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Bulletin No. 1610








BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS • Ben Burdetsky, Acting Commissioner
Bulletin N o .1610

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 60 cents


P refa ce

This study was prepared in the Office of Foreign Labor and Trade
(OFLT), Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, under
contract with the Manpower Administration, Department of Labor. The
report was written by Harvey Hilaski under the direction of Kurt Braun
in OFLT’s Division of Foreign Labor Conditions.
The assistance of the labor attaches in the American Embassies
in the countries covered in the report, as well as of officers in various
units of the Department of Labor, especially the Manpower Administration
and the Bureau of International Labor Affairs, is acknowledged gratefully.
October 1967


C ontents


O b je c tiv e s o f th e Study o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o « o o o o o o o o o o o o
Scope o f th e S tu d y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


P a rt I ,

Summary o f F in d in g s ®00 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi



P r in c ip a l F in d in g s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P o lic y Im p lic a tio n s fo r th e U nited S ta te s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 9 0 0 0 0 0
Hours o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o < 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F in ancin g > 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
V o ca tio n a l E ducation System


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

P art IIo O n-the-Job T r a in in g , A F ie ld fo r Labor Standards



A p p ren ticesh ip 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0
L e g is la tio n o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0
A d m in istra tio n ©0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
R e la tio n to G eneral E ducation System®*o* 0 0 o• 0o
F m ane m g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Trends Toward N a tio n a l C ontrol o f T raining® **.
e oooo
R etra in in g and O ther T rain in g Programs fo r A du lts
L e g is la tio n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o e o o o o o o
A d m in istration © 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F m ane m g 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o e o o o o o o o o o o o o


P art III® Labor Standards A p p lica b le to O n-the-Job T r a in in g * «***®.


B a sic R eg u la tio n s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wages 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Youth Wage D if f e r e n t ia ls
HoUrS o o o o o o o o o o o o e o e o o o o
A p p ren ticesh ip 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o
Wages 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 o•
O ther B en efitS ooo* > 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
V o ca tio n a l T rain in g Programs fo r Adults®
Wages o o o o . o o o o o o o o o o * o o o o o o * o o o o o * o o o
Other B e n e f it s 0 0 0 * 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
HoUrS o e o e o * o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o * o o o e o e


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

P art IV© Problem s Encountered
T rain ee Wages * * *
T rain ee H o u rs.©
O ther Problem s 00







Contents— Continued
A ppen dixes:

T e x t o f Qu e s t i o n n a i r e ®o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ®o o o o o
M a jo r N a t i o n a l L e g i s l a t i o n C o n c e r n in g A p p r e n t i c e s h i p
and V o c a t i o n a l f r a m i n g ® oo ooo oooooooooooooooooo®« oooo
M a jo r N a t i o n a l L e g i s l a t i o n C o n c e r n in g A d u l t Training®®®®«
R e s t r i c t i o n s on O v e r tim e Work®®®®« ®®®®®®®®®®®®®®®®®®®„ ®„ ®
U s e f u l L l S t S o o o o o o « o e o o o o ®o o e e o o o o o o e o e o o o o o o o e o o o o o o e o o o
T ab les:
O v e rtim e Prem ium s a s P e r c e n t o f B a s i c Wage.®®®®®®..®®
2® S t a t i s t i c s on A p p r e n t i c e s h i p T r a i n i n g , S e l e c t e d
C o u n trie s oo«ooocoooooooooooooo«. oooo* ooooeooooooo
S t a t i s t i c s on A d u l t T r a i n i n g , S e l e c t e d Countries®®®®®

B i b l i o g r a p h y . ®®®®. ®®®®®®®

©© ©




In t r o d u c t io n
O b je c tiv e s o f th e S tu d y

This study was undertaken to investigate
how foreign countries have dealt with possible
problems affecting government-supported onthe-job training 1 / from the viewpoint of wage
and hour standards, _2/ and how difficulties,
if any, have been resolved. Experience in the
United States with training programs under the
Manpower Development and Training Act of
1962, as amended, indicates that governments
supported on-the-job training is economical
and effective in helping workers obtain req­
uisite skills and in meeting employers’ man­
power needs. Therefore, efforts to promote
this type of training should be economically
and personally rewarding, and serious consid­
eration should be given to the removal of
any existing barriers. However, the question
has arisen whether the application to trainees
of minimum wage and overtime pay provisions,
required by statute or by the administrative
regulations of specific programs, discourages
some employers from providing workers with
on-the-job training. If so, the desirability of
on-the-job training with its ultimate benefits
must be weighed against the personal and/
1 / F or purposes of this re p o rt, on-the-job training p e r­
tains to any form of industrial training supported by the gov­
ernm ent and provided by em ployers according to a w ell-defined
system atic plan. It m ay include a com bination of p ractical
training and classroo m instruction. In the m ajority of the
countries exam ined, m ost on-the-job training is received
under the apprenticeship system , which, unlike the situation
in the United S tates, receiv es in various degree governm ent
financial support. However, European apprenticeship differs
considerably from that in the United States in te rm s of indus­
try and occupational coverage and skills taught.
2 / Use of the phrase “labor standards* in the re p o rt
re fe rs to wage and hour standards only. However, a ra th e r
broad view was taken regarding hours legislation, in that som e
discussion is devoted to vacation p ractices, re s t period s, etc.

or economic costs involved in relaxing these
standards or in providing other incentives to
stimulate employer-sponsored training pro­
In view of these qualifications, the specific
objectives of this study were to establish:
1. How the application of wage and hour
legislation affected selected foreign on-thejob training programs.
2. Whether any problems have arisen
from the application of legislated standards to
on-the-job training and, if so, how they have
been handled.
3. Whether employers in the conduct of
training programs are exempted from com­
pliance with legislated wage-hour standards
or whether, on the contrary, the need to comply
with them has caused employers to minimize onthe-job training or to refrain from providing it.
4. Whether other incentives are provided
to stimulate employer-based training and, if so,
what their bearing might be on wage-hour
standards and training.
S c o p e o f the S t u d y

This report is divided into four prin­
cipal parts: Part I, Summary of Findings,
contains a discussion of the factors and problems
affecting the relationship between labor stand­
ards and on-the-job training, together with an
outline of possible policy implications that
foreign experience holds for the United States;
Part II, On-the-Job Training, A Field for
Labor Standards, outlines the primary types of
such training in 16 foreign countries, the
salient aspects of the legislation bearing on
the objectives of the study, the methods of
financing the training, and related topics; Part

Ill, Labor Standards Applicable to On-the-Job
Training, puts primary emphasis on wages and
hours as governed by basic legislation; and
Part IV, Problems Encountered, gives a specific
account of the problems, where they have oc­
curred, and of any actions, proposed or under­
taken, for their removal.
The report is based primarily on infor­
mation received in response to a 12-item
questionnaire sent to U.S. labor attaches and
embassy staff in 16 foreign countries: Australia,
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Denmark,
France, the Federal Republic of Germany,
Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden,
S w i t z e r l a n d , the United Kingdom, and Ven­
ezuela. _3/ Consequently, footnote references to
statements based on the questionnaire response
were considered unnecessary. Source materials
available in the files of the Bureau’s Division of
Foreign Labor Conditions, as well as in the
Department of Labor Library and the Library
of Congress, also were used. The presentation
of factual material in the report, therefore,
mirrors the substantial variation in what current
information was obtained. The generally limited
availability of statistics on the number of


workers trained by source of training precluded
a definitive discussion of the relative importance
of the various on-the-job training programs
within individual countries as affected by labor
standards. In certain cases, also, the inaccessi­
bility of the text of legislation and applicable
decrees on training and on standards limited
the depth of the analysis but did not preclude
a general survey.
The study was not meant to be a com­
parative study in the strict sense that similarities
and differences in the experience of the various
countries were explored and related fully.
Rather, it was intended to be an organized
presentation of available factual information on
the individual countries to aid policymakers
in the United States in organizing and improving
training programs in this country. Moreover,
the study did not attempt to render an evaluation
of the effectiveness of the training programs
in any of the countries covered in terms of
skills taught. Much more intensive research,
supplemented by on-site visits to foreign coun­
tries, would have been required to do so.
_3/ See appendix A, p.40, for the text of questionnaire.

P r in c ip a l F in d in g s

The apprenticeship system is the major
form of on-the-job training by employers in the
16 foreign countries covered by the survey. Ap­
prenticeship training, whether provided in the
industrial establishment or in public or private
training institutions, plays a major role in the
development of required industrial skills. Among
the 16 countries, however, great variation exists
in the trades that are considered apprenticeable.
The accent in apprenticeship and vocational
training is on youth. Adult training programs
still are oriented predominantly toward the needs
of experienced unemployed workers or of work­
ers threatened with unemployment. Training of
the employed in order to upgrade skills is
beginning to achieve a solid footing in a few
countries, including Belgium, West Germany,
and France.
Existing statutory and contractual provi­
sions for the regulation of wages and hours
were found to harmonize with policies and
practices designed to encourage private indus­
trial training. This compatibility between em­
ployer-provided training and prescribed trainee
wages and hours is attributable largely to the
factors discussed below.
The application of labor standards
on-the-job training is facilitated by the close
integration of general education with vocational
training. By tradition, trade-skill training in
most of the countries studied, particularly those
of Western Europe, is highly regarded. As a
result, compliance with the legal framework
within which such training is acquired is taken
in stride by both the trainee and the employer.
Vocational courses are interwoven with subjects

of general education early in the student’s aca­
demic life. Full-time vocational and apprentice­
ship training often is chosen as a substitute for
continued education. In all probability, the mutual
relationship of the educational and vocational
systems found in these countries not only has
provided a mechanism for the relatively smooth
transition of young persons to the world of work
but also has been instrumental in creating an
image of trade-skill training as a suitable alter­
native to other career choices.
The trainees in most countries considered
this period in their lives an investment in their
future, just as any person pursuing higher aca­
demic studies might view his period of schooling.
The employers demonstrated an eagerness to
provide training opportunities, since the great
majority of youth already had been exposed to
skill training within the general education sys­
tem. In addition, the legal obligations imposed
on them, under various industrial training pro­
grams, led largely to favorable employer reponse.
The nature of the training legislation
and the way in which training programs are ad­
ministered tend to minimize possible friction
to between statutory labor standards and training
under both apprenticeship and adult vocational
schem es. In the three countries where com­
pulsory apprenticeship and vocational training
systems have been established by law, wage
and hour standards tend to have little influence
on the intake of trainees because firms are
required to train a certain quota of employees
either on their own or through public or private
training institutions.

Under the usual voluntary systems of
vocational and apprenticeship training, the
various ministerial bodies s’e rving in an overall
supervisory capacity are assisted by special
boards, councils, committees, and the like. Al­
most all the committees are composed of gov­
ernment, union, and business representatives
and established at the national, regional (State),
and local levels. This kind of representation
tends to promote full discussion of possible
problems and lessens the chances of incompati­
bility between labor standards or contractual
agreements and the various training programs.
At the same time, statutory legislation dealing
with wages, hours, and other matters is taken
into account when the training programs are
in preparation. Moreover, training legislation,
especially that pertaining to apprenticeship,
usually establishes only the broad framework
regarding wages, hours, and other conditions of
trainee employment. For the most part, actual
conditions are implemented through a decen­
tralization of responsibility, in which collective
bargaining plays an important role.
Legislation p e r t a i n i n g to adult training
programs and the corresponding administra­
tive machinery do not have, on balance, a sub­
stantial impact on adult training programs
provided by employers. Reasons are various:
The provision of this training by the private
sector has been negligible so far in comparison
with activities of the various governments;
when employers do provide adult training, they
usually receive some form of subsidy for their
participation; and hours of training usually
coincide with regular working hours.
(a) Subsidization of training and/or exemption
of employers from compliance with wage stand­
ards, whether established by law, collective
bargaining, or practice, have probably been a
stimulant to employer-provided training. Since
a large number of persons start apprentice
training upon completion of their primary school
requirement at age 14 or 15, the wages received
may be based on age alone (so-called youth
wages), which are a fraction of adult workers’
pay. The low wages are attractive to employers,
and the trainees usually are not hard pressed
financially because of their youth and lack of

family responsibility. For example, a writer on
apprenticeship in the building trades in the
United States and Western Australia_4/ noted
that, in the latter country, the entry age limits
of 14 to 18 are followed strictly because em­
ployers must pay the adult minimum wage to
apprentices when they reach the age of 21. It has
been estimated that an apprentice indentured at
the age of 18 costs the employer 20 percent more
than a younger apprentice in the fourth and
fifth years of apprenticeship; accordingly, em­
ployers try to avoid these additional costs.
In addition to basing wages on age, minimum
wage laws and collective bargaining agreements
also provide for a substantial reduction in the
wage scale on the basis of the mere apprentice­
ship status of the young workers. Lower trainee
wages, however, are somewhat offset by the
payment of wages during the period of class­
room instruction; often special trainee allow­
ances and family allowances for apprenticed
youth; and usually free tuition and instruction
In regard to adult training programs, the
employer often is subsidized for the lesser
productivity of the trainees and the work time
lost or receives partial reimbursement for
training expenses in general, even though he
is required to pay adult trainees their regular
wages for a given occupation.
When some form of subsidization of em­
ployer-provided training occurs, the financial
burden on employers providing training is
lessened, as is the risk involved in training those
who might leave the firm upon completion of
The use of compulsory tax or levy sys­
tems to finance training tends to blunt employer
reluctance to training. When training systems
are financed by the imposition of a tax or levy,
participating firms are induced to provide train­
ing, since tax offsets or rebates are made
available only to those employers who conduct
training programs of an approved standard. To
the extent that this system of financed training
_4/ Norm an F. Dufty, Building A pprenticeships in the
U.S.A. and W estern A ustralia (U rbana, 111., U niversity of
Illinois, Institute of L abor and Industrial R elations, 1958,
R eprint No. 65).

was prevalent in most of the countries examined,
employer resistance to provide training was
Basing the training week on normal workweek hours and the rather strict limitation on
the use of apprentices and employees in general
for overtime work provide little cause for em­
ployer reaction regarding hours standards and
training. Of particular importance is the fact
that the labor legislation of most countries under
study is highly restrictive of overtime work by
employees in general. In those countries, only
exceptional circumstances warrant the use of
overtime work, and often notification of both the
employee and the proper public authority is
required. Thus, employer concern about the pay­
ment of overtime premiums is lessened by this
type of restriction.

The problems that have occurred in indi­
vidual countries regarding wages and hours are
oriented in their impact primarily to the trainees
themselves. On the one hand, evidence suggests
that apprentices in some countries are critical
of the low wages received duringtheir course of
training. On the other hand, employers in some
instances have taken advantage of the legality of
lower wage-payment provisions and enthusias­
tically provided training with insufficient regard
to its quality. A forthright assessment of
these circumstances would have to include, how­
ever, consideration of the entire wage-payment
system of the countries in question, including
family allowance provisions, as well as the
efficient use by training authorities of certain
enforcement powers regarding the quality of

Policy Implications for the United States
W ages

Foreign experience in the application of
wage norms to on-the-job training indicates
that employer-oriented problems have been
minimized by:
1. The granting of exceptions to established
legal provisions in certain cases.
2. The institution of specific youth wage
3. The inclusion of collective bargaining
as a means of determining trainee wages.
Trainee-oriented problems, arising mainly
from the fact that the trainees, to a considerable
extent, are subsidizing their own training by
accepting wages lower than those of regular
workers, have been mitigated also in large
measure by:
1. The provision of free tuition and, most
often, free instruction materials.

2. The receipt by the trainees of wages
for time spent in classroom instruction.
3. The receipt by the trainees, in some
circumstances, of wage supplements paid by
the government.
4. The continued receipt by parents of
family allowances for apprenticed children.
5. The high regard which trainees have for
the acquistion of a specific occupational skill.
In all probability, the following factors have
been instrumental in developing the favorable
attitude that the youth of many of the countries
have toward trade-skill training:
1. The social factor, consisting mainly of the
fact that higher education, particularly a univer­
sity education, is still the privilege of a limited
number, compared with the United States.
2. The economic factor, inclusive primarily
of elements: (a) the industrial and occupational
structures of the economy are conducive to the

image-building of acquired trade skills; and and (b) the imposition of a maximum number of
(b) handicraft skills, which are learned in a allowable overtime hours which persons may
pupil-master relationship, are still much in work over a specific time period.
In regard to trainees in particular, often
vogue in West European countries.
The educational factor, comprising the the legislation of foreign countries sets a
early exposure of youth to vocational training specific limit on the number of overtime hours
within the context of the general education that trainees may work and thus diminishes
system and the use of appropriate vocational the dual problems of paying overtime premiums
and keeping trainees at work for an undue
guidance techniques.
At the same time, the lack of proper safe­ number of hours.
The study brought to light a major dif­
guards in the laws or contractual arrangements
allowing employers to pay young trainees lower ference in the overtime policies between the
wages has encouraged, in some countries, the foreign countries studied and the United States:
excessive hiring of young, inexperienced labor Control over the use of overtime in foreign
under the pretense of training. Therefore* countries is mainly through the setting of
trainee-wage policies enacted to stimulate the specific limitations upon allowable overtime
intake of trainees by employers should include hours (for which, of course, premiums must
some prescription concerning the ratio between be paid), whereas in the United States, the
trainees and regular workers and rigid en­ suppressive effects of overtime premiums
forcement of minimal training standards. In achieves primarily a similar end.
some cases, the lack of adequate enforcement
of existing standards also have resulted in
employer use of trainees on jobs not related
to their training. A sound policy on manpower F i n a n c i n g
development and utilization dictates that such
Apart from the stimulus of low trainee
devious practices will not be tolerated under wages, many foreign governments have provided
any circumstances.
employers with financial incentives to train
workers in an effort to exert a positive in­
fluence on the intake of on-the-job trainees.
H ours
Two major lessons have been provided by the
Regarding the regular hours of trainees, study in this regard:
the experience in foreign countries revealed
1. Systems of indirect incentives, intro­
that substantial benefit is derived by trainees duced in England, France, and the Latin Ameri­
from the legal or contractual requirement can countries, have been achieved by the im­
that employers count the hours spent in class­ position of a tax or levy on employers with
room instruction as working time. This require­ the following effects:
ment offset slightly the low trainee wages.
(a) Most, ii not all, money taxable or
Regarding overtime, foreign experience of­ payable can be recovered if the employer
fers two major lessons:
provides training of an approved standard;
(b) The cost and responsibility of training
1. In regard to employees in general, the
legislation of most foreign countries under are thereby more equitably shared by the
study by and large discourages the use of employers—the exact purpose for which the
overtime work and thus largely by-passes British adopted a levy and grant system;
(c) These approaches tend to make less
the problems of paying overtime premiums,
whether to trainees or to others. This is* urgent the need of some employers to attract
accomplished by (a) the requirement that em­ trained workers from other employers by of­
ployers report any overtime worked to proper fering higher, and often inflationary, wages.
(d) Industry itself can administer the
authorities—a factor acting as an administrative
restraint on the use of allowable overtime hours; system and thus obviate the administrative

complexities associated with more involved primary school must attend vocational schools at
government participation.
least on a part-time basis until age 17 or 18—
Systems of direct incentives, introduced a practice of particular interest in relation to
in countries such as Italy, the Netherlands, the problem of unemployment among young
Norway, and Sweden, have provided outright school leavers in this country.
subsidy of employers accepting trainees.
Policy implications concerning the vocational
education system open up a series of most
promising areas for further study pointing
to possible reform of vocational education
V o c a tio n a l E d u ca tio n S y s t e m
and vocational guidance in the United States:
The relationship of the vocational education (a) E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the precise man­
system to the general education system in many power effects of the vocational education and
West European countries contains the following vocational guidance systems of selected foreign
unique features, all of which contain important countries in terms of entry-job placement,
policy implications for the training needs of adjustment to work, and geographical and oc­
cupational mobility; (b) determination of the
1. Vocational guidance often b e g i n s in contribution which the strength of the vocational
elementary school;
education and guidance systems in selected
2. Some vocational education also is given foreign countries has made toward lessening
youth unemployment problems; and (c) deter­
in elementary school;
3. Numerous full- and part-time vocational mination, if possible, of important attitudinal
schools provide training in a wide variety of differences between employers and trainees in
skills to those completing primary school; these countries and their counterparts in the
4. In many foreign countries, those leaving United States.




Apprenticeship ^
L e g i s la t io n -§/

The formal apprenticeship system I j in the
countries surveyed is regulated at the national
level by laws, decrees, or labor codes which set
certain minimum standards and establish the
administrative framework and guidelines for
implementing the system. Details of the appren­
ticeship arrangement, including the reciprocal
duties of employers and apprentices, standards
of training and performance, wages, hours, and
other conditions of employment, are stipulated
in the contract which establishes the legal rela­
tionship between the apprentice and his employer.
According to usual contract terms, the employer
agrees to provide the apprentice with training of
approved quality and to pay him, during the
course of training, an amount determined by
mutual agreement, common practice, decree,
or collective bargaining. In return, the appren­
tice must be diligent in his performance, must
work and train the required number of hours, and
must follow the orders and instructions of his
employer. The first 3 months of the apprentice­
ship period usually are looked upon as a proba­
tionary period during which either party can
dissolve the contract. Otherwise, the contract
can be canceled only when certain specified
conditions exist and usually upon approval of
the agency with which the contract is registered.
Scope of Legislation. Wide variation exists
among the countries in the scope of legislation
dealing with apprenticeship. In many countries,
such as Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and
Norway, legislation pertaining strictly to ap­
prenticeship was enacted. In other countries,

however, laws pertaining to apprenticeship and
general vocational training are not mutually ex­
clusive. In Switzerland and the United Kingdom,
for example, apprenticeship is regulated, in
whole or in part, under legislation encompassing
the entire field of vocational training. Austria
has the oldest regulatory framework for appren­
tices, dating back to Trade Regulations of 1859.
The most recent laws applying to apprenticeship
were enacted in Switzerland (1963), the United
Kingdom (1964), the Netherlands (1966), and
France (1966), where apprenticeship is regulated
in far greater detail by pre-World War II legis­
Compulsory Systems. Some countries have
established “compulsory apprenticeship” sys­
tems by law to guarantee that employers pro­
vide training in sufficient amount to meet the
skill needs of industry. Apprenticeship regula­
tions in Brazil require that employers in any
industrial enterprise hire and train at least
5 percent of the workers in each establishment
“whose trades require professional training”
5 / An excellent source of inform ation on the legislative
and adm inistrative aspects of apprenticeship training in W est­
ern Europe is European A pprenticeship, p rep ared by the In ternational Vocational T raining Inform ation and R esearch C enter
(CIRF, Geneva, 1966) for the Manpower A dm inistration, U.S.
D epartm ent of Labor.
6 / See appendix B, p.41, for citation of pertinent legis­
I j F orm al apprenticeship (i.e., a training arrangem ent
in which the em ployer and the apprentice, and his p arent or
guardian, enter into a w ritten contract of apprenticeship) and
apprenticeship based on verbal agreem ent are the m ost prom ­
inent types of em ployer-provided vocational training in the
countries under discussion. Since the la tte r ordinarily is not
subject to legislation, the focus of the discussion is on the
fo rm er.

and, also, a number of underage workers in an
amount not to exceed 3 percent of all workers.
The laws of Colombia and Venezuela compel
employers to hire 5 percent of their work force
as apprentices. In each of these Latin American
countries, employers must enroll their appren­
tices in schools operated by special government
agencies if they themselves do not provide the
training. The compulsory nature of their sys­
tems is augmented further by the imposition of
compulsory tax on employers for training.
Two countries in Europe—France and the
United Kingdom—have adopted what might be
considered quasi-compulsory systems of train­
ing, in that employers are compelled to pay a
training tax on a per capita or employee-wage
basis, which is recoverable, in whole or in part,
only when training of an approved standard is
provided. In France, the Government imposes a
uniform, flate-rate “apprenticeship tax* on all
employers. In the United Kingdom, the tax is
imposed by industrial training boards on em­
ployers of only those industries for which train­
ing boards have been established. Once the tax
has been levied, all firms in the industry, with
few exceptions, must pay it.
Entry Age. The entry age into apprentice­
ship in the countries studied is appreciably
lower than that in the U n i t e d States, j j j
Apprenticeship in most countries can begin at
age 14 or 15, after completion of the compul­
sory primary-school requirement. One of the
reasons for this early entry is that apprentice­
ship in many countries is regarded as an exten­
sion of the general education system. A cited
advantage of early apprenticeship is that the
_8/ See appendix E, list 1, p.45, for usual entry age into
apprenticeship in the 16 countries studied. Although appren­
ticeship can begin at 16 y ears of age in the United States,
under program s approved by the B ureau of A pprenticeship
and T raining, the age range in practice is 17 to 24. In this
re g a rd , attention m ight be drawn to the existence of a special
type of training program in the United States, which, although
not exclusively oriented to young p erso ns, m akes it possible
for students in high school to participate in a cooperative
study-w ork training arrangem ent. The training program is
confined to distributive occupations, such as warehousing,
m arketing, and sales, and hence is known as distributive
9 / “Vocational T raining in the EEC: B elgium ,” Labor in
the European Com m unity, No. 10, November 1965, pp. 12-13.

relatively low wages received by apprentices,
in most cases, do not interfere with family
responsibilities. However, in view of the young
age of apprentices, legislation enacted for the
protection of youth is of major significance in
establishing mandatory rest periods, in curtail­
ing their overtime work, and in liberalizing
certain benefits such as vacations.
An upward drift in the entry age into appren­
ticeship has been seen. This drift is due chiefly
to a gradual lengthening of the primary-school
requirement. For example, the school-leaving
age has been raised recently to 16 in France and
Sweden. Throughout Germany, 9 years of ele­
mentary education is required now. In Norway,
the Primary Schools Act of 1959 has empowered
municipalities to replace the compulsory 7-year
attendance at primary schools with a 9-year
attendance requirement. The transition to a sys­
tem of 9-year compulsory general education
gained substantial footing in the early 1960,s;
theoretical and practical training were divided
during the last 2 years. The practical element
includes an orientation to various job possibil­
ities and general vocational preparation.
Industry and Occupational Coverage. The ex­
tent of apprenticeship training is reflected, in
part, by legislative prescription concerning
industry and occupational coverage. In Belgium,
for example, formal, or “legal* apprenticeship
training exists only in the handicraft trades, in
small or medium commerical trades, and in
sm all-scale industries. Apprenticeship training
also is provided by some large Belgian firms,
but this large-industry apprenticeship may not
be based on a formal contract and is regulated
by only a few articles of the Civil Code. Con­
sequently, apprenticeship training plays a small
role in the total Belgian vocational training
scheme, and a lack of an adequate legal frame­
work has been cited as a factor in its de­
emphasis by large-scale industry. 9 / Occupa­
tional training in Belgium, therefore, is received
mainly in technical or professional schools
rather than in industry. There has been recent
pressure for new legislation to modernize indus­
trial apprenticeship and to subject it to stricter
regulation and standards.

In Austria, West Germany, and France, the
legal bases of apprenticeship also focus, as in
Belgium, on the handicraft and commercial
trades in contrast to a broad range of industrial
apprenticeship training. In the United Kingdom,
however, compulsory apprenticeship training
can be found in virtually every industry. In
terms of occupational coverage, apprenticeship
in West Germany, France, and Italy is given in
about 500 occupations. In the United Kingdom,
it is limited to highly skilled occupations, such
as the building, electrical, and metal trades.
A d m in istra tio n

Primary responsibility for supervision and
control of the apprenticeship system at the
national level has been assigned to the Ministry
of Education in nine countries, to the Ministry
of Labor in four countries, and to other minis­
tries in three countries. 10/ In the actual opera­
tion of apprenticeship programs, the labor and
education ministries usually share responsibil­
ities: The labor ministry is concerned with the
employment aspects of apprenticeship, and the
education ministry with the techniques and
standards of training.
In most cases, the ministries are assisted
by special boards, councils, committees, or
secretariats, almost all composed of govern­
ment, union, and business representatives and
established at the national, regional (State),
and local levels. Management’s role in admin­
istering the apprenticeship training system
predominates in West Germany. The 81 German
Chambers of Industry and Commerce, which
have primary responsibility for the administra­
tion of apprenticeship in industrial and com­
mercial trades, restrict their membership to
employers. Membership in the 45 Artisan
Chambers, concerned with apprenticeship in
handicraft trades, includes both employers and
workers in a 2 -to -l ratio. The German unions are
not involved directly in the implementation of
regular apprenticeship programs but cooperate
in an advisory capacity in certain committees
of the Chambers.
Although a certain degree of autonomy is
always exercised by parties involved in appren­

ticeship and vocational training programs, par­
ticularly at the operational level, administrative
decentralization is particulary prominent in'
Australia, France, West Germany, the Nether­
lands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United
In Australia, formal apprenticeship is not
regulated by law at the national level. However,
the Tradesmen’s Rights and Regulation Act of
1946, as amended, provides for the establish­
ment of a National Australian Apprenticeship
Advisory Committee, w h o s e responsibility,
among others, is to make recommendations
concerning all aspects of apprenticeship other
than wages and industrial relations. Major
responsibility for apprenticeship training is
left to the individual States or Commonwealth
Territories. Each State has legislation estab­
lishing the control and administration of appren­
ticeship matters, as well as special advisory
bodies, such as apprenticeship councils, com­
missions, boards, or committees, to assist in
the implementation of the legislation. The powers
of apprenticeship councils can be quite formid­
able. Industry apprenticeship councils in New
South Wales, for example, regulate wages,con­
ditions of employment, and the training of
apprentices, who may not be employed without
the consent of the appropriate council.
In Franca, all vocational training is admin­
istered by the Ministry of Labor and by the
Directorate of Technical and Vocational Edu­
cation in the Ministry of Education. As in most
European counties, a distinction is made between
training for the handicraft trades and training
for industry and commerce. Apprenticeship
training for the handicraft trades is super­
vised by the special chambers, each of which
is a public body composed of all journeymen
and masters in an occupation. These chambers
register the indentures and employ a staff
of inspectors to ensure that the parties abide
by the terms of the apprenticeship contract.
In French industry and commerce, Qiere is
little formal administration of apprenticeship.,
A circular of the Ministry of Labor and Social
1 0 / See appendix E, list 2, p.45, for the specific assign­
m ent in each country.

Security in 1958 made the e m p lo y e r s ’ as­
sociations or the Chambers of Industry and
Commerce responsibile for registeringapprenticeship agreements in industrial and com­
mercial firms.
Apprenticeship programs in Germany are
run by individual employers on the basis of
guidelines established by the Chambers of
Industry and Commerce and the Artisan Cham­
bers and approved by the Federal Economics
Ministry and the Labor Ministry. The Chambers
of Industry and Commerce, although mandatory
employer organisations., are, in effect, govern­
ment-controlled agencies to which certain fiihctions have been entrusted that otherwise would
have to be carried out by government agencies.
This process reflects the German approach
to “s e lf-a d m in is tr a tio n ” of the economy.
Because the chambers exercise great adminis­
trative control over a p p r e n tic e s h ip pro­
grams, the practical training standards in the
plants are uniform throughout the country, but
theoretical training in schools is determined
by State (Land) law and is subject, therefore,
to the guidelines established by the Ministers
of Culture of the various States (Lander).
In Japan, apprenticeship training is regulated
by the Vocational Training Law of 1958 and
is conducted under the authorization of the
Minister of Labor; primary responsibility is
delegated to the prefectural governments. A
single firm or an organized group of firms
provides the training. The concept of appren­
ticeship iri Japan is somewhat different from
that in the West, because of the nature of the
employment relationship. Employment in any
particular firm in Japan often is regarded
as a lifetime relationship between the employee
and the employer. The employer is under a
social obligation always to provide a job for
his employee and, in turn, the employee is
expected to continue working for the same
employer in any capacity to which he is assigned
until retirement or death. Consequently, appren­
ticeship training is oriented not so much toward
a particular trade as toward the company in
which the employee may be trained for one of
many jobs under the expectation that his attach­
ment to the company will be permanent.

In the Netherlands, the system of appren­
ticeship is administered by 30 joint national
employer-union technical training foundations,
one for each major industry, and about 14
regional foundations under the overall control
of the Ministry of Education and Sciences.
The foundations employ a team of “consultants,”
who visit each employer monthly to see that
the parties to the apprenticeship contracts are
fulfilling their respective duties.
Apprenticeship and other vocational training
programs in Sweden are based not on law
but on a 1944 agreement between the Swedish
Employers’ Federation (SAF) and the Swedish
Trade Union Confederation (LO). These organ­
izations later established the Joint Industrial
Training Council, a permanent agency composed
of five SAF members and five LO members.
The main task of this Council is to encourage
employer associations, labor federations, and
individual firms and unions to broaden the scope
and improve the quality of vocational training
within industry and public vocational schools.
There are about 26 joint labor-management
vocational training councils in various branches
of industry. Within each industry, there is an
occupational advisory committee consisting of
three labor representatives and three manage­
ment representatives. These c o m m itte e s
supervise and encourage the development of
apprenticeship and other vocational training
within the trades, develop training methods,
maintain contact with vocational schools, and
report annually to the Joint Industrial Training
Council. At each workplace where apprentices
are employed, there must be a vocational
training workers’ delegate (Ombudsman), a
skilled worker who acts as a liaison between
the apprentices and management representa­
tives. Central direction of apprenticeship and
vocational training programs is provided by
the National Board of Vocational Education,
composed of representatives of the National
Labor Market Board and the Boards of Education,
Industry, and Commerce and responsible to the
Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs and Education.
In Switzerland, under the vocational training
law of 1963 and a subsequent 1965 order
implementing the law, each canton is required

to build up vocational training programs, in­ education system, e s p e c i a l l y in Austria,
cluding apprenticeship programs, in accordance Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and
with national regulations established by the Switzerland.
All Austrian school children now are required
Federal Department of Public Economy and the
intradepartmental Federal Office of Industry, to attend school for a period of 9 years. Legis­
Arts, Crafts and Labor (OFIAMT) under the lation enacted in 1962 added an extra year of
Ministry of Economic Affairs. The cantons, schooling to be taken in the advanced elementary
school (Hauptschule), in the form of a “polyaccordingly, have adopted their own appren­
ticeship acts and have established the necessary technical year,” which places particular stress
agencies to provide the various training services on the student’s future vocational career. The
first 4 years are spent in an elementary school
for which federal contributions are paid.
Under the Industrial Training Act of 1964, (Volksschule). At this point, at age 10, the student
which covers apprenticeship and other aspects has three choices: (1) To continue for 5 more
years in an elementary school, an option found
of training in Britain, the British Labour
to be taken primarily by less talented children
Minister is empowered to establish, for the
various industries, Industrial Training Boards and children in rural areas where no other
composed of an equal number of employers and type of school exists; (2) to enter a 5-year
trade unionists, and a number of members advanced elementary school (Hauptschule), after
from the educational field. The boards set which the child will learn a trade, generally
standards of training throughout their respective through some combination of apprenticeship
industries and attempt to provide for the skill training and vocational schooling; and (3) to
enter a 9-year secondary school (Mittelschule)
requirements of a te c h n o lo g ic a lly c h a n g in g
designed to prepare children for the university.
society. The Minister of Labour is advised ‘
by the Central Training Council, which is The student has access to vocational guidance
composed of a chairman, six employer mem­ in making his decision.*
According to current estimates, about 75
bers, six trade union members, two members
percent of the population of work-entry age
from nationalized industries, six members from
the field of education, up to six chairmen of (15) undergo apprenticeship training as an
Industrial Training Boards, and six other mem­ alternative to continued higher education or
bers who have a special interest in training. With direct entry into employment as an unskilled
the creation of the Industrial Training Boards, worker. 12/ Theoretical instruction at a voca­
the main responsibility for industrial appren­ tional school is compulsory for all apprentices
ticeship training, therefore, is relegated to the and includes some general education subjects,
industries concerned. To date, 21 boards have such as civics and arithmetic. A few large
been established, covering more than 11 million companies, however, provide supplementary
workers in the country’s major industries. 11/ training in workshop centers which, in fact,
All industrial and commercial activities are are acknowledged as vocational schools.
In Denmark, where about 45 percent of
coverable under the act; within 2 or 3 years,
the 14-year-old school leavers take apprentice­
about ’30 boards, covering virtually the whole
ship or some kind of v o c a t i o n a l training,
of industry and commerce, are expected.
vocational training of youth even for work
below the skilled level is built into the general
educational system. Under an Executive Order
R elatio n to G en e ral E d u ca tio n Sy ste m
of 1958, eighth and ninth year vocational training
In some countries, it has become almost
axiomatic that young p e r s o n s completing
primary school before 17 to 19 years of age
are required to take formal vocational training. which11/ See have beenE, list 3, p.45, for list of in d ustries in
Thus, apprenticeship training and other voca­
12/ F or data on apprentices in selected foreign coun­
tional training are related closely to the general trie s , see table F - l, p.46.

classes must be established in the primary
schools if enough pupils apply. This practice
is gaining wider acceptance, and special ex­
perimentation has been d i r e c t e d toward
supplementing this school training of youth
with specific on-the-job experience as guestworkers in enterprises.
The 1960 law concerning vocational train­
ing of unskilled workers contained specific
reference to the vocational training of youth
at the elementary school level as follows:
The training of young persons under 18
years of age shall be carried out in the
eighth and ninth classes of the elemen­
tary school and in accordance with the
provisions of the act respecting youth edu­
cation, etc.: Provided that, where a branch
committee wishes to provide training in
special branch skills for young persons
under 18 years of age and it appears impos­
sible to carry out such training in accordance
with the act respecting youth education, etc,,
the Training Council may a p p r o v e the
carrying out of training schemes in accor­
dance with this act. 13/
Moreover, an Executive Order of 1960 on youth
schools and evening schools prescribes rules
for the establishment of vocational youth schools
to provide vocational training of 1 year or
more after the compulsory school age but
before age 18.
In France, there are four general methods
by which vocational training may be acquired:
(1) 2 years of general education at a special
continuation school beyond primary school for
a high-level semiskilled job; (2) 3 years of
education in a State or private technical school
to prepare for a skilled position or for the
university; (3) an indentured apprenticeship
in a firm for practical training and attendance
at a school for theoretical training; and (4)
on-the-job and special workshop training in a
factory school. After World War II, appren13/ "Denm ark: Act Respecting the Vocational T raining
of Unskilled W orkers," L egislative S eries 1960 (International
Labor Office, Geneva), No. 194, May 18, 1960, ch. 1, p ar. 3,
sec. 2.

ticeship, as an option to full-time general
education, gained increasing acceptance. When
an indentured apprenticeship is undertaken, how­
ever, part-time related instruction and continued
general education courses, 4 to 8 hours a
week, are compulsory for all young schoolleavers under 17 years of age. This related
i n s t r u c t i o n usually is provided by public
vocational or private schools; many of the latter
are run by religious organizations. Neverthe­
less, some large firms, such as the Renault
Company, have their own full-time work schools
for theoretical as well as practical training.
When formal vocational training facilities are
not available in an area, theoretical training
can be a c q u i r e d through correspondence
In Germany, the usual school leaving age is
15, based on 9 years of elementary education.
After fulfilling the compulsory school age re­
quirement, about 80 percent of those not con­
tinuing secondary e d u c a t i o n take vocational
training or enter apprenticeship. The full-time
vocational school (Berufsfachschule) provides
a course of practical and theoretical training
in place of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . The parttime v o c a t i o n a l school (Berufsschule) is
designed primarily to supplement, with theoret­
ical i n s t r u c t i o n , the practical, on-the-job
training of an apprentice. A minimum of 8
hours a week of classroom instruction is
compulsory for every apprentice in the 15
to 18 age range.
In Italy, the Ministry of Labor finances and
inspects trade schools administered by a wide
variety of lay, religious, and local or national
bodies. These schools provide 2 or 3 years
of full-time practical training (addestramento)
for about 10 percent of the total number of young
people leaving school each year at age 14.
Another 40 to 45 percent of the persons beyond
the c o m p u l s o r y school age (about 50,000
recently) c o n t i n u e their studies in official
institutions coming under the direction of the
Ministry of Education. These may be either
scientific secondary schools, technical insti­
tutes, or vocational training institutes. Another
40 percent receive on-the-job t r a i n i n g in

The Netherlands has a basic requirement
of 8 years of compulsory schooling, but pupils
wishing to begin technical or vocational trainingmay do so after the first 6 years of primary,
schooling. The training of these pupils usually
is given in lower technical schools for 3 years
in preparation for further vocational training,
such as apprenticeship in factories. Theoretical
instruction continues during the apprenticeship
period on the basis of 8 hours a week for day
classes or 9 hours a week for evening classes.
Also, there are advanced technical schools and
technical colleges. Full-time training in a
vocational school may substitute partially for
training in apprenticeship.
In Sweden, students completing the compul­
sory school requirement are divided into three
.major groups: (a) those desiring further aca­
demic studies in preparation for entrance into
the gymnasium; (b) those interested in general
studies; and (c) those wanting vocational train­
ing. There are three major sources of voca­
tional training, as follows:
1. Over 600 municipal vocational schools
offer both practical and theoretical training of
3 years’ duration, usually in cooperation with
firms; 2 years of training are given in the
schools, and in the third year pupils go into
industry for practical experience before qualify­
ing for the adult rate of pay.
2. Large-scale industry often provides its
own 3-year training, the first year of which is
spent entirely in a separate transitional, or
“vestibule” type, school.
3. Many industrial enterprises, taking the
initiative to provide training but unable to offer
theoretical courses themselves, arrange with
neighborhood municipal vocational schools to
provide related instruction.
In Switzerland, the majority of primary
school leavers at age 15 enter apprenticeship
training. The apprentice must attend a vocational
s c h o o l for theoretical instruction. Annual
schooling hours vary from 200 to 360 hours,
depending on the trade.
F in a n c in g

The methods of financing apprenticeship
systems and vocational training indicate the

source of the initiative for training:. Public
authority, private enterprise or organizations,
or some combination of the two. The methods
also tend to have an influence on the numbers
trained as well as the quality of training.
Systems of financing apprenticeship and gen­
eral vocational training programs among the
countries studied can be classified in three
general ways: (1) Tax systems; (2) general sys­
tems of subsidy; and (3) other systems.
Tax Systems. The three Latin American
countries surveyed for this study have resorted
to a tax on employers to finance vocational
training, including apprenticeship. The tax sys­
tem in Brazil was designed to make effective
the compulsory s y s t e m of apprenticeship
adopted in 1942, when the National Industrial
Apprenticeship Service (SENAI) was founded,
and extended in 1946, when the National Commerical Apprenticeship Service (SENAC) was
established. Both SENAI and SENAC are special
organizations set up by the National Confed­
eration of Industry (CNI) and the National Con­
federation of Commerce (CNC), to establish
and operate schools for on-the-job training of
workers under the general supervision of the
Ministry of Education and Culture. A special
tax of 1 percent of total wages (or 1.2 percent
for enterprises employing 500 or more workers)
is imposed on all industrial and commerical
firms to finance the operations of SENAI and
SENAC. Employers providing approved appren­
ticeship programs of their own or providing for
training in employer-run vocational schools are
entitled to a rebate of 80 percent of the total sum
paid in support of SENAI and SENAC activities.
About 36 large employers receive this rebate;
smaller firms find it more advantageous to use
the facilities of SENAI and SENAC.
To finance the system of compulsory voca­
tional training in Colombia, a tax of 2 percent of
the total monthly payroll is levied on all private
business establishments and decentralized pub­
lic institutions, if their capital assests amount to
50,000 pesos (US$8,000 approximately) or more,
or if they employ 10 permanent workers or more.
This levy is deductible in calculating corporate
income taxes. Some 46,000 enterprises cur-

rently contribute to the National Apprenticeship
Service (SENA) fund, which, in 1965, amounted
to 152 million pesos. The training is provided by
SENA, established in 1957 as an autonomous
agency within the Government. Under an ex­
panded 4-year program begun in 1966, SENA
anticipates the training or upgrading of 80,000
apprentices and adult workers annually in 350:
different occupations.
The purpose of the training tax system in
Venezuela is to implement the vocational train­
ing school set up under the National Institute
of Cooperative Education (INCE), an autonomous
triparite organization under the jurisdiction of
the Ministry of Education. Although INCE was
established in 1960, the National (Compulsory)
Apprenticeship Training Program did not begin
to function under its auspices until 1965. The
law provided that funds required to finance INCE
operations be derived from a tax on employers,
a tax on employers, a tax on workers, and a
Government subsidy. The employer’s contri­
bution is 1 percent of total wages and salaries;
the worker’s contribution equals 0.5 percent of
his annual share of company profits; and the
Government subsidy amounts to 20 percent of
the aggregate amount paid by both employers
and workers. Employers or groups of employers
operating their own, INCE-approved, training
programs are allowed to deduct the cost of such
programs from the amounts assessed. In no
case, however, may a firm’s deductions exceed
the total amount payable to INCE. Firms also
may deduct the cost of worker training taken in
other approved training institutions. If a firm
does not develop a formal apprenticeship train­
ing program, it may pay INCE an additional lump
sum of 7,000 bolivars (approximately US$1,500)
a year for each apprentice it was required to
In France, on-the-job training costs are met
by: (1) Subsidies from the Government, Depart­
ment, or city; (2) contributions from the pertinent
Chamber of Commerce or trade organization;
and (3) tax offsets against the apprenticeship tax
1 4 /Act No. 66-892 of Dec. 3, 1966, on the orientation and
p rogram of vocational training.
15/ See appendix E, list 4, p.45, for the levy assessed
by each board.

which is imposed on employers in industrial,
craft, and commercial enterprises and payable
to the Treasury. The apprenticeship tax origi­
nated under the Finance Law of 1925 and was
then set at 0.2 percent of total wages. It was
later raised to 0.4 percent, and under the train­
ing law of 1966 was increased to 0.6 percent of
total wage costs. Employers who conduct their
own organized training may claim exemption
from the tax for the following costs: Expenses of
technical courses; salaries of technical instruc­
tors at a rate of one instructor for each 10 ap­
prentices; wages of apprentices while attending
courses related to their trade; and wages of
apprentices for the first 10 months of appren­
ticeship, if a systematic course of practical
and theoretical instruction is followed. Exemp­
tions from the tax also are allowed if employers,
instead of providing training, make grants, either
directly or through approved collecting bodies,
to public or private institutions providing tech­
nical or vocational education and training. Under
the 1966 law the Government adopted a 3-year
equipment program (1967-69) amounting to 2,000
million francs (US$500 million), of which 385
million francs (US$73 million) are earmarked
for vocational training centers for adults. 14/
The Industrial Training Boards, under the
1964 Industrial Training Act in the United King­
dom, i m p o s e a levy on employers in their
respective industries and correspondingly make
grants to employers who provide training of an
approved standard. The powers of an Industrial
Training Board extend to all forms of training
and retraining and to all occupations in the
industry. They are not confined to craft appren­
ticeship. Each Board, subject to the Labour
Minister’s approval, determines its own rate of
levy based on the payroll or total number of em­
ployees of individual firms. 15/ Variations in the
levy apparently are based on differences of
opinion among the various Boards over the best
time to introduce the redistribution of total train­
ing costs. The Engineering Board, for example,
believes that the levy should bear a close rela­
tionship to total training expenses and their full
recovery for the training of management per­
sonnel as well as workers. Other boards, such
as the Construction Board, have adopted a less

comprehensive approach and set lower levy
rates, based mainly on the recovery by the
firm of only certain specified' costs, such as
Although the levy paid is deductible from
income before taxes, the grants received for
training conducted by the firms are subject to
tax just as are other income sources. Boards
have tended to make grants for easily identifi­
able items such as attendance at “off-the-job”
training courses, but in the future, they expect
that more on-the-job training costs will be
covered. The levy and grant system of the United
Kingdom is considered a unique method of en­
suring that employers equitably share the re­
sponsibility and cost of training.
To encourage the development of group train­
ing programs, the Ministry of Labour provides
grants toward the cost of their development. The
grants help only with the promotional costs be­
fore a program becomes viable and do not cover
normal operating expenses, capital equipment,
or time spent on training as distinct from de­
velopmental work. They are limited to 50 per­
cent of approved developmental costs up to a
maximum of fc-1,250 and are paid to firms within
a nonprofitmaking association or an existing
association, such as a Chamber of Commerce.
General Systems of Subsidy. Belgium, Italy,
Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and
Switzerland rely principally on general subsi­
dization of apprenticeship and other vocational
training programs. The subsidy is usually of two
kinds: An indirect subsidy whereby an employ­
er’s trainees may receive theoretical instruc­
tion free of charge in public or private training
facilities, and a direct subsidy whereby em­
ployers are reimbursed for certain operating
expenses incurred in the conduct of their own
training programs. The amount of the subsidy
and the procedural aspects governing its dis­
bursement vary from country to country.
In Belgium, the Royal Decree of 1959 contains
specific details concerning the financing of ap­
prenticeship and other training in handicrafts
and commercial occupations. Under articles 40
to 42 of that decree, the National Vocational
and Further Training Board, the Regional Boards

and Committees responsible for the organization
of apprenticeship training courses, and the Sec­
retariats which provide theoretical training and
general education all are subsidized by the
Government in carrying out their responsibil­
ities. Employers and the signatories to the ap­
prenticeship contract receive subsidies from
the budget of the Ministry of the Middle Classes.
The amount and conditions of the subsidies are
determined by the Minister.
Italy has a very complex system for the
financing of training. It involves considerable
subsidization of all forms of training. Funds
pertaining solely to apprenticeship are author­
ized under Law No. 25 of 1955, as amended by
Law No. 706 of 1956. To encourage apprentice­
ship training, the Government provides an in­
centive to employers in the nature of a social
security tax offset. For employees in general,
the employer is liable for about 40 percent of
the total social insurance contribution. The
Government and employees themselves contrib­
ute the remainder. If an industrial firm trains
apprentices, the employer’s share is reduced to
about 6 percent of the total contribution per
apprentice, and the remaining 34 percent is paid
by the Government. In the handicraft trades, the
employer is relieved of his entire share of the
social security charge if he trains apprentices.
These indirect subsidies are considered im­
portant, since the employer’s social security
contributions form a substantial addition to the
total wage bill of Italian employers.
A major share of other forms of vocational
and industrial training is financed in Italy
through a Special Vocational Training Fund
authorized by Law No. 264 of 1949. This Fund
is financed, in part, by a transfer of moneys
from the unemployment fund, to which employers
contribute. The amount of money transferred is
determined annually by the Minister of Labor.
Grants from this Fund support the training activ­
ities provided by special training agencies and
bodies throughout Italy, including firms. For the
period 1964-65, for example, the Ministry of
Labor allotted 772 million lire (approximately
US$1.2 million) to the training activities of firms.
Subsidies by the Government of Japan are
weighted heavily toward the administrative and

construction costs of apprenticeship and other
training programs. When an employers* associ­
ation wishes to conduct a joint training program,
the Federal and Prefectural Governments will
pay up to one-half of the administrative costs.
In addition, the Federal Government will grant
subsidies in aid of vocational training facilities
established by Prefectural or municipal govern­
ments for employers in small and medium-sized
industries, who wish to sponsor the training of
workers. Intraenterprise training assistance
from the Government includes the provision of
instructors free of charge, free text books, and
other teaching aids.
Conditions governing the 'granting of State
aid for apprenticeship and other training in the
Netherlands are laid down in the Conditions for
Subsidization Order (Apprenticeship System) of
1937. Activities of the technical training foun­
dations in the various industrial sectors are
financed by Government subsidies. Payment of
the subsidy is subject to the observance by the
foundations of certain legal requirements. These
include the submission to the Ministry of Edu­
cation of annual accounts and a report on the
preceding year’s training activities and some
details concerning the next year’s activities.
For practical training provided by the firm,
employers are reimbursed for operating ex­
penses at the rate of 60 guilders per apprentice.
The theoretical portion of training is paid for,
in part, by a tution fee of 8 guilders per appren­
tice, usually borne by the firm. If a firm, how­
ever, sets up its own school for theoretical
instruction, as may be the case when no other
appropriate schools are available, the Ministry
of Education pays the costs of the school in
accordance with standard regulations governing
other technical schools. Under a law enacted in
1966, an employer will receive from the national
body concerned a grant not exceeding 200
guilders (US$56 approximately) for the total
period each apprentice is indentured.
In Norway, the employer generally is respon­
sible for all expenses incurred in the course of
apprentices’ practical training. In the case of
small firms, however, the Government grants
1,000 krones (US$140) for each apprentice ac­
cepted and also may refund part of the manda­

tory sick pay for apprentices. To qualify for a
sick-pay refund, an employer must verify the
apprentice’s illness with a doctor’s certificate,
a receipt from the apprentice for full sick pay,
and a copy of the employer’s receipt to the
Sick Insurance Fund for having received the
sick-pay allowance under the program. The
Government then will refund that portion of
full sick pay not covered by the insurance plan.
The costs of theoretical instruction are borne
by the Government even to the extent of assum­
ing the expenses of such instruction in integrated
training programs operated by private firms.
In Sweden, State subsidies for apprenticeship
in firms are based on a minimum of six appren­
tices and are increased for multiples of that
number. The amount of the subsidy is 13,000
kronur (about US$2,500) annually for every six
pupils if practical training in the firm is in­
tegrated with theoretical training in a municipal
school, and 14,000 kronur for every six pupils,
if employers give both practical and theoretical
training. If training is provided in the old crafts
that depend mainly on the use of handtools and
involve a master-pupil relationship, subsidies
are paid for each apprentice trained, provided,
of course, that the employer is willing to be open
to inspection by the Royal Vocational Training
Board (KOY). This subsidy is spread over 3
years, and if the employer is willing to release
the apprentice during working hours without loss
of pay to attend a vocational training school for
at least 100 hours a year, an extra subsidy is
granted covering the 3-year period. Employers’
organizations also help to finance industrial
training. The Swedish Metal Trades Employers’
Association, for example, imposes a tax of 0.14
percent of the total wages of production workers
plus a tax of 0.07 percent of the wage bill of
salaried employees on member firms to help
finance training.
Subsidization of apprenticeship training in
Switzerland covers, among other things, the
theoretical portion of training and capital costs
for the construction of vocational training cen­
ters and apprentice hostels at a rate of 16 to 18
percent of such costs to a maximum of Sw Fr2
million (about US$462,000). Employers do not
have to pay a fee for sending trainees to special17

ized schools for theoretical training. The cost of
theoretical training is shared by Federal, can­
tonal, and municipal governments. The Federal
contributions vary between 30 and 50 percent of
total costs.
Other Systems. Australia, Austria, Denmark,
and the Federal Republic of Germany folfow pre­
dominantly employer-financed s y s t e m s of
apprenticeship and general vocational training.
Practical training in the firm is considered an
ordinary operating expense of the employer,
whereas the cost of theoretical training in public
vocational schools is financed by State and/or
local government funds. In West Germany and
Austria the various industry chambers bear the
administrative and organizational costs of train­
ing from contributions of employers. In West
Germany, for example, the Chambers of Industry
and Commerce and the Artisan Chambers impose
a levy on employers, based on the payroll. Mem­
bership in the Chambers is compulsory.
Although Danish employers pay certain fees
for the classroom training of apprentices, these
constitute an insignificant portion of the total
costs of formal training; most costs are borne
by the Government. The Government operates
most of the formal establishments to which
employers send their trainees for theoretical
instruction. The State may grant interest-free
loans up to five-sixths of the cost for the pur­
chase, construction, or maintenance of tech­
nical and c o m m e r c i a l schools, including
boarding schools.
In Brazil, the Metalworkers Union built a new
training facility, the Porto Alegre Metalworkers
Union Industrial High School, principally through
voluntary checkoff contributions from union
members under a collective bargaining agree­
ment. Assistance also was received fromaU.S.
Agency for International Development grant of
funds and machine tools. Eventually, the school
will be able to accommodate 1,500 full-time and
700 night students in combined general studies
and vocational courses. This project, the major
trade union training effort in Brazil, has stimu­
lated c o n s i d e r a b l e interest among trade
unionists and government educational officials as
an example of successful direct trade union

participation in industrial training through col­
lective bargaining.
In Australia, the Federal Government will
grant an incentive payment to employers in rural
areas in order to encourage them to increase the
number of apprentices.

Trends Toward National
Control of Train ing
The enactment of new l e g i s l a t i o n , and
proposed legislation in Austria and West Ger­
many, was prompted by a concern for adapting
training to modern economic conditions and
technological developments. Proposed reform of
vocational training in Germany reflects a prefer­
ence, especially on the part of trade unions,
for legislation leading to national, rather than
the State and local control of apprenticeship
and vocational training and to the introduction
of a training tax earmarked for a special train­
ing fund. A bill submitted to the Bundestag
in August of 1966 to modernize the frame­
work of training indicated, in other ways as
well, a tendency toward marked departure from
the traditional approach to vocational training
in Germany. First, it would replace the present
a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system, based on Trade
Regulations dating back to 1869, with a graduated
system of 3 years* duration in order to give
even greater occupational flexibility to the
trainee. The first year of basic and general onthe-job training would be followed by another
year of “occupational upgrading,** and the third
year would be devoted to the learning of a
specific skill. Second, the bill provides for
extra vacation time and financial assistance
from the Government to persons in occupational
training in special supplementary courses of
a technical nature. Although passage of this
bill is doubtful, it reflects a changing philosophy
toward apprenticeship and vocational training in
Germany which has been incorporated, to a
certain degree, in other proposed bills, also
concurrently under consideration.
The legislation recently passed in France and
the Netherlands also exhibits the trend toward
greater national control over apprenticeship

and other training. Under the new Frencji law,
vocational training, in general, was specifically
made a national responsibility to be shared
by public authorities and private individuals,
organizations, and enterprises. To this end, the
law provides for the establishment, under the
Prime Minister, of an interministerial com­
mittee presided over by the secretary-general
of the Ministry of Education. The committee
will be assisted by a National Council for
Vocational Training, Further Education and
Employment (Counseil National de la Formation

Professionelle, de la Promotion Sociale et de
l’Emploi) consisting of representatives of the
public authorities, unions, employers* organi­
zations, and trade associations. The functions
of the Council and assisting regional committees
will be determined by subsequent decrees. In
the Netherlands, tighter Federal control over
the apprenticeship system will very likely result
from the legal status granted under the new
law to the national and regional organs (or
foundations) responsible for the supervision
and promotion of the apprenticeship system.

R e tr a in in g a n d O th e r T r a in in g P r o g r a m s
fo r A d u lts ^

The requirement that one be unskilled and un­
employed to be eligible for. retraining is be­
coming less important. Moreover, the focus
of adult training in the last few years has
centered on the alleviation of general labor
adjustment problems which are found in fast­
growing and fast-changing economies. In a
few countries, there is a positive inducement
for general skill upgrading.
Vocational training of adults in Belgium is
the outgrowth of numerous legislative actions
of unique interest. As early as 1936, vocational
training of the unemployed came into being
within the framework of the National Labor
Exchange and Unemployment Office (ONPC).
16/ A g reat deal of inform ation on adult retrain in g
in Europe within the context of general econom ic and labor
conditions in the countries examined is contained in M argaret
S. Gordon’s R etraining and L abor M arket Adjustm ent in
W estern Europe (U.S. D epartm ent of Labor, 1965, Manpower
Automation R esearch Monograph No. 4).
17/ See appendix C, p.43, for citation of pertinent
18/ Belgian cen ters are quite different from those
in F rance and the United Kingdom. They offer specific
co u rses to t r a i n e e s and usually are tem porary; that
is , they term inate when the m anpower needs of an area
a re satisfied.

The Government at that time took positive steps
to promote the training of the unemployed
through generous subsidy of workers* retraining,
which was optional. Nevertheless, in spite of
the Government’s efforts, the program did not
attract the hoped-for increase in the number of
workers who wished to be retrained, and the
“failure** was ascribed to the fact that retraining
was optional. Amendments in 1939, therefore,
made retraining compulsory, and failure to take
retraining entailed penalties. According to the
amendments, a distinction was made between
two categories of unemployed; (a) Those who
could be retrained in factories and (b) those
who required theoretical courses in industrial
schools set up or sponsored by the State.
The managing committee of the ONPC selected
the trainees. Enforcement of c o m p u l s o r y
retraining was limited to those who were thought
likely to benefit from retraining.
Vocational training developed rapidly as a
result of this change, although the introduction
of even broader financial assistance to unem­
ployed trainees and the shifting of emphasis by
a 1948 decree to Government-run training
centers as the principal training source were
contributing factors. 18/ Today’s accelerated
vocational training and retraining of adults
have as their legal basis the Regent’s Decree

of 1945 on the organization of the National
Employment Service and the Royal Decree of
1961 on accelerated vocational training for adults
and the rehabilitation of unemployed persons,
as amended by a Ministerial Decree of 1963.
As of March 1966, workers did not need to
be unemployed to qualify for retraining.
The origin of government training centers for
adults in France stems from decrees dating
back to 1945 and 1946. Under a 1949 amendment,
a tripartite semigovernmental body, known as
the National Interoccupational Association for
the Rational Training of Manpower (ANIFRMO)
was set up by several ministries to administer
community centers. 19/ Under a program know
as Vocational Training for Adults (FPA), ac­
celerated vocational training courses are of­
fered adults in ANIFRMO-operated centers.
Training under FPA is intended to correct
regional skilled-trades imbalances and to aid
workers seeking higher skills. Its emphasis is
on current needs. It is not intended as a general
training system for dislocated workers or an­
ticipated skill shortages.
In the United Kingdom, the Employment and
T r a i n i n g Act of 1948 made adult training
theoretically available to any unskilled person,
employed or unemployed, who had completed
compulsory schooling.
The original legislative base in Denmark
which authorized the Minister of Labor to grant
subsidies for the training and retraining of the
unemployed and unskilled was Act No. 169
of 1946. An Act Respecting the Vocational
Training of Unskilled Workers was enacted in
1960. Under the provisions of the latter act,
a central governing body, the Training Council
for Unskilled Workers, composed of seven
Danish Employers’ Federation (DAF) and seven
Danish Federation of Labor (LO) members and
a chairman, was established to coordinate
adult training subsidized by the Government.
The act also provides for the establishment
of branch committees, composed of four labor
and four management representatives, in various
industries to determine specific training needs.
German legislation on adult training dates
back to 1927, when the Employment and Unem­
ployment Insurance Law was passed. Primary


responsibility for this kind, of training today
rests with the Federal Institution for Place­
ment and Unemployment Insurance (BAVAV)
under the supervision of the Labor Ministry.
Government aid to employed persons seeking to
advance their o c c u p a t i o n a l skills through
additional training was first introduced in 1962
and was considerably expanded by the Occupa­
tional Promotion Act of 1965.
Law No. 264 of 1949 provides the legal
framework for the training of adult workers
in Italy under the Ministry of Labor and Social
Security. It established a Central Commission
for the placement of workers and the pro­
vision of assistance to unemployed workers. The
Commission is composed of eight union repre­
sentatives, four management representatives,
the Directors General of the Ministry of Labor
and the Social Security Institute, and one repre­
sentative each from the Ministries of Treasury,
Agriculture, and Industry. Its main task is to
supervise the vocational retraining activity
and make recommendations for the implemen­
tation of the programs. In 1951, amendments
to the law of 1949 made training available to
e m p l o y e d as well as unemployed persons.
The system of Government training centers
for adults in the Netherlands appears to be
an outgrowth of the Dutch educational system
and the Dutch philosophy on vocational training.
The Vocational Education Act of 1921, the
original legal basis for vocational training and
apprenticeship, emphasized the importance of
education and training for skilled occupations
in full-time establishments, as distinct from
apprenticeship training, and also indicated how
well-established training schemes could be
i n t e g r a t e d with the vocational education
program. Legislative provisions of a Royal
Decree of 1944, issued by the Government-in­
exile, subsequently set the stage for adult train­
ing programs in vocational training centers.
The decree provided for (a) the Government
Employment Office under the Ministry of Social
Affairs and Public Health and (b) a Bureau
19/ Special cen ters oriented to the filling of needs
of specific industries also exist and m ay be established
by a decision of the M inister of Labor and Social Security.

of Vocational Training under the Government
Employment Office.
In Norway, the law establishing the national
unemployment insurance system specifically
authorized the use of its funds for adult training programs. Vocational training and retraining
began in earnest in Norway in 1958 and since
then have expanded rapidly.
Adult training activity in Sweden is based
not directly on any specific legislation but
on regulations dating back to 1945. A bill
to improve retraining and further t r a i n i n g
activity was passed by the Riksdag in May 1966.
The Government has begun to implement it
provisionally, pending a general reform of the
adult training program slated for 1967. Adult
training is still somewhat biased toward the
unemployed, but the emphasis is gradually
changing to include those who are also employed.
In Switzerland, a 1963 law on vocational
training, replacing the Federal V o c a t i o n a l
Training Act of 1930, provides for vocational
training and further training that includes adults,
but in practice the emphasis is on youth who
have not benefited from apprenticeship training
for one reason or other.
In Australia, adult vocational training is not
promulgated by any legislation or decrees. A
proposed “Industrial Training Plan" for adults
was shelved, because t e c h n o l o g i c a l unem­
ployment was not considered to be a serious

Most countries offer adult retraining in
government-owned andgovernm ent-operated
training centers or in institutions established
under government auspices but administered
by public bodies. The Netherlands and the
United Kingdom are the only countries whose
centers are run directly by the Government.
Government involvement in adult retraining
in Belgium, France, and recently the United
Kingdom can be traced to the limited success
achieved through private efforts.
Government Participation. The legislation
on adult retraining places primary responsibility

for the administration of adult training programs
on the labor ministries, or ministries con­
cerned with labor matters, and, in many cases, on
the network of their e m p l o y m e n t service
agencies. The Ministry of Education frequently
is involved in determining the content of training.
Organizational structures stem from the very
nature of such training programs, which were
designed originally to help the unemployed.
Therefore, the agencies oriented to labor
supply and demand problems were assigned
major responsibilities for adult retraining. At
the operational level, however, public cor­
porations and other organizations may be
In Belgium, training is given for the most
part in workshop centers established and oper­
ated, or approved, by the National Employment
Office (ONEM), a semiautonomous institution
which is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry
of Employment and Labor and is managed by
representatives of the Government, trade unions,
and employers’ organizations. The ONEM pre­
pares the training programs for various occupa­
tions and sends them for approval to the appro­
priate National Commission, which supervises
the training for the particular industry, and
to the Pedogogical Commission, which has
the final word on how training programs are
to be implemented. Once approved, the program
in any given occupation is the same in all
ONEM workshops.
In France, community training centers are
managed jointly by the Government, unions,
and employers. France has approximately 100
regional centers involved in teaching accelerated
vocational training courses in more than 100
trades. Capacity of the centers is expected to
increase from 51,500 in 1966 to 74,500 in 1970.
Mobile training units also are utilized.
In practice, the Government training centers
in the United Kingdom, catered to the training
needs of specific classes of people—the handi­
capped, exservice personnel, and unemployed
older workers, all normally bypassed under
employer-run training programs. In 1963, the
emphasis in recruitment for training centers
was changed to meet the general problem
of shortages in skilled occupations essential to


the national economy. Since 1963, the continuing
expansion of Government training centers has
doubled the number of training places, and by
the end of 1967 there will be 8,000 places
at 38 centers. Ten additional training centers—
four scheduled for operation by the end of
1968 and six by early 1970—will bring the total
number of training places to about 12,250.
In addition, a Government grant of -L2 million
(US$5.6 million) to aid private industrial train­
ing was announced in November 1966. The
money is intended to help meet the cost of
installing new machinery and auxiliary equip­
ment in the training shops or training centers
of individual employers and is to be used for
retraining adults “off the job” for semiskilled
occupations. The Government also is exploring
the possibilities of making room for more
adults at the Government training centers by
(a) providing courses for adults in the Defense
Ministry’s training establishments and (b) using
technical colleges in the vicinity of Govern­
ment training centers for first-year apprentice
Most of the adult training in Denmark is given
in semiskilled workers’ s c h o o l s , which are
voluntary institutions set up on the initiative of
regional labor-management organizations and
local authorities. A number of State schools
which had existed prior to the passage of Act
No. 169 also provide this kind of training.
The adult training program in Germany is
administered by the Ministry of Labor and Social
Order, the Federal Institution for Placement and
Unemployment Insurance (BAVAV), and local
government employment offices. Courses maybe
taken at government-operated or local commu­
nity centers, in the firm, or in trade union or
other private institutions. Adult training in
industry is well developed in Germany, whereas
such training by public authorities is little
In Italy, administration of vocational training
under Law No. 264 of 1949 was assigned to three
Government Vocational Training Agencies (Enti
Gestori)—one for industrial workers (INAPLI),
one for commercial workers (ENALC), and one
for the artisan trades (INIASA). They represent
the Ministry of Labor in the field of vocational


training. The various Enti Gestori set up their
respective occupational training courses in Vo­
cational Training Centers (CAP).
The direction and supervision of adult voca­
tional training in the Netherlands are lodged with
the Directorate of Supplementary Employment
Policy and Vocational Training under the General
Directorate for Manpower within the Ministry of
Social Affairs and Public Health. A singular
feature of adult training courses in the Nether­
lands is that the duration of the course depends
on the occupation and progress of the trainee.
Training is geared to the individual’s capacity
to absorb instruction and, therefore, tends to
increase the holding power on trainees. About
30 vocational training centers are now open to
unskilled adults who are either out of work or
threatened with loss of work, owing to a lack of
technical training. Accelerated vocational train­
ing courses have gained widespread acceptance
in the Netherlands.
Training programs in Norway are prepared
by the Ministry of Ecclesiastical and Educational
Affairs in cooperation with the Ministry of Labor
and Community Affairs and are for the most
part carried out in vocational schools or centers.
At the end of 1965, there were 21 permanent
training centers with 42 workshops for adult
In Sweden, the National Labor Market Board
(AMS), its regional agencies, County Labor
Boards, and similar local bodies, and the local
Employment Offices and agents are responsible
for implementing retraining and further train­
ing as an instrument of the Government’s labor
policy. About 80 percent of the courses are
conducted in centers operated by the National
Board of Education and in ordinary vocational
Employer Participation. Employers par­
ticipate in the retraining of adult workers in
almost every country under study. In general,
however, the employer’s role in this type of
training is by far secondary to that of the Govern­
ment. 20/
2 0 / F or statistic s on adult train ees in selected foreign
co u ntries, see table F -2 , p.46.

In Austria, it has been estimated that in only
5 percent of over 600 industrial firms covered
in a survey conducted for the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development
was there organized r e t r a i n i n g within the
firm. 21/ Only 10 percent of the firms con­
tributed toward the cost of courses or.granted
separation allowances or other benefits to
persons in the program. The training of adults
and the payment of their wages during the courses
were found only when such training and payment
were in the direct interest of the firm.
The local labor office may enter into an
agreement to train adults whereby a firm
receives a payment (2,000-3,000 schillings,
or about US$80-120, per trainee for a 13-week
period) for training expenses. The firm pro­
viding training usually hires the trainees at
a basic wage and continues to employ them
upon completion of training. The need of a
modern vocational training law is acknowledged.
The more common type of adult vocational
education is conducted through school-like pro­
grams by two institutes, the union-sponsored
Berufsforderungsinstitut (BFI) and the em­
ployer-sponsored Wirtschaftsforderungsinstitut
Adult retraining has had a long history in
Belgium and is provided extensively through
full-time training centers, but direct participationof employers is small. Only in excep­
tional cases are adult training centers erected
on a firm’s premises.
Employer participation in France is most
pronounced under the Accelerated Vocational
Training (AVT) program which, in comparison
with accelerated vocational training in other
European c o u n t r i e s , is highly developed.
Courses under this program last from 6 to 8
months and sire given in centers established
by firms or in municipal centers set up under
the auspices of the Ministry of Labor. Employed
persons are allowed to participate. Under a
1966 law, adult training probably will receive
21/ O rganization for Economic Cooperation and De­
velopm ent, Manpower and Social A ffairs C om m ittee, Man­
power P roblem s and P olicies in A ustria: Survey of P riv ate
Manpower P olicies at E n terp rise and Plant Level (P a ris,
OECD, 1965, MO (65) 24), p. 11.

a greater boost, since a matching fund, equal
to the amount collected by the Treasury through
the apprenticeship tax, will be established
under the Prime M i n i s t e r for “social advance­
ment training. *
Because of the prosperous employment sit­
uation in Germany in recent years, adult retrain­
ing under Government auspices has been deemphasized and, instead, more actively stressed
by employers, unions, and private organiza­
tions. In general, however, the adult training
effort is negligible in comparison with training
in vocational schools and under the appren­
ticeship program in the firm. Employers main­
tain that this situation promotes occupational
mobility, as the need for retraining is minimal.
Subsidies sometimes are granted by the Govern­
ment to cover part of the wages of those being
In Italy, special on-the-job training courses
are given by officials in individual plants in
areas where (a) changes in work patterns
require a significant shift in employment skills;
(b) training of this type is not otherwise avail­
able; and (c) at least two-thirds of the workers
concerned have indicated a desire to attend. The
courses last from 2 to 8 months and are held
in the plant away from the production line.
Plants employing fewer than 100 workers may
join together to hold joint “requalification*
courses for their workers. Moreover, the Fund
for the South (Cassa per il Mezzogiorno) in
cooperation with private industry has created
six interfirm vocational training centers (ClAPI)
in the more industrialized areas of the South.
The cost of the construction and equipment is
borne by the Fund for the South, and the operating
costs are shared by the Fund for the South, the
Vocational Training Fund, the firms involved,
and other interested parties. Finally, Italian
employers cooperate with the various Enti
Gestori by allowing them to set up courses
on the firm s’ premises.
The situation regarding adult retraining in
the Netherlands is somewhat similar to that in
Italy. In the early 1960’s there was a sub­
stantial decline from the 1950 level of adult
retraining under Government auspices. The
adult retraining program still remains largely


the responsibility of industry itself. To promote
adult retraining by employers under the on-thejob training system operated by the National
Employment Service, the employer receives
allowances for the sm aller productivity of the
trainee. The amount (related to the initial
unproductivity of the trainee, the duration of
training, and the trainee’s wages) usually may
not exceed fl. 1,500 (US$417) per trainee.
In Sweden and the United Kingdom, employers
often are involved directly in adult retraining,
when the training is intended primarily to foster
regional development. Special powers are given,
by the training authorities to promote this train­
ing by granting subsidies to firms to man new
and/or expanded facilities. In recent years, an
increasing portion of publicly supported adult
retraining occurred in Swedish industry.

Funds for the financing of adult training
programs come from two principal sources:
Unemployment insurance contributions and an-,
nual budget appropriations.
About 80 percent of the funds for adult
retraining provided under the auspices of the
Austrian Labor Ministry, including funds for the
system of Accelerated Vocational Training
(AVT), come from the Unemployment Assurance
Loan and consist of public funds allotted for
“reintegration” measures. Unemployed persons
do not have to pay any fees for training of
this kind. Courses organized by the Trade
Chambers, however, are financed from par­
ticipants’ fees and contributions of the Trade
Chambers. Expenses of classes run by Austrian
Labor Chambers and trade unions are covered
by trainees’ fees and c o n t r i b u t i o n s from
employers’ associations in equal proportion.
The allocation of funds and control over the
proper use thereof are the responsibility of the
Federal Ministry of Social Administration.
In Belgium, the system of vocational retrain­
ing is financed in part by the National Social
Security Office, which collects the employers’
and workers’ social security contributions, and
in part by the State, which makes an annual

grant from the budget of the Ministry of Labor
and Social Welfare to cover the deficit. When
adult retraining is conducted by a firm, a special
agreement between the firm and the State lays
down the respective shares of the operating
expenses to be borne by them. Adult retraining
provided by the centers of National Employment
Office (ONEM) is covered by annual budget
allocations through the Ministry of Employment
and Labor. In 1966, the budget amounted to
$9.3 million.
The expenses of State courses for unskilled
workers in Denmark are financed one-third
from State funds and two-thirds from the
Unemployment Insurance Fund. State loans, up
to 85 percent of the total financing required,
are granted to labor and management organ­
izations for the construction and maintenance
of schools for semiskilled workers. The remain­
ing 15 percent comes from local authorities,
the Danish Employers’ Federation (DAF), and
the Danish Federation of Labor (LO).
In France, subsidies are granted on a
quarterly basis to firms operating their own
adult training programs, to cover the in­
structors’ salaries and supplementary benefits,
as well as a percentage of the wages and wel­
fare charges of the trainees. Community centers
operated by the National Interoccupational As­
sociation for the Rational Training of Manpower
(ANIFRMO) that provide adult retraining are
financed wholly out of public funds allocated by
the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. Special
centers for adult training draw their funds
from the firm to cover the cost bf equipment
and administration and the Ministry of Labor
and Social Security to cover partial costs
of instructors’ fees and trainees’ wages.
The Federal Institution (BAVAV) finances
special training or retraining programs for
unemployed and dislocated persons in Germany.
Funds for the implementation of occupational
development measures usually are determined
and appropriated within the budget of the Federal
Employment and U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance
Agency and are made up of unemployment
insurance moneys.
In Italy, adult retraining is financed through
the Special Vocational Training Fund set up

with employer/employee contributions to the
unemployment compensation fund, an annual,
contribution from the Government, contributions ‘
of private and public agencies, tuitions, and
other receipts. Through this Fund, the Ministry
of Labor makes grants in support of adult
training courses. For on-the-job training of
adults, the individual firm is required to bear
all administrative expenses for the courses,
including the cost of equipment and facilities,
and to provide for accident insurance. Wages
of trainees come out of the Wage Integrating
Fund, made up of compulsory employer con­
tributions under the social security system
for the relief of the temporarily unemployed and ,
In Norway, adult retraining is financed from
the national budget and from unemployment
insurance funds. For example, the national
budget provided 14.7 million crowns (US$2 mil-,
lion) for the vocational training of adults in the'
course of the year 1964-65, of which 13.2
million crowns were used for operational ex­
penses and 1.5 million for plant and equipment.
During the same period, 13 million crowns
came from u n e m p l o y m e n t insurance funds.
The Swedish National Labor Market Board
through its budget allocations subsidizes a wide

range of manpower programs, including the
retraining of adults. Two types of training in
jfirms are subsidized: (1) Industrial location
graining, where the enterprise is set up in a
development area, and (2) training necessitated
in firms because of their inability to recruit
qualified labor through the employment ex­
change. Under the first type of training, the
Labor Market Board pays the enterprise a
training grant per trainee and hour. The specific
amount is determined on the merits of each
.case, including the contribution which the trainee
makes to production. For the second type of
training provided by the firm, the Labor Market
Board may pay the enterprise a grant not
exceeding SKr 3 (US$0.58) per trainee and hour.
In each case the trainees must be recruited
through the employment exchange.
In the Netherlands and the United Kingdom,
funds for the financing of adult training programs
come almost exclusively from annual national
budget allocations.
Adult retraining in the three Latin American
countries covered in this study, when it is
provided, usually is conducted in the schools
of the special agencies primarily responsible
for vocational training. The main source of
their funds is the tax on employers.




B a s ic R e g u la tio n s
Collective bargaining is the major method
used to establish employer wages in the countries
studied. Legislation to fix wages, where enacted,
usually supplements wage determination through
c o l l e c t i v e bargaining and is intended for
employees not covered by collective agreements,
for select worker-groups, or for minimum wage
protection. The general minimum wage laws or
decrees of Austria, Brazil, Colombia, France,
West Germany, Japan, the N e t h e r l a n d s , the
United Kingdom, and Venezuela are mentioned
briefly below. 22/ Although these laws apply
to many categories of workers, including trainee
workers in some cases, they relate only indi­
rectly to labor standards and on-the-job training.
More important have been youth wage differen­
tials, described in the next section, and wage
provisions particularly applicable to apprentices
and to adult trainees covered in the next two
In Austria, under legislation such as the
Minimum Wages Awards Act of 1951, the Home
Work Act of 1954, and the Tenant Houses Workers
Act of 1957, various Government agencies may
set minimum wage rates comparable to pre­
vailing wages for similar work in the same
area for those employees not covered by col­
lective agreements—constituting, in relative
importance, less than 10 percent of the total
work force.
In Brazil, a decree-law of 1938 implemented
a minimum wage system, which was incor­
porated into the Consolidated Labor Code of
1943. Minimum wage rates, first decreed in
1940, are established on a regional basis


by Minimum Wage Commissions, which are
appointed by the Minister of Labor and Social
Welfare. The Commissions, appointed for the
22 regions and the Federal District, Brasilia,
include representatives of labor and manage­
ment. The major regions are divided into over
.50 subregions for which different wage minima
are determined according to variations in the
cost of living. The minimum daily wages,
embodied in an Executive Order, apply to every
wage and salary w o r k e r , except public em­
ployees, workers in govern m en t-con trolled
industries, apprentices, and domestics. Mini­
mum wages may, by law, be revised every 2
years and, under special circumstances, as
often as once a year. The wage patterns in
an area for particular skills are usually geared
to the minimum wage. For example, skilled
workers may be paid twice the minimum and
semiskilled labor 50 percent over the estab­
lished minimum wage.
Overall employment matters in Colombia
are regulated by the Substantive Labor Code
of 1960, as amended. A 1955 decree, however,
empowers the Government to establish minimum
daily wage scales for the entire economy or
particular economic sectors and geographic
areas upon recommendation of a six-member
2 2/ The concept of m inim um wages in m ost of these
countries differs substantially from that in the United States.
M inimum wages in these foreign countries are closely
related to wages determ ined by collective bargaining or
to prevailing w ages, and usually consider differences in
geographical are a s, including cost of living, in d ustries,
and occupations. This distinction explains why allowing
exem ptions o r having youth wage differentials is m ore
feasible for them than for the United S tates, w here minim um
wages are geared to a m inim al standard of living.

joint board of employers and workers. In fix­
ing minimum wages, consideration is given to
the nature of the work, the economic condition
of the area and industrial sector, and the cost
of living. Once the minimum wage has been
established, the Minister of Labor may for 1
year exempt individual enterprises and em­
ployers from paying it. The employer must
prove that payment of the minimum wage would
“upset the financial equilibrium of the under­
taking.w Labor inspectors enforce compliance
with the regulations, and violations are punish­
able by fines.
A statutory g u a r a n t e e d minimum wage
(Salaire Minimum Interprofessional GarantiSMIG) exists in France and applies to all
classes of workers. The minimum wage varies
by worker skill and by six geographic zones.
A 259-item consumer price index serves as
a basis for determining the statutory minimum
wage for each zone. The highest minimum
wage zone is Paris; the current SMIG rate
is 2.10 francs (approximately US$0.47) an hour.
A law to establish minimum working con­
ditions in West Germany authorizes the Federal
Labor Minister under certain conditions, such as
the absence of unions and employers* associa­
tions in a particular branch of industry, to fix
minimum wage standards for that particular
jbranch of industry. In actual practice, this law
has little significance and does not apply to
Japanese law provides that minimum wages
may be set by industry or occupation on a
regional or national basis and specifies two
methods for establishing them. The first method,
in practice the only one utilized up to now,
provides that the Chief of a Prefectural Labor
Standards Office, if the region to be covered is
confined to one prefecture, or the Minister of
Labor may establish a minimum wage covering
all enterprises, regardless of size, in a given
industry when asked to do so by: (1) A group
of employers or employer associations in a given
region who have agreed on a minimum wage
applicable to all members, and whose inter­
enterprise agreement covers a majority of the
workers in the industry within a region; or
(2) all parties to a collective agreement con­

taining a minimum wage provision and covering
a majority of workers in the industry within
the region. The second method provides that
either the Minister of Labor or the Prefectural
Labor Standards Office Chief, again depending
on the size of the region, may initiate action to
establish the minimum wage if he finds that
the wages paid in a given i n d u s t r y or an
occupation are too low. Under both systems,
proposals to institute, revise, or abolish statu­
tory minimum wages must be submitted to a
tripartite (employer, employee, and p u b l i c
members) Minimum Wage Deliberation Council
for its recommendation. The governmental au­
thorities are expected to respect the Council’s
decision when actually fixing the minimum
wage. At the present time, there are only
two nationwide statutory minimum wages in
Japan—in the textile industry and in the coal
and metal mining industries for underground
In 1966, the Government of the Netherlands
passed a temporary minimum wage law and
authorized a weekly minimum wage of 120 florins
(US$33) for both men and women. In January
1967, the wage rate was raised to 126 florins
(US$34.80) and on July 1, 1967, it was raised to
128 florins (US$35.36). A permanent minimum
wage act is expected.
In the United Kingdom, legislative action,
beginning with the Trade Boards Act of 1909,
indirectly regulated wages in certain industries
(usually low-paying and less organized) through
specific Trade Boards which could set minimum
rates of pay in their respective industries.
Under the Wages Councils Act of 1959, which
consolidated the previous Wages Councils Acts,
Wages Councils—composed of equal numbers
of workers, employers, and not more than three
“independent members” —may propose to the
Minister of Labour minimum remuneration for
workers in their respective fields of activity.
The Minister of Labour appoints Wage Inspectors
to assure that the legal requirements of the
Wages Councils Act are satisfied. An employer
may be fined for violation of any wage order
posted in the industry.
In Venezuela, labor relations are regulated
by a comprehensive Labor Law. Wages are


settled primarily by collective bargaining, but
for particular industries or trades, a Minimum
Wage Commission may establish legal minimum
Youth W a g e Differentials

In several countries—Belgium, France, the
Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—
the wages of young workers, or apprentices,
or both are established by statutory or contrac­
tual provisions allowing, lower wages based on
age, so-called youth wages. Scope of coverage,
however, is sometimes limited to particular
industries or occupations. Wage differentials
for youth, where established, appear to be well
accepted by employers, unions, and parents.
Most c o l l e c t i v e agreements in Belgium
provide for lower wages to persons under 21.
Only in exceptional cases do some agreements
provide for equal pay for equal work, regardless
of age. For example, in the metalworking
industry in 1959, the percentage hourly pay
reduction, based on the adult workers* rate
in the same skill catergory, ranged from
60 percent for those under age 16 to 5 per­
cent for those 6 months before their 21st
birthday. A particular individual could receive
a fixed increase if he had a diploma from a
vocational school.
The French legal minimun wage provides
for reductions applicable to workers under
18 years of age, according to the following
Age group
Percent reductions from
guranteed minimum
______wage, 1964_______
14- 15 years ............................. 50
15- 16 years . .......................... 40
16- 17 years .................
17- 18 years .............................. 20
In the Netherlands, collective agreements in
individual industries set lower rates for young
people. Different job rates apply for each year
of age from 14 to the specified adult level,
which varies according to the industry. For
example, the wage for a Job Class I adult,
worker aged 23 in the metal industry in 1964


was 1.79 florins (US$0.50) an hour. The rates
for young workers between 14 and 22 years
in the same job ranged from 0.48 f l o r i n s
(US$0.15) to 1.65 florins (US$0.46) an hour. At
age 18 the rate was 0.90 florins (US$0.25) an
In Sweden, special wages for youth in the
16 to 23 age range are established through
collective bargaining. They vary according to
age, sex, skill, industry, and the cost of living.
In the United Kingdom, the minimum wages
set by the various Wages Councils provide
for lower pay rates applicable to young workers,
usually from ages 15 to 21 for males and from
15 to 18 for females. The rates increase yearly
and. in some cases, biannually up to adult age.

The legislation of the various countries on
hours of work covers many categories of work­
ers and in some cases applies especially to
young workers. These provisions are sum­
marized briefly below. Further details appear
in the “Hours* sections of the next two chapters,
on apprenticeship as affected by labor standards
and on vocational training for adults as affected;
by labor standards.
Basic hours legislation in Austria dates back
to the Law on Hours of Work of 1939 which estab­
lished a normal workday of 8 hours; there was
no prescribed limit on the length of the work­
week. A national collective agreement between
the Federal Chamber of Industry and the Austrian
Trade Union Federation in 1959, however, made
effective a 45-hour workwee^ in industrial and
commercial firms subject to collective agree­
ments. Overtime work is permissible only in
exceptional circumstances, for which premium
rates must be paid. 23/ A higher premium (50
percent) must be paid for young workers, bakers,
and agricultural workers.
Paid or regular employment of children under
14 or of compulsory school age is prohibited.
Hours of work for youth up to their 18th birthday
are restricted to 44 a week. Overtime at night
23/ F or scales of prem ium ra te s paid in foreign
countries, see table F -3, p.47.

between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. as well as work on
Sundays and holidays are prohibited almost with­
out exception. Youths are entitled to 43 hours of
uninterrupted timeoff a week.
In Belgium, the act respecting hours of work
in the public and private sectors of the national
economy of 1964 established an 8-hour day and a
45-hour week for most classes of workers.
Section 21 states that any work performed beyond
the legal time limits will be treated as overtime
and compensated for at premium rates, unless
not subject to the law. The 45-hour week, how­
ever, had been in effect since the middle 1950’s,
when a national agreement was signed by the
workers’ and employers’ intertrade organiza­
tions. The agreement was extended to cover
virtually all wage earners by decisions of the
joint committees and by royal orders. Eleven
consecutive hours of rest at night are manda­
tory for women and youth under 18.
The 1946 Brazilian Constitution as well as
the Consolidated Labor Code of 1943 provided
for an 8-hour day and a 48-hour week in indus­
try and commerce. A maximum of2hoursa day
of overtime work is permitted if the employee
agrees in writing or if the collective contract
so stipulates. Only in an emergency may the
legal overtime limit be exceeded, in which case
the Minister of Labor must be notified within 10
days. Overtime in certain harmful occupations
requires advance approval from the Minister of
Labor and Social Welfare. To work overtime a
woman must obtain documented authorization
on her work card from a Government physician.
Children under age 18 may work overtime only
in special emergencies. A premium of at least
20 percent of base pay must be paid for over­
time worked. Double compensation is paid for
Sunday and holiday work if no alternate day off
is provided.
Work from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. is considered
nightwork. A pay differential of at least 20 per­
cent, computed on the sum of the base pay plus
any other premium earned, is mandatory. In en­
terprises which normally operate at night, the
night premium is applicable only to employed
persons who earn less than the minimum wage
plus 20 percent. Persons under 18 years of age
may not work at night under any circumstances.

In the absence of contractual regulation, the
Colombian Labor Code provides for a regular
working day of 8 hours and a maximum of 48
hours a week in industry. In farming, forestry,
and cattle raising, a 9-hour day and a 50-hour
week were established. A twofold gradation in
the amount of overtime compensation exists.
If the overtime work is performed during the
daylight hours from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., a 25
percent premium is paid; during nighttime hours,
6 p.m. to 6 a.m., a 75 percent premium rate
applies. Those working on Sundays and holidays
are entitled to compensation equal to twice the
normal pay. Minors under 16 may not work
longer than 6 hours a day, 36 hours a week, or
at night, unless they are employed in domestic
work. Workers between 16 and 18 years old have
a 7-hour day and a 42-hour week.
In Denmark, the working hours of most
workers are not established by law, but are a
matter of bargaining and agreement. At present,
an 8-hour day and a 44-hour week are common.
Various laws regulate the hours of workers under
18 years of age, but the restrictions apply mainly
to night and Sunday work; exceptions are made
for training.
A law, passed in 1936, made the 40-hour week
mandatory in the nonagricultural sector of the
French economy. The agricultural sector is
covered by a 1948 law which provided for an
annual limitation of 2,400 working hours for wage
earners in agriculture and forestry. This figure
is based on a working year of 300 days. In Feb­
ruary 1946, a law on overtime reinforced the
legal workweek of 40 hours; it authorized over­
time up to a limit of 20 hours a week, for which
a premium must be paid. Young workers, 14 to
16 years old, may not work over 40 hours a week.
From age 16 to 18, up to 4 hours a week of over­
time are permitted. Nightwork is prohibited up to
age 18.
Two recent ordinances of the Council of Min­
isters in Germany reduced the workweek to 5
days and 45 hours. Workers employed on threeshifts work 44 hours. Overtime is permitted, but
at premium rates. Youth protective legis­
lation prohibits young workers under 16 from
working more than 40 hours a week, and for
those 16 to 18 a 44-hour maximum workweek is
the rule.

In Italy, an 8-hour day and a 48-hour week
apply to industrial and commercial business,
technical education institutions, philanthropic
institutions, offices, public works, and hospitals.
Hours limitations do not apply, however, to sea­
sonal work. Most collective labor agreements
provide for a workweek averaging 42 to 43 hours.
Sunday work generally is prohibited. Overtime
may not exceed 2 hours a day or 12 hours a week,
or the same average over a longer period.
Premium rates paid for overtime are settled
mostly through collective bargaining. Youths 15
and over may not work over 10 hours a day.
Also, they must receive an adequate rest period
after working for 6 hours.
The Labor Standards Law of 1947 establishes
the basic labor legislation in Japan. In principle,
hours of work are limited to 8 a day and 48 a
week. Overtime, at premium rates, is permitted
in cases of emergency or as agreed upon
between labor and m a n a g em en t. For work
injurious to health, overtime in limited to a
maximum of 2 hours a day, as is overtime work
of women.
In the Netherlands, the legal workweek in
most industries and shops is 48 hours; there
is a daily maximum of 9 hours. The norm since
1960-61 has been a 5-day 45-hour workweek.
The pertinent legislation includes the Labor Act
of 1919, the Hours of Work (Factories and
Workshops) Decrees of 1923, and the Hours of
Work in Offices Decrees of 1937—all of which
have been amended. Hours for women and
children are covered by the Employment of
Women and Young Persons Decree of 1920,
as amended. As in other countries, limitations
are placed on the number of hours which
young persons and women can work and on
daily and weekly rest periods.
In Norway, the Labor Protection Act of 1956,
as amended in 1958, provides for a 9-hour
day and a 45-hour workweek. Overtime is
permitted only under exceptional circumstances
and may not exceed 10 hours a week. Normal
hours for children under 15 in approved occupa­
tions and for young persons 15 to 18 are the same
as for adults, but overtime for workers under 18
is not permitted. The normal age of entry into
employment in industry and trade is 15. In indus­

trial establishments, transport operations, civil
engineering, and building operations, young per­
sons under 16 must have at least 12 consecutive
hours off between any two periods of work,
including the hours between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Persons between 16 and 18 must receive at
least 7 consecutive hours off between 10 p.m.
and 7 a.m.
Hours legislation, based on the General
Act on Working Hours of 1930 and amended
in 1957, prescribes a 9-hour day and a 45-hour
week for Swedish employees not covered by
collective agreements. This regulation covers
about one-third of the labor force. Contractual
hours tend to follow the established maximum,
even though collective agreements may establish
longer hours than those set by law. Swedish
law also omits any general regulation of overtime
pay on the principle that this detail should
be settled by collective bargaining. The General
Act d i s t i n g u i s h e s between emergency and
ordinary overtime. In emergencies, such as an
accident or national crisis, workers are obli­
gated to work as demanded by employers. In
ordinary overtime situations, employees 18
years of age and over may work beyond regular
hours, but at most, 48 hours in a 4-week period
and for no more than 200 work hours in a
calendar year. Most collective a g r e e m e n t s
covering production and related workers disting­
uish between normal overtime (2 hours beyond
the normal workday) and special overtime
(Sunday, holidays, and nightwork), for which
premium wages are paid.
The Workers Protection Act of 1949, amended
in 1963, made 10 hours the maximum workday
for women and young workers under 18. Their
maximum weekly hours of work are limited to
54. A minimum of 11 continuous off-duty hours
for night rest of young workers, as well as
for women in industry and the handicrafts,
is required.
A Federal Labor Law, which became effective
in 1966 in Switzerland, prescribed a workweek
of 46 hours for most classes of workers.
Standard work contracts or collective bargaining
agreements may set different work conditions,
provided they meet at least the minimum
standards. Special work regulations apply to

hospitals, hotels, and restaurants, and other
industries. Overtime at premium rates or
compensatory timeoff may not exceed 2 hours
a day for any worker. Sunday employment
generally is prohibited, but cantonal authorities
may allow certain exceptions. Young persons
under age 19 may not work at night or on Sundays,
but under special circumstances, such as voca­
tional training, exceptions may be granted.
Although the statutory workweek in the
United Kingdom is 48 hours, standard work­
weeks established through collective bargaining
range from 40 to 44 hours. The hours of youth
under 18 are fixed by law. Although children
13 to 15 are allowed to work a maximum of

2 hours on school days and on Sundays, they
may not be employed during school hours or at
night. The Shops Act of 1950 restricts shop
employees under 16 to 44 hours per week
and those aged 16 to 18, to 48. Similar pro­
visions apply to f a c t o r y workers under the
Factories Act.
In Venezuela, the Labor Law set a maximum
of 48 hours a week for men and a lower
maximum for women and youth. Minors 14 to
16 years old are allowed to work a maximum
of 6 hours a day. Overtime of 2 hours a day or
100 hours a year is permitted if approved by the
Labor Inspector.

W ages

Hourly wages of indentured apprentices in
most of the 16 countries 24/ are established
by collective or individual agreement and may
vary according to industry, area, age, and sex.
In some cases they are decreed, as in the
absence of collective agreements or for par­
ticular trades. Except in Japan, bargained or
decreed apprentices1 wages are substantially
lower than those of regular workers in the same
occupations. They may start at 10 to 12 percent
of the journeyman’s rate of pay and seldom
reach the 90 percent level in the final year of
training. However, unlike under the apprentice­
ship program in the United States, employers
customarily pay apprentices for time spent in
related instruction in virtually all the countries
Apprentices’ wages in Australia are deter­
mined by governing bodies, such as apprentice­
ship councils and the Industrial Conciliation
and Arbitration Commission, or by regulations,
arbitration awards, and agreements. In the
2 4 / A ustria, Belgium , Denmark, France, W est G er­
many, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Sw itzer­
land, and the United Kingdom.

Northern Territory, the Apprentices’ Board sets
the apprentices’ percentage of wages payable
under the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbi­
tration Act; in addition, where no Federal award
operates, the Board fixes the minimum wages
payable to apprentices.
Under provisions of the Federal Metal Trades
Award, apprentices’ wages expressed as a
percentage of the journeyman’s wage for each
year of apprenticeship, are as follows:
Year of
Percent of
journeyman’s rate
1st y e a r ...................................31.5
2d y e a r ...................................40.5
3d y e a r .................................... 47.25
4th y e a r ...................................71.0
5th y e a r ...................................85.5
In Brazil and Colombia, apprentices are paid
half the legal or contractual minimum wage.
The major difference between the two systems
lies in the absence in Brazil of a progressive
scale of apprentices’ pay. In Colombia, appren­
tices’ wages increase every 6 months until the
full legal minimum or contractual minimum wage
is reached at the end of the apprenticeship period.

In France, the apprentice is not legally of regular qualified workers in a comparable
entitled to any compensation. According to skill. Their pay scale increases over the
custom or negotiated agreements, however, duration of the apprenticeship. If training occurs
apprentices receive a kind of “pocket money.* outside the firm, the company provides time off
Most collective bargaining agreements, however, and pays the cost. When apprentices are sent
provide for the payment of wages on a progres­ to regular centers of the National Institute of
sively increasing scale which usually starts at Cooperative Education (INCE), the company
must pay the apprentice per diem subsistence
50 percent of the legal minimum wage.
In West Germany, apprentices* wages are plus regular wages.
either regulated under industrywide collective
In several countries, apprentices, even after
agreements or simply decreed, as in the handi­ completing the training program, may not qualify
craft shops by the c o m p e t e n t handicraft immediately for the full journeyman’s wage. In
chamber. The amount, which is estimated to be Germany, the apprentice may have to work a year
about one-fourth of the wage received by a youth or two to acquire sufficient experience to qualify
in an unskilled job in a comparable industry for the journeyman’s rate of pay. In the Nether­
or trade, usually increases for each year lands, apprentices are paid an “improver’s*
of t r a i n i n g . To emphasize the position of wage rate for several years before qualifying
apprentices as pupils, their wages are intended for full wages and skilled status. The age at
to represent a kind of “educational grant.** which this status is reached varies according
Practice reveals that monthly cash payments to to the trade or occupation. For example, in
apprentices vary considerably from one eco­ metallurgy and automobile trades, the age is
nomic activity to another. For example, auto 26; in patternmaking, 28; and in the building
mechanic apprentices received, in 1964, about trades, 23. In the United Kingdom, apprentices
DM50 (US$12.50), and building trade apprentices who have completed their training may be
DM 170 (US$42.50), monthly in the first year of required to work 1 or 2 additional years in
training. In the final year of training, the fourth some industries at less than the full journeyman
and third year in the respective trades, the rate for adult workers.
monthly payments were DM80 (US$20) and DM
300 (US$75), respectively.
O th er B e n e fits
In Japan, apprentices are paid according to the
Compared with the wages of apprentices in
pay scale of the organization giving the training.
In most companies, according to a recent the United States, which range from 50 to 90
report, 25/ no differential exists between the percent of the journeyman’s straight-tim e
wages of apprentices and those of other workers earnings, bargained or decreed wages of foreign
of the same age and seniority. Some companies, apprentices are considerably lower. Foreign
however, pay apprentices slightly less during apprentice earnings in some cases, however,
the training period. It is also customary to grant are supplemented by additional allowances.
In Denmark, for example, the Danish Federa­
apprentices bonuses on the same basis as other
tion of Employers estimates that the pay of
In Italy and the United Kingdom, collective apprentices varies from 12 to 13 percent of
bargaining plays the most prominent role in the journeyman’s wage in the first year of
setting the wages of apprentices. In the absence training to about 20 percent during the final
of collective agreements, the Minister of Labor year of apprenticeship. Danish apprentices, how­
decrees the wages of Italian apprentices . The ever, may receive supplementary support from
wages of English apprentices in some industries the Young People’s Training Fund for expenses
may be fixed by the appropriate Wages Councils. such as travel or board at the technical school.
In Venezuela, apprentices starting their
/ International Labor O ffice,
on the
compulsory apprenticeship training programs Study2 5Tour on Vocational Training in Report (Geneva, Asian
are paid a wage equal to about one-half that 1966, IL O /T A P /A F E /R .14).

For example, apprentices, who must travel more
than 7 kilometers (4-1/2 miles) to attend such a
school are eligible for reimbursement of travel
expenses. The Government may pay 20 percent
of the costs of board and lodging. Apprentices
also may receive scholarships and loans from the
Young Peopled T r a i n i n g Fund or private
s c h o l a r s h i p s from individual trade unions.
In other countries, such as Belgium, France,
and the Netherlands, family allowances may
supplement the pay of apprentices. In Belgium,
the apprentice’s parents are entitled to a family
allowance if the apprentice is less than 21
years of age, earns less than 450 Belgian
francs (US$9) a week, and is not a member
of his employer’s family. In France, it is
considered more worthwhile to continue to reoeive a family allowance, paid until age 17 for
apprentices, than to raise their wages, since
the wages, if in excess of 50 percent of the
legal minimum wage rate, would disqualify
the parents from receiving an allowance for
their apprenticed children. In the Netherlands,
the family allowance is paid according to
the provisions of the Family Allowance Act
for Wages Earners, the General Family Allow­
ance Act, and the Family Allowance Act for
Self-Employed Person.
By and large, apprentices are covered by
all the social benefits customarily available
to regular workers. These include old-age
insurance, paid vacations, unemployment insur­
ance, accident insurance, hospitalization, and
paid sick leave.
The length of the paid vacation sometimes
varies according to age. In Belgium, for example,
apprentices under 18 years of age normally
receive 18 days off a year with pay; those
over 18, 12 days. B e l g i a n employers are
required to pay 8 percent of the wages paid
apprentices into a special Annual Vacation
Fund, a practice not encountered in the other
countries. Since January 1967, all Belgian
workers are entitled to 3 weeks of paid vacation.
French and German employers must give ap_26/ See appendix D, p .4 4 t for exam ples of le g is ­
lative restrictio n s on overtim e.
2 7 / “Denmark: An Act R especting Workers* P rotec­
tion Generally,** L egislative S eries 1954 (International Labor
O ffice, Geneva), No. 226, June 11, 1954.

prentices under 18 years of age 23 days of
paid vacation a year. In Switzerland, the law
requires that each employee be granted at
least 2 weeks of paid vacation annually. Appren­
tices, however, up to age 20, and workers
up to age 19, have a right to 3 weeks. These
federally established minima may be liberalized
by the cantons. The Norwegian Holidays Act
provides explicitly for longer vacations for
apprentices than the 4 weeks given to regular
employees but does not compel employers to
grant them. Consequently, apprentices seldom
receive longer vacations.
H ours

The hours which apprentices are required
to work are usually the same as those of
regular workers, except for overtime; limita­
tions on overtime are imposed mostly because
of the young age of apprentices. 26/ For example,
in Belgium, apprentices may not contract to work
more than 45 hours a week; in Italy, the
maximum number of weekly hours is 44; and
in Japan, 42. Overtime work of apprentices is
usually permitted only under exceptional cir­
cumstances and must normally be compensated
for at the established premium rates. In France,
apprentices are usually granted a bonus for over­
time, although no specific legal provision exists
for such compensation.
In Denmark, apprentices may not be required
to work more than 10 hours a day. Permission
is usually granted to employ trainees 16 years
old and over at night, however, for training pur­
poses. For example, the Factories and Work­
shops Act of 1954 states:
Where it is considered necessary for the
young person’s training, the Minister of
Social Affairs may also, on receipt of an
application therefor and with the advice of
the Director of Labour Inspection and the
Labour Council, permit male workers who
have attained the age of 16 years to partici­
pate . . .in operations that are necessarily
continuous in character between 6 p.m.
and 6 a.m. in the following undertakings:
iron and steel factories, glassworks, paper
mills and sugar factories. 27/

In France, unless otherwise provided for ih
collective bargaining agreements, the time that
employers must allow apprentices to attend
related instruction are not counted toward the

apprentices’ working hours. In other countries,
including West Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden,
and Venezuela, related instruction time is
normally part of the apprentice’s working day.

Vocational Training Programs for Adults
W ages

Full-Time Training Centers. Adults taking
full-time instruction in government training
centers or in other approved full-time training
institutions are paid either the unemployment
compensation benefit or a training allowance.
The basic wage, except for a few cases, is
further supplemented by special allowances,
such as dependents’ or family allowances, lodg­
ing allowances, or per diem subsistence, and
sometimes special rent allowances, to cushion
the expenses of home upkeep when the head of
household must be away from home for the du­
ration of training. Allowances are sometimes
granted for meals; in other cases, meals are
provided at centers at a modest price. Meals
seldom are free. To qualify for some of these
various allowances, a means test is often re­
Limitations on the total payments received
are usually imposed. For example, in Belgium,
under regulations governing training allowances,
the trainee payments, including wages or their
substitute and all other supplementary benefits,
may not exceed either the normal wages paid
to adult skilled workers in the same trade or
the regular wages paid to young, unskilled
workers. At present, Belgian trainees under
courses sponsored by the National Employment
Office (ONEM) are paid a maximum of 33
francs 41 centimes an hour (US$0.67). In West
Germany, the training allowance is related to
previous earnings.
In-Plant Training. When adult training occurs
within the firm, the trainees may be paid their

regular wages, as in Austria; the employer, in
turn, is subsidized from public funds to cover
expenses such as loss of worktime, lower pro­
ductivity, and use of materials and equipments.
In the Netherlands, the trainee begins by re­
ceiving the wage rate paid to an unskilled work­
er in the particular industry. During the train­
ing course, the value and p r o g r e s s of the
trainee’s performance are calculated, and the
length of training time required is determined.
For the formal part of the training the state pays
about 40 percent of an unskilled worker’s
wage; the difference, or 60 percent, is paid
by the employer. Wages paid by the employer
during the practical training depend on the
value of the worker’s performance until the
end of the agreed training time, when the full
wage is paid.
In Italy, participants in on-the-job training
courses under Law No. 264 receive a wage equal
to two-thirds of their normal pay up to a
maximum of 40 hours weekly. This salary is
charged to the Wage Integrating Fund. Par­
ticipants are also paid an additional allowance
of 100 lire (US$0.16) a day and a family allow­
Combination In-Plant and Full-Time Train­
ing in Centers. When workers are sent by their
employers to retrain at the centers for related
instruction, as in France, employers may pay
their regular wages and, in turn, may receive
a government subsidy. In the Netherlands, if
an employer wishes to have a center train a
person already employed, he must pay the
trainee’s wage or allowance and, in addition,

pay a fee to cover the cost of the training.
The number of such cases is reportedly small.
Incentive Pay. The Netherlands has intro­
duced an incentive pay system for trainees.
Those in vocational training at the centers are
paid a basic compensation for the loss of earnings
each week. For married men of age 23 and over,
this allowance is about 90 percent of the basic
wage of unskilled workers. Single men of age
23 and over receive 12-1/2 to 25 percent less,
depending on whether or not they live with their
parents. Trainees under age 23 are paid 10
percent less for every year below that age.
Over and above the basic compensatory
pay, the trainee is paid a performance premium
if his average performance rating for practical
work is above a specified minimum. The amount
of the incentive premium is based on a threefold
scale, depending on whether the individual’s
performance rating score i$ low, medium, or
high. The premium is paid only if the particular
qualifying score has been maintained for an
entire week and if, during the same week, a
minimum average performance mark for the­
oretical training has also been achieved. The
premium reportedly encourages the concentra­
tion and perseverance of the trainees.
Minimum Wages. Under adult vocational
training programs in France, the state pays
workers in training at the centers the legal
minimum wage rate for the duration of their
training. In Japan, employers conducting govern­
ment-approved on-the-job vocational training
programs may be exempted from paying the
minimum wage to the trainees who are in full­
time training and are not producing anything
of value. In practice, however, such permission
is rarely requested by employers.
Lump-Sum Payments After Training. In
addition to the basic wage or allowance, some
countries have adopted a system of additional
lump-sum payments paid to trainees success­
fully completing their courses.
Belgian trainees upon completion of training
receive 900 to 1,800 francs (US$18 to US$36)
in a lump sum—the amount varying according

to the duration of the training period. Moreover,
if the trainee remains employed in the occu­
pation for which he was trained for 6 months
during the 12-month period immediately fol­
lowing his training, he is paid an additional
500 francs. Those who have successfully com­
pleted training taken on Saturdays receive a
lump sum of 900 francs, in addition to 80 francs
for each Saturday in attendance.
In Italy, under accelerated vocational train­
ing programs, participants successfully com­
pleting their courses are paid a lump-sum
payment of 3,000 lire (US$4.80). Those who have
completed on-the-job training courses and can­
not be absorbed in the firm’s work force must
be paid dismissal benefits and bonuses under
the terms of the existing labor contracts.
Other countries follow slightly different
practices. Swedish t r a i n e e s completing the
course may be granted “financial assistance”
in the form of a loan equivalent to 1 month’s
training allowance to assist in their transition
from school to work. In the United Kingdom,
payment in kind may be provided to trainees
successfully completing a training program. In
trades where craftsmen normally have their
own tools, a free tool kit is given to the trainee
who has successfully completed a training
Young Persons. Young persons in training
under adult-type programs may or may not
receive an allowance. In Italy, for example,
young people up to age 16 or 17 receive no
pay. However, they do receive two free meals
a day and other benefits. Dutch trainees under
18, living with their parents, do not receive
an allowance. In Japan, young trainees under­
taking basic training to enter employment for
the first time are denied allowances; they may
even be required to pay certain fees to cover
expenses such as books and working clothes.
Trainees from low-income families, however,
may receive an interest-free loan up to 4,000
yen (US$11) a month. If the training course
lasts at least 1 year, they may use public
transport facilities at a reduced rate. In Sweden.
on the other hand, young persons attending 2year training courses of vocational training

centers receive a small allowance of about onefourth or one-third of what a youth of similar
age could earn.
O t h e r B e n e f its

Allowances received by unemployed adult
trainees usually are not subject to income
tax. In addition, trainees are covered by sick­
ness, accident, and disability insurance even
though they do not usually contribute to the
social security system and often are reimbursed
for travel expenses. Tuition is usually free.
In the Netherlands, trainees living 3 or more
m iles from the vocational training center may
receive either an allowance for travel or an


allowance for the use of their bicycles. Since
many of the courses for adults are short, paid
vacations are seldom granted. Trainees seldom
receive working clothes or an allowance for
their purchase.

Hours of training for adults follow closely
the normal workweek pattern in the respective
countries. Practical training instruction con­
sumes from 75 to 90 percent of the total train­
ing time. Adults trained in the firm are treated
as regular workers for purposes of computing
overtime pay.

T r a in e e W ages

Although the application of wage-hour stand­ for a particular course at such institution
ards to the training programs of the countries is closed, the employer is relieved of the
discussed in this bulletin does not appear to have obligation for institutional training. As a result,
caused employers to minimize or refrain from a large number of minors hired as apprentices
providing training, particular problems have are reportedly performing full-time work at
occurred that tend to suggest a rather serious half pay without receiving adequate training.
imbalance between the quantity and quality of Observers also feel that the lack of a graduated
scale in the apprentice wage during training and
The current trainee-wage practice of some a strong demand for semiskilled workers in
countries has resulted in dissatisfaction among industry contributes substantially to the large
apprentices or abuses among employers. For number of youths who fail to complete the ap­
example, Danish apprentices staged demonstra­ prenticeship.
tions in 1966 against the “starvation* wages
An Italian journal article 28/ indicated that
received and the allegedly inordinate length the low wage of Italian apprentices coupled
of their apprenticeship. The demonstrations, with virtually lim itless freedom in hiring them
often held in conjunction with trade union had resulted, in some cases, in the unscrupulous
conventions, were directed not only toward use of young workers at the expense of their
employers but also skilled workers. The appren­ proper educational and vocational development..
tices felt that (1) management tended to regard Strong appeals have been made to transform*
apprentices as a source of “cheap labor,* and Italian apprenticeship from a quantity- to a
(2) skilled workers tended to believe that the quality-based system by stricter regard for
present generation of apprentices should be the spirit and letter of the law. Also, legis­
exposed to the same “ordeal* in their training lation has been proposed to reform apprentice­
that the past generation had experienced. At ship training by having rigorous training in­
the triennial convention in Copenhagen in August spection, expanded control of the numbers
1966, the Danish machinists’ union, whose trained, and improvement of apprentices’ wages.
There are indications that the German ap­
membership included many skilled workers,
responded with expressed determination to press prenticeship system, especially in small estab­
lishments, is open to similar abuse. A basic
for improved apprentices’ wages.
In Brazil, minors may be hired at half criticism is that young persons are recruited as
the minimum wage if they are enrolled part cheap labor and are often employed on work not
time in a training course in an approved directly related to their training. Wages amount
institution. However, if no training institution to only 20 to 25 percent of the journeyman’s rate,
exists in a particular area or if enrollment and apprenticeship is provided in as many as 600
basic trades for eventual work in 20,000 occupa­
2 8 / Remo P ironti, “La Form azione P rofessionale e
tions. About 1.3 million persons on the average,
l ’attivita del M inistero del Lavora,* R assegna del L avoro.
or 6 to 7 percent of the total wage and salary
Quaderno No. 27, 1963, p.40.


work force, undergo apprenticeship at onetime.
Under these conditions, there still has been in
recent years an average of 250,000 apprentice­
ship vacancies.
When adjusted to a family allowance system,
apprentices’ wages may not improve signifi­
cantly. In France, for example, if apprentices’
wages exceed 50 percent of the legal minimum
wage, parents are not entitled to a family
allowance for them. Allegedly, parents have
found it more advantageous to receive the
family allowance than to encourage increases
in wages for their apprenticed children. Conse­
quently, apprentices’ wage have not been critical
in contract negotiations.

In only one case have wage regulations
had an adverse influence on employers’ will­
ingness to hire apprentices. Shortly after the
Apprenticeship Act of 1951 in Norway was en­
acted, many employers, especially in small
firms, hesitated to accept apprentices on grounds
that the act involved them in large expenses and
extra work in providing systematic training.
They particularly opposed the requirement to
pay apprentices’ wages during school attendance
and sickness. As a result, in 1958, state grants
were made available to smaller firms accepting
apprentices, and refund of part of the wages
paid during the apprentices’ illness also was
provided for.

T r a in e e H o u r s

Problems regarding the hours of training
were found to be of a general character. A
paradoxical situation has resulted from the
fact that there is less time for training, on
the one hand, because of the shortened work­
week, whereas, on the other hand, there is a
rise in the skill standards demanded due to
technological advances. Consequently, officials
of an increasing number of countries have begun
to place greater emphasis on the theoretical
aspects of training. There has also been con­
siderable experimentation with “block release,”
that is, classroom instruction of several weeks’
duration or longer in each year, rather than “day
release,” which calls for classroom instruction
of at least 1 full day a week, although the latter
is still more common.
The United Kingdom has made an effort

to cope with the problem by devoting the first
full year of apprenticeship to “off-the-job” train­
ing. The adoption of a similar technique has
received support in other countries, such as
West Germany and France.
The fact that many employed persons today
can be expected to change jobs more frequently
in their working lives than in the past con­
stitutes a similar problem. To facilitate the
transition of workers to other occupations,
training which combines general education and
technical training basic to two trades or more
is receiving greater attention. Upgrading the
training of employed persons is also becoming
more prominent. In adult training, short and
intensive courses under accelerated vocational
t r a i n i n g schemes are already widespread
throughout Western Europe.

O t h e r P r o b le m s

General concern resulted over insufficient
funds to expand or modernize training facilities
and equipment, particularly for adult training.
Another general problem, especially important

to the countries having tax systems for financing
training, is the apparent inability of the small
employer to take advantage of the system to
provide training. In France, for example, ap-

prenticeship tax exemptions have been criticized
for insufficient inducement for plants to initiate
or continue in-plant vocational training. 29/
Moreover, the report of the Committee of
Enquiry into measures to improve further
e d u c a t i o n and upgrading (the Masselin Com­
mittee) disclosed that a third of the tax proceeds
went into the national budget unused and con­
cluded that the tax is a failure particularly
2 9/ C h a r t i e r , “La Taxe d’apprentissage* L* enseignem ent Technique (P aris), A pril-June 1964, pp. 3746, in CIRF A bstracts (International Vocational T raining
Inform ation and R esearch C enter, Geneva), vol. 3. 1964,
No. 2/08789.
3 0 / J. Choffel, “ Difficules de la form ation p ro fessionnelle,* L ’Usine nouvelle (P aris), Special issu e, O ctober
1964, pp. 85, 87, and 89, in CIRF A bstracts (International
Vocational T raining Inform ation and R esearch C enter,
(Geneva), vol. 3., 1964, No. 2/09847.

for small enterprises. 30/ In Brazil, only
the largest firms were able to train and to
qualify for a tax rebate. In the United Kingdom,
the Industrial Training Boards are encouraged
to give special consideration to the training
difficulties and needs of small employers.
In contrast to the dynamic changes that
have occurred in industry and technology during
recent years, v o c a t i o n a l training in many
countries have been described as static. In some
countries the need for modern vocational training
laws has been acknowledged. Regarding the
inflexibility of the apprenticeship system in
particular, considerable debate is taking place
on the appropriate length of training, the neces­
sity to adapt course content to changing occupa­
tional requirements, and the need to devise a
means to systematically update skills.



Text of

Q uestion naire

[D istr ib u te d to U0S 0 Labor A tta ch es in Bern , B ogota, Bonn,
B r u s s e ls , C anberra, Copenhagen, C aracas, London, O slo ,
P a r is , Rio de J a n e ir o , Rome, Stockholm , The Hague, Tokyo,
and V ienna]
1« What ty p es o f programs e x is t : Programs e s ta b lis h e d by law , c o l le c t iv e
b a rg a in in g , em ployers u n ila t e r a lly , o th ers? Is th e tr a in in g programed on th e
p la n t, l o c a l, S ta te (P r o v in c ia l), or n a tio n a l le v e l?
2 ® Are th e programs op erated by th e governm ent, em p loyers, u n io n s, o th e r
o r g a n iz a tio n s , or by any com bination o f th e se groups? Who has th e r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t y fo r tr a in in g req uirem en ts and job requirem ents?
3 . What p art does o n -th e -jo b tr a in in g p la y , in g e n e r a l, in th e tr a in in g
o f a p p r e n tic e s, o th e r y o u th s, and a d u lts? To what e x te n t i s o n -th e -jo b
tr a in in g o f each o f th e above typ es p r a c tic ed ?

4 . Who i s e l i g i b l e fo r p a r tic ip a tio n in (a ) govern m en tally and (b) p r i­
v a te ly op erated programs?
5 . What methods o f in s tr u c tio n are used? What i s th e d u ra tio n o f th e
v a r io u s ty p es o f tr a in in g ?
6 . How and by whom are th e v a r io u s programs fin a n ced ? I f tr a in in g i s
su b sid iz e d by th e governm ent w ith th e h e lp o f a ta x on th e in d u stry or in d i­
v id u a l em ployer p a y r o ll, are reb a tes or g ra n ts g iv en to firm s w ith approved
7 . How are tr a in e e s com pensated (w ages, a llo w a n c e s), what are th e ir h o u rs,
and what o th e r term s and c o n d itio n s apply to p a r tic ip a tio n in th e v a r io u s pro­
grams? How are pay, h o u rs, and o th e r term s and c o n d itio n s o f p a r tic ip a tio n
fix e d ?
8 . What i s th e le g a l r e la tio n s h ip betw een th e tr a in e e and th e firm or
o th e r in s t it u t io n p ro v id in g th e tr a in in g ?

9 . What have been th e p r a c tic a l e f f e c t s o f th e v a rio u s ty p es o f o n -th e -jo b
tr a in in g over th e p erio d o f a decade or more? (F urnish b e n e f it - c o s t a n a ly s e s ,
i f a v a ila b le * )
1 0 . C ite and d e sc r ib e th e p r o v isio n s o f c o n tr a c ts and o f la b o r , in d u s tr ia l
s a f e t y , s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and o th e r n a tio n a l, S t a t e , or lo c a l laws a p p ly in g
to th e v a rio u s ty p es o f o n -th e -jo b tr a in in g .

11 . Does le g is l a t io n r e g u la tin g lab o r sta n d a rd s, such as minimum wages
an d /or maximum h o u rs, e x is t ? I f s o , does i t apply to o n -th e -jo b tr a in in g ?
What are th e p e r tin e n t p r o v isio n s and how have they a ffe c te d tr a in in g ?
12 . O th erw ise, what p r o v isio n s o f th e lab or stand ards l e g is la t io n are n o t
a p p lic a b le to o n -th e -jo b tr a in in g and what r u le s apply in t h e ir p la ce?

A p p e n d ix B. M ajor N ation a l L e g isla tio n C o n c e r n i n g
A p p r en tic esh ip and V ocational Training

A u str a lia
Tradesm en's R igh ts R eg u la tion A ct, 1946-58
A u stria
Trade R e g u la tio n s, 1859, as amended
Act R esp ectin g Chambers o f Trade and Commerce, 1946
A g r ic u ltu r a l Labor Act o f 1948, as amended in 1965
A ct R esp ectin g Chambers o f Labor, 1954
L e g is la t iv e D ecree R esp ectin g th e E stab lish m en t o f J o in t Com m ittees in In ­
d u str y , Commerce, and A g r ic u ltu r e , 1945
Royal D ecree R esp ectin g V o ca tio n a l and F urther T rain in g in H a n d icra fts and
Commerce, 1959
D ecree o f th e M in istry o f th e M iddle C la s s e s , 1960, as amended in 1963
B r a z il
D ecree R esp ectin g th e E stab lish m en t o f SENAI, 1942
L e g is la t iv e D ecree R esp ectin g th e C o n so lid a tio n o f Labor Laws, 1943
D ecree R esp ectin g th e Concept o f A p p ren tice Em ployee, 1952
D ecree 118 R esp ectin g th e E stab lish m en t o f SENA, 1957, as amended in 1963
Law No* 188 o f 1959 R esp ectin g C on tracts o f A p p ren tic esh ip , as amended in
D ecree No® 2838 R esp ectin g th e Im plem entation o f Law 188, 1960
A p p ren ticesh ip A ct, 1956
Act No® 195 R esp ectin g th e Employment and T rain in g o f Young P erso n s, I960
Law R esp ectin g A ttendance a t V o ca tio n a l C ou rses, 1919
F inance Law R esp ectin g th e A p p ren ticesh ip T ax, 1925
Law R esp ectin g th e N ature and Form o f A p p ren ticesh ip C o n tra cts, 1928
Law R esp ectin g th e O rgan ization o f A p p ren ticesh ip in th e A rtisa n T rad es, 1937
Law R esp ectin g T ech n ica l and V o ca tio n a l .T rainin g in A g r ic u ltu r e , 1960, as
im plem ented by a d ecree o f 1961
Law No© 66-892 R esp ectin g th e O r ie n ta tio n and Program o f V o ca tio n a l T ra in ­
in g , 1966
Germany (F ed era l R ep ublic)
I n d u s tr ia l R eg u la tio n s Code, 1869, as amended
Commercial Code, 1897, as amended
H a n d icra fts R eg u la tion A ct, 1953
Act R esp ectin g th e P r o te c tio n o f Young P ersons in Employment, I960
I t a ly
D ecree No® 936 R esp ectin g th e E sta b lish m en t o f th e N a tio n a l A d m in istra tio n
fo r T rain in g o f Workers in Trade and Commerce (ENALC), 1938, as r e ­
o rgan ized in 1945
D ecree No* 1380 R esp ectin g th e E sta b lish m en t o f th e N a tio n a l I n s t it u t e
fo r I n d u s tr ia l T ra in in g (INAPLI), 1938, as amended by D ecree 393 o f
D ecree No® 1380 under a u th o r ity o f which th e N a tio n a l I n s t it u t e fo r T each­
in g and T rain in g H an d icraft Workers (INIASA) was e s ta b lis h e d , 1938

I t a l y --C ontin ued
Law No. 25 o f 1955, as amended by Law No. 706 o f 1956 R esp ectin g A p p ren tice­
sh ip C ourses
Labor Standards Law, 1947, as amended
V o ca tio n a l T rain in g Law, 1958
N eth erlan d s
V o ca tio n a l E ducation A ct, 1919, superseded by th e C ontinued E ducation A ct,
A ct R esp ectin g S u b sid ie s to th e A p p ren ticesh ip System , 1937
Act fo r an A p p ren ticesh ip System , 1966
A p p ren ticesh ip A ct, 1950
No l e g is l a t io n . In s te a d , th e b a s ic agreem ent betw een th e Swedish E m ployers1
F ed era tio n (SAF) and th e Sw edish Trade Union C on fed eration (L0) p ro­
v id ed fo r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g in 1944, r e v ise d in 1957
S w itzerla n d
Law R esp ectin g V o ca tio n a l T rain in g in A g r ic u ltu r e , 1951
Law R esp ectin g V o ca tio n a l T r a in in g , 1963, made e f f e c t iv e by a 1965 ord in an ce
U n ited Kingdom
Employment and T rain in g A ct, 1948
I n d u s tr ia l T rain in g A ct, 1964
V en ezuela
Law E s ta b lis h in g th e N a tio n a l I n s t it u t e o f C oop erative E ducation (INCE),
1959, as im plem ented in 1960


A p p e n d i x C.

Major N a tio n a l L e g is la tio n C o n c e r n in g A du lt T rainin g

A u str a lia
I n d u s tr ia l T rain in g P lan (proposed in 1964 but not y e t en acted )
A u stria
Unemployment In suran ce Law, 1927 (AVAVG)
R egent*s D ecree R esp ectin g th e O rga n izatio n o f th e N a tio n a l Employment
S e r v ic e , 1945
Royal D ecree R esp ectin g A ccelera te d V o ca tio n a l T rain in g fo r A d u lts and th e
R e h a b ilita tio n o f Unemployed P e r so n s, 1961, as amended
A ct No® 194 R esp ectin g th e V o ca tio n a l T rain in g o f U n sk ille d W orkers, I960
D ecree R esp ectin g th e E stab lish m en t o f T rain in g C en ters, 1945, amended in
1946 and 1949
A ct R esp ectin g th e Issu a n ce o f V arious P r o v isio n s fo r th e Prom otion o f In ­
d u s tr ia l P r o fic ie n c y , 1959
D ecree No® 59-1424 R esp ectin g th e Prom otion o f I n d u s tr ia l P r o fic ie n c y
W ithin th e Scope o f V o ca tio n a l T rain in g o f A d u lts, 1959
A ct No® 63-1240 R esp ectin g th e N a tio n a l Employment Fund, 1963
Law No® 66-892 R esp ectin g th e O r ie n ta tio n and Program o f V o ca tio n a l
T r a in in g , 1966
Germany (F ed eral R ep u b lic)
Employment and Unemployment In su ran ce Law, 1927, as amended
O ccup ation al Prom otion A ct, 1965
I ta ly
Law No. 264 R esp ectin g th e E sta b lish m en t o f a C en tral Commission fo r th e
P lacem ent o f Workers and A s sis ta n c e to Unemployed W orkers, 1949, as
amended by S ta tu te No® 4 5 6, 1951
D ecree No® 17 Im plem enting S ta tu to ry P r o v isio n s in th e A d m in istra tio n o f
th e V o ca tio n a l T rain in g Fund, 1950
Law E s ta b lis h in g T rain in g A c t iv it ie s o f th e C assa per i l M ezzogiom o (Fund
fo r Southern I t a l y ) , 1957
Employment S e c u r ity Law No® 141, 1947
V o ca tio n a l T ra in in g Law, 1958
N eth erlan d s
Royal D ecree P ro v id in g fo r a Bureau o f V o ca tio n a l T rain in g Under th e Gov­
ernment Employment O f fic e , 1944
Law E s ta b lis h in g th e N a tio n a l Unemployment In su ran ce System , 1938 as amended
O rdinance R esp ectin g V o ca tio n a l T rain in g C ourses fo r Unemployed P e r so n s, 1945
Labor Market O rdinance, 1966
S w itzerla n d
V o ca tio n a l T rain in g Law, 1963
U nited Kingdom
I n d u s tr ia l T rain in g A c t, 1964

A p p e n d i x D.

R estriction s on O vertim eW o rk

B r a z il
See* 59 o f B r a z il* s L e g is la t iv e D ecree No* 5452, May 1943, a p p lic a b le to
a l l em p loyees, s t a t e s : "The normal hours o f work [ 8 a dayj may be in cre a sed
by n ot more than 2 hours a day by an agreem ent in w r itin g betw een th e em ployer
and th e em ployee or by a c o l le c t iv e c o n tr a c t o f em ploym ent."
SeCo 61, p a r. (2 ) a d d itio n a lly s t a t e s : "In c a se s o f overtim e worked fo r
reason s o f fo r c e m ajeure . « • th e hours o f work s h a ll n ot exceed 12 hours a
day u n le s s anoth er lim it i s e x p r e ssly fix e d by law 0"
Art® I , seCo 38 o f a 1958 a c t amending Norway*s 1956 Act R esp ectin g th e
P r o te c tio n o f Workers s t a te s : "When th e normal hours o f work are changed
o o . , th e normal hours o f work o f young person s s h a ll n o t exceed 9 a day or
48 du ring any one week w ith o u t th e p erm ission o f th e M in istr y , which s h a ll be
req u ired in every in d iv id u a l ca se . . . . C hildren and young p erson s s h a ll
n ot be employed on overtim e o'*
Under a r t . I I o f th e same a c t , th e fo llo w in g term s, e f f e c t i v e u n t il Decem­
ber 31, I9 6 0 , were s tip u la te d : "The overtim e worked by an em ployee s h a ll in
no c a se exceed 30 hours in any fo u r c o n se c u tiv e w eek s.11
In th e A ct R esp ectin g A p p ren tices in H a n d icra fts, In d u stry , Commerce and
O ffic e Work, J u ly 1950, th e fo llo w in g p r o h ib itio n was made in ch . I l l , s e c . 8 ,
p a r. 5: "An a p p ren tice under th e age o f 18 s h a ll n ot be employed o v ertim e."
U nited Kingdom
A ccording to th e f a c t o r ie s le g is l a t io n o f th e U nited Kingdom, women and young
person s age 16 and over may be employed on overtim e w ith in th e fo llo w in g lim it s :
C overage
For th e w hole fa c to r y :
Maximum amount o f overtim e
in any w eek.
Maximum amount o f overtim e
in any ca len d a r y e a r .

O vertim e lim it s fo r fa c to r y w orking a -5 -day week
6 -day week
6 h o u rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . o . 6 h o u rs.
1 0 0 hours during not

more than 25 w eeks.

1 0 0 hours du ring n ot

more than 25 w eek s.

For in d iv id u a l women and
young p e r so n s:
Maximum spread o f em ploy­
m ent, i . e . , normal p e r i­
od o f employment . . . as
extended by p e r m issib le
o v ertim e.
Maximum d a ily working
hours (ex clu d in g i n ­
te r v a ls ) .

12 h o u rs.
Weekday o th e r than
Saturday: 12 h o u rs.
S atu rd ay: 6 h o u rs. . . . . 6 h o u rs, provided no
overtim e i s worked
in th a t w eek.
1 0 % h o u rs, provided
Weekday o th e r than
no Saturday o v er­
Saturday: 10 h o u rs.
tim e i s worked.
Satu rd ay: 5% h o u rs. . . . 4% h o u r s, provided
no o th er overtim e
i s worked in th a t
w eek.
E a r lie s t s ta r tin g t i m e . . . . . . . 7 a . m o e o . o . e o o e e o e o e o e " " o
L a te st f in is h in g t im e .. . . . . . . Weekday o th e r than Saturday: 9 p.m . fo r
women; 8 p.m . fo r young p e rso n s.
Saturday: 1 p.m .

S o u rce: Hours o f Employment o f Women and Young P e r so n s, M in iste r o f La­
bour S a fe ty , H ealth and W elfare, New S e r ie s No. 23, London, Her M ajesty*s
S ta tio n e r y O f fic e , 1965, pp. 1 1 -1 2 .

A p p e n d i x E. U s e f u l L i s t s

L is t 1 . U sual Entry Age
In to A pprenti c e s h ip ,
16 C oun tries
A u s tr a lia ........... 15 y ea rs
A u stria® ............. 15 y ea rs
B elgium ............. ® 14 y ea rs
B r a z il.• « • • • • • 14 y ea rs
Colombia®. . . . . 14 y ea rs
Denmark. . • • • • . 14 y ea rs
F r a n c e .. . . . . . . 14 y ea rs
Germany (F .R .) 15 y ea rs
I ta ly .................... 15 y ea rs
Japan. . . « ........... 15 y ea rs
N eth erla n d s. . . 15 y ea rs
Norway.................. 15 y ea rs
15 y ea rs
S w itz e r la n d . . . 15/16 y ea rs
U nited Kingdom 15/16 y ea rs
V e n e z u e la .. . . . 14 y ea rs

L is t 3® I n d u s tr ia l T rain in g
B oards, U nited Kingdom
A g r ic u ltu r e , h o r t ic u ltu r e ,
and fo r e s tr y
C arpets
C eram ics, g la s s , and
m ineral products
Chemical and a ll i e d
C iv il a ir tra n sp o rt
C on stru ction
C otton and a llie d t e x t i l e s
E le c t r ic it y supply
F u rn itu re and tim ber
H otel and c a te r in g
Iron and s t e e l
K n ittin g , la c e , and n e t
Man-made fib r e s
M etalworking
P etroleum
Road tra n sp o rt
Rubber and p la s t ic s
p r o c e ssin g
S h ip b u ild in g
Water supply
W ool, j u t e , and f la x

L is t 2 ® M in is tr ie s A ssigned Major
S u p ervisory R e s p o n s ib ility fo r
A p p ren tic esh ip , 16 C ou n tries
A u stra lia ® . ®

N a tio n a l S e r v ic e
Austria® ®. ®®« . ® .Federal M in istry o f Commerce
and R eco n stru ctio n
Belgium ®. ®. ®....M in is t r y o f E ducation and
C ultu re
B r a z il. . . . . ®
C ultu re
Colombia® ®®®® .o .M in istry o f E ducation
Denmark®. . . . ....M in is t r y o f E ducation
France ®®®®®o o .® .M in istry o f N a tio n a l Education
Germany (F.R,o) . .F ed era l M in istry o f Economic
A ffa ir s
I t a l y . ®®®®®.
S o c ia l S e cu rity
Japan. ®. ®®. ®
N eth erlands ®
and S c ien ces
Norway. . . . . . . . . .M in istry o f Church and
E d u cation al A ffa ir s
Sweden®®®®®®®®®®Ministry o f E c c le s ia s t ic a l
A ffa ir s and E ducation
Switzerland®®®®®Federal Department o f P u b lic
U nited Kingdom ®.M inistry o f Labour
Venezuela®®®®®®oMinistry o f E ducation

L is t 4 ® Levy A ssessm en ts o f S e le c te d
I n d u s tr ia l T rain in g B oards,
U nited Kingdom
I n d u s tr ia l
T rain in g Board

Levy as p ercen t
o f p a y ro ll

C arpetS o e ® o ® e o o ® o o o 0 .5
C o n s tr u c tio n .. . « ®®. ®1 (p lu s 1 .0 o f payments
made by em ployers to
lab or h ired under a
lab or on ly c o n tr a c t)
C otton and a llie d
te x tile s e e o e e o o o o ®4
F u rn itu re and
tim ber eceooeoeooe ®9
Iron and steel®®®.® (£18® 00.0. per em ployee)
Man-made fib re s® ..® .2
M etalw orking............. ® 2 .5
Shipbuilding® ®. ®. ®® 1.55
W ool, j u t e , and fla x 1 .5 ( 0 . 5 to 2 .0 fo r c e r ­
ta in esta b lish m e n ts)


T a b le F - l .

O v e r t i m e P re m i u m s a s P e r c e n t o f B a s i c Wage

A dapted from o f f i c i a l

T a b le F -2 .


A u stra lia 3 / . . . . . . . . . .
A u stria 4 / . . . . . . . . . . . .
B elg iu m 5 / . . . . . . . o . . . .
F r a n c e 6 / ........... ..
Germany 7 / . . . . . . . . . . . .
I t a l y 8 / ..................................
U n it e d Kingdom £ / . . . . .

l_/ Data

-5 0,786


on A p p r e n t i c e s h ip T r a i n i n g ,

1 961

4 4,939
9 ,1 4 3
5 8,190
1 ,1 5 6 ,8 9 9


4 7,278
8 ,3 5 0
1 ,130,780
471 ,35 3

on t r a i n i n g a r e
n o t com parable.
t a i l s , see fo o tn o te s 3 -9 .
2 / L abor F o rc e S t a t i s t i c s , 1956-66
(P a r is , O rgani­
z ation
E conom ic
C oop eration
D evelopm ent,
D a t a r e l a t e t o p e r s o n s 14 o r 15 y e a r s
o f age
and o v e r and
are not s t r ic t l y
com parable.
For d i f ­
feren ces
a nd
va riou s
m eth ods, c o n s u lt the s o u rce p u b l i c a t i o n .
3 / The s t a t i s t i c s
o n t h e n u m b er o f
a p p r e n t ic e s in
tra in in g are
from the A u s t r a l i a n
A p p r e n t i c e s h ip Ad­
C om m ittee, E s s e n t i a l
F eatu res o f
A u stra lia n
A p p ren ticesh ip
System s,
sec. 5,
tab le
F igu res
sh own a r e f o r J u n e 30 o f e a c h y e a r and r e p r e s e n t
t o t a l number o f a p p r e n t i c e s i n t r a i n i n g . O t h e r q u a l i ­
f ic a t io n s are a lso a p p lic a b le .
F i g u r e s f o r New S o u t h
W a l e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e 1 9 6 1 - 6 3 d a t a and i n c l u d e d
in the 1964-65
d ata.
Th e l a b o r
f o r c e data
are fo r
exclu d e
1 6 , and a r e
from the
C om m on w ea lt h B u r e a u o f C e n s u s an d S t a t i s t i c s , Y e a r b o o k
o f t h e C om m on w ea lt h o f A u s t r a l i a , 1 9 6 4 .
4 / From M a npo w er P r o b l e m s a nd P o l i c i e s
in A u s t r ia :
R e p o r t by E xa m in ers ( P a r i s , O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E conom ic
C o o p e r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 5 ) .
F i g u r e s sh ow t h e
t r e n d o f t h e nu m b er
o f a p p r e n tic e s in
recent years.
L a b or f o r c e d a ta a re f o r 1965.





( f o r so me w o r k e r s 2 5 )
(up t o 8 h o u r s , th en 50)
(up t o 70 a f t e r 1 s t h o u r )

10 0


S ta tistics



3 3 -1 /3

A ddition al




25 t o 50

A u s t r a l i a ..........................................
A u s t r i a . ..................................
B e lg iu m .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B r a z i l ..................... ...........................
C olom b ia .
D a nm a rk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Germany ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c )
I t a l y ............................. ..
J a p a n ......................... ....................
N eth erla n ds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N o r w a y ..........................
S w e d e n ...............................
S w i t z e r l a n d .............................. ..
U n i t e d K i n g d o m ........... ..
V e n e z u e la .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



C ountry


5 0,7 32
8 ,6 8 3
5 8,7 80
1 ,1 7 3 ,8 2 5
468 ,85 3

S e le cte d


-8,4 6 0
7 2,9 55
1 ,1 9 4 ,3 3 7

C ou n tries

1 96 5

94,7 44

1966 2 /



8 ,3 2 3

417 ,95 0




4 ,2 1 0
3 ,357

5 / From C o m i t e
N ational
F orm ation ,
( B r u s s e l s , 1 9 6 6 ) . F i g u r e s s ho w t h e n u m b e r o f c o n t r a c t s
con cluded o r agreed upon.
6 / From R e v u e f r a n c a i s e d u t r a v a i l , J u l y - S e p t e m b e r
1 9 6 6 , t a b l e 1 , p . 1 6 3 . F i g u r e s s h ow n u m b e r o f a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h i p c o n t r a c t s s i g n e d i n 12 m o n t h s e n d i n g i n J u n e
o f each y e a r .
fo r year
e n d in g June
1966 w ere
o b t a i n e d f r o m o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and i n c l u d e t h e
t o t a l number
o f w orkers in
t r a in in g in
firm s under
c o n t r a c t ; a n oth er 600,000 were
a p p r e n tic e d in p u b lic
t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s ; and an a d d i t i o n a l 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n p r i v a t e
te ch n ic a l s ch o o ls.
7 / From t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c ’ s S t a t i s t i c a l Y e a r b o o k ,
F i g u r e s i n c l u d e a p p r e n t i c e s and l e a r n e r s i n i n ­
d u s t r y a nd c o m m e r c e and i n t h e h a n d i c r a f t t r a d e s .
8 / From L a
Form azione
P rofession a le
Ita lia ,
Q u a d e m o 2 7 , 1 9 6 3 . D a t a t h r o u g h 1 96 5 s ho w a p p r e n t i c e s
a t com plem en tary
cou rses on ly
i n 12
e n d in g i n June o f
each y e a r .
The 1966
were o b t a in e d from o f f i c i a l
co r re sp o n d e n ce ; they i n ­
c l u d e a l l a p p r e n t i c e s o n r e c o r d a s o f M a rc h 3 1 , 1 9 6 6 .
9 / From t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r .
F igu res
r e l a t e to
y o u n g p e r s o n s o f b o t h s e x e s u n d e r 18 y e a r s o f a g e who
e n t e r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p when f i r s t e m p l o y e d .

T a b le F -3 .

B elgiu m 2 / « . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
France 3 /„ „ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I t a l y 4 7 . ............................. ..
Japan 5 / « . . . . „ „ « . « . . . . . . . .
N e t h e .r l a n d s 6 / . . . . . . . . . . . .
N o rw a y 7 / „ . . „ « r r . . . . . . . .
S we d en 8 / . . « . « « » . . . « . . « « « «
U n i t e d K i n g d o m 9 / . . . .............

S ta tistics


on A d u lt T r a i n i n g ,



1 ,6 9 6

2,4 1 1


2 9,299

1 3,314


1 Data a r e n o t
com parable.
For d e t a i l s ,
see the
follow in g footn otes.
2 ! From N a t i o n a l E m p l oy m e n t O f f i c e CONEM), R a p p o r t
an n u el, 1 96 2 -6 5 .
Number o f p e r s o n s c o m p l e t i n g
t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g . F i g u r e s i n c l u d e t h o s e
t r a i n e d u n d e r t h e ONEM p r o g r a m and b y e m p l o y e r s .
3 / Data
obtain ed
o fficia l
correspon den ce.
F i g u r e s i n c l u d e p e r s o n s who c o m p l e t e d
t r a in in g under
th e program V o c a t i o n a l T r a in in g f o r A d u lts (FPA ).
4 / D a t a s h o w n u m b er o f a d u l t s
t r a i n e d i n 12 m o n t h s
e n d in g in June
o f each y e a r .
d a ta a re from
Form azion e P r o f e s s i o n a l e in I t a l i a , Quadem o
1 9 6 3 ; 1 9 6 2 - 6 5 d a t a a r e f r o m o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s , and i n ­
clu d e
p e r s o n s i n a c c e l e r a t e d and o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g

C ountries

1 96 3

1,9 0 7


S elected


4 ,2 7 0
1 3,234
7 8,6 60
1 ,818
5 ,1 0 0


5 ,2 7 2
5 ,8 9 6
5 ,5 5 0

1 96 5
6 ,717
8 ,909
75,4 50
2 ,755
5 ,9 6 1


73,9 70

2 0,184
6 ,7 0 8

5 / From
O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Econom ic
C o o p e r a t i o n a nd
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un d er t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l L a b or Market B oa r d ;
a b o u t 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e w o r k e r s a r e i n i n d u s t r y .
9 / From M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r G a z e t t e ,
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F igu res in c lu d e
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------ , M in istry o f Labour and Departm ent o f E ducation and S cien ce* T rain in g
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London, O ctober 10, 1964*

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O FFIC E : 1969 O - 329-927