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INJURIES AND
ACCIDENT CAUSES
m

Bulletin No. 1174
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR



J a m e s P . M itc h e ll, S e c r e ta r y
BUREAU O F LA B O R STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner




Injuries and Accident Causes in
WAREHOUSING OPERATIONS




A d e ta ile d a n a l y s i s of in j u r ie s ,
i n j u r y r a t e s , a n d h a z a r d s f o r 1 950,
b y t y p e of w a r e h o u s e , r e g i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n

B u lletin N o . 1 1 7 4
January 1955

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LAB O R STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner

‘ or sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
F
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 40 cents




CONTENTS

Page
Abstract............................................................

iv

The industry record.........................

1

Scope and method of survey..........................................
Injury rates.....................................................
Injury-frequency rate.........................................
Average time charge per injury................................
Injury-severity rate..........................................
Accident analysis................................................
Agency of injury..............................................
Accident type........... .....................................
Hazardous working condition...................................
Agency of accident............................................
Unsafe act....................................................

2
1
+
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7

Warehousing operations and their hazards............................

7

Factors in the injury record........................................
Comparison by type of warehouse..................
Regional and State comparisons...................................
Refrigerated warehouses.......................................
Merchandise warehouses........................................
Farm-products warehouses......................................
Household-goods warehouses....................................
Metropolitan area comparisons................................... *
Occupational comparisons.........................................
Operating occupations.........................................
Materials-movement workers....................................
Miscellaneous occupations.....................................

10
10
12
12
12
13
13
13
lj
i.
li
l

15
15

Kinds of injuries experienced........................................
Fatalities and permanent-total disabilities......................
Permanent-partial disabilities...................................
Temporary-total disabilities.....................

15
15
16
17

Accident analysis...................................................
Agencies of injury.............
Accident types................................................

18
18
21




i

Page

Accident causes......................................................
Hazardous working conditions.................................. .
Hazardous working procedures...............................
Defects of agencies............................................
Inadequately guarded agencies..................................
Hazardous arrangement or placement.............................
Miscellaneous..............
Unsafe acts.......................................................
Unsafe handling................................................
Assuming unsafe positions or postures..........................
Unsafe loading or placing......................................
Miscellaneous unsafe acts..... ................

22
2+
1
2+
1

Accident-prevention suggestions......................................
Case descriptions and recommendations.........................

30

Appendix— Statistical tables.........................................

1+0

Table 1.— Work-injury rates for warehousemen, 1950, classified by
type of warehouse and occupation........................
Table 2.— Work-injury frequency rates for warehousemen, 1950, clas­
sified by geographic region, State, and type of warehouse
Table 3*— Work-injury rates for warehousemen, 1950, classified by
metropolitan area....... ...............................
Table 1+.— Work-injury frequency rates for warehousemen, 1950, clas­
sified by occupation and by type of warehouse...........
Table 5«— Disabling work injuries to warehousemen of 27k warehouses,
1950, classified by nature of injury, part of body in­
jured, and type of warehouse............................
Table 6.— Disabling work injuries to warehousemen of 27k warehouses,
1950, classified by nature of injury, part of body in­
jured, and agency of injury.............................
Table 7.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 27k warehouses, 1950*
classified by activity, agency of injury, and accident
type.................................
Table 8.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 27k warehouses, 1950,
classified by agency of injury, accident type, and type
of warehouse............................................
Table 9.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 27l+ warehouses, 1950,
classified by accident typeand agency of injury.........
Table 10.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 216 warehouses, 1950,
classified by hazardous working condition and agency of
accident...........




i i

2k
25
26
26
26
27
28
28
29

31

1+1
1+2
13
+
1+3

14+

1+5

1+6

1+7
1+8

1+9

Page

Table 11.— Work accidents to warehousemen, 1950, classified by haz­
ardous working condition, unsafe act, and type of warehouse
Table 12.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 2i;5 warehouses, 1950,
classified by unsafe act and accident type................
Table 15.— Work accidents to warehousemen of 2 j 5 warehouses, 1950,
i.
classified by unsafe act and activity.....................




iii

50
51
52

ABSTRACT

The incidence of work injuries in the warehousing end storage industry
is generally high. In 1952 the injury-freouency rate for the entire indus­
try was 36.4. This was more than double the all-manufacturing average and
was exceeded "by only 6 of the 49 nonmanufacturing averages available. In
respect to injury severity, however, the industry’s record tended to be
better than average.
Detailed records for the year 1950 indicate that the highest incidence
of injuries in the industry occurs in refrigerated warehouses, followed in
descending order by merchandise warehouses, farm-products warehouses, and
household-goods warehouses. Seventy-seven percent of the reported injuries
were experienced by operating personnel who represented 59 percent of the
total employment; 11 percent by materials-movement personnel who consti­
tuted 10 percent of the total employment; and 12 percent by the clerical
and maintenance workers who accounted for 31 percent of the employment.
The most common types of injury-producing accidents were those in
which workmen (l) were struck by moving objects; (2) strained themselves
while handling materials or equipment; (3) were caught in, on, or between
moving objects; or (4) fell. The latter two groups produced the most
severe injuries.
Supervisory failures to properly plan and organize work procedures,
and defective material and equipment were p'cominent in the list of
accident causes. Unsafe materials-handling procedures and the practice
of unnecesarily assuming an unsafe position or posture were the con­
tributing faults most commonly ascribed to the employees.
Accident prevention suggestions, prepared by two experienced safety
engineers for a group of typical warehousing accidents, indicate that most
.
accidents in the industry could be prevented through the application of
very simple precautions.




iv

Injuries and Accident Causes in W arehousing O perations*
THE INDUSTRY RECORD

Hie incidence o f work in ju r ie s in the warehousing and storage industry
has been c o n s is te n tly h igh . In 7 o f the 8 postwar years the injury-frequ'ency
rate l / f o r the in du stry, as reported in the annual w ork -in ju ry summaries o f
the Bureau o f Labor S t a t is t ic s , has been above 30. The one exception
occurred in 1948 when the industry average dropped to 26.6 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s
per m illio n employee-hours worked.
In 1952, the la t e s t year f o r which f i n a l fig u re s are a v a ila b le , the
average in ju ry -freq u en cy rate f o r the warehousing and storage industry was
3 6 .4 . 2 / This was more than double the all-m anufacturing industry average
and was exceeded by on ly 7 o f the 162 separate manufacturing industry
averages a v a ila b le f o r comparison. Among the nonmanufacturing in d u strie s,
on ly 6 o f the 49 industry c la s s ific a t io n s covered by the Bureau o f Labor
S t a t is t ic s had higher in ju ry -freq u en cy r a te s . Five o f these higher rates
were f o r con stru ction a c t i v i t i e s ; the" other was f o r stevedoring o p era tion s.
In terms o f in ju ry s e v e r ity , however, the record o f warehousing and
storage industry i s g e n e ra lly somewhat b e tte r than that f o r most in d u strie s.
The most favorable in ju r y -s e v e r it y comparison between warehousing end
storage and other in d u strie s was found in the occurence o f perm anent-partial
d i s a b i l i t i e s . In warehousing op era tion s, 1 .7 percent o f a l l d isa b lin g in­
ju r ie s in 1952 resu lted in some degree o f permanent impairment compared w ith
5 .4 p ercent fo r all-m anufacturin g. That r a t io (1 .7 p ercen t) was the median
f o r the nonmanufacturing group o f in d u strie s but i t was w ell below the 5.9
percent r a tio in the comparable stevedoring industry.

* This report was prepared in the Branch o f In d u stria l Hazards, Bureau
o f Labor S t a t is t ic s , U. S. Department o f Labor, by Frank S. McElroy and
George R. McCormack.
l / See d e scrip tio n o f Scope and Method o f Survey, Page 2 ,
tion o f in ju ry -freq u en cy ra te .

f o r d e fin i­

2 / Work In ju rie s in the United States During 1952, Bureau o f Labor
S t a t is t ic s B u lle tin No. 1164.




(1 )

-2-

Furthermore, in a broad comparison o f in ju r y se v e rity among in d u s trie s ,
the 1952 record showed an average time charge o f 50 days per case f o r a l l re­
ported in ju r ie s and 12 days per case f o r a l l tem porary-total d is a b i l i t i e s in
warehousing and storage operations compared with corresponding averages o f
85 days and 17 days f o r all-m anufacturin g. The standard s e v e r ity r a te , 3 /
representing the lo s s to the in d u stry , however, was 1 ,8 days per 1,000 em­
ployee-h ours worked in warehousing and storage and 1 ,3 f o r all-m anufacturin g.
This apparent anomaly a r is e s from the method o f computing the standard sever­
i t y rate which r e f le c t s in ju ry frequency as w e ll as in ju ry s e v e r ity . S p e c if­
i c a l l y , the com paratively low average s e v e r ity o f in ju r ie s in warehousing
and storage in 1952 i s overbalanced by the r e la t iv e ly high frequency o f in ­
ju ry occu rren ce, thus re su ltin g in a d isp ro p o rtio n a te ly high standard sever­
i t y r a te .
SCOPE AN M TH D OF SURVEY
D E O
The warehousing and storage in d u stry , as defin ed f o r th is study, in clu d es
a l l establishm ents which provide storage f a c i l i t i e s f o r h ir e . These estab­
lishments are g en era lly designated as '‘p u b lic warehouses." Storage and ware­
housing f a c i l i t i e s owned and operated by manufacturers, r e t a ile r s , or others
f o r the accommodation o f t h e ir own products o r m a terials, commonly c a lle d
"p riva te warehouses," have been excluded.
In a d d ition to providin g storage f a c i l i t i e s , many p u b lic warehouses
perform supplementary se rv ic e s on t h e ir prem ises, such as packing, c r a tin g ,
s o r tin g , or blending the commodities o f t h e ir custom ers. Many warehouses
a ls o provide pickup and d e liv e r y s e rv ic e f o r the commodities moving in t o and
out o f t h e ir p la n ts . Others, p a r tic u la r ly the household-goods warehouses,
freq u en tly provide truck ing and hauling, or moving, se rv ice s f o r commodities
which do not enter in to t h e ir storage o p e ra tio n s. A ll o f these operation s
are recognized as in te g r a l t o the warehousing in d u stry although the extent
to which they are performed v a rie s w idely among the various kinds o f ware­
houses and even among warehouses o f any s p e c if ic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . General
records o f warehousing op era tion s, such as the industrywide in ju r y ra te s ,
th e r e fo r e , in clu d e these supplementary operations wherever they are performed
by warehousing establishm ents.
For th is d e ta ile d study, however, the la ck o f u n iform ity in the outside
moving, hauling, and d e liv e r y .se rv ice s precluded the p resen ta tion o f data
re la tin g t o those operations in s ig n ific a n t c a t e g o r ie s . The study, there­
fo r e , has been r e s t r ic t e d to the experience o f in s id e warehousemen, that i s ,
t o a c t i v i t i e s performed at the warehouse. The experience o f highway tru ck d r iv e r s , t h e ir h e lp e rs, and o f other employees who perform the major por­
t io n o f t h e ir duties away from the warehouse has been excluded. For the
same reason, the experience o f automotive mechanics employed by warehous­
in g establishm ents has been excluded.
3 / See d e s crip tio n o f Scope and Method o f Survey, Page 2 , f o r d e fin i­
t io n o f in ju r y -s e v e r it y r a te .




-3 -

This d e ta ile d study has two o b je c t iv e s . The f i r s t sterns from the fa c t
that the in ju ry ra tes re g u la rly a v a ila b le f o r the warehousing and storage
industry represent the composite experience o f the varied, operation s o f a l l
types o f p u b lic warehouses. The wide d iffe re n ce s in the experience o f the
d iffe r e n t kinds o f warehouses and the varying e f f e c t s which th e ir operation s
have on the in ju ry t o t a ls are obscured in the industrywide fig u r e s . The
f i r s t o b je c t iv e , th e re fo re , is to break down the broad in ju ry experience
data in to s ig n ific a n t ca te g o rie s r e fle c t in g fu n c tio n a l, operatin g, and
geographic d iffe r e n c e s w ithin the industry. These groupings help to in d ica te
the kinds o f op eration s which are most produ ctive o f in ju r ie s and which
should re ce iv e p a r tic u la r a tte n tio n in the planning and development o f
s a fe ty programs w ith in the industry.
The second o b je c t iv e i s to present inform ation as to how and why in­
jury-producing a ccid en ts have occurred in the industry. Such inform ation
helps to id e n t ify the hazards and unsafe p r a c tic e s tfhich most commonly
lead to a ccid en ts and thereby serves as a s p e c if ic guide to a ccid e n t-p re ­
vention a c t i v i t i e s .
Because d e ta ile d in ju ry data cannot be compiled u n til f in a l records are
a v a ila b le , i t i s g e n e ra lly im possible to present extended analyses o f in ju ry
experience u n t il lon g a f t e r the general data become a v a ila b le . The d e ta ile d
data in th is re p o rt, th e re fo re , are f o r the year 1950, although general
in ju ry -ra te data f o r 2 subsequent years are cu rren tly a v a ila b le . The under­
ly in g c h a r a c te r is tic s o f in ju ry experience change slow ly, however, and i t is
nrobable that the re la tio n sh ip s among the various operations and the
a ccid en t-ca u se patterns appearing in the 1950 record w il l be reasonably
a p p lica b le f o r a number o f subsequent years.
The in ju ry -ra te data were c o lle c t e d by mail on a voluntary rep ortin g
b a s is . Sampling procedures taking in to account geographic d is tr ib u tio n ,
employment d is tr ib u tio n , and type o f warehousing were employed. TTsable
rep orts were received from 2,695 p u b lic warehouses representing approxim ately
28 percent o f a l l warehouse establishm ents in the United S tates. These
rep orts covered the 1950 in ju ry experience o f n ea rly 32,000 in sid e ware­
house employees.
The rep ortin g group included 934 farm -products warehouses, 913 house­
hold-goods warehouses, 515 merchandise warehouses, and 304 re fr ig e r a te d and
co ld -sto ra g e warehouses. The remaining 29 warehouses had se rv ice s so d iv er­
s if ie d that they could not a p p rop ria tely designate th e ir a c t i v i t i e s in any
one c la s s ific a t io n or f a i l e d to in d ica te the type o f warehousing se rv ice
rendered.




- 4 -

In a d d itio n to p rovid in g summary re p o rts, 274 cooperating warehouses
made th e ir o r ig in a l a ccid en t records a v a ila b le f o r in sp e ctio n and a n a ly sis.
A rep resen ta tive o f the Bureau o f la b o r S t a t is t ic s v is it e d each o f these
warehouses and tran scribed from th e ir records the fo llo w in g data where
a v a ila b le :
(a ) p la ce where a ccid en t occu rred; (b ) occupation and age o f
in ju red worker; ( c ) nature o f in ju ry and p art o f body in ju red ; (d) o b je c t
or substance producing the in ju ry ; (e ) type o f a ccid e n t; ( f ) hazardous
working con d itio n an d/or unsafe a ct lead in g to the a ccid e n t.
This group o f establishm ents employed about 14,000 warehousemen. Their
in ju ry -freq u en cy rate ( 5 1 .2 ) , was somewhat higher than the average f o r a l l
warehousemen included in the survey but there was no in d ica tio n that th e ir
hazards d iffe r e d g r e a tly from those o f other warehousemen. Most o f the
v a ria tio n i s due to the exclu sion o f warehouses w ith zero frequency rates—
i . e . , warehouses which had no in ju r ie s f o r a n a ly sis— from th is p art o f the
studv. In divid u al case records were c o lle c t e d in th is p art o f the survey f o r
1,604 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s . These included 2 f a t a l i t i e s , 1 perm anent-total
d is a b i l i t y , 57 perm anent-partial d i s a b i l i t i e s , and 1,544 tem porary-total d is ­
a b ilitie s .
In.lury Rates
The in ju ry -ra te comparisons presented in th is rep ort are based printer i l y
upon in ju ry -freq u en cy and s e v e rity ra tes compiled a ccord in g to the d e fin i­
tio n s and procedures s p e c ifie d in the American Standard Method o f Compiling
In d u stria l In ju ry Bates, as approved by the American Standards A sso cia tio n
in 1945. These standard rates have been supplemented by an a d d itio n a l
measure o f in ju ry s e v e r ity designated as the average time charge p er dis­
a b lin g in ju ry .
The d e fin it io n s 4 / o f the several d is a b ilit y c la s s if ic a t i o n s as applied
in th is survey are as fo llo w s :
(1 ) F a t a lit y .— A death r e s u ltin g from a work in ju ry i s c l a s s i f i e d as a
work f a t a l i t y regard less o f the time intervening between in ju ry and death.
(2 ) Permanent-Total D is a b ilit y .— An in ju ry oth er than death*which p e r ­
manently and t o t a ll y in ca p a cita te s an employee from fo llo w in g any g a in fu l
occu pation i s c l a s s i f i e d as perm anent-total d i s a b i l i t y . The lo s s , o r complete
lo s s o f use, o f any o f the fo llo w in g in one a ccid en t i s considered permanentt o t a l d is a b ilit y :
(a ) Both eyes; (b ) one eye and one hand, or arm, o r le g , o r f o o t ;
( c ) any two o f the fo llo w in g not on the same lim b: Band, arm, f o o t , o r le g .

4 / See American Standard Method o f Compiling In d u stria l In ju ry Bates,
approved by the American Standards A sso cia tio n , October 11, 1945.




5

(3 ) Perm anent-Partial D is a b ilit y .— The complete lo s s in one accid en t
o f any member o r p art o f a member o f the body, o r any permanent impairment
o f fu n ction s o f the body o r part th ereof to any degree le s s than permanentt o t a l d is a b ilit y i s c la s s if ie d as perm anent-partial d is a b i l i t y , regard less
o f any p re e x istin g d is a b ilit y o f the in ju red member o r impaired body func­
tio n . The fo llo w in g in ju r ie s are not c la s s if ie d as perm anent-partial d is­
a b i l i t i e s , but are c l a s s i f i e d as tem porary-total, tem porary-partial d is­
a b i l i t i e s , o r medical .treatment ca ses, depending upon the degree o f d is­
a b i l i t y during the h ealin g p e rio d : (a ) hernia, i f i t can be rep a ired ;
(b ) lo s s o f fin g e r n a ils o r to e n a ils; ( c ) lo s s o f teeth ; (d ) disfigurem ent;
(e ) stra in s or sprains not causing permanent lim it a tio n o f motion; ( f )
fra ctu re s healing com pletely without d eform ities o r displacem ents.
(4 ) Temporary-Total D is a b ilit y .— Any in ju ry not re su ltin g in death or
permanent-impairment is c la s s if ie d as a tem porary-total d i s a b i l i t y i f the
injured, person, because o f h is in ju ry , i s unable to perform a re g u la rly
esta b lish ed jo b , open and a v a ila b le to him, during the e n tire time in te rv a l
corresponding to the hours o f h is regular s h if t on any one or more days
(in clu d in g Sundays, days o f f , o r p lan t shutdowns) subsequent to the date o f
in ju ry .
Injury-Frequency B ate.— Bie in ju ry -freq u en cy ra te represents the
average number o f d isa b lin g work in ju r ie s occu rrin g in each m illio n
employee-hours worked. I t i s computed according to the fo llo w in g formula:
Frequency rate

»

Humber o f d isa b lin g in ju r ie s x 1,000,000
Number o f employee-hours worked

Average Time Charge tier In ju ry . — The r e la t iv e s e v e r ity o f a temporary
in ju r y i s measured by the number o f calendar days during which the in ju red
person i s unable to work a t any re g u la rly esta b lish ed jo b open and a v a ila b le
to him, excluding the day o f in ju ry and the day on which he returns to work.
The r e la t iv e s e v e r ity o f death and permanent impairment aases i s determined
by referen ce to a table o f economic time charges included in the American
Standard Method o f Compiling In d u stria l In ju ry Hates. These time charges,
based upon an average w o r k in g -life expectancy o f 20 years f o r the e n tire
working p opu lation , represent the average percentage o f working a b i l i t y
l o s t as the re su lt o f s p e c ifie d impairments, expressed in unproductive days.
The average time charge p er d isa b lin g in ju ry i s computed by adding the days
l o s t f o r each temporary in ju ry and the days charged according to the stand­
ard ta b le f o r each death and permanent impairment and d iv id in g the t o t a l
by the number o f d isa b lin g in ju r ie s .
In ju ry -S e v e rity B ate.— The in ju r y -s e v e r it y ra te weights each d isa b lin g
in ju ry w ith i t s corresponding time lo s s or time charge and expresses the
aggregate in terms o f the average number o f days l o s t o r charged p er 1,000
employee-hours worked. I t i s computed according to the fo llo w in g formula:
S e v e r ity r a te




T o t a l days l o s t o r c h a rg e d x 1 ,0 0 0
Numbed o f em p lo y e e-K 6 U l*t VbW ted

-

6 -

Accident A nalysis
The a ccid en t-cau se an a lysis procedure used in th is study d i f f e r s in
some resp ects from the procedures s p e c ifie d in the American Standard Method
o f Compiling In d u stria l A ccident Causes. The d eviation s from the Standard
include the in trod u ction o f an a d d itio n a l an a lysis f a c t o r , termed the
"agency o f injury" and m o d ifica tio n o f the standard d e fin it io n s o f some o f
the other fa c t o r s . These changes permit more accurate cross c la s s i f i c a t i o n s .
Agency o f In ju ry . — The standard c la s s if ic a t i o n provides f o r the s e le c ­
tio n o f hut one "agency" in the a n a ly sis o f each a ccid e n t. By d e f in it io n ,
th is agency may he e ith e r (a) the o b je c t or substance which was unsafe and
thereby contribu ted to the occurrence o f the a ccid e n t, o r (b ) in the absence
o f such an o b je c t or substance, the o b je c t or substance most c lo s e ly re la te d
to the in ju ry . Tinder th is d e fin it io n , th e re fo re , a tabu lation o f "agen cies"
f o r a group o f a ccid en ts includes o b je c t s o r substances which may have been
in h eren tly sa fe and un related to the occurrence o f the a ccid e n ts, as w ell
as those which le d to the occurrence o f the a ccid en ts because o f th e ir con­
d itio n , lo c a t io n , stru ctu re, or method o f u se. The development o f the
c la s s if ic a t i o n "agency o f injury" represents an attempt to separate and
c l a s s i f y sep arately these two agency concepts.
As used in th is study, the "agency o f in ju ry" i s the o b je c t , substance,
or b o d ily rea ction which a c tu a lly produced the in ju ry , s e le c te d w ithout re­
gard to i t s s a fe ty c h a r a c te r is tic s o r i t s in flu en ce upon the chain o f events
co n s titu tin g the a ccid e n t.
A ccident Type.— As used in th is study, the a ccid e n t-ty p e c l a s s i f i c a ­
tio n assigned to each accid en t i s p u rely d e s crip tiv e o f the occurrence
re su ltin g in an in ju ry , and is re la te d s n e c if ic a liy to the agency o f in ju ry .
I t in d ica te s how the in ju red person came in to con ta ct w ith o r was a ffe c t e d
by the p re v io u sly s e le c te d agency o f in ju ry , as f o r example, by " s t r ik in g
against" the named agency o f in ju ry . The d e fin it io n represents a change
from the standard procedure in two re sp e cts: F ir s t , the a ccid e n t-ty p e
c la s s if ic a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y re la te d to the p re v io u sly se le c te d agency
o f in ju ry ; second, the sequence o f s e le c tin g th is fa c t o r i s s p e c ifie d .
Hazardous Working C ondition.— Under the standard d e fin it io n , the hazard­
ous working con d ition in d ica ted in the a n a ly sis i s defined as the "unsafe
mechanical or p h y sica l con d ition o f the s e le c te d agency which could have
been guarded o r co r r e c te d ." An example o f such a hazard is the la ck o f a
guard f o r a p re s s . This im plies the p r io r s e le c tio n o f the "agency" but
does not provide f o r re co g n itio n o f any re la tio n sh ip between the hazardous
con d ition and a ccid e n t-ty p e c la s s if ic a t i o n s . Nor does the standard
provide f o r any d e fin it e re la tio n sh ip between the "agency" and the
"a ccid e n t-ty p e " c la s s if ic a t i o n s .




-

7 -

To provide co n tin u ity and to e s ta b lis h d ir e c t re la tio n sh ip s among the
various a n a ly sis fa c t o r s to permit cro ss c la s s if ic a t i o n , the standard d e fin i­
tio n was m odified f o r th is study to read: 1 The hazardous working con d ition
1
is the hazardous co n d itio n which perm itted or occasioned the occurrence o f
the se le c te d a ccid en t ty p e ." The hazardous-condition c la s s if ic a t i o n , there­
fo r e , was se le cte d a f t e r the determ ination o f the a ccid e n t-ty p e c l a s s i f i c a ­
tio n , I t represents the -physical o r mechanical reason f o r the occurrence
o f that p a r tic u la r a ccid en t without regard to the f e a s i b i l i t y o f guarding
or co rr e ctin g the co n d itio n .
E lim ination o f the con d ition "which could have been guarded or
corrected " is based upon the premise that s t a t i s t i c a l an a lysis should
in d ica te the ex isten ce o f hazards, but should not attempt to s p e c ify the
f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o r r e c tiv e measures.
Agency o f A ccid en t. — For the purpose o f th is study, the agency o f
accid en t was defined as "the o b je c t , substance, o r premises in o r about
which the hazardous con d ition e x is t e d ," as, fo r example, the press which
was unguarded. I ts s e le c tio n , th e re fo re , i s d ir e c t ly a sso cia te d w ith the
hazardous con d ition lead in g to the occurrence o f the a ccid en t and not w ith
the occurrence o f the in ju ry . In many instances the agency o f in ju ry and
the agency o f accident are id e n t ic a l. The double agency c la s s if ic a t i o n ,
however, avoids any p o s s i b i l i t y o f ambiguity in the in te rp re ta tio n o f the
"agency" ta b u la tion s.
Unsafe A ct.— The unsafe a ct d e fin it io n used in th is survey i s id e n tic a l
with the standard d e fin it io n , i . e . , "th a t v io la t io n o f a commonly accepted
safe procedure which re su lte d in the se le c te d a ccid en t ty p e ."
W
AREH SIN OPERATIONS AN THEIR HAZARDS
OU GD
Operations in the p u b lic warehousing industry are g en era lly sim ila r,
varying on ly in the length o f time goods remain in storage and in the degree
to which the various operations.have been mechanized. The ra te o f turnover
(time elap sin g between re ce iv in g and shipping) depends, mainly, on the kind
o f goods or commodity stored— i . e . , type o f warehouse. The degree o f
m echanization, however, depends not o n ly on the type o f goods handled but
the d esire o f management.
In gen era l, goods to be stored are received at the warehouse by truck
or ra ilro a d c a r. From the loading dock, the goods are moved to the storage
area and p ile d . For d e liv e ry , the operation s are merely reversed.




-

8 -

General merchandise warehouses sto re processed goods or merchandise f o r
manufacturers, "brokers, d is tr ib u to r s , and other shippers u n t il the goods are
requested. In add ition to th e ir storage fu n ctio n s, general merchandise
warehouses freq u e n tly a ct as branch house d is tr ib u to r s f o r manufacturers,
perform ing a l l a c t i v i t i e s that the manufacturer might do in the d is tr ib u tio n
o f h is p rod u cts. Merchandise or oth er commodities on which a tax must be
paid b e fo re i t i s relea sed must be stored in bonded warehouses. Merchandise,
as a r u le , does not remain in p u b lic warehouses f o r long p eriod s o f time, as
warehousing costs may reduce p r o f i t s . Frequently, merchandise i s packed in
u n iform -size packages. As a r e s u lt , the goods may be p a lle t iz e d and fork­
l i f t trucks may be used f o r transporting and p i l i n g .
A co ld -sto ra g e warehouse is one in which p erish a b les are stored at
a r t i f i c a l l y cooled temperatures o f 45 degrees or l e s s . Some commodities
are preserved by fre e z in g ; temperatures in those storage areas may be as
low as 10 or 12 degrees below zero. Other u rrish a b les cannot be frozen
without damage; these commodities must be stored in rooms which are kept
at temperatures above the fre e z in g p o in t. G enerally, the humidity must be
c o n tr o lle d c a r e fu lly in co ld -sto ra g e warehouses. In most ca ses, commodities
remain in these warehouses f o r severa l months. U niform -size containers a lso
permit the use o f f o r k l i f t trucks in co ld -sto ra g e warehouses.
Farm-products warehouses are those in which a g ricu ltu ra l products are
stored u n t il they are needed by in d u stria l org a n iza tion s. Grain elev a tors
and co tto n warehouses are two o f the more common types. Farm-products ware­
houses, in a d d ition to storin g a g ricu ltu ra l p rodu cts, fre q u e n tly perform
ce rta in p rocessin g fu n ction s such as the cleaning o f grain and compressing
o f c o tto n . As most warehouses in th is group r e s t r ic t th e ir op eration s to
one commodity, mechanical equipment can g en era lly be used. Storage u su a lly
extends f o r several months.
Household-goods warehouses store personal p rop erty rather than merchan­
d is e . Many establishm ents also perform a u x ilia r y services such as packing
and cra tin g ; rep a irin g and cleaning o f fu rn itu re , rugs, and draperies; moth
p ro o fin g ; and trucking. ( The la t t e r se rv ice was excluded from th is s p e cia l
su rvey.) Property stored in these warehouses u su a lly remains in storage f o r
long p eriod s o f tim e. Powered m echanical-handling equipment i s seldom p r a c t i­
c a l because o f the v a r ie ty o f goods stored . Handtrucks and d o llie s are
u su a lly a v a ila b le * however.
Employment in p u b lic warehouses varies w id ely during the year. Gen­
e r a lly , i t i s low during the f i r s t p a rt o f the calendar year and a t a maxium
about O ctober. B iis i s e s p e c ia lly time in farm -products and co ld -sto ra g e
warehouses, the peak corresponding to , or fo llo w in g s lig h t ly , the harvesting
season. Household-goods warehouses have two peak employment p e rio d s—May
and October— the moving p eriod s in many c i t i e s . At those tim es, persons
c lo s in g th e ir permanent residences fre q u e n tly move th e ir person al e f f e c t s
in to storage whereas o th e rs, re e sta b lish in g permanent homes, remove th e ir
goods from stora g e.




-9-

The chance o f se v e re ly stra in ed muscles from l i f t i n g probably i s the out­
standing hazard t o warehousemen. Warehousing operations require a great deal
o f manual handling even though f o r k l i f t tru ck s, conveyors, and other mechanical­
handling equipment are used to some ex ten t. Goods f o r storage must be l i f t e d
from motortrucks or ra ilr o a d cars and placed on handtrucks or other equipment
on the loading dock. At the storage area they are u su a lly l i f t e d again and
p ile d although, in some in sta n ce s, the p ilin g i s done m echanically with fo rk ­
l i f t trucks or other equipment. When the goods are t o be d e liv e re d , the opera­
tio n s are reversed. Dock p la te s must be l i f t e d t o b rid ge the gap between
the loading dock and the r a ilr o a d ca r or m otortruck. Cakes o f i c e are handled
ex ten siv ely in co ld -s to ra g e warehouses. In a d d itio n , warehouse equipment
such as handtrucks and skids must be l i f t e d o cc a s io n a lly . Frequently, the
warehouse p ile s are high and the l i f t i n g hazard i s enhanced by the n e ce s s ity
o f overreaching.
Manual handling operations a lso re s u lt in other types o f in ju r ie s .
Hands or fin g e r s may be la ce ra te d by rough or s p lin te re d con ta in ers or by
dock p la te s , sk id s , handles o f handtrucks, and other warehouse equipment.
N ails p r o je c tin g from b a r r e ls , c r a te s , fu rn itu re , and other o b je c ts may re­
s u lt in punctured hands or f in g e r s . In a d d itio n , hands and fin g e r s as w e ll
as f e e t and toes may be crushed under o b je c ts as they are being p laced or by
goods which are dropped as th ey are being handled.
Unstable p ile s o f goods are a ls o important hazards t o warehousemen.
Unsafely p ile d goods in storage may f a l l on passing workmen without warning,
p a r tic u la r ly i f h e a v ily loaded tru ck s, used in nearby passageways, cause v i ­
bration s w ithin the warehousing stru ctu re . In se cu re ly p ile d goods hear pas­
sageways may f a l l a ls o i f the p ile i s bumped e ith e r by workmen or in d u s tr ia l
tru ck s. Improper loading on a handtruck can cause the loa d t o f a l l w hile i t
i s being moved o r while the truck i s being loaded or unloaded. Loads, inade­
quately blocked or t ie d in r a ilr o a d ca rs o r m otortrucks, may s h i f t during
tr a n s it and f a l l on workmen as the v e h ic le s are being unloaded. In a d d itio n ,
loads thrown against r a ilr o a d ca r doors during movement o f tra in s may s p i l l
out on workmen when they open the d oors.
V ehicular hazards are common in warehousing. "Blind* corn ers and poor
layout o f t r a f f i c lanes may re s u lt in c o l l i s i o n s between v e h ic le s o r between
v e h icle s and workmen. The p r a ctice o f loading f o r k l i f t trucks and sim ila r
equipment so that the loads b lock part o f the o p e ra to r 's lin e o f v is io n f r e ­
quently accents th is hazard. In handtruck op era tion s, hands and fin g e r s
are often pinched between the handles o f the trucks and doorways, p ile s o f
m a terials, or other o b je c t s .
The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s l i p , a stumble, o r a f a l l i s high in warehousing.
Loose boards, im properly placed ca s e s , c r a te s , or other m aterials fre q u e n tly
present trip p in g hazards. Tripping may a lso re su lt from rough f l o o r s in ware­
houses, r a ilr o a d c a r s , and m otortrucks. The n e ce s s ity o f working on top o f
p ile d m aterials fre q u e n tly presents seriou s p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f a l l s . S lipp in g




-1 0 -

hazards are important in r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses where f lo o r s are u su a lly wet
or damp and, o cc a s io n a lly , i c y . Loading docks even when covered may be s l i p ­
pery from ra in , snow, or s l e e t . Dock p la te s a ls o become s lip p e ry in inclement
weather; they may be s lip p e r y even in good weather when th e ir surfaces have
been worn smooth.
C old-storage warehouses have many unique hazards. Temperatures in
r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses may vary from the general atmospheric le v e l o f 70 t o
90 degrees t o the fre e z in g room temperatures o f 10 and 12 degrees below z e ro .
Some warehouses have found i t advisable t o schedule work in r e fr ig e r a te d rooms
during the e a rly working hours, making i t unnecessary f o r workmen to en ter the
r e fr ig e r a te d rooms a ft e r becoming heated from other work. Other hazards
unique in c o ld -s to r a g e warehouses a ris e from d e fro stin g o p e ra tio n s. The s lip p ­
in g hazard has already been noted. In a d d itio n , sin ce drainage i s fre q u e n tly
inadequate, warehousemen must remove i c e and water in b a rre ls or other con­
t a in e r s . The handling and moving o f these con tain ers in v olv es a l l the hazards
a sso cia te d with manual handling and trucking op era tion s.
Machine hazards are not common in warehouses. However, merchandise and
co ld -s to ra g e warehouses o c c a s io n a lly use b e lt conveyors t o transport goods t o
sto ra g e . Household-goods warehouses may have woodworking inachinery f o r re­
p a irin g fu rn itu re . In a d d itio n , most warehouses have some maintenance ma­
ch in ery . Unguarded machines in those operations a re, t h e r e fo r e , p o te n tia l
in ju r y producers.
The opening and c lo s in g o f r a ilr o a d ca r doors i s a common source o f
in ju r y . M aterials which s p i l l when the door i s opened have p re v io u sly been
mentioned as a hazard. A lso , the opening and c lo s in g o f boxcar doors may
lea d to pinched fin g e r s or stra in ed m uscles, p a r tic u la r ly because the doors
fre q u e n tly s t ic k . Handtools o f many kinds are used in warehouses and t h e ir
misuse freq u en tly re su lts in in ju r ie s .
FACTORS IN TH INJURY RECORD
E
The in ju r y re co rd o f any establishm ent o r any group o f establishm ents i s
a com posite o f many f a c t o r s . The kinds o f m aterials p rocessed o r handled,
the types o f p rocessin g performed, the extent t o which operations are mecha­
nized and the kinds o f equipment used, the State s a fe ty regu la tion s and the
extent t o which those regu la tion s are en forced, the type o f personnel em­
ployed, the s iz e o f the establishm ents, and the extent o f the s a fe ty programs
c a r r ie d on in the establishm ents a l l have a d ir e c t bearing upon the volume
o f in ju r ie s experien ced . In p a r tic u la r instances the influence- o f these
fa c t o r s may be o f f s e t t in g , but in comparisons based upon la rg e groups o f
operation s t h e ir e f f e c t s fre q u e n tly can be demonstrated, as in the f o llo w ­
ing groupings o f the 1950 in ju r y experience o f warehousemen.
Comparison by Type o f Warehouse
The fo u r general types o f warehousing establishm ents showed great




-1 1 -

v a ria tio n s in in ju r y experience (ta b le 1 ) . Average frequency ra tes ranged
from a low o f 21.0 f o r warehousemen o f household goods t o a high o f 39.7 f o r
workers in r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses. In gen eral, the warehouse groups in which
the volume o f in ju r ie s was high tended t o have r e la t iv e ly few seriou s in ju ­
r ie s ; the reverse was true in those groups which had r e la t iv e ly low frequency
ra te s .
Although r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses as a group had the highest frequency
ra te , t h e ir s e v e r ity records were the best in the in d u stry. Of the 606 in ju ­
r ie s reported by these warehouses, on ly 1 resu lted in death and on ly 16 re­
su lted in permanent d is a b i l i t y . As a r e s u lt , in ju ry s e v e r ity averages were
on ly 39 days lo s t time per d isa b lin g in ju r y and 1 .6 days l o s t per thousand
hours worked. R efrigera ted warehouses s p e c ia liz in g in the storage o f fo o d
products had the highest frequency rate recorded f o r any s p e c if ic type o f
warehouse, 1+0.9. However, a high in ciden ce o f tem porary-total d i s a b i l i t i e s ,
coupled with a low frequency o f seriou s d is a b ilit ie s depressed t h e ir average
time lo s s per d isa b lin g in ju ry to 37 days and t h e ir s e v e r ity ra te to 1.5*
Merchandise warehouses had a frequency rate o f 33*0 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s
per m illio n hours worked. Serious d i s a b i l i t i e s , s l ig h t ly more frequent than
in r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses but about equal to the average f o r a l l warehouses,
were overbalanced by the r e la t iv e ly high inciden ce o f tem porary-total d isa­
b i l i t i e s . S ev erity re co rd s, 61+ days l o s t time per in ju r y and 2 .1 days lo s t
per thousand hours worked, were, th e r e fo r e , somewhat b e tte r than the averages
f o r a l l warehouses.
Rates were a ls o computed f o r fo u r s p e c if ic types o f merchandise ware­
houses; canned goods, flo u r and g ra in -m ill produ cts, m iscellaneous fo o d
produ cts, and general merchandise. Within these s p e c ia liz e d groups, in ju r ie s
were most frequent in canned-goods warehouses, 39.5 per m illio n hours. A
f a t a l i t y and a permanent fin g e r in ju ry among the 58 reported d i s a b i l i t i e s
were p rim arily re sp o n sib le f o r the group’ s r e la t iv e ly unfavorable s e v e r ity
record s; 119 days l o s t time per in ju ry and 1+.7 days l o s t time per thousand
hours worked.
I n ju r ie s were even more severe in flo u r and g ra in -m ill products ware­
houses. Of the 36 in ju r ie s reported by that group o f warehouses, 1 was a
death and 3 were permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s . Coupled with a low in cid en ce o f
temporary d i s a b i l i t i e s , 23.1 per m illio n hours worked, the seriou s disa­
b i l i t i e s resu lte d in an average time lo s s per d isa b lin g in ju r y o f 322 days
and a s e v e r ity ra te o f 8.1+, the most adverse s e v e r ity records f o r any ware­
housing group.
Farm-products warehouses had a frequency rate o f 2 5 .0 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s
per m illio n hours worked, but these included r e la t iv e ly few seriou s d is a b ili­
t i e s . S ev erity records f o r t h is group o f plants were, th e r e fo r e , b e tte r than
average. Ihjuri.es were, g e n e ra lly , more frequent and moire severe in co tto n
warehouses than in grain e le v a to r s . R e sp e ctiv e ly , t h e ir frequency rates were
26.7 and 2 2 .1 ; s e v e r ity averages, 73 and 51+ days l o s t per in ju r y ; and




-1 2 -

s e v e r it y ra te s , 1 .9 and 1 .2 .
Serious d is a b i l i t i e s were r e la t iv e ly frequent in household-goods ware­
houses. Consequently, the s e v e r ity records f o r that group o f warehouses were
unfavorable— 181+ days l o s t per d isa b lin g in ju ry and 3*9 days l o s t per thousand
hours worked.
Regional and State Comparisons
V ariation s in in ju ry ra tes among the d iffe r e n t States and regions may re ­
f l e c t any one o r any combination o f several f a c t o r s . State s a fe ty regula­
tio n s and the degree to which they are enforced, the age and maintenance o f
plants and equipment, and employment fa c t o r s such as the work experience o f
a v a ila b le workers, a l l tend to in flu e n ce the average le v e l o f in ju r y rates
in any area.
In ju ry -ra te comparisons may a lso be a ffe c t e d by the type o f warehouse
predominating in the p a r tic u la r a rea s. For example, the highest national
average frequency ra te was recorded by r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses. Any area in
which th is type o f warehouse operation co n s titu te s a high p rop ortion o f a l l
warehousing op era tion s, th e r e fo r e , would be expected t o have a com paratively
high o v e r a ll average rega rd less o f other fa c t o r s which might in flu en ce the
r a t e . Because o f these v a ria b le in te rn a l w eighting f a c t o r s , the v a lid it y o f
in ju r y -r a te comparisons among the States and regions on the b a sis o f industry­
wide averages may be questioned. The most r e a l i s t i c area com parisons, th ere­
f o r e , are those based upon s p e c if ic types o f warehouses rather than upon
in d u stry t o t a ls (ta b le 2 ) . In ju ry -ra te comparisons based on State averages
are lim ite d because o f the small number o f warehouses that rep orted in each
S ta te .
R efrig era ted Warehouses.—Average in ju r y ra tes were computed f o r r e f r i g erated warehouses in 5 geographic areas and 1 S ta te s. Two o f the reg ion a l
+
frequency ra tes were above 1+0—West North C en tra l, 5 8 .0 , and P a c if ic , l|2+.5.
The other 3 (Middle A t la n tic , East North C entral, and South A tla n tic ) had
ra tes between 26 and 28. In g en era l, in ju r y s e v e r ity was in v e rs e ly re la te d
to in ju r y frequency. In the West North Central re g io n , in ju r ie s -averaged
on ly 10 days' d is a b ilit y ; in the P a c ific reg ion the average was 21 days. In
other re g io n s , averages were 25, 132 , and 35 days l o s t time per d i s a b ilit y .
State frequency ra te s were computed f o r C a lifo r n ia , 1+3.3> Pennsylvania,
2 7 .2 , New York, 25.3* and I l l i n o i s , 2I+.I4. D is a b ilit ie s averaged 26, 20, J>0,
and 1+ days, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
3
Merchandise Warehouses.—In ju ry ra tes were computed f o r merchandise
warehousemen in 7 geographic region s and 6 S ta te s. R egion a lly, the va ria ­
t io n s in in ju ry -fre q u e n cy ra tes were com paratively sm all, the ra tes ranging
from 29.1 in the East North C entral reg ion t o 37.5 in the Middle A tla n tic
re g io n . In ju ry s e v e r ity averages, however, had a con sid erab le spread, rang­
ing from 9 days l o s t per d is a b ilit y in the West South C entral region t o 126
days in the South A t la n tic . For other region s the average numbers o f days




-13-

l o s t per d i s a b i l i t y were: East North C en tral, 107; West North C e n tra l, 87;
Middle A tla n tic , 1+8; P a c if ic , k k; and New England, 13.
State frequency ra tes ranged from 27.1 in Pennsylvania to 51+.2 in New
J ersey. I l l i n o i s warehousemen averaged 27.8 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s per m illio n
hours worked, New York, 36.5> C a lifo r n ia , 38*9, and Indiana, k3»k» In ju r ie s
to Indiana warehousemen were, on an average, much more severe than those to
workmen in any other State group f o r which averages were computed, 21k days
l o s t per d is a b ilit y . Other State averages ranged from 16 days l o s t per in ­
ju ry in I l l i n o i s and New Jersey to 86 days in New York.
Farm-Products Warehouses. — Average in ju r y rates f o r farm -products warehousemen were computed f o r 6 regions but on ly 3 S ta te s. Two regions had r e la ­
t i v e l y high frequency ra te s— Mountain, 3 7 .3 j and West South C entral, 2 9 .1 . In
the other k regions the frequency ra te s ranged between 17 and about 20: South
A tla n tic , 1 7 .0 ; East North C entral, 1 8 .3 ; West North C en tra l, 1 9 .3 ; and East
South C entral, 2 0 .i|,. The average lo s s per d i s a b i l i t y was extremely high in
3 reg ion s: South A t la n tic , 198 days, Mountain, 161+ days, and East North
C entral, 13k days.
State in ju ry -freq u en cy ra tes were: I l l i n o i s , 23 .0 ; M is s is s ip p i, 3 0 .5 ;
and Texas, 3k»k» In ju ry s e v e r it y , measured by average time l o s t per d is ­
a b i l i t y , was 182 days, 33 days, and 2k days, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
Household-Goods Warehouses. — R epresentative in ju r y ra te s cou ld be computed f o r warehousemen o f household goods in o n ly k regions and 2 S ta te s.
The reg ion a l frequency ra tes were: East North C entral, 1 3 .3 ; Middle A tla n tic ,
1 9 .7 ; P a c if ic , 2 1 .7 ; and South A tla n tic , 3 k *“ • State frequency ra tes were:
2
C a lifo r n ia , 1 9 .9 ; and New York, 21+.7.
The adverse s e v e r ity record o f workmen in th is group o f warehouses, 182+
days lo s t per d i s a b i l i t y , was g e n e ra lly r e fle c t e d in the re g io n a l ra te s :
East North C en tral, k92 days l o s t per d is a b ilit y ; Middle A tla n tic , 366 days;
South A tla n tic , 185 days; and P a c if ic , 36 days. New York warehousemen aver­
aged 2+13 days l o s t time per in ju ry and C a lifo rn ia workmen, 1+0 days.
M etropolitan Area Comparisons
The lim ita tio n s o f in ju r y -r a te comparisons among regions and States ap­
p ly eq u a lly to comparisons among m etropolitan areas. U nfortunately, the num­
ber o f rep ortin g firm s was not la rg e enough t o permit a comparison o f in ju r y
ra tes b y type o f warehouse w ithin the various m etropolitan a reas. However,
because o f the d e sire o f s a fe ty personnel and plant managers f o r area d e t a il,
o v e r a ll ra tes were computed f o r warehousemen in 10 m etropolitan areas:
Boston, B u ffa lo , Chicago, Kansas C ity , Los A ngeles, M inneapolis-St, Paul,
New O rleans, New York-Northeastern New J ersey, P h ilad elp h ia, and San Antonio
(ta b le 3 ) .




In ju ry -freq u en cy ra tes ranged from 2 3 .8 (Chicago) to 66.2 (San A n ton io).
Three areas had ra tes between 25 and 30 (Boston, 2 5 .5 ; Los Angeles, 2 5 .6 ; and
B u ffa lo , 29.3)> 2 had ra tes between 30 and 1;0 (P h ilad elp h ia , 3 2 .5 ; and New
York-Northeastern New J ersey , 3 2 .8 ), 1 had a rate o f 1+0.24- (New O rlean s), and
2 had ra tes o f approxim ately 50 (M inneapolis-St. Paul, 5 0 .5> and Kansas C ity ,
5 0 .6 ).

I n f i v e o f these areas (B oston, B u ffa lo , Los Angeles, M inneapolis-St.
Paul, and San Antonio) the cooperating warehouses reported no f a t a l i t i e s or
permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u lt , the s e v e r ity records f o r those areas
were very fa v o r a b le . On the other hand, seriou s d is a b i l i t i e s were rather
frequent in New York-Northeastern New Jersey (22 o f 187 i n j u r i e s ) , Kansas
C ity (2 o f 56 in ju r ie s ), and Chicago (5 o f 92 i n j u r i e s ) . S e v e rity records in
those areas were, th e re fo re , unfavorable.
Occupational Comparisons
For general com parisons, warehouse employees were d iv id ed in to three oc­
cupational groups: op era tors, who comprised 59 percent o f the t o t a l reported
employment; materials-movement personn el, 10 percen t; and other occupations
( c l e r i c a l and m aintenance), 31 p ercen t. Seventy-seven percent o f the rep orted
in ju r ie s were experienced by op era tors; 11 percent by materials-movement per­
sonn el, and 12 percent by the other occu pation s.
O
peratin g Occupations. —Occupations found almost e x clu s iv e ly in the re­
fr ig e r a t e d warehouses had the most unfavorable in ju ry -freq u en cy r a te s . The
three highest occu pational in ju ry -fre q u e n cy ra tes were: 85.9 f o r coolerm en;
7 6 .1 f o r i c e handlers; and 6l*7 f o r freezermen (ta b le s 1 and U )• Handlers
and sta ck ers, who had the fou rth highest in ju r y ra te (5 1 *6 ), were employed
in various types o f warehouses, but they averaged 53 in ju r ie s per m illio n
hours worked in r e fr ig e r a te d warehouses compared with about 28 in merchandise
or farm -products warehouses. Compress op era tors, employed e x c lu s iv e ly in
co tto n warehouses, ranked f i f t h (2 8 .2 ) among the occupations with high in ju r y
ra te s .
Three o f the operting occupations had industrywide frequency ra tes
ranging between 30 and 20: General warehousemen, 38*2; packers and c r a t e r s ,
3 5 .6 ; and order f i l l e r s , 3 2 .6 . General warehousemen, the la rg e st occupa­
t io n a l group in the in du stry, are employed in a l l types o f warehouses and
t h e ir in ju r y experien ce, consequently, v a ried as w id ely . Their frequency
ra tes ranged from 22.9 in farm -products warehouses to 29*7 in merchandise
warehouses; averages were i+l*7 in re fr ig e r a te d warehouses and 36.9 in ware­
houses sto rin g household goods.
The low est in ju ry -freq u en cy ra te s f o r operating personnel were: 13*9
f o r fo o d p roce sso rs; 1 8 .9 f o r r e fr ig e r a t in g en gin eers; and 2 1 .2 f o r g ra in e le v a to r men.




-1 5 -

Operatin g occupations with the highest in ju ry -fre q u e n cy ra tes g e n e ra lly
had the most fa v ora b le in ju r y -s e v e r it y re co rd s. Coolsrmen, f o r example, ex­
perienced no deaths and on ly 1 permanent impairment in 81 d isa b lin g in ju r ie s .
A ll o f the 100 in ju r ie s reported f o r freezermen were temporary and handlers
and stackers had on ly 1 permanent impairment in 3JU reported i n ju r ie s . In
7
co n tra st, the loir frequency ra te f o r r e fr ig e r a tin g engineers was counterbal­
anced by an unfavorable in ju r y -s e v e r it y record — 1 death and 3 permanent im­
pairments in the t o t a l o f Ip. in ju r ie s rep orted.
Materials-Movement Workers. — Handtruckers had the highest in ju r y frequency ra te among materials-movement workers. Their average was l*i*.0 d is ­
abling in ju r ie s p er m illio n hours worked, but among 162 cases no death oc­
curred and on ly 3 permanent impairments*
E levator operators (27*0) and f o r k l i f t operators (2 6 .2 ) had p r a c t ic a lly
id e n t ic a l in ju ry -fre q u e n cy ra tes but the form er had the b e t te r in ju r y -s e v e r it y
re co rd s. F o r k lif t operators had i* permanent impairments among a t o t a l o f 51
cases*
Miscellaneous Occupations*— Maintenance workers had an industrywide injury-frequency rate of 37.2. In merchandise warehouses their average rate
was 1*0.55 it was
in refrigerated warehouses, and 22*2 in farm-products
warehouses.

30*7

Frequency ra tes f o r c l e r i c a l operation s v a rie d w id e ly . Checkers, whose
duties b rin g them in to c lo s e con ta ct with operating hazards, had an industry­
wide rate o f 23«1* compared w ith 2*0 f o r the s t r i c t l y o f f i c e personnel* The
highest ra te f o r checkers was 1*2*2 in re fr ig e r a te d warehouses; and the high­
e st ra te f o r other c l e r i c a l workers was 1*»9 in farm -products warehouses.
P r a c t ic a lly a l l o f the in ju r ie s experienced b y checkers and o f f i c e personnel
were only tem porarily d is a b lin g .
Jan itors ( l l .i * ) and watchmen (9 .8 ) had r e la t iv e ly low industrywide f r e ­
quency r a te s , but both o f these occupations had a r e la t iv e ly high p rop ortion
o f seriou s in ju r ie s .
KINDS OF INJURIES EXPERIENCED
F a t a lit ie s and Permanent-Total D is a b ilit ie s
In d ivid u a l case records o f l,60i* in ju r ie s were c o lle c t e d f o r d e ta ile d
an alysis by Bureau re p re se n ta tiv e s. Two o f these in ju r ie s re su lte d in death
and one in perm anent-total d is a b i l i t y . E levators accounted f o r the two
f a t a li t ie s * In one c a s e , the warehouseman was found a t the f o o t o f an e le ­
v a tor sh a ft and, in the o th e r, an e le v a to r operator was decapitated when
h is head was caught between the e le v a to r cage and the hoistw ay. A crane was
resp on sible f o r the s in g le perm anent-total d i s a b i l i t y . In th a t accid en t a
lin k broke in the chain s lin g which perm itted a s t e e l angle t o f a l l on a
warehouseman, permanently d isa b lin g both o f h is arms*




-1 6 -

Permanent-Partial D is a b i l i t i e s .
In the d e ta ile d group o f in ju r ie s there were 57 perm anent-partial d isa­
b i l i t i e s . Of th e se , 17 were amputations and hO were b ru is e s, c u t s , s tr a in s ,
and fra ctu re s which re su lte d in the lo s s o f use o f some body part o r fu n c tio n .
Three o f the amputations in volved to e s and the remainder a ffe c te d fin g e rs or
thumbs. An e le v a to r , a cran e, and a b a lin g press accounted f o r the three
to e amputations. In the f i r s t ca se , a warehouse help er had h is f o o t crushed
between an e le v a to r and the hoistway. Four o f h is to e s were fra ctu red ? two
o f these were amputated la t e r . In the crane a ccid e n t, grease from the gear
housing dripped onto the brake o f the boom. The boom slip p e d , f e l l , and the
crane b lock struck the workman's f o o t , amputating one t o e . In the b a lin g press a ccid e n t, a head sewer l o s t three to e s when h is f o o t was caught under
the b a lin g p re ss.
Two or more fin g e r s were l o s t by each o f three workmen. A foreman l o s t
parts o f two fin g e r s in the valve o f a pneumatic conveyor when he reached
in t o the spout o f the conveyor t o lo o se n f lo u r which had become clo g g e d .
Another foreman (maintenance) l o s t two fin g e r s in a c ir c u la r saw. The th ird
man, an o i l e r , l o s t fo u r fin g e r s in the gears o f a wheat conveyor w hile he
was applying grease.
Of the 11 amputations in v olv in g one fin g e r o r thumb, one re su lte d from
con ta ct with a c ir c u la r saw and another with a metal shear. One man had h is
fin g e r amputated in a meat grin d er, one l o s t a fin g e r in a r o l l e r o f a b e lt
conveyor, and another l o s t a fin g e r in a b a lin g p re ss.
F o r k lift trucks were in v olv ed in two s in g le fin g e r amputations. In one
ca se , a warehouse la b o re r trip p e d . When he f e l l , he touched the relea se
le v e r o f a f o r k l i f t ? the fo rk dropped and amputated h is f in g e r . In the other
c a s e , a f o r k l i f t operator was using a board as a le v e r t o a lin e the cab o f
h is l i f t . When the board slip p e d , his fin g e r was caught between the h o is t
and the ca b .
Two warehousemen had fin g e r s amputated b y the storage goods ^which they
were handling. In one a ccid e n t, the warehouseman crushed h is fin g e r between
a cra te and the sid e o f a box ca r in t o which he was loadin g the c r a t e . In
the second a ccid e n t, a la b o re r was l i f t i n g one end o f a s t e e l beam. He
slip p e d and the beam f e l l on h is fin g e r .
A j a c k l i f t and the crosshead o f an engine accounted f o r two thumb am­
p u ta tion s. A handtrucker, operating a j a c k l i f t , l o s t h is thumb when i t
was caught between the j a c k l i f t and the lo a d . An engineer l o s t h is thumb
when i t was caught by the moving crosshead.
The hO lo s s -o f - u s e cases included 1 arm in ju r y ,
and fin g e r in ju r ie s , 15 f o o t and to e in ju r ie s , 3 eye
ju r i e s , and 1 lung in ju r y . F a llin g o b je c t s re su lte d
in ju r ie s and 9 f o o t and to e i n ju r ie s . Most o f these




2 le g in ju r ie s , 15 arm
in ju r ie s , 3 back in ­
in h thumb and fin g e r
o b je c ts f e l l e ith e r

-1 7 -

from the hands o f workmen o r from equipment such as handtrucks. F a lls ac­
counted f o r 7 permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s — 2 le g , 1 arm, 1 f o o t , 1 eye, and 2 back
in ju r ie s . A ll but the eye in ju r y occurred in f a l l s from e le v a tio n s .
Workmen, caught between v e h ic le s and other o b je c t s , experienced f iv e per­
manent lo s s -o f-u s e in ju r ie s . One o f these was a hand injury* another a fin g e r
in ju r y , and three were toe in ju r ie s . Moving parts o f equipment produced s ix
permanent hand o r fin g e r in ju r ie s . The point o f operation o f a p ortab le
sander, a r o l l e r o f a b e lt conveyor, a b a lin g p re ss, two fr e ig h t -c a r doors,
and the door o f an ic e e le v a to r were in volved in those a ccid e n ts. Manual
handling operations were resp on sible f o r a back, a hand, and a fin g e r in ju r y .
The back in ju r y was a stra in due to l i f t i n g ; the hand and fin g e r in ju r ie s re ­
su lted from the workers* hands being caught between o b je c ts being handled.
F lying o b je c ts accounted f o r two o f the permanent eye in ju r ie s . In one
case a n a il glanced when struck by a hammer and, in the oth er, a s p lin t e r was
thrown by the blade during the operation o f a c ir c u la r saw. One warehouseman
in ju red a toe permanently when an iro n p ip e , used to "break down" r o l l s o f
newsprint, slip p e d and struck h is f o o t . Another workman in ju re d one o f h is
thumbs-when-he bumped against a p ie ce o f lumber and another in ju re d h is f o o t
when he slip p ed and struck a sk id . The lung in ju ry re su lte d from the inhala­
t io n o f a chem ical when a carboy broke.
Temporary-Total D is a b ilit ie s
R e fle ctin g the la rge volume of m aterials handling by warehousemen, fo u r
types o f in ju r ie s accounted f o r nearly a l l tem porary-total d i s a b i l i t i e s .
Strains and sprains co n s titu te d 35 percent o f the temporary in ju r y volume;
b ru ises and con tu sion s, J>0 percen t; c u ts , la c e r a tio n s , and punctures, 15 per­
ce n t; and fr a c t u r e s , 13 p ercen t. Nearly 3 percent o f a l l tem p orary-total
d i s a b i l i t i e s were h ern ias. B a c k , le g , f o o t , toe,hand, and fin g e r in ju r ie s
tire d o m i n a t e d .
I t would a p p e a r , th e r e fo r e , that more general use o f mechanical
handling equipment and wider use o f personal s a fe ty equipment would m ateri­
a l l y reduce the number o f in ju r ie s t o warehousemen.
Most o f the stra in s and sprains were back in ju r ie s re su ltin g from over­
ex ertion in l i f t i n g o r moving heavy o b je c t s . However, sprained ankles were
a lso common. Bruises and contusions were c h i e f ly f o o t , le g , and to e in ju r ie s .
Most o f these in ju r ie s occurred when workmen dropped m aterials they were
handling. Bruised fin g e rs and hands were a lso common, occu rrin g when workmen
set m aterials down.
Most cu ts and la ce ra tio n s were fin g e r or hand i n ju r ie s . G enerally these
resu lte d from workmen rubbing against sharp-edged o r rough m aterials such as
cra te s and boxes during m aterials-handling op era tion s. Cuts t o f e e t and le g s
were le s s common, but nevertheless occurred in con siderab le numbers. Nearly
15 percent o f a l l tem porarily d isa b lin g cuts and la ce ra tio n s were in fe c te d .
F ractures, among the most severe o f the temporary d i s a b i l i t i e s , averaged
36 days lo s t time per ca se . F a llin g m aterials accounted f o r many fra ctu re d




-1 8 -

f e e t and t o e s .

F in gers, r i b s , and hands were a ls o fra ctu re d fre q u e n tly .
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

A ccident rep orts fre q u e n tly do not in d ica te the s p e c if ic reason f o r the
occurrence o f the p a r tic u la r events culm inating in an in ju r y . In most ca se s,
the only a v a ila b le inform ation comes from the in ju re d person or from w itnesses
present at the time o f the a ccid e n t. G enerally, those persons lack both the
s k i l l and the opportunity to in v e stig a te the event f u l l y t o determine the ac­
tu a l cause o f the a ccid e n t. In the an alysis o f a la rg e number o f re p o rts,
th e re fo re , i t i s common to fin d a large p rop ortion d e fic ie n t in one o r more
fa c to r s important t o the s a fe t y engineer. D espite these lim it a tio n s , however,
the analyst can draw much u se fu l inform ation from even the most sketchy ac­
cid en t d e s crip tio n s .
The d escrip tio n o f an accident in v a ria b ly tends t o f o llo w the normal
lin e o f thinking on the part o f an in te re s te d person who hears th a t a fr ie n d
or acquaintance has been in ju r e d . The f i r s t thought i s o f the in ju r y i t s e l f .
Was i t a burn, a c u t , a b r u is e , a s tr a in , or something e ls e ? Then, what pro­
duced the in ju ry and how did i t happen? These are a l l d e s crip tiv e fa c t s
which are u su ally apparent t o the w itn esses. They are stre ss e d , th e re fo re ,
in d escrib in g the ev en ts. The more a n a ly tica l q u estion , ,fWhy did the a c c i­
dent happen?” norm ally a rise s on ly a ft e r the d e sire f o r d e scrip tiv e informa­
t io n has been s a t i s f i e d . Frequently i t goes unanswered, e ith e r because o f
preoccupation with the d e s crip tiv e f a c t o r s , o r because the answer may not be
re a d ily apparent.
The d ir e c t approach in accid en t a n a ly sis, th e r e fo r e , i s t o draw from
the records the various elements o f inform ation in the order in which they
are u su a lly recorded. A lone, these elements may have lim ite d v a lu e, but
when re la te d to each other they can be o f con siderab le value in in d ica tin g
the accid en t-preven tion a c t i v i t i e s needed. The f i r s t step toward an tinderstanding o f the accident problem i s , th e r e fo r e , the determ ination o f the ob­
je c t s or substances most commonly producing in ju r ie s .
Agencies o f In ju ry
C ontainers, the most fre q u e n tly l i s t e d agency o f in ju r y , accounted f o r
nearly on e-th ird (30*3) o f a l l in ju r ie s t o warehousemen. These in ju r ie s ,
however, did not tend t o be sev ere. None o f the I4.8 I4. in ju r ie s in th is group
re su lte d in death and on ly 8 re su lte d in permanent d is a b ilit y . Consequently,
the average time l o s t per in ju r y was on ly 30 days, about h a lf the average
f o r a l l in ju r ie s . Boxes and cases were most fre q u e n tly in v olv ed but bags,
sacks, b a le s ,b a r r e ls , kegs, tu b s, cans, drums, and other containers were re ­
spon sible f o r n ea rly 55 percent o f the in ju r ie s in th is group (ta b le 7 ) .
Nearly h a lf the in ju r ie s a scrib ed t o con tain ers were stra in s experienced
in l i f t i n g . I n ju r ie s t o the trunk, back, abdomen, shoulder, e t c . , were,
th e r e fo r e , most common. One-fourth o f the con ta in er in ju r ie s were b ru ises




-1 9 -

and contusions and one-ninth were fr a c tu r e s . F in gers, hands, t o e s , f e e t , and
le g s were most fre q u e n tly a ffe c t e d . In many o f these a ccid en ts the con ta in ­
ers f e l l from p i l e s , from equipment, o r dropped from workmen's hands. In
other in sta n ces, warehousemen crushed t h e ir hands or fin g e rs under or between
the con ta in ers which they were handling.
Containers were p a r tic u la r ly prominent in ju r y producers in farm -products
warehouses where approxim ately 35 percent o f a l l in ju r ie s in v olv ed con ta ct
with container's (ta b le 8 ) . Heavy b a les o f c o tto n were frequent sources o f
in ju ry in c o tto n warehouses. P rop ortion a tely , con ta in ers were le a s t important
as in ju ry producers in household-goods warehouses, b u t, even th e re , they
produced approxim ately on e-fou rth o f a l l warehouse in ju r ie s .
V e h icle s , second in importance as an agency o f in ju r y , produced nearly
one-seventh o f a l l warehousing i n ju r ie s . Although g en era lly more severe than
con ta in er in ju r ie s , v e h icle in ju r ie s were s t i l l below average in s e v e r ity .
Handtrucks and sim ila r equipment accounted f o r 65 percent o f a l l v e h ic le in ­
ju r ie s . Powered in d u s tr ia l trucks in clu din g f o r k l i f t trucks and motortrucks
were resp on sib le f o r 25 percent and ra ilr o a d ca rs f o r 10 p ercen t.
More than h a lf o f the in ju re d employees in t h is group were operating or
using v e h ic le s at the time o f t h e ir in ju r y . In many ca se s, the workmen were
squeezed or crushed between v e h ic le s and other o b je c t s . In other in sta n ce s,
they were struck by handtrucks being moved by co-w orkers. Nearly h a lf o f
the in ju r ie s i n f l i c t e d by v e h icle s were r e la t iv e ly minor b ru ises and contu­
sio n s, About 20 p ercen t, however, were fr a c tu r e s . F e e t, le g s , t o e s , and
fin g e rs were most fre q u e n tly in ju re d .
R e fle ctin g t h e ir grea ter use o f v e h ic le s , merchandise warehouses rep ort­
ed the g rea test p rop ortion o f v e h icle in ju r ie s , approxim ately 17 p e rce n t.
Handtrucks alone accounted f o r 11 percent o f a l l in ju r ie s in that group o f
warehouses.
Working su rfa ce s, ranking th ird in the agency o f in ju r y l i s t , were re­
sp on sible f o r approxim ately one-ninth o f a l l in ju r ie s . This group o f 180
in ju r ie s included one f a t a l i t y and 7 permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u lt ,
the average s e v e r it y o f the group was high— lit? days l o s t time per in ju r y .
F a lls produced n ea rly a l l o f these in ju ri.e s. In many instances the in ju re d
workers f e l l from v e h ic le s , platform s, s c a ffo ld s , p ile d m a teria ls, o r other
e le v a tio n s . I n ju r ie s to f e e t , le g s , and back were most commonj b ru is e s ,
s tr a in s , and fr a c tu r e s predominated.
One o f every 16 in ju r ie s t o warehousemen in v olv ed con ta ct with metal
o b je c ts — e ith e r items in storage such as b a rs, an gles, p la te s , c o i l s , e t c . ,
or metal parts o f warehouse equipment. Manual handling operations were re­
sponsible f o r most o f these in ju r ie s . Frequently workmen dropped the o b je cts
on t h e ir to e s or f e e t . In other cases they la ce ra te d th e ir hands or fin g e rs
in rubbing against rough or sharp edges, or strain ed themselves while l i f t i n g .
Other warehousemen were in ju re d when they bumped against the metal o b je c t s .




-2 0 -

About 5 percent o f the d isa b lin g in ju r ie s re su lte d d ir e c t ly from stra in ­
ing movements rather than from con ta ct with p h y sica l o b je c ts or substances.
In p r a c t ic a lly a l l o f these cases the worker slip p e d or stumbled and strained
him self as he attempted t o maintain h is b a la n ce. F ive in every eig h t o f these
in ju r ie s a ffe c t e d fe e t or le g s ; most o f the remainder were back in ju r ie s .
Handtools ranked next as an agencv o f in ju r y . These in ju r ie s resu lted
p rim arily from workmen strik in g themselves with hammers, saws, kn ives, and
t o o ls as they were using them. I n ju r ie s t o the f in g e r s , hands, le g s , and
f e e t were most common. About h a lf o f the in ju r ie s were cu ts and about onef i f t h were b r u is e s .
I c e , lumber, machines, and fu rn itu re each accounted f o r approximately
one o f every 1*0 i n ju r ie s . F a llin g b lock s o f i c e produced most o f the in ju ­
r ie s a scrib ed to that agency. In many cases the ic e f e l l from equipment or
was dropped by workmen, but h a lf o f the in ju r ie s in t h is group resu lted when
b lock s o f ic e to p p le d ov er. Bruised o r fra ctu re d le g s , f e e t , and toes were,
t h e r e fo r e , common. S tra in s, the second most frequent in ju r y , g en era lly re­
su lted from ov erex ertion in l i f t i n g .
The handling o f lumber was resp on sible f o r most o f the in ju r ie s in that
group. In many instan ces workmen dropped the lumber on t h e ir f e e t or t o e s .
In other cases they la ce ra te d t h e ir hands rubbing against s p lin te r s or rough
edges, or stra in ed themselves l i f t i n g heavy boards.
Eight o f the 1*2 in ju r ie s produced by machines re su lte d in permanent d is ­
a b i l i t y ; 7 o f these were amputations. Consequently, the average time l o s t
per d is a b ilit y was high, 96 days. Many o f these machines were p e cu lia r to
the type o f warehouse in which they were being used— ice -c u b in g , crushing,
and scorin g machines in c o ld -s to ra g e warehouses; compresses in co tto n ware­
houses; and shears in s t e e l warehouses. C ircu la r saws, used c h i e f l y f o r
maintenance work and cr a tin g , are more w id ely d is tr ib u te d . In most o f these
accid en ts the in ju re d employee was caught in moving parts o f the equipment
or came in con ta ct with p oin ts o f op era tion . Machines were a lso involved in
another type o f a ccid e n t— that re su ltin g from the movement o f machines such
as farm equipment, t e x t i l e machinery, e t c . , in to and out o f stora g e. These
in ju r ie s were mainly stra in s which were the r e s u lt o f l i f t i n g .
Most o f the fu rn itu re in ju r ie s occurred in manual handling op eration s;
more than h a lf were s tra in s re su ltin g from l i f t i n g fu r n itu r e . However, fu r ­
niture which f e l l from equipment such as handtrucks o r from the hands o f
workmen accounted f o r many b r u is e s , con tu sion s, and fr a c t u r e s . R e fle ctin g
the warehouse op era tion , fu rn itu re was p a r tic u la r ly important as an in ju ry
producer in household-goods warehouses, where i t accounted f o r 19 percent o f
a l l in ju r ie s .
Other agencies included p a lle t s , sk id s , fo o d s t u ffs , chem icals, e le v a to r s ,
r o l l s o f paper, conveyors, and d oors. Although r e la t iv e ly in freq u en t, in ­
ju r ie s in v olv in g e le v a to rs and conveyors were, on an average, very severe.




-2 1 -

Of the 22
another a
days lo s t
permanent
re su ltin g

in ju r ie s produced by con ta ct with e le v a to r s , one was a f a t a l i t y and
permanent d is a b ilit y * As a r e s u lt , e le v a to r in ju r ie s averaged 306
time per d i s a b i l i t y . S im ila rly , 1 o f the 18 conveyor in ju r ie s were
*
d i s a b i l i t i e s . Conveyor in ju r ie s were, t h e r e fo r e , the most severe,
in 335 days l o s t per d is a b ilit y .

Accident Types
More than f o u r - f i f t h s o f a l l in ju r ie s re su lte d from fo u r general types
o f a ccid en ts: workmen'were struck by moving o b je c t s ; they strain ed themselves
while handling m aterials or equipment; they were caught in , on, or between
moving o b je c t s ; and they f e l l . The la t t e r two groups accounted f o r the most
severe in ju r ie s .
Nearly a th ird (30.7 percent) o f a l l in ju r ie s resu lted from warehouse­
men being struck by moving o b je c ts (ta b le s 7-9)• Most o f these o rig in a te d
in manual handling operations and in the use o f equipment, e s p e c ia lly veh i­
c le s and handtools. In n ea rly 70 percent o f these cases i t was a f a l l i n g
o b je c t which i n f l i c t e d the in ju r y . About a th ir d o f these o b je c ts f e l l from
the hands o f workmen, approxim ately a fou rth f e l l from equipment such as
handtrucks, and about a f i f t h f e l l from p ile s o f m a teria ls. C ontainers,
metal stock or p a rts , lumber, fo o d s t u ffs , and dock p la te s were the o b je c ts
most freq u en tly dropped by workmen. O bjects f a llin g from equipment were
m ostly con tain ers o r metal p a rts; those f a llin g from p ile s were g e n e ra lly
con ta in ers. About 10 percent o f the f a l l i n g o b je c ts topp led from upright
p o sitio n s and struck workmen; b lock s o f ic e were most fre q u e n tly in volved
in these a ccid e n ts.
In approximately a s ix th o f the accid en ts in v olv in g moving o b je cts the
o b je c ts were hand-propelled. Most commonly these were handtrucks or handt o o l s . F lying o b je c t s , m ostly small p a r t ic le s , were in v olv ed in approxi­
m ately 1 o f every 3 U a ccid en ts a ttrib u te d t o moving o b je c t s .
J
A ccidents in which workmen were struck by moving o b je c ts were frequent
in a l l types o f warehouses. R e la tiv e ly , the number o f in ju r ie s a ttrib u te d
to that type o f accid en t ranged from 28.5 percent o f a l l in ju r ie s in c o ld storage warehouses t o 32.2 percent in farm -products warehouses. A ccidents
in v olv in g f a l l i n g o b je c ts were p a r tic u la r ly important in merchandise ware­
houses, accounting f o r 2 2 .9 percent o f a l l in ju r ie s in th at group.
O verexertion, the second most common type o f a ccid e n t, accounted f o r
n early a fou rth (23.!* p ercent) o f a l l in ju r ie s . T hree-fourths o f these oc­
curred in l i f t i n g o p e ra tio n s. C ontainers, metal p a rts , fu r n itu r e , lumber,
and fo o d s tu ffs were most fre q u e n tly in v olv ed . Other o v e r-e x e rtio n accid en ts
included those re s u ltin g from p u llin g , pushing, ca rry in g , or r o llin g o b je c t s .
Containers, such as b a les and heavy b a r r e ls , produced most o f those in ju r ie s .
O verexertion accidents were r e la t iv e ly most common in c o ld -s to ra g e warehouses
where nearly a fou rth (21*. 6) o f a l l in ju r ie s were a scrib ed t o that type o f
a ccid e n t.




-2 2 -

Aoproximately o n e -six th o f the d isa b lin g in ju r ie s re su lte d from ware­
housemen being caught in , on, or between moving o b je c t s . Nearly 10 percent
o f these in ju r ie s re su lte d in death or permanent d is a b ilit y . The average se­
v e r it y o f in ju r ie s in th is group, 103 days lo s t per d is a b i l i t y , was, th e r e fo r e ,
exceeded on ly by those produced by f a l l s . About t w o -fift h s o f these a ccid en ts
in volved v e h ic le s (ta b le 9 ) . In most o f these cases the warehouseman was
squeezed between the v e h icle and some other o b je c t , but there were many in ­
stances in which hands op f e e t were crushed by moving parts o f v e h ic le s , ma­
ch in es, e le v a to r s , or conveyors. Another la rg e group o f "caught in , on, or
between" a ccid en ts occurred in the manual handling o f m a teria ls, p a r tic u la r ly
co n ta in e rs. Most o f these a ccid en ts produced hand in ju r ie s re su ltin g from
workmen s e ttin g the handled o b je c ts on t h e ir hands o r fin g e r s .
F a lls , c o n s titu tin g about 12 percent o f the t o t a l volume o f a ccid e n ts,
produced a r e la t iv e ly high p rop ortion o f seriou s in ju r ie s . This group o f ac­
cid en ts included 112 f a l l s from e le v a tio n s , 1 re su ltin g in death and 6 in per­
manent impairments, and 83 f a l l s on the same l e v e l , 1 o f which re s u lte d in
permanent impairment. I n ju r ie s re su ltin g from f a l l s from e le v a tio n s had an
average time lo s s o f 211 days per case compared w ith 38 days f o r in ju r ie s
produced by f a l l s on the same l e v e l . The e le v a tio n s from which warehousemen
most freq u en tly f e l l were v e h ic le s , p la tform s, s c a f f o ld s , and p ile d m a teria ls.
F a lls on the same le v e l g en era lly o rig in a te d in a s l i p or by trip p in g over an
o b stru ctio n .
One o f every 10 in ju r ie s re su lte d from a workman strik in g against or
bumping in to some o b je c t . Most o f these in ju r ie s o rig in a te d in the handling
o f m aterials or in the op eration or use o f machines, t o o l s , and v e h ic le s .
Equipment, c h i e f l y machines and v e h ic le s , p r o je c tin g n a ils or s liv e r s on
cases and box es, and sharp or rough edges o f metal parts and con ta in ers were
the o b je c ts most fre q u e n tly con ta cted .
Other d isa b lin g in ju r ie s t o warehousemen in clu d ed stra in s occasioned by
s lip s or stumbles (n ea rly 5 p e rce n t). In these ca se s, the workman was in ­
jured as he tw isted o r strain ed h is body attempting t o maintain h is balance;
no con ta ct with any p a r tic u la r o b je c t was in v olv ed . The in h a la tio n or ab­
sorp tion o f chem icals accounted f o r le s s than 2 percent o f a l l d isa b lin g
in ju r ie s .
ACCIDENT CAUSES
Modern accid en t an a lysis i s based upon two prem ises: F ir s t , there i s
an id e n t ifia b le cause f o r every a ccid en t and, second, when that cause i s
known, i t i s u su a lly p o ssib le t o elim inate or coun teract i t as a p o s s ib le
source o f fu tu re accid en ts o f the same kind. In many in sta n ce s, a v a r ie t y
o f circum stances co n trib u te s to the occurrence o f an accid en t and the course
that accid en t prevention should take may seem confused because o f the m ulti­
p l i c i t y o f the p o s s ib le avenues o f a c tio n . The p a r tic u la r course adopted,
however, appears t o be o f l i t t l e consequence so lon g as the aim, the preven­
t io n o f a c c id e n ts , i s a tta in e d .




-23-

I t i s commonly accepted that every accid en t may be tra ce d t o the e x is t ­
ence o f some hazardous working co n d itio n , t o the commission o f an unsafe a ct
by some in d iv id u a l, or to a com bination o f these two a ccid en t-produ cin g fa c ­
tors# The s o le purpose o f accid en t a n a ly sis, as a pp lied t o la rg e groups o f
cases i s , th e r e fo r e , t o determine the s p e c if ic fa c t o r s w ithin each o f these
two ca te g o rie s o f accid en t causes most fre q u e n tly in v olv ed in the occurrence
o f a ccid e n ts. With th is knowledge, i t i s p o s s ib le to plan a s a fe ty program
centered on the elim in a tion o f these s p e c if ic accident fa c t o r s with assurance
that success in th is o b je c tiv e should lea d qu ick ly t o a su b sta n tia l red u ction
in the volume o f in ju r ie s .
I t must be recogn ized, however, that accident an a lysis has d e fin it e lim i­
t a tio n s . At b est i t can fu rn ish clu e s on ly as to the d ir e c tio n s in which
accid en t-p reven tion a c t i v i t i e s should be p oin ted. What these a c t i v i t i e s
should be and how th ey are t o be ca rrie d out must be determined by the in d i­
vidual in c o n t r o l o f each s a fe ty program a ft e r h is general o b je c tiv e s have
been in d ica te d through a ccid en t a n a ly sis. I t must a ls o be recognized that
accident analysis cannot go beyond the reported f a c t s . In other words, the
accuracy o f any an a lysis i s w holly dependent upon the accxiracy and com plete­
ness o f the o r ig in a l accid en t r e p o r ts . In th is re sp e ct, i t has been con­
s is t e n t ly apparent in the Bureau's surveys that the inadequacies o f rep ortin g
s e r io u s ly lim it the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e f f e c t iv e a n a ly sis. The lim ita tio n s are
not great in broad stu d ies o f th is type which bring a s u f f ic ie n t volume o f
adequate rep orts in to co n sid e ra tio n t o support an a n a ly sis. The shortcomings
are s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the company or establishm ent le v e l where the most e f f e c ­
t iv e an alysis can be performed on ly when a l l the necessary fa c t s are a v a ila b le .
In in terp re tin g the fin d in g s in th is study r e la tin g t o hazardous con d i­
tio n s and unsafe a c t s , i t i s e s s e n tia l to recognize that these two fa c t o r s
are not n e ce s s a rily mutually e x clu s iv e . The a n a ly tica l procedures u t iliz e d
in the study were not d ir e c te d toward the determ ination o f a sin g le major
cause o f each a ccid en t sin ce such determ ination would in v olv e an e x e rcis e o f
judgment seldom p o s s ib le from the a v a ila b le f a c t s . On the con tra ry , an e f ­
f o r t was made to determine independently f o r each accid en t whether there was
a hazardous co n d itio n which con trib u ted d ir e c t ly t o i t s occu rrence, and wheth­
er the event cou ld be d ir e c t ly a ssocia ted with an unsafe a c t.
Many o f the re p o rts were inadequate, however, and i t i s im p ossib le,
th e re fo re , t o draw any con clu sion s as t o whether hazardous working co n d itio n s
or unsafe a cts were the leading cause o f a ccid e n ts. For the accid en t p re v e n t io n is t, however, t h is i s a minor lim it a tio n . Since h is approaches to the
elim in ation o f accid en t causes in the two ca te g o rie s n e c e s s a r ily must be d i f ­
fe r e n t , the pattern o f the s p e c if ic fa c t o r s w ithin each general ca te g o ry i s
o f more importance than the in te rr e la tio n s h ip between the major groups o f
accid en t ca u ses.
The c o r r e c tio n o f hazardous working con d ition s u su a lly i s e n t ir e ly with­
in the powers o f management and can be accomplished by d ir e c t a c tio n . The
avoidance o f unsafe a c ts , on the other hand, requires coop era tion and under­




standing by both management and workers. To achieve t h is , i t i s necessary
f o r management to take the lea d by p rovidin g safety-m inded supervision and by
making sure that a l l workers are acquainted with the hazards o f t h e ir opera­
tio n s and are fa m ilia r with the means o f overcoming them.
Hazardous Working Conditions
Two general groups o f hazardous working con d ition s caused more than 60
percent o f a l l a ccid en ts to warehousemen: hazardous working procedures,
p ercen t; and d e fe cts o f a g en cies, 26.0 p ercen t. Two other groups, im­
p rop erly guarded agencies and hazardous arrangement or placement o f m a terials,
accounted f o r an a d d itio n a l 33*2 percent (ta b le s 10 and 1 1 ).
Hazardous Working P rocedures.— Broadly speaking, most o f the accid en ts
a ttrib u te d t o hazardous working procedures r e f l e c t su pervisory inadequacies
in the proper planning o f manual m aterials-handling op e ra tio n s. The fa ilu r e
t o provide adequate a ssista n ce or mechanical equipment f o r l i f t i n g and mov­
ing heavy or bulky m aterials was a prominent source o f a ccid e n ts. Environ­
mental working circum stances which n e ce ssita te d great p h y sica l e x ertion in
c lo s e q u arters, sometimes in cramped p o s it io n s , in e v ita b ly produced many in ­
ju r ie s . S im ila rly , many o f the in ju r ie s were the r e a d ily p re d icta b le re­
s u lts o f unsafe procedures such as manually p ilin g and u n piling m aterials at
le v e ls above shoulder h eig h t.
Hazardous procedures a sso cia te d with manual m aterials handling were par­
t i c u l a r l y prominent in the household-goods warehouses where the use o f me­
ch a n ica l equipment i s very lim ite d . C otton-storage warehouses a lso had a
r e la t iv e ly high r a t io o f such a ccid e n ts.
The most common in ju r ie s re su ltin g from these a ccid en ts were back stra in s
and crushed fin g e r s and t o e s . The back stra in s fre q u e n tly were the re s u lts
o f simple o v e r lif t in g , but c lo s e quarters and high l i f t i n g were important
fa c t o r s in many in sta n ce s. The placement o f m aterials in c lo s e quarters was
an important element in the occurrence o f many fin g e r and toe in ju r ie s . The
d i f f i c u l t y o f holding o r c o n t r o llin g hand-held m aterials o f e x cessiv e weight
or o f awkward s iz e or shape, however, was p rim arily resp on sible f o r the
fin g e r and toe in ju r ie s .
D efects o f A gen cies.— About 1 in every U o f the warehousing accid en ts
resu lted from a p h y sica l d e fe ct in the prem ises, in the equipment used, or
in the m aterials handled.
D efects in the working environment, commonly r e fle c t e d e ith e r inade­
quate maintenance and re p a ir or inadequate a tte n tio n to housekeeping.
Rough and s p lin te re d f l o o r s presented trip p in g hazards and made i t d i f f i c u l t
t o c o n t r o l the movements o f in d u s tr ia l tru ck s. Wet and i c y f l o o r s in re­
fr ig e r a t e d areas and on loading docks and other outdoor areas in inclement
weather con trib u ted t o many f a l l s . S im ila rly , f a l l s re s u ltin g from slip p e ry
su rfaces on trucks and on the metal dock p la te s used t o b rid ge the space




-25-

between trucks and load in g docks were common.
A ccidents a scrib ed to d e fe c tiv e in d u s tr ia l trucks most commonly re su lte d
from d e fe c ts acquired in use and perm itted to e x is t because o f inadequate
maintenance. There were, however, a con siderable number o f acciden ts which
cou ld be a ttrib u te d to inherent d e fe cts in the design o f the v e h ic le s . The
absence o f proper p ro te ctio n f o r the operator against co n ta ct with the load
or with fix e d o b je c ts in the area o f operations perm itted the occurrence o f
numerous crushing in ju r ie s . D efectiv e c o n t r o ls , and c o n tr o ls so placed that
they cou ld be touched u n in te n tio n a lly caused some trucks t o move unexpect­
ed ly and brought in ju r ie s t o the operators or to others in the v i c i n i t y .
D efectiv e brakes le d t o some c o l l i s i o n s and the n e ce s s ity o f hand cranking
the motors on some trucks le d to a few in ju r ie s when the motors '‘kicked
back. "
D efects in the m aterials handled were a common source o f accid en ts in
a l l types o f warehouses. Most fre q u e n tly these d e fe c ts co n s is te d o f unre­
paired damage t o the con tain ers and bindings o f the m a teria ls. S p lin tered ,
rough, and sharp-edged containers and p ro je ctin g n a ils and wire were re­
sp on sible f o r many hand and fin g e r in ju r ie s .
Inadequately Guarded A gencies. — In warehousing, as in other in d u s trie s ,
the accid en ts a ris in g from inadequate guarding tend to produce in ju r ie s o f
grea ter than average s e v e r it y . Eighteen percent o f the warehousing accidents
were d ir e c t ly a ttrib u ta b le to inadequate guarding. These a ccid e n ts, however,
produced 1 o f the 2 rep orted f a t a l i t i e s and 35 percent o f the reported per­
manent impairments. Their importance in the accident record o f the indus­
t r y , th e r e fo r e , i s g rea ter than i s in d ica te d by t h e ir number.
More than a t h ir d o f the a ccid en ts in th is group re su lte d from a f a i l ­
ure to provide guardrails and toeboards on ele v a te d s u r fa c e s, o r p ro te ctiv e
gates on e le v a to r s . The absence o f guardrails re su lte d in many f a l l s and
the lack o f toeboards perm itted m aterials t o s lid e from e le v a tio n s and f a l l
onto workers. The absence o f an e le v a to r sh a ft gate caused one worker t o
f a l l to h is death in the s h a ft, and the absence o f e le v a to r ca r gates le d
to severa l a ccid en ts in which workers* fe e t were crushed between the ca r
and shaft w a ll.
Since the use o f machines, other than conveyors and in d u s tr ia l tru ck s,
i s quite lim ite d in the warehousing in d u stry the volume o f a ccid en ts charge­
able to inadequate machine guarding was r e la t iv e ly sm all. More than a fou rth
o f those which d id o ccu r, however, produced permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s . The ma­
chines most commonly in v olv ed were b a lin g p re sse s, c ir c u la r saws, g rin d ers,
a n d *ice-cu ttin g (s c o r in g , cru shin g, and cubing) machines.
Two v a r ie t ie s o f a ccid en ts in v o lv in g inadequate p ro v isio n s f o r anchor­
ing or lock in g movable su rfaces were common in loading and unloading opera­
t io n s . The la ck o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r anchoring dock p la te s fre q u e n tly re su lte d




-2 6 -

in the p la te s s h iftin g and dropping workers and t h e ir loads in to the space
between the dock and the v e h ic le , Somewhat s im ila r ly , the la ck o f an ade­
quate supporting d evice f o r the t a ilg a t e s o f trucks fre q u e n tly allow ed the
gates to drop on workmen or t o drop with them when they were enterin g or
lea v in g the tru ck s .
In handtrucking operations there were many a ccid en ts in which the truck­
e r 's hand was pinched or crushed between the truck handle and some fix e d ob­
j e c t , Almost in v a ria b ly these a ccid en ts would have been prevented had the
trucks been equipped with handle guards.
A ccidents re su ltin g from the lack o f guards on power transm ission
equipment, b e lt s , p u lle y s , e t c . , were not p a r tic u la r ly common, but the se­
v e r it y o f the in ju r ie s produced by such accid en ts tended t o be high. F ive
o f the 13 rep orted cases re su lte d in permanent d i s a b i l i t i e s .
Hazardous Arrangement or Placement.—Im properly p ile d or im properly
placed m aterials c o n s titu te a prominent hazard in warehousing, p a r tic u la r ly
in merchandise and household-goods warehouses. Most o f the reported a c c i­
dents which were a ttrib u te d to these hazards were cases in which m aterials
f e l l on workers. In a number o f instan ces the m aterials f e l l from completed
p ile s and struck workers who were working nearby o r simply passing by the
p i l e s . In other instan ces they f e l l from warehouse trucks w hile being moved
or s l i d o f f the loadin g docks while being moved in to or out o f sto ra g e .
The hazards o f working around im properly p ile d m aterials were freq u en t­
l y in t e n s ifie d by a f a ilu r e t o maintain adequate c le a r space f o r the opera­
tio n s being perform ed. Inadequate a is le space and inadequate arrangements
f o r the fr e e flo w o f t r a f f i c in the warehouses -were b a s ic a lly resp on sib le
f o r many c o l l i s i o n s in which warehouse trucks struck workers or knocked over
p ile d m a teria ls.
M iscellan eou s.— Two other hazardous working co n d itio n s— poor housekeeping and la ck o f personal s a fe ty equipment— accounted f o r one o f every
20 in ju r ie s to warehousemen. Most o f the l a t t e r group were a sso cia te d with
using handtools o r machines.
Unsafe Acts
For the purposes o f th is a n a ly sis, an unsafe a ct was d efin ed as that
" v io la t io n o f a commonly accepted sa fe procedure which occasioned or per­
m itted the occurrence o f the in ju ry - producing a c c id e n t .” L it e r a lly , t h is
d e fin it io n means that no personal a ctio n s h a ll be designated unsafe unless
there i s a reasonable, le s s hazardous, a lte rn a tiv e procedure. For example,
the op eration o f a machine f o r which no guard was provided was c l a s s i f i e d
as a hazardous working co n d itio n and not as an unsafe a ct because the worker
had no ch o ice other than to use the unguarded machine. On the other hand,
the op eration o f a machine from which the guard had been removed was c l a s s i ­
f i e d as an unsafe a ct because the a lte rn a tiv e sa fe procedure would have been




-2 7 -

the replacement o f the guard b e fo re operating the machine.
The d e fin it io n does not im ply, however, that the worker who committed
the unsafe a ct was aware o f the a lte rn a tiv e sa fe procedure nor that h is act
was the re su lt o f a con sidered ch o ice between the a lte r n a tiv e s . From the
an alysis o f the in d iv id u a l a ccid en ts i t i s apparent th a t, in many ca se s, the
worker knew the sa fe procedure but co n s cio u s ly decided not t o f o llo w i t . In
other ca se s, the in d iv id u a l acted u n sa fely sim ply because he did not know
the safe method. There a re, th e r e fo r e , two steps in any s a fe ty program
which are e s s e n tia l t o the red u ction o f unsafe a c t s , namely education and
enforcement. A ll workmen should be c a r e fu lly in s tru cte d in the safe methods
o f performing t h e ir d u ties and they should be taught t o recogn ize hazards
involved in deviation s from the safe procedures. Management then should
provide adequate supervision t o assure that the sa fe procedures are fo llo w e d .
Two general types o f unsafe a cts predominated. Unsafe handling o f ma­
t e r ia ls or equipment con trib u ted t o the occurrence o f 2+0•5 percent o f the ac­
cid en ts and assuming unsafe p o s itio n s or postures con trib u ted to 3^.7 percent
(ta b le s 1 1 -1 3 ). Of somewhat le s s e r importance, unsafe loading or p la cin g o f
m aterials was re sp o n sib le f o r 10.1 percent o f the a ccid e n ts; the f a ilu r e t o
secure m aterials or t o warn others o f t h e ir p o s s ib le movement was resp on sible
f o r 1+.8 p ercent; and operating o r working at excessive speed was resp on sib le
f o r another 2+ p ercen t.
»6>
Unsafe Handling.—A b a sic ru le in manual m aterials handling i s that the
worker must e x e rcis e some judgment in taking hold o f the o b je c ts which he i s
moving. He should avoid the n e ce s sity o f s lid in g h is hands along sharp o r
s p lin te ry edges o f m a teria ls; he should be sure th at his hold i s such that
he w i l l be able t o re le a se the m aterial without crushing h is hands; he should
be sure that the weight i s reasonably balanced b e fo re making h is l i f t to
avoid tw istin g or stra in in g his body; and he should be sure that h is g rip i s
firm so that the m aterial w il l not s l i p from h is grasp. Equally im portant,
he should recognize h is own p h y sica l lim ita tio n s and should make f u l l use o f
a l l a v a ila b le mechanical equipment to avoid p o s s ib le ov erex ertion .
V io la tio n s o f these commonsense operating p r a c tic e s con tribu ted to a
su b sta n tia l volume o f in ju r ie s . The most common f a u lt was that o f grasping
o b je cts at the wrong p la ce s—-eith er pla cin g the hands in a p o s it io n t o be
pinched or crushed when the o b je c ts were moved or se t down, o r grasping them
in a manner which d id not give good balance and as a re s u lt threw ex cessiv e
stra in on the m uscles. A ccidents a t tr ib u ta l to these unsafe p r a c tic e s were
common in a l l types o f warehouses, but were p a r tic u la r ly prominent in farmproducts warehouses and in household-goods warehouses. In many o f these
cases the a sso cia te d hazardous co n d itio n was inadequate workspace.
The fa ilu r e
prominent source
slip p ed from the
stra in s when the




t o maintain a good g rip on o b je cts being l i f t e d was a ls o a
o f in ju r y . These were p rim arily cases in which o b je c ts
workers* hands and f e l l on t h e ir f e e t or produced severe
workers attempted t o regain c o n t r o l o f the s lip p in g o b je c t s .

-2 8 -

In many in stan ces o v e r lif t in g , improper placement o f the hands f o r good sup­
p o rt, and attempting to l i f t s lip p e r y or sharp-edged a r t ic le s were co n trib u t­
ing f a c t o r s .
The p r a c tic e o f p u llin g handtrucks rather than pushing them was a some­
what le s s common, but nevertheless im portant, source o f in ju r ie s . The r e s u lt­
ing accid en ts were p rim arily cases in which the operators were caught between
the tru ck s and fix e d o b je c ts or in stan ces in which the trucks got out o f con­
t r o l and overran the op era tors.
Assuming Unsafe P osition s or 'Postures.— The outstanding fa u lt among t h is
group o f unsafe p ra ctice s was the simple fa ilu r e t o watch o n e 's fo o t in g . Most
o f the re s u ltin g a ccid en ts were s lip s or f a l l s a ris in g from trip p in g over ob­
s tr u c tio n s , stepping too near the edge o f e le v a tio n s , or stepping upon lo o se
m a teria ls. Poor housekeeping and im properly placed m aterials were co n trib u t­
ing fa c t o r s in many o f these a ccid e n ts.
A sim ila r fa ilu r e to observe t h e ir surroundings le d t o a number o f a c c i­
dents in which workers bumped in to fix e d o b je c ts or equipment which should
have been obvious t o them. Handtruckers, p a r tic u la r ly , fre q u e n tly misjudged
distan ces and crushed t h e ir fin g e rs between the truck handles and w a lls , c o l ­
umns, or p ile d m a terials.
Unnecessary exposure to moving equipment or to f a l l i n g m aterials was
a lso a prominent unsafe a c t . Among o th e rs, th is ca teg ory included such in ­
v it a t io n s to in ju r y as walking in fro n t o f moving in d u s tr ia l tru ck s, working
to o c lo s e t o t r a f f i c lftnes, enterin g the area under suspended lo a d s , and ap­
proaching p ile d m aterials w hile stacking operations were in p ro g re ss.
S trains and sprains from improper l i f t i n g p r a c t ic e s , p a r tic u la r ly bend­
ing at the hips and keeping the knees stra ig h t when r a is in g o b je c ts from the
f l o o r , were common in a l l types o f warehouses. C areful tra in in g in the p rin ­
c ip le s o f ra isin g a loa d with the le g muscles rather than those o f the back
appears t o be necessary throughout the in d u stry.
Unsafe Loading or P la cin g .— Most o f the unsafe a cts in th is ca teg ory
co n s is te d o f p la cin g m aterials in s e cu re ly on e le v a tio n s from which they f e l l
and struck nearby workers. The most common fa u lt was that o f overloading or
p re ca rio u s ly balancing m aterials on handtrucks . These m aterials fre q u e n tly
f e l l o f f when the trucks bumped in t o ob stru ction s or turned sharp co rn e rs.
The handtruck operators were fre q u e n tly the v ictim s o f t h e ir own improper
procedures, but i t was not unusual t o fin d that the in ju re d person was in no
way connected with the loading or operation o f the v e h ic le s . S im ila rly , in ­
secure p ilin g and improper placement o f m aterials near the edge o f e le v a tio n s
re su lte d in in ju r ie s to others as fre q u e n tly as to the workers who were re ­
sp on sible f o r cre a tin g the hazards.
A ccidents r e s u ltin g from unsafe loading or p la cin g o f m aterials con­
s t it u t e d a higher percentage o f the volume o f accidents in the household-goods




-2 9 -

warehouses than in any other variety of warehouses. The wide variation in
the shapes, sizes, and weights of the materials handled in the householdpoods warehouses probably accounts in large measure for this circumstance.
There was, however, a considerable volume of accidents attributable to these
unsafe acts in both the merchandise and refrigerated warehouses. The farmnroduct warehouses, on the other hand, had relatively few such accidents.
Miscellaneous Unsafe Acts.— The miscellaneous group of unsafe acts in­
cluded a wide variety of unsafe practices, none of which individually ac­
counted for a large volume of accidents. In the aggregate, however, these
seemingly unimportant lapses in working procedures were contributing factors
in the occurrence of over 12 percent of the reported accidents.
Among the more prominent faults in the group was the failure to secure
materials or equipment against unexpected movement. Generally this consist­
ed of leaving loaded handtrucks on inclines without adequately blocking them
so that they would not run away if bumped or jarred. A related fault was
that of failing to warn others in the area when moving materials or handtrucks in close quarters. Equally hazardous was the practice of throwing
materials and of kicking or shoving handtrucks out of the way and letting
them run free in the work space. Characteristically, these unsafe actions
generally resulted in injuries to Dersons other than the ones who acted im­
properly. Most of the injuries were bruises or contusions from being struck
by the moving materials. The practice of throwing material from man to man,
however, tended to produce severe strains and sprains when the catcher found
it difficult to hold on to the materials tossed to him.
Operating industrial trucks, both powered and hand types, at excessive
speeds was responsible for a considerable number of injury-producing colli­
sions. Speed was also a factor in some cases where materials were thrown
from the trucks on turns or when the trucks passed over rough surfaces.
The general use of personal protective equipment, such as gloves, safe­
ty hats, and steel-toed shoes, undoubtedly would have minimized or prevented
many of the injuries. Increased use of these items obviously should be en­
couraged. There were, however, relatively few accidents reported which could
be ascribed specifically to the failure to use such protective devices. The
most common circumstance injwhich the failure to use protective equipment was
a direct factor in the accidents arose in the manual handling of materials
which had sharp or rough edges. In such operations the use of gloves or
other hand protectors is an essential part of the operation and a failure to
use them is distinctly an unsafe act.
In some instances the accidents could be attributed to the workers* fail­
ure to wear adequate clothing for the work they were performing. Wearing
worn-out shoes with thin or broken soles led to a number of foot injuries
when workers stepped on sharp objects. Trousers that were too long or were
ragged and torn tripped some workers or threw them off balance when they
caught on obstructions. In refrigerated warehouses a common fault was that




-30-

of entering the deep cold areas without donning the heavy clothing required
for work in those temperatures,
ACCIDENT-PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS
To illustrate the more common types of hazards encountered in warehous­
ing operations, a number of typical accidents were selected for specific com­
ment. All available details relating to the occurrence of these accidents
were assembled and submitted to two experienced safety engineers who were re­
quested to prepare recommendations as to how each accident might have been pre­
vented. 5/ The following accident-prevention suggestions reflect the combined
judgment of these consultants.
In presenting these accident-prevention suggestions, there is no intent
to imply that they constitute a comprehensive set of safety miles for the
warehousing industry, nor that the suggested methods constitute the only ways
in which these accidents could have been avoided. Many safety engineers un­
doubtedly would attack the problems involved in these accidents in different
ways and would achieve equally good results. The objective is simply to in­
dicate that there is a comparatively simple way to eliminate Dractically
every type of hazard encountered in employment. The particular method
adopted is of minor importance so long as it accomplishes its purpose.
Brief descriptions of the selected accidents, accompanied by the sug­
gestions for prevention of such events, follow.

5/ Sheldon W. Homan, Safety Engineer of the Division of Safety Stand­
ards,"Bureau of Labor Standards, U. S. Department of Labor, and Odell D.
Maxwell, Supervising Safety Engineer, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, De­
partment of the Navy, cooperated in the preparation of this section of the
report.




-31-

CASE DESCRIPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1.
A repairman was using a circular saw. As he fed a piece of lumber
to the saw, his finger struck the blade and was amputated. The saw was not
guarded.
All points of operation of woodworking machinery should be
guarded in conformance with the American Standard Safety Code
for Woodworking Machinery. An adequate cover guard riding on
the stock would have prevented his finger from contacting the
blade.
2. A maintenance foreman, using a bench saw, lacerated his finger on
the blade. Investigation disclosed that (a) a guard was provided for the
saw but that it did not completely cover the blade, and (b) the foreman was
wearing gloves which were caught and entangled by the blade.
(a) Circular saws should be equipped with a guard which
will enclose the blade completely. (See American Standard
Safety Code for Woodworking MachineryT) (b) Gloves should not
be worn by employees working with or around moving machinery.
3. A maintenance man was adjusting a conveyor belt.
on the belt* His hand was drawn under a roller.

He placed his hand

All employees should be carefully trained in the safe
performance of their duties. Maintenance men should never
be permitted to make repairs or adjustments on machinery
while it is in operation. Instead, the power should be dis­
connected and a sign or lock should be placed on the switch
to prevent other workmen from closing the switch while repairs
or adjustments are being made.

b . An oiler was greasing a fitting on a powered conveyor. When a
second workman gave the signal indicating that he was closing the switch,
the oiler reached to remove a grease gun from the conveyor. His gloved
finger was caught by a roller and was amputated.
Safety procedures should be developed for all operations
and supervisors should be required to enforce those safe prac­
tices strictly. Before oiling or repairing powered equipment,
workmen should disconnect the power, lock the power switch, and
place a "Do not start} tag on it. No one should be permitted to
>
remove the tag or start the equipment except the workman who
locked the equipment and placed the tag.




-3 2

5» A foreman was operating an ice crusher. As he was feeding it, a
small piece of ice fleiv from the machine and struck his eye.
(a) A chute or conveyor which would automatically feed
the ice to the crusher should be installed.
(b) Where there is a possibility of flying materials, face
shields or goggles should be provided and worn.
6. An employee was using a grinder to sharpen an ice bar. A small
piece of metal struck the workman's eye. Investigation disclosed that no
goggles had been provided.
(a) A permanent shield of flexiglass or other nonshattering
transparent material should be installed on all grinding wheels.
(b) Goggles should be provided and worn during grinding

7. An employee was removing a roll of lead from a rack. He misjudged
the weight of the roll and, when he pulled it clear of the rack, it slipped
from his grasp and fell on his foot. Investigation disclosed that the rack
was approximately 6 feet from the floor.
(a) Heavy articles, such as rolled lead, should be stored
at or near the floor level.
(b) Safety shoes should be worn by all employees engaged
in materials-handling operations. In this case, the shoes might
have minimized or prevented the injury.
8. A handtrucker was removing bales of cotton, piled two high, from
storage. When he pulled a bale from the top layer of the pile, it rolled
and struck his leg.
Mechanical handling equipment should be used for handling
bales of cotton when they are stored or piled more than one
layer high.
9. A warehouse laborer was loading cans of eggs on a handtruck. He
dropped one of the cans on his foot, fracturing it. Investigation disclosed
that the cans weighed approximately 70 pounds, and, though they were not
frosted, they were chilled and hard to handle.
(a) Because of the weight of the cans and the difficulty
in handling them, two men trained to work as a team should be
assigned to this work.




-33-

(b) Although they would not have prevented the accident, safety
shoes or foot guards would have prevented or minimized the injury.
10. While a laborer was moving packing cases, he scratched his arm on
a nail projecting from one of the cases. He neglected to get first aid and
infection developed.
(a) Before handling, all packing cases should be inspected
for projecting nails and other defects. Projecting nails should
be removed or bent into the wood immediately.
(b) A ll injuries regardless of their severity should be
given first-aid treatment immediately after the accident.
11. A laborer was handling rough lumber in the lumber yard. A splinter
punctured his finger, which became infected. Investigation disclosed that no
gloves had been provided.
Employees engaged in this type of work should be furnished
gloves or other hand protection. Adequate supervision should be
provided to assure its use.
12. A handtrucker was lifting a piece of steel onto his truck. When
the steel slipped, he cut his hand on the sharp edge of the metal. Investi­
gation disclosed that the employee was not wearing gloves which had been
provided.
All employees should be carefully instructed in the
safe performance of their duties. Adequate supervision
should be provided to assure observance of those procedures.
13.
An employee was piling furniture in a warehouse.
pick up a rolled rug and felt a sharp pain in his back.

He bent over to

All warehouse employees should be carefully trained in
correct lifting procedures. Adequate supervision should be
provided io assure observance* of those practices. In this"case,
the employee was using his back instead of his legs to lift the
rug— i. e., lifting with a bent back.
lL. An employee in a grain warehouse strained his back lifting a 100pound bag of grain at the bagging machine.
(a) Manual handling at the bagging machine should be
replaced with mechanical handling equipment— i. e., conveyor
system which is much more effective and safer.




(b) 'When 100-pound bags are handled manually, two men
trained to work as a team should be assigned to that work.
15* A warehouse laborer, standing on the pile, was stacking bags of
pecans. He misjudged his footing and fell from the pile. Investigation dis­
closed that the pile of pecans was approximately 5 feet high and that no
footboard had been provided*
(a) This is a good example of the inherent hazard of nonmechanized piling. This hazard, which is difficult to control,
could be eliminated by mechanical-handling equipment' and pallet­
ized loads.
(b) For manual piling operations such as this, a properly
guarded working platform or a suitable plank should fee used to
provide adequate footing.
16* A warehouseman, walking by a pile of discarded lumber, stepped on
a nail projecting from one of the boards.
Good housekeeping
ing from lumber should
lumber is removed' from
should be safely piled
walkways.

is essential to safety. Nails project­
be removed or bent into the wood as the
service. In addition, discarded lumber
or stored where it will not project into

17. A warehouseman was piling meat in a freezer room.
shifted, a 150-pound piece of meat fell on him.

'When the pile

Manual handling of frozen meat is an extremely hazardous
procedure. Mechanical handling equipment with picture-frame
pallets should be provided for handling frozen meat.
18. A freezer man was stacking boxes of meat in cold storage. He
placed a box into position and then, as he arose, he bumped his head on a
beam. Investigation disclosed that he was standing on a pile of boxes near
the ceiling.
Only mechanical stacking should be permitted when stor­
ing materials near the ceiling or in cramped quarters.
19. An employee was using a portable electric saw.
thrown b y the saw, struck his eye.

A splinter of wood,

The speed of particles thrown by power-driven equipment
will usually be sufficient to result in permanent injury t<T~
eyes. Therefore, safety goggles should be provided to all
operators of portable or stationary power-driven woodworking
and millworking equipment Supervisors should be required to
enforce the use of such personal protective equipment rigidly.




-35-

20. A warehouseman was unloading bales of cotton from a truck. When
the hook he was using loosened from a bale, he fell backwards to the floor.
Investigation disclosed that the hook was dull.
All equipment should be inspected at frequent, regular
intervals. Defective equipment should be removed from service
or repaired immediately!
21. An employee was assembling crates. His hammer struck a nail a
glancing blow and the nail flew, striking him in the eye.
Management should provide, and employees should be required
to wear) safety goggles during all nailing operations. Other em­
ployees working near nailing operations should also be required'
to*wear goggles.

toes.

22. As a warehouseman was loading a handtruck , it moved, crushing his
Investigation disclosed that the truck wheels had not been blocked.
(a ) All employees should be carefully trained in the safe
performance of their duties and adequate supervision should be
supplied to enforce those safe procedures. In this case, the
wheels of the truck should have been blocked (faring the loading
operation!
.(b) All employees engaged in materials-handllng operations
should be required to wear steel-toed safety shoes. If this’em­
ployee had been wearing safety shoes, the Injury could have been
minimized and might have been avoided altogether.

23.
While a handtrucker was moving a bale of cotton a second trucker
ran into him. Investigation disclosed that the second trucker was following
very closely and failed to stop when the first trucker slowed to make a turn.
Bales of cotton obstruct, in some degree, the view of
the trucker, therefore, when several truckers are engaged
in' this woflc they should be instructed to follow not closer
than it) feet from the trucker ahead. Supervisors should be
required to enforce that instruction rigidly.

2k»

An employee was using a two-wheeled handtruck to move barrels into
storage. He crushed his fingers between the handle of the truck and a door­
way. Investigation disclosed that the truck handles had a 2U-inch spread
and the doorway was only 32 inches wide.
Handles of two-wheeled handtrucks should be equipped
with hand guards'!




-3 6 -

25. A warehouseman was pushing a truck loaded with cans of frozen eggs.
One of the cans fell from the truck onto his foot. Investigation disclosed
that the load, which had not been secured, moved as the truck crossed a rough
spot in the concrete floor.
(a) All loads on hand trucks should be staked or other­
wise secured to prevent movement during transit.
(b) Regular, frequent inspections and proper maintenance
are necessary to safety. In this case, a regular inspection
would have revealed the rough concrete floor; proper maintenance
would have assured its repair.
(c) Employees engaged in materials-handling operations
should be"required to wear steel-toed safety shoes.
26. A handtrucker was pulling a ^-wheeled truck. He slipped on a small
piece of ice lying on the floor and the truck rolled against his ankle.
(a) Handtrucks should be pushed, not pulled.
(b) Good housekeeping is essential to safety. A regu­
lar cleaning schedule should be developed and followed
strlctlyl In addition, employees should be trained to
remove promptly any material dropped while it is being
transferred.
27. After being used, a metal runway was placed on edge against the side
of a warehouse. It toppled over and struck a warehouseman. Investigation
disclosed that a handtrucker had bumped the runway as he was passing it.
As a result, the runway was standing in a vertical position just prior to
the accident.
When not in use, equipment such as runways should be
stored carefully so that it will not become a tripping or
falling hazard.
”
28. To unload a truck, a warehouseman had placed two planks from the
tailgate of the truck to the ground. As he carried a barrel down the runway,
one of the planks slipped from the tailgate. The warehouseman fell and in­
jured his leg.
The handling of barrels on an inclined plane by one
man is an extremely dangerous practice. For this operation,
(a) two men trained to work as a team should be used, (b) the
inclined plane should be securely fastened to the platform of
the truck, and (c) the truck should be blocked securely so
that it cannot move forward.




-3 7 -

29.
A 12-inch plank -was being used as a walkway from a truck to the
ground. As a packer was using the walkway he slipped and fell. Investigation
disclosed that it had been raining and the plank was wet.
The surface of all inclined walkways should be cleated or
covered with a nonskid material.
30. A warehouse laborer was unloading newsprint from a railroad car.
When the dock plate slipped, he fell between the boxcar and the platform and
a roll of newsprint fell on him.
Dock plates should be anchored to prevent slipping.
31. An assistant superintendent was installing a conveyor belt. The
ladder, on which he was standing, slipped and he fell, fracturing a vertebra.
Generally, ladders should not be used in maintenance
work. Instead, suitable working platforms with guard­
rails and toeboards should be provided.
32. An employee was unloading 100-pound bags of flour from a boxcar.
He slipped on some loose paper and fell. Investigation disclosed that the
paper had been placed on the car floor before the bags of flour were loaded.
Good housekeeping is essential to safety. In this case,
the paper should have been removed as the unloading progressed.
Adequate supervision should be supplied to enforce good house­
keeping practices.
33* An oiler was greasing the gears of a wheat conveyor while it was
being used. His fingers were amputated in the gears. Investigation dis­
closed that the oiler had removed the guard to grease the gears.
When in motion, machinery should never be oiled or
greased b y hand. If greasing is necessary when machinery
is in motion, a pressure system should be installed so that
removal of guards in unnecessary.
3U. A packer was removing cardboard from storage. One of the pieces
of cardboard projected about 1 foot from the pile. The warehouseman stepped
on this overhang and fell.
Poor piling practice is indicated. Piles should be set
back as the height of the pile increases. Overhangs should
not be permitted.
33* An employee stepped from the elevator into a dark basement. While
trying to find the light switch he stepped on a nail projecting from a board.




-3 8 -

Investigation disclosed that (a) the light switch was on the wall near a door,
approximately 12 feet from the elevator, and (b) the board had been discarded
b y the maintenance crew.
(a) A two-way light switch should be installed near the
elevator door.
(b) Good housekeeping is essential to safety in any
operation! A regular cleaning schedule should be developed
and followed strictly. In addition, employees should be
trained to place discarded materials in trash boxes supplied
ffbr that purpose. Supervisors should be required to enforce
these housekeeping practices rigidly.

36. A night watchman slipped from a freight elevator and fell h feet,
fracturing his hip. Investigation disclosed that neither the elevator hoist­
way nor cage had gates and that the watchman, thinking the elevator was near
the floor level, stepped off in the dark.
Elevator hoistways and cages should be equipped with
gates as required by the American Standard Safety Code for
Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Escalators.
37* An employee was moving furniture in an elevator as it was ascend­
ing. His foot was crushed between the elevator cage and the hoistway. In­
vestigation disclosed that the cage was not equipped with a gate.
(a) Car gates should be installed on the elevator cage.
(b) The sill plate at the shaftway door should be beveled.
this case, the beveled sill would have pushed the employee's foot
back into the car.

In

38. A warehouseman was pulling a bale of cotton from a pile. He
slipped and fell against a bale, cutting his hand on one of the bands. In­
vestigation disclosed that (a) the floor of the warehouse was littered with
scraps of cotton and (b) the end of one of the bands projected from the bale.
(a) Good housekeeping is essential to safety. A regular
cleaning schedule should be developed and followed strictly.
In addition, employees should be trained to remove promptly any
material dripped while It is being transferred. Supervisors
should be required to enforce these procedures rigidly.
(b) Before moving bales of cotton to storage, they
should be inspected and loose ends of steel strapping should
be rolled.




-3 9 -

39.
The driver of a towmotor was injured when the tomnotor fell from
the warehouse loading platform* Investigation disclosed that the operator
attempted to turn his towmotor on the platform without slowing down.
(a) The platform should be equipped with a toeboard.
(b) All employees should be carefully instructed in the
safe performance of their duties. In addition, adequate super­
vision should be provided to enforce safe procedures. In this
case, the driver should have slowed his towmotor before making
the turn,

hO. An employee fractured his ankle when he stepped into a hole on a
concrete loading platform. Investigation disclosed that the concrete plat­
form had cracked and the hole developed as a result of the extensive use of
handtrucks.
Periodic inspections of the premises and adequate
maintenance are necessary to prevent accidents of this
type. In this case the cracked concrete platform should
have beenrepaired before the hole developed.
ill. A packer was placing a metal strap around a crate. When he swung
the strapping over the crate, it struck and lacerated his leg.
All workmen should be carefully trained in the safe
performance of their duties. In this case, the strap should
first be placed under the crate and then wrapped over the
top and fastened.
1+2. A warehouse laborer was unloading frozen meat from a boxcar. When
he opened the car door, a piece of meat weighing 100 pounds fell from the car
and struck his head. Investigation disclosed that the load had shifted duiv
ing transit.
A car-door puller should be provided for opening boxcar
doors. With that device, workmen may stand in the clear while
opening boxcar doors.
2+3. An employee was unloading drums of oil from a railroad car. His
foot slipped off the edge of the platform and he fell between the platform
and the car. Investigation disclosed that the platform was not defective
nor slippery and that the workman had evidently misjudged his step.
A li-inch angle iron toeboard should be installed
on the platform.




APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

The injury-frequency rate is the average number of disabling work injur­
ies for each million employee-hours worked# A disabling work injury is any
injury which (a) results in death or any degree of permanent physical impair­
ment, or (b) makes the injured worker unable to perform the duties of any
regularly established job, which is open and available to him, throughout
the hours corresponding to his regular shift on any 1 or more days after the
day of injury (including Sundays, days off, or plant shutdowns).
The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each 1,000
employee-hours worked. The computations of days lost include standard time
charges for fatalities and permanent disabilities as listed in the American
Standard Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, approved by the Ameri­
can Standards Association, 191+5#




41Table 1*— W ork-injury rates for warehousemen, 1950,
c la s s if ie d by type o f “ arehouse and occupation*
w

I

E
T

y

ef

n o d

a

op

c

w
c

r

u

p

e N h

a

a

tw

Nb s

u o m u
o
i

h

r ne

s

bh

f

e m ­

u

m

rm

o

f
ao
o

eu e

w

o

l
r

r

o

s

j

u

y

r

e

y

e

-

k

n

j

r

e

q

e I

u

e
n

e ;

u

r

a

mT

ea
at

cj

v

m­
- r

pl

e
oo

uy

r

a

­ s

. a . . . .l . . . . . 1. . . . . / . . . . . . . . 2,695. . . . 31,956
. . . . .
. . . . . .

t

T Y

F

a

P

r

p
o

G r
M

i

u
r

F

l

o

R e

f

u

o

C

e

C o

e

i

e

t

h

i

n

-

61 1
• |*

•

*
, 5
t 7,278 t
o

i

8 r

a

m

-

r

r

66

s

e

r

m

o

k

p
e

e

s . . .

a

l

688
v

.

e
329
r 253 s

c
L

l
e

u

d
s




s

23.1

1

*1
.

•

0

6

1

2

*

ee

r

t

i

t

) y

i

vs

e

m

e

—
r

i

t

e

y
s

)

2*2

J

8

2.6

*

16

8

1

1.2

3.9

15
13

*

2.1

11

i*.7

17

*
1*6

8

H

<

1

*

1*3

*

12
12
11

39
37
50

31.9

1.7
1.9

15

322

8

38.6
1*0.0

0

•

1

*

•

a
.

t
951

•
•
2,012

s
t

•

a

• 3

e 5.536 t
p

c

2

l 2
o 1,2+13k
r

i
n

g

0

r
.

0

^.

t

s
•
1.91+5
• 3.685•
•

e

s
5

•

«
26.2 •
•+ +
2 2 •.0

•

.

.

•

a

1.6
1.5
1.7

.

2.0
k

c
1

l

1.8

•

r
J

1.1

i

t

s

h

o

w

n

•

1

'i

15
13

2

.

8

15
15

•3

7
13

8

.7

23
105
56
i+73
s

2

2.9

*

20

8.3

1.0

8.1

10

79

1.9
8.9
35*5

1*9

1.1

1

16

11.2
23.0

6

5
18

105

2+3.2

.

.6

1*
1

36
15

22+.1

2.5
1.7

+

*
*

5
227
76

27.O

10.1

13
9

8

3
H

35*6

•

.6
*b
•1

37.2
9*8
o

2

36.2

2.1
.8

•

e

1

10

31.8

3*k

23 J+
e

725

51.2
76.1

*h

11.8

.

1

3.0
6.9
1*5
3*8

13

10
11
21
12
10

200

3l*«6

•
•

.

75
H*3
17

17#0
9*3
61.7
20.3

.

•• 1 . * .
. •* 2 .

.

•

n
*

*

27.0

i
e

u

•*

o
36.7

o
h
11,552
790
r
s
2.927
. . 2.02+9
.

+

•1

t

63O
s

. 0 .
20.565

.8

1

*

l

r

1,158

f
h

•

1

1*.6

*.

*

.

l*h

76.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.398 .
. . . . . .

e
x
1.306
262

e

r
s
51.6

e

38.2
a

r

.
•5

g9

* 0 *

r

o

9/

,

* 1

6,260
t
,

o

19

*2

. •
35*6

n
t

*

2l+,ai*2e
n

e

300
a

•
550
e
2,330 r

1

i 8 n

13.9
61.7
*

38.7

1*2.8
8 *.8
1

5*k

s

t

1.6

2

85*9
t1

a

91*6

r
r

1 2.3
++

T

,

a

m
3,263 e

e
e

366

n

2.2
*8

•

1*8.2

*

h. . . m. . . . . e . . n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .963 . . .
. . .
I/

•7

.
.

.2

.

1*0.5

•

*
936
c
k
2,851

n

12,296
g

. . i . . t. . . o. .. ... . . r. . . . . . .s. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t e
n
a
.n . . . c . . . e . . . 635
. . w

n
c

61*
119

1.1

/ *
39.7
1*0.9
3l*.5

1

1,622

2

,

t . . .o . . . t. . . a. 3.065
. . . l. .
e

38.1

1

l

1*32

*

1,121 a
r

c

o

u

1.3
•7

31*6

1

1
1

26*0
29,2

e
r
2,161*

*

8

s
1,378t
1*38
. 271*
*

e
1.939 n

m

t

l

1
38.269 /
s 561
91*3

*

d350

106

f

i

r

e
1*06

s

o . . r. . . . . . . o . . . p

,
i

s

n

e

7

m

r
93

e

e

a

l
t

67
73
5*
1

H

2.1

23.9
25.5
21.3
18.7

•

.
33.0*
39*5

/
. •

2,318

r
265 s

o

n
d
21*7

l

l

s

l

* T
12,858 *

•

t
270 o

a

161o
t

a
a

l

l
s a

13

1.3

1

•

22,1
.
.
21,0

.

9,310
9
l
15,2is

9

s6,139•
*

yd

•7

.

26*7

• 1,387
•

•

i

t

e

e
p

i

(

a

71

,

st

N

s

u

i

k
n

O

s

a

t

r
r

a

2/

i
a

o

e

1

a

.

25*0
. .

l

l
20,775
T 1,1*67
.

a

. 772
.

*

c
262

u

v

i

r

l

e

I

e

r

o

d

e

l

e

h

v
n

t

d

r

s . . . . . .o . . . p. . . 1 e

f

k

a

W a

o

t

•
27 •
237
,
301*

*

.

10,201
o
t

s

g
s

. . .a . . . n . . . . d . .

r

e

J
M a

,
d

1
*1

e

e

r

C l

.

d
5,132 s

o

s

r

e

l

C h

t
16,258a
1,011*
.6,120
.
. •
10,872 *

o

o . . r. . . s . . . , . . . . 3,373o. . . . 18,713 l
t.
a
. . .t . .

l

k
r

a

t

e
o

d
t

T

e
d

c

F o

O

n

A

n
h

a

H

o
913

. r . . . o . . . o. - . . . e . . . s . . . s .
e . . . r . . .m . . . . . . .o. . . . .n . . . . . 133
*. .

n

d

E

t
8,503

,

d

29*6

0

a-

E

. .
1 . * . 7 . 8 . 5,691 .

p

e
a

M

n
s

a

W

S

r . . m. . . . . e . . n. . . . * . . . . *. . . . 61*. . . . . . .1 . . * . . 6 . . 5
. .
e
e
r
s
,
r
r
21*9 e f 951*i g

e

e

c

O r

U

t

d

a

P

O

e

r

i
o

H

s
o

c

r

P

a

l

o

I

U

p
g

G r

a
u

p

r

o

F
F r

i
g

d

C

m

E n

H

n . . . .e . . .r . . a. . . .l . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . 1,105
. .
. . . .

O

p

E

t
93U s

c

g

d

r

d

e

C o

u

d

d

o

o

G

R

n . . . .e . . . r .* . .a . . . l . . . . . . . . .
i g
e
r
a
t
e
d

r

F

l
n

e

r
e

d

o
a

n

p
G

h
h

n

o

A

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1*56. . . . . 2,812 . . .
. . .
. . . . .
e

c

a

W

. . o . . . . .n . . . . . *

t

n

s

e
C

F

r

t

a

o

O

O

m

C
H

E

31*0

65.095

g

t

b
(

o

ry

nr
y
e
m S p e ov ­ e
r t
to i t a
a l
l T
h i ss d a
i ­ s D a
i­ s r a a ­ r r y a - t
i i ­ bl
bl
i l ­i tn o g t
s i
a
l
a
e i ns
i
e t s i
j ud
ri
ys

t

T

r

a

d t
eb

i

r
e

p
g

nn

A
P

eA d
l l
u d i s ­a ­
s
b s l) i n D
i

f

-

s

l (o t y h e o e
s
a
n
d

p
e

p
u

e o r

n

e

•9

10

2/

ns

2.1

1
p

a

U .6

8
r

a

t

e

l

y

b

-42Table 2#— Work-injury frequency rates for ear ©housemen, 1950,
classified by geographic region, State, and type of warehouse.
T

o

t

a

—F

l

a

r

m

H-

o

u

s

e

h

o
e

M
G

e

o

g

r

a

p

h

i

c

r

e

g a

w

i

ol

a

p

ln

a r n o

d d

u

S cg

t to a s o t d e

T

N

o

t

e

a

l . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •

w

E

M

n

a

M

i

d

d

N

e
e

l

w

P
E

a

A

r

t

u
l

a

e
s

wo

31.0•
•

•

•

•

i 30.3 n
o

g
e

ua

.

t

.

30*3
41.7

. . n . . . . t . . i. . . c . . . . . . r. . . e.

.

.

N

d
c

O

h

i

.

e

s

t

o

o

K

o

•a

r

t

h

C

• . •.
24.2

. • .

t

r
a
24.4
24.2
31-4

l

e . . n.

•.

n
i

S

o

t

a

s

t

S
b

s

s

h

l

C

a

S

T

e

x

o
i

a

h

o

a

.

-.

•

•

.

o
19.7

t

t

.

a

l

i

o

,
13.3

n

e

h

e

wo

ua

t

o

a
29.1

t

e

n

n

t

i

-

•

•

•

.

•

.

•

.

e
g
19.3
-

r

r
e
26.3
19*3
16.2
24.6. .
. . . .

g

i

o

n

,

•
•
• - *
•
•
. . . . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . .

t
•-

•

-

.
i

a
32.0

t

•

•

•

•

-

n
17.0,

o

•

o

t

t
31+.2

o

- •
•

l

•

•
30.6 •

•

t
i

i

C

. . •

e

•

•

n

•

t

l

•

l

i

r

•

•

-

e
g
2 0 .U

•

•

i
•

o
•

i

-

25.3
27.2

27.9
2l*.l*

l

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
l

.
•

•

•
58.0•

•

•

•

-

•

•

•

•
•
2b*7

•

•

n
•

•

c

1*0.5
38.0

37.2

e

g

i

o

n

,

t

t
•

o

t

•

•

a

•

•

l

• •

.

•

.

•

.
•

.

o

n

,

_t

o

t

a

29*8
l
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

a
37.3 l

t

o

t

-

-

-

l _

a

-

.f . . o. . . . . r . . . . . . .n . . . . . . . . i . •. . a . • . . .•* . . • . . . . • . . •

•

•

•

*

■“

•

• -

•

•

•

•
•
21.7
19.9
-

•

•

•

35.6•
38.9

. •

•

•

•

•
liU.5*
1*3.3

-

Notes Data from idiioh these rates were worked are available on request to tte Bureau o f Labor
S ta tis tic s , U. S. Department o f Labor, Washington 25, D* C*




.

I -.I

. . . . r . . . e . . . g . . . . .i . . . . o . . . n. . . . , . . . . . . t . . . o
r

•
-

u
t h
c . . e . . . n . . . .t . . r . . . a . . . l .
r
e
g2 9 .1
i
s . . . i. . . . . . a . . . . .n . . . . . a . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
m
a
.
23*2

n

, _

30*3

. . . . . .

1*9.6

a

f

20.1
r
a
• 8.3
•
. p . . . .. . . . .p. . . . . . . .i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29*5.
.. .. .. .

h
*

. . . . . . . . . . . . -

•
•
33.7 •
Washington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •38.1 •
•
a

.

26*3

a

sh

•

-

.

-

-

ee

39.7

1
*3

t

c

sr

s

37.5
& .2
36.5
27.1

*

2l*.7

e
g
18.3

s

•
•
30.9
.
-.

•

.

-

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . 4 . 1
. .

s

n
c

t
a

u
l

u

m

s . . .i . . s . . . s . . . i .

t

u

o

a

o

a

,

-

r

u

-

k

C

a

o

-

O

P

t

. g . . . . i . . n. . . . i. . . .. . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i

o

hs

33.0

*

.

i i s g e

•

a

L

M

r

A

t

l

e

.

f d r

r

M
W

l

.

en

-

i

A

. s. . .o . .
h

o

V

ee

a

o . . . . r . . .g . . . i . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . .
r
t h
. . . . C. . . . ... a. . . . . . . r. . . . . . o. . . . .l . .i . . .n . . . a . . . . . . . . . . . . .

e

N

a

. n . . . .e .
s

u

G

E

o

s

n
i

r s

r

r
a
34*3 l
22Jj
s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• 32.1 •
•
•
. ..s . . . . o. . . . . . t. . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.6 . . . . .
.
. . . .
. u. . . . .r . .. . . . .i . . . .* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . • . . •. . . . 49.0 . . . . .
. . . . .

N

a

M

a

.

n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

w. . . . . a . . . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

M

t

-

.

26.5

I

au

o

21*0

o

.

g

sh w

e

h R

c

. . n. . . . . o . . . . .i . . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . .
. . . .
27.8
i a
n
a
*
. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . .
•h
h
i g
a
n
*
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. .
. . .
. i . . .o . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.6• •
. •

i

i

W

rs

25.0

,

t
s
28.0

t

s . . y. . . . l . . .v• . . •. .a . •. . n. • . . . • . i

n

t
l

n

d
h

h

. . .Y . . . ..o . . . r . . * .k . . . . . . *. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

s

I
M

n
c

e

n

l

a

a

. . J . . . e. . . .r• . . .s • . . e. • . . y. • . . . •

e

I

l

s

w

N

g

s

e

d

e

s
w

r

l
r

-

•

o

-4 3
T a b le

3 •“ - W o r k - i n j u r y
c la s s ifie d

ra tes

fo r

w areh ou sem en ,

b y m e t r o p o lit a n

1950,

area*

In ju ry-a ev<*rity

In ju ry-frequen cy rates o f —

M etropolitan area

Number
Number
of
of
ware­ employees
houses

Perma­
n entA ll
d is a ­
p a r t ia l
b lin g
Deaths d isa ­
b ili­
in ju r ie s
tie s

31.956

65.095

31*0

1*72
501
1,970
770
722

1.019

1,021;
3,872
l.i*09
1.1*79

25.5
29*3

67
79

5i*2
1.QU8
528
655

2,11*8
1,108
1.3H*

1*38
157

2.6/+1
1.536

217

81*3
1,223
673
519

Total l / . ...................................... 2,695
Boston, Mass*......... •••••••••*
B u ffa lo , N• Y* ••• *•••••••••*
Chicago, 111*, t o t a l
Merchandise warehouses.•«
C old-storage warehouses**
Kansas C ity, M o***.**.........•*
Los Angeles, C a lif*•*••••••«
M inneapolis-St* Paul, Minn.*
New Orleans, La*.........••••••«
New York-Northeastern New
J ersey, t o t a l 1/
Merchandise warehouses.7*
Household goods**«•*•••*«
warehouses*
P h iladelph ia, Pa*, t o t a l l / .
Merchandise warehousesT*«
San Antonio, Tex............. ••••<

Employeehours
worked
(thou­
sands )

95
82
261+
83
71
63

190

171+
59
22

l / Includes fig u res not eh own

29.6

71

13

2*2

25*5
29.3
22*5
26*3

50.5
38.9

12
11
9l*
18
1*3
129
11
7
30

12
11
11
10
9
17
11
7
13

•3
•3
2*2
•5
1*1
6*5
•3
•*
1
1*2

3*9
3*5

30*7
1+1.1

153
67

16
12

5 .J
3 .0

5*8
.1*
•7
-

15*0
32.1

508
17
21
9

25
13
H*
9

10*9
.6
.6
.6

0.1

1*3

h°*h

•3
•9
-

1 .0
•7
2*0
•9
1.5

5.381
3.118

3l*.8
W+*6

•2
-

1.728
2.1*31*
1.31*0
1.281+

21*4
32*5
29*8
66 .2

.6
-

1,106

23*8

27*0
27*0

50*6
25*6
50.5

Average time
lo s t per—
Temporaryto ta l
Tempo­ S ev erity
d is a ­ Disa­ r a r y ra te
b i l i ­ b lin g t o t a l
t i e s Injury d is a ­
b ility
(day*) (day*)

25.0
148*6
25.6

2?#1
66 .2

s**r>arately because o f in s u ffic ie n t data*

Table 1+*—W ork-injury frequency ra te s fo r warehousemen, 1950,
c la s s ifi e d by occupation and by type o f
T ota l-

Farm-

warehouse*

HouseholdMerchandise

R efrigera ted

warehouses

warehouses

21.0

33.0

39.7

36*3
_
•
36*7
36.9

1+6*0
•
•
28*2
•
•
1*9.7

1*7.3

35.6
38.2

2l+*7
1*8.2
22 .0
28.6
22*9

M aterials movement, t o t a l ............. ••••••
F o r k lift op era tors..................................
Handtruckers •••................. ......................

36.7
26.2
l*t+.o

37.1
18*7
1+1.2

•
-

38.8
26*7
57*9

14*J*

Other, t o t a l * *.•••••••••••••••..•••••*
Checkers*.*. ............................. ..
C le r io a l, except ch e ck e rs * .. . . . . . * *
J a n i t o r s . .. ............................. ••••.*•••
Maintenance workers.........*..................
Watohnen.. ..................................................

11.8
23.1*
2 .0
11.4
37.2
9 .8

9 .7
i*.9

2*1
1.0
-

7 .2
19*9
2*8
7.1*
1*0.5
9 .1

10*8
1*2*2

a ll

products

goods

warehouses

warehouses

warehouses

T ota l***•••••*••••••••••••••••••...........

31*0

25*0

Operators, t o t a l * ............................... ..
Compress op era tors*...........................
Coolermen. ................................•••••••••
Engineers, r e fr ig e r a tin g ................... ..
Freeze rmem*** •• ............................••••••
Grain-elevatormen* *....................... ••••
Handlers and sta ck srs*.*• *.................
Ioe handlers * ................. ..
Packs rs and c r a te r s •••*••*.••••••••
Warehousemen, general......... *............

1*0.5
1*8.2
85.9
I 8.9
61.7
21J+
51.6

Occupation




76.1

22*2
10*7

88*5
19.1
60*7
•
53.1*
76*1
1*1.7

-

•
30*7

-4 4 -

Table 5 .—D isabling work in ju r ie s t o warehousemen o f 27l+ warehouses, 1950,
c la s s if i e d by nature o f in ju ry , part o f body

T o ta l-

in ju re d , and tyne o f warehouse.

Household-

Farm-

Merchandise
warehouses
part o f body in ju red

warehouses l /
Number

Total* •*•............. .

warehouses

Percent Number

R efrigerated
warehouses

goods

products

a ll

Nature o f in ju ry and

warehouse8

Percent Number

Peroent Number

Peroent Number

Peroent

100.0

7i*o

100.0

509

100.0

168
169
99
63
22
3
5
11
9

33*0
33*1
11.6
12.1+
2+.3
•6
1.0
2 .2
1.8

185
55
76
5
2+

36.3
10.8
H+.9
10.6

156
89
15
33
1
2+
2
+
1

30.6

127
21
2+7
59

25 .0
2+.1
9 .2
11.7

1.601*

100.0

222

100.0

123

5W
1*75
2t*0

33.8
29.6

76
61
31*
32
1
*
6
1
*
2
3

31+-2
2 7 .5
15.3
1k * k
1.8
2*7
1.8
•9
1.2+

2+3
29
27
21
1
1
1

31+.9

252

32+.2

22.0
17.1
.8
.8
.8

212
120
112
1
2+
8
7
6
9

28.6
16.2
15.1
1.9
1.1
•9
•8
1.2

57
29
21
7

25.7

2+5
11
26
8

36.6
8 .9
21.2
6 .5

252
78
101
73

10.5

7k

33*3

30.9
17*1
7*3
.8
3-3
1.6
•8

21+2
12+7
36
22
23
9
5

32.7

26.8
5 .7
6 .5
12+.6

176
26
51+
96

23.8

NATURE OF INJURY
S tra in s, s p r a in s .................. ..
Cuts, la c e r a tio n s * ................. ..
Fractures........... .................. ..
H e rn ia s... ........................... ..
Foreign b o d ie s, N .E .C *...***
Bums and s o a ld s .. ••••.•.•.*
Other............. .......................... ..

230
21
+
18
16

19
22

15*0
ll*»3
2*6
le i
1 .0
1 .2
1.1*

23*6

PART OF BODY INJURED
Loner e x tr e m itie s............... ..
I* g ............................................

51*1
*
173
227
ih k

3U.0

10.8

11*.2
9 .0

Trunk*.................................
B a c k . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. ..
Chert
A bdom en .....
S h ou lder.•••••••••••••«••
Hips, p e lv is * ................. ••*
O t h e r * * .......••••••••••*

512
302
69
63

Upper e x tre m itie s* . . . . . . . . . .
A m . . . . . . . . . . . ................... ..
Hand.................................... •••
Finger............... .......................

1*08
69
136

203

12.6

Head................. *.............................
By®............................................
Brain, s k u l l * * * . . . ...• • »•
O t h e r ...................*

96
1»3
17
36

6 .0
2 .7
1 .1
3 .2

Body, gen eral••••.*•••••••••

1 *
*1

2 .7

52
15
11

31.9

18.9
1*.3
3 .9
3 -2

.9
.7
25.1*
U»3

8.5

13.0
9 .5
3 .2

32+.1

13.7
9 .9

1+3
9
7
11
1
+

19.2

1.8

38
21
9
1
1
+
2
1

72
15
27
30

32*1+
6*8
12.2
13.2+

33
7
8
18

1k

6.3

h

k

2
1
1

3 .3
1.7
.8
•8

2*9
18
13
18

6 .6
2.1+
1.8
2J+

29

2+.5
1.8

13
3
13

5.7
2 .5
.6
2 .6

5

2 .3

3

2J 4
.

21

2 .8

12

2.1+

10

2+.1
3*2

5.0

19.8
1+.9
3 .0
3 .1
1 .2
•7

3-5
7 .3
13.0

1 / Includes fig u re s not shown separately because o f in s u ffic ie n t inform ation t o o la s s ify




17.2+
2*9
6 .5
2*8
.8
•2

-4 5 T a b le

6 * — D is a b lin g

w ork i n ju r i e s

to

w arehousem en o f

27l+ w a r e h o u s e s ,

1950#

c la s s if i e d by nature o f in ju ry , part o f body in ju red , and agency o f in ju r y .

Part o f body in ju red
and agency o f in ju ry

Total
Bruises, Cuts,
number
S tra in s, contu­ la c e r ­
of
in ju ­ sprains sions
a tion s
r ie s

Foreign
Frac­ Hernias Ampu­ b od ies,
ta tio n s N.E.C.
tu res

l,6QU

543

475

240

230

1*1

18

5U+
173

115
48
64
3

224
79
91
54

65
30
28
7

132
H*
1*0
78

.
-

2
2

90
26
33
6
14
4
7

2
1
1
-

27
2
18
1
*
2
1

41

69
63
52
15
11

349
273
16
15
54
8
3

1*1
*
*
-

-

Upper e x tr e m it ie s .••••••••••
Arm.......................................... ..
H and.............
F i n g e r . . . . ......................••••

408
69
136
203

75
20
1)6
9

91*
20
30
44

H*7
16
39
92

65
8
16
1+1

-

Head. ........................................
Eye••••••••••••••••••••••
Brain, s k u l l . ...•••••••••
O th er........••••••••••••

96
1*3
17
36

1
1

35
7
9
19

26
10
6
10

5
2
3

•
-

1
1

Body, g e n e r a l..........................

11
*+

3

32

-

1

-

Containers••••••••••••••••••
Boxes, o a se s.........................
Other........................................

1+ai*
220
262*

2ia
108
133

123
67
56

1*9
19
30

51
18
33

V e h ic le s ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powered............................. ..
H a n d ................ ................ ..
Railroad c a r s . . . ......... ..

220

1*9

55
11*3
22

22*
9
11
1
*

ia
12

28
5

101
16
75
10

Working su rfa ces*•••••••••••
F l o o r s ..................................*
O th e r ......................... ..

180
109
71

1*9
31
18

72
1*2
30

Metal p a r t s ............ ..............
B odily motions
H andtools.••••••••••••••••••
I c e . ..................................... . •• •*
Lumber............................••••••••

108
82
55
1*2
1*2

22
62*
9
11
12

26
8
11
15
12

Machines.......................................
Furniture................. .................. ..

1*2
la
33
26
22

5
23
7
7
-

22
20
18
18
17
125

3
5
1
6
-

-

27

7

2

T o t a l . . . . . ..................................

16

Bums
and
soalds

Other

19

22

-

3
2
1
-

3
3

-

•
.
-

1
-

-

5
1
1
*
-

7
1
*
1
2

16
16

10

-

9
•
1

2
1
•
1

-

-

1

7

19
7
12

1
1
-

-

3

2
2
-

3
2
1
-

21
H*
7

35
20
15

2
1
1

•
-

31*
27
1
H*

21+
6
7
12
1
*

1
1
*
1
3

1
-

10
5
11
12
-

H*
1*
7
1
-

6
7
6
1
*
-

8
11
9
1
*

5
1
*
2
1*

36

1
*
3
1
*
1
29

1

3

PART OF BODY INJURED
Lower e x tr e m itie s.....................
I* g .............................................
F o o t ............ ..
••••••••••
T o e . . . . . •••••••••••••••••
Trunk........... .................. ......
Back........... .................. ..
C h est.•.••••••••••••••••.
Abdomen. ............................
Sh ou lder.•••••••••••••••.
Hips, p e l v i s . ................... .. •
O t h e r . . . . . . . . . . ......... ..

227
144
512

302

15
15

_

3
1

1

AGENCY OF INJURY

F ood stu ffs............... ••••••••••
Chemical s .............••••••••••••
Elevators .••••............. ..............
R olls o f p a p er.................... ..
Conveyors................................ •••
Doors. •................... ..
Foreign b o d ie s ................. •••••
O t h e r . . .. ................... •••••••••
U n cla ssifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t
d a ta ..




16

26

-

«.

2
2
2
-

7
-

«.
-

-

-

-

•
-

-

•
-

1
1
-

•
-

•
•
-

•
_
-

.
-

-

13

9

-

_

-

_
'-

2
-

-

-

-

-

-

3

m

-

-

•

-

-

12

2

-

1

-

16

-

-

1

-

6

12

-

-

-

-

- 4 6 ..
T a b le

7 * — W ork a c c i d e n t s

to

w areh ou sem en

o f

27U w a r e h o u s e s ,

1950#

c la s s ifi e d by a c t i v it y , agency o f in ju ry , and acciden t type*

Agenoy o f in ju ry
and aooident type

Total
number Handling
mate­
of
a o o i­
r ia ls
dent s i /

Operating or using equipment
Total

V eh icles

Handt o o ls

Other

Walking,
standing,
eto*

Other

l,60t+

931+

353

201

98

3b

257

7

Containers* •................... •. •............ .
Bozos, oases***............. ..
O th er***.*....................... *.............. •••

i+ai+
220
261+

1+37

25
12
13

20
11
9

3
1
2

2
2

12
2
10

•
-

V eh icles* ..............................•••..........••••
Powered ..................................*................
Hand.........................................................
Railroad oars*****................. ••••••

220
55
1^3
22

55
11
31+

119

11h
20
90

5

-

38
18
13
7

•
-

180
109
71

61

F loors****.. ••••..................................
Other*.........•••*.••••••••............•••

h

-

90
61
29

-

Metal p a rt..................... .................*•••••
Bodily m otions••••......... ••••••••••*••
Handtools. ••••••............... *................ •••
I c e ......................... •••••.......... ••••••••«•
Limber. ....................... .................. *............ ..

108
82
55
1+2
1+2

87
30
6
35
27

-

2
1
3
1

5
i<6

b3

6
U5
2
2

1

1
25

33
12

1
3
2
-

-

-

-

-

56
8
1

9
5
3
2
-

39
23
6
5
3
9

3
1
1
-

h

3

-

6
3

T o ta l...............................................................
AGENCY OF INJURY

Machines..........................••••••*.•••••••
Furniture*•••••••••••••••.•••••••••*
P a lle t s , s k i d s * .* ..«••••••••••••••••
Foodstuffs * ......................... ..
Other..................... ............ ..
U n cla s sifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t data.........

201

236

10

31+
27

2b
90

5
25
11
lb

h

16
6

10
6

lU
5

k

5
3

7

3U

la

3b

3

33
26

2b

2b Z

23
107

5
2
67

3
5
2
30

7

1

1

1

296

129
b7

6U
3h

101+
55
65
28
17
8
19

12
29
1
5
52
20
8
2

8
23
1
2
27
1
2
-

355
273
82
108
12
*
15
27

19
19
116
72
5
28
11

9
9
88
72
1
5

53
27
26
75

30
12
18

20

bZ

b

1
9
5

h

2
7

h i

•
1
5

ACCIDENT TYPE
Struck by moving o b je c t s ............... ••••
F allin g o b j e c t s * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fran hands o f workmen............... ..
Bran equipment*•••••••••••••••
From p ile s o f m a terials****.**
From other p o s itio n s * •«*••••••
Hand-operated or w ielded o b je c t s .
Flying or thrown o b je c t s ............. ..
Power-driven equipment•••...........
Other moving o b je c t s ....................... ..
Overexertion due t o * * * «••••••••••*••
L iftin g o b je c t s ................. .............. ..
Other a c t i v it ie s * ..................... •••••
Caught in , on, or between........... ••••
A v e h icle and another object****
Handled o b je c t s * ...............••••••••
Moving parts o f equipment...............
Other o b je c t s .........••••••...................

1|90
3 h l

12U
93
75
k9

75
35
15
2U
37b

273
101

265
107
60
55
h3

F a lls ....................... ............................ ••••*
To lower le v e ls ..............................•••
On same le v e ls * ......................... ....
S trik in g a g a in s t..........................*............
Bimping in to o b j e c t s . •••*••••••••
Rubbing against o b je c t s ............... ..
Other* ................................... . . . . . * . . *

195
112
83
150
96
36
18

S lip s and stumbles (not f a l l s )••••••
In h alation , a b s o r p tio n .................... •••
Other a cciden t ty p e s ................................
U n cla s sifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t data**.**

77
26
21
6

252

h3

29
2

37
5
l

27
9
11
-

10
8
12
15
13
1
1

5
8
2
1

bh

1 / Includes fig u res not shown sep arately because o f in s u ffic ie n t




b

3
25
15
6
2
9
9
9
-

k

1

b

-

b

19

32
18
10

-

h

1
9
h

5
11
7
h

-

-

1
19

1

-

108
70
38
29
13
1
15

1
1
-

h3

1
17
17

b

-

1

1

3
1
-

5
l
-

inform ation t o o la s s ify .

1
3

-

3
1
-

-4 7 T a b le

8 * — W ork a c c i d e n t s

to

w arehousem en

o f 27

h w areh ou ses,

1950*

c la s s if i e d by agency o f in ju ry , accid en t ty p e, and type o f warehouse*
Agency o f in ju ry
and aooident type

T o ta la ll
warehouses 1 /
Number

T ota l....................... *.................... 1,60!*

Per­
cent 2 /

Farmproducts
warehouses

Number

Householdgoods
warehouses

Merchandise
warehouses

Per­
cent 2 / Number

p©roent 2 / Number
100.0

21*4

100*0

222

100.0

123

30*3

78
3
75
19
1
*
12
3
32
H*
18
9
5
15
13
20
1
28

35.5
1.1*
3U.1
8 .6
1.8
54
14
4 .5
64
8.1
i*.l
2.3
6 .8
5.9
9 .1
.5
12*7

30
26
1*
15
6
9
13
11
2
3
8
6
3
1
*
23
1
17

2

—

R efrigerated
warehouses

Peroent 2 / Number

Per­
cent 2 /

71*0

100.0

509

100.0

222
109
113
128

30.2

152
82
70
57
11
1*0
6
51
36
15

29.9
16.1
13*8

AGENCY OF INJURY
Containers ..................... ..
Boxes, oa ses...........
Other........................................
V e h icle s* . •..................................
Powered.......................... ••••
Hand.................... .
R ailroad o a r s * ................. ..
Working s u r f a c e s . . . . . . . * . . . .
Floors* •• ••••••••••......... ..
Other*••••••••••••.••••••
Metal p a rts* .........••••••••••*
Bodily m otions•••••••.............
Handtools................... ............. ....
I c e . . . ................. ........................ ..
Lumbe r . . . ...................
M achines.......................................
Furniture*............................*•••
P a lle ts , s k id s .••••..•••••••
F ood stu ffs. •............. •••••••••
Other. ••••....................................
U n cla s sifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t
data.

18*
+1
220
26 k
220
55
43
22
180
109
71
108
82
55
U2

1*2
k2
k l

33
26
2i|2
7

13*8
16.5

13.8
3 'k

9*0
l4
11*3

6.9

1*4
6 ,8
5.1
3*1*
2*6
2*6
2*6
2*6
2*1
1*6
15.2
—

-

21.1
3.3
12.2
1+.9
7.3
-

10.6
9 .0
1.6
24

6.5

1*.9
24
3.3
18.7
.8
-

%

81
13
81
1*7
3U
85
35
11
20
9
4

22
-

4*8
154
174
1*.6
11.0
1 .8
11.0
64
2 .6
*
11.5
1*.8
1.5
2.7
1 .2
1.9
3 .0
4*8

13.8

109

-

1
*

-

29.3
22.0
9 .7
l* .l
1*.9
3 .3

236

32.0
22.5

31*
16
6
4

11

32

22
1*2
6
9
3

10

26
87
1

11.2
2 .2
7.8
1.2
10.0
7 .0
3 .0
2 .2
6 .3
1*.3
8.3
1 .2
1.8
*6
2 .0
5.1
17.1
—

ACCIDENT TYPE
Struck by moving o b j e c t s .. . .
F allin g o b je c t s ................. ..
From hands o f workmen.
From equipm ent..............
From p ile s o f m aterial
From oth er p o s itio n s ••
Hand-operated or wielded
obje o ts .
Flying or thrown o b je c t s .
Power-driven equipment.••
Other moving o b je c t s ••••*■
Overexertion due t o * ..••••••
L ift in g o b je c t s ............... ..
Other a c t i v i t i e s * • • . . . . . .
Caught in , on, or betw een.••
A v eh icle and another
o b j e c t ..
Handled o b je c t s * .........•••*
Moving parts o f equipment
Other o b j e c t s . .....................
F a ll.................................................
To lower l e v e l s . ............. ..
On same le v e ls * ......... •••••
S trik in g a g a in st..................... ..
Bunping in to o b je cts * * .* *
Rubbing against o b je c t s .*
Other..................... •••••.•••
S lip s and stim bles(not fa lls '
In h a lation , a b s o r p tio n .••••*
U n cla s sifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t
data-

1*90
3U1
12li
93
75
1*9

30.7
21*1;
7.8
5 .8
W
3.1

71
38
20
7
9
2

32.2
17*2
9 .0
3 .2
l*.l
.9

36
27
12
5
6
1
*

75
35
15

18
9
2
1
*
52
33
19
33

8 .2
l* .l
•9
1.8

6
1
2
-

37li
273
101
265

1**7
2*2
•9
1*5
23*1*
17.1
6 .3
16.6

23*6
15.0
8.6

15.0

21
6
17

1*.9
•8
1.6
22 .0
17.1
1*.9
13*8

107
60
55
1*3
195
112
83
150
96
36
18
77
26
21

6 .7
3.8
3.1;
2.7
12.2
7 .0
5*2
94
6*0
2*3
1*1
1**8
1.6
1.3

5
1
*
18
6
36
21
15
18
H*
2
2
5
2
3

2 .3
1.8
8 .2
2.7
164
9 .6
6 .8
8 .2
64
•9
•9
2 .3
•9
14

5
7
1
1
*
15
9
6
18
10
5
3
7
1
2

l*.l
5.6
.8
3.3
12.2
7.3
1*.9
4 .6
8.1
i* .l
2.1*
5.7
.8
1.6

2k

6

—

2

—

27

—

—

166
50
53
37
26

168
121
1*7
122

56
28
18
20
81*
51*
30
77
1*7
21
9
33
13
1
*
3

6.8
7*2
5 .0
3*5

1*.6
2 .2
•8
1.9
22.8
164
64
1 6 .6

7 .7
3*8
24
2 .7
11.1*
7.3
l*.l
104
64

2.8
1.2

1+.5
1.8
•5
—

1 / Includes fig u re s not shewn separately beoause o f in s u ffic ie n t inform ation t o c la s s ify *
z / Percents are oomputed on c la s s if i e d cases on ly .




45

109
1*1
28
23
17
17
9
5
5
125
97
28
92
1*0
21
18
13
57
25
32
37
25
8
1
*
30
10
12
1

2 8 .5
214
8.1
5*5
1**5
3*3
3-3
1.8
1 .0
1 .0
2 U .6

19.1
5*5
18.1
7 .9
!*•!
3»5
2 .6
11.2
1**9
6*3
7.3
1*«9
1.6
.6
5*9

2.0
24

—

-4 8

Table

9 . — Work

a c c id e n ts to warehousemen o f 27k w arehouses, 1950,

c l a s s i f i e d by ao cid en t typ e and agenoy o f in ju r y *
T o tal
number
Con­ Vehi­
of
a c c i­ t a in e r s c le s
dents

Aooident typ e

T o ta l...........................................................
Struck by moving o b je c ts ....................
F a llin g o b je c ts * ............................ ..
From hands o f workm en..••• •
From equipment*•
From p il e s o f m a te r ia ls * * * .
From oth er p o s itio n s * • • • • • •
Hand-operated o r w ield ed
o b je c ts
F lyin g or thrown o b je c ts ............

1. 6 1
0+
I+ 0
9
3U1
12U
93
75
k9

kBb

170
15k
U5

1
*

59
k

75

2

35
15

3
-

2k

11

O verexertion due t o . . . . ................... ..
L if t in g o b je c ts ................... • • • • • •
Other a c t i v i t i e s * . . . . . . . . * . . . .

37k

226
181

Caught i n , on, or between.................
A v e h ic le and ano ther o b je c t ..
Handled o b je c ts * ...............................
Moving p a rts o f eq uipm en t.• •• •
Other o b je c t s * ................................

265
107

F a l l s ........................................ .......................

195

Other moving o b je c t s * .. . . . . . . •

From
From
Fran
From

v e h ic le s
p la tfo rm s, so affo ld s* *
p ile d suite r i a l s * . . . « • •
o th er e le v a t io n s .......... ..

273

101
60
55
k3

k5

55

2
1

39

186
82

1

3

k
k

-

1
1

15ti
96
23

k7

-

1

9
-

S lip s and stu n b le s (not f a l l s ) . . .

77

-




23
5
18

-

Hi

22

U n c la s s if ie d ; in s u f f ic ie n t d a ta * .

3

56
i |6
18
23

1

-

26
21
6

6

Hi
Hi
9
5

-

150
96
iU
25
30
36
18

Other ao cid en t ty p e s * ...........................

38
-

108

Hi
9

S tr ik in g a g a in s t ......................................
Banping in to o b je c ts ............ • • • •
Equipment........................................
P ro je c tin g n a i l s , s l i v e r s . .
Other o b je c ts * . . . . . . . . . . . . *
Rubbinfc a g a in s t o b je c ts ...............
Other*...................... '•....................• • • •

,

5

31

15

7

h

1
1
2
10
16

M etal B o d ily
p a rts motions

180

13

112
2k
21
20
83

220
61
Ik
8
1

Work­
in g
su r­
fa ce s

21
18

2
3

6
1
22
21
1
k

3
-

1
1
1

-

3k

1

58

-

7

25

-

11
2

1
1

6

lk
-

-

-

-

H
+

lb

-

1

q

82
-

Handto o ls

55

k2

33

2k

k

20

-

5
5
-

1
1
2

25
-

_
“

8
1

_
-

6

-

-

Ice

7
-

k

1
1
1
-

1|2
22
16

10

9
3
U

-

1

1

3

12
6
6
5
-

1

-

k

1

-

-

-

-

-

7
3

-

1

Lunber

1

k

-

1

9

8
1
1
-

1
1

-

5
3

2
16
1
15
-

1

9

18
18
18
-

1

-

-

77

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

-

ii
-

-

i |2

-

1
1
2
6

2
1

Ma­
ch ines

-

-

1

P a l­
Furni­ l e t s ,
tu re
sk id s

11
1
10

??

9
5
3

15
15
7
-

-

k
k

1
1

-

-

22

7

17
5

k
3

3
-

6

2
1
-

“
5
3

1
2
2

1

3
-

2
2
1
-

1
1

-

3
3

2
1

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

Food­
s tu f f s

26
16
16

Other U nclas­
s if ie d

2l+
2
67
31

9
ll
3
-

6
7
6
12

-

21

8
7
1

27
15

.
-

-

2
2
1
1
-

5

5
5

12
62
22
5
2k

11

19

10
-

10
9
27
18
k

2
12

7

_
-

1
.1
“

.
“
.
.
-

k
5

-

-

-

26
1

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

# Hi

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

•

6

-4 9 *

Table 1 0 .—Work aoo id en ts to "warehousemen of 216 w arehouses( 1950,
c l a s s i f i e d by hazardous working; co n d itio n and agency of a ccid en t

Hazardous working co nd itio ns

Total
number Con­
of
t a in ­
a c c i­
ers
dents

Work­
in g
su r­
fa c e s

Vehi­
c le s

M etal
p a rts

P ile s
Ma­
o f F urni­ Convey­
chines mate­ tu re
ors
r ia ls

T o ta l..................................................................... 1,331

293

152

123

1*6

Hazardous working pro ced u res...............
L if t in g or moving heavy o b je o ta .
L if tin g o b je c ts to high p la c e s .•
O th er......................................... ..

316
281
26
9

198
179
19
-

5
5

16
13

19
19

-

3

-

-

D efects of a g e n c ie s ...........................••• •
S lip p e r y . ........................• • • . . ................
Sharp-edged, rough, s l i v e r e d . . . .
Im properly d esigned or
constructed
Hidden d e f e c ts , oracked, w o rn ...
P ro je c tin g n a i l s , w ir e s , e t c . . . .

238
75
58

39
3
18

75
55
10

53
12
h

20
18

hh
39
22

2
8
8

h

1
5

28
8
1

Bnproperly guarded a g e n c ie s .................
Laok o f g u a r d r a ils , g a te s , e t c . .
Lack o f p o in t-o f-o p e ra tio n
en clo su res
Laok of anchors, lo c k s , e t o . . . . .
Lack of handle g u a r d s ... . . • • • • .
Lack of en clo su res fo r g e a r s ,
p u lle y s e to .
O th er.................. ..

165
59

2

29
19

36
11

10
“

-

6
15

-

h
-

Hazardous arran gem en t..............................
U n safely sto red or p i l e d . . . . . . . .
Unsafe la yo u t o f o p e r a tio n s .. . • •
O th er............. ............. ................................

139
85
ia
13

5U
50

31

37
3h
15
13
7

-

2
-

-

-

8
1
7
-

-

30

h

16

Ice

Hand- E leva­ Ladders Other Unclas­
to o ls to r s
s if ie d

25

23

20

20

17

16

H*

2
•
2

19
18
1
-

h

11
11

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

.
-

2
"

_

3
-

2
“

_

-

1
“

-

-

-

2
-

2
-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

2
-

l
-

1
2
-

_

32
1

13
13

15
1*

_

“

8
“

11
9

28
2

_

_

l

_

8

_

_

3

-

-

-

.

-

ia
h
k

•
-

1
-

"

h

.

-

_

_

_

9

_

1
-

_

2

-

7

1

6

-

-

-

-

-

12
2

-

-

_

7

2
2

-

38
5
8

-

-

-

-

6

_

-

h

_

_

_

7
7
-

_

1
-

-

1
1
-

1*15

38
32
2

5

7

-

1

1

-

-

1
15
-

3

-

10
7
3
-

6
6
-

1

126

_

_
-

-

-

_

-

_

28
17

_

h

.

.

_
-

-

1
-

6

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Laok of p erso n al s a f e t y equipm en t.•

20

-

-

-

1

3

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

10

Other........................................ ...........................

7

-

5

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

U n c la s s if ie d ; in s u f f ic ie n t d a t a . . . .

U5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ia 5




-5 0

Table !!•— W aooidents to 'warehousem
ork
en, 1950#
o la s s ifie d by hazardous working co n d itio n , unsafe a c t , and type o f imrehouse.
Total—
a ll
warehouses l /

Hazardous working
con d ition and
unsafe a c t

Number

Per­
cent 2 /

Farsnproducts
warehouses

Number

Householdgoods
warehouses

■Per­
cent 2J Number

Merchandise
warehouses

Per­
cent 2 / Number

R efrigerated
warehouses

Per­
cent 2 / Number

Per­
cent 2 /

HAZARDOUS W
ORKIN CONDITIONS (216 warehouse s)
G
T o ta l................. ................ .

1,331

Hazardous working procedures*
L iftin g heavy o b j e c t s . . . . *
L iftin g t o high p la ce s * ♦*.
Other.••••••••••••••••••«*
D efects o f ag en cies*. . . . . . . . .
S lip p ery ..................... .
Sharp-edged, rough**••••••
Improperly d e s ig n e d * ... . . *
Hidden d e fe c t s , w o r n . . . . . .
P rojectin g n a ils , w ir e s ..
Improperly guarded a g e n cie s ..
Lack o f gu a rd rails, g ates.
Lack o f p o in t -o foperation en closu res.
Lack o f anchors, lo c k s * •••
Lack o f handle g u a r d s ....*
Laok o f enclosures for
gears, p u lle y s , etc*

516
281
26
9
238
75
58
hh

39
22
165
59

100.0

214

100.0

89

100.0

600

100.0

34*4

57
51
4
2
31
9
7

28
26
1
1
14

4 i .8
38.8
1.5
1 .5
20.9
6 .0
7 .4
1.5
1.5
4 .5
13.4
5.9

138
128
6

34.0
31.5
1.5
1.0

6
5
56
10

37.1
33*2
2 .6
1.3
20.1
5.9
4 .5
2 .6
3*9
3 .2
25.4
6*5

7
64
25

15.8

9 .8
2 .6
1.3

4
-

6 .0
1 .5
-

9
18
3

2 .2
4 -4
•7

1.3
1.9
J *7
.

-

-

6

13.0

10

14.9

7 .2

8

11.9

46

1.5
•1
16.5
11.4

1
1

1.5
1 .5
6 .0

18
3
16

4*4

1
1
22

1.5
1.5

6

50.6
2.8
1 .0

26.0
8 .2
6 .5
1 .8
4*3
2 -U

18.0
6*5

4

4
5
1
1
3
9

4

4

113
22
34
29

21

1*18
93

100.0

32.8

76
15
2
76
40
10
8
11
7
55
20

26.8
5*3
•7

9
11

10

3 .2
3.9
3 .5

5

1.8

41

20

14.5
7 .1

14
7
7

4 .9
2 .5
2 .5

1.5
•5*

8
3
135

2 .8
1.1

27.8
5 .4
8«4

7.1
5.2
1.7

6.3

26.9
14.2
3.5
2 .8
3-9
2 .5
19.4
7 .0

37
34
15

4 .0
1.6

15
4
2

13
7
139
85

1 .4
•8
15.2
9 .3

2
*
20
11

k l

4*5
1.4
3*4

7
2
4

4 .5
1.3
2 .6

20
7
Ills
*+*✓

2*2
•8

5
1
60

3 .2
.6

T o t a l . . . .......................................... 1.1*77

100.0

205

100.0

102

100.0

698

100.0

462

100.0

40*5
17-5
15*2

42.9
22.7
17.4
.7

31
16
11
2

40.2
20.7
14.3
2 .6

187
77
74
27

38.0
15.7
15.0
5.5

142
56
48
30

43.6

3 •7

62
33
25
1

383
161
61

1.5
•6
36.7
15.4
5*8

2
1
6l
26
7

1.4
.7
42.4

1
1
30

4

1.3
1.3
39.0
19.5
5.2

7
2
168
72
27

1 .4
.4
34.1
14.6
5 .5

6
2
120
46
22

1.8
•6
36.9
14.1
6 .8

57

5 .5

7

4*9

5

6.5

26

5.3

19

5.8

29
75

2.8
7 .2
10.1
4 .8

5
16
7
2

3*5
11.1
4*9
1*4

1
10

9
34
55
33

1.8
6 .9
11.2
6 .7

13
20
33

4

1.3
6.5
13.0
5.2

11

4 .0
6 .2
10.2
3*4

k8

4#6

8

5.6

1

1.3

29

5 .9

10

3.1

27

2 .6
.7
-

3
1
61

2.1
.7
-

1

1.3

16

3 .3
•8
-

7
2

2.2

-

137

-

Hazardous arrangement* «••••••
Unsafely stored or p i l e d ..
Unsafe layout o f
operation s.
Other* ••••••••••...........
Poor housekeeping*• • • .• • .....
Laok o f personal s a fe ty
equipment
U n c la s s ifie d .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
31

3 •7

m
m

1

4

67

•7
3.9

194

UNSAFE ACTS (245 warehouse s )

Using equipment u n s a fe ly .••••
Taking wrong h o ld ...........
Gripping in s e c u r e ly * ..«••«
P u llin g hand tr u ck s•«••••
Using hands in stead o f
equipment
Other........... .
Taking unsafe p o s itio n s * •••*•
In atten tion t o fo o tin g * •••
L iftin g with bent b a o k ..* .
In atten tion t o
surrounding a
Exposure t o moving
equipment
Other................... ......................
Unsafe loadin g or p la c in g * .••
F a ilin g to seoure or w a rn ..*.
Operating or working a t
unsafe speeds
F a ilin g t o wear personal
sa fe ty equipment
O th er.............................. ..
U n c la s s ifie d ................

1/
?/

k2k

183
159
60

16

6

106
50

7
k32

18.0

4.9

15

5

25

•
-

4

206

Includes fig u r e s n ot shown separately because o f in s u ffic ie n t inform ation to c l a s s i f y .
Percents are computed on c la s s if i e d cases only*




17.2
14.8
9 .2

m6

51Table 12*—W aooidents to -w
ork
arehousem of 2 *5 warehouses, 1950#
en
1
classified by unsafe aot and aocident type*
Struck by moving
objects

Unsafe acts

Falls
Caught
in,
num
ber
on,
OverStrik­ Slips,
Fall­
of
or
exer­
To
O
n
­
ing stum
acci­
ing
be­ Total lower sam against bles
tion
e
dents Total ob­ Other
tween
levels level
jects

Total*****....................................... 1A77

1 9
*5

317

12+
+1

11
5*

113
1
*
109

Using equipment unsafely*••••••••*.
Taking wrong hold of objects.•*.
Gripping objects insecurely.• •
••
Pulling instead of pushing
handtrucks.
Using hands instead of equipment
Other. . . . . . . *...*•••......... *••••
Taking unsafe positions or postures
Inattention to footing...............
Lifting with bent back...............
Inattention to surroundings*.•
Exposure to moving equipment• •
••
Exposure to falling or rolling
objeots
Other*. ••••*••.•............... ..

183
199
60

1
6
6

383

11
6
6
1

2
0

123
9

1
1
6
0
1
6

57
29

13
7

3*
1

6

1

106

76

73

Failing to secure or warn...............

50

2
1

2*
1
if.
u*
1
0

1
1
1
1

18
*

2
0

1
0

19
29

7
13

5
5

Failing to wear personal safety
equipm
ent

27

1*

O t h e r ............... ........... . . . . . . . . . *

7

Unclassified; insufficient data....




1 2
*3

109

72

H
*

6
8
1*
*
1
17

H1
+
92

6
1
2

2
2

1
*
1

-

32

Unsafe loading or placing*........... .

1
10
2

181

28
H
*
3

16

Operating or working at unsafe
speeds
Throwing objects instead of
passing
Other............................................................... ..

257

9

61

20

31
2*

-

5
5

Failure to warn.................• • • • ......... ..

1+
12
11
*
1
6

-

82

1
1

2
1
0
6
1

13
3
13
X

2
1
*
1

39
1
*
-

3
-

7*
1
57
-

60
10

12
1

-

6
1
1
6
1

J

1
0
1
0
2

1
1
1
1

8

1
*
1
38

6

-

3

-

-

-

-

09
-

76
58
-

22

-

-

36
31
-

2

-

17

2

19

7
17

2*
1
lli
■u*
1
0

1

2
2
2

136

16
*
25
1
1
2
6
2

71

6
-

In­
hala­
tion,
ab­
sorp­
tion

2*
1
2
-

Unclas­
Contact
with Other sified
extreme
temper­
atures

1
2
_
-

5

-

-

—

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

1
1

1
*
1
*

-

-

-

-

-

-

•
-

“

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

-

5

3

-

-

1
*

-

-

1

-

_

_

_

6
- \
2+
1

-

-

39
39
-

33

5
_

-

.

1

8
1
1

-

-

_
_

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

1

1

5

7

-

-

1

-

“

2
1
1

2

1

1

5

7

-

-

1

-

1

2

2

2

-

17

-

1

-

“

“

-

3

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

8

57

26

31

30

19

2
1

9

1
1

1
*

163

-

-5 2 -

Table 13•—W accidents to -w
ork
arehousem of 2 5 'warehouses, 1950#
en
!+
c la s s ifi e d by unsafe act and a c t i v it y .

Unsafe act

Total
Handling
number
of
mate­
a c c i­
r ia ls
dents 1/

Operating or using equipment

Total

V eh icles

Handt o o ls

1,1+77

88
1+

338

191+

91

Using equipment u n sa fe ly ................... ..
Taking wrong hold o f o b j e o t s . . . .
Gripping o b je cts in s e c u re ly .........
P u llin g instead o f pushing hand-truck 8
Using hands instead o f equipment
Other..................................... ................

12 +
+1
183

268
119

UiU

79
1h

2h

Taking unsafe p o s itio n s or postures

Total ....................... .................................

61
16

159

156

6o
16

2
8

58

6

3

3

383

172

85

6

6

58
1
52

35

Other

Walking,
standing,
e tc.

53

235

30

Other

9

23

2

9

1

-

—

-

6

2

-

-

6

119
75
11
1h

2

5

7
.

•
—

57
29

15
2

29
10

27

27
2

h

2

lh
6 l

10
10

3
33

11

2
21

1

1

1
18

-

106

6l

33

29

2

2

7

1

50
29
21

26
18

h

2
2

1
1

-

-

1
1
-

15

h

-

9

he

22

13

8

3

2

12

19
29

17
5

13

8

3

2

2
10

-

F a ilin g to wear personal sa fety
equipment

27

15

7

-

6

1

3

-

O th er......................................................... ..

7

1

3

-

1

2

1

1

U n cla s sifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t d a t a . . ..

h32

283

2h

16

9

69

5

L ift in g with bent b a c k ...
In a tten tion to surroundings.••••
Exposure t o moving equipm ent.•••
Exposure to f a l l i n g or r o llin g
o b je cts
O th er.............................................. ..
Unsafe loading or p l a c i n g ............. ..
F a ilin g to secure or w arn.. . . . . . . • •
Failure to lock or b l o c k .•••••••
Failure to warn.. . .
Operating or working at unsafe
speedfl
Throwing o b je cts instead o f
passing
O th er...................... ..

l/

161
61

71;

61

8

10

h9

10

h

6

Includes fig u res not shown separately because o f in s u ffic ie n t inform ation t o c la s s ify *




;V U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE - 1955 O — 330106
.

-


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102