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Injuries and Accident Causes
in Textile Dyeing and Finishing
A Detailed Analysis o f Hazards
and 1 945 Injury-Frequency Rates
by R egion, Size o f Plant, and O ccupation




B u lle tin N o . 962
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LAB O R S T A T IST IC S

Injuries and Accident Causes
in Textile Dyeing and Finishing

B u lle tin N o . 962
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
M a u rice J. T o b in , Secretary
BUREAU O F LA B O R S T A T IST IC S
Ew an C lague, Com m issioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Docum ents, U. S. Government Printing Office




W ashington 25, D. C. - Price 45 cents




Letter of Transmittal
U n it e d S t a t e s D

epartm ent of

B ureau

of

Labor,

L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,

Washington, D. C., Sept. 26,1949.
The S e c r e t a r y

of

Labor:

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the occurrence and causes
of work injuries in the textile dyeing and finishing industry.
This report, a portion of which appeared in the July 1948 M onthly Labor
Review, constitutes a part of the Bureau’s regular program of compiling workinjury information for use in accident prevention work. The statistical analysis
and the preparation of the report were performed in the Bureau’s Branch of
Industrial Hazards by Frank S. M cE lroy and George R . M cCormack. The specific
accident prevention suggestions were prepared by the staff of the Safety Standards
Division of the Bureau of Labor Standards.
E w an C lague,

Hon. M




a u r ic e

J. T o b i n ,
Secretary of Labor.

Commissioner.

Contents
Page

The industry record................................................................................................................................ 1
An estimate of injury costs................................................................................................................... 2
Scope and method of the survey..................................................................................
The industry and its hazards...............................................................................................................
3
Piece-goods department................................................................................................................
3
Receiving or gray room ......................................................................................................... 3
Bod-off or bleaching department........................................................................................
4
Drying department................................................................................................................
5
D ye room ................................................................................................................................. 6
D ye-color sh op.......................................................................................................................
7
Mechanical print sh op........................................................................................................... 7
Screen printing department.................................................................................................. 8
Print-color shop......................................................................................................................
9
Aging department................................................................................................................... 9
Finishing department............................................................................................................ 9
Make-up department............................................................................................................ 10
Yarn and thread department...................................................................................................... 11
Factors in the injury record................................................................................................................. 12
Operating comparisons................................................................................................................. 12
Form of materials processed.............................................................................................. 12
Kind of materials processed............................................................................................... 12
Type of processing............................................................................................................... 12
Size of plant................................................................................................................................... 12
Regional and State differences.................................................................................................... 13
Safety programs and first-aid facilities..............................................................................
14
Departmental injury rates.................................................................................................................. 16
Frequency rates.............................................................................................................................. 16
Injury severity............................................................................................................................... 16
Kinds o f injuries experienced............................................................................................................. 17
Disabling injuries........................................................................................................................... 17
Nondisabling injuries.................................................................................................................... 17
Re-treatment o f first-aid cases........................................................................................... 18
Accident analysis.................................................................................................................................... 19
The agencies.................................................................................................................................. 19
Types of accidents......................................................................................................................... 19
Accident causes........................................................................................................................
21
Unsafe working conditions........................................................................................................... 21
Hazardous arrangements or procedures............................................................................ 21
Defective agencies................................................................................................................ 24
Improperly guarded agencies............................................................................................. 24
Unsafe acts.................................................................................................................................... 24
Equipment—unsafe, or unsafely used............................................................................. 26
Unsafe position or posture................................................................................................. 26
Other unsafe acts................................................................................................................. 26
Occupational analysis.......................................................................................................................... 26
Accident prevention............................................................................................................................. 27
Accident investigation................................................................................................................ 27
Typical dyeing and finishing accidents........................................................................................... 28
Receiving and shipping............................................................................................................... 28
Bleaching...............................................................................................
29
D yeing.............................................................................................................................
29
D rying.............................................................................................................................................. 30
Finishing-department machine operations.................................................................................31




IY

2

Page

Typical dyeing and finishing accidents— Continued
Printing........................................................................................................................................... 32
M ake-up......................................................................................................................................... 32
Trucking......................................................................................................................................... 33
Miscellaneous................................................................................................................................. 33
Appendix.— Statistical tables:
Injury-frequency and severity rates, classified by :
1. Industry and kind of goods processed...................................................................... 35
2. Kind of textiles processed........................................................................................... 35
3. Type of processing and kind of textiles processed................................................. 36
4. Size of establishment.................................................................................................... 36
5. Geographic area and State......................................................................................... 37
6. Plant safety programs.................................................................................................. 38
7. Plant first-aid facilities................................................................................................ 39
8. Operating departm ents.............................................................................................. 40
9. Distribution of plant frequency rates, by size of establishment.......................... 40
Injury detail:
10. Nature of injury and extent of disability.............................................................. 41
11. Part of body injured and extent of disability......................................................... 41
12. Part of body injured and nature of injury............................................................ 42
13. Nature of injury, by department............................................................................ 42
14. Comparison of disabling and nondisabling injuries, b y nature o f in ju ry ------ 43
15. Comparison of disabling and nondisabling injuries, by part of body injured. 43
16. Re-treatments of first-aid cases, b y nature of injury.......................................... 44
17. Re-treatments of first-aid cases, by part of body injured..................................... 44
18. Part of body injured, by department............................
45
Accident detail:
19. Agency of accident, by departm ent....................................................................... 46
20. Accident type, by department ............................................................................... 47
21. Agency of accident, by unsafe working con d ition .................................................48
22. Unsafe working condition, by departm ent............................................................. 49
23. Unsafe act, by departm ent...................................................................................... 50
Occupational detail:
24. Injury-frequency rates............................................................................................... 51
25. Nature of injury.................................................................................................
53
26. Part of body injured.................................................................................................. 55
27. Agency of accident..................................................................................................... 57
28. Accident ty p e .............................................................................................................. 59
29. Unsafe working conditions....................................................................................... 61
30. Unsafe acts............................................................................................................
63
31. Summary of operations, hazards, injuries,and accident causes......................... 66
Charts:
1. Disabling-injury-frequency rates by department, 1945...................................................V I
2. M ajor types of accidents, 1945........................................................................................... ^20
3. M ajor types of unsafe working conditions, 1945.............................................................|22
4. M ajor types of unsafe acts, 1945 ....................................................................................... 25




V

Chart 1.




Disabling-Injury-Frequency Rates in the Textile Dyeing
and Finishing Industry, by Department, 1945

Injuries and A ccident Causes
in Textile Dyeing and Finishing
T h e Industry R ecord
In each o f the 12 years for which the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics has compiled injury rates for textile
dyeing and finishing, this industry has had one o f the
least favorable accident records among the industries
comprising the textile manufacturing group. In 1936
the injury-frequency rate for dyeing and finishing was
13.9, while the rate for all textile manufacturing was
only 8.8.1 Both o f these rates were lower than the
all-manufacturing rate o f 16.6.
During the years 1937-40 the injury-frequency
rate for all manufacturing showed a general down­
ward trend. The all-textile rate showed little change
in this period, bu t the dyeing and finishing rate rose
to 15.5 in 1940.
In the following 3 years, expanding operations and
the necessity o f replacing experienced employees
with untrained workers led to higher injury-fre­
quency rates in m ost manufacturing industries. In
1941, the all-manufacturing rate was 18.1; in 1942 it
was 19.9; and in 1943 it reached 20.0. Injuries in the
textile industries followed the general trend and the
all-textile manufacturing average rose to 10.9 in
1941; to 11.9 in 1942; and to 14.0 in 1943. In the
dyeing and finishing industry, however, the rise was
much more pronounced. In 1941 the dyeing and
finishing injury-frequency rate o f 17.7 was still some­
what below the all-manufacturing average. A sharp
rise to 24.8 in 1942 carried the rate well above the all­
manufacturing average and it remained higher
through 1947.
In the years 1943 -4 7 the dyeing and finishing
injury-frequency rate m oved erratically. A slight
drop to 23.6 in 1943 was followed b y a rise to 24.5 in
1944. A similar swing in the next 2 years carried it
down to 20.6 in 1945, from which it rose to 21.7 in
1946 and then dropped to 19.2 in 1947. A t this level*
»The injury-frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries
for each m illion employee-hours worked. A disabling injury is one which
results in death or permanent physical impairment, or renders the injured
person unable to work at a regularly established job throughout the hours
corresponding to his regular shift on any day after the day of injury.




it was slightly above the all-manufacturing rate of
18.8 and was nearly 6 points above the all-textile
rate o f 13.2.
The im port o f these historical comparisons is not
simply that the frequency o f injuries in the dyeing
and finishing industry is high, nor that it has risen
sharply since 1936. This has also been true in many
other industries. M ore pertinent is the fact that, in
terms o f the injury-frequency rate, the dyeing and
finishing industry has lost relatively more ground
than have m ost other manufacturing industries. The
specific reason for this is not clear, bu t the evidence
at hand supports the conclusion that accident preven­
tion probably has been given more attention in other
industries than in dyeing and finishing. The possi­
bility o f improvement through an intensified safety
program in the industry is apparent when the dyeing
and finishing experience is compared with that o f
other industries in which safety has been emphasized.
In 1947, for example, the frequency rate o f 19.2 for
dyeing and finishing presented a sharp contrast to
the rates of 4.8 for the aircraft industry; 5.3 for the
explosives industry; 5.6 for the ordnance industry;
8.2 for the iron and steel industry; 9.5 for the elec­
trical equipment industry; 9.5 for the m otor-vehicle
industry; and 10.8 for the cement industry.
Injury-frequency rate comparisons serve an im­
portant purpose in pointing to the existence o f a
safety problem and in indicating its relative magni­
tude. The abstract qualities o f frequency rates,
however, give injuries somewhat the status o f book­
keeping entiles and tend to obscure the human and
econom ic factors which constitute the fundamentals
o f the problem. The suffering, despair, and frustra­
tion of injured workers and their families cannot be
measured. N or can the full monetary cost o f acci­
dents be determined from any available records. It is
possible, however, to approximate the econom ic loss
arising from the injuries and thereby to bring the
problem into better perspective.

1

2

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

A n Estimate o f Injury Costs
In 1945, the year on which this detailed study was
based, the injury-frequency rate for the textile dye­
ing and finishing industry was 20.6. This represented
about 1 disabling injury for every 22 full-time
workers in the industry. It is estimated that approxi­
m ately 3,150 dyeing and finishing workers were
disabled b y injuries experienced on the job during
1945. A bout 15 of these injuries resulted in death
and 135 in permanent physical impairment; the
remainder were temporary disabilities, each o f which
involved the loss of at least a full day of work, but
left no permanent ill effects.
W ithout allowance for the continuing loss in pro­
duction and earning power arising from deaths and
permanent impairments, it is estimated that actual
time lost by the injured dyeing and finishing workers
amounted to at least 72,000 man-days dining 1945.
On the basis o f standard time charges for deaths and
permanent impairments, it is estimated that the
future econom ic loss accruing from the more serious
injuries will eventually amount to at least 265,000
man-days—making the total employment loss about
337,000 man-days o f work. Measured in terms o f the
average earnings o f dyeing and finishing workers dur­
ing 1945 ($36.02 per w eek),2*this represents a wage
value o f nearly $2,500,000. As workmen's compensa­

tion payments are never equivalent to full wages, a
considerable portion o f this loss in earnings falls upon
the injured workers. On the other hand, the em­
ployer's share in this wage loss, which he pays in the
form o f insurance premiums or as direct compensa­
tion payments, represents only a part o f the actual
costs which the industry must bear. In addition, there
are payments for medical and hospital care for the
injured workers and many indirect costs, such as
damaged materials or equipment, lost production,
and supervisory time spent caring for the injured or
reorganizing operations after the accident. These
indirect costs seldom are a matter of record, but this
does not lessen their reality. Studies b y H . W .
Heinrich8 have indicated that for manufacturing
generally the indirect costs of injury-producing acci­
dents averaged about four times the direct cost of
compensation payments plus hospital and medical
payments. On the assumption that this ratio is
approximately correct for the dyeing and finishing
industry, it m ay be estimated conservatively that the
indirect costs associated with injuries in the industry
during 1945 amounted to at least 6 million dollars,
perhaps as high as 8 million, and that the total cost
probably ranged between 8 and 10 m illion dollars.

2 Hours and Earnings, Bureau of Labor Statistics press release, April
26, 1946.

* Industrial Accident Prevention, by H. W . Heinrich, New York,
M cGraw-Hill Book Co., 1941.

Scope and M ethod o f the Survey
The injury rates for 1945 compiled in this survey
were based upon voluntary mail reports from 446
plants engaged in dyeing and finishing yam , thread,
or piece goods. These plants reported a total employ­
ment o f over 64,000, with more than 139 million
employee-hours worked during 1945. The disabling
injuries reported totaled 2,876, including 8 deaths
and 129 cases o f permanent impairments. Along with
the plant totals, m ost o f the reports included a break­
down of the injuries and employment by operating
departments, which permitted the computation o f
departmental injury-frequency rates.
In addition to supplying summary reports for use
in evaluating the magnitude and general aspects of




the injury problem in dyeing and finishing opera­
tions, 174 o f the cooperating plants also made their
original accident records available for detailed analy­
sis. This group of plants employed nearly 50,000
workers. Their combined injury-frequency rate was
22.4, which is slightly higher than the industry
average, but not enough higher to indicate that their
accident experience was other than typical o f the
industry.
A representative o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics
visited each o f these 174 cooperating plants, and,
insofar as the data were available, transcribed from
their records the following items regarding each
accident: Place where the accident occurred; the

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

occupation, age, and sex o f the injured worker; the
nature of the injury and the part of the body injured;
the type o f accident; the object or substance (agency)
which caused the injury; and the unsafe condition
and/or the unsafe act which led to the accident. In
order to broaden the analysis and permit a greater
degree o f detail, this part o f the survey was ex­
tended to cover not only disabling injuries but also
all injuries requiring treatment b y physicians. A
total o f 2,419 disabling injury cases and 5,188 medi­

3

cal-treatment cases were recorded. In addition,
records of 11,570 first-aid cases were obtained from
32 o f the plants. A ll o f these cases were used in the
injury analysis. Only the disabling and medicaltreatment cases were used in the accident-cause
analysis. The cause-analysis procedure follows the
provisions o f the American Recommended Practice
for Compiling Industrial Accident Causes, as ap­
proved by the American Standards Association,
August 1,1941.

T h e Industry and Its Hazards
Textile dyeing and finishing includes bleaching,
dyeing, printing, and finishing both fabrics and
thread. Because these operations normally require a
great deal of expensive m achinery and because there
are so many variations in the types of finishing
required, it is customary for textile manufacturers to
contract these operations to plants which specialize
in this work. These specialty plants, engaged prima­
rily in contract work, constitute the dyeing and
finishing industry as covered in this survey. Plants
primarily engaged in processing knit goods, including
dyeing and finishing hosiery, are generally con­
sidered a part o f the knit-goods industry and for
this reason were excluded from the survey. During
1945 approximately 70,000 workers were employed
in the dyeing and finishing industry as defined above.
Because no cloth or thread requires all the dyeing
and finishing operations offered by the industry, the
sequence o f operations varies widely. In general,
however, the production departments in yam - and
thread-processing plants include a receiving or stock
room , a drug room , a dye house, a finishing depart­
ment, a winding department, and a packing de­
partment. In plants which process piece goods the
m ost common departmental units are the receiving
or gray room, the boil-off or bleaching department,
the dye room , the dye-color shop, the printing
department, the print-color shop, the finishing
department, and the make-up department.

Piece-Goods Department
Receiving or Gray Room.— W hen cotton cloth is
received at a processing plant, it is generally taken
b y truck to the warehouse where it is stored until
time for processing, although it m ay be taken directly




to the gray room in which the first processing opera­
tions are performed. Occasionally cotton cloth is
received in rolls containing about 500 pounds o f cloth
bu t usually it arrives in large bales. Each bale con­
tains a number o f relatively short pieces o f cloth
weighing from 75 to 100 pounds per piece. Each
piece is plaited throughout its length in widths of
approximately 3 feet and piled so that each fold m ay
readily leave the pile in later processing operations.
The bale is enclosed in burlap and fastened with wire
tie bands or metal straps.
Workmen called “ goods layers” or “ lay-out men”
break the tie bands, remove the burlap, and lay out
or re-pile the pieces o f cloth in proper order on a hand
truck, a skid, a platform, or on the floor, depending
on the procedures within their plants. W hile re-piling
the cloth the workman places it so that the faces of
the various pieces are all lying in the same direction.
A t the same time he pulls out the ends o f each piece
and leaves them hanging over the edge o f the pile.
N ext a sewing-machine operator sews the tail end of
each piece to the head end of the following piece
throughout the pile so that when the operator is
finished the pile m ay contain a continuous piece of
cloth 2,000 yards or more in length.
Generally, cotton cloth is then run through a
singeing machine in which the fuzzy ends of the fibers
in the cloth are burned off. In some plants the
singeing machine is located near the lay-out opera­
tions so that the cloth m ay be drawn across a series of
rollers into the machine. In that case, the tail end o f
the last piece o f cloth in each pile is sewed to the head
end of the top piece in the following pile on the lay­
out room floor. Thus a continuous length o f cloth up
to 50,000 yards m ay be obtained. This length of
cloth, known as a “ lot” is generally kept in one piece

4

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

throughout the gray-room , bleaching, and drying
operations. When the singeing machine is located at
some distance from the lay-out operation, each pile
is taken b y hand truck to the machine and combined
into a lot as the singeing operation progresses. The
singeing machine has an open dame, or tw o very hot
plates or rollers, over which the cloth is passed at a
high rate of speed. Because o f the speed at which the
cloth travels, only the loose surface fibers are burned.
However, to prevent fires which m ay result from
sparks adhering to the surface of the cloth, the
singeing machine also has a tank containing a liquid
bath through which the cloth passes immediately
after the singeing operation.
Usually a sizing compound is placed in cotton
cloth during the manufacturing process. T o insure
good results in later dyeing and finishing operations,
this sizing compound must be removed. Therefore,
when cloth containing sizing is processed, a chemical
which will react with the sizing is placed in the liquid
bath of the singeing machine. As the cloth leaves the
singeing machine, it passes through a round, por­
celain guide, about 6 inches in diameter, called a
“ poteye,” which gathers the cloth together in a rope
form . The cloth is then placed in bins called “ size
bins” where it is stored for 3 or 4 hours while the
chemical placed in the cloth as it passed through the
desizing bath softens the sizing. These bins are
approximately 15 feet square and about 15 feet deep.
T o utilize space and to prevent the tangling o f the
cloth during removal from the bins, the cloth is
plaited into the bins. Overhead mechanical plaiters,
which guide the cloth so that piles build up evenly in
the bins, are now extensively used. Where mechanical
plaiters are not available, men or women do the
plaiting b y guiding the cloth into position with short
sticks.
From the size bins, the cloth is pulled through poteyes or other guides to a washing machine where the
sizing and the desizing chemicals are removed. The
washing machine consists o f a tank filled with water,
a power-driven roll b y which the cloth is pulled from
the size bins and dropped into the tank, and a set of
rolls, under pressure against each other, called
“ squeeze rolls” which pull the cloth from the tank
and remove the excess water from the cloth as it
leaves the tank and passes between them.
Although rayon and woolen cloth m ay be sub­
jected to the same operations as cotton in the gray
room , or the receiving room as it is more generally




called in the rayon and w ool processing plants, they
are usually handled somewhat differently. Norm ally,
there is very little singeing done on rayon or woolen
cloth and the processing o f these textiles is done in
much smaller lots than those of cotton. Receivingroom operations in the rayon and woolen processing
plants therefore are greatly simplified. Regardless of
whether the cloth is received in rolls, boxes, or bales,
it is generally “ beamed” or wound into rolls contain­
ing about 250 yards each. Some sewing m ay be neces­
sary to secure the required lengths for processing.
Am ong the hazards in the gray room , the pos­
sibility of injury from lifting or moving heavy bales
o f cloth is outstanding, as each bale is handled
several times within the department. Hand trucks
and mechanical industrial trucks used to transport
the bales or piles o f cloth present additional hazards.
Improper handling o f tie bands or straps m ay result
in cut or lacerated hands or fingers; while failure to
keep bands or straps, as well as loose burlap, from the
floor presents a tripping hazard. W et and slippery
floors are common near the singeing and washing
operations. Other hazards include unguarded size
bins, into which workers m ay fall, exposure to flames
or to steam lines on singeing machines, and un­
guarded squeeze rolls on the washing machines.
Boil-off or Bleaching Department.— From the gray
room the cloth is generally delivered to the bleaching
or boil-off department, where all color is removed and
the cloth is cleaned. W hen cotton cloth is received
in this department, it has a distinctly yellowish
appearance, the color o f unbleached cotton thread.
The removal o f that color is a bleaching process and
the term “ bleaching department” applies primarily
to the processing o f cotton cloth. In addition to the
removal o f the color, all foreign matter such as wax,
gum, or grease, that m ay have becom e impregnated
in the cloth during the manufacturing process, is
removed during the bleaching operations. Cotton
cloth is generally delivered to the bleaching depart­
ment in rope form and is left in that form throughout
the bleaching process. It is pulled from one operation
to the next b y power-driven rolls on the machine in
the next succeeding operation. Poteyes serve as
guides for the cloth between operations.
As the first operation in the bleaching department,
cotton cloth is generally kier-boiled. In this operation
the cloth is plaited down in a large tank called a kier
boiler. The boiler is from 9 to 12 feet high and 6 or

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

more feet in diameter and holds approximately
35,000 yards of cloth. It is fitted with a heavy air­
tight lid which covers the opening in the top o f the
boiler through which the cloth passes into the kier.
Kiers are generally built in groups o f 3 to 9 or more.
For a working surface, a platform or floor is con­
structed on a level with the tops of the kiers. The
cloth m ay be piled in the kier b y a mechanical
plaiter or b y hand plaiting. After the kier is filled, the
cover is fitted and clamped into place, water and
caustic soda are added, and the mixture boiled for a
period o f 2 to 12 hours, depending on the cloth that is
being processed. After the prescribed number of
hours, cold water is run over the cloth to reduce the
pressure inside the boiler as well as to wash the
caustic soda from the cloth. From the kier the cloth
passes through a washing machine and then through
a weak solution o f an acid, usually hydrochloric
acid. This latter operation is known as “ chemicking.”
The cloth is then plaited down in a bin, called a white
bin, where it remains about 2 hours. Then it is
washed again and placed in another bin for about 1
hour. It is then given a final washing, after which it
is ready for drying.
There is very little bleaching done on rayon or
woolen cloth. These textiles are generally bleached
before they are woven. However, all grease and other
foreign matter must be removed from the cloth
before it is dyed or printed. T o do this, the cloth is
usually run through a “ boil-off” machine in which it
is treated with caustic soda and then washed. From
this operation the department gets its name “ boil-off
department” which primarily refers to the cleaning o f
rayon or woolen cloth. There are several types of
boil-off machines. In one, the tank which holds the
cloth is comparatively long and the cloth, m oving
slowly, passes through the caustic solution only once.
In the other, the cloth is hung in loops over a powerdriven roll rotating above the caustic soda. A s the
roll turns, the cloth moves through the caustic soda
bath, over the roll, and back into the caustic soda on
the opposite side o f the roll. In this operation the
cloth m ay be run through the caustic soda bath a
number o f times. The cloth m ay be washed either in
the boil-off machine, in which case the caustic soda is
replaced by water, or in a standard washing machine
such as that described for use in the gray room.
Floors throughout the bleaching and boil-off de­
partments are generally wet and slippery. In addition
to the slippery floors, other sources o f falls include
the stairs or ladders to the working surface at the




5

top o f the kiers, the white bins, and the convex sur­
faces o f the tops o f the kiers. Caustic soda, which is
used extensively in the bleaching and boil-off opera­
tions, presents the possibility o f serious chemical
bum s. Contact with live steam or steam lines m ay
result in other bum s or scalds. In m ost o f the
mechanical operations o f this department, water and
other solutions are squeezed from the cloth by
running the cloth between two squeeze rollers. This
is a particularly hazardous operation as those rolls
are seldom guarded and any accident involving them
m ay result in a serious disability. A hazard peculiar
to the kier operation is that of lifting the cover o f the
kier boiler back into place. These covers are quite
heavy and are awkward to handle. In addition, the
convex surface o f the top o f the kier adds to the
difficulty of maintaining a good footing while placing
the cover.
Drying Department.— Cloth m ay be dried after any
one o f a number o f different operations and, in many
cases, the drying operation is considered as a part of
the department in which the drying is performed.
However, as drying operations are similar, regardless
o f where the operation takes place, and as many
plants have separate drying departments in which
some, and perhaps all, o f the drying is done, they
have been considered as a separate department in
this study. Am ong the different drying machines
used in this industry, the more common are dry cans,
loop driers, net driers, extractors, and ranges.
Probably the m ost common of these are the dry
cans which consist of a number of steam-heated
cylinders around which the cloth passes in (hying.
These cylinders, about 18 inches in diameter, are
usually arranged in several series or banks, each bank
composed o f from tw o to eight cylinders, placed one
above the other. A ll cylinders within a given set of
dry cans are connected and driven directly b y gears
so that the speed o f all cylinders is identical, permit­
ting the cloth to be drawn tightly across each steam
cylinder. Each alternate cylinder rotates in a reverse
direction and the cloth is threaded back and forth
over each can o f the group. T o reduce the hazard o f
threading the cloth over the hot cylinders, a narrow
tape about 6 inches in width, called a “ lead” or
“ leader” is threaded through the cans when the
machine is not in use. W hen cloth is to be run through
the dry cans, it is first sewed to the end o f the lead
which acts as a guide for the cloth through the
machine. W hen the cloth has been threaded through-

6

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

out the machine, the lead is removed and attached
to the tail end o f the lot. A t the completion o f the run
the cloth is unfastened from the lead, leaving it in the
machine to guide the next lot.
The loop drier is essentially an enclosed steamheated chamber, about 9 feet high and 30 feet long.
The cloth is suspended in long loops from poles or
rods which are m oved horizontally through the
enclosed area at a comparatively slow speed. A s the
poles or loops are m oved forward, the heat within
the enclosed area dries the cloth. The net drier is
similar to the loop drier, except that the cloth is
simply laid in nets which are suspended in the
heated chamber and slowly m oved through it.
The extractor is used primarily for drying rayon
or other synthetic cloth which is in small lots. It is a
small machine, about 4 feet high and 4 feet in dia­
meter. The essential part o f the extractor is a rotary
tub in which the cloth is loosely piled and then
rotated at high speed. W ater is released from the
cloth by centrifugal force and permitted to flow from
the extractor through an opening in the bottom of
the tub.
The range is a combination drying and finishing
operation. It is essentially a tenter frame, which
will be described more fully under finishing-depart­
ment operations, and it operates through a heated
chamber about 30 feet long.
Cloth must be fed into the dry cans and loop
driers in open or sheet form . W hen the- cloth is
delivered to these machines in rope form it must
first be opened into the flat, or sheet, form. This is
done b y placing a machine called a “ scutcher" at
some distance from the drying machine and passing
the cloth over it. Primarily, it is a heavy, elliptical
ring which is rotated very fast. As the ring beats
against the cloth, it loosens the folds and permits the
cloth to flatten out as it reaches the drying machine.
A t the delivery end o f the dry cans or loop driers, the
cloth is either rolled onto shells or plaited down in
hand trucks for transportation to the storage room
or to succeeding operations.
The danger o f burns from heated surfaces is an out­
standing hazard in this department, particularly
when the cloth tears or breaks and it becomes neces­
sary to re-thread the machines while they are hot.
Hand trucking with its inherent hazards is also an
important danger in the drying department because
a considerable amount o f cloth is delivered to and
removed from the machines on hand trucks. The




lifting and handling o f heavy rolls o f cloth is the
source o f many injuries. Gears, through which power
is transmitted to the dry cans, constitute a partic­
ularly serious hazard because injuries resulting from
contact with them often becom e permanent dis­
abilities.
Dye Room.— In the dye room , color m ay be im­
parted to the body of the cloth in several different
ways. Generally, cotton cloth is dyed in a jig, and
rayon and w ool in a dye reel or dye beck, but these
are, b y no means, exclusive. The dye jig consists o f a
vat containing about 100 gallons o f the dye liquid.
A bove the vat are tw o spindles, one at the front and*
the other at the back o f the machine. Parallel to the
spindles but within the vat are a number o f guide
rolls which are used to insure the immersion o f the
cloth in the dye bath. The roll o f cloth to be dyed is
placed on one spindle, threaded under the guide rolls,
and then wound on an em pty shell placed on the
second spindle. During the operation the cloth
passes from one spindle to the other. The jig is con­
structed so that the m otion o f the cloth m ay be
reversed in order that the cloth m ay be passed
through the dye liquid as many times as necessary
to secure the required depth or shade o f color.
Generally, cloth that is to be jig-dyed is given a pre­
liminary pad-dyeing operation. In that operation the
cloth, in sheet form , is passed through a dye bath
and between tw o pressure rollers. The pressure
rollers serve tw o functions: first, they press the dye
into the cloth and, second, they squeeze out the
excess dye. From the pad, the cloth is wound onto a
second roll and then is taken to the jig.
Cloth m ay be processed either in rope or sheet form
in the dye beck. Although there are several different
lands o f dye becks, they all operate on the same
general principle. Each beck has a tank which con­
tains the dye liquid and a powered roller over which
the cloth is suspended into the dye. In the operation
o f the dye beck, a piece o f cloth, about 100 yards or
more in length, is hung over the roller and the tw o
ends joined together, making one long loop o f cloth
suspended in the dye bath. A s the roller rotates, the
cloth m oves through the dye, over the roller, and
again through the dye. In this operation the cloth is
given a number of immersions in the dye liquid.
From the dyeing machine the cloth is run through
a soaper or washer where the excess dye is removed,
after which the cloth is ready for drying. Several of

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

the larger establishments now have continuous dye
machines which perform all of the necessary opera­
tions in consecutive order without the necessity of
rehandling the cloth between operations.
W et and slippery floors are general throughout the
dyeing department. N ot only do they present a
slipping or falling hazard bu t they increase the pos­
sibility o f lifting accidents in those operations which
involve lifting and handling heavy rolls of cloth.
M any plants have now installed block and tackle
equipment for the jig-dyeing operation to reduce the
lifting hazard. Again, in the dyeing department
the hazards connected with hand trucking are note­
worthy because o f the large extent o f such operations.
Serious disability m ay also result if workmen’s
fingers or hands are caught between the pressure
rolls o f the pad-dye machine, the soapers, or the
washers. Similarly, serious injuries m ay result from
attempts to straighten the selvedge or edge of the
cloth in the jig-dyeing operation. In these accidents
fingers or even arms m ay be broken as they are
pulled around the rolls o f cloth. Steam is used to
maintain proper temperatures in the dyeing machines
and burns or scalds m ay result from contact with the
steam or exposed steam pipes. The absorption of
dyes or other chemicals causing dermatitis is also
an im portant hazard o f the dyeing department.

7

will print only one color, although the shade m ay
vary according to the depth o f the engraving on the
roll. Therefore, for each color used in the design a
separate roll must be made on which is engraved the
design for that color. From the engraving room
these rolls are first delivered to the “ jack room ”
where the rolls are forced on a mandrel b y a machine
called a “ jack.” The rolls are then taken to the front
o f the printing machine at which point the mandrels
with the copper rolls are placed in their positions on
the machine. Just below each copper roll is a tray
containing the coloring corresponding to that for
which the roll was designed. Between each roll and
its tray there is a circular brush which revolves
through the coloring and brushes it on the copper
roll. A t a point on the surface of each copper roll mid­
way between the point of contact o f the brush and
the point at which the roll touches the white cloth a
sharp-edged blade called a “ doctor blade” scrapes
the coloring from the smooth part o f the roll, leaving
the coloring only in the engraved portion. The print­
ing machine is designed so that at the point where
the cloth comes into contact with the copper roll the
cloth to be printed and the surface o f the copper
roll m ove in the same direction and at the same
speed. As the cloth and copper roll meet, the color
is transferred to the cloth.

Dye-Color Shop.—Although some dyeing-machine
operators mix dye stuffs in their machines, m ost
establishments have central dye-color shops in which
dyes are mixed, or dyestuffs and chemicals are
weighed for the dyeing department. W orkmen in
the dye-color shops weigh specified amounts of
chemicals and dyestuffs into small packages. Then,
according to prescribed formula, the chemicals and
dyestuffs are placed in containers where the in­
gredients are mixed with water and heated by steam.
In this department there m ay be some lifting of
heavy bags o f materials. Serious chemical bum s m ay
result from caustic soda which is used in some dyeing
m ixtures; live steam and exposed surfaces o f steam
pipes m ay be responsible for other bum s or scalds.

The roller printing machine is constructed so that
the roll of white cloth is placed on a spindle at the
rear o f the machine. From the roll the cloth is
threaded through the various parts o f the machine,
which include the printing and subsequent drying of
the color. T o prevent smearing the back surface
of the cloth a second roll of cloth, called “ back-gray
cloth” is ran through the machine as a backing for
the cloth being printed. The back-gray cloth is
placed on a spindle near that for the white cloth.
This gray cloth and the white cloth meet overhead
and are run to the front of the machine for the actual
printing operation, after which the tw o cloths are
separated, the printed cloth going through a series of
dry cans overhead and the back-gray cloth going
to the rear o f the machine, where it is removed and
washed for re-use.

Mechanical Print Shop.— Colored designs m ay be
applied on cloth either b y hand, as in screen printing,
or b y machine. There are two general types o f print­
ing machines—the roller printing machine and the
flock and lacquer printing machine. In roller printing
the design is engraved on copper rolls, each of which

Flock and lacquer printing is a specialized kind o f
mechanical printing b y which one type o f dotted
swiss material is made. The required design is placed
on a thin, flat copper plate b y punching small holes
through the plate. A fter the design has been com ­
pleted, the two ends o f the plate are joined together




8

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

to make a cylinder 12 or more inches in diameter.
This cylinder is then placed in position on the print­
ing machine and a tray containing the coloring is
inserted inside the roll. The coloring passes through
the holes in the copper plate as it rotates with the
cloth, thus transferring the design to the cloth. The
excess color which penetrates the cloth adheres to a
backing roller which conveys the cloth past the
cylinder. The color adhering to the backing roller is
scraped off by a doctor blade after which the roll
rotates through a tray containing a cleaning solution.
From the printing operation, the cloth passes to the
flock box where short fibres called “ flock” are
dropped onto the cloth. As the cloth is conveyed
through the flock box on a leather belt it is vibrated
or bounced. This vibration causes the flock to pene­
trate the coloring on the cloth and to adhere to it.
From the flock box the cloth passes through a loop
drier where the coloring is dried. After drying, the
cloth is brushed by machine to remove the excess
flock.
W ork in the printing department requires a great
deal of heavy lifting. In roller-printing operations,
rolls of white and gray cloth must be lifted into posi­
tion on the machine, and although the printed cloth
is generally plaited into hand trucks as it comes from
the machine, the gray cloth is usually delivered
from the machine in rolls which again must be lifted.
In flock and lacquer printing, the cloth is generally
received at the machine and delivered from the
drying operation in rolls. The heavy copper rolls
used in roller printing must be lifted both in the jack
room and in the printing room. Placing them on the
printing machine is particularly dangerous, as that
operation involves working in close spaces and some­
times from rather awkward positions. The coloring
used in the printing operation is somewhat thick and,
when dropped on the floor, presents a slipping
hazard. Hand trucks are used to a great extent in the
printing department, not only for delivering and
removing the cloth but for delivering color from the
print-color shop. The doctor blades are extremely
sharp and utmost caution must be used in placing
them on or removing them from the printing ma­
chine. Because of the high concentration of flock in
the air around flock and lacquer printing opera­
tions, the atmosphere may be somewhat uncomfort­
able, although there was no evidence that the
particles cause any permanent damage to the respir­
atory system. This condition may, however, present



a dust explosion or fire hazard. The cleaning solution
used in the printing machine is also a source of fire.
Bums may also result from contact with the dry
cans or exposed steam pipes.
Screen Printing Department— The most common
of the hand printing operations is called “ screen
printing.” If the design is small, as for example in
the printing of handkerchiefs or napkins, a wooden
frame 3 or 4 feet square is made. This permits the use
of four or more identical patterns on the screen.
Next, wet nylon or silk cloth is stretched over the
frame. When dried, the nylon or silk becomes very
taut. The frame is then placed, face downward,
over the desired pattern and the lines or colored
portions of one color are drawn on the back of the
screen with a paint soluble in water. For each color
used in the design a separate screen must be made.
After the lines and colored portions of one color in
the pattern have been placed on the screen and
dried, the entire back is painted with a nonsoluble
paint. When the paint has dried, the front or face of
the screen is sprayed with water, which loosens the
soluble paint from the screen and permits it to be
pulled from the back, leaving a transparent figure of
the design on the screen. In the printing operation
the coloring is forced through the transparent portion
of the screen.
The actual printing is done on long tables fitted
with guides into which the screens are placed so
that there will be no movement of the screen during
the printing operation. The cloth is tacked or pinned
on the table and the printer places the screen in
position face down. A coloring, corresponding to the
color for which that particular screen was made,
mixed with gum to give it body, is placed on the
back of the screen. A rubber-edged slide called a
“ squeegee” is then moved back and forth across the
back surface of the screen, forcing some of the color­
ing through the design on the screen and onto the
white cloth. The screen is then picked up and placed
in the next guide where the operation is repeated.
W ith a second screen, a second color is placed on the
white cloth, then a third, and so on until all the colors
of the design are in place. The cloth is then untacked
and suspended above the table for the coloring to
dry while succeeding pieces of cloth are being
printed.
Pin pricks while pinning or removing the pins from
the cloth on the tables, and splinters from rough

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

screen frames or from the edges of work tables are
among the more common but minor hazards in this
department. Other cuts or lacerations may result
from workmen bumping against the metal guides
which extend out from, and slightly above, the table
tops. The gum used in the coloring is usually re­
ceived in flake or powdered form, mixed with water,
and cooked in kettles by steam. The mixture is con­
tinually stirred during the mixing operation by
power-driven paddles. Contact with the steam lines
or with the hot gum may result in bums, and serious
disabilities to workmen’s fingers or hands may result
if they are caught in the gears by which power is
transmitted to the paddles.
Print-Color Shop.— Colors used in the printing
department are mixed in the print-color shop. In this
department dry dyestuffs and chemicals are mixed
together and then placed with water in a kettle,
where they are heated with steam. Power-driven
paddles are used to stir the mixture, which is com­
paratively thick. After the coloring is prepared, it is
poured into tubs and taken by hand truck to the
printing department.
Slippery floors constitute an important hazard in
the print-color shops. W ater and steam are used in
great quantities in these departments for cleaning
tubs and kettles, and, as a result, the floors are
generally quite wet. In addition, coloring is fre­
quently spilled or splashed onto the floor in these
departments. Lifting heavy tubs of color or barrels
or bags of ingredients may result in serious strains,
and contact with the coloring may result in derma­
titis. Other hazards of the print-color shop include
those of hand trucking, use of live steam, exposed
steam lines, and unguarded gears on the cooking
kettles.
Aging Department.— After the cloth has been
printed, the colors must be developed and set. This
process is known as aging and generally consists of
running the printed cloth through a machine called
an “ ager” or “ steamer” and then washing and soap­
ing it, which fixes the color in the cloth. Essentially,
the ager is a chamber in which the cloth is exposed to
steam or ammonia. The object of this machine is
to develop the colors and bind them to the cloth.
The soapers and washers are similar to those used in
other departments. The cloth is usually run through
a series of these machines which alternately soap and




9

rinse it. Generally, one of the washers contains a
chemical which fixes the color—i. e., prevents fading.
When the cloth goes through the soaping and wash­
ing in rope form, the machine is called a “ rope
soaper.” When it goes through flat, the machine is
called an “ open soaper.”
After each soaping or washing the cloth is passed
through a set of rolls which squeeze the excess
liquid from the cloth. These squeeze rollers are par­
ticularly dangerous because of the chance of serious
injury in the event that a workman’s hands or
fingers become caught between them. Floors in the
aging department are generally wet and slippery,
especially around the washing and soaping opera­
tions. The hazards incidental to hand trucking and
the use of steam are also important in this department.
Finishing Department.— The cloth receives its
final treatment in the finishing room. Here it is
pressed, stiffened, shrunk, stretched, or subjected to
any one of a number of other processes which tend to
improve its appearance or character. Since there
is such a wide variety of these finishing operations
and since no cloth is given all of the assorted treat­
ments, no attempt will be made to discuss the
processes in the proper sequence of operations; only
the more important ones will be described. Fre­
quently several of these operations are placed in
tandem and run as one process.
Practically all cloth handled in the textile dyeing
and finishing industry is eventually run through a
tenter frame. In this machine the cloth is stretched
to increase its width and the weave of the cloth is
straightened. The tenter frame may be anywhere
from 20 to 100 feet in length, depending on the
processing requirements. On each side of the frame
there is an endless chain carrying a series of clips
spaced very close together. These clips automatically
grab the selvage of the cloth as it is fed into the
machine and convey the cloth to the end of the frame,
where the clips release and the cloth is wound on
rolls or is plaited into trucks. In order that the width
of the cloth may be increased, the tenter frame is
constructed so that the chains may be adjusted to
travel in slightly diverging paths. As the chains
diverge, the cloth is stretched to the desired width.
Some tenter frames are also equipped with an attach­
ment which straightens the weave of the cloth dur­
ing its passage through the machine. Frequently
tenter frames are attached to other machines and are

10

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

arranged to operate in tandem with them.
One method of imparting a luster to the cloth is
called “ mercerizing.” Essentially, this operation con­
sists of passing the cloth through a caustic soda bath,
a tenter frame, and then through a water mangle to
remove the caustic. In some cases the caustic may
be sprayed onto the cloth as it passes through the
tenter frame. Although mercerizing is actually a
cloth-finishing operation, it may be done at any stage
in the processing; frequently it is performed just
before the bleaching operation.
The calendering machine is also used to give cloth
a smooth and lustrous appearance. In this machine
the cloth is passed between a series of pressure rolls
which may be steam heated.
The embossing operation is similar to the calen­
dering process, except that two or more rolls are
engraved with a suitable pattern. When the cloth is
passed through the machine, the design on the rolls
is pressed into the cloth.
On the other hand, it is frequently desired that
the finished cloth have a fluffy appearance, as, for
example, blankets. This is done by raising the fibers
on the cloth by passing it through a napping machine.
The essential part of that machine is a large rotating
frame on the surface of which are a number of cir­
cular wire brushes. As the frame rotates it carries
the cloth across the wire brushes, which in turn
rotate against the cloth, scratching the surface and
raising the fibers or “ nap.” The brushes are so
arranged that each alternate brush rotates clockwise
while the other half of the brushes rotate counter­
clockwise. Following the napping operation, the
cloth may be run through a shearing machine, which
cuts the ends of the fibers so that they are all about
the same length.
Chemicals are placed on the surface or in the body
of the cloth by mangles. One of the most common of
these is the starch mangle which is used for placing
starch in the cloth to give it stiffness. In the starch
mangle the cloth is run in open form through a tub
or tray containing hot starch and then through a set
of squeeze rolls which press the starch into the body
of the cloth. Generally a range or other drying appa­
ratus is run in tandem with the starch mangle. Other
mangles, similarly constructed, are used for water­
proofing, mildewproofing, or fireproofing cloth.
Probably the most common type of shrinking
process is that known as sanforizing. In that opera­
tion the cloth is first passed through a steam spray to
induce shrinkage. From the spray the cloth passes



through a short tenter frame and then under elec­
trically heated shoes placed snugly against a steamheated drying cylinder. An endless heavy blanket is
used to convey the cloth around and keep it in con­
tact with the cylinder. The cloth is then plaited into
hand trucks or wound into rolls.
Since no cloth receives all of the various finishing
operations performed in the finishing department, it
is not practical to design a continuous process for
the cloth passing through this department. For
example, one lot of cloth might be run through a
calender while the finish for the next lot would re­
quire that it be run through a napping machine. For
that reason, each operation in the finishing depart­
ment is generally independent of the others even
though there is a tendency to place two or more
operations in tandem where requests for such opera­
tions are sufficiently common to warrant it. As a
result there is a great deal of hand trucking, with all
of its hazards, in the finishing department. In addi­
tion there is a considerable amount of handling and
lifting of heavy rolls of cloth. Gears and belts are
used on many of the machines in this department.
Together with the squeeze rolls, these gears and belts
are very hazardous and injuries resulting from con­
tact with them are likely to be quite serious. Thread­
ing cloth through the squeeze rolls is particularly
dangerous. In that operation the operator usually
places the end of the cloth at the point where the
rolls make contact and then “ jogs” the starting
switch of the machine until the cloth is drawn
between the rolls. Steam is used extensively for
heating starch, liquids, and the hot rolls of many of
the finishing department machines. H ot steam pipes
and live steam therefore constitute one of the more
important hazards in this department. W et and
slippery floors are common hazards around some of
the operations, and the use of caustic soda presents
the possibility of serious chemical bums.
Make-up Department.— From the finishing room
the cloth is taken to the make-up or put-up depart­
ment, where it is prepared for shipping. Usually
rayon cloth is shipped in rolls, in which case a
winding-machine operator rewinds the cloth on
empty shells. During the rewinding operation the
operator inspects the cloth for flaws and cuts or
tears out any seams that may have been placed in the
cloth to splice various pieces together in previous
operations. Generally these rolls contain not more
than 100 yards of cloth.

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

Some wide cloth, particularly cotton cloth, is
folded lengthwide and then rolled on cardboard.
These operations are performed with a doubling
machine. M ost of the cotton, however, is folded into
bolts and shipped in crates or bales. In that case the
cloth is first folded with a folding machine or hooker.
The essential part of the hooker is a moving arm
called a blade, which folds the cloth in plaits 1 yard
wide. The name “ yarder” or “ yarding machine” is
therefore also applied to the hooker. Here again the
operator inspects the material for flaws and cuts or
tears out any seams that had previously been placed
in the cloth.
From the hooker the cloth is taken by hand truck
to an examining table where it is given a final inspec­
tion and then is folded twice, by hand, to make a
bundle or bolt approximately 12 inches wide. Thread
is then drawn through the bundle, with a needle, to
fix the fold. Next the cloth is taken by hand truck to
a “ shader,” who sorts the cloths by shade of color so
that, when packed, all bolts in one package are as near
alike in color as possible. From the shader the cloth
is taken, again by hand truck, to the “ packers” and
“ wrappers,” who prepare the bundles for shipment.
A great deal of hand trucking is necessary in
moving cloth from one operation to another in this
department. Hand trucking, therefore, presents one
of the greatest hazards of the make-up room. These
operations also require a considerable amount of
lifting but the packages are generally light in weight.
The swinging blade of the hooker is a hazard peculiar
to the make-up department. Actually the blade of
the hooker is not sharp but simply an arm by which
the cloth is folded back and forth. However, to hold
the fold, the blade places the edge of each fold in a
section of the machine table called the “ jaws.”
Although attempts have been made to guard this
swinging blade, guarding has not become widespread
and it is still general practice to stop the machine by
grabbing the blade as it swings away from the
operator. Should the operator make an error in judg­
ment and grab the blade as it swings toward him, the
blade invariably carries his fingers into the jaws of
the table, resulting in serious finger injuries. As the
machine must be stopped frequently, this hazard is
of utmost importance to the hooker operator. An­




11

other hazard of this department arises from the use
of hand tools. Scissors and knives are used exten­
sively throughout the department and hammers are
used in the packing operations to close the containers.
Some of the larger plants make their own wooden
packing cases, which may involve the use of powered
woodworking equipment. In the baling operations,
the metal straps used to bind the bales are generally
sharp-edged.

Yarn and Thread Department
Y am or thread may be processed either in skeins
or in rolls. As the materials usually arrive at the
plant in the form in which they are to be processed,
the stockroom operation consists mainly of hand
trucking and piling. From the stockroom the yam
and thread is delivered to the dye house for coloring.
Skeins of yam are usually dyed by suspending the
yam in the dye. In one dyeing machine of this type
the skeins are suspended from poles which are then
lowered into the vat containing the dye liquid. In
another type the skeins are placed around a wooden
wheel which is then lowered into the dye and
rotated. Rolls of thread, called reels, are generally
placed in dye kettles, where the dye is forced through
the reels. After dyeing, the yam or thread is ready
for drying, which is usually done in extractors and
hot-air chambers. M uch of the cotton thread is
mercerized in the finishing department to give it a
lustrous finish. In the winding department thread is
wound on quills, cones, reels, or spools and yam is
placed in balls or skeins.
The floors of the dye house are generally wet and
slippery and constitute one of the chief hazards in the
processing of yam and thread. Although not as
extensive as in the processing of piece goods, hand
trucking operations, nevertheless, present a con­
siderable hazard in this department. There is also a
great deal of lifting and handling of materials. This,
however, is generally lighter work than that which is
necessary for the processing of piece goods. The chief
hazard of the winding department is the possibility
of contacting the moving parts of the winding
machines. The use of dye and other chemicals in the
dyeing and finishing operations also presents an
occupational disease hazard.

12

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

Factors in the Injury R ecord
The injury record of any plant or of any group of
plants is a composite of a great many factors. The
kinds of material processed; the types of processing
performed; the safety regulations of the States in
which the plants are located, and the extent to which
those regulations are enforced; the kind of personnel
employed; the size of the plants; and the extent of the
safety programs carried on in the plants all have a
direct bearing upon the volume of injuries ex­
perienced. In particular instances the influence of
these factors may offset each other, but in com­
parisons based upon large groups of operations their
effects frequently can be demonstrated, as in the
following break-downs of the 1945 experience of the
dyeing and finishing industry.

Operating Comparisons
Form of Materials Processed.— Among the plants
reporting in the survey, those which were predomi­
nately engaged in processing piece goods generally
had the higher injury rates, indicating that the
hazards involved in these operations are greater than
in the processing of yam and thread. Specifically, the
piece-goods plants had an average frequency of
21.3 disabling injuries per million employee-hours
worked as compared with an average of 15.9 for the
yam and thread plants.
Kind of Materials Processed— The effect of varia­
tions in the kind of materials processed upon the
volume of injuries may be ascribed largely to the
differences in the processes used rather than to any
differences in the inherent hazards of the materials.
It is important, nevertheless, as a part of the over-all
analysis to know how the materials processed are
related to the injury record.
Plants specializing in the processing of cotton
materials generally had the best injury records. For
this group the average injury-frequency rate in 1945
was 18.1. In comparison, the plants which predomin­
ately process woolen and worsted goods had an
average rate of 24.5, while those processing rayon,
other synthetics, and silk had the high average of
29.4 disabling injuries per million employee-hours
worked.
Type of Processing.— Textile dyeing and finishing
involves three m ajor types of processing, namely,



bleaching, coloring, and finishing. Each of these
major processes is subject to wide variations depend­
ing upon the kind of material to be handled and the
final result desired. M ost plants in the industry
specialize to some degree and only a few of the larger
establishments have facilities to perform all of the
different types of operations.
Among the reporting plants those with the great­
est variety of operations had the highest average
injury-frequency rate. These were plants which per­
form bleaching, dyeing, machine printing, and finish­
ing operations. For this group the average rate was
24.7. W ithin the group the plants processing rayon
and other synthetic materials had the high average
rate of 34.2, while the plants processing cotton
materials had an average of 21.1.
Plants performing bleaching, dyeing, and finishing
operations, but not engaging in machine printing,
had an average injury rate of 19.7. The difference
between this average and that for the previous group,
which included machine printing, points to machine
printing as being one of the more hazardous opera­
tions in the industry. In this group, also, the plants
specializing in the processing of synthetic materials
had the highest injury rate, 27.7, as compared with
24.8 for the woolen and worsted goods plants, and
17.2 for those processing cotton goods.
Among the various groups of more specialized
plants, those limiting their operations to flock and
lacquer printing had an average frequency rate of
19.4; those engaged in screen printing had a rate of
18.3; those which apply waterproofing, fireproofing,
and other types of coatings to textiles had a rate of
16.7; and the plants performing bleaching operations
had a rate of only 12.3.

Size of Plant
Generally speaking, the very small plants (with
less than 50 employees) and the very large plants
(with over 1,000 employees) had the lowest average
injury-frequency rates. The distribution of frequency
rates within the various size groups, however, indi­
cated that size of plant need not be a controlling
factor in safety. In all size groups there were plants
which reported excellent safety records and in most
size groups there were a few with exceptionally poor
records. Plant size, in one way or another, may
either facilitate or impede the functioning of a

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

safety program, but it seems evident that regardless
of size, those plants which take a genuine interest in
safety do have lower injury-frequency rates than
those which make only perfunctory efforts toward
safety.
Plant size becomes a factor in the advancement of
safety in many ways. In small shops the supervisor,
who is frequently the owner with a personal financial
interest in keeping the accident volume at a mini­
mum, is generally able to keep all operations under
observation. He can, therefore, see unsafe conditions
and practices as they develop and can take immediate
precautions to eliminate incipient hazards.
In very large shops the volume of production
generally makes it possible to give special attention
to safety. These plants usually can afford to employ
a safety engineer to carry on a scientific accident
prevention program, and generally can afford to
provide all guards and safety equipment known to be
available. Large plants also can maintain some form
of medical or trained first-aid service upon the pre­
mises. They have the advantage of professionally
engineered plant lay-out and work processes, and
are generally in a position to utilize mechanical equip­
ment more extensively than are the smaller plants.
This is of particular importance in connection with
material-handling operations in which the provision
of mechanical conveyors, hoists, and power trucks
can do much to avoid many of the injuries associated
with the manual performance of such operations.
In medium-size plants the problem of safety is
complicated by the fact that the responsible head of
the plant seldom can devote much of his time to
observing shop operations, and, therefore, must dele­
gate much of the responsibility for safety to others.
Unfortunately, these safety responsibilities usually
must be vested in foremen or supervisors who rarely
have had safety training and who frequently feel
that their production responsibilities are of much
greater importance than attention to safety.
Supporting these generalized obervations which
summarize the findings not only of this survey,
but also of surveys in several other industries, the
highest injury-frequency rates in the dyeing and
finishing industry were found among the plants em­
ploying between 50 and 500 workers. In the range of
50 to 250 employees the average rate was about 25;
in the range from 250 to 500 employees the average
dropped to about 22; and in the range from 500 to
1,000 employees it was slightly below 20. The com­
paratively small plants in the 25 to 50 employee
range had an average rate of about 16 and the very



13

small plants employing less than 25 workers had an
average of about 13. The very large plants, employing
over 1,000 workers apiece, had the best record. Their
average frequency rate was only 9.8.
The group averages, however, tend to obscure the
widely divergent records of the individual plants
within the various size groups. Actually more than a
third of the plants included in the survey operated
throughout the year without a single disabling injury.
M ost of these were small plants, but the list in­
cluded 1 with 300 employees and 6 others with over
100 employees. Although none of the larger plants
achieved a zero frequency rate, 1, employing 740
workers, reported only 1 disabling injury, giving it a
frequency rate of 0.7. Another, employing over 2,000
workers, ended the year with a rate of 3.5. All of the
4 plants employing over 1,000 workers had rates of
less than 20. In total, 44 percent of the reporting
plants had frequency rates of less than 10 and an­
other 16 percent had rates less than 20.
At the other extreme, nearly 2 percent of the
reporting plants had rates exceeding 100. These were
all plants with less than 100 employees. Another 6
percent, including 1 plant with 350 employees, had
rates above 50. In the employment range of 100 to
500 workers, more than a third of the plants had
rates above 30.

Regional and State Differences
Variations in injury rates between geographic areas
may reflect any one or a combination of a number of
factors. State safety laws and their enforcement,
local safety programs, the age and maintenance of
plants and their equipment, and employment factors,
such as the experience of available workers, all tend
to influence the injury rate levels.
One of the most important of these factors in the
textile dyeing and finishing industry is the com po­
sition of the industry in each area. Although textile
dyeing and finishing plants are widely scattered
throughout the country, the industry is largely con­
centrated in three geographic areas4—the New Eng­
4 The regional groupings ahd the States included in each region are as
follows: New England.— Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamp­
shire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Middle Atlantic.— New Jersey, New
York, and Pennsylvania. East North Central.— Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Ohio, and Wisconsin. West North Central.— Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. South Atlantic.—
Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and West Virginia. East South Central.— Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, and Tennessee. West South Central.— Arkansas, Louisiana,
Oklahoma, and Texas. Mountain.— Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Pacific.— California, Oregon,
and Washington.

14

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

land, the M iddle Atlantic, and the South Atlantic.
In the South Atlantic area most of the plants process
cotton materials. The M iddle Atlantic area, more
specifically New Jersey, is the center of the rayon
processing industry, although there are a consider­
able number of plants engaged in dyeing and finish­
ing cotton goods in that area. In New England,
cotton and rayon processing plants predominate,
but most of the woolen and worsted processing
plants are located in that area.
M any plants in both the M iddle Atlantic and New
England areas are old and, because of a lack of man­
power during the war years, were badly in need of
repairs in 1945. On the other hand, many of the
plants in the South were new and quite modem.
The 446 establishments included in this study
were scattered throughout 7 of the 9 geographic areas
in the United States and were located in 22 of the 48
States. However, because the number of plants re­
porting in some areas and in some States was too
small to permit the computation of representative
averages, figures are shown for only 5 areas and 12
States. Of the 5 areas for which figures are shown,
the 2 areas with large proportions of rayon processing
plants had injury-frequency rates greater than the
average for the entire industry, and the three areas
primarily engaged in dyeing and finishing cotton had
better than average records. The highest regional
rate was 24.2 for the New England region. The
M iddle Atlantic average of 23.3 was only slightly
lower. The lowest regional injury-frequency rate
was 10.6 for the East N orth Central area. The South
Atlantic area with a frequency rate of 14.8 and the
East South Central area with a rate of 15.7 both had
averages considerably better than that of the in­
dustry as a whole.
The severity of the disabling injuries, however,
followed a much different pattern. The New England
area, which had the highest injury-frequency rate,
had the lowest proportion of serious injuries; only
1.6 percent of all disabling injuries in that area
resulted in death or permanent impairment. Only
one other area, the East North Central, achieved a
better average than that for the entire industry. In
that region less than 3 percent of the injuries re­
sulted in serious disabilities, compared with 4.8 per­
cent for the industry. Approximately 8.7 percent, or
one of every 11 disabling injuries in the East South
Central area, and 7.0 percent, or one of every 14
disabling injuries in the M iddle Atlantic area, re­
sulted in death or permanent disability. In the South




Atlantic area the proportion of serious injuries aver­
aged 1 for every 20 disabling injuries.
Severity as measured by the average time lost per
disabling injury followed a similar pattern. The best
record achieved by any area was that of the East
North Central area, where each disabling injury aver­
aged 48 days lost time. Less-than-industry averages
were also attained in the New England area, 67 days
lost per disabling injury, and in the South Atlantic
area, 83 days. The East South Central area with 263
days lost per injury and the M iddle Atlantic area
with 148 days both had averages considerably above
the industry average of 107 days lost per disabling
injury.
The highest of the 12 State injury-frequency rates
was 27.5 for New Jersey. Injury severity was also
high in New Jersey— nearly 9 percent of the dis­
abling injuries were reported as permanent impair­
ments. In Rhode Island the average frequency rate
was 26.3, but less than 1 percent of the injuries
resulted in death or permanent impairment. In M as­
sachusetts the frequency rate was 24.8, but only
I. 4 percent of the injuries were permanent.
Three States had injury-frequency rates of less
than 15. Georgia, with an average of 10.4 disabling
injuries per million hours worked, had the lowest rate,
followed by South Carolina with 11.2 and Ohio with
I I . 7. Although the frequency rate for South Carolina
was among the best, the number of serious injuries
experienced by employees in that State placed it
among the worst in the severity of the resulting
injuries, over 9 percent of the disabling injuries
resulting in death or permanent disability. Only 2
other States, Virginia, with 11.4 percent and Tennes­
see, with 10.0 percent, had greater proportions of
serious injuries. New York, with a better-than-average frequency rate of 17.9, experienced a large num­
ber of serious injuries. Over 6 percent of all disabling
injuries in that State resulted in death or permanent
impairment. Five of the 12 deaths or permanenttotal disability cases reported in this study occurred
in New York establishments.

Safety Programs and First-Aid Facilities
Because textile dyeing and finishing is a relatively
small industry, there has been no known attempt to
compile a good industry-wide safety code. Several
plants, which were visited during this survey, had
compiled safety rules for their workers, but as they
were directed to the employees, they mainly re­

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

fleeted rules or warnings against the commission of
unsafe acts and, therefore, cannot actually be conconsidered as industry safety codes. The nearest
approach to an industry safety code is the Textile
Safety Code, adopted by the American Standards
Association in 1929. However, that code is not
limited to dyeing and finishing, but covers the entire
textile industry. Consequently, the greatest portion
of that code deals with textile manufacturing pro­
cesses.
Relatively few dyeing and finishing plants have
organized safety programs. Of the 122 plants which
furnished details on their safety activities, nearly 42
percent reported that they had neither safety engineers
nor safety committees. Only 20 plants employed full­
time safety engineers. As might be expected, most
of these were large establishments. Included in the
group, however, were 2 plants with less than 100
employees and 4 others with less than 200. Seventeen
of these 20 plants also reported active safety com­
mittees. Details on safety committees were not re­
ported for the other 3 plants. About one-half of the
plants which did not employ full-time safety engineers
reported that they had organized safety committees.
The use of personal safety equipment is common
even in those plants which have no organized safety
programs. Rubber gloves and aprons are generally
furnished for workers in the dye rooms and color
shops, and goggles are usually provided for workers
who must handle caustics. In addition some plants
have also provided wooden clogs for workmen in dye
rooms to prevent dermatoses resulting from wet feet,
and other plants have provided protective creams
for workmen in the dye rooms and color shops.
An analysis of the injury rates of this group of
plants indicates some rather striking facts. For the
plants without safety engineers, the 1945 injuryfrequency rate of 24.7 was 50 percent greater than the
rate of 16.4 for the plants employing safety engineers.
M uch better records were achieved, however, by
some individual plants. For example, one plant with
an average employment of 700 reported only 2 dis­
abling injuries during 1945 for a disabling injuryfrequency rate of 1.3; another plant with 350 em­
ployees reported a frequency rate of 2.9 and a third
plant with over 2,000 employees operated the full
year of 1945 with the low rate of 3.5. Altogether, 5
of the 20 plants employing safety engineers reported
injury-frequency rates of less than 6.
The reduction in the number of injuries through
the employment of safety engineers generally ap­



15

peared to be in the category of temporary disabilities,
although none of the 6 fatalities and permanenttotal disabilities reported were experienced by em­
ployees in the plants with safety engineers. For
each million hours worked during 1945, there were,
on an average, 1.5 permanent-partial disabilities in
plants employing safety engineers, compared with
0.9 in those plants without safety engineers. This
greater frequency of permanent-partial disabilities
was also reflected in the average time lost per dis­
abling injury. Although the average time lost per
temporary disability was 22 days in the plants em­
ploying safety engineers and 25 days in the plants
without safety engineers, the average time lost per
disabling injury was 149 days in the former group of
plants, compared with 104 days in plants without
engineers.
The use of first-aid equipment is generally wide­
spread in the textile dyeing and finishing industry;
only 6 of the 122 plants for which information on
first-aid equipment was available had neither firstaid rooms nor first-aid kits. Altogether 78 plants
reported that they had established first-aid rooms.
Of these, 38 were staffed by physicians or registered
nurses and 32 were staffed by employees who had been
trained in first-aid methods. In addition, 34 plants
reported that, although they had no first-aid rooms,
first-aid kits were available for the treatment of
minor injuries.
The value of first-aid rooms in preventing injuries
from becoming disabling is apparent from an an­
alysis of the injury experience of these plants. On
the average, disabling injuries were much less fre­
quent in the plants with first-aid rooms than in the
plants without such facilities. In plants employing
safety engineers, the injury-frequency rate for estab­
lishments with first-aid rooms was 15.9, compared
with 20.6 for those plants without first-aid rooms.
In plants that did not employ safety engineers, the
frequency rate of the plants with first-aid rooms was
23.6, compared with 28.4 for the plants without
such facilities.
Furthermore, it is evident that professional firstaid attendants can do much to prevent injuries from
becoming disabling. In the group of plants with both
safety engineers and first-aid rooms, the frequency
of disabling injuries was only 14.0 when injuries
were treated by physicians or registered nurses,
while the rate was 28.9 when injuries were treated
by nonprofessional employees. Similarly, in plants
that did not em ploy safety engineers, the injury-

16

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

frequency rate for plants with physicians or registered nurses in attendance at the first-aid rooms was

21.8, compared with 26.8 for plants with employees
having only limited training, in attendance.

Departmental Injury Rates
The extent to which details were available con­
cerning the injury experience of workers in particular
operations varied greatly among the reporting plants.
In many of the small plants and also in some of the
large plants there was very little departmentaliza­
tion. Workers in these plants commonly move from
one job to another as the need arises and no records
are kept of the time spent on particular operations.
The m ajority of the plants, however, were able to
report their experiences in three broad categories:
Piece-goods processing, yam and thread processing,
and plant service and maintenance operations. A
substantial number also provided greater detail with­
in these m ajor categories.
One of the more important facts disclosed by this
break-down is that the industry frequency rate is
considerably diluted by including the experience of
administrative, clerical, and laboratory workers who
are exposed to relatively few of the hazards peculiar
to the industry. The extent of their influence upon
the over-all averages is partially indicated by the
fact that nearly 10 percent of the total employment
reported was in the clerical and administrative cat­
egory* and that the average injury-frequency rate
for this group was only 2.6.

Frequency Rates
Among the three m ajor categories of operations,
the processing of piece goods had the highest injury
rate— 23.6. The service and maintenance group of
departments, which includes the administrative, cler­
ical, and laboratory workers, had an average rate
of 18.5, and the yam and thread-processing depart­
ments had an average of 15.2.
The most pertinent detail for accident-prevention
purposes, however, lies in a comparison of the injury
rates for the various specific operating departments.
The highest departmental frequency rates were for
the maintenance and repair department (34.5), the
piece-goods dye room (34.1), the print-color shop
(29.1), the mechanical-print shop (28.5), the piecegoods receiving or gray room (26.5), the yam and
thread dye room (26.3), and the watchmen’s depart­
ment (25.3). All of the departments handling piece



goods, except the screen-print shop and the make-up
department, had injury rates above 20. In the yam
and thread group, however, only the dye-room rate
was above 13. In the service and maintenance group,
the shipping-department rate was 23.4 and the powerdepartment rate was 19.0.

Injury Severity
Injury severity followed much the same pattern
as the injury-frequency rates. In the piece-goods
processing departments 5.3 percent of all disabling
injuries resulted in death or permanent disability;
in the service and maintenance group of departments
4.4 percent resulted in serious disabilities; but in the
yam - and thread-processing departments only 2 per­
cent resulted in permanent impairments.
Among the piece-goods processing departments
there were 3 which had very high proportions of
serious injuries. In the mechanical-print shops 1 in
every 11 disabling injuries resulted in death or per­
manent impairment. In the finishing departments
the ratio was 1 in 14 and in the boil-off or bleaching
departments it was one in every 17. In contrast,
none of the 40 disabling injuries reported in the
aging departments and only 2 of the 104 reported
in the drying departments resulted in permanent
disabilities. When ranked according to the average
number of days lost or charged per disabling injury,
the screen-print shop, with an average of 179 days,
led all departments in the piece-goods group. High
averages were also recorded for the mechanical-print
shops, 145 days; and for the finishing departments,
140 days. The lowest departmental averages in the
group were 34 days for the gray rooms, 40 days for
the print-color shops, and 44 days for both the aging
and dye-color shops.
Only 4 of the 196 disabling injuries reported in the
production departments of the yam - and thread­
processing plants resulted in permanent disabilities,
and there were no fatalities. The dye-room depart­
ments had the highest average time charge per dis­
abling injury in this group, 94 days. For the yam and thread-finishing departments the average was
27 days; for the winding departments it was 25 days;

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

and for the packing departments it was only 15 days.
In the service and maintenance group of depart­
ments injuries tended to be very severe in both the
power and watchmen’s departments. In the power
departments over 10 percent of the reported disabling
injuries resulted in death or permanent impairment.
As a result, the average time charge per disabling
injury was 372 days and the standard severity rate
of 7.1 days lost per 1,000 hours worked was also

17

extremely high.
The watchmen’s departments also had a high ratio
of permanent impairments, 5.4 percent of all disabling
injuries. This resulted in a high average time charge
— 224 days per case, and a high severity rate— 5.7.
In the maintenance and repair departments about
4 percent of the disabling injuries were serious cases
and the average time charge was 92 days per dis­
abling injury.

Kinds o f Injuries Experienced
Disabling Injuries
In the broad review of the types of injuries which
were disabling, the most striking fact was the high
proportions of strains, sprains, bruises, contusions,
and hernias, which, together, constituted 63 percent
o f the cases examined. These are all types of injuries
which are commonly associated with heavy work,
particularly with the manual moving of heavy mate­
rials. In this connection it is pertinent to note that
previous studies of this nature have been made in the
foundry, longshore, and brewing industries, each of
which have a great deal of heavy manual w ork.5 In
the brewing industry only 55 percent of the disabling
injuries were in these categories; in the longshore
industry the ratio was 53 percent; and in the
foundry industry it was only about 40 percent. Of
specific interest is the fact that 5 percent of the dis­
abling injuries in dyeing and finishing were hernia
cases in comparison with 1.5 percent in breweries,
1.3 percent in foundries, and 0.9 percent in longshore
operations.
Nearly 36 percent of the disabling injuries in
dyeing and finishing were injuries to the trunk.
Alm ost half of these were back strains. Because it
is frequently impossible to determine the specific
incident which produced a back strain, these injuries
constitute a difficult problem in accident prevention.
The high proportion of these injuries, however, in­
dicates that the dyeing and finishing industry should
carefully review its material-handling procedures and
consider revamping those procedures to eliminate the
possibilities of overexertion.
About 17 percent of the disabling injuries were*
* See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 764— Injuries and Accident
Causes in the Longshore Industry. 1942; Bulletin No. 805— Injuries and
Accident Causes in the Foundry Industry. 1942; and Bulletin No. 8 8 4 Injuries and Accident Causes in the Brewing Industry. 1944.




foot and toe cases and about 10 percent were leg
cases. The toe injuries were primarily bruises and
fractures, all of which probably would have been
prevented if the injured persons had been wearing
steel-toed safety shoes. The foot and leg injuries
were m ostly bruises and sprains.
Over 10 percent of the disabling injuries were
finger cases. Another 9 percent were hand injuries
and 7 percent were arm injuries. The most common
hand and finger injuries were cuts and bruises and
the most common arm injuries were bruises and
fractures. Injuries to the upper extremities were par­
ticularly important because of the high proportion
resulting in permanent impairments. One in every
6 of the disabling finger injuries was a permanent
impairment, as was 1 in every 18 of the disabling arm
injuries and 1 in every 27 of the disabling hand
injuries.
M ore than 7 percent of the disabling injuries were
head injuries. About half of these were eye cases.
The eye injuries were predominately bum s inflicted
by chemicals or hot liquids. If the generally accepted
safety rule calling for the use of goggles while work­
ing with or near acids, caustics, or hot liquids had
been more closely followed, a large proportion of the
eye injuries might have been prevented.

Nondisabling Injuries
Because of the fact that records of nondisabling
injuries are difficult to maintain and therefore not
generally available, the customary procedure in eval­
uating the injury record of a plant or an industry is
to consider only the disabling injuries. The frequency
rates used for comparison, therefore, present only a
part of the injury picture. It is true that the disabling
injuries represent the more serious segment of the
accident problem, but it is also recognized that the

18

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

nondisabling cases, because of their great number,
present a problem of considerable magnitude. Partic­
ularly in respect to costs, it is frequently maintained
that the nondisabling injuries are just as important
as the more serious disabling injuries. Nearly every
nondisabling injury results in the loss of some pro­
ductive time, even though the injured person does
not leave the premises.

fingers appeared less likely to become disabling than
were injuries to any other part of the body. In the
group of cases affecting the upper extremities, there
were 60 nondisabling injuries for every disabling in­
jury (for fingers alone the ratio was 107 to 1). For
injuries to the head the ratio was 39 to 1 (eye cases,
52 to 1); for those affecting the lower extremities it
was 10 to 1; but for trunk injuries it was only 4 to 1.

Studies made over a long period in a wide variety
of plants have indicated that for manufacturing as a
whole about 29 nondisabling injuries occur, on the
average, for every disabling injury.6 This generality
has received wide acceptance as a basis for making
broad comparisons. Its author, however, has pointed
out that this ratio cannot be considered as representa­
tive of conditions in any specific industry and that
it is to be expected that there will be wide variations
in the experience of different industries or of dif­
ferent plants.

Re-treatment of First-Aid Cases.— Although no re­
cords of the actual time required for the treatment
of first-aid cases were available, it was apparent that
these so-called minor injuries in the aggregate are
responsible for the loss of a substantial amount of
paid time.

In the present survey an attempt was made to
collect information concerning nondisabling injuries
in order to provide some indication of the volume
of such injuries in the dyeing and finishing industry
and, incidentally, to indicate how the record of this
industry differs from the ratio generally accepted as
normal for manufacturing as a whole. These data
were available in 32 of the plants which were visited.
As a group, these 32 plants had 612 disabling injuries
and 13,154 nondisabling injuries during 1945, in­
dicating a ratio of 21 nondisabling injuries for every
disabling case. This ratio, however, must be con­
sidered as an absolute minimum, because a substan­
tial number of minor injuries were known to have
been unreported.
Nearly half of the nondisabling injuries were cuts
or lacerations, over a fourth were bruises, about onetenth were bums, and nearly one-tenth were strains
or sprains. In the cuts and lacerations category
there were approximately 100 nondisabling injuries
for every disabling case. For bums, the ratio was
31 to 1; for bruises, 19 to 1; and for strains or sprains
6 to 1.
Proportionately, injuries to the arms, hands, and•
•Industrial Accident Prevention, by H. W . Heinrich, New York,
M cGraw-Hill Book C o., 1941.




Only the very large plants have physicians on
duty in the first-aid rooms. Consequently employees
who experience injuries which require professional
attention generally have to be taken to the physi­
cian^ private office or to a hospital. This frequently
will result in the loss of a half day or more for the
injured person and for his escort as well. When re­
treatments are required, this loss of time may grow
to considerable proportions.
For the cases which can be treated within the
plant, the loss of time per case may be relatively
small, but because of the volume of cases the total
amount may represent a very important cost item.
In the absence of actual records of the time required
for treatments on the premises, the various first-aid
attendants were asked to estimate the average time
required for a visit to the first-aid room. The con­
census was that each visit required at least 20
minutes. Six of the plants maintained complete case
records, which indicated that over 16 percent of all
first-aid cases required re-treatment and that the
average number of treatments for all first-aid cases
was 1.4 per case. On this basis the average time loss
for each first-aid case may be estimated as approxi­
mately 30 minutes.
Among the various types of nondisabling injuries,
bums most commonly required retreatments. For
this group of injuries the average was 1.8 treatments
per case. Strains and sprains required an average of
1.6 treatments per case, while bruises and dermatosis
each required an average of 1.4 treatments.

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

19

A ccident Analysis
The Agencies
The determination of the particular physical items
which are most commonly involved in the occurrence
of injuries constitutes a fundamental step in the
development of a successful safety program. When
these items are known, it becomes possible to learn
the types of accidents in which they are generally
involved, to determine why they contribute to the
occurrence of injuries, and then to take measures to
overcome their injury-producing possibilities.
T o permit the precise determination of the items,
which are commonly termed “ agencies,” the Ameri­
can Recommended Practice for Compiling Industrial
Accident Causes defines an agency as “ the object or
substance which is most closely associated with the
injury, and which in general could have been properly
guarded or corrected.”
For the industry as a whole, the most prominent
agencies of accident, in descending order of their
importance, were: machines; working surfaces; vehi­
cles, primarily hand trucks; rolled cloth; containers;
chemicals; and hand tools. Items in these groups
were involved in 3 out of every 4 of the reported
accidents. Machine accidents, in addition to being
the leading source of injuries, were also of particular
importance because they produced a high proportion
of the more serious injuries. Nearly 10 percent of all
the injuries caused by machine accidents resulted in
death or permanent impairment.
Among the accidents involving working surfaces,
falls on slippery floors were most common. Practically
all of the vehicular accidents resulted from the misuse
of hand trucks. In many instances workers were
caught between moving trucks and fixed objects or
had their fingers pinched as they attempted to m ove
the trucks in spaces where there was inadequate
clearance. In most of the accidents involving rolls of
cloth the injuries were strains resulting from attempts
to lift or m ove the heavy rolls.
The specific containers most commonly involved
in accidents were bales, cartons, kettles, buckets,




vats, and bins. The accidents involving chemicals
most commonly resulted in dermatosis caused by
the absorption of dyes or printing colors into the
skin.
A more specific application of the analysis to the
operations which had the highest injury-frequency
rates indicated that the outstanding accident agencies
in the maintenance and repair shops, in the order of
their importance, were machines, hand tools, and
working surfaces. Machines were also of first im­
portance in the piece-goods dye rooms, but here
they were followed by chemicals, rolls of cloth, work­
ing surfaces, and vehicles. In the mechanical-print
shops, machines again were the most common of the
agencies, with rolls of cloth and metal parts in
second and third place, respectively. Containers were
the leading agency items in the receiving or grayroom departments, followed by vehicles, working
surfaces, and machines.

Types of Accidents
Accidents in which workmen were struck by m ov­
ing or falling objects were the most common source
of injury. About 23 percent of the reported injuries
resulted from accidents of this type. Overexertion,
primarily in lifting or moving rolls of cloth, produced
about 21 percent of the injuries; and accidents in
which workers bumped into or struck against objects
were responsible for another 16 percent. Approxi­
mately one-ninth of the reported injuries resulted
from workers being caught in, on, or between moving
objects, and a like number resulted from the inhala­
tion, absorption, or ingestion of chemicals or fumes.
M ost of the latter group were dermatoses, resulting
from the absorption into the skin of dyes or color
pastes. Falls accounted for about 8 percent of the
injuries, with falls on floors or other level surfaces
outnumbering falls from one level to another by 2 to
1. Slips not resulting in falls, and contact with
extreme temperatures were each responsible for about
4 percent of the reported injuries.

20

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

Chart 2.

Major Types of Accidents in the Textile Dyeing and
Finishing Industry, 1945

Percent of All Oisobllng and Medical Injuries

10

STRUCK BY MOVING OBJECTS

O V ER -EX E R TIO N

T
BUMPING AGAINST OBJECTS

ABSORPTION OF CHEMICALS AND DYES

CAUGHT IN, ON, OR BETW EEN MOVING O BJECTS

$J‘/ r
FA LLS

OTHER
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S




15

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

21

A ccident Causes
M odem accident prevention is based upon two
premises—first, that there is an identifiable cause for
every accident; and second, that when an accident
cause is known, it is generally possible to eliminate or
to counteract that particular cause as the probable
source of future accidents of the same character. In
many instances, it is true that a variety of circum­
stances contribute to the occurrence of an accident,
and the line which accident prevention should take
may seem confused because of the m ultiplicity of the
possible courses of action. It is generally recognized,
however, that every accident may be traced to the
existence of some unsafe working condition, to the
commission of an unsafe act by some individual, or
to a combination of these accident-producing factors.
In the analysis of individual accidents for the pur­
pose of establishing an effective safety program,
therefore, it is essential that particular attention be
given to the identification of these elements in the
chain of circumstances leading to the accidents.
Concentration upon the elimination of the unsafe
conditions and practices identified by such analysis,
with emphasis upon the elimination of the elements
which are found to have contributed to many
accidents, will almost invariably result in improved
safety records.
The correction of unsafe working conditions gener­
ally is entirely within the powers of management.
The avoidance of unsafe acts, on the other hand,
requires cooperation and understanding by both
management and workers. Management must take
the lead, however, by providing safety-minded super­
vision and by making sure that all workers are
acquainted with the hazards of their operations and
are familiar with the means of overcoming them.

Unsafe Working Conditions
Practically all of the unsafe conditions revealed by
the analysis fell into three general groups: Haz­
ardous arrangements or procedures (responsible for
nearly 43 percent of the accidents), defective
agencies (responsible for 36 percent), and improperly
guarded agencies (for 19 percent).
Hazardous Arrangements or Procedures.— Lack of
proper lifting equipment or lack of sufficient help in
lifting heavy objects was most common among the




particular unsafe conditions included in this general
group. Rolls of cloth and containers were involved in
the m ajority of these lifting accidents.
The practice of moving rolls of cloth by hand and
of hand-lifting the rolls into position on machines is
quite common in the dyeing and finishing industry,
even though some of the rolls may weigh as much as
500 pounds. In placing one of these heavy rolls on a
machine, the workman generally moves the roll as
near to the machine as possible on a hand truck from
which he lifts first one side of the roll and then the
other.
Although the injury possibilities involved in hand­
ling heavy rolls of cloth are obvious, relatively few of
the plants have taken any steps to eliminate the
hazard. In one plant, however, the problem was
solved by plaiting all cloth into box-type hand
trucks at the delivery end of each machine, which
practically eliminated rolls of cloth in the processing
operations. Another plant used specially designed
hand trucks in place of the loading and unloading
jacks at the entry and delivery ends of the machines.
The cloth is threaded directly from one of these
trucks through the machine and into a second truck
at the delivery end, thereby eliminating the lifting at
both ends of the machine. Another plant used pow­
ered lift trucks to place the cloth in the machines,
and several plants had installed block and tackle
equipment to do the lifting. One of the plants had
also installed overhead rails on which the block and
tackle with its suspended load could be moved from
one operation to another.
T o reduce the number of strains experienced by
workers in the warehouse, one plant constructed
special racks for storing rolls of cloth. B y having
these racks built to the same height as the beds of the
hand trucks used in transporting the cloth and by
limiting storage on the racks to one roll high, the
cloth could be rolled on and off the hand trucks
without lifting.
In the gray room and make-up, shipping, and ware­
house departments much of the lifting problem
centered in the handling of bales and crates. In the
color shops, kettles and drums were the agencies
most frequently involved in lifting accidents.
Departmentally, the lack of proper lifting equip­
ment or the lack of sufficient help in lifting operations

22

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

Chart 3.

Major Types of Unsafe Working Conditions in the Textile Dyeing
and Finishing Industry, 1945

Percent of All Disabling and Medical Injuries

10

LACK OF PROPER LIFTING EQUIPMENT
*

IMPROPERLY GUARDED AGENCIES
1
SLIPPERY FLOORS, ETC.

UNSAFE LAY-OUT OF TRAFFIC OR PROCESS OPERATIONS

I
SHARP-EDGED AGENCIES

ROUGH AGENCIES

AGED, WORN, CRACKED AGENCIES

i

& >

LACK OF CLEAR WALKWAYS

OTHER
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OE LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




15

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

constituted an outstanding hazard in each of the
piece-goods departments and in the shipping, yard,
and warehouse departments. Among the piece-goods
departments, at least a third of all the accidents
ascribed to unsafe working conditions in the dyecolor shops, the finishing departments, and the
mechanical-print shops were chargeable to this par­
ticular hazard. In the finishing department this
hazard was frequently encountered in calendering
and tentering operations.
Unsafe planning or lay-out, either of traffic or
process operations, was second in importance among
the groups of hazards classified as hazardous arrange­
ments or procedures. Hand tools, chemicals, ma­
chines, and containers were the agencies most
frequently involved in the accidents arising from
hazards of this general nature.
Extensive use of sharp knives to cut cloth con­
stitutes a m ajor hazard in the industry. The general
failure to provide proper sheaths or convenient racks
to hold the knives when not in actual use was re­
sponsible for a substantial volume of the reported
injuries. Lacking these proper facilities the workers
commonly lay the knives on their work tables or on
other nearby surfaces where they frequently strike
against them as they move about in their work.
In a few plants where knives were not furnished and
the workers were expected to tear the cloth when­
ever necessary, they frequently used their own pocket
knives and experienced injuries when the blades
snapped shut on their fingers.
Although the toxic properties of the dyes and
chemicals used in the industry are well known, the
operating procedures present many possibilities for
the workers to come into direct contact with these
materials. Skin infections, therefore, are an outstand­
ing problem in many departments of the industry.
As individual susceptibility varies greatly, some
plants attempt to meet the problem by transferring
the more susceptible workers to other work. In some
instances, all workers exposed to contact with dyes
or chemicals are given periodic medical examinations
in an effort to catch dermatosis in its early stages.
M uch remains to be done, however, in a more direct
approach of developing less toxic materials or of
re-engineering the processes to eliminate exposure to
the materials now in use. Success in this effort, it is
believed, would eliminate about 25 percent of the
injuries experienced by workers in the piece-goods
dye-color shops and print-color shops; about 15 per­
cent of those experienced by workers in both the



23

piece-goods and the yam and thread dye room s; and
from 10 to 12 percent of the injuries incurred in
mechanical and screen-print shops.
Hazardous procedures in the use of machines were
found to be many and varied. The operation most
commonly resulting in injury, however, was that of
threading heated drying cans, which produced a
great many bums. Less common, but producing
more serious injuries, was the practice of permitting
workers to enter heated or fume-filled chambers of
machines to make adjustments.
Transporting hot starch, dyes, and other chemicals
in open buckets from which the materials can splash,
or in glass containers which may break if dropped, is
common throughout the industry and is responsible
for many injuries. In finishing departments it is cus­
tomary to mix the starch, used in mangles, in “ starch
rooms.” The hot starch is then carried in buckets to
the mangle and poured into the machine by hand.
The reports indicated that the starch frequently
splashes on the worker performing this operation
and often causes very painful bums. One plant had
eliminated this hazard by placing the starch-mixing
operation on the floor above the finishing room and
running a pipe directly to the mangle from the mix­
ing tank. This simple utilization of the force of
gravity not only eliminated the hazards involved in
transporting the starch but also reduced the amount
of labor required to place the starch where it was
needed.
In relatively few of the plants was there any in­
dication of a serious traffic problem. One plant re­
ported that it had had a number of accidents involv­
ing powered trucks at blind comers, but this hazard
had been overcome by installing electric eyes, which
operated warning signals, in passageways leading to
the danger points.
Hand plaiting in kier boilers is particularly hazard­
ous because the heat may cause the worker to faint.
If this happens, he may be suffocated by the cloth
piling on him. However, the widespread use of auto­
matic plaiters apparently has practically eliminated
accidents of this type. None were reported in 1945
by the plants included in this analysis.
Poor housekeeping was a common source of acci­
dents in many plants. Cluttered working surfaces
and passageways caused many workers to trip and
fall, and unsafely piled or stored materials frequently
fell on workers or presented bumping hazards. An­
other hazard often resulting in injuries to machine

24

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

operators and maintenance men was the general
lack of a safe means of reaching the elevated parts
of machines. The provision of safe ladders or plat­
forms for work at levels beyond easy reach from
the floor would have prevented most of these injuries.
Defective Agencies. — Slippery working surfaces
were an outstanding source of accidents throughout
the industry, particularly in boil-off or bleaching
departments, dye-color shops, dye rooms, mechani­
cal-print shops, aging departments, drying depart' ments, and gray rooms. In most instances this hazard
was due to water, printing colors, or dyes which had
been spilled or splashed in the working areas. In
general, there was little evidence of any effort to
reduce the hazard of slippery floors, although every­
one in the industry seemed to be aware of the danger
involved. In a few instances, however, rough-grained
concrete floors had been installed, and in some plants
the workers were furnished with wooden clogs for
use where floors were generally wet.
Sharp-edged agencies, such as metal tie bands on
bales and crates, clips in the selvedge of cloth passing
through machines, and slivers projecting from shells
which were rotating on machines were particularly
common sources of severe cuts and abrasions. Pro­
jecting nails or splinters on working surfaces, splint­
ered handles and rough frames on hand trucks,
broken floors, and rough or splintered benches, tables,
and chairs were also responsible for many injuries
of this nature. The prevalence of this latter group
of unsafe conditions was a strong indication of the
need for more adequate inspection and repair of the
equipment, tools, and materials used in the industry.
Improperly Guarded Agencies.— The proportion of
accidents ascribed to inadequate guarding was un­
usually high in the dyeing and finishing industry—
19 percent as compared with less than 10 percent in
most of the other industries surveyed by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics in recent years. The importance
of this group of accidents, however, is even greater
than is indicated by its volume. In general, accidents
arising from inadequate guarding tend to produce
serious injuries. Over 13 percent of the injuries
resulting from this group of accidents, in this survey,
were cases of death or permanent physical impair­
ment.
Machines, boilers and other pressure vessels, con­
tainers, and working surfaces were most frequently
involved in accidents resulting from inadequate




guarding. In the machine group unguarded gears,
belts, and pulleys were the most common sources
of injury. The lack of guards on squeeze rolls ac­
counted for a number of injuries and the lack of
splash guards on washing, soaping, and dyeing ma­
chines was primarily responsible for many cases of
dermatosis. One of the most serious hazards in make­
up departments was in the operation of hookers,
or folding machines. Few attempts have been made
to guard these machines and many management
officials maintain that no effective guard can be
applied. In two plants visited, however, this problem
had been given careful study and guards had been
designed. One of these, a gate guard, had not yet
been installed, so its effectiveness could not be
checked. The other, which was operating satisfac­
torily, consisted of an electric eye, across the front
of the machine, which activated a brake on the
motor when the operator’s hand entered the danger
zone.
M ost of the accidents ascribed to unguarded boil­
ers or pressure vessels were cases in which workers
touched hot steam pipes or other heated surfaces.
The unguarded containers involved in accidents were
chiefly uncovered buckets used in carrying acids or
other harmful chemicals. Unguarded working sur­
faces were generally elevated platforms or walkways
not provided with adequate railings. There were,
however, a number of accidents traceable to un­
guarded manholes and unguarded cloth bins.

Unsafe Acts
For the purpose of accident analysis, an unsafe
act is defined as “ a violation of a commonly accepted
safe procedure.” 7 Literally, this definition means that
no personal action shall be designated as unsafe unless
there was a reasonable and less-hazardous alternative
method or procedure. There is, however, no implica­
tion that the alternative safe procedure must have
been known to the person who acted in an unsafe
manner, nor that his unsafe act was the result of a
considered choice between the two possible proce­
dures. In many of the accidents studied in this
survey it was apparent that the individual knew
the safe procedure, but consciously decided not to
follow it. In other cases, circumstances indicated
that the person acted unsafely simply because he
did not know the alternative safe method. The first
step toward the elimination of unsafe acts, therefore,
7 American Recommended Practice for Compiling Industrial Accident
Causes, approved by the American Standards Association, August 1,1941.

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

Chart 4.

Major Types off Unsafe Acts in the Textile Dyeing and
Finishing Industry, 1945

Porcont of All Oisoblino ond Modleol Injtifits

GRIPPING OBJECTS INSECURELY , TAKING WRONG HOLD

jt

ASSUMING UNSAFE POSITIONS

UNSAFE LOADING OR PLACING

UNSAFE USE OF EQUIPMENT

FAILURE TO USE PERSONAL S A FE TY EQUIPMENT

OTHER
UN ITEO S TA TE S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S




25

26

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

is to make sure that all workers are thoroughly in­
structed in the safe methods of performing their
duties and that they are familiar with the hazards
connected with deviations from those methods. The
second essential step is to exercise strict supervision
to see that safe procedures are followed.
M ost of the accidents attributable to unsafe acts
fell into two general groups: Nearly 40 percent
resulted from the use of unsafe equipment or the
unsafe use of equipment, and 38 percent from workers
assuming an unsafe position or posture.
Equipment— Unsafe, or Unsafely Used.— Within
this group the outstanding type of unsafe act was
that of taking an incorrect hold or not maintaining
a good grip on objects being handled. For example,
in many cases, shells, center bars, boxes, rolls of
d oth , and similar objects slipped from the worker’s
hands because he attempted to handle the material
with wet hands, grasped the material at a sharp or
rough spot which caused him to release his grip, or
did not hold it firmly enough to control its move­
ments. Cuts on the hands and pinched or crushed
fingers and feet were the most common injuries re­
sulting from these practices. Similarly, taking an
incorrect hold on objects which were being piled or
placed in machines and pushing hand trucks other
than by the handles led to many crushed fingers
and hands.
Use of hand tools or other equipment for purposes
other than those for which they were designed was
a common source of injury. Additional examples of
the misuse of equipment included running with hand
trucks and carelessness in handling vehicles at blind
comers. Basically, all of these unsafe acts indicate
inadequate supervision.
Unsafe Position or Posture.— Inattention to foot­
ing and unsafe lifting were the outstanding unsafe
acts in this general category. In the inattention-tofooting group there were many cases of tripping

over objects lying on the floor and of falls on
slippery surfaces. Lifting with a bent back while in
a cramped or awkward position, or while standing
on irregular or insecure surfaces caused many of the
lifting accidents. Other unsafe practices in this gen­
eral group included such actions as working, walking,
or standing in the path of moving vehicles; un­
necessarily working or passing under suspended ob­
jects; entering chambers of machines or other en­
closures which were unsafe because of high tempera­
tures or fumes; and riding in an unsafe position on
vehicles.
Unsafe working conditions, particularly those cre­
ated by poor housekeeping and the lack of proper
lifting equipment, were also involved in many of the
accidents associated with assuming an unsafe posi­
tion. Correction of the unsafe working condition, to
eliminate the possibility of any worker exposing
himself to the hazard, would be the most effective
safety measure. Nevertheless, it is apparent that
workers should be more thoroughly trained to rec­
ognize and cope with hazards which they may
encounter on the job.
Other Unsafe Acts.— In the general category of
unsafe placing or mixing of materials, a substantial
number of accidents involved collapse of insecurely
built piles of material. Splashing of dyes or chemicals
during mixing operations was also responsible for a
considerable number of injuries. In many instances
these accidents resulted from the introduction into
the mixtures of steam under too great a pressure.
Other types of unsafe acts, which produced acci­
dents in sufficient volume to indicate that they are
fairly common in dyeing and finishing operations,
included failure to use proper safety equipment where
required; wearing of unsafe clothing, such as loose
sleeves or neckties while working on moving ma­
chinery; running in the workplace; operating equip­
ment at unsafe speeds; and operating equipment
without authority.

Occupational Analysis
For accident-prevention purposes the most useful
kind of information is that which furnishes the great­
est degree of detail and most closely relates the
existing hazards to the specific operations or occupa­
tions which are affected by those hazards. T o supply



this desirable detail, an effort was made in this
survey to compile the injury and accident data on
an occupational basis. Unfortunately only 37 of the
cooperating plants had records from which full oc­
cupational detail could be drawn. As a result the

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

volume of data for many of the individual occupa­
tions was severely limited. Strict adherence to the
Bureau’s usual standard of not publishing data for
any classification unless the coverage includes at
least one million employee-hours of exposure would
have prevented publication of much of the occupa­
tional detail. However, in view of the great interest
inherent in an occupational analysis, it was con­
sidered desirable to deviate from the regular pro­
cedure in this instance and to present injury rates
for each classification for which the reported exposure
amounted to 100,000 or more employee-hours worked.
On this basis it was possible to prepare a comparative
analysis of the injury experience of workers in 44
different occupational classifications. These were all
plant occupations. Office and administrative posi­
tions were excluded.
Among the listed occupations, the disabling injury-

27

frequency rates ranged from 5.2 for napper tenders
to 71.0 for gray-cloth tenders. Six other occupations
had disabling-injury rates below 10. These were:
Starch mixers, 6.0; cloth folders, 6.6; cloth-mercerizer operators, 8.6; foremen, 8.8; cloth bale head­
ers, 9.6; and continuous-dyeing machine operators,
9.8. High rates were recorded for: Laborers, 62.7;
back tenders (printing), 62.2; padding-machine op­
erators, 53.5; dye-reel operators, 50.2; back-end men,
47.8; and jiggers, 42.0. Twelve other occupations had
rates between 20 and 30, and 11 had rates between
30 and 40.
Injury details for the several occupations appear
in tables 24 to 30. A description of the m ajor opera­
tions involved in each of the occupations, an outline
of the principal hazards encountered, and a summary
analysis of the injury and accident record of workers
in these occupations is presented in table 31.

A ccident Prevention8
Accident prevention is not merely a form of humanitarianism— it is good business which pays off
well in reduced operating costs and more efficient
production.
Personal interest and continuing leadership by top
management are essential to the success of any
accident-prevention program. Definite responsibility
for the operation of the program should be assigned,
but the chief executive should keep in close touch
with results and should make sure that all employees
are aware of his continuing support for the program.
A complete accident-prevention program must
have two objectives— (1) to reduce physical hazards
to an absolute minimum and (2) to develop safe
procedures for each operation which will minimize
the possibility of accidents arising from human errors
or misunderstanding.
Ideally, an accident-prevention program should
start with the original planning of the plant or
undertaking. Safety engineering applied at the de­
sign stage can avoid the creation of many hazards
which may be exceedingly difficult to eliminate if
they are not discovered until after operations have
started. This advance planning will simplify, but obvi8 This section of the report, including the analysis of typical accidents,
was prepared by the engineering staff of the Safety Standards Division of
the Bureau of Labor Standards. Each of the listed accidents was inves­
tigated at the point of occurrence, and the recommended measures for the
prevention of similar accidents were based upon the facts developed in
those investigations.




ously can never eliminate the need for, a continuing
accident-prevention program.
There is no standard pattern for successful acci­
dent prevention. Experience indicates, however, that
the following basic elements constitute the frame­
work of any effective program.
1. Regular safety inspections of all premises, equip­
ment, and operations to detect hazardous conditions
and unsafe practices
2. Job safety analysis to determine job require­
ments and to help in the development of safe work
methods.
3. Accident investigation to determine the specific
hazards and unsafe acts which cause accidents.
4. Safety education to arouse general employee
interest in safety and to increase the workers’ know­
ledge of safe practices.
5. Safety training to develop worker skill in par­
ticular safe practices.

Accident Investigation
As every accident constitutes proof of the existence
of an uncontrolled hazard or of the commission of
an unsafe act, it is most important that a thorough
investigation be made in each instance to determine
what these accident factors are.
Accident investigation is essentially a simple pro­
cedure. Maximum results will be achieved, however,

28

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

if the following general principles are observed:
1. Qualifications of the investigator:
(а) Common sense and clear thinking are essential.
The investigator must neither jump to conclusions
nor accept the unverified opinions of others. He
must be able to collect his own facts, evaluate the
evidence, and formulate a reasoned conclusion.
(б) His familiarity with the equipment, operation,
or process should be sufficient to give him an under­
standing of the possible hazards of the activity.
(c) He should have a good general knowledge of
the types of hazards most commonly involved in
accidents.
2. Responsibility of the investigator:
(d) Neither the investigation nor the investigator
should be under the control of the supervisor of the
operation in which the accident occurred. The ap­
proach, however, should be that of cooperating with
the supervisor in the determination of the necessary
corrective action.
3. Procedure:
(e) Each clue should be investigated fully. Seem-

ingly reasonable conclusions are frequently changed
as a result of exploring factors which superficially
appear of little importance.
(/) As both a physical hazard and an unsafe act
are involved in most accidents, both possibilities
should be investigated fully.
(g) Every investigation should lead to a definite
recommendation for corrective action and no inves­
tigation should be considered as satisfactorily com­
pleted unless such a recommendation is included in
the report.
(A) Whenever possible more than one person should
investigate— two heads are better than one.
(i) Promptness is essential. Conditions may change
quickly and details may soon be forgotten. M oreover,
promptness in making the investigation will indicate
to the workers the degree of importance which man­
agement attaches to safety.
(j) Every accident should be investigated. The
seriousness of an accident is often a matter of pure
chance. Conditions which led to a minor accident
may later result in a serious injury or fatality.

T yp ical D yeing and Finishing A ccidents
T o illustrate the general types of accident problems
encountered in dyeing and finishing operations, a
number of recently reported accidents were selected
for detailed investigation. Brief descriptions of these
accidents accompanied by the recommendations of
the Bureau of Labor Standards investigator are
given on the following pages.

Receiving and Shipping
1. A truck driver and his helper were unloading
300-pound drums, using a metal skid. As one of the
drums slid down the skid it caught on a crosspiece
between the skid rails. The jar caused the skid to
slip and the drum toppled over onto the helpers foot.
Investigation disclosed that the skid consisted of
two channel irons connected with cross braces. One
of the cross rods had become bent so that it caught
the drum as it slid down. N o means had been pro­
vided for anchoring the skid, which was simply
leaning against the truck bed. The injured worker
was not wearing safety shoes.
(a)
The design of the skid should have included
proper bracing for the cross rods with a lengthwise
member, possibly a plank.



(b) Provision should be made for fastening skids to
the truck body or to the platform floor to prevent their
slipping.
(c) Damaged equipment should be removed from ser­
vice until repaired. Frequent inspections of all materialshandling equipment is an essential safety measure.
(d) Workmen who handle heavy materials should
wear safety shoes.
2. A workman was loading a case of cloth onto a
trailer truck from the loading platform. When the
case tipped, he tried to stop it from falling and suf­
fered a strain.
Investigation disclosed that the trailer truck was
about 10 inches higher than the platform and that
the worker had bridged this difference with a short
metal skid. The effort required to push the loaded hand
truck up this skid was too great for the worker.
(a) A longer skid which would reduce the angle of
incline should be used. The skid should also be firmly
secured.
(b) The load limits that can be handled safely on a
hand truck by one man should be determined and extra
help should be assigned when loads exceed that limit.
3. Tw o employees were stocking wooden cases

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

29

No amount of instruction can prevent strains and
hernias under these circumstances. The minimum cor­
rective action would he to redesign the warehouse lay-out
to allow adequate space for additional help. The most
effective action would be to use a mechanical stacker
instead of doing the work by hand.

of working floors and platforms should be insulated.
7. A workman standing on the rim of the gray and
white bin fell into the bin and fractured his shoulder.
Investigation disclosed that no provision had been
made for safe footing on these bins.
Where access to the tops of these bins is required,
railed platforms should be provided.
8. A workman sprained his ankle in stepping from
a ledge on the bleaching vat to the floor.
Investigation disclosed that the floor was of old
planking with wide spaces between planks and that
the planks were not level.
Every floor, working place, and passageway should
be kept free from protruding nails, splinters, holes,
or loose boards.

Bleaching

Dyeing

three high in a warehouse. One of the workers suf­
fered a hernia.
Investigation disclosed that each case weighed
approximately 250 pounds. Hand stacking was cus­
tom ary and, because the possibility of strains was
recognized, each employee had been instructed in
safe lifting methods. Because of the close quarters in
which they worked, additional employees could not
be assigned to help in the lifting.

4. W hile he was opening a small valve in the
chlorine line, a bleachery employee received a shot
of chlorine in the face.
Investigation disclosed that these valves had leaked
repeatedly and that no provision had been made to
prevent injuries of this type.
(a) Shields should be placed in front of these valves
to direct leakage away from the worker.
(b) All persons performing this work should wear
face shields.
(c) All lines and other equipment carrying chlorine
should be inspected periodically and promptly repaired,
if necessary.
5. An employee was pouring acid from a carboy
into a small container. The acid splashed and burned
his face and hand.
Investigation disclosed that no protective cloth­
ing was worn in this operation; that no facilities for
the mechanical handling of carboys were provided;
and that no attention had been given to the preven­
tion of splashing.
(a) Suitable personal protective devices, including
face shields and acid-resistant aprons, should be pro­
vided for employees who handle acids.
(b) Carboy tilters should be used in handling carboys.
(c) Whenever possible, safety siphons should be used
to transfer acids from one container to another.
6. A kier helper brushed against a steam pipe and
burned his arm.
Investigation disclosed that a considerable amount
of steam piping and fittings within easy reach were
not insulated.
AU steam piping and fittings that are within reach



9. Employees in the color shop complained of
headaches, nausea, and dizziness while handling ani­
line and some other colors.
Investigation disclosed that this occurred chiefly
in connection with the work of weighing and prepar­
ing batches. Respirators had been provided but their
use had not been enforced.
(a) The full extent and seriousness of this hazard
can only be determined through a study by a competent
industrial hygiene technician. The services of such a
technician should be secured for that purpose.
(b) While his findings might include the use of
respirators, it should be emphasized that, as far as
practical, the hazard should be eliminated or controlled
by the prevention of air contamination and of contact
with hazardous substances.
10. An employee was using a bucket to carry
caustic to a jig. Caustic soda, dripping from the
bucket, burned his leg.
Investigation disclosed that the bucket had been
dropped and was severely bent. As a result the
seam in the bucket was no longer watertight.
All equipment should be inspected frequently on a
regular schedule. Defective equipment should be repaired
immediately or removed from service until repairs have
been made.
11. A jig operator was pouring caustic from a
bucket into a jig. The caustic splashed out of the
jig and burned his arm.
Investigation disclosed that no protective clothing
was worn in this operation; that it was general prac­
tice to pour caustic into jigs from buckets; and that

30

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

no attention had been given to the prevention of
splashing.
(a) Caustic should never he poured from buckets or
other containers. Where possible, it should be piped to
the point of use. I f piping is impractical, safety
siphons should be used to transfer caustic from one
container to another.
(b) Suitable personal safety equipment should be
provided for all employees handling caustic.
12. Two employees were removing a roll of cloth
from the jig by hand. One of the workers sprained
his back.
Investigation disclosed that no mechanical aids
had been provided for this operation; no instructions
had been given to these men in the safe methods of
lifting heavy objects.
(a) Mechanical lifting apparatus should be installed
for lifting heavy rolls of cloth onto and from the jigs.
(b) All workers handling heavy objects should be
carefully instructed in the safe methods of lifting.
13. A jig operator was cleaning equipment when
a jig started to boil over. T o close the steam valve
it was necessary for the operator to pass the jig.
In doing so he was burned by the boiling water.
Investigation disclosed that the jig did not have
an overflow pipe nor splash guards; the steam controls
were not conveniently located; and the workman was
excitable and not systematic in performing his work.
(a) All jigs should be equipped with overflow pipes
and splash guards.
(b) Control valves should be within easy reach at all
times. I f necessary, two or more control valves should
be installed.
(c) Proper job placement and careful training are
essential for safety.
14. A dye-box operator contracted dermatitis of
the hands and arms as a result of contact with
dyes used in the dye box.
Investigation disclosed that during the operation
of the dye box the dye liquor splashed over the
front of the machine.
(a) Splash guards should be installed to reduce
splashing to a minimum.
(b) Supervisors or plant nurses should frequently
examine the hands and arms of employees engaged in
this and similiar work to detect infection before it
becomes serious. Employees who are susceptible to this
infection should be placed on other work.
(c) Protective creams should be supplied to em­
ployees engaged in this work and all workmen should



wash all exposed parts of their bodies thoroughly before
and after each shift.
15. A dye-box operator lacerated his finger on a
dye-box control rod.
Investigation disclosed that the rod was badly
rusted and rough. The wet condition in this depart­
ment caused metal parts to rust very quickly.
(a) Particular attention should be given to the pre­
vention of rusting, by first cleaning the rust from the
metal parts, and then applying a coating of rustpreventative such as aluminum or asphaltic paint.
(b) New equipment, as far as practical, should be
of rust-resistive materials.

Drying
16. A dry-cans operator was threading cloth
through the machine. His helper, at the controls,
thought he heard the operator call to start the
machine. As the helper started the dry cans, the
operator was caught in the rolls and fatally injured.
Investigation showed that no standard system of
signals had been provided for this operation; that
the nip lines of the rolls were not guarded; and that
the control switch was a considerable distance from
the machine.
(a) Bar guards should be provided along the nip
lines of all rolls.
(b) Wherever possible, the control switch should be
located so that the threading operation can be seen from
the switch.
(c) A definite system of signals should be developed
and always used in such operations.
17. A dry-cans operator strained his back while
lifting a roll of cloth from the dry cans.
Investigation disclosed that these rolls of cloth
averaged 500 pounds per roll; that it was customary
for the employees engaged in this work to lift or
slide one end of the roll from the machine and then
the other.
(a) Mechanical lifting apparatus should be installed
for lifting heavy rolls of cloth to and from machines.
(b) All workers handling heavy objects should be
carefully instructed in the safe methods of lifting.
18. W hile threading the dry cans, an employee
burned his arm on a steam pipe.
Investigation disclosed that the steam pipes lead­
ing to the dry cans were not insulated.
All steam piping and fittings within reach of work­
ing areas should be insulated.
19. When a dry-cans operator bumped a shell

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

which was leaning against the machine, it fell on
his foot, fracturing his toe.
Investigation disclosed that the operator had,
shortly before the accident, removed the empty shell
from the unwinding jack of the machine and placed
it at the side of the machine; that no provision had
been made for accommodating the empty shells.
Racks should be provided at all machines for the
safe storage of shells which are not being used.
20. While changing trucks under a dry-box, a
workman tore his hand on the sharp edge of a piece
of metal projecting from the truck body.
Investigation disclosed that many of these box
trucks had sharp, projecting edges due to prolonged
usage; no provision had been made for the systematic
return of hand trucks to the maintenance depart­
ment for repairs.
This equipment should be included in periodic in­
spections and provisions should be made for the prompt
repair of all defective equipment.
21. The operator of a set of steam drying cans
was cleaning color from the surface of the cans with
a cloth while the machine was in motion. The cloth
caught and drew his hand between the cans.
Investigation disclosed that it was a regular prac­
tice for this employee to clean the cans while the
machine was in motion because he disliked the re­
peated stopping and starting necessary to expose
new areas of the cans for cleaning.
(a) Strict enforcement of the rule “no cleaning or
adjusting of machinery in motion” is essential to
safety. Lax supervision is apparent in this case.
(b) Whenever possible, machinery of this type
should be equipped with an inching device to facilitate
cleaning.

Finishing-Department Machine Operations
22. W hile threading calender rolls, the operator
was caught between them and fatally injured.
Investigation disclosed that the rolls were un­
guarded.
An angle or bar guard extending the full length of the
nip line should be installed on all in-running rolls.
23. Two men were removing the weight from the
bowls of the calender. When they released the ratchet
crank the dog failed to hold, allowing the crank to
spin and strike the hand of one of the workers. His
wrist was fractured.
Investigation disclosed that the ratchet teeth were



31

badly worn and that there had been no recent in­
spection of the ratchet and pawl.
All lifting devices should be inspected frequently on a
regular schedule. Defective equipment should be repaired
immediately or removed from service until repairs have
been made.
24. As was customary at the start of each work­
day, a tenter-frame operator was cleaning the rolls
at the entrance end of the tenter frames. When
his helper started the machine without warning, the
operator’s hand was caught and pulled into the
machine.
Investigation disclosed that the bell used to give
the starting signal on this machine had the same
sound as the bell of an elevator nearby and that the
helper mistook the elevator bell for a signal from the
operator to start the machine.
(a) The starting signal should be distinctive so as to
avoid confusion with other signals.
(b) The starting signal should include two-way com­
munication between the employee at the controls and the
employee working on the machine. After receiving a
signal, the workman at the controls should confirm the
signal before starting the machine.
25. A sanforizer operator stopped his machine so
that a maintenance mechanic could examine the belt
drive. A short time afterwards, the operator, think­
ing that the mechanic had completed his work on the
belt, restarted the machine. The mechanic’s hand
was caught in the V -belt drive and his finger am­
putated.
Investigation disclosed that although the safety
rules required that the mechanic place a “ D o not
operate” sign on the control switch, he had failed
to do so; and, further, that this mechanic had re­
peatedly failed to observe that safety rule.
(a) A control-switch which can be locked in the open
position should be installed. Each mechanic should be
provided with his own lock and key and should be
instructed to lock the switch before starting work on
machinery.
(b) Because of the high degree of hazard in all
maintenance work, particular attention should be given
to training each mechanic in safe working procedures
and in the strict observance of all safety rules.
26. W hile threading cloth through a mercerizing
machine, the operator climbed on the caustic supply
line over the mercerizing frame. When he attempted
to step down, he slipped and fell to the floor, fractur­
ing his ankle.
Investigation disclosed that it was common prac­

32

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

tice to climb on the machine while threading, as no
ladder or steps had been provided.
Where workmen are frequently required to climb to,
or work from, an overhead position, a permanent ladder
and platform should be provided to insure safe access
and a safe working surface.

Printing
27. W hile lifting a printing roller into place on the
printing machine, a back tender strained his back.
Investigation disclosed that these rollers each
weighed several hundred pounds; that in placing
these rollers on the printing machine, employees
frequently must work from stooped or other awk­
ward positions.
(a) Adequate help, trained to work as a team, should
be provided for this operation.
(b) A study of this operation should be made with
a view of replacing manual lifting with mechanical
lifting where possible.
28. The back tender on a printing machine reached
above the track roll to straighten the selvedge of the
cloth. His hand was caught in the track roll and was
lacerated.
Investigation disclosed that the worker had been
properly instructed, but the roll was unguarded.
A horizontal safety board or guard should be placed
about 6 inches above the track roll and parallel to it.
29. As an employee was removing an empty shell
from the unwinding jack, a sliver entered his finger.
Investigation disclosed that the shell was very
rough due to prolonged use.
All shells and similar equipment should be inspected
frequently on a regular schedule. Rough or worn shells
should be repaired immediately or removed from service
until repairs have been made.
30. D octor blades for the printing machines were
stored on a rack. As an employee walked past the
rack, he bumped one of the blades and cut his hand.
The rack for doctor blades should be designed so that
the blades will not project beyond the frame.

Make-up
31. A folding-machine operator was struck on the
elbow by the side arm of the folder.
The side arms of all folding machines should be
enclosed in mesh guards.
32. When a hooker operator dropped a string in
the folded cloth to mark a defect, her finger was
caught between the blade and jaw of the hooker.



Investigation disclosed that it was common prac­
tice to place the string without stopping the machine
and that no guard had been provided.
All moving parts of machines should be guarded to
prevent accidental contact by employees.
33. When a hooker operator grabbed for the blade
to stop the machine, her hand was caught between
the blade and the jaw of the machine.
Investigation disclosed that it was general practice
to stop the hooker or folding machine in this manner
because the control button of the machine failed to
stop the blade immediately.
(a) A positive control which would activate a brake
on the machine should be installed on each hooker or
folding machine.
(b) The hooker blade should be guarded to prevent
accidental contact by employees during its operation.
34. A worker at the cloth-examining table laid his
scissors on the table. A seam in the cloth passing
over the table caught the scissors and carried them
into the winding roll. The ends of the scissors pro­
jected from the roll and as the roll turned, the
scissors lacerated the worker’s hands.
Investigation disclosed that the examining-table
operators were supposed to carry the scissors in a
scabbard but that this instruction was frequently
disregarded.
Since this work can be done from one position, the
scissors should be hung from a chain within convenient
reach or kept in a scabbard mounted on the side of
the table.
35. A shader was sorting cloth from a flat or skid.
When he placed his hand under the last piece of
cloth on the flat, a splinter punctured his hand.
Investigation disclosed that the surface of the flat
was rough; and that the skids were not inspected
for defects.
All equipment such as skids should be inspected
frequently on a regular schedule. Defective equipment
should be repaired immediately or removed from service
until repairs have been made.
36. When a beamer started a rolling machine, the
roll of cloth fell from its position in the machine and
struck the operator on the foot.
Investigation disclosed that the operator failed to
place the clamp over the center bar after setting the
roll of cloth in the machine and that the operator did
not wear steel-toed safety shoes.
(a) The clamp should be interlocked with the starting
mechanism of the machine so that the rolling machine
could not be started unless the safety pin was in place.

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

(b) Employees handling rolls of doth should wear
steel-toed safety shoes.

Trucking
37. An employee was trucking bales of cloth with
a two-wheeled hand truck. As he passed close to a
pile of bale ties, his hand struck the ties which
lacerated his knuckles.
Investigation disclosed that there had been a num­
ber of similar accidents.
(a) Truck handles should be fitted with hand guards
to prevent hands from being scraped against objects as
in this accident.
(b) Aisle lines should be plainly marked on thefloors
and careful attention should be given to placing objects
so that the aisleways are free from obstructions.
38. Two workmen were pushing a truck loaded
with cloth. A t a blind intersection the truck struck
another employee, who was walking in the cross aisle.
Investigation disclosed that truckers seldom slowed
down at this point.
(a) Mirrors should be installed at blind corners to
provide a view of approaching traffic.
(b) Vehicles should be required to come to a full
stop before entering a blind intersection.
39. A hand trucker tripped over a bolt projecting
from the floor and injured his knee.
Investigation disclosed that the maintenance crew,
working on the floor below, had run this bolt through
a beam to provide a temporary support for their
hoist. This was a common practice and had resulted
in numerous tripping accidents.
Either a new method of supporting the hoist should
be devised or a railing guard should be placed around
each such projecting bolt.
40. A bleachery employee fell and bruised his
knee while pushing a four-wheeled truck loaded with
wet yam .
Investigation disclosed that the truck was hard
to push because it had poor bearings and that the
floor in this area was continually wet.
(a) Trucks should be equipped with free-rolling
bearings and should be inspected regularly to insure
that they are in proper condition.
(b) Where floors are likely to be wet they should be
designed for good drainage and should be surfaced with
a material having good anti-slip properties even when
wet.
41. Tw o workmen were lifting a roll of cloth from
a table to a four-wheeled truck. The loose end of



33

cloth caught the table causing one worker to drop
his end of the roll and throwing the weight of the roll
on the second workman, who strained his back.
Investigation disclosed that these rolls of cloth
frequently became partly unrolled in handling and
that similar accidents had occurred repeatedly.
Suitable clips or ties should be used to secure the
cloth when the roll is formed.
42. An electric tow-m otor and trailer unit jammed
against a wall when the operator tried to make a
sharp turn on the warehouse platform. In attempt­
ing to free the equipment, the operator was crushed
between the m otor unit and the trailer.
Investigation disclosed that, because of the limited
space for maneuvering, the operator had been in­
structed not to take the truck and trailer unit onto
the platform. In attempting to free the equipment,
the operator had gone between the m otor and trailer
to release the coupling and while standing in this
position had tried to inch the m otor forward. In
reaching for the controls, which he could not see,
he contacted the “ reverse” button instead of the
“ forward” button.
(a) In this particular instance the most effective
safety measure would be to enlarge the platform as it
was entirely too small for the volume of goods passing
over it. More generally, however—
(b) Rules for the operation of power trucks should
be strictly enforced so that operators will not be in­
clined to violate instructions.
(c) Operators should be given thorough training in
the safe handling of their vehicles. This should include
specific instructions that under no conditions should
anyone stand between the truck and trailer.

Miscellaneous
43. An employee was cutting metal tie bands from
a bale of cloth. As he cut one band, it sprang back
and pierced his eye.
Investigation disclosed that the worker stood di­
rectly in line with the metal tie band as he was cut­
ting it.
This operation should be performed by standing to
the left of the cut, holding the band with the left hand and
the cutter with the right. The free end of the band will
then move away from the worker when it is cut.
44. An employee cut his finger on a loose tie band
as he was picking it from the floor.
Investigation disclosed that these tie bands had

34

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXITLE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

sharp edges and that no gloves had been provided
for workers engaged in this work.
Heavy canvas gloves or other suitable hand coverings
should be provided and their use made mandatory for
all workers engaged in handling metal straps in the
gray room.
45. A spooling department employee stepped on a
small spool, fell against the frame of a machine, and
fractured her skull.
Investigation disclosed that the spool had fallen
from a conveyor belt.
(a) Conveyors should have guard rails to keep ma­
terial from falling, or a mesh basket should be provided
under the belt to catch falling spools.
(b) Employees should be required to pick up promptly
any spools or other loose objects on the floor.
46. A machine operator stepped into an open
sewer manhole while adjusting a water valve and
injured his ankle.
Investigation disclosed that other workmen who
had been flushing the sewer had neglected to replace
the manhole cover.
All manhole covers should be hinged and, preferably,
arranged to guard the opening when not set down into
place.
47. Light rolls of cloth had been piled on a table.
T o remove a roll from the top of the pile, a workman
stepped up on a pipe. He slipped and fell, injuring
his back.
Investigation disclosed that these piles were fre­
quently high enough so that they could not be
easily reached from the floor level.
(a) Portable steps with a batter on all sides of 1
inch per foot in height should be provided for this
type of work.
(b) Specific instructions to use these steps for this
work should be issued and strictly enforced.
48. A worker stepped on a bench about one foot
high to straighten the cloth being delivered from the
aging machine. The bench tipped and the workman
fell, fracturing his ankle.
Investigation disclosed this bench to have a 2-




inch overhang at each end. It also had no side
batter and tipped easily.
All portable steps and benches should be designed
without overhang and should have not less than 1inch batter per foot of height on all sides.
49. The machine tender on an open soaper noticed
that the cloth had slipped out of a guide. As he ran to
the machine to correct the alignment of the cloth
he slipped and fell, fracturing his shoulder blade.
Investigation disclosed that the floor around this
soaper usually was wet and slippery, due to splashing.
(a) Splash guards should be installed to reduce
splashing to a minimum.
(b) The floor should be properly drained and should
have a surface which will not be slippery when wet.
50. In order to reach the top of his locker, a work­
man climbed onto the bottom shelf. His weight
pulled the unit of four lockers over on him.
Investigation disclosed (1) the worker was of un­
usually short stature and could not reach the top
of the locker from the floor; and (2) the lockers
were merely set on the floor and were not fastened
in place.
All lockers should be fastened.
51. A janitor on his regular duty had occasion to
use the elevator, but found that the entrance to the
elevator was blocked by an electric truck. He at­
tempted to back the truck from the passageway,
but when he pressed the control button, the truck
started forward, crushing his feet.
Investigation disclosed: (1) the control buttons on
the truck were not marked and that the injured
workman had pushed the wrong button; and (2) the
janitor had not been instructed in the operation of
electric trucks.
(a) The control buttons on electric trucks should be
plainly marked.
(b) Plainly marked parking areas should be pro­
vided and the operators should be required to place
their trucks in those areas when they are not in use.
(c) All workmen who have occasion to use electric
trucks should be given adequate training in their oper­
ations.

35

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

APPENDIX.-STATISTICAL TABLES
T

able

1.— Industrial Injury Rates for 489 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y
Industry and Kind of Goods Processed and by Extent of D isability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Industry and kind of
goods processed1

Dyeing and finishing textiles
except knit goods................
Piece goods.....................
Yarn and thread..............
Dyeing and finishing knit goods
(including hosiery)..............

Em­
Number Number ployeehours
of es­
of
em­
worked
tablish­
ments ployees (thou­
sands)

446
334
104
43

64,276 139,460
55,530 121,156
8,529 17,707
2,062

4,332

Resulting in

Death
or per­
Total manenttotal dis­
ability 1*
2

2,876
2,584
282

able

Average number of days lost
or charged per injury

All
All
Perma­ Tempo­
Death Perma­ Tempo­
dis­
raryand per­ nentnentrarydis­
abling manent- partial
abling
total
partial
total
dis­
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries
ability ability
ability ability ability

2,739
2,453
277

2 0 .6

3
1

(4) 12
(2)9
(2 ) 2

48

11.3

125
122

49

21.3
15.9

0.9

19.6

1 .0
.2

2 0 .2

15.6

107
109
64

.2

0 .1
.1
.1

11.1

30

Perma­ Tempo­
rarynenttotal
partial
dis­
dis­
ability ability

Severity
rate4

1,361
1,387
(5
)

23
24
19

2.3

(‘)

25

.3

2 .2
1 .0

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
* Averages not computed because of small number of cases included.

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
8 The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.

T

Severity
Frequency rate— 8

2.— Industrial Injury Rates for 446 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Kind o f
Textiles Processed and by Extent o f D isability, 1945
Severity

Number of disabling injuries

Kind of textiles
processed1

Em­
Number Number ployeehours
of
of es­
em­
worked
tablish­
ments ployees (thou­
sands)

Frequency rate— 8

Resulting in—

Average number of days lost
or charged per injury

All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
raryor per­
rarydis­
and per­ nentdis­
nentabling
Total manent- partial
abling manent- partial
total
total
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries
total dis­ dis­
ability 2 ability ability
ability ability ability

Perma­ Tempo­
rarynentpartial
total
dis­
dis­
ability ability

Total.....................................

446

64,276 139,460

2,876

(4)12

125

2,739

2 0 .6

0A

0.9

19.6

107

1,361

23

Cotton...................................
Rayon and synthetics.............
Woolen and worsted goods----Silk .....................................

211

44,938
12,736
2,535
800

1,755
826
136
43

(2)7
(1)3

66

45

.1
.1
.2

17.3
27.7
23.2
29.4

100
112

6

18.1
29.4
24.5
29.4

.7

1

1,682
778
129
43

1,408
1,246
(*)

24
23
24

130
39
3

96,963
28.060
5,543
1,460

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability

cases included.
8 The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
m illion employee-hours worked.




1 .6
1 .1

155
12

12

Severity
rate4

2 .2
1 .8

3.3
3.8
.4

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
8 Averages not computed because of small number of cases included.

36

T

able

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

3.— Industrial Injury Rates for 446 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Type of
Processing and Kind o f Textiles Processed and b y Extent o f D isability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Type of processing and
kind of textile processed1

Em­
Number Number ployeeof es­
of
hours
tablish­
em­
worked
ments ployees (thou­
sands)

Total...........................

446

Bleaching, dyeing, and finishing
Cotton............................
Bayon and synthetics___
Woolen and worsted goods
Bleach^, dyeing, machine
printing and finishing.........
Cotton............................
Rayon and synthetics___
Bleaching only:
Cotton..........................
Screen printing.....................
Cotton............................
Flock and lacquer printing......
Coating, waterproofing, fire­
proofing, etc.......................
Cotton........................... 1

294~ ^9,224
129 27,290
97
8,244
31
2,276

64,276 139,460

Resulting in—
*

able

Average number of days lost
or charged per injury

Death Perma­ Tempo­
All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
All
or per­
nentrarydis­
and per­ nentrarydis­
Total manent- partial
total
abling manent- partial
total
abling
total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries
ability 3 ability ability
ability ability ability
2,876

(4)12

85,150
59,639
17,667
4,830

1,674
1,028
489

(3)10
(1)5
(1)3

125

2,739

56~
28
19

2 0 .6

io T
17.2
27.7
24.8

120

1

6

1.608
995
467
113

53
28
19

17,243
12,155
3,999

37,457
25,920
9,288

925
546
318

( 1 )1
( 1 )1

59
34
25

865
511
293

24.7

3
34
18

2,929
3,832
3,029
1,647

36
70
63
32

1

35
69
62
30

12.3
18.3

11

1,689
1,743
1,372
726

34
23

2,998
1,936

6,961
4,303

116
57

1
1
2

7

109
56

1

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
* Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
* The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
m illion employee-hours worked.

T

Severity
Frequency rate—*

2 1 .1

34.2

2 0 .8

19.4

0 .1

—
-

Perma­ Tempo­
nentrarypartial
total
dis­
dis­
ability ability

Severity
rate4

.9

19.6

107

1,361

23

2 .2

.5

18.9
16.6
26.4
23.4

ioiT
97

22 ~
21
22

2 .8

—
-

25

4.3

23.1
19.8
31.5

109
105
134

1,207
1,057
1,410

27
30
26

2.7

.3

1 2 .0

18.0
20.5
18.2

33

(*)

237

25
15
15

1 .2

(•)
(•)

174

1.3
2.7

.1
.2
.2

1,548
1,748
(*)
(#
)

(«)

20

15 7

66

(')
(6
)

24
29

1 .1
1 .2
1 .6

.3

.3

16.7
13.2

1 0
.2

13 !o

100

100
110

41

2A
1.7

2 .2

4.6
.4
1 .8

2.3
4.6
1 .1

.5

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
* Averages not computed because of small number of cases included.
* Less than 0.05.

4.— Industrial Injury Rates for 446 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Size of
Establishment and b y Extent o f D isability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Sise of establishment

Em­
Number Number ployeeof es­
of
hours
tablish­
em­
worked
ments ployees (thou­
sands)

Total.....................................

446

64,276 139,460

Less than 25 employees..........
25 to 49 employees.................
50 to 99 employees.................
100 to 249 employees..............
250 to 499 employees..............
500 to 749 employees..............
750 to 999 employees..............
1,000 employees and over.......

125”
83
69
98
39

1,451
3,015
4,904
15,237
14,185
13,349
5,945
6,190

21

7
4

3,057
6,778
11,217
32,994
30,676
28,236
12,511
13,991

Resulting in—

Average number of days lost
or charged per injury

Death Perma­ Tempo­
All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
All
or per­
nentraryand per­ nentdis­
rarydis­
abling manent- partial
Total manent- partial
total
total
abling
total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries
ability * ability ability
ability ability ability

Perma­ Tempo­
nentrarypartial
total
dis­
dis­
ability ability

Severity
rate*

2,876

(4)12

125

2,739

2 0 .6

0.1

0.9

19.6

107

1,361

23

2 .2

40
109
276
854
670
542
248
137

1

4

35

13.1
16.1
24.6
25.9

.3
.3
(•)

232
158
87
108
64
116

V)
(4
)
(4
)
1,306
(4
)
1,400
1 714
(4
)

3.0
2.5

2 1 .8

11.5
14.9
23.5
24.7
21.3
18.2
17 5
9.7

21

.1
.2

1.3
.9
1.0

(2 ) 2
1
(1)5
1
(1 ) 2

1 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
#
* The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.




Severity
Frequency rate— 3

6
11

33
16
25
29
1

101

264
816
653
515
219
136

19.2
19.8
9.8

.1

1 .0

.5
.9
23
.1

221

24

18
19
24
21

31
49
A
O
22

2 .1
2 .8

1.4
2 .2
A..4
4 A.

.2

* The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
4 Averages not computed because of small number of cases included
4 Less than 0.05.

37

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

T

able

5.— Industrial Injury Rates for 446 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y
Geographic Area and State, and by Extent of Disability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Geographic area and State1

Em­
Number Number ployeehours
of es­
of
em­
worked
tablish­
ments ployees (thou­
sands)

Severity
Frequency rate of— 1

Resulting in—

Average number of
days lost or
charged per injury

All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
Death Perma­ Tempo­
rarydis­
and per­ nentraryor per­ nentAll
Tempo­
total
abling manent- partial
dis­
raryTotal manent- partial
total
dis­
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
abling
total
total dis­ dis­
dis­
ability * ability ability
ability ability ability injuries
ability

Severity
rate4

Total...........................

446

64,276 139,460

2,876

(4)12

125

2,739

2 0 .6

0 .1

0.9

19.6

107

23

2 .2

New England area.......
Connecticut...........
Massachusetts.......
Rhode Island.........

106

19,025
3,711
6,846
8,468

41,304
8,441
14,408
18,455

1,001

(1)3
( 1 )1

13

.1
.1
.1

23.8
17.9
24.5
26.1

67
113
67
53

29
24
23
35

1 .6
2 .1

3
4

24.2
18.7
24.8
26.3

.3
.7

2

985
151
353
481

Middle Atlantic area___
New Jersey............
New York.............
Pennsylvania........

256

22,691
11,978
5,026
5,687

50,107
27,026
10,735
12,346

1,167
743
192
232

(3)8

74
65
7

1,085
677
180
228

23.3
27.5
17.9
18.8

.2

1.5
2.4
.7

2 1 .6

148
153
228

22

81
65

3.5
4.2
4.1
1.3

East North Central area.
Ohio.....................

16

1,666

38
32

1 0 .6

1,264

39
32

1

6

3,666
2,733

South Atlantic area......
Georgia.................
North Carolina . . . .
South Carolina___
Virginia.................

51
5
28

40,512
3,567
12,945
17,456
1,957

599
37
237
196
35

31
18
4

568
37
229
178
31

14.8
10.4
18.3

4

19,215
1,825
6,526
8,096
870

East South Central area.
Tennessee.............

5
3

1,236
1,130

2,931
2,674

46
40

3
3

42
36

22

42
42
110

10

158
358
485

1

(1)5
(2 ) 2

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
* Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
* The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.




6

2

8

1
1

.2
.2

68

10.3
11.7

48
33

29
33

.5
.4

.8

.2

24
24
14

.3

C
D
.5

14.0
10.4
17.7

83
14
82

17
14
16

1 .2
.1

1 0 .2

112

20

15.9

180

24

1.5
1.3
3.2

14.4
13.5

263
301

25
28

4.1
4.5

.2

11.7

.6
1 .0
2 .0

1 1 .2

17.9
15.7
15.0

1.7
1.4

.3
.4

1 .0
1 .1

25.1
16.7
18.4

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
5 Less than 0.05.

38

T

able

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

6.— Industrial Injury Rates for 122 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Kind of
Safety Organization and by Extent o f Disability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Safety organizations1

Resulting in—

I
I
£

J

Establishments without full­
time safety engineers.........
But with safety committees.
Composed of supervisory
workers......................
Composed of non super­
visory workers............
Composed of both nonsupervisory and super­
visory workers............
And without safety com­
mittees..........................

I

I

122 40,164 87,838

1,962

11,134 24,730
8,568 19,258

1)6

405
336

Establishments employing full­
time safety engineers.........
And with safety committees.
Composed of supervisory
workers......................
Composed of non-supervisory workers............
Composed of both super­
visory and non super­
visory workers............

5,920

II

S"°

1,859

0.1

114

1,459

16.4
17.4

1.5
1.8

14.9
15.6

149
170

1,383
1,439

2.4
3.0

16.8

2.3

14.5

226

1,494

3.8

14.0

1,783

21.1

11

1.5

12.5

134

(6
)

1.9

74

67

41.5

24
104

41.5

102 29,030 63,108
47 17,553 38,363

1,557
921

(1)3

59
21

1,492
897

1,399
852

93
45

24.7
24.0

.1
.1

.9
.5

23.7
23.4

9,794 21,459

524

(1)2

13

509

485

24

24.4

.1

.6

23.7

2,566

152

1

150

141

9

25.7

.2

.2

25.3

84

21.9 ..........

.9

21.0

1.6

22.7

10

5,909

3,218

7,021

10,191

21,676

1
£

1.1

112

367
301

( 1)6

1

154 ..........
528

3

148
35

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
3 The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.




*8

ii

if

2,640

713

H

13,312

1,227

(

Average number of days
lost or charged per
injury

Temporary-total
disability

g►
>
is
4S

Total..................................

Severity
Frequency rate of— 1*
3
2

141

7

490

449

41

24.4

.1

25

2.5

1.0
1,508
(6
)

25
28

2.6
2.1

(5
)

28

2.1

(*)

19

2.2

127

(5)

29

2.8

134

1,194

22

3.3

4
The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
* Averages not computed because of small number of cases included.

39

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

T able 7.— Industrial Injury Rates for 122 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by
Kind of First-Aid Facilities and by Extent of Disability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Severity
Frequency rate of—*

Resulting in—

3
i

Temporary-total
disability

First-aid facilities1

1

Average number of days
lost or charged per
injury

3

ft

1

Jj

1,859

1,747

1

E
-*

Total.............................
Establishments employing full­
time safety engineers.........
And with first-aid rooms...
With doctors or registerednurses as attendants...
With employees trained
in first-aid as attendants
And with only first-aid kits
available........................
With employees trained
in first-aid as attendants.
Establishments without full­
time safety engineers.........
But with first-aid rooms_
_
Withdoctorsorregisterednurses as attendants...
With employees trained
in first-aid as attendants
With untrained em­
ployees as attendants..
And without first-aid rooms.
But with first-aid kits_
_
And without first-aid kits.

122 40,164 87,838

1,962

20 11,134 24,730
17 9,906 22,058

405
350

312

348
301

12

8,522 19,252

( 1)6

97

S3

112

1.1

21.1

114

1,459

16.4
15.9

1.5
1.7

14.9
14.2

149
169

1.383
1.383

2.4
2.7

14.0

1.9

12.1

206

1,401

2.9

.7

28.2

48

(*)

1.4

22.3

0.1

I1
25

2.5

269

233

229

5

1,384

2,806

81

79

72

3

1,228

2,672

55

55

47

20.6

20.6

22

2

1,053

2,246

41

41

41

18.3

18.3

24

102
63,108
61 21,922 47,452

1,557
1,120

(
(1)5

1,492
1,080

1,399
1,034

24.7
23.6

23.7

22.8

104
105

1,508
1,700

2.6

26 13,016 28,289

617

(1)3

594

571

21.8

21.0

109

2.4

27

6,624 14,089

377

2

(*)

345

26.8

25.8

120

(6
)

3.2

8
40
31

2,282 5,074
6,926 15,219
5,044 10,974
1,160 2,616

118
363
280
50

24.8
28.4
30.9
21.4

24.2
26.9
29.0
21.0

42
92
98
91

(*)
(')
8

2.6

1)6

432
339
56

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
3 The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.




*8

il

123
410
318
55

1.4
1.8
.4

.5
24

.4

2.5

1.0

3.0
2.0

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
5 Averages not computed because of small number of cases included.

40

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

T able 8.— Industrial Injury Rates for 446 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y

Department and b y Extent o f Disability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Department1

Em­
Number Number ployeeof
of
hours
units
em­
worked
report­ ployees (thou­
ing
sands)

Severity
Frequency rate of-—
*

Resulting in

Average number of
days lost or
charged per injury

All
Death Perma­ Tempo­
Death Perma­ Tempo­
or per­ nentdis­
and per­ nentraryraryabling manent- partial
Total manent- partial
total
total
total dis­ dis­
dis­
injuries total dis­ dis­
dis­
ability 2 ability ability
ability ability ability

Total.............................................

446*

64,276 139,460

2,876

(4)12

125

2,739

2 0 .6

Piece goods. ...................................
Receiving or gray room............
Boil-off or bleaching department
Drying department...................
Dye room................................
Dye color shop.........................
Mechanical print shop..............
Screen print shop.....................
Print color shop.......................
Aging department....................
Finishing department...............
Make-up department................

1,400
162
142
130
209
73
62
30
67
44
305
174

34,801
1,883
3,150
2,118
6,028
519
2,908
867
641
748
10,542
5,248

76,293
4,156
6,961
4,726
13,495
1,146
6,208
1,927
1,372
1,607
23,388
10,975

1,801

(2)5

90
4

1,706
106
163

23.6
26.5
24.9

102

2 2 .0

Yarn and thread.............................
Dye room................................
Finishing department...............
Winding department.................
Packing department.................

326
87
58
61
42

6,241
1,463
1,740
2,285
386

12,919
3,120
3,300
4,932
819

Service and maintenance.................
Administrative and clerical.......
Laboratory..............................
Maintenance and repair............
Power.....................................
Shipping..................................
Watchmen...............................

1,492
312
98
264
167
241
183

13,996
4,832
364
3,813
1,041
2,274
620

30,804
10,091
792
8,733
2,520
4,996
1,468

110

173
104
460
23
177
36
40
40
500
137

10
2

(1 ) 2

19

i

able

192
80
40
43
9
546
25
4
289
43

(1 )1
( 1 )1

3

571
26
4
301
48
117
37

(1)5

1
2

20
1

2
2
( 1 )1

10

3
4

2 1 .6

88

32.6
19.2
25.9
18.2
28.4
24.9
19.9

107
44
145
179
40
44
140

FS
.9
2.4
1.9
3.7
.9
4.1
3.3

1 2 .1

86

14.9
25.7

53
94
27
25
15

19
18
27
15

.2
.2

17.7
2.5
5.0
33.2
17.0
22.4
23.8

128
26
98
92
372
148
224

22

2.4

2 .6

.5
.7
.1

1.4
.4

.1

.2

.3

.3

12.1

12.1

.4

9.1
1 1 .0
.2

.6
.1

2 .6

5.0
34.5
19.0
23.4
25.2

112

35

2

2 .2

25~

1 1 .0

18.5

196
82
40
45
9

23

io T
34
96

1.4
.4
1.4
.9

.1

15.2
26.3

33
4

107

22.3
25.5
23.5

1 .0

2 0 .1

(1 ) 2

19.6

lT

—

28.5
18.7
29.1
24.9
21.4
12.5

1

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
* Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.
* The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
m illion employee-hours worked.

T

22

161
35
39
40
465
133

Severity
rate4

0.9

0 .1

34.1

439

1

16

All
Tempo­
rarydis­
abling
total
dis­
injuries
ability

.2
.8
.2

1 .1
1 .2
.8

1.4

8.7

20
21

31
22

23
26
13
26
44
27
28

1 .2
1 .1

3.0
1 .1
.8

2.5
.3

12

15
98

.1

.5
3.2
7.1
3.5
5.7

20

19
22

37

4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
6 Number of establishments reporting.

9.— Distribution o f Industrial Injury-Frequency Rates o f 446 Textile D yeing and Finishing Establish­
ments, Classified b y Size of Establishment, 1945

Size of establishment

Total
number
of estab­
lishments

Number of establishments with frequency rates of—
*

1 to 9

0

Total...........................................

446

161

Less than 25 employees.................
25 to 49 employees........................
50 to 99 employees........................
100 to 249 employees....................
250 to 499 employees....................
500 to 749 employees....................
750 to 999 employees....................
1,000 employees and over..............

125~
83
69
98
|9
3

20 to 29

30 to 39

40 to 49

50 to 59

73

66

48

28

17

lo o "




£7

21

7
4

41
13
6
1

35

10 to 19

1

9
13

=

=

20
11

17

8

11

3

7
4
3

1

(T
6

4~
4

15
23
7

6
22

8
1

1
2

9

—
6
6

9
2
2

3~
3
5
5
1

60 to 69
2
2

and
over

100

70 to 79

80 to 89

90 to 99

4

2

3

7

2
1

5
1

,- == = = = =
2
2

1
1

1

41

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

T ab le 10.— Disabling Injuries in 174 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Nature of

Injury and b y Extent o f Disability, 1945
Number of disabling injuries

Nature of injury

2,419

Amputations..........................
Bruises, contusions................. .
Bums, scalds..........................
Cuts, lacerations, punctures___
Foreign bodies in eyes............
Fractures............................... .
Hernias...................................
Industrial diseases...................
Strains, sprains (except hernias)
Other......................................
Unclassified; insufficient data...

10 0 .0

20

Total.....................................

able

Permanentpartial
disability

634
213
292
20
211
121
100

770
21

26.4
8.9
1 2 .2
.8
8 .8

5.0
4.2
32.0
.9

Temporarytotal
disability

Disabling
injury

94

615
209
277

850
59
87
94

20

10

20

(1)7

2,324

19
3
15

.8

189

294
50
83
49
594
28

88
20

1

2

121

( 1 )1

1
2

11

17

1Percentage of cases for which nature of injury is known.

T

Death or
permanenttotal
disability 2

Percent2

Number

Average number of days lost
or charged for each

Resulting in—

Total

99
758
19
17

Temporarytotal
disability
25
19
24
22
10

53
50
24
22

24
28

* Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.

11.— Disabling Injuries in 174 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Part of
B ody Injured and b y Extent o f Disability, 1945
Numl>er of disabling injuries

Part of body injured
Number

Death or
permanenttotal
disability 2

Percent1

Permanentpartial
disability

Total.................................................................................

2,419

100 .0

Head..................................................................................
Eye (s)................................ .......................................
Brain or skull...............................................................

177
92
33
52

7.4
3.8
1.4

Trunk................................................................................
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc..................................................
Back............................................................................

859
95
425
189
36
81
33

35.6
4.0
17.5
7.8
1.5
3.4
1.4

635
168
218
249

26.4
7.0
9.1
10.3
27.1
10 .1

6
2

Toe (s)........................................................................

651
244
274
133

General t , ........ TT.............................................................................

83

3.5

Unclassified; insufficient data, >>....................................

14

Other..........................................................................................

Abdomen...................................................................................

Hip (s) or pelvis.......................................................
Other..........................................................................................
Upper extremities............................................................................
Arm ( s ) ......................................................................................

Hand (s) (including wrist).............................................
Finger (s) and/or thumb (a )..................................................
Lower extremities, t ........................................................................
Leg (g).......................................................................................
Foot or feet (including ankle)................................................

1Percentage of cases for which nature of injury is known.




Average number of days lost
or charged for each

Resulting in—

Total

Temporarytotal
disability

Disabling
injury

Temporarytotal
disability

88

2,324

94

25

4

(1)7

173
90
33
50

43
48
27
44

17
9
27
25

843
91
419
189
32
79
33

68

155
31
42
329
125
18

28
19
24
42
26
27
18
25
30
25

2
2

2 .2

(1)3
(1 ) 2
1

13
2
6

3
2

58
9

210

41

208

145
237
126
99

13

638
238
272
128

67
128
30
33

79

320

32

14

11.5
5.5

577
159

8

31

31

5
4

21

24
30
20

23

2 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.

42
T

able

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

12.— Disabling Injuries in 174 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Part of
B ody Injured and b y Nature of Injury, 1945

Part of body injured

Total....................

Total
number
of disabling
injuries

2,419

Nature of injury

Amputations

Bruises;
contusions

Burns;
scalds

Cuts;
lacera­
Foreign
tions;
bodies
punctures in eyes

Hernias

Frac­
tures

634

213

292

20

177
92
33
52

39
9
17
13

63
51
3
9

32
4

20
20

17

107
34
31

12
1

8
2
2
1
1

635
168
218
249

Lower extremities.....................
Foot or feet (including ankle)
Toe (s)...............................

651
244
274
133

General.....................................

83

Unclassified; insufficient data

770

21

17

9
3

3

5
4

1
1

39
30

Upper extremities.....................
Arm (b) .............................
Hand (s) (including wrist)..
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s)

100

3

859
95
425
189
36
82
32

121

5

Trunk..............................
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc.
Back..........................
Abdomen...................
Hip (s) or pelvis.........
Shoulder................... .
Other....................... .

Strains;
sprains
(except
hernias)

211

Head....................
Eye (s).........
Brain or skull..
Other.............

Indus­
trial
diseases

14

T able

20

4
3

10

11

7
15

1

17

166
44
51
71

54
24
23
7

191
23
58

2
1

306
118
78

55
25
26
4

16

29

18

3

1

9
9

552
15
384
52

7
4

4

1
1

1
1
2

121

2

4

22

61
18

2
1

1

110
1

83
36
16
31

46
16
29
1

12

58
28

83

6

30
41

3
3

1
1

22
8

139
56
83

3

1

29

1

3

1

1

Unclassi­
fied;
insuffi­
cient data

6
121

2

3

10

2

Other

3

110

12

72
22

38

5
2

3
1

............ 1
l
10

13.— Disabling and M edical Cases in 174 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by
Department and by Nature o f Injury, 1945

Department1

Total
number
of dis­
abling and Amputa­
medical
tions
injuries1
2

Total.............................................

7,607

Piece goods.....................................
Receiving or gray room ...........
Boil-off or bleaching department
Drying department...................
Dye room................................
Dye color shop.........................
Mechanical pnnt shop..............
Screen print shop.....................
Print color shop.......................
Aging department....................
Finishing department...............
Calendering.......................
Tentering..........................
Make-up department................

5,107
335
532
269
1,137
158
565
79
36
Q.
4
1,288
186
324
604

Yam and thread.....................
Dye room........................
Finishing department.......
Winding..........................
Packing...........................
Service and maintenance.........
Administrative and clerical.
Laboratory...................... .
Maintenance and repair...
Power............................. .
Shipping...........................
Watchmen........................
Yard................................
Warehouse........................

Nature of injury

Bruises;
contu­
sions

Burns;
scalds

Frac­
tures

Hernias

2,128

723

1,543

302

296

1,426
100
180
64
279
28
138
23

20

531

937

125

84
45
151
19
120
25
4

14

192
9

8

29
385
62
97
192

479
148
60
182
40

2
1
1

143
38
19
59

10

1,791
48
30
935
204
266
35
93
143

4

488

3

1

20

6

228
53
84
14
32
41

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data
2 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death,




Cuts;
lacera­
Foreign
tions;
bodies
punctures in eyes

11

72
17
242
24
28
3
7
17
98
10

1
1
1
0

56
38

8
6

8
8

11

88

5
51

66

16
24
13

1
1

20

8

130

159

2

2
2

4
3

31

11

261
35

407

1
1

57
35
4
3
3

6

125
74
30

1,973

16
113
26
56
7

3
256
31
56
5
15
30

6
1

7
3

1

1

2

95
32
3 .............

43

108
26

46

6
1

22

4
7

8

4

1
7
2

2

8

3

14
5

6

2

6 .........
7

Unclassi­
fied;
insuffi­
cient data

1,424
105
127
263
46
170
16
9
23
369
51
105

1

2
8

Other

412

22

5
16

10
1

3

Strains;
sprains
(except
hernias)

331
7

22

142
29
17
70
17

10

122

Indus­
trial
diseases

5

1
6

20
4
5

1
2

3

3
3

2

171
44
85
7
29
46

"i

1
1

11

413
17

2
1
*3

20

5

3
13
3

2

1

1
1

i

permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a
physician or surgeon.

43

THE INDUSTRY RECORD

T able 14.—A ll Industrial Injuries in 32 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Nature

o f Injury, 1945
Number of injuries
Nature of injury

Number of
disabling
injuries

Total

13,766

612

Amputations.......................................................................
Bruises, contusions............................................................

5

5
184
47
62
3
53
42
26
186
3

3,635
1,524
6,308
484
80
42
258
1,270
46
114

1

1A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death,
permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a
physician or surgeon. A first-aid case is an industrial injury which does not

T

able

Medical
cases

Total

Total......................................................................

Burns, scalds...........................................................
Cuts, lacerations, punctures.....................................
Foreign bodies in eyes..............................................
Fractures................................................................
Hernias...................................................................
Industrial diseases...................................................
Strains, sprains (except hernias)...............................
Other............................ .........................................
Unclassified; insufficient data...................................

Number of nondisabling injuries
per disabling injury

Number of nondisabling injuries1
First-aid
cases

Medical
cases

Total

First-aid
cases

13,154

1,584

11,570

21.5

2 .6

18.9

3,451
1,477
6,246
481
27

465
148
376
105
25

2,986
1,329
5,870
376

18.8
31.4
100.7
160.3
.5

2.5
3.1

16.3
28.3
94.6
125.3
(2
)

232
1,084
43
113

70
380
14

162
704
29

1

112

2

8.9
5.8
14.3
113.0

6 .1

35.0
.5
2.7

6 .2

4.7

3.8
9.6

1 .0

1 1 2 .0

2 .0

result in death, permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires
treatment by a first-aid attendant other than a physician or surgeon.
2 Less than 0.05.

15.—A ll Industrial Injuries in 32 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classfied b y Part of
B ody Injured, 1945
Number of injuries
Part of body injured

Number of
disabling
injuries

Total

Number of nondisabling injuries
per disabling injury

Number of nondisabling injuries1
Medical
cases

Total

First-aid
cases

Medical
cases

Total

First-aid
cases

13,766

612

13,154

1,584

11,570

21.5

2 .6

18.9

Head....................
Eye (s)..........
Brain or skull.,
Other............

1,327
795
235
297

33
15
7

1,294
780
228
286

278
187
32
59

1,016
593
196
227

39.2
52.0
32.6
26.0

8.4
12.5
4.6
5.4

30.8
39.5
28.0

Trunk.....................................
Back.................................
Abdomen..........................
Hip (s) or pelvis................
Shoulder...........................
Other................................

1.126
192
491
152
60
146
85

230
30
99
57
13

327
75
138
42
17
36
19

569
87
254
53
30
57

3.9
5.4
4.0
1.7
3.6
5.6
8.4

1.4
2.5
1.4
.7
1.3

9

896
162
392
95
47
124
76

Upper extremities....................
Arm (s)....................... .
Hand (s) (including wrist)..
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s)

9,127
1,142
2,158
5,827

149
46
49
54

8,978
1,096
2,109
5,773

641
126
192
323

8,337
970
1,917
5,450

60.3
23.8
43.0
106.9

4.3
2.7
3.9

Lower extremities....................

1,979
976
587
416

179
60
78
41

1,800
916
509
375

301

1,499
796
412
291

10.1

1.7

15.3
6.5
9.1

2 .0
1 .2
2 .0

General.....................................

87

20

67

33

34

3.4

1.7

1.7

Unclassified; insufficient data___

120

1

119

4

115

119.0

4.0

115.0

Total...................

Chest (lungs), ribs, etc.........

Foot or feet (including ankle)
Toe (s)...............................

11

22

1A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death,
permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a
physician or surgeon. A first-aid case is an industrial injury which does not




120

97
84

88

1 .6
2 .1

6 .0

2 0 .6

2.5
2.9
2 .6
1 .0

2.3
4.0
6.3
56.0
2 1 .1

39.1
100.9
8.4
13.3
5.3
7.1

result in death, permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires
treatment by a first-aid attendant other than a physician or surgeon,

44

T able

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY

16.— Re-treatments o f First-Aid Cases in 6 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by
Nature o f Injury, 1945
Number of first-aid cases1
Nature of injury

Total
Number

Requiring re-treatments
Percent

Number

Percent

Not requiring re-treatments
Number

Total
number of
treatments

Average
number of
treatments
per injury

Percent

Total......................................................................

4,615

100.0

750

16.3

3,865

83.7

6.452

1.4

Bruises, contusions..................................................
Burns, scalds...........................................................
Cuts, lacerations, punctures.....................................
Foreign bodies in eyes..............................................
Industrial diseases....................................................
Strains, sprains........................................................
Other......................................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data...................................

1,381
437
2,261
205

100 .0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 .0

237
127
298

17.2
29.1
13.2
4.9
18.0
26.1
(*)
(*)

1,144
310
1,963
195
82
153

82.8
70.9

1,981
790
2,950
218
139
337
17

1.4

100

207
11

13

(2
)
(’)

1A first-aid case is an industrial injury which does not result in death,
jrmanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a
•st-aid attendant other than a physician or surgeon.

T able

10

18
54
3
3
8 Not

8
10

8 6 .8

95.1
82.0
73.9
(2
)
(2
)

20

1 .8

1.3
1 .1

1.4
1 .6

(8
)
(2
)

computed because of small number of cases included,

17.— Re-treatments of First-Aid Cases in 6 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by
Part of B ody Injured, 1945
Number of first-aid cases1
Part of body injured
Number

Total

Requiring re-treatments

Total
Percent

Number

Percent

Not requiring re-treatments
Number

Percent

Total
number of
treatments

Average
number of
treatments
per injury

4,615

100.0

750

16.3

3,865

83.7

6,452

1.4

Head
Eye (s).........
Brain or skull.
Other............

381
256
74
51

100 .0
100 .0
100 .0
100 .0

46
17
19

12.1
6 .6

335
239
55
41

87.9
93.4
74.3
80.4

447
281
103
63

1.4

Trunk..............................
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc.
Back..........................
Abdomen...................
Hip (s) or pelvis.........
Shoulder....................
Other........................

142

100 .0

40

28.2
(2
)
31.6
(2
)
(2
)
37.0
(2
)

102
10

241
18
92
14

29
9

71.8
(2
)
68.4
(2
)
(2
)
63.0
(2
)

3,110
281
655
2,174

85.4
75.9
84.3
87.1

4,935
610
1,056
3,269

1.4

284
164
79
41

68.9
74.5
67.5
54.7

785
394
218
173

1.9

12

(2
)

10

2

57

100.0

18

11
6

(2
)
(2
)

2

46
10

100.0

(2
)

17
1

25.7
19.6

39
9
6

6
100
11

1 .2
1 .1

1 .2

1.7
(2
)
1 .6

(2
)
(2
)

2 .2

(2
)

Upper extremities.....................
Arm (s).............................
Hand (s) (including wrist)..
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s)

3,642
370
777
2,495

100.0
100 .0
100 .0
100 .0

532
89
321

14.6
24.1
15.7
12.9

Lower extremities.....................

412

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

128
56
38
34

31.1
25.5
32.5
45.3
(2
)

12

(2
)

12

(2
)

4

15.4

22

84.6

32

1 .2

220

Foot or feet (including ankle)
Toe (s)...............................

117
75

General.....................................

12

(2
)

Unclassified; insufficient data.

26

100.0

122

1A first-aid case is an industrial injury which does not result in death,
permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a
first-aid attendant other than a physician or surgeon.




2 Not

computed because of small number of cases included.

1 .6

1.4
1.3
1 .8

1.9
2.3

Total...................................................

7,607

1,008

Piece goods........................, ................
Receiving or gray room......... .....
Boil-off or bleaching department—
Drying department........................
Dye room..................................
Dye color shoj)..............................
Mechanical print shop...................
Screen print shop...........................
Print color shop.............................
Aging department..........................
Finishing department....................
Calendering............................
Tentering...............................
Make-up department.....................

5,107
335
532
269
1,137
158
565
79
36
94
1,288
186
324
604

Yarn and thread..................................
Dye room......................................
Finishing department....................
Winding department......................
Packing department......................

479
148
60
182
40

Service and maintenance......................
Administrative and clerical............
Laboratory....................................
Maintenance and repair.................
Power...........................................
Shipping.......................................
Watchmen........... .........................
Yard.............................................
Warehouse....................................

1,791
48
30
935
204
266
35
93
143

1 Totals

305

911

333

88

210

85

2,820

628

852

1,340

1,632

660

604

368

176

39

1,379
103
134
71
286
46
155
16
9
28
342
51
85
185

207
19
25
13
48

679
49
41
31
143
28
98
4
4
16
174
25
40
89

234
18
27
13
43
9
17
4

59

151

49

1,896
126
179
89
402
50
244
27

443
30
44

581
39
53
37

872
57
82
32
168
15
115

1,101

457
34
48
33
94

383
26
47
19
89
14
36

261
16
26

118

20

22

4
49
3

3
4

11

6

2

4

7
119
18
35
52

93
7
23
37

1
8
86

5
24
3

2

95
30

21

7

35
9

18

5

8

2

12

2
8
2

6
8
6

3
4

70

182

71

22

47

1
2

6
2

1

3

2

35

73
26
38

29
7
16
3
3
9

12

124
16
26
3
8
11

14
125
13
25
50

24

62
5
8

6
20
8

14
1
8

20
10

32
7
11

4
1

2
2

24
3
7

39
5

8

18

9
4

16

10

52

27

22

10

5
17

3
7

2

1

335
4
7

235

38

2

1

1

22

4
30
9

210

49
27
5
7
18

3
158
36
13
1

1

4

3

62

30
8

11

416
14
4
174
57
75

2

4
3
4

5
11

8
1
6
1

11
22

4

48

6
21

4
2

4
42
9
10

23

11

7
3
3
7

2
10
21

11

5
5

27

9

8

1

28

14

14

9

1

2
1
2

1
6
1

10
2

2

3

1

66
10
21

14

30

11

10
20

20

113
12

62
2
1

3

2

12
2
2
1
2

38
5
9
25
8
2

4

16
9
6
2
2
8

497
79
136
251

3
105
15
28
51

235
61
28
108
20

1

48
16
7
15
3

24

597

120

1

8
10

3
1

347
57

65

2
8
1
2

7
8
2
1

4

9
2
6

4
1

86

9
27
46

11

18
2

7
11

76
121

120

74
227
31
104
25
7
27
298
40
75
109

62
15
7
31
5

125
30
14
62

84
26
14
25

12

10

183

294
4
3
190

395
18
7
184
36
70
7
32
31

121

23
67
5
7
11

138
20

37
80

1

6

92
25
30
4
10
12

20
2
6

254
44
71

21

38
3
10

23

10

41
15

28
8

3
9
5

148
9
4
60
10

30
3
15
12

6

12

General

3
Toe (s)

Total

Other

6

Leg (s)

1,932

154
9

Total

Finger (s) and/
or thumb (s)

240

90

Arm (s)

142

Shoulder

626
349
14
46

Total

Hand (s) (in­
cluding wrist)

10

Abdomen

30
170
24
45
7

Back

86

Other

Hip(s) or pelvis

1

Lower extremities

Upper extremities

Brain or skull

593~
29

include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.




Chest (lungs),
ribs, etc.

Trunk

Foot or feet (in­
cluding ankle)

Head

1

Eye (s)

Department1

Part of body injured

44
7
27
4

15
17
20

37
14
7

19
4
4

10
2

3

164
7
2

81
17
23
3
13
15

6

83
2
1

!

1
12

4

2

1

1

5

4

9

4
3

6
1
1

43
4

i
5

2

43
9
17

18
5

2

6
2

2

4
4

5

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Total

18.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 174 Textile and Dyeing Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Department and by Part of
B ody Injured, 1945
Total number o f <
disabling
and medical injuries 2

T able

1

1

* A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.

Oi

T able

19.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 173 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Department and by Agency, 1945
Agency
Total disabling
and medical
injuries8

Vehicles
Ma­ Work­
chines ing sur­
faces

Total................................................ Number 7,562 1,407
828
Percent 1 0 0 .0
19.4
11.3
-r = =
= = = = = - -------- —
Piece goods....................................... Number 5,107 1,086
549
Percent 1 0 0 .0
2 1 .8
1 1 .0
335
Receiving or gray room .......
45
39
Percent 1 0 0 .0
11.9
13.7
Boil-off or bleaching department Number
92
532
111
Percent 1 0 0 .0
21.7
17.9
269
64
31
Percent 1 0 0 .0
24.2
11.7
Dye room.................................. Number 1,137
119
261
23.2
Percent 1 0 0 .0
10.7
7
Dye color shop..
158
19
47
12 7
100 0
Mechanical print shop. . .
135
565
55
99
3
Screen print shop
7ft
8
Percent 10 0 .0
3.9
10.5
4
Print color shop...
*2
Number
36
Percent 10 0 .0
5.7
11.4
i4
Aging department
Number
94
V
J
IK A
inn n
18 A X .vt
Percent xuu.u
X .0
o
O
Finishing department................. Number 1,288
326
121
Percent 10 0 .0
25.9
9.6
Calendering.......................
Number
62
186
13
Percent
XvU/vlll 1 0 0 .0
34.3
7.1
Tentering
..........
Number
324
86
23
Percent 100 0
27 2
73
Make-up department .
Number
121
604
41
Percent 1 00 .0
20.9
7.0
Yarn and thread............................... Number
479
113
48
O O xu.u
K
m q
inn n
rcivuiit xuu.u
60.0
Dye room...........................
Number
148
36
18
Percent 1 0 0 .0
25.3
12.7
*4
Finishing department .......
i6
Number
60
Percent 1 0 0 .0
27.0
6 .8
Winding department..........
Number
182
55
io
Percent 10 0 .0
33.5
11 .6
Packing department...........
40
Number
2
Percent 100 0
6 5
Service and maintenance................... Number 1.791
188
2i5
Percent 1 0 0 .0
10.9
12.5
i
Administrative and clerical
Number
48
15
Percent 1 0 0 .0
2 .1
32.0
1
Laboratory..
NiimHpr
li U U v
U Ut
30
Percent 100 0
33
Maintenance and repair.............. Number
172
935
94
Percent 1 00 .0
19.4
1 0 .6
4
Power............................
Number
204
26
Percent
19 9
lUUSUv 100 0
2 .0
X .6
O
Shipping.................................... Number
266
35
Percent 1 00 .0
13 4
Watchmen............................
Number
35
io
Percent 1 00 .0
29 5
2
Yard...............................
Number
93
15
Percent 1 0 0 .0
2 .2
16 5
4
i4
Warehouse................................. Number
143
Percent 1 0 0 .0
2 .8
9.9

Total
817

738

1 1 .2

10.1

• ■ •.. . —
581
558
1 1 .2
11.7
46
43
14.0
13.1
63
61
12.2

11.8

52
19.6

53
32
58
4
5.3

51
19.2
108
9.7
7
46
31
56
4
5.3

2.9
i3
11 9
Xi.o
183
14.5
16

2.9
12
13 2
176
13.9
16

8 .8

8 .8

42
13.3
64

39
12.4
61
10.5
40
9.1
i3
9.2
*5
8.5
io
9.8

112
10.1
8

1

11 .0

41
93
i3
9.2
"5

8.5
i6
9.8

79
1 .1

■■
■
23
.5
3
.9
2

.4
1

.4
4
.4
1

7
1
.2

*1

*2

2
6 5
122

5
175

6

ft

7.1
5

1 0 .6

1

j l
'l
.6

3
.9

‘3

.5
1
.2

53
3.1

10.6

10.2

i
33
37
4.2
9
1 A
4.0
64
24.5
4
11.8
20
2 2 .0

29
20.4

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient
2 Percents are based on injuries for which agency is known.




Hand
trucks Other

*i
33
30
3.4
8

4.3
7
.8

3
1.5

2.9

io

io

1 1 .0

1 1 .0

data.

502
720
763
6.9
10.4
9.8
■•
■
■ ■
440
403
705
14.2
8 .8
8 .1
5
84
32
25.5
1.5
9.7
27
31
36
5.2
6 .0
7.0
4
14
43
5.3
16.2
1.5
99
166
130
8.9
14.9
11.7
37
55
24.7
36.6
39
55
84
9.9
15 2
7.1
3
9
4
1 1 .8
3.9
5.3
9
i3
25.7
37.0
3
7
*8
8 8
77
33
54
62
277
4.9
4.3
2 2 .0
2
6
51
3.3
1 .1
28.1
i2
i2
89
3.8
3.8
28.2
is
46
95
2 .6
7.9
16.3
1
33
73
2
16.6
7.5
is
21
14.8
10 6
3
i2
5.1
20.3
4
21
2.4
1 2 .8
i6
2
6 5
51 5
194
51
43
3.0
11.3
2.5
2

3 1
44
16.8
3
8.9
is
12.7

Cloth, Con­ Chem­
rolled tainers icals

33 3
26
2.9
4
2 .0

1

2.9

378
5.2
—
161
3.2
13
4.0
19
3.7

216
3.0
—
188
3.8
25
7.6

7.7
1
1 .1

i3
9.2

is
16 5
43
30.3

216
3.0
■108
2 .2

9
2.7

6

11

11
2 .1
6

2.3
28
2.5
4
2.7
i4
2.5
*3
3.9

4.2
51
4.6

2.3
19
1.7

22

4.3

2

3
5
2

13
15
2.7

206
2 .8

104
2 .1
1

.3
1
.2

4
1.5
10

.9
1

.7
61
1 1 .0

2.9
2
2 2

34
2.7
3
1 .6
8

2 .6

111
2 .2

4
1 .2

34
6 .6

7
2 .6
22
2 .0

5
3.3
10
1 .8
1

118

91

89

83

1 .6

1 .2

1 .2

1 .1

109
2 .2
2
.6
10

1.9
7
2 .6
21

1.9

■ i'
...:
5.... ......:
52
37
23
.7
.5
1 .0
1

8

.3
3

2.4

.6

5
55
27

.8
1

2 .1

.5

14
1 .1

1 6
8

*4

3

1.3
59

2.5
i3

6 .2

10.1

2 .2

6
6 6

is
1 .2
1

.5
3
.9
12
2 .1

6
1 .0
10

12
1 .1

1

.7
4
.7

13
2.4

3

1 1 .0

1 .8

100

88

17
1 .0

5.8

5.1

2

42
3.3

2

6 7

10 0

13
4.1
12
2 .1

3
.5

6
.7

1

.5
*5
1.9

54

6 .1
22
11 2

67
7.6
7
3 6

2.3

*7
2.7

5
3.5

2 .8

.7

.7

2

54
3.1

2

*7

3
2 .1

1.4

3.4

4
.2

6.7
15
1.7
35
17 7

65
3.8

50
5.7
3
15
6

2.3

.4
1

1

2.9
l.i

8
12

3
1

8 .6

3
28

4 .7
7

3.8

4

2 .2

4

12
12
2 .1

2

.5

4
.9

i
1.7
1
.6

29
1.7

40
2.3

6

1

3.6
19
25.1
3

4
23

3
3.3
59

12 .8
2

3
.3

6 .0
20

6

17

2
2 .2
12
1 .0

1
.6

1

3.3
4.9

4
.7
18
23.8

2

2.9

3

4
.4

6 .8
10

3.8
53
4.8
9

■
.127

2
2 .2
10
.8
1

6
1 .0

3
.7

1

6

10
.8

1

4
.9

2

2.9
4

1 .6

252

.5
4
1.3

4
.3

3
3.3

12
6 .6

1
2 .1

4.3

3

2 .8

1.3
9

.2

2.9
2
2 2

4.9

1.4

1 .1
2
.2
2

76
623
8.5
■ ■ —
...=■■
■
55
268
5.4
1 .1
1
14
.3
4.3
35
1

1 .0

1

8

8
8 .8

9
1.7
3

2
2 .6

5
8.5

13.6
is

2
2 2
2

5
.4

.5

23
4

8

13.1
23
11.7
*4
1.5

1.9
3

1

13
30
4
2 .8

3
.7

41
93
9
6 3

li6

10

1 .1

2.9
4
44
io

2.5
36

5
16 1
160
9.3

Bench­
Unclas­
es,
sified;
Stairs Ladders tables, Other insuffi­
chairs
cient
data

1

1

5
1.9

177
2.4
■. :

1.3

1

11 .8

7.7

ii

io

47
5.3
7
73
28 0
4

20

7.7

1
2 .1

3 6

4
.5

20
1

1
2 .1
’3
10 0

Hand
tools

Foreign
Boilers
Cloth, bodies,
and Center Lum­
not else­ Metal
not
ber
bars,
rolled where parts pres­
shells stock
sure
classi­
or
vessels
baled
fied

2.9
4
44

6.7
9
1 .0

1

.4
5
14.7
3
3.3

1
.6
1

3.2
15
.9
4
8.5

3.8
41
7.0
48
10.9
18
12.7
3
5.1
17
10.4
3
9.7
285
16.4
9
19.1

8
22

40
6
1

18
9
68
1

6
2 0 .0

28
3.2
9
4.6
2
.8

1

2

1

.7

1.4

.7

6
.7

3
1.1

1

.7

150
17.0
47
23.8
29
11.1
6

17.7
17
18.6
13
9.2

51
7
5
1
2
1

8 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Department12

T able

20.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 173 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Department and by
A ccident Type, 1945
Accident type
Total
disabling
and,medical
injuries3

Department1 *

Total.................................................................................
Piece goods........................................................................
Receiving or gray room...................................................
Boil-off or bleaching department........................ ............
Drying department.........................................................
Dye room.......................................................................

Mechanical print shop.....................................................
Screen print shop............................................................
Print finlAf abort

. .........

Aging department

...................................

Finishing department......................................................
Calendaring

.......................................................

Tentering....................................................................
Make-up department......................................................
Yam and thread................................................................
Dye room.......................................................................
Finishing

......................................................

Winding department.......................................................
Poolrinor dAmrtmsnt

.....................

Service and maintenance.............................. ......................
Administrative and clerieal..............................................
T.ohnratnrv

................................................................

Maintenance and repair..................................................
Power...................................................................... .
Shipping , , ...................................................................
Watchmen....................................................................
y ftT
d

...........................................................

Warehouse......................................................................

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percen
Numbe i
Percent

100.0

16.3

5,107

532

756
14.9
61
18.3
61

100.0

1 1 .6

52
19.4

269
100.0

1,137
100.0

158

1 0 .0
12

36

7.7
97
17.4
28
36.3
4

100 0

11.1

100 0

16

100.0

565

100.0

79
100.0

94

1,288

is

0
221

48

17.3
28
15.1
63
19.7
104
17.4
106
23.8
19
13.2
9
15 3
54
32.8
14
45 0
326
18.5
5

100 0

10 6

100.0

186
100.0

324

100.0

604
100.0

479
100.0

148
100.0

' 60
100 0

182
100.0

40
100 0

1,791
100.0

30

100 0

935
100.0

204
100.0

266
100.0

35
100.0

93
100.0

143
100.0

4
13 3
181
19.9
34
16.9
51
19.2
5
14.7
U
15.1
24
16.9

210
2 .8

631
8.4

421
5.6

611

2 0 .2

39
14.6
113

335
100.0

To lower
level

818
10.9

1,031
20.4
85
25.6
106

100.0

1,222

On same
level

Total

1,740
23.3

7,607

i Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
* Percents are based on injuries for which the accident type is known.




Struck
by

400
7.9
32
9.6
83
15.8
24
9.0
71
6.3
14
9.0
36
6.4
4
5.2

287
5.7
24
7.2
48
9.1
16

12.1

41
12.3
65
12.4
35
13.1
127

202

17.9
24
15.4
114
20.4
14
18.2

1 1 .2

5
3.2
58
10.4
1

6 .0

65
5.8
10

6.4
29
5.1
3
3.9

113
2 .2
8

2.4
35
6.7
8

3.0
6

.5
4
2 .6

7
1.3
1

Contact
Inhalation,
with
Over­
absorp­
extreme
exertion
tion,
tempera­
ingestion
tures

Slips
(not
falls)

323
4.3

280
3.7

814
10.9

1,549

221

198
3.9
3
.9
19
3.6

634
12.5

12

21

4.5
76
6.7

7.8
275
24.3
44
28.3
70
12.5
9
11.7
9
25.0
15
16.0

1,154
22.7
81
24.3
79
15.0
67
24.9

4.4
13
3.9
34
6.5
15
5.6
44
3.9
6

6

3.8
27
4.8
5
6.5

3.8
14
2.5
1

6

2

2

2

1.3
4

16 6
18
19 1
264

56
16
17 0

5.6

5.6

11 1

1.3
6

4
196
15.3
41
6

2 0 .6

41
2 2 .0

2 2 .0

61
19.1
145
24.2
104
23.4
25
17.4

52
16.3
76
12.7
45

21

35 4
40
24.2

*

10.1

16
11.1
6
10 2

i9
11.5

6

6.5
139
7.9
3
6.4

6.7
9
4.8
15
4.7
32
5.3
34
7.7

io
1 0 .6

54
4.2
6

3.2

6

6

6.4
32
2.5
3

6.4
50
3.9
4

1 .6

2 .2
10

10

5

3.1
26
4.3
27

1 .6
6
1 .0

3.1
19
3.2

7

10

2.3

6 .1

1 .6

12

9

3

8.3

6 .2
1

2 .1
1

4.2

17
14
8.5

1.7

3.4

1
.6

1
.6

2

34
is

9.1

6
2

5
5.3
51
4.0
8

4.3
7
2 .2

7
1 .2

18
4.1
13
9.0
4
6 .8
1
.6

11 8
22

23.6
44
31.0

10

5.0
20

7.5
2

5.9
9
9.7
17
1 2 .0

171
9.7
19
40 4

91
5.2
16
34 0

80
4.5
3
6 4

84
4.8
3
6 4

61
3.5

2

77
8.5

68

13.0

86

6.7
9
4.8
16
5.0
25
4.2
60
13.5
37
25.7
7
11.9
9
5.5
2

2

19 4
546
31.0
9
19 1
*5
16 7
316
34.8
54
26.8
80
30.0
4

86

1.3

10

3.0

1

1

1

2

6.7
61
6.7

3.4
30
3.3
9
4.5
16

3.3
31
3.4

3.3
40
4.4

11

11

5.5
14
5.3
5
14.7

5.5
13
4.9
4

6.7
30
3.3
25
12.4

20
1 0 .0

30
11.3
13
38 2
is

16.1
9
6.3

6 .0
8

23 5
7
7.5
4
2 .8

8
8 .6

5
3.5

2

1

.4

2 .1

4.3
13
43.3
58
6.4
10

5.0
5
1.9
1

1 .1
1

2.9
4
4.3
4

.7

2 .8

11 .8

7
7.5
3

6.5
99
5.6

i

2 0 .8

212

18.8
42
26.9
135
24.2
13
16.9
9
25.0
13
13.8
316
24.8
45
24.3
94
29.3
182
30.3
61
13.7
15
10.4

Unclassi­
fied,
insuffi­
cient
data

Other

107
1.4

123

61

41

1 .2

7

2

2 .1
10

7

1.9
3

1

1 .1
10

7

.9
3
1.9

2

8
2
2 .6

2

9
.7

9

1

.5
2
.6

9
1.5
6

1.4
1

21

12.7
7

5
35
4
1

5
3.0

17

38

32

2 2 .6

295
16.8
3
6.4

4

.7

8

13.6

6

1.4

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Dye color shop................................................................

Number
Percent

Striking
against

Falls

Caught in,
on, or
between

9

2 .2

3
6.4

1

3.3
124
13.6
33
16.4
64
24.0
4

6.7

1

2

1 1 .8
20

21.5
38
26.8

22

2.4
4
2 .0
2
.8
1

26
3

1

29
1
1 .1
2

1

1.4

3 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.

£*>
M

oo
T able

Unsafe working conditions

Agency and part

Total.

Rough

Slippery

Sharpedged

Aged,
worn,
cracked,
etc.

1,333

213

461

277

165

217

1,577

112

308

5

59

39
4
4
31

85

64

65

175
16
15
144

1

1

15

121

86

20
6

18
14
4

84
37

76

16
15

15
11

29
24
9
4

Total........................................................

7,390

711

Machines..................
Jij£
............
Printing nuuihine ..
.......
Other....................................................

1,388
125
115
1,148

519
59
33
427

202
22

14

17
163

1

13

5

Working surfaces.......................................
..................................
Floors
.T ...T
.
Other surfaces r
.........................

818
611
207

29

520
423
97

36
32
4

425
351
74

Vehicles....................................................
Hand trucks..........................................
Frame................................................
Wheels
...........................
father parts .
. •........................
Other vehicles
.
......................

797
719
206
154
359
78

98
81
48
9
24
17

32
31
25

6

13
153

4
26

doth rolled
Containers
Chemicals ■< ,,, -, ,
Hand tools
.......
Cloth not rolled or baled

........................
, ........................
, ........................
........................

Foreign bcHiM not e| w A classified
ftA h rp
......... T ......................
Poilers and pressure yMsels......................
Center h& shells .
rs
.............................
Timber stock..........................................
J^r der*f'
d
....
Penehes table*1 chains etc. . .
Other
. .
..............................
Unclassified; insufficient data.....................
1A

Hazardous arrangement or procedure

Defects of agencies

Total
number
of dis­
abling Improp­
erly
and
medical guarded
injuries1 agencies

764
711
482
375

6

23
1
1

i

37
9

50

26

35
3

6

1

2

96

16

15

13

1
10
1

4
6

10

9

43
15

9

22

1
2

2
2

11

89
83
69
594

19

26
13

35

22
111

212

2

34

2
1

13
3
3

24

11

5

14
2

11
21
1

5
26

17
21
21

6

9

1

1
1

12
8

3
4
4
4

1

216
201

4
49

11

5

22

10

212

176
113
90

6

Other

1

8

Total

89
80
26
5
49
9
564
232
76
75
49
3
44
19
3

Lack of
clear
walk­
ways or
working
surfaces

Unsafe
planning Lack of
or lay-out proper
of traffic lifting
or process equip­
operations ment
909

248

46

13

3

1

3
55

46
4
5
37

64
7
51

3

1

15

4

16

1

6

1

1

14

3

6
10

17
17

8
6
1

22
21

42
36

3
4

3

5

18

2

1

12
2
22
6

6

542
177

14
27

1
1

146
97
49

3

1
1

10

2

28

8

68

605
554
131
139
284
51

72
18

3
25
37
2

2
6
6

3

10*

3
9

2
8

2
2

4
3
7

2

29

35
4

88

2

.
8

3

1

4
3
2

6

1
1
1

2
1
1

1

19
3

2
6
1

3
1

2
1
1

1
2

14

37

4
35

11

2

1

1

4
4

5
1

3,689
488
28
50
410

1

medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.




21

6

10

12

13

Other

Unclassi­
Lack of
fied;
Other
No
proper
safety
unsafe
unsafe
insuffi­
working condition
cient
equip­
data
ment conditions

183
278
374
250
160
213
133
58
94
53
58
47
40
351
158

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

21.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 163 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Agency and b y Unsafe
W orking Condition, 1945

T able

22.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 162 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Department and b y Unsafe
W orking Condition, 1945
Unsafe working conditions

Department

3

Total.
Piece goods..
Receiving or gray room.

Drying department—
Dye room...................

Mechanical print shop.
Screen print shop........
Print color shop..........
Aging department.......
Finishing department..
Calendering.............
Tentering................
Make-up department.
Yam and thread.
Dye room...................
Finishing department..
Winding department...
Packing department...
Service and maintenance.
Administrative and clerical—
Laboratory...........................
Maintenance and repair.
Power..........................
Shipping...
Watchmen.
Yard.........
Warehouse.

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

Improp­
erly
guarded
agencies

Rough

Total

Slippery

Sharpedged

709
19.4

1,323
36.2

212

5.8

457
12.5

19
11.3
62

100 .0

2 2 .1

876
33.3
65
38.7
129
45.0
37
28.7
196
32.6
25
32.1
97
34.8
17

133
5.1

1,115

540
20.5
25
14.9
64
22.3
25
19.4
133

Hazardous arrangement or procedure
Aged,
worn,
(racked,
etc.

30
17.8
14
4.9
9
7.0
31
5.2
3
3.8

7,336
100.0

5,011
100.0

334
100.0

532
100.0

265
100.0

152
100 .0

559
100 .0

9
11.5
54
19.4

55
(4
)
(4
)

36

2
10

14
29.8
208
29.2
23

13
4.5
4
3.1
18
3.0
3
3.8
19
7

100 .0

1,264
100.0

181

21.3
156
21.9
32
31.7
37
19.4
62

1
2 .1

40
5.6
6

163
4.5

216
5.9

1,564
42.7

109
3.0

307
8.4

900
24.5

339

157

1 2 .8

6 .0

99
3.8
4
2.4
18
6.3
4
3.1
26
4.3

148
5.6

1,179
44.9
74
44.0
93
32.4

61
2.3
5
3.0

237
9.0
9
5.4
32

723
27.6
51
30.2
31

2 1 .6

16
12.4
89
14.8
14
18.1
45
16.2
4

8

3.9
5

2.9

1

7
14.9
64
9.0
5
5.0
13

2

1
2 .1

4.3
34
4.8
4
4.0
9
4.7
17

5.9
12

.6.3
18
6.3
28
12.7
5
7.2

1 0 .6
11

9.6

16.0

10

1

1

32.3
38
46.4
9

3.2
13
15.8
5

3.2

2.9
3
9.7

324
44.4

47
6.4

84
11.5

46

12

1

6

26

3

100 .0

599
100 .0

421

100 .0

129
100.0

59
100 .0

164

100.0

2 1 .8

41
18.8
15
21.7
5
16.1
17
20.7

25
(4
)
1,732
100 .0

(4
)

(4
)
913

io4
14.3

6 .8

16
5.6
23

11

13.4
3

50
6.9
3

92

4

2

10

100 .0

11.1

5
7.7

5.6

137

14
38.9
24
36.9

1

1.5

5
7.5
4
3.3

1

i

6.3
17
13
9
13.1
1

3.2
3
3.7
52
7.1

2 .8
11

12

102

.7

4.3

36.5
5

1

i

21

1
2 .1

9
19.1
40
5.6
4
4.0

7
14.9
240
33.8
38
37.5
75
39.3
92
32.4

16.9

5
7.7

Unclassi­
Lack of
Other
No
fied;
proper
unsafe
unsafe
insuffi­
safety
working condition
cient
equip­
data
ment conditions

Other

46
1.3

13
.4

21

3,660

158

27

2,371

1 .0
1
.6

9
.3
3

9

6 .0

248
6 .8

9
5.4
19
6 .6
12

5

1

44.6
341
47.9
45
44.5
103
53.9
140
49.3
78
35.8

3.9
7
3.2

22

1

31.9
16
51.6
27
32.9
3

1.4

18
2.5
6

12

3.1

6.3
16
5.6
38
17.4
13
18.9
9
29.0
14
17.0

11

4
4.9
40
5.5

3

30
7.8
9
13.4
5
4.1

118
30.8
28
41.8
58
47.6
5

18
4.7
7
10.4

3
4.6

17
47.2
35
53.9

1
2 .8
2

121
2 0 .2

26
33.3

20

9.3
34
5.7

25
3.4

8
6 .6
1

3.1

1
2

1.3

.3

10

3.6

32

1

4
8.5
43
6 .0

3
3.0

17

2

43

4.3
5
.7

2

.3

10

1

5.2

.5

9.2
4
5.8

4
5.8

6

19.4
4
4.9

6 .0

5

58

1

1

3.2
5

27

1

81

1

1.4

6 .1
1

72
9.9

18
2.5

8
2 .1

57
14.9

35
9.1

12

4
.5

1

12

6

997
29

1

3.1

6

8

11.9

2
1 .6

3

18

3

527

1

128

.8

132

1.5

12

1

1

9.1
34
27.9
13
36.0
23
35.4

198

2

142
19.5

1

79

315

.4
.5

550

132

*

1

1

3
4.6

1

1

21

7.4
13

2

1
1 .0

1

2 .8

74
280

5

1

i

511

.7

1

7
10.4
4
3.3

135

3

2
2 .6
2

0

7.7

163
245

.3
1
.8
8

i

2

3

1 .8
1

1

2

2

2 .8

6 .2

10 .8

41
31.7

2

1.3

279
38.3
4

i

27.7
4

1 1 .2
10

1.3

8

1

9.0

9.8
7

3.8
3
2.3

7.8
99
16.5
9
11.5

51.1
262
43.7
42
53.8
126
45.1
5

1

12

1

12

1

11

26
21.3

5.9

6 .0

8 .1

4
6 .0

6 .6
6

6 .0

1 2 .0

2

3
6.4
47

6 .0

4
5.8
4
13.0
3
3.7

66

11

7

13
4.6
13

3.0

s Percents are based on injuries resulting from accidents in which an unsafe working condition
was known to exist.




2 .1

31

10

100.0

4

46

2

(4
)

2
2 .0

34
8.9
9
13.4

34

251

91
12.5

23
3.2

1

100 .0

199

2

8

i70
44.4
29
43.3
58
47.5

100.0

6 .0
21

9.8

80
20.9
9
13.4
4
3.3

100 .0

7.7
4
3.1
32
5.3
4
5.1
14
5.0
1

1

29
7.6

2
1 .2
22

1

50
26.2
81
28.5
98
44.9
31
45.0

323

1

1.3

11

2 2 .8

100.0

Total

275
7.5

3

6 .8

5

90

10
6 .0

Other

Lack of Unsafe
clear
planning Lack of
walk­ or lay-out proper
ways or of traffic lifting
working or process equip­
surfaces operations ment

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Dye color shop............

Defects of agencies

Total
number
of dis­
abling
and
medical
injuries 3

9.8
3
2

5.6
7
1 0 .8

17
1
2 .8
1

1.5

56
i

71

3 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
4 Not computed because of small number of injuries included.

CO

T able

23.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Department and by
Unsafe A ct, 1945

Using unsafe equipment or
equipment unsafely
Operat­
ing
Total number
of disabling
without
and medical
au­
injuries*
thority;
failure to
secure
or warn

Department1

Total....................

Number
Percent

Piece goods.......... .

Number
Percent
Receiving or gray room Number
Percent
Boil-off or bleaching
department............ Number
Percent
Drying department... Number
Percent
Dye room................. Number
Percent
Dye color shop.......... Number
Percent
Mechanical print shop Number
Percent
Screen print shop...... Number
Percent
Print color shop........ Number
Percent
Aging department.... Number
Percent
Finishing department. Number
Percent
Calendering........... Number
Percent
Tentering............... Number
Percent
Make-up department.. Number
Percent

Yam and thread............ Number
Percent
Dye room................... Number
Percent
Finishing department.. Number
Percent
Winding department... Number
Percent
Packing department... Number
Percent
Service and maintenance. Number
Percent
Administrative and
clerical................... Number
Percent
Laboratory................. Number
Percent




7,389

Work­
Gripping
Failure
ing on
Operat­
Unclas­
Arrang­
Lifting
objects
to use
moving Other Noun- sified;
ing or
Mixing
proper
incor­
unsafe safe insuffi­
ing
Exposure
or
Unsafe
inse­
work­
acts acts
objects or com­
safety
on vehi­ Inatten­ rectly or
dan­
cient
ing at
use of curely; Pulling
or
bining Other equip­ Total cular
tion to lifting Other gerous
unsafe Total equip­ taking hand Other Total
data
materials materials
too
ment
right- footing
speed
wrong trucks
ment
equip­
unsafely unsafely
heavy
hold of
of-way
ment
loads
objects
47 1,807
39 ‘

100.0

1.9

1.0

5,028
100.0
332
100.0

61
2.0
3
1.4

1.1

.5

43.2

529
100.0

8
2.5

4
1.2

37.5

100.0

3
1.8

1.8

1,124
100.0
152
100.0

12

1.8

1

3
13

2.0

1

1.1

545
100.0
79
100.0
36

7
2.5

90

2

1
1 .8

(4
)

1 0 0 .0

1,267
1 0 0 .0

185
1 0 0 .0

317
1 0 0 .0

597
1 0 0 .0

1

2
1 .1
8
2 .1

430

3

1 0 0 .0

1 .0
1
1 .1
1

132
1 0 0 .0

59
1 00 .0

165

.7

1.9

18
2.3
4
3.3

1,760
100.0
48
100.0
30
(4
)

i,:

40.4

122

37.5
244
36.7
26
29.9
125
43.8
17
31.5
16
28.1

5
.6

3
.8
2

.7
2

2.3

2.4

1 0 0 .0

30
(4
)

Taking unsafe position or posture

Unsafe placing or mixing

347
44.6
62
51.7
81
44.1
169
44.8
124
43.2
34
39.1
16
39.1
55
48.7

8

1

24

13

2.1

1.1

410
36.2
16.7
10

7.1

V

28.8

93
2 .0

85
1.9

487
10.7

313
6.9

145
3.2

29

185

125
4.1

18

48

328

1 .6
1

10.8

6.0

76
2.5
7
3.3

.5

8 .8

18
8.3

24
7.4

14
4.3

2
.6

27
8.3

13
4.0

6

1
.6
11

13
7.7

1.7

18.1
16
18.4

196
6.5
13

7
4.2
46
6.9
7

72

29.1
173

3.6
14
2 .1
2

8.0

2.3

12

6
2 .1

4.2
3
5.6

7
2.5

8.8

21

6.0

7
5.8

33.3
53

7
3.8
5
1.3

6

3.3
29
7.7

20

7.0

8

9.2
4
9.8
6
5.3

1

101

8.9

2.7

91
31.7
24
27.6
9
22.0
45
39.8
5

14
4.3

10

3
1 .8
68

10.3
11

12.7

14
2 .1
1
1 .1

20
2 .6
2

1.7
7
3.8
6
1 .6

7
2.4

4

39

1 .2

1 2 .0

78
46.4

4
2.4
13
2 .0
1
1 .1

24
14 3
38
5.7
9
10.3

4
1.4

49
7.4
12

13.8

2

3.5

70
9.0
3
2.5
9
4.9
23

51
6.5
3
2.5
8

1

1.7
4

4.4
23

.5

2 .2

6 .1

6 .1

2

6

2.4
3
2.7

4.9
.9

14.6
4
3.5

2

2

26
2.3

121

10.7

107
9.5

5
13.9
3

8
2 .8
2

3.7
3

3.7
2

4
7.0

1
2 .8

31.9
32
36.8
108
37.9
28
51.7
7

1 2 .6

754
16.6

87
1.9

33
.7

15

2,822

508
16.8
34
15.8

65

24

2 .1
1

.8

22
1 0 .2

34
10.5

58
17.9

19
11.3
74

31
18.4
87
13.1

456
1 0 .0

318
10.5

11.1
12

25

25

8 .8

8 .8

54
18.9
15
27.6
3

9
16.7

4
7.4

2

2

13

6

10.5
49
6.3
7
5.8
14
7.6

.8

83
10.7
9
7.5
19
10.3
35
9.3

18.1

113
39.4
35
40.3
15
36.6
47
41.6
7

4
1.4
3
3.4

18
6.3
5
5 7

24
8.4
5
5.7

25.5

2

2

11

26.8
27
23.9

128
11.3

419
37.1
24
6 6 .6

2

4
1 .1

14
4.9
10
1 1 .6
2

2

.7

4
1.4

1
1 .1

4.9

5
.4

.8

9

2

1

3

287
36.9
39
32.5
79
42.9
165
43.8

3

14
1 .8
1
.8

4

2 .2

3

5
3.0
6

.9

116

5
1.5

2

202

1

459

1
.6
8
1 .2

99

65

68

10

3.5

260

1

.4

25

1

1.9

16

15
26.3

2 2 .8

18
2.3

10

3.1

1,984

1

11.5

1
2 .8

2 .1

3
.4

.5

7

3
1.4

10

13.9

1

16

5
13.9

1

212

34
59.6

2

1

135
41.6

3

2.3

5
13.9
5

27

1 .1
2

1

11
1 .0

304
1 0 .0

7
3.3

21

14
4.9
3
3.4
4
9.7
4
3.5

2

272
24.0

50
1 .6

7.3
3
5.6

30
10.5
14
16.1

6
2 .1

118 1,180
3.9 38.9
90
5
2.3 41.9

24
8.4
5
9.3
5

2

476
10.5

2
1 .2

.5

5.9
38
5.7
4
4.6

66

1.4

14
4.3

.6

1

10.5

1
1 .8

47

120

6 .1

251 1,752
5.5 38.5

6

2

5

19

.6

141
18.1
22

18.4
42
2 2 .8

59
15.6
67
23.3

33
30
3.9
9
7.5
8

4.9

4.9

8

11

.9

7.1
1

9.7
4

11
1 .0

140
12.4

107
9.5

161
14.2

1
2 .8

14
38 8
'3

1
2 .8

2

2

.5
3

133

.8

9
3.1

487
65

1
.8
1

.5

.7

4.3

2

1

219

1

142

1
1 .1

45

6

1

52

5.3

.9

22

1

3
.4

3
7.3

8
2 2 .2

18

11

2

11
1 .0

6

6

622

.5
12

1

10

©

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Unsafe act

Or

Maintenance and repair Number
Percent

911

Percent
Shipping..................... Number
Percent

..............

Number
Percent
Yard.......................... Number
Percent
Warehouse.................. Number
Percent

1 00 .0
202
100 0

266
1 00 .0

35
(4
)
92
10 0 .0

141
10 0 .0

16
2.7
5
2 .8

5
.8

225
38.1
37
29.4

5

66

2 .8

37.1

59
10.0
12

9.5
16
9.0

7
i

i

1 .8
1
1 .2

2.4

1 .8
2

19
33.3
32
37.6

150
25.4
15.9
41
23.0

able

6

3.4

3
5.3
6

7.1

i5
26.2
26
30.5

14
2.4
5
4.0
3
1.7

57
9.7
8.7

54
9.2
9
7.1

22

20

11

12.4

2

.3

1

.8

11.3

1
.2
1
.8
2
1 .1

1

6

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Percents are based on injuries resulting from accidents in which an unsafe

T

2

.3

20

11
6 .2

177
30.1
67
53.2

3
.5
1
.8
2
1 .1

66

37.0

56
9.5
17
13.5
20
11.2

1

i
1 .8

100

17.0
9
7.1

5
8 .8

14
16.5

act was committed,

3
5.3
13
15.3

2

3.5
1
1 .2

10

30
52.5
33
38.7

ii
19.3

75

8

12.8

1.4

30
23.8
19
10.7

2.4

4
4.7

6

10.5

11

11

12.9

320

2

75

1

3
1.7

88

1

13
22.7
7

12.9

1
.2

2
1 .6

4

6

1
1 .8
2

43
7.3
19
15.1
25
14.0

15

1

35
1
1 .2

8 .2

55

1

3 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
4 Not computed because of small number of injuries included.

24.— Industrial-Injury-Frequency Rates for 37 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation of Injured and
Extent of D isability, 1945

Occupation and department1
Disabling

Medical

Total............................................................................................................................................

27.8

62.8

Ager operator................................... ...........................................................................................
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender............................................................................
Print color shop......................................................................................................................
Finishing department..............................................................................................................
Back tender (printing)..................................................................................................................

2 1 .1

47.8
45.6
65.4
62.2

24.1
61.9
54.8
52.3
145.2

Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator; winding-machine operator; tuber...................................
Receiving or gray room...........................................................................................................
Dye room...............................................................................................................................
Finishing department..............................................................................................................
Make-up department..............................................................................................................

* 19.6
33.4
17.2
18.9
15.8

63.5
92.0
60.4
56.8
66.4

Boil-off machine operator; boil-off man.............................................. ............................................
Calender operator........................................................................................................................ .
Clerk............................................................................................................................................
Make-up department..............................................................................................................
Administrative and clerical.....................................................................................................
Shipping.................................................................................................................................

25.1
33.9
1 2 .6

62.8
37.3
27.7

5.5

8 .2

28.9

57.9

Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlaper........................................................................................
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder................................... .......................................................
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator; mercerizer.................................................
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator........................................................................................

9.6
30.3

38.3
19.8
51.7
63.6

Cloth-washer operator; soap operator; rope-soaper operator; open-soaper operator; washing-machine
tender.......................................................................................................................................
Boil-off or bleaching department................................ ............................................................
Dye room...............................................................................................................................
Mechanical print shop............................................................................................................

24.4
15.8
37.0
23.6

72.1
72.7
74.1
70.7

Color mixer; dye weigher; kettleman................................. ............................................................
Dye color shop.......................................................................................................................
Print color shop......................................................................................................................
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator..............................................................................................

31.0
28.0
32.8
9.8

51.7
50.4
52.4
39.2

See footnotes at end of table.




6 .6
8 .6

First-aid

370.9

(j
*
376.8
(*)
(*)
(8)
528.4
(*)
00

371.7
(»)
308.7
00

187.1
175.9
224.8
(’)
00

293.9

00

(*)
374.9
337.9
00

(*)
317.2
00
00

(*)

Employeehours
worked
12,953,218
313,765
238,702
87,600
111,628
227,795

For establishments reporting all injuries

Number of injuries
Disabling
403

Employeehours
worked

Medical
848

6~

14
5
7
17

7,600,831

8~
12
2

5
30
44

Number of injuries
Disabling
168

18,112
116,779
21,945
41,269
61,418

r
3

Medical

First-aid

443

2,819
15
44

3

io
4
3

1

12

9
28

295,203
45,730
70,979
123,760
35,923

4

11

156

1
2
1

2
6

50
46
44

116,609
82,658
411,447
187,639

4
3

7
5
3

36
60
77
33
27
3

3
4

42
38
29
17

12

571,234
73,869
44,977
140,408
280,215

13
4
3
4

5
9
18

281,596
212,127
383,805
177,225

6

18

8
1

19
3

81,614

3

6

22,069

1
2

93,465
129,276
51,095
58,079

1
1
1

4

280,070
192,349
69,316
9,433

3

17

1
2

12
1

2

104,037
52,262
51,775
38,344

2

6

2
1

3
3
4

33
13

10,842
173,429
65,031
272,206

1

7

11

6

1

2
1

3

120,102

1
1

9

5
17

497,108
124,225
65,697
245,174

16
4
3
6

17

379,440
126,148
253,292
63,603

13
5

19

8

13

39
11
6

6

1

4

105
65
33

20
10

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

For establishments reporting
disabling and medical cases only

Frequency rates 2

T

able

24.— Industrial-Injury-Frequency Rates for 37 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation of Injured and Oi
to
Extent of Disability, 1945— Continued

For establishments reporting all injuries
Number of injuries

Number of injuries

Occupation and department1
Disabling

Medical

First-aid

Employeehours
worked

Disabling

Medical

6

95

16
4
3
3
13

411,131
71,949
130,561
58,916
94,950

4

22

20

2
6

Foreman; supervisor.....................................................................................................................

8 .8

47.9
40.0
37.2
38.2

257.8
(3
)

3

6

Goods layer; cloth layer-out; lay-out man.......................................................................................

14.7

6 6 .2

(3
)
(3
)

381,874
103,261
84,529
45,705
177,102

Gray-cloth tender, printing; gray tender.........................................................................................
Inspector; examiner.......................................................................................................................
Finishing department. ............................................................................................................
Make-up department................. ............................................................................................

71.0
. 11.5
9.6
14.8
27.9

76.9
64.0
57.3
59.1
67.8

(3
>
176.1
(3
)
79.8
303.2

286,633
262,583
35,933
180,237
75,946

18
5
5

19
3
14

6

1

Jigger; dye-jig operator..................................................................................................................
Kier boiler; kier operator...............................................................................................................
Laborer, not elsewhere classified.....................................................................................................
Maintenance man..........................................................................................................................
Carpenter...............................................................................................................................
Machinist...............................................................................................................................

42.0
26.4
62.7
38.0
19.1
43.0

126.1
114.2
107.5
124.5
114.7
158.3

454.3
(3
)
(3
)
572.0
(3
)
598.3

642,092
60,439
50,335
733,161
75,967
419,964

30

90

Mangle tender, not elsewhere classified...........................................................................................
Padding-machine operator; padder operator....................................................................................
Pleater; plaiter; bin plaiter; kier plaiter; cloth knocker....................................................................
Sanforizing-machine operator.........................................................................................................

34.3
5.2
22.3
53.5
34.2
23.3

60.0
26.2
63.8
81.5
56.9
49.9

(3
)
12.7
(3
)
545.4
585.6
273.7

145,123
32,819
241,922
245,865
73,220
136,465

Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine operator......................................................................
Receiving or gray room...........................................................................................................
Singer; singeing-machine operator..................................................................................................
Starch-mangle tender.....................................................................................................................

26.6
37.5
30.7
35.8

35.5
37.5
85.9
53.6
30.2
24.9
56.7

421.1
422.3
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
394.1

186,354
106,746
76,739
103,707
90,813
46,357
765,304

63.9
65.1
44.2
39.4
116.7

(3
)
474.4

124,380
573,043
53,445
172,474
92,436
106,272
167,624
170,439

Napper tender........................................................................................................................................................

Starch mixer; size maker......................................................................................................................................

6 .0

Tacker..........................................................................................................................................
Tenter-frame operator; frame operator...........................................................................................

16.6
26.6

Truck driver..................................................................................................................................
Trucker, hand...............................................................................................................................
Receiving or gray room...........................................................................................................
Finishing department..............................................................................................................
Make-up department..............................................................................................................
Warehouse..............................................................................................................................

29.0
38.4
39.4
67.6
40.5

Watchman...............................................................................................................................................................

1 0 .6

22 .1

14.7
1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 The injury-frequency rate is the number of injuries per million hours worked. The disablinginjury frequency rate is based on the number of disabling injuries, the medical-injury frequency on
the number of medical injuries, and the first-aid-injury frequency rate on the number of first-aid
injuries. A disabling injury is one that results in death, permanent disability, or an inability to




8 6 .2

7.1
44.1

8 6 .1

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
87.5
393.2

2

2

8

4
30

4
108
9
75

1

18
4
7
11
1
6
6
6
1

6

3
15
18
7
7
6

3

5
4
7

2

2

16

43

1

5

8

22
2

32

8

7
9
7

3
5

1

1

3

54

2

28
17
44

2

First-aid

17

665,353
192,914
831,534
208,994
239,955

24
5
40

Folding-machine operator; folder operator; hooker-machine operator; yarder operator.......................

270.6
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
699.8

222 .1

Medical

3
4
4
4

47.4
85.5
51.3
30.5
61.2

23.2

Disabling

199,565
87,795
44,887
85,863
135,759

31.2
32.1
50.2
20.3
21.3

Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender...........................................................................
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere classified...........................................................................
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator; dye-box operator............................................................

Employeehours
worked

11

13
7
1

3

21
1
21

3

3
5

2

5

106
7
29
31
35

51,286
346,334
68,746
225,673
174,823

6
2
1
1
1

6
20

45
61

261,919
53,397
61,289
503,534
28,676
230,661

8
1

3
17

24
5

88,357
158,031
71,425
146,673
102,461
164,396
151,987
106,564
86,328
64,078
74,639
74,038
362,836
47,897
548,106
127,689
81,535
70,306
91,034
114,303
101,724

1

1
10

4

3
10

16

8

46
3
28

22

18
53
119
19
40
288
52
138

8
2

40

1

io
5

5
14
3

1

8

46
80
60
45

3

2

1

4

64
45
32
19
24

14

1
21

143

2

4
3

21

2
2
8

3
2
1

6

3
10

2

6

3
41
7
3

24
260

10
10
2
1

66

11

55
58
10

40

perform a regularly established job on any day subsequent to the day of injury. A medical injury
is a nondisabling injury requiring treatment by a physician or surgeon. A first-aid injury is any injury
other than disabling or medical which requires first-aid treatment.
3 Not available because of insufficient data.

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S-----T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

For establishments reporting
disabling and medical cases only

Frequency rates 2

T able

25.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Occupation and by
Nature o f Injury, 1945
Nature of injury
Occupation1

Total...................................................................................................
Ager operator........................................................................................
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender....................................
Back tender (printing)...........................................................................
Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator; winding-machine operator;
tuber.................................................................................................

Calender operator..................................................................................
Chemist...............................................................................................
Clerk....................................................................................................
Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlapper..............................................
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder...................................................
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator; mercerizer..........
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator................................................
Cloth-washer operator; soaper operator; rope-soaper operator; open- soaper
operator; washing-machine tender.......................................................
Color mixer; dye weigher; kettleman......................................................
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator......................................................
Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender...................................
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere classified...................................
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator; dye-box operator....................
Fireman...............................................................................................
Folding-machine operator; folder operator; hooker-machine operator;
yarder operator..................................................................................
Foreman; supervisor.............................................................................
Goods layer; cloth layer-out; lay-out man............................................. .
Gray-cloth tender, printing; gray tender................................................
Inspector; examiner..............................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

Amputa­
tions

Bruises;
contu­
sions

7,252

18

100 .0

.2

2,009
27.8

100.0

IT
27.8
16
29.1
44
29.9

202
100 .0

71
35.3

ST
100 .0

55
100 .0

147

71

Cuts;
lacera­
tions;
punctures

Burns;
scalds

708
9.8

4
7.3
4
2.7

.7

178

1
.6

100 .0

207
100 .0

41

8

4.0

2
1 .0

3.0

17
24.3

9
12.9

1.4

6
6 .1
10

22

100 .0

152
100 .0
100 .0

142

1

.4

100 .0
86
100.0

278
100 .0

65
100.0

97
100 .0

108
100 .0

22.4
3
11.1

17
15.6

1

1
1 .0
2

2 .0

16
24.6
6
1 1 .8

2

2
1 .1
10

11

2 1 .2
22

8

1
.6

13
7.4
30
14.5
3
7.3

1

5

1
1 .2

1

80
28.7

33
11.9

51
18.3

12

1

20

18.5
28
28.9
34
31.9

1.5
6
6 .2
6

30.8
16
16.5
24
22.4

4
1.9

1

2

.4
14
9.9

15
17.4

5.6

1 2 .2

1.3

43
50.0

1

11
2 1 .6

3
3.2

10
1 0 .6

18

2

1 1 .8

1.3

9
5.9
16

2 .1

7
4.9

2
.8
2

1.4

5
5.8
13
4.7
3
4.6
2
2 .1

5
4.7

18

.7

26
17.1
32
13.6
21

1

1
2 .0

5.4

2.4
5
5.3

14.8

1

21
32.3

1

5
5.3

15.5

2
1 .0

i
1.5

1
1 .0

8

16
17.0

1 2 .2

7.2
50

3
5.9

4.8

5

72
35.8

3
4.6

1

4.5
3
1.4

11.1

1

1.5

.9

4
3.7

1.5

28
15.9
23

11

26
=====

1.4

1

2

3 7
38
34.9

74
1

1

.9

5

45
30.7

1
1 .2

.4

6

53
.7

11

15
21.4
31
31.7

1

1.4

1

3.9
5
3.4

26.8
4
4.3

29
19.1
56
23.7
39
27.5

8

Unclassi­
fied;
insuffi­
cient data

Other

16.9
i3
23.6
49
33.4

4
5.7
3
3.1
5
18 5
4
3.7

2

2.9
4
4.1

7.4
2
1 .8

6

10

11

94

236

37.1
4
3.7

26.9
27
28.7

100 .0

10.9

3
1.5

23
13.1
44
21.3

100 .0

1
1 .8
1

1

29
14.4

8

57
32.4
32
15.5

147

1.5

4.0

3.1
13
25.4
3

1
2 .0
1

5
7.7

2~
3.1

5.4

32.4
14
27.4
24
16.3

51
100 .0

1,883
26.1

.7

4

100 .0

392
5.4

5.4

2

27

6

1 .6

Strains;
sprains
(except
hernias)

2

21

100 .0

9.2

115

Indus­
trial
diseases

1.4

19
(3)
' 65

1

1.4

12.3
14
25.5
31

287
4.0

Hernias

2 1 .1

1 00 .0
110
100 .0

98

289
4.0

Fractures

1
1 .8
8

19
27.2
30
30.6
4
14.8
38
34.8

1 00 .0

1,472
20.4
—

13~
2 0 .0

Foreign
bodies
in eyes

6 .8
2

1.4
2

2.3

10

8

3.6

2.9

2

2

3.1
5
5.2
4
3.7

3.1

12

4.3

1

1.5
7
7.2
7
6.5

42
28.6
41
23.3
58
28.1

2
1 .1

2

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Boil-off-machine operator; boil-off man................................................

Total disabling and
medical injuries 2

3
1.4

10

24.4
23
24.5
53
35 0
70
29.7
33
23.2

1
1 .1
2

1.3
3
1.3
2

1.4

19
2 2 .1
68

2

24.5
24
36.9
32
32.9
26
24.3

.7

1
1.0
1
.9

1
Oi

03

Oi
T able

25.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile D yeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by
Nature of Injury, 1945— Continued

Occupation1

Total disabling and
medical injuries2

Amputa­
tions

Bruises;
contu­
sions

1

17
24.9
81
22.3
9
22 5
104
29.7

Number
Percent
Number
Percent

68
100.0

1.5

365

1

Number

350

100.0

.3

40
100 0

Maintenance man...................................................................................

PaclrAr
Padding-machine operator; padder operator............................................
Pla^taT'

hi11

Vior plfl't-**1 clofh
"

fianfnriTing.manjiiriA nparatnr
^Annng.Tna^ina nppr^tnr' ^min^.in|y>l]tnA Appr^tnr
pingar* pingping.martliinA npArator
Ptarcli TniTPf•m malrar
ao
Tonfpr-framA npr^lnr’ fr^mA npAi^itnp
Tnmlr drivor
Trucker, hand........................................................................................
Watchman
Wrapper r ..................................

...................................................................

Yam Hyor
Yarn w P
inrlA
Other.....................................................................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data..................................................................

1 Percents are based on injuries
8 A medical case is an industrial




Number
Percent
Percent
Number
Ppfppnf
XClVvllt
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
P fP T
p A fel
Xvlvvllb
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

814
100.0

183
100.0
111
100 0

2
.2
1

.5

lio
100.0

29
41.4
i2
27 8
28
32 9

70
100.0

43
100.0

85
100.0

37
100 0

1

2.7

50
100.0

274
100.0

1

.4

70
100.0

683
100.0

190
23.4
55
30.1
28
25 5
24
21.9

2

.3

io

100.0

8 .6

73
20.9

1

g
1
.2

323
100.0

for which the nature of injury is known.
injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or

Foreign
bodies
in eyes

Fractures

1

1

1.5
9
2.5

1.5
12

3.3

1

2.5
15
4.3
41
5.0
3

3
4.4
5
1.4

5
7.4
43

18
5.2

27.5
91
26.1

1 .1
11

17

1.4

2 .1
12
6 .6
2
1 .8
10

220

111

13.7

6
8 6
6

16
22.9

1.4

1.4

1.4

2.9

12

2

1

2

1

14.0

27 9
29
34.1
7
18.9

4.7

23

4.7

23
20.9

1

40 0
io

3.7
2

29
13
1.9

7
14 0
58
2 1 .2

16
22 9
132
19.4

1 .6

2
1 .8

.9
3
2.7

1

1

1

27.2

14.3

39
34 2
148
26.4
91
29.0

4
35
44
7.9
32

43
37 7
126
22.5
79
25.2

10 .2

13
18.6
7
16.3

11

2

1.4
1

.5
1
1

.9
1

1.4

1

11

2.7

1 0 .8

29.8

2.7

1
2 .0

3

12

8

2.9
7
10 0
8
1 .2

9
3.3
5
7.1
29
4.3
3

io

2

1

1

8 .8
1
2 1

ii

9.1

141
17.4
49
26.8
44
40.0
27
24.6

3
.9

2.7

3
20 8

2

1
1 .2
1

8 8

2

1

1.5

2.3
4
4.7
4

2

2.4

1

21

2
1.1
1

4
3.6
4
3.6

29
42

Unclassi­
fied;
insuffi­
cient data

Other

11

4

27.0
36
19.7
28
25 5
16
14.5

4.4
3
2.7

15
2 2 .1

1 1 .8

68

8

Strains;
sprains
(except
hernias)

78
21.5

1

25
ii
3.2

Hernias

Indus­
trial
diseases

8.4
16
8.7

26.0

100 0

114

8
20 0

20

20

560

10

25 0
30

7
14 0
79
28.9
18
25 7
238
34.8

77

100.0

17
24.9
38
10.5

2.7

100.0

49

7
10.3
96
26.4

27.0

15
44 2
16
33.3

35
100 0

Cuts;
lacera­
tions;
punctures

Burns;
scalds

1
2 .1
1

9
3.3

2 .1

24
3.5

2

1

5.9

2.9
4
8.3
7
9.1

i7
3.0

28
5.0

12
2 .1

12

8

3.8

2.5

3

1

88

31.4
14

2
2 .6

2 6

4.0

24.0
32.3
22

4
5.2

1.3

6 .0
11

21

24.7

1

9
7
2 .2

6

5.3
30
5.4
15
4.8

2

221

32.5
9
26.5
14
29.2

1
1

11

14.3
17
14.9
150
26.8
65
20.7

temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
8 Not computed because of small number of injuries reported.

4
.7
5
1 .6

9

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Nature of injury

T able

26.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Occupation and b y
Part o f B ody Injured, 1945

Total........................................................... Number
Percent

Boil-off-machine operator; boil-off man.......... Number
Percent
Calender operator......................................... Number
Percent
Chemist........................................................ Number
Percent
Clerk........................................................... Number
Percent
Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlapper.... Number
Percent
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder........... Number
Percent
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator; mercerize:......................... Number
Percent
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator.... Number
Percent
Cloth-washer operator; soaper operator; ropesoaper operator; open-soaper operator;
Tyaflhing-.m
nnhinp tender............................. Number
Percent
Color mixer; dye weigher; kettle man............ Number
Percent
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator............. Number
Percent
Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can
tender....................................................... Number
Percent
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere
classified................................................... Number
Percent
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator;
dye-box operator....................................... Number
Percent
Fireman....................................................... Number
Percent
Folding-machine operator; folder operator;
hooker-machine operator; yarder operator.. Number
Percent
Foreman; supervisor..................................... Number
Percent
See footnotes at end of table.




277
3.8

9
13.8

3.1

609
8.4

15
23.1

12

1

2

18.5

1.5

3.1

4
7.3
3

2

3.6
3

1
1 .8
1

100 .0

7
12.7
7
4.8

2 .0

2 .1

.7

202
100 .0

12

7
3.4

4

1

5.9

2 .0

.5

32.7

13
18.3
4
4.1

10

1

14.1

1.4

1
1 .0

1
1 .0
1

2
2 .8
2
2 .1

28.2
26
26.5

65
100 .0

55
100 .0

147

71
100.0

98
100 .0

27

10

4
14.8

135
1.9

37.1
14
12.7

19
(*)
65

2

1

7

100 .0

1 0 .8

3
4.7

51

12

10

1 00 .0

23.5

19.5

11

6

100 .0

7.5

4.1

178

31
17.4
46
22.4
7
17.1

16
9.0
35
17.0
3
7.3

13
13.8

6

6.3

14
9.2

6

4.0
14
5.9

3
1.3

21

2

14.8
1
1 .2

24

5

11

8 .6

1 .8

4.0

147

100 .0

207
100 .0

41
100 .0

94
1 00 .0

152
10 0 .0

236
100 .0

142
100 .0
86
100 .0

278
1 00 .0

21

8.9
32
22.5
8

9.3
40
14.4

5.5

3.7
3
2.7

5
18.6
5
4.5

100 .0
110
100 .0

6

15
27.3
39
26.9
66

20

2

1.5

1
2 .0

14
27.5
39
26.7

5
3.4

3
1.7
4

I
1.5

I
1.5

4
7.3
6

1

1
1 .8
1

1

2 .8

9
16.4
26
17.9

4.1

.7

.7

7
3.5

39
19.3

11

5.4

3
1.5

4
2 .0

1
1 .8

4

4
5.6
2
2 .0
2
2
1 .8

879

85

11.4
17
17.4

4
5.6
5
5.1

2
2 .8

17
15.6

3
2.7

3
2.7

8

194
2.7

3.9
8

5.5

38
18.5
3
7.3

.9

4.9

2 2 .0

4
4.3

3
3.2

26
27.7

5
5.3

2

6

21

6

2

3.9

13.9

3.9

1.3

12

42
17.8

10

5

8

20

4.3
3

2 .1
2

5.6

14.2

2 .1

1.4

4.3
7
4.9

1
1 .2

14
6.9 9 16.3

1
1 .2

6

6.9

1
1 .2

1
1 .2

3
3.5

75
27.1

16
5.8

24
8.7

17

7
2.5

11

2 .1

3
1.7

8

4.5

33
16.3

48
23.8

17
8.5

16
7.9

15
7.4

.5

12

3
4.2
9
9.2
3

4
5.7
3
3.1

7
7.1

1

1

2
2 .8
2
2 .0
1

11.1

3.7

11 .8

7
9.9
19
19.4
5
18.5
35
31.9

3.7
5
4.5

3.7
4
3.6

2

6

4

2

1

1

19
29.3

9
13.8

4

3
4.6

2

9.2

5
7.7

3.1

2

2

12

3.9

3.9
15
10.3

9
17.7
33
22.7

23.5
30
20.5

3
5.9
16
10.9

7
13.7

3.9

23
13.0
19
9.3
5

34
19.1
33
16.1

4.9
2
2 .1

4.0

11.3
9
9.2
1

3.7
4
3.6

6

10
6 .8

11
1 1 .2

5
18.5
9
8 .2

16.8
27
27.6
3
11.1

13

18
16.5

6 .1

12

10.9

3
*3.2

2

1.4
2

2.3

2

1

2
2

8

1.4

13
7.3
13
6.3
3
7.3

7
3.9

2 .8

2.9
4
9.7

3
1.5
4
9.8

1

5.5

12
8 .2

5

1

2.4

31
15.1
4
9.8

1 2 .2

26.7

14
7.9
14
6.9
4
9.7

39
41.5

9
9.6

17
18.1

13
13.8

14
14.9

7
7.5

5
5.3

2
2 .1

2
2 .1

52
34.3

.5
2

1
1 .1

General

21

10.4

6

350
4.9

24.4

1

2.4

13
25.5
58
39.8

Toe (s)

21

10.4

807

10

10

5.1

1.4

79
33.6
42
29.6

3.9
3

2 .0

4
1.7
9
6.3

2

3

3.9

38
25.0

6

1.3

3.1

30
46.2

Foot or feet (in­
cluding ankle)

.7

8
2

Leg (s)

2 .1

9
12.7

1

Total

Finger (s) and/or
thumb (s)

Hand (s) (including
wrist)

1 1 .0

8

1

6 .1

2 0 .0

29
40.8
47
48.0
9
33.3
26
23.6

4.9

6

1
1 .8
1

6.9

3

1

2

7
7.4

1
1 .8

10

1.4

.5

8
8 .6

2

3.6

1

1

5.4

4
7.3
16

1.4

4.5
9
4.4
3
7.4

2 .0
2

7
12.7
29

75
37.1

3
5.9
4
2.7

11

15
27.3
39
26.9

2
1 .0

3
5.9
5
3.4

10

9.2

5
9.1
17
11.7

18

6

9.2

.7

4
7.9
19
13.0

5.6

6

12.4

5
9.1
13
9.0

1

18

3
4.6

25
45.5
69
47.6

3
4.6

10.1

17
26.2

8

9.2

9
13.9

5
7.7

8

8 .0

3
4.6

47
26.4
60
29.3
9

12

6.7
7
3.4

574

8 .6

1 1 .2

9
13.8
2

627

612
8.5

5
4.5

169
2.3

1,276 1,551
17.7 21.5

77 2,695
37.4
2 =====
18
27.7
3.1
1 .1

2
2 .0

1

Arm (s)

Total

3
4.6

2

19
29.2

1
2 .0

Shoulder

1 .2

3

5

Hip (8) or pelvis

312
4.3

7.4

1

I

1 2 .2

7.4
31
28.2

3
4.6

1

Abdomen

Back

Chest (lungs), ribs,
etc.

231 1,824
3.2 25.3

975
13.5

100 .0

Lower extremities

Upper extremities

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Ager operator............................................... Number
Percent
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing
tender....................................................... Number
Percent
Back tender (printing).................................. Number
Percent
Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator;
winding-manhinp. operator; tuber................ Number
Percent

7.252

Total

Brain or skull

Eye (s)

l

1

Total

Total disabling and
medical injuries *

Occupation1

Unclassified; insufficient data

Part of body injured
Trunk

Head

8

24
15.8

20

5.3

13.2

44
28.9

16
10.5

14
9.2

14
9.2

2 .6

82
35.0
37
26.1

8.9
5
3.5

29
12.4
15

32
13.7
17

19

23
9.7
14
9.9

2 .1

1 2 .0

7
4.9

6
2 .6

1 0 .6

48
20.4
28
19.7

50
58.1

9
10.5

17
19.8

24
27,8

14
16.3

6

8

7.0

9.3

90
32.5

27
9.7

25
9.0

38
13.8

66

33
11.9

22

11

7.9

4.0

61
34.3
63
30.7

18
10 .1

13
6.3

21

20
1 1 .2

11

23.8

8 .1

6

7
4.9

2

4
5

1

3

2 .1

6
2 .2

1

T able 26.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by
Part of Body Injured, 1945—Continued

Ox

Part of body injured

*3^
Occupation1

S
Goods layer; cloth layer-out; lay-out man.... Number
Percent
Gray-cloth tender, printing; gray tender........ Number
Percent
Inspector; examiner...................................... Number
Percent
Janitor......................................................... Number
Percent
Jigger; dye-jig operator................................. Number
Percent
Kier boiler; kier operator............. ................ Number
Percent
Laborer, not elsewhere classified.................... Number
Percent
Maintenance man......................................... Number
Percent
Mangle tender, not elsewhere classified.......... Number
Percent
Packer........................................................ Number
Percent
Padding-machine operator; padder operator.. Number
Percent

65
100.0
97

6

9.2

3
4.6

108
100.0

11

2
2 .1
8

10.4

11.8

2

1.5

3.1

2
2 .1

2
2 .1

24
36.9
32
33.7

3

20

7.6

100.0
365

1

100.0

6

6.3

100.0

6
8

18.7

40
100.0
350
100.0

15.0
42

814
100.0
183
100.0

24.6
25
13.7

11
1

100.0
110

100.0

Pleater; plaiter; bin plaiter; kier plaiter; cloth
knocker.................................................... Number
Percent
Sanforizing-machine operator........................ Number
Percent
Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine
operator.................................................... Number
Percent
Singer; singring-machine operator................. Number
Percent

85
100.0
37
100.0

Starch-mixer; size maker............................... Number
Percent
Tenter-frame operator; frame operator.......... Number
Percent
Truck driver................................................ Number
Percent
Trucker, hand.............................................. Number
Percent

50
100.0
274
100.0
70
100.0
683
100.0

Watchman................................................... Number
Percent
Wrapper...................................................... Number
Percent
Yam dyer.................................................... Number
Percent

35
100.0
49
100.0
77
100.0

Yam winder................................................. Number
Percent
Other.......................................................... Number
Percent
Unclassified; insufficient data......................... Number
Percent

114
100.0
560

70

100.0

43
100.0

100.0

323
100.0

6

12.1

20
0
1
0

9.0
18
16.4

1
2

8 .8

18.9

1

8

2 .8
1

1.5

1.5

17
25.0
69
19.0
7
17.5
93
26.7

56
15.3
3
7.5
26
7.5

2
.6
2

10
2 .8
1

5.0

2.5

1.7

2.9

156
19.2
16

19
2.3

25
3.1

1

8

6

8 .8
6

.5

5.4
16
14.6

.9

1

10

4.4
3
2.7
2
1 .8

7
9.9

2

2.9

8

8

2

1

7.7
4
4.2
4
3.8

12.3
23
24.1

12.3

3.1

1.5

2
2 .1
1

1
1 .1

10

1
1 .1
1

9.5

.9

4
5.9
9
2.5

4
5.9
38
10.4

6

1

1

1

8.7

1.5

1.5

1.5

8
2 .2

1

11

.3

2
.6
1

2

2.5
38

11.0

3.4

8 .0

64

143
17.6
49
26.8
39
35.2
29
26.4

2
1 .1
8

31
17.0

7.2
4
3.6

19.0
13

13
18.6

3
4.3

17.1

4.3

2

2

8

4.7

4.7

18.6

2

1

1
1 .2
1

5.4

2.7

2.7

5

5

2

1
1 .2

2.4

10.0 10.0
8
17
6.2 2.9
11

15.9
54
7.9

10

13.2
10
8 .8

70

12.6

44
14.1

5

10.1

7

15

2.9
15

2 .2

2 .2

2

2.9
24
3.5

3
6 .2

5

8 .8
1
2 .0
1

1.3
4
3.5
38
6.9
27
8.7

2
1 .8

13
2.3

3
6 .1

8

9.3
4

2

5.4
1
2 .0
11

10.0

1.4
28
4.1
4
11.9

4.0
1

11

22.4
26.3

7.9

4
3.5
19
3.4

11

9.7
154
27.7

2
1 .8
22

6

11

3.5

66

21.1

4.0
7
2 .2

1 Percents are based on injuries for which the part of body injured is known.
* A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or




15
4.3

5
1.4

21
2 .6
6

1 .1

1 .8

5
2.7

5
2.7
3
2.7

3.3
4
3.6
5
4.5

15

2
1 .8
2
1 .8

2.5
9
2 .6
6

.7

2
1 .8

2.7

4
5.7

3
4.3
3
7.0

1.4

4.7
2

2.4
2

2.7

3

1
2 .0

1
1 .2

1

5.4

6

16.2

8 .8

2.9

5.9

2.9

5

3

1
2 .0
1

2

4.1
1

1

1.3

1.3

1.3
2
1 .8
10
1 .8

5
1 .6

12
2

20.6
42.9
30
39.4
75
66.4

200

35.9

11
2

8

16.0
28
4
5.8
46
6 .8

12.2

14

3
4.4

77
9.5
13
7.1

160
19.7
35
19.0
17
15.3
14
12.7

152
18.7
41
22.4
27
24.3
21

12

19.1

10.9

14.3

1
0

16
22.9
8

18.6

27.9

18.6

7
10.0
3
7.0

7
10.0

12

2.3

2.9
4
9.3

13
15.3
4

25
29.3
7
19.0

25
29.4
9
24.3

10.6

9.4

12.0
28
10.2
7
10.1

10.0

5

24.1

9
18.0
63
23.0

8

20

11.6

16.5

29.1
188
27.6

1

8

20.5

23.5
9
18.4

10

12

5
6 .6

7.9

1.3

6

5
4.4
42
7.6
19

5
4.4
27
4.9
23
7.3

1.5
1
1 .1

5
4.7
1

9.4

12

10.8
13
11.8

8 .6
8

10.8

58
8.5
3

10.2

66

12
1

8

90
25.9

13.2

13.1

13.1

15.8

22

44
38.9
87
15.5
58
18.5

16
14.2

9

6 .6

20.0

1
0

10

46
8.3
31
9.9

1

3.1
4
4.2
7

25.0
55
15.9

6

64
17.6

10

8 .0

5
7.4
26
7.2
3
7.5
28

3
4.6
5
5.3
9
8.5

15.0
36
10.3

10

8 .8

1

7.1

21

5
7.7
5
5.2
5
4.7

20.6

2.9

1

5.4
16
5.1

44
51.7
17
46.0

1
0

5

2

10.6

11.4
4
9.3

15.4
14
14.7

14.7
57
15.8

8 .8

1

22

15
2.7
5

34.3
24
55.8

11

13
19.0
35
9.6

10

19.8

19.8

6

3

5.2
73
13.1
33

10.0

6

5.4

24

21

3

3
3.9

64
7.9
14
7.7

301
37.1
62
33.8
35
31.5
38
34.5

21

3
8.9

3.2

6 .1

8 .0

12.6

7

1.5

10.2
8
10.6

5
7.4
56
15.4
3
7.5
28

12

10.2

1
10

12.3

9
9.5
4
3.8

44.5
19
27.5
216
31.8

1.4
44
6.5

1 .8

6 .2

1
2
18.5
2
1
22.1

.7

16
5.8

1 .1

8

19
38.0

1
2 .0

5

4

1
2 .0
2

5

34
12.5
14
20.4
98
14.4

6 .0

41.1
148
40.8
19
47.5
119
34.2

1

2

1
1 .2

10.8

4
5.3

1.9

2

2.9
3
6.9

2

24.0
71
25.9
16
23.2
208
30.6

20

12.0

2.4

14
41.2

4
1.5

3

8 .8

7
14.3

12

1 .8
2

3

14
16.5
9
24.3

21

4
3.8

3.0
3
7.5
13
3.7

1

5.0
13
3.7

1
1 .1

24
37.0
42
44.2
49
46.2

19.5
67

12.1
32
10.2

11
2
21.8
71
22.7

8 .0

53
6.5
20

10.9
13
11.7

5
13.5
2

4.0
32
11.7
9
13.2
66

9.7
5
14.7
4
8 .2

5.4
52
9.3
29
9.3

temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
* Not computed because of small number of injuries reported.

8 .8

27
7.4
4
10.0
41
11.9
64
7.9
14
7.7
7
6.3
2
1 .8

1

2

11

3.0

1.5
14
3.9

1

2.5
21
6 .0

35
4.3
7
3.8
7
6.3
7
6.4

2

4
1 .1

16
2 .0

3.3
4
3.6

5
7.1
1

2.3

2

5.4

5.4

5
10.0

4.0

5
10.0

7.3
7
10.1
70
10.3

4.0
4
5.8
52
7.6

.4
3
4.3
14

2

1

2

5.9
4

2.9

5.9

1
2 .0
1

1
2 .0

20

8 .2
6

6 .1

2

1
1

1

2.1

4
5.3
1

.9
11
2 .0

1
1

3.5

1

"4

io

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Lower extremities

Upper extremities

Trunk

Head

27.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile D yeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Occupation and b y Agency, 1945

Total................................................................................... Number
Percent
Ager operator...................................................................... Number
Percent
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender.................. Number
Percent
Back tender (printing)......................................................... Number
Percent
Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator; winding-machine
operator; tuber................................................................. Number
Percent

Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlapper............................ Number
Percent
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder.................................. Number
Percent
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator; mercerizer.............................................................................. Number
Percent
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator............................... Number
Percent
Cloth-washer operator; soaper operator; rope-soaper operator;
open-soaper operator; washing-machine tender................... Number
Percent
Color mixer; dye weigher; kettleman.................................... Number
Percent
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator.................................... Number
Percent
Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender................. Number
Percent
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere classified.................. Number
Percent
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator; dye-box operator... Number
Percent
Fireman.............................................................................. Number
Percent
Folding-machine operator; folder operators; hooker-machine
operator; yarder operator.................................................. Number
Percent
Foreman; supervisor............................................................ Number
Percent
Goods layer; doth layer-out; lay-out man............................. Number
Percent
Gray-doth tender, printing; gray tender............................... Number
Percent
Inspector; examiner............................................................. Number
Percent
See footnotes at end of table.




1
£

7,252 1,363
19.4

1
o
H

800
11.3

781

704

77

11.1

1 0 .0

1 .1

j
s

li

7

i

i
ia
o
O

738
10.5

1 0 .0

65

13

12

8

100.0

2 0 .2
12

18.8
4
7.3
17

12.5

10.9

12
2 1 .8

12
2 1 .8

5
3.5

5
3.5

3.1
9
16.4
25
17.3

21
1 0 .6

63
31.8
3
4.3
29
29.9

55

1 .6

100.0

21.7
39
26.9

202
100.0

57
28.6

5.0

21
1 0 .6

71

20

12

29.3
33
34.1

17.4
7
7.2

6

6

8.7

8.7

1

6
6 .2
1

6
6 .2
1

3.7
15
13.9

3.7

1

3

2

7

1
1 .6

2

1

8

100.0

147

100.0

98
100.0

27

1 1 .8
10

100.0
110
100.0

.9

3.7
19
17.6
2

19

3

65

6

100.0

9.5

6.3

51

18
35.2
36
25.1

19/6
15
10.5

(*
)

100.0

147
100.0

178
100.0

207
100.0

41
100.0

94

100.0

152

55
32.2
12
6 .0
8

19.6
23
24.9
42
28.0
55
23.8
3

W

30
17.6
19
9.5
3
7.3
9
9.8
11

11
1 0 .2

12.7

11.1

5
9.8

2

9.5

3.2

3.2

11.1

2

3.9

1
2 .0

8.4

4
7.8
14
9.8

7

1 2 .2

1 2 .2

17
18.5

16
17.4

25
16.7
17
7.3
7
5.0

25
16.7
17
7.3
5
3.6

2

2

2.4

2.4

19.3

5.6

6.4

6.4

11
1 0 .2

10

9.3

1 2 .2
1
1 .1

3
1.5

5
7.2

1

1
1 .6

3.2

1
2 .0
2

1
2 .0
6

11

2 .8

1.4

4.2

3
1 .8

1
.6

17

6

14.7
8

8.7

4

11

3.0
1

2

i

2
2 .2

4
4.3

1

1 1 .2
6

1 1 .2
1

.9

4.3

.4
5
3.6

1
1 .2

2.4

28
10.4

16
5.9
1

.9

17
15.7

6

5.6

1 0 .8

.7

2

1
1 .2

5
5.9

12

6
2 .2

1.5
7
7.4
5
4.6

4.4
3
4.6
3
3.2
7
6.5

1

2

.7

1.4

4
24

1 .8

3

5
7.9

12
8 .6

2

1.3
3
1.3
29
20.9

5
3.3

1
.6
2
1 .0

.5

1
1 .1

2
2 .2

1

2

7
4.1
13
6.5
3
7.3
4
4.3

2

1.3

7
4.7

7
5.0

33
23.9

.9

3
3.5
3

4.1

7.7

1

4.4
3
4.6

1
1 .1
8

1
1 .1
6

16
17.0

2
2 .1

2

1.9

3

1

5.6

3
2 .8

2 .8

.9

4
1.5

2
2 .1

1 .1
1

6
2.6

2

1.4

11

.7

2
1
1

3.9

.7
6
2 .6
2

14
21.5

7.4

2 .1

13
9.1

2
2 .2

.5

1
1 .2
12

3
5.9
3

5
2.5

1

1
1 .1

2
2 .2

4
2.7

.7

1
2 .0

3.9

1

1

1 1 .2
1

1
1 .6

2.4

2

3.4
15

2

3.2

1

.7

8

2

2.4

8

2 0 .2

5.0

3
4.3
5
5.2
4
14.8
15
13.9

4
4.1

2

7.4
5
4.6

1

5.3
26

32.4
4
4.3

2.1
1
0

4
6.3

1
1 .0

191

2

4
3.7

1.4

6
6 .2

2.4

2

i9

3.1
3
5.5
3

.5

2.9

4.9

1.3

7.8

1 .6

1

2

4.9

9

21

603
8.5

1

.5

2

3.2

8

21

6
2 .2

73

1.0
1

4

3.0

4.7
9
4.5

26

7

II

2 .8
1

2

3
1.5

6

2.4
3
3.3

2

6 .0

8 .2

2

3.1

6

7.7

4
2.4

82
1 .2

4.2

1.9

17.5

87
1 .2
2

2

1.9

Ms
• -S
g

1°
&

3.1

7.4

2

3

1.4

1.4

1
1 .0
2

7.4

86
1 .2

1
1 .8
6

1.4

26

4.7

1
1 .8
2

2

4
3.7

1 .6

1
3

I
m

6.3

4
5.8

1
1 .0

114

= = —
4

.5

2 .0

2

172
2.4

1

11

6

21

32.6
5

3
1.5

1 1 .8

28
18.7

15.4

6

100.0

12

55
27.4

15.4

3

5
9.1
17

1
u
a
1
1

1
i
a

1

1 0 .0

1 0 .8
10
1 0 .6
6

21.3

7

6

10

108

2

2 2 .1

11

10

100.0

1.9

4
3.7

201
2 .8

=== =
=

6

2 .1

3
1

If
li
!
1

-3
I
3
1

9.4

11.1

2

66

25
9.3

20

40.8

6.5

31
11.5

3.1

1
1 .0
11

4
5.8
3
3.1
3

2
1 .0

35
13.0
7

97

5.5

3
4.3

8

49
18.2

100.0

2 .0

5
7.2

4.7

278

2

4.0

7
3.5
5

4
4.7

65

11

18

55
64.6

100.0

4

1 0 .6

86
100.0

142

8

7
3.5
5

1
1 .1

2

8

3.7
24

209
3.0

3.1

5.6

11
1 0 .2

3
7.3
13
14.1

200
2 .8

1
1 .8

8

18

2 .2

100.0

I
1 .6

5.6

1 0 .6

100.0

236

6

9.4
3
5.5

362
5.1

7.7

1.4

7.3
43
18.5
18
12.9

100.0

3
4.7
4
7.3
7
4.9

485
6.9

fl
SS
J
•£
g

o
O

1
2 .0
11

2

1.4

705

5
1
1

1

4
3.7

5
9.8

2

1
1
o

o

I
*

100.0

I3

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Boil-off-machine operator; boil-off man................................. Number
Percent
Calender operator................................................................ Number
Percent
Chemist............................................................................... Number
Percent
Clerk................................................................................... Number
Percent

1
1
1
a

©

I'S

Vehicles

tables,

Occupation1

Agency

•t
n
r
§8
IS
si
*8!
il

ir
e

T able

1
1 .2

4
1.5

3
3.5

6
2 .2

11.1
3
4.6

1.5
3
2 .8

1
1 .1

4
3.7

2
2.1
5
4.6

Ol

T able

27.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by
Agency, 1945— Continued

365

100 0

40

Kier boiler; kier operator..........................................
Number
Percent

Maintenance man.....................................................

Number
Percent
X iimfcA
T V i*
uiuver
PpfAAnf
AC v
lvvU
Kiit iK p
v a
ii urnucr
PCA V
1 oP ant.
lvvU
Muiiiud
K^r
n iim
PC oah
p v
I.
1 alvvU

Mangle tender, not elsewhere classified......................
Packer.....................................................................
Padding-machine operator; padder operator...............
Pleater; plaiter; bin plaiter; kier plaiter; cloth knocker,
Sanforizing-machine operator....................................
Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine operator.
Singer; singeing-machine operator.............................

Number
Percent
MU KAf
VnmU i
i lU C
PofAAnf.
1 vlV
vllV
MnmW
V U vl
i ulU
Percent
Kiim
hAP
n uiiiuci
Pvivvllt
oP A lf
A AT

Starch mixer; size maker...........................................

NUVUi*
1n lUA
1 m k vi

Tenter-frame operator; frame operator...................... .

MU V vi
iA
1 iim UP
1 lU
Percent
Mnm1v»r
1U U
1 lU vi
Percent
Number
Percent

Truck driver.............................................................
Trucker, hand...........................................................
Watchman................................................................
Wrapper...................................................................
Yarn dyer..................................................................
Yam winder.............................................................
Ot her.......................................................................
n
TJcli ssified; insufficient data....................................

1 Percents

MUL lU
1 iimhpp
1 JK d
Pvi vvill
JppA n
T A t.
MU Kpr
1 iim vl
1 ulU
Pa b if
pa
1 via tV
vU
MUU C
K
11iit U p
1h a1
PvlvvUI.
pai
1 a a tU
MU U p
. 1 iudKvi
1 lU a
PC hI.
paa v
1 alvvU
, Number
Percent
Number
Percent

339
6

is

4.1

4.1

100.0

48
14.0

814

162

100 .0

2 1 .0

183

38
21.4

77
9.9
24
13.5
‘g
7.5

18
2.3
28
15.7

28
15.7

10.3

10.3

3.8

10.5

10.5

100.0

iii

100 .0

lio

100.0

*2

1.9
26
24.6

70

15

100 .0

2 2 .0
22

43
100.0

85
100.0

37
100.0

51.3
25
30.9
jj
30.4

’4

2 .6

ii

ii

0

13.0
A
9.3
*5

6 .2

*4

11.1

ii

13.6
6

16.7

10

11.1

2.9

14

4
.5

1 .8

ii

ii

8

8.7
A
9.3

8

8.7
A
9.3

6

g

2

12.2

81
30.5

4.1
31

4.1
29
10.9
7
10 3
179
26.7

100.0

70

10

100 0

683
100 .0

27
4.0

35
100 .0

49

3

100.0

6 .8

77
100.0

114
100 0

560
100.0

323
100.0

i9
25.1
43
38 2
109
19.7
41
13.8

14 7
96
14.3
14
41.3
*7
15.9
i2
15.8

1 1 .6

24
35 3
193
28.8
4
1 1 .8
2

1
2 .8

.7
17
25 0
14

3
8.9

Unclassified; insuffi­
cient data

Other

Benches, tables,
chairs

Ladders

Stairs

Lumber stock

Center bars, shells

Boilers and pressure
vessels

Metal parts

Foreign bodies, not
elsewhere classified

Hand tools
3
4.4
7
1.9
5.1
15
4.4

1 .2

21

110

2

27
3.5
13
7.3
37
34.5
*7
0.7

1.9
is
14.3

3
4.3

1.4

9.9
*3
8.3
4.1
77
28.9
1

66

4
4.9

17
34.9
*0
2 .2
12
17 6

15
104
15.5

108
16.0

1

2

2.9

5.9

2.9

2.7

11
6 .2
*2

1
1

2.3

1
1 .2
*1
2 .8
0
12 .2

*2

8

4.5
A
5.3

18.3

14
12 5
53
9.7
30

7
3
71
12.9
30

10.0

1 0 .0

7
3
62
11.3
28
9.3

8

1.3

10.5

1

6

9
1 .6
2

.7

9
51
9.3
41
13.8

6

7
3
68

12.4
29
9.7

2

2

1

1

2.9

2.9
2
.6

1.5
9
2.5

1.5

6

1.7

4

io
2.9

3.4
5
4.7
3
2.9

2 .2
11

56
7.2
7
3.9
3

10.3

2 .8

3
4.3

2

65
8.4

18
2.3

1.4

0

.3
4

1
1 .0

1

2.3
4
4.9
1
2 .8

4
3.8

4
3.7
1
1 .0

2

2.5

3.0

3.1

2 .1

15
11
1 .6

6
8 .8
8
1 .2

1

3
14
18.4
4
36
35
6.4
24
8 .0

2.9
4
9.1
5
14
12.5
25
4.6
17
5.7

2.9
7
1 .0

1

1.3

14

3.6

2 .6

6
2 .0

9
3.0

4

2 .0

1 .2

43
5.5

8
1 .0

28
3.6

3
.4

1

2
1 .1
1

1.9
3
2.9

.9

.9

1
1 .0

.3
3
1.7

1

1.4

3
4.3

2.3
3
3.7

1
1 .2

20

1

1

5.6
3

2

1.5
10

2

6

.3

.9

1
.1

3
.4

5
14.7

1

6 .1
10

7

3.7
7
10.3
58

2
10

8 .6

5
14.7
3

5

1

6 .8
8

1

1.3

10.5

2.3
3
3.9

4.5

4.5

2.3

1

.9

2.7

5

5.6

1

8

10.3
3
2.9

5
4

4

2

2.7

3.6

11

2

2.9

2.9

6
1 .1
8

39

2

2

5
4.5

132
17.0
9
5.1

2.3
3
3.7

2

2.5

4
1.5

4.1

1.5

7

13
19.0

1

1
2 .0
11

1

.6

1

43
12.5

1.4

3
3.7
1
2 .8

1

4

3

1

3
4
1.5

7
10.3
15
4.1
5
12.8

1

2.3

2
1 .8

7

2 .6

2.9

20

1
2 .6

2

6 .1

2

1

6 .6

1
2 .6

.3

1

7
15.9

.3

5.1
9

1
2 .8
1
2 .0

1 .1
1

15
i4

1
1 .2

1
2 .8

8

21

2

1.9

2.3

2 .6
1

2
.6

1

8

2 .6
1

2

2.9

1

1

8
1 1 .6

9.9
3
8.3

3

15

2
1 .1

1

2

2

2.9
2
.6
2

2

2.3

25.6
5
1.5

8

1

2.9

14.2

10
2 .8

10

2

4.1
7

6 .8

1

4
5.9
7
1.9

7

1

2 .1

4.5
*4
5.3
6

l l
£
j>
o

7
10.3
71
19 6
3
7.7
25
7.3

19.2

2
2

are based on injuries for which the agency of accident is known.
* A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or




55
3
7.7

8

2

1 2 .2

20

3
.4
31
17.4
*9
8.4
24
22.7

8

13.6
*5
13.9

50

16
23.5

23
6.7

18.6

ii

274

M
o

3
4.3

38

100.0

ig
6.7

Containers
1

1.5
47
13.0
"l

is

59
17.2

1

1

7
10.3

12.8

350

1

Cloth, rolled

| Other

7
10 3

25
@9
5

Hand
trucks

8
11 8

15 A
16
4.7

100 .0

Laborer, not elsewhere classified................................

5
74
123

Total

68
100 0

Jigger; dye-jig operator.............................................

0

Vehicles

Working surfaces

Janitor.....................................................................

Machines

Total disabling and
medibal injuries *

Occupation1

6
1 .1

13
4.3

1

5
.9
4
1.3

.9
7
1.3
3
1 .0

temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
* Not computed because of small number of mjuries reported.

1

3
.5
4
1.3

12

.9
14

10.7
42
7.7
31
10.4

2 .6
1

.3

1

2
11

24

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Agency

T able

28.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Occupation and by
Accident Type, 1945

Occupation1

Total disabling and
medical injuries 2

Striking
against

Struck
by

Falls

Caught
in, on, or
between

Ager operator.....................................................................
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender................
Back tender (printing).......................................................
Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator; winding-machine
operator; tuber...............................................................
Boil-off-machine operator; boil-off man...............................

Chemist.............................................................................
Clerk.................................................................................
Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlapper..........................
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder......................................
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator;
mercerizer.......................................................................
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator.............................
Cloth-washer operator; soaper operator; rope-soaper operator;
open-soaper operator; washing-machine tender.................
Color mixer; dye weigher; kettleman...................................
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator..................................
Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender...............
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere classified................
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator; dye-box operator.
Fireman............................................................................
Folding-machine operator; folder operator; hooker-machine
operator; yarder operator................ ...............................
Foreman; supervisor...........................................................
Goods layer; cloth layer-out; lay-out m an ...........................
Gray-cloth tender, printing; gray tender............................
See footnotes at end of table.




Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

7,252
100.0

65

1,174
16.3
10

1,659
23.0
13

788
1 1 .0

5
7.7
3
5.5

600
8.4
12

2 0 .0
10

100.0

15.4
15
27.3
28
19.0

18.2
29
19.7

15.0

10
6 .8

202
100.0

21

10.4

58
28.9

33
16.4

4.0

9
12.7
16
16.3
5
18.5
23
21.3

9
12.7
24
24.5

100.0

55
100.0

147

27

9
12.7
15
15.3
3

100.0
110
100.0

19
17.6

71
100.0

98
100.0

11.1

22

788

1,477

1 1 .0

2 0 .6

13

10
6 .8

5
7.7
13
23.6
36
24.5

7
3.5

64
31.8

15

13
18.3
27
27.6

To lower
level

398
5.6

202
2 .8

315
4.4

275
3.8

6

5
7.7

3.1

9

1
1 .8
2

6

2

18.4

9.2

9.2

2

1
1 .8
8

1
1 .8
2

5.4

1.4

6 .1

1.4

7
3.5

1

.5

5
2.5

.5

3.6

8

6

8.5
5
5.1

4
5.6

6

8.5
7
7.1
3
11.1

7
6.5

Inhala­
tion,
absorp­
tion,
ingestion

On same
level

Total
Total............................. ...................................................

Contact
with
extreme
tempera­
tures

Slips
(not
falls)

23
21.3

2

2
2 .0
1

7.4
19
17.6

3.7
4
3.7

1

6

8.5
5
5.1
7.4

3
2 .8

1

5

5

1

2

1

14
21.5

17
26.2

5
7.7

2

2

3.1

3.1

7
13.7
39
27.1

7
13.7
25
17.4

4
7.8

5
9.8
7
4.9

3
5.9
4

3.9
3

12

1

2 .8

2 .1

8.3

.7

33
18.8
25

8

12
6 .8

41

16
9.1
18
8.7
5

100.0

1 2 .2

94

13
13.8

51
100.0

147
100.0

178
100.0

207
100.0

100.0

152

12.1
6

14.6
18
19.0

100.0

25
17.7

30
19.9
34
14.5
34
24.1

86
100.0

13
15.3

14.1

278
100.0

48
17.5

2 0 .0

65

12

100.0

236
100.0

142

100.0

97
100.0

20

13.2
19
8 .1

18.5
16
16.8

12

55
16
24.6
16
16.8

10

6.9
28
15.9
7
3.4
4
9.8
14
14.9

23
13.1
16
7.8
3
7.3
12
12 .8

15

1.5
2

7
13.7

5.9

4.5
4
1.9

7
3.4

2

1

1

4.9

2.4
4
4.3

2.4
4
4.3

8 .6
12

8

8.5

4

1

2 .0

t
1 .0
1

37
4
3.7

22

21

2

32.3

3.1

25
14.2
70
34.0

24
13.6
54
26.2

11

26.9

19.5
17
18.1

6

2
1

8

4.3

4
2.7
23
9.9
5
3.5

36
42.3

3
3.5

3
3.5

29
10.5
3
4.6

30
10.9
7

18
6.5

12

11

12

4.4

4.0

6

1

2

9.3
7
7.3

1.5

3.1

1
1 .1

2
2 .1

10.5

1

.7

20.3

9
5.1
7
3.4
3
7.3
3
3.2

8

8.4

2

6

27
18.7

3.9

5.3
24
10.3
16
11.3

1 0 .8
8

71

3.6

5.6

13
25.6
19
13.2

2

21

10

3
3.1
13
48.2

105
1.5

5
1

13.9
18
7.7
6

2 1 .0

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient data

Other

3
4.6

.9

19
100.0

9
16.4

1

2

65

(8
)

2 0 .0

Over­
exer­
tion

12
1 2 .8

6
1 1 .8

4

3

2 .8

6

3.4
2
1 .0

2
1

i
1 .1

4

8

2 .6
1

5.3
17
7.3
9
6.4

4.0
23
9.8
19
13.5

15
9.9
43
18.4
7
5.0

5
5.9

1
1 .2

2

11

2

2.4

12.9

2.4

4.4

29
10.5

57
20.7

1

1

4
1.5
1

1.5
4
4.2

1.5
9
9.5

22

33.9
29
30.6

1
1 .1

.4
11

7.8

41
27.2
54
23.0
21

14.9

2

1

1.3
2

.9
4

2
1

2 .8
1

3

1.5

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Accident type

2

Oi
co

T able

28.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 168 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by
Accident Type, 1945— Continued

Occupation1

Inspector; examiner............................................................
Janitor...............................................................................
Jigger; dye-jig operator.......................................................
Kier boiler; kier operator....................................................
Laborer, not elsewhere classified..........................................
Maintenance man...............................................................
Mangle tender, not elsewhere classified................................
Packer...............................................................................
Padding-machine operator; padder operator.........................
Pleater; plaiter; bin plaiter; kier plaiter; cloth knocker.........
Sanforizing-machine operator..............................................
Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine operator............
Singer; singeing-machine operator.......................................
Starch mixer; size maker.....................................................
Tenter-frame operator; frame operator................................
Truck driver.......................................................................
Trucker, hand....................................................................
Watchman.........................................................................
Wrapper.............................................................................
Yam dyer..........................................................................
Yam winder.......................................................................
Other.................................................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data..............................................

Total disabling and
medical injuries 2

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

108

Striking
against

Falls
Struck
by

Caught
in, on, or
between

10 0 .0

19
17.6

25
23.2

19
17.6

68
100 .0

17
25.0

9
13.2
69
18.9
5
12.5
89
25.7

8
11.8

365
100.0

40
100.0

350
100.0

'814
100.0

183
100.0
111
100 .0
110
100.0

70
100.0

43

22
6.0
6

15.0
54
15.6
153
19.2
27
14.8
29
26.4
9
8.3
13
18.8
6

85

14.0
18

100.0

21.2

37

7
19.4

100.0

100 .0

292
36.4
34
18.7
27
24.5
21

19.3
15
2 1 .8

7
16.3
29
34.0
7
19.4

50

4

5

100.0

8 .0

1 0 .0

55
20.4
13
18.6

50
18.5
26
37.1
204
30.1

274
100.0

70
100.0

683
100.0

100

14.7

35

2

100.0

5.9
9
18.7

49
100.0

77

3
8 .8

13
27.2

10

12

100.0

13.0

15.6

114

39
34.5

2 2 .1

100.0

560
100.0

323
100 .0

112
20.1

60
19.3

25
118
2 1 .2

78
24.9

1 Percents are based on injuries for which accident type is known.
* A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or




59
16.2
6

15.0
27
7.8
62
7.8
27
14.8
2
1 .8
12
1 1 .0
8
11 .6
12

27.8

On same
level

Total
8

7.4
5
7.4
14
3.8
7
17.5
41

2

5.9

1
2 .1

5
6.5
15
13.3
57
10.3
26
8.4

2

2.9

54

24
3.0

30
3.8

12
6 .6

6

6 .8

18
9.9
5
4.5
4
3.7
17
24.7
3
7.0
6

77
11.3

3
4.5
14
3.8
4
6 .6

7.1
3
8.3

10 .0

4
3.7

1 1 .8

11

42
15.6
7

4
3.7

3
7.5
18
5.2

12.9
3
8.3
1
2 .0

To lower
level

10 .0

23

4
3.6
3
2 .8

5
7.2
3
7.0
4
4.7
2

5.5

3.3

1

.9
1

.9

Contact
with
extreme
tempera­
tures

Slips
(not
falls)

1

.9
3
4.4
9
2.5
3
7.5

Inhala­
tion,
absorp­
tion,
ingestion

4
3.7

9
8.3

Over­
exer­
tion

11

12

1

16.2

17.6
54
14.8
4

1.5

6 8

3
7.5

112

30.7
6

22

6

15.0
41

1.7

1 1 .8

34
4.3
9
4.9
5
4.5
3

31
3.9

46
5.8
19
10.4
3
2.7

8

4.4
7
6.4

22
2 0 .2

2 1 .6

;5

37
33.8
30
27.4

2
1 .8
1

4
5.8

1
1
1

.9

3
4.3

1

8

18.6
14
16.5

1
2 .8

2.3
4
4.7
4
11.1

22.3

1
2 .8

10
2 0 .0

1
2 .0
2

4.7
2

2.4

1
1 .2
2

1
2 .8

5.6

13
26.0

9
18.0
11

3.7

8

2 .6
2

1 .1
6

3.0

4.1

8

11.4
49
7.2

2.9
36
5.3

8.5
13
1.9

12

5
14.7

6 .1

16

6

11

9
7.9
26
4.7
19

21
2 .6
1

8.7

4.0

39
7.0
26
8.4

105
13.2
39

1

3

10
8 .8

3

1.4
4
9.3

1
2 .0

8

3
.9

2
2

7

10.4

64
18.4

2.9

4

12.5

1 0 .0

12

8 .0

35.4
4
8.3
7
9.1

1

.3

17.5

5

6

1

.9

2

1 0 .0
10

17
50.1

22

20.4

2.9
25

6.3

2 .8

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient data

Other

2

4.2
1

1.3

2

4.1
3
4.3
36
5.3
5
14.7
3
6 .2
2
2 .6

81
29.9

2
6

.9

11

2.9
29
4.3

15.7
175
25.8

21

3.8
12

3.9

2

2.4

2 .1

7
9.1

1

4

.7
3
.4

1

i

3

1

2.9
4
8.3

8 .8
11

2.9

4
1
1

22.9

22

11

28.5

14.3

1

1

.9
13
2.3
7
2.3

8

1

8

.9
19
3.4
17
5.5

7.1
52
9.4
31

12
1 0 .6

1 0 .0

temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
* Not computed because of small number of injuries reported.

130
23.4
56
18.0

3
2.7

1

8

4

1.4
5

12

1 .6

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Accident type

g

T able

29.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 152 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by Unsafe
W orking Condition, 1945
Unsafe working conditions
Defects of agencies
Occupation1

Total disabling
and medical
injuries 2

Total....................................................................... Number
Percent

See footnotes at end of table.




686

1,275
36.0

209
5.9

436
12.4

263
7.4

13
41.9
13
41.9
24
30.8

1

3.2
5
16.1
5
6.4

7
22.5
3.2
13
16.7

2~
6.5
4
12.9
3
3.8

5
4.3

4
3.4

10

2

20.7
3
5.2

4.2
3.4

1

60

7
22.6

55
145

3
9.7
17

100.0

21.8

201
100 .0

24
20.5
17
35.5
15
25.9

71
100 .0

93
100 .0

23
(8
)
105
100.0

16
(*)
65

2

4.2

100 .0

4
14.3

51

6

100.0

21.4

137

12

100.0

19.4

177
100.0

25
25.8

203

12

100.0

41
(*)
90

100 .0

150
100.0

Other

Total

160
4.5

207
5.8

1,523
42.9

108
3.0

3.2

2~
6.5

10~
32.3
14
45.2
35
44.8

1

19.4

100 .0
100 .0

Total

Lack of
clear
walk­
ways or
working
surfaces

Aged,
Sharp- worn,
Rough Slippery edged cracked,
etc.

11.5
2

7
17.9
15
19.2

19
16.2
15
31.2
14
24.1
3

3
2 .6
2

4.2
4
6.9

1

2

22

2

8

45.8
4

4.2

6

16.6

12.5

1

1

10

4
14.2

35.7
13
46.4
31
50.0

r

2

1

6.5

3.2

2
2 .6

1

1.3

2

6.5

3
5.2
5
10.4

1

1

3.6

3.6

1

1

2

4
14.3

14
50.0

2

1

3.6

8

1

3.6
4
6.5

28.6
18
29.0

3.6

5
17.8
4
6.5

8
8 .2

30
30.9
55
53.0

1
1 .0
2

r

4
4.1
3
2.9

1

2

11

1
2 .6

4
10.3
7
9.1

2

2

2

21

5.1
4
5.1

5.1
3
3.8

5.1
4
5.1

53.9
41
52.6

6

5
10.7
1
1 .8

5
4.8

26.9

4.4

33
24.0
6
12 .8

4.4
3
6.4

2 .2

1
2 .1

3
6.4

1 0 .6

51
37.2
18
38.3

4
6.9

1
1 .8

3
5.3

1
1 .8

12
2 1 .1

21.3

86
100 .0

36
63.1

9
15.8

3

1.9

8

3
3,8

4.4
5

4
3.4

67
1

1

83
23
35

i

i

16
57

1
2 .1

7

1

37

7.1

1

1

1

3.6

3.6

3.6

12

2

19.3

3.2

1
1 .6

75

7
7.2
9
8.7

1
1 .0

80

7
6.7

99

3

14
14.5
33
31.8
4

5

11

4
10.3

8
8 .2
11
1 0 .6

1
2 .6
1

1 2 .8
6

1.3

7.7

3

24
17.5
5

2 .2

1

.9

1
2 .1
2

3.4

3,520

24

2
2 .6

2

7.1

9
32.2

4
4.1
5
4.8

100 .0

3.2

63
53.9
5
10.4
24
41.4

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data

29

1

3
6.3

23
23.8
15
14.4
3

6

21

1

3.2
3
3.8

13
.4

3.2

16
33.2

2
2 .1
2

6

1

1
2 .1
1

1

1

46
1.3

1

3
6.3

41
42.3
30
28.8
7

54
39.4
18
38.3

28
35.9

1

3.2

29

2 2 .6

Lack of Other
proper unsafe
No
safety working unsafe
equip­ condi­ condi­
ment
tions
tion

3.2

23
47.9
4

16.6
3
5.2

16.1

21 .2
10

2~
6.5
7

1
2 .1

4.2

19.4

139

243
6.9

2

8

2

233

876
24.6

3.4

2

6

5.1
2

3.6

100 .0

Other

73
62.4
16
33.3
29
50.0

6

5.0

1
2 .1

10

21

s’
16.1

Lack of
proper
lifting
equip­
ment

1

1

.9

12

28.2

*

19.4
4
5.1

4
14.3
3
4.8

1

296
8.4

6

7
24.9

1.9

Unsafe
plan­
ning or
lay-out
of traffic
or pro­
cess op­
erations

28.2
28
35.9

1

l

1

23
51

6

1

7.7
7
5.1
4
8.5

2 .2
1
2 .1

l

1.3

1 0 .6

17
12.4
4
8.5

1
1 .8

8

2

14.0

3.5

22

3

71
96

i

91
29

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Ager operator........................................................... Number
Percent
Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender....... Number
Percent
Back tender (printing).............................................. Number
Percent
Beamer; cloth-roll winder; winder operator; windingmachine operator; tuber........................................ Number
Percent
doil-off-machine operator; boil-off man..................... Number
Percent
Calender operator..................................................... Number
Percent
Chemist................................................................... Number
Percent
Clerk....................................................................... Number
Percent
Cloth-bale header; bale coverer; burlapper................. Number
Percent
Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder...................... Number
Percent
Cloth-mercerizer operator; mercerizer-machine oper­
ator; mercerizer.................................................... Number
Percent
Cloth printer; printing-machine operator................... Number
Percent
Cloth-washer operator; soaper operator; rope-soaper
operator; open soaper operator; washing-machine
tender.................................................................. Number
Percent
Color mixer; dye weigher; kettleman......................... Number
Percent
Continuous-dyeing-machine operator......................... Number
Percent
Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender.. .. Number
Percent
Drying-machine operator, not elsewhere classified...... Number
Percent
Dye-reel operator; dye-beck-reel operator; dye-box
operator................................................................ Number
Percent
Fireman................................................................... Number
Percent
Folding-machine operator; folder operator; hookermachine operator; yarder operator.................. .... Number
Percent

7,084
100 .0

Im­
properly
guarded
agencies

Hazardous arrangement or procedure

T

able

29.— Disabling and Medical Injuries in 152 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by Unsafe
Working Condition, 1945— Continued

Hazardous arrangement of procedure

Defects of agencies
Occupation1

Total disabling
and medical
injuries 2

Percent

Im­
properly
guarded
agencies

268

28

100.0

2 0 .6
2

65
100 0

07

100.0

TnapectO1; examiner
*
Percent
Jigger; dye-jig operator

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
XvlU
vllv
Laborer, not elsewhere elaasified
Number
Percent
Maintenance man..................................................... Number
Percent
M fflA IftllflpF|uuu CO lvllapn nloofllfia/l* •••••••••«••• MnmkAr
AU ivU vl T a1 A llvrC vlaoolU
U lrtf lO
viV
vU
li U UX
111 C
Percent
Packer...
Number
Percent
rAiininif*Tnd.pniTiA U F tlU) potlU
fnp
J O llA ^ llqibllA n|/CaiiAf•nonnoi* UpyldtUl * •••••••• MumkoF
. U UT
llO nA U F
Ci
11U C
^ illU i
Percent
P ftlA niQ
lA F* lfoF* uui nloifai** jupr rvloifai**
i*
xictttci) pidivci| kin piaiicr| Iria piaiicr^ cioxu Irm Akct Number
ju Ac V
x lrA
o
Percent
Sanforizing-manhine operator
Number
Percent
Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine operator.. Number
Percent
fiinffAF' D gC U
|fiinorpincr.TntwthinA U
lU lllj^ lavU v nnprolAF , , •.................
lU pvlaivU
t
Number
Percent.
XC vC v
l Il
Starch mixer* nixe maker
Number
Percent
TAntAFefrAinA AnA
i*ftf.AF* fpornA ni^AFatAF
Nnmhpr
JllU C
L llU l
Percent
Truck driver
Number
Percent
Trucker, hand
Number
Percent
Watchman
Number
Kier boiler* Irier operator

Wrapper.....................
Yam dyer..............

Ppr/»A
ri+.
AvlvvllV

Number
Pafaap
I
A vi will

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Other..................................................................... Number
Percent
Unclassified; insufficient data
................... Number
Percent
Yarn winder

..

.

7

14.0
13
24.1
7

108
100.0
68

364
100.0

40
(Z
\
334

65
32.5
3

801

13
8.4
70

100.0

2 1 .0

178

18
17.6

100.0

100.0

108
100.0
110
100.0

70

inn n
1U .U
U
43
inn .U
1U n
U
85
100.0

37
\)
50
100 .0

273
100.0

64
(t\
662

1

2.4
13
21.7
i2
07 y
&i. 0
12

A n
n
w.u
12
30.8

Total

45
33.1
13
Id 8
~i4

Rough Slippery

8

5.9
i

18
33.3
13
46 4
*53
26.5

3
5.6
3
10 7
3
1.5

10

2

73
47.1
145
43.6
35
34.3

6

17
12.5
3
10 3
a
16 0
*3
5.6
3
10 7
i7
8.5
3

Sharpedged

6

8

4.4
9
31.1

5.9

2

40
6

10.9
4
14 3
6

10

2 .6

6.5
29
8.7
5
4.9

8

51.3

14.6
3
5.0

4.9
4
6.7
7
16.2
*3

19.6

10 1
1
2 .6
2

33
4
10.3
3

4

10

12

1

6

5.9
2

11 .6
1

36.4
43
26.2

13
7.9
2

5.5
5

7
4.3
5

41
13.0

31
9.7

’9

34

6 .0
2

130
40.9
14

27
8.5
2

2

4

2

1

^ 73

9
25.7

15
42.9
28
46.6
97
36 5
53
37.3

1

8
2 2 .8

100 0

114

19

io

305

16.7
50
18.8
30

100.0

21 .1

100 0

543
100.0

2.9
io

16.7
id
6 0

ii

7.7

5
8 3
26
9.9
i6
11.4

2.4
2

4.7
1

1
2 .6

33
5
12.7
1

3
9.1
*3

3
9.1
ii
6.7

Total

62
45.6
13
44.9
29
58 0
23
42.6
7
25 0
81
40.5
11

64
41.3
104
31.2
48
47.1
19
46.3
35
58.3
i4
32 6
i2
40 0
ii
28.2
4

15
4.7

1

15
1 1 .0
2

34

6.9

1
2 0
1

1.9
4
2 .0
1

3.4
•2
4 0
4
7.4
1

1

21.4
38
19.0
3

3.6

8

2

2

10

5.2
33
9.9
7
6.9
5

4.9

24.3

10
1

2.3
1
2 .6
1

22

16.7
7
16 3
3

36.6
3
70

10 0
1
2 .6

6
20 0
6

3
5.0
3
70
3

io

7.0

3

5
3.2
11

3.3

176

2

466

16

76
67
50

1

1.7
2

7

1

1

3.0
9
5.5

46

2

3.0

2 1 .2

1

3

1

8

8
22 8

2

5.1
22

17

1
.6

109

2
.6

344

2

8 .6

4
7

22

36 7
116
43 6
58
40.9

6

io

3

8

*3

2 .1

6.7

9
15 0
19
7 1
12

8.5

40

2

13
29
2

36

3

1

276

6 8
8

1 .1
1

2

161

5.6

.7

3
4
6.7
69
25.9
35
24.7

25
13

1
2
6 .1
11

3
.9

1
1 .0

15.3

25
7.9
4

11

75

163

.5

3
7.7

104
32.7

2
1 .2

31 4

4 1
5
3.5

1

40
1

10 0

2

3

20

53

1 2 .2

8

21
6 .6

8 6

ii

47

3.6

5.5
3

2.4
5
4.9

130

1

11

37
23.9
46
13.8
33
32.4

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data

36

3.4

17
5.3

2

3
50

2

1

5
3.2
17
5.1
3
2.9
4.9

14
9.0

1

.7

1

167
52.5
5

5.7
2
33

ii

28
14.0
4

Lack of Other
proper unsafe
No
safety working unsafe
condi­
condi­
equip­
tion
tions
ment

17
12.5

4

1

7.7

4
7.4

27
19.9
9
31.2
26
52 0
i4
25.9

67
40.9
4

2.9
13.3
24
9.0

Other

14

16
5.0

1

*8

Lack of
proper
lifting
equip­
ment

6

3
2 .2
1

10

30.3
89
54.3

Unsafe
plan­
ning or
lay-out
of traffic
or pro­
cess op­
erations

12

1 .8

11

^ 49

100.0

1

2

3.3
3
7.0

6

18.2

29
8.7
3
2.9
4
9.8

3.3
*5

12

30.3
31
18.9

11

40
*3
5.6
3
10 7
16

4

2

33
3
7.7

3
5.6

2

8 .0
2

6

14
35.9
7

1
2 0

1

21

1

3.4

5.5

30
19.3
28
8.4
16
15.7

*6
20 0

6

4.4

1

2

3.9
25
7.5
5
4.9

11

Other

3.0
23
14.8
34
10.3

18.3
i7
39.5

Aged,
worn,
cracked,
etc.

Lack of
clear
walk­
ways or
working
surfaces

5
8 3
18

54

1 Percents are based on injuries resulting from accidents for which the unsafe working conditions
2 A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result m death, permanent impairment, or
are known.
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
#
8 Not computed because of small number of injuries resulting from unsafe working conditions.




IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Unsafe working conditions

^

T able

30.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 160 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified b y Occupation and by
Unsafe A ct, 1945

Unsafe act
Using unsafe equipment or
equipment unsafely
Occupation1

Total.

Operat­
ing
without
au­
thority;
failure to
secure
or warn

Total
disabling
and medical
injuries 2

7,140
100.0

2.0

Ager operator............... Number
Percent
Back-end man; back ten­
der; doffer; swing tender Number
Percent
Back tender (printing). .. Number
Percent
Beamer; cloth-roll winder;
winder operator; wind­

64
100.0

Number
Percent

199
100.0

Work­
Operat­
Gripping
Failure
ing on
Unclas­
ing or
objects
Arrang­
to use
Lifting
moving Other Noun- sified;
work­
Unsafe
inse­
Mixing
ing
proper
Exposure
incor­
or
unsafe safe insuffi­
ing at
use of curely; Pulling
objects or com­
safety
on vehi­ Inatten­ rectly or
dan­
acts acts
cient
unsafe Total equip­ taking hand Other Total
bining Other equip­ Total cular
or
tion to lifting Other gerous
data
speed
wrong trucks
ment
materials materials
ment
right- footing
too
equip­
hold of
unsafely unsafely
of-way
heavy
ment
objects
loads

2.8

ed

Boil-off-machine operator;
boil-off man................ Number
Percent
Calender operator........... Number
Percent
Chemist......................... Number
Percent
Clerk............................. Number
Percent
Cloth-bale header; bale
coverer; burlapper___ Number
Percent
Cloth folder, hand; hand
folder; folder............... Number
Percent
Cloth-mercerizer opera­
tor; mercerizer-machine
operator; mercerizer. . . Number
Percent
Cloth printer; printingmachine operator........ Number
Percent
Cloth-washer operator;
soaper operator; ropesoaper operator; opensoaper operator; wash­
ing-machine tender.... Number
Percent
Color mixer; dye weigher;
kettleman................... Number
Percent
Continuous-dyeing-ma­
chine operator............. Number
Percent
See footnotes at end of table.




5
3

100.0
138

46

2

100.0

4

1,260

11.1

1.3

2

1.7

54.8
17
42.5

97
100.0
27

49.3
8

CO

10
1

24
33.3

9
30.0
31
38.7

10.4

12

10.8

17
42.5
27
41.6
3

6.2

4
8

14
19.4

304
6.8

2

49
42.7

4

477

2.0

22.2

3
10.0
4
5.0

1
1

3.3

100.0

1

2

9
7.8

2

3.3
7
8.8

2

9
7.8

2

1

1.5

5.0

1

6.7

1.5
4
8.3

1.5
3

3
4.2

38
52.8

15.0

1

11.1

1.4

1.4

1

1

1

1

1.1

175
100.0

3
3.1

199
100.0

1

3.3

2

2.1

19
45.1

2.4

3
9.7

4
12.9

3.2

1.1

1

25
28.8

41
42.7

9
9.4

24
24.9

29
24.8

1

145
100.0

100.0

1

2.4

26
29.9

2.4

52.3

25.8

2.4

51
100.0

41

1

3.3
8
1 0 .0

7

441
1 0 .0

731
16.5

3
8.3

8
2 2 .2

5
16.7

4
13.3
16
19.9

3
3.8

58

5
4.3

84

6

7.5

6 .1

5.2

19
16.5

2

1

.9

5
12.5
3
4.6

15.0

5.0
4
6 .2

3

6

6
12

18.4

84
1.9

15

2,715
28

2

5.0
7
10.8

1

31

1

37

1.5

1

21

1.4

29.1

4
5.6

16.7

2

2

1

13
31.0

2.4

8

19.1

4
9.5

3
9.7

15
48.4

3
9.7

4
12.9

25.8

3.2

5
5.7

1.4

47
54.2

14
16.1

9
10.3

24
27.8

3
3.4

58

6

2.1

2

79

19

100.0

10

33.3
30
37.4

13
32.5
19
29.2
3

6

5.0

5
6.9

1

10

27.8

33
28.7

2

1
1.5
1

457
10.4

21

1

3.3
7
8.8

60
1.4

58.3

5.6

4
5.0

1.7

1

251 1,689
5.7 38.3

2

5.6
6.7

144
3.3

5

100.0

CD

313
7.1

1.0

1

6.7

Taking unsafe position or posture

6
5.1

18.8

12

3

40.0

10.0

2

3.2

5
5.7

8

1

3
9.7

1

2.1

1

3.3

1

3.3

8.3

5
5.2

4
4.2

36
37.5

1
1 .0

31
26.5

6.3

22

7
23.4

7.1

5
5.7

1

3
7.1
4
12.9

1

2.4

T H E IN D U S T R Y R E C O R D

Number
Percent

Unsafe placing or mixing

23
19.6

16
13.7

39
33.2

.9

4
13.3

4
13.3

3.3

1

12

40.1

1

12

8

1.4

2

4.8

1

10.4

6.3

19
19.8

8
6 .8

16
13.6

14
11.9

82

3

3

1 0 .0

1 0 .0

6
2 0 .1

11

10

O

00

T able

30.— Disabling and M edical Injuries in 160 Textile Dyeing and Finishing Establishments, Classified by Occupation and by
Unsafe A ct, 1945— Continued

Using unsafe equipment or
equipment unsafely
Occupation1

Operat­
ing
without
au­
thority;
failure to
secure
or warn

Total
disabling
and medical
injuries *

Dry-cans operator; canarier operator; can
tender........................

94
100*6

Drying-machine operator,
not elsewhere classified.

1

16
2

2*3

Foreman; supervisor....... Number
Percent
Goods layer; cloth layerout; lay-out man........ Number
Percent
Gray-cloth tender, print­
iim Ap
K
ing; gray tender.......... Muuiuci
Inspector; examiner.......

PofPAnf
1 ClVvllt
MnmKAf
i.v UUlUvf
pAFAAnf.
J Cl vvllt
L

Janitor........................... Number
Percent
Jigger; dye-jig operator.. Number
Percent
Kier boiler; kier operator. Number
Percent
Laborer, not elsewhere
classified..................... Number
Percent
Maintenance man..........

Number
Percent

Mangle tender, not else­
where classified...........

Number
Percent
Packer........................... Number
Percent
Padding-machine opera­
tor; padder operator... Number
Percent
See footnotes at end of table.




228

3

1 0 0 .0

2 .2

2

1.5

141
1 0 0 .0

86
1 0 0 .0

269
1 0 0 .0

1

1

1 .6

1 .6

6

3.4

26
41*2

4
6*3

19
30 1

3
4.8

34
38.6

5
5*7

27
30 6

43
31.9
28
30.4

10

7.4

.7

10.9

31
23.1
14
15.2

31
49.2

12.7

23
36.5

54
31.0

2

151

Dye-reel operator; dyebeck-reel operator; dyebox operator............... Number
Percent
Fireman......................... Number
Percent
Folding-machine opera­
tor; folder operator;
hooker-machine opera­
"W V r
iim iA
tor; yarder operator... ll lUUUCl
Pprppn l
t.
X Cl vvlU

Work­
Unclas­
ing on
Failure
Gripping
Operat­
Lifting
moving Other Noun- sified;
Arrang­
to use
objects
ing or
unsafe safe insuffi­
or
incor­
Exposure
proper
ing
Mixing
Unsafe
inse­
work­
cient
acts acts
dan­
safety
on vehi­ Inatten­ rectly or
objects or com­
use of curely; Pulling
ing at
data
tion to lifting Other gerous
bining Other equip­ Total cular
or
unsafe Total equip­ talcing hand Other Total
equip­
too
ment
right- footing
material materials
wrong trucks
ment
speed
ment
heavy
of-way
unsafely unsafely
hold of
loads
objects

3.2

100 0

15
8 .6

31
17.8

3
1.7

4
8.9

16
35.6

1
2 .2

3

19
42.1
26
40.5

1
2 .2
*2

65

21

1 0 0 .0

46.7

96

3

106

6.7
"l

i

1 0 0 .0

1 .6

1 .6

64

1

100 0

23

1 0 0 .0

364
1 0 0 .0

40

.9

3.6

4
2 .0

180
1 0 0 .0

lii

1 0 0 .0

107
1 0 0 .0

6.7

1

1 .6

13

6
6

14
2.7

1 .0

3
3.1

1
1 .0

5

2

2.5
1
1 .6

ii
25 0
61
27.5

4
6.3

3
4.7

1
1 .6

2

9

2.3

1 0 .2

6
6 .8

3
3.4

4
3.0

11.1

1

1

.7
4
4.3

24
17.8
9
9.8

8

2

5
3.7

10

5.7

9
5.2

4
2.3

3
6.7

6

3
7

4

9
14.3

4
6.3

2 0 .6

1.6

23
13.2

22
1 2 .6

37
21.5

3.4

7
5.2

2 2 .8

12

85
49.0

3
1.7

31

13

12

26.8
4
8.9

2 0 .0

9
14.1

10.5

27
13.5

43
8.4

36
7.0

69
13.5

7
1.4

1

291

11

4
4.1
19
24.1

16
16.5
13
16.5

1
1
1.0 1.0
1

32

6

10

9.4

15.5

4

79
39.5

1
.2

96
18.8

148
28.9

1
1 .0

33
34.0
39
49.4

2
2 .1
2

22

2

34.3

3.1

32
33.1
18

4
4.1
4
5.1

14
14.4
4
5.0

2
2 .1

2.5

16
16.5
5
6.3

6

18
28.1

2

2

8

3.1

3.1

12.5

3
4.7

4

1.3

3
3.8

1
1 .6

4
6.3

1

6 .2

1.6

7.1

13
6.5

5
5.2
5
6.3

42

25
12.5

3.6

2
1 .0

2

51

1

4.4

3.6

.4

20

2

7.1

44

9
5

6

3.6

8 .6

1

1.6

8

13
46.4

47
9.2

1

3.6

1

13
2.5

1.1

1

1

1
.2

48

.5

2

2 .0

7
15.9
27

63

5
11.4
13
5.9

21

1

47.7
49

2.3

2 2 .2

9.4

30

93

9
9
14.0

6

1

1

4.4

1

129
25.1

2

6

13.3

3
1.4

51

1 .8

1
1

2

2

33
14.9

20
1 0 .0

9.4

13.0

16
11.9
24
26.2

.7

13
14.1

4
3.0

17
7.7

26
13.0

28
43.7

1
1 .1

58
42.9
49
53.3

5
11.4
24
10.9

2
1 .0

2 2 .8

2

4.4

12.5

.5

41
42.4
29
36.7

2.3

13.6

9

22

*8

12.5

61
30.5

10 .0

16
18.3

1 0 .2

13
28.9
24
37.5

13
6.5

194
37.8

12

3
3.4

48.9

3
6.7

8

6

1

1
1 .6

2

21.4

.9

3
4.8

5
7.9

2

26
41.2

2

14

13
20.7

3.2

4.4

3.1

2

4
3.0
5
5.4

3.2

8 .0

4
6.3

24
38.1
40
45.5

2

3.2

1
1 .1

8.7

3.2
5
2.9

15

53
24.0
4
14.3

9
4.1
4
14.3

10

337
803

17
38 6
76
34.3

8

77
38.5

8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

26
57.7
29
45.2

10

35.7

2

1 00 .0

Taking unsafe positioii or postlure

Unsafe placing or mixing

6

3.0

2.5

8

18.1

11.3
5
6.3
4
6.3

21

1 2 .2

5
2.3

5
17.9

4

143

1.8
135

.2

83

1.3

1

1.6

43

IN J U R IE S A N D A C C ID E N T C A U SE S— T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G IN D U S T R Y

Unsafe act

^

Pleater; plaiter; bin phuter; Her plaiter; cloth
knocker......................

Number
Percent

Sanforizing-machine operator.........................

Number
Percent
Sewing-machine operator;
seammg-machine operator......................... Number
Percent
Singer; singeing-machine
operator...................... Number
Percent
Starch mixer; size maker. Number
Percent

Tenter-frame operator;
frame operator............
Truck driver..................

Trucker, hand................
Watchman.....................
Wrapper........................
Yam dyer......................

Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent

Yam winder................... Number
Percent
Other............................. Number
Percent
Unclassified; insufficient
data........................... Number
Percent

70

1

11

10 0 .0

2.3

25.6

43

3
7.0

14
48.3

1 0 0 .0

85

2

1 0 0 .0

3.1

31
48.4

6

2

1

13.9

4.7

2.3

12

2

3.1

1

1

41.5

3.4

3.4

24
37.5

3
4.7

3.1

1

1

1

3.7

3.7

3.7

37

1

10

2

1 0 0 .0

3.7

37.0

7.4

6
2 2 .2

50

11

1 0 0 .0

35.5

5
16.2

5
16.1

5
3.2

52
33.9

268
1 0 0 .0

69
1 0 0 .0

679
1 0 0 .0

1
.6
2

4.4
13
3.0

3
6.7
5
1 .1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1
2 .0

113

1

1 0 0 .0

552
1 0 0 .0

321
1 0 0 .0

200

45.5

2

26.7
127
28.9

8 .2

2

4.0

2

1.3
29
6 .6

4
5.4
18
5.2

31
41.7
106
30.5

9
5.1

51
29.2

5
2.9

2
1 .1

63
36.0

7
4.5
4
8.9
56
12.7

8
1 .8

3.4

4.0

1 .1

g
5.2

1

11
2 2 .0

1.4
5
1.4

11

35.5

9
31.0

3
10.3

39
52.6
136
39.1

4

1

2

13
44.8
15
30.0

2

3
4.7

3.2

12

4.4
36

3

35
(3)
49
76

67
43.6
14
31.1

2

1
2

4.0
1

1.4

3
4.1

6

6

1.7

1.7

2
1 .1

1
.6

3
10.3
i2
24.0
2

2.7
28
8 .0

29
16.6

1 Percents are based on injuries resulting from accidents in whieh unsafe acts were known to have
been committed.




3
7.0

1

2.3

23
53.5

1

10

1

11

1

23 3

2.3

2.3

25.6

2.3
5
17.2

2

10

34.5
3
4.7

6

2

6

9

6.9

20.7

1
1 .6

26
40.6

1

1

3.7

3.7

14
51.9

74

9
29.0

1

3.2
7
4.5
4
8.9
52
11.7

7
2 2 .6

3
9.7
4

66

2 .6
2

42.9

4.4
8
1 .8

44.5
154
35.0

1

2

.5

.5

13
20.3

2

5
18.5

7
26.0

10

2

2

6.5

5
16.0

19

6.5
3
1.9

2

3.1

17
1 1 .0

22.3
43
9.8

4
.9

239

1

3

1

1

4
13.8
13
26.0

8

io
2.9
7
4.0

2

2.7
18
5.1

2.3

2
.6

19
10.9

7
4.0

3
1.7

11

7
8

20

1
2 .0

58
13.2

27.7
4

3.4
3

8 .0

6 .0

27
36.5
151
43.5
66

37.7

2.7

5

5

34
2 2 .2
10

8

5.2

24

1

18
20

26
5

39

6 8
10

4

1 1 .8

17
22.9
65
18.8

2.9

1 .1

9
5.1

34
19.5

1
.6

2
1 .1

6 .8

6 .8

5
1.4

40
11.5

41

3
1.7

20

11.4

21

114

11 .1

1
2 .2
12

1
1 .6

1
.6

12

7.8
5

40.0

9
18.0

14

2

202

2

144

* A medical case is an industrial injury which does not result in death, permanent impairment, or
temporary disability but requires treatment by a physician or surgeon.
* Not computed because of small number of injuries resulting from unsafe act.




☆

u . S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING

OFFICE: 1949 — 839471

TH E IN DU STR Y RECORD

2

25

8

4
8.9
41
9.3

20

2

12 5

13
44.9

2

3
10.3
4.0

3
4.7

3
7.0

OI

T able
In ju r y -fr e q u e n c y
rates.1

Most common kinds of
injuries. (Percentage
of all injuries for
which the nature of
injury was known.)

31.—Operations, Hazards, Injuries, and Accident Causes in Selected Occupations of the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry* 1945—Con.

Most common parts of
body injured. (Per­
centage of all injuries
in which the part of
body injured was
known.)

Most common agencies. 2 Most common accident
(Percentage of inju­
types. (Percentage of
ries for which the
injuries for which the
agency of accident
type of accident was
was known.)
known.)

Most common unsafe Most common unsafe
working conditions? ! acts? (Percentage of
(Percentage of inju­
injuries resulting
ries resulting from
from unsafe acts.)
unsafe working condi­
tions.)

I n ju r y -f r e q u e n c y
rates.1

Most common kinds of
injuries. ( Percentage
of all injuries for
which the nature of
injury was known.)

Most common parts of
body injured. (Per­
centage of all injuries
in which the part of
body injured was
known.)

Most common unsafe
working conditions?
(Percentage of inju­
ries resulting from un­
safe working condi­
tions.)

Most common accident
types. (Percentage of
injuries for which the
type of accident was
known.)

Most common agencies?
(Percentage of inju­
ries for which the
agency of accident
was known.)

Most common unsafe
acts? (Percentage of
inj uri es resulting
from unsafe acts.)

—

Gray-cloth tender, printing; gray tender: Touds back-gruy cloth, which is run under the white cloth being printed in a printing machine to act ns a Plcater; plaitcr; bin plaitcn kier plaitcr; cloth knocker: Guides rope-like strands of cloth inlo lder boiler or into cloth-storage bins. Guides, with
foundation for the white cloth and to absorb any color penetrating tho white doth. Assists printer in placing printing rollers, doctor .....
doeloi blades,
wooden stick, cloth falling from pulley or pot-cyo into lder or storage bin, making sure that the pile builds up evenly; threads pot-eyes.
color trays, and color pastes into place on tho printing machine; assists the back tender to thread botli the gray and white cloth through the
M ajor hazards: Wet and slippery floors; steam pipes; hand trucking; handling cloth containing chemicals or water; cloth-storage bins; ladders.
printing machine; places rolls o f gray cloth on the printing machine; sews, by machine, lengths of gray cloth to form a continuous strip for ;
processing.
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
rre t
ccn
Percent
Inattention to fool­
Falls.......................... 25 I m p r o p e r l y
Disabling........... 34.2 Bruises and con­
Trunk____________ 19 Machines______ 22
M ajor hazards: Handling rolls o f cloth, center bars, shells, doctor blades, printing rollers, and color travs; belts and gears; slipperv floors; Medical.............. 50. 0
ing........................... 23
guarded
agen­
tusions__________ 41 Head________
17 Work ing surfaces... 13 Struck by moving
hand trucking.
*
'
unsafe
cies........................ 28 Assuming
objects__________ 22
Finger.___________ 14 boilers and pres­
Cuts and lacera­
1
Disabling_______
-Medical...............

71. 0
76. 0

Total— disabling
and medical__147. 9
First aid... ..........
(5
)
Total— all inju­
ries....................

Percent

Strains and sprains. 33
Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 29
Cuts and lacera­
tions...................... 17

Percent

Trunk......................
Finger.....................
Hand.......................
Arm.........................

34

Percent

Machines.................
Rolls of cloth..........
Metal parts.............
Working surfaces...

22
13

10

(5
)

Percent

21

Overexert ion...........
20 Struck by moving
17
objects..................
11 Striking against or
bumping into objecU__ ..................
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects..................
Absorption of print­
ing colors..............

Percent

Percent

31

T o ta l— disab­
tions...................... 23
1 Strains and sprains. 20
ling and med­
ical ............... 01. 1 Burns and scalds... 9
Kirn aid............. 585. 0

Lack of proper lift­
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing equipment.... 52
Slippery floors, etc. 10
ing wrong hold of
Improperly guard­
objects...!............. 42 I Total—all injued agencies.......... 14 Assuming
unsafe
!
670. 7
positions or pos­
tures .................... 20

17
17

10

Places roll of cloth on unwinding jack; threads cloth through
regulates roller and conveyor speeds of various machine
Major hazards: Belts, gears, and other moving machine parts; handling rolls of cloth, center bars, shells, and heating-shoes for sanforizing
_____________ ________
mu cl line; hand trucking; steam pipes and hot cylinders.

M ajor hazards: Handling rolls o f cloth, shells, and center bars; hand trucking; gears and belts; knives and scissors.
Percent

11. 5
64. 0

To t aI— disabli ng
and medical..
75. 5
First aid............. 176. 1

bruises and contu­
sions____________ 32
Strains and sprains. 21
Cuts and lacera­
tions...................... 22

Percent

Finger.----------------- 23
Hand_____________ 20
Trunk------------------- 19
Head-------------------- 10
Foot----------------------- 9

Total— all inju­
ries ................... 251. 6

Janitor: Keeps buildings or parts o f buildings clean and orderly.

Percent

Percent

Machines..
19 Struck by moving
Jlolls of cloth______ 16
objects--------------Hand trucks______
9 Overexertion______
Cloth, not rolled or
Striking against or
baled_____________ 7
bumping into ob­
jects......................
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects..................

23

20
18

Percent

Percent

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment
26
Improperly guard­
ed agencies......... 24
Sharp-edged center
bars, shells, etc... 11

18

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects--------------Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures.....................
Inattention to foot­
ing.........................
Arranging or plac­
ing ' objects un­
safely.....................

41
24
14

Total— disabling
and medical
05. 7
First aid________ 303. 2

27
25
25

10

Sweeps and scrubs floors and stairways; removes trasli from buildings.

Total— disabling
and medical... 168.1
First aid_______ 454. 3

___
___
___
......
....

Percent

Percent

Percent

Trunk...
Finger...
Eye___
22 Arm......
12 Hand....

Absorption of dyes
and chemicals......
Struck by moving
objects..................
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects..................
Overexertion...........

Machines-------------- 34
Chemicals................ 20
Rolls of cloth........... 13
Working surfaces... 7

19
16
15
15

10

11

Total— all inju­
ries__________ 622. 4

31
19
16
15

Percent

Percent

Improperly guarded
agencies..!........... 33
Defective agencies.. 27
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment.__19
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes- 14

Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects......................
Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures.....................
Mixing or combin­
ing unsafely____
Failure to wear per­
sonal safely equip­
ment.....................

Percent

Percent

Percent

Boilers and pres­
sure vessels___ ... 26
Machines_________ 15
Working surfaces... 13

Percent

Total— all inju­
ries---------------

Falls.........................
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects......................
Absorption of chem­
icals.......................
Struck by moving
objects_________
Overexertion...........

(*)

18

28

22

15
15
13
10

15

Percent

Total- -disabling
and medical.. 170. 2
FL-Kt aid............
(5)

Percent

Percera

.... 27
.... 16

Trunk..
Finger..
Head__
Foot__
Hand...

Containers________ 19
Working surfaces__17
Hand trucks______ 11
Chemicals................ 7

.... 12
__ 12
....

Percent

Struck by moving
objects__________
Ovcrcxertion______
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________
Falls..........................
Absorption of
chemicals.............

10

Tohtsl-~all inju­

ries................

P)

26
18
16

12
12

Disabling--------Medical_______

38. 0
124. 5

Total— disabling
and medical.. 162. 5
First aid_______ 572. 0

Cuts and lacera­
tions..__________
Bruises and contu­
sions____________
Strains and sprains.
Foreign bodies in
eyes--------------------

27
23
19

Percent

20

Machines_________ 21
Hand tools________ 14
Working surfaces__10
Metal parts_______ 8

Finger____________
Eye------- --------------Trunk____________
Hand_____________

19
18
10

Struck by moving
objects__________ 36
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects....................... 19
Overexertion______ 13

14

Total— all Inju­
ries.__________ 73 4. 5

Percent

Disabling_______ 34. 3
Medical_________ 60.0
TotaU disabling
and medical— 04. 3
First aid_________
(»)
Totak^ail inju­
ries-------------------

Trunk..
Finger.,
Head----------Log-------------

_ 27
_
_ 19
_
_ 14
_
....

11

Machines_________
Rolls of cloth_____
Hand tools________
Working surfaces...
Containers________

21
17
16
14
7

Ovcrexcrrion............ 22
Struck by moving
objects.................. 19
Striking against or
bumping into
objects--------------- 15
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects__________ 15
Falls.......................... 10
A b so rp tio n
of
chemicals_______ 10

(«)

10
10

I

Percent

Percent

Struck by moving
objects..................
Striking against or
•bumping into ob­
jects------------------Overexertion— -—
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects__________

Defective agencies. 36
34 I m p r o p e r l y ,
guarded
agen­
cies_____________ 31
21 Lack of proper lift- •
: ing equipment™.. 1 0
17.
13

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold
of objects_______ 38
Assuming
unsafe
. positions. .or,„pos^4;,
turcs_____________ 28
Inattention to foot­
ing.--------------------- 13

30
27
19

11

Percent

Percent

21

Machines.... ............ 30
Hand trucks______ 14
Working surfaces... 11
Rolls of cloth_____
8
Cloth, not rolled or
baled___________
8

Trunk.______ _____
Finger------------------Arm— ....................
Leg.____ __________
Hand.......................

19
16
14

11

Percent

Ovcrcxertion______
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects-.....................
Struck by moving
objects__________
A b s o rp tio n of
chemicals_______

Percent

22

Assum ing unsafe
positions or pos­
tures_____________ 22
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects---------------- 22
Unsafe lifting._____ 19

19
19

11

Percent

36. 2
(*)

Percent

Percent

(5
)

Burns and scalds...
Strains and sprains.
Bruises and con­
tusions.. ________
Cuts and lacera­
tions------------------

40
24
14
14

Trunk____________ 24
Arm--------------------- 16
Hand_____________ 12
Eye..
Finger_____
Foot...........

Containers________
Machines__________
Working surfaces__
Chemicals_________

Percent

Percent

35 Contact with ex­
12
treme tempera­
12
ture------------------- 26
12 Overexertion______ 20

Improperly guard­
ed agencies._____ 30
Lack or proper lift­
ing equipment__ 21
Slippery working
surfaces_________ 18

A b so rp tio n of
chemicals_______ 18
Struck by moving
objects_________ 10
Falls______________ 10

Percent

Assuming unsafe
positions or pos­
tures____________ 29
Unsafe mixing or
combining______ _ 23
Unsafe use of equip­
ment_________ ___16
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects------------------- 16

M ajor hazards: Clips and belts on tenter frame; handling rolls of cloth, center bars, and shells; steam lines; knives and scissors.

Percent

Percent

Percent

Strains and sprains. 30
Bruises and contu­
sions..................... 29
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 21

Trunk._______ ___ 26
Finger_______ ___ 21
Id!g--------------- ___ 12
Arm_________
Hand________

Percent

Machines_________ 31
Rolls of cloth_____ 29
Hand tools ______ 11
Working surfaces... 7

Percent

Percent

Ovcrcxertion______ 30 Lack of proper lift­
Striking against or
ing equipment__ 41
bumping into ob­
Defective agencies. 26
jects...................... 20 Improperly guard­
Struck by moving
ed agencies_____ 19
objects_________ 19
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects---------------- J 6

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
the wrong hold of
objects................... 34
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or postures 32
Inattention to foot­
ing---------------------- 11

Truck driver: Operates a motor vehicle for tho purpose of transporting supplies and finished materials; may assist in loading and unloading vehicle.

Percent

M ajor hazards: Handling bales, cartons, boxes, etc.; roadway traffic; hand trucking.
- . - . — — p en
erc t
ec t
— T T M ---------------------- rwwur .. . .----------------- -p r en
VU

Percent

Defective agencies. 44 Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
Improperly guarded
agencies------------ 21
tures____________
Lack of proper lift­
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
ing equipment_ 14
_
wrong hold of ob­
jects..
Failure to wear per­
sonal safety equip­
ment____________
Unsafe use of equip­
ment____________

Percent

31
14

Tenlcr-framc operator; frame operator: Operates a machine called a tenter frame which dries the cloth, stretches tho cloth to its full width, and straight­
ens the thread in the doth. Adjusts width of frame according to specifications; places roll of cloth on unwinding jack; threads machine; sows,
by machine, lengths of cloth to form a continuous strip for processing; removes completed rolls of cloth from machine.

29

25

Disabling______
Medical_______

92i 9
(*)

T o ta l--a ll in­
juries._______

Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sions-----------------Cuts and lacera­
tions____________
Foreign bodies in
eyes-------------------

31

26
23

10

Trunk_____ _____
Leg..
Finger____________
Eye______________
Hand_____________
Foot______________

23
13
12

10
10
10

Struck by moving
objects__________
Striking against or
• bumping into ob­
jects___________
Overexertion....___
Falls______________
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects__________

V ehicles, except
hand trucks_____ 25
Containers______ ... 18
Working surfaces__15
Hand trucks______ 10
Foreign bodies in
eyes___ __________
9

(?)

19

----------- ...----- percent

Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or postures 35
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects_____________ 27
Unsafe lifting..____ 11

(?)

37
19

10
11
10

10

Trucker, hand: Transports materials and supplies from one department to another by hand truck.
trucks; pushes hand truck to delivery point; unloads hand truck.

Gripping objects in­
Lack of proper
securely, or tak­
liftin g
equip­
ing wrong hold
ment___________ 32
of objects_______ 33
I m p ro per 1v
Assuming
unsafe
guarded
agen­
positions or pos­
cies------------------- 18
tures------------------ 23
Slippery floors_____ 16
Arranging or plac­
ing objects un­
safely----------------- 14
Inattention to foot­
ing.—

Places materials or supplies to be moved on hand

M ajor hazards: Hand trucking; handling bales, cartons, drums, kegs, and other containers, and rolls o f cloth; slippery floors..
Disabling______
Medical________

Percent

Percent

29. 0
63. 9

Total—disabling
and medical..
First aid_______

M ajor hazards: Squeeze rollers, gears, belts, etc.; handling rolls of cloth, chemicals, shells, and center bars; steam pipes and live steam; hand
trucking.
Percent

Si rains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sion?......................
Cut s and lacerations
Industrial diseases.

6. 0
30. 2

T o tal— all in­
juries________

unwinding ja ck ; threads mangle; places required chemicals in mangle; sews, by machine, lengths of cloth to form a continuous strip for proc­
essing: removes finished cloth from machine.

Percent

9
9

(*)

Total— disabli ng
and medical..
First aid_______

Mangle tender, n. e. c.: Operates any one o f several types of machines called mangles which impart desired finishes to cloth. Places roll of cloth on

.
Percent
Bruises and con­
tusions__________ 30
Strains and sprains. 28
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 20
Burns and scalds__ 9

Percent

30. 7
85.9

Lack of proper lift­
Gripping objects in­
ing equipment.__24
securely, or tak­
. Disabling______ 26. 6
Slippery floors......... 20
ing wrong hold of
! Medical________ 56. 7
Sharp-edged agen­
objects__________ 31
cies........................ 15 Assuming unsafe
Total— disabling
positions or pos­
and medical.. 83. 3
tures..................... 16
First aid............. 394. 1
Inattention to foot­
ing_____________ 13
T o ta l— all in­
Unsafe lifting_____ 11
juries._______ 477.4
Arranging or plac­
ing objects un­
safely____________ 10

Percent

11

Machines_________
Hand trucks______
Rolls of cloth--------Cloth, not roiled
or baled-------------

Total— all inju­
ries__________. 483. 2

Disabling______
Medical..............

Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures-------------------- 25
29
Inattention to foot­
ing......................... 21
17
13 Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
13
objects_________ 21
13 Unsafe use of cquipmenl...................... 14
Unsafe loading,
placing, or mix­
ing.-------------------- 14

M ajor hazards: M oving parts o f machines; hand tools; handling parts of machines and other equipment; slippery floors.
Percent

29
17
15

M ajor hazards: Handling barrels, kegs, and bags of ingredients; chemicals; slippery floors; hot starch; steam lines and live steam: hand truck­
ing; belts and gears on agitator.

Maintenance m an: A worker who keeps machinery, equipment, or the structure of an establishment in good repair.

Percent

Finger____________
Trunk____________
Hand._____________
Leg.---------------------Foot_______ _______
Toe________________

Starch mixer; size maker: Mixes starch solutions for use in starch mangle. Weighs out specified amounts of materials and places them in mixing
tank, opens steam valve to neat mixture; operates power-drivon agitator which mixes the starch solution; delivers mixture to starch mangles.

M ajor hazards: Generally, the hazards are similar to those of tho department in which employee is worldng.
Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 30
St rains and sprains. 27
Cuts and lacera­
tions...................... 21
Burns and scalds.__ 9

T o ta l— d isa b ­
ling and med­
ical__________ 62.1
First aid_______ 421. 1

Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 34
Bruises and con­
tusions__________ 33
Strains and sprains. 25

11

Laborer, n. e. c .: A worker who performs miscellaneous unskilled tasks as assigned.

disabling........... 62. 7
Atedical.............. 107.5

26. 6
35. 5

Percent

Percent

P ercen t

Disabling______
Medical________

T o ta l— all in­
juries..............

Percent

Percent

Defective agencies
except slippery
floors___ ________
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes..
Slippery floors------Improperly guard­
ed agencies_____
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment.__

14

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold
of objects------------ 42
Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures.......................35
j Working on moving
1 or
dangerous
equipment............. 17

M ajor hazards: Belts, sewing needles, and pins on feeding mechanism of sewing machine; scissors and knives; hand trucking; lifting rolls of
cloth.

Total— disabling
and medical.. J16. 6
First aid.............
(*)

Major hazards: H ot surfaces of lder boilers, steam pipes, etc.; moving automatic plaitcrs and lder covers; handling chemicals; ladders.
Strains and sprains. 28 Finger.-................... 25
Trunk------------------- 18
Burns and scalds.__25
Head-------------------- 15
Bruises and contu­
sions___________ _ 23 Hand_____________ 15
Total— disabling
Foot______________ 10
and medical..- 140. 6 Cuts and lacera­
tions _________ 20
«
First aid_______

28

21

Total- all inju­
ries.................. 340. 9

Disabling..'.____
Medical..............

Kier boiler; kier operator: Boils gray cloth in lye or alkali solution in kiers as one of the preliminary bleaching operations. Threads cloth through poteyes and into kier boilers; attaches automatic plaiter on kier boiler; turns valve to admit solution to kier boiler; places and removes cover of lder;
removes cloth from kier.

Disabling-..— . 26. 4
Medical________ 114. 2

28

Percent

Percent

Improperly
Caught in, on, or
guarded
agen­
between moving
cies_____________ 40
objects__________ 28
Overexcrlion........... 19 Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__ 20
Struck by moving
objects.................. 16 Slippery floors_____ 10
Unsafe planning or
Striking against or
unsafe processes. 10
bum ping inlo
moving objects— 14
Contact, with ex­
treme tempera­
tures...................... 9

M ajor hazards: Hot surfaces and open flames; wot floors; steam lines; belts and gears; dcsizing chemicals; hand trucking; handling rolls of
cloth and cloth containing desizing chemicals.

Major hazards: Steam lines and live steam; bolts and gears; handling rolls of cloth, shells, and center bars; slippery floors; band trucking.
26
23

Percent

Machines................. 51
Rolls of doth.......... 19
Working surfaces__ 9
Hand trucks............ 9

S,ng^ « i n f f Cm^h!no1
?,Tn? operator: Tends singeing macliino which burns tho nap from the cloth. Threads cloth through machine: ignites flame on
singeing machine; mixes desizing solution and places it in macliino; regulates speed o f cloth through singer.
’

dye liquid with water and chemicals and rinses the cloth; removes roll of ciotn irorn maenme.

Percent

Bruises and con­
tusions..................
Cuts and lacera­
tions......................
Strains and sprains.
Burns and scalds__

Sewing-machine operator; seaming-machine operator: Operates a sewing or seaming machine by which pieces or cuts of cloth are formed into a con­
tinuous strip. Places squared ends of two pieces of cloth together and inserts them under sewing needle or on pins which convey the cloth under the
needle; presses pedal to operate machine; clips or breaks thread when seam is completed.

on jig and threads machine;
reverses motion of cloth und
fled number of times; replaces

Burns and scalds.—
Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sions.....................
Industrial diseases..
Cuts and lacera­
tions...... ...............

23.3
49.9

T o ta l- d isab ­
ling and med­
ical.................. 73. 2
First aid............ 273. 7

12
10

Total— all inju­
ries— ............... 308. 0

___ 42.0
Disabling.
Medical......... ..... 126.1

Disabling______
Medical.... .........

13

Percent I
Percent
Percent
Percent
Containers....
24 1 Striking against or
Gripping
objects
Improperly guard­
Working surfaces..
bu m pin g into
in se c u re ly , or
ed agencies-------- 25
Hand trucks.
objects-------- -------- 25 Lack of proper lift­
taking wrong hold
Chemicals_________ 10 Overexertion........... 18
ing equipment.__ 21
of objects_______ 25
Absorption of chem­
Assuming
unsafe
Sharp-edged agen­
icals....................... 16
cies_____________ 14
positions or pos­
Struck by moving
Rough agencies____ 11
tures____________ 19
objects.................. 13 S lip p ery flo o rs,
Inattention to foot­
Caught in, on, or
stairs, etc_______ 11
ing......................... 18
between moving
Unsafe use of equip-.
objects.................. 12
ment...................... 14
Failure to use per­
sonal safety equip­
ment...................... 11
Unsafe lifting______ 11

Percent

Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sions____________
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________
Burns and scalds—

27. 9
G7. 8

Percent

... 28
Finger.______
Trunk____________ 19
Hand____________ 19
Arm______________ 9
9
Toe______________

Percent

Afa j or hazards: Handling waste containers; slippery floors and stairways; hand trucking.
Disabling............
Medical................

positions or pos­
tures....................... 21
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold
of objects________ 14

11

inspector: examiner: A cloth winder who rewinds finished^cloth from largo rolls into smaller rolls, inspects the cloth, and cuts out iinperfod
titions, preparuloiy to shipping. Places rolls o f cloth on unwinding juck; threads winding machine; prepares winding axle for receiving cloth; inspects cloth
and cuts out defective cloth; removes completed rolls of cloth from winder.

Disabling.............
-Medical................

Slippery floors_____ 16
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes. 16
Sharp-edged agen­
cies.__!.................. 12

Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________ 19
Caught in, on, or
between moving
equipment-..........’ 12
.
A b s o r p t i o n of
chemicals............. 9

sure vessels... 12
Hand trucks___ 0

Arm.....___ ........... 11
Log______________ 10
Foot........................ 10

38. 4
05. 1

Total— disabling
and medical.. 103. 5
First aid_______ 474. 4

Percent

Percent

Percent

Strains and sprains. 38
Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 35
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 19

23
16
13

Hand trucks______ 27
Rolls of doth_____ 16
Containers._______ 16
Working surfaces__14

Head___
Lee_ _
_
Finger___, —
Hand____\
Foot____

10

10

T otal— all in­
juries________ 577. 9

Percent

Struck by moving
objects__________
Ovcrcxertion______
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects__________

Percent

Percent

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__ 33
Defective agencies,
1 .C.C _________ 18
1
Slippery floors, etc. 13
Sharp-edged agen­
cies_______ ______ 10

30
26
15

11

Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects.______________29
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or postures 22
Unsafe lifting______ 13
Arranging or plac­
ing objects un­
safely____________ 12

11

Watchman: Guards tho plant against fire, theft, or illegal entry; makes periodic inspection trips about building or grounds to watch for irregularities.
Packer: Packs finished and wrapped fabrics in cardboard or woodeu boxes or cartons. Arranges or packs wrapped fabrics in boxes or cartons; closes
cartons o r boxes and fastens them; places cartons or boxes on hand truck for delivery to skipping department.

M ajor hazards: Slippery floors and stairways.

M ajor hazards: Handling wooden boxes or crates; hand trucking; hand tools.
Disabling_______ 2 2 .3

MedieaL.______ 03.8
T otal—disabling
and medical— 8G. 1
First aid _---------(•)

Total— all

Strains and sprains. 41
Bruises ana con­
tusions_____ ____ 26
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 26

_
.
Percent
Trunk____________ 35

Percent

Containers..

Percent

.... 35

Ovcrcxertion______ 34
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects------------------- 26
Struck by moving
objects--------------- 25

Finger.----------------- 15 Hand trucks______ 10

W . ---------------- 12 Cloth, not rolled or
Hand_____________ u
Head____________ ’ 9

baled___________ 10
Working surfaces... 8
Rolls of cloth_ ___ 8
_

iriju-

JlL

Percent

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment_ 24
_
Sharp-edged agen­
cies........................ 20
Rough agencies____ 15
Aged,
worn,
or
cracked agen­
cies------------- ! ___ 10

Percent

Assuming unsafe
positions or po3turcs..................... 2o
Unsafe lifting.— . — 24
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing the wrong _

Disabling............
Medical _____

53. 5
81. 5

Total— disabling
and medical.. 135. 0
First aid_______ 545. 4
Total— all inju­
ries__________ 080.4

.
Percent
ctrams and spr&ins. 27
Bruises and c o n ­
tusions............ ........ 22
Burns and s c a ld s... 21
Cuts and lacera­
tions.____________ 15

Percent

Trunk. _ i ________ 20
Eye—- n _______ w
Finger ...4_______ 1?
12
Hand.

I-Cg----- -I------------ Ji

Arm----- j----------------

Percent

Machines.................
Rolls of cloth_____
Chemicals_________
Hand trucks............

25
23
14
11

Pcrctnt

Ovcrcxertion...........
Absorption of dyes
and chemicals—
Struck by moving
objects..................
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects..................

27

20
19

11

Percent

Percent

s w orted. Tlio disabling-injury frequency rate Is based on tlie number of disabling injuries, the medical-injury frequency on the number of medical
Injuries, ami the flrsi-aid-lrijury frequ^nev^
to perform a regularly established Job on any day subsequent io tho iluy of injury.
A disabling injury is oao that results in death, permanent JJ J * ? ph Aldan or surgeon.
A medical injury is a i
____
1treatment.
--------------------rJialrcsflist-BU «
A flni-ald injury is any injury o




Percent

Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 44
Strains and sprains. 32
Cuts and lacera­
tions
___ 9
Fractures__
__ 9

Percent

Trunk... ..................... 41
Leg_____ __________ 15
Head____ " _______ 9
Ann___
.... 9
Hand....'
” ___ 9

Percent

Percent

Working surfaces__41
Stairways_________ 15
Hand trucks______
9

Falls______________ 50
Slips (not falls)___ 15
Overexertion______
9

(*)

w

T otal— all injuries________ 105.2

Assuming unsafe
positions or pos­
tures—
......— 34
Improperly
Gripping objects in­
guarded
agen­
securely, or tak­
cies........................ 22
ing wrong hold
Defective agencies. 18
of objects----------- 28
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes. 17 Unsafe loading,
placing, or mix­
ing......................... 13
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment— 37

7.1

Total—disabling
and medicaL. 17. 7
First aid---------- 87. 5

Padding-machine operator; padder- „
printed cloth with chemicals
cals in machine; threads doth, throng'1padding
finished roll of doth from m a ch in e .
Major hazards: Handling rolls of doth, center bars, and shells; squeeze rollers, gears, belts, etc.; slippery floors; lmnd trucking; dyes and
chemicals; steam p i p e s and live steam

10.6

j! Wrapper: Wraps bolts or rolls of cloth in paper.
delivery to pucker.

Wraps paper around bolts or rolls of cloth and seals it; places wrapped cloth on skid or hand truck for

M ajor hazards: Handling paper and cloth; hand trucking; knives and scissors.
Percent

Disabling--------Medical.!...........

14. 7
44.1

T o t a l — d i sabling and
medical-------- 58. 8
First aid............ 393. 2

Bruises and con­
tusions__________ 33
S t r a i n s and
sprains...---------- 29
Cuts and lacera­
tions___________ 21

Percent

...
Trunk..
Finger___________
Head____________
Arm_____________
Hand.......... ............

22
21
14
12
10

Percent

Rolls of doth......... 18
Working surfaces.. 10
Cloth, not rolled
or baled________ 10
Hand tools............. 9

_______
Percent

Percent

Struck bv movobjects_________
Ovcrcxertion_____
Striking against or
bumpi ng into
objects................
Falls.........................

27
23
19
13

T o tal— all in­
juries.............. 452. 0

(*)

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects..................- 31
Inattention to foot­
ing................... 28
Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures.___________ 17
Unsafe use of equip­
ment._________ 10
Arranging or plac­
ing objects un­
safely----------------- 10
-

Percent

Disabling------Medical---------

kdosuh*which is most closely associated with the injury and which, in general, could have been guarded or corn tied.
Million of il:c selected agency which could and should have been guarded or corrected.
_ _________ ___________________ i commonly accepted safe pro© un» which resulted in the .selected accident type.
(Figures iiol available becuuso of iusuilicieut data.

u 8 gvr mn p inin of e 8 0 0
oen e t r t g f ic
3 2 ft

Table
njury-freque n c y
rates.1

Most common kinds of
injuries. (Percentage
of all injuries for
which the nature of
injury was known.)

31.— Operations, Hazards, Injuries, and Accident Causes in Selected Occupations of the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry, 1945

Most common parts of
body injured. (Per­
centage of all injuries
in which the part of
body injured was
known.)

Most common kinds of
injuries. (Percentage
of all injuries for
which the nature of
injury was known.)

Most common unsafe, Most common unsafe I I n j u r y - f r e q u e n c y
working conditions.* ! acts.* (Percentage of . rates.1
(Percentage of inju- j injuries r e s u l t i n g \
from unsafe acts.)
ries resulting from un­
safe working condi­
tions.)

Most common agencies.3 Most common accident
types. (Percentage of
(Percentage of inju­
injuries for which the
ries for which the
type of accident was
agency of accident
was known.)
known.)

Most common agencies.2 ^fost common accident Most common unsafe
types. (Percentage of
working conditions.*
{Percentage of inju­
injuries for which the
(Percentage of inju­
ries for which the
type of accident was
ries resulting fromunagency of accident
known.)
safe working condi­
was known.)
tions.)

Most common parts of
body injured. (Per­
centage of all injuries
in which the part of
body injured was
known.)

Most common unsafe
acts.* (Percentage of
injuries resulting
from unsafe acts.)

Cloth-waslier operator; soaper operator; rope-soaper operator; open-soaper operator; washing-machine tender: Operates a washing or soaping
machine to prepare doth for bleaching or to treat it after any one of various processes. Fills soaping and rinsing tanks with water; adds caustic
solution and soap chips in soaping tank and may add other chemicals in other tanks; maintains required temperature in tanks by adjusting
steam valves; threads machines and pot-eyes; sews, by machine, longths of cloth to form a continuous strip for processing.

Ager operator: Operates a machine (ager) which develops and fixes the colors in dyed and printed cloth. Places or regulates How of ammonia and other
Place
m
chemicals iuto ager; threads cloth through ager; moves hand trucks loaded with cloth to and from ager; sows, by machine, lengths of cloth
to form a continuous strip for processing] maintains proper temperature in ager by controlling the flow of steam.
M ajor hazards: Ammonia and other chemicals; steam pipes and live steam; hand trucking; belts and gears; wet floors.
Percent

Dibbling............... 21. 1
Medical................. 24. 1

Bruises and con­
tusions..................
Burns and scalds...
Strains and sprains.
Cuts and lacera­
tions......................

Total— disabling
and medical___ 45. 2
Fir.-t aid.................. (5
)
To — all inju-

28
20
18

Percent

Percent

Jive.....

____ 19
.... 14
.... 14

Trunk..
Hand...
Foot.....

12

....

12

Machines.........
Working surfaces...
Hand trucks............
Chemicals................
Foreign bodies (eye
injuries)...............

I

Slippery floors, etc.
Improperly guard­
ed agencies..........
Defective agencies,
not,
elsewhere
classified...... ........
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.

objects................ 20
Absorption of chem­
icals; inhalation
of fumes.............. 20
Fails......................... 18
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects...................... 15

ri*s.................... (5
)

M ajor hazards: Squcczo rollers, gears, belts, etc; bund trucking; wot floors; steam lines and live steam; handling rolls of cloth.

j
Percent
23 j -Assuming an un-

Percent

Percent

i Struek by moving

niife position or

23
19

10

Brui.-os and contu­
sions......................
Strains and sprains
Total- -di.-ul>ling
Cuts and lacera­
anc! medical.. 96. 5
tions......................
First-aid............ 874. 1 Hums and scalds.__
)

objects_............. 22

Percent

.... 27
.... 27
.... 13
.... 9
.... 9

Machines................. 22
Hand trucks______ 22
Hulls of cloth_____ 30
Metal parts_______ 9

Percent

47. 8
61. 9

Bruises and con­
tusions--------------Cuts and lacera­
tions......................
Strains and sprains.
Industrial diseases.

Total— disabling
an (1 medical... 109. 7
First aid________ 376. 8

29

20
25

Trunk...
Finger..
Head__
Arm___
Hand__

11

TotaJ— all inju­
ries.................... 486. 5

Percent

Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________
Overexertion...........
Struck by moving
objects_________
Absorption of chem­
icals and dyes___

Percent

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment-__
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.
Rough shells, cen­
ter
bars, and
other objects-----Sharp-edged shells,
center bars and
other objects—
Improperly guard­
ed agencies..........

27
24
18
16

19
16
13

Percent

Disabling.______ 62. 2
Medical.............. 145. 2

Strains and sprains. 34
Bruises and con­
tusions.................. 30
Total— disabling
Cuts and Juccra. _aniU-inedicai_207..A____ Lions.
__________21.,

Finger..
Hand__
Lor------

____
.......
____
........

Percent

27
27

Machines_________
Rolls of cloth_____
Working surfaces...
Metal parts_______

12
n

27
17

12
12

>

F m iA id ____ _
W
Total’— all inju-"
ries*-^_______ (»)

Percent \
Overexert ion........... 25
Struck by moving
objects................. 20
Striking against or
bimq>ing_inio ob- _
jeets_____ JIl----- 19
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects_________ 15

31. 0
51. 7

Disabling..........
Medical.!..........

Total— disabling
and medical!. 82. 7
First aid............. 317. 2

30
17

Machines.......... ......
Working surfaces..
Hand trucks...........
Chemicals................

___
___

11
10

32
18

11

10

Si rains and sprains.
Burns and scalds...
Bruises and contu­
sions......................
industrial diseases.
Cuts and lacera­
tions.....................

30

Percent

Struck by moving
objects.................
Caught- in, on, or
between moving
objects-------------Absorption of chem­
icals or dyes----Overexert ion..........
Falls....... ..................

Percent

Percent

T
mpropcrly guarded
agencies________ 20
Slippery tloors........ 24
Lack of proper lift­
10
ing equipment.... 15

As-nuning unsafe po­
sitions or postures 27
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects................... 25
Inattention to foot­
ing.......................... 10

19

11
14
13

21
10

Percent

Trunk...
Eye.......
I land....
Finger..

Percent

Container?............... 33
Chemicals................ 27
Working surfaces... 10

Absorption of chem­
icals,
including
dyestuffs and col­
ors........................ 34
Overexertion.......... 26
Struck by moving
objects.............. .. 12

15

11

17

Percent

Percent

Percent

_ 29
_
.... 17
— 15
.... 9

Total— all inju­
ries.................. 399. 9

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment or
of suiiicicnt help
in lifting_________
Slippery tloors, etc.
Improperly guard­
ed agencies-------Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.

Mixing or combining'unsafely.......... 20
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects........................ 19
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures....................... 19
Unsafe lifting--------- 11
Failure to wear per­
sonal safety equip­
ment....................... 14

32
11

12
11

10

10

Continuous-dycing-machine operator: Operates a continuous dye machine in which cloth is dyed and washed and the colors fixed in one continuous
operation. Places rolls of cloth on unwinding jacks; threads dyeing machine; fills tanks with necessary dyes and chemical solutions; maintains
proper temperature in each tank by adjusting steam valves; sews, by machine, lengths of cloth to form a continuous strip for processing.
M ajor hazards: Squeeze rollers, belts and gears; handling rolls of cloth, center bars, shells, and chemicals; steam lines and live steam;
wet floors; hand trucking.

Major hazards: Handling rolls of cloth, center bars, shells, doctor blades, printing rollers, and color trays; belts and gears; slippery floors;
hand trucking.
Percent

13

20

M ajor hazards: Handling heavy tubs of color mixtures, containers of raw materials, and chemicals including dyes and printing colors;
wet- and slippery floors; belts and gears on agitator; hand trucking; steam pipes and live steam.

Baclfic tender (printing): Tends the back part of the printing machine and assists the printer in setting up the machine for operation. Assists printer t
iiu placing printing rollers, doctor blades, color trays, and color pastes into place on the printing machine; assists the gray-clotli lender to thread i
'b o th the gray and white doth through the printing machine; places rolls of white cloth on the printing machine; sows, by machine, lengths of
'white cloth to form a continuous strip for processing.

Percent

10

__

..... 17
_
_ 13

Color mixer; dye weigher; kettle man: One who weighs and blonds into uniform mixture by hand or machine, various color ingredients such as dye­
stuffs for cloth or color for cloth printing or coating. Measures out prescribed quantities of materials into mixing tubs; plac.es mixing tubs under
power-driven agitators which mix contents thoroughly; adjusts steam valves to heat mixtures; delivers mixtures to dvo and print rooms; cleans
mixing kettles, tubs, floors, etc.

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing the wrong
hold of objects__
Unsafe lifting..........
Assuming an un­
safe position or
posture........... Unsafe use of equip­
ment.....................

23

Percent

Percent

Trunk...
Head....
Finger..
Hand....
Arm___

32
24

Total-—nl! inju­
ries ................ 471. 4

Unsafe use of equip­
ment..................... M

M ajor hazards: Handling rolls o f doth, center bars, and shells; hand trucking; belts and gears; handling dyed, printed, or chemically treated j
cloth.
Disabling.............
Medical________

24. 4
72. 1

Madieu! .

Back-end man; back tender; doffer; swing tender: Tends cloth being delivered from any one of ft number of machines U make sure (hat the cloth !
>
flows smoothly and folds or rolls evenly. Moves empty7 hand trucks into position* to receive cloth as it is delivered from machine and re­
moves trucks as they are filled; moves rolls of cloth from machine to trucks; cuts or tears cloth at seams when hand trucks arc filled or when
rolls arc complete; inspects cloth as it leaves machine for flaws in cloth or in processing.

Percent

Percent

'Disablin'!

posture................. 30
Inattention to foot­
ing........................ 2S
Gripping objects in­
securely, or ink­
ing wrong hold of

Percent

Disabling...........
Medical..............

Percent

Percent

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment.... 36
Improperly guard­
ed agencies.......... 22
Slippery floors, etc. .17

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects_________ 39
Assuming an un: safe position ■or'" '
posture_________ 27
Inattention to foot­
ing_____________ 10

9. 8
39. 2

Total— disabling
and medical..
First aid.............

19.0

W

Bruises anrl contu­
sions____________
Burns and scalds...
Strains and sprains.
Cuts and t lacera­
tions......’._______

Percent

Percent

Trunk.......................
Hoad______________
Finger.......................
Hand.........................
Leg............................
Too__________

27
27
24

12

22
17
12

10
10
10

Absorption of chem­
icals including
dyes...................... 27
Overexertion______ 20
Struck by moving
objects_________ 15
Striking against or
bumping into ob-

15

12
12

Total—-all inju-

F
~

’ ri<!S__._! _' " (O ''

Percent

Percent

Percent

20

Machines..................
Chemicals_________
Hand trucks............
Containers...............

Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
the wrong hold of
objects................... 23
Assuming an un.-afe
position or pos­
ture......................... 20
Mixing or comhin" ing unsafely....... 13
Inattention to foot­
ing........................... 10
Unsafe lifting........... 10
Unsafe use of equip­
ment_____________ 10

(5)

"i 2

Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects._________ 10

Dry-cans operator; can-drier operator; can tender: Operates a machine (dry cans) consistiug of a number of hollow cylinders arranged horizontally
in tiers, geared to turn together and filled with steam by which cloth is dried. Threads cloth through the dry cans; opens valve to admit steam to
the cylinders and maintains proper temperatures within the cylinders; sews, by machine, lengths of cloth to form a continuous strip for processing;
removes completed rolls of cloth from delivery end of dry can3.
M a jo r hazards: Handling rolls o f cloth, shells, and center bars; hand trucking; gears and bolts.
"T
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
Dissabliq............ 19. C I Strains and sprains. 37 Trunk_____________ 33 Rolls of cloth_____ 32 Overexertion______ 32 Lack of proper lift­
Gripping objects in­

M ed ica l.'.............

63. 5 | Bruises and con­
tusions--------------- 35
rotal— '<
’:ub/zfig
Cuts and lacera­
and r)lK
{j<;a]__ 83. 1
tions...................... i-i
Tirst aici..........
528. 4

Finger.____________ 16
Arm........................... 10
Hand......................... 10

Machines_________ 29
Hand trucks............ 11

Total— fv in ju ­
ries----- ..............611. 5

Struck by moving
objects_________ 20
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects--------------- 30
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects...................... 10

M ajor hazards: Steam heated cylinders and steam lines; gears; hand trucking; handling rolls o f cloth, center bars, and shells.
'
•

Percent

Percent

31.2 Bruises and contu­
sions......................
47. 1
Strains and sprains.
Cuts and lacera­
'Total— disabling
tions____________
and medical.. 78. 6
First aid............. 270. 6 Industrial diseases.
Disabling______
Medical..............

securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects__________ 43
Assuming
unsafe
positions or post­
ures_____________ 29
Unsafe use of equip­
ment...................... 10

ing equipment.__54
Improperly’ guard­
ed agencies.......... 21
Defective agencies. 16

Trunk_____________
Hand_____________
Head______________
Finger.......................
Arm...........................

29
28
17
11

toil-off machine operator; boil-oiT man: Boils gray cloth in a lye or alkali solution in a boil-off machine, 11s one of the preliminary bleaching operations
m vfaich impurities such as dirt, gum, and resin arc removed. Places rolls of cloth on unwinding jack; threads boil-off machine; places
required chemicals 111 boil-off machine; maintains proper temperature of chemicals iu machine by adjusting steam valve; sews, by machine,
lc*Bg[}|S o f cloth to form a continuous strip for j>rocossing.

kablim
.edical...

... ___
~

otal— ^ w in g
and tx dsC
w al
irat

25. 1 Bruises and con­
62.8
tusions__________ 27
Bums and scalds.II 24
Strains and sprains. 23
87. 9 Cuts and laccra308. 7
t io n s .-_ ________ 13

Trunk...
Finger..
EyeHand______
Arm____ ....

....
....
....
....

28
17
14
13

Machines__________ 29
Working surfaces__17
Hand trucks---------- 9

__ 11

396.6

Absorption of chem­
icals____________
Ovcrexcrtion______
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________
Struck by moving
objects_________

21
18
13

Improperly guard­
ed agencies______
Slippery floors, etc.
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment

Disabling--------Medical_______

Percent

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects_________
Assuming an un­
safe position or
pasture________ Failure to wear personal safety
equipment_____ _
Unsafe lifting-----. . .

36
21
17

10

13

Caught In, on, or
between moving
v>
objects— ■____
13

10

I’trcen
f
Struck by moving
objects__________ 19
Ovcrexcrtion........... 18
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects_________ 15
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects...................... 14
Falls.......................... 13
Absorption of chem­
icals....................... 13

Percent
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__
Improperly guard­
ed agencies_____
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.
Slippery floors_____

Percent

Assuming an unsafe
position or pos­
ture_____________ 38
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
the wrong hold of
objects-------- -------- 30

28
18
13

10

M ajor hazards: Gears and belts; steam lines; handling rolls of doth , center bars, and shells; hand trucking.
Percent

Percent
Percent

10

25
17
14

Drying-machine operator, n. e. c .: Operates any one of a number of machines, sucli as loop driers, extractors, anil net driers, which dry cloth. M oves
truck loads of cloth into position; threads,*or loads, drying machine with d o th ; removes doth from diving machine.

M a jo r hazards: Hand trucking; wet floors; steam pipes and live steam; rolls of cloth; chemicals; handling ceuterbare and shells; gears and
belts.
Percent

Percent
Machines_________
Hand trucks............
Rolls of cloth_____
Working surfaces...

Total— all inju­
ries.................. 319. 2

_ L ..

Percent

28
18
14
14

32. 1
85. 5

43

Total— disabling
and mcdicaL. 117. 6
First aid_______
(4)

20

Total— all inju­
ries..:—

Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sions____________
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________
Fractures__________

36
19

Machines.................. 28
Rolls of cloth_____ 19
Hand trucks______ 17
Working surfaces.. 7

17
12

(5
)

15
13

Overexertion--------Struck by moving
objects__________
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects-------------Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects------------------Absorption of chem­
icals including
dyes_______

Percent

Percent

Percent

Percent

25
16
13
11

Trunk_____________
Hand.........................
Finger.____________
Leg------------------------

Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ob­
jects_____________ 31
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures____________ 21
Unsafe lifting........... 14
Inattention to foot­
ing---------------------- 10
Unsafe placing, load­
ing, or mixing------ 10

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment— 36
Defective agencies. 27
Improperly guard­
ed agencies-------- 19

27

20
14
13

10

P
Calender operator: Tends machine (calender) which, by moans of heated and processed rolls, presses the fabric and imparts luster to it. Places rolls
of cloth on unwinding jack; threads cloth through calender; regulates steam pressure in calender rolls; sews, by machine, lengths of cloth to form
a continuous strip for processing; removes completed rolls of cloth from calender.

D y e -re e l

(tub)
pieces
cloth l .......... ....................
and places it in hand truck.

M ajor hazards: Handling rolls of cloth, shells, and center bars; squeeze rollers, gears and belts; steam pipes and cylinders; hand-trucking
operations.
_ ____________
_
Percent

Disabling............... 33. 9
Medical................. 37. 3
Total— disabling
and medical...... 71. 2
First aid................
Total— all
rics.......... .

Percent

Strains and sprains. 33
Bruises and contu­
sions. ................ 31
Cuts and lacera­
tions..................... 22

Finger....................... 28
Trunk....................... 27
Hand........................ 11
A n n .................... 9
Leg............................ 9

inju-

<)
4

Percent

Percent

Machines— ............. 34 Overexertion---------- 28
Rolls of cloth_____ 30 Caught in, on, or
between moving
Working surfaces.. 7
objects.................. 25
Hand trucks............ G
Struck by moving
objects................ 16
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects...................... 15

Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__41
Improperlyguardcd
agencies’ .............. 26
Defective agencies. 24

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects.................. 42
Assuming an unsafe
position or pos­
ture....................... 29
Working on moving
or d a n g e r o u s
equipment........... 11

Clerk: Performs routine clerical duties in any one of several departments.

Total—disabling
and medical.. 40. 3
First aid------------- 187. 1

Percent

Strains and sprains. 36
Bruises and contu­
sions------------------ 35
Cuts and lacera­
tions...................... 16

Percent

Trunk____________
Leg.---------------------Hand........................
Finger......................
Foot..........................

28
17
13
12
11

Percent

Percent

Containers...............
Working surfaces—
Hand trucks............
Rolls of cloth_____

22
18

10
10

Struck by'moving
objects_________
Falls.........................
Overexertion______
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects......................

21
21

20
18

Total—flJI inju­
ries.---------------- 227. 4

Percent

Ijack of proper lift­
ing equipment.__33
Wet floors________ 17
Sharp-edged shells,
center bars, con­
tainers, etc_____ 13
Aged, worn, or
cracked cquipment—................. 10

!

Total—disabling
and meritcaL_ 2G 4
.
First aid..—.__ _ 293. 9
_

Total- -all inju­
ries .................

23

19

11

Percent

Percent

Percent

Percent

Percent

Trunk____________ 29
Finger____________ 29
Hand_____________ 11
Ann______________ 9

Cloth, folded______ 18
Hand trucks______ 11
Hand tools------------ 11

Ovcrexcrtion______ 32
Struck by moving
objects!_________ 26
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____ _____
22

Lack of suflicient
help in lifting
hcavv objects___ 32
Rough tables,
trucks, etc______ 14
1inproperly guarded
agencies________ 14

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing the wrong
hold of objects__45
Unsafe lifting_____ 19
Assuming an unsafe
position or pos­
ture------------------- 12

Cloth-mer^erizer operator; mercerizer-machine operator; mcrcerizcr: Operates a series of machines (mcrcerizors) which gives cotton cloth a silk-like

i-Cajor hazards: Handling rolls o f cloth, center bars, shells, and chemicals; belts, chains, and other moving machine parts; wet floors; hand
trucking; steam pipes.

Total— d i a l i n g
and nutfcrjal.__ 60. 3
First aid__ _______ (*)
Total— all jjnj uries— __ v
„

Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 27
Burns and scalds__25
Strains and sprains. 22
Cuts and lacera­
tions___________ 12

Percent

Trunk.____________
Eye_______________
Finger......................
Foot.........................

28
20
18
14

Percent

Machines_________ 35
Working surfaces... 20
Hand trucks______ 10
Chemicals................ 8

(*)

Finger..................... 14

Percent

Absorpt ionof chem­
icals____________
Slips (not falls)------Struck by moving
objects..................
Striking against or
humping into ob­
jects......................
Falls..........................

Percent

Slippery floors......... 25
2G Improperly guarded
14
^agencies________ 21
Unsafe planning or
14
unsafe processes. 18
Aged,
worn,
or
cracked
equip14
10

“--------- ---------------------------

21
14

Bruises and con­
tusions__________
Strains and sprains.
Burns and scalds__
Cuts and lacera­
tions......................
Foreign bodies in
eyes.......................

Total— disabling
and medical__ 50. 8
First aid-------------- (5
)
Total - all inju­
ries......................

Total— dis*l ;
J
and m e d f c f ^
First aid—

Total—all
ries_____ - O

1 The
njunes, and
—
1
A dlsqMb
a nipo-ji,
A

Percent

<)
4

31
29
16
12

Percent

Trunk_____________
Finger____________
Leg----------------------Hand_____________

27
23

11
10

Percent

Machines_________ 25
Working surfaces__ 11
Chemicals_________ 10
Benches, t a b l e s ,
chairs___________ 9

15

11

Percent

Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects......................
Ovcrexcrtion______
Struck by moving
objects!.................
Absorption of print­
ing colors----------

27
19
17
13

Percent

Improperly guarded
agencies................
Rough shells, cen­
ter bars, etc____
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__
Slippery floors____

19
19
19
16

Percent

. ... 30
___ 15

Boilers and pres­
sure vessels_____ 21
Working surfaces... 13
Hand tools________ 11

....

___
__

12

11
10

10

(5
)

Percent

Disabling---------Medical________

15

10
10

Percent

Slippery floors........
Improperly guard­
ed agencies..........
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.
Lack of suiiicicnt
help in lifting
operations..........

Percent

Struck by moving
objects_________
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects—..................
Overexertion...........
Contact with ex­
treme tempera­
ture------------------Falls______________

Percent

Percent

21. 3
61- 2

Finger____________
Hand_____________
Trunk_____________
Arm...........................

Bruises and con­
tusions__________ 50
i Strains and sprains. 22
Total— disabling
j
[Cuts and laceraand medical__ 82. 5 1 tions___________ _ 17
I
f
First aid.............. 699. 8

28

Machines_________ 65
Rolls of cloth______ 8

20
10
11

Total— all inju­
ries....... ............ 782. 3

24

21
18

12

. .
Percent
Gripping objects in­
securely, or taking
wrong hold of ohR*cis....................... 23
Unsafe lifting........... 23
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures....................... 19
Unsafe mixing or
combining............. 11

24
17
15
14

11

Percent

Defective agencies
except slippery
floors.....................
Improperly guard­
ed agencies_____
Slippery floors_____
Lack of clear walk­
ways or working
surfaces................
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes.

25

21
13

11
11

Percent

Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures____________
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects...................
Unsafe lifting...........
Inattention to foot­
ing..........................
Unsafe use of equip­
ment-....................

26

15
14
13

11

Percent

Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects_________
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects......................
Struck by moving
objects_________
Overexertion______

42

Percent

Improperly guard­
ed agencies_____ 63
Defective agencies. 16
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment.... 14

15
14
13

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing the wrong
hold of objects__
Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures.......................
Inattention to foot­
ing---------------------Unsafe use of equip­
ment____________

37
27
14
13

i

Foreman; supervisor: Supervises a group of workers engaged in similar or related work.
M ajor harzards: Similar to tlioso of workmen under his supervision.

Assuming
unsafe
Percent
positions or pos­
Disabling______
8.8 Bmises and con­
tures...................... 48
tusions_
29
Medical------------ 47.0
Unsafe use of equip­
Si rains and sprai ns. 27
ment or using
T o ta l— disa­
Cuts and lacera­
equipment
un­
bling
and
tions____________ 18
safely.................... 26 ;
medical.......... 56. 7 Burns and scalds__ 12
Unsafe l o a d i n g ,
First aid............. 257. 8
placing, or mix­
ing-------------------- 13
Total— all inju­
ries.................. 314. 5 i

Percent

Percent

Trunk_____________ 27
Head______________ 14
Finger.____________ 14
Leg_______________ 12
Arm_______________ 10

Machines_________ 18
Working surfaces__13
Containers________ 10
I-Iand trucks______
9

!
!
i

i

Percent

Percent

Overexertion_____
Struck by moving
objects.................
Striking against or
bumping into ob­
jects____________
Caught in, on, or
between moving
objects_________
Falls_______. u
Absorption of dyes
and chemicals....

21

20
18

11

Improperly guard­
ed agencies
-2 1
Lack of proper lift­
ing equipment__ 20
Defective agencies
except slippery
floors___________ 20
Slippery floors, etc. 13
Unsafe planning or
unsafe processes. 11

Percent

Assuming unsafe po­
sitions or pos­
tures......................
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects______ ___
Inattention to foot­
ing---------------------Unsafe lifting..........

22

18
13
13

1

11 1
1

Goods layer; cloth layer-out; lay-out man:

Opens bales of cloth and lays out cuts o f cloth in order that the ends may bo sewn together to form a continuous strip. Outs metal tic bands from bales and strips off burlap; lifts cuts o f cloth from opened bales anti re-piles it oh skids, hand trucks,
Hm.mis
or on floors; pulls lead and tail ends of each piece of cloth and hangs them over the side o f the pile; removes tie hands and burlap from floor.
M ajor hazards: Handling pieces and bales of cloth; hand trucking; loose burlap.

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects__________
Assuming
unsafe
positions or pos­
tures____________
Inattention to foot­
ing--------------------Unsafe lifting_____

Percent

29
28
16

10

Disabling_______ 14. 7
Medical_________ 66. 2
Total— disabling
and medical.... 80. 9
First aid.............. (4
)

Strains and sprains. 40
Cuts and lacera­
tions _______ ___ 31
Bruises and contu­
sions____________ 19

Percent

TrunkFinger..
Hand....
Head__

_ 37
_
___ 19

__

....

12

0

Percent

Containers...............
Cloth, not rolled or
baled.....................
Hand trucks............
Working surfaces__

32

22
15

11

Percent
Percent
Overexertion........... 34 Lack of suflicient
Struck by moving
help in lifting op­
objects................. 25
erations................ 31
Striking against or
Sharp-edged bales,
bumping into ob­
hand trucks, etc. 31
jects...................... 19 Slippery floors, etc. 10
Falls.......................... 11

Total— all injur­
ies...................... (4
)

or injuries .___
is the number_______per million hours worked. The disabling-injury frequency rate Is based on the number of disabling injuries, tho inudiuaMnjury frequency on the number of medical
-injury ..v:auii(-y 11,1.0on tlio number cf first-aid injuries.
rrecaenry rate
is one the;
* °ne ttai results in death, permanent disability, or an inability to perform a regularly established Job on any day subsequent to tho day cf injury.
s
‘
'
m b ncndiatling Injury
o
*s a ucaaisatling injury requiring invuinem oy a physician or surpcoii.
treatment by pi" -* -1 ------ -----is any Injury other than disabling or medical which requires first-aid treatment.




11

23
18

M ajor hazards: Blade of hooker; handling rolls of cloth, pieces of folded cloth, center bars, and shells; belts and other power-transmission

-Major1hazards: Gears and belts; handling shells, centor bars, trays, doctor blades, printing rollers, and printed cloth; hand trucking; slippery
f l o o r s ; steam pipes.
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________
Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
93. 9
sions......................
(4)
Industrial diseases.

19
II

Percent

Ovcrexcrtion...........
Absorption of dyes.
Struck by moving
objects..................
Falls........................
Contact with ex­
treme tempera­
ture.......................

Folding-machine operator; folder operator; hooker-machine operator; yarder operator: Operates a machine (folding macltine or hooker) which folds
cloth in pleats 1 yard wide. Places rolls of cloth on unwinding jack; threads cloth through hooker; inspects cloth for defects as it passes through
machine and marks defects by placing string or tape in the fold; stops machine, tears or cuts cloth, and removes folded cloth from tabic of machine.

Percent

vises *o*r!c of back tender, gray-tender and back-end man; assists in placing prinliug rollers on machine; adjusts machine to keep pattern in cor­
rect f o i t i o n ; inspects printed cloth for defects; files doctor blades.

30. 3

21

Percent

Trunk...
Kye___
Finger..
Hand-.,
Foot.....

28
25
16

Cloth priitev; printing-machine operator: Operates machine (printing machine) which prints patterns of various designs and colors on cloth. Super­

Disabling_______
Medical___63.6

Hand......................... 12
Foot........................... 10

24

Percent

! Disabling............. 20.3
Medical................. 30. 5

luster— Places rolls of cloth ou unwinding box or moves truck load of folded cloth into position at mcrcorizcr; mixes solutions for mcrcerizcr;
tests r-or, and mniatams, required strength o f solutions in machine; sows, bv machine, lengths of cloth to fonn a continuous strip for processing.

Percent

Percent

Machines..................
Worki ng surfaces...
Containers.......... ....
Chemicals................
Cloth, not rolled or
baled.....................

Major luizartTs: Furnaces and steam lines; slippery floors; coal dust; shoveling or otherwise moving coal.

Percent

Strains and sprains. 37
Bruises and contu­
sions------------------ 32
Cuts and lacera­
tions____________ 25

Total—ail
inju­
ries------ -- -------- 32a 3

Disabling_____
8. 6
Medical...—----------51. 7

Percent

Trunk....................... 34

31

(»>

29

^ la jo r hazards: Bough tables; handling folded cloth; hand trucking; knives and scissors.
0. 6
19. 8

Strains and sprains.
Bruises and contu­
sions ....................
Burns and scalds...
Cuts and lacera­
tions......................

50. 2
51. 3

Total— disabling
and medical.. 101. 5
First aid.............
(*)

Percent

Inattention to fool­
ing.........................
Assuming an unsafe
position or pos­
ture.......................
Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing wrong hold of
objects__________
U n s a f e u s e of
equipment______

Cloth folder, hand; hand folder; folder: Folds cloth by hand two or three times, making a neat package, after t-lie cloth lias been folded by machine.
Inspects defects in cloth as tagged by folding-machine operator; cuts out, with scissors or a knife, defective pieces of cloth; counts number of
folds in piece o f cloth and records the yardage; folds cloth received from folding-machine operator two or three times.

Disabling—._____
M e d i c a l _____

Percent

Disabling...........
Medical..............

Fireman: Tends u boiler used for supplying heat or steam to a building or to powered equipment; fires one or more furnaces to maintain required
steam pressures.

M ajor hazards: General hazards of the department in which employee is working.
Disabling.............. 12. 6
Medical-------r,
27.7

M ajor hazards: Handling pieces of cloth, wot or dry, and dyed; dyestuffs and other chemicals; wot floors; belts, pulleys, and gears- steam
pipes and live steam; hand trucking.
‘
9'

Percent

Percent

J The aizency is tho objoct.siibstunoe, or exposure which is most closely associated with tho injury And which, in general, could have been guarded or corrected.
1 Tho unsafe working couctiun is tho condition of tho seJoctod agency which could and should have been guarded or corrected.
• Tho unsafe act is tliut violation of a commonly accopted safe procedure which resulted in tho selected accident iyj>e.
1 Figures not available bctfusc of insufficient (lata.
(o v e b )

Percent

Gripping objects in­
securely, or tak­
ing; wrong hold of
objects.................. 36
Unsafe lifting........... 27
Inattention to foot­
ing.......................... 13