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Bulletin N o . 1203

September 1956

Job P e r f o r m a n c e
and Age:
A Study in
Measurement
IOWA STATE
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0C T 22135&
l ib r a r y

UNITED S T A T E S D EPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner



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Reports on the Department of Labor’s Older Worker Program:

J o b Perform ance and Age:

A Study in Measurement

Older Workers under C o ll e c t iv e B argain ing:
P a r t I. Hiring, R e te n tio n , J o b Term ination

Older Workers under C o ll e c t iv e Barg ain ing :
P a r t I I . Health, In su ra n ce, and P e n s i o n P l a n s

P e n s i o n C o s t s in R e la ti o n to the Hiring of Older Workers

Older Worker Adjustment to L a b o r Market P r a c t i c e s :
An A n a ly s i s o f E x p e r ie n c e in Se v e n Major L ab o r Markets

C o u n se lin g and P la c e m e n t S e r v i c e s for Older Workers

How to Conduct an E arning-O pportunities Forum in Your
Community

Bulletin N o . 1203
September 1956

Job Performance
and Age:
A

S tu d y

in

M e a su re m e n t

UN ITED S T A T E S D EP A R TM EN T OF
James P. Mitchell, Secretary

LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price




45

cents




P re fa ce
O ne o f t h e m o s t p r e s s in g p r o b le m s c o n f r o n t in g t h i s N a t io n c o n c e r n s t h e
d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e o l d e r w o r k e r i n s e c u r in g a n d r e t a i n i n g e m p lo y m e n t* T h e
U* S . D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , a w a r e o f t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , h a s u n d e r ta k e n a b r o a d
p r o g r a m t o e x a m in e t h e s e p r o b le m s , a n d , i f p o s s i b l e , t o f i n d m e a n s f o r o y e r c o m in g t h e m . A s p a r t o f t h i s p r o g r a m , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m in e s t h e p r o b le m s
o f m e a s u r in g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f a n y , b e tw e e n a g e a n d w o r k p e r fo r m a n c e ,
N m e r o u s s t u d i e s h a v e r e c o r d e d th e a t t i t u d e s o f e m p lo y e r s o n t h i s s u b j e c t ,
a n d h a v e r e v e a le d a r a t h e r w id e s p r e a d s e t o f u n fa v o r a b le b e l i e f s c o n c e r n in g th e
w ork p e r fo rm a n ce o f o ld e r w o rk ers*
I t i s a f a i r p r e s u m p tio n t h a t t h e r e i s so m e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e s e
a t t i t u d e s a n d t h e p r o b le m s m e n tio n e d a b o v e *
I t i s im p o r ta n t, t h e r e f o r e , to
e x a m in e , th r o u g h o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e m e n ts , t h e q u e s t io n o f h o w a g e a c t u a l l y
a f f e c t s jo b p e r fo r m a n c e *
A b a s ic f a c t o r in e s t a b lis h in g th e n e e d f o r t h i s s tu d y w a s th e a lm o s t
t o t a l la c k o f p a s t su r v e y s, o f an y e x te n s iv e so o p e , in t h is f ie ld *
S in c e i t
i s e x tr e m e ly un com m on , i n p r o d u c tiv e e n t e r p r is e s , to f i n d la r g e g r o u p s o f
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g t h e sa m e t a s k , p r e v io u s s t u d i e s o f a g e a n d w o r k p e r fo r m a n c e
h a v e m ade l i t t l e u s e o f o n - t h e - j o b p e r fo rm a n ce r e c o r d s b e tw e e n a g e a n d jo b
p e r fo r m a n c e *
A
B ureau
v e lo p m
a c tu a l

lth o u g h n o t m in im iz in g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n d u c tin g su c h a s t u d y , t h e
o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s t h o u g h t t h a t i t w o u ld b e p o s s i b l e , t h r o u g h t h e d e ­
e n t o f s u it a b le t e c h n iq u e s , to o v erco m e m any o f th e o b s t a c le s to u s in g
p e r fo r m a n c e d a ta d e r iv e d fr o m p la n t r e c o r d s *

The
area o f
p r o b le m s
a lth o u g h
v a ila b le
o u t in a
fa c e d in

B u rea u a ls o r e c o g n iz e d th a t th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere n o t p u r e ly in th e
s t a t i s t i c a l m a n ip u la tio n , b u t in v o lv e d a n in t e r p la y o f s t a t i s t i c a l
w it h p r o b le m s o f d a t a c o ll e c t i o n *
I t w a s c o n c lu d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t
t h e n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l s w e r e u n d o u b te d ly a t h a n d i n th e a l i t e r a t u r e , th e a c t u a l a p p lic a t io n o f t h e s e t o o l s c o u ld b e s t b e w o r k e d
p i l o t s t u d y , i n w h ic h a l l o f t h e im p o r t a n t o b s t a c l e s w o u ld h a v e t o b e
a p r a c tic a l w ay*

In th e a c t u a l c o n d u c t o f th e s tu d y , i t w as fo u n d th a t c e r t a in te c h n iq u e s
w h ic h s e e m e d i n i t i a l l y t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h i s p r o g r a m w e r e , i n p r a c t i c e ,
u n s u ita b le *
I n t h e s e c a s e s , a l t e r n a t i v e m e th o d s w e r e d e v e lo p e d a n d t e s t e d *
F o r e x a m p le , i t w a s b e lie v e d t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f w o r k e r s in t o 5 - y e a r a g e
g r o u p s w o u ld b e a n a p p r o p r ia t e m e a n s o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a g e f a c t o r .
In a t­
te m p tin g to a p p ly t h i s p r o c e d u r e , h o w e v e r , i t w a s d is c o v e r e d t h a t t h e n u m b er
o f o b s e r v a t io n s i n e a c h g r o u p w a s t o o s m a ll t o p e r m it m e a n in g fu l c o m p a r is o n s ,
an d 1 0 -y e a r c l a s s i f ic a t i o n s w ere s u b s titu te d *
In a n o th e r in s ta n c e , i t w as
a ssu m e d t h a t s k i l l l e v e l s f o r e a c h o c c u p a t io n c o u ld b e d e te r m in e d th r o u g h t h e
u s e o f th e D ic t io n a r y o f O c c u p a tio n a l T it le s *
T h is w a s a ls o fo u n d to b e u n ­
w o r k a b le a n d a d i f f e r e n t m e th o d o f s k i l l - l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a d t o b e u s e d *




- ill

-

S u ch d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e in h e r e n t in th e s u b je c t m a tte r o f t h i s s u r r e y .
C om pany r e c o r d s sh ow l i t t l e o r n o u n ifo r m ity , a n d a r e n o t d e s ig n e d to y i e l d
t h e t y p e o f in f o r m a t io n n e e d e d i n a p r o g r a m o f t h i s s o r t . Y e t so m e s ta n d a r d ­
iz a t io n o f d a t a - c o lle c t in g p r o c e d u r e s w a s o b r io u s ly n e e d e d in o r d e r to p r o v id e
s t a t i s t i c s t h a t w o u ld b e c o m p a r a b le a m o n g t h e v a r io u s p l a n t s . T h is s t a n d a r d ­
i z a t i o n r e q u ir e d a d e t a i l e d e x a m in a tio n o f th e r e c o r d s a c t u a l l y m a in t a in e d i n
i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , f o llo w e d t y a n a n a l y s is o f h ow t h e s e r e c o r d s m ig h t b e u s e d
to d e r iv e c o h e r e n t m e a su r e s o f jo b p e r fo r m a n c e . T he a n a ly s is h a d to m ake p r o ­
v is io n n o t o n ly f o r v a r ia t io n s in r e c o r d k e e p in g , b u t a ls o f o r d if f e r e n c e s in
t h e b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s e m p lo y e d b y v a r io u s c o m p a n ie s . F o r e x a m p le , i t w a s
fo u n d t h a t th e d is t in c t io n b e tw e e n te r m in a tio n s a n d le a v e s o f a b se n c e w a s n o t
c l e a r c u t , a n d v a r ie d fr o m p la n t t o p l a n t . S im ila r p r o b le m s o f i n t e r p r e t a t io n
a r o se in ea ch o f th e o th e r a r e a s .
I t w a s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u ld b e a
e r r o r , a n d t h a t t h i s w o u ld t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e
o u t o f a s t u d y w h ic h h a d t o b e c o m p le t e d i n a
b e lie v e d , n e v e r th e le s s , th a t su ch a stu d y c o u
d e v e lo p in g a n d t e s t i n g v a r io u s n ew a p p r o a c h e s
la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n a g e a n d w ork p e r fo r m a n c e .

c e r ta in am ount o f t r i a l an d
q u a n t i t y o f d a t a t h a t w o u ld co m e
g iv e n p e r io d o f tim e . I t w a s
ld m e e t a n im p o r ta n t n e e d b y
to th e in v e s tig a tio n o f r e ­

B y i t s n a tu r e , t h is program w as n o t e x p e c te d to p ro d u ce a n y e x te n s iv e
fin d in g s w ith r e s p e c t to th e s e r e la t io n s h ip s . N e v e r th e le s s , m any o f th e p r o ­
c e d u r e s u s e d w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h ic h m ig h t b e r e q u ir e d i n a f u l l - s c a l e
su r v e y , and th e r e s u lts o f th e se p ro ced u res a r e , th e r e fo r e , p r e se n te d a s s ta ­
t i s t i c a l f in d in g s in th e b o d y o f th e r e p o r t . T h e se s t a t i s t i c s a p p ly o n ly to
th e p a r tic u la r p la n ts th a t w ere c o v er ed in t h is su r v e y , h o w ev er, an d a r e n o t
i n a n y w a y in t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t c o n d it io n s t h a t m ig h t b e fo u n d t o e x i s t i f
an e n t ir e in d u s tr y h ad b e e n su r v e y e d .
T h is s t u t y w a s c o n d u c te d i n th e D iv is io n o f P r o d u c t iv it y a n d T e c h n o lo g ic a l
D e v e lo p m e n ts u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f J e r o m e A . H a r k , w h o p r e p a r e d t h e r e p o r t
w i t h W o lfr a m L l e p e a n d B e r n a r d R e i n , a s s i s t e d b y R o b e r t E . M a la k o f f a n d
S ta n le y M ille r .
T h e s t a t i s t i c a l fo r m u la s w e r e d e r iv e d w ith th e a s s is t a n c e o f M o rto n R a f f
o f t h e B u r e a u 's O f f ic e o f S t a t i s t i c a l S ta n d a r d s .
T h e B u r e a u w is h e s t o e x p r e s s i t s a p p r e c ia t io n t o t h o s e f ir m s w h o se w h o le ­
h e a r te d c o o p e r a tio n m ade t h is w o rk p o s s ib le . T h ey g e n e r o u s ly m ade t h e ir r e c ­
o r d s a v a ila b le to th e B u r e a u 's r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s a n d o f f e r e d m any h e lp f u l s u g ­
g e s tio n s .




- iv

-

CONTENTS

Page
P r e f a c e .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................
i
S u n m a r y .............................................................................................................. • . .............................................................................................
1
P u r p o s e a n d S c o p e o f S u r v e y ....................................................................................................
I n d ic a t o r s o f W ork P e r fo r m a n c e *
D e f in it io n a n d M eth o d s o f M e a su r e m e n t.
8
O u t p u t p e r M a n - H o u r ...........................................................................................................................................................................
8
L i m i t a t i o n s o f C o m p a r in g E m p lo y e d P ie c e w o r k e r s
..................................... . . . . .
9
O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d ..............................................................................................................................................................
10
G r o u p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r is o n
................................................................................................................................... 1 0
A t t e n d a n c e ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1
O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d ..................................................................................................................................
G r o u p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r is o n
.......................................................................................................................
12
I n d u s t r i a l I n j u r i e s ..................................... * ....................................................................................................
12
N o n d i s a b l i n g I n j u r i e s .......................................................................................................................
D i s a b l i n g I n j u r i e s ...............................................................................................................................................................................1 3
O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d ...............................................................................................................................
G r o u p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r is o n
...........................................................................................................................................l U
S e p a r a t i o n s .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. I l l
G r o u p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r i s o n ..............................................................................................
I n d u s tr y a n d P la n t S e l e c t i o n
............................................................................................................................................
16
D a t a C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s ..................................................................................................
S t a t i s t i c a l M e t h o d s ..............................................................................
20
A g e G r o u p s ......................................................................................................* ................................................. ...........................................2 0
O u t p u t P e r M a n - H o u r ..................................................................................................................................................................
20
O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s ...................................................................................................................................................................
21
P r o c e d u r e f o r C o m b in in g I n d e x e s o f S p e c i f i c O c c u p a t io n s . . . . . .
21
C o m b i n i n g I n d e x e s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s ................................................................................
22
I n d iv id u a l V a r ia tio n
. . . . . .
..................................... . . . . . . . . . . .
22
A t t e n d a n c e ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 3
I n d u s tr ia l I n ju r ie s . . . . . .
................................................................................................................................... 2 U
S e p a r a t i o n s ................................................................
2 li
F in d in g s in t h e P la n t s S u r v e y e d . . . . .
........................................................................................................... 2 5
O u t p u t P e r M a n - H o u r ............................................................................................................................................................... ....... .
25
M e n a n d W o m e n .............................................................................................
25
H i g h e r a n d L o w e r P a i d O c c u p a t i o n s .............................................................................................................................2 8
M a c h in e a n d H a n d O c c u p a t io n s
............................................................................................
31
I n i t i a l O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s ............................................................................................................
A tte n d a n c e
.................................................................................................................................................................................................
36
I n d u s t r i a l I n j u r i e s .................................................................................................................................................
S e p a r a tio n s
.................................................... . . . . . . .
............................... 3 9
TABLES
1.
2.

In d ex es o f
e s ta b lis h m
In d ex es o f
e s ta b lis h m




o u tp u t p
e n ts, b y
o u tp u t p
e n ts, b y

e r m a n -h o u r
se x and a g e
e r m a n -h o u r
sex and age

f o r p ie c e w o r k e r s in fo u r fo o tw
group
................................................................... . .
f o r p ie c e w o r k e r s in fo u r c lo t h
group
.................................................................. . .

- v -

ear
. . .
in g
. . .

26
26

12

Il

31
39

CONTENTS— C o n tin u e d
Page
TABLES— C o n tin u e d
3*

1.
|

5*

6.
7*

8.
9.

10.

11.
12.

.

13*

Indexes of output per nan-hour for nen pieceworkers in higher
and lower paid occupations in four footwear establishments, by
age g r o u p ........................
29
Indexes of output per man-hour for women pieceworkers in higher
and lower paid occupations in four footwear establishments, by
age g r o u p ...............................
29
Indexes of output per man-hour for men pieceworkers in higher
and lower paid occupations in four clothing establishments, b y
age g r o u p .............................................
30
Indexes of output per man-hour for women pieceworkers in higher
and lower paid occupations in four clothing establishments, b y
age group ............................................................. 30
Indexes of output per man-hour of men pieceworkers performing
machine and hand operations in four footwear establishments, by
age g r o u p .................................
32
Indexes of output per man-hour of women pieceworkers performing
machine and hand operations in four footwear establishments, b y
age g r o u p ............................................................. 32
Indexes of output per man-hour of men pieceworkers performing
machine and hand operations in four clothing establishments, by
age g r o u p ............................................................. 33
Indexes of output per man-hour of women pieceworkers performing
machine and hand operations in four clothing establishments, b y
age g r o u p ............................................................. 33
Indexes of output per man-hour of pieceworkers in four footwear
establishments, by sex, age group, and type of occupation . . . . .
3U
Indexes of output per man-hour of pieceworkers in four clothing
establishments, by sex, age group, and type of occupation . . . . .
35
Indexes of attendance of pieceworkers in four footwear
establishments, by
sex
and
age
group . . • • • • . . . •
37
Indexes of attendance of pieceworkers in four clothing
establishments, b y
sex
and
age
group ..... .............. 37
Indexes of attendance for pieceworkers in higher and lower paid
occupations in four footwear establishments, by sex and age group • 38
Indexes of attendance for pieceworkers in higher and lower paid
occupations in four clothing establishments, by sex and age group • 38
Industrial injuries of pieceworkers, in selected shoe plant A by
sex, occupation and age group, during 1 -year period ending
December 31, 1955 ........ ................................... ..
1*0
Industrial injuries of pieceworkers, in selected clothing plant B
b y sex, occupation and age group, during 2 -year period ending
December 31, 1 9 5 5 .................................................. 1»1

111 *
15.
16.
17.

18.




- v i

-

CONTENTS— C o n tin u e d

TABLES— Continued.
19*

20*
21.

Industrial injuries of pieceworkers, in selected clothing plant C
by sex, occupation and age group, during 2 -year period ending
December 31, 1 9 5 5 .................................................. U2
Indexes of separation rates of pieceworkers in two footwear
plants b y sex, length of service, and age group . . . . . . . . . .
II
41
Indexes of separation rates of pieceworkers in two men's clothing
plants by sex, length of service, and age group ................... U 5
APPENDIX

1.

2.

3.
U.

Further Notes on Statistical M e t h o d s ................................U6
Definition of U n i v e r s e ......................
U6
Occupational Classification . . . . . . . . . . . ............... U7
Transforming Absolute Scores Into Indexes ............... ..
U9
Combining Occupation Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........
U9
Measures of Dispersion
50
Statistical Significance Testing . . . . . . . . ........ . . .
£0
Derivation of F o r m u l a s ............
52
Weights for Combining Indexes for Specific Occupations ........
52
Variance of an Age Group Index for an Occupation Group . . . . .
5U
Weights for Combining Indexes to Base A with Indexes to Base B • 5U
Variance of the Combined Index .................................. 56
Coefficient of Variation for an Occupational Group . . . . . . .
58
Combining Occupational Group Indexes .............................. 59
Questionnaire and Worksheets . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
6U
Instructions for Questionnaire and Worksheets • ........ . . . . .




- v ii -




Job Performance and Age: A Study in Measurement

The present stucfcr of job performance and &ge was undertaken by- the
Bureau of Labor Statistics as part of a general program of the Department of
Labor to investigate the employment problems of older workers, and to find
ways to meet these problems.
This study, exploratory in nature, was designed to develop objective
measures which would be useful for comparing the performance of production
wo iters in different age groups. It was intended only as a pilot investi­
gation to guide future and more extensive work.
Four Indicators of work performance, ostensibly straightforward but in
fact quite complex, were carefully defined. It was found that at least three
of these can be used to relate age to job performance--output per man-hour,
attendance, and separation rates.
Research was confined to 8 manufacturing establishments in 2 industries—
footwear and men* s clothing. Output data were obtained for 2,217 production
workers— 933 in the footwear industry and 1,281* in the clothing industry.
Attendance data were collected for 1*,009 production workers of which 1,7 5 8
were in the footwear plants and 2,251 were in the clothing plants. Data on
industrial injuries were collected for 2 ,6 3 7 workers, of whom 729 were in
footwear plants and 1,908 in clothing plants. Records of separations (quits,
layoffs, and discharges) were kept in detail at only 1* of these plants; they
provided figures for 2 ,731* workers over the period of a year or more.
Data obtained in the course of this pilot survey, while describing the
experience of the plants visited, were not expected to (nor do they) furnish
definitive results of these industries. The main emphasis was on the devel­
opment of techniques suitable to a full-scale investigation.
Findings in the Plants Surveyed
It was found possible to draw conclusions of only a limited nature with
respect to the relationships between age and work performance. In the case
of output p o t man-hour, the data showed, in general, a stable average performance level through the age of 5U, with some falling off occurring in the av­
erage for the 55-61* year group. Although the declines were, in most cases,
statistically significant, the indexes of output for this age group were within
approximately 10 percent of those for the age groups with peak production.
Variations in the output of persons In the same age group were very
large— in fact, they were greater than the differences in average output among
age groups. This means, for example, that many workers aged 55-61* had output
rates which were actually higher than the average rate in the age group with
peak production. Conversely, many younger workers had output lower than the




-

1 -

average output of older workers. Insofar as practical implications are
concerned, these data emphasize the fact that an employer in considering an
applicant for employment should evaluate the potentialities of the individual
rather than immediately drawing conclusicns from his chronological age*
The age-output curves ty industry, sex, type of operation (hand or ma­
chine) and earnings levels followed the same general patterns in each industry
both in regard to averages for age groups and variations of the output of
individuals within the same age group.
With respect to attendance, only small differences were found among age
groups* In the shoe plants, indexes of attendance for the six age groups
varied by only 3 percent, and in the clothing plants by only 7 percent*
With regard to industrial Injuries, the stu^y did not provide data which
could be used to make comparisons between age groups* This was due partly to
the lack of uniformity in company injury records, and also to the fact that
a survey with wider coverage would be needed to produce meaningful results*
Marty age groups showed no Injuries during the years studied*
Information on separations was collected, but the adequacy of this in­
formation varied among the several plants surveyed, and it was found possible
to present findings for only four of these plants* The data showed, in gen­
eral, a high rate of quits and discharges for cause for workers under 2$ years
old* In two plants there were extremely low rates for the age group 1(5 to 6 U$
in the others no pattern was found* After 65 retirement influenced the results
markedly* In view of the relatively small coverage of the study, it is not
possible to identify any significant differences in the age-separations
patterns shown by the various groups. In a larger scale survey, however, it
would probably be important to retain the categories used here, in which
distinctions are made according to sex, industry, and length of service*
Measures of Job Performance
Pour indicators of work performance— output per man-hour, attendance,
industrial injuries, and separations— were selected for comparing age groups
because they afforded objective measures, and data for them were thought
to be directly available from plant records*
Output per man-hour was measured by comparing the average hourly piecerate earnings of individuals working at the same operation* Many plants which
use a piecework system maintain reoords on Individual average hourly earnings*
No means were found to measure the output of timeworkers, nor were data
available on quality of work produced by individual employees*
Attendance was defined as the ratio of days worked to days scheduled*
Although this is a relatively straightforward measure, the lack of uniform
and complete plant records created difficulties in deriving attendance rates*




- 2 -

I n d u s t r i a l i n j u r i e s . S e r io u s p r o b le m s w e r e e n c o u n te r e d i n m e a s u r in g
i n d u s t r i a l i n j u r i e s * D i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c o r d k e e p in g p r a c t i c e s o f p l a n t s , p a r ­
t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o n c n d is a b l l n g i n j u r i e s a n d t h e f r e q u e n t l a c k o f d a t a
o n t o t a l h o u r s w o rk ed b y i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a s l o n g a s a y e a r w e r e th e m o st
s e r io u s * M o r e o v e r , t h e e x t r e m e ly lo w i n c i d e n c e o f i n j u r i e s w o u ld h a v e n e c e s ­
s i t a t e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a ta f o r a l o n g p e r io d o f tim e * T h is w a s fo u n d t o
b e p r o h i b i t i v e w i t h i n t h e tim e a n d fu n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y , a n d t h e r e f o r e
t h e d a t a p r o v id e n o i n j u r y r a t e s b y &g® f o r t h e p l a n t s c o v e r e d *
S e p a r a t i o n s * Some p l a n t s d id n o t m a in ta in d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s o f q u i t s ,
l a y o f f s , a n d d is c h a r g e s * P r o b le m s w e r e a l s o e n c o u n te r e d i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g
s e p a r a t i o n s fr o m e x te n d e d a b s e n c e s * T he r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e w e r e s o v a r i e d i n
d e t a i l t h a t i t w a s fo u n d p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e n t i l l u s t r a t i v e f i n d i n g s f o r o n l y
fo u r o f th e p la n ts *
S t a t i s t i c a l M eth o d s
S in c e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e p l a n t s p e r t a in e d o n l y t o i n d i v i d u a l
w o r k e r s , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a p p ly som e p r o c e s s w h ic h w o u ld l e a d t o f i n d i n g s
o f a m ore g e n e r a l n a tu r e * T h is w as d o n e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w ay*
E ach w o r k e r w a s c l a s s i f i e d b y a g e , i n t o o n e o f s i x g r o u p s * T he w o r k e r s
w e r e th e n f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o g r o u p s b y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ic h m ig h t b e
r e l a t e d t o w ork p e r fo r m a n c e , s u c h a s s e x , p la n t w h e r e e m p lo y e d , o c c u p a t io n ,
a n d l e n g t h o f e x p e r ie n c e * T he p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e m p lo y e d a s c r i t e r i a
v a r ie d w ith t h e m e a su r e s o u g h t; th e p u r p o s e , i n e a c h i n s t a n c e , w a s t o g ro u p
t o g e t h e r t h e w o r k e r s who c o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d h o m o g en eo u s w it h r e s p e c t t o t h e
n o n -a g e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e m ea su re u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n * D i r e c t c o m p a r is o n s
w e r e m ade am ong i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e s e g r o u p s* F o r o u tp u t p e r m a n -h o u r e a c h
o c c u p a t io n w a s t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , s i n c e i t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e n a tu r e o f
t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t io n h a s a b e a r in g o n o u tp u t* F o r a t t e n d a n c e , on t h e o t h e r
h a n d , i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t io n o f a w o r k e r w o u ld h a v e l i t t l e
i n f l u e n c e on h i s a t t e n d a n c e r a t e b u t t h a t th e g e n e r a l e a r n in g s l e v e l o f h i s
j o b m ig h t a f f e c t i t *
I n a n a l y z in g d a ta f o r w o r k e r s w i t h i n o n e o f t h e s e h o m o g en eo u s g r o u p in g s ,
a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r fo r m a n c e am cng a g e g r o u p s c a n b e m ore c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o
a g e * T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e m ea su re d b y c a l c u l a t i n g in d e x e s f o r e a c h a g e
g r o u p a v e r a g e , w ith th e 35-UU y e a r g ro u p a s th e b a s e * T h is w a s d o n e s e p a r a t e l y
f o r o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r , a t t e n d a n c e , a n d s e p a r a t i o n s .
T h rou gh th e u s e o f I n d e x e s a n d th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , th e i n f l u e n c e
o f n o n -a g e f a c t o r s w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y e l i m i n a t e d , s i n c e e a c h w o r k e r w a s b e i n g
com p ared o n l y w i t h o t h e r w o r k e r s who h a d t h e s e f a c t o r s i n common w it h him *
T he in d e x e s c o u ld th e n b e o o m b in ed t o o b t a in l a r g e r g r o u p in g s b y a v e r a g in g
t h e I n d e x e s , w it h e a c h co m p o n en t o f th e a v e r a g e b e in g a s s ig n e d a w e ig h t w h ich
d e p e n d e d on th e num ber o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t e d .




*

*

*

- 3 -

•

T h e p r e s e n t stu cjy h a s c l a r i f i e d a n d s o lv e d s o n s o f t h e m o st im p o r ta n t
p r o b le m s t h a t m u st b e f a c e d i n o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r in g th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a g e
t o w o rk p e r fo r m a n c e .
I n fo r m a tio n a b o u t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d a d e q u a c y o f p l a n t r e c o r d s w a s
o b t a i n e d a n d p r o c e d u r e s w e r e d e v e lo p e d f o r o b t a i n i n g d a ta *
A m ean s w a s fo u n d f o r c o m p a r in g t h e p e r fo r m a n c e o f w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t
o c c u p a tio n s .
M eth o d s w e r e d e v i s e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o m b in in g d a ta i n t o l a r g e r a g g r e ­
g a t i o n s i n o r d e r t h a t m ore g e n e r a l an d m ore r e l i a b l e c o n c lu s io n s c o u ld b e
o b ta in e d .
T h e r e s u l t s show n i n t h i s r e p o r t a l t h o u g i n o t f u r n i s h i n g c o n c lu s iv e
a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n w it h w h ic h i t d e a l s , r e p r e s e n t s an im p o r ta n t p r e l i m i ­
n a r y s t e p to w a r d f u r t h e r w ork i n t h i s a r e a .




- k -

Purpose and Scope of Survey
How age affects work performance is a subject on which little factual
infomation is available* nevertheless, the belief that work performance
declines as age increases is widespread, and constitutes one of the most
important barriers to the employment of older workers* Studies of employers'
attitudes toward older workers have consistently shown that this belief is
one of the reasons most frequently cited for failing to hire older workers*
The Temple University Bureau of Economics and Business Research conducted
a study In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Bureau of Bnployment Security,
the results of which were reported in 1953 at the Second Conference on the
Problems of Making a Living While Growing Old. In response to the question
*Vhat factors in your view tend to limit the feasibility of hiring older
workers?" the survey found that companies offered a variety of reason a for
restricting the hiring of older workers, but the most important of the reasons
given were "rate and quality of production." l/
Similarly, in the Employment Security Review of December 1950, it was
reported that "several surveys conducted by the Bureau of Employment Security
in cooperation with affiliated State agencies reveal that the reasons most
frequently given for not hiring older workers ares (1) Fear the hiring of
older workers would increase workmen* s compensation and insurance costs,
(2 ) less productive and unable to meet physical requirements, (3 ) greater
injury rates, (U) difficulty in retraining, and (5 ) promotion from within
policies* 2/ 3 /
Consequently, it is believed that data on job performance b y age can be
used to test, within selected occupational areas, whether these notions are
in fact valid* The results obtained can provide additional information for
employers and may indicate in what occupational areas there are real problems*

1/ Millard E. Gladfelter, provost and vice president of Temple University,~Age and Employability in Pennsylvania (in Proceedings of the Second
Conference on the Problem of Making a Living QCile Growing Old) * Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania and Temple University, 1953 (p* 27 and table XII, p* 398)*
2 / William Mirengoff, Older Worker Employment - Benefit or Burden,
Deployment Security Review, December 1950 (p* 9)*
3/ Similar findings regarding the importance of employers' attitudes on
work performance as a barrier to the employment of older workers can be found
In other studies* See, e.g., The Employer and the Older Worker by the
Personnel Club of Mew York (In Making the Years Count), New York State Joint
Legislative Committee on Problems of Aging, Legislative Document 32, 1955
(p. 88) $ also Personnel Policy and Older Workers— an Overview b y Lazare Teper,
Director of Research, International Ladieaf Garment Worker^ Union (in Age
Barriers to Employment, Proceedings of the Third Joint Conference on The
Problem of Making a Living While Growing Old, 195U (p. U5) $ and New York State
Legislature, No Time to Grow Old* New York State Legislature Document 12 of
1951 (p* 115).




- 5 -

B e f o r e t h i s s t u d y o f o n - t h e - j o b p e r fo r m a n c e d a t a f o r p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
i n m a n u fa c tu r in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w a s u n d e r ta k e n * i t w a s r e c o g n iz e d t h a t m any
m e t h o d o lo g ic a l p r o b le m s e x i s t e d an d t h e t e c h n iq u e s u s e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s o f
t h e p e r fo r m a n c e o f w o r k e r s d id n o t a p p ly d i r e c t l y t o t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f t h e
cu rren t in v e s tig a tio n .
T he m e t h o d o lo g ic a l p r o b le m s w h ic h w e r e r e c o g n iz e d a f f e c t e d e a c h o f t h e
t h r e e im p o r ta n t a r e a s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h — s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e p e r fo r m a n c e
i n d i c a t o r s * t e c h n i q u e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n * a n d s t a t i s t i c a l m e th o d s* I t w a s
d e te r m in e d * t h e r e f o r e * th e p r e s e n t s t u d y w o u ld a im a t p r o v id in g t h e t o o l s
n e c e s s a r y f o r f u t u r e w ork i n t h i s f i e l d * r a t h e r th a n a c c u m u la tin g e x t e n s i v e
d a t a th r o u g h l e s s r e f i n e d m e th o d s . C o n s e q u e n tly * t h e c u r r e n t w ork w a s
d e s ig n e d a s a p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ic h m ig h t e x i s t b e tw e e n
w o rk p e r fo r m a n c e a n d a g e * b u t d a t a o b t a in e d w e r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o f u r n i s h
d e f i n i t i v e r e s u lt s f o r t e s t in g g e n e r a l n o tio n s a b o u t o ld e r and y o u n ger
w o rk ers.
M ore s p e c i f i c a l l y * t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y w e r e t o j ( 1 )
D e te r m in e w h ic h o f t h e a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t o r s c o u ld b e u t i l i s e d t o co m p a re t h e
j o b p e r fo r m a n c e o f w o r k e r s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s * ( 2 ) e s t a b l i s h a n d r e f i n e p r o ­
c e d u r e s f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a o n t h e s e i n d ic a t o r s * ( 3 ) d e v i s e s t a t i s t i c a l
t e c h n iq u e s f o r d e v e lo p in g v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f j o b p e r fo r m a n c e * a n d (U ) i f
p o s s ib le * p r e s o r t fin d in g s o f th e c u r r e n t s tu d y on a n y o b se r v e d r e la t io n s h ip s
b e tw e e n a g e a n d w ork p e r fo r m a n c e f o r t h e l i m i t e d num ber o f p l a n t s s t u d i e d .
How t o O b ta in P e r fo r m a n c e D a ta
I n f o r m a t io n o n t h e c o m p a r a tiv e p e r fo r m a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f d i f f e r e n t
a g e s c a n b e o b t a in e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s . P a s t s t u d i e s o n w ork p e r fo r m a n c e a n d
a g e a r e o f t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s — l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r im e n t a l s t u d i e s * o p in io n
s u r v e y s b a s e d o n s u p e r v i s o r s ' r a t in g s * a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o n - t h e - j o b
p e r fo r m a n c e d e r iv e d fro m com pan y r e c o r d s *
T he l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y d e a l w ith s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o ­
l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * su c h a s m a n u a l d e x t e r i t y * s t r e n g t h o f g r ip * a n d
l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y * h/ T h e se s t u d i e s a r e v a lu a b l e f o r p r o v id in g i n s i g h t i n t o
t h e m e c h a n ic s o f t h e a g in g p r o c e s s . H ow ever* t h e y a r e o f l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y
t o a c t u a l j o b p e r fo r m a n c e * s i n c e t h e y d o n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o m p le x
i n t e r a c t i o n s o f in n u m e r a b le p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * n o r
U / S e e * e . g . * A . J . W e lf o r d , S k i l l a n d Age* a n E x p e r im e n ta l A p p roach *
p u b lis h e d f o r t h e T r u s t e e s o f th e H u f f i e l d F o u n d a tio n b y O x fo r d U n i v e r s i t y
P r e s s * 1 9 5 1 . V . R . M ile s * P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f A g in g * C h a p te r 2 8 i n
E . V . O o w d ry 's P r o b le m s o f A g in g . B a ltim o r e * W illia m s a n d W ilk e n s * 1 9 3 9 *




- 6 -

o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l f a c t o r s * M o r e o v e r , jo b p e r fo r w a r " e i s n o t a s t a t i c c o n c e p t ,
b u t r e p r e s e n t s r a t h e r t h e c o n t in u in g o p e r a t io n c„, 1 1 s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o f w h ic h
i t i s com posed * M o st l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c a n o n l y r e f l e c t
o b s e r v a t i o n s m ade o v e r a s h o r t p e r io d o f tim e *
The o p i n i o n s u r v e y s i n w h ic h e m p lo y e r s an d fo rem en a r e a s k e d f o r t h e i r
e v a lu a t i o n o f w o rk ers* p e r fo r m a n c e s u f f e r fro m th e s h o r tc o m in g s o f s u b j e c ­
t i v i t y a n d a l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e c r i t e r i a e m p lo y e d .
T he j o b p e r fo r m a n c e s t u d i e s u s in g p l a n t r e c o r d s h a v e t h e a d v a n ta g e o f
b e in g o b j e c t i v e a n d r e f l e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f a l l f a c t o r s i n th e jo b s i t u a t i o n .
B u t a d e q u a te a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s o u t p u t r e c o r d s b y a g e f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l num ber
o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d i n s i m i l a r jo b s * I t a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e s e l e c t i o n f o r
s t u d y o f j o b s i n w h ic h s p e e d i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e w o r k e r s th e m s e lv e s *
The d i f f i c u l t y o f o b t a in in g s u c h d a t a l i m i t s th e num ber a n d s c o p e o f
t h e s e s u r v e y s c o n s id e r a b ly * I t i s , h o w e v e r , t h i s ty p e o f s t u d y , w h ic h i s
m o st u s e f u l a s a n e v a lu a t i o n o f th e c o m p a r a tiv e o n - t h e - j o b p e r fo r m a n c e o f
e m p lo y e e s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s * 5 /

5 / One su c h s t u f y w a s c o n d u c te d f o r t h e B u r e a u i n 1 9 3 9 c o v e r in g som e
t e x t i l e p l a n t s an d n o n f e r r o u s f o u n d r ie s in New E n g la n d * S e e I n f l u e n c e o f
A g in g o n E m p loym en t O p p o r t u n i t i e s , M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , A p r il 1 9 3 9
(p p . 7 6 5 -7 8 0 ).
A n o th e r s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a g e a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f p r o d u c ­
t i o n wo r k e r s i n c i g a r f a c t o r i e s w a s d e v e lo p e d i n th e B u rea u * S e e I n d i v i d u a l
P r o d u c t i v i t y D i f f e r e n c e s , BLS S e r i a l No* R* 1 0 li0 , F e b r u a r y 19U 0 (p p * 1 - 2 2 ) .
F o r a n o t h e r B u r e a u s t u d y o f p e r fo r m a n c e an d a g e , s e e A b s e n te e is m a n d
I n j u r y E x p e r ie n c e o f O ld e r W o r k e r s, M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J u ly 19U 8
(p p * 1 6 - 1 9 ) *




- 7 -

I n d i c a t o r s o f W ork P e r fo r m a n c e :

D e f i n i t i o n s a n d M eth o d s o f M ea su rem en t

Work p e r fo r m a n c e i s a n i n c l u s i v e te r m c o v e r in g m any a s p e c t s o f a n
i n d i v i d u a l ' 8 w ork a c t i v i t y . I n s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r ia t e i n d i c a t o r s o f w ork
p e r fo r m a n c e f o r co m p a rin g w o r k e r s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a
w e r e a p p lie d :
1.
2.
3.
U*

T h e i n d i c a t o r s m u st b e o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r a b le ;
T h ey m u st b e c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e ;
T h ey m u st b e w o r k a b le i n te r m s o f b o th c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n iq u e s an d
su b seq u en t p r o c e s s in g ; and
T hey m u st b e a m en a b le t o th e d r a w in g o f p r a c t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s .

D i s c u s s i o n s w ith p l a n t a n d u n io n o f f i c i a l s an d e x a m in a tio n o f p l a n t
r e c o r d s n a r r o w e d th e c h o i c e t o f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f jo b p e r fo r m a n c e . T h ese w e r e
o u tp u t p e r m a n -h o u r , a t t e n d a n c e , i n d u s t r i a l i n j u r i e s , a n d s e p a r a t i o n s . O th e r
i n d i c a t o r s , s u c h a s q u a l i t y o f o u t p u t , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , and v e r s a t i l i t y , w e r e
fo u n d l a c k i n g i n a t l e a s t o n e o f th e a b o v e c r i t e r i a .
O u tp u t p e r M an-H our
B a s i c t o a n y e v a lu a t i o n o f a w o r k e r 's p e r fo r m a n c e i s h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y .
The d e f in it io n o f p r o d u c tiv ity u se d in t h is in v e s t ig a t io n i s h i s p h y s ic a l
v o lu m e o f p r o d u c t io n p e r h o u r w o r k e d , i . e . h i s o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r . T h is i s
p r o b a b ly t h e m o st f a m i l i a r o f t h e v a r io u s a s p e c t s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o d u c ­
t i v i t y a n d i s a l s o t h e a s p e c t i n w h ic h g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i s c e n t e r e d .
A n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n m e a s u r in g a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r i s t o
r e d u c e t o common u n i t s t h e v a r io u s p r o d u c t s h e m ay p r o d u c e . W here' a n i n d i ­
v i d u a l i s e n g a g e d i n o n e p r o c e s s i n t h e m a n u fa c tu r e o f o n e p r o d u c t , h i s p r o ­
d u c t i v i t y i s s im p ly t h e num ber o f p h y s i c a l u n i t s o f p r o d u c t h e p r o d u c e s d u r in g
1 h o u r . W here a n i n d i v i d u a l w o rk s o n a num ber o f p r o d u c t s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s
a c h o i c e a v a i l a b l e f o r m e a s u r in g h i s p h y s i c a l o u t p u t . H is o u t p u t c a n b e
m e a su r e d a s t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f a l l u n i t s h e p r o d u c e d . I n t h i s c a s e h i s p r o ­
d u c t i v i t y i s t h e d o l l a r v a lu e o f h i s p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t io n . T h is v a lu e c a n b e
m e a su r e d i n te r m s o f v a r io u s p r i c e s , b u t t h e p r i c e o f m o st im m e d ia te p r a c t i c a l
a p p l i c a t i o n w o u ld b e t h e o n e r e l a t i n g t o th e f a c t o r y c o s t p e r u n i t o f p r o d u c t .
T h e w o r k e r 's o u t p u t c a n a l s o b e m e a su r e d a s t h e t o t a l " n orm al" p r o d u c t io n
tim e r e p r e s e n t e d b y h i s p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t io n . I n t h i s c a s e h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y i s
t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t io n tim e e q u i v a l e n t s h e p r o d u c e d p e r h o u r . T h e se tim e
e q u i v a l e n t s c o u ld b e d e te r m in e d fro m s t a n d a r d s b a s e d o n t im e s t u d i e s . H o w ev er,
i t i s u s u a l l y n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n tim e r a t e s f o r a l l o p e r a t io n s o n a l l
p r o d u c t s i n a p l a n t s i n c e som e p l a n t s c o n d u c t s t u d i e s o f s e l e c t e d o p e r a t io n s
o n l y a n d m o s t p l a n t s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o f u r n i s h t h e tim e s ta n d a r d s t h e y u s e f o r
v a r io u s o p e r a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , r e c o r d s o f t h e a c t u a l num ber o f u n i t s o f
e a c h p r o d u c t p r o d u c e d b y i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s a r e n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n m o st
p l a n t s . C o n s e q u e n tly , a lt h o u g h t h i s m e a su r e o f o u tp u t w o u ld b e d e s i r a b l e , a s
a p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e a su r e m u st b e s e l e c t e d .




- 8

-

An a p p r o x im a tio n to m e a s u r in g o u tp u t i n te r m s o f p r o d u c t io n tim e i s t o
u s e p ie c e w o r k e a r n in g s p e r h o u r . H e r e , t h e a s s u m p tio n i s m ade t h a t t h e t a s k
p e r fo r m e d o n a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t i s r e l a t e d , b y i t s p i e c e r a t e , to t h e tim e
r e q u ir e d t o p e r fo r m t h e J o b . F o r e x a m p le , w h e r e a w o r k e r p e r fo z m s t h e sam e
o p e r a t io n o n a v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s , a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t im e n o r m a lly
r e q u ir e d t o c o m p le te t h e o p e r a t io n o n t h e v a r io u s p r o d u c t s w o u ld te n d t o b e
r e f l e c t e d i n t h e v a r io u s p i e c e r a t e s p a id f o r th e p r o d u c t s .
T h is a s s u m p tio n w as s u p p o r te d b y in f o r m a t io n o b t a in e d fr o m com p an y
o f f i c i a l s i n t h e p l a n t s v i s i t e d . I t w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t tim e r e q u ir e d t o
p e r fo r m a Job e n t e r s i n t o m o s t p i e c e - r a t e f o r m u la s . I n t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e
p i e c e r a t e s m ig h t b e i n a c c u r a t e i n te r m s o f tim e r e q u ir e d f o r w o rk o n a g iv e n
m o d e l, e a c h w o r k e r te n d e d to b e a l e r t t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d w o u ld i n s i s t
o n r e c e i v i n g a n e q u i t a b l e s h a r e o f th e m ore d e s i r a b l e m o d e ls . I n a n y c a s e ,
i t c a n b e e x p e c t e d t h a t a n y in a c c u r a c y i n t h e d a t a o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s w a y
w i l l b e o f a random n a t u r e an d w i l l n o t a f f e c t o n e a g e g ro u p m ore s e r i o u s l y
th a n a n o t h e r .
O u tp u t p e r m a n -h o u r w as m e a s u r e d , t h e n , b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y
p ie c e w o r k e a r n in g s d u r in g t h e p e r io d s u r v e y e d . A l l e a r n in g s o n o v e r t im e
w ork o r h o l i d a y w ork w e r e a d j u s t e d t o s t r a i g h t - t i m e l e v e l s b y r e m o v in g prem ium
e a r n in g s . S i m i l a r l y , a l l tim ew o rk e a r n in g s w e r e rem o v ed fr o m t h e e a r n in g s o f
i n d i v i d u a l s who w o rk e d b o t h o n p ie c e w o r k a n d tim ew o rk d u r in g th e s u r v e y p e r i o d .
The m a n -h o u r s in c lu d e d r e f e r o n l y t o t h o s e h o u r s a c t u a l l y w o rk e d i n t h e
p r o d u c t io n o f t h e o u t p u t . T h u s, a l l v a c a t io n h o u r s , p a id h o l i d a y s a n d o t h e r
t im e p a id f o r b u t n o t w o r k e d , a s w e l l a s a l l h o u r s s p e n t o n tim e w o r k , w e r e
e x c lu d e d fro m t h e h o u r s c o u n t e d .
I n o r d e r t o u s e a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s a s a m ea su rem en t o f o u t p u t p e r
m a n -h o u r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o s p e c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s
a f f e c t i n g p ie c e w o r k e a r n in g s . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y w o r k , c e r t a i n
J o b s w e r e e x c lu d e d f o r w h ic h m anagem en t im p o se d a l i m i t o n e a r n in g s i n o r d e r
t o m a in t a in h ig h q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . 6 /
L i m i t a t io n s o f C om paring E m p loy ed P ie c e w o r k e r s . I t i s r e c o g n iz e d t h a t
t h e p e r fo r m a n c e o f p ie c e w o r k e r s m ay h o t b e e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l
p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s . Som e o f t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f
p ie c e w o r k e r s i n a s p e c i f i c a g e g ro u p m ay b e d i f f e r e n t fro m t h o s e i n f l u e n c i n g
t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s i n t h a t a g e g r o u p .
F o r e x a m p le , t h e p a r t i c u l a r J o b s c l a s s i f i e d a s p i e c e - r a t e J o b s m ay p l a c e
g r e a t e r e m p h a s is o n s p e e d , d e x t e r i t y , an d o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ic h a r e
a f f e c t e d b y a g in g . P e r fo r m a n c e m e a s u r e s l i m i t e d t o t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s m ay
6 / I n t h e p l a n t s v i s i t e d t h e s e l i m i t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d i n te r m s o f a
maximum num ber o f u n i t s p r o d u c e d d a i l y .




- 9 -

r e s u l t I n a c o m p a r is o n u n f a v o r a b le t o o l d e r w o r k e r s . D e s p i t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y ,
h o w e v e r , i t i s im p o r ta n t f o r t h o s e p l a n t s w h ere t h e m a j o r i t y o f th e p r o d u c t io n
w o r k e r s a r e p a id o n p i e c e r a t e s ( o r som e o t h e r fo rm o f i n d i v i d u a l i n c e n t i v e
s y s t e m ) t o h a v e in f o r m a t io n o n t h e c o m p a r a tiv e j o b p e r fo r m a n c e b y a g e grou p *
I t m ay a l s o b e a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e o n l y e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s w e r e in c lu d e d i n
t h e s t u d y , t h e o l d e r w o r k e r s w ho a r e s t i l l p r e s e n t i n t h e o c c u p a t io n s s t u d i e d
a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a s e l e c t e d g r o u p , s i n c e m any o f t h e y o u n g e r p e r s o n s w i l l
h a v e g o n e i n t o o t h e r o c c u p a t io n s w h ic h w ere n o t in c lu d e d i n t h e s t u d y . How­
e v e r , t h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y tw o t y p e s o f s e l e c t i o n o p e r a t in g h e r e , w h ic h m ay b e
e x p e c t e d t o c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r o u t t o som e e x t e n t . I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e
e x c e p t i o n a l l y s u p e r io r w o r k e r s m ay b e a ssu m ed t o h a v e g o n e i n t o b e t t e r p a y in g
o c c u p a t i o n s . A t t h e sam e t im e , t h e m a r g in a l w o r k e r s , who c o u ld n o t m a in t a in
t h e tHtHwnm s ta n d a r d s r e q u ir e d f o r t h e i r j o b s , w o u ld a l s o h a v e l e f t t o e n t e r
o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h u s, t h e o l d e r w o r k e r s ' a v e r a g e o u t p u t r a t e s w o u ld b e
i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e s e tw o e x t r e m e s , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , w o u ld b e
l o g i c a l l y c o m p a r a b le w it h t h o s e o f t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p s .
T h e r e a r e n o l i f e t i m e jo b h i s t o r i e s o f w o r k e r s i n t h e i n d u s t r i e s s t u d ie d
w h ic h sh o w t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h w o r k e r s e n t e r e i t h e r a s t im e o r p i e c e - r a t e
w o r k e r s a n d m ove fro m o n e t y p e o f w ork w it h i t s a s s o c i a t e d p a y p r o c e d u r e t o
a n o t h e r o v e r t h e i r l i f e s p a n , o r t h e e x t e n t o f m ovem ent fr o m p r o d u c t io n t o
s u p e r v i s o r y o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l w ork o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d t o c u s t o d i a l j o b s o n
t h e o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t w as n o t p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h e p r e s e n t
s t u d y , t o d e te r m in e t h e e x t e n t t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s p r e v a i l i n t h e p l a n t s s u r v e y e d .
S in c e t h e ir e f f e c t s a r e o f f s e t t i n g , th e n e t r e s u lt i s n o t b e lie v e d t o b e v e r y
g r e a t.
O b s e r v a t io n P e r i o d . The o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d s e l e c t e d f o r o u t p u t p e r m an­
h o u r m e a su r e m e n t r a n g e ? fr o m U t o 8 w e e k s . T h is i s a co m p ro m ise b e tw e e n a
p e r io d o f maximum l e n g t h , w h ic h w o u ld te n d t o e v e n o u t a t y p i c a l i n f l u e n c e s o f
a te m p o r a r y n a t u r e , a n d a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d , w h ic h w o u ld p e r m it t h e i n c l u s i o n
o f a l a r g e num ber o f i n d i v i d u a l s ( s i n c e t h e s a m p le s in c lu d e d o n l y t h o s e
e m p lo y e e s who w e r e w o r k in g d u r in g a l l o r n e a r l y a l l o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d ) .
A p e r i o d o f f u l l p r o d u c t io n w a s c h o s e n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i n o r d e r t o
m in im is e a n y i n f l u e n c e fro m i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r in g w o rk , w h ic h o f t e n o c c u r s d u r ­
in g s l a c k p e r i o d s . T h ere i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t d u r in g p e r io d s
o f f u l l p r o d u c t io n t h e i n c e n t i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o m a x im iz e p r o d u c t io n i s
r e d u c e d a f t e r a c e r t a i n e a r n in g s l e v e l i s a t t a i n e d . S h o u ld t h i s i n f l u e n c e
a f f e c t a g e g r o u p s d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e m e a su r e w o u ld r e f l e c t n o t o n l y a n y r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p w h ic h e x i s t e d b e tw e e n p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d a g e , t u t o t h e r f a c t o r s a s w e l l .
O rou p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r iso n . I n o r d e r t o co m p a re jo b p e r fo r m a n c e b y a g e ,
t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a c t o r s o t h e r th a n a g e m u s t, o f c o u r s e , b e e l i m i n a t e d . T h is
m ea n s t h a t c o m p a r is o n s m u st b e l i m i t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s i m i l a r i n m any
r e s p e c t s a n d w ho a r e e x p o s e d t o th e sam e w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h e c a s e o f
p r o d u c t i v i t y , a s m e a su r e d b y a v e r a g e p ie c e w o r k h o u r l y e a r n in g s , d i r e c t com ­
p a r i s o n s c a n b e m ade o n l y am ong w o r k e r s w it h a s i m i l a r d e g r e e o f e x p e r ie n c e




-

10 -

o n t h e s a n e s p e c i f i c j o b w i t h i n a p la n t * I f t h e b a s i c c e l l s a r e w id e n e d and
w o r k e r s o n d i f f e r e n t j o b s o r o n t h e s a n e j o b i n d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s a r e com p ared
d i r e c t l y , e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s s u c h a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a y s c a l e s , m a c h in e r y
u s e d , and jo b r e q u ir e m e n ts w i l l b e in t r o d u c e d . I n t h a t c a s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n
p r o d u c t i v i t y b e tw e e n a g e g r o u p s c o u ld b e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e
f a c t o r s r a t h e r th a n a g e *
D u r in g t h e p i l o t w o r k , d i r e c t c o m p a r is o n s w e r e m ade o n l y am ong i n d i v i d u a l s
o f t h e sam e s e x who w e r e p e r fo r m in g th e sam e j o b o r s e r i e s o f o p e r a t io n s w i t h i n
a p la n t * J o b t i t l e s fro m p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s a lo n e w e r e n o t u s e d t o d e te r m in e a
w o r k e r 's o c c u p a t io n b e c a u s e t h e s e r e c o r d s g e n e r a l l y d o n o t d e s c r ib e t h e o p e r a ­
t i o n s a n i n d i v i d u a l p e r fo r m s . T he t i t l e s l i s t e d i n t h e p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s f o r
i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e co m p a red w it h t h o s e e n t e r e d o n t h e p t y r o l l r e c o r d s f o r c o n ­
s i s t e n c y * A p p r o p r ia te p l a n t o f f i c i a l s w ere a l s o c o n s u lt e d a s t o w h e th e r
i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e i n f a c t p e r fo r m in g t h e sam e o p e r a t io n s *
T o a v o id c o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n f u l l y e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s a n d b e g in n e r s ,
e m p lo y e e s w it h l e s s t h a n 6 m o n th s' s e r v i c e i n a jo b w e r e e x c lu d e d fro m t h e
o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r sa m p le* I t w as n o t a lw a y s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t a ­
t i o n o f p l a n t r e c o r d s , t o d e t e c t t h e e m p lo y e e s w h o , w h i l e m e e tin g t h e m inim um
s e r v i c e r e q u ir e m e n t s , h a d b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d fro m som e o t h e r jo b * I n a d d i t i o n ,
t h e l e a r n i n g c u r v e f o r som e o c c u p a t io n s w i l l c o n t in u e t o r i s e f o r a l o n g e r
p e r io d th a n 6 m o n th s* On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f new
e m p lo y e e s m ay h a v e h a d p r e v io u s e x p e r ie n c e e ls e w h e r e .
A tte n d a n c e
A tte n d a n c e , f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , h a s b e e n d e f i n e d a s t h e r a t i o o f
t h e num ber o f d a y s a n i n d i v i d u a l i s p r e s e n t t o t h e num ber o f d a y s h e i s
s c h e d u le d t o w ork * An i n d i v i d u a l w a s c o n s id e r e d a b s e n t w hen h e w a s aw ay fro m
t h e jo b f o r a f u l l d a y o r m ore a t h i s ow n i n i t i a t i v e * L a y o f f s , h o l i d a y s ,
s h u td o w n s, a n d r e g u la r v a c a t io n s w e r e n o t c o u n te d e i t h e r a s d a y s a b s e n t o r
d a y s s c h e d u le d *
H o s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g a d e q u a te a t t e n d a n c e d a t a r e l a t e d t o l i m i t a ­
t i o n o f p l a n t r e c o r d s . O f t h e p l a n t s s u r v e y e d , o n l y o n e m a in ta in e d i n d i v i d u a l
a b s e n t e e is m r e c o r d s * F o r th e r e m a in in g p l a n t s , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o n s t r u c t
i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s o f a t t e n d a n c e fro m d a i l y tim e c a r d s *
lim e c a r d d a t a , h o w e v e r , d o n o t u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e tw e e n a b s e n c e w h ich
i s d u e t o p r o d u c t io n l a y o f f and a b s e n c e a t t h e e m p lo y e e 's i n i t i a t i v e * lb m ake
t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , th e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e co m p a re d ,
a n d w h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s i n an o c c u p a t io n w e r e a b s e n t f o r
a n i d e n t i c a l p e r io d , t h e y w e r e a ssu m ed a b s e n t a s a r e s u l t o f a p r o d u c t io n l a y ­
o f f * B y u s i n g a p e r io d o f f u l l p r o d u c t io n a s th e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d f o r
a t t e n d a n c e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r o d u c t io n l a y o f f s w a s b e l i e v e d t o b e m in im iz e d .
I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t i n som e c a s e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h e x te n d e d a b s e n c e s fro m
s e p a r a t io n s * Company p r a c t i c e s v a r y a s to t h e l e n g t h o f tim e an a b s e n t w o r k e r
i s c a r r i e d o n t h e r o l l s * Som e c o m p a n ie s c o n s id e r a n i n d i v i d u a l s e p a r a t e d a f t e r




11 -

1 w eek o f a b s e n c e and d r o p h im fro m t h e i r r e c o r d s ; o t h e r c o m p a n ie s m a in ta in
a n e m p lo y e e o n t h e c u r r e n t r o l l s u n t i l h e h a s b e e n g o n e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e
l e n g t h o f t im e o r u n t i l h e in fo r m s th em d e f i n i t e l y t h a t h e i s n o t co m in g b ack *
I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a c o n s i s t e n t m e a su r e f o r a l l p l a n t s i n t h e p i l o t w o r k ,
com pany p a y r o l l r e c o r d s w e r e co m p a red o v e r a p e r io d o f tim e t o d e te r m in e w hen
a n i n d i v i d u a l o n e x te n d e d a b s e n c e c o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d s e p a r a te d *
O b s e r v a tio n P e r i o d . F o r a t t e n d a n c e , a s i n t h e c a s e o f o u tp u t p e r m anh o u r , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d m u st b e lo n g e n o u g h t o a v o id a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s *
S e a s o n a l f a c t o r s , s u c h a s p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s e a s o n s , m ay a f f e c t t h e a t t e n d a n c e
o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n v a r i o u s a g e g r o u p s d i f f e r e n t l y * A ny m e a su r e l i m i t e d t o su ch
p e r io d s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y y i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e s u l t s * A p e r io d r a n g in g
fro m 8 t o 1 2 w eek s d u r in g w h ic h i t w as b e l i e v e d s e a s o n a l f a c t o r s w o u ld b e
m in im a l w a s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y . P a r t s o f t h a t p e r io d c o i n c i d e d w it h t h e
o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d f o r o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r*
G ro u p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r iso n * I n c o n t r a s t t o o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r , t h e
a t t e n d a n c e r a t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t io n s w ere b e l i e v e d t o b e
d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b le , y e t t h e r e a r e som e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ic h n o
d o u b t i n f l u e n c e a tte n d a n c e * I t i s p r o b a b le t h a t p e r s o n s i n lo w e r p a id o c c u p a ­
t i o n s m ay h a v e d i f f e r e n t a t t e n d a n c e m o t i v a t i o n s fr o m t h o s e i n h ig h e r p a id
o c c u p a t io n s a n d a t t e n d a n c e c o m p a r is o n s b y a g e , ig n o r in g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ,
m ig h t th e n r e f l e c t th e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t io n r a t h e r th a n
age.
To o b t a i n a t t e n d a n c e c o m p a r is o n s w h ic h r e f l e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a g e a lo n e ,
o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e sam e s e x i n t h e p l a n t o n th e sam e s y s t e m o f p a y m en t
an d i n t h e sam e o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n in g s l e v e l w ere d i r e c t l y com pared* 7 /
I n d u s tr ia l I n ju r ie s
N o n d is a b lin g a n d d i s a b l i n g i n j u r i e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y i n t h i s
e x p l o r a t o r y w ork* A lth o u g h s u f f i c i e n t d a t a c o u ld n o t b e o b t a in e d i n th e
a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d c o v e r a g e , m any o f t h e p r o b le m s i n
d e r i v i n g t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s fr o m e x i s t i n g p l a n t d a t a w e r e ex a m in ed *
N o n d is a b lin g I n j u r i e s . A n o n d is a b lin g i n j u r y w a s d e f i n e d a s a n i n j u r y
e x p e r ie n c e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w ork w h ic h d i d n o t i n v o l v e t h e
l o s s o f a f u l l d a y o r m o r e . A lth o u g h t h e d e f i n i t i o n a p p e a r s r e l a t i v e l y
s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , t h r e e m a jo r p r o b le m s p r e s e n t t h e m s e lv e s w hen a t t e m p t in g t o
d e r i v e a m e a su r e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y r a t e o f n o n d is a b lin g i n j u r i e s * F i r s t ,
p l a n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f w o r k -c o n n e c te d an d n o n w o r k -c o n n e c te d i n j u r i e s v a r y .
P l a n t s w i t h b r o a d o v e r a l l m e d ic a l p r o g ra m s f o r t h e i r w o r k e r s do n o t m ake t h e
sam e d i s t i n c t i o n s a s p l a n t s w it h l i m i t e d m e d ic a l p ro g ra m s* S e c o n d , p l a n t
7 / ih e b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g h ig h e r a n d lo w e r p a id o c c u p a t io n s i n t h i s
s t u d y i s e x p la in e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . ( S e e p p . U 7 -U 8 .)




-

12 -

r e q u ir e m e n ts w it h r e s p e c t t o t h e im m e d ia te tr e a tm e n t f o r n o n d is a b lin g i n j u r i e s
a r e b y n o m ean s u n ifo r m . T h e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts a r e a l s o u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e
t y p e o f g e n e r a l m e d ic a l c a r e p rog ra m p r o v id e d a s w e l l a s s a f e t y p r a c t i c e s and
p o l i c i e s em p lo y ed i n t h e p l a n t . T h ir d , p l a n t p r a c t i c e s f o r r e c o r d in g n o n ­
d i s a b l i n g i n j u r i e s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . Som e p l a n t s r e c o r d a l l m in o r I n j u r i e s
w h e r e a s o t h e r s r e c o r d o n l y t h e m a jo r o n e s . S h o u ld t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n
p l a n t p r a c t i c e s a f f e c t a g e g r o u p s d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e v a l i d i t y o f a n y n o n d is a b lin g
i n j u r y c o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n a g e g ro u p s i s r e d u c e d . I t i s d o u b t f u l , b e c a u s e o f
t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h a t n o n d is a b lin g i n j u r i e s c a n b e u s e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f
c o m p a r a tiv e w ork p e r fo r m a n c e .
D i s a b li n g I n j u r i e s . A d i s a b l i n g i n j u r y w a s d e f in e d a s a n i n j u r y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w ork f o r w h ic h a d a y o r m o re o f w o r k tim e w a s l o s t . I n t h i s c a s e , oom pany p r a c t i c e s c o n c e r n in g t h e d e f i n i t i o n and
r e c o r d in g o f d i s a b l i n g i n j u r i e s a r e m uch m ore u n ifo r m . W orkm en 's c o m p e n s a tio n
r e p o r t s g e n e r a l l y f u r n i s h s ta n d a r d in f o r m a t io n , an d t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e s i m i l a r
f o r t h e v a r io u s S t a t e s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f a d i s a b l i n g i n j u r y i s u s u a l l y t h e
sam e f o r m o st p l a n t s .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d i s a b l i n g i n j u r i e s f o r a g iv e n e x ­
p o s u r e p e r io d i s m uch lo w e r th a n t h a t o f n o n d is a b lin g i n j u r i e s s o t h a t a v e r y
l a r g e sa m p le o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v o id - u n r e lia b le c o m p a r is o n s .
T h is n e e d f o r a l a r g e s a m p le o f o b s e r v a t i o n s l i m i t s t h e u s e o f t h i s i n d i c a t o r
t o v e r y l a r g e p l a n t s o r t o v e r y lo n g o b s e r v a t io n p e r i o d s .
W here
f o r m a k in g
( num ber o f
(num ber o f

i n d u s t r i a l i n j u r y d a ta a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h r e e m e a s u r e s c a n b e u s e d
a g e g r o u p c o m p a r is o n s — t h e fr e q u e n c y r a t e , t h e s e v e r i t y r a t e
h o u r s l o s t d u r in g a n e x p o s u r e p e r i o d ) , an d t h e a v e r a g e s e v e r i t y
h o u rs l o s t p e r in ju r y ) •

O b s e r v a t io n P e r i o d . The o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d f o r t h e i n j u r y m e a su r e m u s t,
o f n e c e s s i t y , b e l o n g e r th a n f o r e i t h e r t h e o u t p u t p e r m a n -h o u r o r a t t e n d a n c e
m e a s u r e . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll i n c i d e n c e f o r a l l a g e g r o u p s , i t i s
n e c e s s a r y t o in s u r e t h a t a n y l a c k o f in c i d e n c e i s n o t m e r e ly t h e r e s u l t o f
s e l e c t i n g a s h o r t s u r v e y p e r io d .
A s m e n tio n e d a b o v e , th e i n j u r y m e a s u r e s r e q u ir e d a t a o n t h e num ber o f
h o u r s w o rk e d ( t h e e x p o s u r e h o u r s ) d u r in g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r io d . D a ta o n
h o u r s w o rk e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r lo n g p e r i o d s a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n .
M o st p l a n t s s u r v e y e d i n th e e x p lo r a t o r y w ork d id n o t m a in t a in su m m a ries o f
h o u r s w o rk ed b y i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r p e r io d s lo n g e r th a n 2 w e e k s . I n t h e s e c a s e s ,
i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o d e r iv e t h e t o t a l num ber o f h o u r s w ork ed fro m w e e k ly t i m e ­
c a r d s . T h is i s q u i t e t im e c o n su m in g and c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r an e x te n d e d
i n j u r y p e r io d , and i t w a s fo u n d t o b e p r o h i b i t i v e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r
p e r io d s lo n g e r t h a n 1 y e a r . Y e t , e x c e p t f o r v e r y l a r g e p l a n t s , a 1 - y e a r
p e r io d d o e s n o t f u r n i s h s u f f i c i e n t d a ta t o p e r m it m e a n in g fu l c o m p a r is o n s b y
age group.




- 13 -

I n d i v i d u a l e x p o s u r e h o u r s d a t a c a n b e e s t i m a t e d fro m o t h e r p l a n t r e c o r d s ,
b u t t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s m ay i n v o l v e a s s u m p tio n s w h ic h a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y v a l i d .
O n e p r o c e d u r e a tte m p te d i n t h e p i l o t w ork i n v o lv e d d i v i d i n g t h e a n n u a l e a r n ­
i n g s o f i n d i v i d u a l s b y t h e a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n in g s f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
p e r i o d . H o w ev er, u s e o f t h i s m eth o d i s l i m i t e d t o p e r i o d s d u r in g w h ic h
i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e g r o u p s s h a r e e q u a l l y i n o v e r t im e w o r k .
G rou p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a riso n . T he fu n d a m e n ta l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n m a k in g
a n a n a l y s i s o f i n j u r y b y a g e g r o u p i s t o i n s u r e t h a t d i r e c t c o m p a r is o n s a r e
m ade am ong w o r k e r s s u b j e c t e d t o e q u a l i n j u r y h a z a r d s . I t i s , h o w e v e r ,
v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s ib le t o c l a s s i f y e a c h w o rk e r a c c o r d in g t o i n j u r y h a z a r d . I n
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n a tte m p t w a s m ade t o d e r i v e d i r e c t c o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n
a g e g r o u p s f o r w o r k e r s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s }
s e x , h a n d o r m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s , d e p a r tm e n t a n d p l a n t , a s a n a p p r o x im a tio n t o
e q u a l iz i n g h a z a r d .
S e p a r a t io n s
S e p a r a t io n s a s d e f in e d i n t h i s s u r v e y i n c l u d e q u i t s , d i s c h a r g e s f o r
c a u s e , r e t i r e m e n t , d e a t h , an d m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e am ong p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s .
E x c lu d e d a r e s e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n v e n ie n c e o f t h e e m p lo y e r s u c h a s l a y o f f s .
The m e a su r e o b t a in e d i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e num ber o f s e p a r a t i o n s t o t h e
t o t a l num ber o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e g r o u p s . T h is m e a su r e
a t t e m p t s t o a s c e r t a i n how m any o f a g r o u p o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d i n t h e p l a n t o n
a g i v e n d a t e w ere s e p a r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . I t w a s s e l e c t e d a s a p e r ­
fo r m a n c e i n d i c a t o r b e c a u s e i t i s , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a m e a s u r a b le r e f l e c t i o n
o f th e s t a b i l it y o f grou p s o f w o rk ers.
A s m e n tio n e d a b o v e , p l a n t r e c o r d s s o m e tim e s d o n o t d i s t i n g u i s h e x te n d e d
a b s e n c e s fro m s e p a r a t i o n s , b u t b y c o m p a rin g c u r r e n t a n d p a s t p a y r o l l s , i t i s
p o s s i b l e t o o b t a in an i n d i c a t i o n o f w h e th e r a s e p a r a t i o n d id i n f a c t t a k e
p l a c e . I n f o r m a t io n o n r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g , h o w e v e r , i s n o t a s r e a d i l y a v a i l a ­
b l e . S e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s w e r e a tte m p te d i n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w s w it h fo r e m e n ,
b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a p s e o f m em ory o n t h e p a r t o f fo r e m e n , o n l y
t h o s e p l a n t s w h ic h r e c o r d e d s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s f o r s e p a r a t i o n s w e r e i n c l u d e d .
F o u r o f d ie p l a n t s s u r v e y e d d u r in g t h e p i l o t w ork m a in ta in e d s u c h r e c o r d s .
G rou p s f o r D i r e c t C o m p a r iso n . S e p a r a t io n s a r e u s u a l l y g r e a t e r am ong a
g r o u p o f r e l a t i v e l y new e m p lo y e e s th a n a g r o u p o f w o r k e r s w i t h lo n g y e a r s o f
s e r v i c e . Com pany p e n s io n p r o g r a m s , co m m u n ity t i e s , and o t h e r f a c t o r s m ay
i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n o f a n e m p lo y e e w it h lo n g y e a r s o f s e r v i c e t o r e m a in
w it h a com p an y, w h e r e a s a new e m p lo y e e m ay n o t b e a s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d b y
s u c h f a c t o r s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s In p l a n t p o l i c i e s w i l l a l s o a f f e c t p r o ­
d u c t io n w o r k e r s o f a g e g r o u p s d i f f e r e n t l y .




- Ik -

T h e I n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w a s ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n d e s ig n in g t h e
b a s i c d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n w h ic h c o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n a g e g r o u p s c o u ld b e m ade*
W ith in e a c h p l a n t , p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s o f t h e sam e s e x w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s
w it h m ore th a n 2 y e a r s ' a n d l e s s th a n 2 y e a r s ' s e r v i c e * I t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t
t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w o u ld r e d u c e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a c t o r s o t h e r th a n a g e a n d
a t t h e sam e t im e a f f o r d s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t o w a r r a n t m e a n in g fu l
c o m p a r is o n s *




- 15 -

I n d u s t r y a n d P la n t S e l e c t i o n
B e c a u s e s t a t i s t i c s o n t h e p e r fo r m a n c e i n d i c a t o r s a r e m ore r e a d i l y a v a i l a ­
b l e fr o m f i r m s e n g a g e d i n m a n u fa c tu r in g th a n fr o m n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t^ t h i s i n i t i a l e x a m in a tio n w a s l i m i t e d t o m a n u fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s * W ith ­
i n m a n u fa c tu r in g , h o w e v e r , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o e x a m in e p l a n t s w i t h i n o n l y tw o
i n d u s t r i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p i l o t s tu d y *
S e v e r a l c r i t e r i a w e r e u s e d t o s e l e c t t h e i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n w h ic h p l a n t s
w e r e s u r v e y e d * A l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y e e s o v e r hS y e a r s o f a g e t o t o t a l
e m p lo y e e s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f som e fo r m o f i n d i v i d u a l i n c e n t i v e p a y m e n ts i n m o s t
p l a n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y , a n d th e im p o r ta n c e o f t h e in d u s t r y i n te r m s o f num ber
o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d w e r e am ong th e f a c t o r s ta k e n i n t o c o n s id e r a t io n *
I t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n d u s t r i e s w it h a l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y e e s o v e r
U5 w o u ld i n c l u d e p l a n t s e m p lo y in g a s u f f i c i e n t num ber o f e m p lo y e e s i n t h e
o l d e r a g e g r o u p s a s w e l l a s y o u n g e r a g e g r o u p s t o a f f o r d u s e f u l c o m p a r is o n s .
A s m e n tio n e d a b o v e , t h e u s e o f i n d i v i d u a l i n c e n t i v e s y s te m o f p a y m e n ts i s
n e c e s s a r y i n d e t e r m in in g i n d i v i d u a l o u t p u t d a ta *
T h e f o o t w e a r a n d m e n 's c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y fr o m
t h e i n d u s t r i e s m e e tin g t h e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts * A c c o r d in g t o t h e 1950 C en su s B u r e a u
R e p o r t o n I n d u s t r i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 32.5 p e r c e n t o f a l l e m p lo y e e s i n t h e
f o o t w e a r i n d u s t r y a n d 33*1 p e r c e n t i n th e a p p a r e l a n d f a b r i c a t e d t e x t i l e p r o d ­
u c t s i n d u s t r y w e r e U5 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o v e r * I n a l l m a n u fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s
t h e p e r c e n t a g e w a s 31*1 S in c e th e m ein 's c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y i s o n e o f t h e m o s t
im p o r ta n t s e g m e n ts o f t h e a p p a r e l g ro u p an d h a s a m ore b a la n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n
b e tw e e n m a le a n d fe m a le e m p lo y e e s th a n o t h e r a p p a r e l i n d u s t r i e s , i t w a s s e ­
l e c t e d a s th e s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r y t o b e ex a m in ed *
Each of these industries is characterized also by incentive systems of
payment for production workers* According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics'
survey in 19t|6 on the extent of incentive pay in selected manufacturing in­
dustries, 89 percent of 3U7 footwear plants studied and 85 percent of plants
manufacturing apparel had incentive systems of payment* 8/ Similarly, 65
percent of all production workers studied in the apparel Industry and 69 per­
cent of all workers studied in the footwear industry were on incentive pay* 9/
Most of the incentive plans were individual plans (usually straight piecework^
affording measures of individual output*

8/ Incentive Pay in American Industry, 19U5-U6,
November 19U7 (pp* 535-538)*
9/ Idem*




- 16 -

Monthly Labor

R e v ie w ,

T he g e o g r a p h ic a l c o n c e n t r a t io n o f t h e s e I n d u s t r i e s m ade i t p o s s i b l e t o
l i m i t p l a n t v i s i t s d u r in g t h e p i l o t w ork t o t h e le w En g l a n d a n d M id d le A t l a n t i c
r e g i o n s . I n 195k , 69 p e r c e n t o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s m anu­
f a c t u r i n g m e n 's s u i t s a n d c o a t s e m p lo y in g 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t io n
w o r k e r s w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e s e r e g i o n s . I n f a c t , o v e r t w o - f i f t h s (%1 p e r c e n t )
o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s i n t h e in d u s t r y
w e r e i n o n e S t a t e , Hew Y o r k . O f t h e 1 ,2 0 0 f o o tw e a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e
U n it e d S t a t e s i n 195% , a p p r o x im a te ly 6 0 p e r c e n t w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e s e r e g i o n s ,
w i t h 99 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s i n t h e i n d u s t r y . I n t h i s
i n d u s t r y m ore th a n 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d 29 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s w e r e l o c a t e d i n M a s s a c h u s e tt s a n d New Y o r k . 1 0 / A lth o u g h
t h e r e m ay h a v e b e e n som e c h a n g e s i n t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l c o m p o s it io n o f t h e s e
i n d u s t r i e s s i n c e 199%, ii* 1 * d o u b t f u l t h a t a n y m arked s h i f t h a s o c c u r r e d .
P l a n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y fr o m a l i s t o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e s e
I n d u s t r i e s , i n t h e r e g i o n s m e n tio n e d . O n ly l a r g e - s i z e p l a n t s w it h p e r s o n s i n
a l l a g e g r o u p s d o in g t h e sam e w o rk c o u ld f u r n i s h a d e q u a te c o m p a r is o n s . C o n s e ­
q u e n t ly , p l a n t s w h ic h h a d m ore t h a n k O p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s w e r e i n c l u d e d . A l l
O
t h e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts r e s u l t e d i n a l i m i t e d num ber o f p l a n t s fr o m w h ic h t h e sa m p le
c o u ld b e d r a w n . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s s u r v e y e d w a s n o t m ade b y a random
p r o c e s s . V i s i t s w e r e m ade t o p l a n t s a b o u t w h ic h t h e B u rea u h a d som e k n o w le d g e
c o n c e r n in g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e c o r d s a n d t h e t o t a l num ber a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
e m p lo y e e s , b y s e x . T he m a in e m p h a s is o f t h e w o rk w a s t e s t i n g t e n t a t i v e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d d e v e lo p in g m ea su rem en t t e c h n i q u e s . D u r in g t h e p i l o t w o rk
10 p l a n t s w e r e v i s i t e d , 2 o f w h ic h w e r e e l i m i n a t e d fro m t h e s a m p le —1 b e c a u s e
i t e m p lo y e d o n ly a sm a ll, num ber o f p ie c e w o r k e r s , an d t h e o t h e r b e c a u s e i t
m a in ta in e d in a d e q u a te p l a n t r e c o r d s f o r t h i s s t u d y .

3 0 / U . S . B u rea u o f t h e C e n s u s , A d v a n ce R e p o r t, 193% C e n su s o f
M a n u fa c tu r e s .




-

IT

-

D a ta C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s
T h e a m o u n t a n d c o m p le x it y o f t h e in f o r m a t io n t o b e o b t a in e d fro m t h e
p l a n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y p r e c lu d e d c o n d u c t in g a m a ll s u r v e y . T he l o s s o f c o n ­
t r o l o v e r t h e t y p e o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n a m a il s u r v e y m o u ld s e r i o u s l y l i m i t
t h e a c c u r a c y o f a n y d e r iv e d r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l e n g t h o f tim e r e q u ir e d
f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g e s t a b lis h m e n t t o a s s e m b le a n d f u r n i s h t h e d a t a w o u ld
r e d u c e t h e c h a n c e s f o r c o o p e r a t io n . I n m any c a s e s , t h e n a t u r e o f p l a n t r e c ­
o r d s w o u ld n o t p e r m it a s s e m b lin g t h e d a t a d i r e c t l y b u t w o u ld r e q u i r e d e r i v i n g
t h e in f o r m a t io n fro m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s u s u a l l y m a in ta in e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
C o n s e q u e n tly , p e r s o n a l v i s i t s b y t r a i n e d a g e n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d . A l l d a t a o b ­
ta in e d in t h is in v e s t ig a t io n w ere c o lle c t e d by p r o j e c t s t a f f v i s i t i n g th e
p l a n t s . On th e a v e r a g e , th e tim e n e e d e d to o b t a i n th e d a t a f o r a p l a n t em­
p l o y in g 500 p i e c e - r a t e w o r k e r s w a s a b o u t o n e m an-m on th*
A s c h e d u le f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a w a s d e v e lo p e d a n d t e s t e d i n t h e p l a n t s
v i s i t e d * 1 1 / I t c o n s i s t e d o f tw o p a r t s — a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d a s e t o f s ta n d a r d ­
i z e d w o r k s h e e t s . T he q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d in f o r m a t io n o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e
c o n c e r n in g t h e r e c o r d s a n d p la c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e p l a n t . A n sw e r s t o t h e
it e m s o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p e r m it t e d t h e a g e n t t o s e l e c t ( w i t h i n c e r t a i n
l i m i t s ) t h e a p p r o p r ia t e p e r io d f o r s t u f y a n d f u r n i s h e d a g u id e t o t h e p a r t i c ­
u l a r r e c o r d s o u r c e s i n t h e p l a n t w h ic h s h o u ld b e e x a m in e d i n o r d e r t o d e r iv e
t h e r e q u ir e d d a ta *
T h e q u e s t i o n s o n p la c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s w ere d e v e lo p e d to a s c e r t a i n , i f
p o s s i b l e , som e o f t h e f a c t o r s w h ic h m ig h t b e a s s o c i a t e d w it h d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s
fr o m d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s * A p l a n t w h ic h h a d p h y s i c a l , a p t i t u d e , a n d jo b e x a m i­
n a t i o n s a s w e l l a s s p e c i f i c p r o g ra m s f o r r e t r a i n i n g a n d r e a s s ig n m e n t m ig h t
w e l l h a v e a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f jo b p e r fo r m a n c e an d a g e r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s fro m a n o t h e r l a c k i n g su c h p r o c e d u r e s . N on e o f t h e p l a n t s i n c lu d e d i n
t h e p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a d s p e c i f i c p r o g ra m s a lo n g t h e s e l i n e s *
The worksheets were designed for recording personnel information and
data on each of the performance measures separately for each individual.

T h ey w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r u s e i n e i t h e r m a ch in e o r h a n d p r o c e s s i n g o f th e
d a t a , a n d w e r e a d a p ta b le t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p l a n t r e c o r d s . I n th e e x p l o r ­
a t o r y w ork v a r io u s fo r m s w e r e a t te m p te d an d i t w a s fo u n d t h a t t h e u s e o f a
s e p a r a t e c a r d f o r e a c h w o r k e r w a s t h e m o st e f f i c i e n t p r o c e d u r e f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g
t h e d a t a fr o m com pany r e c o r d s *
W o r k s h e e t 1 ( s e e p . 66) w a s t h e b a s i c w o r k s h e e t o n w h ic h d a t a f o r a l l
m e a s u r e s w e r e r e c o r d e d . I t c o n s i s t s o f f o u r m a jo r s e c t i o n s c o v e r in g p e r s o n n e l
i n f o r m a t io n , e a r n in g s d a t a , a t t e n d a n c e , a n d i n d u s t r i a l i n j u r y d a ta g e n e r a l l y
d e r iv e d fr o m d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f r e c o r d s * P e r s o n n e l a n d s e p a r a t i o n s d a t a w e r e
u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e fr o m p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s a lt h o u g h o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s w e r e
n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c u r a t e . E a r n in g s a n d h o u r s d a t a w e r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e
n / A c o p y o f t h i s s c h e d u le w ith a co o m p a n y in g i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a g e n t s
i s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e a p p e n d ix o f t h i s r e p o r t *




-

1 8

-

d i r e c t l y fro m p a y r o l l a n d p ro d u e t i o n r e c o r d s , b u t i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r ­
m a tio n o n o n l y p ie c e w o r k h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s , i t w a s so m e tim e s n e c e s s a r y t o
com p u te t h e s t r a i g h t - t i m e p ie c e w o r k e a r n in g s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l fro m t h e
d a i l y p i e c e t i c k e t s tu r n e d in d u r in g t h e s u r v e y p e r i o d . A tte n d a n c e d a ta
(d a y s w o rk e d a n d d a y s s c h e d u le d ) u s u a l l y h a d t o b e co m p u ted fr o m i n d i v i d u a l
t im e c a r d s . N o n d is a b lin g i n j u r y d a ta w e r e a v a i l a b l e fro m d is p e n s a r y o r n u r s e ' s
r e c o r d s w h e re t h e y e x i s t e d . D i s a b li n g i n j u r y d a t a c o u ld b e d e r iv e d fro m
w o rk m en 's c o m p e n s a tio n r e c o r d s .
W o r k sh e e t 2 ( s e e p . 6 7 ) w a s d e v e lo p e d t o s u p p le m e n t t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y
in f o r m a t io n o b t a in e d o n w o r k s h e e t 1 . I t w a s d e s ig n e d to t e s t , i f p o s s i b l e ,
t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n p i e c e r a t e s on v a r io u s p r o d u c t s w i t h s ta n d a r d t i m e s .
D u r in g t h e p i l o t w o r k , i t w a s h o p e d t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l w o u ld b e u s e f u l
e s p e c i a l l y w hen i n d i v i d u a l s p e r fo r m e d a v a r i e t y o f o p e r a t io n s o n m any p r o d u c t s .
I t w a s n o t p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , d u r in g th e p i l o t w ork t o o b t a i n in f o r m a t io n o n
w o r k s h e e t 2 a n d th e s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u L t s r e p o r t e d h e r e w e r e d e r iv e d e n t i r e l y
fro m d a ta r e c o r d e d o n w o r k s h e e t 1 .




Statistical Methods

The statistical procedures applied to the raw data were, in essence,
those necessary for combining a large number of individual observations Into
broader findings. The results of the study were intended to show:
1.
2.
3.

The performance of several age groups as compared with each other;
Any differences in the influence of age on the performance of men
and women in various types of jobs and industries; and
Individual variation in the performance of workers.

The information recorded during the plant visits would not yield these
results unless the raw data were processed further. The procedures used for
the four types of performance indicators, although similar, were not identical
and are presented separately for each indicator. Prior to discussing the
particular methods applied, it might be well to indicate the age groups which
were selected for comparison.
Age Groups
In order to secure results of maximum precision, it would have been
desirable to classify workers in narrowly defined age groups. Classification
of workers in 5-year age groups was attempted for this study but the sample
was too small to yield meaningful results. Consequently, for all of the
performance measures, workers were classified into 10-year age groups. These
were under 25, 25-31:, 35-UU, U5-5U, 55-61:, and 65 and over. In a larger scale
survey, the use of 5-year groups might prove feasible.
Output Per Man-Hour
As mentioned earlier, in order to obtain meaningful measures of output
per man-hour, the basic groups for direct comparison consisted of experienced
employees of the same sex working at the same specific occupation in a plant.
Each of the plants surveyed, however, was characterized by a large number of
different occupations with relatively few individuals in each occupation. In
many occupations, only 2 or 3 of the age groups were represented. Therefore,
if all comparisons had been made only between individuals in the same occu­
pations, the results would have been extremely limited.
It was necessary to apply some procedure which would convert the output
per man-hour scores (average hourly piecework earnings) of workers in specific
occupations into some measure which would, thereafter, be entirely independent
of the particular occupation in which the workers were found.
The procedure adopted consisted of converting each output score for
workers in the same occupation into an index. The 35-U1: age group for the
occupation was assigned an index of 100, and the index of each of the other
age groups was simply the ratio of the average score of that age group to the




—

2 0

—

average score of the 35>-iiU year group* 12/ Thus, a comparable measure was
derived for each age group, each measure reflecting the relative performance
of a given age group as compared with the corresponding 35-Ui year group, By
transforming the scores of age groups into indexes, the possible distorting
influence of variations in absolute pay levels in different operations or in
different plants was eliminated. The measures could now be treated as a homo­
geneous group of indicators, and it was no longer necessary to be concerned
with actual scores of individuals, nor the plant in which they worked.
Occupational Groups. The indexes, up to this point, represented only
output measures of workers in specific occupations within plants. In order
to derive results which would reflect larger numbers of individuals than were
available in these fine occupations, some means had to be found for combining
the indexes. This was done by establishing occupational groups in which the
effect of factors other than age could be expected to be fairly uniform for
all age groups.
In summarizing the data, indexes for workers in specific occupations
were grouped according to the following characteristics:
1.
2.
3.
U.

Sex;
Hand or machine occupations 13/;
Higher or lower paid occupations 13/; and
Industry.

If these distinctions had not been made, then differences between the
index of one age group and another might be due, in part, to the different
distribution of these characteristics in the two age groups. Consequently,
through the use of these classifications, valid comparisons among age groups
could be obtained.
Procedure for Combining Indexes of Specific Occupations. As mentioned
above, each of the age group indexes for the specific occupations was derived
from the scores of individuals in a particular age group and the correspond­
ing base group within a single plant. Some were based on a very small number
of individuals in both the age and base groups whereas others represented larger
groups. In combining the age group indexes for a specific occupation to obtain
a measure for an occupational group, it was necessary to assign a weight to
each index reflecting its relative importance in the measure for the occupa­
tional group. This weighting procedure took into account the number of work­
ers in the age group as well as the number of workers in the base group for
each occupation. 1k /
12/ A procedure was also applied which permitted the use of the 25-3U
year group transformed to the 35>-UU year group as the base. This method en­
abled the use of more observations. It is described more fully in the
appendix. (See p. U9 * )
13/ The basis for classifying occupations into higher or lower paid and
hand or machine operations is discussed in the appendix.
(See pp. U7-U8.)
ill/ The formula for these weights is included in the appendix. (See




-

2 1

-

Combining Indexes of Occupational Groups* In addition to lndexe 8 for
specific and combined occupation groups, i t w a s considered desirable to obtain
more generalized indications of the relative performance of the various age
groups. For example, age-group indexes were obtained for all male employees
in the clothing plants, whether they mere working at hand or machine operations,
or in higher or lower paid Jobs.
In order to derive these indexes a procedure was required to insure that
the influence of factors other than age would be constant for all age groups.
The simplest method for accomplishing this was to assign, to each occupational
group index, a constant weight for all age groups. When combined through the
use of these weights, the four occupational groups indexes yielded an index
which was not influenced by the shifting proportion of, sa$ higher and lower
paid occupations, from one age group to another. The weighting scheme actually
used was based on the total number of workers of all ages within an occupational
group.
Individual Variation. As mentioned earlier, one of the purposes of this
study, in addition to measuring the relationships between age and work per­
formance was to determine the extent of individual variation within each age
group. It is important to know whether the index derived for a particular age
group reflected the performance of individuals whose output scores showed
considerable uniformity, or whether, on the other hand, their scores varied
widely about the average for that group. An employer, fbr example, would
logically give greater consideration to the characteristics of an individual
applicant rather than to his age, if he knew that performance differences
between age groups is less than the individual variation in any one age group.
The measure of dispersion which was employed reflects the difference
between the age group average and the individual scores for each occupation.
The actual measure was the coefficient of variation, which is expressed as a
percentage of the group score.
As in the case of the age group indexes, the dispersion measures for the
specific occupations were combined to obtain a measure for the occupational
group. Again, it was desirable to combine these dispersion measures with
weights which would reflect their relative importance in the combined measure.
In this case, the weight applied took into account only the number of wo liters
in the age group for the occupation.
Similarly, it was considered useful to obtain a dispersion measure for
combinations of the occupational groups. The same weighting procedure as used
in combining the Indexes of output per man-hour for the specific occupations
was employed.




-

2 2

-

Attendance
As noted above, the basic group In the attendance comparisons was not the
specific occupation, as in the case of output per man-hour, but rather the
type of occupation (higher or lower paid)* It was believed that in the two
industries covered the specific occupation had little bearing on the attendance
rate of an employee* Thus, to obtain comparable attendance rates for the
various age groups, individuals were grouped according to sex, plant, and
occupational earnings level*
For each of these classifications, age group indexes were derived by
dividing the average attendance rate for an age group b y the average rate of
the 35-UU year group* 15/
In this case, as in output per man-hour, a common
measure was derived from all rates reflecting the relative performance of a
given age group as compared with the corresponding 3S-UU year group*
This approach yielded indexes which included a considerably larger number
of workers than those obtained from single occupations in the output per man­
hour indexes* However, each of these series referred to individual plants*
What was desired were results which would cover broader groups* Therefore,
plant attendance indexes for each age group were combined in a manner similar
to that used for combining output per man-hour indexes for specific occupations*
The weight assigned to each plant in this case took into account the number
of workers in the age group, the number of workers in the base group, and the
number of scheduled workdays of the survey period* 16/
It was also considered useful to derive attendance measures for a com­
bination of these groups* These, like the combinations of output per man-hour
occupational groups, required a weighting procedure which would not permit the
influence of factors other than age to enter into the measure* A similar fixed
weighting system was employed which assigned the same weight to each age group
index pertaining to the same earnings level*
Dispersion measures were not calculated for attendance, since it became
evident at an early stage that such measures would have limited usefulness*
The average attendance rate was very close to the maximum attainable rate
(100 percent) indicating there could be only small differences in magnitude
above the average*

15/ A procedure similar to that
indexes making use of the 25-3U group
carried out here* For details of the
16/ The formula for this weight




employed for the output per man-hour
in addition to the 35-UU year group was
procedure, see appendix p. 1$,
is shown in the appendix* (See p. 1#*)

- 23 -

Industrial Injuries
In order to minimize the influence of factors other than age, as noted
earlier, basic comparisons of injury experience should be made among indivi­
duals of the same sex within the same plant performing the same type of
operations (hand or machine), in attempt was made to draw such comparisons.
However, industrial Injuries occur infrequently and to draw such comparisons
either a large number of workers or a long observation period for a smaller
number of workers would be required. In the plaints surveyed there had been
no injuries in many age groups. These groups, therefore, had injury rates of
zero. The use of age group indexes, consequently, was found to be impractica­
ble because base groups for several series had zero injury rates. Sven if
there had been injury incidence in all base groups, comparisons with zero
rates for other age groups would be misleading since, given a longer period of
observation or a large number of workers, it is probable that a zero rate
would not occur.
In view of the extremely limited nature of the data obtained, only the
incidence of injuries for several of the plants visited rather than the indexes,
are shown in this report. These are included for illustrative purposes.
Separations
The basic groups for comparison were established in terms of plant, sex,
and length of service, and age group indexes were derived. As in the case of
output per man-hour and attendance,the age group separation rates were related
to the separation rate for the corresponding 35 -U* year age group.
Combinations were made of indexes of each of the basic comparison groups
in a manner similar to that used for the other measures. The weight applied
to each index took into account the number of workers in the age group, the
number of workers In the base group, and the length of the separation obser­
vation period in the plant.
Separations, like injuries, occur infrequently, and consequently, require

a greater number of observations for adequate measures than productivity or
attendance. Since the separations data obtained in this survey were very
limited, the indexes shown are primarily illustrative.




-

2h -

jjMwfl-lngH in the Plants Surveyed
The measures of work performance Included here were derived from data
obtained in plants visited daring the exploratory work. The results show per­
formance b y age group only for the plants surveyed, and generalizations should
not be drawn with respect to the two industries included in the samples. In
addition to the smallness of the sample, the method of plant selection did not
attempt to achieve industry representativeness. It was not the purpose of
this investigation to compile statistics which would provide definitive results
for the two industries, although certain limited findings were anticipated.
As indicated elsewhere in this report, the main emphasis was on developing
performance indicators and testing measurement techniques.
The findings presented here reflect the experience of piece-rate pro­
duction workers employed in k plants in the men's clothing industry and k
plants in the footwear Industry. All plants were located in the Hew England
and Kiddle Atlantic regions and ranged in size from 500 production workers to
more than 2,500. Data for selected periods in 1955 were collected. The
periods chosen were those of substantially full production in the plants
studied.
Output Per Man-Hour
Output per man-hour data were obtained for 2,217 production workers— 933
in the footwear plants and 1 ,28 k in the clothing plants* Separate results are
shown for men and women employed in the two groups of plants (tables 1 and 2 ).
They are further broken down into earnings level groups (tables 3 t k, 5, and 6 )
and according to hand and machine occupations (tables 7 , 8 , 9 , and 10 ).
The age span surveyed ranges from under 25 years of age to 65 years and
over for the detailed job classifications. For the combined groups, this
range was narrowed to the age groups 25 to 65 only, because of the Inadequate
number of observations which could be obtained in the youngest and oldest age
groups in some of the detailed job categories.
Men and Women. The productivity of both male and female pieceworkers in
the footwear and clothing plants studied did not vary with age until after age
5k (tables 1 and 2). The anal3 differences between the indexes for age groups
under 55 were not statistically significant. After that age the figures for
most groups show a decline which, although statistically significant, was not
of serious proportions. In no case did the performance of any 55 -6 k year
group fall below 90 percent of the base group index. And one group of older
workers (women aged 55 -6 k in the footwear plants) in fact performed as well as
any younger group of women.
The output indexes for men in both the footwear and clothing plants show
slight increases between the youngest groups (2 5 -3 k) and the base groups.
These apparent increases, however, are not statistically significant. Similarly,
the small differences observed between the base groups
the corresponding
k5-5k year groups are not significant. After age 5k, the decline noted above
occurs.




- 25 -

Table 1.— Indexes of output per man-hour for pieceworkers in four footwear
establishments, by sex and age grot?)
(Age group 35-14**100)
Women

Men
Age
group y

Number
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Ntrmber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

25-3U....

91*

97.3

18 .8

97

10 0 .8

35-14;....

163

10 0 .0

ll;.0

161*

10 0 .0

18 .2
1 U .6

1*5-51*.....

123

97*8

1 U .0

129

99.0

13.1;

98

2 / 9 2 .1

13.3

60

99.6

1 1 .1;

55-61*....

1/ Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number of observations was considered insufficient. Cf. table 11*
2/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that, if
there” were really no difference between the age group and the base group, a
difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty on
repeated sampling*

Table 2*— Indexes of output per man-hour for pieceworkers in four clothing
establishments, by sex and age group
____________ _________________ (Age group 35-UU=100)__________________________
Womerl

Men
Age
group 1 /

Humber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Number
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

25-3U....

52

98.6

7.1

10 0

99.3

2 2 .2

35-W;....

82

10 0 .0

1 5 .0

220

10 0 .0

U5-5U.....

51

100.5

1 U. 1

387

98.U

19 .8
18 .2

2 / 9 1.8

20 .8

279

2 / 9 0 .2

1 9 .2

55-61;....

no

\ f Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number of observations was considered insufficient* Cf. table 12*
2/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that,
if there were really no difference between the age group and the base group,
a difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty
on repeated sampling*




-

26 -

Although the output pattern for men is similar in both industries, the
patterns for women differ. The indexes for women in the footwear plants show
insignificant variation between the ace croups. In the clothing plants, how­
ever, the indexes for women exhibit a pattern similar to that of the indexes
for men— stable output until age 5^-, after which there is a decline.
In addition to comparing the average productivity of age groups, it is
useful to examine the variation in performance among individuals within each
age group. The measure of this variation is provided by the coefficient of
variation. 17/ As shown in the tables, the coefficients of variation exhibit
no pronounced tendency to vary consistently with age. Although the measures
for both men and women in the footwear plants decline slightly with age, these
differences are small. For the clothing plants, the dispersion measures appeal
to increase for men after age 3^ and again after age 5 k . They show a slight
decline for women after age 3^> remaining stable thereafter.

The coefficients do, however, indicate considerable individual vari­
ability within age groups. Also, individual dispersion appears to be some­
what greater in the clothing plants than in the shoe plants. The average
coefficient of variation for men of all ages in the footwear plants was the
same as for women— 15 percent. In the clothing plants the average coefficient
for all men was 1 7 percent and for women 19 percent.
When the dispersion measures for the age groups are examined together
with the output per man-hour indexes, it is evident that the differences in
performance among Individuals within age groups are usually more important
than differences between age groups. For example, men between the ages of
55 and 6h in the footwear plants had an index of 92 and a dispersion measure
of 13 percent, indicating that roughly one-third of the individual scores can
be expected to be outside the index values of 10^ and 80. More interesting,
perhaps, is the Inference that approximately 25 percent of the men, aged 55-6 k

17/ The coefficient of variation is used to express the relative vari­
ability of groups of data. It is calculated by dividing the standard devi­
ation b y the mean, and indicates the relationship between the value of the
mean and the distance from the mean within which a specified proportion of
the observations will lie, if the distribution is approximately normal. For
example, if the average index of an age group were 90 , and the coefficient of
variation 10 percent, then about two-thirds of the indexes would lie between
8 l.O and 99*0 (these limits being the mean plus and minus 10 percent of the
mean). This assumes, again, that the form of the distribution is not far from
normal. There is evidence supporting the view that this will be the case in
output per man-hour scores. See Individual Productivity Differences, BIS
Serial Bo. R. 10lf0, February 19 I , (pp. 18 and 19 ).
10




27 -

in the footwear plants vould be expected to produce more than the average
produced b y the 3 5 - ^ year group— the peak performance group. Thus, although
in most cases the indexes for the 55 -6H year groups are somewhat lower than
those for other age groups, the sizable variation observed vithin all age
groups implies that too much emphasis should not be placed on the group Indexes
as indicators of individual performance.
Insofar as practical Implications are concerned, these data suggest that
an employer, in considering an applicant for employment, should evaluate the
person as an individual rather than attempt to draw conclusions from his
chronological age.
Higher and Lower Paid Occupations. The manner in which a are is associated
with the performance of workers in higher and lower paid jobs is indicated in
tables 3, k, 5 , and 6 . Since the earnings level of a job often reflects its
skill level, differences in the performance of age groups in the two classes
of jobs would imply differences in the relationship of age with performance
for workers in various skill levels.
Ccaparisons of workers in higher and lower paid occupations can thus
furnish some Information regarding the prevailing notion that the performance
of skilled workers is less affected b y advancing age than is the performance
of unskilled workers.
Tables 3 and k show that the output indexes for female workers in both
higher and lower paid jobs and for male workers in lower paid jobs in the
footwear plants were substantially the same for all age groups. Hone of the
indexes shown for these groups were significantly different from 10 0 , according
to statistical tests which were applied. In contrast, male workers in higher
paid jobs showed declines in the ^ 5 -5 ^ and 55 -6H year groups which were
statistically significant.
Tables 5 and 6 indicate that the index patterns for workers in both
higher
lower paid jobs were identical in the clothing plants surveyed.
This pattern— performance b y the groups 25-5^ years which were not signifi­
cantly different from 100 and somewhat reduced performance b y the 55-6 k year
group— follows the general pattern for men and women described above.
There appears to be no consistent difference In the pattern of the age—
productivity relationships between workers in higher and in lower paid occu­
pations. In fact, for all workers in the clothing plants and for women in
the shoe plants, age did not affect the productivity of workers in higher
paid jobs differently from those in lower paid jobs.
It might be noted that the individual variation within age groups in
these classifications did not change consistently with age. For example, the
coefficients of variation for male workers in the higher paid jobs in the
footwear plants declined with successive age groups, whereas the corresponding
coefficients in the clothing plants increased.




-

28 -

Table 3 .— Indexes of output per man-hour for men pieceworkers in higher and
lower paid occupations in four footwear establishments) by age group
(Age group 35-44=100)
Lower

Higher
Age
group 1 /

Humber
of
workers

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Index

Humber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)
21.9

36

96.8
10 0 .0

13.5

% J 22

3/ 105.7

17.5

12.9

3/ 2 1

3/

1 5 .2

25-34 .

61

97.4

1 7 .8

33

35-44 .

127

10 0 .0

13.9

45-54 .

10 1

2 / 95.6

55-61* .

77

2/ 90.5

97.8

14.8

l/ Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
lumber of observations was considered insufficient. (See table 11.)
2/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that, if
there were really no difference between the age group and the base group, a
difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty on
repeated sampling.
3 / Includes lower paid machine operations only.

Table 4.— Indexes of output per man-hour for women pieceworkers in higher and
lower paid occupations in four footwear establishments, b y age group
(Age group 35-44=100)
Lower

Higher
Age
group 1 /

Humber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Humber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

25-34 •

44

100.3

1 6 .7

53

1 0 1 .1

19 .0

35-44 .

62

1 1 .1
1 1 .2

10 0 .0

16.4

45-54 .

14.2

24

83
36

98.3

55-64 .

10 0 .0
10 0 .0
96.0

102

46

101.9

1 2 .7

7.6

l/ Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number of observations was considered insufficient.
(See table 11.)




29

Table 5•— Indexes of output per man-hour for men pieceworkers in higher and
lower paid occupations in four clothing establishments, by age group
(Age group 35-UU*100)
Higher
Age
grotp 1 /

Ntmiber
of
workers

Index

Lower
Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Ntmber
of
workers

Index

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

25-3U.....

2/27

2 /10 0 .6

5.8

25

96.6

8.9

35-UU.....

1*9

100*0

Uu6

33

100*0

15.7

U5-5U.....

35

9 6 .2

lU. 5

16

105.1*

12.5

55-6U....

U5

3/ 93.0

18.5

65

3/ 90.3

a. 7

1/ Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number” of observations was considered insufficient* (See table 12*)
2/ Includes higier paid machine operations only*
3 / This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that,
if there were really no difference between the age grot?) and the base group,
a difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twentyon repeated sampling*

Table 6 *— Indexes o f output per man-hour for women pieceworkers in higher and
lower paid occupations in four clothing establishments, by age group
(Age grotp 35-UU=100)
H igher
Age
group 1 /

Ntmber
of
w orkers

In d ex

Lower
C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p e r c e n t )

Ntmber
of
workers

In d e x

C o e ffic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p e r c e n t )

25-3U....

20

95.5

15.U

80

100.8

22.8

35—UU.•♦•.

67

100.0

12.3

153

100.0

21.8

U5-5U....

119

96.1

15.7

268

99.2

19.2

55-6U....

67

% / 89.9

15.3

212

% / 90.3

20.2

1/
Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and cnrer, are excluded because the
ntmber of observations was considered insufficient* (See table 1 2 *)
2/
This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that, if
there” were really no difference between the age group and the base group, a
difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty
on repeated sampling*




- 30

Consequently, v a r i a t i o n w it h in age groups a g a in m ist be viewed in terms
As noted
e a r l i e r , the c o n s id e ra b le degree o f v a r i a t i o n evidenced means th a t even though
a d e c lin e i n av erage perform ance a f t e r age
was o b se rv e d , th e re are many
w orkers aged 5 5 - 6^ whose perform ance eq u ale d o r even surpassed the average
perform ance o f younger gro u ps.

of i t s magnitude r a t h e r than i n terms o f i t s r e la t io n s h ip t o a g e .

One d i ff e r e n c e between the v a r i a t i o n w it h in age groups f o r w orkers in
h ig h e r p a id jo b s and f o r w orkers i n lo w er p a id jo b s i s a p p a re n t. The v a r i ­
a t io n w as, on the a v e ra g e , s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r among w orkers in lo w er p a id jo b s
than among those in h ig h e r p a id jo b s , in d ic a t in g more in d iv id u a l d iff e r e n c e s
in p r o d u c t iv it y in l e s s s k i l l e d occu p atio n s.
Machine and Hand O ccu pation s. Because the nature o f machine work d i f f e r s
s u b s t a n t i a lly from th a t o f handwork, d a ta a re presen ted t o shed l i g h t on the
Q uestion o f whether age a f f e c t s the perform ance o f w orkers in the one type o f
o p e ra tio n more than in th e o th e r.
The same g e n e ra l p ic t u r e o f s t a b i l i t y u n t i l age 5^ B-Qd some d e c lin e
t h e r e a f t e r i s ev id e n t in the machine-hand com parisions ( t a b l e s 7 > 8 , 9 > and
10) . There were e x c e p tio n s , however. The in dexes f o r male handworkers aged
5 5 -6H-, alth ou gh a p p a re n tly lo w er i n b o th i n d u s t r i e s , were found not t o he
s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the Indexes f o r o th er age gro u p s. A t the same
tim e, the apparent in c re a s e i n the index f o r fem ale machine o p e ra to rs in the
shoe p la n t s was a l s o found not t o he s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t a b l e 8 ) .
One i n t e r e s t in g d iff e r e n c e between band and machine o p e ra to rs in the
fo o tw e a r p la n t s should he n o ted ; the index f o r male machine o p e ra to rs aged
25 - 3^ i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lo w er than th a t f o r the 35- ^ y e a r group. The in dexes
f o r b o th male and fem ale handworkers aged 2 5 - 3 ^ a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r than
those f o r th e co rrespon din g handworkers aged 3 5 -M -* The indexes f o r the
c lo t h in g w orkers in th ese age groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the
correspon din g b a se group in dex (a c c o r d in g t o s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s ^ f o r e i t h e r
machine o r hand o p e ra tio n s .
A gain no c o n s iste n t p a tt e rn evo lve d and no g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n about
d iff e r e n c e s in the a g e -p r o d u c t iv it y r e la t io n s h ip s o f machine o p e ra to rs a s
c o n trasted w ith handworkers can b e drawn.
The age group perform ance in dexes sh o u ld , once a g a in , be in t e r p r e t e d in
the l i g h t o f the v a r i a t i o n m easures. A g a in , the range o f i n d iv id u a l v a r i ­
a b i l i t y was s i z a b le .
I n i t i a l O ccu pation al Groups. T a b le s 11 and 12 show output p e r man-hour
indexes b y in d u s t ry , s e x , l e v e l o f p a y , and type o f o p e ra tio n (hand o r m ach in e).
These a re the indexes o btain ed i n the i n i t i a l a g g re g a tio n o f the s p e c i f i c
occupation in d e x es, and, in many c a s e s , re p re se n t o n ly a s m a ll number o f w o r­
k ers.
B e s u its a re not shown f o r those groups c o n ta in in g fe w e r than f i v e




- 31

T a b le 7 . — In d exes o f output p e r man-hour o f men p iecew o rk ers perform in g machine
and hand o p e ra tio n s i n fo u r fo o tw e a r e s ta b lis h m e n ts, b y age group
(A ge group 35 -4 4 =100)
Hand

Machine
Age
group 1 /

Humber
of
w orkers

In d ex

C o e f fic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p e r c e n t )

Number
of
w orkers

95.0

1 7 .6

30

139

10 0 .0

45-54...

113

97.5

12 .0
1 3 .8

2k

3/ 10

55-64...

93

9 1 .2

13.7

3/

25-3*...
35-44...

64

2/

2/

5

In d ex

2 / 10 9 .6
10 0 .0
10 0 .2
3/ 9 8 .6

C o e f fic ie n t
o f v a ria tio n
(p e r c e n t )

19.9

2 1 .0
15.3

6 .k

1/ Two age gro u p s, under 25 and 65 and o v e r, a re exclu ded because the
number o f o b se rv a tio n s was c o n sid ere d i n s u f f i c i e n t .
2/ T h is index i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 100 in the sense t h a t , i f
th e re w ere r e a l l y no d iff e r e n c e between the age group and the ba se gro u p, a
d iff e r e n c e as g r e a t as t h i s w ould b e o btain ed l e s s than one time i n twenty on
rep e ated sam pling.
3/ In c lu d e s h ig h e r p a id hand o p e ra tio n s o n ly .
T a b le 8 . — In d exes o f output p e r man-hour o f women p iecew orkers p erform in g
machine and hand o p e ra tio n s i n fo u r fo o tw e a r e sta b lis h m e n ts, by age group
(Age group 3 5 -¥<-=10 0 )

Machine
Age
group 1 /

Number
of
workers

25-34...

6k

35-44.••
45-54...
55-64...

100
97
42

Index

9 8 .8
100 «0
9 8 .0
10 3 .0

Hand
Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Humber
of
workers

Index

20.4

33

2/ 105.0

1 7 .0

6k

10 0 .0
1 0 1 .0
2 / 9 2 .6

13.9

32

1 1 .0

18

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)
9.9
9.6
9*3

1 2 .5

l / Two age gro u p s, under 25 and o ver 65 and o v e r, a re excluded because
the number o f o b se rv a tio n s was co n sid ere d i n s u f f i c i e n t .
2 / T h is in dex i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 100 i n the sense t h a t , i f
th e re w ere r e a l l y no d iff e r e n c e between th e age group and th e ba se grou p, a
d iff e r e n c e as g r e a t as t h i s w ould be o bta in ed l e s s than one time in tw enty on
rep e ated sam pling.




T a b le 9 . — Indexes o f output p e r B aa-h ou r o f men p iecew orkers perform in g machine
and hand o p e ra tio n s i n fo u r c lo t h in g e sta b lis h m e n ts, b y age group

(Age group 35-***100)
Hand

Machine
Age
group 1 /

lumber
of
workers

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

Index

lumber
of
workers

17

1* .6
10 .2

*0

93.9

2 3 .0

1 5 .2

2/ 9
26

3*

15.5

TO

3/ 90.8

1 8 .*

*3

35-** . .

56

*5-5* • .
55-6* . .

6.5

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

2 / 10 *.*
10 0 .0
1 0 1 .6

9 6 .6
10 0 .0
10 0 .0

25-3* • •

Index

9-5

1/ Two age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number of observations was considered insufficient.
2/ Includes lover paid hand operations only.
3/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that, if
there were really no difference between the age group and the base group, a
difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty on
repeated sampling.

Table 10.— Indexes of output per man-hour of women pieceworkers performing
machine and hand operations in four clothing establishments, by age group
(Age group 35-Mt-ilOO)
Machine
Age
group l/

lumber
of
workers

Index

25-3* . .

5*

100.3

35-** * *

129

*5-5* . .
55-6* . .

203

10 0 .0
10 0 .*
2/ 9 1 .2

106

Hand
Coefficient
of variation
(percent)
22.7
I8 .7

1 7 .6
1 8 .1

lumber
of
workers

Index

k6

98.3

91

Coefficient
of variation
(percent)

2 1.9

10 0 .0

20.7

18 k

96.3

173

2 / 8 9 .2

1 8 .7
19 .6

l/ Tvo age groups, under 25 and 65 and over, are excluded because the
number of observations was considered insufficient.
2/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that, if
there were really no difference between the age group and the base group, a
difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty an
repeated sampling.




- 33 -

T able 11. — In d ex es o f output per man-hour o f piecew orkers in fo u r footw ear
e sta b lis h m e n ts, by s e x , age gro u p, and type o f occupation 1 /
(Age group 35-2+l+a
*100)
Men

Women
Machine

Hand

Age group

Number
of
workers

In d ex

Number
of
workers

Index

Machine

Hand
Number
of
workers

Index

Number
of
w orkers

Index

Higher p a id
occupations

2

(2/)

6

92.5

3

(2/)

25-31+ ......

22

112+.1

39

3/91+.1+

15

lOi+,8

29

97.6

35-2+2+......

19

100.0

108

100.0

33

100.0

29

100.0

1+5-51+ ......

10

100.2

91

91+.8

12

101.3

32+

99.3

55-6U .......

5

98.6

72

3/89.1

6

3/78.7

18

106.2+

65 and o v er •

2

(2/)

12

3/78.9

0

—

7

3/72.0

Under 25 ....

6

85.6

13

3/79.9

9

91.3

13

3/110.2+

25-3U ......

8

95.3

25

97.0

18

105.1

35

99.5

35-2+2+......

5

100.0

31

100.0

31

100.0

71

100.0

2+5-51+......

2

(2/)

22

105.7

20

100.7

63

97.2

55-62+......

3

(2/)

21

97.8

12

101+.0

21+

101.0

65 and over .

0

17

97.6

1

(2/)

1
+

(2/)

Under 25 ....

1
+

(2/)

Lower p a id
occupations

—

1/ In d ex es r e f e r to w o rk e rs ' output p e r man-hour d u rin g s e le c t e d
p e rio d s o f 19 5 5 .
2/ L ess than 5 o b se rv a tio n s were con sidered i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r comparable
in d e x e s .
3/ This in d ex i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 100 i n the sense t h a t ,
i f there w ere r e a l l y no d iff e r e n c e between the age group and the base gro u p ,
a d iff e r e n c e as g r e a t as t h is w ould be o btain ed le s s than one time i n twenty
on re p e a te d sam plin g.




Table 12.— Indexes of output per man-hour of piecework ers xr four clothing
establishments, by sex, age group, and type of oc rupation 1 /
(Age group 35-iiUa100)
Men
Hand

Age group

Number
of
workers

Women
Machine

Index

Hand

Number !
Index
of
workers

Number
of
workers

Machine

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

Higher paid
occupations
®ader 25 ....

0

m rnm
m

0

25-3U ......

3

(£/)

27

3 5 - W i ......

11

100.0

U5-5U ......

6

55-6U ......
65 and over •

1

(£/)

1

(2/)

100.6

7

89.2

13

98.0

38

100.0

12

100.0

55

100.0

95.H

29

96.U

33

3/86.3

86

100.0

8

97.6

37

3/92.0

25

3/81.1

U2

93.3

2

(2/)

16

3/80.1

0

2

(2/)

2

(2/)

5

100.6

10

96.U

—

—

Lower paid
occupations
Under 25 ....

0

25-3U ......

9

10U.U

16

3/89 . k

39

100.0

la

101.9

3 5 - U h .... .

15

10 0 .0

13

100.0

19

100.0

7h

100.0

U5-5U ......

11

10 U .3

5

10 6 .5

151

9 8 .1

117

100.7

55-6U ......

32

92 .U

33

3/88.h

1U8

3/ 90 .7

6U

7

89.7

6

75.6

5

3/71.3

3

65 and over •

—

3/89.8
(2/)

l/ Indexes refer to workers* output per man-hour during selected
periods of 1955*
2/ Less than 5 observations were considered insufficient for comparable
indexes.
3/ This index is significantly different from 100 in the sense that,
if there were really no difference between the age group and the base group,
a difference as great as this would be obtained less than one time in twenty
on repeated sampling.




Individuals, since it was felt that data based on such a limited number of
observations would not be sufficiently reliable to be compared with indexes
based on greater numbers*
These tables illustrate the need for a large number of observations for
each age group in specific occupations.
The indexes shown in the tables reveal greater fluctuation than was evi­
dent in the combined indexes* 18/ This greater fluctuation is attributable,
for the most part, to the small number of workers underlying each index,
resulting in a greater influence on the group average of individual scores
which are extreme*
It should be recalled that the number of workers in any age group in each
of the classifications shown in the tables (e.g*, men, aged 25-3U, in higher
paid hand occupations) already is an aggregation of workers in various specific
occupations in several plants*
Although the initial Indexes for occupational groups appear to fluctuate
more than those for the combined occupational groups, they nevertheless exhibit
similar patterns* For the most part, there were no significant differences
between the indexes for the age groups 25-5U; after age 5U, a snail decline,
statistically significant, occurred* While the varying composition of these
combined groups will not inpair the comparability of the different age groups
within a series (since the same weights were applied in combining each of the
age groups in the series), it will affect the comparability of one series with
another* To whatever extent the relationships between age and work performance
differ among the occupational groups, the comparability of indexes representing
combinations of these groups will be impaired*
Attendance
Data on attendance were collected for U,009 production workers of which
1,758 were in the footwear plants and 2,251 were in the clothing plants*
Although the attendance indexes show minor differences between age groups,
as indicated in tables 13 and lU, these differences are of such limited magni­
tude as to justify the conclusion that attendance rates in the plants surveyed
show no appreciable relationship with age* In the clothing plants, the indexes
of all age groups fell within 95*5 and 102*3 percent of base group average*
In the footwear plants, the range was even smaller— 98*7 to 101*6*
W ith re g a rd to in d i v i d u a l d i ff e r e n c e s , the in d iv id u a l attendance r a t e s
w it h in comparison groups showed rem arkable co n siste n c y and i t became e v id e n t,
a t an e a r ly s t a g e , th a t no purpose c o u ld be served b y c a lc u la t in g the co­
e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r ia t io n o f th ese r a t e s *
The in d iv id u a l d iff e r e n c e s about the
a v e rage in d e x es were so sm all th a t th ey p la y e d no r o l e in the com parisons*

18/

Cf* tables 1 through 10*




Table 13-— Indexes of attendance of pieceworkers in four footwear
establishments, by sex and age group 1 j
(Age group 35-MnlOO)
Women

Hen
Age group

Number
of
workers

Index

Number
of
workers

Index

65

99.7

129

1 0 1 .2
1 0 1 .6

159

3 5 - ^ .................

197

10 0 .0

259

10 0 .2
10 0 .0

*5-5* .................
55-61*..................

190
18 3

101.3

230

100.3

10 0 .8

127

100.9

83

98.7

32

100.5

Under 25 ...............

lX)h

25-3*

.................

65 and over

..........

1/ Indexes refer to workers’ attendance during selected periods of 1955*

Table ll*.— Indexes of attendance of pieceworkers in four clothing
establishments, by sex and age group 1 /
(Age group 35 -kkrioo)
Hen
Age group

Women

Number
of
workers

Number
of
workers

Index

22

2 / 10 0 .8

65

102.3

.................

127

99-7

lkl

3 5 - H .................

153

305

^5-5^

112
263

10 0 .0
10 0 .i
*

10 0 .6
10 0 .0

560

99-2

98.5

1*25

99.5

Under 25 ...............
25-3^

.................

5 5 - 6 ^ ............... .

65 and over

..........

2/

Index

1 0 1 .1

59

2/15

2/ 95.5

1/ Indexes refer to workers’ attendance during selected periods of 1955.

2 j Includes lower paid occupations only.




37 -

Table 1 5 •— Indexes of attendance for pieceworkers in higher and lower paid
occupations in four footwear establishments, by sex and age group 1/
{Age group 35-UU=100)__________________________
Ken
Age
group

Higher
Number
Index
of
workers

Women

Lower
Number
Index
of
workers

Higher
Number
Index
of
workers

Lower
Number
Index
of
workers

Under 25*••

21

100.5

83

102.0

13

103.6

52

98.0

25-3U.....

68

100,3

61

103.0

63

100.6

96

100.0

35-UU.....

135

100.0

62

100.0

8U

100.0

175

100.0

U5-5U.....

119

100.5

71

102.1

73

101.1

157

99.9

55-6U#*..*.

97

99.7

86

101.9

3U

101.7

93

100.6

65 and over

20

97.5

63

99.9

5

102.6

27

99.6

1/

Indexes refer to workers* attendance during selected periods of 1955.

Table 16.— Indexes of attendance for pieceworkers in higher and lower paid
occupations in four clothing establishments, by sex and age group 1/

Women

Men
Age
group

Higher
Number
of
workers

Index

Higher

Lower
Number
of
workers

Index

Number
of
workers

Lower

Index

Number.
of
workers

Index

Under 25...

2

(2/)

22

100.8

16

102.9

U9

102.0

25-3U......

63

100.0

6h

99.1;

38

101.7

103

100.1

35"*Ubo*«*.»

93

100.0

60

100.0

103

100.0

202

100.0

U5-5U......

67

100.2

H5

100.6

203

101.0

357

98.U

55-6U.....

131

98.7

132

98.2

llU

101.0

311

98.8

27

101.5

32

100.6

2

(2/)

15

95.5

65 and over

1/ Indexes refer to workers* attendaice during selected periods of 1955*
7 / Less than 5 observations were considered insufficiently reliable for
comparison of indexes.




38

As can be noted in tables 15 and l6, no consistent differences in the
patterns of the age group indexes can be observed for higher and lower paid
occupations.
Industrial Injuries
Data on industrial injuries were collected for 2,637 workers, of whom
729 were in footwear plants and 1,908 in clothing plants* Tables 17, 18, and
19 illustrate the nature of the plant data which could be obtained in the
surrey. In many age groups, no injuries were recorded. It is evident that
a larger number of individuals, or a longer period of observation, is required
to derive any meaningful data on injuries.
As noted previously, the index method was not used here. In several
categories, no base group was available (since no injuries were recorded in
the base group).
A word of caution is appropriate concerning even the limited data shown
in tables 17, 18, and 19 . Due to the variability of reporting practices
among the plants, particularly as regards nondisabling injuries, the injury
experience of any one plant will not be comparable with that of another. Note,
for example, that plant B reported 5^5 nondisabling injuries, whereas plant C,
which was of approximately the same size, reported only h j . This difference
undoubtedly reflects the absence of uniform recordkeeping practices.
Separations
The separations data shown in tables 20 and 21 are illustrative of the
type of information that can be obtained in a small-scale survey, and indicate
some of the difficulties involved in the collection of separations rates.
Records of separations were kept in detail at only ^ plants providing figures
for 2,73^ workers over the period of a year or more. Although actual con­
clusions relating to the separation rates of various age groups are difficult
to derive from the findings, certain aspects of the technical problems encoun­
tered in this field are pointed up quite clearly.
There are two noteworthy characteristics in the data shown in these tables.
First, the indexes cover a remarkably wide range— from 0 to 879 .2 . Secondly,
the number of separations occurring in each age group is extremely small, with
many groups showing no separations at all.
It is evident that these data are of limited value, insofar as any possible
generalizations are concerned. The problem here is somewhat similar to that
with respect to the industrial injury findings, in that a longer observation
period, or a larger number of individuals, would be necessary to produce any
definitive results.
Within these limitations, however, the indexes appear to show tendencies
which correspond to those which might be expected. In the clothing plants,




- 39




Table 17.— Industrial injuries of pieceworkers in selected shoe plant A by sex, occupation,
and age group, during 1-year period ending December 31, 1955

Men
Occupation
and
age group

Nuufcer
of
workers

Women

Number
Exposure of non­
hours
disabling
injuries

Humber
of dis­
abling
injuries

Number Exposure
of
hours
workers

Number
of non­
disabling
injuries

Number
of dis­
abling
injuries

Hand occupations
Uhder 25 .........

10

17,631+

3

0

6

10,581+

1

0

25-31+ ............

3

5,503

3

0

25

l+i+,818

2

0

35-1+1+...........

5

8,267

0

0

55

103,917

6

1

1+5-51+ ............

2

3,81+5

0

0

35

65,766

2

0

55-61+ ...........

9

15,138

0

0

12

23,01+2

0

0

1

2,159

0

0

65 and over ......

—

—

—

—

Machine occupations
Under 25

li
i

23,921+

2

1

10

17,583

0

0

25-31+ ...........

27

1+9,792

2

1

1+8

87,910

2

0

35-1+1+...........

82

11+8,151+

8

0

83

151,1+57

11

1

1+5-51+.............

97

175,037

2

1

101

186,955

6

0

55-61+ ............

59

110,251+

6

2

39

72,077

3

0

7,201+

0

0

2

3,695

0

0

65 and over ......

1
+




Table 18. — Industrial injuries of pieceworkers in selected clothing plant B by sex, occupation,
and age group, during 2-year period ending December 31, 1955
Men
Occupation
and
age group

Women

Number
Number
Exposure of non­
of
disabling
hours
workers
injuries

Ndniber
of dis­
abling
injuries

Nunber
Exposure
of
hours
workers

Number
of non­
disabling
injuries

Number
of dis­
abling
injuries

Hand occupations
Under 25 .........

1
*

11,532

11

0

10

26,368

7

1

25-31*............

5

17,306

2

0

21
*

71,012

6

0

35-1*1*............

15

1*5,271*

11

0

57

173,009

32

0

1*5-51* .............

16

1*8,21*2

7

1

118

358,513

1*3

3

55-61*............

1*1

132,675

9

1

127

396,052

36

1
*

65 and o v e r .... .

3

8,620

0

0

3

10,1*68

0

0

Under 25 .........

6

16,1*79

7

0

10

26,751

21

0

25-3U ............

22

67,882

11*

0

15

1 1 ,267
**

U*

0

35-1*1*............

26

91,803

16

0

71*

226,860

52

0

1*5-51*............

21*

81,951

17

1

188

567,817

153

8

55-61*............

36

116,902

20

2

110

326,029

66

3

65 and over ......

7

21,311

1

0

2

5,567

Machine occupations

0

0




Table 19,— industrial injuries of pieceworkers, in selected clothing plant C by sex, occupation#
and age group, during 2-year period ending December 31, 195?

Men
Occupation
and
age group

Number
of
workers

Women

Number
Exposure of non­
disabling
hours
injuries

Number
of dis­
abling
injuries

Number Exposure
of
hours
workers

Number
of non­
disabling
injuries

lJumber
of dis­
abling
injuries

Hand occupations
2

8,000

0

0

10

28,1*00

0

0

25-31* .............

22

78,500

0

0

21

61*,600

1

3

35-U* .............

22

82,600

1

1

66

185,600

1
*

3

1*5-51* ............

20

75,1*00

0

1

108

327,1*00

6

3

55-61* .............

m

157,300

2

3

122

389,800

6

1
*

6

23,200

0

0

7

17,300

2

0

Under 25 .........

13

35,700

0

0

15

36,600

0

0

25-31* ............

36

122,200

2

1

11
**

131*, 700

3

1

35-1*1+.............

U1

11*7,800

1

0

91

285,800

6

2

1*5-51* .............

la

11*9,000

1

1

131*

1*27,700

9

7

55-61* ............

29

108,000

0

0

60

19 0 ,50 0

3

1

65 and over ••••«••

5

17,700

0

0

9

29,000

0

0

Itader 2 ? .........

65 and o v e r .... .
Machine occupations

the under 25 age group shows a very high rate of separatists, at does the 65
and over group, whereas the l 5-5^4 and 55-6i4 year groups show an extremely low
i
rate of separations reflecting the relative stability of these groups. The
youngest age group is generally recognized to be one of greater mobility,
while the 65 and over class reflects the high incidence of retirements.
The intermediate groups show rates that vary considerably. These rates
are, in general, lower than the rates for the youngest and the oldest groups.
In view of the inadequate data, it is not possible to identify any sig­
nificant differences in the age-separations patterns shown by the various
groups. In a larger scale survey, however, it would probably be important
to retain the categories used here, in which distinctions are made according
to sex, industry, and length of service.




Table 20.--Indexes of separation rates of pieceworkers in two footwear plants by sex,
length of service, and age group
(Age group 35-Mi“100)
Men
Length of service
and
age group

Women

Number
Number
Number
of
of sepa­
of
workers man-months rations

Index

dumber
Number
Number
of
of
of sepa­
workers man-months rations

Index

Less than 2 years’
service
under 25 ..............

509

18

(V)

23

21*1

8

636.0

25-3U .................

8

81

3

(1/)

27

269

5

387.8

35-UU .................
I
tr

52

5

Uo

2

(V)

38

396

2

100.0

U5-5U .................

k

33

1

(V)

17

158

0

0

55-6U .................

1

7

0

(l/)

2

lt
i

0

(1/)

tr
I




65 and over ...........

—

mm
m
m

—

—

—

~

—

—

More than 2 years'
service
Under 25 ••..... ......

32

309

5

70U .0

35

365

8

879.2

25-3U .................

79

708

U

3b2.1

116

1,202

7

21*6.2

3 5 - M i .................

23k

1,388

3

100.0

180

1,975

5

100.0

U 5 - 5 4 .... ............

no

1,270

U

163.6

173

1,916

k

81.U

55-6U .................

95

1,030

U

183.5

73

806

6

285.U

65 and over

10

90

1

693.9

5

50

0

0

1/ Less than 5 workers or less than 50 man-months in the base group or age group were con­
sidered insufficient to permit reliable indexes. Also, indexes were not calculated for those
series in which the base group showed no separations.




Table 21.— indexes of separation rates of pieceworkers in two men's clothing plants
by sex, length of service, and age group
(Age group 35-l*U=100)
Men
Length of service
and
age group

Number
Number
of
of
workers man-months

Women
Number
of sepa­
rations

Index

Number
Number
Number
of sepa­
of
of
workers man-months rations

Index

Less than 2 years'
service
Under 2 5 ....... .

20

200

7

(1/)

2*
1

321*

6

89.7

25-31*...............

H*

31*0

2

(1/)

26

288

35
.

121.5

35-1*1*...............

8

80

0

(1/)

1*5

506

13

100.0

1*5-51*...............

6

60

0

(V)

27

281*

9

108.7

55-61*................

2

3U

0

(1/)

13

130

1
*

109.2

6$

1

2*
1

0

(1/)

1

10

0

0/)

Under 25 .............

13

186

2

262.2

19

316

9

615.7

25-31*...............

11
**

1*96

5

31*7.5

73

1,290

31*

2l*l*.6

35-1*1*............ .

66

758

5

100.0

157

2,298

10

100.0

U5-5U ...............

82

988

2

33.7

369

1*,768

16

63.1*

166

1,758

7

1*1*.5

280

3,276

16

89.7

35

350

9

303.1*

21*

380

15

835.8

and over

More than 2 years'
service

55-61*................
65 and o v e r ...... .

1/ Less than 5 workers or less than SO man-months in the base group or age group were con­
sidered insufficient to permit reliable indexes. Also, indexes were not calculated for those
series in which the base group showed no separations.

A p nd
p e ix
I. Farther Notes o Statistical M tho s
n
e d
This section is included in order to clarify the assum
ptions underlying
the statistical m th d adopted, a d to describe m re folly the steps followed
e os
n
o
in deriving the m sures of w perform
ea
ork
ance. It is not included in the b d
oy
of the report, since it is believed to b of limited interest to mn readers.
e
ay
A indicated throughout this report, there w re tw basic problem to b
s
e
o
s
e
resolved b the statistical m tho s applied in this investigation. First, it
y
e d
w s necessary to derive com
a
parisons w
hich isolated the influence of a e from
g
the mn other (a often m re important) factors w
ay
nd
o
hich act u o a person's
pn
w perform
ork
ance. Se o , there w s the p
c nd
a
roblem of com ining the m
b
easures
d w from small groups of persons, w
ra n
hich alone could not furnish m
eaningful
results, into larger aggregates from w
hich statistical conclusions might b
e
dra n.
w
The firs t p
roblem w s resolved in tw w y
a
o a s—classification of workers
a d the use of relative scores. The se o d p b m w s resolved, to a certain
n
c n ro le a
extent, by applying the appropriate weights to the groups to b c m ine . For
e o b d
e c of the perform
ah
ance indicators the specific classification sc e e varied,
hm
a did the weights applied to the m
s
easure, but the fundam
ental a p a h w s
p ro c a
similar.
Before discussing the bases for the statistical m th d applied, it w
e os
ould
perhaps b useful to indicate briefly the definition of the universe w
e
hich is
being m a re by this investigation.
e su d
Definition of Universe
A noted previously, the findings resulting from this study are appli­
s
ca le only to the particular plants included, a d d not necessarily reflect
b
n o
conditions throughout the tw industries. In another sense, how
o
ever, the
individual e p ye s for id m data w re collected constitute a sa p d w
m lo e
io
e
m le ra n
from a larger population. I f a different survey period h d b e selected,
a en
or i f the eight c m a ie h d e p y d individuals other than those w o
o p n s a m lo e
h se
characteristics w re recorded in this study, the results would, of course,
e
h ve b e so e h t different from those reported here.
a e n mwa
The data presented in this study are, with respect to the particular
individuals concerned, actual m a m nts rather than estimates. H ever,
e sure e
ow
these individuals my b regarded a a sam d w from a universe w
a e
s
ple, ra n
hich
includes all possible e p ye s w o might b found, at a y time, to b working
m lo e h
e
n
e
in plants w
hich are identical to the o s studied in matters affecting e p y
ne
m lo ­
m n practices a d working conditions. I f this broader applicability is
et
n
ascribed to the findings, then they m b regarded as m
ust e
erely estimates, a d
n
subject to certain errors.




-

k 6

-

M
ethod for evaluating the reliability of these estimates--that is, of
s
determining the probability that the estimates w ill fa ll within a specified
percentage of the results that w
ould h v b e obtained i f the entire universe
ae e n
h d b e used rather than a sa p — available through the application of
a en
m le are
appropriate statistical techniques. It w s this interpretation of the p p ­
a
ou
lation w
hich led to the use of reliability weights w
hich are discussed later.
O
ccupational Classification
Direct com
parisons of output per m n-ho scores w re md only a o g
a ur
e ae
mn
individuals in the s m specific occupation. The occupations w
ae
ere, in turn,
classified into several occupational groups according to the following cha c
ra ­
teristics: h n operations, m c in operations, higher paying jobs, a d lower
ad
ah e
n
paying jobs. For attendance, direct com
parisons w re md a og individuals
e a e mn
w o occupations w re in the s m earnings classification.
h se
e
ae
Earnings Classifications. The idea behind the classification of workers
according to the a ra e earnings of their occupations is that earnings, o
ve g
n
the whole, c n b regarded a indicative of the relative d g e of sk ill a d
a e
s
e re
n
experience required for the job. Special exceptions, of course, h v to b
ae
e
md for jobs in w
ae
hich the level of p y is relatively high for other reasons,
a
such a less desirable working conditions.
s
Initia lly, a attem w s md to classify jobs into skilled, semiskilled,
n
pt a a e
a d unskilled occupations according to classifications given by the Dictionary
n
of O
ccupational Titles. 19/ After this h d b e d ne it w s found that mn
a en o ,
a
ay
sk ill level classifications thus derived w re inconsistent with the a ra e
e
ve g
earnings of persons o the job. S m "unskilled" jobs w re a o g the highest
n
oe
e mn
paid occupations, while so e "skilled" jobs w re in the lowest paid group.
m
e
This w s probably b c u of the great variation in the nature of jobs w
a
e a se
hich
carry the s m title in different plants. Be a of these inconsistencies,
ae
c use
it w s d c e that a ra e hourly earnings for jobs w
a e id d
ve g
ould provide a better
basis for classification.
There are several alternatives w
hich could h v b e used for establishing
ae e n
the lim it to divide jobs into higher a d lower paid groups. Oe is to d w a
n
n
ra
dividing line for e c plant surveyed} another is to establish a regional
ah
lim it. The use of plant averages w
ould reflect special differences in condi­
tions w
hich affect earnings in particular plants, suc as plant efficiency,
h
d g e of unionization, a d local bargaining p w r of particular groups of
e re
n
oe
workers. For purposes of this study, how
ever, s m criterion w s desired w
oe
a
hich
w
ould b sensitive to the actual sk ill levels of workers, rather than their
e
status in relation to the rest of the workers in the plant. Suc a criterion
h
19/ Dictionary of O
ccupational Titles, Federal Security A e c U. S.
g n y,
Em lo e t Service, Division of O
p ym n
ccupational Analysis, M rc 19U •
ah 9




-U 7

w s necessary in order to arrive at so e grouping of sk ill levels w
a
m
hich w
ould
b consistent from plant to plant, a d w
e
n ould thus permit the aggregation of
indexes from various plants according to a sk ill level classification.
A specific dollar figure w s established, therefore, for e c industry
a
ah
within a given region, a d w s used to distinguish b tw e higher a d lower
n a
e en
n
paid occupations. 'This figure w s derived from the a ra e hourly earnings
a
ve g
for the specific industry a d region (as determ
n
ined through w g surveys
ae
c nd te b the Bureau 20/) adjusted for c a g s in w g levels since the
o uc d y
hne
ae
date of the m recent survey.
ost
This figure w s then used to classify e c of the occupations found in
a
ah
the present survey. Those occupations in w
hich the a ra e hourly earnings
ve g
(within a given plant) e c e e the regional a ra e for the industry w re
xedd
ve g
e
considered higher paid, w
herea those in w
s
hich a ra e earnings fe ll b
ve g
elow
this figure w re considered lower paid. This w s d n separately for m le
e
a oe
a
a d fem workers.
n
ale
In this w y, the sk ill level classification w
a
hich w s assigned to e c
a
ah
occupation d p n e o the relationship of the a ra e earnings in that o c ­
e edd n
ve g
cu
pation to the overall regional a ra e for the industry, rather than to the
ve g
a ra e for the o e plant alone. It w s believed that the use of regional
ve g
n
a
industry a
verages a cutoff points w
s
ould provide m re reliable indications of
o
actual sk ill requirements than w
ould the use of individual plant averages.
M c -H nd Classifications. The m c -ha distinctions w re md
a hine a
a hine nd
e ae
in order to separate jobs w
hich place so e h t different requirements o
mwa
n
workers. M c in jobs, it is believed, call for mn sk ills a d talents
ah e
ay
n
different from those n e e for h n operations, a d the sk ills peculiar to
edd
ad
n
m c in operations or to h n operations influence the productivity of various
ah e
ad
a e groups differently. By m k g this distinction, the influence of these
g
a in
factors in the a e group com
g
parisons w s minimized.
a
A m c in job w s so e h t arbitrarily designated as o e which required
ah e
a mwa
n
the use of a p w re device. M of the designations w re arrived at after
oed
ost
e
a discussion with plant officials as to the particular e uip ent used in the
q m
various occupations. In so e cases, w e it w s difficult to classify the
m
h re
a
job, the jud m of the plant official w o w s a a of the physical require­
g ent
h a w re
m of the job w s used.
ents
a
20/ Wg Structure - Footw M rc 1953, BLS Report U6, D c m e 1953♦
ae
ear a h
ee br
Men's a d Boys' Suit a d C a Industry: Earnings M rc 195l> M
n
n ot
ah
onthly Labor
Review N v m e 1951 (pp. 573-575)*
, oe b r




1*8

Transforming Absolute Scores Into Indexes
As stated earlier, in the c se of output per m
a
an-hour, the a ra e hourly
ve g
earnings of the a e groups in a specific occupation w re related to the aver­
g
e
a e hourly earnings for the 35-hk year groip, w w s used as a base. In
g
hich a
the actual derivation, 2 different 10-year a e groups w re c se as bases of
g
e ho n
com
parison, the g up 35-UU designated b se g up "A" a d the groip 2$-3k
ro
a ro
n
called base group "B" «
Indexes could b constructed only for those operations w e workers of
e
h re
b se group a e w re present* The use of 2 b se groups instead of 1 permitted
a
g e
a
the inclusion of additional occupations in the productivity com
parisons* In
this w y a greater proportion of the raw d ta collected during the plant visits
a
a
could b utilized* 21/ In those occupations w
e
hich included persons in both
b se groups, tw productivity indexes w re derived for e c a e group*
a
o
e
ah g
A single 20-year b se group, a e 25-UU, w s considered a d rejected
a
gs
a
n
because, o aggregating over occupations, the results m reflect differences
n
ight
in perform
ance associated with the a ra e a e of m m e of the b se groip,
ve g g
e b rs
a
rather than differences in the perform
ance of the a e groups c m a d
g
o p re .
C m ining O c a n Indexes
o b
c up tio
The occupation indexes of a a e g up using a e g up 35-UU as a b se
n g ro
g ro
a
(base group A w re c m in d with appropriate weights to furnish a occupational
) e o be
n
group index for that a e groip* The specific occupations are vie e as sa p s
g
wd
m le
yielding estimates of the index for the occupational group* They should,
therefore, b c m in d using weights w
e o b e,
hich ta proper account of their re­
ke
lia b ility.
The occupation indexes w re usually b se o different n m e of p o le
e
a d n
u b rs
ep
in the a e g up a d different num e of p le in the b se group. Accordingly,
g ro n
b rs
eop
a
they are m re reliable the greater the n m e of individuals in the a e g
o
u br
g roup
a d the greater nwber of individuals in the b se group* The formula for the
n
a
weights w s N N / a N 'diere N is the n m e of individuals in the a e g up
a a bW+ b
a
u br
g ro
a d Nt is the n m e of individuals in the base group* 22/ 23/
n
u br
2 1 / B *-a se of the limited data available-in s m cases there w
e u
oe
ere n
o
individuals in s m a e groups—statistical techniques su h as pairing or
oe g
c
standardization procedures could not b applied to productivity com
e
parisons by
a e groups* These techniques require equalizing the occupational com
g
position
of e c group or giving results from e c occupation the s m weight in order
ah
ah
ae
to mk the a e groups c m a b * To apply these procedures, at least 1
ae
g
o p ra le
person from e c of the 6 a e groups m b present in e c occupation*
ah
g
ust e
ah
22/ The derivation of this formula w s w rke out with the assistance of
a o d
the Bureau's Office of Statistical Standards* Ea h weight should b inversely
c
e
proportional to the variance of the index to w
hich it applies*
23/ For attendance the s m form of weights w s applied in co b
ae
a
m ining the
earnings level classifications in e c plant* Oe modification w s that the
ah
n
a
weight h d to be multiplied by the n m e of scheduled w a in the plant
a
u br
orkd ys
during the survey period*




A similar procedure w s e p y d in com
a m lo e
bining the occupation indexes
b se o a e group B. Thus, for e c a e group, tw indexes w re derived
a d n g
ah g
o
e
for the s m occupational group.
ae
The final step in deriving the index for the occupational grouping is
to c m in the indexes b se o groups A a d B. To d this, the B indexes
o be
a d n
n
o
for all a e groups w re shifted to g up A through dividing th m b the B
g
e
ro
e y
index for a e g up A (35-UO• This converted a ll indexes into series b se
g ro
a d
o a score of 100 for b se g up A. The tw series w re then a ra e by
n
a ro
o
e
ve g d
m a s of weights expressing the reliability of e c index.
en
ah
M
easures of Dispersion
The basic m a re of dispersion in a a e g up w s the coefficient of
e su
n g ro
a
variation for the specific occupation. I t did not matter whether the coef­
ficient w s determ
a
ined from the ra scores or the indexes for the individuals,
w
beca
use, within a occupation a d a e group, e c ra score is divided b a
n
n g
ah w
y
constant to derive the index for the occupation.
The dispersion m sures for the occupational groupings w re derived by
ea
e
c m ining the m sures for the occupations. These w re actually derived by
o b
ea
e
c m ining the squares of the coefficients of variation with appropriate
o b
weights a d then taking the square root. In this case, also, the n m e of
n
u br
independent observations in e c a e group determ
ah g
ined the reliability a d w s
n a
used as the weight. The n m e of observations in the b se group has no in­
u br
a
fluence since it d e not affect the value of the coefficient of variation
os
within a occupation. 2h/
n
M
easures of relative dispersion for individual attendance rates in the
a e groups are not presented in this report. I t w s fe lt that the m a s
g
a
e sure
w
ould possibly b misleading, should inferences b draw The distributions
e
e
n.
of individual attendance rates are highly sk w d with the md very close to
ee
oe
the mx u score of 1 0 0 , a very short ta il to the right of the md , a d a
aimm
oe n
long ta il dropping sharply to the le ft of the m d .
oe
Statistical Significance Testing
Procedures w re e p y d for testing for statistical significance the
e m lo e
differences b tw e the a e g up indexes. Ea h a e g up index for a
e en
g ro
c g ro
n
occupational g up a d com
ro n
binations of these groups w s c m a d with the
a o p re
corresponding b se g up index of 100. The standard error of the difference
a ro

2k/ The n m e of independent observations is o e less than the n m e
u br
n
u br
of persons in the occupation.




50

b tw e the tw indexes w s obtained a d its standard r > re c r,, nrtea. I f the
e en
o
a
n
o
probability is less than 5 percent that the difference of a given size or
larger w uld occur b c a c * a ing the tw indexes are the sa e the
o
y h n e ssum
o
m*
difference w s considered significant. £5 /
a
It w s similarly possible to test the significance of the difference
a
b tw e a y tw a e group indexes within a occupational group or b tw e
e en n o g
n
e en
such groups. 26 /

25/ It m b noted that* since the b se group index of 100 is a
ight e
a
n
exact n m e a d not a estimate, it has n standard error a d the standard
u br n
n
o
n
error of the difference b tw e the tw indexes is the standard error of the
e en
o
a e g up index alone.
g ro
26/ In this c se the variance of the difference b tw e the indexes is
a
e en
the su of the variances of the tw indexes assum n correlation b tw e
m
o
ing o
e en
the observations m k g u the tw indexes a d the standard error is the
a in p
o
n
square root of that variance. This assum
ption is not correct for a e g up
g ro
indexes in the s m occupational grouping. These indexes are in part c m o d
ae
o p se
of the s m b se groups a d are, therefore, partially correlated. W
ae a
n
herever
this is true the assum
ption m k s the c m u d standard error larger than the
ae
o p te
correct one. Here, a difference w
hich is found significant at the 5-percent
level, o the basis of its c m u d standard error, w ill actually b signif­
n
o p te
e
icant at a level of less than 5 percent.




51

II# Derivation of Form
ulas
1 Weights for C m ining Indexes for Specific O
#
o b
ccupations
The output per m n-ho Indexes w re c m in d to furnish a Index
a ur
e o be
n
for a occupational group. Here, there are a series of indexes of the
n
form

w re
he

ad
n

are the a ra e hourly earnings of a
ve g

sa p of N ^ individuals in a e group Ca d
m le
c
g
n

in the b se g up for
a ro

occupation i, respectively# In order to obtain from the specific o c ­
cu
pation sam les a occupational group index having the m im m variance,
p n
in u
e c sa p index should b w
a h m le
e eighted according to its reliability, i.e.
according to the reciprocal of the squared standard error of the sa p
m le
index#
I f the num
erator a d denom
n
inator sa p are uncorrelated, then
m les
the rel-variance of e c a e g up index for a specific occupation is
a h g ro
V (Ic ¥
2
i)
w re V a d V are the population rel-variances of the individual
he c2 n ^2
scores in the a e a d b se groups respectively. Another form of
g n a
V (Ici) is:
2




N
Ci+ N
bi)
v 2d c i ) ~

Setting Wi

><bi»cl
N N
bi ci
7 2

!l

,
Mc i +

52

" m

then

7 < 2

v2 (Ici) * 55 - i
2

but v2 (Ic „
^)

w re I c is the population index for a e g up c
he
g ro
T

2

a d 0 -2 (1 ^) is the variance of the sa p index.
n
m le
Using the reciprocal of the variance of e c occupation sa p
ah
m le
index as the weight, then the index for a occupational g up is:
n
ro
W i
Lc i

&

C . V ,

<5-2 ( I c i )

c xc
2 j

2

I ci

W i

^

o-2 (Ici)

£

V 2 Ic2
c

Since 7c2 a d I c are constant with respect to the su m tio
n 2
ma n
w N I ci
bi ci
!£ , Ncl+ Hbi

v

T c -* w Tci
l
£W
i

« b

z

i « d

Tb2 „
"
— j N c i+ ^ b i

I f the assum
ption is md that the rel-variances of the a e groups
ae
g
2
2
N ci
biN
are the sa e i.e . V v « 7C , then
m,
--------- . 27/
Nbi+Nci ~

27/ There w s little evid
a
ence in the findings to challenge the assum
ption
that 7C ■ 7b The differences b tw e the a e g up coefficients of variation
^
2.
e en
g ro
w re not consistent nor, for the m part, sizeable. In fact, a e groups w h
e
ost
g
hic
h d the largest nmber of observations (a d h n e the m reliable estimates)
a
n ec
ost
h d almost the sa e coefficients.
a
m
I t should also b noted that any difference b tw e 7b a d 7C2 w
e
e en 2 n
ould h v
ae
little effect o the relative weights use for averaging the occupation indexes.
n
d




53

2*

Variance of an Age Group index for an Occupational Group
The occupational group index Y c for age group C is

6

and the variance o f Y c la

< r 2 (T c >

A s shown above,

,J ‘

2

( I c l K

<r-2(ici) . V C2IC2
W i

Therefore,

3*

<f*2 (Yc) .

^

V° 2

Weights for Combining Indexes to base A with Indexes to base B
As noted above, 2 series of Indexes were computed from occu­
pational data, 1 to base group A (35-UU) and another to base group 6
(25-3U)* Each series of Indexes was averaged separately into an occu­
pational group index*

The series of age group indexes to base B was

£®/
In this derivation, use is made of the principles that (a) the
variance of a sum of unco rrelated variables is the sum of the variances of
the variables, and (b) the variance of a variable times a constant is the
square of the constant times the variance of the variable*




converted to base A by dividing each B index by the index of age group A
based on group B.

a ’lc

■

This led to a series of converted indexes of the form

where the left hand subscript denotes the base used and

b*a
a ’ represents the converted B base index.
For each age group, the index aIc
verted index a tlc

was then averaged with the con­

b y means of reliability weights,

i.e.
a Ic f

c r - ^ (a I c ) J + a ' I c

t « r z ( a 'I c ) J

a . a '^ c
1

^

1

(aIc)

cr-2(aI c) = 3 fl1 - •
!
£ a w ci

From above,

tf^Ca'Ic) is derived as follows:

V2( a. I c) S 'V 2( „ I C) + T 2( „ I a) «

V2(b lc ) + T 2(bI a) .

ipV (bI c)V (bI a)
29/

From the formula for the variance of an occupational group index,
it is known that

i b wd

therefore

t2

ac

^

c

_i_

*a

tryir

29/ Although there is some correlation between indexes ^Ig and \>Ia, the
influence on the relative weights is very small when the correlation tern is
dropped.




*• 55 -

Again assuming that v£

«

v| ,

, whence

The average index combining the two estimates for each age group is

4-

aIc
2 a Wc
lu

a'*c

^ - a ,wc

+ / a » Wc

Variance of the Combined Index
The variance of the combined index (a>atlc) can 1)6 fotnd b y the
same procedure as described in (2) above*

The variance of this index

is needed to conduct tests of significance on the differences between
the age group indexes*




-

56 -

The variance for an occupational group index as derived in (2)
involved no correlation between the Indexes for the specific occupations.
In this case, however, some correlation exists between the two indexes
for each age group— the A based index and the converted B based index.
Both indexes for an age group are derived in part from the same specific
occupation sample.

For these particular occupations, though the base

group components involved different individuals, the age group components
are based on the average hourly earnings for the same individuals.

Be­

cause of the complicated form involved when this possible correlation is
introduced, an approximation procedure was employed.
The combined Index should be at least as reliable as one of its
component indexes.

If the correlation were perfect then no reliability

would be gained by combining aIc and a iIc .

As a limiting case, therefore,

the reliability of the combined index is equal to the more reliable of
its component indexes.
Accordingly, the variance computed for the occupational group index
to base A,

aIc, was used to approximate the variance of the combined
^2

t

index,

a, •xc.

The variance was

■

c

t

t

2

a c
aw ci

The standard error computed on this basis is generally larger than
the true standard error of the combined index.

Thus, any difference in

age group indexes which are found significant at a given probability
level through this procedure would actually be significant with even
greater probability.




- 57 -

5*

Coefficient of Variation for an Occupational Group
The age group coefficient of variation for an occupation group was

derived by combining the rel-variances of specific occupation samples
and taking the square root of this average rel-variance.

This section

explains how the weights were applied to obtain the average rel-variance.
For an age group in a specific occupation let
Ni - the number of individuals in occupation i (must be^ 2)

X-^ = mean of the sample

Y i = mean of the population in the specific occupation*

This

value is estimated by the sample mean
o

»

_1
N < -

which is an estimate of the population

1

variance
-

2

j£(X-t
<f2

S * / x * , the rel-variance of the sample, an estimate of the
population rel-variance

V2 =

.

Assuming a normal distribution in the specific occupation, the relvariance of

2

is —
K

v 20 $

sx ~ —

,

2

and the rel-variance of X. is a i 2 . i£
1

i - 1

2

according to a general rule for the rel-variance of

a square*




t

N,

58

o

— 2

'?

If S| and X i are uncorrela ted, the rel-variance of ^

-

2V2

2Ll±2V?ir_

is a, proxiraately

1

N i(l+-2V2)J

'

3?

2(1

2V2 )

since the second term of the bracketed

expression will be less than 0.08 provided V < 0*3 and
than 0.12 provided V < O.ii and
2

So the variance of

n£2

and less

n £ 2.

is approximately

2vW 1 A

-

A/tj ■—

, where W^= N^-l.

The estimate of the rel-variance for an occupational group is therefore

and its estimated variance is
i W

S) 2a * =
vr
i“c

4

*

6.

.

Combining Occupational Group Indexes
As noted above, occupational group indexes for an age group were

combined with weights equal to the total number of workers of all ages in
the particular occupational group, i.e.




-

“

£ (* * 1 )

a . a '^ c

£ Mi

- 59 -

Where Ic s major grouping index (hand, machine, etc*) for age group C
.
Mj - number of workers of all ages in occupational group i >
<
The variance of this index, following the same procedure outlined in
(2) is

(iM i)2

j 2

where




vc •
lc
Ic)

^ a,a,Wi

-

60 -

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington 25, D. C.
CONFIDENTIAL
Age and Work Performance

_____________

Industry

_____________ I Plant

______________ Address

Parent Company

A ddress

Officials interviewed*

(Cross out, "Co." or "Plant")

Name______________________________________ Title__________________(Co.) (Plant)
Name______________________________________ Title__________________(Co.) (Plant)
Survey made ty

Dates

_________________________________________________Dates___________
The data submitted on this schedule will be seen only by sworn employees of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The data will not be released in any form
which permits identification with any specific company, without written
permission.
A.

General Information

1.

What are the principal products manufactured in this plant and their
price range?__________________________________________________________

2.

During normal production periods approximately how many production workers
are employed?____________________

THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS REFER TO PRODUCTION WORKERS ONLY
B.
3o

Plant Records

For what periods during the first half of 1955 was this plant operating
on a full production schedule? (If these periods vary by department,
spe cify )__________________________________________________________________




61

U.

For what departments do you maintain records which will yield data on
output per man?

5.

Briefly describe these records

6*

Which of the following are factors in determining piece rates:
Yes r

a*

Time studies

b.

Employee - management conference

c«

j

Other (specify)

Yes /

no e

j

/ No /

/

7o

Are time standards available for piece rate jobs Yes / / No / /, and
other jobs (specify)?_____________________________________________________

8.

When were the piece rates last reviewed?
And approximately what percentage of piece rate jobs was covered by this
review?

9.

For what piece rate jobs have maximnn production limits been established
(limits such as maximum number of units paid for per hour)?

10*

Do you maintain records of work injuries on workmen's compensation
forms / 7 or otter forms? Specify

11.

Do you maintain a record of total working hours for each employee ty
quarter / A year f~ /, or other period?

12.

During slack periods, is seniority a factor in determining the order of
employee production layoffs? Yes / J No / /

13*

Do you maintain special records of employee absences?

ill.

If yes, describe

15.

For employees who have left during the past year, do you record the date
on which they left
Yes / ' / No / /, and the reason (quit, lack of work,
*
etc.)? Yes f
7 No E
j

16.

After how many weeks of absence will an employee be marked as separated
on your records?______________________




62

Yes f~ ~j No Z = 7

17*

Do your records contain any information on the quality of work turned
out by individual workers (such as number of rejects, quality warnings,
etc.)? Yes [~ ~ J No / /
If yes, describe_____________________________

C.

Placement Procedures

Do your procedures for placing production workers include the following:
18.

Initial physical examination

Yes /

/

No Z = 7

19.

Periodic physical examination

Yes /

/

No /

/

If yes, give time interval between physical checkups
20.

Aptitude testing

Yes /" 7

21.

No /

/

Analysis of physical job requirements:
a.

Written description of physical requirements (such as w orking position,
physical exertion, vision, etc.)
Yes f ~ / No / /

b.

Informal evaluation

Yes r

j

No r

j

22.

Other, specify_________

23.

What program is there for the retraining and reassignment of production
workers?

2lu

What has been done to retrain and reassign older workers?_______________

2$.

Have any measures b een taken to review and redesign jobs held by older
workers? Yes / / No / /. If yes, give example, and if possible
indicate reasons for initiating these measures___________________________

D.

Data for Adjusting Performance Measures

26.

Overtime rates become effective after

27.

What is the premium rate for overtime work

28.

If these rates of extra pay do not apply to piece work, specify the
premium rates on piece work for overtime
and holidays_______________

29*

Dates of vacation periods of plant_______________________________________




63

hours per day,

hours per week.

, Sunday or holiday work___

Age and Work Performance
General Instructions for
Completing Questionnaire
The questionnaire and worksheets on "Age and Work Performance" are to
be used to collect data pertaining to productivity, absenteeism, and work
injuries of individual production workers in the plants studied. These data
are to be collected together with employee1s ages and other pertinent personal
information. The questionnaire relates to general information, plant records,
placement procedures and data-adjustments (sections A through D). Worksheet 1
is used for recording personal information, data on production, absenteeism
and injury for each worker} a supplementary worksheet 2 is to record detailed
productivity information where necessary.
The recommended procedure is to fill out the questionnaire during the
initial interview with the plant official, and then to record the individual
employee data c r the worksheets.
a
Questionnaire
Instructions are included only for those items not considered selfexplanatory.
If additional space is needed for answers, use back of sheets.
1.

Principal products — Indicate principal products manufactured in terms
of broad product classes, such as Men’s Goodyear Welt Shoes, Mai’s Suits.
Designate price range at retail prices for an indication of general quality
range of the plant’s production.

2.

Employment — Enter approximate number of production and related workers
in this plant. These include workers (up through the working foreman
level) engaged in fabricating, processing, assembling, inspection, re­
ceiving, storage, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping (but not de­
livery), maintenance, repair, janitorial, watchman services, product
development, auxiliary production for plant's own use, recordkeeping and
other services closely associated with these production operations. If
the plant has less than 500 workers, record this information and terminate
the interview.

3*

Production Period — Obtain dates for 8 weeks (not necessarily consecutive)
when plant was operating at full production.

U,5»

Output Per Man Records — Payroll records which yield straight piecework
earnings of production workers separate from timework earnings will
furnish output per man figures.




- 6U -

If such payroll records are not available, production records from
which individual straight-time piecework earnings can be derived are
satisfactory. Straight-time piecework earnings can be computed from
records which show the quantities produced at given piece rates by indi­
vidual workers.
In some cases output data may be recorded also for tiraeworkers.
Inquire whether these data are available.
6, 7, 8.

Piece Rates — The purpose of these questions is to ascertain
whether piece rates reflect accurately differences in the time re­
quired to perform the same operation cm different models. If they
do, workers performing the same operation can be compared regardless
of differences in their product mix.

13,

1U.

Absenteeism Records — Indicate whether any special records main­
tained by the establishment will furnish information on time
scheduled and time Marked. Scheduled days and days worked may have
to b e obtained from timecards directly. Determine whether timecards
of piece-rate workers are available for full production periods of
at least 8 weeks, preferably during the first half of 1955*

16.

Ascertain what the plant practice is.

17.

Describe nature and location of such records.

22.

Other Placement Procedures — Indicate any steps not mentioned above
which are enployed in placing production workers.

23.

Retraining and Reassignment — Use retraining as teaching the worker to
perform a new set of operations, or to modify his present set of opera­
tions. Use reassigiment as the transfer of the worker to another occu­
pation (set of operations). Reassignment does not necessarily involve
retraining.

26, 27.

29.

Preraira Rates — If the premium rates vary by job classification,
list them on back of the sheet.

Vacation Periods — If vacation periods vaiy by department, list the
departments and relevant periods.




- 65 -

Name o f P la n t
Clock
No.

3PE

Occupation D e s c r ip tio n :

OPE

TH

DM

1

i

*




.u .
i
i
“ r*

i

L .J L

Date In ju re d

Date D isabled

I
r“

Days D isa b led

H 1

PPS

Q S

M 2

-t—
•L.
i
i

Date H ired
Y ears S e r v ic e

X

Date Returned

C P Date

PS

DW
S

T"

.u .
I
1

AS

Rate

Ending

-c~

IS

H ourly

I
I
T “

. . .

t

Date
Born

DW
S

1 ' 2 ' 3 ' ^

I

M 1
P 2

P 1
T 2

D
W

H
TW
_
.1_ LI I
I

«

Age
Prod.
In t.

Dept
No.

P la n t
Ho.

P r e lim .
O p era tio n Code
Occupat io n
Cod e
P erio d
Ending

Name o f Employee

Remarks

Expos.
Hours

WORKSHEET 1

. ____ .L -

Date L e f t

.L .
I
I

R




A
C lock
No.
Date

P la n t
No.
SPB

Dept.
No.

B
P relim .
oper uoae

OPE

TH

O peration
D e s c r ip tio n
Sex

Model
No.

P ie c e
Rate

Dates

T o ta ls

STU

Age

i

r
/7 V4f t*
T>

i

...

\

[TW
B

-

________ |
T o t a ls

T o t a ls

Remarks!
T o t a l U nits
W orksheet 2

T o t a l PW
Earnings

Avg,■ Pc. rlate
P(•r Unit

Instructions for Worksheets
Worksheet 1
Section A #




Clock Number — Record clock number listed on the worker's time­
card# If this number differs from the number on the personnel
records, note this in "Remarks'' space#
Plant —

Record plant code from questionnaire#

Dept# No#— Record department number as listed by the plant#
Tf plant does not number departments use arbitrary code, and
record code on plant questionnaire#
Name of Employee —

Record first and last name.

Production Interval — Using the following code record time period
for which production is measured#
1# - Week

2. - Two weeks

3# - Month

Sex -- Indicate by 1 or 2 whether male or female#
Date B o m —
birth#

Record number of month and last two digits of year of

Age — Do not fill in at plant unless convenient as a means of
selecting sample#
IS)
AS)
“

Do not fill in at plant#

)

PS)
PPS —

Prelim# Prod# Sample - Check
liminary productivity sample
of all piece-rate workers of
same operations including at
one worker under U5 years of
to fulfill this condition do
information#

if workers belong to a pregroup. Such a group consists
the same sex performing the
least one worker over U5 and
age* For groups which fail
not take down productivity

Preliminary Operation Code — Where available, record
operation number (s) as used by establishment# Otherwise,
leave blank#
Occupation Code —

Do not fill in at plant#

68

Occupation Description — From company personnel or pro­
duction records list worke r' s occupation during the period
studied* Describe the occupation briefly in terns of
specific operations performed. For persons whose produc­
tivity is to be compared, confirm from the appropriate
plant official that all workers in an occupation actually
perform the same operations. Also ascertain who is not a
fully qualified operator, such as a beginner, or a recently
transferred employee.
P or T — Piece or Time Work - Indicate by "ln if worker is paid
by piece rate and "2" if worker is paid on a time basis (hourly
rate). If a worker is on both piecework and timework during the
reporting period, indicate by nlw (i.e., list as piece rate
worker).
Hourly Rate — Record hourly wage rate for all timeworkers for
whom personnel information is collected. In the case of piecerate workers, if average hourly piece rate earnings for the U
busiest weeks of the year have already been computed by the
company (as in the clothing industry), record in this cell.
Otherwise, leave blank for piece rate workers.
C. P« Date — Current Payroll- Record the month and day of the
pay period nearest to the time of the plant visit, if the em­
ployee was on the payroll. If the employee was not on the pay­
roll, leave blank.
H or M — Hand or Machine - Indicate by nl" or n2n whether worker
Ts primarily a hand or a powered machine operator.
QS —
Section 6*




Do not fill in at plant.

For the reporting period on productivity, select, with the aid of
the appropriate company official, a full production period
totalling 8 weeks, preferably duri ng the first half of 1955,
(not necessarily consecutive). If this is not available,use a
minimum of U weeks for the period studied.
Period Ending — Record number of the month and day and only the
last digit of the year for the ending dates of the relevant period.
If productivity information (second coltmn through fourth) is
available on the basis of a 2-week pay period record productivity
information in every other row; if it is monthly record on every
fourth row.
SPE — Refers to straight time piece work earnings.
dollars and cents with .00 if no cents.

- 69 -

Include

OPE — Refers to overtime piece work earnings. Do not adjust to
straight time levels. Where records have overtime earnings
already adjusted to straight time rates, indicate in "Remarks"
space. Record both dollars and cents.
TH — Refers to the total m m b e r of hours worked dinring the time
period studied.
HTW —

Hours on Time Work - Refers to the total number of hours

t o r which the worker was paid on a time basis (hourly rate) during
the period studied.
W and R — In plants which have, for individual workers, measures
of the quality of output indicate in the appropriate column the
number of quality warnings (W) received and the number of rejects
(R) charged to the worker. If another f o m of quality measure is
kept by the plant indicate in *Remarks" space, and if the infor­
mation is quantitative, record it in the W and R columns adjusting
the titles.
Absenteeism — The remaining columns in section B relate to
absenteeism. Using the same 8-week full production period as
used for productivity, record the weekday missed in the appropri­
ate cell. In most cases,these data will have to be obtained from
individual employee timecard.
In addition to the 8-week full produetion period, select,
with the aid of the appropriate company official, four other weeks
(not necessarily consecutive) in which the plant was on a less
than full production schedule.
M, T, W, Th, F — Refer to the specific weekday missed by the
worker during the specified period. Record the code number of
the day of the week the worker did not punch in. Note any day
for which there is no entry on the timecard. If an individual
punched in on Saturday of any week, note this information in the
"Remarks" space with the appropriate ending date of the period.

LM — Refers to the number of days the employee worked or was
present during the specified period.
DM )
) Do not fill in at the plant.
DWS)
Date Hired — Record original date hired and subsequent dates
rehired from beginning of absentee period to time of plant visit.
Include day, month, and year if available.




70

Date Left — Record all dates left (by day, month, and year), from
beginning of absenteeism period to time of plant visit.
R — Refers to reason the worker left. Try to obtain reason for
each incident and indicate by the following coding:
Layoff
Quit
Discharge
Years Service —
Section C .

-l
-2
-3

Retired
Other

- k
- 5

Do not fill in at plant*

Record onljr work-connected injuries* Data should be obtained
from workmen's compensation records, if possible* If these
records are not available either at the plant or at an insurance
company consult the records of the plant's first-aid station*
If possible, data on injuries and exposure hours should be
obtained for a maximum period of 2 years beginning 27 months prior
to the date of the plant visit* Enter beginning and ending dates
of time period for which exposure hours are recorded in the first
and last cells of the exposure hour space*
Note: All dates should be recorded in numerical form, e.g.:
9-22-5* Do not write out the month, and record only the final
digit of the year.
Date Disabled — Record date of beginning of disability.
as date of injury, enter "same."

If same

Date Returned -- Record first date worked following disablement.
If there is more than one continuous period of disablement re­
sulting from a single injury, enter starting and ending dates for
each such period under "Date Disabled", and "Date Returned"*
No. Days Disabled —
Section D *




Leave blank.

This section is arranged to accomodate various methods plants
employ to record individual employee's hours worked for long
periods. From appropriate plant records the data may be directly
available in annual, quarterly, monthly, or weekly totals.
If data are available in annual totals, record figures in
first and second cells of the bottom row;
in quarterly total, record figures in cells of bottom row;
in monthly totals, record figures in adjacent six cells in each
column leaving the bottom row blank;

71

in weekly totals, record figures in all cells with exception of
those in bottom row.
For additional entries of weekly totals, use another worksheet
recording individual’s clock number, plant number, and department
number as well.
Worksheet No, 2
Section A of this worksheet should be used in place of
worksheet 1 (Row B) for recording information on piece-rate
earnings where individual production records are available on
a daily basis rather than by pay period. Refer to instructions
for Section B of worksheet 1,
Section B is to be used in those plants where there is
reason to believe that the product mix for individual workers
performing the same operations varies considerably. Record in­
formation for one week of the U-week production period during
which earnings data are collected.
Operation Description and Model N o ,— Record specific operations
performed and enter the model numbers assigned to each product
worked upon. These numbers are usually available from production
records or from individual piece tickets.
Piece Rate and Standard Time — Where piece rates are available,
record the rates corresponding to the operations and models. In
addition to piece rates, record time standards, if available, for
all jobs for which product mix data are obtained. Time standards
may be expressed, for instance, as standard minutes per unit or
standard units per minute. Enter time standards in column headed
STB, and enter definition of time standards in remarks space.
Quantity Produced — For corresponding model numbers record the
number of units produced during the production time period.
Indicate the unit of measure in the cap after the word "unit,'* If
unit of measure is not uniform throughout the worksheet, record
units of measure in "Remarks,"
Dates refer to one day.
Total Units )
) Record only if directly available.
Total FW
) at the plant.
Earnings
)
Average Piece Rate —




Do not compute

Do not fill in during plant visit#

72

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O - 403068