View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
R O Y A L M E E K E R , C o m m issio n e r

B
B

U

L
U

L
R

E
E

T

I

A

N
U

MISCELLANEOUS

1FC A

O
O

F

SERIES

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION
A N D TH E S O C IE T Y O F N A TIO N S




y STEPHAN BAUER

(Translation b y Mrs. Annie m . hanney
and Alfred Maylander)

M A Y , 1919

W A S H IN G T O N
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F IC E
1 91 9

T

H
L

A




A D D ITIO N AL COPIES

OF TH PU
IS BLICATION M BE PRO RED FRO
AY
CU
M
THE SU TEN T O DO M TS
PERIN DEN F CU EN
GOVERNM PRIN G O E
ENT TIN FFIC
W IN , D. C
ASH GTON .
AT
15 C E N T S P E R C O P Y

V

CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction......................................................................................................
5, 6
Chapter I.—International labor protection programs of 1916 and 1917.............. 7-13
Chapter II.—International regulation of the right of combination, collective
agreements, and protection of migratory workers......................................... 15-28
Equal treatment of native and foreign labor in the conclusion of labor con­
tracts....................................................................................................... 16-22
Control of labor contracts of migratory workers........................................... 22-28
Chapter III.—International regulation of social insurance............................... 29-44
Accident insurance......................................................................................29-37
Sickness, maternity, old age, and invalidity insurance.............................. 38-40
Widows’ and orphans’ insurance.................................................................40, 41
Unemployment insurance...........................................................................42-44
Chapter IY.—International regulation of the protection of children and young
persons.......................................................................................................... 47-59
Protection of children................................................................................. 47-56
Protection of young persons.........................................................................57-59
Chapter V.—International regulation of the protection of female labor............ 61-71
Chapter VI.—International regulation of the working hours of adult males in
mines, in establishments with continuous operation, and in other industries. 73-80
Chapter VII.—International protection of home workers and regulation of
their wages....................................*
............................................................... 81-84
Chapter VIII.—International regulation of Sunday rest.................................. 85-94
Chapter IX.—International regulation of the protection of health...............
95-99
Chapter X.—International regulation of colonial contract labor................... 101-107
Chapter XI.—Preparation and enforcement of international treaties for the
protection of labor...................................................................................... 109-113
Chapter XII.—Internationalization of protective labor legislation............... 115-121
Appendix I.—The programs of Leeds and Bern........................................... 123-129
Resolutions of the international labor conference at Leeds, July, 1916.. 123-125
Resolutions of the international trade-union conference at Bern, October 4,
1917..................................................................................................... 126-129
Appendix III.—The international conventions of Bern............................... 131-135
International convention relating to the prohibition of the industrial night
work of women, concluded at Bern, September 26, 1906................... 131,132
International convention respecting the prohibition of white (yellow)
phosphorus in the manufacture of matches, concluded at Bern, Septem­
ber 26, 1906.......................................................................................... 132,133
Final protocol of the international conference on labor legislation, 1913. 133-135




3

PREFACE.
This bulletin is a 'revised translation of a pamphlet on international
labor legislation and the society of nations (Arbeiterschutz und Volkergemeinschaft), by Dr. Stephan Bauer, Director of the International Labor
Office, Basel, Switzerland. The author of this timely and important con­
tribution on the Subject of the regulation of labor contracts through
international agreements gave his full permission for the translation and
publication of this pamphlet as a bulletin of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
of the United States Department of Labor. The publication has been
delayed because of the time necessary to translate the report accurately
and to check and note references to source material. The translation,
however, was completed in time to be of very considerable service to the
Commission on International Labor Legislation which prepared the draft
convention creating a permanent organization for the promotion of the
international regulation of labor conditions, which draft has been adopted
by the International P^ace Conference at- Paris. This bulletin will be
invaluable to those interested in the first meeting of the International Labor
Conference which is to be held in October, 1919, for the publication states
in admirable form the origin and development of international labor regu­
lation up to the outbreak of the great European war. The bulletin indi­
cates in general the subjects that must be dealt with by these International
Labor Conferences.
ROYAL MEEKEH,
United States Commissioner of Labor Statistics.

4




B U L L E T IN
U .

W H O L E

S .

N O .

B U R E A U

25 4.

O F

O F

T H E

L A B O R

WASHINGTON.

S T A T I S T I C S .

M AY,

19

9.

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION AND THE
SOCIETY OF NATIONS.1
INTRODUCTION.

A p u b lic a tio n o n th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r a p p e a r in g d u r in g th e
w a r is l i k e a v o i c e c r y i n g i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s . I t c a n n o t h a s t e n t h e
p e a c e o f n a t io n s ; it c a n n o t p r o t e s t a g a in s t t h e w a s te o f h u m a n l if e .
I t s o n ly a im c a n b e t o d r a w u p th e s o c ia l h o r o s c o p e o f p e a c e , w it h its
n a t i o n a l a n d f i n a n c i a l t a s k s , a n d t o r a is e t h e q u e s t i o n i n w h a t w a y a n d
w i t h w h a t r e s u lt s t h e S t a t e a n d s o c i e t y i n t e n d t o t r e a t t h e l i v i n g
p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s t h a t a r e e s s e n t ia l f o r t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f t h e w a r
d eb t.
A f t e r th e lo s s o f m illio n s o f w o r k e r s ’ liv e s , it is im p e r a t iv e ly
n e c e s s a r y t h a t s o m e t h in g b e d o n e f o r th e r a is in g u p o f a n e w g e n e r a ­
t io n o f s k ille d w o r k e r s , a n d f o r in c r e a s in g th e d u r a tio n o f th e p r o ­
d u c t i v e l i f e o f a l l c la s s e s o f w o r k e r s . I t is c l e a r t h a t u n d e r a s y s t e m
o f u n r e s t r ic t e d e x p lo it a t io n o f th e fo r c e s o f la b o r b y in d iv id u a l e m ­
p l o y e r s a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f p e a c e , t h e s e r e s u lt s c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d .
T h e d e s ir e f o r q u ic k p r o fit s m o c k s a ll s e lf-r e s t r a in t .
T o th ese o b je c t iv e re a so n s f o r th e e n a ctm e n t o f le g is la tio n m u st
b e a d d e d t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e w o r k m e n t h e m s e lv e s . W h i l e t h e e a r n ­
i n g s o f s a l a r i e d e m p l o y e e s , t e a c h e r s , o f f ic ia ls , e m p l o y e e s i n o ff ic e s ,
i n t r a d e , i n t r a f f ic a n d i n s u r a n c e o ff ic e s h a v e r e m a i n e d f a r b e l o w t h e
s t a n d a r d r e q u ir e d b y th e in c r e a s e in p r ic e s , a n d t h e ir c ir c u m s t a n c e s
h a v e c h a n g e d f o r t h e w o r s e , t h e w a g e s o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s h a v e in
p a r t in c r e a s e d . B u t t h is in c r e a s e h a s b e e n a ll t o o d e a r ly b o u g h t b y
S u n d a y , n ig h t , a n d o v e r tim e w o r k a n d b y u n d e r fe e d in g . A n E n g lis h
o f f ic ia l i n q u i r y p r o v e s t h a t i n a c e r t a i n m u n i t i o n s f a c t o r y “ t h e p r o ­
lo n g in g o f th e h o u r s o f w o r k h a s in c r e a s e d th e n u m b e r o f ca ses o f
s ic k n e s s t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t in f o u r w e e k s ( M a y , 1 9 1 6 ) o n l y 53 p e r
c e n t , i n t w o o t h e r w e e k s 5 9 .6 p e r c e n t , o f t h e l o s t t i m e c o u l d b e m a d e
x Step han B a u e r : A rbeiterschu ta und V o lk ergem ein sch aft.
Zu rich , 1 9 1 8 .
D ruck und
V e rla g : A r t. I n s titu t O rell F iissli.
D edicated to the m em ory o f late friend s and a d v is e r s : H en riette B runh es ; Th eodor
C u r t i ; H ecto r D e n i s ; Sir C harles W . D i l k e ; Frederic K e e lin g ; M axim K o w a le w s k y ;
H en ry D em arest L l o y d ; G io van n i M o n t e m a r tin i; R udolph M e y e r ; E u gen von P h ilip ­

p o v ic h ; C arrell D . W r ig h t.




INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

6

u p b y o v e r tim e w o r k .
B o t h e m p lo y e e s a n d fo r e m e n b r o k e d o w n
u n d e r t h e s t r a in .1
T h e c o m b in e d e ffe c t o f h ig h e r w a g e s a n d o f th e p h y s ic a l* o v e r ­
s t r a in o f l a b o r c a u s e d b y t h e w a r h a s le d t o t h e d e m a n d f r o m t h e
r a n k s o f t h e m a s s e s th e m s e lv e s , w h o h a v e w o r k e d w it h h e r o ic s e l f s a c r ific e , n o t o n ly f o r r e s t o r a t io n o f p r e w a r c o n d it io n s , b u t f o r
i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s . I t is t h e d e s i r e f o r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h
p r o d u c e z e s t f o r w o r k a n d g iv e s o m e a im t o l i f e t h a t r in g s t h r o u g h
t h e s e d e m a n d s , w h ic h d e s ir e is r e c o g n iz e d in n u m e r o u s s ta te m e n ts in
th e r e p o r t o f th e C o m m is s io n o f I n q u i r y in t o I n d u s t r ia l U n r e s t in
G r e a t B r it a in .2
T h e s e p h e n o m e n a a re n o t lim ite d t o o n e c o u n tr y .
T h ey m ay be
p e r c e iv e d e v e r y w h e r e , a n d le a d e v e r y w h e r e , o f n e c e s s ity , t o a n e w
s e l f - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l a b(Selbstverwaltung der A rbeit) t o c a r r y
or
its w is h e s f r o m t h e f a c t o r y t o th e lo c a l a n d t h e n a t io n a l c o u n c il. T h e
jo in t s ta n d in g in d u s tr ia l c o u n c ils in E n g la n d 3 a n d th e p r o p o s e d G e r ­
m a n l a b o r b o a r d (A rbeitskarrwiem ) s e e k t o r e a l i z e a n a i m , t h e m i s ­
s
u n d e r s ta n d in g o f w h ic h h a s le d in E n g la n d , G e r m a n y , a n d A u s t r ia
t o th e c r e a tio n o f s e c re t w o r k m e n ’s c o u n c ils a ft e r th e R u s s ia n p a tte r n .
T o t h e s e c o u n c il s ,, w h i c h w e r e t h e f i r s t t o s e c u r e t h e r i g h t o f s e l f d e t e r m in a t io n f o r th e w o r k e r s , a n d la t e r a tta in e d s u ch g r e a t p o l it i c a l
im p o r t a n c e , m a y b e a p p lie d th e w o r d s o f W ilh e lm v o n H u m b o ld t :
“ T h e tr u th s o f th e F r e n c h R e v o lu t io n r e m a in a lw a y s tru th s , e v e n i f
1 .2 0 0 f o l l i e s p r o f a n e t h e m . ”
4
I f e le m e n t a r y n e c e s s ity ca u se s th e g r o w t h o f a n e w c o n s t it u t io n o f
la b o r in c lo s e c o n n e c t io n w it h th e u n io n s o f th e w o r k e r s in a ll c o u n ­
tr ie s , its a c t iv it y c a n n o t b e lim it e d t o th e s e ttle m e n t o f c o n t r o v e r s ie s ;
it m u s t b e in a p o s it io n t o a ffe c t th e v e r y fo u n d a t io n s o f in d u s t r ia l l if e ,
th e c r e a tio n o f th e n e w g e n e r a tio n , a n d th e p r o lo n g in g o f th e d u r a t; o n
o f p r o d u c t iv e life .
F o r t h is r e a s o n t h e r e n e w a l a n d th e s y s t e m a t ic d e v e lo p m e n t o f
l a b o r le g is la t io n is a n im p e r a t iv e a n d in t e r n a t io n a l a ffa ir , a n i n ­
t e r n a l p e a c e p r o b le m o f t h e fir s t im p o r t a n c e , t h e s o lu t io n o f w h ic h
a lo n e c a n g iv e t o th e o u t w a r d f o r m o f p e a c e its c o m p le t e h u m a n a n d
e c o n o m ic s ig n ific a n c e , a n d w h ic h is t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e lim in a r y t o a
n e w o r d e r o f p r o d u c t io n . T o p r o v e t h is s te p b y s te p is t h e s o le a im
o f t h is v o lu m e .
Basel, Missionsstrasse 3, A pril 7, 1918.
1 M in istry o f M u n itio n s, In terim R ep ort on In d u stria l Efficiency and F a tig u e ( 1 9 1 7 ) , Cd.
8 5 1 1 , p. 4 4 .
2 R eport o f the C om m ission o f In qu iry into In d u stria l U n re st in G rea t B rita in , J u ly ,
1 9 1 7 , pp. 57, 8 4 , 15 2 .
8 In terim R eport o f the R econ stru ction C om m ittee on J o in t S ta n d in g In d u stria l C ouncils
(W h it le y R e p o r t), 1 9 1 6 .
4 Ed. Spranger, W . von H u m b old t un d die H u m an itatsid ee , 1 9 0 9 , p. 5 1 ; L a situ ation e t
les lois ouvrifcres en R u ssie, B u lle tin de T A sso cia tio n F ran gaise pour la L u tte contre le
C hSm age, N o. 6, Jan . 3 1 , 1 9 1 8 , p. 1 3 .




CHAPTER I.
INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION PROGRAMS OF
1916 AND 1917.
I n th e m id s t o f th e d in o f b a ttle o f th e W o r ld W a r , o r g a n iz e d
l a b o r i n b o t h c a m p s is d e m a n d i n g t h a t t h e l a w s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n
o f th e h e a lth a n d th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e w iv e s a n d c h ild r e n o f
w o r k m e n , f o r th e p h y s ic a l p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r a n d th e in c o m e fr o m
la b o r , s h a ll t a k e in t o a c c o u n t d e fin ite , u n if o r m , m in im u m d e m a n d s .
T h e h a r m d o n e t o la b o r b y th e w a r m u st b e m a d e g o o d b y p e a ce ,
w h ic h m u s t s i g n i f y n o t o n l y a c e s s a tio n o f h o s t ilit ie s b u t a ls o a r e ­
c o n s t r u c t io n o f t h e la b o r la w s .
T h e s e id e a s w e r e c u r r e n t b e f o r e th e w a r .
T h e ir im p o r ta n c e h a s
b e e n e m p h a s iz e d b y th e e x p e r ie n c e s o f t h e w a r . T h e fir s t d e c a d e o f
t h is c e n t u r y h a s seen t h e p a r t ia l r e a liz a t io n o f th e 60 y e a r s o f s t r u g g le
f o r t h e u n ific a t io n o f th e la b o r la w s . T h i s t r e n d t o w a r d a n in t e r ­
n a tio n a l c o m m o n la w h a s b e e n in c o m p le t e c o n f o r m it y w it h t w o
fu n d a m e n ta l p h e n o m e n a . O n th e o n e h a n d , th e re h a s co m e a b o u t a
g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e t e c h n i c a l ’a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o ­
d u c t io n a n d t r a n s p o r ta tio n , a n in c re a s e d in d u s tr ia liz a tio n a n d d e ­
v e l o p m e n t o f l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b li s h m e n t s f r o m c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y .
I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , i n a m u c h le s s u n i f o r m w a y a n d m o r e b y fi t s a n d
sta r ts , p o l it i c a l a n d in t e lle c t u a l fa c t o r s h a v e in flu e n c e d th e a s s im i­
l a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l l a b o r la w s .
T h e fa c to r s w h ic h h a v e b een
e s p e c ia lly in flu e n t ia l a re th e in c r e a s e d e c o n o m ic a n d p o lit ic a l i n ­
f l u e n c e , i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , o f t h e w o r k i n g c la s s u p o n l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t h e
r e v o lu t io n in th e v ie w p o in t o f e d u c a te d p e o p le w it h r e g a r d to th e
a t t i t u d e o f t h e S t a t e t o w a r d c la s s d e v e l o p m e n t .
T h e r e s u lt o f t h i s
u n e q u a l d e v e lo p m e n t h a s b e e n th a t s o m e h o w in A u s t r a lia a n d in
D e n m a r k , f o r in s ta n c e , t h e la b o r u n io n s h a v e b e e n p o w e r f u l e n o u g h
t o w r e s t p a r t ic u la r ly fa v o r a b le la b o r le g is la t io n f r o m th e p a r lia m e n t s
o f th e se c o u n t r ie s , w h ile in m a n y o t h e r c o u n t r ie s th e le g is la t io n h a s
la g g e d f a r b e h in d .
T h e p le a th a t n a t io n a l in d u s t r y m u s t b e p r o ­
te c te d b e c a m e in th e la tte r ca ses a c lo a k f o r th e la c k o f p r o t e c t io n
a c c o r d e d t o th e w o r k e r . A d v a n t a g e s g a in e d in th e c o m p e t itio n f o r
s a le s i n f o r e i g n m a r k e t s b y c o u n t r i e s t a r d y i n t h e e n a c t m e n t o f p r o ­
t e c t iv e l a b o r le g is la t io n c a u s e d th e in d u s t r ia l in te r e s ts o f c o u n t r ie s
p la c e d a t a d is a d v a n t a g e b y lib e r a l le g is la t io n t o r a is e o b je c t io n s in
t h e ir o w n c o u n t r y t o a fu r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t in la b o r le g is la tio n . T o




7

8

IN TE R N A TIO N A L LABOR LEG ISLATION .

o v e r c o m e t h is o b s ta c le a n d t o s u b o r d in a t e th e p o w e r o f th e in d iv id u a l
S t a t e t o th e a d v a n t a g e o f th e n a t io n s a s a w h o le w a s t h e b a s ic m o t iv e
f o r th e m o v e m e n t f o r th e in t e r n a t io n a l p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r .
T h e id e a o f th e u n iv e r s a l a n d h ig h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f la b o r le g is ­
la t io n w a s e v e n in th e la s t d e c a d e o f th e n in e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e je c t e d
b y s o m e te a c h e r s o f in t e r n a t io n a l la w as a n in v a s io n o f th e r ig h t s
o f n a t io n s b y s o c ia lis m , a n d as U t o p ia n .1 W h e n t h e in t e r n a t io n a l
c o n fe r e n c e o n la b o r le g is la t io n , h e ld in B e r lin in 1 8 9 0 , b r o k e u p w it h ­
o u t b r in g in g a b o u t a n y la b o r a g ree m en ts, A n a to le L e r o y -B e a u lie u
w r o t e : “ C a n w e im a g in e G e n . C a p r iv i o r th e M a rq u is o f R u d in i
a d d r e s s in g d ip lo m a t ic n o te s to th e Q u a i d ’O r s a y o n th e c a r r y in g o u t
o f in te r n a tio n a l a r ra n g e m e n ts c o n c e r n in g th e le n g th o f th e w o r k in g
day?
L e t u s n o t h a r b o r id e a s w h ic h a r e illu s io n s o r a t le a s t p r e ­
m a t u r e ; s u c h a g r e e m e n t s w o u l d b e m o r e d if f ic u l t t o f o r m u l a t e a n d
s c a r c e l y le s s d a n g e r o u s i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n a g e n e r a l d i s a r m a ­
m e n t t r e a ty s ig n e d in P a r is o r B e r lin .
B u t in o r d e r t o c lim b th e
l o n g s t e e p p a t h o f s o c i a l p r o g r e s s , is i t r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e d i f ­
f e r e n t S ta te s b e b o u n d b y t r e a t ie s ?
T h a n k G o d , i t is n o t .
I t is
s u ffic ie n t i f t h e y a r e m o v e d b y t h e s a m e s p i r i t a n d f o l l o w a c o m m o n
in s p ir a t io n .” 2 T h e le a r n e d a c a d e m ic ia n ’s v ie w s w e r e e n t ir e ly r e fu t e d
b y th e h is t o r y o f th e n e x t 20 y e a rs . M o r e q u ic k ly th a n w a s e x p e c te d
d id d ip lo m a c y u n d e r t a k e th e p le b e ia n b u s in e s s o f p r o t e c t i n g b y a r m e d
m ig h t t h e in te r e s ts o f c o n c e s s io n a r ie s in th e c o lo n ie s , o r th e fin a n c ia l
c la im s o f o r d in a r y c r e d it o r s o f fo r e i g n S ta te s. T h e p a r lia m e n t a r y
p re s s u r e o f d e m o c r a c y c o m p e lle d d ip lo m a c y in s in g le s tr ik in g in ­
s ta n ce s t o t a k e c a u t io u s a c t io n w h e r e w o r k m e n ’s c la im s w e r e in
je o p a r d y a b r o a d . A n d s o , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e h a z a r d o u s g a m e o f w a r
p o lit ic s , it a ssu m e d n e w d u tie s , f o r th e c a r r y in g o u t o f w h ic h it la c k e d
b o t h p r o p e r o r g a n s a n d c o n t a c t w it h in te r e s te d c ir c le s .
S w it z e r la n d , in 1 8 7 6 , w a s th e fir s t c o u n t r y t o in v o k e th e a id o f
E u r o p e a n d ip lo m a c y f o r th e r e a liz a t io n o f th e id e a o f in t e r n a t io n a l
la b o r le g is la t io n .3 A t th e in te r n a t io n a l c o n g r e s s f o r la b o r le g is la tio n
h e ld in Z u r ic h in 1 8 9 7 t h is id e a w a s g r e a t ly s tr e n g t h e n e d b y th *
p u b lic it y it r e c e iv e d ; it g a in e d a d h e re n ts a m o n g th e c o m p e t in g in d u s
t r ia l in te r e s ts o f n o r t h e r n a n d s o u t h e r n F r a n c e a n d o f th e R h in e
P r o v in c e s . I t s r e a liz a tio n fin a lly c a m e a t a c o n g r e s s h e ld in P a r is
d u r in g th e e x p o s it io n o f 1900. I t t o o k d e fin ite f o r m o n th e fo u n d i n g
o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n in 1901.
F r o m t h is o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e f r ie n d s o f l a b o r le g is la t io n in a ll
1 E . M ahaim : L e d ro it in tern ation al ou vrier 1 9 1 3 , quoted from the w ritin g s o f R olin Jacquem ins and Alphonse. R ivier.
2 A . Leroy-B ea u lieu : L a P apau t£, le socialism e et la dem ocratic, 3d ed., P a ris, 1 8 9 2 , pp.
17 5 , 176.
3 Th e m ost com plete account o f the early h istory o f in tern a tio n a l labor legislation u '
to 1 8 8 0 is furn ish ed by N ik olau s K raw tsch en k o : Id e ja m esch dun arod nopraw ow oi regli
m en tazij fab ritsch n aw o tru d a w je ja istoritschesskom ra sw itij do berlinskoi konferen^
1 8 9 0 . T om sk, 1 9 1 3 .




IN T E R N A T IO N A L PROGRAMS OF 1916 AND 1917.

9

p a r t i e s a n d c la s s e s o f s o c i e t y t h e r e i s s u e d t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t , t l ie
F o n t a in e -L u z z a t t i a g re e m e n t, w h ic h F r a n c e c o n c lu d e d w ith I t a ly o n
A p r i l 1 5 ,1 9 0 4 . T h i s a g r e e m e n t p r o t e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e I t a l i a n
la b o r e r e m ig r a t in g t o F r a n c e a g a in s t a n y c u r t a ilm e n t o f h is c la im s
t o c o m p e n s a t io n in ca se o f a c c id e n t. T h e a g r e e m e n t g r a n t e d t o th o
w o r k e r t h e w h o le c o m p e n s a t io n d u e t o h im in c a s e o f a c c id e n t o n th e
b a s is o f h is c o n t r ib u t io n . T h e c o m p e n s a t io n , r e c k o n e d a c c o r d in g t o
th e c o n t r ib u t io n o f th e e m p lo y e r a n d th e S ta te , w a s g r a n te d to th e
w o r k e r o n th e b a s is o f r e c ip r o c it y . A l s o th e c la im t o in d e m n it y on
th e p a r t o f th e d e p e n d e n ts o f th e w o r k m a n in ju r e d b y a c c id e n t, w h o
h a d r e m a in e d in t h e ir o w n c o u n t r y , w a s s u s ta in e d in o p p o s it io n t o
t h e e x i s t i n g la w s . F r a n c e e n g a g e d t o a t t a c k t h e a b u s e o f t h e t r a f fic
in c h ild r e n b y th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f p r o t e c t iv e c o m m is s io n s .
Ita ly
s a tis fie d th e c o m p la in t s m a d e b y F r e n c h in d u s t r y c o n c e r n in g th e
f a u l t y e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e la b o r la w s o n h e r p a r t b y u n d e r t a k in g t o
i n s t i t u t e a n e ff ic ie n t f a c t o r y i n s p e c t i o n s e r v i c e .
S h e p r o m is e d t o
s h o r t e n th e e x is t in g 1 2 -h o u r d a y f o r w o m e n . B o t h c o u n t r ie s a g r e e d
t o a r r a n g e f o r fu tu r e c o n fe r e n c e s t o b r in g a b o u t u n ifo r m it y in th e ir
p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s , a n d a r r a n g e d t o g iv e o n e y e a r ’s n o t ic e o f th e
c a n c e lla t io n o f th e a g r e e m e n t in ca se th e la t t e r s h o u ld b e v io la t e d o r
t h e n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d t a k e a le s s f a v o r a b l e f o r m .
T h is a g re e m e n t h a d th e im p o r ta n c e o f a p r o g r a m .
Its n orm al e f­
f e c t w a s s u ch th a t o t h e r c o u n t r ie s c o u ld n o t h o ld b a c k a n y lo n g e r .
B y t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t ie s o f B e r n o f S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 0 6 , t h e u s e
o f w h it e p h o s p h o r u s in th e m a tc h in d u s t r y w a s fo r b id d e n in o r d e r t o
d a a w a y w it h p h o s p h o r u s n e c r o s is . T h is p r o h ib it io n h a s p r a c t ic a lly
b e c o m e e f f e c t i v e i n a l l t h e c o u n t r i e s w h e r e t h i s i n d u s t r y is c a r r i e d o n ,
w it h th e e x c e p t io n o f J a p a n . I n th e s e c o n d p la c e , a n ig h t rest o f
11 h o u r s w a s s e c u r e d f o r fe m a le in d u s t r ia l w o r k e r s , a n d t h e r e b y t h e ir
m a x im u m w o r k i n g h o u r s w e r e l im it e d t o 12 h o u r s , in th e c o u n t r ie s
w h ic h h it h e r t o h a d fix e d b y la w th e w o r k in g h o u r s o f c h ild r e n a n d
y o u n g p e r s o n s a lo n e .
T h e s e r e s u lt s w e r e n o t g a i n e d w i t h o u t a h a r d
s t r u g g le ; it w a s o n ly b y th e g r a n t in g o f lo n g p e r io d s f o r th e c o m in g
in t o f o r c e o f th e s e a g r e e m e n ts t h a t th e c o o p e r a t io n o f th e c o u n t r ie s
th a t h a d la g g e d b e h in d in th e r e c o g n it io n o f th e r ig h ts o f la b o r w a s
m a d e p o s s ib le . A “ c lo s e s e a so n ” w a s d e m a n d e d f o r t h e r e o r g a n iz a ­
t io n o f in d u s t r y . T h u s it c a m e a b o u t th a t th e l o g ic a l a n d c o n t in u o u s
d e v e lo p m e n t o f in te r n a t io n a l la b o r le g is la tio n , w h ic h p u t a b a n o n
th e n ig h t w o r k o f y o u n g p e r s o n s a n d fix e d a 1 0 -h o u r w o r k in g d a y
f o r y o u n g p e r s o n s a n d f o r w o m e n , w a s n o t m a d e e ffe c tiv e u n til 1913
a f t e r e x t e n s iv e in v e s t ig a t io n s .
T h e S e p te m b e r , 1 9 13, c o n fe r e n c e o f B e r n , w h ic h w a s th e la s t b e f o r e
i l 'e o u t b r e a k o f th e w a r t o c o n s id e r th e p r o b le m s o f in t e r n a t io n a l
];.l)o r le g is la t io n , w a s c o n v e n e d u n d e r a n u n lu c k y sta r. Q u it e a p a r t




10

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEGISLATIO N .

f r o m th e p o lit ic a l t e n s io n , w h ic h c a n c r ip p le e v e n p e a c e fu l a d m in is ­
t r a t i v e d e l i b e r a t i o n s a n d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r e s u lt s , t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s
c o n f e r e n c e w a s p r e j u d i c e d b y t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . I t is o f m o r e
t h a n r e t r o s p e c t iv e in te r e s t t o -d a y t o in q u ir e m o r e c lo s e ly in t o th e
r e a s o n s f o r th e r e la tiv e fa ilu r e o f th e w o r k o f 1913. T w o d r a ft s o f
in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n ts w e r e d e c id e d u p o n b y t h e S e p t e m b e r c o n ­
fe r e n c e , o n e t o p r o h ib it th e in d u s tr ia l n ig h t w o r k o f w o r k e r s u n d e r 16,
th e o t h e r t o in s titu te a m a x im u m in d u s t r ia l w o r k in g d a y o f 10 h o u r s
f o r w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s .1 T h e c o n f e r e n c e h a d u n d e r c o n s id e r a ­
t io n m e m o r a n d a a n d d r a ft s o f a g re e m e n ts s u b m itte d b y th e I n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r L a b o r L e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e s u lt s o f y e a r s o f
c o o p e r a t io n o n th e p a r t o f in s p e c to r s o f la b o r , la b o r o r g a n iz a tio n s ,
te c h n ic a l e x p e r ts , a n d m o d e l e m p lo y e r s .
T h e co n fe re n ce red u ced
t o a lo w e r p la n e th e m in im u m s ta n d a r d s p r o p o s e d in th e d r a ft s
s u b m itte d b y th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia tio n . W h e n th e I n t e r n a t io n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n w is h e d t o e x t e n d th e a g e l im it t o 18 y e a r s f o r th e p r o ­
te c t io n o f y o u n g p e r s o n s a g a in s t n ig h t w o r k a n d a w o r k in g d a y o f.
m o r e th a n 10 h o u r s , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f o n e c o u n t r y o b je c t e d o n th e
g r o u n d th a u th e r a is in g o f th e a g e lim it r e m o v e d th e e m p lo y e r ’ s
t
in d u c e m e n t t o g iv e y o u n g w o r k e r s th e p r e fe r e n c e o v e r a d u lts b e ca u se
t h e ir la b o r w a s c h e a p e r ,” 2 T h is a r g u m e n t a p p lie s , t o o , o f c o u r s e , t o
th e u n r e s t r ic t e d e m p lo y m e n t o f c h ild r e n .
I n d ir e c t o p p o s it io n to
t h is , th e r e p o r t o f th e c o n fe r e n c e e x p la in e d t h a t in it s e lf th e r a is in g
o f th e a g e lim it t o 18 w a s d e s ir a b le b u t f o r th e p r e s e n t im p r a c t i­
c a b le .
“ I n c o u n t r i e s i n d u s t r i a l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e r e is e v e r y w h e r e a
d e a r t h o f l a b o r w h ic h is le a d in g t o a n in flu x o f c o u n t le s s f o r e i g n
e le m e n ts , w h ic h is u n d e s ir a b le f o r n a t io n a l re a s o n s . T h e r a is in g o f
t h e p r o t e c t e d a g e l i m i t t o 1 8 w o u l d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e t h e d if f i ­
c u lt ie s in t h e r e c r u it in g o f l a b o r .” T h e r e f o r e , th e t e m p o r a r y u n f a v ­
o r a b le n e s s o f th e e c o n o m ic s it u a t io n a n d n o t th e d e s ir e t o r e m o v e
p e r m a n e n t h y g i e n i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s w^as t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r .
The
d e t e r m in a t io n b y in t e r n a t io n a l a c t io n o f a m a x im u m w o r k in g d a y o f
10 h o u r s f o r fe m a le w o r k e r s w a s o p p o s e d b y o t h e r c o u n t r ie s in w h ic h ,
a s i n S c a n d i n a v i a , t h e s o c i a l i s t w o m e n t h e m s e lv e s o b j e c t e d t o a s h o r t e r
w o r k in g d a y f o r w o m e n th a n f o r m e n a n d p e t it io n e d f o r 120 h o u r s
o f o v e r tim e w o r k in th e y e a r . T h e c o n f e r e n c e a t B e r n in c r e a s e d t h is
n u m b e r t o 140 h o u r s a n d in c e r ta in b r a n c h e s o f in d u s t r y t o 180 h o u r s .3
1 See also " F o rtg a n g und T ra g w eite der in tern ation alen Arheiterschutzrvertr&ge,” by
Stephan B auer, in the A n n alen fittr soziale F o litik und G esetzgebung, 1 9 1 3 , v o l. 3> on the
problem s before th is conference, on the prelim inary m easures, and on the fu rth e r aim s o f
it s prom oters, the In tern a tio n a l A sso cia tio n fo r L abor L e g isla tio n .
[S ee also B u lle tin s
1 1 7 and 1 1 8 o f th e U. S. B ureau o f L a bor S ta tistic s, on “ P roh ibitio n o f n ig h t w ork o f
you n g persons ” and “ T en -h ou r m axim um w orkin g-d ay for w om en an d you n g p e rson s,”
resp ectively, published in A p ril, 1 9 1 3 .— E d .]
2 M in n ie s o f the In te r n a tio n a l C onference far th e P rotectio n o f L abor, B ern , Sept- 1 5 - 2 5 ,
1 9 1 3 , p. 4 9 .
* Idem , pp. I l l , 12 5 ;




INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS OE 1916 AND 1917.

11

O n l y a t th e p r e lim in a r y d is c u s s io n s o f t h e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e I n t e r ­
n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n w e r e th e w o r k m e n a n d
t h e ir o r g a n iz a t io n s g iv e n a n o p p o r t u n it y t o e x p r e s s t h e ir v ie w s .
T h u s in 1912 th e G e r m a n s e c tio n o f th e a s s o c ia tio n h a d 6 r e p r e s e n t­
a t iv e s o f l a b o r o r g a n iz a t io n s a m o n g 2 4 d e le g a te s a n d a lte r n a te s , th e
F r e n c h s e c t io n 2 a m o n g 2 2 d e le g a te s , th e B r it i s h 4 a m o n g 11 d e le ­
g a te s. N e ith e r th ese d e le g a te s n o r th e fa c t o r y in s p e c to r s w it h th e ir
t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e w e r e h e a r d b e f o r e t h e o f f ic ia l d e c i s i o n o f 1 9 1 3 w i t h
r e g a r d t o th e in c r e a s e in th e o v e r tim e . I t w a s o n ly w it h g r e a t e ff o r t
th a t th e d is c o n t e n t o f in d i v i d u a l n a t io n a l s e c t io n s o f th e I n t e r ­
n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n a t t h is o u t c o m e w a s a p p e a s e d .
I n S e p te m b e r , 1914, a c o n fe r e n c e o f d ip lo m a ts w a s t o p r e p a r e th e
t h i r d a n d f o u r t h B e r n a g r e e m e n t s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u lt s . T h e
w a r m e r c ile s s ly i n t e r v e n e d ; its w o r k o f d e s tr u c t io n w a s a b lo w a t th e
m o s t im p o r t a n t fo u n d a t io n th a t h a d h ith e r to b e e n la id f o r th e p r o ­
t e c t io n o f la b o r , a b l o w s t r u c k a t th e v e r y e x is te n c e o f l a b o r le g is la t io n
a n d , w h a t is e q u i v a l e n t , i t s e n f o r c e m e n t .
T h u s th e fir s t p h a s e o f th e w a r in a lm o s t a ll th e b e llig e r e n t
c o u n t r ie s le d n o t o n l y t o a d is r e g a r d o f th e la b o r p r o t e c t io n a g r e e ­
m e n t o f 1 9 0 6 w it h r e g a r d t o n ig h t w o r k o f w o m e n , b u t a ls o t o a
b r e a c h o f th e n a tio n a l p r o t e c t iv e la b o r r e g u la tio n s r e la tin g to S u n ­
d a y w o r k , a n d t o th e e x p lo it a t io n o f fe m a le a n d ju v e n ile la b o r .
A f t e r th e fir s t y e a r o f w a r , h o w e v e r , a c h a n g e b e g a n t o m a k e it s e lf
f e l t a lm o s t e v e r y w h e r e .
E v e n in th e w a r in d u s tr ie s , w h e r e th e
g la m o u r o f h ig h e r w a g e s in c r e a s e d so g r e a t ly th e d a n g e r o f b o d i ly
e x h a u s t io n f r o m o v e r w o r k , th e b r e a c h o f th e r e g u la t io n s f o r th e
p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r w a s fin a lly r e c o g n iz e d to b e an e c o n o m ic a n d
t e c h n ic a l b lu n d e r , f o r t h e o v e r w o r k r e s u lt e d in a n o b v io u s d e c r e a s e
o f e f f ic ie n c y .
O ffic ia l in q u ir ie s in E n g l a n d m a d e t h is so c le a r t h a t
o n th e b a s is o f th e se e x p e r ie n c e s th e G o v e r n m e n t o f th e U n it e d
S ta te s , o n th e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , e x p r e s s ly in s is te d u p o n th e m a in ­
t e n a n c e o f e x is t in g la b o r s t a n d a r d s .1 T h u s th e s e w a r e x p e r ie n c e s ,
c o lle c t e d w it h g r e a t c a r e b y te c h n ic a l e x p e r ts , p h y s ic ia n s , a n d f a c ­
t o r y in s p e c to r s , b e c a m e a w a r n in g f o r in t r o s p e c t io n o n th e p a r t o f
w a r in d u s tr y a n d S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts . A t th e sa m e tim e it c a m e to b e
r e a liz e d m o r e a n d m o r e t h a t th e m a in t e n a n c e o f a m in im u m w a g e
a n d m a x im u m w o r k in g h o u r s a n d o f u n e m p lo y m e n t r e li e f in c r is e s
w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e w a r> u n l e s s d u r i n g t h e d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f t h e t r a d e -u n io n s y s te m p r e c a u t io n s s h o u ld b e ta k e n t o p r e v e n t th e
o v e r flo o d in g o f th e la b o r m a rk e t. M e n o f in s ig h t a n d ju d g m e n t h a v e
l o n g s in c e r e c o g n iz e d th e f a c t th a t le g a l p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r a n d th e
1
See also S o zia lp olitik im K rie ge und nach Fried en ssch lu ss, by Stephan B auer, B ern ,
1 9 1 7 , an d M o n th ly R eview o f the B ureau o f L abor S ta tistic s, W a sh in g to n , June, 1 9 1 7 , pp.
8 0 7 - 8 0 9 , concerning the alm o st com plete suecess in p reven tin g the low ering o f stan d ard s
in labor leg isla tio n in th e U n ited S t a t e s ; “ L a b or in w ar tim e ,” in T h e A m erican L a b or
L e g isla tio n R eview , M arch , 1 9 1 8 .




12

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEG ISLATION .

e x is te n c e o f t r a d e - u n io n s a r e c o m p le m e n t a r y ; t h a t w it h o u t t r a d e u n io n s th e la w s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r a re s e ld o m c a r r ie d o u t a n d
a r e e a s ily e v a d e d , a n d t h a t o n th e o t h e r h a n d w it h o u t le g a l p r o t e c t io n
t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e t a s k s o f t h e l a b o r u n i o n s is i m m e a s u r ­
a b ly in c r e a s e d .
I n c o u n t r ie s w it h a w e a k o r g a n iz a t io n o f t r a d e u n io n s th e d a n g e r o f d is o r g a n iz a t io n a ft e r th e w a r w ill b e m o r e
k e e n ly fe lt . W h a t w o u ld r e m a in h e r e f r o m f o r m e r d e c a d e s f o r th e
w o r k i n g c la s s a f t e r t h e c o l l a p s e o f l a b o r l e g i s l a t i o n ?
T h e s e a tta ck s u p o n la b o r s ta n d a rd s le d to a p r o p o s a l o f th e
A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r , r e p e a te d s in c e 1914, t o th e e ffe c t th a t
“ a la b o r c o n g r e s s s h o u ld b e h e ld a t th e sa m e tim e a n d in th e sa m e
p la c e a s th e p e a c e c o n g r e s s .” T h is p r o p o s a l w a s d is c u s s e d in P a r is o n
M a y 1 ,1 9 1 6 , b y d e l e g a t e s o f B r i t i s h , I t a l i a n , B e l g i a n , a n d F r e n c h l a b o r
o r g a n iz a tio n s a n d J o u h a u x , th e s e cre ta ry g e n e ra l o f th e C o n fe d e r a tio n
G e n e r a le d u T r a v a il, w a s c o m m is s io n e d t o d r a w u p s u b je c t s f o r d is ­
c u s s io n w h ic h c o u ld b e u s e d as a b a s is f o r a c o n g r e s s in L e e d s in J u ly ,
1916. I n L e e d s th e p r o p o s a l t o h o ld a la b o r c o n g r e s s a t th e sa m e tim e
as th e p e a c e c o n fe r e n c e — th e o r ig in a l p r o p o s a l o f th e A m e r ic a n s — •
w a s d is c u s s e d f o r th e fir s t tim e . “ T h e B r it i s h d e le g a t e s d id n o t s h a r e
th e v ie w o f th e F r e n ch .
T h e y a tta c k e d th e p la n as o n e w h ic h n o
G o v e r n m e n t w o u ld to le r a te , as its r e a liz a t io n w o u ld g r e a t ly e m b a rr a s s
th e p ea ce c o n fe re n c e .
T h e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e la b o r c o n g r e s s w o u ld ,
m o r e o v e r , r e a c h th e ir d e s tin a tio n t o o la te t o b e c o n s id e r e d b y th e
d ip lo m a t s .” 1 T h e d e le g a te s n e x t tu r n e d t h e ir a tte n tio n t o a d is ­
c u s s io n o f t h e h is t o r ic a l s u r v e y o f th e a tte m p ts t o c o o r d in a t e la b o r
le g is la t io n t h r o u g h in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n t d r a f t e d b y th e F r e n c h
C o n f e d e r a t io n G e n e r a le d u T r a v a il .2 A d is c u s s io n o f th e d e m a n d s
m a d e b y th e la t t e r o n th e b a s is o f p r o p o s a ls o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s ­
s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n w a s o m it t e d . O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e
c o n f e r e n c e o f L e e d s o n J u ly 5, 1916, “ a p p r o v e d th e p r o p o s a l t o c a ll
a n in t e r n a t io n a l c o n f e r e n c e b e f o r e th e b e g in n in g o f th e p e a c e
n e g o tia t io n s .
T h e d a te , p la c e o f m e e t in g , a n d th e p r o g r a m o f
th e c o n g r e s s w e r e t o b e d e te r m in e d la te r a ft e r a n a g re e m e n t h a d
b e e n a r r iv e d a t w it h th e la b o r u n io n s c o n c e r n e d .
T h e p rogram
w a s t o b e l i m i t e d t o t r a d e - u n i o n o r s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s .”
“ L a te r th e c o n fe r e n c e u n a n im o u s ly a p p r o v e d th e r e p o r t o f
J o u h a u x o n th e m in im u m le g is la t iv e d e m a n d s t o b e m a d e , a n d m a d e
h im g e n e r a l c o r r e s p o n d in g s e c re ta ry in P a r is .”
T h e L e e d s p r o g r a m w a s m a d e k n o w n t o a ll n a t io n a l t r a d e -u n io n
fe d e r a t io n s a n d t o a ll c e n t r a l la b o r o r g a n iz a t io n s f o r th e in d iv id u a l
1 M o n th ly R eview o f the U . S. B ureau o f L a b or S ta tistic s, W a s h in g to n , F ebru a ry, 1 9 1 7 ,
p. 2 0 5 .
2 G eneral F ederation o f T rad e-U n ion s (G reat B r it a in ). C onference o f delegates from the
gen eral federatio n s o f trade-u nions o f the allied cou ntries.
H isto rica l survey o f the e f ­
fo rts to coordinate and in tern ation alize labor legislation . P repared by the C onfederation
G enerale du T r a v a il. London, June, 1 9 1 6 , 15 pp.




INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS OF 1916 AND 1917.

13

tr a d e s o n O c t o b e r 3 1 ,1 9 1 6 , b y c ir c u la r s se n t o u t f r o m P a r is , a n d th u s
c a m e t o b e p u b lis h e d in th e F r e n c h , th e I t a lia n , a n d th e in te r n a t io n a l
t r a d e - u n i o n p r e s s .1
T h e L e e d s d e m a n d s w e r e tr a n s m it t e d b y a c o m m it t e e o f th e S c a n d i­
n a v ia n fe d e r a t io n s o f la b o r in N o v e m b e r , 1916, t o th e I n t e r n a t io n a l
F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r , a n d a n e x p r e s s io n o f o p in io n w a s c a lle d f o r w it h
r e g a r d t o th e p r e p a r a t io n f o r a n in te r n a t io n a l c o n fe r e n c e o f th e se
n a t io n a l t r a d e -u n io n fe d e r a t io n s . O n F e b r u a r y 15, 1917, th e I n t e r ­
n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r sen t a c ir c u la r le t t e r t o th e n a t io n a l
fe d e r a tio n s o f la b o r u n io n s in w h ic h a n e w o u tlin e o f “ p e a c e d e ­
m a n d s o f th e In t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r ” w a s o ffe r e d f o r
4c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 2 I n J u n e , 1 9 1 7 , i n S t o c k h o l m
it w a s d e c id e d t o
t h o r o u g h l y d is c u s s t h e p o i n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m a t a c o n f e r e n c e t o b e
c a lle d a t B e r n b y th e S w is s F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r q n O c t o b e r 1,
1917.
A t t h is c o n fe r e n c e in B e r n th e n a t io n a l fe d e r a t io n s o f th e la b o r
u n io n s o f G e r m a n y , A u s t r ia , H u n g a r y , B o h e m ia , B u lg a r ia , D e n ­
m a r k , N o r w a y , S w e d e n , th e N e t h e r la n d s a n d S w it z e r la n d w e r e r e p ­
r e se n te d . T h e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e c o m m it t e e o n la b o r le g is la t io n , lik e
th o s e o f L e e d s , w e r e u n a n im o u s ly a p p r o v e d b y th e c o n fe r e n c e o n
O c t o b e r 4, 1917.
F in a lly , a t th e th ir ty -s e v e n th a n n u a l m e e tin g o f th e A m e r ic a n .
F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r , w h ic h t o o k p la c e in B u ffa lo , N o v e m b e r 12 t o 24 ,
1 9 1 7 ,3 i t w a s u n a n i m o u s l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g d e c l a r a t i o n s h o u l d
b e in s e r te d in th e u n iv e r s a l p e a c e t r e a t y :
1. No article or commodity shall be shipped or delivered in international
commerce in the production of which children under the age of 16 have been
employed or permitted to work.
2. It shall be declared that the basic workday in industry and commerce
shall not exceed 8 hours.
3. Involuntary servitude shall not exist except as a punishment for crime
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
4. Establishment of trial by jury.
1 B u lle tin o f the In tern a tio n a l U nion o f W ood w orkers, N o. 1, Feb. 1 4 , 1 9 1 7 .
2 C orrespondenzblatt der G eneralkom m ission der G ew erk sch aften D eutsch lan ds.
lin , M a y 26, 1 9 1 7 .
V o l. 2 7 , N o. 21.

B er­

3 Sam uel G om pers : “ A m erican labor convention in w ar tim e ,” in A m erican F e d era tio n ist,
J a n u a ry , 1 9 1 8 , p. 3 4 .







CHAPTER IL
IN T E R N A T IO N A L R E G U L A T IO N O F T H E E IG H T O P
C O M B IN A T IO N , C O L L E C T IV E A G R E E M E N T S , A N D
P R O T E C T IO N O F M IG R A T O R Y W O R K E R S .
T h e r e a r e t w o h in d r a n c e s in e v e r y c o u n t r y t o im p r o v e m e n t in th e
h e a l t h a n d t r a i n i n g o f t h e w o r k e r a n d t o i n c r e a s e d e f f ic ie n c y a n d
p u r c h a s in g p o w e r o n h is p a r t . T h e fir s t is t h e u n d e r b id d in g o f t h e
c o s t o f l a b o r i n t h e f o r e i g n m a r k e t , a n d t h e s e c o n d is t h e c o m p e t i ­
t i o n a t h o m e w i t h f o r e i g n l a b o r w o r k i n g u n d e r le s s f a v o r a b l e c o n d i ­
tio n s . T h e r e fo r e , th e p o lit ic a l a im o f n a t io n a l l a b o r le g is la t io n as
it a ffe c ts th e in c r e a s e o f p o p u la t io n c a n o n l y b e a tta in e d b y s e t t in g
d e fin it e lim it s t o in t e r n a t io n a l la b o r c o m p e t it io n a b r o a d , a n d b y
e s t a b lis h m e n t o f th e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l t r e a t m e n t o f n a t iv e a n d
fo r e ig n la b o r at h om e.
T h e In te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n h a s tr ie d to
r e a liz e s te p b y ste p th e se a im s : U n if o r m t r e a tm e n t o f w o r k m e n
a b r o a d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r r i g h t t o t h e b e n e f it s o f s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e ,
th e r e m o v a l o f th e in c e n t iv e f o r u n fa ir c o m p e t it io n b y p r o h ib it io n o f
n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n , a n d th e p r o h ib it io n o f th e u se o f w h ite p h o s ­
p h o r u s in th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f m a tc h e s . A s y s te m a tic r e v is io n o f a ll
th e c o n f lic t in g p r o v is io n s o f th e l a b o r la w s h a s le d t o a n e x t e n s io n o f
th e s c o p e o f th e p r o b le m s d e a lt w it h . M a h a im a n d V a l e n t in i - P e r s i n i 1
h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n is n e c e s s a r y i n
t h e c a s e n o t o n ly o f t h e q u e s tio n s a lr e a d y r a is e d b y t h e a g r e e m e n ts o f
1 9 0 4 a n d 1 9 0 6 t o u c h i n g a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e f o r a l ie n s , r e d u c t i o n o f
w o r k in g h o u r s , h y g ie n e a n d th e p r o h ib it io n o f th e u se o f c e r ta in
p o is o n o u s s u b s ta n ce s , a n d th e s e c u r in g o f f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n , b u t a ls o
o f t h o s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o n c e r n t h e e q u a l t r e a t m e n t o f a l ie n m i g r a t o r y
l a b o r a s f a r a s t h e r i g h t o f c o m b i n a t i o n is c o n c e r n e d , a n d t h e p r o t e c ­
t io n o f m ig r a t o r y w o r k e r s . T h e r e g u la tio n o f th e le g a l p r e lim in a r y
c o n d it io n s , th e c o n t e n t, a n d th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f la b o r a g r e e m e n ts is
t h e o b je c t o f b o t h n a t io n a l a n d in t e r n a t io n a l la b o r la w . I t a ls o f o r m s
t h e f r a m e w o r k o f th e r e s o lu tio n s o f th e t r a d e -u n io n c o n fe r e n c e o f
L e e d s in 1916 a n d o f B e r n in 1917.
1 V a le n t in i-P e r s in i: P rotezione e legislazion e in tern azion ale del .lavoro, 1 9 0 9 -1 0 .




15

16

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEG ISLATION.

1. EQUAL TREATMENT OF NATIVE AND FOREIGN LABOR IN THE CON­
CLUSION OF LABOR CONTRACTS.
T h e fir s t s e c t i o n o f t h e L e e d s p r o g r a m m a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e
d em an ds:
1. Equal treatment of aliens with regard to employment.
2. Equal right of combination (interdiction of deportation in case of strikes).
3. Equal wage and working conditions.

B y t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e c la u s e s , t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t o n t h e
g r o u n d o f a lle g ia n c e t o a s p e c ific n a t io n is b a r r e d .
T h e a lie n h a s n o
“ le g a l c la im t o w o r k 5 u p o n t h e S ta te w h e n t h e r e is n o w o r k ; b u t
5
w h e n th e r e is e m p lo y m e n t , h e c a n n o t b e e x c lu d e d , n o t e v e n b y g r a n t ­
i n g t o n a t iv e la b o r th e r ig h t o f p r e fe r e n c e .
T h i s p r i n c i p l e is a n e x ­
t e n s i o n o f t h e u s u a l e q u a l i t y o f s t a n d i n g o f a l ie n s a n d n a t i v e s r e c o g ­
n i z e d b y t r a d e a n d s e t t l e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s .1
T h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e is t h e e n j o y m e n t o f e q u a l r i g h t s b y n a t i v e
a n d a l i e n w o r k m e n a s m e m b e r s a n d o ff ic e r s o f t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s .
T h is
e q u a lit y b y n o m e a n s e x is ts in a ll c o u n t r ie s .
C e r ta in p r o v is io n s o f
th e F r e n c h la w o n s y n d ic a t e s o f 1 8 8 4 o p p o s e it.
T h i s la w c o n t a in s in th e fir s t p la c e (a r t . 4 ) th e p r o v is io n t h a t th e
o ff ic e r s o f e v e r y a c t i v e t r a d e - u n i o n i n F r a n c e m u s t b e F r e n c h m e n , a n d
in t h e s e c o n d p la c e (a r t . 1 0 ) t h a t in th e c o lo n ie s a lie n la b o r e r s a n d
th o s e d e s ig n a te d as “ im m ig r a n ts 5 c a n n o t b e m e m b e r s o f a tr a d e 5
u n io n .
O f t h e f o r m e r p r o v i s i o n r e s p e c t i n g t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l ie n s
f r o m th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f tr a d e -u n io n s , P r o f . P a u l P i c o f L y o n s
says:
This provision is perhaps not very logical because, on the one hand, the
trade-unions may have alien members and may even be composed exclusively
of aliens, since the law calls for no proportional division in this respect;
while, on the other hand, foreign industrial associations can be in active un­
restricted operation in France according to the law of 1857.
But this legal provision was justified by very serious political considerations.
The legislature of 1884 was of the opinion that it might be dangerous to allow
the administration of the trade-unions to fall into the hands of foreign agitators
who might make use of them either to disturb public order or to reestablish the
“ International ” which at that time was specially forbidden by the law of
March 14, 1872. This law has been superseded, it is true, by the law of 1901,
but the precautions taken in this new law to prevent the formation of -danger­
ous centers of agitation in unions, which on account of the majority of their
members or the personalities of their officers had a foreign character (articles
12 and 3 of the law of 1901), prove that the legislators wished to have a weapon
against internationalist tendencies. In the light of this, even after the promul­
gation of the law of 1901, the provisions of article 4 of the law of 1884 with
1
T h ese differentiate a t tim es betw een trade and production, w hich are on an equal fo o t­
ing, and p ro fessio n al w ork, fo r which on ly the ad van tag es of the m ost favored nation are
reserved, as, fo r in stan ce, by the Franco-.Tapanese trade and n a vig atio n treaty of A u g.,
1 9 1 1 , art. 1 .— T h . N iem eyer un d K .- Strupp : Jah rbu ch des V o lk errech ts, 1 9 1 3 , I, p. 2 0 2 .




REGULATION OF RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

17

regard to the nationality of the officers of trade-unions are to be strictly
construed.1

T h e G e r m a n im p e r ia l la w o n a s s o c ia tio n s o f A p r i l 19, 1908,
g r a n t s t o G e r m a n c i t i z e n s o n l y — t h e r e f o r e n o t t o a l ie n s — t h e f r e e ­
d o m o f a s s o c ia tio n .
T h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p l a i n i n g t o t h e a l ie n
w o r k m a n h i s w a g e i n t e r e s t s w a s r a is e d a s a n o b j e c t i o n b y t h e G e r m a n
la b o r r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s w h e n th e la w w a s u n d e r d is c u s s io n .2
The
G o v e r n m e n t d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g t o h i n d e r a l ie n s f r o m
t a k in g p a r t in th e d e lib e r a t io n s o f u n io n s c o m p o s e d o f G e r m a n s a n d
th a t , o n th e o t h e r h a n d , t h is t o le r a t io n w a s c o n d it io n e d o n w h e t h e r
o t h e r S ta te s g r a n t e d r ig h t s o f r e c i p r o c i t y in t h is r e s p e ct. T h e p o s i ­
t io n o f t h e n a t iv e w o r k e r d e p e n d s , t h e r e fo r e , in t h is c a s e u p o n th e
l i b e r a l i t y t o o r t h e d i s l i k e o f a l ie n s o n t h e p a r t o f a f o r e i g n j u r i s ­
p ru d en ce.
A r e s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n s o n * t h e r i g h t o f c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l ie n s i n a c c o r d ­
a n ce w it h in d u s tr ia l d e v e lo p m e n t?
D o t h e y in s u r e t o th e n a t iv e
w o r k m a n an e ffe c tiv e r ig h t o f p r e fe r e n c e in th e m a tte r o f e m p lo y ­
m e n t?
D o th e y p r o t e c t th e n a t io n a l c h a r a c t e r o f la b o r ?
T h e in d u s t r ia l d e v e lo p m e n t b e f o r e t h e w a r g a v e c le a r p r o o f th a t
n a t io n a l b o u n d a r ie s c o u ld n o lo n g e r b e m a in t a in e d .
T h e exp ort o f
c a p it a l w a s a c c o m p a n ie d a lm o s t t o a n e q u a l e x te n t b y a n e x p o r t o f
la b o r t o c o u n t r ie s w it h a n u n t r a in e d in d u s t r ia l p o p u la t io n .
T h is
e m ig r a tio n o f w o r k m e n b r o u g h t a b o u t th e fo u n d a t io n o f b r a n c h e s o f
t h e l a b o r u n i o n s . T h u s S i d n e y a n d B e a t r i c e W e b b r e p o r t t h a t i n 189G
th e A m a l g a m a t e d S o c i e t y o f E n g in e e r s h a d 82 b r a n c h e s o u t s id e th e
U n it e d K in g d o m a n d th e A m a lg a m a t e d S o c ie t y o f C a r p e n te r s a n d
J o in e r s n o t fe w e r th a n 87. A b o u t h a lf o f th ese a re in th e U n it e d
S ta te s o r C a n a d a , a n d m o s t o f th e r e m a in d e r in th e A u s t r a lia n
C o lo n ie s o r S o u th A fr ic a . T h e A m a lg a m a te d S o c ie ty o f E n g in e e r s
h a d o n e b r a n c h in F r a n c e , a t C r o ix , a n d fo r m e r ly o n e in S p a in , a t
B ilb a o , w h e r e th e U n it e d S o c ie t y o f B o ile r m a k e r s h a d a b r a n c h u n til
1894. I n th e y e a rs 1880 to 1882 th e U n ite d S o c ie ty o f B o ile r m a k e r s
h a d a b r a n c h a ls o a t C o n s t a n t in o p le .
T h e o n ly oth er E n g lis h tra d e u n i o n h a v i n g b r a n c h e s o v e r s e a s is t h e S t e a m - E n g i n e M a k e r s ’ S o ­
c ie t y ,3 w h ic h h a s o p e n e d lo d g e s at N e w Y o r k , M o n t r e a l, a n d B r is ­
bane.
“ B u t it is n e e d le s s t o s a y t h a t i t h a s n o t y e t a p p e a r e d p r a c ­
t ic a b le t o a n y B r it is h t r a d e -u n io n e v e n t o s u g g e s t a m a lg a m a t io n
w it h th e tr a d e -u n io n o f a n y o th e r c o u n tr y .
D iffe r e n c e s in le g a l p o ­
s it io n , in p o lit ic a l sta tu s, in in d u s t r ia l m e th o d s , a n d in th e e c o n o m ic
s itu a tio n b e tw e e n F r e n c h a n d E n g lis h w o r k e r s — n o t t o m e n tio n th e
1 P aul P i c : T r a its 616mentaire de legislation indu strielle.
Les lois ouvrifcres.
4th ed.,
P a ris, R ousseau, 1 9 1 2 , art. 4 0 9 , pp. 3 0 1 - 3 0 2 .
Sec E . M ah a im : Le droit in tern ation al
ouvrier, 1 9 1 3 , ch. 4 , p. 16 9 .
2 B u lle tin des In tern atio n alen A rb eitsam tes, 1 9 0 8 , vol. 7, p. X V I I .
8 T h e A m a lg a m a ted Society of C arpenters and Join ers and the A m a lg a m a ted Society o f
E n gin eers in the U nited S ta tes m ay also be m ention ed.— [ E d .]

97520°— 19------- 2




IS

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

b a r r ie r o f la n g u a g e — e a s ily a c c o u n t f o r th e in d is p o s it io n o n th e
p a r t o f p r a c t ic a l B r it is h w o r k m e n t o c o n s id e r an in te r n a tio n a l
a m a lg a m a te d u n io n .”
A n d it is s ig n ific a n t t h a t e v e n in th e B r i t ­
is h Is le s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n a t io n a l t r a d e -u n io n s y s te m h a s b e e n
g r e a t ly h a m p e r e d b y r a c ia l fe e lin g s a n d d iffe r e n c e s o f o p in io n w it h
r e g a r d t o s o c ia l a n d p o lit ic a l ta c tic s .
“ T h e E n g lis h ca rp e n te r,
p l u m b e r , o r s m i t h w h o f i n d s h i m s e l f w o r k i n g i n a S c o t c h t o w n is a p t
t o d e c la r e th e S c o t c h u n io n in h is tr a d e t o b e lit t le b e tte r th a n a
fr ie n d ly s o c ie t y a n d t o c o m p la in th a t S c o t c h w o r k m e n a re t o o e a g e r
f o r i m m e d i a t e g a i n a n d f o r p e r s o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t s u f f i c i e n t l y t o r e s is t
su ch d a n g e r o u s in n o v a t io n s as c o m p e titiv e p ie c e w o r k , n ib b lin g a t
th e s t a n d a r d r a t e , o r h a b it u a l o v e r tim e .
T h e S co tch m a n re torts th a t
t h e E n g l i s h t r a d e - u n i o n is e x t r a v a g a n t i n i t s e x p e n d i t u r e , e s p e ­
c i a l l y a t t h e h e a d o ff ic e i n L o n d o n o r M a n c h e s t e r , a n d u n d u l y r e ­
s t r ic t iv e in its r e g u la t io n s a n d m e th o d s .
I h s o m e ca se s th e im p u ls e
t o w a r d a m a lg a m a t io n h a s p r e v a ile d o v e r t h is d iv e r g e n c e a s t o w h a t
is s o c ia lly e x p e d ie n t .” 1
T h e r e e x is ts , t h e r e fo r e , t h e t e n d e n c y t o o v e r c o m e th e b a r r ie r s t o
c o m b in a tio n th a t a re in h e r e n t in la n g u a g e a n d cu sto m s. T h e c o u r s e
o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t in A m e r i c a in t h is r e s p e c t is in s t r u c t iv e .
The
g r o w t h o f th e A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r in C a n a d a le d t o a
c o n flic t b e tw e e n th e fo r m a t io n o f “ n a tio n a l ” (C a n a d ia n ) a n d “ in te r ­
n a t io n a l ” (A m e r ic a n -C a n a d ia n ) la b o r u n io n s .
P r in t e r s , r a ilw a y
e m p lo y e e s , a n d w o r k e r s in sh o e fa c t o r ie s jo in e d th e in te r n a tio n a l
c a m p o n e a ft e r th e o t h e r ; o n ly th o s e in p u r e ly F r e n c h d is t r ic t s , p a r ­
t ic u la r ly in Q u e b e c , m a in t a in e d t h e ir n a t io n a l o r g a n iz a t io n s .
The
n a tio n a l w o r k e r s w e r e s u p p o r t e d b y th e C a n a d ia n m a n u fa c tu r e r s ,
p a r t o f w h o m , h o w e v e r , b e lo n g e d t o in t e r n a t io n a l c a r te ls .
I n 1903
a b i ll w a s in t r o d u c e d in t h e C a n a d ia n se n a te a c c o r d in g t o w h ic h e v e r y
n o n - B r it is h s u b je c t w h o e n c o u r a g e d a C a n a d ia n w o r k e r t o s t r ik e
w a s th re a te n e d w it h t w o y e a r s ’ im p r is o n m e n t.
I t is t r u e t h a t th e
b ill w a s r e je c t e d , b u t it w a s s y m p t o m a t ic .2
O n t h e c o n t i n e n t o f E u r o p e p r o h i b i t i o n c la u s e s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e
F r e n c h la w o f 1 8 8 4 c a n o n l y in c r e a s e th e d is in c lin a t io n o f I t a lia n
a n d S la v m ig r a t o r y w o r k e r s t o m a k e s a c r ific e s f o r a p e r m a n e n t o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n . A l i e n l a b o r is n o t b e i n g k e p t a w a y a t a l l b y a r t i f i c i a l
b a r r ie r s p la c e d in th e w a y o f o r g a n iz a t io n , b u t a p r e m iu m is p la c e d
u p o n t h e r e c r u it in g o f a lie n w o r k e r s . L e g a l d is c r im in a t io n a g a in s t
a lie n w o r k e r s is a d e t r im e n t t o n a t iv e la b o r . T h e m o r e r e c e n t e x ­
p e r ie n c e s o f th e U n it e d S ta te s le a d t o th e sa m e c o n c lu s io n . I n th e
n o r th e a s te r n S ta te s , th e m a jo r it y o f th e t e x t ile w o r k e r s a re im m i­
1 Sidney and B eatrice W ebb : In d u stria l D em ocracy, new ed., L o n gm an s, London, 1 9 0 2 ,
pp. 81, 82.
2 T . W . G lo c k e r : T h e G overn m ent o f A m e rican T ra d e-U n io n s, J o h n s H opk in s U n iv e rsity
Stu dies, Ser. 3 1 , B a ltim o re, 1 9 1 3 , p. 7 8 .




REGULATION OF RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

19

g r a n ts w h o k n o w n e ith e r th e la n g u a g e n o r th e c u s to m s o f th e c o u n tr y .
E d u c a t io n a l w o r k m u st fir s t b e d o n e a m o n g th e m , i f th e fo u n d a t io n s
o f p e r m a n e n t o r g a n iz a t io n a re t o b e la id . T h is n e e d s p a t ie n c e a n d
d o e s n o t g i v e i m m e d i a t e t a n g i b l e r e s u lt s . I n t h e s o u t h e r n S t a t e s t h e
o r g a n iz a t io n o f la b o r h a s b e e n d e la y e d b y th e a fte r -e ffe c ts o f s la v e r y .
O ld p r e ju d ic e s a re s till t o b e o v e r c o m e h ere.
I t is e v i d e n t f r o m w h a t h a s b e e n s a i d t h a t n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u ­
l a t i n g t h e r i g h t o f c o m b i n a t i o n c a n l e a d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l ie n s
f r o m th e la b o r u n io n s e ith e r th r o u g h
ju d ic ia l in te r p r e ta tio n o r
t h r o u g h p o lic e o rd e rs .
T h i s d a n g e r is p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t i n G e r m a n y .
A lt h o u g h in th e G e r m a n E m p ir e th e la w o f J u n e 26, 1916, e x p r e s s ly
e x e m p ts e m p lo y e r s ’ a n d e m p lo y e e s ’ o r g a n iz a tio n s fr o m th e r e g u la ­
t io n s a p p l y i n g t o p o l i t i c a l s o c ie t ie s (p a r a g r a p h s 3 a n d 17 o f th e i m ­
p e r ia l la w o n a s s o c ia tio n s ), th e G e rm a n S o c ie ty f o r S o c ia l R e fo r m
( Verein fu r Sozialpolitik) e m p h a s i z e s t h e f a c t t h a t “ i t i s a r e m a r k ­
a b le m i n g l in g o f th e c o n c e p t io n o f th e im p o r t a n c e o f th e p o lic e p o w e r
a n d o f a n o l d d e e p -r o o t e d M a n c h e s t e r -lik e d is lik e o f th e u n io n s y s te m
w h ic h tim e a n d a g a in in d u c e s g u a r d ia n s o f th e p u b lic s a fe t y to a d o p t
a h a r s h e r a ttitu d e w it h r e g a r d to th e m a n ife s ta t io n o f la b o r -u n io n
a c t iv it y t h a n is c o n s is t e n t w it h a s y m p a t h e t ic a p p r e c ia t io n o f a ll
th e se p r o c e e d in g s , a n a ttitu d e w h ic h ca n n o t b e a d o p te d w ith o u t
d e t r im e n t t o n a t io n a l in t e r e s t.” 1
I t c a n h a r d ly b e th e p u r p o s e o f le g is la t io n n o w t o in c re a s e th e
a lr e a d y e x is t in g n a t io n a l r e s t r a in t s o n c o m b in a t io n .
T h e c r im in a l p r o s e c u tio n o f w o r k m e n f o r a cts c o m m itte d as m e m ­
b e r s o f la b o r u n io n s , w ith d e p o r t a t io n fr o m th e c o u n t r y , o u g h t, a c ­
c o r d i n g t o th e L e e d s p r o p o s a ls , t o b e p r o h ib it e d b y in t e r n a t io n a l
a c t io n .
A t a ll e v e n ts , a p p e a l t o th e c o u r t s a g a in s t a n y o r d e r o f
d e p o r t a t io n e v e n f o r re a so n s n o t c o n n e c te d w it h th e tr a d e o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n s h o u l d b e p e r m i s s i b l e . T h e q u e s t i o n is o n e o f a c h a n g e i n t h e
p r o c e d u r e o f t h e p o l i c e a g a i n s t a l ie n s o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f s t r ik e s , a
p r o c e d u r e w h ic h h a s b e e n p a r t ic u la r ly u n fa v o r a b le in th e ca se o f
Ita lia n w ork ers.
T h a t b a n is h m e n t in c a s e s o f s t r ik e s c a n p la y a c o n s id e r a b le p a r t
e v e n i n d e m o c r a t i c c o u n t r i e s is p r o v e d b y t h e d e p o r t a t i o n o f t h e
r in g le a d e r s in th e b i g s tr ik e in S o u t h A f r i c a in th e s u m m e r o f 1914.
T h e s e n in e la b o r le a d e r s w e r e d e p o r t e d t o E n g l a n d o n b o a r d t h e
s h i p TJngeni w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n a f t e r p r o c l a m a t i o n o f m a r t i a l l a w .
S e v e n o f t h e le a d e r s , o n th e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , s ig n e d a d e c la r a t io n ,
a n d in O c t o b e r , 1914, t h e y s a ile d h o m e .
T h e E n g lis h P a r lia m e n t
a d o p te d th e f o llo w in g m o tio n m u d e b y th e L a b o r P a r t y :
That in the opinion of this House the rights of British citizens as chartered
in the Magna Charta, the Petition of Right, and the Habeas Corpus Act, and
1 D as R echt der O rgan isation en im neuen D eu tsch lan d , Jen a, F isch er, 1 9 1 7 , vol. 2 , p. 5 2 .




20

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

which guarantee the personal liberty of the subject, are rights by which the
House wishes that all British subjects in the whole British Empire should
benefit.1

M o r e th a n t h is w o r d o f w a r n in g t o th e in d e p e n d e n t S o u t h A f r i c a n
P a r lia m e n t a n d G o v e r n m e n t c o u ld n o t b e a tte m p te d .
I n t r u t h , d e p o r t a t i o n is o n e o f t h e m a n y r e m n a n t s o f t h e t o w n
p o lic e sy ste m o f th e M id d le A g e s w h ic h h a s b e e n b e q u e a th e d t o th e
p o lic e r e g u la t io n s o f o u r d a y , a n d its a b o lit io n as a p u n is h m e n t f o r
p a r t ic ip a t io n in w a g e m o v e m e n ts is t o b e r e c o m m e n d e d .
“ B a n is h ­
m e n t h a s a lw a y s b e e n th e m o s t c h a r a c t e r is t ic p u n is h m e n t o f c it y la w .
S i n c e t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t h e 4h o m o i n u t i l i s v i l l a e , ’ t o u s e t h e e x p r e s ­
s io n so c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f c o n t e m p o r a r y d o c u m e n ts , h a s b e e n m e r c ile s s ly
t h r u s t o u t .” 2
A s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r r e m e d i a l l e g i s l a t i o n is e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e
m o d e r n in t e r n a t io n a l tr e a t ie s w h ic h p r o h i b it d e p o r t a t io n w it h o u t o b ­
s e r v a tio n o f th e le g a l f o r m a n d d u e n o t ific a t io n o f th e c o n s u ls a n d
d ip lo m a t ic r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s .
F r o m th e s u p p o s itio n o f e q u a l r ig h t s o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d c o m b in a ­
t io n f o r n a t iv e a n d a lie n w o r k e r s , e q u a lit y in th e te r m s o f th e la b o r
c o n t r a c t w o u ld n a t u r a lly fo l lo w , w e r e it n o t th a t e v e n th e n th e v e r y
d iff e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g o f a lie n a n d n a t iv e w o r k e r s m ig h t g iv e
r is e t o a d e m a n d f o r a lie n la b o r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e L e e d s r e s o lu t io n s g o
f u r t h e r a n d d e m a n d f o r n a t iv e a n d a lie n w o r k e r s a lik e t h e u s u a l
w a g e s o f th e lo c a lit y . T h e w a g e ra te s fix e d b y c o lle c t iv e a g re e m e n ts
o r , in th e a b se n c e o f s u ch , th e w a g e a w a r d s m a d e b y e q u ip a r t is a n
b o a r d s s h o u ld b e th e s t a n d a r d . T h e a lie n w o r k e r is t o h a v e e q u a l
r ig h t s — h e is t o b e n o s o c ia l p a r i a h ; b u t th e sa m e d u tie s a re a ls o
b in d in g o n h im as o n th e o th e r s — th e o b s e r v a n c e o f th e sa m e m in im u m
w a g e r a t e a p p l i e s t o h i m a ls o .
I t w o u ld b e a lo n g ste p in th e d ir e c t io n o f th e p r o t e c t io n o f th e
la b o r o f a n a tio n t o g iv e in te r n a tio n a l fo r c e t o th e p r in c ip le o f th e
m in im u m w a g e . T h e p o s s ib ilit y o f e n fo r c in g it w o u ld d e p e n d u p o n
tw o c o n d it io n s : T h a t c o lle c tiv e a g re e m e n ts m u st b e le g a lly b i n d i n g ;
th a t th e y ca n n o t b e c h a n g e d b y in d iv id u a l a g ree m en t. S w itz e rla n d
a n d th e N e t h e r la n d s b y t h e ir la w s -h a v e c o m p lie d w it h th e s e c o n d i ­
tio n s . I n th e G e r m a n E m p ir e t h e r e w a s la c k in g u n t il 1 9 1 6 a le g a l
b a s is f o r th e e n a c t m e n t ’o f a la w o n c o lle c t iv e w a g e a g r e e m e n t s ; it w a s
o n l y b y a d e c r e e o f t h e c o m m a n d i n g g e n e r a l o n D e c e m b e r 2 1 , 1 9 1 5 ,3
th a t w a g e a g re e m e n ts w e r e fo r b id d e n w h ic h d id n o t c o n fo r m t o th e
a g r e e m e n ts m a d e b y t h e c lo t h i n g b u r e a u a n d p im ila r a u t h o r it ie s .
1 R ep ort o f the F ifte e n th A n n u a l C onference o f th e L a bou r P a r ty , B ris to l, 1 9 1 6 , 1 V ic­
to ria Street, W e stm in s te r, L ondon, pp. 2 2 , 4 8 .
2 “ L e ban n issem en t a to u jo u rs 6t6 le c M t im e n t le p lu s cara ct6ristiqu e du d ro it urbain.
Dfcs le X l l m e sifccle le h om o in u tilis v illa e , pou r em ployer l ’exp ression si caractSristique
des docum en ts con tem porain s, est im p itoyablem en t exp u ls£.”
(H e n r i P ir e n n e : L es an ciennes D em ocraties des P a y s -B a s , P a ris, 1 9 1 7 , p. 6 5 .)
3 C ollective agreem ents h ave now been legalized in G erm any by an order o f the P rovi­
sion al G overn m ent o f Dec. 2 3 , 1 9 1 8 .— [E d .J




REGULATION OF RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

21

“ T h is im p o s s ib ilit y o f e v a d in g w a g e a g r e e m e n ts is t o b e lo o k e d u p o n
a s a d e liv e r a n c e .” 1
I f , th e r e fo r e , th e w a g e ra tes o f c o lle c t iv e a g re e m e n ts a re t o b o
m a d e t h e b a s is o f t h e w a g e s o f a lie n s (e . g ., in th e b u il d in g t r a d e ) ,
t h e ir e v a s io n m u s t b e m a d e im p o s s ib le b y in t e r n a t io n a l la w .2 I f n o
c o lle c t iv e a g r e e m e n t s e x is t, as in th e c a s e o f h o m e in d u s t r y o r o f
c e r ta in b r a n c h e s o f th e G e r m a n ir o n a n d stee l in d u s tr y , w a g e b o a r d s
w it h e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t io n o f e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e e s s h o u ld b e
a p p o in te d .
O f t h e w a g e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s e u n o r g a n i z e d c la s s e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y
o f h o m e w o r k e r s a ft e r th e w a r, th e fo r e m o s t G e r m a n e x p e rts s a y :
The large army contracts which give stability to the labor market will in a
short time after the war dwindle to their usual size and thereby lose their
stabilizing influence on the market as a whole; we shall see a motley working
force, divided against itself, and incapable of resistance, an excessive over­
supply of labor, and a critical condition in industry. This is characteristic
of the situation as it has already developed and as it is likely to develop
for some time to come. It goes without saying that in view of such a situa­
tion the call for State help is more imperative than ever. The complete
failure of the home workers’ law or at least the small extent to which it has
been enforced up to the present, gives a new impetus to this movement. Al­
though at present the movement is directed toward a strong and benevolent
enforcement of the legal provisions of the existing law, the final aim, which
for decades has been represented by experts in social reform of all tendencies
and of all countries—namely, the creation of equipartisan boards with au­
thority to fix legally binding wage rates—must not be forgotten. England,
France, America, and Norway have followed the example first set by Australia.
In Austria a similar Government bill is under consideration, and in Switzer­
land and Belgium the question is being very thoroughly discussed. Every­
where the same causes are calling for the same solution, which appears to be
the only way out of the labyrinth, the only possibility of bringing order and
stability out of chaos.
The German example of fixing legally binding wages for war workers fur­
nishes the first proof of its legal and technical possibility. The fear of the
social reformers lest the home workers in their weakness and ignorance should
allow the enforcement of this fine wage agreement to be illusory, has been
proved to be unfounded by the experiences of our arbitration boards. The
home workers protested against underpayment, although the legal provisions
could not immediately be made generally applicable and although the legally
binding character of collective wage agreements was a novelty which could
1 A n excellen t description is to be foun d in D ie H eim arb eit im K riege, by K&the Gaebel
and M . von Schulz, B erlin , V a h len , 1 9 1 7 , pp. 8 1 - 8 5 .
2 “ A ll th e peculiar ad van tag es said to belong to the m akin g o f collective agreem ents are
o f no a v a il if th ey are allow ed to be surrendered by in d ivid u al agreem ents.
W h oe ver
gives his w ord to a m a jo rity in th e in terest o f a ll its m em bers breaks it to them all i f he
m erely obtain s an in dividu al agreem ent w ith a single o n e ; the rights o f the la tte r ’ s com ­
rades, th e other receivers o f the prom ise, are in frin ged .
A n d if he h im self belongs to a
m a jo rity w hich h as agreed upon a m u tu a l a d ju stm e n t w ith the opposite p a rty , he breaks
his w ord also to his copartners if he on his p a rt v iolates the arra n gem en t m ade in com­
m on by m akin g a separate agreem ent. T h e labor con tract th a t is con trary to the collec­
tive agreem ent not on ly prejudices solid arity, bu t also opens the door to underbidding, to
cu ttin g o f prices, and to coercion o f the individu al, w hich the collective agreem ent h a d
prevented and w as intended to pre ven t.” — P h ilip p L o t m a r ; D er A rb eitsv ertra g , L eip zig,
1 9 0 2 , vol. 1, pp. 7 8 6 , 7 8 7 .




INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

22

not immediately penetrate the legal consciousness of employers and employees.
The numerous disputes that were brought before the arbitration boards for
settlement every week, the considerable sums in wages which were awarded
to home workers who had appealed to the boards, furnish proof of the fact
that the wages fixed by the military authorities exist in fact as well as on paper.
Although countless cases of underpayment—conscious and unconscious—occur,
the great mass of home workers are assured a decent income by the legal
binding character of the wages, together with a simple, purposeful system of
judicature.1

I f s u ch a d iffic u lt t a s k a s t h a t o f f i x i n g a m in im u m w a g e f o r h o m e
w o r k e r s c a n b e s o e a s ily s o lv e d , t h e s a m e r e s u lt m a y b e e x p e c t e d
f r o m th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e s a m e p r i n c i p l e t o a lie n la b o r w h ic h is
p r i n c i p a l l y e m p lo y e d in th e b u ild in g tr a d e s a n d la r g e in d u s tr ie s .
T h e p r o p o s a ls th a t w e r e m a d e in L e e d s r e s p e c tin g th e r ig h t o f
c o m b in a tio n h a v e b e e n o n ly s lig h t ly c h a n g e d in th e n e w p r o g r a m o f
B e r n . I n t h is la t t e r p r o g r a m is th e d e m a n d f o r p u n is h m e n t f o r p r e ­
v e n t in g th e e x e r c is e o f th e r ig h t o f c o m b in a tio n . T h e In t e r n a t io n a l
F e d e r a tio n o f L a b o r sa y s o f th e L e e d s d e m a n d s : “ T h e y c o r r e s p o n d
t o th e p r in c ip le s r e p r e s e n te d a t s e v e r a l o f o u r in te r n a t io n a l c o n f e r ­
e n ce s (C h r is t ia n ia , 1907, P a r is , 1909, a n d B u d a p e s t, 1 9 1 1 ), in o p p o ­
s it io n t o th e t r a d e -u n io n s o f in d iv id u a l c o u n t r ie s w h ic h m a d e th e
a d m is s io n t o t h e ir o r g a n iz a t io n s v e r y d iffic u lt o r q u it e im p o s s ib le f o r
th e im m ig r a n t w o r k e r .
I t is t h e r e fo r e g r a t i f y i n g t h a t th e r e p r e ­
s e n ta tiv e s o f th e E n g lis h t r a d e -u n io n s in L e e d s s h o u ld h a v e ta k e n
su ch a d e c id e d sta n d in f a v o r o f th e fr e e r ig h t o f c o m b in a tio n o f
im m ig r a n t s .”

2. CONTROL OP LABOR CONTRACTS OF MIGRATORY WORKERS.
I n r e c o g n it io n o f th e d is a d v a n t a g e s c o n n e c t e d w it h th e u n r e g u ­
la t e d m ig r a t io n o f w o r k e r s f o r th e c o u n t r ie s o f e m ig r a t io n a n d im m i­
g r a t i o n a lik e , th e p r o g r a m o f L e e d s , b e c a u s e o f t h e in v e s t ig a t io n s o f
th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o n U n e m p lo y m e n t ,2 h a s m a d e th e r e g u ­
la t io n o f t h e d e m a n d f o r a lie n la b o r f r o m c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y th e
b a s is o f its d e m a n d s . I t s d e m a n d s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
1. The establishment of special emigration and immigration commissions,
composed of Government, workers’, and employers’ representatives, for the
rendering of opinions with regard to the industrial need of migratory workers
and the working conditions set forth in the labor contracts.
2. Provisions for elementary instruction of colored workers at the expense
of their industrial employers.

T h e n e c e s s ity f o r r e g u la t in g e m ig r a t io n a n d im m ig r a t io n b y in t e r ­
n a t io n a l a c t io n w a s c le a r ly r e c o g n iz e d in th e la s t y e a r s b e f o r e t h e w a r.
1 G aebel un d von S c h u lz : D ie H eim arb eit im K rie ge, B erlin , 1 9 1 7 , pp. 1 7 6 - 1 7 8 .
3
B u lle tin trim estrie l de l ’ A sso eia tio n In tern a tio n a le pour la L u tte contre le ChOmage,
P a ris, 1 9 1 2 , N o. 4 , an d 1 9 1 3 , N o. 4.




REGULATION OF RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

23

E x h a u s t iv e in v e s tig a tio n s h a v e p r o v e d th a t th e fu n c t io n o f e m ig r a ­
t io n , n a m e ly , th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e b a la n c e in t h e in t e r n a t io n a l
la b o r m a rk e t b y s u p p ly in g th e d e m a n d f o r la b o r a b r o a d b y m ea n s
o f th e s u r p lu s o f u n e m p lo y e d la b o r a t h o m e , w a s n o lo n g e r b e in g
d is c h a r g e d .
E m ig r a t io n h a d r e a lly b e c o m e a m e a n s o f t h r o w in g
m asses o f u n tr a in e d w o r k e r s th a t w e re lo n g in g f o r b e tte r w a g e s in
c o u n t r ie s w h e r e th e la n d h a d e ith e r b e e n d iv id e d in t o v e r y s m a ll
p a rc e ls o r w a s in th e h in d s o f a fe w la r g e la n d e d p r o p r ie t o r s o n
th e la b o r m a r k e t o f th e la r g e m a n u fa c t u r in g c it ie s o f A m e r ic a in
n u m b e r s f a r b e y o n d t h e ir r e q u ir e m e n ts , w it h th e r e s u lt o f in c r e a s in g
t h e g a in s o f la b o r a g e n ts a n d o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n c o m p a n ie s , a n d o f
lo w e r in g th e g e n e r a l w a g e le v e l in th e la n d t o w h ic h th e im m ig r a t io n
t o o k p la c e .1
T h e s e fa c t s , w h ic h h a v e b e e n c o r r o b o r a t e d b y s ta tis tic s , e x p la in
th e c h a n g e s in th e a t t it u d e t o w a r d im m ig r a t io n w h ic h fin d e x p r e s ­
s io n in th e f o l l o w i n g c h r o n o lo g ic a l ta b le . I t g iv e s th e m o s t im p o r ­
ta n t d a ta o f th e im m ig r a t io n p o lic y o f th e U n it e d S ta te s a n d th e
B r it is h C o lo n ie s .
1864.—In order to supply a remedy for the prevailing dearth of labor after the
Civil War, a law is passed establishing the right to sue and the validity of the
labor agreements made with emigrants in Europe. The trade-unions agitate
against the encouragement of the importation of such contract labor by the
shipping companies, and bring about the abrogation of the law. (Consular and
diplomatic act, Mar. 4, 1868.)
1868, July 28*—Burlingame agreement: The Chinese are granted the right of
voluntary immigration and settlement (not of naturalization).
1876, March 20.—The Supreme Court of the United States declares the immi­
gration laws of the individual States to be unconstitutional.
1880, N o v e m b e r 17.—Agreement with China, which grants to the United States
the right of temporarily restricting the immigration of Chinese labor.
1882, August 3.—First immigration law of the United States. Introduction of
a head tax of 50 cents on every immigrant. Exclusion of criminals and insane
persons. The law of March 3, 1891, adds bigamists and persons suffering from
an infectious disease, and appoints a superintendent of immigration—after
March 2, 1895, a Commissioner General.
1882, May 6.—Law concerning the prohibition of Chinese immigration for 10
years (reenacted and amended, July 4, 1884, Sept. 13, 1888, May 5, 1892, Nov.
3, 1893; treaty of Apr. 17, 1894; law of Apr. 29, 1902, Apr. 27, 1904, Feb. 5,
1917.)
1885, February 26 (amended Feb. 23, 1887, and Oct. 19, 1888).—The contract
labor law forbids the immigration societies to subsidize contract labor. This
law is being evaded.
Since 1890 the national and economic character of immigration has com­
pletely changed. Until then it was chiefly German, Irish, English, Scandi­
navian, and from then on South Italian, Russian, Polish, Jewish, Slovak,
Croatian, Hungarian, and Grecian.
1
T h e in v estig a tio n s
average w eekly w age o f
m igran ts.
See also W .
contre le C hSm age, 1 9 1 3 ,




o f the Im m ig ra tio n C om m ission fo r the period 1 9 0 7 -1 9 1 1 show an
$ 1 4 .3 7 for n a tive (w h ite) w orkers, as opposed to $ 1 1 .9 2 for im ­
O ualid, in B u lle tin trim estrie l de 1’A sso cia tio n pour la L u tte
v o l. 3, N o. 4 , p. 5 0 3 .

24

INTERNATIONAL, LABOR LEGISLATION.

1892.—Senator H. C. Lodge brings up a proposal in Congress to exclude the
illiterate from entering the country; this proposal is rejected.
1894.—Organization of the Immigration Restriction League in Boston to en­
force the exclusion of illiterates from the country. This principle was first
realized in the immigration laws of Natal in 1897; West Australia, 1897; New
South Wales, 1898; New Zealand, 1899; the Australian Federation, 1901;
Cape Colony, 1902; British Columbia, 1905; 1913 in the whole South African
Union.
1897, March 2.-—
Immigration bill with illiteracy clause vetoed by President
Grover Cleveland.
1907.—Japan agrees with the United States to refuse emigration passports to
Japanese workmen (gentlemen’s agreement).
1907, February 20.—The new American immigration law extends the prohibi­
tion of the immigration of contract labor beyond the sphere of unskilled labor.
The head tax is increased to $4. The literacy test is rejected. Appointment
of the Immigration Commission which is intrusted with investigations.
1911.—Publication of the Reports of the Immigration Commission, 42 volumes.
The commission proposes the introduction of the literacy test.
1911, August 7.—The chairman of the Immigration Commission, Senator Dil­
lingham, moves in the Senate the introduction of the literacy test.
1912, April 19.—Adoption of the Dillingham-Burnett bill.
1913, Eebruary 14.—Literacy test vetoed by President Taft.
1915, January 28.—Literacy test vetoed by President Wilson.
1917, January 29.—Literacy test again vetoed by President Wilson.
1917, February 5.—The Senate passes the law over the veto of the President:
Every immigrant must be able to read oije language. From this test only
young persons under 16 and certain near relatives of the immigrant are exempt.
The head tax is raised to $8.1

B e s id e s c e r t a in im m ig r a n t s th a t a r e e x c lu d e d o n p e r s o n a l g r o u n d s
(p a u p e r s , a n a r c h is t s , p o ly g a m is t s , c h r o n ic d r u n k a r d s , p r o s t it u t e s ,
p e r s o n s o f “ c o n s t it u t io n a l p s y c h o p a t h ic in f e r i o r it y ,” e t c .) , th e f o l ­
l o w i n g t h r e e c la s s e s o f i m m i g r a n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s :
1. O r i e n t a l s ; 2 . C o n t r a c t w o r k e r s ; 3 . T h o s e u n a b l e t o r e a d .
T h i s la s t
c la s s i n c l u d e s m o s t l y s o u t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n E u r o p e a n s .
T h e e x c lu s io n o f th e e a s te rn A s ia t ic w a s d e te r m in e d in 1917 a c ­
c o r d in g to g e o g r a p h ic zon es.
I n th e s u g a r -c a n e is la n d s ( H a w a i i ) ,
h e h a s c r o w d e d o u t th e w h it e w o r k e r .2 T h e e x c lu s io n o f c o n t r a c t
la b o r assu m es n o p a r tic u la r im p o r ta n c e i f w e r e m e m b e r th a t fr o m
J u l y 1 , 1 9 1 3 , t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 1 4 , n o t f e w e r t h a n 2 2 6 ,4 0 7 l a b o r e r s a n d
1 7 3 ,2 0 8 s k i l l e d w o r k e r s e n t e r e d t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,
a n d t h a t o n l y 2 ,7 9 3 i m m i g r a n t s o f a t o t a l o f 3 3 ,0 4 1 e x c l u d e d w e r e
c o n t r a c t w o r k e r s .3
I t is d iffe r e n t w it h th e illite r a t e . I n th e U n it e d S ta te s in 1910 n o t
f e w e r t h a n 5 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 i l l i t e r a t e p e r s o n s c o u l d b e c o u n t e d a m o n g
1 “ Im m ig ratio n

legislation effected,”

by

Sam uel G om pers, in A m e ric a n F e d eration ist,

M arch , 1 9 1 7 , p. 1 89.
2 T . W . G lo c k e r : T h e G overn m en t o f A m erican T rad e-U n ion s, Joh n s H opk in s U n iv er­
sity Stu dies, Ser. 3 1 , B a ltim o re, 1 9 1 3 , p. 8 3 ; and A m e ric a n F e d era tio n ist, Decem ber, 1 9 0 3 ,
p. 1 2 6 9 .
3 C om m ission er G eneral o f Im m ig ra tio n , A n n u a l R eport, 1 9 1 4 , pp. 4 0 , 4 1 , and A n n u a l
R ep ort, 1 9 1 6 , p. 8 4 ; C om m ons and A n d r e w s : Prin ciples o f Labor L e gislation , N ew Y o rk ,

p. 73.




REGULATION OE RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

25

p e rs o n s m o r e th a n 10 y e a r s o ld .
O f t h e s e 2 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 w e r e N e g r o e s ,
1 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0 w h i t e s b o r n a b r o a d , a n d 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 w h i t e s b o r n i n t h e c o u n ­
try .
T h e y e a r ly in flu x o f illit e r a t e s f r o m f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s n u m ­
b e r e d o n a n a v e r a g e f r o m 1 9 1 0 t o 1 9 1 4 , 6 0 ,0 0 0 i n r o u n d n u m b e r s .
T h e e x c lu s io n o f su ch p e r s o n s a ffe c te d m o s tly th e s o u th e r n I t a lia n s
( 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 4 , 1 9 4 ,0 0 0 e a c h y e a r ) , P o l e s ( 1 1 6 ,0 0 0 y e a r l y ) , a n d J e w s
( 9 9 ,0 0 0 y e a r l y ) . 1 A d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e e x c l u s i o n o f s u c h a
la r g e n u m b e r o f im m ig r a n ts w a s th e p r o p h e c y as to p o s t w a r c o n d i­
tio n s o f th e A m e r ic a n F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r . T h e la tte r d e c la r e d in
N o v e m b e r, 1914, th a t it w a s e a sy t o fo r e s e e th a t a ft e r th e w a r a
g r e a t e x o d u s f r o m E u r o p e w o u ld set in , f o r e v e r y o n e w o u ld c li n g
t o th e b e lie f in a r e p e titio n o f s u ch w a rs . T h e E u r o p e a n G o v e r n ­
m e n ts w o u ld p r o h ib it th e e m ig r a t io n o f h e a lt h y p e r s o n s a b le t o
w o r k , a n d w o u ld set a ll th e le v e rs in m o tio n in o r d e r to g e t r id o f
t h e fin a n c ia l d e a d w e ig h t o f th o s e n e e d in g r e li e f a n d o f th e w a r
c r ip p le s b y a llo w in g th e m t o e m ig r a t e t o A m e r ic a .
T o p rev en t
t h is in flu x , th e lit e r a c y te s t w a s r e c o m m e n d e d .2 T h e A m e r ic a n
F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r r e p o r t s t h a t its a c t iv it y in t h e le g is la t iv e fie ld
h a s b e e n o p p o s e d b y th e m o s t stre n u o u s e ffo r t o n th e p a r t o f th e
s h ip p in g c o m p a n ie s , th e r a ilw a y s , th e m in in g c o m p a n ie s , th e U n it e d
S ta te s S te e l C o r p o r a t io n , a n d o th e r tru s ts a n d c o r p o r a t io n s .3
By
m e a n s o f th e lite r a c y te st e m ig r a t io n h a s b e e n r e n d e r e d m u c h m o r e
d i f f i c u l t f r o m s o u t h e r n I t a l y a n d t h e S l a v c o u n t r i e s , i. e ., f r o m c o u n ­
tr ie s w h o s e in d u s t r ia l d e v e lo p m e n t h a s la g g e d f a r b e h in d t h a t o f G e r ­
m a n y , E n g l a n d , a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d w h o s e b i r t h r a t e is
g r e a tly in a d v a n ce o f th a t o f th e w e st o f E u r o p e a n d o f A m e r ic a .
F o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h i s c la s s o f i m m i g r a n t s
h a s b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e d if f ic u l t .
D iffe r e n c e s in la n g u a g e a n d
w a y s o f l i v i n g m a k e m o r e d i f f i c u l t t h e s c h o o l ’s t a s k o f m a k i n g
c it iz e n s o f t h e m ; t h e d is a p p e a r a n c e o f th e a v a ila b le fr e e la n d ca u se s
th e s e fo r e ig n e r s in tim e s o f c r is is t o n e e d r e l i e f ; t h e y a re lo o k e d
u p o n as a f o r e i g n e le m e n t b y t h e l a b o r o r g a n iz a t io n s , a n d th e m u n ic i­
p a l a d m in is t r a t io n s . O f t h e I t a l i a n e m ig r a n t s in N e w Y o r k , V i l l a r i
w r ite s in 1 9 0 7 :
The majority of the immigrants live in misery; they take the hardest and
meanest work for 6 or 7 lire [$1.16 or $1.35] a day, which is hardly enough to
pay for their living. But, in order to send money home, they submit to the
greatest privations, including the poorest kind of food and the worst lodging;
for the most part, they live three or four in a room which is often so dark
that they have to burn gas all day. * * * Some of them buy and sell rags,
peddle in the streets and hotels, work in the sewers, dig ditches, make shafts.
1 C alculated from th e S ta tistic a l A b stra ct of the U n ited S tates fo r 1 9 1 5 , W a s h in g to n ,
1 9 1 6 , pp. 8 1 , 82.
2 R eport o f th e Proceedings o f the T h irty -fo u rth A n n u a l C onven tion o f the A m e rican
Federation o f L abor, held a t P h ilad elph ia, N ov. 9 to 2 1 , 1 9 1 4 , p. 3 6 3 .
* Idem , pp. 8 4 , 8 5 .




26

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

Thus the health level quickly sinks in the Italian quarter of New York, and
anaemia, nephritis, lung diseases, and above all, tuberculosis, decimate the
population.1

W h ile N o r t h A m e r ic a , A f r ic a , A u s tr a lia , a n d N e w Z e a la n d th u s
s h u t th e m s e lv e s o ff , th e S o u t h A m e r ic a n S ta te s , e s p e c ia lly B r a z i l ,
h a v e s o u g h t t o e n t ic e I t a l i a n e m ig r a n t s t o t h e ir s h o r e s b y p a y i n g
t h e ir p a s s a g e . B u t t h e fa ilu r e t o fu r n is h p r o t e c t io n a t tim e s p e r ­
m it t e d th e I t a lia n a g r ic u lt u r a l w o r k e r s t o s u ffe r h a r d s h ip s , le a d in g
t o p r o h ib it io n s o f e m ig r a tio n o n th e p a r t o f I t a l y (fir s t in 1 9 0 2 ).
T h e w a r h a s m a d e t h is s it u a t io n m o r e s e r io u s . T h e e m ig r a t io n t o
th e U n it e d S ta te s in 1916 w a s o n ly o n e -t h ir d o f w h a t it w a s in 1 9 1 3 ;
in A r g e n t in e t h e n u m b e r o f e m ig r a n ts e x c e e d e d t h a t o f th e im m i­
g ra n ts. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e im p o r ta tio n o f A fr ic a n a n d A s ia t ic
w o r k e r s in t o E u r o p e , e s p e c ia lly in t o F r a n c e , t o fill g a p s m a d e b y th e
w a r p r o v e d t o b e n e c e s s a r y ; 3 5 ,0 0 0 A l g e r i a n , T u n i s i a n , a n d M o r o c c a n
w o r k e r s , m o r e t h a n 2 0 ,0 0 0 A n n a m i t e s , a n d s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s o f
M a l a g a s i e s , S e n e g a l e s e , a n d K a n a k a s m a d e u p t h i s g r o u p i n 1 9 1 7 .2
I t is a q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a f t e r t h e w a r e m i g r a t i o n w i l l b e a b a n ­
d o n e d t o t h e t e n d e r m e r c ie s o f t h e s h ip p in g a n d e m ig r a t io n a g e n t s
o n th e o n e h a n d , a n d t o t h e p o l i c y o f a b s o lu t e r e s t r ic t io n o n t h e
o t h e r , o r w h e t h e r it w il l b e p la c e d u n d e r in t e r n a t io n a l r e g u la t io n .
S u c h a r e g u la t io n h a s as its o b je c t th e r e c ip r o c a l d e te r m in a tio n o f
th e n e e d o f im m ig r a n ts , t h e ir d is tr ib u tio n , th e p r o t e c t io n o f th e
tr a v e le r s fr o m th e p o r t o f e m b a r k a tio n t o th a t o f t h e ir d e s tin a tio n ,
a n d th e ir p r o te c tio n in th e fo r e ig n c o u n tr y . A t p re s e n t su ch r e g u la ­
tio n s a re fr a g m e n t a r y . T h u s S p a in , b y th e e m ig r a t io n la w o f 1907,
h a s c r e a te d a s p e c ia l e m ig r a t io n b u r e a u , s p e c ia l e m ig r a t io n c o m ­
m itte e s in t h e p o r t s , e tc.
D e n m a r k in 1908 p a s s e d a la w f o r th e
p r o t e c t io n o f th e a g r ic u ltu r a l m ig r a t o r y w o r k e r s (m o s t ly P o le s ,
R u s s ia n s , a n d S w e d e s ) w h ic h m a k e s th e e m p lo y e r r e s p o n s ib le f o r
r e p o r t in g th e p re s e n ce o f th ese w o r k e r s fo u r d a y s a ft e r th e ir a r r iv a l,
a n d w h ic h e n u m e ra te s th e w o r k in g c o n d itio n s t o b e r e g u la te d b y
1 V i l l a r i : L ’em igrazion e e le sue conseguenze in I ta lia , N u ova an to log ia , R om e, Jan . 1,
1 9 0 7 ; G. V a le n t in i-P e r s in i: P rotezione e legislazione in tern azion ale del la v a ro , 1 9 0 9 -1 0 ,
p. 1 5 0 .
A s to the effect o f southern Ita lia n em igration on the increase in school a tten d ­
ance in southern Ita ly , see D el l ’em igrazione Ita lia n a , p. 2 5 8 , by F r . C o lletti, in C in quan ta
A n n i di S to ria I ta lia n a , v o l. 3, M ila n , 1 9 1 1 . T h e harm done to Eu ropean w orkers by the
A m e rican im m igration la w o f 1 9 1 7 is a t present very m uch exaggerated . T h e 5 0 ,0 0 0 illit ­
erate E u ropean w orkers th a t are excluded (m o stly L e tts , southern Ita lia n s , R u th en ia n s)
can be absorbed by the cou ntries depopulated by the w ar, or th eir num bers m ay be very
m uch reduced in a few yea rs by school attendance. B oth these th in g s w ill be good fo r the
country o f the em igran t its e lf. T h e in tern ation al requirem ent o f in stru ction for w orkers
w ould indirectly h ave a w holesom e effect upon the developm ent o f elem entary education.
A m o n g the opponents are to be m entioned G. P rato : L e P rotectio n n ism e ouvrier, 1 9 1 2 ;
M au rice D e w a w r in : L a L e g isla tio n am ^ricaine sur l’ im m igration , in Q uestions D ip lom atiques et colon iales, M ar. 1—10, 1 9 1 2 , and L a nouvelle loi am gricaine sur l ’im m igration
(B u rn e tt B i l l ) , in R evue politique et parlem entaire, M a r. 10, 1 9 1 8 , p. 3 2 3 ; G . B . N ic o la :
L ’ em igrazione degli a n a lfa b eti et l ’an im a am erican a, R iv is ta In tern azion ale, M ar. 31, 1 9 1 7 . ;
2 Senator Lu cien L u m b e r t : L e sa lu t par les colonies, in L e P a rle m en t et l ’O pinion, S ep t., |
1 9 1 7 , p. 9 7 6 .




REGULATION OF RIGHT OF COMBINATION.

27

th e la b o r c o n tr a c t (w a g e s , h o u rs o f la b o r , re st d a y s , tr a v e lin g e x ­
p e n s e s , e t c ., p r o h i b i t i o n o f d e d u c t i o n s ) , a n d a l s o a f f o r d s r e d r e s s
a g a i n s t p o o r h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t is t o b e e x p e c t e d t h a t w i t h o u t
su ch p r o t e c t iv e m e a su re s th e m ig r a t o r y w o r k e r s w o u ld fa r e ill, b e in g
l e f t e n t i r e l y t o t h e t e n d e r m e r c i e s o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s .1
I n A u g u s t , 1917, th e r e se e m e d t o e x is t a n in t e n t io n , c a u s e d b y th e
r e n e w a l o f th e F r a n c o -I t a lia n la b o r p r o t e c t io n a g re e m e n t o f 1904,
to r e g u la t e th e c o n d it io n s o f im m ig r a t io n a n d e m ig r a t io n . T h e p a r ­
lia m e n ta r y c o n fe r e n c e o f th e E n te n te in J u n e , 1917, p r o p o s e d th e r e ­
f o r e t h a t a s u p e r io r e m ig r a t io n c o m m is s io n b e e s t a b lis h e d in t h e
F r e n c h L a b o r M in is t r y , w it h e q u a l r e p r e s e n ta tio n o f w o r k e r s ’ a n d
e m p lo y e r s ’ a s s o c ia tio n s , w h ic h w a s t o i n f o r m th e I t a lia n a g r ic u l­
tu r a l e m ig r a tio n c o m m is s io n fr o m tim e t o tim e o f th e d e m a n d f o r
la b o r in F r a n c e . A t th e sa m e tim e , a d e p u t y f o r I t a lia n e m ig r a t io n
w a s a p p o in t e d t o th e F r e n c h L a b o r M in is t r y a n d a d e p u t y f o r
F r e n c h e m ig r a tio n t o th e I t a lia n m in is t r y ; in th e la b o r c o n tr a c ts
th e w a g e s o f th e I t a lia n a g r ic u ltu r a l la b o r e r s w e r e t o b e in n o ca se
lo w e r th a n th e c u s t o m a r y w a g e s p a id in th e p la c e o f t h e ir e m p lo y ­
m e n t .2
L e t u s n o w c o n s id e r th e L e e d s r e s o lu t io n s in th e lig h t o f t h is
d e v e lo p m e n t . T h e y p r e s u p p o s e in t h e fir s t p la c e th e d e t e r m in a t io n
o f th e d e m a n d f o r im m ig r a n t s , a n d t h is c a n o n ly b e d o n e i f th e
t o t a l d e m a n d is d e t e r m i n e d — i. e ., b y t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e m ­
p lo y m e n t b u re a u s.
P r e lim in a r y w o r k f o r s u ch c e n tr a liz a tio n h a s
b ee n a c c o m p lis h e d t o a c e r ta in e x te n t d u r in g th e w a r.
N e x t, th e
r e s o lu t io n s r e c o m m e n d th e c o n t r o l o f th e e x te n t a n d o f th e c o n d i ­
t io n s o f th e r e c r u it in g o f e m ig r a n t la b o r b y m e a n s o f c o m m is s io n s
s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p r o p o s e d i n I t a l y a n d F r a n c e . T h e r e is a f u r t h e r
d e m a n d t h a t th e r e c r u it in g o f e m ig r a n t la b o r b e p la c e d u n d e r th e
c o n t r o l o f t h e l a b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e e m i g r a n t ’s c o u n t r y , a n d
th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e la b o r c o n tr a c ts u n d e r th a t o f th e la b o r u n io n s
o f th e c o u n t r y r e c e iv in g th e im m ig r a n t s . T h is la s t d e m a n d is p r o b ­
a b ly t o b e u n d e r s t o o d as m e a n in g t h a t th e la b o r o r g a n iz a t io n s s h a ll
p a r t ic ip a t e in th e c o n t r o l. C o lo r e d w o r k e r s a r e t o b e s u b je c t t o th e
sa m e c o n d i t io n s ; a ls o th e a b o lit io n o f th e lit e r a c y test w ill b e a im e d
a t b y r e q u ir in g in d u s tr ia l e m p lo y e rs to p r o v id e a t th e ir o w n c o s t
e le m e n ta r y in s tr u c tio n in th e la n g u a g e o f th e c o u n t r y f o r im m ig r a n t
la b o r e rs .
T h e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r o n th e
i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r ( s e c . 1— f r e e d o m o f
m ig r a t io n ) d o n o t g o so f a r in th e ir d e m a n d s w it h r e g a r d to th e a b o li­
1 A s to the situ ation o f Slavic and H u n g arian laborers, see F. Ferenczi, in B u lle tin de
l ’A sso cia tio n In tern a tio n a le pour la L u tte contre le ChCmage, 1 9 1 2 , p. 7 0 7 .
2 Society U m a n ita ria , Ufficio d ell’ E m igrazione.
C orrispon denza settim a n a le Ju ly 2 5 ,
1 9 1 7 , N o. 2 1 6 .




28

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

t io n o f a b s o lu t e r e s t r ic t io n o f im m ig r a t io n a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a t io n o f
la b o r u n io n s in th e c o n t r o l o f th e w o r k in g c o n d it io n s o f im m ig r a n ts .
T h e y t r y to m eet p a r t w a y th e d e m a n d o f A m e r ic a n la b o r th a t
im m ig r a n t s m u s t c o m p ly w it h c e r t a in m in im u m e d u c a t io n a l r e q u ir e ­
m e n ts , a n d in s is t in th e sa m e w a y u p o n th e p r o h ib it io n o f th e r e c r u it ­
in g o f co n tra ct w ork ers a b roa d .
T h e y th e re b y c o n tin u e th e ir a d ­
h e r e n c e t o th e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e in t e r n a t io n a l t r a d e - u n io n c o n fe r e n c e s
o f C h ris tia n ia (1 9 0 7 ), a n d B u d a p e s t (1 9 1 1 ).
I n o p p o s it io n t o th e p r in c ip le la id d o w n b y th e c o n fe r e n c e o f
L e e d s o f s u b m it t in g th e e m p lo y m e n t o f e m ig r a n t s t o t h e c o n t r o l o f
th e la b o r o r g a n iz a t io n s o f th e e m ig r a n t s ’ c o u n t r y , a n d th e e n f o r c e ­
m e n t o f th e la b o r c o n tr a c ts to th e c o n t r o l o f th e la b o r o r g a n iz a tio n s
o f th e c o u n t r y o f im m ig r a t io n , th e I n t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f L a ­
b o r m a in t a in s t h a t s o f a r t h e t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n is n o w h e r e
s t r o n g e n o u g h , e x c e p t p e r h a p s in D e n m a r k , t o m a k e it p r a c t ic a b le
t o r e q u ir e t h a t im m ig r a n t la b o r b e e m p lo y e d u n d e r t h e w a g e a n d
w o r k in g c o n d it io n s r e q u ir e d b y c o lle c t iv e a g r e e m e n ts in f o r c e in th e
c o u n t r y o f im m ig r a t io n .
I t is a ls o h in d e r e d b y d iv is i o n w it h in th e
t r a d e - u n io n m o v e m e n t in m a n y c o u n t r ie s .
T h e r e g u la t io n o f th e e m ­
p lo y m e n t o f im m ig r a n t la b o r o n th e b a s is r e c o m m e n d e d a t L e e d s p r e ­
s u p p o s e s , h o w e v e r , a c e n t r a liz e d t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n c o m p r is ­
i n g th e g r e a t m a jo r i t y o f t h e n a t iv e w o r k e r s . S o l o n g a s t h is d o e s
n o t e x i s t , i t i s u s e le s s t o m a k e d e m a n d s , t o b e r a t i f i e d i n t h e p e a c e
a g re e m e n t, w h ic h , w e r e th e y g r a n te d , c o u ld n o t b e c a r r ie d o u t t o th e
a d v a n t a g e o f t h e w o r k e r s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t s u ffic ie n tly w e ll
O r g a n iz e d .
T h e a p p lic a tio n o £ th e sam e p r in c ip le s to th e im p o r ta tio n o f c o l­
o r e d w o r k e r s is im p o s s ib le , b e c a u s e th e s e la t t e r h a v e n o o r g a n iz a t io n s
in t h e ir o w n c o u n tr y .
H e n c e it f o l l o w s t h a t s p e c ia l o r g a n iz a t io n s r e p r e s e n t in g th e a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f ic ia ls a s w e l l a s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f l a b o r p r o t e c t i o n m u s t
b e in tr u s te d w it h th e r e g u la t io n o f e m ig r a t io n f r o m E u r o p e .
The
s p e c ia l o r g a n iz a t io n o f a n e m p lo y m e n t s e r v ic e , th e c o n c lu s io n o f la b o r
c o n t r a c t s , a n d w o r k m e n ’s in s u r a n c e f o r e m ig r a n t s w e r e s u b je c t s , b e ­
f o r e th e w a r , o f jo i n t d e lib e r a tio n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n
f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n , th e In t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o n U n e m p lo y ­
m e n t, a n d th e P e r m a n e n t I n t e r n a t io n a l C o m m itte e o n S o c ia l I n ­
s u ra n c e . I t is t o b e h o p e d t h a t t h e r e s u m p t io n o f th e s e d e lib e r a t io n s
w il l c a u s e a s p e e d y r e g u la t io n o f la b o r m a r k e t s ta tis tic s , o f th e l im i ­
ta t io n o f c o n t r a c t la b o r , a n d o f in te r n a tio n a l c o n t r o l o f m ig r a tio n .




CHAPTER III.
INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

1. ACCIDENT INSURANCE.
T h e in c r e a s e d r is k o f a c c id e n t t o w h ic h th e w a g e w o r k e r in in d u s ­
t r y a n d t r a n s p o r t a t io n is e x p o s e d h a s d u r in g t h e la s t g e n e r a t io n
c o n s id e r a b ly in c re a s e d th e im p o r t a n c e o f a c c id e n t p r e v e n tio n a n d
a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e in th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e n a tio n a l w o r k in g
f o r c e . T h i s is e v id e n t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t a t p r e s e n t in 82 S ta te s o f
th e w o r ld th e r e a re in f o r c e s p e c ia l la w s f o r th e r e g u la t io n o f c la im s
f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o n th e p a r t o f w o r k e r s w h o h a v e m e t w it h a c c i­
d e n ts , w h ile b e fo r e 19 0 0 su ch p r o v is io n s h a d b e e n m a d e in o n ly 9
S ta te s . A t th e sa m e tim e , a v e r y g r e a t d iv e r s it y in th e n a tu r e a n d t h e
e x te n t o f th e c o m p e n s a t io n h a s d e v e lo p e d f r o m c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y .
T h i s d is s im ila r it y le a d s t o v a r ia t io n s in th e c o s ts o f a c c id e n t in s u r ­
a n ce w h ic h a re a d d e d t o th e fix e d c o s t o f in d u s tr y in e a ch c o u n tr y .
T h e y d iffe r to a g r e a t e x te n t e v e n in th e s e p a r a te S ta te s o f th e A m e r i­
c a n U n io n .
H e r e , t o o , th e a m o u n t o f th e a c c id e n t c o m p e n s a t io n
v a r ie s . T h u s , o t h e r c ir c u m s t a n c e s b e i n g t h e s a m e , t h e c o m p e n s a t io n
i n c a s e o f d e a t h i n t h e S t a t e o f N e w Y o r k i s $ 1 1 ,2 0 5 .2 2 , i n O r e g o n
$ 1 3 ,4 8 0 .9 2 , i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s $ 4 ,0 0 0 , a n d i n P e n n s y l v a n i a $ 2 ,5 7 5 , w h i l e
in O k la h o m a th e s u r v iv o r s r e c e iv e n o t h in g .1 D iffe r e n c e s s im ila r t o
th o s e th a t a ffe ct th e t w e n t y -e ig h t o d d m illio n s o f w a g e w o r k e r s in
th e U n it e d S ta te s a re o b s e r v a b le a m o n g th e e ig h t y -t w o o d d m illio n s
o f w a g e w o r k e r s in th e d iffe r e n t c o u n t r ie s o f E u r o p e .
In gen eral
th e d iffe r e n c e s a r e s y m p t o m a t ic o f th e d e g r e e o f in d u s t r ia liz a t io n , o f
t h e m o r e o r le s s p o w e r f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r i v a t e i n s u r a n c e b u s i ­
n ess, a n d o f th e s o c ia l p u ls e o f le g is la t io n a n d a d m in is t r a t io n .
T h e sy ste m s w h ic h p r o v id e f o r a c c id e n t lia b ilit y a re th a t o f th e
R o m a n la w , th e o ld e s t, a n d th a t o f th e c o m m o n la w — th e e m p lo y e r
b e i n g l i a b l e t o p a y c o m p e n s a t i o n o n l y f o r a c c i d e n t s f o r w h i c h h e is t o
b l a m e a n d f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r d a n g e r s k n o w n t o h im .
T h e w ork er,
t h e r e f o r e , w h o m e e ts w it h a n a c c id e n t o r h is s u r v iv o r s m u s t b r i n g
1
W ork m e n ’ s C om pensation L a w s o f th e U n ited S ta te s an d F oreign C ountries, B u lle tin
N o. 2 0 3 o f th e U . S. B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistic s, W a s h in g to n , 1 9 1 7 , pp. 1 2 5 - 1 2 7 .
[T h e
table from w h ich these figures w ere taken undertook to show , am on g oth er th in gs, the
possib le m axim u m benefits accru in g under specified u n iform con ditions, an d i t is in
no w ise an accu rate sh o w in g o f the average d eath benefits fo r the S ta tes nam ed.
O kla­
h o m a should n o t be m ention ed in th is connection, since fa ta l accid ents are n o t covered
6y it s com p ensation la w .— E d .]




30

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

s u it a n d p r o v e t h e f a u l t c o n t e s t e d b y t h e e m p l o y e r ; t h e l a t t e r is n o t
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r d i n a r y o c c u p a t i o n a l r is k s .
B y th e E n g lis h a n d
A m e r ic a n c o u r ts th e n e g lig e n c e o f th e fe llo w w o r k e r o r th e fo r e m a n
o f t h e i n j u r e d w o r k e r is n o t l o o k e d u p o n a s a n i n d i r e c t f a u l t o n t h e
p a r t o f th e e m p lo y e r (fe llo w -s e r v a n t r u le ).
T h e in ju r e d w o r k e r
l o s e s h is r i g h t o f a c t i o n b y t h e s l i g h t e s t c o n t r i b u t o r y n e g l i g e n c e ,
e s p e c i a l l y b y c o n t i n u i n g t o w o r k i n a d a n g e r o u s e s t a b li s h m e n t .
F i n a ll y , th e w o r k e r m a y c o n t r a c t u a lly o r t a c it ly a ssu m e th e s p e c ific
r is k s c o n n e c t e d w it h h is o c c u p a t io n (a s s u m p t io n o f r i s k ) .
T hese
n e w e x c e p t io n s h a v e c h a n g e d th e le g a l sta tu s o f la b o r f o r th e w o r se .
T h is sy stem h a s d ie d o u t in E u r o p e .
I t has been su perseded b y
t w o o t h e r s y s te m s w it h n u m e r o u s v a r ia t io n s — c o m p e n s a t io n a n d in ­
s u r a n c e . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t is s t i l l i n f o r c e i n 1 7 s e p a r a t e S t a t e s
(a m o n g th e m 10 S o u th e r n S ta te s, m o s t ly a g r ic u lt u r a l) , c o n t a in in g
a b o u t a q u a r te r o f th e a c tiv e ly e m p lo y e d in d u s tr ia l p o p u la t io n o f th e
U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e c o m m o n - l a w s y s t e m s t i l l p r e y a i ls i n C e n t r a l a n d
S o u t h A m e r ic a , e x c e p t in A r g e n t in a , C o lo m b ia , C u b a , N u e v o L e o n
( M e x i c o ) , P e r u , S a n S a lv a d o r , a n d th e m in in g d is t r ic t s o f V e n e z u e la .
U n d e r th e s y s te m o f c o m p e n s a t io n , th e e m p lo y e r , a s e n t r e p r e n e u r
o f a d a n g e r o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t a l o n e w h e n h e is p e r ­
s o n a lly c u lp a b le , a ssu m e s th e o b lig a t io n o f p a y i n g c o m p e n s a t io n f o r
p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s r e c e i v e d i n h i s s e r v i c e . H e is n o w a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r a c c id e n ta l in ju r ie s b u t n o t f o r th o s e p u r p o s e ly o c c a s io n e d b y th e
w orker.
T h u s th e e x c e p tio n s o f th e c o m m o n la w to th e lia b ilit y
f o r d a m a g e s o f th e n e g lig e n t e m p lo y e r a r e d o n e a w a y w it h . B u t t h e
c la im s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n m u s t s t ill b e p r o v e d b y th e w o r k e r b y le g a l
p r o c e d u r e a g a in s t th e e m p lo y e r ; th e a lle g a t io n o f th e f a u lt o f th e
w o r k e r i n a b o ile r e x p lo s io n , f o r e x a m p le , m u s t b e d is p r o v e d b y th e
s u r v iv o r s o f t h e d e a d fir e m a n , a n d u n t il th e p r o c e e d in g s a r e c o n ­
c lu d e d , th e c o s t o f t h e s u it m u s t b e b o r n e b y th e m . T h e y m a y b e c o m e
d e p e n d e n t o n c h a r it y i f in th e m e a n tim e th e e m p lo y e r b e c o m e s
b a n k ru p t.
F o r th ese re a so n s a s t r ic te r sy ste m o f c o m p e n s a tio n h a s b e e n
a d o p t e d a lm o s t e v e r y w h e r e in E u r o p e , e v e n in th o s e c o u n t r ie s t h a t
h a v e n o c o m p u ls o r y s y s te m o f in s u r a n c e f o r w o r k e r s .
T h u s G reat
B r it a in a llo w s c o m p e n s a t io n f o r a c c id e n ts in ca se o f d e a th o f th e
w o r k e r o r h is p e r m a n e n t d is a b ilit y , e v e n w h e n d u e t o h is w i l l f u l
m is c o n d u c t ; th e e m p lo y e r m a y , w ith th e c o n s e n t o f th e w o r k e r s , c o n ­
c l u d e a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e c o n t r a c t s p r o v i d i n g b e n e f it s e q u i v a l e n t t o
t h o s e f i x e d b y t h e a c t ; p a y m e n t is s e c u r e d b y a l l o w a n c e o f a p r i o r
lie n in c a s e o f b a n k r u p t c y ; in d is p u t e s in r e g a r d t o c o m p e n s a t io n ,
a r b itr a tio n b o a r d s ta k e th e p la c e o f th e o r d in a r y c o u r ts . T h e sa m e
sy s te m is in f o r c e in P o r t u g a l a n d R o u m a n ia . I n F r a n c e a n d B e l ­
g iu m th e S t a t e g u a r a n t e e s th e p a y m e n t o f p e n s io n s b y u n in s u r e d
e m p lo y e r s t h r o u g h a s p e c ia l fu n d t o w h ic h th e la t t e r m u s t c o n t r ib u t e !




REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

31

I n D e n m a r k a n d S w e d e n d is p u t e s as t o a w a r d s a r e b r o u g h t b e f o r e
a n in s u r a n c e c o u n c il. M o s t o f th e B r it is h c o lo n ie s , A r g e n t in a , C o ­
lo m b ia , S a n S a lv a d o r , a n d J a p a n a d h e r e t o th e sy s te m o f d e fin ite
c o m p e n s a t io n t h a t in s u r e s c e r t a in g u a r a n t ie s a n d f a c ilit a t io n s o f
le g a l p r o c e d u r e t o th e w o r k e r , a n d c e r ta in a d v a n ta g e s t o th e e m ­
p lo y e r w h o v o lu n t a r ily in su r e s.
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s an a tte m p t
h a s b e e n m a d e t o p o p u la r iz e th e p r in c ip le o f c o m p e n s a t io n b y a llo w ­
in g th e e m p lo y e r th e c h o ic e b e tw e e n c o m p e n s a t io n a n d th e c o m m o n la w p r in c ip le o f lia b ilit y in ca ses o f a c c id e n t, b u t in ca se h e c h o o s e s
t h e l a t t e r w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f it s o f t h e t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s o f c o n t r i b u t o r y
n e g lig e n c e , a s s u m p t io n o f r is k , a n d f e l l o w s e r v ic e .
T h is e x p e d ie n t
h a s b e e n t r ie d in 26 s e p a r a te S t a t e s ; b u t th e e m p lo y e r w h o c h o o s e s
c o m p e n s a t io n m u s t in 20 o f th ese S ta te s b e in s u r e d a g a in s t in d e m n it y
c la im s , a n d in 3 S ta te s (N e v a d a , O r e g o n , P o r t o R i c o ) in a S ta te i n ­
s titu tio n .
N in e S ta te s, in c lu d in g N e w Y o r k , r e c o g n iz e o n ly c o m ­
p e n s a t io n a n d n o lo n g e r th e c o m m o n -la w r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r d a m a g e s .
W i t h th e e x c e p t io n o f A r iz o n a a n d C a l if o r n i a , t h e y r e q u ir e t h a t th e
e m p lo y e r in s u r e h im s e lf a g a in s t c o m p e n s a t io n c la im s . T w o o f th e s e
S ta te s , W a s h in g t o n a n d W y o m i n g , p e r m it th e se c o m p e n s a t io n in s u r ­
a n ce s o n ly th r o u g h S ta te o r g a n iz a t io n s .1
T h u s th e re is b e in g a c c o m p lis h e d in th e N e w W o r l d a ls o th e t r a n s i­
t io n to th e th ir d sy ste m — c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e , w it h fr e e c h o ic e o f th e
in s u r a n c e c a r r ie r , a n d its o ff s h o o t , th e s y s te m o f c o m p u ls o r y o r g a n i ­
z a t io n o r o f S ta te c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e w h ic h e ffe c ts th e e lim in a ­
t io n o f p r iv a t e in s u r a n c e p r o f it s a n d b u r d e n s t h e in s u r e r s o n ly w it h
t h e a c t u a l c o s t s .2 T h e c o u n t r i e s i n E u r o p e t h a t h a v e c o m p u l s o r y
in s u r a n c e w it h fr e e c h o ic e o f th e in s u r a n c e c a r r ie r a re I t a ly , th e
N e t h e r la n d s , a n d F i n l a n d ; th o s e o u t s id e o f E u r o p e a r e Q u e e n s la n d ,
V i c t o r i a , C u b a , a n d fi v e A m e r i c a n S t a t e s .
T h e fa r th e s t r e m o v e d in
i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l i a b i l i t y is t h e p u b l i c l e g a l
s y s te m o f c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e a g a in s t a ll a c c id e n ts .
I t w as in tr o ­
d u c e d in th e G e r m a n E m p ir e in 1884 a n d w a s c o p ie d in A u s t r ia
(1 8 8 7 ), in H u n g a r y (1 9 0 7 ), L u x e m b u r g (1 9 1 0 ), G re e ce (m in e s ,
fo u n d r ie s , q u a r r ie s , 1 9 0 2 ), N o r w a y ( 1 9 1 5 ) , R u s s ia ( 1 9 1 3 ) , S e r b ia
(1 9 1 0 ), S w itz e r la n d (1 9 1 1 ), B r itis h C o lu m b ia (1 9 1 6 ), N o v a S c o tia
(1 9 1 5 ), O n ta r io (1 9 1 5 ), a n d tw o A m e r ic a n S ta te s, W y o m in g (1 9 1 1 )
a n d W a s h in g to n (1 9 1 5 ).
A s is e v i d e n t , t h i s s y s t e m h a s m a d e t h e
g r e a te s t p r o g r e s s in th e la s t d e ca d e .
A b o u t 57 p e r c e n t o f th e w a g e
1 F o r the reasons for the in trod uction o f organized com pulsory insurance in the State o f
W a sh in g to n see John H . W a lla c e ’ s report on “ C om pulsory S tate insurance from the w ork­
m an ’ s view p oin t,M in A m erican Labor L egislation R eview , vol. 2, Feb. 1, 1 9 1 2 , pp. 1 5 - 2 8 .
2 “ F rom th is survey o f the contemp orary legislative m ovem ent th e conclusion is evident
th a t the tran d ition al principle o f lia b ility founded on the idea o f cu lp ability is condem ned
from now on.
M o st positive system s o f legislation have given it up ; bu t the S ta tes th a t
have hung back are on the poin t o f ad optin g the new system and from now on w e shall be
con fronted w ith a w ell-estab lish ed com m on European la w , w hich w ill soon becom e a E u ro ­
pean -A m erican law , and even a w orld la w .” — P a u l P i c : T r a it6 el^m entaire de leg isla tio n
in du strielle, L es lo is ouvri&res, 1 9 1 2 , p. 8 9 1 .




32

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

'w o r k e r s o f E u r o p e a r e c o v e r e d b y i t .
I t s n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y is t o
r e d u c e th e r is k s b y a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , w h ile p r iv a t e in s u r a n c e
l e a v e s t h e l e a s t p r o f i t a b l e a n d w o r s t r i s k s — e. g . , t h e m i n e r s a n d
s a ilo r s in F r a n c e — t o c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e .
A s s o o n as th e S ta te t o o k o v e r th e in s u r a n c e o f w o r k e r s o r g u a r ­
a n te e d t h e p a y m e n t o f a c c id e n t p e n s io n s , t h e q u e s t io n a r o s e as t o
w h e t h e r t h e a lie n w o r k e r o r h is r e la t iv e s l e f t b e h in d in h is o w n
c o u n t r y a re e n title d a n y lo n g e r to p a y m e n t o f p e n s io n s ; a n d fu r t h e r ,
w h e t h e r o r u n d e r w h a t c ir c u m s t a n c e s t h e d iff e r e n t s y s te m s o f in ­
s u r a n c e a r e t o b e r e g a r d e d a s o f e q u a l v a lu e . T h i s q u e s t io n w a s fir s t
d is c u s s e d o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t G e r m a n
c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e la w , w h e n th e q u e s tio n a r o s e as t o r e g u la t in g
th e p a y m e n t o f a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e t o s u r v iv o r s o f a lie n w o r k e r s w h o
d ie d as th e r e s u lt o f a c c id e n t in G e r m a n y . T h e la w o f 1 8 8 4 g r a n t e d a
p e n s io n o n ly t o s u r v iv o r s l iv in g in G e r m a n y , a n d , in ca se th e y
c h a n g e d t h e ir p la c e o f r e s id e n c e b a c k t o t h e ir h o m e c o u n t r y , a lu m p ­
su m s e ttle m e n t, f o r th e r e is “ n o o c c a s io n t o u se th e m e a n s o f th o s e
l i a b l e t o c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d o f t h e S t a t e f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f a l ie n s
l iv in g in a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y .”
T h e a lie n w h o m e t w it h a n a c c id e n t
a n d w h o g a v e u p h is r e s id e n c e in G e r m a n y w a s s im p ly p a id o f f w it h
th r e e t im e s th e a m o u n t o f h is a n n u a l p e n s io n .
S im ila r a n t ia lie n p r o v is io n s w e r e a d o p t e d in N o r w a y (1 8 9 4 ) a n d
in F in la n d (1 8 9 5 ). A u s t r ia in 1887 r e fe r r e d th e a m o u n t o f th e set­
tle m e n t o f c o m p e n s a t io n c la im s o f p e r s o n s l iv in g a b r o a d t o th e j u d g ­
m e n t o f t h e i n s u r a n c e in s t i t u t e s . T h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s
le d t o r e p r is a ls e v e n in c o u n t r ie s t h a t h a d v o lu n t a r y in s u r a n c e . T h is
is tr u e p a r t ic u la r ly o f F r a n c e , D e n m a r k (1 8 9 8 ) , B e lg iu m , N o r w a y ,
G r e e c e (1 9 0 3 ) , a n d R u s s ia (1 9 0 4 ).
O n ly S w itz e r la n d , E n g la n d ,
I t a l y , S p a in , th e N e t h e r la n d s , a n d S w e d e n k e p t o u t o f t h is c u r r e n t .
A p e c u l i a r l y s t r i k i n g i n s t a n c e o f c u r t a i l m e n t o f t h e r i g h t s o f a l ie n
w o r k e r s w a s b r o u g h t to lig h t b y a la w s u it o v e r th e in s u r a n c e o f a
B e lg ia n w o r k m a n , o n e E e n a r d , w h o w a s k ille d w h ile w o r k in g o n th e
E x p o s it io n o f P a r is in th e su m m e r o f 1900. H is w id o w d e cla r e d
th a t sh e w a s in a p o s itio n to p r o v e th e c u lp a b ility o f th e e m p lo y e r
a c c o r d in g to th e p r in c ip le s o f c o m m o n la w . T h e c o u r t d id n o t a d m it
t h e e v id e n c e , s in c e a r t ic le 2 o f th e la w o f A p r i l 9, 1 8 9 8 , r e c o g n iz e s n o
o t h e r le g a l p r o t e c t io n th a n t h a t o f t h is c o m p e n s a t io n la w , a n d th e r e ­
f o r e n o t t h a t o f t h e c o m m o n la w , a n d t h is c o m p e n s a t io n la w (a r t ic le
3 ) r e f u s e s a l l b e n e f it s t o t h e s u r v i v o r s a b r o a d o f a n a l i e n w o r k m a n i n ­
ju r e d in a n a c c id e n t.
T h e L e a g u e f o r th e P r o t e c t io n o f H u m a n
B ig h t s p e t it io n e d th e le g is la tu r e in v a in t o a b o lis h t h is n e w r ig h t
o f s a lv a g e .1
1
F leu ry de S t. C harles : L e risque p rofession n el de l ’ ouvrier
pratiqu es de leg isla tio n ouvrifcre, L yon 3, 1 9 0 1 , vol. 2, p. 5 4 .




stran g er, in

Q uestions

REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

33

T h e c o n s t it u e n t a s s e m b ly o f t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r
L a b o r L e g is la t io n o n S e p t e m b e r 2 8 , 190 1 , in t r u s t e d t o th e I n t e r n a ­
tio n a l L a b o r B u re a u th e ta sk o f m a k in g “ c o m p a r a tiv e in v e s tig a tio n s
o f th e la w s o f th e d iffe r e n t c o u n t r ie s r e g a r d in g a c c id e n t a n d s ic k ­
n ess in s u r a n c e a n d c o m p e n s a t io n f o r th o s e p e r s o n s w h o w o r k o u t s id e
o f th e c o u n t r y in w h ic h t h e y o r t h e ir r e la tiv e s h a v e t h e ir r e s id e n c e ”
(m o t io n o f D r . F e ig e n w in t e r ) . T h e f o l l o w i n g le g a l d is p u t e w a s a t
th e b o t t o m o f t h is m o t i o n : A G e r m a n fir m h a d s e n t a S w is s n a m e d
H e r z o g a s a s s e m b le r t o a tte n d t o th e c o n s t r u c t io n w o r k o f a f r e i g h t
s ta tio n in B a s e l ; h e w a s r u n o v e r b y a t r a in a n d k ille d in M a y , 1 9 01,
w h ile in th e e x e r c is e o f h is t r a d e .
T h e c l a i m s o f h is w i d o w , w h o
liv e d w it h h e r p a r e n t s in S w it z e r la n d , w e r e a t fir s t r e p u d ia t e d b o t h
in G e r m a n y a n d in S w itz e r la n d . I t w a s o n ly a ft e r an a p p e a l h a d
b ee n m a d e th a t a m o r e fa v o r a b le d e c is io n w a s m a d e in b o th c o u n ­
t r ie s — a p r o o f o f th e a b s o lu te in s e c u r it y o f th e le g a l p o s it io n o f a lie n
w orkers.
T h e I t a l i a n s e c t io n o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n r a is e d o b je c ­
tio n s t o th ese d r a s tic in t e r p r e t a t io n s o f th e la w , a n d d e m a n d e d th e
a p p lic a t io n o f th e le x l o c i o f th e a c c id e n t t o th e ca se o f th e n a t iv e
w o r k m a n in ju r e d a b r o a d .1 I n F r a n c e , t o o , p r o t e s t w a s m a d e a g a in s t
t h e u n j u s t a n d e x c e p t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t o f a l ie n s .2 T h e F r a n c o - I t a l i a n
l a b o r p r o t e c t io n a g re e m e n t o f A p r i l 15, 1904, a r t ic le 1 d , a b o lis h e d
t h is d is c r im in a t io n a g a in s t a lie n w o r k e r s s e t t le d in F r a n c e a n d r e ­
s e r v e d f o r a la te r a g r e e m e n t th e d e t e r m in a t io n o f t h e a m o u n t o f
lu m p -s u m s e ttle m e n ts f o r t h o s e e n t itle d t o a p e n s io n w h o a r e r e s i­
den t abroad.
A r r a n g e m e n ts w e re m a d e f o r th e p a y m e n t o f su ch
p e n s io n s t h r o u g h t h e I t a lia n S t a t e R e l i e f F u n d s , a n d th e p r i n c i p l e
o f r e c i p r o c i t y w a s e s t a b li s h e d .
T h u s n o t o n ly c o u ld a c o m p a r a tiv e
r e p o r t o n th e p r e v a ilin g le g a l c o n d itio n b e la id b e fo r e th e t h ir d as­
s e m b ly o f d e le g a te s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g ­
is la t io n b u t a ls o d e fin it e p r o p o s a ls f o r c h a n g e s c o u ld b e s u b m it t e d .3
A s a r e s u lt o f t h e i r d e lib e r a t io n s th e f o l l o w i n g m o t io n w a s m a d e
b y th e p r e s id e n t o f th e F r e n c h s e c tio n , M . M ille r a n d , a n d th e r e p r e ­
s e n ta tiv e o f th e G e r m a n E m p ir e , H e r r C a s p a r , a n d u n a n im o u s ly
a d o p te d :
The rights granted to the worker and his survivors by the insurance and
compensation laws shall be governed by the law of the place in which the estab­
lishment in which he is employed is situated. No different treatment on ac1 A less. C o r s i : A p p lication des lois territoriales sur les accid ents dans le tra v a il aux
ouvrifcrs stra n g ers ( 1 9 0 2 ) .
2 Jules U h ri, in Le m ouvem ent socialiste, A u g. 1, 1 9 0 3 .
3 E . F e ig e n w in te r : D ie B ehan dlung der A u slan d er im H a ftp flic h t und V ersicheru ngsrecht, 1 9 0 4 , p. 3 1 ; also A . Corsi and F . In vrea : P roposition de convention in tern ation ale
pour l ’ap plication des lois na tion ales aux ou vriers etran gers, T u rin , 1 9 0 4 ; and L . L a s s :
Die Stellu n g der A u slan d e r in der deutschen Arbeiterversiclierung.

9 7 5 2 0 ° — 19 -------- 3




34

INTERNATIONAL, LABOR LEGISLATION.

count of the citizenship, place of residence, or abode of the person entitled to
compensation can be allowed.
The sections of the individual countries shall report at the next general
assembly on the manner in which this principle may be applied in the national
legislation of each country, as well as in international treaties, and with respeet
both to the organization of insurance and to liability.

T h e r e s o lu t io n s o f B a s e l w e r e f o l l o w e d b y 14 b ip a r t it e r e c ip r o c a l
a g re e m e n ts in th e d o m a in o f s o c ia l in s u r a n c e b e tw e e n — th e G e r m a n
E m p ir e a n d I t a ly (a r tic le 4 , S u p p le m e n t t o th e tr a d e a g r e e m e n t),
D e c . 3, 1 9 0 4 ; th e G e rm a n E m p ir e a n d A u s tr ia (S u p p le m e n t to th e
t r a d e a g r e e m e n t ), J a n . 19, 1 9 0 5 ; B e lg iu m a n d L u x e m b u r g , A p r i l
1 5 ,1 9 0 5 ; G e r m a n E m p ir e a n d L u x e m b u r g , D e c . 2 ,1 9 0 5 ; B e lg iu m a n d
F r a n c e , F e b . 21, 1 9 0 6 ; F r a n c e a n d I t a ly , J u n e 9, 1 9 0 6 ; F r a n c e a n d
L u x e m b u r g , J u n e 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 ; G e r m a n E m p i r e a n d t h e N e t h e r la n d s ,
A u g . 2 7 ,1 9 0 7 ; G r e a t B r it a in a n d S w e d e n , J u n e 1 8 ,1 9 0 9 ; F r a n c e a n d
G r e a t B r ita in , J u ly 3, 1 9 0 9 ; I t a ly a n d H u n g a r y , S e p t. 19, 1 9 0 9 ;
G e rm a n E m p ir e a n d I t a ly , J u ly 31, 1 9 1 2 ; G e rm a n E m p ir e a n d th e
N e t h e r la n d s ., M a y 3 0 , 1 9 1 4 ; G e r m a n E m p i r e a n d I t a l y , M a y 1 2 - 2 2 ,
1915.
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s, th a n k s to th e e ffo r ts o f th e A m e r ic a n sec­
t i o n o f t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia tio n -, o n l y o n e t e r r it o r y , H a w a i i
( 1 9 1 5 ) , a n d t w o S ta te s, N e w H a m p s h ir e (1 9 1 1 ) a n d N e w J e r s e y
( 1 9 1 1 ) , r e f u s e a n y p e n s io n t o th e in ju r e d m a n o r h is a lie n s u r v iv o r s
a s s o o n a s t h e y le a v e t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ; 14 S ta te s , i n c lu d in g N e w
Y o r k a n d P e n n s y l v a n i a , w h i l e t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e c l a i m t o b e n e f it s
o f th o s e w h o le a v e th e c o u n t r y , y e t a b r id g e i t ; 7 S ta te s , i n c lu d in g
C a lifo r n ia , I llin o is , M a ssa ch u se tts , a n d M ic h ig a n , m a k e n o d iffe r ­
e n c e b e t w e e n s u r v i v o r s l i v i n g i n A m e r i c a a n d a lie n s .
E le v e n S ta te s’
m a k e n o m e n t i o n o f a l ie n s .
“ B u t e v e n th ese r e s t r ic t io n s ,” s a y s th e
F e d e r a l o f f ic ia l r e p o rut o p e n t h e d o o r f o r i n j u r i o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
,
a g a in s t A m e r ic a n c it iz e n s , b y r e a s o n o f th e f a c t t h a t i n ju r ie s t o
a lie n s w h o s e p o s s ib le b e n e fic ia r ie s a r e n o n r e s id e n t e n t a il le s s e x p e n s e
o n th e e m p lo y e r o f su ch la b o r .” 1 S in c e A m e r ic a n w o r k m e n s e ld o m
w o r k in E u r o p e , th e c o n c lu s io n o f a g re e m e n ts a n a lo g o u s t o th o s e
e x i s t i n g i n E u r o p e i s n o t c o n t e m p l a t e d , b u t a n o t e o f w a r n i n g is
s o u n d e d a g a in s t u n f a ir d is c r im in a t io n .
T h e c o n c lu s io n o f in t e r n a t io n a l a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e a g r e e m e n ts h a s
f o r its o b je c t n o t o n ly th e o b t a in in g o f a d e c is io n o n th e s u it a b ilit y o f
th e a m o u n t o f th e c o m p e n s a tio n a n d th e e lim in a t io n o f fa c t o r s le a d ­
in g t o in c r e a s e d d is c r im in a t io n a g a in s t a lie n w o r k e r s i n e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e r e is d a n g e r o f a c c i d e n t s , b u t a l s o t h e p r e v e n t i o n
o f d o u b le in s u r a n c e w h ic h m ig h t o c c u r b e c a u se , a c c o r d in g t o th e
le g is la t io n in f o r c e in m a n y c o u n t r ie s , th e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t s lo c a t e d in o n e S t a t e a n d c a r r y i n g o n t h e ir a c t iv it ie s in a n 1 W ork m e n ’ s C om pen sation L a w s o f the U nited S tates and Foreign C ou n tries, B u lle tin
N o. 2 0 3 o f the U . S. B ureau o f Labor S ta tistic s, W a sh in g to n , 1 9 1 7 , p. 1 1 8 .




REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

35

o t h e r S t a t e (s o - c a l l e d in t e r s t a t e e s t a b lis h m e n t s ) m u s t b e in s u r e d in
e a c h o f th e S ta te s . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o lu t io n s o f th e f i f t h m e e t in g
o f d e le g a te s in L u c e r n e (S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 0 8 ) w e r e in t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t
t h is d o u b le b u r d e n f r o m f a l l i n g o n e m p lo y e r s c a r r y in g o n b u s in e s s
f o r th e tim e b e in g in a fo r e ig n c o u n tr y , a n d to d e te r m in e th e a d e ­
q u a c y o f th e le g is la t io n in ca se s o f a c c id e n t t o a lie n w o r k e r s : 1
1. Foreigners meeting with industrial accidents, and their dependents, to be
placed in the same position as subjects of a State, in respect to compensation
for injuries resulting from such accidents, both as regards the amount and
the conditions under which it is payable.
2. In the case of transport undertakings extending over two countries, the
law of the country where the undertaking has its domicile shall apply in re­
spect of the traveling staff, regardless of the relative extent of the business
done in the two countries respectively. The traveling staff shall remain under
the said law, even though occasionally employed in work which is attached
to some other department of the undertaking.
3. Similarly, in the case of undertakings carried on in both countries, the law
of the country where the undertaking is domiciled shall continue to apply in the
case of w
rorkmen and employees who are only temporarily employed, and that
for less than six months, outside the country where the undertaking is domi­
ciled.
4. If an industrial accident occurs for which compensation is undoubtedly due,
but a doubt arises as to who is liable to pay the compensation or as to which
law should apply, the insurer who is first concerned with the case shall pay
compensation provisionally to the person entitled to receive the same, until the
incidence of the liability is finally determined. Provisional compensation so paid
shall be returned by the party found liable to pay the compensation.
5. In enforcing the laws in question, the official bodies concerned shall render
each other mutual assistance. They shall be bound to make the necessary in­
quiries for the determination of the facts of any case. The procedure for deal­
ing with cases of accidents to foreigners should be made as simple and expe­
ditious as possible.
6. Documents, certificates, etc., drawn up and delivered by one State to an­
other in administering laws relating to industrial accidents shall not be sub­
ject to any fees and taxes beyond those which would have been imposed, under
the circumstances, in the country of origin.

T h e e ffe c t o f th e o u t b r e a k o f t h e w a r o n th e in t e r n a t io n a l in s u r ­
a n ce a g re e m e n ts is s h o w n b y th e f o l l o w i n g o c c u r r e n c e . T h e I n t e r ­
n a t io n a l L a b o r B u r e a u r e c e iv e d o n O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1 9 1 5 , th e f o l l o w i n g
le tte r fr o m a n I t a lia n m a s o n :
The undersigned turns to your bureau with the request that it interest itself
in his case and give him advice and assistance. He was working in a mine in
B. [Bohemia] on January 8, 1912, when an accident completely deprived him of
his sight. The directors of the Accident Insurance Institute of Prague awarded
him in December, 1912, a pension of 112.5 crowns [$22.84] a month, which was
regularly received by the undersigned until March, 1915. Since then, deprived of
1 E . F e ig e n w in te r : D ie B eh an dlu n g der au slan dischen A rb eiter im V ersicheru ngsrecht,
B asel, 1 9 1 2 ; P ro f. D r. L u dw ig L a ss : D ie S taa tsv ertra g e liber A rbeiterversieherung nebst
E n t w u r f zu einem in tern ation alen A bkom m en liber U n fallv ersich eru n g, B erlin , 1 9 0 8 .
M . L . W o d o n : P ro je ct de convention Intern ationale relative au x accid ents du tr a v a il,
L ieg e, 1 9 0 7 .




36

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

this his only means of subsistence, he has made entirely unsuccessful appeals
to the local authorities, and has run into debt in order to provide a living for
himself, his wife, and his two children. As, in his condition, he can find no
further means of livelihood, and no one will grant him any more credit, he finds
himself in a position of great want, which is increased by the high cost of
living. He hopes that the bureau will take up his case at the earliest oppor­
tunity.

A s n o in s u ra n ce a g re e m e n t h a d b ee n c o n c lu d e d b e tw e e n A u s t r ia
a n d I t a ly , b u t o n ly b etw ee n G e rm a n y a n d I t a ly a n d b etw ee n H u n ­
g a r y a n d I t a l y , th e ca se in q u e s tio n w a s o n e o f p u r e r e c ip r o c it y . A s
th e I t a lia n G o v e r n m e n t h a d d e c id e d as a w a r m e a su re th a t e n e m y
c la im s c o u ld n o t b e e n fo r c e d in an a c t io n a t la w , th e A u s t r ia n G o v e r n ­
m e n t d e c la r e d t h a t i t w a s n o t in a p o s it io n t o h o ld th e in s u r a n c e i n ­
s titu te s t o p a y m e n t o f in s u r a n c e t o I t a lia n s . A c c o r d i n g t o th e a m ­
b a s s a d o r o f th e U n it e d S ta te s, w h o w a s a c t in g as th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f
I t a l y in A u s t r ia , a n d w h o t o o k ste p s a t th e re q u e st o f h is G o v e r n m e n t ,
v o lu n t a r y p a y m e n t s w o u ld n o t b e a llo w e d b y th e m ilit a r y a u t h o r it ie s
t o p a s s th e f r o n t ie r o f th e c o u n t r y . U n d e r th e s e c ir c u m s t a n c e s , th e
I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o v o t e a c r e d i t o f 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 l i r e ( $ 9 6 ,5 0 0 )
f o r th e g r a n t in g o f r e fu n d a b le lo a n s t o I t a lia n s u b je c t s h a v in g p e n ­
s io n c la im s o n A u s t r ia .
T h e r e h a v e b e e n s i m i l a r d if f ic u l t i e s i n t h e
w a y o f th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e I t a lia n -H u n g a r ia n a g re e m e n t, w h ic h
w a s c o n c lu d e d o n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 ,1 9 0 9 , f o r se v e n y e a r s , a n d w h ic h s t ill
h o ld s , as it h a s n o t b ee n a b r o g a te d to o u r k n o w le d g e .
A l l th e o th e r
a g re e m e n ts (G e r m a n -B e lg ia n , G e r m a n -Ita lia n , a n d th e F r e n c h a g r e e ­
m e n t s ) w e r e m a in t a in e d a ft e r th e b e g in n in g o f w a r o r a ft e r th e b r e a k ­
i n g o f f o f r e la tio n s . N e v e r th e le s s , th e w a r e x p e r ie n c e s p r o v e t h a t a
“ n e u t r a liz a t io n ” o f th e c la im s t o a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o f a lie n w o r k e r s
is n e c e s s a r y . W h e n , t h e r e f o r e , w e r e a d t o - d a y i n a r t i c l e 5 o f t h e H u n g a r ia n -I t a lia n tr e a ty th a t “ th e p r o p e r fu n d in H u n g a r y , w h ic h u n d e r
H u n g a r ia n la w is r e q u ir e d t o p a y a p e n s io n t o a n I t a lia n c it iz e n d o m i­
c ile d in I t a ly , c a n r e lie v e it s e lf o f th e o b lig a t io n o f m a k in g p a y m e n t
b y p a y in g in t o th e c o m p e te n t fu n d in I t a ly a su m w h ic h at th e tim e o f
th e p a y m e n t c o r r e s p o n d s t o th e p e n s io n in q u e s tio n a c c o r d in g t o th e
t e r m s o f t h e l a s t - m e n t i o n e d f u n d , ” i t is s u f f i c i e n t t o m a k e t h i s p r o ­
v is io n o b lig a t o r y , a n d t o a p p o in t as th e p la c e o f p a y m e n t a n e u tr a l
i n s u r a n c e o ff ic e , p o s s i b l y i n D e n m a r k , H o l l a n d , S p a i n , o r S w i t z e r ­
la n d .
B y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s u c h a n e u t r a l i t y c la u s e i n a l l i n t e r ­
n a t io n a l in s u r a n c e a g r e e m e n ts , th e in s u r a n c e c la im s o f a lie n w o r k e r s
w o u ld a ls o b e p r o t e c t e d a g a in s t p o s s ib le p r o h ib it io n s o f p a y m e n t in
p e a c e tim e s . T h a t th e a lie n w o r k e r w h o h a s h e lp e d t o in c r e a s e th e
v a lu e o f th e s o il o r o f th e p r o d u c t io n o f a c o u n t r y a n d t h e r e b y lo s t
h is e a r n in g c a p a c it y , a n d w h o c a n n o t in m o s t ca se s e v e n ta k e p a r t
in a w a r as a c o m b a t a n t , s h o u ld a ls o b e d e p r iv e d o f a ll m e a n s o f l iv e ­
l i h o o d , is s u c h a r e v o l t i n g s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e t h a t i t o u g h t t o b e p r e c l u d e d
o n c e f o r a l l.




REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

37

T h e s o - c a l l e d s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s w h i c h , l i k e c h r o n i c b e n ­
z o l p o is o n in g o r c h r o n ic a n ilin is m , a re o b s e r v e d o n ly a m o n g p e r s o n s
e m p l o y e d i n c e r t a i n c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s , o r e ls e i n o v e r w h e l m i n g f r e ­
q u e n c e in c e r t a in o c c u p a t io n s , a re a ls o d e s ig n a t e d as o c c u p a t io n a l
r is k s .
I n t h is c a t e g o r y b e lo n g th e ca ses o f c h r o n ic p o i s o n in g b y le a d ,
m e r c u r y , p h o s p h o r u s , a r s e n ic a n d c h r o m e , a n d t a r c a n c e r , a n k y lo s t o ­
m ia s is , a n t h r a x , e tc. T h e s p e c ific o c c u p a t io n a l r is k s o f th e o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l d is e a s e s g a v e o c c a s i o n t o t r e a t t h e m a s i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t s
a n d t o m a k e th e e m p lo y e r lia b le f o r th e m .
T h e e x a m p le w a s set
b y S w it z e r la n d (la w o f J u n e 25, 1881, r e s o lu t io n o f th e F e d e r a l
C o u n c i l o f J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 0 1 ) , a n d E n g l a n d f o l l o w e d s u it i n 1 9 0 6 .
H e r e th e f a c t o r y la w (1 8 9 5 a n d 1 9 0 1 ) h a d b o u n d th e d o c t o r s t o r e ­
p o r t c e r t a i n k i n d s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p o i s o n i n g o n p e n a l t y o f a fin e
in ca se o f n e g le c t.
T h e c o m p e n s a t io n la w o f 1 9 0 6 , s e c tio n 8, o n
t h i s b a s i s m a d e t h e s e a n d o t h e r l i s t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s s u b j e c t
t o c o m p e n s a t io n a n d in c e r t a in c ir c u m s t a n c e s e v e n t o c o m p u ls o r y i n ­
su ran ce.
T h e d e m a n d m a d e b y th e in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s in F r a n c e
t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s b e n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s a c c i d e n t s h a s a l w a y s
b e e n o p p o s e d b y d o c t o r s a n d t r a d e - u n i o n s a l ik e . T h e G o v e r n m e n t i n ­
t r o d u c e d a b i l l i n 1 9 0 6 i n w h i c h t h e s e w is h e s w e r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t .
F in a lly , th e G e r m a n I m p e r ia l In s u r a n c e C o d e g r a n te d t o th e F e d e r a l
c o u n c il th e r ig h t t o e x t e n d th e a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e t o o c c u p a t io n a l d is ­
e a s e s .1 T h e A u s t r i a n s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e b i l l m a k e s l i k e p r o v i s i o n . T h i s
d e m a n d w h ic h h a s ta k e n s u ch in t e r n a t io n a l f o r m h a s s p e c ia l im ­
p o r t a n c e f o r c o u n t r ie s w h ic h p o s s e s s o n ly a v o lu n t a r y s y s te m o f s ic k ­
n ess in s u r a n c e .
F r o m th e s e c o u n t r ie s th e d e m a n d h a s c o m e t o r e ­
m o v e o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s f r o m t h e s p h e r e o f t h e v o l u n t a r y s i c k n e s s
fu n d sy stem w h ic h h a s n o p h o p h y la c t ic fa c ilit ie s , a n d to m a k e th e m
s u b je c t t o c o m p u ls o r y a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r t o lia b ilit y .
A t p r e s e n t G r e a t B r i t a i n h a s r e c o g n i z e d 2 5 s u c h d is e a s e s a s i n d u s ­
t r ia l a c c id e n ts .
T h e sa m e p r in c ip le h a s b ee n a c c e p te d in th e ca se
o f a s m a l l e r n u m b e r o f d is e a s e s i n S o u t h A u s t r a l i a a n d O n t a r i o ,
a n d in th e ca se o f a n th r a x in F r a n c e a n d G e r m a n y .
I n A u s tr ia a n d
in S w i t z e r l a n d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e w a r , p r e p a r a t i o n s
w e r e u n d e r w a y t o i n c l u d e o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s . A l s o i n t h e
U n it e d S ta te s 10 S ta te s h a v e a tte m p te d t o m a k e s u b je c t t o th e p r i n ­
c ip le o f c o m p e n s a t io n n o t o n ly i n ju r y b y a c c id e n t , b u t e v e r y p e r s o n a l
i n ju r y ,- a n d t h e r e f o r e a l s o o c c u p a t i o n a l d is e a s e s . T h i s w a s s u c c e s s f u l
o n ly in M a s s a c h u s e tts . I n th e o t h e r S ta te s th e c o u r t s r e je c t e d t h is
in te r p r e t a t io n .2
I t is c le a r t h a t , i f t h is p r i n c i p l e b e c o m e s e ff e c t iv e
i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , a c h a n g e is a l s o t o b e e x p e c t e d i n t h e A m e r i c a n
a d ju d ic a t io n .
1
P a u l Pic : T r a ite elem entaire des lois ouvri&res, pp. 9 1 4 , 9 6 8 ff. ; and, esp ecially, L .
Telek y : V orlesungen tiber soziale M edizin, Jena, 1 9 1 4 , pp. 2 6 2 - 2 7 1 ; Sch riften der In ter­
n a t i o n a l V erein igu n g fu r gesetzlichen A rbeiterschu tz, N o. 3, Jen a, 1 9 0 5 , p. 1 5 5 .
3 C om m ons and A n d r e w s : P rin ciples o f Labor L egislation , p. 38 1 .




INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

38

2. SICKNESS, MATERNITY, OLD-AGE, AND INVALIDITY INSURANCE.
I n th e d o m a in o f s ick n e s s in s u r a n c e , t o o , t h e r e e x is ts t h e in t e r n a ­
t io n a l d iv e r s it y o f th e t w o sy ste m s o f v o lu n t a r y a n d c o m p u ls o r y
in s u r a n c e .
T h e l a t t e r is i n f o r c e i n G e r m a n y ( 1 8 8 3 ) , A u s t r i a ( 1 8 8 8 ) ,
H u n g a r y (1 8 9 1 ), G re a t B r ita in (1 9 1 1 ), L u x e m b u r g (1 9 0 1 ), th e
N e t h e r la n d s (1 9 1 3 ) , N o r w a y
(1 9 1 1 ), R o u m a n ia
(1 9 1 2 ), R u s s ia
(1 9 1 2 ), a n d S e rb ia (1 9 1 0 ).
V o l u n t a r y in s u r a n c e a g a in s t s ick n e s s w it h p r iv a t e a id f u n d s e x is ts
in B e l g i u m , D e n m a r k , F r a n c e ( c o m p u l s o r y i n s u r a n c e f o r m i n e r s 1) ,
I t a l y ( c o m p u l s o r y in s u r a n c e f o r fe m a le w o r k e r s f r o m 15 t o 50 y e a r s
o f a g e s i n c e 1 9 1 0 2) , S p a i n , P o r t u g a l , S w e d e n , a n d S w i t z e r l a n d w h e r e ,
h o w e v e r , th e C a n to n s a n d m u n ic ip a lit ie s h a v e th e r ig h t t o in t r o d u c e
c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e .
B u t in m o s t o f th e se c o u n t r ie s s u ch fu n d s
h a v e b e e n g iv e n th e c h a r a c t e r o f le g a l e n titie s , a n d t h e r e b y h a d le g a l
p r o t e c t io n e x te n te d t o th e m o n ly u n d e r th e c o n d it io n th a t t h e y s u b m it
t o S ta te c o n tr o l.
I n m a n y o f th e se c o u n t r ie s th e s ic k fu n d s , r e c o g ­
n iz e d b y th e S ta te , r e c e iv e S t a t e s u b s id ie s .
T h e d a n g e r l e s t t h e p o o r e s t c la s s e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , w h e r e o n l y
v o l u n t a r y i n s u r a n c e e x is t s , m a y r e m a i n u n i n s u r e d a g a i n s t t h e
w o r s t e n e m ie s o f h e a l t h — t u b e r c u l o s i s , c a n c e r , a l c o h o l i s m , a n d v e ­
n e r e a l d is e a s e s — a n d a l s o t h a t m e a s u r e s f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f d is e a s e a n d
i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e m a y n o t b e s h a r e d b y t h e s e c la s s e s , e x p l a i n s t h e
g r a d u a l t r a n s it io n t o th e s y s te m o f c o m p u ls o r y in s u r a n c e .
In Ita ly
in 1908 P r e m ie r L u z z a tt i r e c o g n iz e d th a t o n ly c o m p u ls io n c a n o ffe r
t h e n e c e s s a r y m i n i m u m , a n d t h a t i t is t h e t a s k o f t h e v o l u n t a r y s y s ­
te m t o g o f u r t h e r a n d a tta in th e n e c e s s a r y m a x im u m .
T h is c o n v ic ­
t io n a r o se f r o m th e f a c t th a t, in s p it e o f th e s u b s id iz in g o f th e fr e e
f u n d s b y t h e S t a t e , o n l y 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 o u t o f 1 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 I t a l i a n s p r i v i l e g e d
t o t a k e o u t i n s u r a n c e w^ere i n s u r e d i n t h e m .
J u s t as s ig n ific a n t
is th e t r a n s it io n in G r e a t B r it a in , th e c o u n t r y w it h th e o ld e s t a n d
m o s t flo u r is h in g sy s te m o f v o lu n t a r y s ic k fu n d s , w it h a m e m b e r s h ip
i n 1 9 1 1 o f 6 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s a n d a c a p i t a l o f £ 4 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ( $ 2 2 3 ,8 5 9 ,0 0 0 ), t o a s ic k n e s s a n d i n v a li d it y in s u r a n c e s y s te m w h ic h i n ­
c lu d e s m o r e t h a n d o u b le t h a t n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s (1 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ).
I t is t h e s u b s i d i e s p a i d b y t h e S t a t e b o t h i n s u p p o r t o f t h e v o l u n ­
t a r y s i c k n e s s i n s u r a n c e ( a s i n S w i t z e r l a n d 3) , a n d o f c o m p u l s o r y i n ­
s u r a n c e (a s in E n g l a n d ) , w h ic h h a v e c a u s e d a c e r t a in h e s it a n c y in
r e s p e c t t o th e e q u a l t r e a t m e n t o f a lie n w o r k e r s .
T h e s e d if f ic u l t i e s
m o v e d fir s t th e A u s t r ia n a n d H u n g a r ia n s ic k fu n d s in 19 0 9 , t h e n
1 Seam en also.— [ E d .]
2 R ailro ad s also .— [ E d .]
8 In Sw itzerlan d in 1 9 1 6 the num ber o f m em bers o f such sick fu n ds w ho received a ssist­
ance throu gh F ed eral subsidies w as 4 3 8 ,2 1 5 ; o f all recognized fun ds, 5 3 0 ,3 2 9 — som ew hat
less th an th e num ber o f em ployees an d w orkers in in du stry an d com m erce w ith o u t th eir
dependents.




REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

39

t h e D a n i s h a n d S w e d i s h s i c k f u n d s i n 1 9 1 2 , t o s e c u r e t o t h e m s e lv e s
b y m e a n s o f a n a g r e e m e n t th e a s s ig n m e n t o f th e in s u r a n c e v a lu e
f r o m th e a lie n f u n d .
T h e B r it is h la w o f 1911, a r tic le 32, p r o v id e s
th e sa m e e x p e d ie n t b y g r a n t in g th e r ig h t o f r e c ip r o c it y t o e m ig r a n t s
g o in g t o th e c o lo n ie s o r t o f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s .
T o a l ie n s w h o h a v e n o t
b ee n a d m itte d to r e c o g n iz e d p u b lic fu n d s a n d w h o m a k e th e ir c o n ­
t r ib u t io n s t o a p o s t -o ffic e f u n d w ill b e p a id th e c o n t r ib u t io n s e t a s id e
in th e p o s t -o ffic e f u n d t o w h ic h n o S t a t e s u b s id y is g r a n t e d .
T h is
c u r t a i l m e n t a m o u n t s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i c k b e n e f it s , i n v a l i d i t y p e n s io n p ,
a n d m a t e r n i t y b e n e f it s , t o t w o - n i n t h s f o r m a l e a n d o n e - f o u r t h f o r
fe m a le in s u r e d p e rs o n s . *
M a t e r n i t y i n s u r a n c e is a s p e c i a l b r a n c h o f s i c k n e s s i n s u r a n c e . I t
is f o u n d e d o n th e id e a t h a t , in c o n s id e r a t io n o f t h e p r o h i b it i o n o f
in d u s t r ia l w o r k in th e la s t w e e k s b e f o r e a n d in th e re s t p e r io d
a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t, a s p e c ia l in d e m n it y s h o u ld b e g r a n t e d t o m a k e
u p f o r th e lo s s o f e a r n in g s , f o r t h e e x p e n d it u r e d u r in g c o n fin e m e n t ,
a n d a n u r s in g p r e m iu m in ca se th e m o th e r h e r s e lf n u rs e s th e c h ild .
C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e w o m a n w h o is i n s u r e d a g a i n s t s i c k n e s s r e c e i v e s a
w e e k l y b e n e f it , a s a r u l e f o r 6 w e e k s , i n G e r m a n y s i n c e 1 9 1 4 f o r
8 w eek s.
B y t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h i s s i c k b e n e f it i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y h a s
b e e n e ffe c tiv e ly c o m b a tte d .
O ld a g e a n d in v a lid it y in s u r a n c e w a s m a d e o b lig a t o r y in th e
G e r m a n E m p ir e , 1 8 8 9 ; . in G r e a t B r it a in , 1908, 1911 ( o l d a g e in ­
s u r a n c e ) ; F r a n c e , 1910, 1912 (o ld -a g e in s u r a n c e ) ; L u x e m b u r g , 1 9 1 1 ;
th e N e t h e r la n d s , 1 9 1 3 ; R o u m a n ia , 1 9 1 2 ; S w e d e n , 191 3 ( o l d - a g e i n ­
s u r a n c e ) ; G la r u s ( S w i t z e r l a n d ) , 1 9 1 6 ; A u s t r a lia n F e d e r a t io n , 1908,
1 9 1 2 , a n d N e w Z e a l a n d , 1 8 9 8 .1
B e s id e s , B e lg iu m , F r a n c e , I t a l y ,
S p a in , C a n a d a , a n d M a s s a c h u s e tts a n d W is c o n s in in th e U n it e d S ta te s
g r a n t S t a t e s u b s id ie s o r a llo w a n c e s in th e ca se o f v o lu n t a r y o ld -a g e
in s u r a n c e s u b je c t t o S ta te c o n t r o l.
T h e r i g h t s o f a l ie n s d o n o t d i f f e r a s a r u l e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e
la w s , f r o m t h o s e o f th e n a tiv e s , as l o n g a s r e c i p r o c i t y is in f o r c e .
O n ly E n g la n d d e m a n d s p r o o f o f c it iz e n s h ip .
A s p e c ia l e x c e p t io n
i n f a v o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e is m a d e b y a r t i c l e 1233. o f t h e G e r m a n I m ­
p e r i a l I n s u r a n c e C o d e : “ T h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l m a y d e c r e e t h a t a l ie n s
w h o m th e a u t h o r it ie s h a v e p e r m it t e d t o r e s id e in th e c o u n t r y f o r
o n l y a s p e c ifie d p e r i o d a re n o t u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o in s u r e .”
O n th a t
a c c o u n t P o lis h a n d R u s s ia n m ig r a t o r y w o r k e r s in a g r ic u lt u r a l a n d
f o r e s t a l e s t a b li s h m e n t s a r e p r e f e r r e d t o G e r m a n r u r a l w o r k e r s b y t h e
e m p lo y e r s .
T h e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g i s ­
la t io n in 1 9 1 2 w e r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e m o v in g th e se c o n flic t s .
1

A lso A u str ia (m in in g an d salaried em ployees) ; I ta ly

r o a d s ).— [ E d .]




(ra ilro a d s) ; and R u ssia

(r a il­

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

40

T h e y re a d as fo llo w s :
1. As regards the benefits paid by insurance institutions to foreigners, no
difference should be made between the subjects of a State and foreign work­
men in all countries and in all branches of insurance in which the State does
not directly supplement either the premiums or the benefits.
2. But where grants are made out of public money, the benefits paid to
insured foreigners and their dependents may be reduced in comparison with
those paid to subjects of the State at most by an amount corresponding ap­
proximately to such grants.
3. The Governments should take the necessary measures by means of inter­
national agreements to render the provisions of No. 2 unnecessary.
4. It should be made possible by international agreements to settle the claims
of insured persons and their dependents living outside of the country of in­
surance by paying a sum down or by paying the capital value of the benefit to a
corresponding insurance institution in their place of residence abroad, or in
any other appropriate manner.
Failure to insure foreign workmen in the case of only temporary sojourn
and employment in a country is injurious both to the workmen concerned
and also to their country of origin, and involves at the same time a disad­
vantage to the workers of the country in question in the labor market. The
benefits of insurance should therefore be extended to such workmen.
The assembly of delegates then directs the attention of the national sections
and participant Governments to the different methods of maternity insurance.
Where possible there should be a uniform period of support of eight weeks,
and as nearly as possible an equal amount of maternity benefit, in order that,
in the case of difference of place of residence and insurance State, the en­
forcement of the freedom of travel and the assignment of the insurance by
State agreement may be facilitated.

3. WIDOWS’ AND ORPHANS’ INSURANCE.
T o m it ig a t e th e d is tr e s s o f w o r k in g m e n ’s fa m ilie s w h o s e b r e a d ­
w in n e r h a s d ie d , v o lu n t a r y l i f e in s u r a n c e , e s p e c ia lly in th e f o r m o f
c h e a p , p o p u la r in s u r a n c e (p r u d e n t ia l, in d u s tr ia l in s u r a n c e ), h a s
a tte m p te d to a ttr a c t w id e ly s c a tte re d g r o u p s o f th e p e o p le . T h e h ig h
c o s t o f its a d m in is t r a t io n ( a g e n t s ’ p r e m iu m s , c o m m is s io n s o n c o ll e c ­
t i o n s , i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , w h i c h a m o u n t s i n G e r m a n y t o 2 2 .6 p e r
c e n t o f t h e p r e m i u m s a n d i n t e r e s t , i n A m e r i c a t o 3 8 .8 p e r c e n t , a n d i n
A u s t r a lia t o 4 0 p e r c e n t ,1 h a s o f t e n m a d e u n p r o fit a b le t h e w r i t i n g
o f s u ch in s u r a n c e , a n d it h a s in a n y ca se n o t g o n e b e y o n d th e c ir c le
o f th e b e t te r -s a la r ie d e m p lo y e e s .2 T h is fa ilu r e o f v o lu n t a r y in s u r a n c e
h a s le d to th e ta k in g o v e r o f th e c a re o f w id o w s a n d o r p h a n s b y th e
S ta te in G e r m a n y , F r a n c e , a n d H o lla n d , a n d in A u s t r ia th o se o f
s a la r ie d e m p lo y e e s .
I n G e r m a n y t h e s u r v i v o r s ’ i n s u r a n c e is c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e
i n v a l i d i t y i n s u r a n c e . A w i d o w r e c e i v e s a w i d o w ’s p e n s i o n a f t e r t h e
1 W e n d t : D ie V e rw altu n gsk osten der V olk sversich eru n g , in Z e its c h r ift fiir die gesam te
V e rsic h e ru n g s-W isse n sch a ft, 1 9 1 4 , vol. 14, p. 27 ; A . M an es : D ie A rbeiterversich erung in
A u stralie n and N euseelan d, in Za ch er, D ie A rbeiterversich eru n g im A u slan d e , 1 9 0 8 , N o.
1 8 , p. 4 3 .
2 T h is does not hold good in the U n ited S ta te s w here in d u stria l insurance
popular w ith th e low er paid w age earners.— [ E d .]




is

especially

REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

41

d e a th o f h e r in s u r e d h u s b a n d .
O r p h a n s ’ p e n s io n s a r e r e c e iv e d b y
le g it im a t e c h ild r e n o f a n in s u r e d f a t h e r w h o a r e u n d e r 15 y e a r s o f
a g e a n d b y le g it im a t e a n d i lle g it im a t e c h ild r e n u n d e r 15 o f a n in s u r e d
m o th e r .
T h e w i d o w ’s p e n s io n c o n s is ts o f t h r e e -t e n t h s o f th e i n v a li d it y p e n ­
s io n o f th e d e ce a s e d , a n d a y e a r ly im p e r ia l s u b s id y o f 50 m a r k s
($ 1 1 .9 0 ) ; th e o r p h a n s ’ p e n s io n a m o u n t s t o h a l f o f th e w id o w ’s p e n ­
s io n , w it h a m a x im u m a m o u n t f o r a ll s u r v iv o r s o f o n e a n d o n e -h a lf
t im e s th e i n v a li d it y p e n s io n .
T h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h is in s u r a n c e
a c c r u e t o a ll w a g e e a r n e rs as w e ll as t o e m p lo y e e s w it h a y e a r ly s a la r y
u p t o 5 ,0 0 0 m a r k s ( $ 1 , 1 9 0 ) .
T h e la t t e r r e c e iv e a ft e r 120 m o n t h ly
c o n t r ib u t io n s a f u l l r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n .
T h e r e g u la tio n o f th e
w i d o w ’s p e n s i o n s a n d a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w a s
e f f e c t e d o n t h e s a m e l in e s i n A u s t r i a , i n 1 9 0 6 , t h r o u g h t h e p e n s i o n
in s u r a n c e la w f o r p r iv a t e e m p lo y e e s .
I n F r a n c e s u r v iv o r s ’ in s u r a n c e fo r m s a p a r t o f th e le g a l p r o v is io n s
o f A p r i l 5, 1 9 1 0 , f o r o l d - a g e p e n s i o n s f o r w o r k e r s a n d p e a s a n t s .
S h o u ld an in s u r e d m a n d ie b e f o r e r e c e iv in g h is o ld -a g e p e n s io n , a
m o n t h l y s u m o f 5 0 f r a n c s ( $ 9 . 6 5 ) f o r 6 m o n t h s is g r a n t e d t o h i s
c h ild r e n u n d e r 16 y e a r s o f a g e , i f th e r e a r e fiv e o r m o r e o f th e m , o f
50 fr a n c s a m o n th f o r 5 m o n th s i f th e re a re 2, o r o f 50 fr a n c s f o r
4 m o n t h s i f t h e r e is o n l y o n e c h i l d . C h i l d l e s s w i d o w s a r e g i v e n 5 0
fr a n c s a m o n th fo r 3 m o n th s.
W i t h r e s p e c t t o a l ie n s t h e G e r m a n I m p e r i a l I n s u r a n c e C o d e ( a r t i c l e
1 2 6 8 ) d e c r e e s t h a t t h e c l a i m o f t h e s u r v i v o r s o f a n a l ie n w h o s e c u s ­
t o m a r y p la c e o f a b o d e a t t h e t im e o f h is d e a th w a s n o t in th e f o r e i g n
c o u n t r y s h o u ld b e r e s tr ic te d t o h a l f o f th e p e n s io n w it h o u t th e im ­
p e r ia l s u b s id y . T h e F e d e r a l C o u n c il c a n e lim in a t e t h is r e s t r ic t io n
f o r f o r e i g n c o n t ig u o u s t e r r it o r ie s o r f o r c it iz e n s o f f o r e i g n S ta te s
w h o s e l a w s m a k e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r a l ie n w o r k m e n .
T h e F r e n c h o l d - a g e p e n s io n la w (a r t ic le 1 1 ) p la c e s a lie n w a g e
w o r k e r s w o r k in g in F r a n c e in g e n e r a l o n th e sa m e f o o t i n g as th e
F r e n c h w a g e w o rk e rs. B u t th e y h a v e th e a d v a n ta g e o f th e c o n tr ib u ­
t io n s o f e m p lo y e r s a n d th e e x t r a a llo w a n c e s a n d in c r e a s e s f r o m th e
S ta te fu n d s o n ly w h e n a g re e m e n ts m a d e w it h th e ir n a t iv e la n d s in s u r e
e q u a l a d v a n t a g e s t o F r e n c h c it i z e n s . O t h e r w i s e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f
th e e m p lo y e r s a re a s s ig n e d t o a r e se r v e fu n d . W id o w s o f F r e n c h
d e s c e n t o f th e s e a lie n w o r k e r s r e c e iv e a s u r v iv o r ’s p e n s io n i f t h e y a n d
t h e ir c h ild r e n b e c o m e n a t u r a liz e d in th e y e a r f o l l o w i n g th e d e a th o f
th e h u s b a n d , a n d i f th e n a tu r a liz a tio n o f th e c h ild r e n ta k e s p la c e
a c c o r d in g t o th e c o n d it io n s o f a r t ic le 9 o f th e C iv il C o d e , as a m e n d e d
b y t h e la w s o f J u n e 2 6 ,1 8 8 9 , a n d a r t ic le 1 o f th e la w o f A p r i l 5, 19 0 9 .
I t is c l e a r t h a t t h e r e is h e r e a f u r t h e r f i e l d f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d j u s t ­
m e n t b y m ea n s o f a g ree m en ts.




42

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

4. UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE.
W it h in th e la s t g e n e r a tio n th e w a n t o f e m p lo y m e n t c a u s e d b y
th e p e r io d ic d e c r e a s e in th e d e m a n d f o r la b o r o r b y tim e s o f c ris e s
h a s a t tim e s a t t a in e d t o s u c h p r o p o r t io n s a s t o m o c k a ll t h e e ffo r t s
o f in s t it u t io n s f o r th e c a r e o f th e p o o r , th e o ld e s t m e a n s o f a lle v ia ­
t i o n in s u c h c r is e s .
T o e s c a p e im p o v e r is h m e n t, th e w o r k e r s h a v e
in s u r e d th e m s e lv e s t h r o u g h t h e ir t r a d e - u n io n s a g a in s t th e r e s u lt s
o f u n e m p lo y m e n t , b u t in t h is ca s e a ls o v o lu n t a r y in s u r a n c e h a s b e e n
u n a b l e t o r e a c h t h e c la s s e s m o s t i n d a n g e r . I n E n g l a n d , o f 1 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
w o r k e r s in in d u s tr y , tra d e , a n d co m m e rce , ca p a b le o f b e in g o r g a n ­
iz e d , o n ly o n e -fo u r t h a re m e m b e r s o f t r a d e -u n io n s , a n d in G e r ­
m a n y o f 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o n l y o n e - t h i r d a r e m e m b e r s . I n I t a l y t h e s a m e is
t r u e o f o n e - s i x t h o u t o f 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 , a n d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f o n e f i f t h o u t o f 1 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .*
O n ly in D e n m a r k a re m o r e th a n h a l f o f
t h e w o r k e r s i n i n d u s t r y , t r a d e , a n d c o m m e r c e o r g a n i z e d ( 1 3 8 ,0 0 0 o u t
o f a q u a rte r o f a m illio n ).
A u s t r a lia c o m e s s e c o n d w it h o n e - h a lf
m i l li o n t r a d e - u n io n m e m b e r s (4 9 7 ,9 2 5 ) o u t o f o n e a n d O M -t h ir d
m i l l i o n w a g e e a r n e r s . 2 I n A u s t r a l i a , i n 1 9 1 1 , 4 8 ,0 0 0 u n e m p l o y e d
m e n (4 .3 5 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h o s e i n e m p l o y m e n t a n d o n l y 6 .4 1 p e r c e n t
i n i n d u s t r y ) h a d t o b e s u p p o r t e d b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e r e is n o
d o u b t th a t in th e p e r io d o f tr a n s itio n a ft e r th e w o r ld w a r as w e ll as
in c r is e s t o b e e x p e c t e d la t e r t h is sta te o f t h in g s m u s t le a d t o th e
g r e a te s t u n rest.
A l t h o u g h c o m p u l s o r y in s u r a n c e a g a in s t u n e m p lo y m e n t e m b r a c in g
a ll w o r k e r s w a s n o t r e a liz e d b e fo r e th e w a r , t w o s y ste m s o f S ta te
s u b s id iz e d in s u r a n c e c o v e r in g p a r t o f th e w o r k e r s h a v e b e e n i n ­
t r o d u c e d — th e G h e n t sy ste m a n d th a t o f th e B r itis h , p a r t ia lly c o m p u ls o r }^ .
T h e G h e n t s y s te m , w h ic h h a s s p r e a d sin c e 1901 f r o m th e p la c e o f
its o r ig in t o in d iv id u a l G e r m a n a n d S w is s to w n s , t o M ila n a n d
V e n ic e , th e n t o D e n m a r k , N o r w a y , F r a n c e , a n d th e N e th e r la n d s ,
c o n s is t s o f a S t a t e o r c o m m u n a l c o n t r ib u t io n t o th e c o s t s o f t r a d e u n io n in s u r a n c e .
T h e a p p lic a t io n o f t h is s y s te m t o u n o r g a n iz e d
w o r k e r s is s o u g h t b y lin k i n g u p th e s a v in g s s o c ie tie s w it h a S ta te f u n d
f o r th e u n e m p lo y e d .
F i n a l l y , a f u n d f o r u s e i n c r i s e s is p r o v i d e d f o r
th e tim e s w h e n e m p lo y e r s a v o id th e d is m is s a l o f la r g e n u m b e r s b y
s h o r t -t im e w o r k ; o u t o f t h is c r is is f u n d s u p p o r t e d b y th e c o m m u n e s
t h e w o r k e r s a r e in d e m n ifie d f o r r e d u c t io n o f e a r n in g s .
E x p e r ie n c e
h a s s h o w n t h a t th e p r e m iu m s o n s a v in g s h a v e f a i l e d in t h e ir a im —
t h e s a v in g s o f t h e in d i v i d u a l d o n o t c o v e r c o lle c t iv e r is k s — a n d t h a t
1 T e n th In tern a tio n a l R eport on the Trad e-U n ion M ovem ent, 1 9 1 2 , published by the
In tern a tio n a l F ed eration o f L a b or, B erlin , 1 9 1 3 , pp. 9, 10.
2 G , H . K n ibbs : Census o f the C om m onw ealth o f A u s tra lia , A p ril 2 and 3, 1 9 1 1 , vol. 1,
1 9 1 7 , p. 3 9 0 , and also O fficial Y e a r B ook o f the C om m onw ealth o f A u s tr a lia , N o. 8 , 1 9 1 5 ,
p. 9 0 4 .




REGULATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE.

43

th e p e r io d ic u n e m p lo y m e n t in th e b u ild in g t r a d e is n o t c o m p le t e ly
c o v e r e d b y v o lu n t a r y in s u r a n c e , e v e n w h e n th e G o v e r n m e n t s u b s i­
d iz e s it.
T h e p u r e ly u r b a n c h a r a c te r o f th e s u b s id iz e d u n e m p lo y ­
m e n t in s u r a n c e p r o v e d t o b e a f u r t h e r h in d r a n c e t o th e f r e e d o m o f
tr a v e l.
G r e a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r i s k c la s s e s a n d
c lo s e r c o n n e c tio n w it h th e e m p lo y m e n t e x c h a n g e s p r o v e d to b e in d is ­
p e n s a b le a s a p r o t e c t io n a g a in s t th e fin a n c ia l m is u s e o f th e u n e m p lo y ­
m e n t fu n d s .
I n a c c o r d w it h th ese p o in t s o f v ie w s u g g e s te d b y th e c r it ic is m o f
v o lu n t a r y in s u r a n c e , G r e a t B r it a in in 1911 a d o p t e d n a t io n a l c o m ­
p u l s o r y in s u r a n c e , fir s t in th e in d u s t r ie s m o s t t h r e a te n e d b y u n ­
e m p l o y m e n t , n a m e l y , t h e b u i l d i n g a n d e n g i n e e r i n g t r a d e s .1 T o t h e
n u m b e r o f “ in s u r e d t r a d e s ” o f th e o r ig in a l la w (b u ild in g , r a ilw a y ,
h a r b o r , a n d s h ip c o n s t r u c t io n , w it h t h e ir s u b s id ia r y tr a d e s o f m a ­
c h in e b u ild in g a n d th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f a rm s, ir o n m o ld in g , c a r r ia g e <
b u ild in g , w o r k in s a w m ills , a n d m e c h a n ic a l w o o d w o r k in g ) w e r e
a d d e d in 1916 (M u n it io n W o r k e r s ’ A c t ) fa c t o r ie s f o r w a r e q u ip m e n t
a n d e x p lo s iv e s , th e c h e m ic a l in d u s tr y , th e m e ta l in d u s tr y , th e r u b ­
b e r a n d le a th e r in d u s tr ie s , th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f b r ic k s , c e m e n t, a n d
a r tific ia l ston es, a n d th e m a k in g o f w o o d e n cases.
O n ly th e b est
o r g a n iz e d tr a d e s ( m in in g , t e x t ile , a n d p r in t in g t r a d e s ) a n d th e
t r a d e s fille d w it h fe m a le w o r k e r s ( c lo t h i n g a n d fo o d s t u ffs in d u s t r ie s )
h a v e b e e n e x e m p t e d f r o m t h is u n e m p lo y m e n t in s u r a n c e .
A b a s is f o r
t h e e ff ic ie n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w o n u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e w a s f u r ­
n is h e d b y th e la w o n la b o r e x c h a n g e s o f F e b r u a r y 1 ,1 9 1 0 , w h ic h m a d e
p o s s ib le a s u rv e y o f th e la b o r m a rk e t. T h e 400 B r itis h e m p lo y m e n t
e x c h a n g e s c o u ld th u s s a t is fy in 1912 a g o o d t h ir d 6 f th e a p p lic a t io n s
f o r p o s it io n s a n d fill f o u r -fift h s o f th e p o s it io n s o ffe r e d .
I n 1913
t h e r e w e r e d is t r ib u t e d t o th e e m p lo y e e s o f th e in d u s tr ie s in s u r e d
a g a i n s t u n e m p l o y m e n t 2 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 b o o k s i n w h i c h t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s
w e re en tered .
T h e w e e k ly c o n t r ib u t io n a m o u n ts t o 2 | d . (5 c e n ts )
e a c h f o r a d u lt w o r k e r s a n d f o r e m p lo y e r s , a n d th e S ta te g r a n ts a s u b ­
s id y in th e a m o u n t o f o n e -th ir d o f th e c o m b in e d c o n tr ib u tio n s o f e m ­
p lo y e r a n d e m p lo y e e .
T h e a s s is ta n c e g iv e n t o th o s e o u t o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t is c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s e m ­
p lo y m e n t (2 6 w e e k s in th e p r e c e d in g 5 y e a r s ) , a n d th e p r o o f o f th e
i m p o s s ib ilit y o f f i n d i n g a s u it a b le p o s i t i o n ; a n a r b it r a t io n b o a r d
se ttle s d is p u t e s o n th e s e p o in t s .
T h e fir s t w e e k o f u n e m p lo y m e n t
c o u n t s a s w a i t i n g tim e .
F r o m t h e s e c o n d wT e k t h e u n e m p l o y e d r e ­
e
c e iv e s 7 s h illin g s ($ 1 .7 0 ) a w e e k . A t th e c lo s e o f th e fift e e n t h w e e k th e
n o r m a l le g a l p e r i o d o f a s s is ta n c e c o m e s t o a n e n d .
U n d e r c e r ta in
1 W . H . B everidge : U nem ploym ent, a Problem o f In d u stry, 1 9 0 8 ; D avid F. Schloss : In ­
surance A g a in st U nem ploym ent, 1 9 0 9 ; G. Gibbon : U nem ploym ent Insu rance, 1 9 1 1 : R eichsarb eitsb la tt, 1 9 1 0 , pp. 38, 9 9 , 2 7 8 , 3 5 1 , 4 2 4 ; R evue In tern atio n ale du CbOmage, 1 9 1 1 ,
V o l. I, p. 1.




44

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

c o n d i t i o n s r e i m b u r s e m e n t o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s is m a d e ( i n c a s e o f m o r e
th a n 500 w e e k ly p a y m e n t s o r o n a tta in m e n t o f th e s ix t ie t h y e a r ) .
C o n t r ib u t io n s a r e a ls o r e t u r n e d t o e m p lo y e r s w h o , in s t e a d o f d is ­
m is s in g th e ir e m p lo y e e s , h a v e th e m w o r k s h o r te r h o u rs .
I n cases
o f u n e m p lo y m e n t c a u s e d b y la c k o f t e c h n ic a l s k ill, th e m e a n s f o r
in d u s tr ia l t r a in in g a re fu r n is h e d o u t o f th e S ta te u n e m p lo y m e n t
fu n d .
T h e S t a t e m a y , o n th e b a s is o f a g r e e m e n ts m a d e w it h t r a d e u n i o n s t h a t p a y t o t h e i r m e m b e r s u n e m p l o y m e n t b e n e f it s i n t h e l e g a l
a m o u n t, r e fu n d t o th ese u n io n s u p t o t h r e e -fo u r th s o f th ese d is ­
b u r s e m e n t s . T h i s c la u s e , a d a p t e d f r o m t h e G h e n t s y s t e m , g a v e t o
t r a d e -u n io n s in 1913 a c la im t o 26 p e r c e n t o f a ll u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e f it s p a i d b y t h e m , w h i c h a m o u n t e d t o o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n p o u n d s
s t e r l i n g ($ 2 ,4 3 3 ,2 5 0 ) f o r 1 ,6 5 1 ,2 2 9 p a y m e n t s .
W it h o u t c o m p u ls o r y
in s u r a n c e t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e r e l i e f w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p a i d . 1
T h e B r i t i s h l a w m a k e s n o d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n a t i v e a n d a l ie n
u n e m p lo y e d .
T h e r e f o r e , e v e n a n a lie n w o r k e r o r h is s u r v iv o r s
a b r o a d m a y c la im r e im b u r s e m e n t t o a n a m o u n t e q u a l t o t h a t b y w h ic h
th e c o n t r ib u t io n s p a id u p t o h is s ix t ie t h y e a r e x c e e d th e u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e f it s r e c e i v e d b y h i m , w i t h c o m p o u n d i n t e r e s t a t 2 J p e r c e n t .
N e v e r th e le s s , t h is r e im b u r s e m e n t d e p e n d s u p o n th e c o n s e n t o f th e
B oa rd o f T rad e.
I t w o u ld b e b e tte r in th e fu t u r e t o m a k e su ch r e ­
im b u r s e m e n t s t h e s u b j e c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t .




1 B oard o f T rad e L abour G azette, M arch , 1 9 1 4 , p. 8 7 .

D IS T R IB U T IO N o f t h e
a g e g ro u p s o f
a d m is s io n
E M P L O Y M E N T p e too o r THE P O P U L A T IO N O F C O U N T R IE S
r
W IT H
P R O T E C T IV E
LEGISLATION*
jt g

of a m
d ission
1 5 - 16




1 with
3
.'Compulsory
school attendance

up+o

1-4-

13

f2
in

exceptional
cases

IO
cmd

under

IO

-0 .0 3

3 3 .1

6 6 .9

EUROPE

4-5.5

r
A S IA
A M 15.4-I C A
ER
3 2 /4 A U S T R A L IA

A F R IC A
45

t o




D I S T R I B U T I O N
E M P L O Y M E N T

O F

T H E

P E R

IOO

I N D I V I D U A L
P E R S O N S
IN

A G E

- G R O U P S

E M P L O Y E D

O F

IN

A D M I S S I O N

I N D U S T R Y

A N D

T O
M I N I N ©

E U R O P E

G ro u p

Europe
A<a g

G roup I

of ad
.m

is s fo n

i s - >6

100.0

J4L.

5*4.0

G anE pire
etm m
H-b

13 wi t h

G
reat

6»*itaiii

____
#chto| a d n Serbiaark
tten a ce O
er)m
com*-'1' * 1
pulsory
up to 14-

A

ja

Worwaj

Franc*

Netherlands

Sweden
Russia

It«»ly
Rumania
Jg£ in exceptional Portugal
.
f
ca ses io F lan
in d
G
reece

§62.2
6.6

cboy*

only!

&(.5

Bui a a r i d

Luxemburg

IOqj2jd

under

Hn
u gary
S
pafn

“

151.6

J -4-8.4-

C H A P T E R

IV .

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF THE PROTECTION OF
CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

1. PROTECTION OF CHILDREN.
L e g a l p r o h ib it io n o f th e a d m is s io n o f c h ild r e n t o fa c t o r ie s fo r m s
th e in t r o d u c t io n to th e w h o le h is t o r y o f th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r . T h e
fir s t a tte m p ts t o e x c lu d e c h ild r e n f r o m fa c t o r ie s w e r e m a d e in A u s t r i a
i n 1786 b y E m p e r o r J o s e pII, i n E n g l a n d i n
h
1796 b y D r . P e r c e v a l ,
i n S w i t z e r l a n d s i n 1815 b y t h e t e a c h e r s , i n F r a n c e 1827 b y D r .
ce
in
J e a n G e r s p a c h i n T h a n n , a n d i n P r u s s1828 n y G e n . v o n H o r n .
ia i b
T h e r e a so n s f o r th e e x c lu s io n a re to b e fo u n d in th e n e g le c t o f th e
h e a lth a n d th e e d u c a tio n o f th e c h ild r e n o n a c c o u n t o f fa c t o r y w o r k .
S u c h r e g u la tio n w a s o p p o s e d o n th e o n e h a n d b y th e g r e e d o f th e e m ­
p lo y e r s a n d o n th e o t h e r h a n d b y th e p o v e r t y a n d , in in d iv id u a l
ca ses, th e ig n o r a n c e a n d u n s c r u p u lo u s n e s s o f th e p a r e n ts .
R e g u la t io n o f th e a g e o f a d m is s io n o f c h ild r e n t o in d u s tr ia l e m ­
p lo y m e n t is n o w in e ffe c t in a ll in d u s t r ia l S ta te s. T h e a c c o m p a n y ­
i n g t a b l e 1 s h o w s th e c o u n t r ie s i n w h ic h i t is in o p e r a t io n . A s t h e r e
a re n o in te r n a tio n a l s ta tis tic s o n c h ild la b o r , th e im p o r t a n c e o f s e t­
t in g a n a g e lim it f o r th e a d m is s io n o f c h ild r e n in t o in d u s tr ia l es­
t a b lis h m e n t s c a n o n ly b e p r o p e r ly e s tim a te d in c o n n e c t io n w it h t h e
t o ta l p o p u la t io n o f e a ch c o u n tr y .
T h e t a b le s h o w s t h a t a t p r e s e n t 5 d iffe r e n t s y ste m s o f r e g u la t io n
o f th e a g e o f a d m is s io n a re in o p e r a tio n . A d m is s io n t o in d u s t r ia l
1 L egal age o f ad m ission o f children to em ploym en t in variou s c o u n tr ie s :

First group— 15 to 16 years.

MALE WORKERS.
A m e r ic a :
C a lifo rn ia .
O hio.
T e xas.
M ich igan .

E urope:
L iech tenstein.

FEMALE WORKERS.
E u ro p e :
L iech ten stein .

A m e r ic a :
C aliforn ia .
N evad a ( 1 6 ) .
O hio ( 1 6 ) .
T e xas.

Michigan.
(Footnote continued on p. 4&)




C a na da:
B ritish C olum bia,
M a n itob a ( 1 5 ) .
A u s tr a lia :
V icto ria .

47

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

48

e m p l o y m e n t i s c o n d i t i o n e d o n : 1. T h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e f i f t e e n t h
y e a r ; 2. T h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h y e a r ; 3. T h e a t t a i n m e n t
o f th e fo u r te e n th y e a r o r th e th ir te e n th y e a r a ft e r c o m p u ls o r y s c h o o l
a tte n d a n c e h a s b e e n c o m p lie d w i t h ; 4. T h e a tta in m e n t o f th e
t w e l f t h y e a r ; 5. T h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e t e n t h o r n i n t h y e a r .
( F o otn ote continued from p. 4 7 .)

Second group— 14 years.
(a )
t
A u stria .
B osnia.
H erzegovina.
B elgiu m .
Sw itzerland .
Sw eden (o n ly fo r
fem ale w o rk e rs).

'u r o p e :

(b )

18 y e a r s , w i t h

W i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t io n f o r s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e .

A m eric a :

A m e r ic a :

A la b a m a .
A rizo n a.
A rk an sa s.
Colorado.
C onnecticut.
D elaw are.
F lorid a.
G eorgia.
Illin o is.
In d ian a.
Iow a.
K a n sa s.
K en tu ck y.
L o u isia n a.
M ain e.
M arylan d .
M assa ch u setts.
M innesota.
M issou ri.

c o m p u ls o r y s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e u p to U
a u t h o r i t i e s , 12 o r 13 y e a r s .

E u rope:

G erm an E m p ire.
D enm ark.
G reat B rita in .
N orw ay ( 1 2 ) .
Serbia.

Canada:

M on tan a.
N ebraska.
N evada.
N ew H am psh ire.
N ew Jersey.
N ew York.
N orth D akota.
O klahom a.
Oregon.
P e n n sy lva n ia.
Rhode Island.
South D akota.
Tennessee.
U ta h .
V e rm on t.
V irgin ia.
W e s t V irg in ia .
W iscon sin .

A m eric a :

yea rs;

Quebec.
O ntario.
M an itoba .
N ova Scotia.
N ew B runsw ick.
B ritish Colum bia.
Saskatchew an.
A u str a lia :

V ictoria.
T a sm a n ia .
N ew Zealand.

w ith p e r m issio n

o f th e

A u str a lia :

D is tr ic t o f C olum bia.
Idaho.
P o rto Rico.
W a sh in g to n .

N ew South W a le s .
Q u een sla n d
W e s t A u s tra lia .

Third group— 13 years.
E u rope:

F ran ce (or 12 years, if
school attend ance is
fin ish ed ).
N etherlan ds.
Sw eden (m ale w o rk e rs).

A m eric a :

A fr ic a :

N orth C arolin a (12 for
a p p ren tices).

A lg iers.

Fourth group— 12 years (in individual States, " in exceptonal cases,” 10 years).
A m eric a :

E u rope:

B u lgaria (in exceptional cases, 10 y e a r s ).
Greece.
I ta ly .
Luxem burg.
P o rtu gal (w ith con sent o f the inspector,
10 y e a r s ).
R oum an ia.
R ussia.
F in lan d .

M ississip p i (fo r m ale w o r k e r s).
South C arolin a.
B uenos A ires.
M exico.
A -S ia :

Jap an.

Fifth group— 10 years and under,
E u rope:

H u n g a ry .
Sp ain.




A m er ic a :

B ra zil (app rentices in tex ­
tile factories. 8 y e a r s ).
A rg en tin a .

A fr ic a :

E g y p t (9 y e a r s ).
A sia :

E a s t In d ies (9 y e a r s ).

PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

49

T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s m a y b e a t t r ib u t e d a lm o s t e x c lu s iv e ly t o h is ­
t o r ic a l a n d p o lit ic a l ca u ses, a n d a b o v e a ll to th e a ttitu d e o f th e
c o u n t r ie s t o w a r d c o m p u ls o r y a tte n d a n c e a t s c h o o l.
T h e fo llo w in g
fa c t s w il l illu s t r a t e t h is d iv e r s it y .
B e f o r e 1 8 9 0 o n ly 15 c o u n t r ie s
in a ll in E u r o p e h a d e n a c te d r e g u la t io n s c o n c e r n in g th e p r o t e c t io n
o f c h ild r e n . O f th e s e 15 c o u n t r ie s , 12 a llo w e d c h ild r e n b e t w e e n t h e
a g e s o f 9 a n d 12 t o w o r k in fa c t o r ie s . I n 1918 th e r e w e r e 23 c o u n t r ie s
in E u r o p e t h a t h a d c h ild p r o t e c t io n la w s , a n d o f th e s e m o r e t h a n o n e h a l f ( 1 3 ) h a d fix e d th e c o m p le t e d .fo u r t e e n t h a n d th ir te e n th y e a r a s
th e a g e o f a d m is s io n t o fa c t o r ie s , w h ile 8 o t h e r c o u n t r ie s h a d fix e d
th e t w e lft h y e a r, a n d o n ly tw o , S p a in a n d H u n g a r y , h a d m a d e th e
te n t h y e a r th e a g e o f a d m is s io n .
I f w e c o n s id e r th e 6 c o u n t r ie s o f th e fo u r t h a n d fift h g r o u p s , w e
fin d t h a t I t a l y a lo n e h a s a n y p r o g r e s s t o r e p o r t . T h e a g e o f a d m is s io n
th e r e w a s r a is e d f r o m th e n in t h t o th e t w e l f t h y e a r in 1 9 0 2 . O n l y
H u n g a r y h a s t o r e c o r d a r e t r o g r e s s io n — t h e a d m is s io n a g e o f 12
(1 8 4 0 ) w a s lo w e r e d t o 10 in 1859 a n d h a s n o t s in c e b e e n c h a n g e d .
A l s o S p a in , P o r t u g a l, R u s s ia , F in la n d , a n d L u x e m b u r g h a v e n o t
c h a n g e d th e ir fo r m e r le g is la tio n .
O n th e o t h e r h a n d , s in c e 1903
fo u r B a lk a n S ta te s a n d L ie c h te n s te in h a v e b e e n a d d e d to th e n u m b e r
o f t h e S ta te s p o s s e s s in g c h ild p r o t e c t io n la w s . L ie c h t e n s t e in , B o s n ia ,
a n d S e rb ia b e lo n g to g r o u p s 1 a n d 2, B u lg a r ia a n d R o u m a n ia to
g r o u p 4.
I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e f o r e 1 8 9 0 o n l y 18 S t a t e s p o s s e s s e d l a w s f o r
th e p r o t e c t io n o f c h ild r e n , w h ile in 1918 s u ch la w s w e r e in f o r c e in
48 S ta te s. F o u r S ta te s h a v e fix e d th e a g e o f a d m is s io n a t 15, a n d
41 S t a t e s a t 14. O n l y 3 S t a te s h a v e m a d e th e r e q u ir e d a g e l o w e r
th a n 14 y e a rs .
L ik e w is e , in A u s tr a lia b e fo r e 1890 th e re w e re in
a ll 3 S ta te s t h a t h a d c h ild p r o t e c t io n la w s , w h ile in 1918 it w a s e s ta b ­
lis h e d in a ll 7 S ta te s , o f w h ic h 6 S ta te s h a d fix e d 14 y e a r s as th e
a g e o f a d m is s io n t o e m p lo y m e n t . E v e n in th e E a s t I n d ie s , in w h ic h
sin c e 1881 th e a g e o f a d m is s io n o f c h ild r e n t o f a c t o r y w o r k h a d b e e n
7 y e a r s , t h e a g e l im it w a s r a is e d t o 9 y e a r s in 1 8 91.
F r o m th ese
fa c t s th e f o l l o w i n g c o n c lu s io n s a re d r a w n :
1. S i n c e 1 8 9 0 w i t h i n t h e s e c o n t i n e n t s a n d c o u n t r i e s t h e r e h a s
b e e n a p r o g r e s s iv e m o v e m e n t in le g is la t io n w it h r e g a r d t o th e a g e o f
a d m is s io n o f c h ild r e n .
2. T h e h i g h e r a g e l i m i t o f 1 4 y e a r s f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n o f c h i l d r e n
p r o p o s e d b y S w itz e r la n d a n d A u s t r ia to th e B e r lin c o n fe r e n c e o n
la b o r le g is la tio n h a s b e c o m e th e p r e v a ilin g o n e in E u r o p e , A m e r ic a ,
C a n a d a , a n d A u s tra lia .
3. T h e a r g u m e n t b r o u g h t a g a i n s t t h i s a g e l i m i t , t h a t “ t h e s o u t h e r n
c o u n t r ie s w h o s e p o p u la t io n m a tu r e s e a r lie r w o u ld s u ffe r m o r e f r o m
97520°—19------4




50

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

th e se r e s t r ic t io n s th a n th e n o r t h e r n c o u n t r ie s ,” c a n n o t b e m a in t a in e d .
F o r s in c e 1 9 0 2 I t a l y , t o o , h a s r a is e d th e a g e o f a d m is s io n f r o m 9 t o
12 y e a r s , a n d in th e U n it e d S ta te s th e s o u t h e r n S ta te s , s itu a te d in
th e s e m it r o p ic z o n e , h a v e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t r a is e d th e a g e f r o m 12
t o 1 4.
4,
T h e c o u r s e o f fu r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t le a d s t o a h ig h e r a d m is s io n
a g e f o r fe m a le w o r k e r s o n th e o n e h a n d , a n d t o th e fix in g o f th e
1 5 th y e a r a s th e a g e o f a d m is s io n f o r m a le w o r k e r s o n th e o t h e r . A t
p re s e n t, th e r e a re 9 sta tes in th e w o r ld th a t a r e o n r e c o r d as h a v in g
a d o p t e d t h is a g e lim it , n a m e ly , L ic h t e n s t e in , C a l if o r n i a , O h io , T e x a s ,
M ic h ig a n , N e v a d a , M a n ito b a , B r it is h C o lu m b ia , a n d V ic t o r ia .
For
su ch a ste p b e y o n d th e d e m a n d s o f th e In t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r
L a b o r L e g is la tio n , th e In te r n a tio n a l C o n g r e s s f o r P r o t e c t iv e L a b o r
L e g is la t io n h a d a lr e a d y m a d e its p r o n o u n c e m e n t in 1 8 9 7 ( p r o t o c o l , p .
1 6 4 ). T h e in d u s t r ia l h y g ie n is t , J u le s A m a r , i s o f th e s a m e o p in io n .1
In regard to age we can assume that the power of resistance of the human
body is at its highest point between the ages of 25 and 40 years. It must ba
kept in mind that skeletal solidification, bone formation, and suture are not com­
pleted until the twentieth year; 16 to 18 years are required for the development
of the shoulder blade, which affords a broad surface for the attachment of
the muscles; 18 years for the humerus, 20 to 25 for the cubitus, the iliac bone,
and the femur, and 25 to 30 years for the spinal column. The bones of the
hand even are not fully developed before the age of 12 or 13. The need for
confining exertion within narrow limits is therefore easily understood, in order
that certain organs may not be forced into an abnormal development and de­
formity. In truth, science should always oppose the industrial practica o£
allowing children to work before they have attained their fifteenth year. It
produces a badly developed, weakly race, a stunted humanity. Where are there
legislators who would be interested in putting an end to such a reprehensible
T
social organization?

I n c e r ta in S ta te s t h e le g a l a g e o f a d m is s io n t o th e m o s t d a n g e r ­
o u s o f a l l t r a d e s , m i n i n g , is h i g h e r t h a n t h a t i n i n d u s t r y .
I n t h is
t r a d e a n a m o u n t o f c a r e fu ln e s s is r e q u ir e d w h ic h c a n n o t b e lo o k e d
f o r a m o n g c h ild r e n w h o h a v e ju s t l e f t s c h o o l; e v e n th e w o r k a b o v e
g r o u n d is f a t i g u i n g .
T h e a g e o f a d m i s s i o n t o w o r k b e l o w g r o u n d is a s f o l l o w s ; E i g h t e e n
y e a r s in A r iz o n a , W is c o n s in (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) ; 17 y e a r s in T e x a s
(a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) ; 16 y e a r s in S p a in , L u x e m b u r g (a ls o a b o v e
g r o u n d ) , N o r w a y , N e t h e r la n d s , A la b a m a
(a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ),
A la s k a , A r k a n s a s , C a lifo r n ia (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , C o lo r a d o (a ls o
a b o v e g r o u n d ) , C o n n e c tic u t , I llin o is (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , I o w a (1 4
y e a r s in th e s c h o o l h o lid a y s — b o t h a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , K e n t u c k y (a ls o
1 J. Anaar : Le M oteu r hu m ain et les bases scientifiques du tr a v a il p ro fessio n n el, P a ris , 1 9 1 4 , p. 1 4 3 .




PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

51

a b o v e g r o u n d ) , M a r y la n d (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , M o n ta n a (1 4 y e a rs
a b o v e g r o u n d ) , N e v a d a (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , O k la h o m a , P e n n s y l­
v a n ia (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , T e n n e sse e (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , W a s h ­
in g t o n (1 4 y e a r s a b o v e g r o u n d ) ; 15 y e a r s in B u lg a r ia , R u s s ia ,
S w e d e n , D e la w a r e a n d M ic h ig a n (a ls o a b o v e g r o u n d ) , S o u th D a ­
k o t a ( d u r i n g th e s c h o o l y e a r , o t h e r w is e 14 y e a r s ) , B r it is h C o lu m b ia ,
O n t a r io , Q u e b e c ; 14 y e a r s w it h a lo w e r a g e o f a d m is s io n a b o v e
g r o u n d in G r e a t B r it a i n f o r c o a l m in e s (1 3 f o r ir o n m i n e s ) , P o r t u ­
g a l, I t a l y in m in e s w it h m e c h a n ic a l e x t r a c t io n , a n d S i c i l y in s u lp h u r
p it s , o t h e r w is e 13 y e a r s .
T h e a g e o f a d m is s io n t o w o r k a b o v e g r o u n d is 13 y e a r s in
G r e a t B r it a in a n d 12 y e a r s in P o r t u g a l a n d I t a ly .
T h e age o f
a d m i s s i o n is 1 3 y e a r s b o t h a b o v e a n d b e l o w g r o u n d i n F r a n c ©
a n d N e w f o u n d l a n d , 13 y e a r s b e lo w g r o u n d a n d 1 2 y e a r s a b o v e
g r o u n d in R o u m a n ia , 12 y e a r s b e lo w g r o u n d a n d 10 y e a r s a b o v e
g r o u n d in G re e ce , a n d 12 y e a r s a b o v e a n d b e lo w g r o u n d in A lb e r t a ,
N o v a S c o tia , a n d S a sk a tch ew a n .
A te n d e n c y to g r a d u a lly e x clu d e c h ild r e n f r o m w o r k u n d e r ­
g r o u n d u p t o t h e s i x t e e n t h y e a r is c l e a r l y s e e n i n t h e c o u r s e o f d e ­
v e lo p m e n t .
B u t th e e x is tin g r e g u la t io n s r e fe r , so f a r as th e 1 4 th y e a r is fix e d
f o r e n te r in g g a in fu l e m p lo y m e n t, a lm o s t e x c lu s iv e ly t o in d u s tr y , a n d
h e re a g a in in p a r t o n l y t o w o r k in fa c t o r ie s (A u s t r ia , H u n g a r y ,
B o s n ia , R u s s i a ) ; in S w it z e r la n d t o fa c t o r ie s w it h m o r e t h a n 10 e m ­
p lo y e e s ; in G e r m a n y a n d S w e d e n t o fa c t o r ie s w it h a t le a s t 10 e m ­
p lo y e e s ; in B e lg iu m , D e n m a r k , a n d I t a l y t o fa c t o r ie s w it h a t le a s t
6 e m p lo y e e s , a n d in N o r w a y t o f a c t o r ie s w it h a t le a s t 5 m a le e m ­
p lo y e e s . I n a ll th e o t h e r c o u n t r ie s o f E u r o p e n o s u c h lim it is d r a w n .
I t m a y b e c o n c lu d e d f r o m t h is t h a t th e e x is t in g f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n is
n o t a b le t o c o n t r o l th e p r o t e c t io n o f c h ild r e n e m p lo y e d in s m a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h f e w e r t h a n 6 e m p lo y e e s .
I n th e U n it e d S t a t e s th e c o m p le t e d fo u r t e e n t h y e a r is th e a d ­
m is s io n a g e f o r e s t a b lis h m e n t s o f e v e r y s iz e e x c e p t in fiv e S t a t e s ,
o f w h ic h o n ly th re e S o u th e r n S ta te s h a v e im p o r ta n t te x t ile in d u s ­
tr ie s . I n Q u e e n s la n d a n d N e w Z e a la n d e s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h t w o o r
m o r e e m p lo y e e s , a n d in V ic t o r ia , N e w S o u t h W a le s , a n d T a s m a n ia
th o s e w it h f o u r o r m o r e e m p lo y e e s a r e in c lu d e d in th e r e g u la tio n s .
S o u t h A u s t r a l i a i n c l u d e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f a l l s iz e s ,
A s u r v e y o f th e p r o v is io n s in fo r c e in 93 S ta te s s h o w s th a t r e g u la ­
t io n s f o r t h e p r o t e c t io n o f c h ild r e n a r e n o t c o n fin e d t o e s t a b lis h m e n t s
o f a c e r t a i n s i z e i n 6 4 S t a t e s — L e ., i n a f u l l t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e s e
S ta te s. A m o n g th ese S ta te s, 4 E u r o p e a n a n d 45 A m e r ic a n S ta te s b e ­
lo n g t o g r o u p s 1 a n d 2 o f th e a g e o f a d m is s io n — th a t is t o s a y , o n ly




INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

52

o n e -s ix t h o f th e E u r o p e a n c o u n t r ie s a n d a lm o s t a ll th e S ta te s o f th e
A m e r ic a n U n io n .
F r o m th e se fa c t s w e m a y d r a w th e c o n c lu s io n th a t th e a d m is s io n
a g e o f 14 as th e in t e r n a t io n a l lim it , w it h e q u a l p r o v is io n f o r e d u c a ­
t io n a n d f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n , s u c h a s e x is ts f o r in s t a n c e in D e n m a r k
a n d N o r w a y , c o u ld b e m a d e t o a p p l y t o s m a lle r e s ta b lis h m e n ts —
i. e ., t o t h o s e w i t h a t l e a s t f i v e w o r k e r s . T h i s w o u l d m e a n a s m a l l
a d v a n ce f o r B e lg iu m , D e n m a r k , a n d I t a ly (r e d u c tio n o f th e lim it
f r o m s i x t o f i v e w o r k e r s ) , a n d a n i m p o r t a n t a d v a n cue s ft o ira , H u n ­
A
r
g a r y , B o s n ia , a n d R u s s i a ; f o r G e r m a n y a n d S w e d e n a r e d u c tio n fr o m
10 t o 5 w o r k e r s , a n d f o r S w it z e r la n d f r o m 11 t o 5 w o r k e r s .
F o r a ll w o r k o f c h ild r e n o u t s id e o f in d u s t r ia l w o r k , t h e r e h a v e
h it h e r t o e x is te d o n l y th e p r o v is io n s o f th e G e r m a n la w a n d th e
B r i t i s h c h i l d - l a b o r l a w o f 1 9 0 3 .1 T h e G e r m a n l a w d o e s n o t i n c l u d e
a g r ic u ltu r e .
T h e e n fo r c e m e n t o f b o t h la w s le a v e s m u c h t o b e d e s ir e d
w h e r e th e s c h o o l a u t h o r it ie s d o n o t c o o p e r a t e .
T h e G e r m a n la w
fix e s th e c o m p le t io n o f th e t w e lft h y e a r as th e a g e o f a d m is s io n f o r
c h ild r e n n o t b e lo n g in g t o th e fa m ily o f th e e m p lo y e r .
T h e r a is in g
o f t h is a g e o f a d m is s io n t o 1 4 p r e s u p p o s e s a p e r i o d o f t r a n s it io n as
w e l l a s c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a r e f o r t h a t c la s s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h is t o
be p rote cted .
T h e p e a c e d e m a n d s o f th e In t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r ask
t h a t “ a l l i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y b e f o r b i d d e n t o c h i l d r e n u n d e r 1 5 .”
T h e p r e a m b le t o t h is d e m a n d s a y s :
The fixing of the age of admission of children to industrial work, and at the
same time for their leaving school, at 14 years would be a change for the worse
under existing conditions in those countries in which the age for leaving school
is at present 15. The International Congress for Protective Labor Legislation
convened in Zurich in 1897 by social reformers had already demanded the raising
of the age of child protection to 15 as well as the extension of the age for leaving
school to the completed fifteenth year. In many of the belligerent countries, as
is proved by their illiteracy statistics, the school conditions are still so primitive
that this question is more of a political one, and therefore does not come within
the actual sphere of tasks of the trade-unions. The demand will therefore have
to be made for a minimum age of 15 for the admission of children to industrial
and other activities without regard to the age limit for leaving school.

T h e s e d e m a n d s o f G e r m a n tr a d e -u n io n s a re s u p p o r te d b y th e r e ­
s u lts o f a n o ffic ia l B r it i s h in v e s t ig a t io n . T h e n e c e s s it y f o r th e a c t iv e
p r o t e c t io n o f c h ild r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p le a ft e r th e w a r , f o r th e ir v o c a ­
tio n a l g u id a n c e , f o r th e ir te c h n ic a l t r a in in g in c o n tin u a tio n s c h o o ls ,
a n d f o r h u s b a n d in g t h e ir p h y s ic a l s t r e n g t h is c le a r . A n in v e s t ig a ­
t i o n m a d e b y t h e B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n o ff ic e h a s p r o v e d t h e i n a d e q u a c y
1 F rederic K e e l in g : C hild Labour in the U n ited K in gd om , London, K in g , 1 9 1 4 .




53

PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

o f th e s y s te m o f t r a in in g f o r w o r k e r s b e f o r e th e w a r .1
t o g iv e a n e x t r a c t f r o m th e s c h o o l s t a tis tic s 1 9 1 1 - 1 2 :2

I t i s s u f f ic ie n t

Per cent of—
Age.

12
13
14
15

to
to
to
to

13 years.......................................................
14 years.......................................................
15 years.......................................................
16 years.......................................................

Full-time
pupils.

Children
not attending
school.

Half-time
pupils.

91
66
12
4

4
9
16
14

5
25
72
82

Total.

100
100
100
100

1 G reat B r i t a i n : D ep a rtm en ta l C om m ittee on Ju venile E d u ca tion in R elation to
E m p lo y m en t a fte r the W a r .
F in a l R ep ort, V ols. I and I I .
London, 1 9 1 7 .
F o r the present sta tu s o f leg isla tio n on con tin u ation in stru ction the fo llo w in g en act­
m en ts are a u th o r it a t iv e :
T h e G erm an In d u stria l Code, a rticle 1 2 0 , says : “ Th e in d u stria l em ployer is bound
to g ra n t his w orkers under 18 years o f age w ho atten d an educational in stitu tio n recog­
nized by the m un icipal au th orities or by the State as a con tin u ation school th e n ecessary
tim e, to be fixed, if need be, by th e com petent a u th o ritie s.”
A ccord in g to the A u stria n Code, article 7 5a : “ The fa cto r y ow ners are bound, w ith o u t
preju dice to the du ties specially im posed upon them by article 1 0 0 w ith respect to appren­
tices, to gran t to their em ployees w ho have not com pleted their eighteenth year the neces­
sary tim e fixed by th e S ta te and the curriculum o f the schools in question fo r a tten d in g
the com m on in d u stria l con tin uation schools (a n d preparatory co u rses), as w ell as the
tech nical con tin uation sch ools.”
T h e Sw iss fa cto ry law , a rticle 76, says : “ T h e fa cto ry ow ner sh a ll gran t to those per­
son s w ho are in their seventeenth or eighteenth year and w ho are not appren tices up to
five hours w eekly fo r occupation al in struction during factory ho u rs.”
T h e N orw egian law for the protection o f labor o f Sept. 18, 1 9 1 5 , article 35, reads : “ I f
the school au th orities consider it necessary, in order th a t a school child acquire the neces­
sary know ledge, to restrict the w orking tim e o f the child beyond the lim it set down in the
law , they are em powered to take the necessary m easures. F o r children an d young persons
w ho atten d tech nical evening schools or other schools o f a sim ilar kind, the w orking tim e
;is to be so regu lated th a t they are not prevented from atten d in g these sch ools.”
T h e labor law o f the N eth erlan ds o f 1 9 1 1 , article 11, r e a d s : “ T h e chief or m anager o f
a business is bound to give to the you ng persons (up to 17 years o f age) w ho w ork in or
fo r his bu siness, in factories or w orkshops, an op portun ity to atten d religious, continu­
ation , review , or tech nical classes, a fte r 5 o’ clock in the a fte rn o o n .”
H ow ever, exem p­
tio n s are gran ted by m in isterial order.
T h e D an ish fa cto ry law o f A p ril 29, 1 9 1 3 , article 2 1 , con tain s analogous regu lation s for
tech nical or special school in stru ction a fte r 6 o’ clock.
T h e Sw edish p rotective labor law o f June 29, 1 9 1 2 , a rticle 10, con tain s a general regu­
la tio n fo r the gran tin g o f the free tim e necessary to atten d special or con tin u ation schoola
m ain tain ed by the S tate or com m u nity.
R u ssia, in the Code o f N ov. 15 ( 2 8 ) , 1 9 0 6 , decreed th a t “ w orkers in m a n u fa ctu r­
in g establish m en ts w ho have n ot yet attain ed their seventeenth year shall be gran ted th ree
hours a day on week days to atten d school, ap art from the tim e gran ted by article 1 for
m eals, th e tim e to be fixed on the basis of the obligatory resolu tion s o f article 5.
The
ch iefs o f the m inor w orkers in question have the rig h t to see to it th a t the la tte r atten d
school in th e tim e so set ap art.
T h e obligation to g ra n t to the m inors design ated three
hours’ free tim e for atten d in g school does not ap ply to the ow ners o f those m a n u fa ctu rin g
establish m en ts in w hich the period o f em ploym ent is less than 8 hours w ith in a period o f
2 4 hours, inclusive o f the in terva l fo r m eals, i f the m inors in question are dism issed a t
the sam e hour a t w hich the m inor w orkers o f other m an u factu rin g establish m en ts o f a
like natu re or situ ated in the sam e place are dism issed to atten d school (a rt. 5, par. 4 e ) . ”
T h e law o f O ntario o f A p r il 16, 1 9 1 2 , introduced the principle o f local option ; i t g ran ts
to the educational au th orities th e power to determ ine by a local s ta tu te the obligation o f
14 to 17 year old persons to atten d a con tin uation school.
In such cases, em ployers
have to in form the school au th orities o f the hours of em ploym ent o f the you ng persons.
2 G reat B ritain : D ep artm en tal C om m ittee on Ju venile E d u ca tion in R elation to E m p lo y­
m ent a fter the W a r . F in a l R eport, V o l. I, p. 3 .




54

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

O f t h e 2 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0 c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 1 4 a n d 1 8 , 8 1 .5 p e r
ce n t d id n o t g o to s c h o o l.
T h is la r g e n u m b e r o f c h ild r e n h a d to fin d
e m p lo y m e n t as a p p r e n t ic e s , as str e e t v e n d e r s , as d a y la b o r e r s . A s a
r e s u lt o f th e w a r , p a r e n t a l in flu e n c e h a s b e e n w e a k e n e d , a n d t h e
o r g a n is m o f th e y o u n g h a s b e e n u n d e r m in e d b y l o n g w o r k in g h o u rs .
T h e R o y a l C o m m is s io n o n th e P o o r L a w s (1 9 0 5 -1 9 0 9 ) h a d a lr e a d y
r e c o g n iz e d th e se w ea k n esses in th e s y s te m o f e d u c a tio n a n d p r o p o s e d
t o in c r e a s e th e o b l i g a t o r y s c h o o l a g e t o 15 a n d t o m a k e e x c e p t io n s
o n l y f o r b o y s w h o ta k e u p a s k ille d t r a d e . T h e m in o r it y r e p o r t d e ­
m a n d e d th a t th e a g e o f a d m is s io n t o fa c t o r ie s a n d w o r k s h o p s s h o u ld
a ls o b e r a is e d t o 15, a n d t h a t th e w o r k in g h o u r s o f y o u n g p e r s o n s 15
t o 18 y e a r s s h o u ld b e 3 0 h o u r s a w e e k , a n d t h a t a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f
h o u r s b e d e v o te d to a tt e n d in g c o n tin u a tio n s c h o o ls . W h il e M in is te r
R u n c im a n in 1911 p r o p o s e d t o le a v e th e r a is in g o f t h e c o m p u ls o r y
s c h o o l a g e t o lo c a l o p tio n , i t w a s a g re e d in 1917 th a t th e e d u ca tio n o f
c h ild r e n s h o u ld n o t b e l e f t to su ch lo c a l c o m p e titio n . E v e n th e r e p ­
r e s e n ta tiv e s o f a g r ic u lt u r e r e c o g n iz e th a t r e c o n s t r u c t io n o f a g r i c u l ­
tu re d e p e n d s u p o n b e tte r e d u ca tio n , a n d th e y d e m a n d th a t in t o w n
a n d c o u n t r y a lik e 14 y e a r s b e m a d e th e le g a l a g e f o r le a v in g th o
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls , as is a lr e a d y th e ca se in S c o t la n d a n d in C o r n ­
w a ll.
H e n c e th e p r o p o s a l o f th e c o m m is s io n o f 1 917 to a b o lis h
a ll e x c e p tio n s to c o m p u ls o r y s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e u p to th e fo u r te e n th
y e a r , a n d t o c o m p e l a t t e n d a n c e a t c o n t i n u a t i o n c la s s e s i n t h e d a y ­
t im e o f a t le a s t 8 h o u r s p e r w e e k (3 2 0 p e r y e a r ) u p t o th e e ig h te e n th
y e a r ; a ls o t o a b o lis h th e h a lf - t im e s y s te m . T h i s le a d s t o a r e d u c t io n
o f th e w o r k in g h o u r s t o a m a x im u m o f 48 h o u r s p e r w e e k .
A t
th e sa m e tim e m e d ic a l in s p e c tio n b y s c h o o l d o c t o r s (in s t e a d o f b y
a p p r o v e d d o c t o r s as h e r e t o fo r e ) in th e s ix te e n th a n d s h o r t ly b e fo r e
th e e ig h t e e n t h y e a r is r e c o m m e n d e d .1
1
G rea t B r it a i n : D ep a rtm en ta l C om m ittee on Ju venile E d u ca tion in R ela tio n to
E m p lo y m en t a fte r the W a r .
F in a l R ep ort, V o l. I . L ondon, 1917 P a ge 1 4 .— A . M . F lem in g , o f the B ritish W estin g h o u se E lec tric an d M a n u fa c tu r in g
C o . : “ A t 15 the you th is m ore p h y sica lly fit to take up in d u stria l w ork th a n he is a t
14 ; h is bent fo r a p a rticu la r vocation is likely to be m ore m arked, and he is less lik ely
sla v ish ly to im ita te the often u n sa tisfa c to ry ch aracteristics o f older w ork e rs.”
P a ge 1 7 .— W . J. R en sh aw , o f the A t la s W o r k s : “ Such a change [th e ra isin g o f the
age fo r le a v in g school to 1 5 ] w ould bring the follo w in g a d v a n t a g e s : ( 1 ) Increased pro­
ficiency in gen eral ed u cation an d m ore in tellig e n t absorption o f i t ; ( 2 ) g rea te r op p or­
tu n ity o f g iv in g an in d u stria l or com m ercial bias to the tra in in g d u rin g th e la s t tw o
yea rs o f s c h o o lin g ; ( 3 ) increased p h ysical a b ility to stan d th e stra in o f w ork in shop or
fa c to r y .”
Page 7 8 .— J. M . M a c ta v is h , secreta ry o f th e W o r k e r s ’ E d u ca tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n : “ N o t
on ly a ll ch ildren under th e age o f 14, bu t also a ll children un der th e age o f 1 5 w ho
a re n o t em ployed, should be com pelled to atten d fu ll tim e a t an elem en ta ry or other
school.
*
*
*
N o ch ild un der th e age o f 1 6 ou g h t to a tten d a school or course o f
in stru c tio n w h ich con cen tra tes solely on special tr a in in g for em ploym en t w ith o u t pro­
vision fo r the gen eral tra in in g o f the fa cu ltie s.”
(T ec h n ical ed ucation versu s tech nical
in stru c tio n .)
[T h e new B ritish E d u ca tion A c t w as passed A u g . 8 , 1 9 1 8 , and em bodies som e o f these
dem ands.— E d .]




PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

55

T h e c o s t in G r e a t B r it a in o f r a is in g th e a d m is s io n a g e t o 14 a n d
o f i n t r o d u c i n g c o n t i n u a t i o n c la s s e s is e s t i m a t e d a t f r o m o n e t o o n e a n d
o n e - f o u r t h m i l l i o n p o u n d s s t e r l i n g ($ 4 ,8 6 6 ,5 0 0 t o $ 6 ,0 8 3 ,1 2 5 ) a y e a r ;
b e s i d e s s i x t o e i g h t m i l l i o n p o u n d s ( $ 2 9 ,1 9 9 ,0 0 0 t o $ 3 8 ,9 3 2 ,0 0 0 ) f o r
t e a c h e r s , a n d o n e m i l l i o n ( $ 4 ,8 6 6 ,5 0 0 ) f o r e v e n i n g c la s s e s , a n d g o v ­
e r n m e n t a l a id t o t h e lo c a l a u t h o r it ie s is c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y .
It
is c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y , a ls o , t o t r a n s f e r th e a u t h o r it y t o e n f o r c e
th e c h i ld - l a b o r la w o f 1 9 0 3 t o th e s c h o o l a u t h o r it ie s .
A d ep a rtm e n ta l
c o m m i t t e e p r o p o s e d i n M a y , 1 9 1 0 , t o p r o h i b i t s t r e e t v e n d i n g f o r b o j^ s
u n d e r 17 a n d g ir ls u n d e r 18. F o r th e c h ild r e n w h o m th e w a r h a s
t a k e n f r o m s c h o o l a t t h e a g e o f 1 2 y e a r s p r e p a r a t o r y c la s s e s i n c o n ­
n e c t io n w it h c o n tin u a tio n s c h o o ls a re to b e fo r m e d .
T h e p r o p o s a l t o r e lie v e th e la b o r m a r k e t a ft e r t h e w a r b y r a is in g
t h e s c h o o l a g e t o 15 s h o u ld b e a d o p t e d o n l y in t h e m o s t e x t r e m e
ca s e s , as th e s c h o o ls a r e n o t e q u ip p e d f o r it.
O n th e o th e r h a n d ,
e m p lo y m e n t e x c h a n g e s f o r ju v e n ile w o r k e r s a re e n th u s ia s tic a lly r e c ­
om m en ded.
A d e m a n d f o r th e r e s tr ic tio n o f th e in d u s tr ia l e m p lo y m e n t o f
c h ild r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p le w a s r e p e a te d ly m a d e e v e n b e fo r e th e w a r
i n t h o s e c i r c l e s i n G e r m a n y t h a t f a v o r c o n t i n u a t i o n c la s s e s .
The
C e n tr a l N a tio n a l W e lfa r e B u re a u
(Zentralstelle fiir Volkswohlfahrt)
d e c la r e d in 1909 th a t th e g e n e ra l in tr o d u c tio n o f th e c o n tin u a tio n
s c h o o l f o r a ll y o u n g p e o p le u p t o th e e n d o f th e s e v e n te e n th y e a r
a t le a s t, a n d w it h a t le a s t 6 h o u r s ’ in s t r u c t io n a w e e k , w a s e x c e e d ­
i n g ly d e s ir a b le .
T h e ta s k o f th e c o n t in u a t io n s c h o o l is t o r o u n d o u t
a n d t o p r o m o t e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; i t h a s , b e s id e s , i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s
in c o n n e c t io n w it h th e g e n e r a l, h is t o r ic a l, a n d c iv ic t r a in in g o f
y o u th .
T h e w e ll-k n o w n e d u c a to r o f M u n ic h , D r . K e r s c h e n s te in e r ,
c a lle d a tte n tio n t o a n E n g lis h b ill w h ic h p r o v id e d f o r th e c o m p u l­
s o r y c o n tin u a tio n s c h o o l sy stem , a n d e x p r e s s e d th e o p in io n th a t th e
m o r a l b a s is o f su ch a c o n t in u a t io n s c h o o l s y s te m h a d b e e n r e c o g ­
n iz e d th e r e b e tte r th a n in G e r m a n y .1
S in c e th e n th e r e a so n s f o r th e in te r n a tio n a l p r o t e c t io n o f c h il­
d r e n h a v e b e e n n o w h e r e m o r e c le a r ly r e c o g n iz e d th a n in th e U n it e d
S ta te s.
F o r a d e ca d e th e c o tto n g o o d s m a n u fa c tu r e r s o f th e S ta te s
o f V i r g in i a , t h e t w o C a r o lin a s , a n d A la b a m a h a d e n e r g e t ic a lly o p ­
p o s e d th e d e m a n d f o r c h ild p r o t e c t io n a n d h a d in ju r e d th e N o r t h ­
ern S ta te s b y th e ir c o m p e titio n .
T o b r e a k u p t h is o p p o s i t io n o n th e
p a r t o f th e se in d iv id u a l* S ta te s w it h o u t a ffe c t in g th e c o n s t it u t io n a l
c o n t r o l o f in d iv id u a l S ta te s in th e d o m a in o f f a c t o r y in s p e c tio n ,
S e n a t o r B e v e r id g e h a d a lr e a d y s u g g e s te d in a b ill in 1 907 th e e x ­
1
Fiirsorge fiir die sch u len tlassen e m&nnliche Jugend, na m en tlich im A n sch lu ss an die
Fortbild u n g sseh u le.
V orberieh t und V erhan dlungen der dritten K on feren z der Z e n tra lstelie fiir V o lk sw o h lfa h rt, B erlin , 1 9 0 9 , pp. 2 7 2 , 2 8 4 .




56

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

e lu s io n o f a ll g o o d s p r o d u c e d b y t h e w o r k o f c h ild r e n f r o m in t e r ­
sta te c o m m e r c e , th e r e g u la tio n o f w h ic h c o m e s w it h in F e d e r a l ju r is ­
d ic t io n . I n th e S ix t y -fo u r t h C o n g r e s s a s im ila r b i ll w a s in t r o d u c e d
b y R e p re s e n ta tiv e K e a t in g , w h ic h w a s s u p p o r te d b y th e F a r m e r s ’
E d u c a tio n a l a n d C o o p e r a tiv e U n io n a n d th e A m e r ic a n F e d e r a tio n
o f L a b o r , a n d a ls o b y P r e s id e n t W o o d r o w W ils o n , a n d p a s s e d b y
b o th H o u s e s . T h is F e d e r a l la w c o n c e r n in g c h ild la b o r o f S e p te m b e r
1 , 1 9 1 6 , w e n t i n t o f o r c e o n S e p t e m b e r 1, 1 9 1 7 .1
T h e la w d ir e c t s t h a t t h e r e s h a ll b e e x c lu d e d f r o m in t e r s t a t e c o m ­
m e r c e : ( 1 ) P r o d u c t s o f m in e s a n d s to n e q u a r r ie s in w h ic h c h ild r e n
u n d e r 16 h a v e w o r k e d w it h in 30 d a y s b e f o r e th e s h ip p in g o f th e
p r o d u c t s ; (2 ) p r o d u c t s o f fa c t o r ie s in w h ic h w it h in 30 d a y s b e fo r e
s h ip m e n t ( a ) c h ild r e n u n d e r 14 h a v e w o r k e d o r in w h ic h ( b ) c h ild r e n
b e tw e e n th e a g e s o f 14 a n d 16 h a v e w o r k e d lo n g e r th a n 8 h o u r s a d a y
o r lo n g e r th a n 6 d a y s in th e w e e k o r b e tw e e n 7 o ’c lo c k in th e e v e n in g
a n d 6 o ’c lo c k in th e m o r n in g .
T h e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e la w d e v o lv e s u p o n th e D e p a r tm e n t o f
L a b o r , w h i c h c o o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e o f f ic ia ls o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e s .
T h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l, th e S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e , a n d th e S e c r e t a r y
o f L a b o r fo r m a c o m m itte e o f th re e t o d r a w u p th e r e g u la tio n s f o r
th e p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a t io n o f th e la w . T h e a g e n ts o f th e D e p a r tm e n t
o f L a b o r a r e e m p o w e r e d t o u n d e r ta k e th e n e ce s s a r y in s p e c t io n e v e r y ­
w h e r e . T h e d i s t r i c t a t t o r n e y s a r e c o m m i s s i o n e d t o b r i n g s u it i m m e ­
d ia t e ly b e f o r e th e c o m p e te n t F e d e r a l c o u r t b e c a u s e o f in fr in g e m e n t s
w h ic h a re r e p o r t e d t o th e m , e ith e r b y th e S e c r e ta r y o f L a b o r , o r b y
a c c r e d it e d in s p e c to r s , la b o r c o m m is s io n e r s , m e d ic a l in s p e c t o r s , o r
s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e in s p e c t o r s . T h e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e la w is m a d e
e a s ie r b y a g u a r a n t y s y s te m , a c c o r d in g t o w h ic h d e a le r s m a y n o t b e
c o n v ic t e d i f t h e y h a v e p r o t e c t e d th e m s e lv e s b y o b t a i n in g a g u a r a n t y
fr o m th e p r o d u c e r t h a t th e g o o d s h a v e n o t b ee n m a d e b y ille g a l c h ild
la b o r .
I t is t h i s l a w w h i c h t h e r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e A m e r i ­
ca n F e d e r a tio n o f L a b o r o f B u ffa lo (1 9 1 7 ) w o u ld m a k e in te r n a ­
t io n a lly e ffe c tiv e .
I n a n y case, th e A m e r ic a n F e d e r a l c h ild -la b o r
la w fa c ilit a t e s th e c o n c lu s io n o f in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n ts w it h th e
U n it e d S t a t e s ; it in c re a s e s a ls o f o r p o lit ic a l a n d c o m m e r c ia l r e a s o n s
th e in te r e s t o f a ll c o u n t r ie s in th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f t h e ir c h i ld - l a b o r
la w s .2
1 T h is law w as declared u n con stitu tion al by the U nited S ta tes Suprem e C ourt on June
3 , 1 9 1 8 . A ta x in g m easure, lik ely to effect the sam e purpose, is em bodied in the revenue
act o f Feb. 2 4 , 1 9 1 9 .
A d m in istra tio n devolves upon th e S ecretary o f the T rea su ry , the
C om m ission er o f In tern a l R evenue, an d the Secretary o f L a b or.— [E d .]
2 U eber das B und esgesetz fu r K in d e r a r b e it: B u lle tin des In tern a tio n a len A r b eitsam te s,
vol. 15, 1 9 1 6 , pp. 4 8 * — 0 * , 2 4 9 ; U n ited S tates D ep artm en t o f Labor, C hild ren’ s ^Bureau,
5
C hild Labor D iv ision , C ircular N o. 1, A u g. 14, 1 9 1 7 ; T h e C hild Labor B u lle tin , published
by N a tio n a l C hild L abor C om m ittee, vol. 2, p. 7 1 .




PROTECTION

OF

CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

57

2. PROTECTION OF YOUNG PERSONS,
I f th e p r o t e c t io n o f c h ild r e n h a s p r im a r ily th e p u r p o s e o f p r e v e n t­
i n g in ju r ie s f r o m a p r e m a t u r e e n t r y in t o in d u s t r ia l l if e , so a ls o th e
p h y s ic a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f y o u n g p e r s o n s im m e d ia te ly a ft e r th e s c h o o l
p e r io d s h o u ld n o t b e s tu n te d a n d t h e ir e d u c a t io n r e s t r ic t e d b y th e e x ­
c e s s iv e d r u d g e r y o f th e n ig h t a n d d a y w o r k o f th e a d u lt. T h e r e ­
a liz a t io n o f t h is m o v e d E n g l i s h d o c t o r s e v e n in 1 8 3 3 t o d e m a n d t h e
p r o h ib it io n o f n ig h t w o r k a n d a m a x im u m w o r k in g d a y o f 10 h o u r s
f o r y o u n g p e r s o n s u p t o th e e ig h te e n th y e a r . T h e y a r g u e d th a t n ig h t
w o r k e n d a n g e r e d th e h e a lth t h r o u g h b a d v e n t ila t io n o f th e f a c t o r y
r o o m s , t h e i n c r e a s e d d a n g e r o f t a k i n g c o l d , a n d i n s u f f i c ie n t s l e e p o n
a c c o u n t o f th e n o is e d u r in g th e d a y . T h e la w o f 1833 fo r b a d e th e
n ig h t w o r k o f y o u n g p e rs o n s, b u t, fr o m fe a r o f fo r e ig n c o m p e titio n ,
it a llo w e d th e m t o w o r k 12 h o u r s . I t w a s n o t t i ll 1847 t h a t a 1 0 -h o u r
c la y w a s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e m .
I n th e m a jo r it y o f c o u n t r ie s th e p r o t e c t io n o f m a le a n d o f fe m a le
y o u n g p e r s o n s w it h r e g a r d to w o r k in g h o u r s a n d p r o h ib it io n o f
n i g h t w o r k h a s p r o g r e s s e d a l o n g p a r a l l e l l in e s .
E x te r n a l c ir c u m ­
sta n ce s, h o w e v e r , b r o u g h t a b o u t an u n e q u a l r e g u la t io n b o th o f h o u r s
o f la b o r a n d re st p e r io d s , a n d o f th e a g e lim it f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f
y o u n g p e r s o n s . T h e in a d e q u a t e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e E n g lis h la w o f
1 8 3 3 , w h ic h a t th e sa m e tim e in t r o d u c e d f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n , in d u c e d
P r u s s ia in its r e g u la tio n s o f 1839 t o d e cr e e a lo w e r a g e lim it th a n th e
18 y e a r s p r e s c r ib e d b y t h e B r it is h la w , n a m e ly , 16 y e a rs . A u s t r i a
f o l l o w e d t h is e x a m p l e i n i t s I n d u s t r i a l C o d e o f 1 8 5 9 , a n d i n B e l g i u m
in 1889 th is a g e lim it w a s fo r c e d in p a r lia m e n t b y th e c o n te n tio n th a t
a 1 6 - y e a r - o l d y o u t h is a g r o w n m a n . B e f o r e t h e W o r l d W a r , t h e r e g u ­
la t io n o f th e w o r k in g d a y f o r y o u n g p e r s o n s in fa c t o r ie s in E u r o p e
w a s as f o l l o w s :
A G E L IM IT F O R A D M ISS IO N TO W O R K , L E G A L P E R IO D O F N IG H T R E S T , A N D M A X I ­
M U M H O U R S OF L A B O R , F O R Y O U N G P E R S O N S IN S P E C IF IE D E U R O P E A N C O U N T R IE S
B E F O R E T H E O U T B R E A K OF T H E W A R .
----------------—____ "3.
Country.

Denmark...........................................................................................
France................................................................................................
Great Britain...................................................................................
Fin lan d..............................................................................................
Greece.................................................................................................
N orw ay..............................................................................................
Sweden...............................................................................................
Switzerland......................................................................................
Netherlands.....................................................................................
Germany...........................................................................................
Austria...............................................................................................
Bosnia................................................................................................
Belgium.............................................................................................
Luxem burg____•
..............................................................................
Portugal.............................................................................................
Ita ly ....................................................................................................
Bulgaria.............................................................................................
R oumania.........................................................................................




1 54 hours p6r week.

Age limit
(years).

Night rest
(hours).

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
17
16
16
16
16
16
16
15
15
15
15

\In winter, 10 hours.

10
8
12
10
11
11
29
11
11
11
11
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
8

Maximum
hours of labor.

10
10
10
12
10
1 10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
12
10
10
8
11
8
8

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

T h is in e q u a lit y c o u ld b e ju s t ifie d n e it h e r b y c lim a t ic n o r b y
h y g ie n i c c o n s id e r a t io n s .
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s in 3 4 s e p a r a te S ta te s
n ig h t w o r k w a s fo r b id d e n o n ly u p t o th e s ix te e n th y e a r , in C a li­
f o r n ia u p t o th e e ig h te e n th y e a r , a n d in M a ssa ch u se tts u p t o th e
tw e n ty -fir s t y e a r.
T h e w o r k in g d a y w a s r e g u la te d in 6 S ta te s u p to
th e e ig h te e n th y e a r , in N e w H a m p s h ir e u p t o th e tw e n ty -fir s t y e a r ,
in 29 o th e r S ta te s u p t o th e s ix te e n th y e a r .
I t a m ou n ted to 8 h o u rs
in 18 S ta te s , 9 h o u r s in 7 S ta te s , a n d 10 h o u r s in 13 S ta te s . T h e d u r a ­
t io n o f th e le g a l n ig h t r e s t w a s 12 t o 15 h o u r s in 1 4 S ta te s , 11 h o u r s
in 10 S ta te s, 10 h o u r s in 3 S ta te s, 9 h o u r s in 6 S ta te s , a n d 8 h o u r s
in 1 S ta te .
A g a in , t h e p r o h i b it i o n o f n ig h t w o r k o f y o u n g p e r s o n s is s u b je c t t o
c o u n t l e s s e x c e p t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l yt h e d a n g e r o u s a n d s t r e n u o u s i n ­
in
d u s tr ie s , s u ch as ir o n a n d s te e l w o r k s a n d g la s s fa c t o r ie s , a n d in s o m e
S ta te s, in o r d e r t o r e d u c e th e c o s t o f p r o d u c t io n , in p a p e r , s u g a r ,
c a n n in g , a n d e n a m e l-w a r e fa c t o r ie s , b u t n o t in o th e r s . T h e r e a s o n s
g iv e n f o r m a n y o f th ese e x c e p tio n s a re th e n e c e s s ity o f te a m w o r k
(ZusamTnenarbeiten ) , a n d o f t h e t r a i n i n g o f a s k i l l e d r i s i n g g e n e r a ­
t io n t h r o u g h a p p r e n t ic e s h ip .
B u t p e r s o n s o v e r 16 y e a r s o f a g e c a n
b e fo u n d f o r te a m w o r k a t n ig h t , a n d a t r a d e c a n a ls o b e le a r n e d in th e
d a y tim e .
T h e r e a l p r o b l e m is , t h e r e f o r e , o n e o f c o m p e t i t i o n , c o s t s ,
an d w ages.
S h o u ld t h e 14 t o 16 y e a r o ld w o r k e r s in b la s t fu r n a c e s in
A u s t r ia b e r e p la c e d b y 16 t o 18 y e a r o ld w o r k e r s , th e n , a c c o r d in g t o
th e c a lc u la t io n s o f F a c t o r y I n s p e c t o r H a u c k , th e p r ic e o f a m e tr ic
c e n t n e r o f p i g i r o n w o u ld b e r a is e d o n a c c o u n t o f th e h ig h e r w a g e s
b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 .1 3 t o 0 .2 7 o f a h e l l e r [ 0 .2 7 t o 0 .5 4 c e n t p e r l o n g
to n ].
T h e sa m e t h in g is tr u e o f ste e l w o r k s . T h e s e c h ild r e n , im ­
m e d ia t e ly a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l, a r e e m p l o y e d f r o m 11 t o 12 h o u r s
d a ily , a n d d e p r i v e d o f t h e ir n i g h t ’s s le e p .
T h e y are e x p o se d to
s e r io u s r is k o f a c c id e n t a n d u se d , as m a c h in e te n d e r s a n d d o o r p u lle r s ,
f o r ta sk s th a t e ls e w h e r e a r e b e in g p e r f o r m e d m o r e a n d m o r e b y a u t o ­
m a tic c o n tr iv a n c e s .
F o r t h e ir v o c a t io n a l t r a in in g t h is e m p lo y m e n t
h a s n o t th e s lig h t e s t v a lu e .
T h e In te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n h a s n o w p r o ­
p o s e d th e r a is in g o f th e p r o t e c t e d a g e t o 18, th e p r o h ib it io n o f n ig h t
w o r k f o r a p e r io d o f 11 h o u r s , th e a b o lit io n o f u n ju s t ifie d e x c e p t io n s ,
a n d th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y f o r y o u n g p e rs o n s (w it h fr e e S a t u r d a y a ft e r ­
n o o n s ) b y m e a n s o f in te r n a tio n a l r e g u la t io n .
T h e s e p r o p o s a ls , as
w a s m e n t io n e d in th e in t r o d u c t io n t o th e p r e s e n t v o lu m e , w e r e
c o n s i d e r a b l y c u t d o w n b y a n o f f ic ia l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e o f e x ­
p e r ts in 1913.
T h e tr a d e -u n io n p r o g r a m o f L e e d s h a s a g a in ta k e n
u p th e d e m a n d s o f th e In te r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia tio n .
T h e I n te r n a tio n a l
F e d e r a t io n o f L a b o r d e m a n d s th e 8 -h o u r d a y f o r y o u n g p e o p le u p
t o th e e ig h te e n th y e a r .
T h e 8 -h o u r d a y is a t p r e s e n t in f o r c e in 15




PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS.

59

s e p a r a te S ta te s in th e A m e r ic a n U n io n (u p t o 16 y e a r s ) , in s o u t h
A u s t r a lia (u p t o 18 y e a r s ) , in Q u e e n s la n d , T a s m a n ia , a n d m o s t r e ­
c e n tly in th e S ta te s h a v in g a g e n e r a l 8 -h o u r d a y : F in la n d , M e x ic o ,
E cu a d or, and U ru gu a y.
S o m e S ta te s (C o a h u ila , P o r t o R i c o ) h a v e
ev e n s h o r te n e d th e w o r k in g d a y o f y o u n g p e o p le to 6 a n d 7 h o u rs ,
in o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y t im e f o r c o n t in u a t io n s tu d ie s .
It
c a n n o t b e d e n ie d t h a t s u c c e s s fu l r e s u lts f r o m in s t r u c t io n a f t e r a
1 0 -h o u r w o r k in g d a y a re n o t to b e o b ta in e d , a n d th a t in v ie w o f th e
g r e a t s h o r ta g e o f s k ille d la b o r a ft e r th e w a r f o r in d u s tr ie s w h ic h e m ­
p l o y e x p e r t w o r k e r s , a m a x i m u m w o r k i n g d a y o f 8 h o u r s is t o b e
r e c o m m e n d e d f o r ju v e n ile w o r k e r s .
I t is m o r e o v e r c le a r t h a t w it h
th e p r o s p e c t iv e g e n e r a l in t r o d u c t io n o f an 8 -h o u r d a y f o r a d u lt
w o r k e r s , t h e f u l l e f f ic ie n c y o f i n d u s t r y c a n o n l y b e m a i n t a i n e d b y
t h o r o u g h ly t r a in in g th e r is in g g e n e r a tio n .
F u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f
th e p r o te c tio n o f y o u n g p e rs o n s is th e r e fo r e fr o m n o w o n o n e o f th e
m o s t p r e s s in g r e fo r m p r o b le m s .







C H A P T E R

V.

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF THE PROTECTION OF
FEMALE LABOR.

I s th e s p e c ia l p r o t e c t io n o f fe m a le la b o r o f in t e r n a t io n a l in te r e s t?
I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h is q u e s t io n a s h o r t s u r v e y o f th e h is t o r y o f th e
n a t io n a l p r o t e c t io n o f fe m a le in d u s t r ia l w o r k e r s is n e ce s s a r y .
D u r i n g th e fir s t 3 0 y e a r s o f t h e n in e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n in d u s t r ia l
r e v o lu t io n t o o k p la c e o n th e c o n tin e n t o f E u r o p e .
I n th e w e a v in g
in d u s t r y h o m e w o r k w a s r u in e d b y th e t e x t ile f a c t o r y ; c h ild r e n a n d
w o m e n stre a m e d in to fa c t o r ie s a n d m in e s ; th e w a g e s o f a d u lts d e ­
c r e a s e d u n d e r th e in flu e n c e o f t h e fir s t c ris e s . T h e e a r n in g s o f w o m e n
b e c a m e a n e ce s s a r y p a r t o f th e fa m ily in c o m e .
T h e r e s u lt s o f t h i s f i r s t m o b i l i z a t i o n o f f e m a l e l a b o r a r e w e l l k n o w n .
I n 18 4 0 th e in v e s t ig a t io n o f w o m a n a n d c h ild la b o r in m in e s in it ia t e d
b y L o r d S h a ft e s b u r y r e v e a le d th e f a c t th a t 3 t o 5 y e a r o ld c h ild r e n
w e r e w o r k in g w ith th e ir m o th e r s u n d e r g r o u n d . T h e b r u ta l tr e a tm e n t
o f th e se w o m e n r o u s e d th e h o r r o r o f a ll o th e r t r a d e w o r k e r s .
On
A u g u s t 7, 1842, th e w o r k o f w o m e n u n d e r g r o u n d w a s fo r b id d e n b y
la w . I t w a s o n ly a ft e r th is p r o h ib it io n t h a t tr a d e -u n io n s c o u ld b e
f o r m e d a m o n g t h e m in e r s w h o w e r e a b le t o o b t a in in c r e a s e d w a g e s
f o r a d u lt m a le w o r k e r s a n d t h e r e b y t o m a k e u p f o r th e d e cr e a s e in
th e fa m i l y in c o m e .
I n th e te x t ile in d u s t r y n ig h t w o r k le d t o d ru n k e n n e ss o n th e p a r t
o f w o m e n a n d t o a cts o f v io le n c e in th e te x tile ce n te rs. A n in v e s ti­
g a t io n s h o w s t h a t in th is t r a d e th e w o m e n w o r k e r s m u s t tr a v e r s e
1 7 t o 3 0 E n g l i s h m i l e s i n a. w o r k i n g d a y o r n i g h t o f 1 2 h o u r s . 6 H o w
6
c a n s u ch w o r k e r s fu lf il l t h e ir d u tie s as w iv e s a n d m o th e r s ? ” a sk s
L o r d S h a ft e s b u r y . T h e la w o f M a y 3 ,1 8 4 7 , p r o h ib it e d th e n ig h t w o r k
o f w o m e n in t e x t ile fa c t o r ie s a n d lim it e d th e ir d a ily w o r k in g h o u r s
a f t e r J u ly , 1 8 4 8 , t o 10 h o u r s o n th e fir s t 5 w e e k d a y s a n d t o 8 h o u r s
o n S a t u r d a y s . A c o m p r o m is e le d a ft e r 18 5 0 t o a 1 0 ^ -h o u r w o r k in g
d a y a n d a 5 ^ -h o u r d a y o n S a tu r d a y s . S in c e th e n u m b e r o f w o m e n
e m p lo y e d in th e t e x t ile in d u s t r y h a s n e v e r th e le s s n o t d e c r e a s e d s in c e
t h a t t im e , b u t r e m a in e d th e s a m e t ill th e W o r l d W a r , it is c le a r th a t
p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s h a v e e x e r c is e d n o h a r m fu l in flu e n c e o n th e e m ­
p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n .1
1
246.

G . W o o d , quoted by B auer in D ie gew erbliche N ach tarb eit der F rau en , Jena, 1 9 0 3 . p.




61

62

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

A m e a su re in f a v o r o f w o r k in g m o th e r s — th e p r o h ib it io n o f f a c ­
t o r y w o r k b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t d u r in g a s p e c ifie d n u m b e r
o f w e e k s — is d u e t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e F a c t o r y W o r k e r s ’ U n i o n o f
G la r u s , w h ic h w it h t h e h e lp o f th e m e d ic a l f r a t e r n i t y c a r r ie d t h is
d e m a n d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e l o c a l a s s e Landsgemeinde ) o f
m b ly (
1864. T h e p e r io d o f o b lig a t o r y le a v e to b e g r a n te d t o m o th e r s b e f o r e
a n d a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t w a s in c r e a s e d b y t h e S w is s F e d e r a l f a c t o r y la w
o f 1 8 7 7 t o 8 w e e k s i n a l l.
T h e P o r t u g u e s e la w o f 1891 s u p p le m e n te d a s im ila r p r o t e c t iv e
m e a s u r e b y t h e p r o v is io n t h a t f a c t o r y n u r s e r ie s s h o u ld b e e s t a b lis h e d
b y fa c t o r y o w n ers w h o e m p lo y m o re th a n 50 w om e n , a n d th a t th e
m o th e r s s h o u ld b e a llo w e d t o g o e v e r y d a y t o th e n u r s e r y d u r in g
w o r k in g h o u r s t o n u r se t h e ir c h ild r e n .
T h u s th e o b je c t o f th e s p e c ia l p r o t e c t io n o f fe m a le l a b o r is th e
re scu e o f th e w o m a n a n d th e m o t h e r f r o m t h e c lu t c h e s o f u n s c r u p u ­
lo u s g r e e d , a n d in co n s e q u e n ce th e p r o t e c t io n o f u n b o r n g e n e r a ­
tio n s .
S in c e th e la r g e s t n u m b e r o f fe m a le w o r k e r s w a s c o n c e n ­
t r a te d in th e o r ig in a l h o u s e h o ld in d u s t r ie s — t e x t ile , c lo t h in g , a n d f o o d
in d u s tr ie s — th e r e d u c t io n o f t h e ir w o r k in g h o u r s r e a c te d a u t o m a ­
t i c a l ly u p o n th e m e n w h o w o r k e d w it h th e m . W i t h t h e in c r e a s e o f
in d u s tr ia l p ro c e s s e s in ju r io u s t o h e a lth , a n u m b e r o f o c c u p a t io n s
h a v e b e e n h a r m f u l t o t h e o r g a n i s m o f w o m a n , w h i c h i s le s s c a p a b l e
o f r e s is ta n c e th a n th a t o f m a n . W h e r e th e s e lim it s h a v e b e e n o v e r ­
ste p p e d , a n d th e w o r k in g w o m a n e x c lu d e d fr o m w o r k b y tra d e u n io n s o r b y le g is la tio n , th e w o m e n h a v e s u c c e s s fu lly o p p o s e d su ch a
m o n o p o lis t ic p o lic y .
T h e in te r n a t io n a l p r o t e c t io n o f fe m a le la b o r
c o n s is ts a t p r e s e n t in ( 1 ) T h e p r o h i b it i o n o f w o r k u n d e r g r o u n d ; ( 2 )
T h e p r o h ib it io n o f in d u s t r ia l n ig h t w o r k ; ( 3 ) T h e a tte m p t t o fix a 1 0 h o u r w o r k in g d a y ; ( 4 ) T h e p r o h ib it io n o f th e e m p lo y m e n t o f p r e g ­
n a n t w o m e n , a n d c o m p e n s a t io n f o r t h e ir lo s s o f w a g e s d u r in g th e
ly in g -in p e r io d .
T h e fir s t m e a s u r e , th e p r o h i b it i o n o f . w o r k u n d e r g r o u n d , h a s
f o u n d its w a y f r o m E n g la n d in t o th e c o d e s o f a lm o s t a ll th e m in in g
c o u n t r ie s o f th e w o r ld w it h o u t in t e r n a t io n a l a r r a n g e m e n t.
A n in ­
t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t w o u l d a d d a few^ b a c k w a r d m i n i n g c o u n t r i e s ,
H u n g a r y , R u s s ia , P o r t u g a l (w h ic h m a k e s su ch a p r o h ib it io n e ffe c tiv e
o n ly u p t o 21 y e a r s ) , e a s te rn A s ia , a n d C e n t r a l a n d S o u t h A m e r ic a .
I n S o u th a n d C e n tr a l A m e r ic a , V e n e z u e la a n d N ic a r a g u a h a v e le d
th e w a y w it h th e p r o h ib it io n o f a ll fe m a le la b o r in m in e s , e v e n a b o v e
grou n d.
S u c h a c o m p r e h e n s iv e p r o h ib it io n o f e m p lo y m e n t is t o b e
f o u n d in E u r o p e o n l y in L u x e m b u r g a n d th e N e t h e r la n d s ; in th e
G e r m a n E m p ir e c e r ta in ta sk s th a t a re e n t ir e ly t o o h e a v y f o r w o m e n
w o r k e r s ( w o r k i n g u p , s e p a r a t io n , t r a n s p o r t a t io n , l o a d in g ) a r e f o r ­
b id d e n to th em . E le v e n A m e r ic a n S ta te s (a m o n g th e m I llin o is , O h io ,
C o lo r a d o , P e n n s y lv a n ia ) , as w e ll as f o u r C a n a d ia n P r o v in c e s , a n d




63

PROTECTION OF FEMALE LABOR.

N e w S o u t h W a le s , V i c t o r i a , T a s m a n ia , a n d N e w Z e a la n d , p r o h ib it
a ll m in in g w o r k to w o m e n .
A p r o h ib it io n b y in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e ­
m e n t w o u ld a ffo r d a n o p p o r t u n it y o f in d u c in g in d iv id u a l S ta te s th a t
h a v e h e ld a lo o f to a d o p t p r o h ib it io n o f m in in g w o r k , a n d to f o r ­
b id c e r ta in h y g ie n ic a lly h a r m fu l o c c u p a t io n s a b o v e g r o u n d .
A n u m b e r o f o th e r p r o h ib it io n s a ffe c tin g th e e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n
h a v e f o r th e ir a im th e p r e v e n tio n o f a c c id e n ts , p o is o n in g , p r e m a ­
tu r e a n d s till b ir th s , a n d d ru n k e n n e ss. I n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e issu ­
in g o f s u ch p r o h i b it i o n s 1 i t w ill a lw a y s b e a q u e s tio n w h e th e r , o n th e
b a s is o f e x h a u s t iv e in q u ir ie s , th e e m p lo y m e n t s d e s c r ib e d a s h a r m f u l
a re t o b e r e c k o n e d as a g r e a t e r m e n a c e t o th e fe m a le o r g a n is m . W h e n
th e p r o o f o f t h is c o u ld n o t b e p r o d u c e d f o r c e r t a in p r in t in g p r o c ­
esses in E n g la n d a n d F r a n c e , th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r
L a b o r L e g is la t io n , f o r in s ta n c e , r e fu s e d t o r e c o m m e n d s u ch a m e a s ­
u re f o r g e n e ra l a ccep ta n ce.
T h e se co n d a n d t h ir d g r o u p s o f p r o te c tiv e m e a su res, th e p r o h ib i­
tio n o f n ig h t w o r k a n d th e d e te r m in a tio n o f th e le n g th o f th e
w o r k in g d a y f o r w o m e n , h a v e b e e n m a d e th e s u b je c t o f a n in te r n a ­
tio n a l a g re e m e n t, a n d o f a d r a ft o f su ch an a g ree m en t.
B y th e B e r n a g r e e m e n t o f S e p te m b e r 26 , 1906, in d u s tr ia l n ig h t
w o r k in e s t a b lis h m e n t s in w h ic h m o r e t h a n 10 m a le a n d fe m a le
w o r k e r s a r e e m p l o y e d is p r o h i b i t e d f o r a c o n t i n u o u s p e r i o d o f 11
h o u r s ( i n s e a s o n a l in d u s tr ie s , 10 h o u r s f o r 60 d a y s in th e y e a r ) .
T h e e ffe c t o f t h is a g r e e m e n t in E u r o p e w a s as f o l l o w s :
L E G A L N IG H T R E S T F O R W O M E N B E F O R E A N D A F T E R T H E E N F O R C E M E N T OF T H E
AGREEM ENT.

Legal night rest for women.
Before agreement.

German Empire
Austria................
Hungary.............
Bosnia.................
Belgium..............
Denmark............
Spain...................
France................
Great Britain. . .
Italy....................
Luxemburg........
Portugal.............
Netherlands.......
Norway...............
Russia.................
Finland...............
Sweden...............
Switzerland........
Gresce.................
Liechtenstein. . .
Bulgaria.............
Serbia..................
Roumania..........

After agreement.

9 hours........................................... .
9 hours...........................................
No regulation................................
No regulation................................
No regulation................................
No regulation.................................
No regulation.................................
8 hours........................................... .
12 hours......................................... .
8 hours, summer; 10hours, winter.
No regulation................................ .
No regulation................................ .
10 hours...........................................
No regulation.*............................ .
8 hours (in textile factories)..........
N o regulation.................................
No regulation.................................
9 hours, summer; 10 hours, winter.
No regulation.................................
No regulation.................................
No regulation.................................
No regulation.................................
No regulation.................................

11 hours.
11 hours.
11 hours.
9 hours.
11 hours.
No regulation.
11 hours.
11 hours.
12 hours.
11 hours.
11 hours.
11 hours.
11 hours.
9 hours.
8 hours.
No' regulation (8-hour shift).
11 hours.
11 hours.
11 hours.
9 hours.
9 hours, summer; 12hours, winter.
9 hours, summer; 10 hours, winter.
No regulation.

1 A n e n u m e r a t io n is g iv e n b y W . S c h iff in D ie B e s c h r a n k u n g d e r F r a u e n a r b e it , A n n a le n
f u r S o z i a le P o li t i k u n d G e s e t z g e b u n g , v o l. 3 , 1 9 1 7 , p . 3 4 5 .




64

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

T h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t i n E u r o p e is , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t 7 c o u n t r i e s t h a t
h a d n o le g a lly p r e s c r ib e d n ig h t re st a n d 6 th a t h a d a n ig h t re st
s h o r t e r th a n 11 h o u r s a d o p t e d a n 1 1 -h o u r n ig h t r e s t. B e s id e s D e n ­
m a r k , N o r w a y , a n d R u s s ia , o n ly 6 in d u s t r ia lly u n d e v e lo p e d c o u n ­
tr ie s d o n o t c o m p ly w it h th e se d e m a n d s . G r e a t B r it a in e x ce e d s th e m .
O f th e c o lo n ie s , A l g ie r s , T u n is , T r in id a d , T o b a g o , C e y lo n , th e
G o ld C o a st, N o r th N ig e r ia , a n d U g a n d a a cce d e d t o th e B e r n c o n ­
v e n t i o n ; i n t h e 4 l a s t - n a m e d c o l o n i e s t h i s is t h e o n l y p r o t e c t i v e l a b o r
r e g u la t io n .
T h e 1 1 - h o u r l i m i t f o r t h e n i g h t r e s t is e x c e e d e d b y
O n t a r io (1 2 | h o u r s ) , N e w S o u t h W a le s (1 2 h o u r s ) , W e s t e r n A u s ­
t r a lia , a n d N e w Z e a la n d (1 4 h o u r s ) .
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s in te r n a tio n a l a g re e m e n ts w ith r e g a r d to th e
p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r c o u ld n o t b e c o n c lu d e d o n a c c o u n t o f th e c o n ­
stitu tio n a l r ig h ts o f th e in d iv id u a l S ta te s, a n d th e p r o h ib it io n
o f n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n h a s r e m a in e d f a r b e h in d th e d e g r e e o f
p r o g r e s s a tta in e d in E u r o p e .
U p t o 1908 a tte m p ts to p r o lo n g th e
re st p e r io d , w h ic h in 5 S ta te s, in c lu d in g N e w Y o r k a n d P e n n s y lv a ­
n ia , a m o u n ts t o 8 h o u r s , f a i l e d t o o v e r c o m e th e o b je c t io n s o f th e
c o u r t s . I n t h is y e a r th e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f t h e U n it e d S ta te s d e c id e d
in fa v o r o f th e p r o h ib it io n o f n ig h t w o r k in th e S ta te o f O r e g o n .
T h e sa m e t h in g h a p p e n e d in N e w Y o r k . I n 1907 th e C o u r t o f A p ­
p e a ls o f N e w Y o r k d e c la r e d th e p r o h ib it io n o f n ig h t w o r k t o b e
u n c o n s t itu t io n a l, b e c a u se th e f u l l fr e e d o m o f c o n t r a c t b e tw e e n e m ­
p lo y e r a n d e m p lo y e e is th e r ig h t o f b o t h sex es. I n a le g a l o p i n i o n
w h ic h s u s ta in e d th e p r in c ip le s o f th e B e r n a g r e e m e n t a n d p r o n o u n c e d
n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n to b e u n h y g ie n ic , th e C o u r t o f A p p e a ls o f N e w
Y o r k in 1915 r e v e r s e d its fo r m e r d e c is io n a n d d e c la r e d th e p r o v is io n s
o f th e la w o f 1913, w h ic h m e r e ly p r o v id e s a n ig h t rest o f 8 h o u r s f o r
w o m e n , t o b e c o n s t it u t io n a l.1
I n a d d it io n , le n g t h e n in g th e n ig h t re st b y in t e r n a t io n a l a c tio n h a s
h a d t w o i n d i r e c t r e s u lt s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e w o r k i n g d a y i n S t a t e s
w h ic h p e r m it th e e m p lo y m e n t o f a d u lt fe m a le la b o r w it h o u t lim it a ­
t io n o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r c a n a c t u a lly b e a t m o s t 12 h o u r s (t h e o r e t i­
c a ll y 1 3 ) . T h i s r e s u lt h a s c o m e a b o u t in B e lg iu m , H u n g a r y , L u x e m ­
b u r g , a n d S w e d e n . I n th e s e c o n d p la c e , w o r k in g w o m e n in G e r m a n y ,
a ft e r th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e a g re e m e n t o f B e r n , w e r e g r a n te d a 10h o u r w o r k in g d a y in a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e d e c la r a t io n o f S ta te S e c r e ­
ta ry C ou n t P o sa d ow sk y .
T h e w o r k e r s h a d t r ie d in v a in t o g a in
th e s e c o n c e s s io n s b y a n a t io n - w id e e ff o r t a n d b y t h e s t r ik e o f
C r im it z s c h a u in 1903.
A f t e r th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e a g re e m e n t o f
B e r n th e N e t h e r la n d s , N o r w a y , S w it z e r la n d , G r e e c e , a n d P o r t u g a l
a d o p te d th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y f o r w o m e n .
E n g la n d , F r a n ce , B u lg a r ia ,
a n d S e r b ia h a d a d o p te d a 1 0 -h o u r d a y b e f o r e 1906.
T h e s e r e s u lt s
1 C om m ons and A n d r e w s : Prin ciples o f Labor L e g isla tio n , 1 9 1 7 , p. 2 5 1 ; and N ew Y ork
S ta te Labor L a w and In d u stria l Code, p, 80.




PROTECTION OF FEMALE LABOR.

65

w e r e d e c is iv e in b r in g in g a b o u t th e a c c e p ta n c e o f a n e w p r o p o s a l o f
t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r th e d e t e r m in a t io n o f a -1 0 -h o u r d a y
f o r w o r k i n g w o m e n . T h e o f f ic ia l c o n f e r e n c e o f e x p e r t s o f 1 9 1 3 f o u n d
th e f o l l o w i n g lo n g e r le g a l h o u r s s t ill in e x is t e n c e : 11 h o u r s in
A u s t r ia , H u n g a r y , B o s n ia , L ie c h t e n s t e in , S p a in ( in th e t e x t ile in ­
d u s t r y 60 h o u r s a w e e k ) , a n d R o u m a n i a ; 11| h o u r s in R u s s ia ; 12
h o u r s in I t a l y a n d F i n l a n d ; 10 h o u r s in S w e d e n a n d D e n m a r k u p t o
th e e ig h te e n th y e a r , a n d in L u x e m b u r g u p t o th e s ix te e n th y e a r ; 12
h o u r s in B e lg iu m u p t o t h e s ix t e e n t h y e a r . O f th e s e c o u n t r ie s , A u s ­
tr ia , H u n g a r y , R u s s ia , B e lg iu m , a n d L u x e m b u r g s ig n e d th e d r a f t o f
a 1 0 -h o u r a g re e m e n t. I n s p it e o f th e c r it ic is m e x p r e s s e d in th e i n ­
t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t , t h e r e is n o d o u b t o f
th e e ffe c tiv e n e s s o f th e a g r e e m e n t as a m e a n s o f p r o p a g a n d a .
I t w a s th e in te n tio n o f th e In t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n , in a c c o r d a n c e
w it h its r e s o lu t io n s o f 1 9 1 2 f o r s u p p le m e n t in g t h is a g r e e m e n t, t o
fo l l o w it u p w it h a n o th e r a g r e e m e n t p r o v id i n g f o r th e r e d u c tio n o f
th e h o u r s o f la b o r o n S a tu r d a y s a n d h o lid a y s .
F o r it is o n ly th e
S a tu r d a y h a lf h o lid a y th a t m a k e s it p o s s ib le f o r th e w o r k in g w o m a n
t o d o h e r h o u s e k e e p in g a n d t o re st o n S u n d a y s . I n E u r o p e , S a tu r ­
d a y w o r k is c u r t a ile d in G r e a t B r it a in , G e r m a n y , th e N e t h e r la n d s ,
S w it z e r la n d , N o r w a y , a n d S e r b ia .
T h e w e e k ly w o r k in g h o u r s o f
f e m a le w o r k e r s in c o u n t r ie s in E u r o p e w it h a n d w it h o u t t h e S a t u r ­
d a y h a lf h o lid a y a r e a s f o l l o w s : F i f t y - f o u r h o u r s in N o r w a y ; 52^
h o u r s in B r it is h t e x t ile e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; 58 h o u r s in th e G e r m a n
E m p i r e , th e N e t h e r la n d s , a n d S e r b i a ; 59 h o u r s in S w i t z e r l a n d ; 6 0
h o u r s i n B r i t i s h n o n t e x t i l e e s t a b li s h m e n t s , S p a n i s h t e x t i l e f a c t o r i e s ,
F r a n c e , G re e ce , B u lg a r ia , a n d P o r t u g a l ; 66 h o u r s in A u s t r ia , H u n ­
g a r y , B o s n ia , L ie c h te n s te in , in S p a in (n o n t e x t ile f a c t o r ie s ), a n d R o u ­
m a n i a ; 67^ h o u r s in R u s s i a ; 72 h o u r s in F i n la n d a n d I t a l y , a n d in
B e l g i u m a n d L u x e m b u r g , a s a r e s u lt o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f n i g h t w o r k .
I n th e U n ite d S ta te s 38 S ta te s h a v e r e g u la te d th e h o u rs o f la b o r
o f w o m e n o f e v e r y a g e a n d f o r th e m o s t p a r t in su ch a w a y th a t, in
a d d it io n t o a m a x im u m w o r k in g d a y o f 10 h o u r s , a w e e k ly w o r k in g
p e r i o d o f 5 4 t o 4 8 h o u r s h a s b e e n f i x e d . T h e r e a l d a i l y a v e r a g e is a s
f o l l o w s : I n 6 S t a t e s ,1 8 h o u r s ; in 17 S ta te s , 9 h o u r s ; in 3 S ta te s , 9 £
t o 9^ h o u r s ; in 2 S ta te s , 9^ t o 9 § h o u r s , a n d in 12 S ta te s , 10 h o u r s .
O n ly f o u r S ta te s, a m o n g th e m n o le a d in g in d u s tr ia l S ta te , p r o t e c t
w o m e n u p t o th e s ix te e n th y e a r a n d o n e S ta te u p t o th e e ig h te e n th
yea r.
T h e cen su s o f 1909 p r o v e d th a t as a m a tte r o f fa c t in
A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y , e x c l u s i v e o f m i n i n g , o f 6 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0 w a g e e a r n e r s ,
8 p e r c e n t w o r k e d m o r e th a n 60 h o u r s ; 31 p e r c e n t w o r k e d f u l l y 60
1 C a lifo rn ia , C olorado, D is tr ic t o f C olum bia, M o n ta n a , N evad a, an d W a sh in g to n .

97520°— 19-------5




66

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

h o u r s — t o t a l, 39 p e r c e n t ; 30 p e r c e n t w o r k e d o v e r 54 t o 59 h o u r s ;
23 p e r cen t w o r k e d o v e r 48 to 54 h o u r s ; 8 p e r ce n t w o rk e d 48 h o u rs
a n d le s s — t o t a l , 6 1 p e r c e n t .
I n C a n a d a th e o ld c o lo n ie s (Q u e b e c , O n t a r io , a n d N e w B r u n s ­
w ic k ) h a v e r e ta in e d th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y f o r w o m e n .
M a n ito b a a n d
N o y a S c o t ia h a v e a 9 -h o u r d a y ,, a n d B r it i s h C o lu m b ia a n 8 -h o u r
day.
S a s k a t c h e w a n h a s t h e s h o r t e s t w o r k i n g w e e k f o r w o m e n (4 5
h o u r s ).
A r g e n t in a h a s in t r o d u c e d th e 1 0 -h o u r w o r k in g d a y f o r B u e n o s
A ir e s (in w in t e r 8 h o u r s ) a n d U r u g u a y th e 8 -h o u r d a y . T h e c o n ­
tin e n t w it h th e m o s t u n i f o r m r e g u la t io n o f w o r k in g h o u r s is A u s ­
t r a lia ; th e 4 8 -h o u r w e e k p r e v a ils in th e 7 c o lo n ie s o f th e F e d e r a l
u n io n ; th e w o r k in g d a y ca n b e at m o s t 10 h o u r s , o r in W e s t e r n A u s ­
t r a lia 8 f h o u rs.
T h e 4 5 -h o u r w e e k (a t m o st 8£ h o u r s a d a y ) p r e ­
v a ils in N e w Z e a la n d .
I n A f r i c a th e sa m e r e g u la t io n o f w o r k in g h o u r s a p p lie s t o w o m e n
as t o m e n . T h e 1 2 -h o u r d a y is in f o r c e in J a p a n , a s w e ll as in th e
t e x t il e f a c t o r ie s o f t h e E a s t I n d ie s ( i n t h e o t h e r f a c t o r ie s 11 h o u r s ) .
A 9 -h o u r d a y f o r w o m e n u p t o 18 y e a r s h a s b e e n in t r o d u c e d o n th e
te a p la n ta tio n s o f A s s a m .
T h e r e fo r e , i t c a n a lm o s t b e s a id th a t A s ia a n d A f r i c a a r e th e
h o m e o f t h e 1 1 a n d 1 2 h o u r d a y , E u r o p e o f t h e 9-| a n d 1 0 h o u r
d a y , A m e r ic a o f th e 9 -h o u r d a y , a n d A u s t r a lia o f th e 8 -h o u r d a y ;
a n d t h is s h o r t e n in g o f th e h o u r s h a s b e e n m a t e r ia lly h e lp e d b y th e
S a tu r d a y a fte r n o o n h o lid a y .
I n o r d e r t h a t th e e x is t in g d iv e r s it y in th e l e g a lly p e r m is s ib le
w o r k in g tim e o f w o m e n b e u n d e r s to o d , th e n u m b e r o f th e le g a l rest
d a y s m u st b e d e d u c te d fr o m th e n u m b e r o f d a y s in th e y e a r, a n d
t o th e r e m a in d e r , w h ic h in d ic a te s th e w o r k in g h o u r s , m u s t b e a d d e d
th e m a x im u m o f th e h o u r s o f o v e r tim e . A s a r e s u lt , w e fin d t h a t
th e I t a lia n fe m a le t e x t ile w o r k e r m a y w o r k o n e -t h ir d m o r e h o u r s in
th e y e a r th a n h e r B r it is h f e l l o w w o r k e r .1
1 T h e m axim um legal to ta l w orkin g period in the year am ou n ts to 2 ,7 7 7 hours in N o r­
w ay, up to 18 y e a r s ; 2 ,8 4 0 hours in G rea t B rita in (te x tile fa cto rie s) fo r fem ale w orkers,
up to the sixteen th year for m ale w o r k e r s ; 2 ,9 4 8 hours in the G erm an E m p ire ( P r u s s ia ),
fem ale w orkers up to 16 y e a r s ; 2 ,9 7 2 hours in M orw ay, above 18 years (m a le and fem ale
w orkers) ; 3 ,0 0 0 hours in Spain in tex tile f a c t o r ie s ; 3 ,0 2 8 hours in the G erm an E m p ire,
fem ale w orkers over 16 years ; 3 ,0 3 0 hours in Sweden up to 18 y e a r s ; 3 ,0 3 5 hours in D en ­
m ark up to 18 y e a r s ; 3 ,0 3 7 hours in Greece fo r fem ale w orkers, fo r m ale w orkers up to
18 y e a r s ; 3 ,0 5 0 hours in the G erm an E m pire, m ale w orkers up to 1 6 y e a r s ; 3 ,0 7 0 hours
in G reat B rita in (n o n tex tile f a c t o r ie s ;, m ale w orkers up to 1 6 y e a r s ; 3 ,0 8 0 hours In
Sw itzerland (a lso fo r m ale w orkers above 18 y ea rs) ; 3 ,0 9 0 hours in H u n g a ry up to 16
yea rs (m ale an d fem ale w ork ers) ; 3 ,1 1 0 hours in G reat B rita in (n o n te x tile f a c t o r ie s ), fe­
m ale w orkers ; 3 ,1 3 0 hours in P o rtu g a l up to 1 6 years for m ales, up to 18 fo r fem ales ;
3 ,1 3 0 hours in B u lg a ria fo r fem ale w orkers over 15 years o f a g e ; 3 ,1 7 0 hours in France,
m ale and fem ale w orkers up to 18 yea rs ; 3 ,2 3 4 hours in P o rtu g a l for m ale w orkers over
16, for fem ale w orkers over 18 y e a r s ; 3 ,2 6 6 hours in the N eth erlan d s, fem ale w orkers, fo r




PROTECTION OF FEMALE LABOR.

67

S in c e th e o u tb r e a k o f th e W o r l d W a r , th e in d u s tr ia l w o r k o f w o m e n
h a s u n d e r g o n e a n u n e x p e c te d r e v o lu tio n . I n E n g la n d b e tw e e n J u ly ,
1914, a n d A p r i l , 1916, th e in c re a s e in n u m b e r o f w o m e n in in d u s t r y
w a s fiv e tim e s t h a t o f a c o r r e s p o n d in g p e a c e p e r io d .
T h e m e ta l
in d u s t r y , t h e c h e m ic a l in d u s t r y , c o m m e r c e , a n d t r a n s p o r t a t io n s h o w
t h e g r e a t e s t in c r e a s e .
I n a l l b r a n c h e s o f i n d u s t r y , 9 3 3 ,0 0 0 w o m e n
h a v e r e p la c e d th e fo r m e r m a le w o r k in g fo r c e , o r h a v e ta k e n th e
p la c e o f y o u n g p e o p le w h o in tu r n h a v e u n d e r ta k e n a d u lt la b o r .1 I n
g e n e r a l , i t h a s b e e n p r o v e d t h a t w ^ om en a r e n o t f i t t e d f o r t h e b u r d e n
o f h e a v y w o r k a n d o f n i g h t w o r k . O c c u p a t io n s t h a t r e q u ir e a l o n g
a p p r e n tic e s h ip set lim its t o t h e ir e m p lo y m e n t.
F o r t h is r e a s o n ,
th e r e h a s b e e n a s tr o n g te n d e n c y t o m a k e w o r k a u to m a tic , w h ic h
d e m a n d s f r o m th e w o m e n w o r k e r s n o t h in g b u t a t t e n t io n , p a t ie n c e ,
a n d r e g u la r it y . F u r t h e r , sin c e a ft e r th e w a r th e fe m a le w o r k e r w il l in
m a n y ca ses ta k e th e p la c e m a d e v a c a n t b y th e w a r c r ip p le , a p e r m a ­
n e n t in c r e a s e in n u m b e r o f w o m e n in in d u s t r y is t o b e c o u n t e d u p o n ,
e v e n a f t e r t h e s p e c ia l m u n it io n w o r k e r s a r e a ll d is c h a r g e d , a n d t h e y
w ill b e in b e tte r p a id b u t m o r e s tr e n u o u s o c c u p a t io n s th a n b e f o r e th e
w ar.
H e n c e , th e r e w ill b e a p r e s s in g n e c e s s ity f o r m o r e e ffe c tiv e
p r o te c tio n .
S h o u ld th e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r
L e g is la t io n b e p u t in t o e ffe c t, th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y a n d th e S a t u r d a y
a ft e r n o o n h o lid a y w o u ld s h o r te n th e w o r k in g w e e k o f w o m e n to 54
h o u r s . T h i s is a n a p p r o a c h t o th e w o r k in g h o u r s a lr e a d y fix e d b y
la w f o r th e t e x tile in d u s tr y in G r e a t B r it a in , a n d is e q u iv a le n t to
th o s e le g a lly in f o r c e in N o r w a y in a ll in d u s tr ie s . T h e r e s o lu t io n s
o f t h e t r a d e -u n io n s o f th e e n te n te c o u n t r ie s a t L e e d s in 1916 r e q u ir e
f o r m a le as w e ll a s fe m a le la b o r a w e e k ly m a x im u m o f 55 h o u rs . O n
th e o th e r h a n d , th e d e m a n d s o f th e In t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f
L a b o r a n d th e r e s o lu t io n s o f B e r n (1 9 1 7 ) p r o v id e a 5 5 -h o u r w e e k
f o r m e n o n ly d u r in g a tr a n s it io n p e r io d t o b e fix e d in t e r n a t io n a lly ,
a ft e r th e e x p ir a t io n o f w h ic h a 4 8 -h o u r w e e k w o u ld c o m e in t o fo r c e ,
a n d th e in tr o d u c tio n , o n th e o th e r h a n d , o f a 4 4 -h o u r w e e k f o r
w o m e n . T h u s at on e stro k e th e sa m e h o u rs o f la b o r p e r w e e k w o u ld
b e in tr o d u c e d f o r w o m e n fr o m R u s s ia t o I t a l y a n d S p a in as h a d
h it h e r t o b e e n in f o r c e o n l y in S a s k a tc h e w a n a n d N e w Z e a la n d (4 5
h o u rs ).
S in c e th e s o c ia lis t w o m e n o f S c a n d in a v ia h a d a lr e a d y in
1 9 1 3 r a is e d o b je c t io n s t o t h e 1 0 -h o u r d a y , a n d in g e n e r a l t o a n y
m ale w orkers u p t o 17 ; 3 ,3 8 2 hours in L iech ten stein (a ls o o v e r 16-yea r-old m ale w ork­
ers) ; 3 ,4 4 3 hours in Spain, fem ale w orkers, ju v en iles up to 16 years, m a l e s ; 3 ,4 4 3 hours
in Ita ly , ju ven iles up to 15 years ; 3 ,5 3 0 hours, in A u s tr ia (a lsa over 1 6 years, m ale w ork­
e r s ) ; 3 ,7 0 8 hours in H u n g a ry , fem ale workers, over 16 y e a r s ; 3 ,7 5 6 hours in B elgiu m ,
m ale ju ven iles up to 16, fem ale ju ven iles to 2 1 ; 3 ,7 5 6 hours in I ta ly , fem ale w orkers over
15 years.
(L u xem bu rg and R u ssia have no legal restriction of overtim e w ork.)
1 A . W . K irk a ld y : L abour, F in an ce and the W a r , 1 9 1 6 , p. 6 5 .




68

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

d iffe r e n c e b e in g m a d e in h o u r s o f la b o r as b e tw e e n m e n a n d w o m e n ,
a m u c h s t r o n g e r p r o t e s t m a y b e e x p e c t e d in t h is d ir e c t io n a ft e r
th e w a r.
T h e e x p e r im e n t s m a d e in th e B r it is h m u n it io n s in d u s t r y h a v e es­
ta b lis h e d th e f a c t t h a t “ n o t o n ly a r e w o m e n u n s u ite d t o th e h e a v ie r
ty p e s o f w o r k , b u t th a t ev en w h e n e n g a g e d on th e m o d e ra te a n d lig h t
t y p e s , t h e y a r e u n a b le t o s t a n d s u ch l o n g h o u r s a s t h e m e n .” 1 F u r ­
th e r , th e w e lfa r e in s p e c t o r o f th e m u n it io n s in d u s t r y , B . S e e b o h m
R o w n tr e e , s a y s : “ B r o a d ly s p e a k in g , I th in k th a t th e d e m a n d o f
t h e w o r k e r s f o r a 4 8 - h o u r w e e k is b a s e d u p o n r e a s o n . T h e a d v a n ­
ta g e o f g o i n g b e lo w it is d o u b t fu l, a n d I a m p r e t t y su re th a t, as a
r u le , t h e r e is lit t le , i f a n y , u se in g o i n g m u c h a b o v e it , e x c e p t f o r s h o r t
p e rio d s .
G e n e r a lly s p e a k in g , th e n , I s h o u ld s a y th e e m p lo y e r is
w is e w h o w o r k s h is w o m e n a n d g i r ls f o r 8J h o u r s p e r d a y f r o m
M o n d a y to F r id a y , an d fo r 5 h ou rs on S a tu rd a y .
I q u e s tio n
w h e th e r it e v e r p a y s to k ee p o n w o r k in g g ir ls f o r m o re th a n 54
h o u r s a w e e k . A s f o r t h e 6 0 - h o u r w e e k , i t is m o s t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . ” 2
T h & e fa c t s c o u ld b e ta k e n in t o a c c o u n t in te r n a t io n a lly b y d iffe r e n ­
t ia t in g b e tw e e n s tr e n u o u s a n d d a n g e r o u s a n d e a s y o c c u p a t io n s . I n
th e sa m e w a y , c e r ta in t r a n s itio n p e r io d s c o u ld b e a g r e e d u p o n a lo n g
th e lin e s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t o f 1 9 0 6 f o r c o u n t r ie s w h ic h , lik e A u s t r ia
a n d I t a l y , h a v e a w o r k in g d a y o f m o r e t h a n 10 h o u r s o r th o s e w h ic h ,
lik e B e lg iu m a n d n o r t h e r n F r a n c e , h a v e s u ffe r e d in d u s t r ia l lo s s f r o m
th e w a r.
T h e r e a s o n s f o r th e s p e c ific p r o t e c t io n o f m o th e r s a re t o b e f o u n d
p a r t ic u la r ly in a n x ie ty f o r th e n e w g e n e r a tio n . a O n ly a w o r k e r ,”
sa y s D r . P in a r d , “ w h o h a s n o t w o r k e d in th e fa c t o r y f o r 3 m o n th s
b e f o r e h e r c o n fin e m e n t w il l b r in g in t o th e w o r ld a c h i ld o f m o r e t h a n
3 ,0 0 0 g r a m s ( 6 .6 p o u n d s ) i n w e i g h t . F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e n e w l y b o r n in fa n t s o f w o r k in g m o th e r s in th e B a u d e lo q u e H o s p it a l in P a r is
a re b e lo w th e n o r m a l w e ig h t .”
D r . R e i d fin d s t h a t in th e t o w n s o f
S t a ff o r d s h ir e , in w h ic h m o r e t h a n 12 p e r c e n t o f th e p o p u l a t io n c o n ­
s is t s o f w o r k e r s , 1 5 i n e v e r y 1 ,0 0 0 b i r t h s a r e a b n o r m a l o r s t i l l b i r t h s ,
w h i l e t h a t i s t r u e o f o n l y 6 i n e v e r y 1 ,0 0 0 b i r t h s i n p l a c e s w h e r e le s s
th a n 6 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k e r s a r e in d u s t r ia lly e m p lo y e d b e f o r e c o n fin e ­
m e n t. A c c o r d i n g t o th e s ta tis tic s o f th e L e i p z i g L o c a l S ic k F u n d ,
th o s e w o m e n a re s ix o r se v e n tim e s b e tte r o ff w h o h a v e l e f t th e ir
w o r k b e f o r e c o n f i n e m e n t . N o le s s h a r m f u l i s a n e a r l y r e t u r n t o w o r k
a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t. I t n e c e s s ita te s th e a r t ific ia l f e e d i n g o f th e in fa n t s ,
1 M in istry o f M u n itio n s, H ea lth o f M u n ition W o rk ers C om m ittee, In terim R eport, In ­
d u stria l Efficiency an d F a tig u e, 1 9 1 7 , Cd. 8 1 1 , p. 23.
2 M o n th ly R eview o l the U n ited S ta te s B ureau o f L a bor S ta tis tic s , D ecem ber, 1 9 1 6 ,
p. 7 6 .




69

PROTECTION OF FEMALE LABOR.

a n d th a t le a d s t o a n in c r e a s e in i n f a n t m o r t a lit y .1 T h e s ic k r e lie f ,
t h e m a t e r n i t y b e n e f it , a m o u n t s i n m o s t t o w n s o n l y t e a - h a l f o f t h e
a v e r a g e e a r n in g s , a n d th is a t a tim e w h e n m o t h e r a n d c h ild a r e th e
ca u se o f in c re a s e d e x p e n se to th e fa m ily . A t t e n t io n h a s b e e n r ig h t ly
c a lle d t o th e f a c t t h a t th e p a y m e n t o f th e f u l l e a r n in g s as w e e k ly
b e n e f it s , a s i s a t p r e s e n t t h e r u l e i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , i s j u s t i f i e d / b e ­
c a u se th e d a n g e r o f s im u la t io n w h ic h in o t h e r ca ses h a s le d t o th e
s i c k b e n e f it s b e i n g m a d e le s s t h a n t h e w a g e e a r n e d , d o e s n o t e x i s t i n
t h i s c a s e .2
H it h e r t o th e e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n a b o u t t o b e c o n fin e d h a s b e e n
p r o h ib it e d in a ll th e E u r o p e a n c o u n t r ie s , w it h th e e x c e p t io n o f H u n ­
g a r y a n d F in la n d . T h e p e r io d o f p r o te c tio n o f p r e g n a n t w o m e n v a ­
r ie s b e tw e e n 12 w e e k s in S e r b ia , 1 0 w e e k s in th e G e r m a n E m p ir e , 8
w e e k s in G re e ce , 6 w e e k s in S w it z e r la n d o r 8 w e e k s o n th e r e q u e st o f
th e m o th e r , 6 w e e k s in A u s t r ia , S w e d e n , N o r w a y , S p a in , R o u m a n ia ,
a n d o n e m o n t h o r 4 w e e k s in th e o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n t r ie s .
I n f o u r c o u n t r ie s th e n u m b e r o f w e e k s o f o b lig a t o r y r e s t a ft e r c o n ­
fin e m e n t m a y b e r e d u c e d t o th r e e b y p r e s e n t in g a d o c t o r ’s c e r tific a te .
F i v e c o u n t r ie s h a v e lik e w is e p la c e d th e p e r i o d b e f o r e c o n fin e m e n t
u n d e r le g a l p r o t e c t io n in s p it e o f t h e d iffic u lt y o f d e t e r m in in g th e t im e
o f t h e c o n f in e m e n t . I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f w e e k s o f o b l i ­
g a t o r y r e s t b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e b i r t h , k n o w n a s t h e l y i n g - i n p e r i o d , is
8 w e e k s . O n ly in o n e c o u n t r y ( F r a n c e ) is th e l e a v in g o f a p o s it io n
o n a c c o u n t o f p r e g n a n c y c o n s id e r e d e q u iv a le n t t o g i v in g n o tic e . I n
6 c o u n t r i e s i t is e x p r e s s l y f o r b i d d e n t o g i v e n o t i c e w h e n a b s e n c e i s o n
a c c o u n t o f p r e g n a n c y o r c o n fin e m e n t.
I n th e U n ite d S ta te s o n ly f o u r S ta te s, le d b y M a s s a c h u s e tts in 1911,
h a v e in tr o d u c e d th e p r o te c tio n o f m o th e r h o o d — M a ssa ch u se tts , V e r ­
m o n t, C o n n e c tic u t, N e w Y o r k . C o n n e c tic u t a llo w s a l y in g -in p e r io d
o f 4 w e e k s b e f o r e a n d 4 w e e k s a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t , M a s s a c h u s e tts a n d
V e r m o n t 2 w e e k s b e f o r e a n d 4 w e e k s a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t , a n d N e w
1 T h e in fa n t m o rta lity in B a v a ria du ring a specified average n u rsin g period is show n by
the fo llo w in g table :

Under 2
months.

2 to 4
months.

4 to 6
months.

6 months
and over.

P er cent.

P er cent.

P er cent.

P er cent.

26.2
27.1
16.1
15.3
In the immediate towns..............................................................
26.6
28.9
21.3
In the country................................................................................ 15.9
A . Groth and M. Hahn: Die Sauglingsverhaltnissein Bayern. Zeitschrift des K . bayrischen statistische
Landesamtes, 1910, p. 144.
In Chemnitz the percentage of infant mortality to the total number of deaths in 1904-5 in all occupations
was 45.4 per cent; in case of female workers in factories, 71 per cent: in 1906-7, in all occupations, 44.3 per
cent; in case of female workers in factories, 70.1 per cent: Zeitschrift des K . sachsischen Landesamtes, 1915*
p. 78.
W alter Schift Die Besehrankung der Frauenarbeit.

2

1917, p. 354.




Annalen fiir Sozialpolitik und Gesetzgebung 5,

70

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

Y o r k o n l y 4 w e e k s a f t e r c o n fin e m e n t . N o s u c h l y i n g - i n p e r i o d is t o
b e f o u n d in th e C a n a d ia n le g is la t io n . O n th e r e s t o f th e A m e r ic a n
c o n tin e n t, o n ly B u e n o s A ir e s in A r g e n t in a h a s in tr o d u c e d a ly in g -in
p e r io d o f 30 d a y s. I n A u s tr a la s ia , o n ly N e w S o u th W a le s , N e w Z e a ­
la n d , a n d W e s t e r n A u s t r a lia a llo w a l y in g -in p e r io d o f 4 w e e k s a ft e r
c o n f in e m e n t *
I n A f r ic a , th e le g is la tu re o f T u n is h a s b ee n a n x io u s to in tr o d u c e
th e p r o t e c t io n o f m o t h e r h o o d f o r 4 w e e k s b e f o r e a n d 4 w e e k s a f t e r
c o n f in e m e n t . I n N a t a l e m p l o y e r s a r e n o t e n t i t l e d t o d e m a n d w o r k
fr o m a p re g n a n t w o m a n a fte r th e se v e n th m o n th o f p r e g n a n c y , a n d
s o l o n g a s s h e i s t h e m o t h e r o f a c h i l d o f le s s t h a n 3 m o n t h s . D u r i n g
th e tim e w h e n n o w o r k m a y b e r e q u ir e d o f s u ch a w o m a n , th e e m ­
p lo y e r is r e q u ir e d t o p r o v id e h e r w it h f o o d a n d d a ily r a t io n s e q u a l
t o th e m in im u m r a t e o f th e la b o r c o n t r a c t.
N o p r o h ib it io n s o f
e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n a b o u t t o b e c o n fin e d a re t o b e f o u n d in th e
le g is la tio n o f I n d ia .
T h e o b lig a t io n o f e m p lo y e r s to g r a n t re st p e r io d s t o w o m e n w ith
n e w ly b o r n c h ild r e n a n d t o p r o v id e n u r s in g r o o m s f o r th e m , as p r o ­
v id e d in P o r t u g a l, h a s b e e n a d o p te d in th e le g is la t io n o f D e n m a r k ,
S p a in , R o u m a n ia , A r g e n t in a , a n d T u n is , a n d in p a r t a ls o in S w e d e n ,
N o t h i n g ju s t ifie s th e i n t e r n a t io n a l e x t e n s io n o f th e s e m e a s u r e s
m o r e t h a n th e d e m a n d s f o r m u la t e d b y th e C o m m itt e e o n W o m a n ’s
L a b o r in F r a n c e o n D e c e m b e r, 19, 1916, a n d r e co m m e n d e d t o th e
F r e n c h m a n u fa c t u r e r s b y th e m in is t e r o f m u n it io n s in a c ir c u la r
l e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 4 , 1 9 1 7 .1 T h e s e d e m a n d s a r e f o r m u l a t e d a s f o l ­
lo w s :
1. Pregnancy shall justify a change of occupation in case the former kind
of work does not satisfy the above-mentioned hygienic requirements.
2. Overtime work and night work shall be prohibited.
3. Of the regulations of the hours of labor hitherto in force the 8-hour day
is the most favorable. Half-time work during the daytime would be most
suitable.
4. Work that requires a standing position and a motionless posture shall be
prohibited. Pregnant women shall be employed at work that requires a sitting
position or that requires a sitting position most of the time.
5. Occupations that require the following shall be prohibited, (a) Heavy
work that demands strenuous physical exertion; (b) positions of the limbs
or of the body which are injurious to pregnancy; (c) the jarring of the
whole body and especially of the lower part of the body through pushing,
jerking, or by vibration.
6 . The legal lying-in period of 4 weeks before confinement shall be compulsory
for female workers in munition works. It may be granted to them on a medical
certificate before the ninth month of pregnancy. In the same way, the lying-in
rest may be prolonged beyond the 4 weeks after confinement.
7. All measures for the improvement of working conditions of women in
a condition of pregnancy shall not entail any reduction or withholding of wages.
1 B u lle tin du M in istere du T r a v a il, J an ., Feb., M a r ., 1 9 1 7 , pp. 71 and 1 6 * .




PROTECTION OF FEMALE LABOR.

71

8.
From time to time investigations touching female hygiene shall be under­
taken by a doctor or by a midwife under medical control in all establishments
devoted to the making of munitions.
In factories working for the national defense which employ women the in­
stallation of a nursing room with cradles shall be made compulsory, and it shall
be reserved exclusively for infants. These shall be allowed to remain there
during the rest periods assigned for nursing, and the mother §hall have the right
to leave her work for half an hour in the morning and in the afternoon to
nurse her child. No reduction of wages shall be entailed thereby. In case the
worker has her wage lowered on that account, she is to be recompensed by
means of a nursing premium. During the period of wet nursing, the mother
shall do only day work, and shall be employed only at sedentary occupations.
Besides the nursing room, which shall be separated from the other rooms, a
creche for bottle babies and a day nursery for children in their second, third,
and fourth years shall be established in State industrial establishments and in
other large establishments.
A thorough inspection is to be made every day on the arrival of the children,
to prevent the spreading of infectious diseases; in suspicious cases, precaution­
ary measures shall be taken and the children in question isolated.

A n u r s i n g r o o m i n a b o m b f a c t o r y ! D o n o t t h e in t e r e s t s o f i n t e r ­
n a t io n a l d e fe n s e r e q u ir e a n e q u a lly s t r o n g p r o t e c t io n f o r m o t h e r ­
h o o d a ft e r th e w a r ?
S h a ll th e p r o te c tio n o f m o th e rs g iv e w a y to
m e r e b u s in e s s in te r e s ts ?







C H A P T E R

V I.

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF THE WORKING HOURS
OF ADULT MALES IN MINES, IN ESTABLISHMENTS
WITH CONTINUOUS OPERATION, AND
IN OTHER INDUSTRIES.

T h e e a r l ie s t r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g h o u r s o f a d u l t m a l e s w a s
m a d e in c o n n e c t io n w it h m in in g .
I n n e a r ly a ll m in in g c o u n t r ie s ,
th e 8 -h o u r w o r k in g s h ift , in c lu d in g th e tim e o f d e s c e n t a n d e x it ,1 w a s
in f o r c e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h
c e n t u r y , t h is w o r k in g p e r io d w a s p r o l o n g e d t o 12 h o u r s b y m e a n s o f
e x t r a s h ift s . D u r i n g th e e r a o f in d u s t r ia l fr e e d o m , le g is la t io n l e f t
th e r e g u la tio n o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r t o th e d is c r e t io n o f th e m in e
o w n e rs. T h e d e m a n d f o r a re tu rn t o th e 8 -h o u r s h ift w a s m a d e b y
th e B r it is h M in e r s ’ F e d e r a t io n in 1887.
S in c e th e n , m o s t ly u n d e r
t h e p r e s s u r e o f s t r ik e s , p a r t l y o n h y g i e n i c g r o u n d s , t h e 8 , 9 , a n d 1 0
h o u r s h if t s h a v e b e e n e s t a b lis h e d b y la w . T h e r e g u la t io n a t p r e s e n t
is a s f o l l o w s : I n E u r o p e t h e m a x i m u m w o r k i n g d a y u n d e r g r o u n d i s
12 h o u r s i n B o s n i a , 1 1 ^ h o u r s i n R u s s i a , 1 0 h o u r s i n R o u m a n i a a n d
S w e d e n , 9 h o u r s in A u s t r ia (1 9 0 1 ) ,2 B e lg iu m in c o a l m in e s , a n d
S p a i n , 3 8^ h o u r s i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s ( 1 9 0 8 ) , a n d 8 h o u r s i n F r a n c e i n
c o a l m in e s ( 1 9 0 5 ) ,4 G r e a t B r it a i n in c o a l m in e s ,5 G r e e c e , N o r w a y
(4 8 h o u r s p e r w e e k ) , F i n l a n d ( 1 9 1 7 ) , a n d P o r t u g a l .
T h e F e d e r a l S ta te s o f th e G e rm a n E m p ir e p ossess n o le g a l r e g u la ­
t io n o f th e le n g t h o f th e s h ift . T h e i r m in in g la w s a n d c o d e s m e r e ly
r e q u ir e a m a x im u m w o r k in g p e r io d o f 6 h o u r s in h ig h te m p e r a tu r e s .
H u n g a r y , B u lg a r ia , I t a l y , L u x e m b u r g , a n d S e r b ia s t ill m a in t a in th e
s y s te m o f fr e e d o m o f r e g u la t io n b y th e m in e o w n e r . W e r e th e le g a l
p r o v i s i o n s a l o n e a u t h o r i t a t i v e , o f t h e 5 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e t r i c t o n s ( 5 4 1 , 3 1 5 ,5 0 0 l o n g t o n s ) o f m i n e r a l c o a l w h i c h w a s t h e o u t p u t o f E u r o p e
i n 1 9 1 1 , 5 8 p e r c e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n m i n e d i n 8 a n d 8^ h o u r s h i f t s ,
8 p e r c e n t in 9 -h o u r s h if t s , a n d a f u l l t h ir d in l o n g e r s h if t s .
But
s in c e as a m a tte r o f f a c t th e 8 -h o u r s h if t p r e v a ils in w e s te r n G e r m a n y ,
1 O tto H ue : D ie B ergarb eiter, 1 9 1 0 , vol. 1, pp. 2 6 6 , 3 9 5 , 4 0 2 , 4 1 0 .
2 O nly coal m ines.
a Six hours in qu icksilver m ines.
4 In other m ines, 1 0 hours.
* In other m ines, 5 4 hours per w eek up to the sixteen th year.




73

74

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

it w o u ld n o t b e d iffic u lt t o r e s t o r e th e 8 -h o u r s h if t b y in t e r n a t io n a l
a c t io n .
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s 14 S ta te s (A la s k a , A r iz o n a , C a lifo r n ia , C o l o ­
r a d o , I d a h o , K a n s a s , M is s o u r i, M o n t a n a , N e v a d a , O k la h o m a , O r e ­
g o n , U ta h , W a s h in g t o n , a n d W y o m in g ) h a v e le g a lly in tr o d u c e d th e
8 -h o u r s h if t in th e m in in g in d u s t r y ; P e n n s y lv a n ia g r a n ts it o n ly to
h o is t in g e n g in e e r s ; M a r y la n d a llo w s th e r e c k o n in g o f o v e r tim e t o
b e g in o n ly a ft e r 10 h o u rs . T h e le g a l 8 -h o u r s h if t p r e v a ils , fu r t h e r ,
o n th e A m e r ic a n c o n t in e n t in A lb e r t a , S a s k a tch e w a n , B r it is h C o ­
lu m b ia , M e x ic o , U r u g u a y , a n d V e n e z u e la . A n in v e s t ig a t io n in t o th e
a c t u a l 1 h o u r s o f la b o r in th e U n it e d S ta te s w a s m a d e b y th e C e n su s
O ffic e i n 1 9 0 9 ( M i n e s a n d Q u a r r i e s , W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 1 3 , V o l . X I ,
p . 3 1 ) . T h e p e r c e n t a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e ig h t e d a c ­
c o r d i n g t o t h e n u m b e r o f w a g e e a r n e r s s h o w s t h a t i n 4 4 .5 p e r c e n t
o f a ll th e m in e s 8 -h o u r a n d s h o r te r s h if t s a r e th e r u le , w h ile in
a b o u t 2 7 p e r c e n t th e 9 -h o u r s h i f t p r e v a ils a n d in a lik e p e r c e n ta g e
t h e 1 0 - h o u r s h i f t . T h e r e l a t i v e f i g u r e s f o r t h e 8 - h o u r s h i f t a r e 9 5 .4
p e r c e n t i n d e e p m i n e s o f p r e c i o u s m e t a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d 6 9 .5 p e r
c e n t in b it u m in o u s c o a l m in e s .
I n a n t h r a c it e c o a l m in e s , o n th e
o t h e r h a n d , o n l y 1 .7 p e r c e n t o f t h e m i n e r s w o r k i n 8 - h o u r s h i f t s a n d
9 7 .9 p e r c e n t i n 9 - h o u r s h i f t s .
B y a c o lle c t iv e a g r e e m e n t o f M a y 5, 1 9 1 6 , th e 8 -h o u r s h if t w a s
in t r o d u c e d in a ll A m e r ic a n a n t h r a c it e c o a l m in e s . W i t h a w o r k in g
f o r c e r e d u c e d a b o u t 1 0 .3 p e r c e n t , t h e n u m b e r o f w o r k i n g d a y s i n ­
c r e a s e d f r o m 2 3 0 t o 2 5 3 , a n d t h e d a i l y o u t p u t p e r m i n e r f r o m 4 .0 8 t o
4 .2 0 t o n s . T h e c o m p l e t e o u t p u t r o s e f r o m 2 7 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s i n 1 9 1 6 t o
3 0 .6 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s i n 1 9 1 7 .2
T h e r e is n o m o r e e ffe c t iv e m e a n s o f c h e c k in g th e e x o d u s f r o m th e
m in e s in E u r o p e a n d p r e v e n t in g th e f lo o d in g o f th e c o a l m in e s o f
P e n n s y l v a n i a a n d I l l i n o i s w i t h a l ie n m i n e r s , w h o e a s i l y a d j u s t t h e m ­
s e lv e s t o lo n g e r w o r k in g h o u r s , th a n th e c o n c lu s io n o f a n in t e r n a ­
t io n a l 8 -h o u r -s h ift a g re e m e n t in E u r o p e , in w h ic h th e S o u th A f r i c a n
U n io n a n d A u s t r a lia c o u ld im m e d ia te ly ta k e p a r t, s in c e th e y a lr e a d y
h a v e a n 8 -h o u r -s h ift la w (A u s t r a lia — in V ic t o r ia , N e w S o u th W a le s ,
Q u e e n s la n d , a n d W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a ) . A d e c lin e in t h e c o a l p r o d u c ­
t i o n o f th e w o r ld is n o t t o b e fe a r e d f r o m s u c h a s te p . D u r i n g t h e
p e r io d o f in t r o d u c t io n o f th e 8 -h o u r s h ift , e x t e n d in g f r o m 1908 to
1 9 1 3 , t h e c o a l p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n f r o m 2 6 1 ,5 2 9 ,0 0 0
l o n g t o n s t o 2 8 7 ,4 3 0 ,0 0 0 ; i n F r a n c e f r o m 3 1 ,1 2 6 ,0 0 0 t o 3 9 ,4 1 0 ,0 0 0 l o n g
t o n s ; i n A u s t r a l i a f r o m 6 ,8 8 1 ,0 0 0 t o 1 2 ,4 4 5 ,0 0 0 l o n g t o n s .
1 N o t an in v estig a tio n o f a ctu al hours o f labor but a s ta tem en t o f p re v a ilin g hours.—
[ E d .]
2 P aul F . B rissenden : P r o d u c tiv ity o f labor in the a n th ra cite m in e s ; in U . S. B ureau o f
L a bor S ta tistic s’ M o n th ly R eview , A u g u st, 1 9 1 7 , p. 3 7 .




REGULATION OF WORKING HOURS OF ADULT MALES.

75

A s p e c ia l p o i n t in t h e r e g u la t io n o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r in m in e s
is r a i s e d b y t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t i m e s p e n t i n e n t e r i n g a n d l e a v i n g t h e
m in e . O n th a t d e p e n d s th e c a lc u la t io n o f th e b e g in n in g a n d th e e n d
o f th e s h ift .
T h e In te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la tio n
in 1908 e x p r e s s e d it s e l f as in f a v o r o f a n 8 -h o u r m a x im u m w o r k in g
d a y f o r th e w o r k e r s in c o a l m in e s e m p lo y e d u n d e r g r o u n d , a n d s e t
u p a c o m m is s io n t o d e fin e t h e t e r m a 8 -h o u r s h i f t . ”
I t s p r o p o s a ls
w e r e a c c e p t e d in 1910. T h e tim e o f th e s h if t is c o u n t e d f r o m th e
b e g in n in g o f th e d e s c e n t o f th e fir s t m a n u n t il th e e x it o f th e la s t
jn a n o f a c r e w .
A p a r t fr o m th e d a n g e r s w h ic h h o u r ly th re a te n th e l i f e o f th e
m i n e r i n t h e c o a l m i n e , i t is t h e e x e r t i o n , wT i e h q u i c k l y a f f e c t s h i s
h
h e a lth , a n d th e h e a t in th e in c r e a s in g d e p th w h ic h c a ll f o r a n 8 -h o u r
s h ift .
T h e s a m e a r g u m e n t s — d a n g e r o f a c c id e n t , in te n s e h e a t, a n d
e x e r tio n — m a k e th e sa m e lim it a t io n n e c e s s a r y in th e ir o n a n d ste e l
a n d g la s s in d u s tr ie s . T h e in t e r fe r e n c e o f n a t io n a l le g is la t io n in th e
ir o n a n d ste e l in d u s t r y h a s h it h e r t o b e e n e x t r e m e ly s lig h t .
T hese
in d u s tr ie s e x e r c is e th e s tr o n g e s t e c o n o m ic a n d p o lit ic a l p o w e r a n d
e m p l o y in a la r g e m e a s u r e m a ss es o f u n o r g a n iz e d a lie n w o r k e r s .
H e n c e t h e i m p o t e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n is n o w h e r e s o
e v id e n t as in th e ir o n a n d ste e l in d u s t r y . T h e w o r k in g h o u r s in t h is
in d u s t r y a re r e g u la te d as f o l l o w s :
German E m pire: A t t h e s h i f t c h a n g e , b y w h i c h t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s
m a d e fr o m th e d a y to th e n ig h t s h ift , th e s h ift m a y b e 24 h o u rs.
T h e r e g u la r s h if t in c lu s iv e o f rests a n d o v e r tim e m a y h a v e a d u r a ­
t i o n o f 1 6 h o u r s . A c o n t i n u o u s r e s t p e r i o d o f 1 2 h o u r s is p r e s c r i b e d
b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s h i f t c h a n g e , a n d o n e o f 10 h o u r s a f t e r e a c h r e g u l a r
s h if t in ex ce ss o f 8 h o u rs . T h e t o ta l d u r a tio n o f th e rest p e r io d s
d u r i n g s h i f t s is 2 h o u r s .
A ustria: A t t h e s h i f t c h a n g e , t h e s h i f t m a y l a s t 1 8 h o u r s .
The
d u r a t io n o f th e r e g u la r s h if t , in c lu s iv e o f r e s t p e r io d s , m a y b e 12
h ou rs.
T h e t o t a l d u r a t io n o f th e r e s t p e r io d s is 1J h o u r s , o r in ca se
o f a n 8 - h o u r s h i f\ , h o u r .
t
F ran ce: N o l i m i t a t i o n i s s e t f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s h i f t a t t h e
s h ift ch a n g e .
T h e r e g u la r s h if t , in c lu s iv e o f o v e r tim e , m a y h a v e a
d u r a t io n o f 14 h o u rs.
N orw ay: I n s m e l t i n g w o r k s t h e h o u r s o f l a b o r a r e 4 8 h o u r s p e r
w e e k , in o t h e r e s ta b lis h m e n ts 5 4 h o u r s , a n d in a d d it io n 10 h o u r s
o v e r t im e a r e p e r m is s ib le .
P ortu gal: M a x i m u m d u r a t i o n o f d a y s h i f t s 1 0 h o u r s , o f n i g h t
s h ift s 8 h o u rs .
Switzerland: T h e d a i l y h o u r s o f l a b o r a r e 8 h o u r s ; w i t h p e r m i s ­
s io n o f th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il, th e m a x im u m d u r a t io n o f th e s h if t m a y
b e 12 h o u r s .
R e s t p e r i o d s : O n e -h a lf h o u r d u r in g th e 8 -h o u r s h i f t ;




76

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

1 h o u r d u r in g 8 t o 10 h o u r s h if t s ; 2 h o u r s d u r in g 10 t o 12 h o u r
s h ifts .
Finland: W o r k i n g p e r i o d 8 h o u r s p e r d a y — 9 6 h o u r s i n 2 w e e k s ;
fu r t h e r , o v e r tim e w o r k , w it h 50 t o 100 p e r c e n t e x tr a p a y , a t m o s t 25 0
h o u r s in th e y e a r w it h p e r m is s io n o f th e f a c t o r y in s p e c t o r s .
I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e is a l e g a l 8 - h o u r s h i f t f o r b l a s t f u r n a c e s
a n d r e d u c t io n w o r k s in 8 S ta te s (A la s k a , A r iz o n a , C a lif o r n ia , C o l o ­
ra d o , Id a h o , N ev a d a , U ta h , an d W y o m in g ).
T h e sa m e is tr u e o f
M e x ic o , U r u g u a y , a n d N e w Z e a la n d .
I n t h e l a r g e s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s t h e d o u b l e 1 2 - h o u r s h i f t is
t h e r e f o r e u s u a l.
I n A u s t r i a it e x is ts in i r o n a n d s te e l w o r k s , b r ic k
k i l n s , p a p e r fa c t o r ie s ^ f l o u r m i l l s , s u g a r f a c t o r i e s , a n d c h e m i c a l
fa c to r ie s .
F o r s m e lt e r s , g l a s s b l o w e r s , a n d t h e i r h e l p e r s i n g l a s s
fa c t o r ie s a m a x im u m w o r k in g p e r io d o f 84 h o u r s in 7 d a y s h a s b e e n
fix e d in A u s tr ia .
T h e r e f o r e , it m a y e x c e e d 12 h o u r s o n in d iv id u a l
days.
F i n a ll y , it is p e r m it t e d t h a t e a c h s h if t m a y w o r k 18 h o u r s
o n c e a w e e k , in o r d e r t o p r o v id e th e w e e k ly r e li e f o f th e d a y a n d
n ig h t s h i f t / T h e r e b y , th e 2 4 -h o u r s h ift a t s h ift c h a n g e , fo r m e r ly in
g e n e r a l u se a n d n o w in c o n t r a v e n t io n o f th e la w s t ill e m p lo y e d in
f l o u r m i l l s , is p r o h i b i t e d .
I n th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th ese p r o v is io n s
c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y is e n c o u n t e r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e S u n d a y
r e s t , a d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h is i n c r e a s e d i n G a l i c i a a n d B u k o w i n a b y t h e
f a c t t h a t th e re , e s p e c ia lly in s a w m ills , J e w s a n d C h r is t ia n s w o r k t o ­
g e t h e r ; th e fo r m e r a re o n ly a llo w e d t o w o r k o n S u n d a y s w h e n th e y
w o r k a lo n e . E f f o r t s a r e b e i n g m a d e e v e r y w h e r e t o p u t a n e n d t o t h is
ir r a t io n a l o v e r f a t ig u e b y th e in t r o d u c t io n o f t h r e e 8 -h o u r s h ift s . E x ­
p e r im e n t s o f th is k in d h a v e b e e n m a d e w it h p a r t ia l su cce ss in E n g la n d
a n d B e lg iu m .
I n t h e z i n c s m e lt e r s o f t h e N o u v e l l e M o n t a g n e a
n u m b e r o f e x p e r im e n t s o f t h is k in d h a v e b e e n in it ia te d .
U n t il 1888
th e 2 4 -h o u r s h if t p r e v a ile d , f o l l o w e d b y a 2 4 -h o u r rest.
C a r e le s s n e s s
i n w o r k a n d a l c o h o l i s m w e r e t h e r e s u lt .
I n 1888 th e 1 2 -h o u r s h if t
w it h o n e r e s t p e r io d o f o n e h o u r a n d t w o o f h a l f a n h o u r w a s i n ­
tro d u ced .
A n e w a n d m o r e c o m p lic a te d b la s t fu r n a c e s y s te m d e ­
m a n d e d th e w h o le a tte n tio n o f th e w o r k e r s .
T h e r o a s t i n g o f 1 ,0 0 0
k i l o g r a m s ( 2 ,2 0 4 .6 p o u n d s ) i n p l a c e o f 5 8 3 k i l o g r a m s ( 1 ,2 8 5 .3
p o u n d s ) o f s u lp h id e o f z in c h a d n o w t o b e d o n e in 12 h o u r s , b u t in
t h e n e w s h i f t o f 2 4 h o u r s a t s h i f t c h a n g e s o n l y 1 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s
( 2 ,2 0 4 .6 p o u n d s ) i n s t e a d o f 2 ,0 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 4 ,4 0 9 .2 p o u n d s ) w e r e
roa sted .
N o t w it h s t a n d in g th e c h a n g e s th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s ic k f u n d
h a d a d e fic it.
T h e e x h a u s tio n d u r in g th e h e a t o f s u m m e r c a u se d th e
a p p lic a t io n s f o r r e lie f t o in c re a se .
I n 1893 th e sy stem o f th ree
8 -h o u r s h ift s w a s a d o p te d , in a ll o f w h ic h c o m b in e d a re st p e r io d o f
o n ly l j h o u r s w a s a llo w e d , m a k in g a g a in in tim e o f 10 p e r ce n t.
O n e h u n d r e d a n d t e n k i l o g r a m s ( 2 4 2 .5 p o u n d s ) w e r e p r o d u c e d p e r
h o u r i n s t e a d o f 1 0 0 k i l o g r a m s ( 2 2 0 .5 p o u n d s ) .
S ix m o n th s a ft e r th e




REGULATION OF WORKING HOURS OF ADULT MALES.

77

b e g in n in g o f t h is e x p e r im e n t th e w o r k e r p r o d u c e d in 7^ h o u r s o f
a c tu a l w o r k in g tim e as m u c h as h e fo r m e r ly p r o d u c e d in 10 h o u r s ;
h is e a r n in g s f o r 8 h o u r s w e r e th e sa m e as f o r 12 h o u r s u n d e r th e o ld
c o n d itio n s .
T h e e s t a b lis h m e n t s ic k f u n d , w h ic h s h o w e d a d e fic it in
1 8 9 2 , h a d a s s e ts .
A lc o h o lis m d is a p p e a r e d , w h ile s e lf-r e s p e c t a n d
d is c ip lin e in c r e a s e d .1
I n th e r a n k s o f th e ir o n a n d stee l in d u s t r y , t o o , i t g r a d u a lly
b e c a m e e v id e n t th a t th e p r e v a ilin g r e g u la tio n s c o u ld n o t b e m a in ­
ta in e d .
T h u s , i n t h e 'U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e f i n a n c e c o m m i t t e e o f t h e
U n it e d S ta te s S te e l C o r p o r a t io n d e c id e d in 1907 to r e p la c e th e se v e n
w o r k in g d a y s p e r w eek , th e lo n g s h ifts a t s h ift ch a n g e , a n d th e
u su a l 1 2 -h o u r s h if t b y a b e tte r a r ra n g e m e n t.
T h is d e cis io n w a s
p u t p a r t ly in t o f o r c e a f t e r th e b i g s t r ik e in th e B e t h le h e m S te e l
W o r k s in th e m id d le o f 1910.
O u t o f 3 3 ,0 0 0 b l a s t - f u r n a c e w o r k e r s ,
4 2 .5 p e r c e n t w e r e g r a n t e d a 2 4 - h o u r w e e k l y r e s t .
T h e C a m b r ia
S te e l W o r k s s u c c e s s fu lly in tr o d u c e d th e 8 -h o u r s h ift.
T h e m odel
c o p ie d w a s th e s h if t d iv is io n in E n g la n d , w h e r e in 1906 a b o u t o n e f i f t h o f t h e w o r k e r s i n b l a s t f u r n a c e s , o n e - t e n t h o f t h o s e i n the* i r o n
a n d ste e l w o r k s , a n d m o r e t h a n h a l f o f th e r o ll i n g - m i l l w o r k e r s
h a d 8 -h o u r s h ift s .
T h is a r ra n g e m e n t o f th e s h ifts h a s m a d e su ch
p r o g r e s s in r e c e n t y e a r s th a t in te n y e a r s w it h o u t in t e r n a tio n a l
a c t io n , a n d m u c h q u ic k e r w it h it, a u n iv e r s a l t r a n s it io n t o th e 8 h o u r s h i f t is p o s s i b l e .
T h e s e fa c t s e x p la in th e r e s o lu t io n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia ­
t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n t o m a k e p r o v is io n a t th e p r o p e r tim e f o r
t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e 8 - h o u r s h i f t i n e s t a b li s h m e n t s w i t h
c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n in th e ir o n a n d ste e l in d u s tr ie s .
T h e r e fo r m
w o u l d a f f e c t a b o u t 7 9 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s i n E n g l a n d a n d 2 8 0 ,0 0 0 i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s , a s a g a i n s t 2 4 0 ,0 0 0 i n G e r m a n y . 2
T h is r e g u la tio n se e m e d to th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n t o b e m o s t
p r e s s in g ly n e e d e d in b la s t fu r n a c e s , ir o n a n d ste e l w o r k s , a n d r o ll­
i n g m ills .
F o r th e g la s s in d u s t r y a n in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n t o n
th e b a s is a t le a s t o f a n a v e r a g e o f 56 h o u r s a w e e k , w it h a c o n t in ­
u o u s 2 4 -h o u r re st p e r io d , w a s to b e c o n c lu d e d .
A s f a r a s th e o t h e r in d u s t r ie s a re c o n c e r n e d , th e s e c tio n s r e p r e ­
s e n t in g th e d iffe r e n t c o u n t r ie s w e r e t o p r e p a r e r e p o r t s o n th e a p ­
p l i c a t i o n o f a n 8 - h o u r d a y o r o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n(a) w iene k e s ­
g
ta b lis h m e n t s w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n w h e r e th e d a ily h o u r s o f
la b o r n e c e s s ita te t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e w o r k e r in th e e s t a b lis h m e n t
1 F rom on t, L . G.
U ne experience indu strielle de reduction de la journee de tra v a il.
(I n s t itu t S o lv a y .)
B ru ssels, L eip zig , etc.
190.0.— [ E d .]
2 See also Stephan B a u e r : F o rtg a n g and T ra g w elte der in tern ation alen A rbeitersch u tzvertrU ge, in A n n alen ftir soziale P o litik and G esetzgebung, vol. 3, pp. 1 and 2, B erlin ,
Springer, 1 9 1 3 , and Spezialbericht iiber die A rb eit in ununterbrochenen B etrieben, S c h riften der In teriiatio n alen V erein igu n g fu r gesetzlichen A rb eitersch u tz, N o. 8.




78

INTERNATIONAL, LABOR LEGISLATION.

d u r i n g m o r e t h a n 1 0 h o u r s w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f 2 4 h o u r s , a s w e l l a-s
w h e r e t h e s h i f t s w o r k f o r m o r e t h a n 6 d a y s i n t h e bw e a n d (
) ek;
a ls o in th o s e in d u s t r ie s ( f o r e x a m p le p a p e r , w o o d p u lp , a n d c h e m i­
c a l in d u s t r ie s ) in w h ic h c o n d it io n s s e e m r ip e in m a n y c o u n t r ie s f o r
th e in t r o d u c t io n o f th e t h r e e -s h ift sy stem .
A s f a r a s t h e “ o t h e r e s ta b lis h m e n ts d a n g e r o u s t o h e a lt h ” a r e
c o n c e r n e d — w e r e f e r e s p e c ia lly t o c h e m ic a l a n d r u b b e r fa c t o r ie s ,
s to n e q u a r r ie s , p o t t e r ie s , b r ic k w o r k s , g a s w o r k s , s u g a r m ills , la u n ­
d r i e s , r a b b i t - h a i r c u t t i n g e s t a b li s h m e n t s , t o -f ir e m e n a n d e n g i n e e r s
o n la n d a n d sea— a ft e r a n in v e s tig a tio n m a d e b y th e In t e r n a t io n a l
L a b o r O ffic e , a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n
w a s a p p o in t e d i n 1912 t o m a k e , in c o n ju n c t io n w it h t h e n a t io n a l
s e c tio n s a n d th e p e r m a n e n t a d v is o r y c o u n c il o n h y g ie n e , a s u r v e y o f
th e “ p re s e n t sta te o f le g is la tio n , o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r a c tu a lly p r e ­
v a ilin g , o f th e a c c id e n t fr e q u e n c y , m o r b id it y , a n d m o r t a lit y in th e
o c c u p a t io n s k n o w n as d a n g e r o u s a n d d e tr im e n ta l t o h e a lth , a n d t o
s u b m it p r o p o s a ls f o r th e p r o h ib it io n o f th e e m p lo y m e n t o f c h ild r e n ,
y o u n g p e rs o n s , a n d w o m e n , a n d lim ita tio n o f th e ir w o r k in g h o u r s
a s w e l l a s o f t h o s e o f . a d u l t m a l e s .”
T h is w o r k w a s in te r r u p te d b y
th e w a r.
I f , t h e r e f o r e , i n a l l d a n g e r o u s e s t a b li s h m e n t s w h i c h a r e d e t r i m e n t a l
t o h e a lth , th e 8 -h o u r s h if t is a ls o th e m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s e c o n o m ic
a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e q u e s t i o n a r is e s , W h a t w o r k i n g p e r i o d is t o b e
r e c o m m e n d e d in th e o th e r in d u s tr ie s f o r a d u lt m a le s ?
I n th e b u il d in g t r a d e s a n d in m a c h in e f a c t o r ie s in E n g la n d th e
w o r k e r s s u c c e e d e d in 1 8 3 4 a n d 183 6 b y m e a n s o f s t r ik e s i n h a v ­
i n g a 1 0 -h o u r d a y e s t a b lis h e d t h r o u g h c o lle c t iv e a g r e e m e n t.
The
b u ild in g tra d e s in 1847 g a in e d an e a r ly c lo s in g o n S a tu r d a y s a t
4 o ’c lo c k , a n d in 1 8 6 1 a t 2 o ’c lo c k .
I n A u s tr a lia th e 8 -h o u r d a y
w a s g a in e d in th e sa m e w a y in th e b u il d in g tr a d e s o n A p r i l 21,
1856. I n th e U n it e d S ta te s th e fir s t le g a l lim it a t io n o f th e h o u r s
o f la b o r o f m a le w o r k e r s t o o k p la c e in 1 8 4 0 , w h e n P r e s id e n t V a n
B u re n p r o h ib ite d a w o r k in g d a y lo n g e r th a n 1 0 h o u rs in th e G o v ­
e rn m e n t s h ip b u ild in g y a rd s .
I t is th u s th e s k ille d ir o n a n d stee l
w o r k e r s w h o b y th e p o w e r o f t h e ir o r g a n iz a tio n s in th e A n g lo S a x o n a n d la t e r in th e S c a n d in a v ia n c o u n t r ie s h a v e s u c c e e d e d in
o b t a in in g a n e ffe c t iv e m a x im u m w o r k in g d a y .
B u t i f in th e s e c o u n t r ie s th e le g a l p r o t e c t io n o f th e l a b o r o f c h i l ­
d r e n a n d w o m e n i n t h e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y w a s s u ff ic ie n t t o c o m p e l t h e
m e n w o r k in g w it h th e m t o th e o b s e r v a n c e o f th e sa m e w o r k in g
h o u r s a n d t o fa c ilit a t e th e ir o r g a n iz a tio n , y e t o n th e re st o f th e
C o n t in e n t t h e p r e lim in a r y c o n d it io n s f o r a n e q u a lly s t r o n g t r a d e u n io n fo r m a t io n w e re la c k in g . L e g is la tio n s te p p e d in to th e b r e a c h ,
a n d in F r a n c e in 1 8 4 8 in t r o d u c e d th e 1 2 -h o u r d a y in la r g e e s ta b ­




REGULATION OF WORKING HOURS OF ADULT MALES.

79

lis h m e n t s , a n d a f t e r 1 9 0 4 th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts
in w h ic h w o r k e r s o f b o t h sex es w e r e ’ e m p lo y e d in th e s a m e r o o m .
I n S w it z e r la n d , lik e w is e , th e C a n t o n o f G la r u s in t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h
t h e c a n t o n a l a s s e m b ly a m a x im u m w o r k i n g d a y f o r m e n o f 12
h o u r s in 1 8 6 4 a n d o f 11 h o u r s in 187 2 .
T h is r e g u la t io n w a s in ­
c o r p o r a t e d la te r in th e fa c t o r y la w o f S w it z e r la n d o f 1877.
H ow
r e a d i l y p r o d u c t i o n h a s a d a p t e d i t s e l f t o t h e n e w r e g u l a t i o n s is
p r o v e d b y th e 48 y e a r s ’ e x p e r ie n c e o f a G la r u s s p in n in g m ill. D u r ­
in g t h is p e r io d th e w o r k in g h o u r s w e r e c u r t a ile d 12 p e r c e n t ; t h e
p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d 2 3 .4 p e r c e n t ; t h e c o s t s o f l a b o r d e c r e a s e d
a b o u t 100 p e r c e n t ; th e m o t iv e p o w e r , b e c a u s e o f its s u b s titu tio n f o r
la b o r , h a d b e e n in c r e a s e d b y 138 p e r c e n t .1 T h e 1 1 -h o u r d a y w a s
i n t r o d u c e d in A u s t r ia in 1 8 8 5 ; a n 1 1 ^ -h o u r d a y (1 0 h o u r s o n S a t u r d a } 7s ) w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n E u s s i a i n 1 8 9 7 .
T h e le g a l r e d u c t io n o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r h a s le d in a ll th e se c o u n ­
t r ie s t o s t ill s h o r t e r a c tu a l w o r k in g h o u rs .
T h u s S w it z e r la n d in
1 9 1 4 , a ls o b y th e w a y o f f a c t o r y le g is la t io n , p a s s e d t o a w e e k o f 59
h o u r s . T h e 1 0 -h o u r d a y w a s in t r o d u c e d in P o r t u g a l in 1915 f o r a ll
in d u s tr ia l w o rk e rs .
I n th e s ilk in d u s t r y o f I t a l y a n a c tu a l w o r k ­
i n g d a y o f 10 t o 11 h o u r s p r e v a ile d .
I n E u s s ia th e r e v o lu t io n o f
1905 a tte m p te d t o in t r o d u c e th e 8 -h o u r d a y in t o th e fa c t o r ie s o f
P e t r o g r a d , a n a tte m p t w h ic h e n d e d in fa ilu r e .2 I n N e w Z e a la n d ,
a c c o r d in g t o la w , a d u lts o f b o t h sex es m a y n o t b e e m p lo y e d lo n g e r
th a n 8 f h o u r s p e r d a y a n d 48 h o u rs p e r w eek .
I n th e A m e rica s ,
M is s is s ip p i (1 9 1 2 ) a n d O r e g o n (1 9 1 3 ) in t r o d u c e d th e 1 0 -h o u r d a y
w it h c e r ta in o v e r tim e lim it s ; U r u g u a y a n d M e x ic o in t r o d u c e d th e
8 -h o u r d a y .
I n th e b e llig e r e n t c o u n t r ie s th e m u n itio n s in d u s t r y h a s f a r o v e r ­
s t e p p e d t h e s e l i m i t s . B u t a l l o f f ic ia l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e p r o v e d t h a t
t h e p o i n t o f e x h a u s t i o n a n d e f f ic ie n c y l i m i t s h a v e a l s o b e e n e x c e e d e d .
I n S w it z e r la n d e v e n in w a r t im e th e a c tu a l w o r k in g d a y in th e b u il d ­
i n g tr a d e s w a s n in e h o u r s ; in th e m a c h in e r y in d u s t r y 55 h o u r s p e r
1 A . Jen ni-T riim p y : H an d el und Ind ustrie des K a n to n s G larus, H istorisch es Jahrbuch
des K a n to n s G laru s, vol. 3 4 , 1 9 0 0 .
2 In R u ssia, a fte r the O ctober strike o f 1 9 0 5 , the 8-hou r w orkin g day becam e the “ pro­
gram o f p ro g ra m s.”
I t w as first enforced by revo lu tion ary m ethods in the m etal fa c ­
tories o f P etrograd on N ov. 1 0 . T h e w orkers stopped fo r on ly on e-h alf hour at m idday in
the fa cto ry , w hich they entered as usual a t 6 .4 5 and le ft a t 3 .3 0 in the afternoon.
The
G overn m en t retaliated by a lockout in the im perial factories ; 13 private factories fo l­
low ed suit. On N ov. 15 th e w orkm en’ s council foun d its e lf obliged to cap itu late. In 1 9 0 9
one o f the leaders o f the m ovem ent confessed^ to th is self-deception : “ T h e norm al w ork­
in g day in P etrograd alone is certain ly som ething unthinkable. B u t the Petrograd experi­
m ent, according to the plan s o f the w orkm en’ s council, w as m ean t to stir up the w hole
pro leta ria t.
Th e 8-hou r day can certain ly only be established w ith the help o f the G ov­
ernm ent. B u t the p ro le ta ria t w as in the m idst o f a stru gg le fo r the governm en tal power.
H a d it conquered p o litica lly a t th a t tim e, the in trod uction o f the 8-hou r day w ould on ly
have been the n a tu ral developm ent o f the ‘ fa n ta stic exp erim ent.’
B u t it w as not vic­
torious— and th a t is in tru th its w orst fa u lt .” — N. T r o t z k i : R u ssia in the R evolu tion ,
1 9 1 0 , D resden , K aden , pp. 1 5 9 — 6 3 .
1




80

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

w e e k (n in e a n d o n e -h a lf h o u r s o n fiv e d a y s ) ; in th e c h e m ic a l in d u s ­
t r y 5 2 h o u r s ( o n fiv e d a y s , n in e h o u r s ) .
T h e c o n c lu s io n m a y b e
d r a w n th a t in t e r n a t io n a lly a u n ifo r m fix in g o f th e n o r m a l m a x i­
m u m w o r k in g h o u rs a t 54 h o u rs p e r w e e k f o r b o th sex es, f o r a d u lt
m a le s w it h lim it e d o v e r t im e , a n d f o r w o m e n , a s in E n g l a n d , w it h o u t
o v e r tim e , m ig h t b e a im e d a t as a n im p o r t a n t in te r n a tio n a l m e a su re.
I t w ill b e th e ta s k o f n a tio n a l le g is la tio n a n d o f th e tr a d e -u n io n s in
s o c ia lly p r o g r e s s iv e S ta te s t o p r e p a r e e ffe c t iv e ly th e w a y f o r la te r
r e v is io n s o f th e in te r n a tio n a l w o r k in g d a y .




C H A P T E R

V II.

INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF HOME WORKERS AND
REGULATION OF THEIR WAGES.
I n m o d e r n lif e h o m e in d u s try h a s, to a la r g e e x ten t, cea sed to
s u p p le m e n t th e in a d e q u a t e f a m i l y in c o m e r e a liz e d f r o m f a r m w o r k .
I n th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f r e a d y -m a d e c lo t h i n g in th e c it ie s o r as a p r i n c i ­
p a l o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h is o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d
b y a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s , h o m e w o r k is e m p l o y e d i n p r o d u c t i o n f o r
l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b li s h m e n t s o r f o r t h e e x p o r t t r a d e .
I f h om e
w o r k t u r n s th e d w e llin g in t o a w o r k s h o p , b y its d e c lin in g t e c h n ic a l
p r o d u c t iv e n e s s , its r e m u n e r a t io n ta k e s a d o w n w a r d t r e n d .
T h u s it
lo s e s o n t h e o n e h a n d t h e a d v a n t a g e w h ic h t h e m a in t e n a n c e o f
f a m i l y l i f e b r in g s , a n d o n th e o t h e r it s w e lls th e r a n k s o f u n d e r p a id
la b o r .
O n l y si f e w s p e c i a l i z e d h o m e i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g a r t ic le s o f lu x u r y , h a v e e s c a p e d t h is fa t e . T h e d e c a d e n c e
o f fa m i l y l i f e u n d e r th e in flu e n c e o f th e d o w n w a r d t r e n d o f w a g e s
is m o s t n o t ic e a b le in th e h o m e in d u s t r y o f h a n d w e a v in g .
The
in s p e c to r o f th e D e p a r tm e n t d u N o r d , M . B o u lin , m a d e th e fo llo w in g
s ta te m e n t o n th is s u b je c t :
The family workshops of Flanders, even when they employ motive powder, are
under ordinary circumstances seldom visited by the inspectors, as the latter in
the performance of their official duties are specially urged to inspect such work­
shops and factories as employ workers not members of the employer’s family.
Nevertheless, certain investigations which were called forth by complaints re­
vealed a number of abuses which are the indirect result of home work and which
have not yet been quoted in any report on home workers. Thus there exists in
Bailleul among almost all the hand weavers, most of whom with their large
families struggle to compete with the mechanical loom, a deplorable custom of
giving the children poppy extract to make them sleep in spite of the noise of
the loom which rattles from early morning till late in the evening. An investi­
gation made by Nathalis Dumez reveals the fact that in Bailleul every year
12,000 poppies are sold for this purpose. In the households of the workers this
concoction is always on the stove in order that it may become thicker toward
evening. Many children to whom this poison is administered sleep from two to
three days. It is reported of one child of two months that it slept four days
without waking up. What are the earnings of the handworker of Bailleul?
Out of a population of 7,128 inhabitants, there are 900 families, comprising
about 5,000 persons, i. e., 70 per cent of the population—who are registered at
r
the poor relief bureau. This does not prevent there being in this town one
tavern for every 42 persons. Hence, Raoul Blanchard, who has made the best
97520°— 19------ G




81

82

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

study of the population of Flanders, is right when he says that the Flemings’
love of drink is probably to be assigned to misery.1

B e s id e s th e s t r u g g le t o c o m p e t e w it h f a c t o r y w o r k , la c k o f o r g a n i ­
z a t io n , as w e ll as in c a p a c it y f o r o r g a n iz a t io n , p r e v e n t s a n y in c r e a s e
in th e w a g e s o f h o m e w o r k e r s .
T h e la r g e s u p p ly o f u n s k ille d la b o r
a ls o h a s t h is e ffe c t , t h a t q u a n t it y p r o d u c t i o n o f p o o r l y p a id a r t ic le s
a n d th e e m p lo y m e n t o f th ese w o r k e r s m a y b e c o m p le t e ly d is c o n t in u e d
w h e n tim e s a r e b a d . H o m e w o r k in t a i lo r i n g in la r g e c it ie s f o r m s
th e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h is u n d e r p a y m e n t .
T a ilo r in g , w h ic h u p t o th e
m id d le o f th e se v e n te e n th c e n tu r y h a d b e e n d o n e a t h o m e in a m a n n e r
s im ila r t o th e w o r k o f th e m o d e r n sea m stre ss, o w in g t o th e a p p e a r ­
a n ce o f th e m e r c h a n t t a ilo r w a s tr a n s fo r m e d in t o s h o p w o r k in
L o n d o n a n d la t e r o n , t h r o u g h th e in flu e n c e o f t h e w a g e c a r te ls o f
th e m a ste rs a n d th e p ie c e w o r k sy ste m , it b e c a m e a h o m e in d u s tr y .
I n 184 4 th e t r a d e -u n io n o f ta ilo r s set o n f o o t a n in v e s t ig a t io n w h ic h
r e v e a le d t h e f a c t t h a t in t h e w e s t e n d o f L o n d o n 6 7 6 m e n , w o m e n ,
a n d c h i l d r e n w o r k e d i n 9 2 s m a l l r o o m s u n d e r “ s w e a t e r s ,” o r , a s t h e
n e w e x p r e s s io n h a s it, in t h e d o m e s t ic s y s te m .
B y th e in flu x o f
p o lit ic a l r e fu g e e s (e s p e c ia lly fr o m P o la n d ) in 1 8 4 8 2 th e n u m b e r o f
th e s e w o r k e r s in c r e a s e d .
N e v e r th e le s s , e v e n E n g lis h le g is la t io n h a s h e s ita te d t o t o u c h h o m e
in d u s t r y .
R e v e la t io n s w it h r e g a r d t o th e in d ig e n c e o f w e a v e r s in
t h e E r z g e b i r g e a n d o f t a i l o r s i n L o n d o n c a l l e d f o r t h f o r t h e f ir s t
tim e a ft e r th e r e g u la tio n o f fa c t o r y la b o r th e d e m a n d th a t h o m e w o r k
b e a ls o m a d e s u b je c t t o f a c t o r y le g is la t io n . T h e r e p o r t t o t h e H o u s e
o f L o r d s o f 1888 o n th e s w e a tin g sy ste m le d t o th e p r o v is io n in th e
fa c t o r y la w o f 1891 r e q u ir in g th e r e p o r t in g o f a d d resse s o f h o m e
w o r k e r s , a n d t h e i r i n s p e c t i o n b y f a c t o r y i n s p e c t o r s a n d h e a l t h o ff i­
cers.
T h e f a c t o r y la w o f 1895 in a d d it io n p r o h ib it e d th e t a k in g
h o m e o f w o r k b y f a c t o r y wro r k e r s , a n d t h e g i v i n g o u t o f h o m e w o r k
in t o in s a n ita r y d w e llin g s .
T h e c h ild la b o r la w o f 1903 a ls o p r o ­
h ib it e d th e n ig h t w o r k o f c h ild r e n in h o m e w o r k . T h e s e m e a su re s
w e r e c h ie fly c o p ie d in th e U n it e d S ta te s in M a s s a c h u s e tts in 1891,
N e w Y o r k in 1892, N e w J e r s e y a n d I llin o is in 1893, P e n n s y lv a n ia
in 1895, O h io a n d M a r y la n d in 1896, I n d ia n a in 1897, M is s o u r i a n d
C o n n e c tic u t in 1899, a n d M ic h ig a n a n d W is c o n s in in 1901.
An
a tte m p t w a s m a d e , e s p e c ia lly t h r o u g h th e p r o v is io n t h a t a ll p r o d u c t s
o f h o m e in d u s t r y m u s t b e a r a m a r k d e s ig n a t in g th e m as su ch , to
u n d e r m in e h o m e in d u s t r y a n d t o t u r n it in t o a lic e n s e d in d u s t r y .
B u t f o l l o w i n g th e e x a m p le fir s t set b y A u s t r a lia a d e c id e d t e n d e n c y
w a s e v id e n t a ft e r 1896 t o c o m b a t th e s w e a t in g s y s te m b y n o lo n g e r
le a v in g th e d e t e r m in a t io n o f th e m in im u m w a g e f o r h o m e w o r k t o fr e e
1 Ministfcre du T r a v a il, R ap p orts sur l’ ap plication des lois r6glem en tan t *le tra v a il en
1 9 1 0 , P a ris, 1 9 1 1 , pp. 1 3 3 , 1 34.
2 F . W . G alto n : Select D ocum en ts Illu s tr a tin g the H isto r y o f T rad e-u n io n ism , vol. 1,
T h e T a ilo rin g T rad e, 1 8 9 6 .
“ Labour and the poor,” report o f the speech o f H e n r y M a y hew
* * * on the sw eatin g or dom estic system . London, 1 8 5 0 .




HOME WORKERS’ PROTECTION AND REGULATION OF WAGES.

83

a g r e e m e n t b u t b y t r a n s f e r r in g it t o s p e c ia l e q u ip a r t is a n b o a r d s . A n
a n t i-s w e a t in g le a g u e a ft e r th e A u s t r a lia n m o d e l w a s fo u n d e d in 1906
o n th e o c c a s io n o f th e L o n d o n H o m e W o r k E x h ib it io n . T h e T r a d e
B o a r d s A c t o f J.909 w a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s m o v e m e n t , w h i c h w a s
s u p p o r te d b y o r g a n iz e r s a n d sta tesm en o f a ll p a r tie s o n th e in itia tiv e
o f S i r C h a r le s W . D ilk e .
U n d e r t h is la w , m in im u m w a g e b o a r d s
h a v e b e e n e s t a b lis h e d f o r c h a in m a k in g , th e la c e in d u s t r y , p a p e r - b o x
m a k in g , t a ilo r in g , lin e n a n d c o t t o n e m b r o id e r y i n I r e la n d , th e m a k ­
i n g o f m e ta l h o llo w w a r e , s h ir t m a k in g , t h e m a k in g o f c o n f e c t i o n e r y
a n d p r e s e r v e s , a n d o f t i n c a n s — t h a t is t o s a y , i n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
b ra n ch e s o f u n d e r p a id h om e , sh op , a n d fa c t o r y w o r k .
M in im u m
w a g e b o a r d s f o r a g r ic u lt u r a l w o r k e r s h a v e a ls o b e e n e s t a b lis h e d a s a
w a r m e a s u r e b y th e C o r n P r o d u c t i o n A c t o f 1 917 in a ll a g r i c u l ­
tu r a l d is t r ic t s , a m e a s u r e w h ic h h a d a lr e a d y b e e n p r o p o s e d in th e
s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 4 , a n d w h i c h is t h e f i r s t s t e p i n p r o t e c t i v e l a b o r l e g i s l a ­
t i o n f o r t h a t c la s s o f w o r k e r s a n d i n c o m b a t i n g t h e l a b o r s h o r t a g e i n
a g r ic u ltu r e .
T h e e x a m p le o f E n g la n d w a s fo llo w e d in F r a n c e , N o r w a y , a n d
B e lg iu m . B y th e w a g e -b o a r d la w o f 191 5 , F r a n c e w a s th e fir s t c o u n ­
t r y o n th e C o n t in e n t t o r e c o g n iz e as a c t io n a b le a c la im t o m in im u m
w a g e s o n t h e p a r t o f h o m e w o r k e r s in t h e c lo t h in g in d u s t r y .
In
B e lg iu m , o n a c c o u n t o f th e o u tb r e a k o f th e w a r , th e b ills o f H u y s m a n
a n d V e r h a e g e n f a i l e d o f e n a c t m e n t ; t h e sa m e t h in g is tr u e o f t h e b i ll
o f th e H o m e W o r k C o m m itte e in A u s tr ia . I n N o r w a y , b y th e la w
o f F e b r u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 1 8 , m in im u m -w a g e b o a r d s w e r e e s t a b lis h e d in th e
c lo t h in g in d u s tr y . I n th e G e r m a n E m p ir e th e tr a d e b o a r d s p r o v id e d
b y th e h o m e -w o r k la w o f 1911, a r t ic le 18, f o r th e r e g u la t io n o f w a g e
p r o b le m s a re y e t t o b e a p p o in te d .
W e re a d in th e “ S o c ia l p o lit ic a l
la b o r d e m a n d s o f th e G e r m a n tr a d e -u n io n s ” o f 1918, p a g e s 23, 2 4 :
“ I n w a r tim e h o m e in d u s tr y , o n a c c o u n t o f c o n fu s io n in th e p la c in g
o f a r m y o r d e r s th r o u g h la c k o f r e g u la tio n , as w e ll as o n a c c o u n t o f
th e d is tr e s s o f m a n y s o ld ie r s ’ f a m ilie s , h a s e x p e r ie n c e d a n e n o r m o u s
e x p a n s io n , a n d a g a in th e h o m e w o r k e r s h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d t o u n r e ­
s tr ic te d c u t t in g d o w n o f w a g e s in s o f a r as th e y d id n o t s u cc e e d
w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s a n d d i s c e r n i n g m i l i t a r y o f f ic ia ls
in p r o t e c t in g t h e ir w a g e s b y m e a n s o f b i n d i n g w a g e s c h e d u le s a n d
d e c is io n s o f a r b itr a tio n c o u r ts .
E v e n a fte r th e w a r th e te n d e n cy
t o w a r d h o m e w o r k w i l l p e r s is t , f o r t h e w a r p e n s io n s a r e as a r u le
i n s u f f i c ie n t f o r s u b s i s t e n c e .
T h u s , a ll its d a n g e r s a p p e a r in a n
in c r e a s e d m e a su re.
A n e n e r g e t i c p r o t e c t i o n o f h o m e i n d u s t r y is ,
t h e r e fo r e , a n e c e s s ity a n d c a n n o t b e p o s t p o n e d .
T h e la w o f 1912,
h o w e v e r , is n o t s u fficie n t f o r t h a t ; it n e e d s t o b e s u p p le m e n t e d b y
th e c r e a t io n o f w a g e b o a r d s a f t e r th e E n g lis h m o d e l, w h ic h h a v e
b ee n t h o r o u g h l y t e s t e d .” 1




1 See fu rth e r K lithe G aebel, D ie H eim arbeit, 1 9 1 3 .

84

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

S w itz e r la n d , o n th e o th e r h a n d , h a s in tr o d u c e d in th e e m b r o id e r y
in d u s t r y m in im u m s t it c h r a te s a n d m in im u m h o u r ly w a g e s b y a d e - •
c r e e o f th e F e d e r a l C o u n c il o f M a r c h 2, 1917. I n th e U n it e d S ta te s
11 S ta te s h a v e r e c o g n iz e d th e p r in c ip le o f th e m in im u m w a g e ,
t h o u g h o n l y f o r w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n . 1 T h e f a c t t h a t a b o u t 4 0 0 ,0 0 0
w o r k e r s a re s u b je c t t o th e B r it is h m in im u m w a g e b o a r d s (n o t t o m e n ­
t io n th e c o a l m in e r s a n d th e fa r m l a b o r e r s ) , th a t in th e t a ilo r in g tr a d e
th e w a g e s o f fe m a le w o r k e r s h a v e b e e n r a is e d , a n d t h a t d u r in g th e
w a r t h e b o a r d s h a v e p r o v e d t o b e t h o r o u g h l y e f f ic ie n t , is t h e c le a r e s t
p r o o f o f th e su cce ss o f th e m in im u m w a g e b o a r d s .
T h e p r e p a r a t o r y w o r k d o n e b y th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n
f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n w it h r e s p e c t to h o m e w o r k g o e s b a c k to th e
r e s o lu t io n s o f G e n e v a o f 1 9 0 6 , w h ic h d e a lt p r im a r ily w it h th e m a t ­
te r o f th e e m p lo y m e n t o f h o m e w o r k e r s , th e k e e p in g o f w a g e b o o k s ,
a n d th e e x t e n s io n o f in d u s t r ia l a n d f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n as w e ll as o f
s o c ia l in s u r a n c e a n d o f th e in s p e c t io n o f d w e llin g s . I n 1908 a t its
m e e t in g a t L u c e r n e th e n a t io n a l s e c tio n s w e r e c a lle d u p o n t o r e ­
q u est th e ir G o v e rn m e n ts , b y a p o s s ib le a d a p ta tio n o f th e B r itis h
b ills , t o a t t e m p t th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f m in im u m w a g e s in s u ch a w a y
t h a t e q u ip a r t is a n w a g e b o a r d s s h o u ld d e t e r m in e w a g e s c h e d u le s .
T h e s e r e s o lu t io n s w e r e m a d e m o r e d e fin ite b y th e m e e t in g a t
L u g a n o in 1 910 a ft e r th e e n a c tm e n t o f th e B r it is h m in im u m w a g e
la w o f 1909.
A s f a r asi d i r e c t p r o h i b i t i o n s o f h o m e w o r k a r e c o n ­
c e rn e d , fu r t h e r in v e s tig a tio n s h a v e d e m o n s tr a te d th e d a n g e rs w h ic h
th r e a te n , f o r e x a m p le , th e c h ild r e n o f h o m e w o r k e r s , in th e m a k ­
i n g o f th e r m o m e te r s a n d in o th e r in d u s tr ie s i n v o lv in g d a n g e r o f
p o is o n in g .2
T h e in t r o d u c t io n o f th e p r in c ip le o f th e m in im u m w a g e , w h ic h in
m o s t c o u n t r i e s h a s b e e n o r i s o n t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t , is o f
in t e r n a t io n a l in te r e s t in so f a r as it c o n c e r n s e x p o r t in d u s tr ie s .
E ven
i f th e fir s t a tte m p ts a t in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n ts in t h is d o m a in h a v e
b een u n s u c ce s s fu l so lo n g as th e y m e r e ly s o u g h t to b r in g a b o u t th e
s u b je c t io n o f h o m e in d u s t r y t o th e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r r e g u la t io n s f o r
f a c t o r i e s — a s is t h e c a s e c h i e f l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e S w i s s a n d A u s ­
t r ia n e m b r o id e r y in d u s t r y — y e t th e s itu a tio n w o u ld b e fa r m o r e
fa v o r a b le i f r e c ip r o c a l o b lig a tio n s w e re im p o s e d f o r th e m a in te ­
n a n c e o f m in im u m w a g e s. S u c h a g re e m e n ts , i f k e p t f r o m a n y c o n r e c t i o n w it h c o m m e r c ia l a g r e e m e n ts a n d t a r if f q u e s tio n s , w o u ld a ls o
e ff e c t u a lly d is p e l th e d is t r u s t o f c o m m e r c ia l lu s t f o r c o n q u e s t a t th e
e x p e n s e o f t h e b e t t e r p a id l a b o r o f c o m p e t in g c o u n t r ie s .
1 M a ssa ch u setts ( 1 9 1 2 ) , C aliforn ia , C olorado, M in n eso ta, N ebrask a, O regon, U ta h , W a s h ­
in gton , W isc o n sin ( 1 9 1 3 ) , A rk a n sa s, K a n s a s ( 1 9 1 5 ) .
See also A n d rew s, Irene O sgood,
“ M in im u m w age le g is la tio n ,” A lb a n y , 1 9 1 4 (rep rin ted from A p p en d ix II I o f the T h ird
R ep ort o f the N ew Y o rk S ta te F a c to r y In v e s tig a tin g C o m m issio n ).
2 K a th e G aebel and M . von Schulz : D ie H eim arbeit im K riege.




C H A P T E R

V III.

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF SUNDAY REST.
T h e c o m m a n d m e n t th a t g a in f u l w o r k s h a ll b e in t e r r u p t e d o n a g e n ­
e r a l w e e k ly d a y o f r e s t is th e o ld e s t c o n s t it u e n t p a r t o f p r o t e c t iv e la b o r
le g is la t io n . T h a t “ o n th e h o l y d a y o f th e su n a ll c o u r t s , a ll m u n ic ip a l
a s s e m b l ie s , a n d a l l t r a d e s s h a l l o b s e r v e a d a y o f r e s t ” is t h e d e c r e e
o f E m p e r o r C o n s ta n tin e o f M a r c h 7 , 321.
E m p e r o r T h e o d o s iu s p r o ­
h i b i t e d t h e a t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e s o n S u n d a y ( 3 8 6 ) . 1 I t is a b o v e a l l
th e d e s ir e f o r r e lig io u s u p l i f t w h ic h g iv e s t o th e s e r e g u la t io n s t h e ir
e c c le s ia s tic a l a n d d o g m a t ic c h a r a c te r .
O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e qu es­
tio n o f a llo w in g S u n d a y w o r k d u r in g h o u rs n o t g iv e n o v e r to re ­
l ig io u s s e r v ic e h a s le d s in c e th e R e f o r m a t io n , a n d e s p e c ia lly s in c e
th e a g e o f c o m m e r c ia lis m , t o d is s e n s io n s in th e r e lig io u s w o r ld , a n d
fin a lly , in F r a n c e , e v e n t o th e a b r o g a t io n o f th e S u n d a y r e s t la w s .
I t w a s m o d e r n p r o te c tiv e la b o r le g is la tio n w h ic h r e s to r e d th e S a b b a th
t o its fo r m e r p o s itio n .
T h e t y p ic a l c h a n g e s in th e s ig n ific a n c e o f th e S a b b a th a re s p e c ia lly
m a r k e d in E n g la n d , F r a n c e , a n d G e r m a n y .
I n E n g la n d , a fte r sp e­
c ia l p r o h ib it io n o f S u n d a y w o r k in th e ca se o f sh o e m a k e rs (1 6 0 3 ),
t e a m s t e r s a n d b u t c h e r s ( 1 6 2 8 ) , t h e L o r d ’s D a y A c t o f 1 6 7 7 s t a t e d
th e p r in c ip le o f th e S u n d a y r e s t as f o l l o w s : “ N o tr a d e s m a n , a r t ifi­
c e r , w o r k m a n o r la b o r e r o r a n y o t h e r p e r s o n w h a ts o e v e r s h a ll e x ­
e r c is e a n y w o r l d l y la b o r , b u s in e s s , o r w o r k o f h is o r d i n a r y c a ll i n g
u p o n t h e L o r d ’s D a y ” ; e x c e p t i o n i s m a d e i n f a v o r o f w o r k s o f n e c e s ­
s it y a n d m e r c y , a n d o f th e s e llin g o f m ilk a n d f o o d in in n s f r o m
9 to 4 p. m .
A f in e o f 5 s h i l l i n g s ( $ 1 . 2 2 ) f o r i n f r a c t i o n s , c o n f i s c a ­
t io n o f g o o d s in f a v o r o f th e p o o r fu n d , w it h p o s s ib le a w a r d o f o n e t h ir d o f th e p r o c e e d s t o th e in fo r m e r , a ft e r s u m m a r y p r o c e e d in g s
b e f o r e a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e , is p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e a c t .
1 S. A u gu stin e, in D e C ivitate D ei, book 6, ch apter 11, quotes the fo llo w in g criticism o f
the Sabbath rest from Seneca’ s D e Su perstitutione, since l o s t : “ [Sen eca] criticises the
sacra m en ts o f the Jew s and especially the Sabbath, w hich is, he says, a useless in s titu ­
tion, because, by the g ra n tin g o f a rest day betw een every period o f seven d ays a seventh
of a lifetim e a lm ost is lost, and m an y p ressin g m a tters o f bu siness are prejudiced by th is
stoppage o f w ork.
*
*
* M ean w h ile, th is cu stom has taken such a hold on th is repro­
bate people th a t it h as been accepted on a ll s i d e s ; the conquered im posed ' their law s on
the conquerors ( v i c t i v i c t o r i o u s l e g e s d e d e r u n t ) . T h a t surprised him , as he did not know
their divine o rigin .”
T h e law o f C on stan tin e confirm ed the new cu stom o f observing a
rest day.




85

86

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

T h e l a w o f 1 6 7 7 is s t i l l f o r m a l l y i n f o r c e , b u t h a s a c t u a l l y b e c o m e a
d e a d le tte r .
T h e la w c a n n o l o n g e r b e in v o k e d in a c o u r t o f ju s t ic e .
T h e r is e o f h o m e i n d u s t r y a n d o f i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h c o n ­
tin u o u s o p e r a t io n in th e la r g e in d u s tr ie s le d t o b r e a c h e s in th e o b ­
s e r v a n c e o f S u n d a y in in d u s tr ia l l i f e ; th e re r e m a in e d o n ly th e
p r o h ib it io n o f S u n d a y a m u sem en ts.
T h is w a s m a d e m o r e r ig o r o u s
b y th e la w o f 1780, 21 G e o r g e I I I , c h a p te r 49, a c c o r d in g t o w h ic h
e v e r y h o u s e t o w h ic h th e p u b l i c is a d m it t e d , o n t h e p a y m e n t o f
a n a d m is s io n fe e , f o r th e p u r p o s e o f e n t e r t a in m e n t , d iv e r s io n , o r d is ­
c u s s i o n is r e g a r d e d a s a “ h o u s e o f d i s o r d e r . ”
T h e o r g a n iz e r s o f su ch
a m u s e m e n ts a r e lik e w is e p u n is h a b le .
I n fa c t, th e S u n d a y L e ctu re
S o c ie t y , fo u n d e d in 1869, w a s p u n is h e d in 1894 f o r in s t it u t in g le c ­
tu r e s in o p p o s it io n t o t h is r e s o lu t io n .
T h e ju r y , h o w e v e r , d e c la r e d
th a t a r e v is io n o f th e la w w a s d e s ir a b le .
H e n c e , a c o m m is s io n w a s
a p p o in t e d b y th e H o u s e o f L o r d s o n A p r i l 2, 1895, b u t it r e a ch e d n o
c o n c lu s io n .
I n A p r i l , 1 8 9 6 , f o r th e fir s t t im e in L o n d o n , th e m u s e u m s
w e r e o p e n e d ( f r e e ) to th e p u b lic o n S u n d a y .
P r o t e c t iv e la b o r le g is la t io n is th e m o d e r n M a g n a C h a r t a o f th e
S u n d a y rest.
I n - 1836 b a k e rs w e r e fo r b id d e n b y la w to b a k e
o n S u n d a y s . I n 1878 th e S u n d a y rest w a s in tr o d u c e d in to fa c t o r y
le g is la tio n .
T h e la w , w h ic h h a s b e e n in fo r c e f o r 3 0 y e a rs , r e a d s
as f o l l o w s : “ A w o m a n , y o u n g p e r s o n , o r c h ild s h a ll n o t (s a v e
as is in t h is a c t s p e c ia lly e x c e p t e d ) b e e m p lo y e d o n S u n d a y in a
f a c t o r y o r w o r k s h o p .”
(A r t . 34, F a c to r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t, 1 90 1;
a n d f o r m i n e s t h e l a w o f S e p t . 6 , 1 8 8 7 .)
T h e E n g l i s h le g is la t io n r e c o g n iz e s o n l y t h r e e e x c e p t io n s t o t h is
le g a l S u n d a y re st in fa c t o r ie s a n d w o r k s h o p s :
1. W h e n t h e o c c u p i e r o f a f a c t o r y o r w o r k s h o p i s a p e r s o n o f t h e
J e w is h r e lig io n , a w o m a n o r y o u n g p e r s o n o f th e J e w is h r e lig io n
m a y b e e m p lo y e d o n S u n d a y , s u b je c t t o th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d it io n s :
{a) T h e f a c t o r y o r w o r k s h o p m u s t b e c l o s e d o n S a t u r d a y , a n d m u s t
n o t b e o p e n f o r b u s i n e s s o n S u n d a y ;t h e o c c u p i e r m u s t n o t a v a i l
(b)
h im s e lf o f th e e x c e p tio n s a u th o r iz in g th e e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n a n d
y o u n g p e r s o n s o n S a t u r d a y e v e n in g , o r f o r a n a d d it io n a l h o u r d u r ­
in g a n y o th e r d a y o f th e w eek .
2. M a le y o u n g p e r s o n s in b la s t fu r n a c e s a n d p a p e r m i l ls m a y b e
e m p lo y e d s e v e n n ig h ts w it h in t w o w eek s.
3. W o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s e m p l o y e d i n c r e a m e r i e s m a y b e e m ­
p lo y e d b y s p e c ia l o r d e r f o r a m a x im u m o f th r e e h o u r s o n S u n d a y s a n d
h o lid a y s .
T h e S u n d a y r e s t o f t h e f a c t o r y w o r k e r s h a s in p a r t r e s u lt e d in t h e
S u n d a y r e s t f o r th e u n p r o t e c t e d t r a n s p o r t in d u s tr ie s .
A s regards
t r a d e s p e o p l e w i t h s m a l l b u s in e s s e s , t h e r e l i g i o u s v i e w s o f t h e i r
p a t r o n s h a v e a c o n s id e r a b le e ffe c t o n th e o b s e r v a n c e o f th e S u n d a y
r e s t, b u t t h is is n o t th e c a s e a s r e g a r d s h o m e w o r k . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e




REGULATION- OF SUNDAY REST.

87

t r a d e - u n io n s b y d e m a n d in g d o u b le tim e f o r S u n d a y w o r k a r e in e ffe c t
m a k in g th e o b s e r v a n c e o f S u n d a y re st, as w e ll as th e S a t u r d a y h a lf
h o l i d a y o f c o n c e r n t o t h e e m p l o y e r . O n l y t h e a d h e r e n cu d ou fl l t h e
e
S u n d a y ” h a s c a u s e d a m o v e m e n t in m a n y p la c e s a m o n g th e w o r k e r s
t h e m s e lv e s i n f a v o r o f t h e M o n d a y r e s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e S u n d a y r e s t .
A s t h e r e s u l t o f a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e L o r d ’s D a y O b ­
s e r v a n c e S o c i e t y , i n 1 8 9 2 , i t w a s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n 2 ,2 0 0 e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s w i t h a b o u t 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s , o n l y 1 3 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s — i. e ., 2 .4
p e r cen t— w o r k e d o n S u n d a y .
T h e lic e n s in g a c ts a p p l y t o in n s ,
t a v e r n s , e t c . ; t h e y h a v e p r o h i b i t e d s i n c e 1 8 3 9 t h e s a le o f l i q u o r
a ft e r c e r t a in h o u r s , e x c e p t t o b o n a f id e tr a v e le r s .
T h e la w in
f o r c e ( t h e la w o f J u l y 3 0 , 1 8 7 4 ) r e q u ir e s S a t u r d a y n ig h t c l o s ­
i n g a t 11 o ’c lo c k in L o n d o n ; th e S u n d a y r e s t m a y b e in t e r r u p t e d o n l y
f r o m 1 t o 3 a n d f r o m 6 t o 1 1 . O u t s i d e o f L o n d o n , i n n s , t a v e r n s , e t c .,
m u s t c lo s e o n S a t u r d a y e v e n in g s a t 10 o ’c lo c k , a n d m a y b e o p e n e d
o n S u n d a y s o n l y f r o m 1 2 .3 0 t i l l 2 .3 0 a n d f r o m 6 t o 1 0 . T h e c o m ­
p l e t e p r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e o p e n i n g o f i n n s , t a v e r n s , e t c ., o n S u n d a y i s
e n fo r c e d in W a le s . W i t h i n a r a d iu s o f 10 m ile s fr o m th e S t o c k E x ­
c h a n g e in L o n d o n n o b a k e r o r b a k e r ’s a s s is ta n t m a y m a k e o r b a k e
b r e a d o r p a s t r y o n S u n d a y ; a f t e r 1 .3 0 i n t h e a f t e r n o o n i t i s a l s o f o r ­
b id d e n t o s e ll b r e a d o r p a s t r y o r t o c a u s e th e m t o b e s o ld , a n d t o m a k e
o r to d e liv e r su g a r ca k es, ta rts , o r o th e r fo o d .
H u n t in g o n S u n d a y w a s fo r b id d e n in E n g la n d b y th e la w o f
O c t o b e r 5, 1831. I n S c o t la n d fis h in g w a s fo r b i d d e n b y th e la w o f
J u ly 26, 1889. E v e n b u r ia ls m a y b e p u t o ff t ill th e n e x t d a y b y th e
l a w o f S e p t e m b e r 7 , 1 8 8 0 , i n c a s e t h e c l e r g y m a n r a is e s o b j e c t i o n s t o
S u n d a y b u r ia ls .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n is n o t r e g u l a t e d .
I t is, h o w e v e r ,
w e ll k n o w n t h a t in E n g la n d fe w e r tr a in s r u n o n S u n d a y s th a n o n
w e e k d a y s ( e x c e p t o n th e m a in lin e s n o t r a in s a t a ll r u n o n S u n d a y s
in S c o t l a n d ) . I t w a s n o t t i l l 1831 th a t a la w a llo w e d c a r r ia g e s in
L o n d o n o n S u n d a y s . A b o u t 15 y e a r s a g o c o m p a n ie s th a t w a n te d t o
in s t it u t e e x c u r s io n s o n r iv e r ste a m e r s in S c o t la n d h a d t o g iv e th e
p la n u p o n a c c o u n t o f th e h o s tile a ttitu d e o f th e p u b lic .
T h e S u n d a y re st w a s b i t t e r ly o p p o s e d in F r a n c e . C o lb e r t is m fir s t
o p p o s e d t h e in c r e a s e in t h e n u m b e r o f c h u r c h h o lid a y s . T h e c o m ­
m e r c ia l s p ir it o f C o lb e r tis m w a s fo llo w e d b y th e r a tio n a lis t b e lie f,
w h ic h p r e v a ile d f r o m th e tim e o f A b b e S t .-P ie r r e (1 7 2 1 ) t o th a t o f
th e fa th e r o f th e e c o n o m ic w o r ld w a r, N a p o le o n I , a n d w h ic h ta u g h t
t h a t t h e l o s s o f S u n d a y w o r k is a n e c o n o m i c l o s s a n d a l i m i t a t i o n o f
p e r s o n a l lib e r ty .
N a p o l e o n , i t is t r u e , w a s o b l i g e d t o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e
S a b b a th in 1802 in th e p la c e o f th e te n th d a y ( D e c a d i ) o f th e c o n s t it u ­
tio n o f 1793.
B u t n o t u n t il th e p e r io d o f th e r e s to r a tio n w a s S u n d a y
r e s t o r e d t o its c h a r a c t e r as a d a y o f re st. U n t il th e e n a c tm e n t o f th e
la w o f N o v e m b e r 1 8 ,1 8 1 4 , in d u s t r ia l w o r k o n S u n d a y s w a s fo r b i d d e n
o n ly t o p u b lic e m p lo y e e s , a n d th e c lo s in g o f s c h o o ls a n d p u b lic s h o p s




INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

88

w as ord ered .
T h e la w o f 181 4 , o n th e o t h e r h a n d , a ls o p r o h ib it e d to
p r iv a t e p e r s o n s a ll w o r k a n d a ll p u b lic t r a d i n g o n S u n d a y s a n d o n
le g a l h o lid a y s . T h e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e la w b e c a m e m o r e a n d m o r e
la x . A G o v e r n m e n t d e cr e e o f 1838 o r d e r e d ju d ic io u s e n fo r c e m e n t o f
th e S u n d a y re st, in o r d e r n o t t o h a m p e r tr a d e a n d in d u s tr y . A d e cr e e
o f 1844 d e c la r e d t h a t th e S u n d a y r e s t s h o u ld le a v e th e c it iz e n fr e e t o
f o l l o w o r n o t t o f o l l o w t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e S t a t e e s t a b li s h m e n t s .
C o m p le t e ly r id d le d , th e S u n d a y la w o f 1814 w a s fin a lly d e fin ite ly r e ­
p e a le d b y th e la w o f J u ly 12, 1880. A t th e la b o r le g is la t io n c o n f e r ­
e n ce in B e r lin in 1 890 th e F r e n c h r e p r e s e n ta tiv e , S e n a to r T o la in ,
d e c la r e d th a t a r e s t-d a y la w , i f n o t a S u n d a y la w , w o u ld b e p o s s ib le
in F r a n c e f o r a ll w o r k e r s a n d a S u n d a y re st la w f o r th e e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts w it h le g a lly p r o t e c t e d e m p lo y e e s . T h e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w o f
N o v e m b e r 2 , 1 8 9 2 , a r t ic le 5, g r a n t e d t o y o u n g m a le w o r k e r s (u n d e r
1 8 ) a n d t o fe m a le w o r k e r s o f a n y a g e th e r ig h t t o a w e e k ly re st
d a y ; b u t t h is p r o t e c t io n h a d r e fe r e n c e o n ly t o f a c t o r y w o r k e r s . T h e
t r a d e -u n io n s a n d th e S u n d a y le a g u e s th e n t o o k u p th e m a t t e r o f a
w e e k -d a y rest. I n P a r lia m e n t in 1891, 1896, a n d 1 897 p r o p o s a ls w e r e
m a d e f o r S u n d a y o r wT e k - d a y r e s t s , b u t t h e y w e r e n o t a d o p t e d . T h e
e
e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e 1 0 -h o u r -d a y la w in 1900 (M ille r a n d -C o llia r d la w )
s h o w e d m o r e a n d m o r e t h a t e v e n in p r o t e c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s t h e lo s s
o f w o r k in g tim e d u r in g th e w e e k w a s o ft e n m a d e u p b y th e S u n d a y
w o r k o f m a le a d u lts . T h u s th e r e a r o s e th e n e c e s s ity f o r a c o lle c t iv e
r e s t -d a y la w e v e n f o r p r o t e c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s .1 W h e n th e in it ia t iv e
w a s ta k e n b y t h e S o c ia lis t s ( m o t io n o f Z e v a e s , A p r . 6, 1 9 0 0 ), th e
o t h e r p a r t ie s w o k e u p t o th e n e c e s s ity o f t h e r e in t r o d u c t io n o f th e
le g a l S u n d a y rest.
T h is w a s r e s to r e d , 26 y e a r s a ft e r its a b o lit io n ,
b y th e la w o f J u ly 10, 1906, a ft e r a v ig o r o u s c a m p a ig n o r g a n iz e d b y
th e C o n s u m e r s ’ L e a g u e , fo u n d e d b y H e n r ie tte B r u n h e s .
T h e d e fe c ts o f th e la w a re a s c r ib e d b y a c o m m e n ta to r , L . A r m b r u s t e r ,2 t o th e e x c e s s iv e h a s te w it h w h ic h th e la w w a s r u s h e d t h r o u g h
th e t w o H o u s e s o f P a r lia m e n t.
I t s o u t lin e s a r e as f o l l o w s :
1.
T h e S u n d a y r e s t is le g a l l y b i n d i n g o n a ll in d u s t r ia l a n d m e
c a n t i l e e s t a b li s h m e n t s , s e c u l a r a n d e c c l e s i a s t i c , p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e .
, 2 . I t s d u r a t i o n is t o b e a t l e a s t 2 4 h o u r s .
3.
O n p r i n c i p l e , t h e w e e k l y r e s t is t o b e a S u n d a y r e s t ; h o w e v e r
in t h e in t e r e s t o f a n e s t a b lis h m e n t o r o f t h e c u s t o m e r s , t e m p o r a r ily
o r p e r m a n e n tly ( a ) , a w e e k d a y m a y b e a llo w e d as a s u b s titu te re st
d a y , o r (b) a h a l f d a y S u n d a y a n d a s u b s t i t u t e w e e k d a y e v e r y f o r t ­
n i g h t , o r c() f r o m S u n d a y n o o n t o M o n d a y n o o (d, ) o r h e r e s t d a y
n t
m a y b e g r a n te d in s h ifts , e ith e r f o r th e w h o le o r f o r p a r t o f th e
p e r s o n n e l.
1 R ap p ort sur l ’ap p iication des lois r6glem en tan t le tra v a il en 1 9 0 4 , p. 4 9 .
* L e repos H ebd om adaire, P a ris, 1 9 0 7 , p. 2.




REGULATION OF SUNDAY REST.

89

T lie la w a ls o m a k e s o t h e r e x c e p t io n s t o t h is r e s t r ic t e d S u n d a y r e s t :
I n S ta te m ilit a r y w o r k s h o p s , as w e ll as in in d u s tr ie s c a r r ie d o n in th e
o p e n a ir , 15 r e s t d a y s a y e a r m a y b e c a n c e le d .
A f t e r th e p r o m u lg a t io n o f th e la w , a s t r o n g c o u n te r a g ita tio n w a s
set o n fo o t , e s p e c ia lly o n th e p a r t o f th e r e s ta u r a n t k e e p e r s a n d s m a ll
d e a le r s in fo o d s t u ffs . O n th e o t h e r h a n d , th e la b o r u n io n s m a d e it
t h e ir b u s in e s s t o m a k e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e c o lle c t iv e S u n d a y v i c ­
t o r io u s o v e r th a t o f th e a lt e r n a t in g s u b s titu te r e s t s h ift s .
I n th e G e r m a n E m p ir e th e I n d u s tr ia l C o d e o f 1878 r e c o g n iz e d th e
p r in c ip le o f th e S u n d a y r e st, b u t its p r o v is io n s as w e ll as th o s e o f
th e F e d e r a l S ta te s p r o v e d t o b e s o in a d e q u a te t h a t it w a s n o t t i ll
J u n e 1, 1 8 9 1 , t h a t a n a m e n d m e n t t o t h e c o d e ( L e x B e r l e p s c h ) m a d e
th e p r o t e c t io n o f th e w o r k e r s ’ re s t e ffe c tiv e .
T h e sta te o f a ffa ir s
w i t h r e s p e c t t o S u n d a y r e s t is m a d e c l e a r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t
o f th e G o v e r n m e n t in s u p p o r t o f th e a b o v e a m e n d m e n t:
The provisions of paragraph 2 of article 105 of the Industrial Code hitherto
in force do not sufficiently secure to the worker the opportunity of devoting
Sundays and holidays to the necessary rest from the week’s work, to mental
composure, to invigoration and refreshing for new work, and to the cultivation
of family life. The fact that agreements by which workers bind themselves to
T
work on Sundays and holidays are ineffective under the civil law is not suffi­
cient, on account of the dependence of most laborers and the temptation pre­
sented by the possibility of increased earnings, to prevent actual employment on
Sundays and holidays. Neither have State laws supplied the deficiencies of the
imperial legislation in this respect. The majority of the legal provisions of the
Federal States, as the summaries communicated to the Federal Council prove
(Reichstags-Drucksachen No. 71, p. 6, Legislatur-Periode 2, session 1885/86), do
not aim primarily at securing for the worker the Sunday rest, but are rather
T
intended to protect public worship from disturbances, or to maintain the sanctity
of Sundays and holidays. Therefore the cessation of all work for the whole day
is not required so much as the abstinence from noisy or otherwise disturbing
work. On the other hand, in granting exceptions to the prohibition of Sunday
work many State laws, especially those of more ancient origin, do not take suffi­
ciently into account the imperative needs of economic life which have grown out
of the development of modern specialized industry, and the fact that they make
demands, the fulfillment of which is actually impossible under present-day con­
ditions, necessitates their lax enforcement, a proceeding which has its natural
effect upon those laws which should be strictly enforced. The State laws
of more recent origin, like those of the Kingdom of Saxony and others, take
into account the viewpoints of labor protection and the requirements of modern
industry. But these laws, also, in spite of their common origin and the simi­
larity of many of their provisions, present so many differences in detail,
that not even in the territories to which the laws are applicable have the
conditions of production in the same branches of an industry been equalized in
the measure that seems to be required within a uniform economic territory.
There is still less uniformity in the conditions of production between these
territories and those whose legislation is of earlier origin.
Hence, imperial legislation will have to undertake a new regulation of the
employment of industrial workers on Sundays and holidays.




90

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

T h e p ro c e s s b y w h ic h th e le v e lin g o f th e c o n d itio n s o f p r o d u c t io n
w a s th u s a c c o m p lis h e d in th e G e r m a n F e d e r a l S t a t e is n o t th e o n ly
o n e o f its k in d .
S w itz e r la n d , t o o , b y h e r F e d e r a l f a c t o r y la w o f
1887 fo u n d it n ecessa ry to a d v a n ce fa r b e y o n d th e u n eq u a l ca n to n a l
r e g u la t io n o f th e S u n d a y r e s t ( in o p e r a t io n in Z u r ic h s in c e 1832 a n d
1 859, in G la r u s s in c e 1 8 5 8 ).
O n l y b y t h e s t o p p a g e o f f r e i g h t t r a ffic
o n S u n d a y s (1 8 9 0 ) b y F e d e r a l le g is la tio n w a s th e S u n d a y re st f o r
e m p lo y e e s o n t r a n s p o r t a t io n s y s te m s s e c u r e d . T h u s is g iv e n a b a s is
f o r th e fu r t h e r n a tu r a l d e v e lo p m e n t t o w a r d in te r n a tio n a l p r o t e c t io n
o f S u n d a y r e s t w h i c h , a s a m a t e r o f c o u r s e , m u s t a l s o e m b r a c e o ff ic e
a n d m e r c a n tile e m p lo y e e s a n d th e p e r s o n n e l o f th e c o m m u n ic a tio n
a n d n e w s s e r v i c e (Nachrichtenwesen) . I n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , t h e I n t e r ­
s
n a tio n a l S o c ie t y f o r th e O b s e r v a n c e o f th e S a b b a th R e s t, fo u n d e d b y
A le x a n d e r L o m b a r d in 1876, a p r o p a g a n d is t s o c ie ty f o r th e s p r e a d o f
e t h i c o r e l i g i o u s v i e w s , h a s b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t iv e .
G e r m a n y ’s e x a m p le w a s f o l l o w e d b y A u s t r ia in 1895 a n d 1 9 0 5 , b y
D e n m a r k a n d S p a in in 1904, a n d b y B e lg iu m in 1905, w h ile th e e x ­
a m p le o f F r a n c e w a s fo llo w e d b y I t a l y in 1907 b y m e a n s o f n e w S u n ­
d a y r e g u la t io n s .
P a r a g u a y (1 9 0 2 ) a n d A r g e n t in a (1 9 0 5 ) in itia te d
t h e ir la b o r le g is la t io n w it h n e w S u n d a y r e s t la w s .
T h u s h ere, to o ,
a n in t e r n a t io n a l m o v e m e n t w a s c a r r ie d o u t— f r o m th e le g a lly u n r e g u ­
la t e d o r p u r e ly e c c le s ia s t ic a lly p r o t e c t e d o b s e r v a n c e o f S u n d a y t o
p rote cted rest fr o m w ork .
W e m a y o b s e r v e its p r o g r e s s , n o te th e
u n e q u a l d u r a tio n o f th e S u n d a y r e st f r o m c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y , a n d
in v e s t ig a t e th e ca u s e s o f ta r d in e s s in in d iv id u a l c o u n t r ie s .
T h e re­
m o v a l o f p a r t y p o lit ic s o r e c o n o m ic h in d r a n c e s w h ic h o b s tr u c t th e
r e g u la t io n o f t h e r e s t d a y in i n d iv id u a l c o u n t r ie s is th u s o n l y t o b e
a t t a i n e d b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n o f l a b o r t h r o u g h t r e a t ie s .
F a ced
b y t h is ta s k , w e fin d t h e f o l l o w i n g d iv e r s it y in th e r e s t -d a y r e g u ­
la tio n s :
1. R e m n a n t s o f t h e p u r e l y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n , w h i c h o n l y
in flic t s p u n is h m e n t f o r S u n d a y d is t u r b a n c e s , a r e t o b e f o u n d in
S w e d e n a n d in 26 o f th e S ta te s o f th e A m e r ic a n U n io n .
2. I n th e f o l l o w i n g c o u n t r ie s o f E u r o p e o n l y y o u n g p e r s o n s a n d
w o m e n , n o t a d u lt m a le s , h a v e t h e ir S u n d a y r e s t p r o t e c t e d :
B e lg iu m a n d L u x e m b u r g , m a le s u n d e r 1 6 ; fe m a le s u n d e r 21 .
F r a n c e , m a le s u n d e r 1 8 ; fe m a le s u n d e r 2 1 .
B u lg a r i a a n d R o u m a n ia , m a le s u n d e r 1 5 ; fe m a le s , a ll a g e s .
N e t h e r la n d s , m a le s u n d e r 1 7 ; fe m a le s , a ll a g e s .
S p a in a n d G r e a t B r it a i n , m a le s u n d e r 1 8 ; fe m a le s , a ll a g e s.
I n A m e r ic a , in D e la w a r e , N e w J e rs e y , V ir g in ia , a n d W is c o n s in , u p
t o th e s ix te e n th y e a r . B r a z il a n d J a p a n g r a n t p r o t e c t io n o f th e S u n ­
d a y rest to w o r k e r s u p t o th e fifte e n th y e a r.
I n c e r t a i n A m e r i c a n S t a t e s t h e r e s t - d a y p r o t e c t i o n o f w o m e n is
n o t S u n d a y p r o t e c t i o n ; t h e n u m b e r o f w o r k in g d a y s in t h e w e e k is




REGULATION OE SUNDAY REST.

91

s im p ly lim ite d to s ix (D is t r ic t o f C o lu m b ia , N e w J e r s e y , N e w Y o r k ,
M a ssa ch u se tts , a n d P e n n s y lv a n ia ).
v 3. F u r t h e r , t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e w e e k l y r e s t p e r i o d v a r i e s .
I t is
lo n g e s t in th o s e c o u n tr ie s w h ic h h a v e in t r o d u c e d a s h o r te r w o r k in g
p e r i o d o n S a t u r d a y f o r y o u n g p e o p le a n d f o r w o m e n . I n t h is c o n n e c ­
t io n E n g la n d c o m e s fir s t b y g r a n t in g t o y o u n g m e n a n d t o w o m e n a
S u n d a y re s t o f 34^ h o u r s in t e x t ile fa c t o r ie s a n d 30 in n o n t e x t ile
fa c t o r ie s . T h e g e n e r a l S u n d a y r e s t in F in la n d is 30 h o u r s , in N o r ­
w a y 2 8 h o u r s . I n th e G e r m a n E m p ir e , in t h e N e t h e r la n d s , a n d in
S w i t z e r l a n d , i t is l o n g e r t h a n 2 4 h o u r s f o r w o m e n o n a c c o u n t o f t h e
fr e e S a t u r d a y a ft e r n o o n .
I n a ll o t h e r c o u n t r ie s o f E u r o p e its
d u r a t i o n i s 2 4 h o u r s , e x c e p t in S w e d e n , wrh e r e i t is 15 h o u r s .
In
t h e G e r m a n E m p i r e , i n t h e c a s e o f c o n s e c u t i v e h o l i d a y s , i t is 3 6 h o u r s ;
a t C h r is tm a s , E a s te r , a n d P e n te c o s t, 48 h o u rs .
4.
T h e e x c e p tio n s t o th e S u n d a y rest a re n u m e r o u s a n d d is s im ila r .
I n E u r o p e th e fo llo w in g h o ld g o o d :
( 1 ) P r e v e n t io n o f lo s s t h a t
c a n n o t b e f o r e s e e n ; ( 2 ) ca ses o f e m e r g e n c y , v is m a jo r , p u b lic in te r e s t,
p r e s s in g r e a s o n s ; ( 3 ) n e c e s s it y f o r k e e p in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts o p e n o w i n g
to th e n a tu r e o f th e w o r k ; (4 ) u se o f w in d a n d ir r e g u la r w a te r p o w e r
as m o t i v e p o w e r ; ( 5 ) p r e v e n t io n o f s p o i l i n g o f r a w m a t e r ia ls (e . g .,
m i l k ) ; ( 6 ) in s p e c t io n o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t ; ( 7 ) c le a n in g a n d u p k e e p
o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t ; ( 8 ) s u p p ly in g p e r s o n s w it h f o o d f o r t h e ir d a ily
n e e d a n d w it h m e d ic in e s ; ( 9 ) r e s ta u r a n ts a n d s a lo o n s , a m u se m e n ts,
th e a te r s, t r a n s p o r t a t io n ; (1 0 ) th e le g a lly p r e s c r ib e d in v e n t o r y ; (1 1 )
n o n - C h r i s t i a n e s t a b li s h m e n t s .
I t is o f in t e r n a t io n a l in t e r e s t t o l im it th e s e e x c e p t io n s t o th e
u t m o s t a n d t o r e g u la t e t h e c o m p e n s a t io n f o r t h e lo s t S u n d a y r est.
I n G e r m a n y , as w e ll a s in A u s t r ia a n d in B o s n ia , w h e n S u n d a y
w o r k is d o n e i n c a s e s o f e m e r g e n c y , v i s m a j o r , e t c ., s u p p l e m e n t a r y
le a v e is g iv e n as c o m p e n s a t io n f o r m o r e t h a n 3 h o u r s ’ S u n d a y w o r k ,
in G e r m a n y o f 12 h o u r s e v e r y s e c o n d S u n d a y , in B o s n i a o f 2 4 h o u r s
o n a d a y o f th e f o l l o w i n g w e e k , in s o m e S ta te s a w e e k -d a y rest p e r io d
c o r r e s p o n d in g t o th e S u n d a y w o r k .
I n e s ta b lis h m e n ts w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n th e m o s t f a v o r a b le
c o m p e n s a to r y c o n d it io n s a re fo u n d in N o r w a y , w h ic h g r a n ts e v e r y
s e c o n d S u n d a y o r a w e e k d a y ; in I t a l y , w h ic h a llo w s o n ly a n
8 - h o u r s h i f t o n S u n d a y i n e s t a b li s h m e n t s w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a ­
t io n , a n d p r e s c r ib e s a c o m p e n s a t o r y r e s t o f 36 h o u r s e v e r y 14 d a y s ;
a n d in L u x e m b u r g , w h ic h f o r m o re th a n 3 h o u rs o f S u n d a y w o r k
p r e s c r ib e s a c o m p e n s a t o r y r e s t o f 24 h o u r s e v e r y 2 w e e k s ; w h ile
D e n m a r k i n t h r e e - s h i f t e s t a b li s h m e n t s g i v e s o n l y e v e r y t h i r d S u n d a y
o f f . T h e s h o r t e s t c o m p e n s a t o r y r e s t is g r a n t e d i n H u n g a r y , w h i c h ,
in t h e ca s e o f r e g u la r S u n d a y w o r k in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w it h c o n ­
tin u o u s o p e r a tio n , g r a n ts o n ly o n e S u n d a y in th e m o n th o r a h a l f
S u n d a y e v e r y fo r t n ig h t .
T h e G e r m a n E m p ir e a llo w s , f o r m o r e t h a n




92

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

3 h o u r s o f S u n d a y w o r k , 36 h o u r s e v e r y t h ir d S u n d a y , o r 12 h o u r s
ev ery secon d S u n day.
T h i s s u r v e y s h o w s t h a t f o r e s t a b li s h m e n t s w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a ­
t io n th e 8 -h o u r s h if t o ffe r s th e m o s t fa v o r a b le c o m p e n s a t io n f o r
t h e lo s s o f t h e S u n d a y r e s t, n a m e ly , 36 h o u r s e v e r y f o r t n ig h t , a s
in N o r w a y . I n a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e n e w S w is s f a c t o r y la w , a r t ic le
54, th e 8 -h o u r s h ift h a s b e e n in t r o d u c e d in S w it z e r la n d in to es­
t a b lis h m e n t s w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n .
W i t h p e r m is s io n o f th e
F e d e r a l C o u n c il, a n 8 -h o u r o r a t m o s t a 1 0 -h o u r w o r k in g p e r io d
m a y be g ra n ted .
I n case o f S u n d a y w o r k , h o w e v e r, e v e ry w o r k e r
m u st h a v e e v e r y se co n d S u n d a y o ff, a n d f o r e v e r y S u n d a y o n
w h ic h h e h a s w o r k e d a w o r k d a y in th e p r e c e d in g o r f o l l o w i n g w eek ,
b o th o f 24 h ou rs.
H o li d a y s a re n o t t o b e c o n s id e r e d as S u n d a y s .
I n t h r e e - s h if t e s t a b lis h m e n t s th e u n in t e r r u p t e d r e s t p e r io d m a y
b e lim it e d t o 2 0 h o u r s o n th e 52 fr e e d a y s . A m o n g th e se th e r e m u s t
b e a t le a s t 26 S u n d a y s .
T h e sa m e t h in g a p p lie s t o th o s e s h ift a r ­
r a n g e m e n ts in w h ic h th e t o ta l n u m b e r o f h o u r s o f o n e s h if t d o e s
n o t a m o u n t t o m o r e t h a n 56 o n a w e e k ly a v e ra g e .
I n E u r o p e th e N o r w e g ia n a n d S w is s r e g u la t io n o f th e c o m p e n s a ­
t i o n f o r S u n d a y w o r k i n e s t a b li s h m e n t s w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a ­
t io n is th e m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s sy ste m . T h e r e g u la t io n o f th e o th e r
e x c e p t io n s t o th e S u n d a y r e s t d e p e n d s p a r t l y o n lo c a l r e q u ir e m e n ts ,
a n d is t h e r e f o r e e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d .
I n th e U n it e d S ta te s e s ta b lis h m e n ts w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n
w it h o u t c o m p e n s a t o r y r e s t a r e e x c e p t e d f r o m th e S u n d a y r e g u la t io n
in A la b a m a , A r k a n s a s , a n d N e w Y o r k ( 8 - h o u r s h if t e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w it h c o n tin u o u s o p e r a t io n ).
N e w s p a p e r p r i n t i n g o ff ic e s ( F l o r i d a ,
H a w a ii, a n d M a s s a c h u s e tts ) a re fr e q u e n tly e x e m p te d fr o m o b s e rv a n ce
o f th e S u n d a y re st. T w e n t y S ta te s g r a n t as c o m p e n s a t io n f o r th e
lo s s o f S u n d a y re st a w h o le S a t u r d a y o r S u n d a y o r a n o th e r w e e k
d a y . I n N e w Y o r k th e le g is la tu r e h a s g r a n t e d e x e m p t io n f r o m th e
S u n d a y r e s t t o 3 - s h i f t e s t a b li s h m e n t s w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n , c o n ­
d it io n e d u p o n th e a p p r o v a l o f th e c o m m is s io n e r o f la b o r (L a w s o f
1914, ch . 3 9 6 ).
T h e s e e x e m p t io n s , h o w e v e r , h a v e b e e n d e c la r e d
u n c o n s t itu t io n a l b y th e c o u r t o f a p p e a l, o n th e g r o u n d t h a t th e g r a n t ­
i n g o f t h e m is b a s e d o n a n o n p e r m i s s i b l e t r a n s f e r o f a u t h o r i t y .
T h u s , e s ta b lis h m e n ts w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n a r e a ls o m a d e c o m ­
p le t e ly s u b je c t t o th e o b s e r v a n c e o f th e S u n d a y r e s t la w s .
In M assa­
c h u s e t t s , a l s o , n o e x e m p t i o n is g r a n t e d f r o m t h e S u n d a y r e s t t o e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s w it h c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n ( L a w s o f 1 9 1 3 , c h . 6 1 9 ).
J a p a n g r a n t s o n l y t o y o u n g p e r s o n s a n d t o w o m e n t w o r e s t d a y s in
t h e m o n t h ; w h e r e t h e r e is n ig h t w o r k a n d c o n t in u o u s o p e r a t io n f o u r
e x tra rest d a y s m u st b e g ra n ted .
T a s m a n ia a n d Q u e e n s la n d , in A u s t r a lia , a n d N e w Z e a la n d , h a v e
e n a c te d r e g u la t io n s w it h r e g a r d t o S u n d a y rest. T h e s e th r e e S ta te s




REGULATION OF SUNDAY REST.

93

g r a n t in a d d it io n t o th e S u n d a y r e s t 52 h a l f h o lid a y s (N e w Z e a la n d ,
t o m e n a l s o ) , b e g in n in g o n S a t u r d a y a ft e r n o o n a t 1 o ’c lo c k . T h e d u ­
r a t i o n o f t h e S u n d a y r e s t p r o p e r is 2 4 h o u r s . T h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s
t o b e f o u n d i n N e w Z e a l a n d i n t h e c a s e o f n e w s p a p e r p r i n t i n g o ffic e s
a n d n e w s p a p e r d is t r ib u t io n , f o r w h ic h a c o m p le t e s u b s titu te rest d a y
is t o b e g r a n t e d . E x e m p t i o n f r o m t h e S u n d a y r e s t o n t h e g r o u n d o f
d iffe r e n c e o f r e lig io u s b e l i e f is k n o w n o n ly in E n g la n d , th e N e t h e r ­
la n d s (o n th e re q u e st o f w o r k e r s w h o b e lo n g t o a r e lig io u s se ct w h ic h
d o e s n o t o b s e r v e th e w e e k ly r e s t d a y o n S u n d a y ) , th e E a s t I n d ie s ( i n
c a s e t h e w o r k e r h a s h a d o r is t o h a v e a w h o l e h o l i d a y o n o n e o f t h e
th re e d a y s b e fo r e o r a ft e r th e S u n d a y ), C a m e r o o n a n d G e r m a n
E a s t A f r i c a , w h ic h g r a n t a w e e k ly r e s t o f 2 4 h o u r s , a n d in 15 S ta te s
o f th e A m e r ic a n U n io n o u t o f c o n s id e r a t io n f o r th e S a b b a ta r ia n s .
T h e s e e x e m p t io n s a re v a lid o n ly f o r p r o d u c t iv e in d u s tr ie s , n o t f o r
t r a d e a n d t r a ffic .
5.
F in a lly , th e n u m b e r o f le g a l rest a n d h o lid a y s a n d o f S u n d a y
f a l l i n g o n th e s e d a y s d iffe r s . T h e m a x im u m o f th e s e r e s t a n d h o l i ­
d a y s is a t t a in e d in R u s s ia (6 9 f o r o r t h o d o x a n d 63 f o r C a t h o lic
w o r k e r s ) a n d in S a x o n y ( i n c e r t a in C a t h o lic d is t r ic t s 69 d a y s ) th e
m in im u m is 52 r e s t d a y s .
T h i s m in im u m p r e v a ils in 9 c o u n t r ie s
(B o s n ia , B e lg iu m , B u lg a r ia , S p a in , I t a ly , L u x e m b u r g , th e N e th e r ­
la n d s , P o r t u g a l, a n d R u m a n ia ) .
O u t s id e o f R u s s ia , o v e r 60 h o lid a y s a r e t o b e f o u n d o n ly in th e
C a t h o l i c d i s t r i c t s o f A l s a c e - L o r r a i n e , B a v a r i a , a n d 'S a x o n y .
In gen ­
e r a l, th e le g a l r e s t d a y s in th e la r g e in d u s t r ia l s e c tio n s o f E u r o p e ,
in P r u s s ia , F r a n c e , E n g l a n d , a n d S w it z e r la n d , a r e q u it e u n i f o r m l y
r e g u la t e d , f o r th e se c o u n t r ie s r e c o g n iz e o n ly 8 t o 9 le g a l h o lid a y s in
a d d itio n to S u n d a y s .
I t is u n n e c e s s a r y t o s p e a k o f th e e ffe c t o f th e S u n d a y r e s t o n th e
fa m i l y life , r e c r e a tio n , a n d s p ir it u a l l i f e o f m illio n s o f w o r k e r s ’
fa m ilie s . T h e e x p e r ie n c e s w it h S u n d a y w o r k d u r in g th e W o r l d W a r
p r o v e its t r i f l i n g p r o d u c t iv e n e s s a n d p r o fita b le n e s s . T h e in v e s t ig a ­
t io n s o f th e B r it is h M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s s h o w , f o r e x a m p le , th a t
a ft e r th e s t o p p a g e o f S u n d a y w o r k in o n e m u n it io n s f a c t o r y m o r e
s h e l ls w e r e p r o d u c e d b y h a l f o f t h e f o r m e r w o r k i n g p e r s o n n e l . O n e
fo r e m a n s a id h e d id n o t b e lie v e “ in a h o lid a y o n d o u b le p a y ” ;
a n oth e r rem a rk ed th a t S u n d a y w o r k g a v e a 6 d a y s ’ ou tp u t fo r 7 d a y s ’
w o r k a n d 8 d a y s ’ p a y .”
T h e s u p e r v is io n b e c o m e s la x o n S u n d a y , th e
c o s t o f la b o r is h ig h e r , a n d r e lig io u s a n d s o c ia l o b s ta c le s m a k e th e
o u t p u t l e s s .1
F r e e d o m f r o m h o u s e w o r k o n S u n d a y , h o w e v e r , is o n l y t o b e a t ­
ta in e d b y e a r ly c lo s in g o n S a tu r d a y .
T h is a ls o a llo w s th e y o u n g
w o r k e r t o s a t is fy h is n e e d o f r e c r e a t io n , g iv e s th e a d u lt th e c h a n c e t o
1
M in is try o f M u n ition s, In terim R ep ort, In d u stria l E fficien cy an d F a tig u e , Cd. 8511,
1917, p. 15 ; R e p o r t on S unday L a b ou r, Cd. 8132, 1915, p. 3.




94

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

w o r k in h is g a r d e n , a n d c o u n t e r a c t s a lc o h o lis m o n S u n d a y s a n d th e
d a n g e r o f a c c id e n ts o n M o n d a y s .1
T h e S u n d a y re st, t o g e t h e r w ith th e S a t u r d a y a ft e r n o o n c lo s in g ,
w o u ld m e a n a n in t e r r u p t io n o f w o r k f o r f r o m 41 t o 42 h o u r s .
F rom
su ch a r e g u la t io n th e p r e s e n t le g is la t io n is s t ill f a r r e m o v e d .
A s has
b e e n s h o w n in th e c h a p t e r o n th e p r o t e c t io n o f fe m a le la b o r , th e
e a r ly c lo s in g o n S a t u r d a y is le g a lly , i f n o t a c t u a lly , a r e d u c t io n o f
wT r k g r a n t e d i n t h e m a i n o n l y t o w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s .
o
A
4 1 -h o u r w e e k ly r e s t f o r m e n a ls o e x is ts in N e w Z e a la n d . T h is c o l ­
o n y , a n d T a s m a n ia a n d Q u e e n s la n d g r a n t , f o r w o m e n a n d y o u n g
p e r s o n s , b e s id e s t h e S u n d a y r e s t, 52 h a l f h o l id a y s o n S a t u r d a y s ,
b e g in n in g a t 1 o ’c lo c k p . m .
A n in t e r n a t io n a l a g re e m e n t as t o th e S u n d a y rest, e x te n d e d b y th e
e a r ly S a t u r d a y c lo s in g , w o u ld in m a n y c o u n t r ie s le a d t o th e d is ­
c a r d in g o f v a rio u s le g a l o r lo c a lly c u s to m a r y h o lid a y s , w h e re v e r
p o p u l a r c u s t o m d o e s n o t o p p o s e it . T h e g a i n i n h o u r s o f r e s t o n 5 2
S a t u r d a y s a n d th e a b r o g a t io n o f s u p e r flu o u s e x c e p t io n s w o u ld o ffs e t
th e s a c r ific e in t h is ca se to o .
1 L. H eyd e : D er S am sta g-F riih sch lu ss in In d u s trie un d H andel, S ch rifte n d er G esells c lia ft fu r S ozia le R e fo rm , Jen a , 1914, v o l. 53, p. 53 ; R . M a r t in a t : L e re p o s d e l ’aprfcsm id i du sam ed i d ans 1’in d u strie, P a ris, 1911, Office du T ra v a il, E nquSte su r la red u ctio n
du tra v a il le sam edi, 1 9 1 3 ; R a ou l J a y : L a sem aine a n gla ise, A s s o cia tio n n a tio n a le fra n gaise p ou r la P r o te c tio n leg a le des T ra v a illeu rs , 1914.




C H A P T E R

IX .

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF THE PROTECTION
OF HEALTH.

“ M o r a lit y a n d h e a lt h ” w e r e d e s ig n a t e d b y S i r R o b e r t P e e l in th e
c h ild -la b o r la w o f 1802 as th e a im s o f p r o t e c t iv e la b o r le g is la tio n .
T h e d e m a n d s m a d e a s t o f a c t o r y h y g ie n e a t t h a t tim e w e r e lim it e d
t o c le a n lin e s s a n d v e n t i l a t io n ; w it h t h e in c r e a s e d u s e o f m a c h in e r y
in fa c t o r ie s a n d th e c o n s e q u e n t in c r e a s e o f a c c id e n ts , th e o r d e r to
in c lo s e d a n g e r o u s m a c h in e s w a s a d d e d .
F in a lly , th e a tte n tio n o f
le g is la t io n w a s d ir e c t e d t o th e d a n g e r t o h e a lth , in th e la r g e e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t s , c a u s e d b y th e u se o f p o is o n o u s s u b s ta n c e s a n d b y t h e
g e n e r a t io n o f p o is o n o u s g a se s a n d o f d u sts.
T h e p r e v e n tio n o f a c c i­
d e n ts a n d p o is o n in g w a s in it ia t e d b y th e E n g lis h la w o f 1864, w h ic h ,
o n L o r d S h a f t e s b u r y ’s m o t io n , m a d e s u b je c t t o th e f a c t o r y a c ts
th o s e fa c t o r ie s in p a r t ic u la r w h ic h m a d e m a tc h e s w it h p o is o n o u s
p h o s p h o r u s a n d t h e p o t t e r ie s t h a t u s e d le a d , a n d p r e s c r ib e d th e
p o s t in g o f o ffic ia lly a p p r o v e d s a fe t y r u le s f o r w o r k e r s e n g a g e d in
w o r k w it h p o is o n s . T h e fig h t w a g e d in F r a n c e s in c e 184 9 a g a in s t
th e le a d p o is o n in g o f p a in t e r s le d in 1 8 7 4 t o th e le g a l e x c lu s io n o f
c h ild r e n f r o m w h it e - le a d fa c t o r ie s .
F o l l o w i n g t h is e x a m p le , th e
B r it is h F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t o f 1878 e x c lu d e d c h ild r e n a n d
y o u n g p e r s o n s f r o m w h ite -le a d fa c t o r ie s a n d f r o m s ilv e r in g w it h
m ercu ry.
I t w a s n o t t ill 1895, h o w e v e r , th a t th e la w g a v e t o th e
H o m e S e c r e ta r y th e p o w e r to o r d e r th e in t r o d u c t io n in d a n g e r ­
o u s in d u s t r ie s o f s h o r t e r w o r k in g p e r io d s e v e n f o r a d u lt m a le s ,
a n d t o p r e s c r ib e th e p r e c a u t io n a r y m e a su re s p r o v e d t o b e n e ce s­
s a r y (s u c t io n a p p a r a tu s , e t c .). P r o t e c t iv e la w s a ft e r th e se p a tte r n s
w e r e e n a c te d in 1869 in G e r m a n y , in 1877 in S w itz e r la n d , in
1882 in R u s s ia , in 188 4 in B e lg iu m , in 1885 in A u s t r ia , a n d in 1886
in I t a l y ; a ls o th e I n t e r n a t io n a l C o n fe r e n c e f o r th e P r o t e c t io n o f
L a b o r in B e r lin in 1 890 e x p r e s s e d a w is h f o r th e g e n e r a l in t r o d u c t io n
o f s u c h la w s .
T h e r e a re, h o w e v e r , p o is o n o u s in d u s tr ia l su b sta n ce s w h ic h d e fy
m o s t o f th e p r e v e n tiv e m e a su r e s a n d f o r w h ic h n o n p o is o n o u s s u b ­
s t i t u t e s e x is t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c a s e w i t h w h i t e p h o s p h o r u s
in th e m a tc h in d u s t r y , f o r w h ic h n o n p o is o n o u s r e d p h o s p h o r u s b e g a n
t o b e u s e d as a s u b s titu te in S w e d e n in 1854. I n 1856 p r o h ib it io n o f
t h e u s e o f p o i s o n o u s p h o s p h o r u s w a s a s k e d f o r b y the^ F r e n c h




95

96

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

a d v is o r y c o u n c il o n p u b lic h y g ie n e .
L i k e p r o h i b it i o n s w e r e is s u e d
b y F in la n d in 1872 a n d b y D e n m a r k in 1874.
T h e s e fir s t p r o h i b i ­
tio n s o f th e u se o f w h it e p h o s p h o r u s w e r e fo llo w e d b y th o s e o f S w it ­
z e r l a n d i n 1 8 7 9 a n d 1 8 9 8 a n d t h o s e i s s u e d i n t h e S t a t e e s t a b li s h m e n t s
o f F r a n c e in 1898 a n d in t h e N e th e r la n d s in 1901.
A t t h is t im e t h e
in te r e s t c r e a t e d b y th e se m e a su r e s se e m e d t o b e a t a n e n d . I n th e
c h i e f e x p o r t c o u n t r ie s — E n g la n d , S w e d e n , B e lg iu m , I t a l y , a n d A u s ­
t r ia — th e p r o t e c t io n o f h e a lth w a s c o n s id e r e d s e c o n d a r y t o th e in ­
te r e s t o f th e e x p o r t tr a d e in m a in t a in in g a lo w c o s t o f p r o d u c t io n .
A t t h is p o i n t t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n
s t e p p e d is it o t h e b r e a c h .
I t in s titu te d a n in te r n a tio n a l in v e s t ig a ­
t io n in t o in d u s t r ie s t h a t a r e d e t r im e n t a l t o h e a lt h ,1 a n d in 1 9 0 3 it
s u b m itte d a m e m o r a n d u m o n th e in te r n a tio n a l p r o h ib it io n o f th e
u se o f w h ite p h o s p h o r u s in th e m a tc h in d u s t r y t o th e S w is s F e d e r a l
C o u n c il, w it h th e r e q u e s t th a t an in te r n a tio n a l c o n fe r e n c e b e c o n ­
v e n e d . I n th a t y e a r a la w p r o h ib it in g th e u se o f w h ite p h o s p h o r u s
w a s is s u e d f o r th e G e r m a n E m p ir e .
T h e tim e h a d n o w a r r iv e d
w h e n e v e n th e la r g e s t e x p o r t c o u n t r ie s w e r e in c lin e d t o p r o t e c t th e
w o r k e r s a g a in s t in d u s t r ia l p o is o n s b y a n in t e r n a t io n a l a g re e m e n t.
S u c h a n a g r e e m e n t w a s fir s t s ig n e d in B e r n o n S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 0 6 ,
b y o n ly 7 c o u n t r ie s , o f w h ic h 5, th e G e r m a n E m p ir e , D e n m a r k ,
F r a n c e , th e N e t h e r la n d s , a n d S w it z e r la n d , w e r e a lr e a d y p r o h ib it in g :
th e u se o f w h ite p h o s p h o r u s , w h ile L u x e m b u r g a n d I t a l y w e r e w o n
o v e r t o p r o h i b i t i n g i t s u s e f o r t h e f ir s t t i m e .
I n 1908 G re a t B r it a in
a n d th e S o u t h A f r i c a n U n io n jo in e d in , a n d th e A u s t r a lia n C o m ­
m o n w e a lth p r o h ib it e d th e im p o r ta tio n o f m a tch e s m a d e w ith p o is o n ­
o u s p h o s p h o r u s . I n 1909 A u s t r ia fo llo w e d w it h a p r o h ib it io n o f p r o ­
d u c t io n , a n d S p a in a n d se v e n F r e n c h c o lo n ie s e n te r e d in t o th e
a g r e e m e n t . I n 1 9 1 0 T u n i s f o l l o w e d s u it , a s w e l l a s t h e D u t c h I n d i e s
a n d 15 B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s ; i n 1 9 1 1 H u n g a r y a n d N e w Z e a l a n d ; i n 1 9 1 2
M e x ic o a n d th e E a s t I n d ie s ; in 1913 N o r w a y ; a n d in 1 9 1 4 C a n a d a .
B y a d iffe r e n t ia l t a x t o th e d is a d v a n t a g e o f w h it e p h o s p h o r u s
m a tc h e s, th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f w h ite p h o s p h o r u s m a tc h e s h a s b e e n
m a d e im p o s s ib le in R u s s ia s in c e 1 9 0 6 a n d in th e U n it e d S ta te s s in c e
1912. T h e is s u a n c e o f a d e c r e e o f p r o h i b it i o n in B e l g i u m a n d th e
e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e a g re e m e n t in I t a ly a n d C a n a d a w e re p e n d in g
w h e n th e w a r b r o k e o u t .2 T h u s p h o s p h o r u s n e c r o s is c a n b e lo o k e d
1 G e s u n d h eitsgefa h rlich e In d u strien . P u b lish ed a t th e request o f the I n te rn a tio n a l A ss o ­
cia tio n f o r L a b o r L e g is la tio n , by P r o f. S tephan B au er, J ena, 1903.
2 E. F r a n c k e : D ie g ew erb lich en M e ta llv e rg iftu n g e n in P reu ssen , Z e n tr a lb la tt fu r gew erbehygiene, 1913, p. 393. T h e nu m ber o f cases is d ecla red by L . T e le k y to be fa r to o s m a l l ;
in V orlesu n gen iiber S oziale M ed izin , J en a , 1914, p. 272. In th e U n ite d S ta tes 358 cases
in 23 w h ite lea d fa c to r ie s a re q u oted by D r. A lice H a m ilto n in an a rtic le on th e “ W h ite
lea d in d u s try in th e U n ited S ta te s,’ ’ B u lle tin o f the U. S. B u rea u o f L a b o r, N o. 95, J u ly ,
1911, p. 189.




REGULATION OF THE PROTECTION OF HEALTH.

97

u p o n as sta m p e d o u t, a n d th a t, as fa r as th e la r g e e x p o r t S ta te s a re
c o n c e r n e d , is w h o l l y d u e t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t .
T h e f ig h t a g a in s t le a d p o i s o n in g w a s s ta r te d n e x t , in 19 0 4 , o n th e
in it ia t iv e o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n , a lo n g th e w h o le lin e o f
d a n g e r o u s le a d in d u s tr ie s , a n d fir s t o f a ll b y th e d e m a n d f o r a n o n p o is o n o u s s u b s titu te f o r w h it e le a d in th e p a in t in g tr a d e .
T h is
d e m a n d w a s s a tis fie d f o r in s id e p a in t i n g in A u s t r ia in 1 9 0 8 a n d
f o r o u ts id e p a in t in g in F r a n c e in 1909 ( i n e ffe c t f r o m J u ly 2 0 ,
1 9 1 4 ). I f w e r e m e m b e r th a t in P r u s s ia a lo n e in 1912 th e re w e r e n o t
f e w e r t h a n 1 ,1 1 9 c a s e s o f l e a d p o i s o n i n g , o f w h i c h 2 5 4 w e r e a m o n g
p a i n t e r s a n d 2 7 6 a m o n g w o r k e r s w i t h l e a d c o l o r s 1— a l l c a s e s , t h a t i s
t o sa y , th a t c o u ld h a v e b e e n a v o id e d — th e in d u s tr ia l o p p o s it io n t o
t h is m e a s u r e c a n o n ly b e d e e p ly r e g r e tte d . I n E n g la n d a n a tte m p t
w a s m a d e t o s u b s titu te f o r le a d g la z e s in th e e a r th e n w a r e in d u s t r y
g l a z e s t h a t a r e f r e e f r o m l e a d , o r i n w h i c h t h e l e a d is , a t l e a s t i n
p a r t , c h a n g e d t o a n i n s o l u b l e s i li c a t e .
T h e r e q u is ite r e g u la t io n s ,
a s s o o n as t h e y n e c e s s ita te d h ig h e r co s ts , m e t in v a r ia b ly w it h o p p o ­
s i t i o n f r o m t h e e x p o r t i n t e r e s t s .2 T h e r e f o r e p r o g r e s s i n t h e p r o ­
t e c t io n o f h e a lth c o u ld o n ly b e m a d e b y a n in t e r n a t io n a l g u a r a n t y
o f e q u a l p r o t e c t io n a n d b y its e q u a l e n fo r c e m e n t . A c o m m itt e e o f
th e I n te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n h a d b ee n c o n ­
v e n e d to in v e s tig a te a n d m a k e p r o p o s a ls w h e n th e w a r b r o k e o u t.
I n a n u m b e r o f o t h e r o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h th e r e is d a n g e r o f le a d
p o i s o n i n g , i n l e a d s m e lt e r s , p r i n t i n g o ffic e s , f a c t o r i e s f o r t h e m a n u ­
f a c t u r e o f c h r o m a t e o f l e a d a n d s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s , e t c ., i n w h i c h t h e
u se o f a s u b s titu te f o r le a d is n o t p r a c t ic a b le , th e e x p e r ie n c e s o f a ll
1 A s is evid en t from the con ten ts o f th is ch ap ter, the fo llo w in g sta tem en ts in H. H erkn er’ s D ie A rb eiterfra g e, 6th ed., 1916, vol. 1, p. 391, are co m p le te ly o u t o f d a te and m is­
lea d in g : “ A s has so o fte n happened in the case o f p rob lem s o f in te rn a tio n a l le g isla tio n ,
here too th ose v ery n a tion s fo r w h ich the a ccep ta n ce o f the a greem en t w o u ld h ave m ean t
a real a d v a n ce h a ve again balked. T h e a greem ent on the use o f p h osp h oru s w as o n ly
sign ed by D enm ark, G erm any, F ra n ce, Ita ly , L u xem b u rg, th e N eth erla n d s, and S w itz e r­
land, th a t is to say, by those cou n tries th a t, w ith th e e x ce p tio n o f Ita ly and L u xem b u rg,
a lrea d y had p h osp h oru s p roh ib ition s. Jap a n , A u stria , H u n ga ry, B elgium , G reat B rita in ,
P ortu g a l, and Sw eden, on the oth er hand, refu sed to sign it. H ow ev er, the U n ited S tates,
A u stria , H u n ga ry, A u stra lia , V ic to r ia , M ex ico and F in la n d have a d o p te d a p h osp h oru s
p r o h ib itio n .”
2 “ I t is difficult to form a w h olly co r re ct ju d gm en t as t o h ow fa r these fe a rs have been
ju stified . In any case it can n ot be d enied th a t in m an y co u n trie s such p ro te ctiv e m eas­
ures have existed fo r yea rs w ith o u t any retrog ression in in d u stry h a vin g been n oticea b le.
T he best w a y to a lla y such a fe a r is n a tu ra lly by an in te rn a tio n a l re g u la tio n o f th e
w h ole la b or leg isla tion , and th is th e re fo re is to be striv e n f o r as m uch as p ossible. On
the o th er hand, it is n ot perm issible t o leave fu rth e r steps in th a t d ire ctio n ou t o f co n ­
s id eration , fo r in view o f an u n d oubted in crease in the risks run by w ork ers a ll o th e r co n ­
s id era tion s m ust giv e w a y , esp ecia lly sin ce in th e end it is to th e greatest a d va n ta ge o f
in d u stry its e lf to m ain ta in and im p rove the hea lth o f w orkers, quite a p art fro m the in ­
d ire ct a d va n ta ges a ccru in g from th e decrea se in co n trib u tio n s to th e sick fu n d s an d in ­
v a lid ity an d a ccid en t pen sion s. E xp erien ce co n sta n tly p rov es anew th a t a h ea lth y, s tr o n g
b od y o f w ork ers co n ten t w ith th eir occ u p a tio n a ccom p lish es m ost and is th e surest sup­
p o rt o f the es ta b lis h m en t.” — D r. L e y m a n n ; D ie B ek a m p fu n g d er B le ig e fa h r in d er In d u s­
trie, Jena, 1908, p. 95.

97520°— 19------ 7




98

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION,

c o u n t r ie s w e r e t o b e c o lle c t e d b y m e d ic a l a n d t e c h n ic a l e x p e r ts .
T o p r o m o t e s u c h s tu d ie s , th e I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r B u r e a u o ffe r e d
p r iz e s f o r e s s a y s , th e r e s u lts o f w h ic h h a v e c o n t r ib u t e d s in c e 1 9 0 8
t o th e in c r e a s e a n d th e s p r e a d o f p r o t e c t iv e r e g u la t io n s in E u r o p e
as w e ll as in A m e r ic a .1
TJae r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n a i m e d t o p r o m o t e
th e p r o t e c t io n o f t h e w o r k e r s w it h p o is o n o u s m a t e r ia ls b y im p o s in g
u p o n p h y s ic ia n s th e d u t y o f g i v in g n o tic e o f in d u s tr ia l p o is o n in g s ,
a n d b y d e m a n d in g th e r e d u c t io n o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r o f th e w o r k e r s
in a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h e s e r io u s n e s s o f th e d a n g e r .
A c o m m itte e o f
e x p e r ts w a s c o m m is s io n e d in 190 4 t o d r a w u p a “ lis t o f in d u s t r ia l
p o is o n s .” T h e d r a ft s o f th e e x p e r ts , P r o f . S o m m e r fe ld a n d I n d u s ­
t r i a l C o u n c i l o r Gewerberat ) D r . I t . F i s c h e r , w e r e e d i t e d b y t h e
(
p e r m a n e n t a d v is o r y c o u n c il o n h y g ie n e o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia ­
t io n ( P r o f . D e v o t o , I n d u s tr ia l C o u n c ilo r D r . F is c h e r , P r o f . L a n g lo is ,
P r o f . S ir T h o m a s O liv e r , D r . T e le k y , th e I n s titu te f o r I n d u s tr ia l
H y g ie n e ) , a n d a fte r m a n y c o n fe re n c e s p u b lis h e d e a r ly in 1912. T h e
lis t h a s b e e n tr a n s la te d in t o th e la n g u a g e s o f a lm o s t a ll in d u s t r ia l
c o u n t r ie s .2
T h e in t e r n a t io n a l fig h t a g a in s t th e a n t h r a x p e r il le d , in 1 9 1 4 , t o
a n a g re e m e n t o f th e s u b c o m m itte e o f th e a s s o c ia tio n , th e a d o p tio n
o f w h ic h w a s o n l y d e la y e d b e c a u s e th e m e e t in g o f th e d e le g a te s w a s
m a d e im p o s s ib le b y th e o u t b r e a k o f th e w a r .
M e m o r a n d a o n th e c o m b a t in g o f t h e c o m p r e s s e d -a ir p e r i l in c a is s o n
w o r k , a n d s u g g e s t io n s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f w o r k e r s in m in e s , in th e
b u ild in g o f tu n n e ls , a n d in s to n e q u a r r ie s w e r e a ls o u n d e r c o n s id e r ­
a tio n .
T h e a s s o c ia t io n h a s a im e d a t p r o t e c t i o n a g a in s t a c c id e n t s o f
r a ilr o a d w o r k e r s s in c e 1 9 0 8 , a n d o f d o c k h a n d s s in c e 1 9 1 2 .
The
p r o p o s a l f o r th e in te r n a tio n a l a d o p tio n o f th e a u to m a tic c o u p lin g o f
r a ilw a y c a r s w a s m a d e b y t h e F r e n c h s e c tio n .
T h e e n fo r c e m e n t o f
t h is m e a s u r e w a s fir s t c a r r ie d o u t in th e U n it e d S ta te s b y th e F e d e r a l
la w o f M a r c h 2, 1893.
B e tw e e n 1898 a n d 1908 th e n u m b e r o f a c c i­
d e n ts in th e c o u p lin g o f c a rs w a s o n ly a fo u r t h o f w h a t it w a s b e fo r e ,
a lt h o u g h th e r e w a s a n in c r e a s e in th e t o t a l n u m b e r o f a c c id e n t s f r o m
a ll ca u ses. I n A r g e n t in a o n S e p te m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 0 9 , a la w w a s p a s s e d
d e c r e e in g th a t a ft e r 1919 n o c a r s h o u ld b e a llo w e d t o g o w it h o u t
a u to m a tic c o u p lin g .
S im ila r sy stem s a re in fo r c e in I n d ia a n d th e
S o u d a n . F r a n c e v o te d c r e d its in 1911 f o r th e p u r c h a s e o f su ch a p p a ­
ra tu s ; in P e r s ia b e fo r e th e w a r e x p e rim e n ts w e re u n d e r w a y .
I t is
n e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s n o r q u e s t i o n s o f t r a f f ic o r c o s t b u t s i m p l y
1 S u gg estion s m ade in the p riz e essa ys caused th e fo u n d e r o f th e In s titu t f u r G em einwofel in F r a n k fo r t on th e M ain, W ilh elm M erton , to fo u n d the In s titu t ftir <*ew erbehygiene
in 1 9 0 9 .
2 In te rn a tio n a le s A rb eitsa m t.
L iste der gew erb lich en G ifte und a n d erer gesu n d h eitssch a d lich er S toffe, d ie in der In d u s trie V erw en d u n g linden, J en a , 1 9 1 2 ; a ls o , B u lle tin o f
the U. S. B ureau o f L a b o r, N o. 100, M a y, 1912.— [E d .]




REGULATION OF THE PROTECTION OF H EALTH.

99

q u e s t i o n s o f j o i n t c o o p e r a t i o n ( a g r e e m e n t o f t h e t r a f f ic a d m i n i s t r a ­
t io n s w it h r e g a r d t o th e c o m m o n u se o f c a r s ) w h ic h h a v e d e la y e d th ese
u s e fu l r e fo r m s .1
T h e p r o te c tio n o f sea m en h a s m a d e p r o g r e s s d u r in g th e W o r ld
W a r t h r o u g h t h e A m e r i c a n s e a m e n ’s l a w o f M a r c h 4 , 1 9 1 5 , b o t h w i t h
r e g a r d t o t h e ir le g a l sta tu s a n d th e s a fe t y o f t h e ir o c c u p a t io n .
T h is
o u g h t to b e c o m e a m a tte r o f g e n e r a l c o n c e r n a ft e r th e w a r .2
I f w e r e m e m b e r th a t b e c a u s e o f th e lo s s o f m illio n s in th e w a r a n y
n e g le c t o f r e h a b ilita tio n w o u ld b r in g a d o u b le p e n a lt y , w e c a n n o t
l a y t o o s t r o n g e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e f a c t t h a t i t is o n l y b y a n i n t e r ­
n a t io n a l p o o l in g o f th e e x p e r ie n c e s o f a ll c o u n t r ie s th a t th e n a t io n a l
p r o t e c t i o n o f h e a l t h is t o b e f u r t h e r e d .
1 J. C a v a ille : L e C harbon P ro fe s sio n e l, 1 9 1 1 ; B org m a n n a n d F i s c h e r : D ie B ekam pfu n g der M ilz b ra n d g efa h r in gew erb lich en B etrieb en , 1914, in S ch rifte n aus dem G esam tgeb iet der G ew erbehygiene, In s titu t fu r G ew erbehygiene, N eue F o lg e , pt. 4 ; B u lle tin N o.
2 05 o f the U. S. B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics, A n th ra x as an O ccu p a tio n a l D isease, by J oh n B .
A n d rew s.
2 P u b lica tio n s o f the I n te rn a tio n a l A ss o cia tio n , N o. 8, V erh a n d lu n gen , Z u rich , p. 1 01 ,
N o. 7, p. 13.







C H A P T E R

X .

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF COLONIAL CONTRACT
LABOR.

I n th e p r e c e d in g c h a p te r s th e d e m a n d s m a d e b y th e w o r k e r s o f
E u r o p e , A m e r ic a , A u s t r a lia , a n d J a p a n h a v e b e e n e x c lu s iv e ly d is ­
cu sse d . B u t in c o m p a r is o n w it h th ese o n e h u n d r e d a n d f o r t y o d d
m i l l i o n h u m a n b e i n g s , t h e r e a r e i n A f r i c a a n d A s i a , i t is e s t i m a t e d ,
a t le a s t t w ic e as m a n y w o r k e r s w h o s e le g a l a n d e c o n o m ic s ta tu s s t ill
s h o w s s t r o n g t r a c e s o f e n s la v e m e n t.
T o th e ir la b o r E u r o p e a n d
A m e r ic a a re in d e b t e d f o r a n u m b e r o f th e m o s t im p o r t a n t r a w m a ­
te r ia ls a n d fo o d s t u ffs .
I n th e tr e a tm e n t o f n a t iv e s b y E u r o p e a n c o u n t r ie s w it h c o lo n ia l
p o s s e s s io n s , f o u r s t a g e s a r e c l e a r l y t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d .
F ir s t th e re
is t h e u n s c r u p u lo u s p o l i c y o f s la v e t r a d in g , in w h ic h s in c e th e m id d le
o f t h e fift e e n t h c e n t u r y th e in te r e s ts o f t h e A f r i c a n s la v e d e a le r s
h a v e c o in c id e d w it h th o s e o f th e E u r o p e a n t r a d in g c o m p a n ie s . T h e
s la v e tr a d e fu r t h e r s e r v e d as a m e a n s o f p r e v e n t in g th e e m ig r a t io n
o f in d u s t r ia l w o r k e r s in t o th e c o lo n ie s a n d th e c o m p e t itio n w it h th e
m a r k e t o f th e m o th e r c o u n tr y .
(T h e e m ig r a tio n o f th e m e n o f th e
P a la t in a t e t o P e n n s y lv a n ia s e r v e d a s a w a r n in g e x a m p le .)
It w as
o n e o f th e ta sk s o f th e d ip lo m a c y o f th a t e p o c h (1 4 4 4 -1 7 5 0 ) to
se c u re f o r its c o u n t r y th e m o n o p o ly o f th e s la v e t r a d e b e tw e e n A f r i c a
a n d A m e r ic a .
I n th e p r o c e e d s f r o m t h is m o n o p o ly e v e n c r o w n e d
h e a d s sh a re d . T h e m o s t in s a n e w a s te o f h u m a n l i f e b y th e t r a n s ­
p o r t a t io n o f s la v e s o c c u r r e d a t th is p e r i o d o f th e r i g i d c o lo n ia l
sy stem .
A p o l i c y o f id e a lis m a n d h u m a n it y s u c c e s s f u lly c o m b a t e d t h is u n ­
s c r u p u lo u s p o l ic y o f in te re s t, a n d s o u g h t fir s t t o d o a w a y w it h th e
s la v e t r a d e a n d th e n t o d r i v e s la v e r y i t s e l f o u t o f its lu r k i n g p la c e s .
T h e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f t h is la w o f h u m a n r ig h t s w e r e , in t h e s ix t e e n t h
a n d s e v e n te e n th c e n t u r ie s t h e C a t h o lic C h u r c h , e s p e c ia lly B is h o p
L a s C a s a s ; in th e e ig h te e n th c e n tu r y th e Q u a k e r s , th e E n g lis h
a b o lit io n is t s u n d e r th e le a d e r s h ip o f W i lb e r f o r c e , a n d th e in t e lle c t u a l
l e a d e r s o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . T h e f e a r o f t h e J a c o b i n s , i t is




101

102

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

tr u e , le d a t th e sa m e t im e in E n g la n d (1 7 8 3 -1 8 0 4 ) t o th e v i c t o r y o f
th e o p p o n e n t s o f th e a b o lit io n o f th e s la v e tr a d e . N a p o le o n o r d e r e d
th e r e in t r o d u c t io n o f s la v e r y in th e F r e n c h c o lo n ie s in 1 802. B u t in
1807 E n g la n d a b o lis h e d th e B r it is h s la v e t r a d e a n d d e c la r e d it t o b e a
fe lo n y . T h is e x a m p le w a s fo llo w e d b y N o r t h A m e r ic a , V e n e z u e la ,
C h i l e , a n d S w e d e n . A t h i r d s t a g e is m a r k e d b y t h e a t t e m p t t o b r i n g
a b o u t a n in t e r n a t io n a l a b o lit io n o f th e s la v e t r a d e in o r d e r t o p r e v e n t
a n y n e w f la r in g u p o f , a n d c o m p e t it io n in , t h is p ir a t ic a l in d u s t r y .
P it t , W ilb e r fo r c e , C a r d in a l C o n s a lv i, A le x a n d e r H u m b o ld t , S is m o n d i, a n d E m p e r o r A le x a n d e r w e r e th e p r o m o t e r s o f t h is m o v e ­
m e n t.
T h e f o l l o w i n g in c id e n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f th e a t t it u d e o f
d ip lo m a c y in r e g a r d t o th e a b o lit io n o f t h e s la v e t r a d e :
W h e n in 1 814 th e a m b a s s a d o r o f N a p o le o n , M . d e C a u la in c o u r t ,
r e je c t e d t h e p e a c e p r o p o s a ls o f th e a llie s a t C a s t illo n o n a c c o u n t o f
th e u n a c ce p ta b le fo r m in w h ic h th e y w e r e m a d e , L o r d A b e r d e e n
m a d e a r e p o r t o n th e s u b je c t t o L o r d C a s tle r e a g h o n F e b r u a r y 2 3 ,
1814, in th e f o llo w in g w o r d s :
M. de Caulaincourt said: “ In the article, for instance, which applies most
to England, there is a clause which compels us to do away with the slave
trade; such a clause would perhaps be very suitable in an agreement with
Denmark, but not in one made with us. If you wish us to abolish the slave
trade, we can come halfway to meet you fot the purpose of making an agree­
ment; but a compulsory clause, such as England intended to insert, can never
be tolerated by a great nation which is not yet compelled to accept insults
without retaliation.” 1

I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t a n y d is p o s it io n t o y ie ld o n th e p a r t o f th e
d ip lo m a t s in t h is r e s p e c t, th e c h a m p io n o f a b o lit io n , W . W i lb e r f o r c e ,
o n M a r c h 2 8 , 1 8 14 , in s is te d t o L o r d C a s t le r e a g h t h a t “ i f F r a n c e
s h o u ld n o t a g r e e u n c o n d it io n a lly a n d in a g e n e r a l w a y t o th e a b o li­
t io n o f th e s la v e t r a d e , i t s h o u ld a t le a s t b e a p r e r e q u is it e t o th e
e v e n tu a l r e t u r n o f h e r c o lo n ie s th a t n o s la v e s s h o u ld b e ta k e n in t o
th em fr o m A fr ic a .” 2
O n J u n e 12, 1814, W i lb e r f o r c e h a d a n a u d ie n c e w it h C z a r A l e x ­
a n d e r t o c o m p la in a b o u t th e n e g le c t o f th e s la v e -tr a d e p r o b le m . T h e
e m p e r o r s a id t o h i m : “ W h a t c o u ld w e d o w h e n y o u r o w n a m b a s s a ­
d o r le f t u s in th e lu r c h ? ” 8 A liv e ly a g ita tio n p r e lim in a r y t o th e
V ie n n a C o n g r e s s , in th e f o r m o f 8 0 0 p e t it io n s , w it h a m illio n s ig n a ­
tu re s , n o w c o m p e lle d C a s t le r e a g h t o t a k e h is s ta n d a g a in s t th e
A f r i c a n s la v e t r a d e . J o h a n n L u d w i g K li i b e r in h is “ U e b e r s ic h t d e r
d ip lo m a t is c h e n V e r h a n d lu n g e n d e s W i e n e r C o n g r e s s e s , iib e r h a u p t
1 C orresp on d en ce, D isp a tch es, an d O th er P a p ers of V is co u n t C a stle re a g h , 1852, th ird
series, v ol. 9, p. 288.
2 Idem , p. 401.
3 L ife o f W ilb e rfo r ce , v o l. 4, p. 191.




REGULATION OF COLONIAL CONTRACT LABOR.

103

u n d i n s o n d e r h e i t l ib e r w i t c h t i g e A n g e l e g e n h e i t e n d e s d e u t s c l ie n
B u n d e s , F r a n k f o r t , 1 9 1 6 , p a g e 5 3 ,” g i v e s t h e b e s t i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e
p a r t w h ic h t h is p r o b le m p la y e d a t t h is tim e . T h e s la v e t r a d e , as a
s o c ia l a n d p o lit ic a l p r o b le m , p la y e d th e p a r t o f a s t o p g a p at a tim e
w h e n d ip lo m a c y h a d n o t c o m e to an a g re e m e n t a b o u t th e fa te o f
P o la n d a n d S a x o n y :
At this stage of affairs it was desirable to find in the long interval of con­
sideration and irresolution subjects the handling of which would fill the void to
a certain extent usefully, and give to the congress at least an outward appear­
ance of activity. * * * Among the more important subjects only one could
be found for the future settlement of which, for the time being at least, a firm
basis could be laid without serious opposition. Its determination could stand
all the more for a general significant sign of life on the part of the congress,
since its great importance for the whole of civilized humanity was generally
recognized. It was the abolition of the trade in Negroes, that shameful trade
which for so long a time put Africa in mourning, debased Europe, and filled
humanity with sorrow. At the instigation of Lord Castlereagh, who had to
hasten away to attend the approaching session of the English Parliament, and
who wished to appear there at least with proof agreeable to the liberal-minded
British Nation of the activity of the congress, a declaration was made on the
subject by the eight powers on February 7. Even if we do not find in this
declaration a firm agreement as to the immediate and general abolition of the
slave trade, yet we are justified in considering it as a just and sound foundation
for such a general abolition at no distant date.
The powers unanimously declare therein their abhorrence of the monstrous
cruelty of the slave trade; they declare in the face of all Europe that its exter­
mination is a measure which deserves their particular attention; they solemnly
assert their sincere desire to use every means in their power to carry it out as
quickly and effectively as possible, and* to show therein the zeal and persever­
ance which they owe to so great and splendid a cause; they express their regret
that consideration for the just interests, customs, and even of the prejudices
of their subjects does not allow them at this time to fix a definite time for
complete and general abolition of this trade, but say that they must leave that
to every individual power and for the time being set it aside as a subject of
negotiation among the powers; however, they assure one another that no
means will be left untried which might secure and hasten the course of these
negotiations, and that the mutual obligation which they hereby recognize shall
not be considered to be fulfilled until the moment when complete success shall
have crowned their united efforts. Have ever words been spoken by a congress
of nations that went from heart to heart like these ? May the sacred zeal which
inspired them never grow cold! May they reecho more and more all over
Europe until their promise is completely fulfilled!

T h e p io u s w is h e s o f th e G e r m a n p u b lic is t w e r e n o t f u lf ille d .
“ W i t h a n e y e t o th e in flu e n c e o f in t e r e s te d c ir c le s , n e it h e r F r a n c e
n o r S p a in n o r P o r t u g a l t o o k a n y s e r io u s s t e p ; n e ith e r d id a n y
e ffo rts o n th e p a r t o f E n g la n d fu r th e r m a tters to a n y g r e a t e x ­
t e n t . * * * I t w a s t h e s e c e s s io n o f B r a z i l , w h i c h p u t a n e n d t o
P o r t u g a l ’s in te r e s t in th e s u p p l y i n g o f th e fo r m e r c o u n t r y w it h




104

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

N e g r o e s , a n d th e t e r m in a t io n o f th e d is t u r b a n c e s o f t h e B e r b e r s b y
th e F r e n c h c o n q u e s t o f A l g i e r s t h a t fir s t b r o u g h t a b o u t a c h a n g e .” 1
B u t e v e n t h is c h a n g e h a d b e e n s p ir it u a lly p r e p a r e d . T h e e ffo r t s o f
B u x t o n a n d h is f r ie n d s w e r e s u c c e s s fu l in o b t a in in g t h r o u g h a b o li­
tio n o f c o lo n ia l s la v e r y w h a t c o u ld n o t b e g a in e d b y w a y o f a g r e e ­
m e n ts f o r th e c o m b a t in g o f th e s la v e tra d e . B u x t o n p r o v e d th a t th e
s la v e t r a d e r s in th e S p a n is h c o lo n ie s h a d so o ft e n p r o m is e d t o set
th e s la v e s fr e e a n d t h e n h a d c ir c u m v e n t e d th e a g r e e m e n ts t h a t th e
l a t t e r h a d b e c o m e , t o u s e L o r d P a l m e r s t o n ’s w o r d s , “ m e r e w a s t e
p a p e r .” 2
A l t h o u g h a ll th e c o u n t r ie s u n d e r E n g l a n d ’ s s p h e r e o f in flu e n c e h a d
g r a n t e d h e r s h ip s th e r ig h t o f s e a rc h w it h r e g a r d t o th e s la v e t r a d e ,
th e s m u g g l in g o f s la v e s c o n t in u e d t o flo u r is h u n c h e c k e d d u r in g t h e
y e a rs fr o m 1816 to 1833.
F o r th is r e a s o n th e a im o f th e p o l it i c a l
id e a lis t w a s o n ly t o b e a tta in e d b y th e a b o lit io n o f s la v e r y it s e lf.
A n d so t o th a t e n d n e w a s s o c ia tio n s w e r e set o n f o o t in E n g la n d a n d
F r a n c e w h ic h , a ft e r 18 3 4 a n d 18 3 9 , in s p it e o f th e p o l it i c a l r iv a lr y
b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r ie s , a im e d a t th e f r e e i n g o f s la v e s fir s t b y i n ­
t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t w o o r m o r e c o u n t r ie s , a n d s e c o n d ly
b y th e p u n is h m e n t o f sla v e t r a d in g b y c o u r t m a r t ia l a n d b y a b o lit io n
b y in d e p e n d e n t a c t io n .
M o s t o f th e c o lo n ie s f o l l o w e d t h e ir e x a m p le .
A t t h is p o in t th e fo u r t h p e r io d b e g in s , in t r o d u c e d b y th e p a r t it io n
o f A f r i c a a n d th e c o lo n ia l p o l ic y o f th e la s t g e n e r a t io n .
In som e
t r o p ic a l c o lo n ie s (C u b a , M a u r it iu s ), A s ia t ic c o n t r a c t la b o r t o o k th e
p l a c e o f N e g r o l a b o r . T h e t r a d e ip. N e g r o e s c e a s e d t o p r o v i d e w o r k ­
e r s ; it b e ca m e a n A f r ic a n tr a d e f o r p r o v id in g E g y p t , P e r s ia , a n d
T u r k e y w it h w o m e n a n d e u n u ch s.
S la v e s w e r e p r o v id e d b y it f o r
Z a n z ib a r f o r th e c u lt iv a t io n o f c a r n a t io n s a n d as c a r r ie r s in th e
iv o r y tra d e.
T h e p o l y g a m y o f th e M u s s u lm a n s le d t o p o l y a n d r y
a m o n g th e N e g r o e s in A f r ic a . C a m e r o n c o m p u te d th a t A f r i c a w a s
d e p o p u la te d e v e r y y e a r b y th e s la v e tr a d e t o th e e x te n t o f h a lf a
m illio n .
T h e E u r o p e a n p e r io d o f h ig h t a r iff p r o t e c t io n le d to th e p a r t it io n
o f A fr ic a .
T h e fin a n c ia l e x p lo it a t io n o f th e C o n g o S ta te d is c lo s e d
n e w h o r r o r s . T h e c a m p a ig n o f C a r d in a l L a v ig e r ie a n d o f B u x t o n
b r o u g h t a b o u t in 18 9 0 th e s y s t e m a tic c o m b a t in g o f t h e s la v e t r a d e b y
th e r e s o lu t io n s o f B r u s s e ls . T h e s e d e m a n d e d :
1 A lfr e d Zim m erm a n n : K o lo n ia lp o litik , L eip zig , 1905, p. 160.
2 T h om a s F o w e ll B u x to n : T h e A fr ic a n S lave T ra d e an d I ts R em ed y , 1840, p. 2 1 6 ; and

the a d d ress o f L o rd P a lm erston to th e A n tis la v e ry S o cie ty o n O ct. 18, 1 8 4 2 : “ W e m ust
n ot be stop p ed b y cla m o r ra ised a g a in st us b y th ose w h o a re in te re s te d in e n orm ities
w h ich w e are seek in g to p u t d o w n .” — S ir H en ry B u lw e r L y t t o n : T h e L ife o f V is co u n t
P a lm erston , 1874, v o l. 3, a p p en d ix 4.




REGULATION OF COLONIAL CONTRACT LABOR.

105

1. T h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e s l a v e t r a d e i n t h e c o u n t r y o f i t s o r i g i n :
( a ) B y o r g a n iz a t io n o f a d m in is t r a t iv e , ju d ic ia l, a n d t r a n s p o r t a t io n
sy stem s, th e b u ild in g o f r o a d s (a v o id a n c e o f th e u se o f h u m a n c a r ­
r ie r s o f b u r d e n s ) , th e b u il d in g o f s h ip s , a n d th e t e le g r a p h . S p e c ia l
s t a t i o n s a r e t o s e r v e a s t e m p o r a r y r e f u g e s f o r n a t iv e s . R e s t r i c t i o n o f
th e im p o r t a t io n o f fir e a r m s ,
( b ) T r a i n i n g o f th e tr ib e s to a v o id in ­
te r n a l w a r s b y m e a n s o f c o u r ts o f a r b itr a tio n , a n d a g r ic u ltu r a l a n d
in d u s t r ia l w o r k ; s u p p r e s s io n o f c a n n ib a lis m ,
( c ) S a n ita r y s e r v ic e — ■
s u p p o r t o f th e e ffo r ts o f m e r c h a n ts , t r a v e le r s , a n d m is s io n a r ie s ,
(d )
P u n it iv e p r o v is io n s o f th e sa m e r ig o r as e x is t in g p e n a lt ie s f o r c r im e s
a g a in s t th e p e r s o n , e tc. O b lig a t o r y e x t r a d itio n .
2 . S u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e s l a v e t r a d e o n se a . T h e s h i p s t h a t f l y t h e
fla g o f a c o u n t r y th a t d o e s n o t r e c o g n iz e th e r ig h t o f s e a rc h a re
s im p ly to b e m a d e s u b je c t t o c o n t r o l o f th e s h ip ’ s p a p e r s o n b o a r d .
L im it a t io n o f th e z o n e o f th e r ig h t o f s e a rc h a n d its r e s t r ic t io n t o
s h ip s u p t o 500 to n s .
F o u n d a t io n o f a n in t e r n a t io n a l b u r e a u f o r
th e c o m b a t in g o f th e s la v e t r a d e in Z a n z ib a r .
3. T h e c o m b a t i n g o f th e s la v e t r a d e in t h e c o u n t r y o f d e s t in a t io n .
P r o h ib it io n o f th e im p o r ta t io n , c o n v e y a n c e th r o u g h th e c o u n tr y , o r
e x p o r t a t i o n o f s la v e s . T h e r e p a t r i a t i o n o f f r e e d s la v e s .
C oopera­
tio n o f th e d ip lo m a t ic a n d c o n s u la r a g e n ts.
P e r io d ic e x ch a n g e o f
s ta tis tic s w it h r e g a r d t o s e iz e d a n d lib e r a t e d s la v e s a n d o n t h e m e a s ­
u re s ta k e n . P r o h ib it io n o f th e im p o r t a t io n o f s p ir it s w it h in a fix e d
A fr ic a n zone.
T h e s e c r e ta r y g e n e r a l o f th e L e a g u e f o r th e P r o t e c t io n o f N a tiv e s ,
th e R e v . M r . H a r r is , la te ly e x p r e s s e d h im s e lf w it h r e g a r d to th e
e ffe c t o f th e B r u s s e ls c o n fe r e n c e on th e a b o lit io n o f th e s la v e t r a d e
as fo llo w s :
It is deeply affecting to think that the hecatombs of the present great war
will perhaps be not so far removed from causing the same decimation of the
papulation that has been brought about by the forcible methods used among the
natives since the Berlin Congress of 1884. No one who is versed in colonial
matters can deny that since that time Central Africa alone has been depopulated
to the extent of more than ten million men. The voice of Herr Dernburg was
one of the first to be raised with authority against the colossal destruction of
human life in the German colonies, and he estimated it at certainly more than
half a million in German Southeast Africa and at a like amount for Togoland.
In the Pacific Ocean the terrible period of the Franco-British condominium in
the New Hebrides during the same period caused a reduction of the population
of 650,000 souls to less than 65,000. What would Germany give to restore the
capable. Hereros to industrial life? What would the copra dealers in Europe
give at present to recall to life the Polynesians that were snatched away so
prematurely? * * * The delegates to the Berlin and Brussels conferences
of 1884 and 1890 believed that they had by their efforts reduced slavery as well
as the slave trade and wars of destruction to a minimum, but the subsequent
period was one of the most horrible in the long martyrdom of the natives.




106

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION*

C o n t r a c t l a b o r in th e c o lo n ie s — th e s u c c e s s o r o f s la v e r y — is d e s ig ­
n a te d b y a ll p e r s o n s fa m ilia r w it h c o n d it io n s as o n e o f th e c h i e f
c a u s e s o f t h is r e ig n o f t e r r o r . T h e p r o c e e d in g s b o t h a t th e t im e o f
th e h ir in g o f n a t iv e la b o r a n d o f th e r e n e w a l o f la b o r c o n t r a c ts le a d
to fo r m s o f la b o r s im ila r t o s la v e r y . T h u s W a lt e r R a th e n a u w r ite s
i n 19j[)7 i n h i s “ E r w a g u n g e n i ib e r d i e E r s c h l i e s s u n g d e s d e u t s c h - o s t a fr ik a n is c h e n S c h u t z g e b ie te s ” :
As is evident from the acts of the Government in Tabora, even at the begin­
ning of this year natives were forcibly carried off by employment agents and
their huts burned down. To what extent such acts occurred is a matter of
conjecture; they are on the same plane with the compulsory buying of cattle
which led a few years ago to the closing of Ruanda and Urundi to European
travelers.
In Usambara the normal labor contract does not refer to a definite working
period but to working days. Should a working day be missed—which accord­
ing to the habits of the Negro happens frequently enough—or should not enough
be accomplished on a working day according to the judgment of the employer,
this day, apart from the legal right of punishment, is added to the duration
of the contract which, without consideration for the wish of the Negro to return
home to the cultivation of his fields, can be extended in this way at will, per­
haps for a lifetime. Should the worker fail to comply with his contractual
obligation, and he frequently does so and thereby loses the wages due him, then
he who has to bear all the disadvantages of inferior legal status is not only
punished for breach of contract, of course with the lash, but is also forcibly
restored to his employer. As a counterpart to this practice the fact may be
mentioned that a German plantation company, financed by well-known people in
favor of a colonial system, which made use of the right to declare itself insolvent,
still owes the blacks their wages.” 1

A t t e m p t s t o in t r o d u c e c o m p u ls o r y la b o r t e m p o r a r ily w e r e a ls o
m a d e o n th e B r it is h G o ld C o a s t f r o m 1895 t o 1897 in v io la t io n o f th e
A c t o f L i b e r a t i o n o f 1 8 3 4 .2
F u r th e r , th e c o n flic ts a re w e ll k n o w n w h ic h b r o k e o u t a ft e r 1907 as
a r e s u lt o f th e c o n t r a c t la b o r in th e P o r t u g u e s e c o c o a c o lo n ie s o f S a o
T h o m e , P r in c ip e , a n d A n g o la a n d w h ic h le d to th e b o y c o t t in g o f th e
P o r t u g u e s e c o c o a p la n t e r s b y th e th r e e la r g e B r it i s h c o c o a fir m s o f
C a d b u r y , F r y , a n d R o w n t r e e , a n d th e G e r m a n fir m o f S t o llw e r c k .3
T h is b o y c o t t , w h ic h h a s n o w la s te d f o r e ig h t y e a r s , seem s t o h a v e le d
t o su ch im p o r ta n t r e fo r m s th a t th e co n s u l g e n e ra l o f L o a n d a d e ­
s c r ib e s th e m in a r e p o r t o f O c t o b e r 30, 1916, t o L o r d G r e y as a c o m ­
p le te r e v o lu t io n , a n d M r . B a l f o u r o n F e b r u a r y 27, 1917, e x p r e s s e d t o
t h e B r it i s h a m b a s s a d o r in P o r t u g a l h is h o p e t h a t t h e b o y c o t t w o u ld
b e l i f t e d . A s la t e as t h e y e a r 191 5 th e v ic e c o n s u l o f S a o T h o m e g a v e
1 W . R a th en a u : R eflex ion en , L eip zig , H irzel, 1908, pp. 161, 162 .
2 H. R. F o x B ou rn e : B la ck s a n d W h ite s in W e st A fr ic a , p. 63.

* B u lle tin d es I n t e r n a t i o n a l A rb eitsa m tes, 1911, v o l. 9, pp. 1 3 8 -1 4 1 ,




REGULATION OF COLONIAL CONTRACT LABOR.

107

d e s c r ip t io n s o f th e r e n e w a l o f th e c o n t r a c t s f o r fiv e y e a r s a n d o f th e
f a l s i f i c a t i o n o f w a g e l is t s , w h i c h w e r e a n y t h i n g b u t e d i f y i n g . 1
B e s id e s th e l o n g d u r a t io n o f th e c o n t r a c t s w h ic h a r e c o n c lu d e d — in
a g r ic u lt u r e f o r 5 t o 10 y e a r s — a n d w h ic h in u n d e r g r o u n d m in in g le a d
t o a n e n o r m o u s in c r e a s e in t u b e r c u lo s is , th e p u n is h m e n t s o f n a tiv e s
f o r b r e a c h o f c o n tr a c t re a ch an e n o rm o u s n u m b e r. “ I n B r itis h G u i­
a n a o u t o f a p o p u l a t i o n o f 9 ,7 8 5 c o n t r a c t w o r k e r s , t h e r e w e r e n o t
f e w e r t h a n 3 ,8 3 5 s u it s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t c o o l i e s i n t h e n a m e o f t h e
la b o r la w s .
I n T r i n i d a d , o u t o f 1 1 ,5 0 0 c o o l i e s b o u n d b y c o n t r a c t ,
1 ,8 6 9 w e r e c o n d e m n e d , a n d i n F i j i o u t o f 1 1 ,6 8 9 p e r s o n s 2 ,2 9 1 w e r e
su m m o n e d b e fo r e th e c r im in a l c o u r t .”
U n d e r th e s e c ir c u m s t a n c e s ,
th e L e a g u e f o r th e P r o t e c t io n o f N a t iv e s d e m a n d s th a t th e f o l l o w i n g
r e fo r m s b e in t r o d u c e d b y a n in t e r n a t io n a l c o n g r e s s :
(a) L i m i t a t i o n o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t t o a m a x i m u m i n
m in in g o f s ix m o n th s , in a g r ic u ltu r e o f th r e e y e a r s ;
( b) P u r e l y c i v i l l a w p u n is h m e n t s f o r b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t ;
( c) N o w o r k e r to b e p u n is h e d w it h o u t a s e n te n c e ;
(id ) T h e e m p l o y e r h i m s e l f i n n o c a s e t o c a r r y o u t t h e p u n i s h m e n t .
F i n a ll y , in a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e e x a m p le o f P o r t u g a l, th e a p p o in t ­
m e n t o f a p r o t e c t o r o f th e c o n tr a c t w o r k e r s fa m ilia r w it h th e la n ­
g u a g e o f th e n a t iv e s is p r o p o s e d .2
A s m a y b e seen , in t e r n a t io n a l a g re e m e n ts a re c e r t a in ly a n e x c e e d ­
i n g ly im p o r t a n t m e a n s o f g iv in g le g a l s a n c tio n t o th e r e fo r m s f e l t
t o b e n e ce ssa ry b y e x p e r t a n d u n p r e ju d ic e d ju d g m e n t ; b u t th e y r e ­
m a in a “ s c r a p o f p a p e r ” i f n o v ig o r o u s o r g a n iz a t io n im b u e d w it h
id e a l p o l i t i c a l a im s w a t c h e s o v e r t h e ir e n fo r c e m e n t .
F u rth e r corresp on d en ce resp ectin g c o n tr a c t la b o r in P o rtu g u e se S ou th w est A fr ic a ,”
A fr ic a No. 1, 1917, Cd. 8479, pp. 6 9 -7 0 , 13, 25, 46.
2
J. H. H a rris : L a Q u estion des In d igen es et le p ro ch a in C on gres de la p a ix . B u re a u
In te rn a tio n a l des L igu es de D efen se des In d igen es, G eneva, 1917.







C H A P T E R

X L

PREPARATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL
TREATIES FOR THE PROTECTION OF LABOR.

I n t e r n a t io n a l t r e a t ie s f o r t h e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r b e c o m e e ffe c ­
t iv e b y th e in c o r p o r a t io n o f t h e ir c o n te n ts in t o th e le g is la t io n o f
each cou n try .
T h e m a n n e r a n d th e d e g r e e in w h ic h th e la w s # f
e a c h c o u n t r y a r e e n f o r c e d o r e v a d e d a r e a ls o o f g r e a t im p o r t a n c e
in th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r .
I n v ie w o f th e p o w e r fu l e c o n o m i
in te r e s ts th a t o b s t r u c t th e e x e c u t io n o f th e s e la w s , a s im p le c o n c l u ­
s io n o f a n a g r e e m e n t w o u ld b e o f q u e s tio n a b le v a lu e , e v e n in c o u n ­
t r i e s w i t h a r e l i a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u n le s s t h e c o u n t r i e s w e r e t o
b i n d t h e m s e lv e s m u t u a l l y t o a n u n b i a s e d a n d s t r i c t e n f o r c e m e n t
o f it .
S u c h in te r n a t io n a l a g re e m e n ts , o v e r s t e p p in g th e lim it s o f
th e je a lo u s m a in te n a n c e o f s o v e r e ig n t y , h a v e r e p e a t e d ly b e e n m a d e .
T h e B e r lin I n t e r n a t io n a l C o n fe r e n c e f o r th e P r o t e c t io n o f L a b o r
o f 1 8 9 0 i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e d e m a n d e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t “ o f a s u ffi­
c i e n t n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d o f f ic ia ls t o b e n o m i n a t e d b y t h e
n a tio n a l G o v e r n m e n ts , a n d -to b e in d e p e n d e n t b o th o f th e e m p lo y e r s
a n d th e e m p lo y e e s ,” a n d r e c o m m e n d e d th e in t e r c h a n g e o f t h e ir y e a r ly
r e p o r ts a n d th e in s titu tio n o f s ta tis tic a l in v e s tig a tio n s in th e m o s t
u n ifo r m m a n n e r p o s s ib le .
B y th e F r a n c o -I t a lia n la b o r a g re e m e n t
o f A p r i l 14, 1904, th e I t a lia n G o v e r n m e n t a ssu m ed th e o b lig a t io n
o f e s t a b lis h in g a f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n s e r v ic e t h r o u g h o u t th e k in g d o m
w h ic h s h o u ld b e e s p e c ia lly d e v e lo p e d in th e in d u s t r ia l d is t r ic t s , a n d
s h o u ld b e v e s te d w it h a u t h o r it y t o o ffe r g u a r a n tie s f o r th e e n f o r c e ­
m e n t o f th e a g r e e m e n t s im ila r t o th o s e o ffe r e d b y th e F r e n c h la b o r
in s p e c t io n s e r v ic e .
F u r t h e r , b o t h c o u n t r ie s b o u n d th e m s e lv e s t o
p u b lis h a c c u r a te y e a r ly r e p o r t s o n th e p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a t io n o f th e
la w s a n d r e g u la t io n s r e la t in g t o w o m a n a n d c h ild la b o r :
T h is b i­
p a r t it e o b l i g a t i o n w a s p la c e d in th e f o r m o f a r e q u e s t b e f o r e a ll
th e s ig n a t o r y p o w e r s b y th e I n t e r n a t io n a l C o n fe r e n c e o f B e r n o n
M a y 16, 1905.
A t t h is tim e 17 E u r o p e a n G o v e r n m e n t s p o s s e s s e d s p e c ia l S ta te
s u p e r v i s o r y o ff ic e r s f o r t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f l a b o r l a w s .
It w as
n o t u n til th e y e a r 1912 th a t I t a ly , R o u m a n ia , S p a in , B o s n ia , H e r z e ­
g o v in a , S e r b ia , a n d G r e e c e jo in e d th e g r o u p o f c o u n t r ie s h a v in g a
s p e c ia l s e r v ic e f o r th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f* th e p r o t e c t iv e l a b o r la w s .




109

110

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

T h e n t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e a s t o w h e t h e r t h e n u m b e r o f t h e s e o ff ic e r s w a s
s u ffi c i e n t t o e x e r c i s e a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n t r o l ; w h e t h e r t h e i r a u t h o r i t y
e x t e n d e d a ls o t o h o m e w o r k a n d c o m m e r c e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t io n ; w h a t
p r e lim in a r y t r a in in g w a s r e q u ir e d o f th e s e o ffic ia ls ; in w h a t m a n n e r
t h e y r e p o r t e d o n t h e ir a c t iv it ie s .
F in a lly , in th e la s t d e c a d e th e c o ­
o p e r a t io n o f w o m e n , o f w o r k e r s , a n d o f t r a d e -u n io n s in th e e n fo r c e ­
m e n t o f th e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s h a s b e e n r e q u e s te d a n d p a r t ly
e ffe cte d .
A f t e r th e c o n c lu s io n a t B e r n (1 9 0 6 ) o f th e in t e r n a t io n a l tr e a ty f o r
th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r , r e la t in g t o th e p r o h ib it io n o f in d u s t r ia l n ig h t
w o r k o f w o m e n , th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la ­
tio n , at th e r e q u e st o f th e B r it is h s e c tio n , a u th o r iz e d th e I n t e r n a ­
t i o n a l L a b o r O ff ic e t o m a k e a c o m p a r a t i v e r e p o r t o n t h e m e a s u r e s
ta k e n f o r th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f th e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s .
It w as pub­
lis h e d in 1910.
A s a r e s u lt o f th e c o n d it io n s d e s c r ib e d th e r e in ,
th e s ix t h g e n e r a l a s s e m b ly o f t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n in
1 910 d e c id e d to r e q u e s t th e G o v e r n m e n ts , in o r d e r t o m a k e c o m ­
p a r is o n o f th e c o n te n ts o f t h e ir in s p e c to r s ’ r e p o r ts p o s s ib le , t o p r o ­
v id e a c cu ra te in fo r m a t io n as to th e k in d a n d n u m b e r o f th e e sta b ­
lis h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s t o b e in s p e c t e d a n d o f th o s e a c t u a lly in s p e c t e d ,
th e n u m b e r o f v is its o f in s p e c tio n , e s p e c ia lly at n ig h t , th e n u m b e r
o f in fo r m a t io n s file d a n d c o n v ic t io n s , a n d as t o th e c o o p e r a t io n o f
th e w o r k e r s a n d th e w o r k e r s ’ tr a d e -u n io n s w ith th e f a c t o r y in s p e c ­
t io n s e r v ic e . T o f a c il i t a t e th e u se o f t h e r e p o r t s , i t w a s r e q u e s te d
th a t a t r a n s la t io n o f th e t e x t o f th e s ta tis tic a l ta b le s b e m a d e in o n e
o f th e p r in c ip a l la n g u a g e s .
C e r t a in c o u n t r ie s , s u c h as E n g la n d ,
h a v e im p r o v e d th e s ta tis tic s o f f a c t o r y in s p e c t io n .
O n th e o t h e r
h a n d , th e a tt e m p t a t a n in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e m e n t o n th e se s ta tis tic s
r e m a in e d u n s u c c e s s fu l b e f o r e th e w a r .1
B y m e a n s o f t h is s c ie n t ific a n d u n p r e ju d ic e d d e s c r ip t io n o f th e
e n fo r c e m e n t o f p r o t e c t iv e la b o r le g is la tio n , b y s h o w in g th e c o ­
o p e r a t io n o f th e t r a d e -u n io n s in t h is ta sk , b y r o u s in g th e in t e r ­
n a t io n a l c o n s c ie n c e , th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n s o u g h t t o b u ild
u p a m o re a n d m o re s o lid a n d secu re stru ctu re a ro u n d th e in ­
te r n a tio n a l a g ree m en ts.
T h e q u e s tio n o f th e in t e r p r e t a t io n o f th e se
a g re e m e n ts r e m a in e d t o b e s o lv e d .
T h a t h a d h it h e r t o b e c o m e a c u te
in o n ly o n e case. E n g lis h a r tific ia l-s ilk m a n u fa c tu r e r s a n d B e lg ia n
g la s s w o r k s o w n e r s tr ie d t o ju s t if y th e in t r o d u c t io n o f n ig h t w o r k
f o r w o m e n o n th e g r o u n d th a t it w a s p e r m it t e d b y th e in t e r n a t io n a l
tre a ty o f 1906, b y w a y o f e x c e p tio n , “ f o r th e w o r k in g u p o f ra w
m a t e r ia ls o r th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f o b je c t s t h a t a r e lia b le t o s p o il
q u i c k l y , i f i t is n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t a n o t h e r w i s e u n a v o i d a b l e l o s s
1 “ P r in c ip le s o f an in te rn a tio n a l a greem en t to u ch in g th e p e rio d ic re p o rts on the e n fo r ce ­
m ent o f the in te rn a tio n a l trea ties fo r th e p ro te ctio n o f la b o r ,” in P u b lica tio n s o f the I n ­
te rn a tio n a l A s s o cia tio n fo r L a b o r L eg isla tion , N o. 8, Jena, 1913, p. 238.




ENFORCEMENT OF TREATIES FOR PROTECTION OF LABOR.

I ll

o f th e s e m a t e r ia ls .”
A n o p in io n r e n d e r e d b y th e In te r n a tio n a l L a b o r
B u r e a u m a d e it p la in th a t e x is tin g le g is la t io n r e c o g n iz e d a m o n g s u c h
e x c e p t io n s n o o r g a n i c m a t e r ia ls e x c e p t f o o d s t u f f s a n d flo w e r s . T h i s
d e c la r a t io n w a s in s e r te d in th e m in u te s b y th e p r e s id e n t o f th e I n t e r ­
n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n , H e in r ic h S c h e r e r , w it h th e c o n s e n t o f th e in te r ­
n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e , o n S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 1 3 .1
A n o t h e r m e th o d h a d b e e n p r o p o s e d b y a g r o u p o f S ta te s in 19 0 6 ,
u a m e ly , th e a p p o in t m e n t o f a n in t e r n a t io n a l c o m m is s io n t o r e n d e r
o p in io n s o n th e q u e s t io n s a r is in g o u t o f in t e r n a t io n a l tr e a tie s f o r
th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r .
T h is p ro p o s a l w a s m a d e o n S e p tem b er 26,
L906, a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s
f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r , b y th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f F r a n c e , w ith
w h o m th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f D e n m a r k , S p a in , G r e a t B r it a in , I t a l y ,
L u x e m b u r g , t h e N e t h e r la n d s , P o r t u g a l , S w e d e n , a n d S w it z e r la n d
a s s o c i a t e d t h e m s e lv e s .
I n t h is c o m m is s io n e a c h s ig n a t o r y p o w e r o f
th e t r e a t y w a s t o b e r e p r e s e n te d b y o n e d e le g a te .
T h e c o m m is s io n
w a s to p osse ss p u r e ly a d v is o r y fu n c tio n s a n d w a s n o t to u n d e r ta k e
a n y k in d o f in v e s t ig a t io n s o f a c ts o f a d m in is t r a t io n in o t h e r c o u n ­
tr ie s . T h e c o m m is s io n w o u ld b e r e q u ir e d n o t o n ly t o m a k e a r e p o r t o n
th e q u e s tio n s s u b m itte d t o it, b u t a ls o t o fo r m u la t e a n o p in io n o n th e
a d m i s s i o n o f n o n - E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t ie s f o r t h e
p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r w h e n e v e r c lim a t ic c o n d it io n s o r th e l iv in g c o n ­
d it io n s o f th e n a t iv e s r e q u ir e d s p e c ia l a m e n d m e n ts t o b e m a d e in
t h e t r e a t ie s .
F u r th e r , w it h o u t p r e ju d ic e t o th e in it ia t iv e o f a n y
c o u n t r y th a t w a s a p a r t y t o th e t r e a t y , t h is in t e r n a t io n a l c o m m is s io n
w a s to ta k e c h a r g e o f th e in te r c h a n g e o f o p in io n s o f th e v a r io u s S ta te s
p r e c e d in g th e c o n v o c a tio n o f n e w c o n fe r e n c e s f o r th e p r o te c tio n o f
la b o r .
E v e r y c o u n t r y in ca ses o f c o n f lic t w o u ld r e t a in th e r ig h t o f
a p p e a l t o th e c o u r t o f a r b it r a t io n a c c o r d in g t o a r t ic le 16 o f T h e
H a g u e C o n v e n tio n , e v e n a ft e r a n e x p r e s s io n o f o p in io n o n th e p a r t
o f th e in t e r n a t io n a l c o m m is s io n .
T h e s e p r o p o s a ls o f 1906 w e re in ­
c o r p o r a t e d in th e r e s o lu t io n s o f L e e d s .
H i t h e r t o th e f u n c t io n s p r o p o s e d t o b e g iv e n t o t h is c o m m is s io n , th e
in t e r p r e t a t io n o f t h e in t e r n a t io n a l tr e a t ie s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r ,
th e n e g o t ia t io n s p r e lim in a r y t o th e c o n v e n in g o f in t e r n a t io n a l c o n f e r ­
en ce s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r , w e r e e x e r c is e d b y th e S w is s F e d e r a l
C o u n c il.
C o n s id e r a b le in fo r m a t io n h a s b ee n la id b e fo r e th e la tte r b y
th e I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r B u r e a u , a n d th e p r e s id e n t s o f th e n a t io n a l
s e c tio n s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n h a v e a ls o o b t a in e d f r o m
t h e ir G o v e r n m e n t s c o n fid e n t ia l in fo r m a t io n w it h r e g a r d t o th e w i l ­
lin g n e s s o f th o s e G o v e r n m e n t s t o s e n d d e le g a te s t o in t e r n a t io n a l c o n ­
fe r e n c e s .
T h is in c lin a t io n w a s e s p e c ia lly e n c o u r a g e d w h e n , as in
1 M in u tes o f the In te rn a tio n a l C on feren ce fo r the P ro t e c t io n o f L a b o r, B ern , S ept. 1 5 -2 5 ,
1913, pp. 134, 135.




112

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

th e ca se o f th e F r a n c o -I t a lia n a g r e e m e n t o f 1904, t w o c o u n t r ie s
b o u n d t h e m s e lv e s i n a d v a n c e t o s e n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o a l l i n t e r n a ­
t io n a l c o n f e r e n c e s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f l a b o r t o b e c o n v e n e d in th e
fu t u r e a n d t o p r o v id e th e m w it h in s t r u c t io n s .
T h is o b lig a tio n to
s e n d in s t r u c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s t o a m e e t in g m a y b e s u g g e s t e d as a n
e x a m p le f o r in t e r n a t io n a l im ita tio n .
W h e t h e r th e m e t h o d h it h e r t o in p r a c t ic e b e a d h e r e d t o , o r w h e t h e r
th e a p p o in t m e n t o f a c o m m is s io n m e e t w it h in t e r n a t io n a l a p p r o v a l,
t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t a n u n b i a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t r a l o ff ic e f o r t h e
p r e p a r a t io n o f tr e a t ie s f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r is ju s t a s n e c e s s a r y
as a n o r g a n i z a t i o n f a m i l ia r w it h th e r e q u ir e m e n t s o f la b o r in e v e r y
cou n try .
T h e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r n e e d s th e a le r t w a t c h fu ln e s s a n d th e
a c t iv e c a r e o f its le g a l a d v is e r s .
S in c e 1901 th e In t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r
B u r e a u in B a s e l h a s b e e n a c t iv e as th e h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r t h e c o m p il a ­
t io n a n d p u b lic a t io n o f th e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s a n d r e g u la t io n s in th e
th re e p r in c ip a l la n g u a g e s , f o r th e d is t r ib u t io n o f in fo r m a t io n o n th ese
q u e s tio n s , f o r th e in it ia t io n o f c o m p a r a t iv e in t e r n a t io n a l in v e s t ig a ­
t i o n s , a n d f o r t h e e d i t io fg m e m o r a n d a t o b e u s e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n
n
o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t ie s .
I t s a c t i v i t y is b a s e d u p o n t h e b y - l a w s o f t h e
I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n f o r L a b o r L e g is la t io n o f 1901 a n d th e r e g u ­
la tio n s o f 1902.
A c c o r d i n g t o th e se r e g u la t io n s th e I n t e r n a t io n a l
L a b o r B u r e a u is a s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n . 1 I t h a s t o f u l f i l l t h e t a s k s
in tr u s te d t o it b y th e b y -la w s o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n as
w e ll as th o s e a s s ig n e d t o it o n th e b a s is o f th e s e b y - la w s b y th e c o m ­
m itte e o f th e a s s o c ia tio n .
I t w il l m a in t a in t h e s t r ic t e s t p o l it i c a l
n e u t r a lity .
T h e f o l l o w i n g lis t o f p u b lic a t io n s g iv e s a c o n c is e a c c o u n t o f th e
a c t iv it y o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l L a b o r B u r e a u s in c e 1 9 0 1 :
1. B u l l e t i n o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r B u r e a u , 1 6 v o l u m e s , 1 9 0 2 1 9 1 7 (t e x t o f t h e p r o t e c t iv e l a b o r a n d w o r k m e n ’s in s u r a n c e la w s ,
a n a ly s e s , p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d i n g s , r e s o l u t i o n s o f c o n g r e s s e s , b i b l i o g r a p liy ).
2. M e m o r a n d a a n d m o n o g r a p h s :
(a)
T w o m e m o r a n d a p r e p a r e d f o r a n in te r n a tio n a l c o n fe r e n c e
f o r th e p r o te c tio n o f la b o r — m e m o r a n d u m o n th e p r o h ib it io n o f
th e u se o f w h ite p h o s p h o r u s in th e m a tc h in d u s t r y ; m e m o r a n d u m
o n th e p r o h ib it io n o f in d u s tr ia l n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n (p u b lic a tio n s
o f th e In te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n N o . 4 ) .
1
T h e cred it o f h a v in g dem an ded th a t such a cen tra l office s h a ll h a ve a scie n tific ch a r­
a cte r is due to T h e o d o r C urti, In tern a tion a les A rb eitersch u tza m t, in I n t e r n a t i o n a l K on gress fiir A rb eiters ch u tz in Z iirich , 1897, pp. 137, 242, an d to H e c to r D en is, L ’ in s titu tio n
d ’un bureau in te rn a tio n a l de le g is la tio n et de sta tis tiq u e du t r a v a il, in Congr&s in te rn a ­
tio n a l du T ra v a il tenu a B ru x elles du 27 au 30 S eptem bre, 1897. B ru ssels, 1898, p. 465.
Its d evelop m en t in to a cen tra l bureau o f official la b or an d s o cia l s ta tis tics a s desired by
b oth m en is s till to be rea lized .




ENFORCEMENT OF TREATIES FOR PROTECTION OF LABOR.

113

(b ) T w o m e m o r a n d a p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s e c o n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n ­
fe r e n c e f o r th e p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r h e ld in B e r n in 191 3 — m e m ­
o r a n d u m o n th e in te r n a tio n a l p r o h ib it io n o f in d u s tr ia l n ig h t w o r k
o f y o u n g p e r s o n s ; m e m o r a n d u m o n th e in te r n a tio n a l d e te r m in a tio n
o f a m a x im u m 1 0 -h o u r w o r k in g d a y f o r w o m e n in in d u s t r y a n d
y o u n g p e rs o n s (p u b lic a tio n s o f th e In te r n a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n N o . 9 ).
(c) I n d u s t r i e s d e t r i m e n t a l t o h e a l t h .
( d) I n d u s t r i a l n ig h t w o r k o f w o m e n .
( e) F ir s t c o m p a r a t iv e r e p o r t o n th e m e a su res ta k e n f o r th e e n ­
fo r c e m e n t o f th e p r o t e c t iv e la b o r la w s.
F a c t o r y in s p e c t io n in E u ­
rope.
( / ) L is t o f in d u s tr ia l p o is o n s .
3. P r i z e e s s a y s :
(a) T h e C o m b a t i n g o f t h e L e a d P e r i l i n L e a d W o r B s - (
Die k e
hampfung der B leigefahr in B leih u tten ) , b y R i c h a r d M u l l e r .
(b) T h e C o m b a t i n g o f t h e L e a d P e r i l i n I n d u s t rB ekam pf Die y (
ung der Bleigefahr in der In d u strie) , b y D r . L e y m a n n .
(c) L e a d W o r k (Les fonderies de plornb ) , b y M . B o u l i n .
s
(d ) L e a d P o i s o n i n g i n t h e P r i n t i n g T r(Ldee saturnisme dans la
a s
typ ogra ph ic) , b y M . D u c r o t .
4. I n f o r m a t i o n g iv e n a n d o p in io n s r e n d e r e d — 4 5 2 , o f w h ic h 121
w ere a d d ressed to G ov ern m e n ts.
T h e w a r h a s n o t in t e r r u p t e d th e p u b lic a t io n o f p r o t e c t iv e la b o r
la w s a n d th e g iv in g o f in fo r m a t io n o r in te r n a tio n a l c o m m u n ic a tio n
b e tw e e n la b o r b u re a u s.
T h e o r g a n iz a tio n s f o r th e c a r r y in g o n o f th e
w o r k in c o m m o n h a v e , h o w e v e r , b e e n d is t u r b e d .
T hese a r e :
1. T h e c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n .
2. T h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o n h y g i e n e .
3. T h e w o r k d o n e i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e P e r m a n e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C o m m itte e o n S o c ia l In s u r a n c e a n d th e In t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o n
U n e m p lo y m e n t.
F o r in a ll th e b e llig e r e n t c o u n t r ie s th e le a d in g m e n
o f th ese in s t itu tio n s a re d o i n g w a r w o r k .
T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O f fic e o w e s t o i t s s t r i c t n e u t r a l i t y i t s
r e c o g n it io n b y th e t r a d e -u n io n s o f th e E n te n te , th e C e n tr a l P o w e r s ,
a n d th e n e u tr a l c o u n t r ie s d u r in g th e W o r l d W a r .
T h e r e s o lu t io n s
o f L e e d s , as w e ll as t h o s e o f B e r n , e x p r e s s t h e w is h t h a t t h is in s t it u ­
t io n m a y b e r e c o g n iz e d in th e p e a ce tr e a ty as th e a g e n t o f in te r n a ­
t io n a l p r o t e c t io n o f la b o r .1
1 See, also, pp. 125 and 129.

97520°— 19------ 8







C H A P T E R

X II.

I N T E R N A T I O N A L I Z A T I O N O F P R O T E C T IV E L A B O R
L E G IS L A T IO N .
A nation’s success in war depends upon its technical and financial
superiority. On the other hand, peaceful intercommunication among
nations, their reciprocal development and maintenance of strength,
depend in the deepest sense upon their social efficiency. The ques­
tion of to-day is whether the time is at hand for the establishment
of a society of nations founded oif peace and social justice ( Friedensgemeinschaft) and what effective legal form such an organization
ought to take.
As we have seen, the first steps in the direction of a system of pro­
tective labor agreements have been taken in our generation. From a
bipartite agreement of 1904 have arisen the polypartite agreements
of 1906 and 1913. This is an important advance when we remember
that according to experience consideration for the industrially weaker
State weighs far more heavily in the balance in the case of a bipartite
agreement than when a general agreement is concluded. The system­
atic development of these agreements is the next fundamental task.
The following questions are involved:
1 . The regulation of the labor contract forms the foundation of
the whole social order. The guaranty of the inviolability of col­
lective agreements, the introduction of minimum-wage boards for
underpaid occupations, and the protection of immigrants and of col­
onial contract labor come within its sphere.
2. The agreements of 1913 with regard to the protection of young
persons can be supplemented and strengthened by provisions re­
garding the protection of children, and in the same way—
3. The agreements of 1906 and 1913 with regard to the protec­
tion of female workers can be supplemented by provisions as to
early closing on Saturdays and the protection of mothers.
4. The introduction of the 8-hour shift in the mining industry and
in establishments with continuous operation is now to be an inter­
national aim.
5. The protection of the Sunday rest is to be regulated and ex­
tended.




115

116

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEGISLATIO N .

6. For protection against industrial poisoning, an international
prohibition of the use of white lead may follow, on the lines of the
white phosphorus agreement of 1906.
7. For transport workers common safety regulations may be issued.
8. The development of social insurance and the protection of the
claims of aliens to pensions even in case of war require regulation.
9. Finally, a special agreement may serve to secure the interna­
tional protection of labor.
The significance of such a program lies in the fact that it does not
serve the occupational interests of labor alone. The demands of
statesmen and publicists of both enemy camps to-day, when urgently
supporting the incorporation of social and political demands in the
peace treaty, are based on the following considerations:
First, no encouragement should be given to particular nations, by
means of longer hours of labor and lower wages, in the intensive post­
war competition of the various nations for trade. It is a known fact
that in certain industries, particularly in home work, the costs of
production can be reduced through a reduction of wages, and that
this would bring about a policy of underselling and dumping. Such
a state of affairs would cause an economic war of the producers,
which without doubt would be followed by a war of the consumers
against producers. If, therefore, industry wishes to avoid reprisals
it must prefer an international regime of self-restriction to unre­
stricted exploitation of the-working classes.1
Second, international protective labor legislation will prevent the
class strife which threatens after the war; for this reason it should
be extensively developed simultaneously with the peace treaty. In
this connection Senator Henry Cheron on June 5, 1917, when re­
porting the Saturday rest bill for the clothing industry, said:
We must resolutely reenter this road so that we may not sacrifice the
industry and commerce of the most democratic countries to those whose social
legislation is less developed. In the peace treaty which will end the present
war the employers’ representatives must set aside a special place for labor
legislation. This not only is required by a sense of justice but will be one of
the surest means to avoid disputes on working conditions which is of such
great importance to both wage earners and their employers.3

Third, uniformity of labor legislation is one of the democratic
bases of the coming international democratic regime. “ Democracy,”
1 L y s i s : V ers la d e m o cra tic nou velle, 1917 ; H . L a m m a sch : D as V o lk e rre ch t n a ch dem
K rieg e, 1§17, p. 58.
2 D oc. p a ri. S enat an n exe N o. 188, p. 260.
T h e q u o ta tio n in F re n ch is as f o l l o w s :
“ C ’est dans ce tte v o ie q u ’il faw t ren trer resolu m en t, afin de ne pas sacrifier l ’in d u strie
et le com m erce des p a ys les p lu s d em ocra tes & ceu x d o n t la le g is la tio n so cia le est m o in s
d evelop p ee. D ans le t r a it s de p a ix qui m ettra fin a la gran d e gu erre a ctu elle, les represen ta n ts des p a tr o n s d e v r o n t fa ir e une p la ce tou te s p eciale a u x le g is la tio n s du tra v a il.
II n ’y a pas 1& seu lem en t une idee de ju s tice . Ce sera un des p lu s sflrs m oyen s d ’e v ite r
c-ntre les co n tr a c ta n ts le co n flit des c o n d itio n s du tra v a il, si re d o u b ta b le p o u r les sala ries
et leu rs em p loy eu rs.’ *




IN TE R N A TIO N A L IZA T IO N OF LABOR LEG ISLATION .

117

declares Prof. Rowe, secretary general of the Pan American Commis­
sion, “ means something more than a governmental system; something
far deeper than the election of public officials; something far more
significant than a particular type of written constitution. It means,
in the last analysis, the solution of certain basic industrial and social
problems, such as the elimination of peonage, the governmental
guaranty of a minimum standard of life to the masses, a wellorganized system of protective labor legislation, an agrarian system
based on a numerous land-holding class, an educational system open
to all on terms that are really and not nominally equal.” 1
The peace-assuring, although not peace-promoting, character as­
cribed to international protective labor legislation is therefore due
not only to economic but also to internal and foreign political reasons.
It is clear that a mere armed peace (Rustung sfriede) can not con­
tain any such demands for the protection of labor as the equalization
of the labor laws. The sacrifices which such a peace must impose anew
upon the great mass of the working classes do not compare with the
moral and physical strengthening to be achieved by the protection of
labor. Ten years with the eight-hour working day can not make up
for four years of woman labor underground, the compulsory labor
of war prisoners, and the hunger and exhaustion which a war brings
with it. An armed peace frieans the continuation of the war with the
same means, and its supporters have at all times been the most pro­
nounced opponents of the national protection of labor.
Only when a profound change of spirit has removed domination
by the military interests, when the allurements of profits based on
force and monopolies have lost their effectiveness, and when a demo­
cratic peace (Arbeitsfriede) intended to be permanent has been con­
cluded, may one think of a renaissance of the working classes of all
countries. Whether and when the conclusion of such a peace can be
brought about can not be predicted in the fourth year of the World
War.
I f fate should will it that a democratic peace be realized, a pro­
gram aiming at the speedy conclusion of a system of protective labor
agreements would form a part of the peace instrument no less essen­
tial than the announcement of a new adjustment of trade regulations
and financial obligations.
Just as modern constitutions, like that of Switzerland and the more
recent one of Mexico, have charged the legislatures with the enact­
ment of specific forms of social legislation, so can the rudiments of
a world constitution, which a world peace treaty represents, lay down
specific principles for world legislation, and by the fixing of definite
1 L. S. R o w e : “ B rin g in g th e A m erica s to g e th e r,” in T h e F o re ig n R e la tio n s o f the
U nited S tates, P roceed in g s o f the A m erica n A ca d em y o f P o litic a l Science, vol. 7, N o. 2,
N ew Y ork , 1917, p. 273.




118

IN’TERE'ATIOSTAL LABOR LEG ISLATIO N .

periods o f transition prevent obstruction in the realization o f these
principles.
The guaranties for the development and enforcement of social
international law lie in the permanent cooperation and watchfulness
of international organizations, in the promotion of comparative re­
search in the field of social and administrative science and hygiene,
and in the cultivation of an international spirit. Only a new reign
of reason, experimental research, self-denial, public spiritedness,
and a belief in higher aims than the material tendencies of subjuga­
tion can give to these guaranties the power which we grievously miss
to-day. Above all there must be no doubt as to the indispensability
of the cooperation of international organizations in this work. The
international protection of labor is not a legal phantom hovering
above the world of material interests. It requires steady supervision
and continuous contact with industrial life, constant exchange of
experiences, and scientific and parliamentary control of conflicts and
interests. An international laissez faire, a merely recording activity
in this sphere, is inconsistent with its vital requirements. Just as the
antislavery societies stepped into the breach, when diplomatic action
failed, and secured protection for native colonial labor, so in our time
we have the international social organizations wbich are bound to-,
gether by purely ideal interests for the promotion and enforcement
of protective labor treaties. The German insurance laws of 1884
gave rise to a wish for international study of the new principles of
sickness and accident insurance and led to the forming in 1889 of an
international permanent committee on social insurance. A strike in
the Huhr district during the same year led to the convocation in 1890
of the Berlin Conference on Protective Labor Legislation. Discern­
ing the fact that the care of the healthy workman, of the growing
generation, and of the mothers, which, owing to circumstances of
international competition has been neglected, is no less urgent than
the care of those injured by accidents, of the sick, and of the infirm,
the International Association for Labor Legislation in 1901 adopted
these ideas. The endeavor to centralize the procuring of employment
in times of great unemployment and to organize the insurance of the
unemployed either through State or municipal subsidies to the tradeunions and o'ther insurance funds led in 1910 to the organization of
the International Association on Unemployment. Strengthened in­
ternally by a common purpose, and by a consciousness of essential
work to be done, these associations have weathered the storms of the
present war. “ It is solely the experimental method and not a special
doctrine which has created them and bound them together.” 1
The scientific study of labor problems—the demand for labor,
industrial fatigue, the limits of efficiency, the minimum wage, occu1 L eon B o u r g e o is : L ’ o rg a n isa tio n in tern a tion a le de la p re v o y a n ce s ociale, 1913, p. 15.




IN T E R N A T IO N A L IZA T IO N OF LABOR LEG ISLATIO N .

119

pational morbidity and mortality, unemployment, social hygiene,
social insurance, labor administration, and comparative protective
labor legislation—forms the second basis of the international protec­
tion of labor. The study of these problems requires comparable bases.
In several States this requirement has given rise to interest in the
study of the labor factor, necessitated administrative activity, and
increased the consciousness of membership in the family of nations.
At a time when an international bond unites the labor legislation
of the various countries this comparative study becomes more indis­
pensable than ever. The international miracle does not take place
by putting a universal driving belt on all the working machinery of
social legislation and by transferring to it the motive power. Such a
simple process may be employed in transportation and for the postal
systems which possess inherently an international character, but it
fails to work wherever the national machinery must be adapted to
international tasks.
The comparative study of these international problems, and the
study of the efficiency, technical development, and administrative
results achieved in the field of social hygiene and social insurance
led to the perception of their international possibilities. This study
has also led to the knowledge that smaller countries such as Finland,
Denmark, Greece, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, Australia, and
Mexico may under certain conditions accomplish much more for the
protection and conservation of human labor than large States such
as the former empires of Russia and Brazil—a proof that in this field
there can exist no supremacy or dominion by compulsion, but only a
working community which achieves results not by forcible inter­
ference but by imitation and education.
The resolutions of the International Association for Labor Legis­
lation are the result of these experiences. They have been incor­
porated with slight changes and additions, comprehensible on ac­
count of the present state of war, in the labor programs of Leeds
and Bern to which American labor has given the impetus. I f the
contents of these programs should become internationally binding,
these acts would be as incomplete as the Magna Charta was as a
constitutional instrument on the date of its signature. A large num­
ber of the protective labor laws of our time are not applicable to
workers in small establishments, to home workers, or to transporta­
tion and agricultural workers, even if this is not explicitly stated
in the law.
Only a protracted state of peace will make clear the
occupational changes in these groups. How much the numerical
strength of these groups will be increased through war pensioners
and persons added to the proletariat by the war can not be estimated.
It is clear that this new field can be opened up only step by step
through common social reforms.




120

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEGISLATIO N .

The international regulation of the rights of salaried employees,
a class which constantly assumes greater importance as public and
cooperative establishments take the place of individual employers of
labor (entrepreneurs), forms another virgin field of activity. A
world-wide study of the standards affecting this class, and of its
demands for participation in profits and administration, has hardly
begun.
The end of the war may be expected to bring a violent flaring up
of strikes. I f the inflation of prices recedes with the end of the
gigantic loans and of the demand caused by building operations and
ship construction, a period of unemployment will set in. Formed
into national and perhaps international federations, employers and
workmen will oppose each other. But up to the present the prin­
ciples according to which disputes over hours of labor and wages
are settled have not been developed beyond the suggestions of wellmeaning persons skilled in conciliation. Wherever powerful strikes
have stopped the production of necessities, as in December, 1916, in
the coal mines of Wales, England has had recourse to State operation.1
One of the international tasks of the future is to collect the prewar
and war experience of the systems of conciliation and arbitration,
and to profit by it, and to elucidate the great problems of the pur­
chasing power of minimum wages.2
Finally, the extension of protective labor legislation in Asia,
Africa, Central America, and South America is of great importance
also for the European working classes. As labor reserves and as
countries producing raw materials of which European and American
capital will make greater use than ever, these unprotected territories
are marked for a repetition of exploitation and as breeding places of
cheap colored labor, the prevention of all of which is of international
interest.3 The voices of humanity, and the efforts of the missionaries
will hardly find thei£ influence in the Dark Continent and in Asia
strengthened by the evidences of a World War.
Especially to be recommended is the organization in the colonial
territories of centers of social research and social reform for the
strengthening of the existing institutions for the protection of the
natives, and for reporting concerning their management. Thus only
will international duty be realized.
Although the preliminary work of the conventions of Bern and
of the International Association for Labor Legislation and the new
1 C. H. N o r t h c o t t : “ O rg a n iza tion o f la b or fo r w a r ,” in P o litic a l S cien ce Q u arterly , N ew
Y ork, June. 1917, vol. 32, N o. 2, p. 216.
3 F o r the p rew a r p eriod see “ W ag e th eories in in d u stria l a rb itra tio n ,” by W ils o n C om p­
ton, in T h e A m erica n E con om ic R eview , vol. 6, No. 2, June, 1916, p. 324.
3
T h e L ife o f S ir C harles W . D ilke, by St. G w ynn and G ertru d e T u ck w e ll, 1918, v o l. 2,
p. 368, con ta in s a g lo w in g d e scrip tion o f the efforts o f th is gre a t sta tesm a n to p en etra te
th e secrets o f the dark ch am b ers o f co lo n ia l p o litics .




IN TE R N A TIO N A L IZA T IO N OF LABOR LEGISLATIO N .

121

labor programs of the trade-unions have created promising bases for
the international legal regulation of labor, the task is not finished but
merely begun. The spirit and energy with which the task is com­
pleted are far more important than the way in which'this completion
takes place. International protective labor legislation which at one
time it was thought might serve the purposes of obstructionism has
proved to be a warning sign and a lever in securing national reforms.
It should not be deprived of this task of accelerating the most neces­
sary of all transitions.
The importance of international labor legislation can not be belittled
on the ground that it lacks power of enforcement. Hardly any serious
violation of international protective labor treaties had occurred
before the World War. Hence, their sanction after the war must lie
essentially in the restoration of that international sense of honor and
shame which existed in prewar times, and in breaking away from the
conventional doctrine “ Staat ist Macht,” the dreary echo of Proud­
hon’s “ La force cree le droit.” 1 For entirely apart from the fact
that, as a thoughtful economist has said, “ power merely restricts but
does not regulate,” 2 one thing is certain, and that is, that the im­
potence of the individual States in securing social reforms on their
own initiative has opened the doors of international law to labor
legislation. Who shall dare to lock them again %
After the collapse of the old policy of interests the newer ideals of
the interests of the masses require scope for development and nur­
ture. A new and strenuous life full of duties necessitates greater
educational facilities, more vital activity, and more trust in the future.
The assurance of health, a minimum rest period, and a minimum
income as guaranteed by the systematic development of international
labor legislation form the matrix for the building up of a generation
which will stand above monopolistic profits, business egotism, and
class interests.
1 E m ile O lliver, L ’ E m p ire lib era l, v ol. 5, 1900, pp. 447 , 448.
2 B oeh m -B a w erk , E. V on , M a ch t od er ok on om isch es G e se tz? in
fu r V o lk sw ir ts ch a ft, S o zia lp o litik un d V erw a ltu n g , 1914.




O esterr.

Z e it s c h r ift




A P P E N D IX E S .

APPENDIX L— THE PROGRAMS OF LEEDS AND BERN.
1. RESOLUTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE
AT LEEDS, JULY, 1916.
The conference declares that the peace treaty which will terminate the present
war and will give to the nations political and economic independence should also
insure to the working class of all countries a minimum of guaranties of a moral
as well as of a material kind concerning the right of coalition, emigration, social
insurance, hours of labor, hygiene, and protection of labor, in order to secure
them against the attacks of international capitalistic competition.

These guaranties must be based upon the following principles:
EIGHT TO WORK : RIGHT OF COALITION.

Every workman, no matter to which nationality he may belong* ought to have
the right to work wherever he can find employment.
Every workman, wherever he is employed, should enjoy all the trade-union
rights which the native workman enjoys, particularly the right to participate
in the administration of his union.
No workman should be expelled on account of his trade-unionist activities.
Appeals to the ordinary courts of justice should be allowed against all ex­
pulsion orders.
No alien workman should be paid a lower rate of wages than the normal or
prevailing rate of wages, or be made to work under worse conditions than
those prevailing in the same locality or district for workers of the same trade
or the same specialty.
These conditions of work and rate of wages are those that are fixed in the
agreements between the organizations of the employers and the employed.
Failing such agreements, the conditions of work and the rate of wages are to
be fixed by joint committees of representatives of employers’ and workers’
organizations.
EMIGRATION AND IM M IGRATION.

The migrations of workmen shall be organized and based on national labor
exchanges.
There should be in every country a special commission on emigration and
immigration, consisting of representatives of the Government and of the organi­
zations of employers and workers of the country.
The recruiting of workmen in a foreign country should only be permitted if
the commissions of the interested countries, whose duty it is to examine into




123

124

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEGISLATIO N .

the question as to whether the demand for, and the extent of, such a recruiting
really correspond with the needs of an industry jor a district, and whether the
labor contracts are in full conformity with the above-mentioned conditions of
labor and the rate of wages, have favorably reported.
The recruiting of emigrants should be under the control of the labor organiza­
tions of the country of emigration.
The execution of the labor contracts should be under the control of the
labor organizations of the country of immigration.
Should the need arise to employ colored labor, the recruiting must proceed
under the same conditions as apply to European workmen. And the same
guaranties must be secured for colored labor.
Moreover, the employers who engage such labor shall arrange at their own
expense and under the control of the school authorities the necessary courses
of instruction, in order to teach the colored workmen to speak, read, and write
the language of the country in which they are employed.
SOCIAL INSURANCE.

( a) In case of accidents, workmen and their relatives, without distinction of
nationality and domicile, shall be legally entitled to the same compensation as
the native workmen.
The legal position of workmen who are temporarily employed outside the
country in which the establishment employing them is located, or of transport
workers engaged intermittently and habitually within the territories of sev­
eral States, shall depend upon the laws of that country in which the estab­
lishment employing them is located.
The authorities of the various States should mutually assist one another
in facilitating in every respect the execution of the lawT concerning industrial
s
accidents.
All acts, certificates, and documents which are made and published or ren­
dered necessary in one country for the purposes of the enforcement of the
accident and compensation laws of another country, should be granted exemp­
tion from dues, stamps, and postage charges as the laws of that country pro­
vide in which the execution or the delivery takes place.
(b) Countries which have not yet enacted insurance laws regarding sickness,
invalidity, old age, and unemployment should pledge themselves to do so
within the shortest period.
After the lapse of that period, all workmen, without distinction of nation­
ality, participate in all countries in the insurance arrangements in the same
manner as the native workmen.
All necessary measures should be taken for securing the uninterrupted pay­
ment of insurance benefits to the workmen forced to change their domicile;
likewise for the control and payment of the benefits in the respective foreign
countries.
(c) Pending the introduction of sickness insurance, diseases caused by the
exercise of a trade should be regarded as accidents entitled to compensation.
LIM ITA TIO N

OF HOURS OF LABOB.

Children under 14 years of age should not be permitted to leave school and
engage as wageworkers in industrial, commercial, and agricultural labor.
Female persons and juveniles under 18 years of age shall be prohibited from
working at night work or in factories of continuous operation.




A PPEN D IX I— PROGRAMS OF LEEDS AND BERN .

125

A weekly rest, i. e., complete cessation of work, of one and a half days shall
be compulsory. It sha^l be fixed for Sundays and Saturday afternoons, un­
less there exist for special industries exceptional regulations which transfer
the rest or cessation of work to other days of the week.
For all workers a day’s work must not exceed 10 hours.
In mines, factories of continuous operation, and unhealthy industries the
maximum workday shall be eight hours.H YG IEN E AND LABOR PROTECTION.

(a) It is the duty of the various countries to develop their laws concerning
hygiene and labor protection.
These laws must extend to all branches of industry. The various countries
should conclude a lasting agreement with regard to common efforts in combat­
ing industrial poisons, dangerous labor processes, and trade diseases.
(&) The railways of all countries should within the period of two to five
years be provided with a uniform system of automatic coupling, applicable
to all cars.
INSPECTION

AND

STATISTICS.

(a) It shall be the duty of the various countries to create or extend factory
inspection for the purpose of having proper enforcement of all laws concern­
ing hours of labor, hygiene, and protection of workmen; particularly those
laws which are established by international treaties.
The Governments shall make known to each other the laws and regulations
concerning these matters which by virtue of the international labor clauses
have been introduced or are going to be introduced in their respective countries;
likewise the annual reports on the working of those laws and regulations.
The labor organizations shall have active participation in the inspection and
control of the application of those laws.
(&) An international commission shall be established for the purpose of
supervising the application of the laws concerning social insurance, labor migra­
tions, hours of labor, hygiene, and accident prevention. This commission shall
be instructed to report upon all questions and grievances submitted to it
on the matters within its purview, and its opinions shall be communicated to
all concerned. On the demand of one of the parties, any point of conflict shall
be submitted to an international court of arbitration.
It shall likewise be the duty of this commission to help on the preparations
for the organization of future conferences which the Governments of the
various countries may convoke for the purpose of amending and developing
labor legislation.
(c)
There shall be established an international labor office which shall co­
ordinate and consolidate the various inquiries, studies, statistics, and national
reports on the application of the labor laws; it shall make an effort to create
uniform methods of statistics, secure comparative reports of international con­
ventions, prepare international inquiries, and study all those questions which
refer to the development and application of the laws concerning accident
prevention, hygiene, and safety work.
The office established by the International Association for Labor Legislation
may be put into use for the carrying out of this program, in which work the
international labor secretary will cooperate.




126

IN TE RN ATIO N AL, LABOR LEG ISLATIO N .

2. RESOLUTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE-UNION CON­
FERENCE AT BERN, OCTOBER 4, 1917.
I . FREEDOM OF MIGRATION.

(a) The enactment of prohibitions of emigration shall not be permissible.

(Z>) The enactment of general prohibitions of immigration shall not be per­
missible.
This provision shall not affect—
1. The right of each State to order temporary restrictions of immigration in
times of economic depression in order to protect native labor as well as alien
immigrant labor.
2. The right of each State to control and restrict immigration temporarily
in order to protect the national health.
3. The right of eacfy State to stipulate minimum requirements as to the
ability of immigrants to read and write their mother tongue in order to protect
its national culture and in the interest of efficient enforcement of the protec­
tive labor laws relating to industries in the branches of which immigrant
labor is being prevailingly employed.
( c) The signatory States shall obligate themselves to incorporate in their
legislation at the earliest possible date provisions which prohibit the hiring
of contract labor from abroad and the activities for the same purpose of em­
ployment bureaus operated for profit.
(d) The signatory States shall obligate themselves to compile labor-market'
statistics from organized public employment offices and to interchange these
statistics at the shortest possible intervals through an international central
bureau, in order to prevent migration of labor to countries in which the
chances for employment are small. These statistical reports shall be made ac­
cessible to labor organizations in particular.
II. RIGHT OF COALITION.

(a) The right of free coalition shall be granted in all countries to workmen.
Laws and decrees (domestic-servant laws, prohibitions of coalition, etc.) which
differentiate between individual classes of workmen or deprive them of the
right of coalition and of representation of their economic interests shall be
abrogated. Immigrant labor shall enjoy the same rights as native labor with
respect to participation and activity in trade-union organizations, including
the right to strike.
(&) Interference with workmen in the exercise of the right of coalition shall
be made punishable.
(c)
Alien workmen shall have the benefit of those wage and labor conditions
which have been agreed upon by trade-union organizations with the employers
of their trade. Where such agreements do not exist, the prevailing wage rate
of their trade in the locality shall be applicable to alien workmen.
I I I. SOCIAL INSURANCE.

(a)
Countries which so far have not introduced insurance against sickness,
industrial accidents, invalidity, old age, and unemployment shall obligate them­
selves to introduce such insurance at the earliest possible date.
(&) Immigrant workmen shall without consideration of the probable dura­
tion of their sojourn in the foreign country have the same status as to rights
and duties in all branches of social insurance as native workmen.
(c)
Workmen temporarily employed outside of their country (on assembling
of machinery, etc.), as well as transportation workers (seamen, etc.), who




A PP E N D IX I— PROGRAMS OE LEEDS AN D BERN .

127

usually work within the territory of several States, shall he subject to insurance
in that State in which the enterprise employing them is located.
( d ) All documents and certificates relating to social insurance shall be exe­
cuted without charge and be exempt from fiscal dues.
(e) Alien workmen who have departed from the country in which they
have a legal claim to pension shall not lose their claims, provided their own
country has acknowledged the principle of reciprocity. Detailed provisions
as to this question as well as to the mode of payment of the pensions and the
regulation of the control of the pensioners shall be made in international
treaties.
(/) These treaties shall also regulate whether trade diseases shall be con­
sidered as industrial accidents.
( g ) Claims on the unemployment insurance of a country become extinct on
departure from the country in which the claims have been acquired. Whether
claimants shall be granted a travel subsidy is to be regulated by treaty.
IV. HOURS OF LABOR.

(a) The daily hours of labor for all workmen may not exceed 10 hours.

The signatory States shall obligate themselves to issue legal regulations, accord­
ing to which the daily hours of labor shall at fixed intervals* be reduced in
T
such a manner that after a time limit, to be fixed by agreement, the 8-hour
workday shall generally become the maximum legal workday.
(&) The hours of labor in mines, establishments with continuous operation,
and in industries especially injurious to the health of the workmen shall be
reduced to a maximum of 8 hours per day.
(c) Night work between 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. shall be legally prohibited for
all establishments in which night work is not made necessary by the nature
of their operation or for technical reasons. In establishments in which night
work is permitted the hours of labor shall not exceed 8 hours per shift.
( d ) All workmen shall be granted by law a weekly continuous rest period of
at least 36 hours during the period from Saturday to Monday. Exceptions
from this Sunday rest may be made only for the performance of labor required
for the resumption of operation on Monday, for establishments which for tech­
nical reasons must be operated continuously, and for those activities which serve
for the recreation and education of the people on Sunday. In all of these cases
a 36-hour continuous rest period must be granted on week days. Exceptions are
to be designated precisely in the law. In order to assure a 36-hour continuous
weekly rest period, establishments with continuous operation shall organize
reserve shifts. The changing of shifts is to be so regulated that each workman
is off duty at least every third Sunday.
(e) Those establishments whose processes are especially injurious to the
health of workmen shall in each country be precisely designated by decree or
law.
V . H Y G IE N E .

(a) The signatory Governments shall obligate themselves to promote in their
countries the development of legislation on industrial hygiene. In particular,
endeavor shall be made to achieve uniformity of hygiene regulations for the in­
dividual industries, and to further a continuous common effort against the use
of industrial poisons and particularly dangerous methods of production.
(b) In the work in the field of occupational hygiene designated under (a),
the list of industrial poisons compiled by the International Association for
Labor Legislation shall be used. Such poisons as can be replaced by less dan­
gerous substances or materials shall be excluded from use in industrial estab­
lishments.




128

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEG ISLATION.

(c) Special regulations as to maximum hours of labor shall be agreed upon
for the establishments designated under IV (e), having regard to the extent
of occupational danger connected with the individual branches of industry.
VI. HOM E W ORK.

(a) All laws and decrees relating to the protection of labor shall be appli­
cable to home work.
(b) Social insurance shall be extended to home workers.
(c) Home work shall be prohibited—
1. In the case of all work which may involve serious injuries to the health of
the workmen, or their poisoning.
2. In the food, beverage, tobacco, etc., industries.
( d ) It shall be made obligatory for home workers to notify the authorities
whenever they are afflicted with an infectious disease.
(e) Medical inspection of juvenile home workers, analogous to inspection of
school children, is to be introduced in all countries.
(/) The keeping and inspection of lists of all workers and intermediary un­
dertakers (subcontractors) in home industry, as well as the keeping of wage
books for all hgme workers, shall be made obligatory.
(g )
Equipartisan wage boards shall be established in all districts having
home industries and shall determine legally binding wage rates. Lists showing
the wage rates shall be posted in the workrooms.
VII. PROTECTION OF CHILD AND JUVENILE LABOR.

( a) Children under 15 years of age shall be prohibited from exercising any
gainful occupation.
(&) Juvenile workers 15 to 18 years of age may not be employed longer than
8 hours per day and must be granted 11 hours’ rest after 4 hours of continuous
labor. Provision shall be made for the instruction of male and female juvenile
workers in continuation and trade schools, the hours of instruction to fall be­
tween 8 a. m. and 6 p. m. Juvenile workers must be granted time to attend
these schools.
(c) The employment of juvenile workers shall be prohibited—
Between 8 p. m. and 6 a. m., and on Sundays and holidays; in establishments
particularly injurious to the health; in mines on underground labor.
V III. PROTECTION OF FEM ALE LABOR.

(a) The hours of labor of all female workers and salaried employees in large
and small industrial establishments, trades, commerce, transportation, and
public traffic, as well as in home industries, shall be limited to 8 hours per day
and 44 hours per week. On Saturdays the hours of labor shall terminate at
noon (12 o’clock) so that such female workers and salaried employees shall be
assured a continuous rest of at least 42 hours until Monday morning. Employ­
ment of female workers during the time between 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. shall be
prohibited.
(&) Undertakers (entrepreneurs) shall be prohibited from giving female
workers and employees work to take home to be done after termination of the
hours of labor.
(c) The employment of female workers in industries particularly injurious
to the health (IV ( e )) and in mines, both above and below ground, shall be
generally prohibited.
(d) Before and after confinement women may not be employed in industry
for a total period of 10 weeks, of which at least 6 weeks must fall in the time




A PP E N D IX I— PROGRAM S OF LEEDS AND B ERN .

129

after confinement. The introduction of maternity insurance with a minimum
benefit equivalent to the legal sick benefit shall be made obligatory for all States,
I X . SE AM E N ’ S CODE AND PROTECTION OF SE AM E N .

A special international seamen’s code and protective legislation for seamen
shall be created with the cooperation of seamen’s organizations for the interna­
tional trade of the seamen.
%

X . ENFORCEMENT OF PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION.

(a) An efficient industrial inspection service for large and small industrial
establishments, trades, home industries, commerce, and transportation, as well
as for agricultural establishments using machinery, shall be organized and de­
veloped in all countries.
(&) The officers of the inspection service shall be appointed from among
technical experts, as well as from among workmen and salaried employees. Their
number shall be sufficiently large to insure the inspection of each establishment
at least once every half year. The officers of the inspection service shall be
granted executive power and be compensated adequately so as to insure their
independence. Women shall be employed as inspection officers for the enforce­
ment of the provisions relating to female labor.
(c) Trade-unions organized by virtue of the right of coalition, which is to be
granted in all countries, shall cooperate in the efficient enforcement of protective
labor legislation. Trade-unions shall in particular be obligated to aid the in­
dustrial inspection officers through their committees, secretariats, etc.
( d) In order to assure enforcement of protective labor legislation, owners of
establishments with at least five workmen speaking only a foreign language
shall be legally obligated to establish at their own expense and under super­
vision of the educational authorities courses of instruction in which the immi­
grant workmen may learn the language of the country.
(e) The International Association for Labor Legislation shall explicitly be
recognized in the peace treaty as the medium for the promotion and enforcement
of international protective labor legislation. The International Labor Office
maintained by this association shall collect and publish in the three principal
languages all sociopolitical material, such as statistics, social insurance and
labor laws, important decrees and orders, etc., supervise the enforcement of
sociopolitical agreements incorporated in international treaties, remain in
constant communication with the central labor offices or Government depart­
ments -charged with the duties of labor offices, prepare on request opinions on
various matters relating to sociopolitical legislation, undertake the preparation
and direction of international investigations in this field, and make studies of
everything relating to the development and application of social legislation.
The International Labor Office shall in particular act as intermediary in the
quick exchange of labor market statistics (I ( d)) among the various countries.
( f) The International Federation of Trade-Unions shall be granted repre­
sentation in the International Labor Office.
(g) The International Labor Office shall periodically convoke international
congresses for the promotion of labor and social legislation to which the signa­
tory States shall send official representatives. The signatory Governments shall
bind themselves to aid in the realization of the resolutions of these congresses.
(h The costs of maintenance of this office shall be borne by the signatory
)
States.
97520°— 19------ 9







APPENDIX IL —CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE
HISTORY OF THE SLAVE TRADE.
{This appendix is omitted in the present transition.]

APPENDIX III.—THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
OF BERN.

1. IN T E R N A T IO N A L C O N V E N T IO N R E L A T IN G T O T H E P R O H IB I­
T IO N O F T H E IN D U S T R IA L N IG H T W O R K O F W O M E N ,
C O N C L U D E D A T B E R N , S E P T E M B E R 26, 1906.
A r t i c l e 1. Night work in industrial employment shall be prohibited for a l l
women without distinction of age, with the exceptions hereinafter provided for.
The present convention shall apply to all industrial undertakings in which
more than 10 men or women are employed; it shall not in any case apply
to undertakings in which only the members of the family are employed.
It is incumbent upon each contracting State to define the term “industrial
undertakings.” The definition shall in every case include mines and quar­
ries and also industries in which articles are manufactured and materials
transformed; as regards the latter, the laws of each individual country shall
define the line of division which separates industry from agriculture and com­
merce.
Art. 2. The night rest provided for in the preceding article shall be a
period of at least 11 consecutive hours; within these 11 hours shall be com­
prised the interval between 10 in the evening and 5 in the morning.
In those States, however, where the night work of adult women employed
in industrial occupations is not as yet regulated, the period of uninterrupted
rest may provisionally, and for a maximum period of three years, be limited
to 10 hours.
Abt. 3. The prohibition of night work may be suspended (1) in cases o f
* force majeure,” when in any undertaking there occurs an interruption o f
work which it was impossible to foresee and which is not of a periodic char­
acter; (2) in cases where the work has to do with raw materials or mate­
rials in course of treatment which are subject to rapid deterioration, when
such night work is necessary to preserve the said materials from certain loss.
Abt. 4. In those industries which are influenced by the seasons, and in all
undertakings in the case of exceptional circumstances, the period of the unin­
terrupted night rest may be reduced to 10 hours on 60 days of the year.
Abt. 5. It is incumbent upon each of the contracting States to take the
administrative measures necessary to insure the strict execution of the terms
of the present convention within their respective territories.
Each Government shall communicate to the others through the diplomatic
channel the laws and regulations which exist or shall hereafter come into
force in their country with regard to the subject matter of the present conven­
tion, as well as the periodical reports on the manner in which the said law*
and regulations are applied.




131

132

IN T E R N A T IO N A L LABOR LEG ISLATIO N .

Abt. 6. The present convention shall only apply to a colony, possession, or
protectorate when a notice to this effect shall have been given on its behalf by
the Government of the mother country to the Swiss Federal Council.
Such Government, when notifying the adhesion of a colony, possession, or
protectorate, shall have the power to declare that the convention shall not apply
to such categories of native labor as it would be impossible to supervise.
Art. 7. In extra-European States, as well as in colonies, possessions, or
protectorates, when the climate or the condition of the native population shall
require it, the period of the uninterrupted night rest may be shorter than the
minima laid down in the present convention, provided that compensatory rests
are accorded during the day.
Art. 8. The present convention shall be ratified and the ratifications deposited
with the Swiss Federal Council by December 31, 1908, at the latest.
A record of this deposit shall be drawn up, of which one certified copy shall
be transmitted to each of the contracting States through the diplomatic channel.
The present convention shall come into force two years after the date on
which the record of deposit is closed.
The time limit for the coming into operation of the present convention is
extended from 2 to 10 years in the case of (1) manufactories of raw sugar
from beet; (2) wool combing and weaving; (3) open mining operations, when
climatic conditions stop operations for at least four months every year.
A r t . 9. The States nonsignatories to the present convention shall be allowed
to declare their adhesion to it by an act addressed to the Swiss Federal Council,
who will bring it to the notice of each of the other contracting States.
A r t . 10. The time limits laid down in article 8 for the coming into force of
the present convention shall be calculated in the case of nonsignatory States,
as well as of colonies, possessions, or protectorates, from the date of their
adhesion.
A r t . 11. It shall not be possible for the signatory States, or the States,
colonies, possessions, or protectorates who may subsequently adhere, to de­
nounce the present convention before the expiration of 12 years from the date
on which the record of the deposit of ratifications is closed.
Thenceforward the convention may be denounced from year to year.
The denunciation will only take effect after the lapse of one year from the
time when written notice has been given to the Swiss Federal Council by the
Government concerned, or, in the case of a colony, possession, or protectorate,
by the Government of the mother country. The Federal Council shall com­
municate the denunciation immediately to the Governments of each of the
other contracting States.
The denunciation shall only be operative as regards the State, colony, pos­
session, or protectorate on whose behalf it has been notified.
In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention.
Done at Bern this 26th day of September, 1906, in a single copy, which shall
be kept in the archives of the Swiss Confederation, and one copy of which,
duly certified, shall be delivered to each of the contracting States through the
diplomatic channel.

2. IN T E R N A T IO N A L C O N V E N T IO N R E S P E C T IN G T H E P R O H IB IT IO N
O F W H IT E (Y E L L O W ) P H O S P H O R U S IN T H E M A N U F A C T U R E
O F M A T C H E S , C O N C L U D E D A T B E R N , S E P T E M B E R 26, 1906.
A r t i c l e 1. The high contracting parties bind themselves to prohibit in their
respective territories the manufacture, importation, and sale of matches which
contain white (yellow) phosphorus.




APPENDIX III— INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS OF BEEN.

133

Abt. 2. It is incumbent upon each of the contracting States to take the administrative measures necessary to insure the strict execution of tlie terms
of the present convention within their respective territories.
Each Government shall communicate to the others through the diplomatic
channel the laws and regulations which exist or shall hereafter come into
force in their country with regard to the subject matter of the present conven­
tion, as well as the reports on the manner in which the said laws and regula­
tions are applied.
A r t . 3. The present convention shall only apply to a colony, possession, or
protectorate when a notice to this effect shall have been given on its behalf by
the Government of the mother country to the Swiss Federal Council.
A r t . 4. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications de­
posited with the Swiss Federal Council by December 31, 1908, at the latest.
A record of the deposit shall be drawn up, of which one certified copy shall
be transmitted to each of the contracting States through the diplomatic
channel.
The present convention shall come into force three years after the date on
which the record of the deposit is closed.
A r t . 5. The States nonsignatories to the present convention shall be allowed
to declare their adhesion by an act addressed to the Swiss Federal Council,
who will bring it to the notice of each of the other contracting States.
The time limit laid down in article 4 for the coming into force of the present
convention is extended in the case of the nonsignatory States, as well as of
their colonies, possessions, or protectorates, to five years, counting from the
date of the notification of their adhesion.
A r t . 6. It shall not be possible for the signatory States, or the States, colo­
nies, possessions, or protectorates who may subsequently adhere, to denounce
the present convention before the expiration of five years from the date on
which the record of the deposit of ratifications is closed.
Thenceforward the convention may be denounced from year to year.
The denunciation will only take effect after the lapse of one year from the
time when written notice has been given to the Swiss Federal Council by the
Government concerned, or in the case of a colony, possession, or protectorate,
by the Government of the mother country; the Federal Council shall commu­
nicate the denunciation immediately to the Government of each of the other
contracting States.
The denunciation shall only be operative as regards the State, colony, pos­
session, or protectorate on whose behalf it has been notified.
In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention.
Done at Bern this 26th day of September, 1906, in a single copy, which shall
be kept in the archives of the Swiss Federation, and one copy of which, duly
certified, shall be delivered to each of the contracting powers through the diplo­
matic channel.
3.

F IN A L P R O T O C O L O F T H E IN T E R N A T IO N A L C O N F E R E N C E O N
L A B O R L E G IS L A T IO N , 1913.

The delegates of the Governments of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Belgium,
Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal,
Sweden, and Switzerland met in Bern on September 15, 1913, at a conference
to consider the regulation of the two questions of labor legislation contemplated
in the circular note of the Swiss Federal Council, dated January 31, 1913. The
undersigned delegates have agreed to request the Swiss Federal Council to
present to the Governments concerned—with a view to such diplomatic negotia­
tions as may seem good to them—the following proposals for the conclusion of
international conventions, being the result of the deliberations of the conference:




134

INTERNATIONAL LABOR LEGISLATION.

I . PRINCIPLE6 FOB A N

INTERNATIQNAI» CONVENTION RESPECTING T H E PROHIBITION

OF N IG H T W ORK FOB YOUNG PERSONS EMPLOYED IN INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATION S.

1. Night work in industrial occupations shall be prohibited for young per­
sons under the age of 16 years.
The prohibition shall be absolute in all cases up to the age of 14 years.
The present convention shall apply to all industrial undertakings where more
than 10 persons are employed; it shall not apply in any case to undertakings
where only members of the family are employed.
It shall be the duty of each of the contracting States to define the meaning
of “ industrial undertakings.” Mines and quarries and industries for the manu­
facture and transformation of materials shall, in all cases, be included in this
definition; as regards the latter point, the limit between industry on the one
hand, and agriculture and commerce on the other, shall be defined by national
legislation.
2. The night’s rest contemplated in article 1 shall have a duration of at
least 11 consecutive hours. In all the contracting States, these 11 hours must
include the period between 10 p. m. and 5 a. m.
In coal and lignite mines it shall be permissible to vary the hours of rest
contemplated in the first paragraph, provided that the interval between two
periods of work habitually lasts 15 hours, and in all cases 13 hours at least.
The period from 10 p. m. to 5 a. m. contemplated in the first paragraph may,
in the case of the bakery industry, be replaced by the period from 9 p. m. to
4 a. m. in those States where night work is prohibited by national legislation
for all workers engaged in this industry.
3. The prohibition of night work may be suspended for young workers over
14 years of age (a) if the interest of the State or any other public interest
absolutely demands i t ; ( b ) in case of “ force majeure ” where there occurs in
an undertaking an interruption of manufacture which it was impossible to
foresee and not being of a periodical character.
4. The provisions of this convention shall apply to girls under 16 years of
age wherever these provisions afford more extensive protection than those of
the convention of September 26, 1906.
5. In extra-European States, as well as in colonies, possessions, or protec­
torates, when the climate or the condition of the native population shall re­
quire it, the period of the uninterrupted night’s rest may be shorter than the
minimum of 11 hours laid down in the present convention, provided that com­
pensatory rests are accorded during the day.
6. The present convention shall come into force two years after the date on
which the record of deposit is closed.
The time limit for bringing into force the prohibition of the night work of
young persons over 14 years of age in industrial occupations shall be increased
to 10 years (a) in glass works, for persons employed before the melting,
annealing, and reheating furnaces; (&) in rolling mills and forges where iron
and steel are worked up with continuous furnaces, for the workers engaged in
occupations directly connected with the furnaces; in both cases, however, on
condition that the night employment shall only be permitted in work of a kind
to promote the industrial development of the young workers and which presents
no particular danger to their life or health.
I I . PRINCIPLES FOR A N INTERNATIONAL CONTENTION TO F IX TH E W O RK ING D AY FOB
W O M EN AND YOUNG PERSONS EMPLOYED IN INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS.

1. The maximum period of employment in industrial occupations of women
without distinction of age and of young persons up to the age of 16 years shall,
subject to the exceptions hereafter mentioned, be 10 hours a day.




APPENDIX IH— INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS OF BEEN.

135

The working day may also be limited by fixing a maximum of 60 hours per
working week, with a daily maximum of 10$ hours.
The present convention shall apply to all industrial undertakings where more
than 10 persons are employed; it shall not apply in any case to undertakings
where only members of the family are employed.
It shall be the duty of each of the contracting States to define the meaning
of “ industrial undertakings.” Mines and quarries and industries for the manu­
facture and transformation of materials shall in all cases be included in this
definition; as regards the latter point, the limit between industry, on the one
hand, and agriculture and commerce on the other, shall be defined by national
legislation.
2.
The hours of work shall be interrupted by one or more breaks, the regu­
lation of which shall be left to national legislation, subject to two conditions,
namely: Where the daily period of employment does not exceed six hours, no
break shall be compulsory; where the daily period of employment exceeds this
limit, a break of at least half an hour shall be prescribed during or immedi­
ately after the first six hours’ work.
8. Subject to the reservations specified in article 4, the maximum period
of employment may be extended by overtime ( a ) if the interest of the State
or any other public interest absolutely demands it; (&) in case of “ force
majeure ” where there occurs in an undertaking an interruption of manufacture
which it was impossible to foresee and not being of a periodical character; ( c)
in cases where the work is concerned either with raw materials or materials
in course of treatment which are susceptible to very rapid deterioration when
such overtime is necessary to preserve these materials from certain loss;
(<Z) in industries subject to seasonal influences; (e) in exceptional circum­
stances, for all undertakings.
4. The total hours of work, including overtime, shall not exceed 12 hours a
day, except in factories for the preserving of fish, vegetables, and fruit.
Overtime shall not exceed a total of 140 hours per calendar year. It may
extend to 180 hours in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, men’s, women’s, and
children’s clothing, articles of fashion, feather articles, and artificial flowers,
and in factories for the preserving of fish, vegetables, and fruit.
It shall not be permissible, in any case, to extend the working day for
young workers of either sex under 16 years of age.
This article shall not apply in the cases contemplated in (a) and (&) of
article 3.
5. This convention shall come into force two years after the date on which
the record of deposit is closed.
The time limit for bringing it into force shall be extended (a) from two
to seven years in the manufacture of raw sugar from beet root, and of machinemade embroidery, and in the spinning and weaving of textile materials; (ft)
from two to seven years in States where the legal duration of the working
day for women without distinction of age and for young persons employed in
industrial occupations still amounts to 11 hours, provided that, except as re­
gards the exemptions contemplated in the preceding articles, the period of em­
ployment shall not exceed 11 hours a day and 63 hours a week.
Drawn up at Bern on September 25, 1913, in one copy, which shall be de­
posited in the Swiss Federal Archives and a certified copy of which shall be
presented through the diplomatic channel to each of the Governments repre­
sented at the conference.







SERIES OF BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
[The publication of the annual and special reports and of the bimonthly bulletin teas
discontinued in July, 1912, and since that time a bulletin has been published at irregular
intervals, Each number contains matter devoted to one o f a series of general subjects .
These bulletins are numbered consecutively beginning with No, 101, and up to No, 236 they
also carry consecutive numbers under each series. Beginning with No, 237 the serial num­
bering has been discontinued. A list of the series is given below. Under each are grouped
all the bulletins which contain material relating to the subject matter o f that series. A list
of the reports and bulletins of the bureau issued prior to July 1, 1912, will be furnished on
application.)
W holesale P rices.
Bui. 114. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1913.
Bui. 173. Index numbers of wholesale prices in
countries.
Bui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914.
Bui. 200. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1915.
Bui. 226. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1916.

the

United

States

and

foreign

R etail P rices and Cost o f Living:.
Bui. 105. Retail prices, 1890 to 1 9 1 1 : Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to 1 9 1 1 : Part II— General tables.
Bui. 106. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912 : Part 1.
Retail prices, 1890 to 1 9 1 1 : Part I I — General tables.
Bui. 108. Retail prices, 1890 to August. 1912.
Bui. 110. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1912.
Bui. 113. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1912.
Bui. 115. Retail prices, 1890 to February, 1913.
Bui. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer.
Bui. 125. Retail prices, 1890 to April, 1913.
But. 130. W heat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. ■
Bui. 132. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1913.
Bui. 136. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1913.
Bui. 138. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1913.
Bui. 140. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1913.
Bui. 156. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.
Bui. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Bui. 184. Retail prices, 1907 to June, 1915.
Bui. 197. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1915.
Bui. 228. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1916.
W ages and Hours o f Labor.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women In
selected industries in the District of Columbia.
Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
Bui. 128. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890
to 1912.
Bui. 129. W ages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 131. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912.
Bui. 134. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit goods
industries, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 135. W ages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and
1912.
Bui. 137. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1890 to 1912.
in




[IX]
Wages and Honrs of Labor—Concluded.
Bui. 143. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, M ay 15, 1913.
Bui. 146. W ages and regularity of employment in the dress and waist Industry of
New York City.
Bui. 147. W ages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry,
Bui. 150. W ages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907
to 1913.
Bui. 151. W ages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United
States, 1907 to 1912.
BuL 153. W ages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries, 1907 to 1913.
BuL 154. W ages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and under­
wear industries, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions o f labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories.
Bui. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to
1913.
Bui. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 168. W ages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United
States, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1914.
Bui. 177. W ages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907
to 1914.
Bui. 178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 187. W ages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1914.
Bui. 190. W ages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907
to 1914.
Bui. 194. Union scale of wages* and hours of labor, May 1, 19 1 5 .
Bui. 204. Street railway employment in the United States.
Bui. 214. Union scale of wages and hours o f labor, May 15, 1916.
Bui. 218. W ages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915.
Bui. 225. W ages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries, 1915.
Bui. 232. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916.
BuL 238. W ages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing,
1916.
Bui. 239. W ages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing,
1916.
Bui. 245. Union scale of wages and hours o f labor, May 15, 1917.
Bui. 252. W ages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry.
[In press.]
E m ploym ent and U nem ploym ent.
Bui. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the
United States.
Bui. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of
Boston, Mass.
Bui. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
BuL 192. Proceedings of the American Association of Public Employment Offices.
BuL 195. Unemployment in the United States.
BuL 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis,
January, 1916.
BuL 202. Proceedings of the conference of the Employment Managers’ Association of
Boston, Mass., held May 10, 1916.
BuL 206. The British system of labor exchanges.
BuL 220. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of
Public Employment Offices, Buffalo, N. Y ., July 20 and 21, 1916.
BuL 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
BuL 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa.,
April 2 and 3, 1917.
BuL 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association.
Bui. 241. Public employment offices in the United States.
Bui. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference* Rochester, N . Y ., May
9 -1 1 , 1918.




[Ill]

Women in Industry*
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in
selected industries in the District 01 Columbia.
Bui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
Bui. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories.
Bui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in
the United States.
Bui. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon.
Bui. 180. The boot and shoe industry In Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores *>f
Boston, M ass.
Bui. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts.
Bui. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles In Great Britain during the war.
W orkm en's Insurance and Com pensation (ineluding laws rela tin g th ereto).
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
BuL
Bui.
Bui.

101.
102.
103.
107.
126.
155.
185.
203.
210.

Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany.
British National Insurance Act, 1911.
Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland.
Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany.
Workmen’ s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States.
Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915.
Workmen’ s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the Inter­
national Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of
industrial employment of women and children.
240. Comparison of workmen’ s compensation laws of the United States.
243. Workmen’ s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign
countries.
248. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.

Industrial A ccidents and H ygiene.
Bui. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary
ware factories.
120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade.
127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection.
141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead.
157. Industrial accident statistics.
165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries.
179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry.
188. Report of British departmental committee on danger In the use of lead in
the painting of buildings.
Bui. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commis­
sions. [Limited edition.]
Bui. 205. Anthrax as an occupational disease.
Bui. 207. Causes of death by occupation.
Bui. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades.
Bui. 216. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 231. M ortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades.
Bui. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
Bui. 236. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters.
Bui. 251. Preventable deaths in the cotton manufacturing industry. [In press.]
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.




[IV]
C onciliation and A rb itra tion (Including strikes and lock ou ts).
Bui. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
Bui. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its in­
quiry into industrial agreements.
Bui. 139. Michigan copper district strike.
Bui. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of
New York City.
Bui. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry.
Bui. 198. Collective agreements in the men’ s clothing industry.
Bui. 233. Operation of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of Canada.
L abor Law s o f the U nited States (including decisions o f courts relating to la b o r ).
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

111.
112.
148.
152.
166.
169.
186.
189.
211.
213.
224.
229.
244.
246.

Labor legislation of 1912.
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912.
Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913.
Labor legislation of 1914.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1914.
Labor legislation of 1915.
Decisions o f courts affecting labor, 1915.
Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States.
Labor legislation of 1916.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916.
Wage-payment legislation in the United States.
Labor legislation of 1917.
Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1917.

F oreign L abor Law s.
Bui. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European
countries.
V oca tion a l Education.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of
New York City.
Bui. 147. W ages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va.
Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis.
L a b or as A ffected by the W ar.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

170.
219.
221.
222.
223.
230.
237.
249.

Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
W elfare work in British munition factories.
Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Industrial unrest in Great Britain.
Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Muni­
tion Workers Committee. [In press.]

M iscellaneous Series.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.
Bui.

117.
118.
123.
158.

Prohibition of night work of young persons.
Ten-hour maximum working day for women and young persons.
Employers’ welfare work.
Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign
countries.
159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics up to May 1, 1915.
208. Profit sharing in the United States.
222. W elfare work in British munition factories.
242. Food situation in Central Europe, 1917.
250. W elfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United
States.




O


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102