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X 1 . 3;

Injuries in the Logging
Industry
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
June 1984
Bulletin 2203

Injuries in the Logging
Industry
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
June 1984
Bulletin 2203

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

Preface

Schaffer. We wish to acknowledge the contribution of
the Western Wood Products Association which provid­
ed valuable technical assistance.
Data in the survey indicate how and why injuries oc­
curred among the workers studied in the 12 cooperating
States, but the user should exercise caution in ex­
trapolating data to estimate injuries for the entire
population. States participating in data collection may
not represent the country as a whole, and reporting re­
quirements for workers’ compensation reports, the
source for selecting injuries for study, vary among
States. Furthermore, data collection periods are not in­
tended to represent the entire year.
For analytical purposes, incidence rates of the injuries
studied were not generated, nor can they be inferred
from the data because information on hours of work
during the survey period is not available. See appendix
A for the scope and methodology of the survey.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.
A list of other Work Injury Reports published since
1978 appears at the end of this bulletin.

This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
workers who were injured while performing logging ac­
tivities. The survey, conducted during the period April
through June 1982, will assist the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) in developing safe­
ty standards, compliance strategy, and training pro­
grams for reducing work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics in coopera­
tion with the following States: Alaska, Arkansas,
California, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, North
Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and
Washington. BLS regional offices coordinated State
operations. The Offices of Compliance; Standards
Development; Statistical Studies and Analysis; and
Training of OSHA and the Office of Safety Research of
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health contributed to the planning and development of
the survey. Lyn Pearson developed the questionnaire,
computer programs for editing and tabulating the data,
and analyzed the survey findings. Larry Jones assisted
in editing survey questionnaires. Helen McDonald
directed the survey under the supervision of Herbert

iii

'
■

)

Contents

Page

Summary.................................................................

1

Charts:
Injuries in the logging industry, selected States, April-June 1982:
1. Selected occupations................................................................................................
2. Selected activity at time of accident....................... ..................................................
3. Hours worked prior to accident...............................................................................

2
3
6

Tables:
Injuries in the logging industry, selected States, April-June 1982:
1. Occupation................................................................................................................
2. Age of w o rk er..........................................................................................................
3. Work experience and method of pay.......................................................................
4. Estimated days away from w o rk .............................................................................
5. Length of hospitalization required.........................................................................
6. Nature of injury........................................................................................................
7. Part of body affected..............................................................................................
8. Activity at time of accident.......................................................................................
9. Description of worksite............................................................................................
10. Description of accident................................................
11. Selected description of accident by source of in ju ry ..............................................
12. Falls from elevations or to the same level...............................................................
13. Injuries involving chainsaws ...................................................................................
14. Safety training.................................................................
15. Conditions or factors contributing to accident ......................................................
16. Hours worked and rest periods prior to accident....................................................
17. Source of injury ......................................................................................................
18. Sex of w o rk er...........................................................................................................

7
7
8
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
17
18
19
19

Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory n o te ..........................................................................................
B. Participating State agencies.......................................................................................
C. Survey questionnaire......................... - .....................................................................

20
21
22

■

Summary

The Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted a survey of
1,086 injured workers in the logging industry during the
period April through June 1982.1 The survey revealed
that one-half of these workers were injured while engag­
ed in cutting operations such as felling trees, bucking
logs, or removing limbs from felled trees. Injuries
resulted equally from workers being struck or crushed
by wood (logs, trees, etc.) and from slipping, tripping,
or falling (24 percent each) while 20 percent of the in­
juries resulted from contact with chainsaws. Almost
three-fourths of those injured missed 1 or more days of
work as a result of their accidents while one-fifth were
hospitalized an average of 6 nights.
The high risk of injury faced by loggers is reflected in
the injury and illness rate for workers in the logging in­
dustry. In 1982, there were 20.4 injuries and illnesses per
100 full-time workers, more than 2.5 times the national
rate.1 The incidence rate of lost-workday cases for in­
2
juries and illnesses was 12.9, more than 3.5 times greater
than the national rate, while the rate of lost workdays,
303.5, was over 5 times greater than the national rate.
Logging methods are generally similar in all regions
of the country where trees are felled and converted into
logs, although differences in terrain, type, and size of
timber will dictate some variation in procedures. The
tree is felled, usually with a chainsaw, branches are cut
off (limbing), and the tree is measured and cut into
manageable lengths (bucking). Logs are then
transported (skidded or yarded) to central locations
(landings) by one of several methods. Where the ground
is relatively flat, logs are hooked to a tractor, known as
a skidder, by steel cables and nooses called chokers, and
dragged to the landing where further trimming and pro­
cessing may be done. If terrain is very steep or rough,
the logs may be transported by steel cables attached to a
remote winching apparatus (called a yarder) via a
system of cables, blocks, pulleys, and carriages. Logs
are either partially suspended and dragged over the
ground (high-lead yarding) or actually hoisted into the
air and conveyed on overhead cables (sky-line yarding)
to the landing. After logs are yarded, they are loaded,
either manually or mechanically, onto trucks, railroad
cars, or barges, or formed into log rafts for transport to
the sawmill.
At every step in the logging process, from felling the
tree to transporting it to the mill, workers are subject to

a variety of hazards from the environment, type of
work, and equipment used. Weather conditions are
often poor since logging may continue regardless of
rain, snow, or excessive heat. Terrain may be steep or
rocky and, inevitably, ground litter, such as deadwood,
leaves, or vines presents obstacles that restrict workers’
freedom of movement. In addition, workers may en­
counter other hazards and nuisances such as snakes,
stinging insects, poison ivy, or poison oak. The trees
themselves present hazards due to their weight and bulk.
Improper cutting, defects in the wood, or unexpected
gusts of wind can cause a tree to fall improperly.
Moreover, once on the ground, logs may roll or shift
without warning. The equipment loggers use can also
pose hazards. Chainsaws may kick back into the
operator if the cut is not precise, if the blade is dull, or
for a variety of other reasons. Skidding tractors often
must be operated on uneven trails, increasing the risk of
rollover, and overhead yarding systems have a variety of
moving parts that may cause injury to the workers.
Most logging work is physically demanding and opera­
tions are usually carried on as long as there is daylight or
longer if floodlights are used.
In addition, loggers are sometimes exposed to unique­
ly hazardous conditions such as those found at the site
of the Mount St. Helens eruption. Workers conducting
salvage operations on Mount St. Helens are required to
contend with heavy layers of ash that produce slippery
conditions and become veritable bogs in the rain. In dry
weather, windblown ash may cut visibility. The fire con­
nected with the eruption caused the bark of trees to
loosen and the wood to become brittle, fragile, and
liable to unanticipated breakage. Trees were toppled in
such random and unstable arrangements that more than
one worker likened working on Mount St. Helens to
climbing over giant pickup sticks.
Occupation

Nearly one-half the injured workers were employed in
occupations that dealt almost exclusively with cutting
timber or trimming logs (chart 1). These occupations
were: Chopper, cutter, saw operator, or saw hand;
faller, faller-bucker, or bullbuck; logger; sawyer; and
bucker, busheler, or woodsman.
Sixteen percent of the workers were in occupations
associated with yarding operations at the landing site:
Chaser; hooker or hooktender; rigging slinger; knot

1 See appendix A for a description o f the scope o f the survey.
2 Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, 1982,
Bulletin 2196 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1984), table 1.

1

Chart 1. Selected occupations: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States, April-June 1982

Chopper, cutter, saw operator,
saw hand
Faller, faller-bucker, bullbuck
Choker setter
Chaser
Logger
Skidder operator
Truckdriver, pulpwood hauler
Hooker, hooktender
Rigging stinger
Sawyer
Bucker, busheler, or woodsman
Knot bumper or stationary
equipment operator
0

5

10

15

20

25

Percent

bumper; and stationary equipment operator. An equal
proportion were classified either as choker setter or
skidder operator, occupations involved in transporting
logs away from the cutting site.

of their injuries. The average lost-time case resulted in
23 days away from work (table 4). One-fifth of those in­
jured required hospitalization with an average hospital
stay of 6 nights (table 5).
The most common injuries were cuts, lacerations, or
punctures, which affected one-fourth of the workers,
followed by sprains and strains, suffered by slightly
fewer than one-fourth of those surveyed (table 6). Frac­
tures accounted for about one-seventh of the injuries
and were more than double the proportion found in all
industries in States participating in the survey.3 About
one-third of the cases involved injury to legs, ankles, or
feet. Of these, injuries to the legs, just over one-fifth of
the cases, were more frequent (table 7). Injuries to the
trunk (including back injuries) occurred in almost onefourth of the cases and to the upper extremities in just
under one-fifth of the cases.

Age, experience, and method of pay

Three-fifths of those injured were less than 35 years
old and, of these, about one-third were under 25 (table
2). Yet, overall, the workers were experienced, with
more than four-fifths having 1 or more years of ex­
perience in the logging industry and two-fifths having at
least 10 years (table 3).
Nearly two-thirds of those injured were paid on an
hourly or weekly basis while one-third were paid
straight piecework rates. Several workers stated they felt
piecework encouraged unsafe practices since they had to
work as fast as possible to make what they considered a
living wage. However, hourly or weekly paid workers
occasionally complained that they too were under
pressure to produce as fast as possible regardless of
safety. Slightly more than one-fifth of the workers in­
dicated that working too fast was a contributing factor
to their accidents.
Lost workdays, hospitalization, and injuries
Nearly three-fourths of the workers lost time because

Activity at time of accident

Nearly one-quarter of the injuries were accounted for
by workers felling trees, while those limbing and buck­
ing accounted for 15 and 12 percent of the injuries,
respectively (chart 2). Workers who were choker setting
3
Supplementary Data System,
Carolina, and Virginia.

2

1981 data excluding Arkansas, North

After the tree is felled, most of the limbs must be
removed before it can be transported from the cutting
site. If the tree is large, it will be bucked into shorter,
more manageable lengths. Both limbing and bucking
are potentially hazardous since felled trees may be
unstable and work often involves climbing over the logs
and cutting in awkward positions.
Once trees are felled, limbed, and bucked, they must
be transported over skid trails to the landing site. Logs
are either attached to tractors for tractor skidding, or to
cable systems for cable yarding. Workers known as
choker setters slip a noose or choker around the log and
fasten it. This, in turn, is hooked up to the tractor cable
or cable yarding system. Choker setters are subject to
many of the same hazards as fallers, limbers, and
buckers; the primary dangers are shifting logs, falling
wood, or unsafe footing. Skidder operators, on the
other hand, must contend with narrow, often uneven,
skid trails. The operator must guard against overturning
the tractor, being struck by limbs from surrounding
trees, or getting his turn of logs caught on obstructions.
When logs reach the landing, they are unhooked from

or hooking up “ turns” (logs grouped and yarded
together) experienced 14 percent of the injuries; workers
engaged in tractor or cable skidding operations, 9 per­
cent of the injuries. The proportions of injuries
resulting from chasing activities and loading or
unloading were 5 percent each. Four percent of the in­
juries occurred to workers involved in rigging cable
yarding systems (setting up skid cables, blocks and
tackles, guylines, etc.).
The potential for injury in these activities is best il­
lustrated by a description of the logging process itself
and attendant hazards. In felling a tree, the cutter must
take into consideration weather conditions, especially
wind; terrain and slope of the cutting site; and the con­
dition of the tree (particularly its lean) and trees sur­
rounding it; and where the tree will ultimately fall. If
any of the several cuts required to fell the tree are made
improperly, it may fall in the wrong place, snap off the
stump (an occurrence known as barber-chairing), or
become tangled in other trees on the way down. As the
tree falls, limbs can break off or deadwood can be
catapulted from the ground when the tree lands.

3

the yarding system. If tractor skidding is performed, the
tractor operator may handle this task but if a cable yard­
ing system is used, workers known as chasers unhook
the logs. The wood is then stacked to await loading for
transport to the mill.

this problem by using whistles or a visual code system
to indicate such things as falling trees or moving equip­
ment in the vicinity.
Workers operating tractors, trucks, or other mobile
equipment when injured were asked what safety
features were present on the equipment. Although there
were seat belts in 32 of the 51 vehicles, only six workers
indicated they were using them. Almost three-fifths of
the vehicles had cages or covers to protect against falling
objects while slightly more than one-half had rollover
protection.
More than 7 out of 10 workers injured by chainsaws
indicated the saws had one or more safety features. The
most common, present on 4 out of 10 saws, was a lowkickback chain. More than 3 out of 10 saws were equip­
ped with chain brakes and 2 out of 10, with deadman
switches.

Location, terrain, and ground cover

The logging site can be roughly divided into three ma­
jor areas: The cutting site, the landing, and the skid
trails in between. More than one-half of all injuries oc­
curred at the cutting site; one-fifth at the landing; and
slightly fewer than one-fifth, on skid trails (table 9).
Most of the remaining injuries occurred on roads while
workers were transporting logs, equipment, or other
workers.
Sloping terrain and ground cover of any type tend to
hamper^ movement of fallers and other personnel
whether moving from one cutting site to another or run­
ning from falling trees. Nearly three-fifths of the
workers reported that their accidents occurred on
moderately or steeply sloped terrain and more than
three-fifths said the ground was covered with moderate
to heavy brush or ground cover.

Accidents involving workers struck by wood

Nearly one-fourth of the workers were struck or
crushed by limbs, trees, or logs, making this one of the
most prominent causes of injury (table 10). These ac­
cidents occurred in a variety of ways. Dead wood or
“ widow makers” were sometimes released spon­
taneously or during the felling process as the tree drop­
ped or as it struck nearby trees on the way down. Fac­
tors such as twisted or leaning trunks, rotted wood, or
wind caused some trees to fall in unexpected spots. If a
tree did not fall into a clean “ bed,” wood or ground lit­
ter catapulted into the air when the tree struck the
ground. Of the 259 workers struck or crushed by wood,
about one-half were hit by falling trees, limbs, or branches
while one-quarter were struck by wood catapulted
through the air or by “ springpoles,” which occur when
wood under tension is suddenly released (table 11).

Protective equipment and safety features

Most workers were wearing some personal protective
equipment; only 4 percent stated they were not wearing
or using any (table 8). Almost 9 out of 10 workers were
wearing hard hats at the time of injury and 3 out of 4
were using gloves. Boots with calked or corked soles
were worn by 3 out of 5 workers while nearly 3 out of 10
had steel-toed boots. Three out of ten workers were
equipped with either chaps or kneepads to protect their
legs from injury.
A number of workers volunteered comments about
personal protective equipment. Their remarks often had
to do with comfort, visibility, being able to hear noise in
the work area, or the practicality of wearing the equip­
ment. Footwear was described as a problem by several
workers who noted that boots suitable for general log­
ging work or operating equipment were not necessarily
good for walking on logs (spiked boots were recom­
mended for that purpose). On the other hand, spiked
boots were not practical for most other logging ac­
tivities, particularly operating equipment. Several
workers were decidedly against wearing chaps, saying
that they restricted movement. One worker specifically
stated he believed his injury occurred when his legs
became entangled in his chaps while running from a fall­
ing tree. He tripped and was hit by the tree. Some
workers commented that, although goggles were useful
in protecting the eyes from sawdust and other flying ob­
jects, they were usually hot and uncomfortable or
restricted peripheral vision. Hearing protection was
perceived by some to be a hazard since workers call warn­
ings to each other. However, some workers overcame

Accidents involving falls

Almost one-quarter of the workers received injuries
as a result of slips, trips, or falls. Of these, threequarters either fell from elevations or fell to the same
level. As shown in table 12, falls from elevations and
falls to the same level occurred in equal numbers. About
three-fifths of the workers who fell from elevations were
walking or standing on logs. Many of these workers
simply lost their balance on these uneven surfaces and
fell to the ground, while other falls were attributed to
slippery or loose bark or to the sudden shifting of the
log. One-fourth of the falls from elevations occurred
when workers fell from mobile equipment, most fre­
quently trucks. One-tenth of the workers were originally
at ground level but fell to lower surfaces, often into
ravines or stream beds. Of those who fell to the same
level, about two-fifths fell to the ground. These falls
were accounted for by such things as protruding roots,
deadwood, leaves, vines, and other woods litter as well
as rocks and uneven ground. One-fourth of the workers
4

who fell to the same level landed on felled trees or other
wood on the ground.

Comparison of Western and nonwestern States

Because of variations in terrain and size of timber
being cut, there are some fundamental differences in
western and nonwestern logging practices. Selected
data4 for participating Western States—Alaska,
California, Montana, Oregon, and Washington—were
compared to the nonwestern States in the survey—
Arkansas, Kentucky, Maine, North Carolina, Ten­
nessee, Vermont, and Virginia.
Western workers were more than 3 times as likely to
be working on steep terrain as workers in nonwestern
States (table 9). They were also more likely to be engag­
ed in clearcut logging while selective cutting was more
prominent in the other States.
Occupational classifications of injured workers
varied by region (table 1). Occupations in the Western
States tended to be more task-specific, that is, fallers
generally restricted their activities to felling trees and
choker setters to attaching logs by cable to skidders or
cable yarding systems. In other areas of the country,
workers frequently performed a wider variety of jobs,
and this is reflected in more generalized job titles such as
logger or woodsman.
Primarily because of differences in logging pro­
cedures in the two areas, workers’ activities at the time
of the accident differed (table 8). Tractor skidding
rather than cable skidding is performed in nonwestern
States; therefore, 9 percent of the injuries in these States
were related to tractor skidding. Seventeen percent of
the Western States’ workers, on the other hand, ex­
perienced accidents resulting from cable skidding and
related activities such as chasing and rigging; only 3 per­
cent of their accidents resulted from tractor skidding.
Both groups had relatively high proportions of injuries
while felling and limbing but western workers had
greater numbers of injuries resulting from bucking and
choker setting, possibly explained by the large size of
the logs these workers handle.
Western States’ workers frequently wore more pro­
tective equipment than loggers in nonwestern States
(table 8). Proportionately, western workers wore calked
boots nearly 4 times more often than nonwestern
workers and earplugs or hearing protection about 3.5
times more often. These workers also wore dust masks,
glasses, gloves, goggles, and hard hats more frequently
than nonwestern workers. However, workers in
nonwestern States were more likely to use leg protection
and boots with steel toes.
With a few exceptions, both groups of workers at­
tributed their accidents to similar causes (table 15).
Reflective of the difference in terrain, western workers
cited steep worksites as contributing factors more than 5

Accidents involving chainsaws

One-fifth of the workers were injured by chainsaws.
Nearly two-thirds of these workers said that the accident
occurred when the saw kicked back. Most of the other
injuries involving chainsaws occurred when workers fell
on their saws (table 13). Over three-fourths of those in­
jured by chainsaws were cutting with the saw when the
injury occurred.
Safety training

More than 6 out of 10 workers indicated they received
safety training in logging (table 14). Supervisors or
employers provided safety training to 4 out of 10
workers and nearly 3 out of 10 were trained by a co­
worker.
Factors .contributing to the accident

Almost two-thirds of the workers cited one or more
natural conditions that contributed to their accidents
(table 15). Close to one-fifth said heavy brush or ground
cover was responsible while slightly more than one-tenth
blamed steep terrain. About one-tenth also indicated
that springpoles or wood under tension caused their ac­
cidents.
In responding to a question regarding other con­
tributing factors, slightly more than one-fifth of the
workers blamed their accidents on working too fast.
The next most frequently mentioned contributing fac­
tors were: Misjudging time or distance needed to avoid
injury, cited by one-seventh of the workers; and being
unaware of hazards, one-tenth of the workers.
Time of accident and rest periods

Workers were asked to provide information about
when during the workday their accidents occurred.
Relatively few accidents, 7 percent, happened during the
first hour of work and slightly more than double this
amount occurred during the second hour. Accidents
peaked during the third hour of work and dropped off
during the rest of the workday (chart 3).
In general, those responding to the survey took pride
in the physical demands of their work and seemed
resigned to the fact they would experience accidents
occasionally. Although climbing through underbrush or
up and down hills or mountains while carrying a chain­
saw or other logging equipment places stress on the
body, relatively few workers, only 64, attributed their
accidents to fatigue. However, one-third of the ac­
cidents occurred when the person injured had been
working from 1 to 2 hours without a break and a similar
proportion occurred after 2 to 4 hours of unbroken
work (table 16).

4 Due to differences in workers’ compensation reporting requirements, lost
workdays, nature o f injury, and related data were not compared for Western and
non western States.

5

Chart 3. Hours worked prior to accident: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States,
April-June 1982
Percent

Less
than
1 hour

1 to 2
hours

2 to 4
hours

4 to 6
hours

times as frequently as nonwestern workers. On the other
hand, nonwestern workers stated that snags or deadwood in the trees contributed to their accidents twice as
often as western workers. Other notable differences in
contributing factors were that nonwestern workers said
their accidents resulted from being unaware of hazards

6 to 8
hours

8 hours
or more

Don t
remember

or from using the wrong cutting method about twice as
frequently as those in the West, a possible reflection on
their level of training in safe logging procedures. Onehalf of the nonwestern workers stated they never receiv­
ed safety training as opposed to slightly less than onethird of the western workers (table 14).

6

Table 1. Occupation: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by region,
April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Occupation

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

1,086

100

100

100

Bucker ...................................................................................................
Busheler ...............................................................................................
Chaser...................................................................................................
Choke setter, choker setter ................................................................
Chopper, cutter, saw operator, saw hand, etc....................................

11
8
71
106
217

1
1
7
10
20

1
1
10
14
10

40

Falter, faller-bucker, bullbuck..............................................................
Hooker or hooktender..........................................................................
Knot bumper ........................................................................................
Laborer, brusher..................................................................................
Logger...................................................................................................

148
48
5
14
71

14
4
O
1
7

20
7
1
2
6

1
7

Owner....................................................................................................
Rigger....................................................................................................
Rigging slinger, slinger.........................................................................
Sawyer ..................................................................................................
Skidder operator..................................................................................

5
8
39
30
57

1
1
5
4
4

1
8

Supervisor or forem an.........................................................................
Truckdriver or pulpwood hauler...........................................................
Mobile equipment operator, n.e.c.........................................................
Stationary equipment operator ............................................................
Woodsman ...........................................................................................

7
57
24
11
14

1
5
2
1
1

1
5
2
1

Other .....................................................................................................
Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

41
94

4
9

3
1

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add

0

1
4
3
5

Percent

1

O
5
3
4
5
25

to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey,
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation reports.

Table 2. Age of worker: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States,
April-June 1982
Age

Number

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

1,086

100

16-19 years ..........................................................................................
20-24 years ..........................................................................................
25-34 years ..........................................................................................
35-44 years ..........................................................................................
45-54 years ..........................................................................................
55-64 years ..........................................................................................
65 years or m ore.................................................................................
Not available ........................................................................................

40
196
413
188
109
58
6
76

4
18
38
17
10
5
1
7

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports,

7

Table 3. Work experience and method of pay: Injuries in the logging industry, selected
States, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Experience and method of pay

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,064

100

100

100

Less than 1 m onth..............................................................................
1 to 6 months ......................................................................................
6 months to 1 year..............................................................................
1 to 5 years..........................................................................................
5 to 10 years........................................................................................
10 years or m ore.................................................................................

46
60
55
250
237
416

4
6
5
23
22
39

4
5
3
24
25
39

6
7
9
23
17
39

Total ...............................................................................................

1,060

100

100

100

By the cord, load, or other piecework basis......................................
Hourly or weekly..................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

352
694
14

33
65
1

19
79
2

64
36

Length of time in logging

Method of pay

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the

total number of responses may vary by question,
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

Table 4. Estimated days away from work: Injuries in the logging industry,
selected States, April-June 1982
Days away from work

Number

Percent

Total 1............................................................................................

1 050

100

No days away from work ........................................ ...........................
1 to 5 d a ys..................................................................
6 to 10 days..................................................................................
11 to 15 days........................................................................
16 to 20 days................................................................................
21 to 25 days...................................................................
26 to 30 days.......................................................................................
31 to 40 days........................................................................
41 to 60 days.....................................................................
More than 60 days.........................................................

270
234
103
57
58
27
47
45
43
50

26
22
10
5
6
3
4
4
4
5

Lost-time cases for which days away from work were not
estimated...........................................................................................

116

11

Mean days away from work per lost-workday case

23

Median days away from work per lost-workday case

10

' Excludes 5 workers for whom data
were not available because they retired,
were laid off, or put on permanent
disability.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

8

_

Table 5. Length of hospitalization required: Injuries in the logging
industry, selected States, April-June 1982
Number

nights................................................................................................
nights ................................................................................................
nights ................................................................................................
nights................................................................................................

8 nights ................................................................................................
9 nights................................................................................................
11 to 20 nights ....................................................................................
21 to 30 nights ....................................................................................

100

849
29
26
27
16
26
11
13
15
3
6
9
8
4

80
3
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
(’)
1
1
1
O

17

3
4
5
6

Percent

1,059

Length of hospitalization

2

Hospitalized cases for which length of hospitalization was not

Mean length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized c a s e .........

6

Median length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized c a s e .......

4

plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by ques­
tion.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

' Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­

Table 6. Nature of injury: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States,
April-June 1982
Nature of injury

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,086

100

Amputation or enucleation ..................................................................
Burn or scald (heat)............................................................................
Concussion—brain, cerebral...............................................................
Contusion, crushing, bruise—intact skin surface ..............................
Cut, laceration, puncture—open wound.............................................

8
9
10
177
272

1
1

Dermatitis.............................................................................................
Dislocation...........................................................................................
Fracture ................................................................................................
Heat stroke, sunstroke, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and other
effects of environmental h eat..........................................................
Hernia, rupture.....................................................................................
Inflammation or irritation of joints, tendons, or muscles...................
Poisoning, systemic.............................................................................
Sprains, strains....................................................................................
Multiple injuries....................................................................................
Nervous system, conditions o f ...........................................................
Heart condition (includes heart attack) ..............................................
Other injury, n.e.c.................................................................................
Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

1

15
139
1
3
7
12
51
264
46

1
16
25
(’)
1

13
O
(')
1

1
5
24
4

2

(')

1

0

6
62

1
6

the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

’ Less than 0.5 percent,
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

9

Table 7. Part of body affected: Injuries in the logging industry, selected
States, April-June 1982
Number

Percent

T o ta l..............................................................................................

1,086

100

Head.....................................................................................................
Head, uns.......................................................................................
B rain..............................................................................................
Ear(s).............................................................................................
Ear(s), uns....................................................................................
Ear(s), external...........................................................................
Ear(s), internal............................................................................
Eye(s)............................................................................................
Face ..............................................................................................
Face, uns.....................................................................................
J a w .............................................................................................
Mouth .........................................................................................
N o se ...........................................................................................
Face, multiple parts....................................................................
Face, n.e.c...................................................................................
S ca lp .............................................................................................
Skuli...............................................................................................
Head, multiple...............................................................................
Head, n.e.c.....................................................................................

141
3
10
5
1
1
3
66
42
3
1
26
2
1
9
5
2
6
2

13
(’)
1
O
O
(’)
(1
)
6
4
(')
(’)
2
(')
(’)
1
o
(’)
1
o

N e ck.....................................................................................................

14

1

Upper extremities ................................................................................
Arm(s)............................................................................................
Arm, uns.......................................................................................
Upper arm ...................................................................................
Elbow..........................................................................................
Forearm.......................................................................................
Arm, multiple ..............................................................................
Arm, n.e.c.....................................................................................
W ris t..............................................................................................
Hand..............................................................................................
Finger(s).........................................................................................
Upper extremities, multiple...........................................................

196
67
20
5
20
18
1
3
16
39
69
5

18
6
2
O
2
2
o
0
1
4
6
0

T ru n k....................................................................................................
Abdomen .......................................................................................
Back ..............................................................................................
C hest.............................................................................................
Hips ...............................................................................................
Shoulder(s)....................................................................................
Trunk, multiple ..............................................................................

252
9
138
36
22
39
8

23
1
13
3
2
4
1

Lower extremities ................................................................................
Leg(s)............................................................................................
Leg, uns.......................................................................................
Thigh...........................................................................................
Knee ...........................................................................................
Lower le g ....................................................................................
Leg, multiple...............................................................................
Leg, n.e.c.....................................................................................
Ankle .............................................................................................
F o o t...............................................................................................
Toe(s)............................................................................................
Lower extremities, multiple...........................................................

365
241
43
27
118
45
6
2
54
48
7
15

34
22
4
2
11
4
1
(’)
5
4
1
1

Multiple parts.......................................................................................

93

9

Body system........................................................................................
Body system, uns...........................................................................
Circulatory system ........................................................................
Nervous system ............................................................................

12
10
1
1

1
1
(’)
(’)

Body parts, n.e.c...................................................................................

1

(’)

Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

12

Part of body

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
uns. = unspecified.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

1

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey,
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

10

Table 8. Activity at time of accident: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by
region, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Activity

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,084

100

100

100

Brushing (clearing brush)....................................................................
Bucking ................................................................................................
Felling...................................................................................................

25
134
253
165
3
40
49
133
23
39
52
15
51
11
43
48

2
12
23
15
O
4
5
12
2
4
5
1
5
1
4
4

2
14
19
11

3
8
33
24
1
-

Total ..............................................................................................

1,069

100

100

100

First time worker did this type of w o rk...............................................
Daily or almost every day....................................................................
Several times a month........................................................................
About once a m onth...........................................................................
Seldom—less than once a month......................................................

24
921
75
20
29

2
86
7
2
3

3
85
8
2
3

1
89
4
2
3

Activity of injured worker

Bunching..............................................................................................
Cable skidding (high-lead, slack-line, etc.).........................................
Chasing................................................................................................
Choker setting......................................................................................
Hooking up a tu rn ................................................................................
Rigging.................................................................................................
Tractor skidding...................................................................................
Hauling logs to m ill..............................................................................
Loading/unloading lo g s ......................................................................
Constructing or maintaining roads or skid roa d s..............................
Repairing or servicing equipment.......................................................
Other logging activity..........................................................................

5
7
16
2
5
3
1
4
1
4
5

_

4
2
0
9
2
5
1
4
3

How often worker normally performed this activity

Protective equipment worn or used at time of accident
T ota l2 ............................................................................................

1,057

Boots with calked or corked soles.....................................................
Dust mask ...........................................................................................
Earplugs or other type of hearing protection.....................................
Glasses................................................................................................
Gloves..................................................................................................
Goggles................................................................................................
Hard h a t...............................................................................................
Leg protection (chaps or kneepads)..................................................
Seat b e lt..............................................................................................
Steel toes in b oots..............................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Not wearing or using protective equipment.......................................

659
16
264
144
788
35
916
303
6
295
19
38

O
62
2
25
14
75
3
87
29
1
28
2
4

<
*>
81
2
32
17
83
4
91
24
1
9
2
2

(*)
22
O
9
7
57
2
77
39
(’)
69
1
7

Workers injured while operating mobile equipment:
To worker’s knowledge, safety features vehicle or equipment
had
T otal2 ............................................................................................

51

Cage or cover to protect against falling objects...............................
Rollover protection..............................................................................
Seat b e lt..............................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Not aware of any safety equipment...................................................

30
27
32
4
5

' Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Because more than one response is possible, the
sum of the responses and percentages are calculated
by dividing each response by the total number of per­
sons who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add

0
59
53
63
8
10

O
55
48
69
10
10

O
64
59
55
5
9

to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

11

Table 9. Description of worksite: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by region,
April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Description of worksite

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,073

100

100

100

Cutting site ..........................................................................................
Landing ................................................................................................
Skid trail or between cutting site and landing...................................
Employer-built ro a d .............................................................................
County, State, or interstate road........................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

570
219
188
34
17
45

53
20
18
3
2
4

47
24
20
3
1
5

66
14
12
3
2
3

Total ..............................................................................................

1,070

100

100

100

Flat ground..........................................................................................
Medium slope......................................................................................
Steep slo p e .........................................................................................

476
388
206

44
36
19

36
38
25

62
32
7

Total ..............................................................................................

1,057

100

100

100

Little or no brush.................................................................................
Moderate brush....................................................................................
Heavy brush 1.......................................................................................
Swampy, marshy, boggy.....................................................................

369
386
273
29

35
37
26
3

35
38
26
1

35
33
25
7

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

100

100

Pulpwood.............................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

357
478
172

35
47
17

20
60
21

68
22
10

Total ..............................................................................................

1,020

100

100

100

Clearcut................................................................................................
Selective cut—partial cut (selected tree s).........................................
Salvage logging ...................................................................................
Don’t know ..........................................................................................

630
273
80
37

62
27
8
4

68
21
8
3

48
40
6
6

Percent

Location at time of accident

Terrain where accident occurred

Ground cover where accident occurred

Use of wood being logged at time of accident

Type of logging being done at worksite

1 Includes two cases identified only as heavy snow.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.

Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

12

Table 10. Description of accident: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by region,
April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Description of accident

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

1,086

100

100

100

Injured by a chainsaw, excluding overexertion..................................
Struck against...............................................................................
Struck b y ........................................................................................
Fall from elevation.........................................................................
Fall on same le ve l.........................................................................

222
12
182
7
21

20
1
17
1
2

17
1
13
1
2

28
1
24

Chip, pine needle, or other object went into eye(s) ..........................
Hit or crushed by limb, tree, or lo g .....................................................
Hit by cable, hook, chain, or choker b e ll...........................................
Strained while lifting, using, or moving tools, equipment, or logs ....

55
259
60
85

5
24
6
8

5
20
7
9

5
32
2
4

Slipped, tripped, or fell 1 ......................................................................
Fall from elevation.........................................................................
Fall on same le ve l.........................................................................
Bodily reaction or motion .............................................................

258
98
96
64

24
9
9
6

28
11
10
7

14
4
6
5

Mobile equipment accident.................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

33
114

3
10

3
10

3
11

-

3

Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires and State
workers’ compensation reports.

1 Excludes 28 cases where the worker fell onto a
chainsaw; these cases are included in chainsaw
injuries.
NOTE; Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.

13

Table 11. Selected description of accident by source of injury: Injuries in the logging
industry, selected States by region, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Description of accident by source of injury
Number

Percent

Non­
western
States

Percent

Hit or crushed by limb, tree, or log
Total ...............................................................................................

259

100

100

100

Hit or crushed by:
Falling w ood............................................................................ .....
Rolling log(s) .................................................................................
Logs rigged for yarding.................................................................
Wood, n.e.c., uns. 1 .......................................................................

127
37
30
65

49
14
12
25

36
21
16
27

66
5
5
23

85

100

100

100

1
3

1
4

1
3

7

1
1
5
5

1
1
6
6

1
1
4

33
13

30
4
24
5
6

35
5
28
6
7

41
6
29
7
6

7
27
13

Total ...............................................................................................

33

100

100

100

Source of injury:
Skidder...........................................................................................
Log truck........................................................................................
Mobile equipment, n.e.c.................................................................
Ground surface.............................................................................
Other or nonclassifiable................................................................

9
17
2
1
4

27
52
6
3
12

29
48
5
5
14

25
58
8

Strained while lifting, using, or moving tools, equipment, or
logs
Total ...............................................................................................
Strained while lifting, using, or moving:
Brush or shrubs.............................................................................
Ground wood ................................................................................
Rigged log(s) on highline, skyline, or other
overhead yarding system ...........................................................
Stacked logs .................................................................................
Standing tim ber.............................................................................
Wood, n.e.c., uns............................................................................
Cable, chain, rope, choker, etc. used in rigging,
skidding, or yarding operations..................................................
Log truck........................................................................................
Chainsaw .......................................................................................
Nonpowered handtool...................................................................
Other or nonclassifiable................................................................

-

Mobile equipment accident

-

8

Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.

1
Includes flying or catapulted wood and
springpoles.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.

Dashes indicate that no data were reported.

SOURCE: Survey questionnaires and State
workers’ compensation reports.

14

Table 12. Falls from elevations or to the same level: Injuries in the logging industry, selected
States by region, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Falls
Number

Percent

Non­
western
States

Percent

Total ' .............................................................................................

222

100

100

100

Falls from elevations............................................................................
Falls to the same le v e l........................................................................

105
117

47
53

51
49

33
67

Total ...............................................................................................

105

100

100

100

Surface fell from:
Ground le ve l..................................................................................
Ground wood, rolling or m oving...................................................
Ground wood, stationary, including stacked logs .......................
Standing tim ber.............................................................................
Skidder...........................................................................................
Truck ..............................................................................................
Mobile equipment, n.e.c., uns........................................................
Yarder ............................................................................................
O th e r..............................................................................................
Unknown ........................................................................................

9
16
46
2
8
14
4
3
2
1

9
15
44
2
8
13
4
3
2
1

5
16
49
2
7
11
3
3
2
“

29
7
7

Total ...............................................................................................

117

100

100

100

Fell to:
Ground surface or tools at ground le ve l.....................................
Ground wood, stationary, including stacked logs .......................
Skidder...........................................................................................
Truck ..............................................................................................
Yarder ............................................................................................
Other ..............................................................................................
Unknown........................................................................................

48
29
2
1
2
8
27

41
25
2
1
2
7
23

43
26

34
21
7

Falls from elevations

-

14
29
7
-

7

Falls to the same level

1 Includes cases where worker fell onto chainsaw,
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified,
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.

-

1
2
8
19

-

3
34

Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires and State
workers’ compensation reports.

15

Table 13. Injuries involving chainsaws: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by
region, April-June 1982
—

•

Western
States

All States
Chainsaw injuries
Number

Percent

Non­
western
States

Percent

Reason worker was injured by chainsaw
Total ’ 2 ..........................................................................................
Chainsaw kicked b a c k .........................................................................
Using wrong size saw or length bar for cut being m ade..................
Fell on sa w ...........................................................................................
Reached across saw ..........................................................................
Hand slipped into chain of sa w ..........................................................
Cutting method was wrong .................................................................
Saw kept running after it was turned off (coasting) ..........................
Chain on saw bro ke............................................................................
Saw was in bad condition or didn’t work rig h t..................................
Didn’t have tight grip on saw ..............................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

220
140
3
28

0

(’)

56
2
15

-

-

-

7
18

6
3
5
7
22

6
3
2
1
1
6
12

-

14
7
2
7
1
15
39

0

64
1
13
6
3
1
3
0

74
9

Use of saw at time of accident
Total ...............................................................................................

220

100

100

100

Getting ready to make a c u t...............................................................
Had just finished c u t ...........................................................................
Cutting a tree, limb, etc........................................................................
Other ....................................................................................................

8
25
169
18

4
11
77
8

6
10
73
11

1
13
82
4

Total ...............................................................................................

203

100

100

100

Smaller than 3.0 cubic inches (less than 49 ccs)..............................
3.0 to 4.0 cubic inches (49 to 65 ccs) ...............................................
4.0 to 5.0 cubic inches (65 to 82 ccs) ...............................................
5.0 cubic inches or larger (more than 82 c c s )..................................
Don’t know ...........................................................................................

8
39
58
61
37

4
19
29
30
18

4
11
29
47
9

4
32
28
5
32

Size of chainsaw engine

To workers’ knowledge, safety features chainsaw had
Total 1.............................................................................................

197

Bar tip/nose guard..............................................................................
Chain bra ke ..........................................................................................
Deadman sw itch ..................................................................................
Low kickback chain.............................................................................
Low kickback guide b a r......................................................................
Other kickback protection ...................................................................
Other ....................................................................................................
None.....................................................................................................

26
66
38
78
33
9
5
53

0
13
34
19
40
17
5
3
27

(’)
4
17
19
37
17
7
3
35

(')
26
57
20
44
17
1
2
16

3 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

1 Because more than one response is possible, the
sum of the responses and percentages may not equal
the total. Percentages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons who
answered the question.
2 Excludes overexertion cases where chainsaw was
source of injury.

16

Table 14. Safety training: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by region,
April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Worker safety training
Number

1,046

0

Never received any safety training 2 ...................................................
Supervisor or employer.......................................................................
Co-worker (other than supervisor) .....................................................
Relative................................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

392
419
300
200
72

Percent

Percent

Total 1............................................................................................

Non­
western
States

Source of safety training in logging

37
40
29
19
7

0

0
31
45
37
21
6

51
29
11
16
9

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

1 Because more than one response is possible, the
sum of the responses and percentages are calculated
by dividing each response by the total number of per­
sons who answered the question.
2 Includes workers who said they learned safety on
their own.

Table 15. Conditions or factors contributing to accident: Injuries in the logging industry,
selected States by region, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Conditions or factors worker felt contributed to accident
Number

Percent

Non­
western
States

Percent

Natural conditions at the worksite
Total 1................................................................... a.......................

934

Twist, rot, knots, lean, or other defects in tree..................................
Snag or deadwood in tree ..................................................................
Springpole or wood under tension.....................................................
Hidden wood on ground (wood hidden by ground cover, etc.) ........
Weather conditions at time of accident (raining, sleeting, windy,
etc.) ...................................................................................................
Slippery conditions (mud, standing water, etc.) ................................
Heavy brush or ground co ve r.............................................................
Steep worksite.....................................................................................
Other natural conditions......................................................................
No natural conditions contributed to accident...................................

63
75
105
61

7
8
11
7

6
6
11
6

9
12
12
7

56
80
173
109
71
335

6
9
19
12
8
36

6
8
19
16
9
37

5
9
18
3
4
33

0

0

(’)

Other contributing factors
T o ta l1.............................................................................................

839

Co-worker’s activity.............................................................................
Working too fa s t..................................................................................
Too noisy.............................................................................................
Working when tired or fatigued ..........................................................
Working when under stress................................................................
Lifting, pushing, or moving an object that was too heavy or bulky ...
Misjudged time or distance needed to avoid injury...........................
Not paying full attention to w o rk........................................................
Being unaware of hazards such as snags, springpoles, e tc ............
Cutting method was wrong .................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
No other factors contributed to injury.................................................

54
186
13
64
39
45
118
65
83
35
53
282

' Because more than one response is possible, the
sum of the responses and percentages are calculated
by dividing each response by the total number of per­
sons who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add

(’)
6
22
2
8
5
5
14
8
10
4
6
34

(')
7
22
1
9
5
5
14
8
8
3
7
35

(’)
5
23
4
5
5
5
15
8
14
6
5
31

to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

17

Table 16. Hours worked and rest periods prior to accident: Injuries in the logging industry,
selected States by region, April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Hours worked and rest periods

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,069

100

100

100

Less than 1 h o u r.................................................................................
1 to 2 hours .........................................................................................
2 to 4 hours ........................................................................................
4 to 6 hours .........................................................................................
6 to 8 hours .........................................................................................
8 hours or m ore...................................................................................
Don’t remember...................................................................................

78
157
363
270
136
51
14

7
15
34
25
13
5
1

6
15
36
25
12
5
1

9
15
29
26
15
5
2

Total ..............................................................................................

1,055

100

100

100

Less than 1 h o u r.................................................................................
1 to 2 hours .........................................................................................
2 to 4 hours .........................................................................................
4 hours or m ore...................................................................................
Don’t remember...................................................................................

210
352
360
98
35

20
33
34
9
3

18
32
36
10
3

24
35
29
7
4

Percent

Length of time worked prior to accident

Length of time worked, prior to accident, without a break for
rest or lunch

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the

total number of responses may vary by question,
SOURCE: Survey questionnaires.

18

Table 17. Source of injury: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States by region,
April-June 1982
Western
States

All States
Source of injury

Non­
western
States

Number

Percent

1,086

100

100

6

1

1

17
129
52
44

2
12
5
4

2
7
5
5

6
23
2
16
80

1
2
(’)

2

1

2
9

Cable, chain, rope, choker, or choker bell used in:
Tractor skidding............................................................................
Other yarding operations..............................................................
Unspecified skidding or yarding...................................................
Rigging..........................................................................................
Operations other than skidding or yarding..................................

5
28
24
38
9

0

Equipment or vehicle:
Log truck .......................................................................................
Skidder..........................................................................................
Mobile equipment, n.e.c.................................................................
Yarder, stationary .........................................................................

28
26
6
6

3
2

Tool:
Chainsaw.......................................................................................
Nonpowered handtools.................................................................

246
13

23
1

20
2

29
(’)

Other
Bodily m otion................................................................................
Ground surface.............................................................................
Surface, n.e.c., uns........................................................................
Wood chips, sawdust, metal chips, pine needles, splinters.......
Other, including insect and snake b ite s......................................

85
69
34
42
43

8
6
3
4
4

8
8
4
5
3

7
2
2
2
5

Nonclassifiable...................................................................................

9

1

1

1

Total ..............................................................................................
Timber or wood:
Brush or shrubs............................................................................
Choked, but not “ hooked up” or otherwise rigged
for skidding or yarding ...............................................................
Falling............................................................................................
Ground (stationary, unrigged) ......................................................
R olling...........................................................................................
Rigged on highline, skyline, or other overhead
yarding system...........................................................................
Rigged for ground skidding or yarding ........................................
Stacked.........................................................................................
Standing........................................................................................
Wood or timber, n.e.c., uns.1 ......................................................
2

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Includes wood propelled with force, such as a
limb being struck by a skidder, flying back and hitting
the driver, or wood released from tension, such as a
springpole.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.

Percent

1

O

100

O
1
21
3
2
O

1

1

7

7

3
2
3
1

1
3
3
5
1

1
1
(’)

2
2
1

3
3

1
1

1

1

1

(’)

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may not add
to 100. See appendix A for the scope of the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the
total number of responses may vary by question.
Dashes indicate that no data were reported.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire and State workers’
compensation reports.

Table 18. Sex of worker: Injuries in the logging industry, selected States,
April-June 1982
Sex

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,086

100

Men ......................................................................................................
Women.................................................................................................

1,079
7

99
1

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

19

Appendix A. Survey
Explanatory Note

others limit reporting to cases involving lost time rang­
ing from 1 to 8 days.
No attempt was made to weight the data to be
representative of all logging injuries. Although par­
ticipating States provided a broad geographical mix,
they were not selected to statistically represent the coun­
try as a whole. Moreover, collection for the survey was
terminated when responses exceeded 750 cases.
Estimates of mean and median lost workdays and
nights of hospitalization do not include cases in which
workers indicated lost time or hospitalization but failed
to provide numerical estimates of the amount of time.
All usable responses from incomplete questionnaires
were used in the tabulations. Consequently, response
rates among questions vary. No attempt was made to
adjust the data for nonresponse.
Information on the employer’s industry classification
and the worker’s age, sex, nature of injury, and part of
body injured were classified and tabulated for all
respondents based on information furnished by the
employer in the workers’ compensation report. Codes
for source of injury and occupation were developed by
bls to capture data unique to the logging industry.
Codes for falls, specifically the surface from which the
worker fell and the impact surface, were based on the
American National Standards Institute concept for
recording accident facts (ANSI Z16.2) but expanded to
provide additional detail.
Numerical values shown in tables were actual counts
while percentages were rounded to the nearest whole
number.

The survey was designed to gather information on in­
juries to workers in the logging industry (Standard In­
dustrial Classification 241). Included were all injuries
incurred while performing logging activities at the log­
ging site or while transporting logs with the exception of
injuries to workers in helicopters or resulting from
assaults. Motor vehicle accidents were included if they
took place at the worksite; while hauling logs to the
mill; returning from the mill; or transporting tools,
equipment, or workers to or from the logging site in
company-owned vehicles. Excluded were injuries
resulting in fatalities or those in which more than 120
days had elapsed between the time of the injury and the
beginning of the survey.
The survey covered the 12 States listed in appendix B.
To identify cases within the scope of the survey, staff of
the State agencies reviewed employers’ reports of in­
juries required by State workers’ compensation laws
and mailed questionnaires to injured workers selected
for study. Cooperation was requested on a voluntary
basis. During the survey period, April through June
1982, 1,086 survey questionnaires were returned and
found to be within the scope of the survey, resulting in a
60-percent response rate.
Although the data were aggregated for all par­
ticipating States, it should be noted that workers’ com­
pensation cases selected for study reflect differences in
reporting requirements. For example, some States re­
quire reporting of workers’ compensation cases involv­
ing medical treatment regardless of lost time, while

20

Appendix B. Participating
State Agencies

North Carolina Industrial Commission
Oregon Workers’ Compensation Department
Tennessee Department of Labor
Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
Virginia Department of Labor and Industry
Washington Department of Labor and Industries

Alaska Department of Labor
Arkansas Department of Labor
California Department of Industrial Affairs
Kentucky Department of Labor
Maine Department of Labor
Montana Department of Labor and Industry

21

Appendix C. Survey Questionnaire
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report
jnjuries in Logging
The inform a tio n collected on this form by the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics and the State Agencies cooperating in its
statistical program w ill be held in confidence and w ill be
used fo r statistical purposes only.

State

U.S. Department of Labor

This re p o rt is authorized b y taw 2 9 U.S.C. 2.
Y o u r v o lu n ta ry cooperation is needed to make
the results o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, and tim ely.
Date of
A ccident

Case Num ber

A. Which best describes where you were when the accident occurred?
ICheck one.)

Form Approved
O.M.B. No. 1220-0047
A pproval Expires 9 /3 0 /8 2

!

If a chainsaw injured you:
G. Indicate why. (Check a ll th a t apply.)

1.

□

C u t t in g s ite

2.

O

L a n d in g

1.

□

3.

D

S k id t r a i l o r b e tw e e n c u t t i n g s ite a n d le n d in g

2.

□

U s in g w r o n g size sa w o r le n g th b a r f o r c u t b e in g m a d e

4.

O

E m p lo y e r - b u i l t ro a d

3.

F e ll o n saw

4.
5.
6.

CD
CD
CD
CD

C u t t in g m e t h o d w a s w r o n g

7.

□

S a w k e p t r u n n in g a ft e r i t w a s t u r n e d o f f (c o a s tin g )

8
10.

CD C h a in o n saw b r o k e
CD S aw was in bad c o n d itio n o r d id n 't w o rk rig h t
CD D i d n 't h a ve t i g h t g r ip o n sa w

11.

□

5.

LJ

C o u n t y , S ta te o r in t e r s t a te ro a d

6.

□

O th e r:

(D escrib e)_______________________________________ _

B. Which best describes the type of terrain where the accident occurred?
(Check one.)
1.
2.
3.

9.

CD F la t ground
CD M e d iu m s lo p e
CD S te e p s lo p e

CD
2. CD
3. CD
4 . CD

1.
2.
3.
4.

L it t le o r n o brush
M o d e ra te b ru s h
H e a v y b ru s h

I.

D. What type of work were you doing when injured? (Check one.)
CD
O
CD
CD

Brushing (clearing brush)
Bucking
Felling
Lim bing

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

CD
CD
□
D
CD
CD
O

Bunching
Cable skidding (high-lead, slack-line, etc.)
Chasing
Choker setting
H ooking up a turn
Rigging
Tractor skidding

12.
13.

CD Hauling tim ber to m ill
O Loading/unloading tim ber

14.
15.

CD Constructing or m aintaining roads or skid roads
CD Repairing or servicing equipm ent

16.

O th e r:

(D e s c rib e )________________________________

CD G e t t in g re a d y t o m a k e a c u t
CD H a d ju s t fin is h e d a c u t
CD C u t t in g a tre e , lim b , e tc .
□

S w a m p y , m a rs h y , b o g g y

1.
2.
3.
4.

R e a c h e d a cro ss sa w
H a n d s lip p e d i n t o c h a in o f saw

H. What were you doing with the saw when injured? (Check one.)

C. Which best describes the ground cover? (Check one.)
1.

C h a in s a w k ic k e d b a c k

O th e r:

(D escrib e)__________________________________

How big was the chainsaw engine? The size of the engine is measured
in cubic inch displacement or cc(s). (Check one.)

CD O ther logging a c tiv ity : ( Describe ) _____________________

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

O
G
Q
G
Q

S m a lle r th a n 3 .0
3 .0 t o 4 .0 c u b ic
4 .0 t o 5 .0 c u b ic
5 .0 c u b ic in c h e s
D o n 't k n o w

c u b ic in c h e s (less th a n 4 9 ccs)
in c h e s (4 9 t o 6 5 ccs)
in c h e s (6 6 t o 8 2 ccs)
o r la rg e r ( m o r e t h a n 8 2 ccs)

J. To your knowledge, what safety features did the saw have?
(Check a ll th a t apply.)
G

1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6.

Q
Q
Q
Q

G

B a r t ip / n o s e g u a rd
C h a in b ra k e
D e a d m a n s w itc h
L o w - k ic k b a c k c h a in
L o w - k ic k b a c k g u id e b a r
O t h e r k ic k b a c k p r o t e c t i o n :

7.
8.

Q
Q

O t h e r : (D escrib e)________________________________________
N o t a w a re o f a n y s a fe ty fe a tu r e s

(D e s c rib e ) __________________________

CO NTINUE W ITH K, BELOW
K. Did ar.y natural conditions contribute to your accident? (Check
a ll th a t apply.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

E. How often do you normally do this type of work? (Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CD
□
CD
G
G

First tim e you did this type o f w ork
D aily or alm ost every day
Several times a m onth
A b o u t once a m onth
Seldom —less than once a m onth

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

F. Which best describes how your injury occurred? (Check one.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

G
G
G
G
G
G
G

Q

Injured by a chainsaw
Chip, pine needle or other object w e n t into eye(s)
H it or crushed by lim b, tree or log
H it by cable, hook, chain or choker bell
Strained w hile lifting, using or m oving tools, equipm ent or tim ber
Slipped, tripped or fell
Had m obile equipm ent accident (skidder or tracto r rolled over,
truck ran o ff road, etc.)
O ther:

□
Q
□

T w is t , r o t , k n o ts , lea n o r o th e r d e fe c ts in tre e
S n a g o r d e a d w o o d in tre e
S p r in g p o le o r w o o d u n d e r t e n s io n ( lim b in a b in d , e tc .)
G H id d e n w o o d o n g r o u n d ( w o o d h id d e n b y g r o u n d c o v e r, e tc .)
Q W e a th e r c o n d it io n s a t t im e o f a c c id e n t (r a in in g , s le e tin g ,
w i n d y , e tc . )
Q SI ip p e r y c o n d it io n s (m u d , s ta n d in g w a te r , e tc .)
Q H e a v y b ru s h o r g r o u n d c o v e r
Q S te e p w o r k s it e
G O t h e r n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n : (D es c rib e )________________________
Q N o n a tu r a l c o n d it io n s c o n t r ib u t e d to a c c id e n t

L. Check any other factors which you feel contributed to your accident.
(Cheek a ll th a t app ly.)
1. G C o - w o r k e r 's a c t i v i t y : ( E x p la in ) ____________________ _________
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

IF YOU WERE INJURED BY A CHAINSAW,
COMPLETE G, H, I AND J;

G

7.
8
9.
10.
1 1.
12.

(Describe)____________________________________

Q

Q
Q

G
Q
Q

G
Q

G
Q

W o r k in g t o o fa s t
T o o n o is y
W o r k in g w h e n t i r e d o r fa tig u e d
W o r k in g w h e n u n d e r stre ss
L if t i n g , p u s h in g o r m o v in g an o b je c t t h a t w a s to o h e a v y
o r b u lk y
M is ju d g e d t im e o r d is ta n c e n e e d e d t o a v o id i n j u r y
N o t p a y in g f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o w o r k
B e in g u n a w a re o f h a z a rd s s u c h as snags, s p rin g p o le s , e tc .
C u t t in g m e t h o d w a s w r o n g
O t h e r : ( Describe ) ________________________________________
N o o th e r fa c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n j u r y

CO NTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE

IF NOT, GOTO K.
3 L S 9 8 F (May 1982)

22

M. What type of protective equipment were you wearing or using at the
time of your accident? (Check all th a t apply.)
1.

□

B o o ts w i t h c a lk e d o r c o rk e d so le s

2. CD D u s t mask
3.

□

4.
5.
6.

□

1.
2.
3.
4.

CD
CD
CD
CD

Clearcut
Selective c u t—partial cut (selected trees)
Salvage logging
D o n 't know

CD G lasses
CD G lo v e s

CD
8 . CD
9 . CD
10. CD
7.

1 1.

□

E a r p lu g s o r o th e r t y p e o f h e a rin g p r o te c t io n

R. What type of logging was being done at the worksite? (Check one.)

S. How long had you been working in logging when injured? (Check one.)

G o g g le s
H a rd h a t
L eg p r o t e c t io n (c h a p s o r k n e e p a d s )
S e a t b e lt
S te e l to e s in b o o ts
O th e r :

(D escrib e) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. CD N o t w e a r in g o r u s in g p r o te c t iv e e q u ip m e n t

N. If you were injured while operating mobile equipment or a truck,
to your knowledge, what safety features did it have?
(Check all th a t apply.)
2.
3.

CD N o t o p e r a tin g m o b ile e q u ip m e n t o r t r u c k
CD C age o r c o v e r t o p r o t e c t a g a in s t f a llin g o b je c ts
CD R o llo v e r p r o t e c t io n

4.

□
□

O th e r :

6.

CD N o t a w a re of a n y s a fe ty fe a tu r e s

CD
□
CD
□
□
CD

Less than 1 m onth
1 to 6 m onths
6 m onths to 1 year
1 to 5 years
5 to 10 years
10 years or m ore

T. How are you paid? (Check one.)
1.

CD B y t h e c o r d , lo a d o r o th e r p ie c e w o r k b asis:

(Describe)

S e a t b e lt

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.

2.

CD B y t h e h o u r o r w e e k

3.

□

O th e r:

(D escribe) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(D escribe)_______________________________________
U. Who gave you safety training in logging? (Check a ll that apply.)

4.

CD
CD
CD
CD

1.
2.

O. How long had you been working that day before your accident
occurred? (Check one.)

3.

N e v e r re c e iv e d a n y s a fe ty t r a in in g
S u p e rv is o r o r e m p lo y e r
C o - w o r k e r ( o t h e r t h a n s u p e rv is o r)
R e la tiv e

1.

□

Less th a n 1 h o u r

5.

□

L e a rn e d s a fe ty o n y o u r o w n

2.

□

□

O th e r:

□

1 t o 2 h o u rs
2 t o 4 h o u rs

6.

3.
4.

□

4 t o 6 h o u rs

5.

□

6 t o 8 h o u rs

6.
7.

□

8 h o u r s o r m o re

□

D o n 't r e m e m b e r

( Describe )

V. How many workdays did you (or do you expect to) lose due to your
injury? (N O T E : Do not count the day of injury, days on light duty
work, normal days o ff or holidays.)
____________________

P. How long had you been working without a break for rest or lunch?
(Check one.)
1.

□
□

3.
4.

□
□

4 h o u r s o r m o re

□

D o n 't re m e m b e r

in ju r y .

1 t o 2 h o u rs
2 t o 4 h o u rs

5.

W o rk d a y s

C h e c k h e r e _________ i f y o u d id n o t lo s e t i m e b e y o n d t h e d a y o f

Less th a n 1 h o u r

2.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

W. Did your injury require you to be hospitalized overnight?

Q.

Was the wood you were logging going to be used for pulpwood?
1.

□
□

Y es

3.

CD D o n ’ t k n o w

□

No

□

Y es
I f ye s, h o w lo n g w e re y o u ( o r d o y o u e x p e c t t o b e ) in t h e
h o s p ita l?

No

2.

1.
2.

In your own words, tell how the accident happened.

How could it have been prevented?

__________________ N ig h ts

Work Injury Reports

Reports which may be purchased from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Services
(NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161:
• Survey of Ladder Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207985 (1978)
• Survey of Welding and Cutting Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208017 (1978)
• Survey of Scaffold Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208009 (1978)
• Survey of Power Saw Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207993 (1978)
Reports available from the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Room
4014, 601 D Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20212, or regional offices:
• Accidents Involving Eye Injuries
Report 597 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Face Injuries
Report 604 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Head Injuries
Report 605 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Foot Injuries
Report 626 (1981)
Reports which may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402
• Injuries Related to Servicing Equipment
Bulletin 2115 (1981)
• Back Injuries Associated with Lifting
Bulletin 2144 (1982)
• Work-related Hand Injuries and Upper Extremity Amputations
Bulletin 2160 (1982)
• Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling and Services
Bulletin 2179 (1983)
• Injuries Resulting From Falls From Elevations
Bulletin 2195 (1984)
• Injuries in the Logging Industry
Bulletin 2203 (1984)

* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:

1984; 421-608/16315

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
Suite 1603
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

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Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

US.MAIL

V.

J


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