
A second measure relating the number of methods
to weeks looked is the average number of methods used.
The following tabulation shows that the average number
of methods used increased from 3.6 for persons who




3.6
5.0
5.7
5.6
5.8

Women averaged fewer jobfinding methods than men.
For each age group except the youngest and oldest,
women used a much smaller number of methods:
Men

Women

Total ........................ .........

4.2

3.7

16 to 19 years.................... ____
20 to 24 years.................... .........
25 to 34 y ears.................... .........
35 to 44 years.................. .........
45 to 54 y ears.................. .........
55 years and over.............. .........

3.9
4.6
4.3
4.0
3.6
3.4

4.0
4.2
3.5
3.0
2.7
3.2

White-collar workers were most likely to use at
least five methods (38 percent) and service workers
were least likely (31 percent). The following tabulation
shows the average number of jobfinding methods used
by men and women within broad occupational groups:
Men

Women

White-collar...........................
4.4
3.9
Blue-collar.............................
4.0
3.4
Service, except private
household...........................
4.3
3.2
About 65 percent of the jobseekers usually looked
for work 5 hours or less per week. This proportion
was higher for women than for men but was the same
in each of the broad age groups— 16 to 24 years, 25
to 44 years, and 45 years and over. Overall, 13 percent
of the workers searched as much as 2 full days (16
hours) a week. A larger proportion of persons 25 and
over than of younger workers searched 16 hours or more
per week. A somewhat greater proportion of whites
than of blacks looked for 5 hours or less, but about the
same proportions for at least 16 hours. Part-time workers
looked fewer hours than full-time workers, reflecting
the more limited opportunities for part-time work.

among women, about 18 percent of jobseekers in
these two occupations traveled that distance.
Among men, a greater proportion of service than of
blue-collar workers restricted their job search to a
short distance (10 miles or less). Among women,
relatively more sales and service than blue-collar workers
restricted their job search to this distance.
Residence substantially affected the distance men
traveled to look for work, but for women, residence
was not a significant factor. Among residents of the
largest metropolitan areas, a greater percentage of men
living in central cities than of those living outside
these cities looked for work within a short distance
from their homes. This reflects the greater concentration
of large employers in central cities and possible trans­
portation problems of central city residents. Men who
did not reside in the largest metropolitan areas were
as likely as those who did to look for work close
_________ Percent__________ to home, but a larger proportion looked for jobs more
Men Women White Black than 50 miles away, 24 and 16 percent, respectively.

There was no strong relationship between duration
of job search and the number of hours spent each
week looking for work. However, those who looked for
5 weeks or more spent more time each week than persons
who found a job in a shorter time. Both men and women
jobseekers who were employed before starting their
search spent more hours per week looking for work
than those who had been out of the labor force.12
Another measure of job search intensity is the
comparative distance jobseekers traveled to look for
work. About 4 percent of the jobseekers searched for
work from their homes, presumably relying on letters,
the telephone, or recommendations. Of those who
did go out to look, a majority of the men and nearly all
of the women confined their search to within a
relatively short radius from their homes:

Total who went out
to lo o k .................. 100

100

100

100

28
28
30
9
2
4

20
22
30
15
4
9

24
26
30
11
4
5

Farthest distance traveled:
Under 5 m iles.............. 15
5 to 10 miles................ 18
11 to 25 miles.............. 30
26 to 50 miles ........... 19
51 to 100 miles........... 6
101 miles or more . . . . 12

Over 60 percent of the men and 85 percent of the
women traveled 25 miles or less to look for work.
Men 25 to 44 years old were most likely to travel
over 100 miles to look for work. Among adult men,
those age 55 and over, were least likely to look for a
job that far from home. Among women, those 20 to
24 years old had the highest percentage who traveled
so far. A higher proportion of white than black men
traveled over 100 miles to look for work, but there
was no difference by race for women.
The distance traveled to look for work differed
sharply by occupation. Among both men and women,
much larger proportions of jobseekers who obtained
jobs as professional workers or as managers traveled
over 100 miles from home to look for work. Recruit­
ment and job search in these two occupational groups
are much more likely than in other occupations to be
on a regional or national basis. Among men, about
one-third of the professionals and one-fourth of the
managers went over 100 miles to look for work;




Among women, the pattern of travel differed little
by residence. Again a higher proportion of central city
residents than of those in suburbs of large metropolitan
areas limited their job search to 10 miles from where
they lived. Although women living outside the largest
areas were more likely than area residents to look for
work within 5 miles of home, a larger proportion also
traveled more than 50 miles.
The proportion of men who traveled far from home
increased as the duration of the search lengthened,
but for women, this trend generally was not noticeable.
Many men, after weeks of fruitless efforts close to
home, apparently expanded their area of job search.
Less than 10 percent of the men who looked for work 4
weeks or less, but 25 percent of those who looked for
27 weeks or more, traveled over 100 miles from home.
Among women, those who searched less than 5 weeks
traveled the shortest distance, but there was little
difference in distances traveled after 5 weeks.
As expected, a close relationship existed between
the farthest distance jobseekers traveled to find a job
and the distance from home of the job they found.
For example, one-third of the men who looked for
work from 26 to 50 miles from home obtained jobs
within that distance, and nearly all others found jobs
closer to home. Of the men who went over 200 miles,
Lee D. Dyer, “Job Search Success of Middle Aged
Managers and Engineers,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
Vol. 26, No. 3, April 1973, pp. 969-79. Professor Dyer found
that the most successful jobseekers were those who were most
persistent in their search.

one-half found jobs at least that far from home. Only
4 percent of women jobseekers went more than 100
miles to look for a job, and one-half of these found
jobs that far from home.
Most jobseekers found work relatively close to their
residence. One-third of the men and one-half of the
women found jobs less than 5 miles from home:

workers (30 percent, on average) refused work because
of low pay, as shown below:

Percent
Both sexes Men Women
Total .............................

Percent
Both Men Women
sexes
T o ta l.................. ......... 100
Under 5 miles................ .........
5 to 25 m iles................ .........
26 to 50 m iles.............. .........
51 to 100 m iles........... .........
101 to 500 m iles......... .........
Over 500 miles ........... .........

40
45
7
3
3
2

100

100

34
46
8
4
5
3

48
44
4
1
1
1

Job refusal

One-third of all jobseekers turned down at least
one job offer during their search. (See tables 1-1
through 1-5.) The proportion who turned down jobs is
somewhat inflated because it includes persons who
refused an offer only because they had already started
to work on their new job rather than because they did
not like some aspect of the proffered job.
Men 20 to 44 years old were more likely than younger
or older workers to reject an offer. A larger proportion
of women under 35 than of older women turned down
jobs. Older workers looked longer than younger workers
before finding a job and apparently they were more
willing to accept the first offer. In general, the pro­
portion within each age group who refused jobs differed
little by sex. One-third of the white and over one-fifth
of the black jobseekers refused jobs;
The proportions of jobseekers who turned down
job offers varied widely by occupation. Roughly onehalf of the professional and managerial workers turned
down at least one job compared with fewer than onefifth of nonfarm laborers and private household workers.
Overall, a greater proportion of white-collar than of
blue-collar and service workers turned down jobs.
The major reasons for turning down jobs varied
little by age, sex, or race. The highest proportion of




100

100

100

Low pay .................................
Location unsatisfactory.........
Hours unsatisfactory.............
Other conditions
unsatisfactory.........................
Job temporary or
seasonal.................................
Would not make use of
skill or training ....................
Did not want that kind
of w o rk .................................
Other .....................................

30
14
9

33
13
7

27
15
12

5

6

5

4

4

3

6

7

6

11
20

10
20

12
20

This proportion tended to increase with age and was
higher for men than for women. The second most
common reason was unsatisfactory location (14 percent).
One out of 10 persons who refused a job did not
want the kind of work offered; workers under age 45
gave this reason more frequently than older workers.
Another 1 out of 10 refused because the hours were
unsatisfactory. A higher proportion of women than
men gave this reason. Many married women are re­
stricted in the hours they can work because they have
school-age children. Among wives 35 to 44 years old
who refused jobs, 1 out of 4 turned them down
because the hours were unsatisfactory.
Among persons who turned down jobs, low pay
was given as the reason by at least one-third of the
persons in each occupational group, except sales and
service where it was one-fourth, and professional workers,
nearly 1 in 5. Over 1 out of 5 of the last group turned
down a job because the location was unsatisfactory.
Greater proportions of white-collar than blue-collar
workers turned down a job because they did not like
the kind of work or because the job would not make
use of their skill or training.
The proportion of job offers turned down varied
widely by the method which resulted in the offer. The
job refusal rate (number of persons who turned down
an offer from a particular source divided by the sum of

persons who turned down and accepted offers) was
lower for informal than formal sources:
Percent o f job
offers refused
Informal methods
Asked relatives about jobs where
they w o rk .............................................
Applied directly to employer. . . . ___
Asked friends about jobs where
they w o rk .............................................
Asked relatives about jobs elsewhere ..
Asked friends about jobs elsewhere . . .

16
21
23
31
36

Formal methods
Local newspaper a d s .............................
School placement office .......................
State employment service....................
Civil Service test ....................................
Asked teacher or professor....................
Private employment agency..................

37
40
42
43
44
46

The relatively low proportions who turned down
jobs after applying directly to an employer and asking
friends and relatives about jobs where they work may
reflect the amount and detail of labor market informa­
tion which the jobseeker has. A jobseeker going to an
employer for a job may know and be willing to accept
the wage rates and working conditions. The low incidence
of refusals from leads furnished by friends and relatives
about jobs where they work undoubtedly reflects
their detailed knowledge both about available openings
and the jobseeker’s needs and abilities; they may tell
jobseekers only about an opening they believed would
be accepted.
Newspaper ads may not give much information, and
only after investigation will the jobseeker learn enough
about the job to turn it down. Possibly jobs offered
by private employment agencies and the State em­
ployment service do not meet all of the jobseeker’s
requirements. The relatively high proportion who turned
down Civil Service jobs may reflect the relatively long
wait between filing an application and an actual offer; the
applicant may already have a job when the offer comes.
Change in earnings

Hourly earnings of jobfinders on their current and
former jobs were compared for those who last worked in
1971 or 1972.13 (See tables J-l and J-2.) Earnings



averaged 12 percent more on the new job; 12 percent
for men and 14 percent for women. Those who found
employment by asking relatives about jobs other than
where they work, by taking Civil Service tests, or by
asking teachers had the greatest relative increases in
hourly earnings— over 30 percent. Persons who found
jobs through answering local ads or the State employ­
ment service averaged only a 7-percent increase. Only
one group of jobseekers had a decrease in earnings—
those who found jobs by answering nonlocal newspaper
ads. A majority of workers who found jobs this way
accepted less than their former earnings. On average,
their hourly pay was 15 percent lower on their new job.
This group contains persons who moved to a new
location and could not find a job paying what they
had earned, and persons who took jobs away from
home because they could not find a suitable one
where they resided.
Overall, 61 percent of the jobseekers earned higher
hourly pay in the new job than in the former job.
A larger proportion of women than men received pay
increases. The proportions of whites and blacks who
improved their earnings were the same, although blacks
averaged 17 percent higher pay compared with 12
percent for whites.
Forty-one percent of the jobseekers improved their
earnings by 20 percent or more. Over 50 percent of
those who found jobs through Civil Service procedures,
school placement officers, and relatives received such
large pay increases.
About 32 percent of the jobseekers earned less
and only 7 percent earned exactly the same per hour
on their new job. However, 37 percent of those who
obtained jobs through union hiring halls experienced
no change in pay, undoubtedly because of union wage
scale requirements.
Suggestions for further study

Additional information is needed on job search
methods. This survey covered a year in which un­
employment averaged 5.6 percent; higher unemploy­
ment rates might result in different findings. For
example, does the use of formal methods increase
in a loose labor market? Does the proportion of
workers going beyond commuting range to look for a
job change materially when unemployment is high?
Additional information also is needed on the in­
tensity of the job search— the number of times each
* 3 Earnings of nonagricultural production workers in private
industry in January 197 3 were 6 percent higher than in
January 1972 and 10 percent higher than the average for 1971.

method is used and whether jobseekers exert effort
each week to find a job. Is intensity related to
financial resources, presence of other earners in the
family, or number of dependents?
This survey obtained information on job search
methods only from persons who made a deliberate

effort to find a job; it excluded persons who did not
actively seek a job but took one when it was offered.
The dynamics of the process by which information on
job openings is made available to potential workers
should be examined to supplement and enhance the
findings of this survey.

Methods used to look for w ork by white and black jobseekers,
selected occupational groups, January 1973

Percent
Professional and technical workers
Direct application
Ask friends about jobs where they work
Ask friends about jobs elsewhere

Clerical workers
Direct application
Ask friends about jobs where they work
Answer local ads
State employment service

Operatives, except transport
Direct application
Ask friends about jobs where they work
Answer local ads
State employment service

Service workers, except private household
Direct application
Ask friends about jobs where they work
Answer local ads
Ask relatives about jobs where they work




40

80
White

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n )
A g e (in y e a r s )
35

45

to

15
to

to

to

and

24

34

44

54

T o ta l:

N u m ber ------------------------P e r c e n t -------------------------

E m p lo yed b e fo r e c u rren t jo b :
Quit j o b ----------— ------------- ------ ------T e m p o r a r y jo b e n d e d -------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r ily --------------------L a id o ff in d e fin it e ly ----------------------L o s t jo b fo r o th er r e a s o n s ------------S o ld ,lo s t, o r ga ve up b u s in e s s ------W anted a d iffe r e n t jo b b e fo r e
q u it t in g ---------------------------------------Not in la b o r fo r c e b e fo r e c u rren t jo b :
L e ft sch o o l ----------------------------------L e ft m ilit a r y --------------------------------W anted w o rk w h ile in s c h o o l ---------R e c o v e r e d fr o m illn e s s o r
d is a b ilit y ------------------------------- -----K eep in g house and wanted j o b ------ ~
R e tir e d and wanted to w o r k -----------O ther r e a s o n s ----------------------------------

1 No one in c a te g o ry .




10, 437
100. 0

16.9
4. 4
•9
9 .6
6. 3
1. 5

Sex

R ace

over

20

to

T o ta l

16

19

R ea so n

1, 727
100. 0

3, 220
100. 0

2, 700
100. 0

1, 378
100. 0

920
100. 0

13. 7
5. 1
.4
4. 1
2. 8
.6

17. 0
3. 6
1.0
7. 7
5. 7
.5

18.9
4. 0
.9
10, 5
5.9
1. 6

18. 0
'4. 6
1. 1
12.9
6. 5
2. 4

15. 3
5. 6
1 .4
14. 2
13. 3
2. 9

55
M en

492
100. 0

5, 749
100. 0

15.
6.
1.
18.
11.
4.

18.
5.
1.
12.
7.
2.

3
6
1
9
5
9

3
3
2
9
9
3

W om en

W hite

:
•

N e g ro and
o th er
m in o rity
races

4, 688
100. 0

9, 302
100. 0

1, 135
100. 0

15. 1
3. 3
.6
5. 5
4. 4
.5

17. 0
4. 0
.7
9- 4
6. 1
1. 5

15. 8
7. 3
2. 2
10. 6
8. 4
1.0

13. 5

10.8

12.9

17. 3

15. 6

10. 5

5.9

15. 4

11.2

13. 9

9-8

15. 0
2. 6
5. 5

31. 3
( X)
19. 4

22.8
5. 1
4 .9

8. 4
2.8
2. 4

2. 6
1.5
•. 5

1. 4
.8
.6

.4
.4

13. 7
4. 6
5. 9

16. 5
.2
5. 0

15. 3
2. 5
5. 6

12. 4
3. 9
4. 8

1.6
9- 1
.8
12. 4

.5
3. 6
(* )
7. 7

1. 0
7. 2

1.6
11. 4
.1
14. 2

1.8
15. 7
.6
16. 1

3.8
12. 2
1 .4
16. 6

1. 7
.3
1. 2
9. 4

1. 5
19. 8
.5
16. 0

1. 5
9- 1
■9
12. 5

2. 7
8. 7
.7
11. 5

(*>
10. 7

C)
5. 3

3. 6
13. 6
12. 3

T o ta l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

16
to
19 y e a rs

20
to
24 y e a rs

25
to
34 y e a r s

35
to
44 y e a rs

T o ta l jo b s e e k e r s (thousands) -------------------

10, 437

1, 727

3, 220

2, 700

1, 378

920

492

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ----------------------------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------------About job s e ls e w h e r e ------------------------------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------------About job s e ls e w h e re -----------------------------------A n s w e re d new spaper ads:

66. 0

63. 6

67. 1

65. 4

69- 0

64. 0

64. 0

50. 8
41.8

62. 9
46. 3

55. 0
48. 4

48. 4
41. 0

43. 8
33. 9

35. 8
30. 3

41. 7
29. 1

28. 4
27. 3

40. 0
34. 7

34. 2
36. 5

25. 7
24. 5

16. 9
14. 5

16. 2
14. 1

18. 1
15. 9

45.
11.
21.
33.
12.
15.
10.

9
7
0
5
5
3
4

43. 8
8. 2
13. 8
25. 8
12. 3
9-8
14. 5

48.
12.
23.
36.
1919.
14.

45.
12.
23.
33.
12.
17.
9-

45.
12.
21.
32.
5.
13.
5.

1
9
3
9
8
7
6

44. 0
13. 2
18 5
33. 2
4. 2
11.8
2. 3

44.
8.
19
40.
6.
8.
2.

1. 4

1. 0

1 .4

1.6

2. 0

1. 1

.6

1.6
.5

1.6
.4

1. 2
.2

2. 0
•9

1 .4
.4

1. 6
.7

1.8
.8

4. 9
6. 0
5. 6

2. 0
2. 3
3. 1

3. 7
4. 3
7. 1

7. 4
7. 4
6. 7

7. 0
7. 5
4. 5

4. 6
9. 3
4. 0

2. 8
11.6
3. 7

O ther -----------------------------------------------------------------

.6
11.8

.3
11.5

.3
11.7

1. 1
11.0

1. 0
12. 5

.5
13. 8

11.4

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used ----------------------

4. 0

4. 0

4. 5

4. 0

3. 5

3. 2

3. 3

5, 749

878

1, 709

1,605

736

515

306

67. 3

64. 4

69- 1

66. 5

7L 2

66. 1

60. 8

53. 8
45. 9

65. 8
47. 7

59. 2
53. 6

50. 9
44. 5

46. 4
41. 1

39- 0
35. 3

44. 8
34. 0

31. 0
30. 1

42. 1
36. 0

40. 0
41.2

27. 7
28. 2

19. 3
17. 0

17. 1
16. 3

16. 7
14. 7

44.
14.
19.
37.
12.
15.
9.

37.
6.
927.
12.
7.
10.

1
6
7
3
1
7
2

46. 7
14. 7
18. 1
41.9
17. 1
18. 1
11.9

45.
16.
24.
36.
13.
18.
10.

47.
17.
23.
38.
4.
15.
5.

43.
18.
22.
36.
4.
13.
3.

44.
9.
21.
394.
9.
2.

2. 0

1. 1

2. 0

2. 2

3. 0

1-9

1. 0

1. 7
•7

2. 3
.6

1. 4
.4

1.9
1. 2

1 .4
.5

1. 6
.8

2. 0
1. 3

6. 7
9. 9
5. 5

2. 5
3. 6
2. 4

3. 7
7. 7
7. 1

10. 2
11.4
6. 9

11.8
12. 5
5. 0

7. 0
15. 5
3. 5

4. 6
16. 7
2. 9

.8
11.9

.5
12. 5

.2
10. 4

1. 2
11. 7

1.9
12. 4

.8
16. 3

11.8

4. 2

3. 9

4. 6

4. 3

4. 0

3. 6

3. 4

45
to
54 y e a rs

55 y e a rs
and
over

BOTH SEXES

N o n lo c a l -------------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy -------------------------------State em ploym en t s e r v ic e ---------------------------------S chool placem en t o ffic e ------------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t -----------------------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -------------------------------Went to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs co m e to
pick up p eople -------------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ----------------------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ----------------------------P la c e d ads in p ro fe s s io n a l o r tra d e

7
4
8
9
0
1
2

0
4
2
6
0
3
7

5
7
5
0
3
7
6

C)

MEN
T o ta l jo b s e e k e rs (thousands) ------------------A p p lie d d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e r ----------------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About job s w h ere they w o rk -------------About jo b s e ls e w h e re -----------------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
About jo b s w h ere they w o rk -------------About jobs e ls e w h e re -----------------------A n s w e re d n ew spaper ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l -------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em ploym en t agen cy -------------------State em ploym en t s e r v i c e ----------------------School p lacem en t o f f i c e --------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r --------------------Went to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs com e to
pick up p eop le -------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l -------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
Union h irin g hall -----------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n -----------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ----------------------------------------------O ther -----------------------------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used

See footn ote at end o f ta b le.




6
2
9
1
0
4
2

4
0
8
4
8
1
7

2
6
3
2
9
5
3

6
2
1
6
3
8
1

1
5
6
5
6
5
6

n

(P e r c e n t o f jo b s e e k e r s )
M ethod

T o ta l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

TV

35

75

15

---------- n>-------- ---------- -------- ---------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------- --------to
to
to
to
to
34 y e a rs
24 y e a rs
44 y e a rs
19 y e a rs
54 y e a rs

55 y e a rs
and
over

WOMEN
T o ta l jo b s e e k e r s (thousands) --------------------

4, 688

849

1,511

1,095

642

405

186

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ----------------------------A sk ed frie n d s :
About jo b s w h ere they w o r k --------------------------About jo b s e ls e w h e re -----------------------------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About jobs w h e re th ey w o r k --------------------------About job s e ls e w h e re -----------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew spaper ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l--------------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy -------------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ---------------------------------School p lacem en t o ffic e ------------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ------------------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -------------------------------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e to
pick up p eople ------------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l--------------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls —-------------------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n -----------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ----------------------------------------------------------O t h e r ------------------------------------------------------------------

64. 4

62. 8

64. 8

63. 7

66. 7

61. 2

69- 4

47. 2
36. 6

59. 7
44. 9

50. 1
42. 4

44. 7
36. 0

40. 7
25. 7

31. 6
24. 0

36. 0
21.0

25. 1
23. 9

37. 7
33. 5

27. 5
31. 1

22. 8
19. 1

14. 2
11. 7

15. 1
11. 6

20. 4
17. 7

47. 5
8. 6
22. 4
29- 2
13. 0
15. 2
11.8

40.
9.
18.
24.
12.
12.
18.

51.0
9- 9
30. 2
31. 2
21. 2
20. 1
16. 8

44.
7.
20.
299.
16.
8.

42. 5
7. 6
19- 2
26. 8
6. 9
11.5
5.9

44. 4
6. 7
13. 8
28.9
4. 2
9- 4
1. 2

45. 2
7. 5
16. 1
4 1 .4
9- 1
8. 1
2. 7

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used ----------------------

1 No one in c a te g o ry .




8
9
1
3
5
0
8

4
1
8
4
4
3
3

.7

•9

.7

.7

.6

n

n

1. 4
.2

.8
.2

1. 0

1 .4
.3

2. 0
.5

1.6

(M

2. 1
.4

2. 6
1. 1
5. 7

1 .4
.8
3.9

3. 8
.5
7. 0

3. 3
1. 5
6. 5

1.6
1. 7
4. 0

1. 5
1.7
4. 7

2. 7
5. 4

.4
11. 5

.2
10. 4

.3
13. 1

.8
10. 0

12. 5

(M

.5
10. 6

10. 8

3. 7

4. 0

4. 2

3. 5

3. 0

2. 7

3. 2

(M

(*)

n

(P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e r s )
P r o fe s s io n a l and
tech n ica l w o rk e rs
M ethods

T o ta l

Engi­
n e e rs

T o ta l

T each ­
ers,
ex cep t
c o lle g e

S ales w o rk e rs

M a n a gE n g i­ e r s and
n eerin g a d m in is­
and
tr a to r s ,
scien ce ex cep t
fa r m
te c h ­
nicians

T o ta l

R e ta il

C le r ic a l w o rk e rs

O th er

T o ta l

S ten og­
O ffic e
ra p h ers,
B o o k ­ m achine ty p is ts ,
k e e p e rs o p e r a ­
and
to rs
secre­
ta r ie s

BOTH SEXES
T o ta l (thousands) ---------------------

10. 437

1, 430

120

409

119

526

767

494

273

2. 272

214

105

782

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----------A sk ed frie n d s :
About jobs w h ere they w o rk --------About job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
A bout job s w h ere they w o r k ---------About job s e ls e w h e re ------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l -------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t agen cy ------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ----------------School pla cem en t o ffic e -------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------A sk ed tea ch er o r p r o fe s s o r ------------W en t to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le ------ -—-------P la c e d ads in n ew sp ap ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn als -------------------‘-- ------Union h irin g h all ------------’-----------------Contacted lo c a l org a n iza tio n —---------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
trade jo u rn a ls --------------------------------O ther ------------------------------------------------

66. 0

66. 1

79.2

77. 0

62. 2

64. 3

70. 8

73. 7

65.6

58.5

52. 8

52. 4

50. 8

50. 8
41. 8

48.5
45. 2

53. 3
48. 3

49. 4
49. 1

58. 0
49. 6

45. 1
45. 6

44. 3
39. 4

46. 6
37. 7

40. 3
42. 5

48. 5
39.9

36.9
29. 0

48. 6
5 2 .4

47. 1
39. 8

28. 4
27. 3

18. 2
23. 4

23. 3
21. 7

19. 3
32. 8

31. 1
36. 1

23. 8
26. 8

2 0.2
24. 2

20. 0
23. 7

20. 1
25. 6

27. 7
27. 8

25. 2
25. 2

29.5
28. 6

27. 1
23. 7

45.
11.
21.
33.
12.
15.
10.

9
7
0
5
5
3
4

37. 1
13. 8
27. 1
24. 7
35. 0
22.2
31. 4

52. 5
30. 8
58. 3
36. 7
25. 8
22.5
23. 3

21.5
7. 8
19. 8
15.9
56. 7
13.0
45. 5

55.5
16. 8
31. 1
37. 8
21. 8
16. 0
17. 6

54. 2
21. 1
41. 1
36. 1
13.5
2 1.9
10. 3

51. 6
12. 8
23. 3
28. 0
12. 6
9. 8
8.9

50. 0
8. 7
16. 2
29. 1
11. 1
7 .9
7. 3

54.
20.
36.
26.
15.
13.
11.

55. 1
9 .9
33. 0
34. 2
12. 1
21. 3
10.0

51. 4
11.2
42. 1
32. 7
7. 9
16. 4
9. 3

60. 0
13. 3
34. 3
41. 0
19.0
36. 2
15. 2

58.
7.
40.
36.
12.
26.
10.

1. 4

1. 6

2. 5

1. 5

1.7

1. 5

1. 8

.6

3. 7

. 8

1. 6
.5

.5
(*)

( ‘)
(*)

1.2
(l )

0

.7
. 3

.6

(1
)

3. 4
1.9

.7
.7

1. 5
.5

4 .9
6. 0
5. 6

11.9
1.7
8.2

38. 3
1. 7
4. 2

6. 1
1. 2
6. 4

10. 1
0
13. 4

16.9
3.0
4. 8

5 .6
2. 5
3. 4

2. 0
2. 2
3. 6

12. 5
2. 9
2 .9

2. 7
1.7
4. 8

2. 3

.6
11. 8

1.0
16.2

3. 3
9 .2

( ‘)
19. 6

3. 4
14. 3

2. 3
17. 7

1.0
10. 6

. 8
9. 3

1. 5
12. 8

4. 0

4. 3

5. 3

4. 4

4. 8

4. 6

3. 7

3. 5

4. 1

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used -----

.

0

6
1
3
4
8
2
7

3
4
5
7
0
1
5

4. 8

.4

6. 7
4. 8

1.9
. 3

4. 7

5. 7
6. 7
5. 7

2. 0
. 3
5. 6

.5
10. 6

0
9. 3

1. 9
10. 5

.9
9. 1

4. 0

3. 6

4. 8

4. 0

C)

.9
.9

C)

C r a ft w o r k e r s

T o ta l

C a rp e n ­
te r s , and
M ech an ics,
M ech a n ics,
oth er co n ­
excep t
au tom obile
stru ction
au tom obile
w ork ers

O p e ra ­
tiv e s ,
excep t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

L a b orers,
ex cep t
fa r m

P r iv a t e
household
w ork ers

S e r v ic e
w o rk ers,
ex cep t
p r iv a te
household

F arm
w o rk e rs

1. 154

442

111

148

1. 722

389

639

99

1,374

265

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----------A sk ed frie n d s :
About job s w h ere they w o r k ---------About job s e ls e w h e re ------------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ---------About job s e ls e w h e re ------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L ocal ------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l -------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ----------------School p la cem en t o ffic e --------------- ---C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r or p r o fe s s o r ------------W ent to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p eo p le ------------------.P laced ads in n ew sp ap ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------------Contacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------------O ther ------------------------------------------------

68. 7

65. 4

71. 2

68.9

70.2

66. 3

72. 0

35. 4

67.7

_

48. 0
43. 8

46. 8
38. 9

45.9
55 .9

48. 0
48. 6

57. 3
39.5

55. 8
45. 0

60. 1
45. 9

34. 3
26. 3

51. 7
39. 4

-

28.2
24. 1

20. 4
20. 4

18. 9
17. 1

33. 8
22. 3

38. 8
31. 4

31. 1
30. 8

40. 8
35. 8

24. 2
28. 3

26.6
24. 4

39. 9
13. 3
13. 6
37. 1
3 .4
11.0
3. 3

37.
11.
10.
34.
2.
10.
2.

33. 3
11. 7
9 .9
37. 8
7. 2
8. 1
5. 4

38.
14.
19.
31.
4.
10.
5.

41. 9
10. 0
11. 3
36. 8
5 .9
9 .6
4 .4

48. 3
10. 8
12. 3
37. 5
5. 4
9 .5
2. 8

39.
11.
11.
42.
8.
12.
4.

50. 5
10. 1
19.2
31. 3
10. 1
6. 1
7. 1

46. 1
9 .0
11.9
31. 1
9 .5
13. 1
8. 4

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used -----

T o ta l (thousands) ---------------------

See footn otes at end o f table.




6
3
0
6
0
4
5

5
9
6
1
1
8
4

7
6
4
4
1
7
5

1. 0

.9

3. 6

( ‘)

1. 2

1. 5

4. 4

3. 0

. 8

1. 5
.7

1. 4
.5

3. 6
1. 8

1.4
( ‘)

1. 7
.5

2. 6
.5

1. 7
.9

16. 2
2. 0

1. 2
. 1

3. 6
20. 3
5. 4

3. 4
29. 4
5 .9

1. 8
11. 7
8. 1

2. 7
4. 7
4. 7

1. 6
6. 4
5 .2

1. 0
11. 1
2. 1

4. 1
12. 2
7 .0

2. 0
5. 0
10. 1

2. 8
3. 1
6. 3

.3
11.0

.5
12. 4

1. 8
12.6

16.2

.2
10.2

.5
11. 3

.9
10. 6

2 .0
12. 1

10. 3

3. 8

3.5

3. 7

3. 8

3. 8

3.9

4. 3

3. 4

3. 6

0

0

-

Table B -2. M ethods used to look fo r work: Occupation and sex, January 1973—Continued
(P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e r s )
P ro te s s io n a L and
tech n ica l w o rk e rs
T o ta l
T o ta l

E n g i­
n e e rs

T each ­
ers,
excep t
c o lle g e

E n g i­
n eerin g
and
scien ce
te c h ­
nicians

Sales w o rk e rs

M an age r s and
adm in is tr a to r s ,
e x cep t
fa r m

T o ta l

R e ta il

O th er

C le r ic a l
w o rk e rs

MEN
T o ta l (thousands)
A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----A s k e d frie n d s :
A b ou t jo b s w h ere they w o rk —
A b ou t jo b s e l s e w h e r e ------------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk —
A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp ap er ads:
N o n lo c a l ---------------- >
-------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -----State e m p lo y m en t s e r v ic e -------School p la cem en t o ffic e -----------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r -----W ent to p la c e w h ere e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
Local

5,749

757

119

102

108

442

42 6

209

217

384

67.3

63. 1

78. 2

7 7 .4

62. 6

66. 5

65. 7

65. 1

65.9

62. 0

53. 8
45. 9

48. 3
4 6.6

52. 1
47. 1

46. 1
55.9

61. 7
55. 1

44. 8
46. 8

45. 5
4 4 .4

4 9.8
45. 0

41. 0
43.8

53. 6
50. 5

31. 0
30. 1

21. 4
24. 0

23. 5
21. 8

28 .4
3 1.4

32. 7
40. 2

24. 7
28.3

2 1 .4
29.3

22. 0
32. 5

20. 7
26. 3

31. 5
33. 3

44. 6
14.2
19. 9
37. 1
12. 0
15.4
9 .2

41. 1
17.8
32. 0
29.7
33. 0
26. 0
30. 1

52.9
31. 1
58. 8
35.3
26. 0
2 1.8
23. 5

13. 7
4 .9
17. 6
19. 6
51. 0
13. 7
40. 2

52. 3
18. 7
2 9.9
38. 3
24.3
16. 8
18. 7

52.9
23. 3
4 1.6
37. 1
13. 8
20. 4
10. 4

57.3
18. 5
32, 6
31.7
15. 7
12.2
9 .4

59.3
15. 8
22. 0
34. 4
16. 3
11. 5
6. 7

55.8
21.2
43.3
29. 0
15. 7
12.9
12. 0

46. 9
10. 9
24. 7
36. 5
15. 1
18.8
7 .6

2. 0

2 .2

(1)

1.9

1. 8

2.3

1.0

4. 1

1.8

1.7
.7

.5

2. 0

(')
O

4. 1
2 .3

. 5
.5

( ')
l1
)

.9
•9

1.3
.8

2. 5

A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls -------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls -------------------------O th er ------------------------------------------

C)

(*)

( l)

6.7
9-9
5. 5

16.2
2 .4
7 .8

38.7
1.7
4. 2

7 .8
3 .9
6.9

11.2
(M
15. 0

18. 6
3. 6
4. 1

8.9
3. 8
3 .8

2 .9
3. 8
5. 3

14. 7
3 .7
2 .3

5.2
5. 7
4. 4

.8
11.8

1. 6
13.5

3. 4
8. 4

(*)
13. 7

3..7
13. 1

2. 7
18. 6

•9
11.3

(*)
9. 1

1.8
13.4

.5
10. 4

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used—

4 .2

4. 6

5.3

4. 3

5. 0

4 .7

4. 2

4. 0

4. 3

4 .2

C ra ft and k in dred w o r k e r

T o ta l

T o ta l (thousands)
A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r — -—
A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ----A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e -------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A b ou t job s w h e re they w o r k ----A bou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e -------------A n s w e re d n ew spaper ads:
Local
N o n lo c a l
P r iv a t e em p loym en t agen cy —
State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ----School p la c e m e n t o ffic e ------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t
A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ---W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ic k up p e o p le ---------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------------------------N o n lo c a l
A n s w e r e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------Union h irin g h a l l ------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a ls ---------------------------Othe r -----------------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber o f m eth ods used—

See footn otes at end o f ta b le.




C a rp en ­
t e r s and
o th er con ­
stru ction
w o rk e rs

M ech an ics,
a u tom obile

M ech an ics,
excep t
au tom obile

O p e ra ­
tiv e s ,
excep t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

L a b orers,
excep t
fa r m

S e r v ic e
w o rk e rs ,
excep t
p riv a te
household

1, 113

438

111

146

1,038

357

593

580

6 8 .4

65. 4

71.2

68. 5

69.2

67. 5

7 1.8

67. 8

46.2
39. 0

45. 9
55.9

47. 3'
47. 9

61.9
44. 1

56.3
46. 5

60. 9
46.9

60.2
4 6 .4

28. 5
24. 4

20. 5
20. 5

18.9
17. 1

32.9
22. 6

3 9 .6
35.8

30. 3
30. 5

4 1.8
36. 1

33. 1
30. 9

40. 1
13. 5
13.8
37. 6
3. 4
11.2
3 .3

3 7.8
11. 4
9 .8
34. 6
• 2. 0
10. 5
2 .5

'3 3 .3
11. 7
9 .9
37 .8
7.2
8. 1
5 .4

37.7
15. 1
19.9
30. 1
4. 1
11. 0
5. 5

42. 8
10. 8
12.4
37.9
7. 0
11. 0
5. 5

48. 2
11. 5
12.9
40. 1
5.3
9 .8
2. 0

39. 1
12.3
11. 5
43.3
8 .8
12. 1
4 .9

49. 0
12. 2
14. 0
39. 8
12.2
2 0.9
8 .4

48. 1
44.3

•

3. 6

(*)

1.9

1.7

4. 4

1. 4

1.5
.7

1 .4
. 5

3. 6
1.8

1. 4
( l)

2 .4
.9

2 .8
. 6

1.9
1 .0

1.2
.3

3 .8
2 1 .0
5.3

3. 4
29. 6
5 .9

1.8
11.7
8. 1

2. 7
4 .8
4. 1

1.9
9 .4
4.2

1. 1
12. 0
1.7

4 .4
13.2
7. 1

5.2
5. 7
8 .8

.4
11.2

. 5
12. 5

1. 8
12. 6

16.4

.4
10. 1

. 6
11.8

1. 0
11.0

11.2

3 .8

3. 5

3.7

3.7

4. 1

3 .9

4. 3

4.3

.9

.9 '

C)

(l)

F a rm
w o rk e rs

259

(P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e r s )
P r o fe s s io n a l and
tech n ica l w o rk e rs
M ethod

T o ta l
T o ta l

Teach ­
ers,
ex cep t
c o lle g e

M an age r s and
a d m in is ­
t r a to r s ,
ex cep t
fa r m

S ales w o rk e rs

T o ta l

C le r ic a l w o rk e rs

R e ta il

Book­
k e e p e rs

T o ta l

O ffic e
m achine
op era­
to rs

S ten og­
ra p h e rs ,
ty p is ts ,
and
secre­
ta r ie s

WOMEN
T o ta l (thousands) ---------------A p p lie d d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e r -------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About jo b s w h ere they w o r k -----About job s e ls e w h e re -------------A s k ed r e la t iv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o r k ----About job s e ls e w h e r e --------------A n s w e re d new spaper ads:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n lo ca l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em ploym en t a g e n c y ---------State em ploym en t s e r v ic e -----------School p lacem en t o ffic e ---------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t -------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ---------Went to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs
c om e to pick up p eop le -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n --------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------O th er ------------------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods u s e d --

688

673

307

84

64. 4

69- 4

76. 5

52. 4

77.

47. 2
36. 6

48. 9
43. 8

50. 5
46. 9

46. 4
39- 3

42. 9
33. 5

44. 2
32. 3

25. 1
23. 9

14. 4
22. 7

16. 0
33. 2

19.
19.

0
0

18.8
17. 9

47. 5
8. 6
22. 4
29. 2
13. 0
15. 2

32. 7
9- 4

24. 1

2 1 .7
19- 0

60. 7
9. 5
39- 3
31.0
11.9
29.8
9 .5

44. 7
5. 6

20.
14.
58.
13.
47.

4,

11.8

8.8

37. 1
18. 0
32. 7

1 N o one in c a te g o ry .




0
2

11.8
23.8

8.8
6.8
8. 2

1,888

196

79

774

6

54. 4

51.0

47. 5
37. 7

37. 2
29. 6

51. 9
50. 6

46. 8
39. 4

18. 6
17. 2

26.9
26. 6

24. 5
25. 5

34. 2
35. 4

27. 4
23. 9

43.
3.
12.
25.
7.
5.
7.

56.8
9. 7
34. 6
33. 7
11. 4

52. 0
12. 2
39- 8
33. 7
7. 7
16. 3
10 . 2

63.
15.
32.
44.
16.
36.
17.

58. 4
7. 4
41.0
36. 8
11.8
26. 4
10. 6

285
80.

0

2
5
3
3
4
3
7

57.

8

52.

21.8
10. 5

3
2
9
3
5
7
7

•9

2. 0

(*)

•9

.7

.6

(>)

2. 5

.4

1. 4
.2

.4

1. 0

(l )

.9

1. 1

(M

(l )

1. 5
.4

1. 0
1. 0

5. 1
2. 5

1. 9

(M

(M
l1)

5. 5
.7
6. 2

9. 5
0)
8. 3

1. 5
•9
2. 9

1. 1
1. 1
2. 1

2. 3
•9
4. 8

2. 6
2. 6

5. 1
6. 3
7. 6

2. 1

5. 7

7. 1
•9
8. 6

.4
11. 5

.3
19- 2

21. 5

(M
13. 1

1. 2
9- 7

1 .4
9- 5

10. 6

(l )
9- 2

2. 5
11. 4

8. 9

3. 7

4. 1

4. 5

4. 0

3. 2

3. 1

4. 0

6

5. 0

4. 0

2. 6
1. 1

il )

O p e ra ­
tiv e s ,
excep t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

Lab orers,
e x cep t
fa r m

(* )

.5

3.

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
ex cep t
p riv a te
household

P r iv a t e
household

21

T o ta l (thousands)

A v e r a g e nu m ber o f m ethods used —

6

6

.7

C ra ft
w ork ers

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------A sk ed frie n d s :
A bout job s w h e re they w o r k -----Abou t job s e ls e w h e re --------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout jobs w h e re th ey w o r k -----About jobs e ls e w h e re --------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ----------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ----------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ------------S chool p la cem en t o ffic e ----------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t -------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ----------W en t to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p eo p le ---------- —
P la c e d ads in n ew sp ap ers:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ----------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ----------------------------Union h irin g h a ll --------------------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n --------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------O ther ---------------------------------------------

5
7

341

67. 5

50. 3
32.6

34. 3
26. 3

45. 5
34. 4

37. 7
24 .6

24 .2
28. 3

2 1 .9

40.5
8.9
9 .4
35. 1
4. 4
7 .6

50. 5
10. 1
19.2
31. 3
10. 1

44. 0
6. 5
10. 3
24. 8
7. 4
7. 4
8 .4

. 3

(*)
2.0
6.6
0
.7

1 .2

10. 2

7. 1

19.6

3.0

.4

16.2
2. 0

1. 3

2.0
5 .0

10 . 1

2.0

.9

794_______________

35 .4

6. 1

.3
5. 7

F a rm
w ork ers

71.6

2. 6

.3

(1
)

1. 1
1.0

4 .4

12. 1

2
2 P ercent not shown w here base is le s s than 75. 000.

z6_
_

M ethod

T o ta l (th o u s a n d s )-------------A p p lie d d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e r ----A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A b ou t job s w h e re they w o r k —
A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e -----------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re they w o r k —
A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e -----------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo y m en t a g e n c y -----State e m p lo y m en t s e r v ic e --------School p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ----W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le ----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p er:
L o c a l ----------------------------------N o n lo c a l -----------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------------------U nion h irin g h a ll --------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ----P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------------------O th er ---------------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber o f m eth ods
u sed ----------------------------------------

P r o fe s s io n a l M a n a gers
and a d m in i­
and
s tr a to r s ,
tech n ica l
e x cep t fa rm
w ork ers

Sales
w ork ers

C le r ic a l
w ork ers

C r a ft
w ork ers

O p e ra tiv e s ,
ex c e p t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

L a b o rers,
e x cep t
fa rm

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
exc e p t
p riv a te
household

1, 316

498

717

2,0 4 9

1, 059

1,515

351

528

1, 152

66. 6

65. 3

70.4

59. 0

69.5

70. 8

66.4

71. 8

69.6

47. 8
45. 1

44. 6
46. 2

42. 8
3 8 .5

47. 8
39. 6

47. 6
43.3

5 6.9
39. 6

57. 0
4 6 .7

58. 1
44. 9

50.2
38. 7

18. 7
23. 6

22.3
26. 1

18.3
23.4

26. 3
26. 9

2 7 .9
24.5

39. 1
32. 1

31. 1
31.3

4 1 .3
34. 1

23.3
2 2 .6

36. 6
14. 1
2 6.3
25. 0
35.3
22.2
31.4

56. 0
21. 9
4 2 .4
35. 7
13. 5
21. 1
9. 6

51. 6
11.9
22. 6
26. 6
11.9
9. 1
8.4

55.
9.
33.
32.
11.

41. 1
13.4
13. 0
35. 3
3. 7
10. 5
3 .4

42. 7
10. 2
11. 0
35. 0
5.3
8 .4
4 .2

51.3
10. 5
13. 1
38.2
6. 0
10. 5
3. 1

39.2
11.9
11. 9
41. 1
7 .4
13. 6
4 .4

47. 6
8.4
10. 8
29. 0
3 .4
6.2
2. 0

1.7

1. 0

1. 5

.5

.8

.9

.6

.3

0

3. 6
2. 0

.7
.3

1.3
.3

1.4
.8

1. 3
.6

2 .8
.6

.8
.8

1.0
.3

12.0
1.5
6. 8

16. 9
3. 2
3 .4

5.4
2. 6
2. 6

2 .4
1. 5
3. 5

3. 8
2 0 .0
4 .2

1.3
6.3
3. 0

1. 1
11. 1
1. 7

3 .4
11.4
6.2

1. 6
5.2
2 .9

.9
16. 1

2 .4
17. 3

1. 1
10. 5

.4
10. 9

.4
9.4

0)
10. 5

.6
11. 1

.8
11. 7

.3
5.4

4 .3

4. 5

3. 6

3. 9

3. 7

3. 8

3 .9

4. 2

3.3

6
5
5
2
1

19. 2
9. 7

4 .4

2. 0

1 N o one in c a te g o ry .

Table B -4. M ethods Negro and other m inority race jobseekers used to look for w ork: Occupation, January 1973
(^ e r^ e n ^ ^ ^ ^ o b s ^ e e k e r^

M ethod

T o ta l (thousands) ------------A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ----A s k e d frie n d s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk —
A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e -----------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re they w o rk —
A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e -----------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo y m en t a g e n c y ------State e m p lo y m en t s e r v ic e --------School p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ---------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -----W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le ----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ----------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r trad e jo u r n a ls --------------------U nion h irin g h a l l -----------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ----P la c e d ads
tra d e jo u rn a ls — --------------------Othe
----------------------------------------

in profession al or

r

A v e r a g e num ber o f m eth ods
u s e d -----------------------------------------

M a n a g ers
P r o fe s s io n a l
and ad m in i­
and
s tr a to r s ,
tech n ica l
ex c e p t fa rm
w ork ers

C le r ic a l
w ork ers

C r a ft
w ork ers

Ope r a tiv e s ,
ex c e p t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

L a b o rers,
ex c e p t
fa rm

Se r v ic e
w o rk ers,
ex c e p t
p r iv a te
household

150

223

95

207

1 38

111

222

60.5

_

_

54. 7

60. 0

65.2

_

73. 0

57. 7

57. 0
46. 5

-

-

55. 6
42. 6

5 2.6
49. 5

60.4
39. 1

-

70. 3
51.4

58. 6
4 3.2

12.3
2 1 .9

-

4 0 .4
35. 0

31 .6
20. 0

37.2
26. 1

-

38. 7
43. 2

4 3 .7
33.3

43. 9
11.4
3 6. 0
20.2
31. 6
2 1 .9
30. 7

-

_
-

50. 2
13. 5
28.3
52. 5
21. 1
4 0 .4
13. 5

2 7.4
12. 6
20 .0
56. 8
1. 1
15.8
2. 1

35. 7
8. 7
13.0
4 9.3
11. 1
18. 8
5.3

-

42. 3
9. 9
9 .0
48. 6
12. 6
9. 0
5 .4

38.3
12.2
17.6
42.3
9.9
17.6
9 .0

.9

-

-

3. 6

3.2

3 .9

-

4. 5

2. 7

2. 6

-

3. 1
2 .2

2. 1

5.3

H

-

(*)

( 2)

-

6 .3 '
1. 8

2 .3
.9

10. 5
3 .5
25 .4

-

-

5. 8
4. 0
16. 1

2. 1
22. 1
18.9

3 .4
7. 2
21.3

-

7 .2
17. 1
10. 8

8. 1
5 .9
2 1 .6

1.8
16.7

-

-

.9
7. 6

28 .4

1.9
7. 7

-

-

1. 8
5 .4

10. 8

4. 6

"

4. 9

4 .3

4.2

”

4 .7

4.4

114

*28

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.




Sales
w ork ers

”

ft

No one in category.

0

(P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e rs )
M en

Both sexes

T o ta l (thousands) ------A p p lie d di r e c t ly to e m p lo y e r —
A s k e d frie n d s :
About job s w h e re they
w o rk ---------------------------A bout job s e ls e w h e r e -----A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey
w o rk ---------------------------A bout job s e ls e w h e re ----A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ----------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y —
State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ---S ch ool p la c e m e n t o ffic e -----C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r —
W en t to p la c e w h e re
e m p lo y e rs com e to p ick
up p e o p le --------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ----------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn als ------------Union h irin g h a ll ----------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n ization -----------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------O ther ---------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber of m ethods
used ---------------------------------

Outside
cen tra l
c ity

N o t in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

W om en

' In SM S A 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
T o ta l

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

In
ce n tra l
city

N o t in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m ore

In S M S A 1 o f 250
o r m o re
In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

o
o
o

In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

o
o
o

M ethod

In S M S A 1 o f 25 0
o r m o re

Outside
ce n tra l
c ity

N ot in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m ore

2. 884

3. 758

3. 795

3, 576

1. 537

2. 039

2, 173

3, 066

1. 347

1, 719

1, 622

63. 1

59.9

65. 6

70. 3

64. 1

60.2

67. 1

71. 7

61.9

59. 4

63. 8

68.5

50. 7
42. 1

51. 3
43. 2

50. 3
41. 3

50. 8
41. 9

54. 4
47. 0

53. 4
45. 7

55. 1
48. 0

54. 0
46. 5

46. 3
36. 3

48. 8
40. 3

44. 3
33. 1

46. 3
35. 5

27. 9
27. 4

29.2
27. 2

26.9
27. 5

28.6
26. 0

30. 7
30. 2

30. 2
27. 7

31. 1
32. 1

31.2
28. 9

24. 5
23. 9

28. 0
26. 6

21. 8
2 1.9

25. 2
22.0

51. 7
11. 8
25. 2
31. 8
13. 8
16.7
10.6

50. 8
9.9
27. 4
34. 5
15. 8
17. 8
12. 2

52. 4
13. 2
23. 6
29.7
12.2
15.9
9. 3

36. 3
11.7
13. 6
38. 1
11. 1
12.9
9. 8

51 .0
14. 1
24. 2
37. 1
13.5
17. 5
8. 8

5 1 .4
11. 7
23. 8
39. 0
14.4
16. 6
9 .9

50. 7
15. 8
24. 5
35. 6
12.9
18. 2
8. 0

34. 6
14. 8
13.4
38. 8
11. 0
12. 6
9. 3

52. 6
9 .0
26.5
25. 4
14. 1
15. 8
12. 7

50. 1
7. 8
31. 6
2 9.2
17. 4
19.2
14. 8

54. 6
10. 0
22. 5
2 2 .4
11.5
13. 1
11.0

38.
7.
13.
37.
11.
13.
10.

6, 642

6
5
8
1
3
3
6

1.2

1. 6

.9

1. 7

1. 7

2. 1

1. 4

2. 5

.6

.9

. 3

2. 1
.7

2. 7
. 8

1. 7
.6

1.5
.5

2. 6
1.0

3.2
1. 3

2. 1
. 8

1. 3
.7

1.6
. 3

2. 0
.2

1. 2
.4

1. 8
. 1

5. 8
6 .2

6. 1
6. 3

5. 6
6. 1

3. 8
6. 8

7. 9
10. 6

7. 4
10.7

8. 3
10. 6

5. 1
10. 4

3. 3
1.0

4 .5
1. 3

2. 3
.7

2. 1
1. 8

5.5

6.5

4. 7

5.5

5 .6

5. 8

5. 5

5. 3

5. 4

7. 4

3. 8

5 .9

.9
12. 3

1. 3
11.2

.6
13.2

. 3
11. 6

1.2
12. 7

1. 6
12.2

.9
13. 2

.4
12. 2

.5
11.9

.9
10. 1

. 1
13. 3

.3
10.9

4. 1

4. 2

4 .0

3. 8

4. 4

4. 3

4. 4

4. 0

3. 7

4. 0

3.5

3. 5

.6

Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a .

Table B -6. M ethods Negro and o th er m inority race jobseekers used to look fo r w ork:
M en

Both Sexes
In S M S A 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

Outside
ce n tra l
c ity

N ot in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m ore

In S M S A 1 o f 250
or m ore
T o ta l

In
c e n tra l
c ity

W om en

o
o
o

M ethod

Residence and sex, J a n u a ry 1973

O utside
c e n tra l
c ity

N ot in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

In S M S A 1 o f 250, 000
or m ore
T o ta l

In
c e n tra l
c ity

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

N o t in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

T o ta l (thousands) ---------

817

585

232

318

446

315

131

175

371

270

101

143

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r —
A s k e d frie n d s :
A bout jobs w h e re th ey
w o rk ----------------------------A bou t job s e ls e w h e re -----A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h e re they
w o rk ----------------------------A bout jobs e ls e w h e re -----A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g en cy —
State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ---S ch ool p la c e m e n t o ffic e ------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r —
W en t to p la c e w h ere
e m p lo y e rs com e to p ick
up p e o p le --------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------Union h irin g h a ll -----------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a t i o n --------------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------O ther -----------------------------------

55. 3

5 3 .9

58. 9

63. 3

55. 8

51. 4

66. 4

67. 0

54. 7

56. 6

49. 5

58. 8

57. 1
43. 9

5 5.9
42. 6

59. 7
47. 0

54. 9
38. 3

61. 6
49. 3

60. 6
46. 4

6 4.9
57. 3

64. 8
40. 3

51. 8
37. 5

5 0.9
38. 4

54. 3
34. 3

42. 6
35. 8

34. 5
2 9 .9

34. 6
26. 3

34. 7
39. 0

38. 9
30. 9

35.0
30. 8

33. 4
24. 0

38. 9
47. 3

39.2
33. 5

33. 9
28. 9

35. 8
29 .0

29 .5
2 8 .6

38. 5
28. 4

46.
11.
26.
46.
15.
24.
10.

47. 8
10. 6
25.5
46. 3
17.6
25. 5
12. 6

41. 9
15. 3
2 8 .0
46. 6
9. 7
20. 8
4. 2

25 .9
6. 8
16.0
4 5 .4
14. 5
14. 8
8. 3

46. 7
14. 7
24. 6
52. 5
14. 1
2 5 .9
9 .2

49. 2
10.4
20. 2
51. 1
14. 8
24. 6
10. 4

41. 2
25. 2
35. 1
55. 7
12.2
2 9 .0
5. 3

2 5.0
7 .4
13. 6
42. 0
14. 8
11. 4
6. 8

45. 6
8. 3
27. 9
39. 3
16. 9
2 1 .9
11. 7

46. 2
10. 8
31. 2
4 1.2
20. 8
26.5
15. 1

43. 8
1.9
19.0
35.2
6. 7
10.5
1.9

27. 0
6. 1
18. 9
5 0 .0
14. 2
18. 9
10. 1

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods
U8ed ----------------------------------

3
8
1
5
4
0
2

3.2

3.5

2. 5

5. 2

4 .2

4. 1

4. 6

8.5

1. 8

2 .5

( 2)

1. 4

4. 3
1. 4

5. 5
2. 0

1. 3
( 2)

4 .0
.6

5 .4
2 .0

6. 6
2. 8

2 .3

5. 1
( 2)

3. 1
. 8

4. 3
1. 1

( 2)

2. 7
1. 4

6 .5
7 .5

5 .9
7. 0

8.0
8. 5

7. 1
10.2

8. 0
11. 6

6 .0
10. 4

12.2
15. 3

6. 2
11.9

4. 7
2. 3

5. 7
3.2

1.9
( 2)

8. 1
8. 1

17. 1

15. 8

20. 8

17. 6

15.2

12. 0

2 2 .9

14.2

19.3

20. 1

17. 1

20. 9

1.2
11. 5

1.7
11.2

2. 1
12. 3

1.5
13.9

1. 1
15. 4

1. 6
16. 1

( 2)
13. 7

1. 7
15. 3

1. 3
7 .0

1. 8
6. 1

( 2)
9 .5

1. 4
12.2

4. 5

4 .5

4. 6

4. 2

4. 8

4 .6

5. 5

4. 3

4 .2

4 .5

3. 4

4. 1

1 Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a ,




‘

ft

2 No one in c a te g o r y .

T o ta l1

M ethod

Q uit
job

T em p orary
job ended

L a id o ff
t e m p o r a r ily

L a id o ff
in d e fin ite ly

L o s t job
fo r oth er
rea son s

Sold, lo s t,
o r gave up
business

-----Wanted
d iffe re n t
job b e fo re
quitting

--------------------------------

10, 437

1, 714

448

91

974

642

150

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A bou t job s w h e re th ey w o rk --------------------A bou t job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------------------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------A bou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e -------------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y -------------------------State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e ----------------------------S chool p la cem en t o ffic e --------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------------------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r
Went to place w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e to
p ick up p eople -------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n e w sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
---------------------------------------------------jo u rn a ls
Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
---------------------------------------------------O ther -----------------------------------------------------------

66. 0

68. 4

65. 4

69.2

70. 0

71. 5

71. 3

60. 3

50. 8
41. 8

47. 7
40. 5

56. 2
46. 0

46. 2
2 9.7

57. 5
49. 7

59. 6
50. 4

56. 7
43. 3

45. 3
37.8

2 8 .4
27. 3

2 5. 0
24.2

31.2
28. 6

27. 5
2 6 .4

36 .4
34. 5

38.2
36. 0

30. 0
30. 7

23. 1
20. 0

45. 9
11.7
21. 0
33. 5
12. 5
15. 3
10.4

50. 6
13. 0
24. 3
35. 1
5 .4
11.8
4 .9

38.8
9.8
13. 6
4 0 .4
10. 3
14. 5
10. 5

41. 8
11. 0
19.8
47. 3
3. 3
14. 3
5. 5

55. 5
17.8
24. 5
56. 1
6. 7
14.4
5. 3

62. 4
20. 6
27. 0
56. 9
5.6
20. 6
5. 6

52. 0
14.0
24. 7
30. 7
5. 3
17. 3
4. 0

41.2
10. 0
2 1.8
18. 4
7. 6
16. 2
5. 5

1. 4

1. 1

3. 6

3. 3

1. 7

2. 5

(2
)

1. 1

1. 6
.6

1. 1
. 4

2 .2
( 2)

1. 5
.8

2. 2
. 9

4. 0
2 .7

. 7
( 2)

5. 6

4. 5
5 .4
5.2

4 .2
19. 0
9.2

3. 3
24. 2
7. 7

4. 3
17.4
5. 6

7. 6
9 .0
9.2

15. 3
5. 3
4. 0

6. 1
1. 9
1. 6

1 1.8

.8
10.8

.4
13.8

(2
)
16. 5

. 5
11.3

. 3
9.2

2. 7
16. 0

.4
11. 6

4. 0

3 .8

4 .2

4. 3

3. 3

T o t a l (thousands)

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods u sed ------------------

1. 6
. 5
4. 9

.

6 0

.6

L e ft
sch ool

L e ft
m ilit a r y

4. 0
W anted
to w o rk
w h ile in
sch ool

4. 7
R ecovered
fr o m
illn e s s

5. 0
K eep in g
house and
w anted job

R e tir e d
and wanted
to w o rk

1, 373

O ther

----------------------------------

1, 522

265

557

165

924

86

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------------------------A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A b ou t job s w h e re th ey w o rk -----------------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ---------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A b ou t jo b s w h ere th ey w o rk -----------------------A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e ---------------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -----------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo y m en t a g e n c y ---------------------------State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e
------------------------------S ch ool p la cem en t o ffic e
---------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t
-----------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ---------------------------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e to p ick up
p eop le ----------------------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n e w s p a p e rs :
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ----------------------------------------------------A n s w e r e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e jo u rn a ls
Union h ir in g h a ll
-------------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ---------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e jo u rn a ls —
O th er
-------------------------------------------------------------

66.2

70. 9

64. 8

64.8

65.8

73. 3

62. 7

58. 5
50. 5

58. 9
47. 9

62. 5
46. 7

43. 0
33. 9

39. 0
27. 3

26.7
16. 3

46. 0
39. 1

36. 1
37. 1

44. 9
42. 6

25. 5
27. 6

23. 6
2 2 .4

20. 2
17. 6

(2
)
(2
)

24. 0
24. 1

40. 9
12.2
23 .8
2 9 .3
38.2
23. 7
34. 7

39. 6
12. 8
2 3 .4
63.4
14. 3
34. 3
6. 0

36. 6
4. 5
9.3
18.7
2 6 .6
6 .6
15.6

49. 7
15.8
17. 0
35.2
9.7
21. 2
4 .8

46. 2
5. 7
12. 3
22.2
3.8
9. 5
4. 1

T o t a l (thousands)

A v e r a g e nu m ber o f m ethods used

1 Includes
w as unknow n.

som e




-------------------

26.
3.
16.
27.
7.
7.
3.

7
5
3
9
0
0
5

46.
10.
21.
32.
8.
12.
6.

2.
.
3.
4.
6.
.
16.

4 .2

.2

(2
)

1.9
.7
8 .3
2. 3
6 .4
. 5
11.4

.8
( 2)
6. 8
7. 5
7. 9
1. 5
9 .4

. 7
(2
)
1. 1
1. 1
3. 6
.4
14.2

1.2
1.2
6. 7
7 .9
15.8
2 .4
14. 5

1. 3
. 6
( 2)
1.2
5. 0
. 2
7. 1

(2
)
( 2)
2. 3
3. 5
2. 3
(2
)
7. 0

4 .8

4. 9

3 .7

4 .0

2. 9

2 .2

1. 9

p e rso n s fo r w hom re a s o n fo r look in g fo r w o rk

(2
)

1. 1

N o one in c a te g o ry .

1, 259

5
7
5
1
6
8
9

1. 0
9
3
3
5
5
8
4

3. 7

(P e r c e n t o f jo b s e e k e r s )

T o ta l (thousands)

— P o ------to
$99

Less
than
$ 80

M ethod

---------------------------------

$Too
to
$ 124

$125
to
$ 149

$ 150
to
$ 174

$ 175
to
$ 199

$200
to
$249

$250
to
$299

1, 468

1, 445

1, 759

1, 097

935

449

724

246

360

68. 9

67. 8

63. 4

63. 8

70. 2

65. 0

65. 2

58. 1

58.9

52.9
39.6

52. 3
40. 1

52. 2
43. 3

50. 4
44. 2

53.5
47. 9

51.9
48. 3

47. 2
43. 5

42. 7
37. 8

40. 3
41. 1

32. 6
29.2

31.5
30. 1

33. 3
31.6

30.5
28. 2

30. 4
31.2

28. 5
29.2

24. 2
21. 8

10. 6
12. 2

9.2
12. 8

41. 9
9 .0
12. 0
35. 6
8. 2
10. 0
8.0

50.
11.
20.
38.
8.
14.
7.

2
8
1
1
4
7
6

51. 4
11. 8
25. 8
40. 0
9 .6
17.9
7. 6

41.
12.
24.
38.
15.
19.
13.

45. 3
13.9
25. 7
35. 8
15. 3
22. 7
10. 7

49. 4
13. 4
2 3 .4
34. 3
20.0
22. 5
18.0

41.7
14. 5
25. 6
30. 1
18. 4
15. 1
13. 4

39.
13.
31.
26.
16.
11.
17.

4
4
3
4
7
8
1

39. 7
25. 0
29. 7
20. 0
9 .4
15. 8
8. 1

1.6

1. 4

. 8

1 .4
1. 7

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
About job s w h ere they w o rk ---------------------A bou t job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk ---------------------A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e --------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ---------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -----------------------------School p la c e m e n t o ffic e ---------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ------------------------------------------A sk e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ----------------------------W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e to
p ick up p e o p le --------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls -------------------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -------------------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n -------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ------------------------------------------------------O ther -------------------------------------------------------------A v e r a g e num ber of m ethods used -------------------

7
9
9
3
7
1
3

1. 8

1.0

1. 5

1.2

1.5

1. 3

1.7

2.2
.6

1.2
.4

1.3
.6

1.7
.5

2. 1
. 7

.7
(1
)

1. 1
0

1. 8
2.2
6. 7

2. 8
2. 7
5. 1

2. 8
4.9
7. 0

4. 3
5. 6
4. 3

6. 1
6. 0
7 .9

9. 1
10.5
5. 6

11. 6
11. 3
4. 6

16. 2
2 6 .4
1. 6

21. 4
25. 8
1.7

.5
10. 2

. 3
9. 1

1. 6
10. 2

.7
11. 4

.4
14. 8

14. 0

1. 5
13. 7

n
15. 0

3.3
15. 8

3. 7

4. 0

4. 2

4. 1

4. 4

4. 5

4. 1

3. 8

3. 8

C)

C)

1 No one in c a te g o ry .

Table B -9.

M eth od s used to look for w ork:

Educational atta in m e n t, January 1973

(P e r c e n t o f jo b s e e k e r s )
Y e a r s o f s ch o o l c o m p leted
M ethod

T o ta l (thousands)

E le m e n ta ry
sch ool
8 o r le s s

H igh sch ool
1
to
3

C o lle g e
4

1
to
3

4
or
m o re

------------------------

883

1,647

4, 470

1,790

1,647

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ----------------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ------------About jo b s e ls e w h e re ---------------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ------------About jo b s e ls e w h e r e ---------------------A n s w e re d new sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ----------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -----------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -------------------School p lacem en t o f f i c e ------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ------------------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e
to p ick up p eop le -------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u r n a l s --------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a l l ---------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ----------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls -------------------------------------------O th er ----------------------------------------------------

68. 9

67. 1

63. 9

65. 3

69. 4

47. 1
33. 2

53. 1
37. 2

51. 5
41.9

51. 2
44. 7

48. 0
47. 2

30. 0
22. 2

29- 9
25. 6

31.6
28. 5

23. 9
28. 9

21.8
26. 5

29. 4
6 .9
8. 5
33. 6
2. 0
4. 2
1.0

40. 7
8 .9
10. 6
31.9
6. 7
6 .9
6. 3

48.
10.
1935.
7.
14.
6.

53.
13.
29.
35.
12.
19.
9-

43.
16.
34.
29.
38.
27.
31.

A v e r a g e num ber of, m ethods u s e d ---------




$ 300
or
m o re

9
9
1
1
3
5
4

4
7
6
0
0
4
6

3
9
1
1
4
0
0

2. 3

1-9

•9

1. 2

1.8

2. 2
.5

1.2
.5

1.9
.6

1. 3
.4

1. 1
.4

.8
12. 5
5. 0

2. 2
7.9
6. 0

2. 5
5. 6
5. 2

5. 2
5. 8
4. 1

15. 7
1.9
8. 1

.5
10. 8

.5
10. 7

.4
11. 7

.8
10. 7

1. 3
14. 6

3. 2

3. 6

3. 9

4. 2

4. 8

A g e (y e a r s )
T o ta l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

R a ce

16

20

25

35

45

55

to

to

to

to

to

and

19

M ethod

24

34

44

54

over

N egro
and oth er
m in o rity
ra c e s

W h ite

BOTH SEXES
T ota l:

N u m b er (thousands) -----P e r c e n t ------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------A sk ed frie n d s :
A bout job s w h e re th ey w o rk --------A bou t job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o rk --------A bout job s e ls e w h e re -------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy -------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ----------------S ch ool p la c e m e n t o ffic e --------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -------------W ent to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
co m e to p ic k up p e o p le -------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll ------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------------O ther -------------------------------------------------

10, 437
100.0

1, 727
100.0

3, 220
100.0

2, 700
100. 0

1, 378
100. 0

920
100. 0

492
100.0

9, 302
100. 0

1, 135
100. 0

34. 9

32. 4

34. 6

34.0

38.6

35. 5

40. 0

35. 7

27. 7

12. 4
5 .5

18. 3
4. 6

10.6
5. 1

11. 5
6.2

12.9
5. 1

11. 5
8.6

10. 0
3. 7

12. 0
5. 7

16. 4
4. 0

6. 1
2. 2

10. 5
3 .9

7. 0
2. 9

5 .2
1. 8

3. 6
.4

2 .4
1.5

2. 4
.5

5. 7
2. 3

9. 3
1.9

12.2
1. 3
5. 6
5. 1
3 .0
2. 1
1 .4

9. 1
.5
4. 8
4. 0
3. 5
1. 3
1.9

10.2
1. 5
6 .4
5. 6
5. 1
2 .0
2 .0

13. 4
.7
6.2
5 .4
2. 3
3.0
1. 3

14. 2
2. 6
4. 6
5 .5
. 7
2. 2
.5

16. 8
1. 8
4. 8
3. 6
. 3
1. 8
(X
)

16. 6
1. 6
3. 4
5. 5
.5
.5
.5

12. 8
1. 3
5. 8
4 .4
3. 0
2 .0
1. 4

. 1

•1

.2
(2
)

. 1

l

•1

.5

C)

0

4
8
8
8
3
3
6

. 1

.4

.2

. 1

.2
. 1

.2
(1
)

0

.9

.5
(1
)

0

C)

. 1
.5
.9

.6
1. 8
. 8

1.2
2 .2
.5

. 3
3. 7
.7

(1
)
6. 1
1. 3

.4
1.4
.4

.2
1. 9
3.9

3 .9

(1
)
5. 3

. 1
5 .5

O
4. 6

C)

n

6. 6

(2
)
5.2

(*)
5. 1

878
100.0

1, 709
100.0

1, 605
100. 0

736
100.0

515
100.0

306
100. 0

5, 128
100.0

621
100. 0

(*>

.4
1.5
. 8
(2
)
5. 2

. 1

6.
.
3.
10.
2.
3.
1.

b

. 1
.2
.6

C)

6.1

MEN
N u m b er (thousands) -----P e r c e n t ------------------------

5, 749
100. 0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A bout job s w h e re th ey w o rk --------A bout job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o rk --------A bout job s e ls e w h e r e -------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y ------------State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e -----------------S ch ool p la c e m e n t o ffic e -----------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ---------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -----------W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
co m e to p ic k up p e o p le ----------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -----------------------------Union h irin g h a ll ---------------------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -------------------O ther -----------------------------------

35. 1

33. 8

35.9

32. 4

39.6

35.9

36.9

36. 0

27. 0

13. 8
6.2

21. 1
6 .0

13. 1
5. 3

11.9
6. 7

12.9
6 .9

12.2
8 .4

12. 7
2 .5

13. 1
6. 3

19.9
5. 1

6 .9
2. 7

10. 8
4. 3

9. 1
3. 7

5 .9
2. 3

3 .4
.4

2.9
1. 4

2. 5
. 8

6. 7
2. 8

8. 8
1. 8

10. 3
1. 4
3. 8
5.0
3. 1
1. 6
1.2

5 .9
.4
2. 1
5 .0
4 .0
. 3
.7

7. 8
1.7
3.0
5. 5
4. 9
1.6
1. 8

12. 6
. 8
5. 3
4 .9
3.0
2 .7
1.5

10. 6
2. 8
3. 6
6 .0
.6
1. 0
.9

16.0
2 .4
5. 3
1.0
0
1 .4
(1
)

15. 7
1. 3
3. 0
5 .9
O
. 8

11. 0
1. 4
3.9
4. 5
3.2
1.5
1.2

4. 1
1. 6
2 .9
8. 8
2. 0
2. 1
1. 4

(X
)

0

. 1

. 6

( l)

C)

0
. 1

. 3

C)

.5

C)

. 8
(1
)

. 1
(2
)

C)
0

(1
)
.9
1.1

.9
2. 8
.6

1.0
3.9
.6

.5
6 .7

(')

( l)
9. 7
(X
)

.5
2. 5
. 3

.4
3. 3
3.9

( l)
4. 6

( l)
5. 5

( l)
4 .9

( l)
5. 3

(X
)
7. 6

T o ta l:

See fo o tn o tes at end o f ta b le.




. 1

b
.5
2 .6
.7
( l)
5. 1

b
'. 3
. 3
. 7
0
4 .6

(*)

C)
C)

. 1

C)

4. 9

.4

0
6 .6

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
A g e (y e a r s )
T ota l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

R a ce

20

25

35

45

55

to

to

to

to

to

and

19

M ethod

16

24

34

54

over

44

N egro
and oth er
m in o r ity
ra c e s

W h ite

W OMEN

N u m b er (thousands) ------------------P e r c e n t -------------------------------------

4, 688
100. 0

849
100. 0

1, 511
100. 0

1, 095
100. 0

642
100. 0

405
100. 0

186
100. 0

4, 174
100. 0

514
100.0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
About jobs w h ere th ey w o rk ---------------------A bout job s e ls e w h e re --------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o r k ----------------------Abou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e --------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------- ------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy --------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -----------------------------School p la cem en t o ffic e ---------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t -----------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r --------------------------W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
co m e to p ick up p e o p le -------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------------------------Union h irin g h all ------------------------------------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n -------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------------------------O ther -------------------------------------------------------------

34. 6

30. 9

33. 1

36. 5

37. 5

35. 0

45. 8

3 5.4

28. 3

10. 7
4. 8

15. 3
3. 1

7. 8
4 .9

10.9
5. 3

12. 8
2. 8

10. 6
8. 8

6. 3
5. 6

10. 6
5. 0

12. 2
3 .0

5. 1
1. 7

10. 4
3.5

4. 6
2. 1

4. 1
.9

3. 7
.4

1. 8
1. 2

1. 4
( l)

4. 5
1. 7

9 .9
2. 1

18. 6
2. 4
6. 0
5. 0
.6
3.5
0

17. 6
1. 2
3. 8
6. 8
.6
2. 4
0

18. 2
1. 4
4 .2
4 .9
1. 4
0
1. 4

T o ta l:

1 N o one in c a te g o ry .




14. 5
1. 1
7 .9
5. 2
2. 8
2. 8
1.6

12.
.
7.
3.
3.
2.
3.

2
7
7
1
0
4
1

13.
1.
10.
5.
5.
2.
2.

0
2
2
6
2
7
3

14.
.
7.
6.
1.
3.
1.

C)

.2

. 3

. 1

.4

. 3
(1
)

. 1

(*)
. 3
. 1
.9
( 2)
5. 3

3. 3

C)

C)
0
C)

(!)
0

(!)
0

1. 5

3. 5

0

0

0

4. 3

7. 1

5. 6

.4

0

.2

1. 8

C)

1. 1
(1
)

. 8

.2
.2
1. 1

6. 1

.2
5. 6

. 3

C)

.5

C)

( l)

0

. 3
.5

5
7
7
0
4
4
0

0

0

.4

2 L e s s than 0.05 p e rc e n t.

15.
1.
8.
4.
2.
2.
1.

1
3
3
3
8
6
6

9.2
(X
)
4. 8
13. 1
2. 8
4. 6
1. 8

. 1

.5

.4

.2

i1)

. 3
. 1
.6
. 1
5. 5

C)
(')

.5
3. 7
( l)

3. 2

P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l
____
w ork ers

E n g i­
n e e rs

C le r ic a l w o rk e rs

S ales w o r k e r s

M a n a gers
and
E n g in e e r ­
a d m in i­
T e a c h e r s , ing and
s tr a to r s ,
sc ie n c e
ex cep t
excep t
te c h ­
c o lle g e
fa rm
nician s

B ook ­
k e e p e rs

O ffic e
m achine
op era­
to rs

Stenog­
ra p h ers,
ty p is ts ,
and
secre­
t a r ie s

105
100. 0

782
100. 0

BOTH SEXES
T o ta l:

N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )-------P e r c e n t ----------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----A sk ed frie n d s :
About jo b s w h e re they w o r k —
Abou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
About jobs w h ere they w o r k —
About job s e ls e w h e r e -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l --------------------------------------N o n lo ca l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t agen cy -------State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e ----------School p la cem en t o ffic e -------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l----------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a ls ---------------------------U nion h irin g h a l l -------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------O ther ------------------------------ •
-----------

100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
767

494

273

526

5. 2
5. 7

(*)
5. 5

7. 6
11. 1

12.3
5. 8

13.4
4. 3

10. o
8 .4

11. 8
3. 9

7. 7
2. 7

1. 8
3. 1

3. 7

0

3. 9
2. 7

3. 8
1. 9

4. 1
3. 0

3. 3
(1
)

5. 1

2. 7

2. 1

1. 5
o

2 9-4
1 8
11. 0
4. 6
3. 7
3. 7
1. 8

16. 5
2. 5
10. 9
2. 5
1. 9
3. 1
.4

16. 8
1.3
4 .3

15. 5
.9

19-2
2. 1
8. 8
1. 3
2. 9
(1
)

120
100 . 0

409
100. 0

8. 6
7. 8

12. 3
5. 7

2. 5
1.4

10.4
O

"3b:r

~ 42. 8

9. 0
1. 2
5. 6
1. 6
10. 2
4. 0
5. 9

8. 5

.

2 8

13.
3.
12.
1.
3.

O
1. 0
n
1. 0

.8

18. 3

(')

5. 7

1. 9
O
(1
)

(')

C)

9.2

.

2. 6

2
8
3
9
8

O
(:!

. 1

214

2, 272

119

1,430
100. 0

0

O
C)

0
0

.8

0

0
0

1. 0

( X)

.8

2. 1

(1
)

0

5. 5

1.9
(1
)

.6
.3

0
0
0
0

2. 5
1.4

0

.8

0
0

.8

8

8
8

15.
1.
28.
9.
1.
1.
1.

14. 5
15. 1
6. 7
2. 7
4. 3
1.2

0

.9

0

0

0

.3

0)
(1

0

( ;>

.3

.2

1. 1

.3

i?
1.1

0

0

. 1
5. 0

3. 8

5.2

0

5 .4

5. 0

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands) ---P e r c e n t -----------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----j
A s k e d frie n d s :
A bout jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk ----------- _! i
)
Abou t jo b s e l s e w h e r e -------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
Abou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk —
A bout job s e l s e w h e r e -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n lo c a l----------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y --------State e m p lo y m en t s e r v i c e -----------School p la c e m e n t o f f i c e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------A s k e d te a c h e r or p r o f e s s o r -------W e n t to p la c e w h e r e

C a rp en ters
M ech a n ics,
and oth er
A u to ­
e x cep t
m o b ile
co n s tru c ­
auto­
m ech an ics
tion
m o b ile
w ork ers

T ra n s p o rt L a b o r e r s ,
equipm ent
exc e p t
o p e ra tiv e s
fa rm

9.2
4. 7

0

5 .6
1.2

5. 1

0

0

2 1.4

16. 7

7. 1
10. 2
2. 0
7. 1

20.4
7.4
3.2
9. 1
1.4

0

. 1

0)

0

0
0
2 .0

0

P r iv a t e
h ou se­
hold

8

0

.3

0

.3
3. 7

4. 1

S e rv ic e
w o rk ers,
e x cep t
p riv a te
h ou se­
hold

F a rm
w ork ers

65

442
100. 0

111
100. 0

148
100. 0

1, 722
100. 0

389
100. 0

639
100. 0

1, 374
100.0

99
100. 0

38.2

44. 9

35. 9

4 2 .4

37.7

40. 1

7. 7

38. 7

-

14.4
4. 8

14.2
2 .6

14. 1
14. 1

17.4
12. 2

13. 5
4. 0

14. 2
7. 1

15. 1
4. 3

6.4
12. 8

15.4
5. 6

_

7. 1
1.9

7. 6
.5

2. 0
2. 0

7. 0
0

9.3
2. 2

6. 5
2. 5

9. 6
7. 1

3. 8
6.4

6 .9
1.2

_

9.5
2.2
1. 5
4 .2
.6
.4
.2

12. 1
1. 8

12.2
3 .5
4.3
6. 1
0
0
0

9 .8
1.3
1. 0
7. 9
.6
.4
.6

15.6
2. 5
2.3
2. 8
3 .4
.6
(X
)

6.4
.4
.5
5. 9
1. 1
.7

15.4
3. 8
2. 6
11. 5
2. 6

14. 8
.8
1.3
5. 7
2.2
2. 0
.8

_
-

1, 154
100. 0
4 1 ,1

0

3.2
.3
.5
.5

8.
4.
0
2.
2.
0
0

1
0
0
0

0

e m p lo y e r s

com e to p ick up p e o p le -----------P la c e d ads in [n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------------------------------N o n lo c a l----------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls U nion h irin g h a l l --------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a tio n —
P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e j o u r n a ls ----------------------O th er ---------------------------------------

. 1
0
.2

O

.7

0

0

O

O

0

0
0

0

0

(X
)
n

( I}
C)

0

0)
0
(')

. 1
1. 7
1. 0

O
1. 7
0

(X
)
3 .4
1.2

0
4 .2

0
3 .4

3 .4

.5

.2
7 .5
(X
)

0
12.9
0

0
4 .2

0
5.3

0
0

0
0
7. 1

0

1.7

(')

(')

i 1)

0

C)

...

0 —

-

-

-

-

-

.2

-

.2

_

12. 8
(X
)

C)

-

o
3. 8

.2
.4
1.4

_
-

O
10.3

O
2.3
"

See footn otes at end o f ta b le.




O p e ra ­
tiv e s ,
ex c e p t
tra n s p o rt

24. 5
5. 1

0

C r a ft w o r k e r s

T o ta l

9
1
0
9
1
1
1

1. 0

3. 7

l1
)
12.4

l1
)
1.9

(1
)

2.2

1. 8

"1^T3

2 3‘. T '

8. 9

P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l
w ork ers

E n g in eer s

Teacher s ,
excep t
c o lle g e

E n g in e e r ­
ing and
s c ien ce
te cli­
nician s

M a n a gers
and
a d m in i­
s tra to rs ,
e x cep t
fa rm

Sales w o r k e r s
C le r ic a l
w o rk ers
T o ta l

R e ta il

O ther

MEN

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands) ------P e r c e n t -------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ----A sk ed frie n d s :
A bout jo b s w h ere they w o rk Abou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
A bout jo b s w h ere they w o rk A bout job s e ls e w h e r e -----------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo ca l
P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ------State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ---------School p la cem en t o f f i c e -------------C iv il S e r v ic e o ffic e -------------------A s k e d te a c h e r or p r o f e s s o r ------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ic k up p e o p le ----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p ro fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -------------------------Union h irin g h a ll ----;------- r--------Contacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n -----P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a ls -------------------------O ther ------------------------------------------

757

119

442

426

209

217

384

100 . 0

102
100 . 0

108

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

27.3

2 1. 9

51. 0

24. 7

25.

8

37. 5

38. 1

36. 9

24.

10.3
7.2

12 . 6
5. 8

4. 1
6. 1

7. 2

11. 5
8 .4

13. 6
6.3

9. 5
10. 5

17. 9
3 .4

3. 0
1. 1

10. 7

0

C)

3 .2

10 .2

8. 7
2. 9
13. 6
1. 9
12 . 6
1. 9
3.. 9

1. 7
7. 1
2. 1
9. 8
4. 8
5. 8

0

0

2 .0
2. 0
n

8.2
2. 0
13.3
( !)
4. 1

0

0

i

.

i

(*)
7.4

10 .2
4. 7
3. 0

2. 9
1. 8

2. 6
3 .7

31. 7
2. 1
9.3
5. 2
4. 1
4. 1

15.4
2. 0
10. 7
3. 0
2. 0
3.2
.5

15. 2
1. 6
7. 1
2. 9
2. 6

12 . 6
2. 1

(')
C)

0

Q

0

1. 0

(X
)
l1
)
4. 1

2. 0

8

C)

1. 0

.

4. 1
O

C)
(')

(I)

8

0
6 2

1. 9

i 1)
n

(')

0

7. 1

1,9

0

4. 1

H

0
0

.5

8 .9

(')

.5
.5

3. 1
4 .2
3. 1
O
1. 0

0

(')

T o ta l

T o ta l:

N u m ber (thousands) ------P e r c e n t --------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p l o y e r ----A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About job s w h ere they w o r k —
A b ou t job s e ls e w h e r e ------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
A bout jo b s w h ere they w o r k —
About job s e ls e w h e r e ------------A n s w e re d n ew spaper ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------- ------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t agen cy ------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e --------S chool p la cem en t o ffic e ------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t
A sk ed te a c h e r or p r o f e s s o r ------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ic k up p eo p le ---------P la c e d ads in n ew sp ap ers:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p ro fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------------------U nion h irin g h a ll ----------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ----P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -----------------------O ther ------------------------------------------

See footn otes at end [of ta b le.




A u to ­
m o b ile
m ech an ics

M e c h a n ic s ,
e x cep t
auto­
m o b ile

O p e ra ­
t iv e s ,
ex cep t
tra n s p o rt

17. 9

1. 1
11. 1
1. 6
2. 1

i 1)

0
1

. 1

(1
)

(l)
(l)

1. 3

2. 6

( l)
(!)
( ‘)

n
6. 3

(*)
7.3

5. 3

0

O

)

(*)

(')

0
(')

C ra ft w o rk e rs
C a r p e n te r s ,
and other
co n stru c­
tion
w ork ers

0

Tran sp ort
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

L a b orers,
e x cep t
fa rm

0

S e r v ic e
w o rk ers,
exc ept
p r iv a te
h o u se­
hold

6

8.4
3. 1

10 . 1
1. 1
8. 1
5. 0
6. 7
.3
1. 7

0
.

(')

6

1. 7
.6

C)

0
6

.7

F a rm
w ork ers

1,113

438

1, 038

357

593

580

100 . 0

111
100 . 0

146

100.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

59
( 3)

40. 5

37. 9

45. 5

37. 2

41. 1

37. 0

4 0.2

30. 0

-

14. 1
5. 0

13. 8
2. 7

14. 1
14. 1

17. 7
12.4

14.4
5.4

15. 4
7. 1

15. 0
4. 2

18. 9
6. 5

7.4
1.9

7. 7
.5

2. 0
2. 0

7. 1

9. 1
2 .9

6. 2
2. 8

9 .8
7. 1

8.3
1. 6

9. 8
2. 0
1.3
4 .2
.6
.4

12 . 2

8. 1

8. 8

4. 0
(1
)
2. 0
2. 0
O

14.2
2. 8
2. 5
3. 1
3. 1
. 6

6. 0

1. 9

12.4
3. 5
4 .4
4 .4
(J)
(*)

9. 7
.8
2. 2
8. 1
3. 0
3. 7
.4

.2

0

(')

.2

.2
7. 8

(')

0

4 .4

0

3. 2
.3
.5
.5

{')

0
0

(1
)
. 5

(j
o

O
13. 0

(?)

(')
(')

5. 3

0
0

(*)

7. 1

0

C)
o

o
(*)
<;>
>

(')

0
1

.8

.7

1. 1
7.3
1. 0
.3
.7
(*)

0

(>)
(*)
2. 8
.6

0

3. 5

(')

(1
)

.4

.6
6.3

1 .2
.8

(')

.4

.4

o

0
0

1. 8

o
3 .7

(*)

1 .2

.4
1. 0
2. 0

3. 5

3 .2

(')
(')

(')

3. 7

0

_

.
-

_
_
_
_

_

i 1)

0

"

_
-

_

■

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )

M ethod

P r o fe s s io n a l and technical
w ork ers
M a n a g e rs ,
and
ad m in i­
Teach ers,
s tra to rs ,
T o ta l
exc e p t
excep t
c o lle g e
fa rm

Sales w o rk e rs

T o ta l

C le r ic a l w o rk e rs

R e ta il

B ook ­
k e e p e rs

T o ta l

O ffic e
m achine
o p e ra to rs

S tenog­
ra p h ers ,
t y p is ts ,
and
secre­
ta r ie s

;W OMEN

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands) -------P e r c e n t ----------------- — ----

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----A sk e d frie n d s :
About job s w h e re they w o r k ---About job s e l s e w h e r e --------------A sk e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout jo b s w h e re they w o rk —
A bout jo b s e ls e w h e r e -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads;
L o c a l --------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ----------School p la cem en t o f f i c e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e tests ---------------------A sk ed te a c h e r or p r o f e s s o r -------W ent to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p eop le -----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l----------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------Union h irin g h a l l -------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l or
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------O ther -------------------------------------------

673

3 07

84

341

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

37. 0

17. 1

49. 7

52.

6. 6

5. 2
5. 5

11. 0

12. 9

15. 9

2.4

2 .4
3.4

1. 2

2. 0
18. 6
1. 0
.7
1.4
1. 0

17. 3

2. 2
1. 7
7. 6
. 6
3. 8
. 9
10. 7
3. 2
6. 0

1.4

22. 0

.7
.7
20 . 0

1 1 .0

.3

.7

0

N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )--------P e r c e n t ---------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -----A sk ed frie n d s :
Abou t job s w h e re they w o r k ---About job s e l s e w h e r e -------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
Abou t job s w h e re th ey w o r k ---A bou t job s e ls e w h e re ------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l --------------------------- --------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y -------State em p lo ym en t s e r v i c e -----------School p la cem en t o ffic e -------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t -----------------------A sk e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ----------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
co m e to p ick up p e o p le ----------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a ls -----------------------------------Union h irin g h a l l --------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a tio n -------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ----------------------------------O ther --------------------------------------------------------

1 N o one in c a te g o ry .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p erc e n t.




3. 7
H
2 .4
2 .4

0
6. 2

0

5. 1

0

.7

.

0

O
n
n

n
(i)

2 .4

o

o

1. 0

2 .4

0

.9

0

n

C)

1 .1
0
11. 2

(l)

8. 5

14. 1

41
0

8

C)
{')
n

0

O p e ra ­
tiv e s ,
ex cep t
tra n s p o rt

684

100 . 0

(1)

0

.7

( 1)
4. 1

T ra n s p o rt
equipm ent
o p e ra tiv e s

32
(3
)

-

_
-

.
-

-

9.7
1. 0

.2

-

_

H

-

-

-

.3

-

1. 5

.

0

5.3

14. 8
1. 2
29. 6
10 . 6
1. 2
1. 2
1. 2

23. 6
( 1)
6. 9
11. 1
o
9.7
o

16. 9
n
20. 7
7. 2
2. 9
9. 2
1.4

1
2

-

( l)

C)
(')
(l)
C)

(')

o
2.

1. 2

. 1
4. 7

o
3. 2

L a b orers,
excep t
fa rm

O
3. 0

2. 8

P r iv a te
h ou se­
hold
w ork ers

0

n
o

1

.3
O

8

(')
C)

.3

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
excep t
p riv a te
h ou se­
hold

.3
3. 7

F a rm
w ork ers

46
(3
)

99

794

6

100 . 0

100 . 0

(3
)

_

6.4
12. 8

12. 7
5. 1

-

-

3. 8
6.4

5.
1.

8
0

-

15.4
3. 8
2. 6
11. 5
2. 6

18. 7
.9
.9
3. 8
1. 5
. 7

_
-

-

-

_

_

-

.

( l)

.4

(!)

0

-

-

45.

1

o

_

12. 8
(')

.3

0

.
_

i 1)

0

3.

.

-

-

1 .2

-

■

_
-

0

-

.

.

O

-

”

.

-

C)

-

(* )

“

5. 7
1. 2

1
.2

_
( !)
O

2. 8
0

C)

.

.
-

_
-

3. 0

0

.

.3

8. 9
4. 7

.

.

(')

16. 5

26.4
4. 2

7. 7

12.3
1. 8

11.3
2. 3
.8
8. 7

9. 7

7. 7
3. 0

.

4 4 .4
_

22. 6

4. 0

.8
1. 6
(!)

C)

6

25.

C)

1.4

n
n

C ra ft
w ork ers

T o ta l:

n

774

100 . 0

15.4
.8
16. 6
7. 0
1. 8
5. 2
1. 1

4. 8
2. 4

8.4

8

79

100 . 0

4. 3
1.9

12 . 9
2. 8

196

100 . 0

10 . 6

100 . 0

34. 5

1 , 888
100 . 0

285

100 . 0

-

8

8

.

1

( 1)

O

10.3

1

0

. 6

3 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

.
"

M ethod

P r o fe s ­
sion al
and
tech n ica l
w o rk e rs

M a n a gers
and a d m in ­
is t r a t o r s ,
exc e p t fa r m

S ales
w o rk e rs

N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )------------------P e r c e n t -------------------------------------

1, 316

498

717

100.0

100 . 0

100.0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A bout job s w h ere they w o r k ---------------------A bout job s e ls e w h e r e --------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
Abou t job s w h ere they w o r k -----------•
----------A bout jobs e ls e w h e r e --------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------- ---- — -------- - ■-

31. 7

25 .5

42.

T o ta l:

P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ---------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v i c e -----------------------------S ch ool p la cem en t o f f i c e ---------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ------------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r --------------------------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e to
p ick up p e o p l e --------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l --------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e j o u r n a l s --------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a l l ------------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n -------------------------P la c e d ads in p ro fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ----------------------------------------------------O t h e r -------------------------------------------------------------

8
6

7.
7.

2.6
1.5
9 .0
1. 1
6. 0
1. 6
10. 5
3. 6
5. 7

2

.

1, 515
100 . 0

351

528

100.0

100.0

100 . 0

1 , 152
100 . 0

8

42. 9

43. 7

36.9

39.9

40. 3

6
8

13.2
4. 2

13. 1
7. 6

15. 3
5. 0

15.0
6. 3

25.

5 .4

4. 0

4. 1
2. 6

3. 5
1. 7

4. 7
2. 2

6. 5
2.0

9. 6
2. 3

6. 7
2. 8

9. 1
7. 0

5 .4
1. 3

17. 5
2. 6
10. 5
2. 6
2. 0
3. 1

16.5
1.4
4. 6
2.4
2. 0

15. 3
.9
15.5
5 .8
2. 7
4. 2

9 .9

10 . 6
1.5

16 . 8
1 .8

7. 0
.4

16. 3

2.0

.6

1. 3
4. 7
2. 1
1.9

0

.

C)

0

6

1 1 .6

1 .2

13.
4.

1.0
6. 3
.6
. 1

1.5
4. 3
.6
.4
.2

.5

2 .4
2 .4
3. 7

.6
0

0

0

(!)
( 1)

.3
(*)

( 1)
.2

0

0

0
(')

.4
.2
.2

.2
7. 6
(l)

. 1
1.4
.4

1 .8
0

0

. 1
5. 1

3 .4

.3

2. 2
0

0

1.059

11.4

1. 1

9 .4

2,049
100 . 0

12. 6

C)

(‘)
.7

S e r v ic e
w o rk e rs ,
ex cep t
p r iv a te
household

C r a ft
w o rk e rs

6. 8

.9
( l)

(|)

8

O p e ra tiv e s ,
L a b orers,
T ra n sp o rt
ex c e p t
exc e p t
o p e r a tiv e s
tra n s p o rt
fa rm

C le r ic a l
w ork ers

.4

0
7 .9

1. 1
5. 0

0

0

(J)

0

0

4. 2

H

C)

3. 7

5 .4
.8
.8
(‘)
.

8

1.0

1.0

(')

(J)
( 1)

.2
(*)

(*)
2. 7
1.4

C)
.5
.2

C)

3. 7

0

2. 7

No one in c a te g o r y .

T ab le C -4 . M eth od by w hich N egro and o th e r m in ority race jobseekers obtained cu rren t job: O ccupation, Janu ary 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )

M ethod

T o ta l:

N um ber (thousands)
P e rc e n t ----------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p l o y e r ----A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About job s w h ere th ey w o rk —
About jo b s e l s e w h e r e -----------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o rk —
About jo b s e l s e w h e r e -----------A n s w e re d new spaper ads:
L o c a l ---------------------------------N o n l o c a l ------------- -----------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy -----State em ploym en t s e r v i c e --------School p lacem en t o f f i c e ------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p l e ----------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p e rs:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo c a l-------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls -----------------------U nion h irin g h a l l ----------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n -----P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e j o u r n a l s ------------------------O th er ----------------------------------------

P r o fe s ­
sio n a l
and
tec h n ic a l
w o rk e rs
114

Sales
w o rk e rs

C le r ic a l
w o rk e rs

C ra ft
w o rk e rs

O p e ra tiv e s ,
L a b o rers,
T ra n s p o rt
excep t
except
o p e r a tiv e s
tra n s p o rt
fa r m

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
except
p riv a te
household

50

28

100 . 0

.....

223

95

207

n

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

n

111
100 . 0

222
100 . 0

38

8

-

-

21.9

19- 5

33.

6

-

41. 2

29- 7

18. 8
8 .9

_

_

15. 6
2. 2

-

12. 5
1.2

17.

-

24. 3
5. 2

_

-

14. 2
2. 6

-

-

7. 9
1. 6

13. 0
( 2)

7. 0
1. 6

-

13. 8
7. 5

14. 8
.5

_
_

6. 3
( 2)

6. 5
2. 6

2. 5
( 2)
( 2)

-

-

15. 3
2. 6
5. 8
2. 1

1. 3
5. 2
1. 3
( 2)
( 2)

3. 2
( 2)
.5
19. 9
.5
2. 2
.5

6. 6

_

.5

18.

3. 0
( 2)
9 .9
3. 0

1.0
1.0
6 .9
9-9
7.9
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
4. 0
( 2)
6.9

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.




M a n a gers
and a d m in ­
is tr a to r s ,
except fa r m

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

_

_
■

11. 6

1. 3

( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

( 2)

( 2)
5. 2

( 2)
3. 8
4.8

1. 1
2. 1
( 2)
4. 7

( 2)
( 2)
14. 3

2 No one in c a te g o ry .

( 2)
4. 3

_

_
_

_

-

_
_
-

_
"

8.8
3. 8

6
1.6

( 2)

2. 2
11.0

( 2)
( 2)

2. 7
2. 7
( 2)

( 2)

1. 1

( 2)
( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

( 2)
7. 5
( 2)

8. 2

( 2)

1.2

1. 1
( 2)

(* )
( 2)

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Both sex es

M ethod

In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands) ---------P e r c e n t ----------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r —
A sk ed £riends:
About job s w h e re th ey
w o rk --------------------------A bout job s e ls e w h e r e ----A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout job s w h e re they
w o rk ---------------------------About job s e l s e w h e r e ----A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ----------------------------N o n lo c a l ----------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y —
State em p loym en t s e r v ic e —
S ch ool p la cem en t o ffic e -----C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ---------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r —
W ent to p la c e w h e re
e m p lo y e rs com e to p ick
up p eo p le -------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ----------------------------N o n lo c a l ------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------Union h irin g h a ll ----------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n ization -----------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l
o r tra d e jo u rn a ls ------------O ther ----------------------------------

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

N ot in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

W om en

In S M S A 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

N ot in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

In S M S A 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

N o t in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

6, 642
100.0

2, 884
100 . 0

3, 758

3, 795
100 . 0

3, 576
100 . 0

1, 537

2, 039

2, 173

3, 066

1, 347

1, 719

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 , 622
100 . 0

30. 1

25. 4

33. 7

43. 1

2 9.7

24. 0

33.9

44. 1

30.6

27. 1

33. 3

41. 7

12. 8
5. 8

15. 2
6. 5

1 1 .0
5.2

11. 1
6. 1

14. 8
7 .0

17. 7
7. 6

12. 7
6 .4

11. 8
6. 3

10. 4
4. 3

12. 3
5.2

9 .0
3. 6

10 .2
5. 8

5 .9
2 .4

5. 2
2. 7

7 .0
1.7

6 .4
2 .9

7. 4
2. 7

5. 6
3.0

8 .2
1.7

5 .4
1. 8

6 .4

2 .0

4 .6
2. 3

5. 4
1.9

14. 6
1.4
7. 4
4. 5
2 .9
2. 3
1. 2

13. 1
.7
8. 6
5. 4
3. 8
1.9
1. 4

15. 7
1.9
6 .5
3. 8
2. 3
2. 6
1. 2

7. 8
1 .2
2. 1

12. 3
.4
4. 7
6. 1
4 .0
1. 2

13. 1
2. 0
4. 5
3.7
2.9
2 .4

1 .0

16. 7
1.5
10. 7
4. 4
2 .4
2 .9
1.4

13.9
1. 2
12.9
4. 7
3.5
2. 7
1. 6

10 .6

1 .2

5. 7
1. 8
2. 1
4. 6
2. 7
.9
1. 1

19 .0
1. 8
8. 8

1. 7
1. 2

12. 7
1. 3
4. 6
4. 7
3. 4
1.9
1. 1

4 .2
1. 5
3.0
1. 3

7. 3
2. 5
2. 6
1.5

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

.2

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

.2

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

.2

.2

( 2)
' ( 2)

7 .0

1

5. 7

2 .6

( 2)

( 2)

.4
.1

1. 2

.4
1. 4

.6
1 .2

.3
1.9

.9

1 .4

.6

.7

.1
5. 5

.1
5. 7

( 2)
5 .4

( 2)
5. 1

.3
( 2)
.5

.

1 Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a ,




M en

In S M S A 1 o f 350, 000
o r m o re

.4

( 2)

2 .2

.7

.

8

( 2)
5. 7

.3
( 2)

.4
2 .4

2. 1

1. 3

.5

( 2)

6. 6

.9

( 2)
5. 1

2 No one in c a te g o r y .

1
.2
.

.4
3. 3

.4
( 2)

1 .2

.

2

( 2)

.5
( 2)

.4
. 1

.5
.2

.6

1. 1

1 .4

.8

( 2)
4 .5

.1
5 .4

.2

( 2)
5.9

4. 7

. 3
( 2)

.4

2 .2

.7
( 2)
.
.

2
1

.9
( 2)
5. 8

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tion )
T em p ora ry
job ended

L a id o ff
te m p o r a r ily

L a id o ff
in d e fin ite ly

L o s t job
fo r oth er
rea so n

Sold, lo st, ---- W anted----d iffe r e n t
o r gave up
job b e fo r e
business
quitting

T o ta l1

/T
<

, ,

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r
A s k e d frie n d s :

A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A bou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk

1, 714
100 . 0

448

91

974

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

642
lo o . 0

34. 9

38.2

33. 7

35.4

35.4

33. 3

32.

12.4

.......................

Quit
job

10, 437
100 . 0

M ethod

10 .2

10 . 9
6. 2

8. 1

1 2 .2

5. 4

4. 4

12 . 0
8. 1

17. 0
8. 1

14. 0
6. 9

6 .1

6. 1
2 .8

5.2
2. 7

8. 1

(z)

5.8
2. 3

4. 9
1. 5

6. 7

6. 9
1. 6

9. 7
#7

14. 9
2. 7

12. 3

16. 1
2. 9
4. 2

16. 3
4. 4
4. 4
1. 5
f2
}

------------------------

---------------------

A n s w e r e d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ^^

1 2 .2

13.
1.
7.
5.

1. 3

5
9
9
1

.8
.8
W ent to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e r s com e to

(2\
10 .8
(z)

1. 5
3. 0

V/

2
2

. 9

9 .4
. 5

(z)
a\
2
V)
V )
9. 5
(2)

(z)

(Z)

4* 4

V/
5. 2

.

1

P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
(3\
\;
A n s w e r e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
1. 5

6
1. 0

.8

Union h irin g h a ll -----------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n -— ■
—
P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e

3. 5
6. 5
. 7

\)

5. 2

L e ft
sch ool

#5

(z)
2
V)
(z)
v/

L e ft
m ilit a r y

5. 4
W anted
to w o rk
w h ile in
sch ool

1 .2
5. 0
8! 3
.9
1. 1
. 6
f 2}
V /

)

l\ 8

#7
2. 4

(z)
\1
.

2

(2
k)

( 2\

.2
5! 0
97

l! 5
1. 0

)4

/2\
V^
2. 4

v
4.

R ecovered
fr o m
illn e s s

m7

150

100 . 0
6

^/

2
2
)

\

(z)
(z\
^2)
1 5
f2
)

)
(z\)
V
7. 4
V

K eep in g
R e tir e d
house and
and wanted
to w o rk
w anted job '

1, 373
100 . 0
32.

6

12.9
1. 3
7*/6
2 7
5
5. 1
. 9

t

V;
( 2^
V 2/
. 3
.4
.2

(z)
5 0

O ther

1, 522

------------------------ —

265

557

165

924

100.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

10 0.0

100 . 0

86
100.0

1, 259
100 . 0

66.7

33.8

7. 0
v

)
(2\
2
V)

11. 5
5. 5

12. 3

14. 0
.6
5. 2
5. 0
1. 6
2. 3
.6

6

33.7

31. 1

33.8

40 .2

12.4
5.8

14.0

6
6

15. 5
3. 5

11. 3
3.8

6.8

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r
A s k e d frie n d s :

1 2 .0
2. 0

4 .8
2. 2

5.
\

iz\)

6

6. 2
1. 2

4 .8

7• Q
1 7

15. 5

18.8
1. 4
5. 5
4 .6
.2
2. 3
.2

31.

8 .0

19.
4.

A s k e d r e la t iv e s ;
3.8
A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er a ds:

6. 0
•8
5. 2
State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e
u u iu u i
viiiVfC

-------------------------------------- ----------

4 .4

8.8
3. 0

4. 8
W ent to place w h ere e m p lo y e rs com e to
p ick up p eople ---- —
P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:

-----

—

-

1

.

(Z'}
A n s w e r e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e jo u rn a ls
tt_ i »
-11
U IUUU i u
ill* liig IW il

—

.

6

* j

(2)

5. 5

1 Includes
fo r w o rk .

som e




p erso n s

who did not re p o r t rea so n fo r lookin g

.8
2
8.8
2.8
1. 6
.8
5.

(z)

(2)

1. 4
3. 0
14. 3
( 2\
3. o

t4

(2)
v/
2 .8
!s

2
)

V

I

f 2^
V

[2

$

1. 6

2 .8
2. 1
6. 3
7
( 2)

A

( 2)

2
/

V
7. 5

2. 1
7. 7
v;
4 .2

2 N o one in c a te g o ry .
3 L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t.

(2)
V )

(z)

3 5
(2
)
3. 5

(z)

v2/

I

( 2}
V/

p>

\)

V

s

(2)
i\4z\)
2. 0
(z\
1. 9

4 .8
2. 3

.8
. 5

V

2
2
1

7. 0

.8
1. 0

(*2\)
\

9.7

Table C-7. Method by which current job was obtained by persons who usually work full time: Usual weekly earnings,
January 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )
Less
than
$80

M ethod

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands) --------------------------------------------------P ercen t

$80
to
$99

—

—
to
$124

to
$149

to
$ 174

$TT5
to
$199

-------£7775— ------ £7775—
to
to
$249
$299

1, 468

1, 445

1, 097

100 . 0

1 , 759
100 . 0

935

100 . 0

100 . 0

449

724

100 . 0

246

100 . 0

360

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

41. 7

37. 2

30.

6

31.4

34. 9

35. 9

32.

6

26.2

28. 4

14.8
5. 3

11. 5
3. 7

11. 1

13.8
5. 5

11. 1
6 .4

9. 6
4. 7

10. 7
9.8

17. 0
8. 5

7. 1
7. 5

6.2
1. 6

5. 6
2. 5

7 .9
3.2

6. 0

7.2
3. 0

7. 6
2. 9

6. 4
1. 8

(*)
H

.
.

13. 6
. 6
7. 5
9.8

13. 3
2. 1

1 1 .8
2. 0

12 . 0
3. 6

1.8
2. 1

8 .7
1. 5
4. 6
3. 1
5. 7
1. 8
1. 5

11. 2
1.8

.8
2. 0
1. 0

9. 3
. 7
7 .2
4 .2
3. 0
2. 7
1. 6

7.2
. 9
2. 2
. 9
2 .7

4. 9
.6
1. 9
3. 9
1. 6

.2

.

(*)

(')

. 9
(»)

.6
( !)

3 .6
9. 9
(*)

1. 3
16.6

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------------------A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------A b ou t job s e ls e w h e re --------------------------------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------A b ou t jobs e ls e w h e re -------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g en cy -------------------------State e m p loym en t s e r v ic e ----------------------------S ch ool pla cem en t o ffic e --------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t -----------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -------------------------W ent to p la ce w h ere e m p lo y e r s com e to
p ick up p eople -------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n e w sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls --------------------------------------------------- —
Union h irin g h a ll ------------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jou rn a ls ----------------------------------------------------Othe r ------------------------------------------------------------

1 1 .2
1. 7
2 .4
6. 6
1.4
. 9
. 7
.

2

.4
O

.

0

0
0

1

0

5. 3

1.4
9.7

1. 1
8. 1
6. 1

8.0
5.7

4. 3
4 .4
1 .9

. 9

2

.

.2
. 1

( ')
(')

.8
1 .2

( l)
2 .9

. 3

1 .2

4. 1
. 6

.2

(*)
4. 7

0
6.6

2

(')

.4

.2

.2
1. 2

. 3

0
2. 6

(*)
5. 5

. 3

( 1)
4 .2

(')
(')
n

o

.7

. 9

.2
o
5.

5 .9
1. 5
3. 7
3. 4
2. 5

6

5 .9

l 1)
i 1)
l 1)

( x)

.6

(')

6. 7

N o one in c a te g o ry .

Table C-8. Method by which current job was obtained: Educational attainment, January 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Y e a r s o f sch ool c o m p leted
M ethod

T o ta l:

N u m ber (th o u s a n d s )--------P e r c e n t ----------------------------

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ---------------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk -----------About jo b s e ls e w h e r e -----------------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About jo b s w h ere they w o rk ------------

About jobs elsewhere ---------------------

A n s w e re d n ew spaper ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l -----------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -----------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -------------------School pla cem en t o ffic e --------------------- —
C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ---------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r -----------------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e
to p ick up p e o p le --------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------N o n l o c a l -----------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
j o u r n a l s --------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a l l ----------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ----------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
j o u r n a l s ---------------------------------------------O ther --------------------------------------------------- 2

1 No one in c a te g o r y




fJoo
or
m o re

E le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l,
8 o r le s s

C o lle g e

H igh sch ool

1

4
or
m o re

1,790

to
3

4

I
to
3

100 . 0

1, 647
100 . 0

4, 470
100 . 0

100 . 0

1,647
100 . 0

8

38. 3

33.

6

31.9

32. 3

10 . 8
3. 6

16. 0
4. 1

12. 5
5. 3

12 . 0
5. 5

10 . 1
8. 4

8. 6

7. 4
2. 5

7. 1
2. 4

4. 0
2. 4

3. 4
1. 9

13. 1
i. 0
1. 5
.3
.8

13. 8
1. 3
6, 2
6. 0
1. 4
2. 1
.6

14. 1
1. 4
8. 9
4. 2
4. 0
3. 4
1.8

6. 6
2. 0
8. 5

.4

.4

(M

.

1

.

.4

.
.

.
H

2

(M
n

883

46.

1. 5

8. 1
•9
.5
7. 5

(')
■9
n

(* )

n

4.
1.

3
1

i1)

4. 7

1.8
5. 6

1
1

(M

2. 0
1. 1

(')

3.9

.3

n

.2
1. 5
.9
( X)
4. 8

.4
.8

i1)
.1
4 .8

2 L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t.

7. 1
1. 7

3. 1
4. 3

1

1. 3
.1

.8

n

8. 1

i 1)
(')

6
6

9. 1

(Percent distribution)
Method
Total: Number (thousands)------Percent------------------------Applied directly to employer-------------Asked friends:
About jobs where they w ork---------About jobs elsew here-------------------Asked relatives:
About jobs where they w ork---------About jobs elsew h ere------------------Answered newspaper ads:
Local------------------------------------------Nonlocal -------------------------------------Private employment agency--------------State employment service-----------------School placement office -------------------Civil Service te s t-----------------------------Asked teacher or professor----- --------Went to place where employers
come to pick up people ------------------Placed ads in newspapers:
Local -----------------------------------------Nonlocal -------------------------------------Answered ads in professional or
trade journals -------------------------------Union hiring hall------------------------------Contacted local organization-------------Placed ads in professional or
trade journals-------------------------------Other ---------------------------------------------1 No one in category.




Total,
16 years
and over
10, 437
100. 0
37. 2
9. 6
4. 3
3. 6
1. 5
17. 7
1. 6
5. 4
6. 2
2.9
1. 4
1.0
.1
.2
(M
.6
1. 6
.6
.1
4. 6

16
to
19
1, 727
100. 0
35. 2
16. 0
4. 4
5. 5
3. 1
16. 5
•9
3. 4
5. 6
2.8
.8
1. 1
.1
.4
(M
(M
O
.6
.1
3. 6

20
to
24
3, 220
100. 0
37. 5
8. 1
3. 7
4. 2
2. 1
16. 4
1. 6
n
6. 0
5. 2
1. 2
1. 6
(M
n
n
.4
.3
.6
.1
4. 9

Age (in years)
25
33
to
to
34
44
2, 700
1, 378
100. 0
100. 0
37. 9
37. 4
7. 7
9- 8
4. 9
3. 6
3. 3
1. 9
.8
(M
17. 7
20. 7
1. 2
3. 0
6. 8
4.9
6. 0
6. 6
2. 3
.7
1.8
2. 0
.8
•3
.4
(2)
.2
.4
(M
(l )
1.3
.8
2.2
2. 6
.7
.3
.1
.2
4.4
4. 5
2

45
to
54
920
100. 0
36. 9
8. 9
6. 1
1.8
.9
19. 0
2. 8
5. 1
5. 6
.4
1. 1
O
n
.5
(M
(M
4.2
.6
n
6. 0

55
and
over
492
100. 0
38. 3
8. 5
2. 3
2. 3
(M
20. 4
1. 3
1. 3
10. 9
.5
1. 3

i1
)

(M
.5

{')

.5
6. 5
1. 0

i1
)

4. 1

Less than 0. 05 percent.

Sex

Race

Men

Women

White

5, 749
100. 0
37. 8
10. 2
4. 6
3. 8
1.8
15. 9
1. 8
3. 9
6. 3
2. 9
1. 0
.8
.1
.2
(M
.8
2. 8
.4
(2)
5. 0

4, 688
100. 0
36. 4
8. 8
3. 9
3. 4
1. 1
20. 0
1. 4
7. 2
6. 0
2. 9
1• 9
1.2
.1
.3
n
.4
.1
.8
.2
4. 0

9, 302
100. 0
37. 5
9- 3
4. 4
3. 4
1.4
18. 4
1.8
5. 6
5. 5
3. 0
1. 2
.9
(2)
.2
(*)
.6
1.6
.3
.1
4. 5

Negro
and
other
races
1, 135
100. 0
34. 6
11.7
3. 3
5. 7
1.7
11.3
.2
3. 2
11.8
2. 1
3. 1
1. 1
.4
.1
(X)
.2
1. 7
2. 9
(x)
4. 8

W hite

M eth od

T o ta l
T o ta l

T o t a l:

P r o fe s s io n a l
and tech n ica l
w o rk e rs

-1c o lla r w o r k e r s

M a n a g e rs and
a d m in is tra to rs
e x c e p t fa r m

S ales
w ork ers

C le r ic a l
w o rk e rs

N u m b er (thousands) -----------------P ercen t
-----------------------------------

10, 437
100. 0

4, 995
100. 0

1, 430
100. 0

526
100. 0

767
100. 0

2, 272
100. 0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r
-----------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk --------------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e
---------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A b ou t job s w h ere th ey w o rk
-------------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e re
----------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l
------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y
------------------------State em p lo y m en t s e r v ic e
----------- r-------------S ch ool p la cem en t o ffic e
------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ----------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r
------------------------W ent to p lace w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e to
p ic k up p eople
------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew s p a p e rs :

37.2

3 1 .7

34. 8

28. 1

39.7

27. 9

9. 6
4. 3

7. 9
4 .4

6. 0
4. 3

5. 1
6.8

10. 1
6. 3

9. 1
3. 2

3. 6
1. 5

1.8
1 .4

. 7
. 7

.8
2. 5

1.4
1. 0

2.8
1. 6

17. 7
1.6
5 .4
6.2
2. 9
1.4
1. 0

19.8
1.8
9.6
5 .0
4. 9
2. 1
1.6

12. 3
2 .8
6. 1
2. 8
10. 7
2. 5
4. 0

22. 3
2. 0
11. 3
2. 9
2. 0
1.4
.8

23. 1
1. 3
5.2
3. 2
2. 2
(X
)
. 3

22. 8
1.2
12. 9
7. 5
2 .8
2. 6
. 7

. 1

. 3

0

0

. 1
( x)

(X
)
(X
)

(X
)
0

(X
)
(X
)

.6
1. 6
. 6

1.1
. 1
.8

2.2
(X
)
1. 3

2. 0
.4
. 8

.3
(X
)
. 6

. 5
, 1
. 5

. 1
4. 6

N o n lo c a l -------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
---------------------------------------------------Union h ir in g h a ll
----------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a tio n ------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
---------------------------------------------------O th er ------------------------------------------------------------

(1
2)

(X
)
(X
)

.2
6. 0

8 .8

(1
)
11. 1

. 4
4. 6

.2
3 .4

.

1

(X
)
.2
(X
)

B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s
C r a ft w o r k e r s
T o ta l
T o ta l

C a rp e n te rs O p e r a tiv e s , T r a n s p o r t
and other
ex cep t
equipm ent
con stru e tra n s p o rt ope ra tiv e s
tion
w o rk e rs

L a b orers,
e x cep t
fa rm

P r iv a t e
household"
w ork ers

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
ex cep t
p riv a te
household

F arm
w o rk e rs

N u m b er (thousands) --------------P e r c e n t ----------------------------------

3, 904
100. 0

1, 154
100. 0

442
100. 0

1, 722
100. 0

389
100. 0

639
100. 0

99
100. 0

1, 374
100. 0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e jn p lo y e r --------------------A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk -----------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ---------------------------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk -----------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e
--------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp a p ers ads:
Local
-------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l
--------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo y m en t a g e n c y
--------------------State e m p lo y m en t s e r v ic e
------------------------S ch ool p la c e m e n t o f f i c e ----------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ------ -------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r
--------------------W ent to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e to
p ic k up p eop le
---------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew s p a p e rs :
Local
------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l
--------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
------------------------------------------------U nion h ir in g h a ll --------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ---------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
------------------------------------------------Othe r
-------------------------------------------------------

43. 2

41 .2

37. 9

44. 2

44. 1

43. 3

14. 6

42:. 0

-

11.2
3 .8

11. 9
4,. 5

12. 6
1.8

10. 7
3. 5

c1 5
.
3

12. 1
3.8

3. 7
7. 3

n .. 7
t. 8

_

6. 0
1. 8

3,.7
.2

3. 3
1. 0

7. 9
1. 1

4.2
1. 7

6.2
5. 0

3. 7
3. 7

3 5
i.
. 9

13.9
1.8
1. 3
7 .4
. 7
. 5
. 3

13,. 5
2 .8
1
,
5,. 5
.4
(’1)
.2

14.4
3. 1
. 5
3.8
(X
)
(X
)
(x
)

13. 7
1. 5
1. 3
8 .9
.4
.4
.4

20• 9
•
. 6
2.2
4.2
3
.6
( x)

11. 1
1.4
. 5
8. 5
. 3
1. 6
( x)

31.7
2 .4
2 .4
12.2
2 .4
(X
)
(X
)

20. 5
. 7
1. 5
6 5
..
1. 7
.6
. 7

(X
)

(X
)

( x)

. 5
(X
)

. 3
O

. 6
( x)

( l)
15.9
. 3

. 1
1. 6
.4

1. 7

( x)

O
3 .6

T o ta l:

1 N o one in c a te g o r y .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e rc e n t




1

,4

1

. 1

.

.2
(X
)

.2
(X
)

. 1
4. 0
. 3

.2
9!. 7
. 1

(X
)
3. 4

(X
)
3..6

( l)
5. 1

.4

4

65
(3)

.
-

_
_
_
_
-

(X
)

.2

-

(X
)
(X
)

7. 3
(X
)

. 3
(X
)

-

(X
)
2. 1
.7

(X
)
(X
)
2 .4

(;x)

( 2)
( x)
3. 4

(X
)
2 .8

(X
)
6. 1

(X
)
2. 5

. 3

.2
.8

3 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

_

_
_
_

M ethod

T o ta l

P r o fe s ­
sion a l,
tech n ica l,
and
k in dred
w ork ers

M a n a gers
and
a d m in i­
s tr a to r s ,
ex cep t
fa r m

S ales
w ork ers

C le r ic a l
and
kin d red
w ork ers

C ra ft
and
k in d red
w ork ers

O p e ra tiv e s ,
ex cep t
tra n s p o rt

T ra n s p o rt L a b o r e r s ,
equipm ent
ex cep t
fa r m
o p e ra tiv e s

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
exc e p t
p r iv a te
household

BOTH SEXES
A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------A sk e d frie n d s :
About job s w h ere th ey w o r k ----A bout job s e ls e w h e re -------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout job s w h e re th ey w o rk ---A bout job s e ls e w h e re -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t agen cy --------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -----------School p la c e m e n t o ffic e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ---------W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------U nion h irin g h a ll -------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------O th er --------------------------------------- —

47. 7

43.

6

34. 9

53. 4

39.5

52. 7

55. 4

51 .6

49. 1

49.

22 * 1

15. 6
22. 5

24. 4
12.9

22. 2
8. 8

2 6 .4
9. 7

2 1. 6

11.9

16.6
16. 1

9. 3

23. 0
14. 3

22. 1
8. 2

25. 8
12. 4

19. 3
7. 4

13. 1
5. 7

15. 2
9 .2

16. 8
7. 0

16. 7
7. 0

2 2 .2
6. 8

2 2 .0
6. 3

19. 0
7. 5

20. 7
17. 5

22. 4
4. 2

2 3 .9
10 . 0
24 .2
13. 7
21. 4
12. 5
12. 1

22. 8
8. 1

2 8. 1
10 . 8

2 3 .9
7. 6
41. 8
17. 8

2 1 .4

14. 3
9. 6

1 2 .2
8 .2

13.0
(3
)

20.0
18. 6
1 1 .0

29. 3
(3
)
(3
)
6. 8

(3
)
3. 1
( 3)

14.2
(3
)
H
12 . 2
(3
)
4. 9
( 4)

27. 9

24. 5
6. 3

28. 8
9 .2
7. 0
16.2
13. 4
(4
)
(3
)

21. 1

19. 3
5 .9
27. 4
16. 7
17. 6

( 3)

(3
)

(*)

( 3)

( 3)

10 .0

19. 7
9. 8
3. 6

( 3)

1 2 .0

(3
)
n

8. 2

( 3)

(4)

(3
)

( 3)

( 3)

(4
)

( 4)

12.9
( 3)

(4
)
(4
)

(3
)
( 4)

(4
)
(4)

(3
)
( 4)

(4
)
( 3)

(4)
I4)

(4)
(4)

7. 3
22. 2
12. 7

8. 2

1 1 .2
(4
)
( 3)

(3
)
( 3)
6. 5

(3
)
32. 5
(4
)

( 3)
24. 3
16.9

(4
)

12 . 0

(4
)
(4
)
(3
)

(3
)
39. 7

(4
)
53.2

(4)
46. 2

(4)
43. 2

(3
)
43. 2

(4
)
33.9

4 7.0

40. 4

35. 4

51. 1

37.0

23. 2
12 . 1

19.9
14. 4

14.
19.

6
8

22. 7
16.9

31. 1

20 . 1
8.0

13. 0
4 .4

17. 4
9 .6

12. 1
5. 6

24.

20 . 9

23. 2
8.9
20.7
6. 7
27. 6
17. 3
18.0

26.5
7. 8
23. 4
7. 3
(3
)
14. 4

23. 8
7. 6
19. 4
8. 1
(3
)

20.0

( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

4. 3

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

5. 1
(3
)

( 3)

( 3)

0

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

(4
)

H

(3
)

(3
)

( 3)

(3
)

( 3)

6. 5

6.5
(3
)

9.
(3
)
(3
)

( 3)
(3
)
(3
)

(3
)

(3
)
27. 6
(3
)

(3
)

(3

(3
)

(3
)
32.5
(3
)

(3
)

( 3)
24. 4
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)

( 3)
(3
)

(3
)
34. 4

(3
)
32 .4

(3
)
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)

(4
)

6

8 .1
9. 8
15. 9
20 . 0
13. 3
8. 6

(4)

M

(4
)

( 4)
24. 4
(3
)

( 3)
( 3)
19 . 8

(4)
38. 3

( 4)
(3
)

( 4)
(3
)

(4)
19. 1

52 .0

54. 9

50. 2

49. 1

38. 7

6.2

25. 8
9. 9

21. 5
11. 4

24. 9
13. 9

2 1. 6

27. 5
12. 3

8
8.6

22 .7
7 .0

2 1.2

18.5
8. 3

20 . 6

21. 5
13. 3
8 .4
9. 8

18. 9
6. 2
8. 5
17. 8

26. 7
( 3)

13. 4
(3
)
(3
)
12 . 8

( 3)
( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

H

( 3)

( 3)

H

( 3)

(3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

( 3)

(3
)
( 3)

3

MEN

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r --------A s k e d frie n d s :
A bou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ----A bou t job s e ls e w h e r e -------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
About jobs w h ere th ey w o r k ----A bout job s e ls e w h e re -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a gen cy --------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -----------S ch ool p la cem en t o ffic e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r --------W en t to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------U nion h irin g h all -------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------O ther ----------------------------- ---- ----

See footn otes at end o f tab le.




9. 1
17. 1
12 . 1
23. 0
9 .2
11.9

23. 7
11. 0
(4)
38. 5

0
( 3)
51. 0

8

(3
)
43. 9

(3
)
30.5
12.9

3

3. 2

7. 5

2. 6

( 3)

7. 0

3

7. 9

17. 3

3

2 1 .9
4. 5
17. 3
( 3)

13. 6
17. 7
( 3)
v/

15 7

(3)

3

V/
(3)

3

(3)

0

( 3)

M ethod

T o ta l

P r o fe s ­
sion al,
tech n ica l,
and
k in dred
w ork ers

W OMEN

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------A s k e d frie n d s :
Abou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ----A bout jo b s e ls e w h e re -------------A sk ed r e la tiv e s :
A bout job s w h e re th ey w o r k ----A bout jo b s e ls e w h e re -------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy --------State em p lo ym en t s e r v ic e -----------S ch ool p la cem en t o ffic e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t -----------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r -------W ent to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------Union h irin g h a ll -------------------------Contacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a tio n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls --------------------------O th e r --------------------------------------------

48. 5

46. 9

20. 5
11.7

12 . 8

18. 2
6 .4

14. 4
7.2

27. 5
11.9
31.9
16.2
19.6
16.6
12.5

2 1. 8

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

9 .9

14. 7

41. 5

18.0

(3)

16.4
4. 7
27.2
16.5
17. 3

(3)
(3
h)
(J
0
(3)
(3)

5 5.0

M a n a g ers
and
a d m in i­
s tr a to r s ,
ex cep t
fa r m

(3)
(3))
(3
(3)
0
()
0)
5
(3)
(4)
<!>
(4)
(j
0)
(3
(4))
(3

S ales
w ork ers

55. 7

40. 2
20. 3
9. 6

(3)

(3
)

(3
)

3
)

36.2
(3
)

(3)
(3
h))
(3
0
(3)
(4)
Q
0)
(3
(})
(3

4 .9

Effectiveness rates1 o f selected job seekin g m ethods:

Method
Applied directly to em p loyer----------------------------Asked friends:
About jobs where they w o r k ------------------------About jobs e ls e w h e r e ----------------------------------Asked relatives:
About jobs where they work -----------------------About jobs elsew h ere -------------------------------Answered newspaper ads:
Local ----------------------------------------------------------Nonlocal -----------------------------------------------------Private em ploym ent agency ---------------- ---- -----State em ploym ent service ------------------------------School placem ent office ----------------------------------C ivil Service te st ------------------------------------------Asked teacher or p rofessor ——--------------— —-Union hiring hall ------------------------------------------Contacted local o r g a n iz a tio n --------------------------See footnote 1, table D-




C ra ft
and
k in d red
w ork ers

26 .0
6. 1

1 P ercent obtained by dividing number of persons reporting method used
to get job by total number of persons who used the method to look for work.
2 R ates not shown for private household w orkers and farm w orkers either
because the base was too sm all (under 75, 000) or no one used the method to
find a job.

T able D -2.

C le r ic a l
and
k in dred
w ork ers

6
6.6

14.

24 .6
7. 1
4 3 .4
18. 8
14.4
21.7
9 .5

(3)
(3))
(3
(3)
(3)
(3)
7.

8

39.

8

O p e ra tiv e s , T ra n s p o rt
excep t
equipm ent
tra n s p o rt | p e r a tiv e s
o

(3)
(3))
(3

(3)
(3))
(3
(3)

56. 1

22. 1
4 .9
23. 3
3 .6

(3
)
(3
)

0

57.

6

24. 1
12. 8
23 .0
4. 5

(3)
?
3
(3)))
(3)
(3
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4))
(3
(4))
(3

22. 5

(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4
(>)
(3)
0)
(3

(3)
(3))
(3
(3
)
(3
)

(3)
(3)
(4)
3)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4))
(3
(4))
(3

(3
)

36. 7

(3
)

(3)
(3))
(3
(3)
(3)
(3))
(4
(*3))
(3)
o)
(3

h
h
03)

S e r v ic e
w ork ers,
ex cep t
p r iv a te
household

(3
)

25. 3
(3
)

3
)

L a b orers,
excep t
fa r m

(3)
(3))
3
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)

(3

7. 3
13.2

14.5

3 Rate not shown where base is le ss than 75, 000.
4 No one in category.

Race and o ccupation, January 1973

Negro and other m inority races
Service,
A ll .
except
WhiteBlueoccupations
collar
private
collar
household
33.1
38.1
4 0.3
42.2
2 3.4
23.1
2 3 .6
2 4 .6
11.4
4 .6
7.7
3.1
IS. 5
2 1 .3
2 7 .8
22.2
5.1
3 .8
6.9
(a)
13.6
8 .4
14.1
15.9
5.9
(a)
(2)
(2)
15.2
21.3
(a)
(a)
20.1
' 2 2 .5
21.3
16.9
• 13.5
12.1
(a)
(!)
13.0
16.3
*)
0
12.4
17.7
(a)
(!)
18.9
(a)
(a)
(!)
17.6
11.8
12.3
(a)

White
A ll
occupations
4 8 .8
2 1.9
12.5
19.0
7 .7
2 5 .0
10.5
2 5.3
12.6
2 2.5
12.4
12.1
2 2 .6
9 .9

Whitecollar
4 3 .5
19.9
13.3
15.8
7.2
25.7
9.1
3 1.5
11.5
2 4 .0
16.0
13.5
4 .7
10.7

Bluecollar
54.7
2 2.9
10.5
2 1 .4
9.1
2 2 .5
12.1
9 .4
12.9
16.8
3 .4
6.7
2 7 .0
9 .4

2 Rate not shown where base is le s s than 75,00 0.

Service,
except
private
household
50.7
26.1
14.3
20.4
5.0
30.1
10.3
10.5
14.1
19.6
13.5
10.4
(*)
(a)

Y e a r s o f sch ool co m p leted
E le m e n ta ry
sch ool,
8 o r le s s

M ethod

A p p lied d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e r ----------------A sk ed frie n d s :
About job s w h ere th ey w o r k ------------About job s e ls e w h e r e -----------------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k ------------About jo b s e ls e w h e r e -----------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------N o n l o c a l -----------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y -----------------State em p loym en t s e r v i c e --------------------School p lacem en t o ffic e ------- •
---------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------------------A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r —---------------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e
to p ick up p eop le -—----------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ------------------------- :-------------------N o n l o c a l -----------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls —--------------------------------—
Union h irin g h a l l ----------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iz a tio n —-------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e j o u r n a l s ---------------------------------- —
O t h e r ----------------------------------------------------

C o lle g e

H igh sch ool

1

1

to
3

4
or
m o re

to
3

4

57. 2

49. 3

47. 3

45. 3

44. 3

19 . 2
9- 2

26. 1
9. 5

21.9
11. 4

21. 7
11. 4

20 . 0

24. 2
5. 6

2 1 .3
8. 6

20 . 1

15. 4
7. 7

15. 0
6 .9

23. 1
( 2)
5. 3
18. 9
( 3)
;
( 3)

27. 9
9.6
14. 4
15. 0
20 . 0
3. 5
11.6

25. 4
10 . 9
29. 2
15. 4
17. 2
12 . 8
8. 0

24. 5
9- 3
27.8

15. 6
9. 4
18. 5
6. 5
2 1. 0
10 . 8
13. 1

( 2)

( 2)

( 3)

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)
( 3)

( 2)
( 2)

15. 7
( 3)

( 2)
( 3)

( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
29. 1
( 2)

( 3)
22. 3
15. 3

8. 1
24. 9
16. 3

6. 5
12 . 6

8. 1

( 3)

( 2)
9. 7

( 3)
36. 8

( 3)
31. 1

( 3)
36. 9

( 2)
4 1 .4

( 3)
52. 5

1 S ee footn ote 1, ta b le D - l .
2 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

7. 5

17. 0

1 1 .2
31. 2
16. 1
16.9

3 No one in. c a te g o ry .

T ab le E-1. M eth o d s used to look fo r w o rk , by d ate la s t w orked on previous jo b , Jan u ary 1973
(P e r c e n t o f jo b s e e k e r s )
Date la s t w o rk ed
1968 o r e a r lie r

Jan. 1972
to
Jan. 1973

1971

(th o u s a n d s )------------------------------

6,852

1,525

A p p lie d d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e r -----------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A b ou t job s w h ere they w o r k --------------------A bou t job s e ls e w h e r e ------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A b ou t job s w h ere they w o r k --------------------A b ou t job s e l s e w h e r e -----------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew spaper ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------------N o n lo ca l ------------------------------------- — ------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ----------------------------School p la cem en t o ffic e ---------------------- -------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t --------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r -----------------------W en t to p la c e w h ere e m p lo y e rs com e to p ick
up p eo p le ------------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l
----------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
-------------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll ---------------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n ----------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls
-------------------------------------------------O th er ---------------------------------------------------------

66. 7

65. 1

65.

51.2
43.8
28. 0
27. 7

M ethod

T o ta l:

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods u s e d ----------------




4 7 .6
12 . 6
23. 0
34. 1
12. 5
15.8
9 .9

1970

1969
T o ta l

343

202

6

69.3

65.

51.2
42. 3

50.7
4 0 .8

29 .8
2 8 .9
48.2

12. 1
21. 0
4 1 .4
14. 5
17.2
11.5

1968

1963
to
1967

1962

Never
w ork e d

or
e a r lie r

517

12 1

225

171

653

6

69 .4

70.7

56. 1

62. 5

47. 5
34.7

44. 1
31.3

56.2
46.3

4 4 .4
31. 6

3 5. 1
20. 5

55.9
36. 1

28.3
27. 1

24.3
2 3 .8

19.7
17.2

2 6 .4
21. 5

2 4 .4
23. 1

8.8

3 6 .4
3 0 .5

47.2
13.4
16.3
28.3

47. 0
7 .9
23.3
33.2
15.8
19.3
8 .9

3 9.8
8. 5
13.3
2 6 .7
5.8
13. 0
5 .0

43. 8
7 .4
15.7
35. 5

42.2
8 .9
14.7
36. 0
4 .4
12.9
2 .7

33 .9

12 .8
14. 0
14.3

6.6
21 .5
8.3

6 .4

8.8

33. 1
5.7

9.9

8 .2

1 1 .8
2 2 .2

7 .0
7 .0
5 .8

14.5
9 .2
16. 1

1. 5

1. 0

2 .9

. 5

1 .0

2. 5

.9

(*)

1. 1

1.5
.5

2. 1

2. 0

1.7

1.7

.4

.6
.6

. 5

.8

0

2 .7
.9

.6
1 .2

1 .2
.8

5.3

5 .5
2. 0
4 .7

2 .5
3. 5
8 .4

2 .7
4 .8
4 .8

4. 1
5 .0
9.1

1.3
7 .6
5 .8

3. 5

1 .4

1 .2
.6

2. 1

5. 1

5. 1
6. 0
7 .8

.7
11.7

.5
11. 5

.6
1 2 .2

13.4

.4
14.9

(*)
24. 0

.9
12.9

11. 1

(‘ )

.3
9 .8

4. 1

4 .2

3 .9

3 .9

3 .2

4 .0

3 .5

2 .3

3.

6.8

(l)

5.2

6

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Date la s t w ork ed
N u m b er o f se a rc h m ethods
used and sex

T o ta l1

Jan. 1972
to
Jan. 1973

1968 or e a r lie r
1971

1970

1969
T o ta l

1968

T9TT3
to
1967

r w
or
e a r lie r

N ever
w ork ed

BOTH SEXES
N u m ber (thousands)—
P e r c e n t --------------------

10, 437
100 . 0

6,852
100 . 0

1, 525

343

653

100 . 0

121
100 . 0

171

100 . 0

202
100 . 0

225

10 0.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

1 m e t h o d --------------------------------------2 m e t h o d s -----------------------------------3 m e t h o d s -----------------------------------4 m e t h o d s -----------------------------------5 m ethods o r m o r e ----------------------

19.8
18.3
14.0
36. 1

18. 5
18.3
13. 7
11.7
37. 8

17. 0
16.7
13. 6
13. 6
39. 1

25. 7
15. 7
12. 5
13. 7
3 2 .4

25. 7
17.8
14.4
6 .4
3 5.6

31.
22.
13.
7.
25.

1
4
3
5
5

16. 5
19. 8
14.9
9 .9
39.2

26.2
2 0 .4
15. 1
8. 0
30.2

48.2
26. 9
9. 9
5.3
9. 4

19. 4
19. 0
18. 9
14. 4
2 8 .4

N u m ber (thousands)—
P e r c e n t --------------------

5, 749
100 . 0

4 ,210
100 . 0

703

122
100 . 0

90

168

100 . 0

100 . 0

59
(2)

75

100 . 0

100 . 0

34
( 2)

100 . 0

1 m ethod -----------------------------------2 m ethods ------------------------------------

17.9
17.3
13.2
11. 6
3 9.9

18.2
17.4
13. 1
11. 5
39. 8

_
_

19 .2
2 1 .6
1 1 .8

14. 1
45. 1

688
100 . 0

2, 642
100 . 0

100 . 0

22. 1

19. 1
19.7
14. 6
12. 1
34. 6

T o ta l:

1 1 .8

517

MEN

T o ta l:

3 m e t h o d s -----------------------------------4 m e t h o d s -----------------------------------5 m ethods o r m o r e ------------------------

12 . 1
16 . 6
12 . 1

19.7
12.3
16.4
45.3

17.8
4 .4
8.9
11. 1
57. 8

221
100 . 0

112
100 . 0

29. 0
20 . 8
12. 7

30.
28.

6.6

17. 3

22. 0
17.3
6. 5
37.2

255

-

17.3
21.3
21. 3
8. 0
32. 0

62
(2)

150

137

398

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

31. 0

53. 6
2 1.9

19.4
17.4
23. 5
13.9
25. 5

.
_

_

-

15. 3
3 2.4

W OMEN

T o ta l:

N u m b er (thousands)—
P e r c e n t --------------------

1 m e t h o d -------------------------------------2 m ethods ----------------------------------3 m ethods ----------------------------------4 m ethods ----------------------- ----------5 m ethods o r m o r e ------------------------

4,

19.5
15.0
11.9
3 1 .4

822

2 1.2
16.8
14. 7
13.3
34. 0

1 2 .2

6
6
19 .6
3. 6

25. 0

17.9

349

100 . 0
3 8 .4
22.3
11.7
8. 0
19. 8

_
_
_

-

20 . 0
12. 0
8. 0
29.3

10 .2
6. 6
8. 0

2 P e r c e n t not shown w h ere base is le s s than 75, 000.

1 Includes som e p ers o n s f o r w hom date la s t w o rk e d w as not known.

T ab le E -3 . M eth o d by w h ich c u rre n t jo b w as o b tain ed , by d a te la s t w o rked on previous jo b , Ja n u a ry 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Date la s t w ork ed
M ethod

Jan. 1972
to
Jan. 1973

1968 or e a r lie r
1971

1970

1969
T o ta l

1968

1963
to
1967

1962

N ever
w ork ed

or
e a r lie r

N u m ber (th o u s a n d s )----------------P e r c e n t -----------------------------------

6,852
100 . 0

1,525

343

653

100 . 0

12 1
100 . 0

171

100 . 0

202
100 . 0

225

10 0.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p l o y e r ----------------------A s k e d frie n d s :
A b ou t jo b s w h ere th ey w o r k -------------------A b ou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e ------------------------------A s k e d r e la t iv e s :
A b ou t jo b s w h ere th ey w o r k ---- ------------ —
A b ou t jo b s e l s e w h e r e -----------------------------A n s w e r e d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l -----------------------------------------------------N o n l o c a l ------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo y m en t a g e n c y ------------------------State em p lo ym en t s e r v i c e ---------------------------School p la c e m e n t o ffic e -----------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t ---------------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ------------------------W ent to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e to p ick
up p eop le ------------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ----------------------------------------------------N o n l o c a l -----------------------------------------------A n s w e r e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls ---------------------------------------------------U nion h irin g h a l l ---- ——-------------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ---------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
j o u r n a l s ---------------- *------------------- ---- --------—
O t h e r ---------------------------------------------------------

35. 0

32 .5

3 6.8

38. 1

36.

6

30 .4

38.

6

38. 5

35. 0

1 2 .2
5. 8

11.9
5. 3

8 .7
5. 0

12.4
5.3

15. 0
3 .8

11. 6

10. 4
5. 0

24. 5
1.4

17.9
4. 7

5. 6
2 .3

5 .9
1. 8

9 .9

.6

1 .2

6. 0
.4

8 .9
(*)

7 .4

2 .4

1.4
1. 4

9 .5
4 .3

12 . 6
1. 6
6.0

12.4

16. 0
(*)
4. 1
4. 1
( l)
2 .4

15.2
(*)

10. 4
1. 0
4. 0
8 .9

22.3
1. 4
2 .9

7 .8
.3
2 .9
4. 0
4. 0
2 .4
1. 6

T o ta l:




1 2 .2
1 .4

6. 1
4 .4
3. 1
1.9
1.3

7 .9
3. 1
3 .0

1 .8

2 .2
3 .4
7. 1
1. 5
1.9
1.9

(')
C)

1

.3

.2

.3
l1
)

.5

.4

1 .8
. 6

1 .2
1. 1

1 .2

(2)
5 .4

0

(*)

.

C)

3. 5

.6

(')

.9

6.2

517

4. 5

C)

1 .8

15.2
.9
3. 1
7.3
.7
1. 5
.9

(*)

(*)

(*)

(')
C)
0

(*)

.9
( x)

1 .8

1. 0

C)

(')

i1)

(X
)
(‘ )
2 .4
(*)
10 . 1

.4
.9

(*)

6.6

1 .8

10. 7
2 .7
.9
3 .6

(*)

(|>
(*)
(X
)

8. 0

2. 0

( x)

2 .2

(X
)
1.4
(X
)

0

C)
h

.3

.2

C)
(')
C)

( x)
l1
)
2. 0

( x)
1 .4

(l)

1 .2

0

( 1)
1.4

(X
)
3. 6

9 .4

(Percent of jobseekers)
Method
Total (thousands) -----------------------------Applied directly to employer-------------------------Asked friends:
About jobs where they work---------------------About jobs elsewhere -----------------------------Asked relatives:
About jobs where they work---------------------About jobs elsewhere ----------------------------Answered newspaper ads:
Local ---------------------------------------------------Nonlocal--------------------------------------------------Private employment agency --------------------------State employment service ----------------------------School placement office -----------------------------Civil Service test --------------------------------------Asked teacher or professor --------------------------Went to place where employers come to
pick up people ------------------------------------------Placed ads in newspapers:
Local -----------------------------------------------------Nonlocal -------------------------------------------------Answered ads in professional or trade
journals----------------------------------------------------Union hiring hall ----------------------------------------Contacted local organization ------------------------Placed ads in professional or trade
journals -------------------------------------------------Other --------------------------------------------------------Average number of methods used ----------------

Total1
9,043
66.5
51.2
43.3
28.2
27.7
47.7
12.4
22.4
35. 1
12.8
16. 1
10.3
1.4

1.6
.5

5.2
6.4
5.7

.6

11.9
4. 1

Under
1
year
5,329
67.6
54.3
45. 6
30. 8
30.4
49.7
13.1
21.3
36.9
14. 6
16. 1
11.7
1.5
1.9
.5
4.3
7.1
6. 6
.4
11.3
4.3

Length of employment on previous job
3 to
5 to
4. 9
9. 9
years
years
years
Total

1to
2.9

2,086
63. 5
48.4
42.1
25.2
25.5
46.4
12.0
25.3
31.5

756
65.6
45. 5
38. 5
25. 8
24.7
43.4
8.9
24. 5
30.7
11.9
17.2
10. 1
1.5
1.3
.3
5.2
4. 1
4. 8

11.6
16.0
9.3
1.5

.8
.3

7.2
4.6
4. 1
.9
11.3
3.9

1 Includes some persons for whom length of employment on last
job was not known.

.8

16. 1
3.8

2

457
71. 1
48.6
40.7
21.7

20.8

38.7
12.9
23. 6
36. 1
6. 6
17.1

6.1
1.3

2.6
.9
5.7
8.. 5
61
1.3
13.8
3.8

10 years or more
10 to
14. 9
135
61.5
37.0
29.6
24.4
17.0
46.7
11.1
13.3
28. 1
3.0
5.2
.7
1.5
1.5
(2)
5.2
5.2
3.0
(2)
10.4
3.0

367
64.0
34.3
26.4
18.
16. 5
1
45. 5
11.2
15.3
37.3
4.4
12.3
.8
.5

1.1
.5

7.1
8.2
3.3
1.4
13.6
3.2

15 or
more
232
65. 5
32.8
24. 6
15. 1
15.5
44. 8
11.2
16.4
42.7
5.2
16.4
.9
(2)
.9
.9

8.2

9.9
3.4

2.2

15.5
3.3

No one in category.

Table E-5. Method by which current job was obtained, by length of employment on previous job for persons who last worked in
1968 or later, January 1973

(Percent distribution)

Length of employment on previous job
5 to
3 to
10 years or more
4. 9
9. 9
10 to
15 or
years
years
Total
14. 9
more
135
367
232
756
457

19
2.to
years

Method

Total1

Under
1
year

Total: Number (thousands) ------------------Percent -----------------------------------Applied directly to employer -----------------------Asked friends:
About jobs where they work ---------------------About jobs elsewhere -------------------------------Asked relatives:
About jobs where they work ---------------------About jobs elsewhere -----------------------------Answered newspaper ads:
Local ----------------------------------------------------Nonlocal -----------------------------------------------Private employment agency -------------------------State employment service -----------------------------School placement office --------------------------------Civil Service test ---------------------------------------Asked teacher or professor -------------------------Went to place where employers come to pick
up people --------------------------------------------------Placed ads in newspapers:
Local -----------------------------------------------------Nonlocal -----------------------------------------------Answered ads in professional or trade
journals --------------------------------------------------Union hiring hall -----------------------------------------Contacted local organization -------------------------Placed ads in professional or trade
journals ---------------------------------------------------Other --------------------------------------------------------

9,043

100.0

5,329

2,086

34.6

100.0

12.0
5.6

34.2

12.6
5.4
6.0
2.4
12.2
1.5

34.0

12.6
5.4

5.8
2.2

12.4
1.4
5.9
5.2
3.0
2.1
1.4
.1

.2

(3)
.4

4.9
5. 5
3.6
2. 1
1.5
(3)

.2

(2)
.4

1.6
.8

1.8
1.0

(3)
5.3

(2)
4.7

1 Includes some persons for whom length of employment on last
job was not known.




100.0

5.8

2.0

12.5 •
1.3
7.9
4. 6
2.2
2.3
1.5
.3

.2
.6
1.0
.1

.5
.1
5.2

100.0

37.4
6. 1
7. 8
5.9

100.0

36.8
11.5
7.2
4.6

1.6
13.3
.6
7. 5
3.9
3.0

2.0
1.0
(2)
.3
(2)
(2)
1.4
.3
(2)

8.2

2.2
9.4
1.9
6.0
5.0
1.4
2.9
1.9
(2)
.5
(2)
.5

1.0
1.0
(2)
6. 5

2 No than category.
3 Lessone in 0.05 percent.

100.0
35.5
12.7
4.3
2.7
(2)
19.4
1.3
4.3
5.4
.7
.7
(2)
(2)
.7
(2)
.7
4.3
(2)
(2)
7.4

100.0
34.6
15.8
7.5
4.2
(2)

19.2
3.3

/

4.2
2.5
(2)
(!)

(2)
(2)
1.7
(2)

0

(!)
i2)
(2)
6.7

100.0
36.0

10.6
2.2
1.7
(2)
19.6
(2)
4.5
7.3

1.1
1.1

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1. 1
7.3
(2)
(2)
7.8

(N u m b ers in thousands)
M en

Both sexes
R eason fo r seekin g
w o rk , age, and ra c e

T o ta l
jo b s e e k e rs
re p o rtin g

----------------------------------------------------

5. 363

2 . 610

Quit job ---------------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y job ended ------------------------------------L a id o ff te m p o r a r ily -------------------------------------------------------------------------L a id o ff in d e fin ite ly
L o s t job fo r oth er rea so n s ----------------------------Sold, lo s t, o r gave up bu sin ess
-------------------W anted d iffe r e n t job b e fo r e qu itting --------------

1, 703
443
91
970
633
150
1, 373

673
150
34
174
141
65
1, 373

2, 153
2, 916
294

4, 770
593

T o ta l

L ook ed fo r w o rk
w h ile em p loyed
P e r c e n t of
N u m ber
total
re p o rtin g

3. 525

5
9
4
9
3
3

1. 744

49. 5

1. 838

866

47. 1

1 , 016

48. 7
39.
33.
37.
17.
22.
43.
100 .

W om en

L o o k ed fo r w o rk
w h ile em p loyed
T o ta l
P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e rs
N u m ber
re p o rtin g
total
re p o rtin g

L ook ed fo r w o rk
T o ta l
w h ile em p loyed
P e r c e n t of jo b s e e k e rs
N u m ber
re p o rtin g
total
re p o rtin g

458
87

45. 1
29. 7

687
150
26
250
195

31. 3
42. 0

509

215
63
14
30
30
5
509

100 . 0

0

293
65
720
438
129
864

1 , 102
1, 415
93

51.2
4 8 .4
31. 6

1 , 29 2
2, 034
199

1 , 008
69

51. 6
49. 6
34. 7

861
882
95

435
407
24

50. 5
46. 1
25. 3

2, 351
259

49. 3
43. 7

3, 156
369

1, 591
153

50. 4
41.5

1, 614
224

760

47. 1
47. 3

20

(*)

144

20 . 0

111

25. 3
46. 5
100 . 0

60
864

21

( l)

12 . 0
15. 4

C)

Age

16 to 24 y e a rs -----------------------------------------------25 to 54 y e a rs -----------------------------------------------55 y e a rs and o v e r ------------------------------------------

667

Race

W h ite ------------------------------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity ra c e s -----------------------------

106

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

Table F-2. Length of time before starting job search for jobseekers who did not look for work while still employed: Reason for
seeking work, sex, age, and race, January 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
T o ta l
R ea so n fo r seek in g w ork ,
sex, a g e , and ra c e

N u m ber
(thousands)

Len gth of tim e b e fo r e sta rtin g to look fo r w o rk (in w eek s)
P e rc e n t

1 to 2
days

1

3 days
to

to

1 w eek

2

3
to
4

5
to

9
or
m o re

8

BOTH SEXES
2, 754
Quit j o b ----------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y jo b ended -------------------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r ily ---------------------------------L a id o ff in d e fin it e ly ----------------------------------L o s t jo b fo r o th er rea son s ----------------------Sold, lo s t, o r ga ve up business -----------------

100 . 0

40. 2

14. 7

13. 9

10 . 6

6. 7

14. 0

1, 030
293
57
796
493
85

100 . 0
100 . 0

30. 2
39. 6

15. 4
16. 5

14. 9
16. 5

14. 0
7. 4

8. 5
6. 0

17. 1
14. 0

(M
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

48. 7
49. 7
12. 5

15. 1

12 . 1
10 . 0

12. 4
13. 3
17. 5

8. 6
8.0
12. 5

5. 0
4. 9
16. 2

10. 3
11.9
31. 2

4.

-

_

_

_

_

_

MEN

-----------------------------------------------

1,782

100 . 0

46. 9

15. 3

13. 9

9- 4

6

9- 9

Quit jo b ----------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y jo b ended -------------------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r ily ---------------------------------L a id o ff in d e fin it e ly ----------------------------------L o s t jo b fo r o th er r e a s o n s -------------------------

558
206
46
577
326
69

100 . 0
100 . 0

37. 9
47. 8

17. 3
15. 9

13. 5
18. 4

11.7
6. 0

4. 0
3. 5

15. 5
8. 5

52. 4
55. 6

16. 5
11.4
"

13. 0
13. 6

7 .6
9- 0
~

4. 0
4. 6

6. 5

T o t a l ---------------------------------------------

.972

100 . 0

27. 7

13. 4

13. 9

12 . 8

10 . 6

2 1 .4

Quit jo b ------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y jo b e n d e d -----------------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r ily ------------------------------L a id o ff in d e fin ite ly ------------------------------L o s t jo b fo r o th er r e a s o n s ---------------------Sold, lo s t, o r ga ve up bu siness --------------

472
87

100 . 0
100 . 0

2 1 .2
21.4

13. 1
16. 7

16. 5
11.9

16. 7
11.9

13. 7
11.9

19- 1
28.6

219
167
16

100 . 0
100 . 0

39. 2
37.8

11.3
13. 4

10 . 8
13. 4
"

11. 3
6. 1
“

7. 5
5. 5

20. 3
23. 8

1, 052
1, 500

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

33. 6
44. 2
44. 2

16. 6
13. 6
11.6

16. 0
1 1 .8
18. 1

14. 2

202

6. 5
6. 9
6. 0

14. 5
16. 1

2, 419
335

100 . 0
100 . 0

40. 5
37. 4

14. 4
16. 3

14. 4
10. 7

10. 5

6. 5
8. 3

16 . 0

T o ta l

S o ld , lo s t , o r g a v e up b u s i n e s s ----------------------

(? )

100 . 0
100 . 0

C)

-

_

_

_

_

_

5. 9

W OMEN

11

n

( x)

_

"

_

~

_

_

Age

16 to 24 y e a r s --------------------------------------25 to 54 y e a r s --------------------------------------55 y e a r s and o v e r ---------------------------------

8.8
4. 0

12.8

R ace

W h ite ------------------------------------------N e g ro and o th er m in o r ity ra c e s —

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h ere base is le s s than 75, 000.




1 1 .0

13. 7

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )
T o ta l
R eason fo r seekin g w o rk ,
sex, and ra ce

R ea so n fo r not look in g fo r w o rk
W anted
tim e
o ff

E xp ected
c a ll
back
to job

W o rk
to do at
hom e

Illn e s s
in
fa m ily

N u m ber
(thousands)

P ercen t

---------------------------------------------------

1 , 621

100 . 0

41. 0

14. 7

11.4

8 .7

4 .7

2. 0

17. 5

Quit job --------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y job e n d e d -----------------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r i l y --------------------------------L a id o ff i n d e f i n i t e l y ---------------------------------L o s t job fo r oth er rea son s ----------------------Sold, lo s t, o r gave up b u s in e s s ------------------

710
172
23
401
246
69

100 . 0
100 . 0

47. 9
39.7
30.9
35.3

2 3 .4

0 .3

1 1 .8

14. 7
_
10.9
7 .9
-

4 .8
4. 1

3 .4

1 1 .2

6. 7

13.2
18.2
_
19.4
2 7 .0
-

________________________________________________
W om en ---------------------------------------------------------

930
691

100 . 0
100 . 0

W h ite -----------------------------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity r a c e s --------------------

1,417
204

100 . 0
100 . 0

Both sex es

2vjen

(')

100 . 0
100 . 0

M o ved

_

_

28. 5
13.7

42.9
38.7

1 1 .8
18. 6

1 2 .2
10 .2

4 2 .4
31.7

(')

5 .0
9. 1
-

1
1 1 .8

10 . 1

-

15.

-

Own
illn e s s

_

_

3 .5

_
1. 5

6.2

.8

O th er
rea son s

-

-

2 .2
1 .8

20 . 1

12.3

4 .9
4. 6

8. 1
1 1 .8

4. 1
9 .4

2. 1

18.

6. 0

20 .7

1. 5

13.8

1
1 2 .8

P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

Table F-4. Number of weeks looked for work while still employed: Reason for seeking work, sex, and race, January 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )
W eek s look ed

T o ta l
R eason fo r seek in g w ork ,
sex, and ra c e

N u m ber
(thousands)

P ercen t

3
to
4

2

1

8

5
to
7

or
m ore

----

2 , 610

100 . 0

29.7

21. 1

22. 8

7.

6

18.7

Quit job --------------------------------------------------------T e m p o r a r y jo b ended -----------------------------------L a id o ff t e m p o r a r i l y -------------------------------------L a id o ff i n d e f i n i t e l y ---------------------------------------L o s t job fo r oth er rea so n s ----------------------------Sold, lo s t, o r gave up bu sin ess — —
W anted d iffe r e n t jo b b e fo r e q u i t t i n g ---------------

673
150
34
174
141
65
1,373

100 . 0
100 . 0

34. 5

19.4
2 9 .6

7 .4
5. 6
8 .7
17. 5
7. 1

14.5
14.4
7 .4

22. 1

M en ------------------------- -----------------------------------------W om en -------------------------------------------------—— -------

1, 744

24.2

W h ite ----------------------------------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity r a c e s -------------------------

Both sexes

—

—

—

----

—

------

-

100 . 0

19.3
30. 0

18.8
18. 4
21. 0

24.2
31.2
42. 0
2 3.7
19.9

866

100 . 0
100 . 0

28.3
32. 3

21. 1
2 1. 1

20 . 1

7. 6
7 .8

18.8
18. 6

2,351
259

100 . 0
100 . 0

2 9 .4
31.9

21.7
15.7

2 2 .2
29. 0

7 .7
7 .6

19. 1
15.7

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h ere b a se is le s s than 75, 000.




(X
)
100 . 0
100 . 0

i1)

19 .2
-

2 2 .8

-

2 1.1
-

Table G-1. D u ratio n o f jo b search, by age and sex, Janu ary 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
A g e (irl y e a r s )
16
to
19

T o ta l

W eeks look ed fo r w o rk

20
to
24

25
to
34

35
to
44

45
to
54

55
and
over

BOTH SEXES
N u m ber (thousands)
P e r c e n t ------------------

10,437
100 . 0

1,727
100 . 0

3, 220
100 . 0

2, 700
100 . 0

1, 378

920

492

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

L e s s than 5 w e e k s ---------------------5 to 10 w e e k s ----------------------------11 to 14 w e e k s --------------------------15 to 19 w e e k s ---------------------------20 to 26 w e e k s ---------------------------27 to 39 w eeks --------------------------40 w eek s o r m o r e ----------------------

59.9
18. 4
6. 6
3.8
4 .9
2. 7
3.9

67. 2
18. 4
6. 4

58. 7

20 . 0
7. 2
3.9
5. 4
2. 4
2. 5

59- 1
17. 9
6. 9
3. 4
4 .6
3. 0
5. 2

58. 6
16.9
5. 1
3. 7
7. 2
3. 3
5. 0

5914.
5.
5.
4.
4.
5.

49- 5
19. 6
6. 5
7. 0
5. 6
3.8
8. 3

1,709
100 . 0

1, 605
100 . 0

736

515

306

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

55.
17.
5.
5.
4.
5.
7.

20 . 9
6. 0
2. 6
6. 4
3. 8
8. 1

T o ta l:

2.8
2.6
1. 1
1 .6

9
9
5
2
0

6
9

MEN

878

N u m ber (thousands)
P e r c e n t -----------------

5, 749
100 . 0

100 . 0

L e s s than 5 w eeks --------------------5 to 10 w e e k s ----------------------------11 to 14 w e e k s --------------------------15 to 19 w e e k s ---------------------------20 to 26 w e e k s ---------------------------27 to 39 w eek s --------------------------40 w eek s o r m o r e ---------------------

57. 7
19. 5
6 .9
4. 1
5. 1
2. 5
4. 1

65. 6
20 . 8
6. 4
2. 2
3. 4
.3
1. 2

688
100 . 0

100 . 0

T o ta l:

1
4
2
5
4
2
5

6

55. 4
17. 7
6. 0
4.9
8. 2
3. 5
5. 4

1, 511
100 . 0

1,095
100 . 0

642

405

186

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

58. 8
19- 8
6. 5
3. 1
6. 0
3. 0
2.9

64. 7
15. 7
5. 8
2. 6
4. 0
2. 6
4. 6

62. 6
16. 1
5. 2
2. 4
6. 0
3. 0
4. 6

65. 7
11. 6
6. 1
4. 9
3. 6
3. 9
4. 2

44. 9
17. 4
7. 2
14. 5
3. 6
3. 6
8. 7

58. 5

20 . 1
7. 8
4. 7
4. 8

1.8
2. 2

55.
197.
3.
5.
3.
5.

4
3

6
9
0
2

51.9

W OMEN

T o ta l:

4,

N u m ber (thousands)
P e r c e n t -----------------

62. 6
16.9
6. 1
3. 5
4. 5
2. 8
3. 7

L e s s than 5 w eek s --------------------5 to 10 w e e k s ----------------------------1 1 to 14 w eek s --------------------------15 to 19 w eek s -------------------------20 to 26 w eek s --------------------------27 to 39 w eek s --------------------------40 w eek s o r m o r e ----------------------

849

68.8
15. 8
6. 4
3. 4
1. 7
2. 0
2. 0

Table G -2 . M eth o d s used to look fo r w o rk, by d uration
o f jo b search, January 1973

d uration o f jo b search, January 1973

(P e r c e n t o f .jo b seek ers)

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n )

T o t a l (thousands)

T5—
to
26

1 to 4
w eek s

M ethod

-----

------5----to
14

5, 239

2 , 180

62.8

72. 2

73.

48.8
38. 5

—

T able G -3. M eth od by w h ich cu rren t jo b w as obtained, by

Zt—
or
m ore

757

575

6

60. 0
52. 3

63. 7
60. 0

64. 7
57. 4

25. 2
24. 2

35. 0
36. 1

41.
43.

6
6

42. 4
38. 1

43. 3
9 .0
18.8
29. 1
10 . 2
12. 3
8. 2

56.
17.
28.
43.
18.

60. 4
18.8
34. 1
55.9
2 1. 1
23.8
18. 5

63. 5
24. 5
33.6
56. 7
19. 1
30. 4
18. 1

10 . 0

1. 0
12 . 2

.5
15.7

1. 4
15. 3

A v e r a g e num ber o f m ethods used —

3 .6

5 .0

5 .6

5.8




1
7
3
2

6
2 1.8
15. 5

1. 2

1. 6

2. 5

2. 4

1. 4
.4

1. 5
.5

2. 5

3. 5
.7

3. 0
5 .3
4. 2

8. 5
6. 7

10 . 0

.5

7 .8

.8
7. 7
10 . 2

11. 7
9-9
11. 5

n —
to
26

N u m b er (thousands)—
P e r c e n t -------------------

5, 239
100 . 0

2 , 180
100 . 0

757

575

100 . 0

100 . 0

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------A s k e d fr ie n d s ;
About job s w h e re th ey w o r k ---About jo b s e ls e w h e r e -------------A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o r k ----About jo b s e ls e w h e r e --------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l ------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a gen cy --------State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ----------School p lacem en t o f f i c e --------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t —■------------ —-----A sk ed te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ---------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
com e to p ick up p e o p le -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l --------------- ---------------------N o n lo ca l --------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a l s --------------------------Union h irin g h a l l ------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n ------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u r n a l s --------------------------O th er ------------------------------------------

35. 9

31. 7

28. 3

31. 7

12. 7
5. 2

12 . 6

10. 4
5. 3

11.9
6. 6

5 .9
2. 3

6. 0
1.8

8. 0

7. 0
2. 4

13.0

11.7
1.9
5. 3
5. 4
3. 4
3. 4
1.9

10 . 2
1 .8
6. 4
6. 4

T o ta l:

1 .2
6. 7
4 .9
2 .9
1. 3
1.3

6 .9

2. 5

-----

T7

5
to
14

79. 7

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r --------A sk ed fr ie n d s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk ——
About jo b s e ls e w h e r e —
— —
A sk ed r e la t iv e s :
About jo b s w h e re th ey w o r k -----About jo b s e ls e w h e re
A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
Local
---—
— N o n lo c a l----------------------------------P r iv a t e em p loym en t a g e n c y ------ —
State em p loym en t s e r v i c e ------------School p la cem en t o f f i c e ---------------C iv il S e r v ic e t e s t -------------------------A sk e d te a c h e r o r p r o f e s s o r ---------Went to p la ce w h e re e m p lo y e rs
co m e to p ick up p e o p l e -------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l ---------------------------------------N o n l o c a l --------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e j o u r n a l s ---------------------------U nion h irin g h a l l -------------------------C on tacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n --------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls —-------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------

—

1 to 4
w eeks

M ethod

or
m o re

12 . 1

2. 1
1. 1

.7
2. 2
5 .0
3. 5
4. 0
2. 2

(l )

(M

.3
O

.4
(M

3. 4

1

.

.3
( 2)

n
b

.4
1. 3
.7

1. 1
.8

.3
3. 2

1. 1

2. 0

.4

n
3.9

.1
5. 2

8. 5

.

2

.7

n

.4

(M

8. 6

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
D u ration o f jo b s e a rc h (in w e e k s )

T o ta l
R ea so n fo r seek in g
w o rk and ra c e

N u m ber
(thousands)

5

1

-n

n

to
4

P ercen t

10

to
14

26

27
or
m o re

6.6

8 .6

6.6

to

15
to

T o t a l --------------------------------------------------

10, 437

100 . 0

59.9

18.4

—---E m p loyed b e fo r e c u rre n t jo b , t o t a l ---- ——

5,392

10 0 .0

6 1.0

17.8

5 .9

8 .4

6.9

Q u i t --------------------------------------------------------L o s t jo b , t o t a l ----------- — ——..... — -----------

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
10 0.0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
10 0.0

68.7
51.2
64.2
84. 6
43.7
49.3
55.3
68. 6

17.3
20 . 0

4 .8
7 .0

5 .8
11.4
5.2
5.7
14.4

3 .5
10.4
5 .2

L a id o ff t e m p o r a r ily — ------------------------L a id o ff in d e fin it e ly -------------------------- ---L o s t jo b fo r o th e r rea so n s -------------------Spld, lo s t o r g ave up b u sin ess —---------—
W anted d iffe r e n t jo b b e fo r e quitting ----------

1,714
2, 305
448
91
974
642
150
1,373

1 1 .0

12.9
7 .3
5. 1

N o t in la b o r fo r c e b e fo r e c u rre n t jo b , to ta l----

4,778

100 . 0

58.

6

18.9

7 .5

8.8

L e ft s c h o o l-------------------------------- — -----------L e ft m ilit a r y s e r v i c e --------------------------------W anted w o rk w h ile in s c h o o l --------------------R e c o v e r e d fr o m illn e s s o r d is a b ilit y ---------K eep in g house —— ------------------— ------ -----R e t ir e d ---------------------------------------------- ---- —
O t h e r ---- ;
------------------------------------------ ----- ----

1, 522
265
557
165
924

48 .5
47.2
66. 5
59.3
70.2
51.3
63. 1

2 3 .4

1 1 .2

32 .7

9 .7
8 .3
5.9
3 .4
4 .2
4. 1

1.259

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0

16 .2

8 .0

9.302
1,135

100 . 0
100 . 0

60. 1

18.4
17.9

6. 5

86

19 .2
10 . 0
20 .0
2 1 .4
22. 0
14. 6

2 2 .2
18.0

22 . 0
1 2 .2

6.0

(')

9 .7
5 .4
1. 6
5.3

13.8
6. 4

0

1 2 .2

6.2
7. 1
8 .7
1.9

13.9
7 .6
5. 1
8. 5
( 1)
5.9

1 2 .2
6. 6

8 .5
9 .6

6 .4
7 .9

10 .2
5 .0

Race
W h i t e -----------------------------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity r a c e s — — -------------

57.9

6.7

1 N o one in c a te g o r y .

T able G -5 . N um ber o f m ethods used to look fo r w o rk , by d uratio n o f jo b search and sex, Jan u ary 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )
D u ration o f jo b s e a rc h (in w e e k s )
Sex and num ber o f m ethods used

1

T o ta l

15
to

5
to
14

to
4

26

27
or
m o re

BOTH SEXES
N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )----------P e r c e n t ----------------------------

10, 437

5, 239

575

100.0

2 , 180
100.0

757

100.0

100.0

100.0

j m e t h o d _____________________________________

19. 8
18. 3
14. 0
11. 8
36. 1

20 . 8
2 1 .4
16.2
12.9
28. 7

8. 5
13.0
11.9
14. 3
52. 3

6. 1
9 .0
12. 4
8. 1
64. 3

6. 3
6 .4
9 .9

N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )----------P e r c e n t ----------------------------

5, 749

2 , 806
100.0

1, 284

447

324

10 0.0

100.0

100 . 0

1 m ethod ---------------------------------------------2 m ethods --------------- -----------------------------

17.9
17. 3
13.2

18. 9
21. 3
15. 2
12 . 8
31. 7

7 .4
11.4
11. 8
13.6
55. 8

5 .4
8.5
8. 5
8 .5
68. 8

688
100 . 0

2, 433

896
100.0

310

251

100.0

100.0

22. 1

2 2.9
2 1.5
17.2
13.0
25. 3

7. 1
9 .7
18. 1
7 .7
57.7

4 .4
10.4
10 . 8

T o ta l:

2 m ethods --------------------------------------------3 m ethods --------------------------------------------4 m ethods --------------------------------------------5 m ethods o r m o r e --------------------------------

1 2 .0
65 .4

MEN
T o ta l:

3 m ethods -----------------------------------------•
—
4 m ethods ______-__ —
-------------- —----- ——-—
5 m ethods o r m o r e --------------------------------

100.0

1 1 .6
39.9

8.0
3 .4
9 .3
12.4
6 6.9

WOMEN !
T o ta l:

N u m b er (th o u s a n d s )----------P e r c e n t ----------------------------

1 m e t h o d ----------------------------------------------2 m ethods --------------------------------------------3 m ethods __ ____ _—__ —---------------------- —
4 m ethods --------------------------------------------5 m ethods o r m o r e --------------------------------




4,

19.5
15.0
11.9
3 1 .4

100.0

10 .2
15.0

12. 1
15. 3
4 7.3

1 1 .2

63. 3

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
T o ta l
W eeks look ed fo r
w o rk w h ile s t ill em p lo y e d
and s ex

D u ration o f jo b se a rc h (in w e e k s )

1
P ercen t

n

15

Z5
7

27

to

to

to

to

to

to

or

4

N u m b er
(thousands)

5

10

14

19

26

39

m o re

4. 7

1 .4

3.

.3
1. 1
1 .4

4 .9
8. 5

(')
. 5
1.4
8. 5
19. 0

.3
.5
1.4
4. 5

16. 7

4. 5

1 .8

4. 4

40

BOTH SEXES
T o t a l ---------------------------------------------------

2 , 610

10 0.0

62. 6

1 w eek -------------------------------- ------------------------2 w eek s
-------------------------------------------------------

655
467
504
169
413

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

96.3
8 8 .4
68. 0
o

3 o r 4 w eeks ------------------------------------------------5 to 7 w eek s -------------------------------------------------8 w eek s o r m o r e ------------------------------------------

0

6. 2

2. 7

2.3

.3

6.8
20 .2

1 .8
6. 6

.5
.7

79.9
31.2

20 . 2

6

6. 4

2 .8

3. 0

.5
.7

.8

0

.7
(*)
9.3
18. 0

18.

6

5. 5

.8

1 .2

8

C)

MEN

---------------------------------------------------

1, 744

100 . 0

61.

1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s ---------------------------------------------------------

418
312
357

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

95.2
87.5
65.8
(‘)

T o ta l

3 o r 4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------5 to 7 w eeks -------------------------------------------------8 w eek s o r m o r e ------------------------------------------

112
277

6

18.

(')

8.8
2 1. 6

8 .2

0

7 5.4
27.8

7. 5
19.2

1 .2
5. 6
9. 0

5.9

2. 5

(*)
.7

.5
1.7

2. 0

1 .2

6. 4

1.9

(')
19.9

5.3

.4

2. 5

(*)

.9

W OMEN

---------------------------------------------------

866

10 0.0

64.9

18.5

1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s --------------------------------------------------------

237
155
147
57
136

100 . 0
10 0.0
10 0.0

98.2
9 1 .0
73.0

.9

T o ta l

3 o r 4 w eeks
-----------------------------------------------5 to 7 w eek s
-----------------------------------------------8 w eek s o r m o r e
-----------------------------------------

1 No one in ca te g o ry .




(2)

100 . 0

_

( l)

2 .8
8

(X
)
4.2

2. 1

_

2. 8

(‘)

4 .9

C)
C)

2 .8

37.7

2 1. 6

7. 5

2 1. 6

1.5

10. 4

16.

_

(X
)

(l)

_

2 P e r c e n t not shown w e r e base is le s s than 75, 000.

(*)
(!)

_

(P e r c e n t distrib u tion )
T o ta l
O ccu pation al group, sex, and ra c e

N u m b er o f m ethods used
5
or
m o re

N u m b er
(thousands)

P ercen t

10,437

100.0

19.

8

18. 3

14. 0

1 1 .8

36. 1

4, 995
3, 904
99
1, 374
65

100.0
100 . 0
100.0
100 . 0

17. 8
21.4
25. 5
2 2 .4

13. 7'
13. 5
17. 3
15.9
-

12 . 1
11. 6

38.0
35. 8
2 1.4
31. 3

-

18.4
17. 7
30. 6
19 . 0
-

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------

5, 749

100.0

17.9

17. 3

13. 2

11. 6

39.9

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ------------------------------------B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------F a r m w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------

2 , 009

100.0
100.0
100.0
( 1)

15. 6
19.7
17. 1

16. 7
17.9
16 . 1

12. 7
13. 3
13. 7

12. 1
1 1 .8

4 2 .9
3 7.4
43. 3

-

-

"

688

100.0

22. 1

19.5

15.0

11.9

31.4

2, 986
803
99
794

19 .2

19.5
16. 7
30. 6

14.4
14.4
17. 3
17. 5

12 . 2
1 1 .0
12 . 8

34. 6
29 . 6
2 1.4
22.4

6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0

"

"

-

-

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------

9, 302

100.0

20 . 2

18.7

13.9

12. 0

35. 3

W h ite - c o lla r w o r k e r s ------------------------------------B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s --------------------------------------P r iv a t e h ousehold w o r k e r s ----------------------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------F a r m w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------

4, 580
3,453
60
1, 152
57

100.0
100 . 0
0
100.0

18.
22.

1
1

18.7
17.9

13. 7
13. 2

12. 5
11.9

37. 1
34.9

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------

1 , 135

100 . 0

16.

W h it e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ------------------------------------B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------P r iv a t e household w o r k e r s ----------------------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------F a r m w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------

415
451
39

100.0
100.0

222
8

100.0

1

2

3

4

ALL PERSONS
T o t a l ----------------------------------------------------W h ite - c o lla r w o r k e r s --------------------------------------B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------P r iv a t e household w o r k e r s ----------------------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------F a r m w o r k e r s -------------------- -----------------------------

(')

5. 1

1 1 .6
-

-

MEN

3, 101
580
59

9 .9
-

W OMEN

T o t a l ------------- ---------------------------------------W h ite - c o lla r w o r k e r s ------------------------------------B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------P r iv a t e household w o r k e r s ----------------------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------F a r m w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------

4,

28. 3
25.5

26 . 1
“

2 1 .0

5. 1

W h it e

_

-

22. 8

_

-

-

19.9
-

16. 7
-

1 1 .2

6

15.4

15. 2

9 .9

42. 9

14.0
16.4

15. 7
15. 3

14. 3
16 . 6

8. 2

47. 7
42. 1

n

-

2 9.5
-

N e g r o a n d o th e r m in o r ity ra c e s

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75,000.




(*)

( l)

-

19 .8
“

-

14. 0
"

-

11. 7
“

9 .5
-

13. 5
"

-

40. 8
“

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
N u m b er o f hours look ed p e r w eek

T o ta l
C h a r a c te r is tic s

N u m b er
(thousands)

P ercen t

11

6

5
or
le s s

to

21

16
to

to
15

10

26
or
m o re

to
25

20

10. 437

100 . 0

64. 9

16.

1

6.0

4.

6

2. 3

6. 1

5, 749
4, 688

100 . 0
100.0

59.9
71. 1

16.9
15. 2

7. 1
4 .6

5. 3
3. 6

2 .9

1 .6

7 .9
3. 8

4, 947
4, 07 8
1, 412

100 . 0
100.0
100.0

64. 6
65. 3
64. 8

17. 4
14. 7
15. 6

6. 3
5. 8
5. 3

3.9
5. 0
5. 8

2. 3
2. 3
2. 2

5. 4
6.9
6. 1

9, 302
1, 135

100 . 0
100 . 0

65. 3
61. 5

15.7
19.9

6.0
6. 3

4. 7
3. 8

2. 2

6. 2

3. 2

5. 4

8, 805

100.0
100 . 0

63. 2
74. 2

16. 7
12. 7

6. 4
3. 6

4. 7
3. 8

2. 4
1.9

6. 5

1, 632

5, 392

100 . 0

62.5

16.2

6.6

5.0

2. 6

7. 1

2 , 861
1, 111

66. 7
50. 6
53. 1
48.1

15.9
18.2
20 . 6
20 . 6

5 .5
10 . 0
5 .2
11. 3

3.9
7. 3
8. 0
8. 4

1 .6
5. 6
3. 6

6. 3
8. 1

393
323

100.0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0

2. 3

9. 3
9 .6

-------

4, 778

100.0

67. 7

16.

1

5 .4

4. 2

1. 8

4.

L e s s than 5 w eek s ------------------------------------5 to 14 w eek s -------------------------------------------15 to 26 w eek s ------------------------------------------27 w eek s o r m o r e -------------------------------------

2, 336
1, 048
353
248

100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0
100 . 0

71. 0
55. 8
59. 0
58. 1

13.
22 .

6
8
19 .2

4 .5

3.9
4. 9
7. 4
3. 6

1.7
3.0
2. 7
( 1)

5. 3
5. 1
4. 4
6. 0

S ex

M en ---------------------------------------------------------------W om en ----------------------------------------------------------Age

16 to 24 y e a r s -----------------------------------------------25 to 44 y e a r s -----------------------------------------------45 y e a r s and o v e r ------------------------------------------R ace

W h ite -------------------------------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o rity r a c e s --------------------W o r k s c h e d u le

U s u a lly w o rk ed fu ll tim e -------------------------------U su a lly w o rk e d p a rt tim e --------------------------------

3. 9

W e e k s lo o k e d

E m p lo y ed b e fo r e look in g:

T o t a l ---------------------

L e s s than 5 w eek s ------------------------------------5 to 14 w eek s — •
----------------------------------------15 to 26 w eek s ------------------------------------------27 w eek s o r m o r e ------------------------------------N o t in la b o r fo r c e b e fo r e look in g:

T o ta l

8.6
7. 1
7. 3

25. 0

8

1 N o one in c a te g o ry .

Table H -3 .

Farthest distance traveled to look fo r w ork: Age, sex, and race, January 1973

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Sex

A g e (in y e a rs )
D ista n ce tr a v e le d

16

T o ta l

T o ta l,
16 to 24

20

25

35

45

to

to

to

to

to

and

44

54

R ace

55

over

19

24

34

M en

W om en

W hite

N egro
and oth er
m in o r ity
races

T o ta l re p o rtin g (thousands) -------------------

10. 070

4. 818

1. 674

3. 144

2 , 626

1. 316

856

454

5, 562

4. 508

9. 008

1 . 062

D id not go out to lo o k f o r w ork :
N u m b er (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t o f to ta l re p o rtin g --------------------------

398
4. 0

134

56
3. 3

78
2. 5

123
4. 7

83

6. 3

30
3. 5

28

2. 8

6. 2

197
3. 5

201
4. 5

357
4. 0

41
3.9

W en t out to lo o k fo r w ork :
N u m b er (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------

9, 672
100 . 0

4, 684

1 , 618
100 . 0

3, 066
100 . 0

2, 503
100 . 0

1, 233
100 . 0

826

426

100 . 0

100.0

5, 365
100 . 0

4, 307
100 . 0

8, 651
100 . 0

1 , 021
100 . 0

20. 7
2 2 .4

21. 3
2 3.9
30. 7
13. 6
3.5
2. 6
2. 8
1. 7

27. 1

18.2

29 .2
28. 6
10 . 9

2 1. 1
31. 8

17.9
19.7
29.3
15. 7
5. 6
3. 1
3. 3
5 .4

20.
20.
30.
14.
5.
2.
1.
5.

25. 3
24. 3
23. 6
14. 5
3 .9
2. 3
1.9
4 .2

23.
24.
30.
13.
2.
.
2.
2.

15. 0
18. 3
29. 7
18.6
6. 4
3. 6
3.5
4 .9

2 7.9
27. 6
29. 6
9 .0
1. 7

20. 3

24. 3
26. 2
29. 8
11. 0
4. 2

U n d er 5 m ile s -----------------------------------------------5 to 10 m ile s -------------------------------------------------1 1 to 25 m ile s -----------------------------------------------26 to 50 m ile s -------------------------■--------------------51 to 100 m ile s --------------------------------------------------------101 to 200 m ile s -----------------------------------------------------201 to 500 m i l e s ------------------------------------------------------O v e r 500 m ile s ---------------------------------------------------------




29 .6
14.
4.
2.
2.
3.

4
3
5
7
3

100.0

1. 9

1 .2
.6
.6

15. 0
4. 4
3. 3
3.9
2. 3

5
5
1
5
5

2
7
1

0
4
3

8
8
5
3

8

1.
1.

2
6

1. 3

22. 0
29 . 6
14. 7
4. 3
2. 7
2 .9
3. 4

1. 0

.6
3. 1

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )

Occupation

T o ta l

--------------------------------------

P r o fe s s io n a l, tech n ica l, and k in dred
w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------M a n a g e rs and a d m in is tra to rs , ex cep t
fa r m — ------------------------------------------S ales w o r k e r s ---------------------------------C le r ic a l w o r k e r s -----------------------------C r a ft and k in dred w o r k e r s --------------O p e ra tiv e s , excep t t r a n s p o r t -----------T ra n s p o rt equipm ent o p e ra tiv e s ------L a b o r e r s , ex cep t fa r m -------------------P r iv a t e household w o r k e r s -------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , ex cep t p riv a te
household -------------------------------------F a r m w o rk e rs ----------------------------------

D id not go out
to look
T o ta l
P ercen t
re p o rt­
T o ta l
of
N u m b er
ing
N u m ber
total
(thou ­
(thou ­
(th ou ­ P e r c e n t
sands) r e p o r t ­
sands)
ing
sands)

D istan ce tr a v e le d (in m ile s )
5
Under
5

11

26

51

101

201

to

to

to

to

to

to

100

200

500

10

25

50

398

4. 0

9, 672

100 . 0

20. 7

22. 4

29 . 6

14. 4

1, 394

82

5 .9

1, 312

100.0

11. 6

13. 5

28.

0

15. 0

502
734
2, 203
1, 113
1 , 681
374
619
91

20

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

10 . 8

13.
23.
29.
20 .
22.
21.
21.
21.

9
3
5

26. 3
24. 6
33. 0
32. 2
29. 4
32. 7
29 . 0
15. 2

17.
13.
9.
19.
17.
13.
20 .
8.

8

13

4. 0
6. 0
2. 7
3.9
2. 6
3. 5
1. 3
14. 3

1, 296
63

67

5. 2

6

27. 7

10 . 2

1. 1

1. 1

"

"

"

10, 070

44
59
43
43
13

8

6

482

690
2, 144
1, 070
1, 638
361
611
78
1, 229
57

0

100 . 0

C)

23. 9
24. 3
14. 4
22. 3
16. 1
2 1 .4
44. 3
29. 6
-

27.

1
3
2

1
0

'

*

O ver
500

2. 5

2. 7

3. 3

6. 7

7. 1

6. 5

11. 7

9. 3
4. 5
2. 2
6. 0
4. 5
8. 6
3. 3

5.
3.
.
2.
1.
3.
2.
5.

7.
3.
.
3.
1.
2.
.
2.

4. 3

2
3
7
4
3

8
9

“

4
0

6
2
6
0

0
1

9
9
7
5
7

8
7
5

.9

“

9.
3.
.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

3
3

8
9

2

7

6
5

2. 0

"

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.

Table H -5.

Farthest distance traveled to look for w o rk : Residence, sex, and race, January 1973

^ P e rc e n t d istrib u tio n )
Both : exes
s

D istan ce tr a v e le d and ra c e

M en

In SM SA 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
T o ta l

N ot in
SM SA
of
Outside
250, 000
c e n tra l
or
c ity
m o re

In
cen tra l
city

W om en

In SM S A 1 o f 250, 000
o r m o re
T o ta l

In
ce n tra l
c ity

Outside
c e n tra l
c ity

N o t in
SM SA
of
250, 000
or
m o re

N ot in
SM SA
of
Outside
250, 000
c e n tra l
or
c ity
m o re

In S M S A 1 o f 25 0, 000
o r m o re
In
c e n tra l
c ity

T o ta l

ALL PERSONS
T o ta l re p o rtin g (thousands) -------------------

6, 397

2, 757

3, 640

3, 627

3, 500

1, 490

2 , 010

2, 105

2, 897

1. 267

1, 630

1, 522

D id not go out to look fo r w ork:
N u m b er (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t o f to ta l re p o rtin g --------------------------

251
3.9

105
3. 8

146
4. 0

125
3. 4

115
3. 3

58
3. 9

57

2. 8

73
3. 5

136
4. 7

47
3. 7

89
5. 5

52
3 .4

W ent out to lo o k fo r w ork:
N u m b er (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------

6, 146
100 . 0

2, 652
100 . 0

3, 494
100 . 0

3, 502
100 . 0

3, 385
100 . 0

1, 432
100 . 0

1, 953
100 . 0

2, 032
100 . 0

2, 761
100 . 0

1 , 220
100 . 0

1, 541
100 . 0

1, 470
100 . 0

U n der 5 m ile s -----------------------------------------------5 to 10 m ile s -------------------------------------------------11 to 25 m ile s -----------------------------------------------26 to 50 m ile s -----------------------------------------------51 to 100 m ile s ----------------------------------------------101 to 200 m ile s -------------------------------------------201 to 500 m ile s -------------------------------------------O ver 500 m ile s -----------------------------------------------

17. 8
25. 8
32. 1
13.0
3. 5
1. 8
2. 3
3. 6

12. 5
32.9
17. 0
5. 2
2. 5
3. 0
5. 1

16. 4
26. 1
30. 6
12. 5
4. 6
1. 8
3. 3
4. 6

9. 6
18. 7
34. 6
20 . 2
5. 7
2 .9
2. 9
5. 5

18. 0
13. 8
24. 0
20 . 6
8. 9
5. 4
4. 2
5. 1

24. 4
30. 7
31. 1
8. 3
1 .4
.9
1 .4
1.9

25. 0
33.9
2 9 .6
5. 4
1. 5
.9
1. 5
2. 3

23. 9
28. 2
32. 3
10.5
1. 3
1. 0
1. 3
1. 6

33. 9
21. 4
27. 6
8 .4
3. 2
2. 0
2. 5

294

432

305

127

151

355

260

95

143

16
3. 7

8
2. 6

8
6. 3

6
4 .0

14
3. 9

7
2. 7

7
7. 4

1. 4

88
100 . 0

100 . 0

20.
29.
30.
9.
3.
1.
2.
3.

4
7
1

2

15. 9

22. 9
33. 6

2
4
5
5

15. 9
3. 8
2. 1
2. 2
3. 7

24.
17.
25.
15.
6.
4.
3.
3.

7
0
5
5
5
0
5
4

2 1. 8

1 .0

N e g r o a n d o th e r m in o r ity ra c e s

T o ta l re p o rtin g (th o u s a n d s )--------------------

787

565

222

D id not go out to look f o r w ork :
N u m ber (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t o f tota l r e p o rtin g --------------------------

30
3. 8

15
2. 7

15

8

6. 8

2. 7

W ent out to look f o r w ork :
N u m b er (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------

757

549

207

286

416

297

119

145

341

253

100.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

U nder 5 m ile s -----------------------------------------------5 to 10 m ile s -------------------------------------------------11 to 25 m ile s -----------------------------------------------26 to 50 m ile s -----------------------------------------------51 to 100 m ile s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 100 m ile s -----------------------------------------------

23. 1
29. 1
30. 8
9 .0
3. 4
4 .6

26 .0
30. 7
28. 1
7. 3
3. 6
4. 6

15.5
24. 6
38.9
13.0
2 .9
4. 8

35.4
17. 5
30. 4
5. 2
5. 6
5. 6

17. 1
29. 3
32. 9
10 . 6
4. 8
5 .5

20 . 9
31. 8
2 8 .4
9.5
5. 4
4. 1

7. 6
22. 7
44. 2
13. 4
3. 4
8 .4

26 . 9
17.2
29. 7

30.
28.
28.
6.
1.
3.

32.
29.
27.
4.
1.
5.




6 .2
1 1 .0
9 .0

5
7
4
7

8
8

0

2
7
7

6
1

26. 1
27. 3
31.5
12. 5
2. 3

(*)

2

141

44. 0
18.4
30.5
5 .0
(2
)
2. 1

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
Both sexes
D istan ce tra v e le d
T o ta l

Under
5
w eeks

5
to
14 w eek s

T5i
to
2 6 'w eek s

27
or
m ore

M en

W om en

T o ta l re p o rtin g (th o u s a n d s )--------------------

10, 070

5,205

2 , 162

749

570

5, 562

4, 508

Did not go out to lo o k fo r w ork :
N u m ber (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t of total r e p o r t in g ---------------------------

398
4. 0

150
2 .9

37
1. 7

12
1. 6

7

1 .2

197
3. 5

201

W ent out to look fo r w ork :
N u m ber (thousands) ----------------------------------P e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------

9, 672
100 . 0

5,055
100 . 0

2, 125
100 . 0

737

563

100 . 0

100 . 0

5,365
100 . 0

4,307
100 . 0

20.7
22. 4

2 3 .8
25. 1
2 9 .8
12.3
3.3

12.7
18. 0
33.2
17. 5

9 .6
19.4
30. 1

8 .7
16.3
29.3

6.8

2 1 .0

2 .2

4 .2
3. 7
4. 5
7.2

2 1 .0
6.2

2 7 .9
27. 6
29. 6
9. 0
1.7

3.2
3 .9
4.7

15. 0
18. 3
29 .7
18. 6
6 .4
3. 6
3. 5
4 .9

U nder 5 m ile s -----------------------------------------------5 to 10 m ile s -------------------------------------------------11 to 25 m ile s -----------------------------------------------26 to 50 m ile s -----------------------------------------------51 to 100 m ile s ---------------------------------------------101 to 2 00 m ile s -------------------------------------------201 to 500 m ile s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 500 m ile s

Table H-7.

29 .6
14.4
4.3
2. 5
2. 7
,3

1. 7
1.9

3 .7
3. 5
9. 1

4. 5

1 .2
1. 6
1.3

Distance o f curren t job fro m residence a t tim e o f job search: A g e and sex, Jan u ary 1973

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )

T o ta l
T o ta l

19

---------55-------

25

35

to

to

to
24 y e a rs

34 y e a r s

44 y e a r s

3, 220
100 . 0

2, 700
100 . 0

100 . 0

50. 9
24. 5
17. 0
5. 6
•9
.7
.4
(M

38. 4
25. 5
2 1. 2
6. 9
2. 2
1. 6
2. 4

35. 3
22. 4
23.9
6. 8
3. 7
1.7
2. 8
3. 3

38. 0
22. 5
21. 4
7. 8
4. 7
1. 2
.4
3.9

878

1,709
100 . 0

1,605
100 . 0

736

515

306

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

35. 8
25. 2
21. 4
7. 8
2. 6
2. 5
3. 1
.1 . 6

27. 3
20. 7
26. 0
8 .9
5. 6
2. 6
4. 4
4. 4

25. 3
22. 4
24. 2
11. 1
8. 3
1. 9
.8
6. 0

30. 8
24. 3
24. 9
10 . 1
3. 4

642

405

186

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

54.
23.
17.
2.
n
1.

57. 8
20 . 2

16 to 24 y e a rs
D istan ce and sex

re
to
y e a rs

1

55 y e a r s

to

and

54 y e a r s

over

ALL PERSONS
T o ta l:

N u m ber (thousands) -P e rc e n t --------------------

U nder 5 m ile s ------------------------------5 to 10 m i l e s --------------------------------11 to 25 m i l e s ----------------— -----------26 to 50 m ile s ---------------------- --------51 to 100 m i l e s -----------------------------101 to 200 m i l e s ---------------------------201 to 500 m i l e s ---------------------------O v e r 500 m ile s -----------------------------

10, 437
100 . 0
40.
24.
21.
6.
2.
1.

1
0
3
7
7
4

1.8
2. 1

4, 947
100 . 0
42. 7
25. 2
19- 8
6. 4
1. 7
1. 3
1. 7

1 .2

1, 727

100 . 0

1.8

1, 378

920
100 . 0
41 .2
24. 1
21. 5
6. 7
1.9

1 .6
1. 2
1. 7

492

100 . 0
44. 9
24. 5
2 1. 9
4.9
1. 5
•9
1. 1

.6

MEN

N u m ber (thousands)
P e rc e n t ----------------

5, 749
100 . 0

U nder 5 m ile s --------------------------5 to 10 m i l e s -----------------------------11 to 25 m i l e s ---------------------------26 to 50 m ile s --------------------------51 to 100 m ile s ------------------------

34. 0
23. 3

T o ta l:

22.8
8. 5

2, 587
100 . 0

8
6
19 -8

40.
24.

100 . 0
50. 3
23. 3
16. 8
6. 7
1. 5

4. 1
2. 0
2. 6
2. 8

7. 4
2. 2
1. 9
2. 2
1. 1

688
100 . 0

2, 360
100 . 0

849

1, 511

100 . 0

100 . 0

1, 095
100 . 0

47. 8
24.8
19. 5
4. 4
.9
.6

44. 9
25.8
19. 7
5. 3
1. 2
.6
1. 2
1.2

51. 6
25. 8
17. 2
4. 4
.2
.6
.4
n

41. 2
25. 9
2 1. 1
5. 9
1.8
.6
1. 7
1.9

47. 1
25. 1
20 . 8
3.8
.9
.3
.3
1. 7

101 to 200 m i l e s ------------------------------

201 to 500 m i l e s -----------------------O v e r 500 m i l e s ---------------------------

.8
.5
(!)

1 .6
1 .6
3. 0

37.
26.
24.
6.
1.
.
1.
1.

2
5
5
4
7
7
7

0

W OMEN

T o ta l:

N u m ber (thousands)
P e r c e n t -----------------

U nder 5 m i l e s ---------------------------5 to 10 m ile s ----------------------------11 to 25 m ile s --------------------------26 to 50 m ile s --------------------------51 to 100 m ile s ------------------------101 to 200 m ile s -----------------------201 to 500 m i l e s -----------------------O v e r 500 m i l e s --------------------------

1 No one in c a te g o r y .




4,

.8
1. 2

52. 8
22. 6
18. 4
4. 0
.5
.3
( X)
1. 5

3
7
3
3
5

17. 9
1. 7
1. 2
1. 2

.8
(M

i 1)

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion )
T o ta l
F a rth e s t distan ce tr a v e le d

N u m b er
(thousands)

P ercen t

D istan ce o f c u rre n t job fr o m r e s id e n c e at tim e o f jo b s e a rc h — (in m ile s )
---------5------- -------- n ------- ------- Z E ------- ------- 5T------- ------ n n —
Z75T
to
to
to
to
to
to
25
100
50
10
200
500

Under
5

O ver
500

BOTH SEXES
-----------------------

10, 437

100 . 0

40. 1

24. 0

U nder 5 m ile s -----------------5 to 10 m ile s --------------------11 to 25 m ile s -----------------26 to 50 m ile s -----------------51 to 100 m ile s
---------------101 to 2 00 m ile s --------------201 to 500 m ile s --------------O v e r 500 m ile s
----------------

2 , 006

89. 1
40. 5
24. 1
20 . 6
18. 0
11. 0
2 0 .4
13. 9

53.
23.
15.
12 .
13.
11.
9.

398

100 . 0

21. 3

6. 7

2. 7

1.4

1.8

2. 1

2 .8

1. 0
1. 0
2. 2

.2

.2

.2
.4
. 5
34. 3
7 .8
1. 9

1. 0
2 .4
41.2
9. 3

.4
. 1
. 1
. 7
( 2)
2 .9

6. 3

2, 171
2, 865
1, 388
417
245
258
323

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

T o ta l

D id not go out to lo o k

-------

9
4
7

4. 1
49. 0
26. 6

2

2 1 .8

1

0
6

2 0 .4
10 . 6
7. 1

34.
6.
7.
5.
3.

2
7
3
5
7

. 1
. 1
. 6
1. 7
39. 6
8. 6
2. 7
5. 9

4 9 .4

22 . 0

9. 5

5.

6

2 .4

1. 9

3. 2

6. 3

(')

. 3
. 1

.2

.8
6

48.

MEN

---------------

5, 749

100 . 0

34. 0

23. 3

U n d er 5 m ile s
--------5 to 10 m ile s -----------11 to 2 5 m ile s ---------26 to 50 m ile s ---------51 to 100 m ile s --------101 to 200 m ile s ------201 to 500 m ile s ------O v e r 500 m ile s
--------

804
983
1, 591
1 , 000
344
192
187
265

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100.0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

84. 0
39. 3
25. 3
19. 6
17. 7
9 .9
17. 1

8. 9
52.7
24. 0
16.2
12. 5
14. 7

1 2 .8

D id not go out to lo o k -

197

100 . 0

42. 3

100 . 0

47.8

24.

100 .
100 .
100 .
100 .

92. 5
41. 6
22 . 6
23. 1
-

T o ta l

22 .8

8. 5

4. 1

2. 0

2. 6

2.8

1. 5
1. 2
2. 3
33. 5
6.7

.2

.2
. 1

. 5

. 3

. 3
. 1

.8
.2
. 1
.8

10. 9

3.8
5.7
46.7
26. 9
22 . 1
18. 3
9. 6
7 .2

19. 0

12. 7

8

19. 5

4 .4

. 9

.

4. 5
54. 9

2. 1

. 7

.2

2 .7
52. 0
25. 5
-

.8
2. 1

(2
)
( 2)
.2
. 5
_
_

12.8

. 3

6.8
6. 4

1. 0
2 .2
39. 0
11. 0
1. 1

4. 5

7.2

36. 0
9.6
1. 5

9.0

3. 7

.6

1. 6

.6
.6

1 .2

( 2)

1. 0
43. 3
10 . 6

2 .6
(2
)
45. 1

4 .2

7 .4

.8

1 .2

W OMEN

T o ta l

------------

4,

688

1 , 202
1 , 188

U nder 5 m i l e s ---------5 to 10 m i l e s -----------11 to 25 m i l e s ---------26 to 50 m ile s - ---------51 to 100 m ile s — —
101 to 200 m i l e s -----201 to 500 m ile s —----O v e r 500 m i l e s --------

1, 274
388
73
53
71
58

201

D id not go out to look

0
0
0
0

( 3)
( 3)
(3
)
(3
)

100 . 0

22 .8
14. 0
_
_

-

-

56.6

.2

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
. 5
_
_

(2
)

.2

( 2)
_
_

( 2)

.2
. 5
-

_
_

-

-

-

1. 6

1. 1

-

2. 1

5.3

-

6. 3

24. 9

1 L e s s than 0 .05 p erc e n t.
2 N o one in c a te g o ry .

35.8
_
_

6

2. 1

3 P e r c e n t not shown w h ere base is le s s than 75,000.

Table 1-1. Jobseekers w h o refused offers: A ge and sex, January 1973
(N u m b ers in thousands)
Job o ffe r s and sex

T o ta l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

---------

rz

--------to
19 y e a r s

Z6
to
24 y e a r s

--------- 23--------- --------- 33--------to
to
34 v e a r s
44 y e a r s

43
to
54 y e a r s

55 y e a r s
and
over

BOTH SEXES
T o ta l r e p o r t in g -----------------------------------------

10,193

1. 685

3, 185

2, 645

1,337

885

456

R efu sed jo b o f f e r ---------------------------------------------P e r c e n t o f total re p o rtin g ---------------------------------

3, 292
32.3

470
27.9

1,099
34.5

983
37. 2

402
30. 1

224
25.3

114
25.0

T o ta l r e p o r t i n g ----------------------------------------

5. 613

847

1 , 686

1.578

716

500

286

R efu sed job o f f e r ----------------------------------------------P e r c e n t o f total re p o rtin g ---------------------------------

1,830
32. 6

191
22 . 6

600
35.6

596
37. 8

239
33.4

130

26.0

74
25.9

MEN

W OMEN

T o ta l r e p o rtin g -----------------------------------------

4, 580

838

1.499

1,067

621

385

170

R efu sed jo b o ffe r --------------------------------------------P e r c e n t o f total re p o rtin g ---------------------------------

1,462
31.9

279
33. 3

499
33.3

387
36.3

163
26.2

94
24.4

40
23. 5




(N u m b ers in thousands)

T o ta l

R e fu sed job o ffe r

T o ta l
re p o rtin g

O ccupation and ra ce

------------------------------------

N u m ber

10, 193

P ercen t of
to ta l re p o rtin g
32. 3

658

46. 4

512
746
2, 232
1, 123
1 , 682
367
628
97

277
281
778
315
402
92
124
14

54. 1
37. 7
34. 9
28. 0
23. 9
2 5. 1
19.7
14. 4

1, 326
63

339

2 5.
O

9, 100
1, 093

W hite ------------------------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity r a c e s

3, 2 92

1, 417

P r o fe s s io n a l, tech n ica l, and k in dred
w o r k e r s --------------------------------------M a n a g ers and a d m in is tra to rs ,
exc e p t fa r m
--------------------------------S a les w o r k e r s
------------------------------C le r ic a l w o r k e r s
--------------------------C ra ft and k in dred w o rk e rs
------------O p e ra tiv e s , ex c e p t tra n s p o rt
--------T r a n s p o r t equipm ent o p e ra tiv e s ----L a b o r e r s , e x cep t fa r m
-----------------P r iv a t e h ousehold w o rk e rs ------------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , e x cep t p riv a te
household
-----------------------------------F a rm w ork ers
------------------------------

3, 049
243

12

6

33. 5

22 . 2

1 P e r c e n t not shown w h ere base is le s s
000.

than 75,

Table 1-3. M ain reason fo r refusing job offer: Age and sex, January 1973
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n )
R ea so n and sex

T o ta l,
16 y e a rs
and o v e r

75

71

----------rs--------- ---------- 5
------- ----------- ---------to
to
to
24 y e a r s
34 y e a r s
1 9 yea rs

---------- ^ --------to
44 y e a r s

--------- 45------to
54 y e a rs

55 y e a r s
and
over

BOTH SEXES
T o t a l refu sin g jo b o f fe r :
N u m ber (thousands) ——
P e r c e n t -----------------------L o w p a y ---------------------------------------------L o c a tio n u n s a tis fa c to r y ----------------------H ours u n s a tis fa c to ry ---------------------------O th er conditions u n s a tis fa c to r y -----------Job t e m p o r a r y o r sea son a l ---------------W ould not m ake use o f s k ill o r tra in in g
D id not want that kind o f w o r k ------------O th er r e a s o n s --------------------------------------

3, 292
100 . 0

470

1,099

983

402

224

114

100 . 0

100.0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

30. 4
13. 7
9. 2
5. 5
3. 6
6. 4
10 . 9
20. 4

25.9
17. 0
12 . 1
5. 5
4. 4
2. 6
11. 7
20. 5

27. 7
13. 4
7. 6
6. 0
4. 0
6. 6
12. 3
22. 4

31. 2
12. 7
9- 0
5. 0
3. 0
8. 1
9- 9

33. 8
13. 6
13. 1
6. 2

36. 7
12 . 8
8. 3
9- 2

2 1 .0

14. 1

40. 7
13. 4
4. 2
1-9
5. 1
7. 9
7. 9
19- 0

1,830
100 . 0

191

600

596

239

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100.0

30. 7
15. 7

30. 7
11. 9
6. 4
7. 0
4. 9
6. 0
12 . 6
20 . 8

31.2
11. 7
7. 0
5. 6
3. 4
9- 2
9- 3
22. 6

37. 5
15. 0
8. 2
6. 4
4. 7
2. 6
9- 4
15. 9

41. 1
16. 4
( 2)

2.8
4. 4

1 1 .8

1.8
8. 3

5. 5
17. 4

MEN

T o t a l refu sin g jo b o ffe r :
N u m b er (thousands) P e rc e n t ------------------L o w pay ---------------------------------------------L o c a tio n u n s a tis fa c to ry ---------------------H ou rs u n s a t is fa c t o r y --------------------------O th er con dition s u n s a t is fa c t o r y ----------Job te m p o r a r y o r s e a s o n a l-----------------W ould not m ake use o f s k ill o r tra in in g
Did not want that kind o f w o r k ------------O th er rea son s — : --------------------------------

32. 7
13. 0
7. 0
6. 0
4. 2
6. 7
10 . 0
20. 5

21.9

1,462
100 . 0

100 . 0

1 1 .8
5. 6
5. 1

2. 2
6. 7

130

74

.( ' )
_
-

1.6

3. 9
9- 4
7. 8
19- 5

W OMEN

T o ta l re fu s in g jo b o f fe r :
N u m ber (thousands) P e r c e n t -------------------L o w pay ---------------------------------------------L o c a tio n u n s a tis fa c to r y ----------------------H ou rs u n s a t is fa c t o r y --------------------------O th er con dition s u n s a t is fa c t o r y ----------Job te m p o r a r y o r s e a s o n a l-----------------W ould not m ake use o f s k ill o r tra in in g
Did not want that kind o f w o r k ------------O th er rea son s -------------------------------------




27. 5
14. 6

1 1 .8
4. 8
3. 0
6. 0
12 . 0
20. 3

279

22. 5
17.8
12. 7
5. 5
4. 0
2 .9
14. 9
19.6

499

387

163

94

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

100 . 0

31. 3
14. 3
12 . 2
4. 0
2. 1
6. 4
10 . 9
18. 6

28. 7
11. 5
20. 4
5.7
( 2)
7. 0
15. 3
11. 5

39- 8
9- 1
10 . 2
2. 3
6. 8
5. 7
8. 0
18. 2

24.
15.
94.
3.
7.
11.
24.

2
3
1

6
2
3
9
4

4,9,
( )

_
-

'

(Percent distribution)
Occupation and race
Total -----------------------------Professional, technical, and
kindred workers --------------------Managers and administrators,
except farm ---------------------------Sales workers --------------------------Clerical workers ----------------------Craft workers --------------------------Operatives, except transport ----Transport equipment operatives —
Laborers, except farm -------------Private household workers -------Service workers, except
private household -------------------Farm workers --------------------------White --------------------------------------Negro and other minority
races ------------------------------------

Total refusing
job offer
Number
(thousands) Pe rcent

Low
pay

Location
unsatis­
factory

Reason for refusing job
Other
Hours
working Job was
unsatis - conditions temporary
or
factory unsatis - seasonal
factory

Would not Did not
make use want that
of skill or kind of
work
training

Other
reason

3, 292

100. 0

30. 4

13. 7

9.2

5. 5

3. 6

6. 4

10. 9

20. 4

658
277
281
778
315
402
92
124
14
339
12
3, 049
243

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
(2)
100. 0
(2)
100. 0
100. 0

17. 7
37. 3
24. 2
33. 3
37. 3
40. 0
36. 4
34. 2
2 6. 6
30. 2
32.2

22.2
10. 3
14.8
13. 0
11.8
7. 4
13. 3
12. 6
10. 0
13.8
12.8

6. 6
2. 2
11. 6
10. 5
6. 9
8. 7
14. 4
12. 6
13. 6
9. 0
11. 5

6. 9
4.8
3. 2
4. 3
5. 9
3.8
11. 1
8.4
“
7.2
"
5. 6
3.8

1.8
2. 2
0
2. 7
7. 9
6. 9
C
)
7. 6
*
5. 7
3. 3
7. 7

9.8
7. 7
7. 2
6. 4
6. 9
1. 5
8. 9
5. 0
“
3. 3
"
6. 4
5. 6

9. 1
15. 9
21. 3
12. 0
5. 9
7. 7
5. 6
8.4
"
11.2
"
10. 9
11. 1

25. 6
19. 6
17. 7
17.8
17. 7
23. 8
10. 0
10. 9
"
22. 1
"
20.8
15. 0

2 Percent not shown where base is less than 75, 000.

No one in category.

Table 1-5. Method of jobfinding resulting in offer refused: Occupation, January 1973

(Percent distribution)
Occupation
Total ----------------------------------------------Professional, technical, and kindred
workers -------------------------------------------------Managers and administrators, except
farm -------------------------------------------------------Sales workers -------------------------------------------Clerical and kindred workers --------------------Craft and kindred workers --------------------------Operatives, except transport --------------------Transport equipment operatives------------------Laborers, except farm -------------------------------Service workers, except private
household --------------------------------------------------

------------- Total------------- Applied
offers refused 1
directly
Number Percent
to
(thousands)
employer
4, 328

100. 0

20. 5

886
424
389
983
375
487
113
207
410

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

24.2
12.4
2 0. 4
18. 1
22. 9
27. 0
26. 4
15. 5
19. 6

1 Includes some private household workers and farm laborers not
shown separately. Since some persons turned down more than one job
offer, total represents number of job offers turned down and not num-




Asked friends
about jobs—
Answered Private
Where
newspaper employ­
ment
they
Elsewhere
ads
agency
worked
8. 2
6.9
19. 3
11. 0
7.3
7.5
9.4
7. 6
9.9
8.8
15. 5
5.2
8.9

7.2
10.9
9. 4
4.8
8. 5
5.2
1.8
5.2
8.4

12.3
24. 6
23. 8
20.4
22. 4
20. 6
30. 9
8.8
18.8

10. 7
11.4
15. 0
19.3
5. 7
5.4
(2)
5.7
6.4

ber of persons who turned down job offers,
2 No one in category,

State
employ­
ment
service

All
other

8. 5

25. 5

2.9
5.4
1. 3
8. 0
11.3
16. 3
10.9
15. 5
16. 0

35.2
27. 6
20. 6
21. 7
19. 3
16. 5
14. 5
44.4
21. 6

Table J-1. Average hourly earnings on current and previous job for persons who last worked in 1971 or 1972: Method by
which current job was obtained sex, and race, January 1973
A v e r a g e hou r ly earn in gs
M ethod,

sex, and ra c e

On la s t
job

Change

On cu rren t
job

Am ount

P ercen t

----------------------------------------------------

$3. 03

$3. 40

$ 0.37

12. 2

A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r ------------------------A s k e d fr ie n d s :
A bou t jo b s w h e re th ey w o rk ---------------------A b ou t job s e ls e w h e re --------------------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout jo b s w h e re they w o rk ----------------------A b ou t job s e ls e w h e re --------------------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp ap er ads:
L o c a l --------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ---------------------------------------------------P r iv a t e e m p lo y m en t a gen cy --------------------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e -----------------------------S ch ool p la c e m e n t o ffic e ---------------------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ------------------------------------------A sk e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ---------------------------W ent to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e rs com e to
p ic k up p e o p le --------------------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
L o c a l -------------------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l --------------------------------------------------A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls -------------------------------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll ------------------------------------------Contacted lo c a l o r g a n iz a t io n --------------------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r tra d e
jo u rn a ls -----------------------------------------------------O ther -------------------------------------------------------------

2. 85

3. 15

. 30

10. 5

2 . 89

3. 38
3. 78

.4 9

17. 0

3. 78
2. 74
2. 53

3. 12
3. 42

. 38
. 89

2.9 6
3. 63
3. 18
2. 55
3. 06
2.91
2. 76

3. 17
3.07
3. 58
2. 74
3. 55
3. 85
3. 63

-. 56
' .4 0
. 19
.49
.9 4
. 87

(*)

( 1)

( 1)
(1
2
)

( 1)

O
6.29

O
7. 17
( ‘)

T o ta l

7.
-15.
12.
7.
16 .
32.
31.

0

1
4

6
5

0
3
5

H

C)
(*)
C)

O
(2
)

. 88
(1
)

( l)
14. 0
O

(X
)
. 50

o
15. 1

2 . 79

. 41
. 34

11. 9
13. 9

3. 42
3. 28

0

. 37
. 48

12. 1

C)

3. 31

3. 81

3. 44
2. 45

W h ite -------------------------------------- -------------------N e g r o and oth er m in o r ity r a c e s ---------------------

_

13. 9
35. 2

.2 1

0

C)

M en ---------------------------------------------------------------W om en -----------------------------------------------------------

_

2 . 80

3. 85

3.05

17. 1

2 N o one in c a te g o ry .

Data not shown w h e re b ase is le s s than 75, 000.

Table J-2. Change in hourly earnings between current and previous job for persons who last worked in 1971 or 1972: Method by
which current job was obtained, sex, and race, January 1973
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n )
In c re a s e d by—

T o ta l
M ethod, sex, and ra c e

T o t a l 1 ----------------------------------------A p p lie d d ir e c t ly to e m p lo y e r -------------A s k e d fr ie n d s :
About job s w h e re th ey w o r k -----------Abou t jo b s e ls e w h e r e --------------------A s k e d r e la tiv e s :
A bout job s w h e re th ey w o rk ----------Abou t job s e ls e w h e r e --------------------A n s w e re d n ew sp a p er ads:
L o c a l --------------------------------------------N o n lo c a l ----------------------------------------P r iv a t e em p lo ym en t a g e n c y --------------State em p loym en t s e r v ic e ------------------School p la c e m e n t o ffic e ---------------------C iv il S e r v ic e te s t ------------------------------A s k e d te a c h e r o r p r o fe s s o r ---------------W ent to p la c e w h e re e m p lo y e r s com e
to p ic k up p e o p le ------------------------------P la c e d ads in n ew sp a p ers:
N o n lo c a l ________________________________
A n s w e re d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------------Union h irin g h a ll --------------------------------C ontacted lo c a l o rg a n iza tio n -------------P la c e d ads in p r o fe s s io n a l o r
tra d e jo u rn a ls ---------------------------------O ther --------------------------------------------------

Men __________________

W om en

------------------------------------------------

W h ite ------------------------------------------------N e g r o and o th er m in o r ity r a c e s ----------

N u m b er
(th ou ­
sands)

P ercen t

No
change

2 0 p e rc e n t

10

T o ta l

10 to
19.9
p e rc e n t

or
m o re

p e rc e n t

8.5

7.

8

15.4

33.9

8. 0

16.6

9 .5
7. 2

45. 2
43.2

31. 3
31.9

7.
6.

6
2

8. 5
8. 1

15. 3
17. 8

9. 4

50.5
51.2

27. 7

10 . 6

8. 6

4. 3
7. 5

14. 7
11.9

12.9
12. 0
17.0
14. 7
9 .4
8.9
8. 9

36 .4
26. 0
41. 5
36. 7
54. 0
61.6
43. 6

33. 2
59. 0
27. 6
31.9
30. 0
17. 1
31. 7

9 .5
15. 0
8. 8
10. 3
3. 3
8. 2
8.9

8. 5
16. 0

9 .0
9 .7
2. 8
10. 3
10.9

7.2
8. 0
1 .4
9 .9

15. 3
28. 0
12. 7
14. 7
18. 8
7. 5
12.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

40 .9

2, 510

100 . 0

11. 1

37.

894
419

100 . 0
100 . 0

4. 2
6. 7

64. 4
61.5

9 .7
11. 1

423
165

100 . 0
100 . 0

3. 8
3. 1

68. 3
75. 6

8. 4
14.4

890

100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0
100 . 0

6. 5
( 2)
5. 1
6.9
4. 2
2. 1
4 .0

60.
41.
67.
61.
65.
80.
64.

11. 0
2. 0

8

( 3)

-

16
(2
)

( 3)
K

33
124
50

0
100 . 0

2
368

(3
)
( 3)

100.0

-

1
7

8
4

-

6 .2

-

-

-

5 .7
-

14. 8
-

4. 1
-

2 .5
-

8 .2

6.6

11. 8

40. 8

31.0

5 .5

11.5

14. 1

9 .6

1 2 .6

39. 8
42. 3

32.5
30. 7

7. 8
9 .5

8. 1
7 .4

16.6
13. 7

4 0 .6
4 2 .9

31. 7

8.5

7 .9
■

15.2

4 8 .4
-

9 .2

59.5

1 1 .0

-

4, 593
3, 291

100.0
100.0

4 .9

59. 1
64. 4

9 .7
9 .5

7, 125

100.0
100.0

7.0
5 .7

61. 3
61.5

9 .7

759

1.9

-

16.4
-

_

2 1.2

2 6.2
-

-

36.9
-

8. 3

or
m o re

9 .2

10 . 9

9 .4

153
106

20 p e rc e n t

31. 7

9 .6

58. 1

221

10 to
19. 9
p e rc e n t

6

61. 3

8.0

4
0
5

10
p e rc e n t

6.9

io o ‘
459
378

U n der
T o ta l

100.0

7, 884

1 In clu des som e p e rso n s f o r w hom m ethod w as unknown.
2 N o one in c a te g o ry .
3 P e r c e n t not shown w h e re base is le s s than 75, 000.




D e c r e a s e d by—

U nder

8. 8

-

9 .9

"

N O T E : T h is ta b le in clu d es
and s a la r y w o r k e r s on both jo b s.

-

■

on ly p e rso n s who w e r e w age

Appendix: Survey Concepts and Questionnaire
Estimates in this report are based on supplementary
questions in the January 1973 Current Population
Survey conducted and tabulated for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census. The
basic labor force concepts, sample design, estimating
methods, and reliability of the data are described
briefly in the following sections.1 The questionnaire
used in the survey is appended for reference.
Definitions and explanations

Population coverage. Each month trained interviewers
collect information from a sample of about 47,000
households located in 461 areas in 923 counties and
independent cities with coverage in 50 States and the
District of Columbia. The estimates in this report are
for persons 16 years of age and over not in school
and in the civilian noninstitutional population during
the calendar week ending January 13, 1973. The civilian
noninstitutional population excludes all members of
the Armed Forces and inmates of institutions, such as
homes for the aged and correctional institutions.
Persons employed in the survey week were asked
the question: “When did---- start working at his present
job or business?” Wage and salary workers who had
started on their current jobs between January 1972 and
January 1973 were asked to answer a series of questions
on how they found their jobs. The questionnaire for
this survey was designed for self-enumeration and mail
return. Information was obtained directly from the
person if he was at home at the time the interviewer
was visiting the household. If the person was not at
home, the schedule was left to be completed and mailed
to the Bureau of the Census. Nonrespondents were
followed up by mail, phone, or personal visit. Approxi­
mately 90 percent of the schedules were eventually
returned.
About 5 percent of the questionnaires were returned
by respondents who had switched jobs between the CPS
interview week in January 1973 and the time of returning
the questionnaire. Since data on these questionnaires
did not correspond to “current job” information obtained
on the basic CPS questionnaire, these cases were
omitted from the estimates. For this reason, the



number of jobfinders shown in this report is under­
estimated by about 5 percent. Estimated proportions
of jobfinders in the various categories may be less
affected by these omissions. However, the cases omitted
tend to be persons who change jobs more frequently
than those persons who were included in the estimates.
Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during
the survey week, (a) did any work at all as paid
employees or in their own business or profession, or
on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as
unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member
of the family or (b) did not work but had jobs or
businesses from which they were temporarily absent
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-manage­
ment dispute, or personal reasons, whether or not they
were paid by their employers for the time off, and
whether or not they were seeking other jobs.
Unemployed. Unemployed persons are all those who
did not work during the survey week, made specific
efforts to find a job within the preceding 4 weeks, and
were available for work during the survey week or
would have been available except for temporary illness.
Also included as unemployed are those who did not
work at all, were available for work, and (a) were
waiting to be called back to a job from which they
had been laid off, or (b) were waiting to report to a
new wage or salary job within 30 days.
Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises
all civilian persons classified as employed or unemployed
according to the above definitions.
Not in civilian labor force. Persons not classified as
employed or unemployed are defined as not in the labor
force. Persons doing only incidental unpaid family
work (less than 15 hours) are also classified as not in
the labor force.
1 For a more complete description of the methodology,
see Concepts and Methods Used in Manpower Statistics from
the Current Population Survey, Report 313 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1967).

Length o f employment on last job. Length of employ­
ment is the number of years a person had been employed
continuously except for interruptions for vacation,
temporary illness, labor-management dispute, short-term
layoff (less than 30 days), and other temporary reasons.
Conditions under which continuous employment may
be broken are entry into the Armed Forces, transfer
to another job or employer, a layoff of 30 days or
more, or withdrawal from the labor force for 30 days
or more, even if a person subsequently returned to
work for the same employer.
Full-time and part-time workers. Full-time workers
are persons who worked 35 hours or more during the
survey week, and those who worked 1 to 34 hours but
usually worked full time. Part-time workers are those
who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey week and
usually worked only 1 to 34 hours. Persons with a job
but not at work during the survey week are classified
according to whether they usually worked full or
part time.
Wage and salary workers. Wage and salary workers
are persons working for a wage, salary, commission,
tips, payment in kind, or at piece rates for a private
employer or any government unit.
Occupation. The data on occupation refer to the job
held in the survey week. Persons with two jobs or more
were classified in the job at which they worked the
greatest number of hours in the survey week. The
occupation categories in this report are those used in
the 1970 Census of Population. “White-collar” workers
are employed in professional and technical, managerial,
sales, and clerical occupations. “Blue-collar” workers
are employed in craft, operative, and laborer (except
farm) occupations.

interview. The term “other marital status” applies to
women who are married, husband absent; widowed;
or divorced.
Duration o f job search. Duration is the total number
of weeks a jobseeker looked for work before finding
the current job, including weeks looked while still
employed at a previous job.
Hourly earnings. Hourly earnings were obtained by
dividing usual weekly earnings (including tips and
commissions, but excluding overtime pay), before any
deductions, by the number of hours usually worked
per week, excluding overtime.
Metropolitan areas. The population residing in Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA’s) constitutes the
metropolitan population. Except in New England, an
SMSA is a county or group of contiguous counties
which contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants
or more, or “twin cities” with a combined population
of at least 50,000. In addition to the county, or
counties containing such a city or cities, contiguous
counties are included in an SMSA if, according to
certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in
character and are socially and economically integrated
with the central city. In New England, SMSA’s consist
of towns and cities rather than counties. The metropolitan
population in this report is based on SMSA’s as defined
in the 1970 Census. “Large metropolitan areas” are
defined as SMSA’s with populations of 250,000 or more.
Sums o f distribution. Sums of individual items, whether
absolute numbers or percentages, may not equal totals
because of independent rounding of totals and com­
ponents. Percentage totals, however, are always shown
as 100 percent.
Reliability of the estimates

Race. The population is divided into three groups on the
basis of race: white, Negro, and “other races.” The
last category includes Indians, Japanese, Chinese, and
any other race except white and Negro.

Estimating procedure. The estimating procedure used
in this survey inflates weighted sample results to
independent estimates of the civilian noninstitutional
population by age, sex, and race. These independent
estimates are based on statistics from the 1970 Census
of Population and other data on births, deaths, immi­
gration, emigration, and strength of the Armed Forces.

Marital status. Women were classified into the following
categories according to their marital status at the time
of interview: Single; married, husband present; and
other marital status. A woman was classified “married,
husband present” if her husband was reported as a
member of the same household even though he may
have been temporarily absent on business, vacation,
on a visit, in a hospital, and the like at the time of

Variability. Since the estimates are based on a sample,
they may differ somewhat from figures that would
have been obtained if a complete census had been
taken using the same schedules and procedures. As in
any survey, the results are also subject to errors of
response and reporting. These may be relatively large
in the case of persons with irregular attachment to the
labor force. Particular care should be exercised in the

Age. The age classification is based on the age of the
person at his last birthday.




interpretation of figures based on relatively small esti­
mates as well as small differences between figures.
The standard error is primarily a measure of sampling
variability; that is, of the variations that might occur
by chance because a sample rather than the entire
population is surveyed. As calculated for this report,
the standard error also partially measures the effect
of response and enumeration errors but does not
measure any systematic biases in the data. The chances
are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from the
sample would differ from a complete census by less

than the standard error. The chances are about 95
out of 100 that the difference would be less than twice
the standard error.
Appendix tables 1 through 4 show approximations
of the standard errors of various estimates in this survey.
The approximations should be interpreted as indicators
of the order of magnitude of the standard error, rather
than a precise standard for any specific item.
The following examples illustrate their use. As of Janu­
ary 1973, an estimated 10,437,000 persons were working
on jobs they obtained at sometime since January 1972

Appendix table 1. Standard
errors of estimated number of
persons, all races (both sexes) or
white race (both sexes)

errors of estimated number of
persons, total or white, male only
or female only characteristics

Appendix table 3. Standard
errors of estimated
number of persons, Negro
and other races

(68 chances out of 100)

(68 chances out of 100)

(68 chances out of 100)

Size of estimate

50,000
100,000
250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,500,000
5,000,000
10,000,000
25,000,000
50,000,000
75,000,000
100,000,000

Appendix table 2. Standard

Size of estimate

Standard error

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

8,500
12,100
19,000
27,000
38,100
59,500
83,800
116,000
171,000
211,000
213,000
179,000

50,000
100,000
250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,500,000
5,000,000
10,000,000
25,000,000
40,000,000
50,000,000

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
....
___
___
___

Standard error

Size of estimate

7,500
10,600
16,700
23,600
33,300
51,800
72,200
98,000
134,000
137,000
123,000

25,000
50,000
75,000
100,000
250,000
500,000
1,000,000
2,500,000
5,000,000
10,000,000

Standard error

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
.........
..........
..........

5,600
8,100
9,900
11,400
17,800
25,100
34,800
51,800
64,800
60,900

Appendix table 4. Standard errors of estimated percentages
(68 chances out of 100)
Estimated
percentage

1 or 9 9 .........................................................
2 or 9 8 .........................................................
5 or 9 5 .........................................................
10 or 9 0 ......................................................
15 or 85 ....................................................
20 or 80 ....................................................
25 or 75 ....................................................
30 or 70 .......................................................
35 or 65 ....................................................
40 or 60 ....................................................
45 or 55 ....................................................
5 0 ................................................................




Base of estimated percentage (000)
75

100

250

500

1,000

2,500

5,000

10,000

25,000

1.2
1.7

1.1
1.6
2.4
3.3
3.9
4.4
4.8
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.5

0.7
1.0

0.5
.7

.8
.9
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

.6
.6
.7
.7
.7
.8
.8
.8

0.1
.2
.2
.3
.4
.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.6
.6

0.1
.1

1.1
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5

0.2
.3
.5
.7

0.2
.2

1.5
2.1
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.5

0.4
.5
.8
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

2.6
3.5
4.2
4.7
5.1
5.4
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.9

.3
.5

.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.4
.4

after a period of jobseeking. Appendix table 1 shows the
standard error on this estimate to be approximately
117,600. The chances are about 2 out of 3 that the
difference between the sample estimate and a complete
census count would be less than 117,600. The chances
are about 19 out of 20 that the difference would be
less than 235,200.
An estimated 34.9 percent of the jobseekers got
their jobs by applying directly to employers without
suggestions or referrals by anyone. Appendix table 4
shows the standard error of 34.9 percent with a base
of 10,437,000 to be about 0.5 percent. Consequently,




the chances are 2 out of 3 that a complete census
would have disclosed the figure to be between 34.4
and 35.4 percent, and 19 out of 20 that the figure
would have been between 33.9 and 35.9 percent.
The reliability of an estimated percentage that is
based on sample data for both the numerator and the
denominator depends on the percentage and the total
upon which the percentage is based. Estimated per­
centages are relatively more reliable than the corre­
sponding absolute estimates of the numerator of the
percentage, particularly if the percentage is large (50
percent or greater).

CPS-615

- Your report to the
C ensus Bureau is confidential by
law (T itle 13, U.S. C ode). It may
be seen only by sworn C ensus
em ployees and may be used only
for sta tistic a l purposes.

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F C O M M E R C E
S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M IC S T A T I S T I C S A D M ' N .
BUREAU OF TH E C ?
JS

fo rm
(12- 8-7 2 )

N O T IC E

JOB FINDING SURVEY

Dear
The U.S. Department of Labor has asked the Bureau of the Census to
obtain information on the ways people find jobs. This information will
be used by government agencies and private organizations concerned with
counseling people who are looking for work, guiding them to the methods
which have brought other people the best results.
You are asked to answer the questions on the inside portion of this
form and mail the completed form within FIVE DAYS in the enclosed pre­
addressed envelope. Since this study is based on a scientific sample
of the total population, it is important that each person return a
completed questionnaire.
Your cooperation in this voluntary survey will be greatly appreciated.
The Bureau of the Census treats as confidential all the information you
provide, and the results of the survey will be issued only in the form
of statistical totals.
Thank you for your cooperation.
Sincerely,

GEORGE H. BROWN
Director
Bureau of the Census
Enclosure

CENSUS USE 0 NLY
a.

Interviewer
code




b.

CC 6

c.

CC13

d.

CC18

e.

CC 20
iaw
2D N
3n o

f.

CC 21
1 □ M
2Q F

g.

NR

1. When did you start to work for the employer
you had the week of January 7-13? If you
were working at more than one job, refer
to your main job. If you worked for the
same employer more than once, give the
date you started your present employment.
((HO)

1□

January 1973

7.

Here is a list of the ways people try
to find jobs. What methods did you use
to look for work before you got your
present job?
.

Mark “Y es” or “No” for
each method listed

Did you A. Apply directly to an employer without
suggestions or referrals by any one?

2 E l October — December 1972

3 EH July — September 1972
4 EH April — June 1972

(0?6)

5 E ] January — March 1972

© )

1□

Yes

2| |
No

B. Ask relatives about jobs where they work?

6 E Before January 1972
H

1□

Yes

2□

No

C. Ask relatives about jobs elsewhere?

2. Are you still working for that employer?
(0?8)
©

1□

Yes

2

□

(For example: teacher secretary,
salesperson carpenter)

(019)

2 1 INo

1 EH Yes

2| |
No

E. Ask friends about jobs elsewhere?
@

How many hours do you usually work per
week on your job, excluding overtime?

013;

Yes

D. Ask friends about jobs where they work?

No

3. What kind of work are you doing?
,
,

4.

1□

_____________ Hours

5. How much do you usually earn per week,
before any deductions? Include tips and
commissions, but exclude overtime pay.
If your earnings vary, please estimate
your weekly earnings.

1 □ Yes ___________ 2 □

No__________

Did you F. Check with State employment service?

m

1 EH Yes

2 | |No

G. Check with private employment agency?

H. Answer ads in local newspaper?
Per week

14)

6 . Did you spend any time

looking for work
before starting on your present job?

j)l5)

1

E ] Yes —

Go to Question

7

Skip to
>question
35

2 E l No — I was on layoff
1
waiting to be called
back to work
J

3EH No — without looking job it ^
I was offered a
for
I held once before

5 EH N o — I went into the family
business




Yes____________ 2 E ] No

1 E l Yes

(Explain)

Skip to
y question
34

2 | |No

Did you J. Place ads in local newspaper?
1 E Yes
H

4 EH No — I returned to a job

6 E No — Other reason
H

1□

A n s w e r a d s in n e w s p a p e r fro m o u t s id e
y o u r lo c a lity ?

2 | |No

K. Place ads in newspaper outside your
locality?
1 E Yes
H

2

I I No

Please continue with the
list on the next page.

J

9.

7 .(Continued)
Did you L. Check with labor union hiring hall?
©

□

1

Yes

2□

Which ONE method in this list was most
useful in getting your present job?

Enter in this space the letter
of the ONE method which was most
useful in getting your job*

No

M. Take civil service test or file
application for a government job,
Federal, State or local?

(028)

1

□

Yes

2

10.

□

No

Mark the box next to the
letter of each method which helped

N. Contact an organization, such as a
community action group, Urban League,
welfare agency, etc.?
1□

1□

Yes

No

1□

2□

Yes

2

No

□

No

Did you Q. Answer ads in professional or trade
journals or periodicals?
©

i□

Yes

S.

s 34)
0
T.
(035)

1

□

Yes

2□

2

□

No

□

Yes____________ 2 D

©

No

04

12.

Yes

2Q

No —

Go to
question 8

/

0
4

Explain
Go to question 8
g.

Looking back at methods A through T,
listed in item 7, which ONE method
did you use most often?

Enter in this space the letter of
the ONE method you used most often .




□

J

□

Q

D

□

K

□

R

□

E

□

L

□

s

F

□

M

□

T

□

G

□

N

□

c

No other method helped

Did you get any job offers which you
did not take?
1Q

Go to
question 12

Yes —

2 Q

No — Skip to
question 14

Which of the methods A through T in
item 7 resulted in a job offer which you
did not take?

Mark the box next to the
letter of each method which resulted in
a job offer .

No

Use any other method to find a job?
1□

P

□

(042) W Q
11.

Go to any special place or street where
employers come to pick up people?
1

□

B

□

©

©

R. Place ads in professional or trade
journals or periodicals?
,033)

1

A

_

P. Ask teacher or professor for job leads?
©

o

□

Yes______________2 □

O. Contact school placement officer?
©

□

□
□

©
©

Which of the other methods, A through T
in the list in item 7, also helped you to
get your job?
.

□

A

□ B

□

H

□ !

D O

□ p

(047)

c

□ J

□

Q

D

□

K

□

R

□

E

□

L

□

S

□

©

□
□

©

F

□

M

□

T

n

G

□

N

13.

What was the MAIN reason you did not
take the job? If you received more than
one offer, refer to the most recent.
.

Mark only one reason
1Q

Low pay

2 Q Location unsatisfactory
3Q

Hours unsatisfactory

4 O Other working conditions
unsatisfactory
5n

Job was temporary or seasonal

6 d l Would not make use of my skill
or training
7

Q

8O

17.

Who gave you this advice?

18.

Why did you start looking for work? Was it
because you quit or lost a job or business, or
was there some other reason?

(Mark all that apply)
(052) 1 □ Friends
2 Q Relatives
3 O Community action group, Urban
League, or welfare agency
4 Q School placement office
5 O Teacher or professor
6 □ State employment service
(653) 7 □ Private employment agency
8 n Labor union
9 I I Other (Explain)

Did not want that kind of work
Other reason

(E xplain) _______

(Mark only ONE)

(054)
14.

(049)
^
15.

@)

While you were looking for your
present job, were you given any tests
to see what kind of work you can do
or how well you can do it?
Yes - Go to
y f question 15

i □

2□

Skip to
question 16

No -

Who gave you these tests?

(Mark all that apply)

□ Quit job
02 Q Temporary job ended
03 □
Laid off temporarily
(less than 30 days)
Go to
► question
04 □
Laid off indefinitely
19
(30 days or more)
0 5 O Lost job for other reason
06 □ I sold, lost, or gave up
my business
J
01

1 Q ] Employer
2

Community action group, Urban
League, or welfare agency

3□

State employment service

4□

Private employment agency

5□

School placement office

6O

Other

07

□ Left or finished school
09 □
Left m ilitary service
10 □ Wanted or needed to work
08

w hile in school

(Explain) ________ ______
11

16.

(05l)

While looking for your present job, were
you given any advice about training or the
kind of work to look for?

— Go to
question 17

1 CH Yes




2

Skip to
question 18

Q N 0 -

Q] Wanted to get a different ]1 Skip to
job before quitting the
-> question
one I had
J [ 22

Q

Recovered from illness or
accident

and was able to Skip to
k question
start working
23
12 □
Was keeping house and
decided to get a paid job
13 □
Was retired and decided to.
go back to work
14 | | Other (Explain)
J

19.

Did you start to look for work while
still working on your last job?

(055)
20.

— Skip to
question 22

1□

— Go to
^ q u e s t io n 20

Yes

2 EH No

How long after losing or leaving your last
job did you start looking for another one?

EH First or second day 1 Skip to
L
after leaving
J [ question 23
2 E 5 days to 1 week
H
^
3 EH 1 t0 2 weeks
* Go to
4 EH 3 to 4 weeks
question 21
5 EH 5 to 8 weeks
6 EH 9 weeks or more
^
/
1

(056)

21.

start to look for work within 1 or 2 days?

©

25.

Did you get any unemployment
insurance benefits while you were
looking for work?

(06l)
26.

Weeks

(062)
27.

Did you use up all your benefit rights
while you were out of work?

(063)
28.

|064)

EH Had work to do around the house

4 E Own illn e s s
H

E Illn e ss
H
6 E Moved
H
7

in fam ily
29.

EH Other (E xplain)

(Skip to question 23)

©

23.

©

24.

How many hours a week did you usually
look for work during this period?

(PM)

1

EH 5 hours or less

2 E 6 to 10 hours
H
3 E 11 to 15 hours
H
4

Q

16 to 20 hours

5 E 21
H

25 hours
6 [ ] 26 hours or more




to

EH No

3 EH Don’t

know

1 EH Under 5 m iles
2 EH 5 to 10 m iles
3 EH 1 1 to 25 m iles
4 EH 26 to 50 m iles
5 EH 51 to 100 m iles
6 EH 10 1 t0 200 m iles
7 EH 201 to 500 m iles
8 EH Over 500 m iles
9 EH Did not go out to look for work

EH Under

5 miles
2 EH 5 to 10 m iles
1

EH 1 1 to 25 m iles
4 EH 26 to 50 m iles

E 51 to 100 m iles
H
EH 10 1 to 200 m iles
7 EH 201 to 500 m iles
8 EH Over 500 m iles
5

6

Weeks

Weeks

2

3

How many weeks did you look for work
while still working?

After you started to look for work, how
many weeks did you look before finding
your present job?

EH Yes

How far away from where you lived is
the job you took? Please estimate if
you do not know exact mileage.

P?
6)
22.

1

What was the farthest distance from
where you lived that you went to look
for work? Please estimate if you do
not know exact mileage.

2 EH Wanted to take some time off

5

— Skip to
question 28

E No
H

2

For how many weeks did you receive
the benefits?

1 EH Expected to be called back to job

3

— Go to
^ q u e s tio n 26

E Yes
H

1

>
s—^

30a. Did you take any occupational or educational training courses or programs during
the time you were looking for work?

(O66)

EH Yes — Go to
y / q u e s t i o n 30b

1

2

E N o — Skip to
H

question 35

b. Did you (or your fam ily) pay for
this training?

(06?)
v—'

1 E Yes - Go to
H
y S q u e s tio n 30c

2

E No
H

- Skip to
question 31

c. How much did the training cost?
(068

00

31.

What kind of training did you get?

(For example: typing, auto repair,
nurse’s aide, reading and writing)

37. How many times were you out of work AND
looking for work during 1972?

(075)

1

EH None — Skip

to question 39

2 E 1 time
H

3
32.

Did this training help you to get
your present job?

@ )
33.

Yes

2 | | No

Do you use any of this training
on your job?

(071)
34.

1 □

1

□

Yes

2

□

Skip to question 35

No

What were you doing before starting to
work on your present job?

1

EE January 1973
° 2 EH October — December 1972
03 EH JuE — September 1972
04 EH A pril — June 1972
05 EE January — March 1972

E Retired
H

at a different job and
in school

□

8□

35.

1

□

In m ilitary service
Other

(Explain)

1 0 □ 1 9 6 3 -1 9 6 7

_______________

Yes

2

| | No

36. How many different jobs did you have
during 1972? Do not count as a separate
job a second job held at the same time
as your main job.

074)

1 □

11 Q
12

3D2
4D3
Q ] 4 or more




^

1962 or earlier

EH Never

worked before present
job for two weeks or more

. END
QUESTIONS

J

Now we would like to ask about your last
job, that is, the job you held before your
present one.
40. How long did you work at that job
or business?

(078)

1

EH L e ss than 4 months

E 4 to 6 months
H
3 E 7 to 11 months
H
4 E 1 year hut le ss than 3
H
5 E 3 years but le ss than 5
H
6 E 5 years but le ss than 10
H
7 E 10 years but le ss than 15
H
8 E 15 years or more
H
2

None

2 [HI

5

Go to
. question
40

EH 19 71
07 EH 1970
08 EH 1969
09 EH 1968

Before starting on your present job, were
you a member of a labor union?

@ )

^

06

6 EH 111 or disabled
7

Weeks

(077) 01

EH T akin g care of home and fam ily

5

(076)

39. Before starting on your present job,
when did you last work at a job or
business, either full or part time,
for two weeks or more?

EH In school and not working

4

38. What was the longest stretch of time
that you were out of a job AND looking
for work in 1972?

EH Working at a different job and
not in school

3

4 EH 3 times or morej

E Working
H

2

(072)

V Go to question 38

E 2 times
H

41.

Please describe your last job.

(Name o f company ,
business, organization, or other employer)

a. For whom did you work?

41 e. Were you -

1

(p8l)

Q An employee of a private'
company or individual?

2□

3□

b. What kind of business or industry was this?

(For example: retail shoe store, State Labor
Department, building contractor)

4□

r a tio n

Federal government
employee?

I ^

State or local government]
employee?

J

|

Self-employed?

5 r n Working without pay
in family business
|
or farm?

J

(079)
c. What kind of work were you doing?

(For example: salesperson, secretary,
carpenter)

42.

How many hours did you usually work per
week, excluding overtime, just before you
left that job?

Hours

(082)

@ )

43.

d. What were your major activities or duties
on this job? (For example: sell shoes,

take dictation, build forms)




QUESTIONS

How much did you usually earn per week,
before any deductions, just before you
left that job? Include tips and commis­
sions, but exclude overtime pay. If your
earnings varied, please estimate what
your weekly earnings were.

$

• ...Q®L Per week

THIS COMPLETES THE QUESTIONNAIRE. PLEASE PUT THE FORM IN
THE PREADDRESSED ENVELOPE PROVIDED AND MAIL IT TO US.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION.

U S C O M M -D C

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PR IN TIN G OFFICE : 1975 210-882/61