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Jobs for Which Junior College, Technical Institute, or Other Specialized Training Is Usually Required U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics 1976 fy r Jobs for Which Junior College, Technical Institute, or Other Specialized Training Is Usually Required A re y o u p la n n in g to c o n tin u e y o u r e d u c a tio n a f te r h ig h s c h o o l? I f y o u a re w illin g to sp e n d a n e x tr a y e a r o r tw o in a ju n i o r c o lle g e , te c h n ic a l in s titu te , o r tra d e s c h o o l, y o u r in te r e s ts w ill b e w e ll s e rv e d . Y o u r jo b h o riz o n s w ill w id e n , a n d y o u m a y b e a b le to q u a lify fo r a g r e a te r v a rie ty o f jo b s a t h ig h e r le v e ls o f skill a n d p a y . H e re , s e le c te d fro m th e O c c u p a tio n a l O u t lo o k H a n d b o o k , a re lis te d a n u m b e r o f o c c u p a tio n s fo r w h ic h ju n io r c o lle g e o r o th e r s p e c ia l iz e d tra in in g is u se fu l. In re fe rrin g to th is lis t, re m e m b e r th a t tra in in g a n d q u a lific a tio n re q u ir e m e n ts m a y b e m o re fle x ib le th a n in d ic a te d . E m p lo y e rs m a y sa y th e y p re fe r a p p lic a n ts w ith p o s t h ig h s c h o o l tra in in g fo r th e j o b s s h o w n , b u t th e y m a y s e ttle fo r le s s . O n th e o th e r h a n d , a fe w e m p lo y e rs m a y c o n s id e r o n ly a p p lic a n ts w ith m o re e d u c a tio n . R e m e m b e r th a t, g iv e n a c h o ic e , e m p lo y e rs w ill u su a lly c h o o s e th e a p p li c a n t w ith th e m o s t e d u c a tio n a n d tra in in g . T h e s u m m a rie s w h ic h fo llo w g iv e o n ly h ig h lig h ts o f j o b q u a lific a tio n s a n d e m p lo y m e n t tre n d s d e s c rib e d in th e H a n d b o o k . F o r m a n y o c c u p a tio n s , s p e c ia l ta le n ts , a p titu d e s , a n d p e r so n a l c h a ra c te ris tic s n o t s p e c ific a lly m e n tio n e d h e re m a y b e n e c e s s a ry . A lso , re m e m b e r th a t th e c o m m e n ts in th e “ E m p lo y m e n t O p p o rtu n i tie s . . .” c o lu m n re fle c t c o n d itio n s fo r e s e e n o v e r th e 1974 to 1985 p e rio d fo r th e e n tire N a tio n . A s a re s u lt, th e c o m m e n ts d o n o t n e c e s s a rily re fle c t e m p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s in a n y sin g le y e a r o r in a n y sp e c ific lo c a lity . T h e 1976-77 e d itio n o f th e O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k c o n ta in s th e fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n fo r m o re th a n 850 o c c u p a tio n s : N a tu r e o f th e w o rk P la c e s o f e m p lo y m e n t T ra in in g , o th e r q u a lific a tio n s , a n d a d v a n c e m ent E m p lo y m e n t o u tlo o k E a rn in g s a n d w o rk in g c o n d itio n s S o u rc e s o f a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n T h e H a n d b o o k is p u b lis h e d e v e ry 2 y e a rs b y th e U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r ’s B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s . C o p ie s m a y b e p u rc h a s e d fo r $7 fro m a n y re g io n a l o ffic e o f th e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s . S e e b a c k c o v e r fo r a d d r e s s e s . A list o f re p rin ts a b o u t jo b s fo r w h ic h j u n io r c o lle g e , te c h n ic a l in s titu te , o r o th e r sp e c ia liz e d tra in in g is u su a lly re q u ire d a p p e a rs a t th e e n d o f th is p a m p h le t. Y o u m a y u s e th e listin g to o r d e r re p rin ts . R e p rin ts o f o th e r o c c u p a tio n s d e s c rib e d in th e O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k a lso a re a v a il ab le s e p a ra te ly a t 350 e x c e p t r e p rin t n u m b e r 154 w h ic h is 450. A c o m p le te s e t o f th e 155 re p rin ts m a y b e p u rc h a s e d fo r $55. F o r a fre e list o f all re p rin ts , w rite to : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k S e rv ic e G A O B u ild in g W a s h in g to n , D .C . 20212 UNIVERSITY OF CIN 404-3Dfc, "111553 Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Office Occupations Computer and Related Occupations Computer Operating Personnel (500,000) Training usually provided on the job. For console operator, some college training may be preferred. Employment of keypunch operators is expected to decline because of advances in other data entry tech niques and equipment. Employment of console and auxiliary equipment operators should grow faster than the average for all occupations, in re sponse to the expanding usage of computer hardware, especially termi nals. Programmers Educational requirements vary by type of organization. The Federal Government and organizations that use computers for science and engi neering require college graduates; graduate degrees may be needed for some positions. Employers who use computers to process business records do not require college de grees but prefer technical training beyond high school. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, as computer usage expands, particularly in medical, educational, and data processing services. Best opportunities for programmers with some training in systems analysis. Barbers (130,000) Almost all States require a license, for which applicants usually must be 16 (in some cases, 18), have com pleted 8th grade, have graduated from a State-approved barber school, and have served a 1-2 year appren ticeship. Little or no employment change with most openings resulting from replace ment needs. Better opportunities for hairsty Iists than for those offering con ventional services. Cosmetologists (500,000) License required. Usually applicant must be at least 16 and have com pleted at least 10th grade and a State-approved cosmetology course. In some States, an apprenticeship may be substituted for the cosme tology course. Employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations, in response to the rise in demand for beauty shop services. Good opportunities for both new comers and experienced cosmetolo gists, including those seeking parttime work. Funeral Directors and Embalmers (45,000) Twenty-one is generally the minimum age required by law. All States require embalmers to be licensed. Graduation from a mortuary science school and 1-2 year apprenticeship required. Little change in employment is ex pected. Nevertheless, prospects are good for mortuary school graduates due to openings created by replace ment needs. (200,000) Service Occupations Personal Service Occupations Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Protective and Related Service Occupations Construction Inspectors (Government) (22 , 000 ) Occupational Safety and Health Workers (25,000) Employers prefer those with at least 2 years study toward an engineering or architectural degree, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, technical mathematics, and building inspection. Most training received on the job. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations. Best opportunities for those with some college education and knowledge of a specialized type of construction. Graduates of 2-year occupational safety or health curriculums hired as technicians. Continuing education important. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations, as growing concern for occu pational safety and health and con sumer safety continues to generate programs and jobs. Best prospects for graduates of occupational safety or health curriculums. Education and Related Occupations Library Occupations Library Technicians and Assistants (135,000) Formal post-high school training for library technicians preferred. Some learn on the job. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations. Best opportunities in large public and college and university libraries, particularly for graduates of academic programs. Occupations in Transportation Activities Air Transportation Occupations Air Traffic Controllers (22 ,000 ) Must speak clearly and precisely, have 3 years’ experience in the aviation field or 4 years of college, and pass a Federal civil service exam. Although employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations as the number of aircraft increases, applicants may face keen competition. Best oppor tunities for college graduates with experience as controllers, pilots, or navigators. Airplane Mechanics (130,000) Most train in FAA-approved mechanics’ schools. Large airlines train a few in 3- or 4-year apprentice ship programs. A license from the FAA is frequently required. Although employment is expected to increase about as fast as the aver age for all occupations, opportunities in various areas of aviation will differ. Good opportunities in general avia tion; keen competition for airline jobs; opportunities in the Federal Govern ment dependent upon defense spend ing. Airplane Pilots (79,000) Written and physical exam required. Must be licensed by FAA and meet flight time requirements. For some types of flying, instrument rating also needed. License to fly in bad weather is usually required. Most airlines require 2 years or more of college. Although employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations, applicants are likely to face keen competition. Best oppor tunities for recent college graduates with flying experience. Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Scientific and Technical Occupations Conservation Occupations Forestry Technicians (10,500) One or 2 years of training after high school orexperience such as planting trees and fighting fires. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations. However, due to the antici pated large numberof qualified appli cants, even those with specialized post-high school training may face competition. Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Other Scientific and Technical Occupations Drafters (313,000) Technical training usually required in a junior college, technical institute, or vocational school; also 3 - or 4-year apprenticeship. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations, as more drafters will be needed as supporting personnel for a growing number of scientists and engineers. Increasingly complex de sign problems also w ill require addi tional drafters. Best opportunities for holders of associate degrees in draft ing. Engineering and Science Technicians (560,000) Technical training after high school usually required. Many train on the job. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, as a result of industrial ex pansion and an increasingly impor tant role for technicians in research and development. Favorable employ ment opportunities, particularly for graduates of post-secondary school technician training programs. Surveyors (55,000) Usually special training following high school plus training on the job. Some specialties require a college degree. Employment is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations, in response to the rapid development of urban areas. Best opportunities for those with post secondary school training in survey ing. Technical or vocational school train ing, correspondence courses plus training on the job, or military ser vice courses. Some learn entirely on the job. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations, in response to the growing number of radios, television sets, phonographs, tape recorders, and other home entertainment products. Dental Assistants (120,000) Post-high school courses in dental assisting preferred. Some learnonthe job. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, in response to the increasing use of assistants by dentists. Excel lent opportunities, especially for graduates of approved programs. Favorable outlook for part-time work. Dental Hygienists (23,000) License necessary. Graduation from 2-year dental hygiene school re quired. Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations, in response to the increasing use of hygienists by den tists. Very good prospects for grad uates of approved programs. Mechanics and Repairers Television and Radio Service Technicians (135,000) Health Occupations Dental Occupations Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Medical Technologist, Technician, and Assistant Occupations Electrocardiograph (EKG) Technicians ( 11 , 000 ) Most train on the job, but some colleges and universities offer EKG courses. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations, because of growing reliance on electrocardiograms in diagnosis and physical examinations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) Technicians (3,800) Most qualify through on-the-job train ing, but formal training in colleges, universities, and hospitals is avail able. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, in response to the increased use of electroencephalographs in sur gery and in diagnosing and moni toring patients with brain disease. Medical Assistants (220 ,000 ) Most receive training in a physician’s office. Training may be obtained in vocational high schools or institutes and in junior colleges. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations in response to the growth in the number of physicians. Excellent opportunities, particularly for gradu ates of accredited junior college pro grams. Medical Laboratory Workers (175,000) A medical laboratory technician or dinarily needs one or more years of training after high school. A medi cal technologist usually must com plete 4 years of college including specialized training in medical tech nology. A medical assistant usually needs only a high school education and on-the-job training. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu pations, as physicians make wider use of laboratory facilities. However, applicants may face competition for choice positions. Medical Record Technicians and Clerks (53,000) Most employers prefer technicians who are graduates of college or hospital-based programs lasting 10 months to 2 years. High school d i ploma and on-the-job training are usually adequate for clerks. Very good outlook for clerks due to the anticipated expansion in medical facilities and recordkeeping. Favor able prospects for technicians with at least an associate degree; those with less education may face strong com petition. Operating Room Technicians (28,000) Training may be obtained on the job in hospitals, vocational schools, junior colleges, or in “ medic” pro grams of the Armed Forces. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, as operating room techni cians increasingly assume more of the routine nursing tasks in the op erating room. Good opportunities, particularly for graduates of 2-year junior college programs. Optometric Assistants (11,500) Vocational or technical school programs becoming more important. However, most train on the job. Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations, in response to greater demand for eye care services. Excel lent opportunities for those who have completed formal training programs. Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Radiologic (X-Ray) Technologists (82,000) Usually a 2-year post-high school training program. Bachelor’s degree important for teaching or administra tion. Despite faster than average employ ment growth as X-ray equipment is increasingly used to diagnose and treat diseases, graduates of AMAapproved programs may face compe tition for choice positions. Part-time workers will find the best opportuni ties in physicians’ offices and clinics. Respiratory Therapy Workers (38,000) Although training may be obtained on the job, junior college programs are stressed. Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations, owing primarily to the many new uses for respiratory thera py. Favorable employment opportuni ties. Three types of training available: Diploma programs (3 years) mainly in hospitals; associate degree pro grams (2 years) in junior and com munity colleges; and baccalaureate degree programs (4-5 years) in colleges or universities. License re quired for practice. Favorable opportunities, especially for nurses with graduate education seeking positions as teachers and administrators. Particular demand in some southern States and many innercity locations. Nursing Occupations Registered Nurses (860,000) Therapy and Rehabilitation Occupations Occupational Therapy Assistants (7,900) Training may be received on the job, in vocational and technical school programs, or in junior college pro grams. Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occu pations, due to public interest in the rehabilitation of disabled persons and the success of established occupa tional therapy programs. Favorable opportunities for graduates of ap proved programs. Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides (10,500) Most qualify through on-the-job training. Others learn their job in vocational, technical, or adult education programs or in junior colleges. Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations, resulting in excellent opportunities for both assistants and aides. Art, Design, and Communications-Related Occupations Performing Artists Actors and Actresses (10 ,000 ) Dancers (7,000) Formal training in drama courses use ful; college degree increasingly necessary. Experience, however, is sometimes chief requirement. Talent necessary. Overcrowding in the acting field is expected to persist, resulting in keen competition. Moreover, many actors are employed for only a part of the year. Training begins between ages 7 and 12, usually at a professional dancing school. Talent essential. Those seeking professional careers in dance are likely to face keen competition, despite an expected faster than average rate of employ ment growth. Teaching offers the best opportunities. Occupations (Employment 1974) Qualifications and Training Employment Opportunities and Trends to 1985 Musicians (85.000) Training through private study or in a college or conservatory. For teach ing in public schools, a 4-year course in a college or conservatory and a State certificate usually required. Musical talent necessary. All but the highest caliber of sym phonic players are likely to face keen competition. Better prospects for those qualified as teachers as well as musicians than for those quali fied as performers only. Singers (36.000) Training through private lessons in a conservatory or in a college. To teach music in public school, a B.A. in music education and a State certifi cate are required. Musical talent necessary. Keenly competitive field, despite an expected faster than average rate of employment growth. Some opportuni ties w ill arise from the expanded use of TV satellites, cable TV, and wider use of video cassettes, but the best prospects are in teaching. Commercial Artists (64,000) Usually 2 or 3 years of art school. Vocational high school helpful. Artis tic talent necessary. Talented and well-trained commer cial artists may face competition for employment and advancement in most kinds of work. Those with only average ability and little specialized training will encounter keen competi tion and have limited advancement opportunities. Interior Designers (34,000) Usually a 3-year course at a recognized art school or institute, or a 4year college course with a major in interior design or decoration. Competition for beginning jobs. Best opportunities for talented college graduates who majored in interior design and graduates of professional schools of interior design. Those with less talent or without formal training are likely to face increasingly keen competition. Photographers (80,000) Generally 2 or 3 years of on-thejob training. For some specializa tions, post-high school training is needed. Employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. Good opportunities in technical fields such as scientific and industrial photography. Portrait and commercial photographers are likely to face keen competition. Design Occupations Occupational Outlook Handbook Reprints for Jobs Discussed in this Leaflet Employment Outlook for Bulletin No. How Many Computer and Related Occupations Computer Operating Personnel Programmers Systems Analysts 1875-23 ________ Barbers, Cosmetologists 1875-40 ________ Funeral Directors and Embalmers 1875-41 ________ Health and Regulatory Inspectors Construction Inspectors Occupational Safety and Health Workers 1875-47 ________ Library Occupations Librarians Library Technicians and Assistants 1875-49 Civil Aviation Air Traffic Controllers Airplane Mechanics Airplane Pilots Flight Attendants Reservation, Ticket, and Passenger Agents 1875-69 Conservation Occupations Foresters Forestry Technicians Range Managers Soil Conservationists 1875-74 Other Scientific and Technical Occupations Drafters Engineering and Science Technicians Surveyors 1875-80 Television and Radio Service Technicians 1875-97 Optometrists, Optometric Assistants 1875-100 Dental Occupations Dentists Dental Assistants Dental Hygienists Dental Laboratory Technicians 1875-101 Total Cost Employment Outlook for Bulletin No. How Many Medical Technologists, Technicians and Assistant Occupations Electrocardiograph Technicians Electroencephalographic Technicians Medical Assistants Medical Laboratory Workers Operating Room Technicians Radiologic (X-Ray) Technologists Respiratory Therapy Workers 1875-105 _________ Nursing Occupations Registered Nurses Licensed Practical Nurses Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants 1875-106 _________ Therapy and Rehabilitation Occupations Occupational Therapists Occupational Therapy Assistants Physical Therapists Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides Speech Pathologists and Audiologists 1875-107 ______ __ Medical Record Administrators Medical Record Technicians and Clerks 1875-111 --------------- Performing Arts Actors and Actresses Dancers Musicians Singers 1875-120 _________ Commercial Artists 1875-122 _________ Interior Designers 1875-126 _________ Photographers Photographic Laboratory Workers 1875-128 Total Cost _________ Orders for copies of this leaflet or for priced publications should be sent to any regional office of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 1603 JFK Federal Building Government Center Boston, Mass. 02203 Suite 540 1371 Peachtree Street, N.E. Atlanta, Ga. 30309 9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn Street Chicago, III. 60604 2nd Floor, 555 Griffin Square Dallas, Texas 75202 P. O. Box 13309 Philadelphia, Pa. Federal Office Building 911 Walnut St., 15th Floor Kansas City, Mo. 64106 19101 Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10036 450 Golden Gate Ave. Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif. 94102 ☆ U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1976 O - 2 1 0 -8 8 2 (1 4 8 )