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S L 'n c f

Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling
and Services
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
August 1983
Bulletin 2179




Injuries in Oil and ©sis Drilling
and Sewiees
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1983
Bulletin 2179

F o r sa le by th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office, W ash in gton , D.C. 2 0 402






This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
workers who were injured performing well-drilling and
servicing activities during the period from May through
August of 1982. The findings will assist the Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Administration (O S H A ) in
developing safety standards, compliance strategy, and
training programs for reducing work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, William
Mead, Associate Commissioner, in cooperation with the
Department of Labor’s Office of Workers’ Compensa­
tion Programs, and the following States: Alaska,
California, Colorado, Kentucky, Montana, New Mexi­
co, Oklahoma, Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and
Wyoming. The b l s regional offices coordinated State
operations and the Dallas office collected data for off­
shore drilling and servicing operations in the Gulf of
Mexico. The Offices of Compliance, Standards
Development, Statistical Studies and Analysis, and
Training of o s h a and the Office of Safety Research of
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health contributed to the planning and development of
the survey. Maryrose Cline-Buso developed the ques­
tionnaire and editing program and assisted in the survey
planning and analysis of the survey findings. Lyn




Pearson developed the computer programs. The survey
was directed by Helen McDonald under the supervision
of Herbert Schaffer. We wish to acknowledge the con­
tribution of Ron Baker, of the Petroleum Extension
Service of the University of Texas at Austin, who pro­
vided valuable technical information and assistance.
The data collected in the survey are valid for
understanding how and why injuries occurred among
the workers studied. However, the user should exercise
caution in extrapolating the data to population
estimates because of limitations of the survey. States
participating in data collection may not represent the
country as a whole; reporting requirements for workers’
compensation reports, which are the source for selecting
injuries for study, vary among States; and the data col­
lection period is not intended to represent the entire
year.
For analytical purposes, incidence rates of the injuries
studied were not generated nor can they be inferred
from the data because information on hours of work
during the survey period is not available. See appendix
A for scope and methodology of the survey.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.




C o n s o rts

Page

Summary......................................................................................................................................

1

Tables:
Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services, selected States, May-August 1982:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Industry classification..................
Occupation and length of service...............................................................................
Worker activity .........................................................................................................
Location of w orker......................
Source of injury.........................................................................................................
Events leading to the accident....................................................................................
Type of accident.........................................................................................................
Selected types of accidents in detail ...........................................................................
Type of accident by events leading to the accident...............
Falls from elevations...................................................
Estimated days away from work ...... ............. ...................................
Length of hospitalization required........................
Nature of injury.......................................................................................................
Part of body affected.................................................................................................
Age and sex of worker...............................................................................................
Training .......................................................................................
Protective equipment.............................................................................
Conditions or factors contributing to accident.................................. .....................

4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
16
17
17

Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory note..............................................................................................
B. Participating State agencies........................................................................................
C. Survey questionnaire .................................................................................................




v

19
21
22

Injuries o Oil and Gas
rs
Drilling and Ser¥iees

Summary

T e x t ta b le 1. O c c u p a tio n an d o p e ra tio n

The Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted a survey of
injuries to workers directly involved with the drilling
and servicing of oil and gas wells during the period from
May through August 1982.1 These operations are sub­
ject to a variety of working conditions which are poten­
tially hazardous. Drilling is often continuous, requiring
three shifts or tours daily, 7 days a week. The rig floor is
frequently slippery from drill fluid, and floor space is
limited. Drill pipes, tubing, tongs, and elevators are
heavy and cumbersome. Teamwork is essential in many
of the activities. Crews are exposed to adverse weather
conditions ranging from subzero cold to heat soaring
over 100 degrees, as well as snowstorms and hurricanes.
The potential high risk of injury is reflected in the in­
jury incidence rate for oil and gas field services, in
which 89 percent of the workers are employed in drilling
oil and gas wells and providing field services.1 The in­
2
dustry injury rate per 100 workers was 19.4 in 1981,
more than twice the rate of 8.1 for all industries.3
Similarly, the lost workday rate for injuries was 197.3,
more than three times the equivalent rate of 60.4 for all
industries.
The Bureau’s survey of approximately 1,000 injured
workers showed that nearly two-thirds were involved
with drilling operations and the remainder in well ser­
vices (table 1). Floorhands, also called roughnecks or
rotary helpers, were injured more frequently than
workers in any of the other occupations studied, ac­
counting for about one-half of the injured workers
(table 2). While floorhands in both drilling and services
experienced more injuries than any of the other occupa­
tions shown in text table 1, the occupational mix of the
other injured workers varied due to differences in the
nature of their work. For example, servicing included
such diverse activities as acidizing, bailing, cementing,
chemically treating, cleaning, and swabbing wells.
Thus, well-servicing equipment operators and
roustabouts ranked high as hazardous occupations in
services, while derrickmen, motormen, and drillers
ranked similarly in drilling.

(Percent of injured workers)
Services

Total......................................................

100

100

Derrickman..................................................
Driller...........................................................
Motorman or electrician............................
Roughneck, floorhand, or rotary helper...
Roustabout or laborer...............................
Well servicing equipment operator..........
Other ...........................................................

20
10
12
50
3
5

11

-

-

2
46
14
20
7

Indicates no data were reported.

The activity most frequently being performed by in­
jured workers at the time of the accident was pulling the
drill stem out of or lowering it into the wellbore (22 per­
cent), referred to in the industry as “ tripping out or in”
(table 3). Half as many workers, 11 percent, were pull­
ing or removing rods or tubing. From 7 to 9 percent
were adding a joint; handling materials; repairing or
servicing pumps, engines, generators, and motors; and
maintaining and repairing other equipment or part of
the rig structure. As shown in text table 2, the activities
at the time of the accident, like occupations, differed
between drilling and servicing. Workers involved in
drilling were primarily tripping out or in, adding a joint,
or setting up rig or rigging down; while those in servic­
ing were pulling rods or tubing or handling material at
the time of the accident.
T e x t ta b le 2. A c tiv ity a t tim e o f a c c id e n t b y ty p e o f
o p e ra tio n
(Percent of injured workers)
Drilling

Services

To tal......................................................

100

100

Adding a jo in t.............................................
Casing .........................................................
Manual or mechanical materials’
handling....................................................
Mixing or working with mud or other
drilling fluids.............................................
Pulling rods or tubing ................................
Repairing or servicing pumps, engines,
generators, or other m otors..................
Repairing, cleaning, or servicing other
equipment, work materials, or rig
structure...................................................
Setting up, installing, or dismantling
equipment or machinery........................
Setting up rig or rigging down..................
Tripping out or in .......................................
Other ...........................................................

12
3

4
6

7

13

5

-

29

8

5

9

4

Occupation

1 See appendix A for scope o f survey.
1 County Business Patterns, 1978, CPB-78-1 (Bureau o f the Census, 1981),
table IB, pp. 5-6.
3 Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, 1981,
Bulletin 2164 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1983), table 4.




Drilling

Occupation

-

1

Indicates no data were reported.

4
11
32
9

8

6
5
20

Inherent to activities were the equipment or work
materials being used or handled at the time of the acci­
dent. More than one-third of the injured workers were
working with pipes, tubing, or related objects (table 3).
Nearly one-fifth were working with some part of the
hoisting apparatus, and one-fourth of the workers were
using either tongs or handtools, such as wrenches or
hammers.
At the time of the accident, more than two-fifths of
the injured were working on the rig floor or the rotary
table (table 4). Nearly one-fourth of the workers were at
ground level. Numerous other locations on or near the
rig were identified, but by smaller numbers of workers.
For example, from 2 to 4 percent of the accidents oc­
curred on catwalks, derricks, monkeyboards, mud pits,
pipe racks, stairs or ladders, or walkways.
The accident profile continues taking shape in ex­
amining the sources of injury, that is the object,
substance, exposure, or bodily motion which directly
produced or inflicted the injury (table 5). Structures and
working surfaces; pipes, tubing, and related objects;
and breakout or makeup equipment were the most com­
mon general categories of sources cited, 19, 17, and 14
percent, respectively. Focusing on specific sources,
tongs produced more injuries than any other equipment
(10 percent), followed by nonpowered handtools, most­
ly wrenches and hammers (7 percent). Other sources
noted, but less frequently, were the ground (6 percent)
and drill pipes (5 percent).
Accidents were often described by injured workers as
a series of unusual or unexpected events rather than a
single, isolated event. For example, the brakes on the
drawworks broke, causing the block to fall. The block
struck the worker who, subsequently, fell from the rig
floor. In classifying such events, unexpected or sudden
shifting or slipping of equipment or work materials was
described more frequently than any other event (table
6). Ranking next in frequency were workers slipping or
tripping, and equipment or work materials falling or
breaking.
The significance of the source of injury and events
leading to the injury become evident when linked to the
eVent directly producing the injury, also referred to as
the type of accident. More than two-fifths of the
workers were injured as a direct result of being struck by
objects, which was the predominant type of accident
reported (table 7). Objects were identified as pipes, tub­
ing, and related items (26 percent); breakout or makeup
equipment, usually tongs (20 percent); and nonpowered
handtools, mostly wrenches and hammers (14 percent)
(table 8). All but 20 percent of the workers struck by ob­
jects described at least one preceding event. Equipment
or work materials shifted or slipped unexpectedly in 56
percent of the cases and fell or broke in 27 percent of the
cases (table 9).
Falls from elevations resulted in one-tenth of the in­
juries. Nearly three-fourths of the workers fell from



structures, usually the rig floor (25 percent), or stairs,
steps, or ladders (21 percent). More than one-half of the
workers fell at least 5 feet, and over one-fourth, 10 feet
or more (table 10). Almost two-thirds of the workers
who fell from elevations indicated one or more
preceding events. Workers slipping or tripping led to 27
percent of the falls; equipment or work materials shift­
ing or slipping unexpectedly, 20 percent; workers struck
by an object, 12 percent; and equipment or work
material breaking, 11 percent.
About one-tenth of the injuries resulted from a body
part, usually the hands, being pinched, squeezed, or
caught in or between objects. The most common
sources of these injuries were breakout or makeup
equipment, mostly tongs (32 percent); multiple objects,
such as winch cable and pulley, elevator and slips,
elevator and bail (27 percent); and hoisting apparatus
(13 percent). More than one-half of these types of ac­
cidents were accompanied by preceding events. Unex­
pected shifting or slipping of equipment or work
materials accounted for 34 percent of the events; being
struck by an object, 10 percent; and equipment
malfunctioning or jamming, 9 percent.
Overexertion while lifting, handling, or using objects
accounted for slightly more than one-tenth of the in­
juries. The major objects identified were pipes, tubing,
or related objects (41 percent); miscellaneous objects
such as barrels, kegs, ropes, chains, etc. (15 percent);
and breakout or makeup equipment, mostly slips or
tongs (13 percent). Unlike the other types of accidents
described above, overexertion injuries were, for the
most part, not precipitated by a preceding event.
Injuries tended to be severe, often resulting in lost
time and, to a lesser extent, hospitalization. Seven out
of ten workers responding to the survey reported 1 or
more days away from work because of their injuries
(table 11). Of the workers who reported the number of
days lost, almost 3 out of 4 lost more than 5 days, and
about 3 out of 10 lost more than 30 days. The average
lost-time case resulted in an estimated 26 days away
from work, which exceeded the 1981 national average
for all industries by 10 days.4 The lost-time average of
29 days for workers in drilling operations was 5 days
higher than that in servicing operations.
Slightly more than one-fifth of the workers indicated
that they were hospitalized at least 1 night as a result of
their injuries (table 12). Of the workers who reported
the number of nights hospitalized, nearly 9 out of 10
stayed more than 1 night and almost 1 out of 4 stayed at
least 9 nights. The average hospital stay was 7 nights.
Muscle sprains or strains were experienced by onethird of the workers studied, which approximated the
proportion found in all industries.5 Fractures, cuts, and
4 Ibid.
3 Supplementary Data System, 1980. Unpublished data (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1980). Eighteen States supplied cases involving disability.

2

bruises were about equally reported by nearly threefourths of the workers (table 13). The proportion of
fractures in this survey was three times that in all in­
dustries. Amputations accounted for 4 percent of the in­
juries, more than five times the percent in all industries.
Upper extremity and head injuries were propor­
tionately higher for workers responding to the survey
than for those in all industries. Back injuries were pro­
portionately lower and lower extremity injuries were
about the same for both groups.6 Upper extremity in­
juries, mostly to fingers, were suffered by one-third of
the workers (table 14). Trunk injuries, usually in the
back, were experienced by almost one-fourth of the
workers; lower extremity injuries, by about one-fifth;
and head injuries, by more than one-tenth.
Apart from the risk factors associated with the nature
of the work and events linked to the injury, other fac­
tors may have contributed to the accident. According to
a Monthly Labor Review article, “ ...occupational in­
juries occur at a lower rate to older workers than to
younger ones.” 7 The survey of oil and gas well drilling
and servicing injuries showed that most of the workers
injured were in the younger age groups: About 3 out of
8 were under 25 and a similar ratio were concentrated in
the 25- to 34-year age group (table 15). Together, they
exceeded the under 35 group of injured workers in all in­
dustries by about one-fourth.8
Length of service is often related to age. Injuries are
likely to occur in the first year of employment.9 Seventenths of the workers studied were employed less than 1
year in the job when injured (table 2). Of these, 2 out of
3 were employed less than 6 months, and 1 out of 4, less
than 1 month. Furthermore, fewer than one-half of the
workers indicated that they normally performed the ac­
tivity at which they were injured on a daily basis (table
3). Almost two-fifths reported performing the activity
several times or about once a month, and most of the re­
maining workers, less than once a month.
Another b l s study showed that workers in unskilledlabor-type jobs “ ... had injuries at a level almost four
times the average while operatives and craftworkers in­
curred injuries at about one and a half times the
4 Ibid.
7 Norman Root, “ Injuries at Work Are Fewer Among Older Workers,”
Monthly Labor Review, March 1981, pp. 30-34.
8 Supplementary Data System, 1980.
9 Norman Root, “ Injuries at Work Are Fewer Among Older Workers.”




normal.” 1 Virtually all of the workers covered by the
0
survey were in the more hazardous unskilled labor
groups (table 2).
Safety training is another factor to consider. Most
workers reported that safety procedures were covered
by their job training (table 16). However, more workers
indicated that they had received their training from a
previous supervisor or employer rather than from their
current ones. Co-workers were another source of train­
ing frequently cited. Although on-the-job training was
the most prevalent form of safety training indicated,
substantial numbers of workers reported that training
meetings and classroom instruction were widely used,
along with distribution of printed materials. The sub­
jects more commonly covered were the use of personal
protective equipment; proper lifting, carrying, or han­
dling methods; the use of a safety belt, lanyard, and
lifeline; firefighting and blowout prevention pro­
cedures; and first aid.
Personal protective equipment was widely used
among the injured workers studied. About nine-tenths
of the workers wore steel-toed safety shoes or boots and
hard hats, and almost the same proportion wore gloves
(table 17). Substantially fewer workers reported wearing
safety glasses, goggles, or other eye protection (11 per­
cent).
Finally, workers’ perceptions of cause-related factors
provided additional insights on why the accident oc­
curred. One-fourth of the workers found fault with the
condition of equipment or work materials, usually the
weight and bulkiness of the object and, to a lesser ex­
tent, improperly secured equipment (table 18). Nearly
two-fifths complained about the conditions of the
worksite, most frequently slippery surfaces, limited
work areas, and poor weather conditions. Other con­
tributing factors reported were more general, reflecting
work procedures and human factors. Most frequently
reported were: The fast pace of work, the action of a co­
worker, not being aware of hazardous conditions, mis­
judging time or distance needed to avoid injury, and
lack of concentration on the job. Although not as fre­
quently cited as the factors noted above, workers com­
plained about working two and, occasionally, three
“ tours” without relief.
1
0
Norman Root and Deborah Sebastian, “ BLS Develops Measure o f Job
Risk by Occupation,” Monthly Labor Review, October 1981, pp. 26-30.

3




Table 1. Industry classification: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
services, selected States, May-August 1982
Number

Percent
\

Total ...................................................................................................

1,041

100

Drilling oil and gas wells (SIC 1381).....................................................
Oil and gas field services, n.e.c. (SIC 1389) .......................................

667
374

64
36

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

Table 2. Occupation and length of service: Injuries in oil and gas drilling
and services, seiecfed States, May-August 1982
Occupation and length of service

Number

Percent

T o ta l...................................................................................................

1,041

100

Derrickman ...............................................................................................
Driller.........................................................................................................
Mechanic, mechanic’s h elper................................................................
Motorman or electrician..........................................................................
Roughneck, floorhand, or rotary h elper...............................................
Roustabout or laborer............................................................................
Tool pusher..............................................................................................
Welder, welder’s helper.......................................................... ...............
Well-servicing equipment operator..................................... ................
O th e r.........................................................................................................

171
67
9
88
506
73
19
13
73
22

16
6
1
8
49
7
2
1
7
2

Total ...................................................................................................

1,035

100

Less than 1 m onth..................................................................................
1 month to 6 months..............................................................................
6 months to 1 year..................................................................................
1 year to 5 years.....................................................................................
5 years or m o re.......................................................................................

183
296
241
266
49

18
29
23
26
5

Occupation

Length of time employed in Job when injured

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for scope of
the survey. Because incomplete question­

naires were used, the total number of
responses may vary by question.
Source: Survey questionnaire.

4




Table 3. Worker activity: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services,
selected States, May-August 1982
Number

Percent

1,028

100

689
339

67
33

1,027

100

94
45
20
93
36
2
108

9

0
11

69

7

76
55
91
11
8
225
6
24
64

7
5
9
1
1
22
1
2
6

Total ...................................................................................................

1,010

100

First time worker did this type of w ork.................................................
Daily or almost every d ay.......................................................................
Several times a month............................................................................
About once a month ...............................................................................
Seldom— less than once a month.........................................................

40
445
294
88
143

4
44
29
9
14

Activity at time of accident
Type of operation at site

Drilling .......................................................................................................
Well service or workover........................................................................

Activity of injured worker

Manual or mechanical materials’ handling...........................................
Mixing or working with mud or other drilling fluids.............................
Pulling rods or tubing..............................................................................
Repairing or servicing pumps, engines, generators, or other
motors ....................................................................................................
Repairing, cleaning, or servicing other equipment, work materials,
or rig structure.......................................................................................
Setting up, installing, or dismantling equipment or machinery..........
Setting up rig or rigging down ...............................................................
Swabbing ..................................................................................................
Testing or inspecting equipment or tools.............................................
Tripping out or i n .....................................................................................
Well stimulation (using explosives, acid, e tc .).....................................
Well testing, surveying, or logging ........................................................
Other activities..........................................................................................

4
2
9
4

How often worker normally performed this activity

Equipment or work material worker was using ©r handling at
time of accident
Total 2 .................................................................................................

1,027

Chemical, drill mud, or other drilling fluid.............................................

25

2

Welding or grinding equipment..............................................................
Handtool (portable saw, hammer, e tc .)................................................

20
124

2
12

Packer, fish, or other downhole equipment or tool ............................

39

4

Kelly, kelly bushing, or kelly bushing guard.........................................
Other rotary equipment...........................................................................

12
11

1
1

Pipes, collars, tubing, casing, rods, and related objects....................

356

35

See footnotes at end of table.

5

O




Tabs® 3. W@rk®r activity: Smjuiries on oil and gas drilling and servie®®,
seteeted States, Hay-Aygysfl 1982—Conttinyad
Number

Activity at time of accident
Equipment @ work material worker was using or handling at
r
time of accident-Continusd
Elevator, block, swivel, hook, or slips ..................................................
Drawworks, cathead, other hoisting apparatus, or their parts ..........

Percent

95
83

9
8

Breakout or makeup equipment, n.e.c. or uns......................................

130
7
13

13
1
1

Pumps, engines, generators, other motors, or their parts.................
Blowout preventer...................................................................................
Machines, equipment, or their parts, n.e.c. or uns...............................

54
30
37

5
3
4

Structures or structural pieces...............................................................

21

2

Barrels, kegs, drums, boxes, crates, cartons, sacks, buckets, etc. ..
Ropes, chains, cables, hoses, etc., n.e.c. or uns.................................

30
21

3
2

O th e r.........................................................................................................

12

1

N on e..........................................................................................................

109

11

Tongs ........................................................................................................

uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Tabi© 4. Locafioomi @ worker: injuries in © and gas drilling and services,
tf
IS
@ ©ted States, Hay-August 1982
©l@
Number

Location at time of accident
Total ...................................................................................................
C atw alk.....................................................................................................
Derrick or mast (excluding rig floor or monkeyboard)........................
Ground ......................................................................................................
Monkeyboard ...........................................................................................
Mud p it......................................................................................................
Pipe rack...................................................................................................
Platform on an offshore rig .....................................................................
Rig cellar...................................................................................................
Rig flo o r....................................................................................................
Rotary ta b le..............................................................................................
Stairs or ladder........................................................................................
Standing on equipment............................................................................
Substructure.............................................................................................
Walkway.................... ................................................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the total

Percent

1,022

100

40
20
234
42
16
31
18
8
354
71
33
58
15
17
65

4
2
23
4
2
3
2
1
35
7
3
6
1
2
6

number of responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire,

*




Table 5. Source of injury: injuries in oil and gas drilling and services,
selected States, ftiiay-August 1982
Number

Percent

Total .....................................................................................

1,041

100

Fluids, chemicals, or chemical compounds ......................
Drill mud .................................................................................
O il.............................................................................................
Water ......................................................................................
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ........................................................
Fluids, chemicals, or chemical compounds, n.e.c. or uns.

49
19
1
9
3
17

5
2
O

H andtools....................................... ...........................................
Powered handtools...............................................................
Nonpowered handtools ........................................................

72
3
69

O

Downhole tools or equipment ..................... ........................
Fish or fishing tools ..............................................................
Packers...................................................................................
Perforating gu ns....................................................................
Centralizers or stabilizers.....................................................
Testing tools or equipment..................................................
Downhole tools or equipment, n.e.c. or uns.......................

24
1
2
3
1
5
12

O
0
0
0
(')

Rotary system equipm ent......................................................
Rotary table............................................................................
Rotary/master bushing..........................................................
Kelly bushing...........................................................................
Kelly ........................................................................................
Swivel.......................................................................................
Kelly hose...............................................................................

22
7
1
2
2
3
7

Pipes, tubing, or related o b je c ts ................ .........................
Drill collar ................................................................................
Drill pipe...................................................................................
B it.............................................................................................
S u b s........................................................................................
Casing.....................................................................................
Rods........................................................................................
Tubing......................................................................................
Other pipes or related objects, n.e.c. or uns......................

182
19
54
6
6
18
13
27
39

17
2
5
1
1
2
1
3
4

Hoisting apparatus...................................................................
Crown or traveling blocks .....................................................
Elevator....................................................................................
Bail ...........................................................................................
Drawworks, cathead, or their parts.....................................
Air hoist ...................................................................................
Cranes .....................................................................................
Hoisting lines or cables........................................................
Hoisting apparatus, n.e.c. or uns..........................................

88
5
36
3
7
5
2
27
3

8
(’)
3
(’)
1
0
0
3
0

Breakout or makeup equipm ent...........................................
Tongs .......................................................................................
Rod wrenches.........................................................................
Spinning chains .....................................................................
Slips ........................................................................................
Snub lines...............................................................................
Breakout or makeup equipment, n.e.c. or uns....................

150
108
9
9
18
3
3

14
10
1
1
2
O
0

Other equipment, machines, or their pa rts___________
Mud pump ..............................................................................
Engines, motors, or other pumps........................................
Well pumping unit..................................................................
Blowout preventer.................................................................
Wellhead (including casing head, tubing head, or
Christmas tree) ...................................................................
Miscellaneous or unclassifiable parts.................................
Other equipment or machines, n.e.c....................................

60
8
10
8
11

6
1
1
1
1

7
12
4

1
1

Structures, structural pieces, or working s u rfaces........
Derrick (excluding rig floor or monkeyboard)....................
Rig flo or..................................................................................
Monkeyboard .........................................................................
Substructure...........................................................................

194
8
27
1
4

Source of injury

See footnotes at end of table.

7

1
0
2
7
7
2

1
2
1
0
(’)
0
0
1

0
19
1
3
0
(')




Table 5. S@ure© ©f injury: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services,
selected States, May-August 1982—Continued
Number

Source of injury
Structures, structural pieces, or working
surfaces-Continued
Handrails or guardrails........................................................................
Stairs, steps, or ladders.....................................................................
Catw alk.................................................................................................
Pipe rack ..............................................................................................
Ground or ground level surface ........................................................
Beams, plates, or structural m etal....................................................
Mud pits................................................................................................
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces, n.e.c. or uns...

3

O

5
4
64
23
5
41

0
(1
)

9

124
23
7

Miscellaneous...................................... .
Barrels, kegs, boxes, sacks, etc......
Flame, fire, or smoke.......................
Atmospheric heat or co ld................
Particles.............................................
Ropes, cables, chains, hoses, n.e.c.
Bodily m otion....................................

Percent

1

6
2

0

4

12
2
1

10

1

39
22
23

4
2
2

40
36

Multiple objects or substances..........
Objects or substances, n.e.c. or uns.

4
3

Safety Sines on tongs 1
2
Total ..................................................

101

100

Tongs not equipped with safety lines
Tongs equipped with safety lines.....
Safety lines did not break...............
Safety lines broke............................
Not specified.....................................

11
90
78
4

11
89
77
8
4

Total ...............................................................

91

100

Did not use rotary table to break connection
Used rotary table to break connection..........
Don’t know .......................................................

83
5
3

91
5
3

8

Use of rotary table to break connection

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Includes 4 cases involving rod
wrenches.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

TabS© 6. Everts leading to the aeeident:1 Injuries in oil and gas drilling
and services, selected States, May-August 1982
Events leading to the accident1

Number

Percent

Initial event
Total ..........................................................................................................
Equipment @r work materials:
F e ll..........................................................................................................
B roke......................................................................................................
Shifted position or slipped unexpectedly...........................................
Malfunctioned, jammed, or did not work properly............................
Accidentally activated ..........................................................................
Tangled or caught in lines, wires, etc.................................................
Exploded or was expelled from pressurized equipment..................
Other ......................................................................................................
Worker:
Was struck by ob ject...........................................................................
Fell from elevation................................................................................
Was pinched, squeezed, or caught in object(s)...............................
Struck against or was pushed against object...................................
Slipped or tripped on object, substance, or surface........................

See footnotes at end of table.

8

629

100

33
60
271
41
28
30
32
20

5
10
43
7
4
5
5
3

13
2
2
1
96

2
0
(2
)
(2
)
15




Table 6. Events Heading to the accident:1 injuries in oil and gas driiiing
and services, selected States, ^Say-August 1982-—Continued
Events leading to the accident1

Number

Percent

Second event
161

Total
Equipment or work materials:
F e ll.......................................................................................
Broke...................................................................................
Shifted position or slipped unexpectedly........................
Accidentally activated .......................................................
Tangled or caught in lines, wires, etc..............................
Exploded or was expelled from pressurized equipment
Other ...................................................................................
Worker:
Was struck by object ........................................................
Fell from elevation.............................................................
Jumped from elevation .....................................................
Was pinched, squeezed, or caught in object(s)............
Struck against or was pushed against object................
Slipped or tripped on object, substance, or surface.....

100

42
7
69

26
4
43
4
1
1
1

6
1
1
2

5

13
2
1
1
1
3

39

100

10
1
8
2

26
3
21
5

16
1
1

41
3
3

21
4
1
1

1

Third event
Total ...........
Equipment or work materials:
F e ll......................................................................
Broke..................................................................
Shifted position or slipped unexpectedly.......
Other ..................................................................
Worker:
Was struck by object .......................................
Fell from elevation....................... ....................
Struck against or was pushed against object

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Based on workers’ reports of unusual
or unexpected events occurring prior to
the accident.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

Table 7. Type of accident:1 Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services,
selected States, May-August 1982
Number

Type of accident 1
Total ...................................................................................................
Bodily reaction .........................................................................................
Contact with drill fluids or chemical(s) other than hydrogen sulfide .
Contact with hydrogen sulfide...............................................................
Fall from elevation...................................................................................
Fall on same level...................................................................................
Jump from elevation ...............................................................................
Object in eye(s) .......................................................................................
Overexertion while lifting, handling, or using objects.........................
Pinched, squeezed, or caught in object(s)...........................................
Struck against or pushed against object..............................................
Struck by object.......................................................................................
Multiple accident types...........................................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................
1 The type of accident identifies the
event which produced the injury.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

Percent

1,041

100

23
34
3
102
49
11
32
127
114
67
436
5
38

2
3
(2
)
10
5
1
3
12
11
6
42
(2)
4

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

9




Tab!® ©. S®te@
S®dl types @ aeesd©nts in detaii:1 Injuries in ©ii and gas
f
drilling and ssrviees, @
®l®et@ States, Riiay-August 1!>®2
d
Selected types of accidents 1

Number

Percent

Fall from elevation

102

Total
Fall from:
Rotary system equipment...................................................................
Pipes, tubing, or related objects........................................................
Hoisting apparatus.................. .............................................................
Breakout or makeup equipment........................................................
Other equipment, machines, or their parts ......................................
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces..........................
Derrick (excluding rig floor or monkeyboard)................................
Rig floor..............................................................................................
Monkeyboard.....................................................................................
Substructure .....................................................................................
Stairs, steps, or ladders...................................................................
Catwalk...............................................................................................
Pipe ra c k ............................................................................................
Mud pits .............................................................................................
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces, n.e.c. or uns.
Miscellaneous objects.........................................................................
Objects or substances, n.e.c. or uns..................................................

100

1

1

2

2
4
2

4

2

12

12

74
1
25
3
3

73
1
25
3
3

21

21

7

7

2

2

4

4

8
2

8
2

5

5

49

100

3
2
43
15
4
3

6

Fail @n sam® 5©v®I
T o ta l.............................................................................
Faii ©m:
Rotary system equipment.......................................
Pipes, tubing, or related objects............................
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces
Rig floor..................................................................
Stairs, steps, or ladders.......................................
Catwalk...................................................................
Ground or ground level surface..........................
O ther.......................................................................
Objects or substances, n.e.c. or uns......................

8

4

88
31

8
6

13

16
27

1

2

127

100

Overexertion while lifting, handling, m using objects
T o ta l.......................................................................................
White Sifting, handling, or using:
Handtools................................................................
Downhole tools or equipment..............................
Rotary system equipment.....................................
Pipes, tubing, or related objects..........................
Drill collar.............................................................
Drill p ip e ...............................................................
Tubing...................................................................
O ther.....................................................................
Hoisting apparatus................... ..............................
Breakout or makeup equipment..........................
Tongs ....................................................................
S lips......................................................................
Breakout or makeup equipment, n.e.c. or uns.
Other equipment, machines, or their p a rts ........
Structures, structural pieces.................................
Miscellaneous objects...........................................
Barrels, kegs, boxes, sacks, etc........................
Ropes, cables, chains, hoses, n.e.c..................
Objects or substances, n.e.c. or uns...................
See footnotes at end of table.

10

9
7
3
52

6
14

7

6
2
41
5
11

8

6

24

19
5
13
4
8

6
16
5

10
1
7

6

1
6

19
17

5
15
13

2
2

2
2




Table 8. Selected types of accidents in detail:1 Injuries in oil and gas
drilling and services, selected States, May-August 1982—Continued
Number

Selected types of accidents

Percent

Pinched, squeezed, or caught in object(s)
Total ...........................................................................................................

114

100

Pinched, squeezed, or caught in:
Downhole tools or equipment.............................................................
Rotary system equipment....................................................................
Pipes, tubing, or related objects.........................................................
Hoisting apparatus................................................................................
Elevator...............................................................................................
Air hoist...............................................................................................
Hoisting lines or cables.....................................................................
O ther....................................................................................................
Breakout or makeup equipment.........................................................
Tongs...................................................................................................
O ther....................................................................................................
Other equipment, machines, or their parts .......................................
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces...........................
Miscellaneous objects..........................................................................
Multiple objects or substances...........................................................

3
3
6
15
6
3
3
3
37
32
5
12
5
2
31

3
3
5
13
5
3
3
3
32
28
4
11
4
2
27

436

100

Struck by object
T o ta l..........................................................................................................

Struck by:
1
Fluids, chemicals, or chemical compounds ......................................
f)
Handtools............................................................................................... 14
60
1
Powered handtools............................................................................
(*>
14
Nonpowered handtools.....................................................................
59
3
Downhole tools or equipment.............................................................
13
11
Rotary system equipment....................................................................
3
Pipes, tubing, or related objects.........................................................
26
112
11
Drill collar............................................................................................
3
Drill p ip e ..............................................................................................
7
32
Casing...................................................................................................
4
16
g
R o d s .....................................................................................................
2
Tubing...................................................................................................
4
17
O ther....................................................................................................
27
6
Hoisting apparatus.................................................................................
14
62
Elevator...............................................................................................
6
25
Hoisting lines or cables.....................................................................
23
5
O ther....................................................................................................
14
3
Breakout or makeup equipment.........................................................
87
20
Tongs ...................................................................................................
14
63
Rod wrenches.....................................................................................
8
2
Spinning chains..................................................................................
2
7
9
O ther................................ ....................................................................
2
Other equipment, machines, or their parts .......................................
23
5
Structures, structural pieces, or working surfaces...........................
6
26
29
7
Miscellaneous objects or substances................................................
1
Multiple objects......................................................................................
4
2
Objects or substances, n.e.c. or uns...................................................
8

Struck against or pushed against object
67

100

2
2
9
5
10
8
2
10
20
2
7

3
3
13
7
15
12
3
15
30
3
10

Struck or pushed against:

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 The type of accident identifies the
event which produced the injury.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

SI

TafeS© 3. gyp© of accident1 by events2 leading to the accident: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services, selected States,
May-August 1982
Events leading to the accident2
Worker:

Equipment or work materials:
Type of accident1

Total
3

Fell

T o tal3 .... ............................................... 1,041
Bodily reaction ...........................................
Contact with drill fluids or chemical(s)
other than hydrogen sulfide..................
Contact with hydrogen sulfide..................
Fall from elevation.....................................
Fall on same le v e l.....................................
Jump from elevation..................................
Object in eye(s) .....................................................................
Overexertion while lifting, handling, or
using objects .......................................................................
Pinched, squeezed, or caught in
object(s) ....................................................................................
Struck against or pushed against object.
Struck by object.........................................
Multiple accident ty p es ................................................
Other ............................................................

23

85
1

Shifted
or
Malfunc­
tioned or
Broke
slipped
unexpect­ jammed
edly
68
-

34
3
102
49
11
32

4
1
3
“

2
11
1
1
2

127

“

“

1
3
71
1

1
5
45

114
67
436
5
38

-

“

-

Tangled
or caught
in lines,
wires,
etc.

Exploded or
expelled
from
pressurized
equipment

Struck
by
object

33

50

348

41

34

31

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
1
1

2
-

-

-

-

4
1
2
3

1
20
5
2
“

“

16

1

39
18
243

10
2
22

-

-

1

“

8
-

24
-

1
5
2
23

1

1 The type of accident identifies the event which produced the injury.
2 Based on workers’ reports of unusual or unexpected events occurring
prior to the accident.
3 Because more than one event is possible, the data may not be additive
across the rows.
4 Includes 24 events involving equipment and 14 events involving the




Accident­
ally acti­
vated

-

101

Other
4

None
reported

38

412

10

-

28
31

2
5
-

-

-

-

1

-

1

“

“

4

“

-

11
25
1

15
13

-

-

4
11
1
7

-

-

12
-

-

8
6
9
-

7

10
25
3
37
14
7
27
107
50
17
89
3
23

worker.
NOTE: See appendix A for the scope of the survey. Because incomplete
questionnaires were used, the total number of responses may vary by ques­
tion. Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

Table 10. Falls from elevations: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
services, selected States, iiay-Augusf 1982
Distance worker fell

Number

Percent

Total ...................................................................................................

102

100

Less than 3 f e e t ......................................................................................
3 to 5 feet ................................................................................................
5 to 10 feet ........................ ......................................................................
10 to 15 f e e t ............................................................................................
15 to 20 f e e t ............................................................................................
20 feet or m ore........................................................................................

11
38
25
15
9
4

11
37
25
15
9
4

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total

Slipped
or
tripped

number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

12




Table 11. Estimated days away ffrom work: Injuries in oil and gas drilling
and services, selected States, May-August 1982
Number

100

306
157
97
52
34
33
40
39
73
54

30
16
10
5
3
3
4
4
7
5

126

No days away from work ..................................................................... -

Percent

1,011

Days away from work

12

Lost time cases for which days away from work were not

Mean days away from work per lost workday c a s e ...........................

26

Median days away from work per lost workday c a s e ........................

14

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Excludes 12 workers for whom data
were not available because they retired,
were laid off, or put on permanent disa­
bility.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

Table 12. Length off hospitalization required: Injuries in oil and gas
drilling and services, selected States, £V9ay-August 1982
Length of hospitalization

Number

Percent

Total ....................................................................................................

1,022

100

No hospitalization required.....................................................................
1 night........................................................................................................
2 nights......................................................................................................
3 nights......................................................................................................
4 nights......................................................................................................
5 nights......................................................................................................
6 nights......................................................................................................
7 nights......................................................................................................
8 nights......................................................................................................
9 nights.....................................................................................................
10 nights...................................................................................................
11 to 20 nights .........................................................................................
21 to 30 nights .........................................................................................
More than 30 nights................................................................................

795
26
23
30
28
21
12
16
5
12
9
13
10
4

78
3
2
3
3
2
1
2
O
1
1
1
1
(')

Hospitalized cases for which length of hospitalization was not
estim ated...............................................................................................

18

2

Mean length of hospitalization per hospitalized c a s e ........................

7

Median length of hospitalization per hospitalized case .....................

4

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­

plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

S3




Table 13. Mature of injury: injuries in oil and gas drilling and services,
selected States, May-August 1982
Number

Percent

Total 1 .................................................................................................

1,041

(1
)

Fracture.....................................................................................................
Cut, laceration, or puncture....................................................................
Bruise or contusion.................................................................................
Muscle sprain, strain, or torn ligaments...............................................
Chemical burn..........................................................................................
Concussion...............................................................................................
Heat burn..................................................................................................
Amputation ...............................................................................................
Foreign body in eye(s)............................................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................

282
299
287
343
36
21
21
40
32
85

Nature of injury

27
29
28
33
3
2
2
4
3
8

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

Table 14. Part ©f body affected: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
services, selected States, May-August 19B2
Part of body

Number

Total ...................................................................................................

Percent

1,041

100

H e a d ..........................................................................................................
138
B rain...................................................................................................
3
Ear(s)..................................................................................................
6
Ear(s), external...............................................................................
2
Ear(s), internal................................................................................
4
Eye(s) .................................................................................................
56
Face ...................................................................................................
51
Jaw ..................................................................................................
8
Mouth ..............................................................................................
19
N o s e ................................................................................................
5
Face, multiple parts.......................................................................
7
Face, n.e.c. or uns..........................................................................
12
9
Scalp ..............................................................................................
Head, multiple ...................................................................................
12
1
Head, n.e.c. or uns............................................................................

13
0
1

(’)
0
5
5

1
2
0

i
1
1
1

0

N e c k ..........................................................................................................

9

i

Upper extremities ....................................................................................
Arm(s).................................................................................................
Upper a rm .......................................................................................
Elbow...............................................................................................
Forearm...........................................................................................
Arm, multiple ..................................................................................
Arm, n.e.c. or uns............................................................................
Wrist ...................................................................................................
H and...................................................................................................
Finger(s).............................................................................................
Upper extremities, multiple..............................................................

341
54
3
9
15
6
21
11
56
211
9

33
5
0
1
1
1
2
1
5
20
1

T run k.........................................................................................................
Abdomen ...........................................................................................
Back ................................:..................................................................
C hest..................................................................................................
Hips ....................................................................................................
Shoulder(s) ........................................................................................
Trunk, multiple ..................................................................................
Trunk, uns............................................................................................

239
28
135
31
18
13
12
2

23
3
13
3
2
1
1

See footnotes at end of table.

14

0




TalbS© 14. Fart of body afff©cted: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
services, selected States, May-August 1082“ =C®ntinued
Percent:

Number

Part of body

21

215
84
5
43
20
7
9
50
52
19
9
1

Lower extremities .............................
Leg(s) ..........................................
Thigh.........................................
K n e e .........................................
Lower le g .................................
Leg, multiple............................
Leg, n.e.c. or uns.....................
A n k le ...........................................
F o o t.............................................
T o e(s )..........................................
Lower extremities, multiple.......
Lower extremites, n.e.c. or uns.

8

(’)

4

2
1
1
5
5
2

1

0

Multiple parts

87

8

Body system.

12

1

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

Table 1S. Age and sex @ worker: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
f
services, selected States, May-August 1982
Age and sex

Number

Percent

1 041

100

68
313
393
109
53
19
86

7
30
38
10
5
2
8

T o ta l...................................................................................................

1,041

100

Men ...........................................................................................................
W om en......................................................................................................

1,040
1

100
O

Ag©
Total ................................................................................................
16— 19 ..................................................................................................
20—24 ......................................................................................................
25—34 ....................................................................................
35—44 ......................................................................................................
45—54 .....................................................................................................
55 or m ore................................................................................................
Not available............................................................................................
S©x

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

15




Table 16. Training: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and services, selected
States, l^ay-August 1982
Worker training

Number

Percent

Source of training for present job
Total 1 .................................................................................................

970

Current supervisor or employer.............................................................
Previous supervisor or employer...........................................................
Safety representative..............................................................................
Co-worker (other than supervisor) ........................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................

330
494
14
274
11

34
51
1
28
1

T o ta l...................................................................................................

954

100

No, training did not cover safety procedures ......................................
Yes, training did cover safety procedures ...........................................
Don't remember.......................................................................................

200
676
78

21
71
8

0

Training in safety procedures for job worker was doing when
injured

Other safety training received
Total 1 .................................................................................................

920

When and how to use respirator...........................................................
When and how to use safety belt, lanyard, and lifeline ...................................
Firefighting and blowout prevention procedures .......................................................
First a id ......................................................................................................................................................................
Proper lifting, carrying, or handling methods ................................................................
When and where to use personal protective equipment................................
O th e r .............................................................................................................................................................................
Did not receive other safety training ......................................................................................

255
485
439
412
506
687
45
123

O

28
53
48
45
55
75
5
13

How safety training was given
Total 1 ................................................................................................................................................................

915

Printed materials (safety manual, textbook, e tc .) ...................................................
In school or other type of classroom instruction................................................
On the job ..............................................................................................................................................................
Safety meetings ................................................................................................................................................
O th e r .............................................................................................................................................................................
Never received safety training ........................................................................................................

285
216
7

03
6
73

O

31
24
80
50
1

8

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

16




Table 17. Protective equipment: Injuries in oil and gas drilling and
services, selected States, May-August 1982
Number

Percent

T o tal1 .................................................................................................

1,014

o

Ear plugs or other hearing protection...................................................
G loves.......................................................................................................
Hard h a t....................................................................................................
Respirator.................................................................................................
Safety glasses, goggles, or other eye protection ...............................
Steel-toed safety shoes or boots..........................................................
Welder’s hood..........................................................................................
Tied off with safety belt, lanyard, and lifeline......................................
Wearing safety belt but not tied off to lanyard and lifeline, etc.........
Guardrails or safety railing at exposed heights...................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................
Not wearing or using protective equipment.........................................

14
864
905

1
85
89

108
908
6
48
4
72
10
17

11
90
1
5
(2)
7
1
2

Protective equipment worn or used at time of accident

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion. Dashes indicate that no data w erereported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

Table 18. Conditions or factors contributing to accident: injuries in oil
and gas drilling and services, selected States, May-August
1982
Conditions or factors worker felt contributed to accident

Number

Percent

C ondition o f equipm ent or w o rk m aterials

T o ta l1 .................................................................................................

865

Too heavy or bulky .................................................................................
Not properly secured or tied d o w n.......................................................
Not equipped with a safeguard .............................................................
In bad condition.......................................................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................
Condition of equipment or work materials did not contribute to
accident.................................................................................................

97
63
28
26
15

11
7
3
3
2

646

75

(1
)

C onditions a t the w o rks ite

897
Weather at time of accident (rain, wind, e tc .).....................................
Slippery surface........................................................................................
No guardrails or safety railings..............................................................
Working in a limited area or space.......................................................
Poor lighting .............................................................................................
Cluttered work area..................................................................................
Unstable r ig ..............................................................................................
No warning of sour gas (H 2 S )...............................................................
O th e r..........................................................................................................
No conditions at the worksite led to injury..........................................

See footnotes at end of table.

17

(1
)

64
156
16
109
25
32
3
1
27
559

7
17
2
12
3
4
0
0
3
62




Table 18. Conditions or factors contributing to accident: Injuries in oil
and gas drilling and services, selected States, Wiay-August
1982— Continued
Conditions or factors workers felt contributed to accident

Number

Percent

Other contributing factors
Total 1 .................................................................................................

931

O

Not paying full attention to w o rk ...........................................................
Not following instructions.......................................................................
Not given right instructions on how to do jo b .....................................
Recent change in work routine or procedures....................................
Tired or fatigued ......................................................................................
In a hurry..................................................................................................
Upset or under stress.............................................................................
Misjudged time or distance needed to avoid injury............................
Not aware of hazardous conditions......................................................
Co-worker activity....................................................................................
O th e r.........................................................................................................
No other factors contributed to accident.............................................

91
4
19
60
76
262
22
99
142
200
48
255

10
(2
)
2
6
8
28
2
11
15
21
5
27

1 Because more than one response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

18

Appendix A.
Surwef Explanatory Mot©

The survey was designed to develop information on
injuries in oil and gas drilling and selected well services.
Service operations were limited to well completion, ser­
vicing, and workover which involve the preparation of
wells for production and maintenance or remedial work
on producing wells to improve or maintain production,
such as casing, cementing, perforating, stimulating, or
swabbing of the well, and pulling rods or tubing. Motor
vehicle accidents or assaults were excluded. Drilling and
well service operations are classified in the Standard In­
dustrial Classification Manual as SIC 1381—Drilling
Oil and Gas Wells, and SIC 1389—Oil and Gas Field
Services, Not Elsewhere Classified. Because of the focus
of the survey, the following field services were excluded:
Building of oil and gas well foundations on site; com­
pressing of gas at the field; erecting, cleaning, and
repairing of oilfield lease tanks; excavating slush pits
and cellars; grading oil and gas well foundations; im­
pounding and storing water in connection with
petroleum production; oil sampling service for oil com­
panies; pumping of oil and gas wells; and removal of
condensed gasoline from field (gathering) lines.
Occupations selected for study paralleled the ac­
tivities within the scope of the survey: Derrickmen;
divers; drillers; engineers; mechanics; crane or mobile
equipment operators; motormen or electricians;
roughnecks, floorhands, or rotary helpers; roustabouts
and general or specialized laborers; supervisors; techni­
cians; tool pushers; welders; and well-servicing equip­
ment operators. Excluded were workers such as painters
or cooks who were not directly involved in drilling or
servicing activities. Finally, cases were excluded from
the survey if the injury resulted in a fatality or if more
than 120 days had elapsed between the time of the injury
and the beginning of the survey.
The survey covered injured workers in 12 States,
which are listed in appendix B, and on offshore rigs in
the Gulf of Mexico. To identify cases within the scope
of the survey, staff of participating State agencies
reviewed employers’ reports of injuries required by
State workers’ compensation laws and mailed question­
naires to injured workers selected for the study. They re­
quested cooperation on a voluntary basis. Through an
agreement with the U.S. Department of Labor, Office
of Workers’ Compensation Programs (QWCP), workers
injured on offshore rigs were identified through
workers’ compensation claims filed in the o w c p ’s New



Orleans area office and were surveyed directly by the
b l s Dallas Regional Office. During the survey period,
May-August 1982, 1,041 survey questionnaires were
returned and found to be within the scope of the survey,
resulting in a 45-percent response rate. Because worksite
locations may require workers to live away from home,
where the mail questionnaires were sent, coupled with a
high degree of job mobility, contacting workers by mail
was difficult, particularly where a response was re­
quested in a limited time period.
Although data were aggregated for 12 States and off­
shore sites, it should be noted that the workers’ compen­
sation cases selected for study reflect differences in
reporting requirements. For example, some par­
ticipating States require reporting of workers’ compen­
sation cases involving medical treatment regardless of
lost time, while others limit reporting to cases involving
lost time ranging from 1 to 8 days.
No attempt was made to weight the data collected so
that they would be representative of oil and gas drilling
and well service injuries. Although the 12 participating
States accounted for more than two-thirds of the rotary
rigs drilling at the time of the survey, they were not
selected statistically to represent the country as a
whole.1 Moreover, data collection was terminated when
responses exceeded 750 cases.
Questionnaires returned by the injured workers were
reviewed for completeness and response errors.
Responses provided to questions E, F, J, and parts of K
(see appendix C for questionnaire) were coded by b l s to
reflect the type of accident (the event which produced
the injury) and any unusual or unexpected events
leading to the injury.2 The codes for type of accident
were modeled after the American National Standards
Institute method of recording accident facts (ANSI Z16.2)
and were modified to account for unique industry
characteristics. The codes describing events leading to
the injury were developed by b l s specifically for this
survey. Codes were also developed to classify the equip1 Based on rotary rigs drilling for oil and gas wells surveyed by the Hughes
Tool Company for the week beginning September 27, 1982.
2 The following texts were referenced in classifying injuring events, occupa­
tions, equipment, and in defining industry terms: Ron Baker, A Primer o f
Oilwell Drilling, A Primer o f Oilwell Service and Workover, and A Dictionary o f
Petroleum Terms (Austin, Texas, Petroleum Extension Service, the University of
Texas at Austin, 1979); and Safety Information Profile, Oil and Gas Field
Operations (JRB Associates, Inc., for the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, 1981).

19

from those shown on the questionnaire.
Estimates of the mean and median lost workdays and
nights of hospitalization do not include cases in which
workers indicated lost time or hospitalization but failed
to provide numerical estimates of the amount of time.
All usable responses of incomplete questionnaires
were used in the tabulations. Consequently, response
rates among questions vary. No attempt was made to
adjust the data for nonresponse.
Information on the employer’s industry classification
and the worker’s age, sex, and part of body injured were
classified and tabulated for all respondents based on in­
formation furnished by the employer in the workers’
compensation report.
Numerical values shown in the tables were actual
counts while percentages were rounded to the nearest
whole number.

ment, objects, surfaces, and substances which produced
the injury (source of injury) or which were associated
with the type of accident or the events leading to the ac­
cident. With the exception of jumps or falls from eleva­
tions, the equipment, object, or substance listed as the
source of injury (table 5) are identical to the equipment,
object, or substance reflected in the detailed type of ac­
cident (table 8). In falls from elevations and jumps, the
source of injury is the surface fallen to, while the detail­
ed type of accident indicates the surface fallen from.
Where feasible, responses on the questionnaires fall­
ing into the “ other” category of the multiple choice
questions were classified by b l s to provide as much
descriptive information as possible. Therefore, the
responses tabulated for questions B (worker activity), D
(location), I (equipment being used by the worker), N
(occupation), and U (nature of injury) differ slightly




20

Appendix B.
Participating Slat® Ag®nei®s

Ohio Industrial Commission
Tennessee Department of Labor
Texas Industrial Accident Board and Department of
Health
Utah Industrial Commission
Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics

Alaska Department of Labor
California Department of Industrial Relations
Colorado Department of Labor and Employment
Kentucky Department of Labor
Montana Department of Labor and Industry
New Mexico Health and Environment Department
Oklahoma Workers’ Compensation Court




21

A p p e n d ix

C.

Survey Questionnaire
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report
Injuries in Oil and Gas Extraction

U.S. Department of Labor

The in fo rm a tio n collected on this form by the Bureau o f
Labor S tatistics and the State Agencies cooperating in its
statistical program w ill be held in confidence and w ill be
used fo r statistical purposes on ly.

State

This re p o rt is a u th o rize d b y law 29 U.S.C. 2.
Y o u r v o lu n ta ry cooperation is needed to make
the results o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, and tim ely.

Form A pproved
O.M .B. No. 1220-0047
A pproval Expires 9 /3 0 /8 2

Date of
A ccid e n t

Case N um bei

A . What type of well operation was being carried out at the tim e of
your accident? (Check one.)
1.

□

2.

G

I.

What were you working w ith or handling at the time of your
accident? (Check a ll th a t apply.)

D r ill in g ( m a k in g h o le , w e lt c o m p le tio n , e tc .)
W e ll s e rv ic e o r w o r k o v e r ( p u llin g ro d s o r tu b in g , w ir e lin e , e tc .)

1. O
2. □
3. O

C h e m ic a l, d r ill m u d o r o th e r d r i l li n g f lu id
Pipes, c o lla rs , tu b e s , ca sin g o r ro d s
H a n d to o l ( p o r ta b le saw , h a m m e r, e tc .)

4.

O

K e lly , k e lly b u s h in g o r k e lly b u s h in g gu a rd

5.
6.

O
O

Tongs
W e ld in g o r g r in d in g e q u ip m e n t

7.

O

P u m p s, en gin es, g e n e ra to rs , o t h e r m o to r s o r t h e ir p a rts

8.
9.

O
O

10. D

B lo w o u t p r e v e n to r
E le v a to r, b lo c k , sw iv e l,
h o o k o r s lip s : (D escribe)---------------------------------------------------D ra w w o r k s , c a th e a d , o th e r h o is tin g a p p a ra tu s o r t h e ir p a rts

11. D

c h a in s , lin e s , e tc .) : (D e scrib e )_________________________
P a cke r, fis h o r o th e r d o w n h o le e q u ip m e n t o r t o o l

B. What kind of w ork were you doing when injured? (Check one.)
1.
2.

O
□

A d d in g a j o i n t
C as in g

3.
4.

O C e m e n tin g
CD L o a d in g o r u n lo a d in g m a te ria l

5.
6.

O
□

M ix in g o r w o r k in g w i t h m u d o r o t h e r d r illin g flu id s
P u llin g ro d s o r tu b in g

7.

O

8.
0.

O

10.

O

S w a b b in g

11.
12.

O
□

T r ip p in g o u t o r in
O th e r : (Describe j ________________________________________________

C.

R e p a ir in g o r s e rv ic in g p u m p s , en gin es, g e n e ra to rs o r o t h e r m o to r s

(su ch as c lu tc h e s ,

S e ttin g u p rig
O W e il s tim u la t io n (u s in g e x p lo s iv e s , a c id , e tc .)

12 .
13 .

How often do you normally do this type of work? (Check one.)

1. D

F ir s t tim e y o u d id th is ty p e

2.

□

3.

C S e veral
D

4.
5.

O
D

J.

D a ily o r a lm o s t ev e ry d a y

of w o r k

□
D

O th e r : (D e scrib e )-----------------------------------------------------------------N o t w o r k in g w i t h o r h a n d lin g a n y o b je c ts a t th e tim e

Identify any equipment or work materials which contributed to your
accident and explain how they were involved.
F o r e x a m p le :

tim e s a m o n th

1.) C h a in to to n g s g o t s tu c k , rea ch e d t o f i x it , d r ille r

p u lle d w r o n g le ve r, c a th e a d engaged, to n g s s tr u c k m e. 2 .) S tra in e d
m u s c le w h e n I p u lle d o n w re n c h . 3 .) F la p o n r a c k in g b o a rd b r o k e

A b o u t o n c e a m o n th
S e ld o m —less th a n o n c e a m o n th

lo o se a n d fe ll o n m e.

D.

Where were you at the tim e of your accident? (Check one.)
1.
2.

□

C a tw a lk

C G ro u n d
D
E M o n k e y b o a rd
H

3.
4.
5.

□
□

R ig f l o o r
R o ta r y ta b le

6.

E S ta irs
H

7.
8.

□
O

9.

E S ta n d in g
H

10.

o r f ix e d ( n o n p o r ta b le ) la d d e r

W a lk w a y
P ip e rac k

□

O th e r :

on e q u ip m e n t (such as w e ll h e ad , e le v a to r , e tc .)

(Describe)
K.

E. How d id your accident occur? (Check all the events th a t occurred.)
1.
E H it b y e q u ip m e n t o r o b je c t( s ) : (Describe)
H

2.

□

1.

F e ll

(Describe)

L.

5.

G.

G

O th e r :

Q
Q

N o t e q u ip p e d w it h a s a fe g u a rd
O th e r : (Describe) __________________________________

Q

E q u ip m e n t o r w o r k m a te ria ls d id n o t c o n tr ib u te

Were there any conditions at the worksite which you feel contributed
to your accident? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly.)

5.
6.

Q W e a th e r a t tim e o f a c c id e n t ( ra in , w ip d , e tc .)
G - S I ip p e ry surface
□ N o g u a rd ra ils o r s a fe ty r a ilin g s
Q W o r k in g in a lim ite d area o r space ( s ta n d in g on a
m o n k e y b o a r d , e tc .)
Q P o o r lig h tin g
Q C lu tte r e d w o r k area (tra s h ly in g o n f lo o r , e tc .)

7.

Q

8.
9.
10 .

F e ll
S lip p e d o r tr ip p e d
P u she d o r s la m m e d in to e q u ip m e n t o r o b je c t(s )

G

M a lfu n c tio n e d , ja m m e d o r d id n o t w o r k p r o p e r ly
A c c id e n ta lly a c tiv a te d
N o t p r o p e r ly se cu re d o r tie d d o w n

1.
2.
3.
4.

H it b y e q u ip m e n t o r o b je c t(s )

□
G

Q
Q
Q

9.

If you checked more than cue response in question E, indicate which
event occurred first. (Check one.)
O

S h ifte d p o s itio n o r s lip p e d u n e x p e c te d ly
W ere t o o h e a v y o r b u lk y

7.
8.

___________________________________________

S tra in e d m u s c le w h ile liftin g , c a r r y in g o r h a n d lin g o b je c t(s )
E P u she d o r s la m m e d in t o e q u ip m e n t o r o b je c t( s )
H
E In ju r e d b y c h e m ic a l, d r i l l m u d o r o t h e r d r illin g flu id s
H
E O b je c t w e n t in t o e y e (s )
H
E P o is o n e d o r a ffe c te d b y s o u r gas ( H j S )
H
□ O th e r : ( Describe)

1.

B ro k e

Q
Q

5.
6.

□

2.
3.
4.

G

4.

o r tr ip p e d
EH Pinch ed o r squeezed betw e en p arts o f m a c h in e ry o r objects:

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

F.

E q u ip m e n t o r w o r k m a te ria ls :
2.
3.

E S lip p e d
H

3.
4.

To your knowledge, why did the e q u ip m e n t o r w o rk m aterials
contribute to your accident? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly.)

Q
Q

U n s ta b le r ig (s u c h as r ig s w a y in g d u e t o ro u g h seas, w in d ,
im p r o p e r o r b r o k e n g u ys, e tc .)

(D e s c rib e )________________________________________

N o w a r n in g o f s o u r gas ( H 2 S)
O th e r : (D e scrib e )----------------------------------------------------------------------G N o c o n d itio n s a t th e w o r k s ite le d t o in ju r y

If you fell, how far did you fall? (Check one.)
1.

Q

Less th a n 3 fe e t o r t o sam e level

2.
3.

□
G

3 t o 5 fe e t
5 t o 1 0 fe e t

M.

Check any other factors which you feal contributed to your accident.
(Check a ll th a t a p p ly.)

Q
G
G

H.a. If you were injured by tongs, was the rotary table used to break
a connection?
1.

G

2.

Q

R e c e n t c h a n g e in w o r k r o u tin e o r p ro c e d u re s

G

T ire d o r fa tig u e d

Q

In a h u r r y

N o t g ive n r ig h t in s tr u c tio n s o n h o w t o d o jo b

D o n 't k n o w

G

U p s e t o r u n d e r stress

8.

Yes

Q

N o t fo llo w in g in s tr u c tio n s

Q

7.

No

3.

N o t p a y in g f u ll a t te n tio n t o w o r k

Q

6.

2 0 fe e t o r m o re

Q
Q

4.

15 t o 2 0 fe e t

6.

1.
3.

10 t o 15 fe e t

5.

2.

5.

4.

Q

M is ju d g e d tim e o r d is ta n c e n e e d e d t o a v o id in ju r y

9.

1.

G
Q

G

1.
Q
D o n 't k n o w

G

O th e r :

Q

N o o th e r fa c to r s c o n tr ib u te d to a c c id e n t

___________________________

(D e scrib e )-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Y e s — D id th e s a fe ty lin e s b re a k ?

3.

C o - w o r k e r 's a c t iv i t y : (Describe)

12.

No

2.

N o t a w a re o f h a z a rd o u s c o n d itio n ( s )

Q

11.

b. Were the tongs equipped w ith safety lines?

Q

10 .

Yes

2.

G

No

3.

Q

D o n 't k n o w

CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE

B L S 9 8 G (May 1982)




22

N.

W hat was your job title at the tim e of your accident? (Check one.)
1.

C
D

D e r r ic k m a n

2.
3.

□
□

4.
5.

D r ille r
M o b ile e q u ip m e n t o p e r a to r (such
as c ra n e o p e r a to r , e tc .) : (D e s c rib e ) ----------------------------------------M o to r m a n o r e le c tr ic ia n
R o u g h n e c k , f lo o r h a n d o r r o ta r y h e lp e r

C
D
C
D
C R o u s ta b o u t
D

6.
7.

□

O th e r :

o r la b o r e r
(D e s c rib e ) ____________________________________________

O. How long were you employed in this job when you were injured?

(Check one.)
1.

□

Less th a n 1 m o n th

1. C H a rd h a t
D
2. C S a fe ty glasses, gogg les o r o th e r e y e p r o te c t io n
D
3 . C E a r p lu g s o r o t h e r h e a rin g p r o te c t io n
D
4 . C W e ld e r's hood
D
5.
6.
7.

□

9.

□

G lo ve s

C S te e l-to e d s a fe ty sho es o r b o o ts
D
C R e s p ira to r
D
8. C T ie d off with safety belt, lanyard and lifeline
D
W e a rin g s a fe ty b e lt, b u t n o t tie d o f f t o la n y a r d a n d life lin e , e tc .

10. C G u a r d r a ils
D

o r s a fe ty r a ilin g s a t e x p o s e d h e ig h ts

11. D O th e r : (D e scrib e )__________________________________________
12. C N o t w e a rin g o r u s in g p r o te c t iv e e q u ip m e n t
D

2. C 1 month to 6 months
D
3.
4.
5.

T . What type of protective equipment were you w earing or using st tho
tim e o f your accident? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly .)

CD 6 m o n th s to 1 y e a r
C 1 y e a r t o 5 ye a rs
D
C 5 y e a rs o r m o re
D

U. What were your injuries? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly .)
1.

C
D

2.
3.
4.

C C u ts , la c e ra tio n s o r p u n c tu r e s
D
C B ru ise s, c o n tu s io n s
D
C M u s c le s p ra in o r s tr a in , t o r n lig a m e n ts
D
C B u rn s
D
C B ra in c o n c u s s io n
D

F r a c tu re (s ) —In d ic a te b o n e (s ) b r o k e n (le g , r ib , a n k le , e tc .)

P. Who trained you for this job? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly.)
2.
3.
4.

C C u r r e n t s u p e rv is o r o r e m p lo y e r
D
C P re v io u s s u p e rv is o r o ir e m p lo y e r
D
C S a fe ty r e p re s e n ta tiv e
D
C C o - w o r k e r ( o th e r th a in s u p e rv is o
D

5.

□

1.

O th e r :

(Describe)

Q. Did your training cover safety procedures for the job you were doing
when injured?
1.

C
D

No

2.

C
D

Yes

3.

C
D

D o n 't re m e m b e r

R. What other safety training did you receive? (Check a ll th a t apply.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

C W h e n a n d h o w to use re s p ir a to r
D
C W h e n a n d h o w t o use s a fe ty b e lt, la n y a r d a n d life lin e
D
C F ir e fig h tin g a n d b lo w o u t p r e v e n tio n p ro c e d u re s
D
C F ir s t a id
D
C P ro p e r l i f t i n g , c a r r y in g o r h a n d lin g m e th o d s
D
C W h e n a n d w h e re t o use p e rs o n a l p r o te c t iv e e q u ip m e n t
D
□

C
D

5.
6.
7. □

O th e r :

(D e scrib e )________________________________________

V . How many workdays did you (or do you expect to) lose due to your
injury? (N O TE : Do not count the day of injury, days on light duty
w ork, normal days off or holidays.)
------------------------------W o r k d a y s
C h e c k h e r e ______ i f y o u d id n o t lose tim e b e y o n d th e d a y o f
in ju r y .

s u c h as

g lo ves, h a r d h a t, e tc .
O th e r : (D e s c rib e )---------------------------------------------------------------------D id n o t re c e iv e o t h e r s a fe ty tr a in in g

W. Did your injury require you to be hospitalized overnight?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

D

P r in te d m a te ria ls ( s a fe ty m a n u a l, te x t b o o k , e tc .)
In s c h o o l o r o t h e r ty p e o f c la s s ro o m in s tr u c tio n

C
D
C O n th e jo b
D
C S a fe ty m e e tin g s
D

(D e s c rib e ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

□

O th e r :

C
D

N e v e r re c e iv e d s a fe ty tr a in in g

In your own words, tell how the accident happened.

How could it have been prevented?




1.

□

No

2.

S. How was your safety training given? (Check a ll th a t a p p ly.)

□

Yes
• f yes, h o w lo n g w e r e y o u ( o r d o y o u e x p e c t t o b e ) in th e
h o s p ita l?
N ig h ts

Now available from
the Bureau of
Labor Statistics

Wig® Suffer®
for th© Following industries:

Industry Wbgs Surrey;
Life Insurance,
February'880

Industry

W cjjo

Survey:

In dustry Wage Survey
Iron and Steel Foundries.
September 1979

Banking, February 1E~3

o Life Smsyram©©

o C@mmynseati@ns

© Banking

o iron and Steel
Foundries

Surveys include:

° Results from the latest BLS
survey of wages and
supplemental benefits.

© Detailed occupational data
for the nation, regions, and
selected areas (where
available).

© Data useful for wage and
salary administration, union
contract negotiation,
arbitration, and Government
policy considerations.

Send your order to the BLS
regional office nearest you.

P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

You may also send your order
directly to:

1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202

1603 JFK Building
Boston, Mass. 02203

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102

Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Note: GPO prices are subject
to change without notice.

□

industry Wag© Survey: Lot© insurance, February 1980, Bulletin 2119, GPO Stock No. 029-001-02648-0, price $3.25.

□

Industry Wage Survey: Communications, ©et©b©r-Oecember 1979, Bulletin 2100, GPO Stock No. 029-001-02603-0, price $2.25.

□

Industry Wage Survey: Banking, February 1980, Bulletin 2099, GPO Stock No. 029-001-02625-1, price $4.50.

□

industry Wage Survey: iron and Steei Foundries, September 1979, Bulletin 2085, GPO Stock No. 029-001-02568-8, price $4.50.

□

Enclosed is a check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents

□

Charge to GPO deposit account n o . ___________________ _______________

□

Charge to MasterCard* Account no.

___________________________________

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□

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___________________________________

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Account no.

* Available only on orders sent directly to Superintendent of Documents. •

Name
Organization (if applicable)
Street address
City, State, and ZIP Code




Bureau of Labor Statistics

Regional Offfiees

Region S
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region ¥
Region B
8
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region ill
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region Vi
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions ¥!S and V 1
BD
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions B and X
X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678